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Sample records for early immune development

  1. Childhood Immunization: A Key Component of Early Childhood Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Messonnier, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    Physical health is a key component of early childhood development and school readiness. By keeping children healthy and decreasing the chances of disease outbreaks, immunizations help early childhood programs create a safe environment for children. While overall vaccination rates are high nationally for most vaccines routinely recommended for…

  2. Early Development of the Gut Microbiota and Immune Health

    PubMed Central

    Francino, M. Pilar

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, the increase in human microbiome research brought about by the rapidly evolving “omic” technologies has established that the balance among the microbial groups present in the human gut, and their multipronged interactions with the host, are crucial for health. On the other hand, epidemiological and experimental support has also grown for the ‘early programming hypothesis’, according to which factors that act in utero and early in life program the risks for adverse health outcomes later on. The microbiota of the gut develops during infancy, in close interaction with immune development, and with extensive variability across individuals. It follows that the specific process of gut colonization and the microbe-host interactions established in an individual during this period have the potential to represent main determinants of life-long propensity to immune disease. Although much remains to be learnt on the progression of events by which the gut microbiota becomes established and initiates its intimate relationships with the host, and on the long-term repercussions of this process, recent works have advanced significatively in this direction. PMID:25438024

  3. Reproductive Toxicity of T Cells in Early Life: Abnormal Immune Development and Postnatal Diseases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Han-Xiao; Jiang, Aifang; Chen, Ting; Qu, Wen; Yan, Hui-Yi; Ping, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Immunity is a balanced status with adequate biological defenses to recognize and fight "non-self", as well as adequate tolerance to recognize "self". To maintain this immune homeostasis, a well-organized T cell immune network is required, which in part depends on the well-controlled development of alternative effector T cells, with different cytokine repertoires. Recent researches have pointed that developing fetal T cells network is a remarkably sensitive toxicological target for adverse factors in early life. Epidemiological and experimental studies showed an inseparable relationship between T cell developmental toxicity and immune diseases in adults. Considering that the inflammatory and immune disorders have become a growing health problem worldwide, increasing attention is now being paid to the T cell developmental toxicity. We propose that adverse factors may have programming effects on the crucial functions of immune system during early life which is critical for fetal T cell development and the establishment of the distinct T cell repertoires balance. The permanently disturbed intrathymic or peripheral T cell development may in turn lead to the immune disorders in later life. In this manuscript, we reviewed how adverse factors affected T cell development in early-life with the consequence of the immune dysfunction and immune diseases, and further elucidate the mechanisms. These mechanisms will be helpful in prevention and treatment of the increased prevalence of immune diseases by interfering those pathways. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  4. Early Microbes Modify Immune System Development and Metabolic Homeostasis—The “Restaurant” Hypothesis Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Nash, Michael J.; Frank, Daniel N.; Friedman, Jacob E.

    2017-01-01

    The developing infant gut microbiome affects metabolism, maturation of the gastrointestinal tract, immune system function, and brain development. Initial seeding of the neonatal microbiota occurs through maternal and environmental contact. Maternal diet, antibiotic use, and cesarean section alter the offspring microbiota composition, at least temporarily. Nutrients are thought to regulate initial perinatal microbial colonization, a paradigm known as the “Restaurant” hypothesis. This hypothesis proposes that early nutritional stresses alter both the initial colonizing bacteria and the development of signaling pathways controlled by microbial mediators. These stresses fine-tune the immune system and metabolic homeostasis in early life, potentially setting the stage for long-term metabolic and immune health. Dysbiosis, an imbalance or a maladaptation in the microbiota, can be caused by several factors including dietary alterations and antibiotics. Dysbiosis can alter biological processes in the gut and in tissues and organs throughout the body. Misregulated development and activity of both the innate and adaptive immune systems, driven by early dysbiosis, could have long-lasting pathologic consequences such as increased autoimmunity, increased adiposity, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This review will focus on factors during pregnancy and the neonatal period that impact a neonate’s gut microbiome, as well as the mechanisms and possible links from early infancy that can drive increased risk for diseases including obesity and NAFLD. The complex pathways that connect diet, the microbiota, immune system development, and metabolism, particularly in early life, present exciting new frontiers for biomedical research. PMID:29326657

  5. Early-Life Host–Microbiome Interphase: The Key Frontier for Immune Development

    PubMed Central

    Amenyogbe, Nelly; Kollmann, Tobias R.; Ben-Othman, Rym

    2017-01-01

    Human existence can be viewed as an “animal in a microbial world.” A healthy interaction of the human host with the microbes in and around us heavily relies on a well-functioning immune system. As development of both the microbiota and the host immune system undergo rapid changes in early life, it is not surprising that even minor alterations during this co-development can have profound consequences. Scrutiny of existing data regarding pre-, peri-, as well as early postnatal modulators of newborn microbiota indeed suggest strong associations with several immune-mediated diseases with onset far beyond the newborn period. We here summarize these data and extract overarching themes. This same effort in turn sets the stage to guide effective countermeasures, such as probiotic administration. The objective of our review is to highlight the interaction of host immune ontogeny with the developing microbiome in early life as a critical window of susceptibility for lifelong disease, as well as to identify the enormous potential to protect and promote lifelong health by specifically targeting this window of opportunity. PMID:28596951

  6. Hypomorphic Rag1 mutations alter the pre-immune repertoire at early stages of lymphoid development.

    PubMed

    Ott de Bruin, Lisa M; Bosticardo, Marita; Barbieri, Alessandro; Lin, Sherry G; Rowe, Jared H; Poliani, Pietro L; Ching, Kimberly; Eriksson, Daniel; Landegren, Nils; Kämpe, Olle; Manis, John P; Notarangelo, Luigi D

    2018-05-09

    Hypomorphic RAG1 mutations allowing residual T and B cell development have been found in patients presenting with delayed-onset combined immune deficiency with granulomas and/or autoimmunity (CID-G/AI) and abnormalities of the peripheral T and B cell repertoire. To examine how hypomorphic Rag1 mutations affect the earliest stages of lymphocyte development, we used CRISPR/Cas9 to generate mouse models with equivalent mutations found in patients with CID-G/AI. Immunological characterization showed partial development of T and B lymphocytes, with persistence of naïve cells, preserved serum immunoglobulin, but impaired antibody responses and presence of autoantibodies, thereby recapitulating the phenotype seen in patients with CID-G/AI. By using high throughput sequencing, we identified marked skewing of Igh V and Trb V gene usage in early progenitors, with a bias for productive Igh and Trb rearrangements after selection occurred and increased apoptosis of B cell progenitors. Rearrangement at the Igk locus was impaired, and polyreactive IgM antibodies were detected. This study provides novel insights in how hypomorphic Rag1 mutations alter the primary repertoire of T and B cells, setting the stage for immune dysregulation frequently seen in patients. Copyright © 2018 American Society of Hematology.

  7. Immune system development during early childhood in tropical Latin America: evidence for the age-dependent down regulation of the innate immune response.

    PubMed

    Teran, Rommy; Mitre, Edward; Vaca, Maritza; Erazo, Silvia; Oviedo, Gisela; Hübner, Marc P; Chico, Martha E; Mattapallil, Joseph J; Bickle, Quentin; Rodrigues, Laura C; Cooper, Philip J

    2011-03-01

    The immune response that develops in early childhood underlies the development of inflammatory diseases such as asthma and there are few data from tropical Latin America (LA). This study investigated the effects of age on the development of immunity during the first 5 years of life by comparing innate and adaptive immune responses in Ecuadorian children aged 6-9 months, 22-26 months, and 48-60 months. Percentages of naïve CD4+ T cells declined with age while those of memory CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells increased indicating active development of the immune system throughout the first five years. Young infants had greater innate immune responses to TLR agonists compared to older children while regulatory responses including SEB-induced IL-10 and percentages of FoxP3(+) T-regulatory cells decreased with age. Enhanced innate immunity in early life may be important for host defense against pathogens but may increase the risk of immunopathology. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Early-Life Food Nutrition, Microbiota Maturation and Immune Development Shape Life-Long Health.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoli; Du, Lina; Shi, Ronghua; Chen, Zhidong; Zhou, Yiming; Li, Zongjie

    2018-06-06

    The current knowledge about early-life nutrition and environmental factors that affect the interaction between the symbiotic microbiota and the host immune system has demonstrated novel regulatory target for treating allergic diseases, autoimmune disorders and metabolic syndrome. Various kinds of food nutrients (such as dietary fiber, starch, polyphenols and proteins) can provide energy resources for both intestinal microbiota and the host. The indigestible food components are fermented by the indigenous gut microbiota to produce diverse metabolites, including short-chain fatty acids, bile acids and trimethylamine-N-oxide, which can regulate the host metabolized physiology, immunity homeostasis and health state. Therefore it is commonly believed early-life perturbation of the microbial community structure and the dietary nutrition interference on the child mucosal immunity contribute to the whole life susceptibility to chronic diseases. In all, the combined interrelationship between food ingredients nutrition, intestinal microbiota configurations and host system immunity provides new therapeutic targets to treat various kinds of pathogenic inflammations and chronic diseases.

  9. Adult brain and behavioral pathological markers of prenatal immune challenge during early/middle and late fetal development in mice.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Urs; Nyffeler, Myriel; Yee, Benjamin K; Knuesel, Irene; Feldon, Joram

    2008-05-01

    Maternal infection during pregnancy increases the risk for neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia and autism in the offspring. This association appears to be critically dependent on the precise prenatal timing. However, the extent to which distinct adult psychopathological and neuropathological traits may be sensitive to the precise times of prenatal immune activation remains to be further characterized. Here, we evaluated in a mouse model of prenatal immune challenge by the viral mimic, polyriboinosinic-polyribocytidilic acid (PolyIC), whether prenatal immune activation in early/middle and late gestation may influence the susceptibility to some of the critical cognitive, pharmacological, and neuroanatomical dysfunctions implicated in schizophrenia and autism. We revealed that PolyIC-induced prenatal immune challenge on gestation day (GD) 9 but not GD17 significantly impaired sensorimotor gating and reduced prefrontal dopamine D1 receptors in adulthood, whereas prenatal immune activation specifically in late gestation impaired working memory, potentiated the locomotor reaction to the NMDA-receptor antagonist dizocilpine, and reduced hippocampal NMDA-receptor subunit 1 expression. On the other hand, potentiation of the locomotor reaction to the dopamine-receptor agonist amphetamine and reduction in Reelin- and Parvalbumin-expressing prefrontal neurons emerged independently of the precise times of prenatal immune challenge. Our findings thus highlight that prenatal immune challenge during early/middle and late fetal development in mice leads to distinct brain and behavioral pathological symptom clusters in adulthood. Further examination and evaluation of in utero immune challenge at different times of gestation may provide important new insight into the neuroimmunological and neuropathological mechanisms underlying the segregation of different symptom clusters in heterogeneous neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and autism.

  10. An exposome perspective: Early-life events and immune development in a changing world.

    PubMed

    Renz, Harald; Holt, Patrick G; Inouye, Michael; Logan, Alan C; Prescott, Susan L; Sly, Peter D

    2017-07-01

    Advances in metagenomics, proteomics, metabolomics, and systems biology are providing a new emphasis in research; interdisciplinary work suggests that personalized medicine is on the horizon. These advances are illuminating sophisticated interactions between human-associated microbes and the immune system. The result is a transformed view of future prevention and treatment of chronic noncommunicable diseases, including allergy. Paradigm-shifting gains in scientific knowledge are occurring at a time of rapid global environmental change, urbanization, and biodiversity losses. Multifactorial and multigenerational implications of total environmental exposures, the exposome, require coordinated interdisciplinary efforts. It is clear that the genome alone cannot provide answers to urgent questions. Here we review the historical origins of exposome research and define a new concept, the metaexposome, which considers the bidirectional effect of the environment on human subjects and the human influence on all living systems and their genomes. The latter is essential for human health. We place the metaexposome in the context of early-life immune functioning and describe how various aspects of a changing environment, especially through microbiota exposures, can influence health and disease over the life course. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Fish oil supplementation in early infancy modulates developing infant immune responses.

    PubMed

    D'Vaz, N; Meldrum, S J; Dunstan, J A; Lee-Pullen, T F; Metcalfe, J; Holt, B J; Serralha, M; Tulic, M K; Mori, T A; Prescott, S L

    2012-08-01

    Maternal fish oil supplementation during pregnancy has been associated with altered infant immune responses and a reduced risk of infant sensitization and eczema. To examine the effect of early postnatal fish oil supplementation on infant cellular immune function at 6 months of age in the context of allergic disease. In a double-blind randomized controlled trial (ACTRN12606000281594), 420 infants of high atopic risk received fish oil [containing 280 mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and 110 mg eicosapentanoic acid (EPA)] or control oil daily from birth to 6 months. One hundred and twenty infants had blood collected at 6 months of age. Fatty acid levels, induced cytokine responses, T cell subsets and monocyte HLA-DR expression were assessed at 6 months of age. Infant allergies were assessed at 6 and 12 months of age. DHA and EPA levels were significantly higher in the fish oil group and erythrocyte arachidonic acid (AA) levels were lower (all P < 0.05). Infants in the fish oil group had significantly lower IL-13 responses (P = 0.036) to house dust mite (HDM) and higher IFNγ (P = 0.035) and TNF (P = 0.017) responses to phytohaemaglutinin (PHA). Infants with relatively high DHA levels had lower Th2 responses to allergens including lower IL-13 to β-lactoglobulin (BLG) (P = 0.020), and lower IL-5 to BLG (P = 0.045). Postnatal fish oil supplementation increased infant n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels and associated with lowered allergen-specific Th2 responses and elevated polyclonal Th1 responses. Our results add to existing evidence of n-3 PUFA having immunomodulatory properties that are potentially allergy-protective. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Development and Validation of an Individualized Immune Prognostic Signature in Early-Stage Nonsquamous Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Bailiang; Cui, Yi; Diehn, Maximilian; Li, Ruijiang

    2017-11-01

    The prevalence of early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is expected to increase with recent implementation of annual screening programs. Reliable prognostic biomarkers are needed to identify patients at a high risk for recurrence to guide adjuvant therapy. To develop a robust, individualized immune signature that can estimate prognosis in patients with early-stage nonsquamous NSCLC. This retrospective study analyzed the gene expression profiles of frozen tumor tissue samples from 19 public NSCLC cohorts, including 18 microarray data sets and 1 RNA-Seq data set for The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) lung adenocarcinoma cohort. Only patients with nonsquamous NSCLC with clinical annotation were included. Samples were from 2414 patients with nonsquamous NSCLC, divided into a meta-training cohort (729 patients), meta-testing cohort (716 patients), and 3 independent validation cohorts (439, 323, and 207 patients). All patients underwent surgery with a negative surgical margin, received no adjuvant or neoadjuvant therapy, and had publicly available gene expression data and survival information. Data were collected from July 22 through September 8, 2016. Overall survival. Of 2414 patients (1205 men [50%], 1111 women [46%], and 98 of unknown sex [4%]; median age [range], 64 [15-90] years), a prognostic immune signature of 25 gene pairs consisting of 40 unique genes was constructed using the meta-training data set. In the meta-testing and validation cohorts, the immune signature significantly stratified patients into high- vs low-risk groups in terms of overall survival across and within subpopulations with stage I, IA, IB, or II disease and remained as an independent prognostic factor in multivariate analyses (hazard ratio range, 1.72 [95% CI, 1.26-2.33; P < .001] to 2.36 [95% CI, 1.47-3.79; P < .001]) after adjusting for clinical and pathologic factors. Several biological processes, including chemotaxis, were enriched among genes in the immune signature. The

  13. Monitoring of early humoral immunity to identify lung recipients at risk for development of serious infections: A multicenter prospective study.

    PubMed

    Sarmiento, Elizabeth; Cifrian, Jose; Calahorra, Leticia; Bravo, Carles; Lopez, Sonia; Laporta, Rosalia; Ussetti, Piedad; Sole, Amparo; Morales, Carmen; de Pablos, Alicia; Jaramillo, Maria; Ezzahouri, Ikram; García, Sandra; Navarro, Joaquin; Lopez-Hoyos, Marcos; Carbone, Javier

    2018-04-06

    Infection is still a leading cause of death during the first year after lung transplantation. We performed a multicenter study among teaching hospitals to assess monitoring of early humoral immunity as a means of identifying lung recipients at risk of serious infections. We prospectively analyzed 82 adult lung recipients at 5 centers in Spain. Data were collected before transplantation and at 7 and 30 days after transplantation. Biomarkers included IgG, IgM, IgA, complement factors C3 and C4, titers of antibodies to pneumococcal polysaccharide antigens (IgG, IgA, IgM) and antibodies to cytomegalovirus (IgG), and serum B-cell activating factor (BAFF) levels. The clinical follow-up period lasted 6 months. Clinical outcomes were bacterial infections requiring intravenous anti-microbial agents, cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease, and fungal infections requiring therapy. We found that 33 patients (40.2%) developed at least 1 serious bacterial infection, 8 patients (9.8%) had CMV disease, and 10 patients (12.2%) had fungal infections. Lower IgM antibody levels against pneumococcal polysaccharide antigens at Day 7 (defined as <5 mg/dl) were a risk factor for serious bacterial infection (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 3.96; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.39 to 11.26; p = 0.0099). At Day 7 after transplantation, IgG hypogammaglobulinemia (defined as IgG <600 mg/dl) was associated with a higher risk of CMV disease (after adjustment for CMV mismatch: OR 8.15; 95% CI 1.27 to 52.55; p = 0.028) and fungal infection (adjusted OR 8.03, 95% CI 1.51 to 42.72; p = 0.015). Higher BAFF levels before transplantation were associated with a higher rate of development of serious bacterial infection and acute cellular rejection. Early monitoring of specific humoral immunity parameters proved useful for the identification of lung recipients who are at risk of serious infections. Copyright © 2018 International Society for the Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  14. A randomized trial to investigate the effects of pre-natal and infant nutritional supplementation on infant immune development in rural Gambia: the ENID trial: Early Nutrition and Immune Development.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sophie E; Fulford, Anthony Jc; Darboe, Momodou K; Jobarteh, Modou Lamin; Jarjou, Landing M; Prentice, Andrew M

    2012-10-11

    Recent observational research indicates that immune development may be programmed by nutritional exposures early in life. Such findings require replication from trials specifically designed to assess the impact of nutritional intervention during pregnancy on infant immune development. The current trial seeks to establish: (a) which combination of protein-energy (PE) and multiple-micronutrient (MMN) supplements would be most effective; and (b) the most critical periods for intervention in pregnancy and infancy, for optimal immune development in infancy. The ENID Trial is a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial randomized, partially blind trial to assess whether nutritional supplementation to pregnant women (from < 20 weeks gestation to term) and their infants (from 6 to 12 months of age) can enhance infant immune development. Eligible pregnant women from the West Kiang region of The Gambia (pregnancy dated by ultrasound examination) are randomized on entry to 4 intervention groups (Iron-folate (FeFol = standard care), multiple micronutrients (MMN), protein-energy (PE), PE + MMN). Women are visited at home weekly for supplement administration and morbidity assessment and seen at MRC Keneba at 20 and 30 weeks gestation for a detailed antenatal examination, including ultrasound. At delivery, cord blood and placental samples are collected, with detailed infant anthropometry collected within 72 hours. Infants are visited weekly thereafter for a morbidity questionnaire. From 6 to 12 months of age, infants are further randomized to a lipid-based nutritional supplement, with or without additional MMN. The primary outcome measures of this study are thymic development during infancy, and antibody response to vaccination. Measures of cellular markers of immunity will be made in a selected sub-cohort. Subsidiary studies to the main trial will additionally assess the impact of supplementation on infant growth and development to 24 months of age. The proposed trial is designed to test whether

  15. Evidence for the essentiality of arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acid in the postnatal maternal and infant diet for the development of the infant's immune system early in life.

    PubMed

    Richard, Caroline; Lewis, Erin D; Field, Catherine J

    2016-05-01

    Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA), especially the balance between arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acids are known to have important immunomodulatory roles during the postnatal period when the immune system is rapidly developing. AA and DHA are required in infant formula in many countries but are optional in North America. The rationale for adding these LCPUFA to full-term formula is based on their presence in breast milk and randomized controlled studies that suggest improved cognitive function in preterm infants, but results are more variable in full-term infants. Recently, the European Food Safety Authority has proposed, based on a lack of functional evidence, that AA is not required in infant formula for full-term infants during the first year of life but DHA should remain mandatory. The purpose of this review is to review the evidence from epidemiological and intervention studies regarding the essentiality of AA and DHA in the postnatal infant and maternal diet (breast-feeding) for the immune system development early in life. Although studies support the essentiality of DHA for the immune system development, more research is needed to rule out the essentiality of AA. Nevertheless, intervention studies have demonstrated improvement in many markers of immune function in infants fed formula supplemented with AA and DHA compared with unsupplemented formula, which appears to consistently result in beneficial health outcomes including reduction in the risk of developing allergic and atopic disease early in life.

  16. Early life exposure to 2.45GHz WiFi-like signals: effects on development and maturation of the immune system.

    PubMed

    Sambucci, Manolo; Laudisi, Federica; Nasta, Francesca; Pinto, Rosanna; Lodato, Rossella; Lopresto, Vanni; Altavista, Pierluigi; Marino, Carmela; Pioli, Claudio

    2011-12-01

    The development of the immune system begins during embryogenesis, continues throughout fetal life, and completes its maturation during infancy. Exposure to immune-toxic compounds at levels producing limited/transient effects in adults, results in long-lasting or permanent immune deficits when it occurs during perinatal life. Potentially harmful radiofrequency (RF) exposure has been investigated mainly in adult animals or with cells from adult subjects, with most of the studies showing no effects. Is the developing immune system more susceptible to the effects of RF exposure? To address this question, newborn mice were exposed to WiFi signals at constant specific absorption rates (SAR) of 0.08 or 4 W/kg, 2h/day, 5 days/week, for 5 consecutive weeks, starting the day after birth. The experiments were performed with a blind procedure using sham-exposed groups as controls. No differences in body weight and development among the groups were found in mice of both sexes. For the immunological analyses, results on female and male newborn mice exposed during early post-natal life did not show any effects on all the investigated parameters with one exception: a reduced IFN-γ production in spleen cells from microwaves (MW)-exposed (SAR 4 W/kg) male (not in female) mice compared with sham-exposed mice. Altogether our findings do not support the hypothesis that early post-natal life exposure to WiFi signals induces detrimental effects on the developing immune system. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Early life exposure to environmental tobacco smoke alters immune response to asbestos via a shift in inflammatory phenotype resulting in increased disease development

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Traci A.; Holian, Andrij; Pinkerton, Kent E.; Lee, Joong Won; Cho, Yoon Hee

    2016-01-01

    Asbestos in combination with tobacco smoke exposure reportedly leads to more severe physiological consequences than asbestos alone; limited data also show an increased disease risk due to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure. Environmental influences during gestation and early lung development can result in physiological changes that alter risk for disease development throughout an individual’s lifetime. Therefore, maternal lifestyle may impact the ability of offspring to subsequently respond to environmental insults and alter overall disease susceptibility. In this study, we examined the effects of exposure to ETS in utero and during early postnatal development on asbestos-related inflammation and disease in adulthood. ETS exposure in utero appeared to shift inflammation towards a Th2 phenotype, via suppression of Th1 inflammatory cytokine production. This effect was further pronounced in mice exposed to ETS in utero and during early postnatal development. In utero ETS exposure led to increased collagen deposition, a marker of fibrotic disease, when the offspring was later exposed to asbestos, which was further increased with additional ETS exposure during early postnatal development. These data suggest that ETS exposure in utero alters the immune responses and leads to greater disease development after asbestos exposure, which is further exacerbated when exposure to ETS continues during early postnatal development. PMID:27138493

  18. Early life exposure to environmental tobacco smoke alters immune response to asbestos via a shift in inflammatory phenotype resulting in increased disease development.

    PubMed

    Brown, Traci Ann; Holian, Andrij; Pinkerton, Kent E; Lee, Joong Won; Cho, Yoon Hee

    2016-07-01

    Asbestos in combination with tobacco smoke exposure reportedly leads to more severe physiological consequences than asbestos alone; limited data also show an increased disease risk due to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure. Environmental influences during gestation and early lung development can result in physiological changes that alter risk for disease development throughout an individual's lifetime. Therefore, maternal lifestyle may impact the ability of offspring to subsequently respond to environmental insults and alter overall disease susceptibility. In this study, we examined the effects of exposure to ETS in utero and during early postnatal development on asbestos-related inflammation and disease in adulthood. ETS exposure in utero appeared to shift inflammation towards a Th2 phenotype, via suppression of Th1 inflammatory cytokine production. This effect was further pronounced in mice exposed to ETS in utero and during early postnatal development. In utero ETS exposure led to increased collagen deposition, a marker of fibrotic disease, when the offspring was later exposed to asbestos, which was further increased with additional ETS exposure during early postnatal development. These data suggest that ETS exposure in utero alters the immune responses and leads to greater disease development after asbestos exposure, which is further exacerbated when exposure to ETS continues during early postnatal development.

  19. Innate Immunity to Respiratory Infection in Early Life

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Laura; Culley, Fiona J.

    2017-01-01

    Early life is a period of particular susceptibility to respiratory infections and symptoms are frequently more severe in infants than in adults. The neonatal immune system is generally held to be deficient in most compartments; responses to innate stimuli are weak, antigen-presenting cells have poor immunostimulatory activity and adaptive lymphocyte responses are limited, leading to poor immune memory and ineffective vaccine responses. For mucosal surfaces such as the lung, which is continuously exposed to airborne antigen and to potential pathogenic invasion, the ability to discriminate between harmless and potentially dangerous antigens is essential, to prevent inflammation that could lead to loss of gaseous exchange and damage to the developing lung tissue. We have only recently begun to define the differences in respiratory immunity in early life and its environmental and developmental influences. The innate immune system may be of relatively greater importance than the adaptive immune system in the neonatal and infant period than later in life, as it does not require specific antigenic experience. A better understanding of what constitutes protective innate immunity in the respiratory tract in this age group and the factors that influence its development should allow us to predict why certain infants are vulnerable to severe respiratory infections, design treatments to accelerate the development of protective immunity, and design age specific adjuvants to better boost immunity to infection in the lung. PMID:29184555

  20. Molecular characterization of two ferritins of the scallop Argopecten purpuratus and gene expressions in association with early development, immune response and growth rate.

    PubMed

    Coba de la Peña, Teodoro; Cárcamo, Claudia B; Díaz, María I; Brokordt, Katherina B; Winkler, Federico M

    2016-08-01

    Ferritin is involved in several iron homoeostasis processes in molluscs. We characterized two ferritin homologues and their expression patterns in association with early development, growth rate and immune response in the scallop Argopecten purpuratus, a species of economic importance for Chile and Peru. Two ferritin subunits (Apfer1 and Apfer2) were cloned. Apfer1 cDNA is a 792bp clone containing a 516bp open reading frame (ORF) that corresponds to a novel ferritin subunit in A. purpuratus. Apfer2 cDNA is a 681bp clone containing a 522bp ORF that corresponds to a previously sequenced EST. A putative iron responsive element (IRE) was identified in the 5'-untranslated region of both genes. The deduced protein sequences of both cDNAs possessed the motifs and domains characteristic of functional ferritin subunits. Both genes showed differential expression patterns at tissue-specific and early development stage levels. Apfer1 expression level increased 40-fold along larval developmental stages, decreasing markedly after larval settlement. Apfer1 expression in mantle tissue was 2.8-fold higher in fast-growing than in slow-growing scallops. Apfer1 increased 8-fold in haemocytes 24h post-challenge with the bacterium Vibrio splendidus. Apfer2 expression did not differ between fast- and slow-growing scallops or in response to bacterial challenge. These results suggest that Apfer1 and Apfer2 may be involved in iron storage, larval development and shell formation. Apfer1 expression may additionally be involved in immune response against bacterial infections and also in growth; and thus would be a potential marker for immune capacity and for fast growth in A. purpuratus. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. T helper cell 2 immune skewing in pregnancy/early life: chemical exposure and the development of atopic disease and allergy.

    PubMed

    McFadden, J P; Thyssen, J P; Basketter, D A; Puangpet, P; Kimber, I

    2015-03-01

    During the last 50 years there has been a significant increase in Western societies of atopic disease and associated allergy. The balance between functional subpopulations of T helper cells (Th) determines the quality of the immune response provoked by antigen. One such subpopulation - Th2 cells - is associated with the production of IgE antibody and atopic allergy, whereas, Th1 cells antagonize IgE responses and the development of allergic disease. In seeking to provide a mechanistic basis for this increased prevalence of allergic disease, one proposal has been the 'hygiene hypothesis', which argues that in Westernized societies reduced exposure during early childhood to pathogenic microorganisms favours the development of atopic allergy. Pregnancy is normally associated with Th2 skewing, which persists for some months in the neonate before Th1/Th2 realignment occurs. In this review, we consider the immunophysiology of Th2 immune skewing during pregnancy. In particular, we explore the possibility that altered and increased patterns of exposure to certain chemicals have served to accentuate this normal Th2 skewing and therefore further promote the persistence of a Th2 bias in neonates. Furthermore, we propose that the more marked Th2 skewing observed in first pregnancy may, at least in part, explain the higher prevalence of atopic disease and allergy in the first born. © 2014 British Association of Dermatologists.

  2. Effects of Dietary Additives and Early Feeding on Performance, Gut Development and Immune Status of Broiler Chickens Challenged with Clostridium perfringens

    PubMed Central

    Ao, Z.; Kocher, A.; Choct, M.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of dietary additives and holding time on resistance and resilience of broiler chickens to Clostridium perfringens challenge were investigated by offering four dietary treatments. These were a negative control (basal), a positive control (Zn-bacitracin) and two dietary additives, mannanoligosaccharides (MOS), and acidifier. Two holding times included (a) immediate access to feed and water post hatch (FED) and (b) access to both feed and water 48 h post hatch (HELD). Chicks fed Zn-bacitracin had no intestinal lesions attributed to necrotic enteritis (NE), whereas chicks fed both MOS or acidifier showed signs of NE related lesions. All dietary treatments were effective in reducing the numbers of C. perfringens in the ileum post challenge. The FED chicks had heavier body weight and numerically lower mortality. The FED chicks also showed stronger immune responses to NE challenge, showing enhanced (p<0.05) proliferation of T-cells. Early feeding of the MOS supplemented diet increased (p<0.05) IL-6 production. The relative bursa weight of the FED chicks was heavier at d 21 (p<0.05). All the additives increased the relative spleen weight of the HELD chicks at d 14 (p<0.05). The FED chicks had increased villus height and reduced crypt depth, and hence an increased villus/crypt ratio, especially in the jejunum at d 14 (p<0.05). The same was true for the HELD chicks given dietary additives (p<0.05). It may be concluded that the chicks with early access to dietary additives showed enhanced immune response and gut development, under C. perfringens challenge. The findings of this study shed light on managerial and nutritional strategies that could be used to prevent NE in the broiler industry without the use of in-feed antibiotics. PMID:25049595

  3. How Numbers, Nature, and Immune Status of Foxp3+ Regulatory T-Cells Shape the Early Immunological Events in Tumor Development

    PubMed Central

    Darrasse-Jèze, Guillaume; Podsypanina, Katrina

    2013-01-01

    The influence of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T-cells (Tregs) on cancer progression has been demonstrated in a large number of preclinical models and confirmed in several types of malignancies. Neoplastic processes trigger an increase of Treg numbers in draining lymph nodes, spleen, blood, and tumors, leading to the suppression of anti-tumor responses. Treg-depletion before or early in tumor development may lead to complete tumor eradication and extends survival of mice and humans. However this strategy is ineffective in established tumors, highlighting the critical role of the early Treg-tumor encounters. In this review, after discussing old and new concepts of immunological tumor tolerance, we focus on the nature (thymus-derived vs. peripherally derived) and status (naïve or activated/memory) of the regulatory T-cells at tumor emergence. The recent discoveries in this field suggest that the activation status of Tregs and effector T-cells (Teffs) at the first encounter with the tumor are essential to shape the fate and speed of the immune response across a variety of tumor models. The relative timing of activation/recruitment of anti-tumor cells vs. tolerogenic cells at tumor emergence appears to be crucial in the identification of tumor cells as friend or foe, which has broad implications for the design of cancer immunotherapies. PMID:24133490

  4. ALLERGIC ASTHMA AND THE DEVELOPING IMMUNE SYSTEM: A PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: The predisposition towards atopic disease begins early in life, and that the risk of developing asthma is heightened following prenatal exposure to some compounds. Nonetheless, the effect of gestational aeroallergen exposure on the developing immune system is unclear....

  5. Plasticity in early immune evasion strategies of a bacterial pathogen.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Quentin; Smith, Alexis A; Yang, Xiuli; Koci, Juraj; Foor, Shelby D; Cramer, Sarah D; Zhuang, Xuran; Dwyer, Jennifer E; Lin, Yi-Pin; Mongodin, Emmanuel F; Marques, Adriana; Leong, John M; Anguita, Juan; Pal, Utpal

    2018-04-17

    Borrelia burgdorferi is one of the few extracellular pathogens capable of establishing persistent infection in mammals. The mechanisms that sustain long-term survival of this bacterium are largely unknown. Here we report a unique innate immune evasion strategy of B. burgdorferi , orchestrated by a surface protein annotated as BBA57, through its modulation of multiple spirochete virulent determinants. BBA57 function is critical for early infection but largely redundant for later stages of spirochetal persistence, either in mammals or in ticks. The protein influences host IFN responses as well as suppresses multiple host microbicidal activities involving serum complement, neutrophils, and antimicrobial peptides. We also discovered a remarkable plasticity in BBA57-mediated spirochete immune evasion strategy because its loss, although resulting in near clearance of pathogens at the inoculum site, triggers nonheritable adaptive changes that exclude detectable nucleotide alterations in the genome but incorporate transcriptional reprograming events. Understanding the malleability in spirochetal immune evasion mechanisms that ensures their host persistence is critical for the development of novel therapeutic and preventive approaches to combat long-term infections like Lyme borreliosis.

  6. Plant Immunity Inducer Development and Application.

    PubMed

    Dewen, Qiu; Yijie, Dong; Yi, Zhang; Shupeng, Li; Fachao, Shi

    2017-05-01

    Plant immunity inducers represent a new and rapidly developing field in plant-protection research. In this paper, we discuss recent research on plant immunity inducers and their development and applications in China. Plant immunity inducers include plant immunity-inducing proteins, chitosan oligosaccharides, and microbial inducers. These compounds and microorganisms can trigger defense responses and confer disease resistance in plants. We also describe the mechanisms of plant immunity inducers and how they promote plant health. Furthermore, we summarize the current situation in plant immunity inducer development in China and the global marketplace. Finally, we also deeply analyze the development trends and application prospects of plant immunity inducers in environmental protection and food safety.

  7. The effects of early life adversity on the immune system.

    PubMed

    Elwenspoek, Martha M C; Kuehn, Annette; Muller, Claude P; Turner, Jonathan D

    2017-08-01

    Early life adversity (ELA) is associated with a higher risk for diseases in adulthood. Although the pathophysiological effects of ELA are varied, there may be a unifying role for the immune system in all of the long-term pathologies such as chronic inflammatory disorders (autoimmune diseases, allergy, and asthma). Recently, significant efforts have been made to elucidate the long-term effects ELA has on immune function, as well as the mechanisms underlying these immune changes. In this review, we focus on data from human studies investigating immune parameters in relation to post-natal adverse experiences. We describe the current understanding of the 'ELA immune phenotype', characterized by inflammation, impairment of the cellular immune system, and immunosenescence. However, at present, data addressing specific immune functions are limited and there is a need for high-quality, well powered, longitudinal studies to unravel cause from effect. Besides the immune system, also the stress system and health behaviors are altered in ELA. We discuss probable underlying mechanisms based on epigenetic programming that could explain the ELA immune phenotype and whether this is a direct effect of immune programming or an indirect consequence of changes in behavior or stress reactivity. Understanding the underlying mechanisms will help define effective strategies to prevent or counteract negative ELA-associated outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Immunization of pregnant women: Future of early infant protection

    PubMed Central

    Faucette, Azure N; Pawlitz, Michael D; Pei, Bo; Yao, Fayi; Chen, Kang

    2015-01-01

    Children in early infancy do not mount effective antibody responses to many vaccines against commons infectious pathogens, which results in a window of increased susceptibility or severity infections. In addition, vaccine-preventable infections are among the leading causes of morbidity in pregnant women. Immunization during pregnancy can generate maternal immune protection as well as elicit the production and transfer of antibodies cross the placenta and via breastfeeding to provide early infant protection. Several successful vaccines are now recommended to all pregnant women worldwide. However, significant gaps exist in our understanding of the efficacy and safety of other vaccines and in women with conditions associated with increased susceptible to high-risk pregnancies. Public acceptance of maternal immunization remained to be improved. Broader success of maternal immunization will rely on the integration of advances in basic science in vaccine design and evaluation and carefully planned clinical trials that are inclusive to pregnant women. PMID:26366844

  9. Impact of early life exposures to geohelminth infections on the development of vaccine immunity, allergic sensitization, and allergic inflammatory diseases in children living in tropical Ecuador: the ECUAVIDA birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Geohelminth infections are highly prevalent infectious diseases of childhood in many regions of the Tropics, and are associated with significant morbidity especially among pre-school and school-age children. There is growing concern that geohelminth infections, particularly exposures occurring during early life in utero through maternal infections or during infancy, may affect vaccine immunogenicity in populations among whom these infections are endemic. Further, the low prevalence of allergic disease in the rural Tropics has been attributed to the immune modulatory effects of these infections and there is concern that widespread use of anthelmintic treatment in high-risk groups may be associated with an increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases. Because the most widely used vaccines are administered during the first year of life and the antecedents of allergic disease are considered to occur in early childhood, the present study has been designed to investigate the impact of early exposures to geohelminths on the development of protective immunity to vaccines, allergic sensitization, and allergic disease. Methods/Design A cohort of 2,403 neonates followed up to 8 years of age. Primary exposures are infections with geohelminth parasites during the last trimester of pregnancy and the first 2 years of life. Primary study outcomes are the development of protective immunity to common childhood vaccines (i.e. rotavirus, Haemophilus influenzae type B, Hepatitis B, tetanus toxoid, and oral poliovirus type 3) during the first 5 years of life, the development of eczema by 3 years of age, the development of allergen skin test reactivity at 5 years of age, and the development of asthma at 5 and 8 years of age. Potential immunological mechanisms by which geohelminth infections may affect the study outcomes will be investigated also. Discussion The study will provide information on the potential effects of early exposures to geohelminths (during pregnancy and

  10. The bradykinin B2 receptor in the early immune response against Listeria infection.

    PubMed

    Kaman, Wendy E; Wolterink, Arthur F W M; Bader, Michael; Boele, Linda C L; van der Kleij, Desiree

    2009-02-01

    The endogenous danger signal bradykinin was recently found implicated in the development of immunity against parasites via dendritic cells. We here report an essential role of the B(2) (B(2)R) bradykinin receptor in the early immune response against Listeria infection. Mice deficient in B(2)R (B(2)R(-/-) mice) were shown to suffer from increased hepatic bacterial burden and concomitant dramatic weight loss during infection with Listeria monocytogenes. Levels of cytokines known to play a pivotal role in the early phase immune response against L. monocytogenes, IL-12p70 and IFN-gamma, were reduced in B(2)R(-/-) mice. To extend these findings to the human system, we show that bradykinin potentiates the production of IL-12p70 in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. Thus, we show that bradykinin and the B(2)R play a role in early innate immune functions during bacterial infection.

  11. Early Developments, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Loyd, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document consists of the two 1998 issues of a journal reporting new research in early child development conducted by the Frank Porter Graham Child Development Center at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. In the Spring 1998 issue, articles highlight the Center's diverse cross-cultural projects and global research, training and…

  12. Customizing laboratory mice by modifying gut microbiota and host immunity in an early "window of opportunity".

    PubMed

    Hansen, Camilla H F; Metzdorff, Stine B; Hansen, Axel K

    2013-01-01

    We recently investigated how post-natal microbial gut colonization is important for the development of the immune system, especially in the systemic compartments. This addendum presents additional data which in accordance with our previous findings show that early life microbial colonization is critical for a fine-tuned immune homeostasis to develop also in the intestinal environment. A generalized reduction in the expression of immune signaling related genes in the small intestine may explain previously shown increased systemic adaptive immune reactivity, if the regulatory cross-talk between intra- and extra-intestinal immune cells is immature following a neonatal germ-free period. These findings are furthermore discussed in the context of recently published results on how lack of microbial exposure in the neonatal life modifies disease expression in rodents used as models mimicking human inflammatory diseases. In particular, with a focus on how these interesting findings could be used to optimize the use of rodent models.

  13. Early Childhood Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koh, Edgar, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Focused on early childhood development, this "UNICEF Intercom" asserts that developmental programs should aim to give children a fair chance at growth beyond survival. First presented are moral, scientific, social equity, economic, population, and programatic arguments for looking beyond the fundamental objective of saving young lives.…

  14. Early Program Development

    1971-01-01

    This 1971 artist's concept shows a Nuclear Shuttle and an early Space Shuttle docked with an Orbital Propellant Depot. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development persornel, an orbital modular propellant storage depot, supplied periodically by the Space Shuttle or Earth-to-orbit fuel tankers, would be critical in making available large amounts of fuel to various orbital vehicles and spacecraft.

  15. Early Program Development

    1970-01-01

    This artist's concept from 1970 shows a Nuclear Shuttle docked to an Orbital Propellant Depot and an early Space Shuttle. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development plarners, the Nuclear Shuttle, in either manned or unmanned mode, would deliver payloads to lunar orbit or other destinations then return to Earth orbit for refueling and additonal missions.

  16. The early cellular signatures of protective immunity induced by live viral vaccination.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Siegfried; Bethke, Nicole; Böthe, Matthias; Sommerick, Sophie; Frentsch, Marco; Romagnani, Chiara; Niedrig, Matthias; Thiel, Andreas

    2012-09-01

    Here, we have used primary vaccination of healthy donors with attenuated live yellow fever virus 17D (YFV-17D) as a model to study the generation of protective immunity. In short intervals after vaccination, we analyzed the induction of YFV-17D specific T- and B-cell immunity, bystander activation, dendritic cell subsets, changes in serum cytokine levels, and YFV-17D-specific antibodies. We show activation of innate immunity and a concomitant decline of numbers of peripheral blood T and B cells. An early peak of antigen-specific T cells at day 2, followed by mobilization of innate immune cells, preceded the development of maximal adaptive immunity against YFV-17D at day 14 after vaccination. Interestingly, potent adaptive immunity as measured by high titers of neutralizing YFV-17D-specific antibodies, correlated with early activation and recruitment of YFV-17D-specific CD4(+) T cells and higher levels of sIL-6R. Thus our data might provide new insights into the interplay of innate and adaptive immunity for the induction of protective immunity. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Determinants of maternal immunization in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Pathirana, Jayani; Nkambule, Jerome; Black, Steven

    2015-06-12

    Maternal immunization is an effective intervention to protect newborns and young infants from infections when their immune response is immature. Tetanus toxoid vaccination of pregnant women is the most widely implemented maternal vaccine in developing countries where neonatal mortality is the highest. We identified barriers to maternal tetanus vaccination in developing African and Asian countries to identify means of improving maternal immunization platforms in these countries. We categorized barriers into health system, health care provider and patient barriers to maternal tetanus immunization and conducted a literature review on each category. Due to limited literature from Africa, we conducted a pilot survey of health care providers in Malawi on barriers they experience in immunizing pregnant women. The major barriers of the health system are due to inadequate financial and human resources which translate to inadequate vaccination services delivery and logistics management. Health care providers are limited by poor attendance of Antenatal Care and inadequate knowledge on vaccinating pregnant women. Patient barriers are due to lack of education and knowledge on pregnancy immunization and socioeconomic factors such as low income and high parity. There are several factors that affect maternal tetanus immunization. Increasing knowledge in health care providers and patients, increasing antenatal care attendance and outreach activities will aid the uptake of maternal immunization. Health system barriers are more difficult to address requiring an improvement of overall immunization services. Further analyses of maternal immunization specific barriers and the means of addressing them are required to strengthen the existing program and provide a more efficient delivery system for additional maternal vaccines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 from disk abalone (Haliotis discus discus): Roles in early development and immunity-related transcriptional responses.

    PubMed

    Perera, N C N; Godahewa, G I; Lee, Jehee

    2016-12-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is involved in the regulation of cellular events by mediating signal transduction pathways. MAPK1 is a member of the extracellular-signal regulated kinases (ERKs), playing roles in cell proliferation, differentiation, and development. This is mainly in response to growth factors, mitogens, and many environmental stresses. In the current study, we have characterized the structural features of a homolog of MAPK1 from disk abalone (AbMAPK1). Further, we have unraveled its expressional kinetics against different experimental pathogenic infections or related chemical stimulants. AbMAPK1 harbors a 5' untranslated region (UTR) of 23 bps, a coding sequence of 1104 bps, and a 3' UTR of 448 bp. The putative peptide comprises a predicted molecular mass of 42.2 kDa, with a theoretical pI of 6.28. Based on the in silico analysis, AbMAPK1 possesses two N-glycosylation sites, one S_TK catalytic domain, and a conserved His-Arg-Asp domain (HRD). In addition, a conservative glycine rich ATP-phosphate-binding loop and a threonine-x-tyrosine motif (TEY) important for the autophosphorylation were also identified in the protein. Homology assessment of AbMAPK1 showed several conserved regions, and ark clam (Aplysia californica) showed the highest sequence identity (87.9%). The phylogenetic analysis supported close evolutionary kinship with molluscan orthologs. Constitutive expression of AbMAPK1 was observed in six different tissues of disk abalone, with the highest expression in the digestive tract, followed by the gills and hemocytes. Highest AbMAPK1 mRNA expression level was detected at the trochophore developmental stage, suggesting its role in abalone cell differentiation and proliferation. Significant modulation of AbMAPK1 expression under pathogenic stress suggested its putative involvement in the immune defense mechanism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The mucosal immune system: From dentistry to vaccine development

    PubMed Central

    KIYONO, Hiroshi; AZEGAMI, Tatsuhiko

    2015-01-01

    The oral cavity is the beginning of the aero-digestive tract, which is covered by mucosal epithelium continuously under the threat of invasion of pathogens, it is thus protected by the mucosal immune system. In the early phase of our scientific efforts for the demonstration of mucosal immune system, dental science was one of major driving forces due to their foreseeability to use oral immunity for the control of oral diseases. The mucosal immune system is divided functionally into, but interconnected inductive and effector sites. Intestinal Peyer’s patches (PPs) are an inductive site containing antigen-sampling M cells and immunocompetent cells required to initiate antigen-specific immune responses. At effector sites, PP-originated antigen-specific IgA B cells become plasma cells to produce polymeric IgA and form secretory IgA by binding to poly-Ig receptor expressed on epithelial cells for protective immunity. The development of new-generation mucosal vaccines, including the rice-based oral vaccine MucoRice, on the basis of the coordinated mucosal immune system is a promising strategy for the control of mucosal infectious diseases. PMID:26460320

  20. Impact of early treatment programs on HIV epidemics: An immunity-based mathematical model.

    PubMed

    Rahman, S M Ashrafur; Vaidya, Naveen K; Zou, Xingfu

    2016-10-01

    While studies on pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) have demonstrated substantial advantages in controlling HIV transmission, the overall benefits of the programs with early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) have not been fully understood and are still on debate. Here, we develop an immunity-based (CD4+ T cell count based) mathematical model to study the impacts of early treatment programs on HIV epidemics and the overall community-level immunity. The model is parametrized using the HIV prevalence data from South Africa and fully analyzed for stability of equilibria and infection persistence criteria. Using our model, we evaluate the effects of early treatment on the new infection transmission, disease death, basic reproduction number, HIV prevalence, and the community-level immunity. Our model predicts that the programs with early treatments significantly reduce the new infection transmission and increase the community-level immunity, but the treatments alone may not be enough to eliminate HIV epidemics. These findings, including the community-level immunity, might provide helpful information for proper implementation of HIV treatment programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Nutritionally mediated programming of the developing immune system.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Amanda C

    2011-09-01

    A growing body of evidence highlights the importance of a mother's nutrition from preconception through lactation in programming the emerging organ systems and homeostatic pathways of her offspring. The developing immune system may be particularly vulnerable. Indeed, examples of nutrition-mediated immune programming can be found in the literature on intra-uterine growth retardation, maternal micronutrient deficiencies, and infant feeding. Current models of immune ontogeny depict a "layered" expansion of increasingly complex defenses, which may be permanently altered by maternal malnutrition. One programming mechanism involves activation of the maternal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in response to nutritional stress. Fetal or neonatal exposure to elevated stress hormones is linked in animal studies to permanent changes in neuroendocrine-immune interactions, with diverse manifestations such as an attenuated inflammatory response or reduced resistance to tumor colonization. Maternal malnutrition may also have a direct influence, as evidenced by nutrient-driven epigenetic changes to developing T regulatory cells and subsequent risk of allergy or asthma. A 3rd programming pathway involves placental or breast milk transfer of maternal immune factors with immunomodulatory functions (e.g. cytokines). Maternal malnutrition can directly affect transfer mechanisms or influence the quality or quantity of transferred factors. The public health implications of nutrition-mediated immune programming are of particular importance in the developing world, where prevalent maternal undernutrition is coupled with persistent infectious challenges. However, early alterations to the immune system, resulting from either nutritional deficiencies or excesses, have broad relevance for immune-mediated diseases, such as asthma, and chronic inflammatory conditions like cardiovascular disease.

  2. Nutritionally Mediated Programming of the Developing Immune System12

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Amanda C.

    2011-01-01

    A growing body of evidence highlights the importance of a mother’s nutrition from preconception through lactation in programming the emerging organ systems and homeostatic pathways of her offspring. The developing immune system may be particularly vulnerable. Indeed, examples of nutrition-mediated immune programming can be found in the literature on intra-uterine growth retardation, maternal micronutrient deficiencies, and infant feeding. Current models of immune ontogeny depict a “layered” expansion of increasingly complex defenses, which may be permanently altered by maternal malnutrition. One programming mechanism involves activation of the maternal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in response to nutritional stress. Fetal or neonatal exposure to elevated stress hormones is linked in animal studies to permanent changes in neuroendocrine-immune interactions, with diverse manifestations such as an attenuated inflammatory response or reduced resistance to tumor colonization. Maternal malnutrition may also have a direct influence, as evidenced by nutrient-driven epigenetic changes to developing T regulatory cells and subsequent risk of allergy or asthma. A 3rd programming pathway involves placental or breast milk transfer of maternal immune factors with immunomodulatory functions (e.g. cytokines). Maternal malnutrition can directly affect transfer mechanisms or influence the quality or quantity of transferred factors. The public health implications of nutrition-mediated immune programming are of particular importance in the developing world, where prevalent maternal undernutrition is coupled with persistent infectious challenges. However, early alterations to the immune system, resulting from either nutritional deficiencies or excesses, have broad relevance for immune-mediated diseases, such as asthma, and chronic inflammatory conditions like cardiovascular disease. PMID:22332080

  3. The Immune System in Obesity: Developing Paradigms Amidst Inconvenient Truths.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Madhur; Kern, Philip A; Nikolajczyk, Barbara S

    2017-08-15

    Adipose tissue (AT) houses both innate and adaptive immune systems that are crucial for preserving AT function and metabolic homeostasis. In this review, we summarize recent information regarding progression of obesity-associated AT inflammation and insulin resistance. We additionally consider alterations in AT distribution and the immune system in males vs. females and among different racial populations. Innate and adaptive immune cell-derived inflammation drives insulin resistance both locally and systemically. However, new evidence also suggests that the immune system is equally vital for adipocyte differentiation and protection from ectopic lipid deposition. Furthermore, roles of anti-inflammatory immune cells such as regulatory T cells, "M2-like" macrophages, eosinophils, and mast cells are being explored, primarily due to promise of immunotherapeutic applications. Both immune responses and AT distribution are strongly influenced by factors like sex and race, which have been largely underappreciated in the field of metabolically-associated inflammation, or meta-flammation. More studies are required to recognize factors that switch inflammation from controlled to uncontrolled in obesity-associated pathogenesis and to integrate the combined effects of meta-flammation and immunometabolism. It is critical to recognize that the AT-associated immune system can be alternately beneficial and destructive; therefore, simply blocking immune responses early in obesity may not be the best clinical approach. The dearth of information on gender and race-associated disparities in metabolism, AT distribution, and the immune system suggest that a greater understanding of such differences will be critical to develop personalized treatments for obesity and the associated metabolic dysfunction.

  4. Early-life inflammation, immune response and ageing.

    PubMed

    Khan, Imroze; Agashe, Deepa; Rolff, Jens

    2017-03-15

    Age-related diseases are often attributed to immunopathology, which results in self-damage caused by an inappropriate inflammatory response. Immunopathology associated with early-life inflammation also appears to cause faster ageing, although we lack direct experimental evidence for this association. To understand the interactions between ageing, inflammation and immunopathology, we used the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor as a study organism. We hypothesized that phenoloxidase, an important immune effector in insect defence, may impose substantial immunopathological costs by causing tissue damage to Malpighian tubules (MTs; functionally equivalent to the human kidney), in turn accelerating ageing. In support of this hypothesis, we found that RNAi knockdown of phenoloxidase (PO) transcripts in young adults possibly reduced inflammation-induced autoreactive tissue damage to MTs, and increased adult lifespan. Our work thus suggests a causative link between immunopathological costs of early-life inflammation and faster ageing. We also reasoned that if natural selection weakens with age, older individuals should display increased immunopathological costs associated with an immune response. Indeed, we found that while old infected individuals cleared infection faster than young individuals, possibly they also displayed exacerbated immunopathological costs (larger decline in MT function) and higher post-infection mortality. RNAi-mediated knockdown of PO response partially rescued MTs function in older beetles and resulted in increased lifespan after infection. Taken together, our data are consistent with a direct role of immunopathological consequences of immune response during ageing in insects. Our work is also the first report that highlights the pervasive role of tissue damage under diverse contexts of ageing and immune response. © 2017 The Author(s).

  5. Socioeconomic disadvantage, gestational immune activity, and neurodevelopment in early childhood

    PubMed Central

    Hornig, Mady; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Hahn, Jill; Cherkerzian, Sara; Albert, Paul S.; Buka, Stephen L.; Goldstein, Jill M.

    2017-01-01

    Children raised in economically disadvantaged households face increased risks of poor health in adulthood, suggesting that inequalities in health have early origins. From the child’s perspective, exposure to economic hardship may begin as early as conception, potentially via maternal neuroendocrine–immune responses to prenatal stressors, which adversely impact neurodevelopment. Here we investigate whether socioeconomic disadvantage is associated with gestational immune activity and whether such activity is associated with abnormalities among offspring during infancy. We analyzed concentrations of five immune markers (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF-α) in maternal serum from 1,494 participants in the New England Family Study in relation to the level of maternal socioeconomic disadvantage and their involvement in offspring neurologic abnormalities at 4 mo and 1 y of age. Median concentrations of IL-8 were lower in the most disadvantaged pregnancies [−1.53 log(pg/mL); 95% CI: −1.81, −1.25]. Offspring of these pregnancies had significantly higher risk of neurologic abnormalities at 4 mo [odds ratio (OR) = 4.61; CI = 2.84, 7.48] and 1 y (OR = 2.05; CI = 1.08, 3.90). This higher risk was accounted for in part by fetal exposure to lower maternal IL-8, which also predicted higher risks of neurologic abnormalities at 4 mo (OR = 7.67; CI = 4.05, 14.49) and 1 y (OR = 2.92; CI = 1.46, 5.87). Findings support the role of maternal immune activity in fetal neurodevelopment, exacerbated in part by socioeconomic disadvantage. This finding reveals a potential pathophysiologic pathway involved in the intergenerational transmission of socioeconomic inequalities in health. PMID:28607066

  6. Early-life inflammation, immune response and ageing

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Age-related diseases are often attributed to immunopathology, which results in self-damage caused by an inappropriate inflammatory response. Immunopathology associated with early-life inflammation also appears to cause faster ageing, although we lack direct experimental evidence for this association. To understand the interactions between ageing, inflammation and immunopathology, we used the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor as a study organism. We hypothesized that phenoloxidase, an important immune effector in insect defence, may impose substantial immunopathological costs by causing tissue damage to Malpighian tubules (MTs; functionally equivalent to the human kidney), in turn accelerating ageing. In support of this hypothesis, we found that RNAi knockdown of phenoloxidase (PO) transcripts in young adults possibly reduced inflammation-induced autoreactive tissue damage to MTs, and increased adult lifespan. Our work thus suggests a causative link between immunopathological costs of early-life inflammation and faster ageing. We also reasoned that if natural selection weakens with age, older individuals should display increased immunopathological costs associated with an immune response. Indeed, we found that while old infected individuals cleared infection faster than young individuals, possibly they also displayed exacerbated immunopathological costs (larger decline in MT function) and higher post-infection mortality. RNAi-mediated knockdown of PO response partially rescued MTs function in older beetles and resulted in increased lifespan after infection. Taken together, our data are consistent with a direct role of immunopathological consequences of immune response during ageing in insects. Our work is also the first report that highlights the pervasive role of tissue damage under diverse contexts of ageing and immune response. PMID:28275145

  7. Early Subretinal Allograft Rejection Is Characterized by Innate Immune Activity.

    PubMed

    Kennelly, Kevin P; Holmes, Toby M; Wallace, Deborah M; O'Farrelly, Cliona; Keegan, David J

    2017-06-09

    Successful subretinal transplantation is limited by considerable early graft loss despite pharmacological suppression of adaptive immunity. We postulated that early innate immune activity is a dominant factor in determining graft survival and chose a nonimmunosuppressed mouse model of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell transplantation to explore this. Expression of almost all measured cytokines by DH01 RPE cells increased significantly following graft preparation, and the neutrophil chemoattractant KC/GRO/CINC was most significantly increased. Subretinal allografts of DH01 cells (C57BL/10 origin) into healthy, nonimmunosuppressed C57BL/6 murine eyes were harvested and fixed at 1, 3, 7, and 28 days postoperatively and subsequently cryosectioned and stained. Graft cells were detected using SV40 large T antigen (SV40T) immunolabeling and apoptosis/necrosis by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL). Sections were also immunolabeled for macrophage (CD11b and F4/80), neutrophil (Gr1 Ly-6G), and T-lymphocyte (CD3-ɛ) infiltration. Images captured with an Olympus FV1000 confocal microscope were analyzed using the Imaris software. The proportion of the subretinal bolus comprising graft cells (SV40T+) was significantly (p < 0.001) reduced between postoperative day (POD) 3 (90 ± 4%) and POD 7 (20 ± 7%). CD11b+, F4/80+, and Gr1 Ly-6G+ cells increased significantly (p < 0.05) from POD 1 and predominated over SV40T+ cells by POD 7. Colabeling confocal microscopic analysis demonstrated graft engulfment by neutrophils and macrophages at POD 7, and reconstruction of z-stacked confocal images confirmed SV40T inside Gr1 Ly-6G+ cells. Expression of CD3-ɛ was low and did not differ significantly between time points. By POD 28, no graft cells were detectable and few inflammatory cells remained. These studies reveal, for the first time, a critical role for innate immune mechanisms early in subretinal graft rejection. The future success

  8. Challenge with 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2) during early development persistently impairs growth, differentiation, and local expression of IGF-I and IGF-II in immune organs of tilapia.

    PubMed

    Shved, Natallia; Berishvili, Giorgi; Häusermann, Eliane; D'Cotta, Helena; Baroiller, Jean-François; Eppler, Elisabeth

    2009-03-01

    The enormous expansion of world-wide aquaculture has led to increasing interest in the regulation of fish immune system. Estrogen has recently been shown to inhibit the endocrine (liver-derived) and autocrine/paracrine local insulin-like growth factor-I system in fish. In order to address the potential actions of estrogen on the IGF system in immune organs, tilapia were fed with 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2)-enriched food from 10 to 40 days post fertilization (DPF) to induce functional feminization, an approach commonly used in aquaculture. EE2-treated and control fish were sampled at 75 and 165 DPF. The expression levels of ER-alpha, IGF-I, IGF-II and growth hormone receptor (GH-R) mRNA in spleen and head kidney were determined by real-time PCR and the expressing sites of IGF-I mRNA identified by in situ hybridisation. Ratios of spleen length and weight to body length and weight were determined. At 165 DPF, the length (4.9% vs. 7.6%) and weight (0.084% vs. 0.132%) ratios were significantly lowered in EE2-treated fish and number and size of the melanomacrophage centres were considerably reduced. At 75 DPF, both in spleen and head kidney of EE2-treated fish the expression levels of IGF-I and IGF-II mRNA were markedly diminished. The suppression was more pronounced for IGF-I (spleen: -12.071-fold; head kidney: -8.413-fold) than for IGF-II (spleen: -4.102-fold; head kidney: -1.342-fold). In agreement, clearly fewer leucocytes and macrophages in head kidney and spleen of EE2-treated fish contained IGF-I mRNA as shown by in situ hybridisation. ER-alpha mRNA expression in spleen was increased at 75 DPF but unchanged in head kidney. GH-R gene expression showed a mild upregulation at 165 DPF in both tissues. Thus, exposure to EE2 during early development affected distinctly the IGF system in tilapia immune organs. It led to lasting impairment of spleen growth and differentiation that can be attributed to an interaction of EE2 with IGF-I and, less pronouncedly, IGF

  9. Expression of Putative Immune Response Genes during Early Ontogeny in the Coral Acropora millepora

    PubMed Central

    Puill-Stephan, Eneour; Seneca, François O.; Miller, David J.; van Oppen, Madeleine J. H.; Willis, Bette L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Corals, like many other marine invertebrates, lack a mature allorecognition system in early life history stages. Indeed, in early ontogeny, when corals acquire and establish associations with various surface microbiota and dinoflagellate endosymbionts, they do not efficiently distinguish between closely and distantly related individuals from the same population. However, very little is known about the molecular components that underpin allorecognition and immunity responses or how they change through early ontogeny in corals. Methodology/Principal Findings Patterns in the expression of four putative immune response genes (apextrin, complement C3, and two CELIII type lectin genes) were examined in juvenile colonies of Acropora millepora throughout a six-month post-settlement period using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Expression of a CELIII type lectin gene peaked in the fourth month for most of the coral juveniles sampled and was significantly higher at this time than at any other sampling time during the six months following settlement. The timing of this increase in expression levels of putative immune response genes may be linked to allorecognition maturation which occurs around this time in A.millepora. Alternatively, the increase may represent a response to immune challenges, such as would be involved in the recognition of symbionts (such as Symbiodinium spp. or bacteria) during winnowing processes as symbioses are fine-tuned. Conclusions/Significance Our data, although preliminary, are consistent with the hypothesis that lectins may play an important role in the maturation of allorecognition responses in corals. The co-expression of lectins with apextrin during development of coral juveniles also raises the possibility that these proteins, which are components of innate immunity in other invertebrates, may influence the innate immune systems of corals through a common pathway or system. However, further studies investigating the expression of

  10. Expression of putative immune response genes during early ontogeny in the coral Acropora millepora.

    PubMed

    Puill-Stephan, Eneour; Seneca, François O; Miller, David J; van Oppen, Madeleine J H; Willis, Bette L

    2012-01-01

    Corals, like many other marine invertebrates, lack a mature allorecognition system in early life history stages. Indeed, in early ontogeny, when corals acquire and establish associations with various surface microbiota and dinoflagellate endosymbionts, they do not efficiently distinguish between closely and distantly related individuals from the same population. However, very little is known about the molecular components that underpin allorecognition and immunity responses or how they change through early ontogeny in corals. Patterns in the expression of four putative immune response genes (apextrin, complement C3, and two CELIII type lectin genes) were examined in juvenile colonies of Acropora millepora throughout a six-month post-settlement period using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). Expression of a CELIII type lectin gene peaked in the fourth month for most of the coral juveniles sampled and was significantly higher at this time than at any other sampling time during the six months following settlement. The timing of this increase in expression levels of putative immune response genes may be linked to allorecognition maturation which occurs around this time in A. millepora. Alternatively, the increase may represent a response to immune challenges, such as would be involved in the recognition of symbionts (such as Symbiodinium spp. or bacteria) during winnowing processes as symbioses are fine-tuned. Our data, although preliminary, are consistent with the hypothesis that lectins may play an important role in the maturation of allorecognition responses in corals. The co-expression of lectins with apextrin during development of coral juveniles also raises the possibility that these proteins, which are components of innate immunity in other invertebrates, may influence the innate immune systems of corals through a common pathway or system. However, further studies investigating the expression of these genes in alloimmune-challenged corals are needed to further

  11. Effects of early-life adversity on immune function are mediated by prenatal environment: Role of prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Raineki, Charlis; Bodnar, Tamara S; Holman, Parker J; Baglot, Samantha L; Lan, Ni; Weinberg, Joanne

    2017-11-01

    The contribution of the early postnatal environment to the pervasive effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is poorly understood. Moreover, PAE often carries increased risk of exposure to adversity/stress during early life. Dysregulation of immune function may play a role in how pre- and/or postnatal adversity/stress alters brain development. Here, we combine two animal models to examine whether PAE differentially increases vulnerability to immune dysregulation in response to early-life adversity. PAE and control litters were exposed to either limited bedding (postnatal day [PN] 8-12) to model early-life adversity or normal bedding, and maternal behavior and pup vocalizations were recorded. Peripheral (serum) and central (amygdala) immune (cytokines and C-reactive protein - CRP) responses of PAE animals to early-life adversity were evaluated at PN12. Insufficient bedding increased negative maternal behavior in both groups. Early-life adversity increased vocalization in all animals; however, PAE pups vocalized less than controls. Early-life adversity reduced serum TNF-α, KC/GRO, and IL-10 levels in control but not PAE animals. PAE increased serum CRP, and levels were even higher in pups exposed to adversity. Finally, PAE reduced KC/GRO and increased IL-10 levels in the amygdala. Our results indicate that PAE alters immune system development and both behavioral and immune responses to early-life adversity, which could have subsequent consequences for brain development and later life health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Postnatal Innate Immune Development: From Birth to Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Georgountzou, Anastasia; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G.

    2017-01-01

    It is well established that adaptive immune responses are deficient in early life, contributing to increased mortality and morbidity. The developmental trajectories of different components of innate immunity are only recently being explored. Individual molecules, cells, or pathways of innate recognition and signaling, within different compartments/anatomical sites, demonstrate variable maturation patterns. Despite some discrepancies among published data, valuable information is emerging, showing that the developmental pattern of cytokine responses during early life is age and toll-like receptor specific, and may be modified by genetic and environmental factors. Interestingly, specific environmental exposures have been linked both to innate function modifications and the occurrence of chronic inflammatory disorders, such as respiratory allergies. As these conditions are on the rise, our knowledge on innate immune development and its modulating factors needs to be expanded. Improved understanding of the sequence of events associated with disease onset and persistence will lead toward meaningful interventions. This review describes the state-of-the-art on normal postnatal innate immune ontogeny and highlights research areas that are currently explored or should be further addressed. PMID:28848557

  13. Incomplete Early Childhood Immunization Series and Missing Fourth DTaP Immunizations; Missed Opportunities or Missed Visits?

    PubMed

    Robison, Steve G

    2013-01-01

    The successful completion of early childhood immunizations is a proxy for overall quality of early care. Immunization statuses are usually assessed by up-to-date (UTD) rates covering combined series of different immunizations. However, series UTD rates often only bear on which single immunization is missing, rather than the success of all immunizations. In the US, most series UTD rates are limited by missing fourth DTaP-containing immunizations (diphtheria/tetanus/pertussis) due at 15 to 18 months of age. Missing 4th DTaP immunizations are associated either with a lack of visits at 15 to 18 months of age, or to visits without immunizations. Typical immunization data however cannot distinguish between these two reasons. This study compared immunization records from the Oregon ALERT IIS with medical encounter records for two-year olds in the Oregon Health Plan. Among those with 3 valid DTaPs by 9 months of age, 31.6% failed to receive a timely 4th DTaP; of those without a 4th DTaP, 42.1% did not have any provider visits from 15 through 18 months of age, while 57.9% had at least one provider visit. Those with a 4th DTaP averaged 2.45 encounters, while those with encounters but without 4th DTaPs averaged 2.23 encounters.

  14. Hygiene and other early childhood influences on the subsequent function of the immune system.

    PubMed

    Rook, Graham A W; Lowry, Christopher A; Raison, Charles L

    2015-08-18

    The immune system influences brain development and function. Hygiene and other early childhood influences impact the subsequent function of the immune system during adulthood, with consequences for vulnerability to neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Inflammatory events during pregnancy can act directly to cause developmental problems in the central nervous system (CNS) that have been implicated in schizophrenia and autism. The immune system also acts indirectly by "farming" the intestinal microbiota, which then influences brain development and function via the multiple pathways that constitute the gut-brain axis. The gut microbiota also regulates the immune system. Regulation of the immune system is crucial because inflammatory states in pregnancy need to be limited, and throughout life inflammation needs to be terminated completely when not required; for example, persistently raised levels of background inflammation during adulthood (in the presence or absence of a clinically apparent inflammatory stimulus) correlate with an increased risk of depression. A number of factors in the perinatal period, notably immigration from rural low-income to rich developed settings, caesarean delivery, breastfeeding and antibiotic abuse have profound effects on the microbiota and on immunoregulation during early life that persist into adulthood. Many aspects of the modern western environment deprive the infant of the immunoregulatory organisms with which humans co-evolved, while encouraging exposure to non-immunoregulatory organisms, associated with more recently evolved "crowd" infections. Finally, there are complex interactions between perinatal psychosocial stressors, the microbiota, and the immune system that have significant additional effects on both physical and psychiatric wellbeing in subsequent adulthood. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Neuroimmunology in Health And Disease. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights

  15. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura might be an early hematologic manifestation of undiagnosed human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Lai, Shih-Wei; Lin, Hsien-Feng; Lin, Cheng-Li; Liao, Kuan-Fu

    2017-03-01

    Little research focuses on the association between immune thrombocytopenic purpura and human immunodeficiency virus infection in Taiwan. This study investigated whether immune thrombocytopenic purpura might be an early hematologic manifestation of undiagnosed human immunodeficiency virus infection in Taiwan. We conducted a retrospective population-based cohort study using data of individuals enrolled in Taiwan National Health Insurance Program. There were 5472 subjects aged 1-84 years with a new diagnosis of immune thrombocytopenic purpura as the purpura group since 1998-2010 and 21,887 sex-matched and age-matched, randomly selected subjects without immune thrombocytopenic purpura as the non-purpura group. The incidence of human immunodeficiency virus infection at the end of 2011 was measured in both groups. We used the multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model to measure the hazard ratio and 95 % confidence interval (CI) for the association between immune thrombocytopenic purpura and human immunodeficiency virus infection. The overall incidence of human immunodeficiency virus infection was 6.47-fold higher in the purpura group than that in the non-purpura group (3.78 vs. 0.58 per 10,000 person-years, 95 % CI 5.83-7.18). After controlling for potential confounding factors, the adjusted HR of human immunodeficiency virus infection was 6.3 (95 % CI 2.58-15.4) for the purpura group, as compared with the non-purpura group. We conclude that individuals with immune thrombocytopenic purpura are 6.47-fold more likely to have human immunodeficiency virus infection than those without immune thrombocytopenic purpura. We suggest not all patients, but only those who have risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus infection should receive testing for undiagnosed human immunodeficiency virus infection when they develop immune thrombocytopenic purpura.

  16. Early Adolescent Ego Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Michael A.

    1980-01-01

    Presented are the theoretical characteristics of social identity in early adolescence (ages 10 to 15). It is suggested that no longer is identity thought to begin with adolescence, but may have its beginnings in the preteen years. The article draws heavily on Eriksonian concepts. (Editor/KC)

  17. Early Program Development

    1969-01-01

    As part of the Space Task Group's recommendations for more commonality and integration in America's space program, Marshall Space Flight Center engineers proposed an orbiting propellant storage facility to augment Space Shuttle missions. In this artist's concept from 1969 an early version of the Space Shuttle is shown refueling at the facility.

  18. Early life socioeconomic position and immune response to persistent infections among elderly Latinos.

    PubMed

    Meier, Helen C S; Haan, Mary N; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F; Simanek, Amanda M; Dowd, Jennifer B; Aiello, Allison E

    2016-10-01

    Persistent infections, such as cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), and Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii), are common in the U.S. but their prevalence varies by socioeconomic status. It is unclear if early or later life socioeconomic position (SEP) is a more salient driver of disparities in immune control of these infections. Using data from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging, we examined whether early or later life SEP was the strongest predictor of immune control later in life by contrasting two life course models, the critical period model and the chain of risk model. Early life SEP was measured as a latent variable, derived from parental education and occupation, and food availability. Indicators for SEP in later life included education level and occupation. Individuals were categorized by immune response to each pathogen (seronegative, low, medium and high) with increasing immune response representing poorer immune control. Cumulative immune response was estimated using a latent profile analysis with higher total immune response representing poorer immune control. Structural equation models were used to examine direct, indirect and total effects of early life SEP on each infection and cumulative immune response, controlling for age and gender. The direct effect of early life SEP on immune response was not statistically significant for the infections or cumulative immune response. Higher early life SEP was associated with lower immune response for T. gondii, H. pylori and cumulative immune response through pathways mediated by later life SEP. For CMV, higher early life SEP was both directly associated and partially mediated by later life SEP. No association was found between SEP and HSV-1. Findings from this study support a chain of risk model, whereby early life SEP acts through later life SEP to affect immune response to persistent infections in older age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  19. Early Peritoneal Immune Response during Echinococcus granulosus Establishment Displays a Biphasic Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Mourglia-Ettlin, Gustavo; Marqués, Juan Martín; Chabalgoity, José Alejandro; Dematteis, Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    Background Cystic echinococcosis is a worldwide distributed helminth zoonosis caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus. Human secondary cystic echinococcosis is caused by dissemination of protoscoleces after accidental rupture of fertile cysts and is due to protoscoleces ability to develop into new metacestodes. In the experimental model of secondary cystic echinococcosis mice react against protoscoleces producing inefficient immune responses, allowing parasites to develop into cysts. Although the chronic phase of infection has been analyzed in depth, early immune responses at the site of infection establishment, e.g., peritoneal cavity, have not been well studied. Because during early stages of infection parasites are thought to be more susceptible to immune attack, this work focused on the study of cellular and molecular events triggered early in the peritoneal cavity of infected mice. Principal Findings Data obtained showed disparate behaviors among subpopulations within the peritoneal lymphoid compartment. Regarding B cells, there is an active molecular process of plasma cell differentiation accompanied by significant local production of specific IgM and IgG2b antibodies. In addition, peritoneal NK cells showed a rapid increase with a significant percentage of activated cells. Peritoneal T cells showed a substantial increase, with predominance in CD4+ T lymphocytes. There was also a local increase in Treg cells. Finally, cytokine response showed local biphasic kinetics: an early predominant induction of Th1-type cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-2 and IL-15), followed by a shift toward a Th2-type profile (IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-13). Conclusions Results reported here open new ways to investigate the involvement of immune effectors players in E. granulosus establishment, and also in the sequential promotion of Th1- toward Th2-type responses in experimental secondary cystic echinococcosis. These data would be relevant for designing rational therapies

  20. Early Program Development

    1969-01-01

    This 1969 artist's concept illustrates the use of three major elements of NASA's Integrated program, as proposed by President Nixon's Space Task Group. In Phases I and II, a Space Tug with a manipulator-equipped crew module removes a cargo module from an early Space Shuttle Orbiter and docks with it. In Phases III and IV, the Space Tug with attached cargo module flys toward a Nuclear Shuttle. As a result of the Space Task Group's recommendations for more commonality and integration in the American space program, Marshall Space Flight Center engineers studied many of the spacecraft depicted here.

  1. Evidence of premature immune aging in patients thymectomized during early childhood

    PubMed Central

    Sauce, Delphine; Larsen, Martin; Fastenackels, Solène; Duperrier, Anne; Keller, Michael; Grubeck-Loebenstein, Beatrix; Ferrand, Christophe; Debré, Patrice; Sidi, Daniel; Appay, Victor

    2009-01-01

    While the thymus is known to be essential for the initial production of T cells during early life, its contribution to immune development remains a matter of debate. In fact, during cardiac surgery in newborns, the thymus is completely resected to enable better access to the heart to correct congenital heart defects, suggesting that it may be dispensable during childhood and adulthood. Here, we show that young adults thymectomized during early childhood exhibit an altered T cell compartment. Specifically, absolute CD4+ and CD8+ T cell counts were decreased, and these T cell populations showed substantial loss of naive cells and accumulation of oligoclonal memory cells. A subgroup of these young patients (22 years old) exhibited a particularly altered T cell profile that is usually seen in elderly individuals (more than 75 years old). This condition was directly related to CMV infection and the induction of strong CMV-specific T cell responses, which may exhaust the naive T cell pool in the absence of adequate T cell renewal from the thymus. Together, these marked immunological alterations are reminiscent of the immune risk phenotype, which is defined by a cluster of immune markers predictive of increased mortality in the elderly. Overall, our data highlight the importance of the thymus in maintaining the integrity of T cell immunity during adult life. PMID:19770514

  2. Early Program Development

    1970-01-01

    In 1970, NASA initiated Phase A contracts to study alternate Space Shuttle designs in addition to the two-stage fully-reusable Space Shuttle system already under development. A number of alternate systems were developed to ensure the development of the optimum earth-to-orbit system, including the Stage-and-a-half Chemical Interorbital Shuttle, shown here. The concept would utilize a reusable marned spacecraft with an onboard propulsion system attached to an expendable fuel tank to provide supplementary propellants.

  3. Development in Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkind, David

    1991-01-01

    Reviews some of the major cognitive, social, and emotional achievements of young children and discusses some of their limitations. Divides description of development into intellectual, language, social, and emotional development. Notes that this division represents adult categories of thought and does not represent young children's actual modes of…

  4. Oral treatment with enrofloxacin early in life promotes Th2-mediated immune response in mice.

    PubMed

    Strzępa, Anna; Majewska-Szczepanik, Monika; Kowalczyk, Paulina; Woźniak, Dorota; Motyl, Sylwia; Szczepanik, Marian

    2016-02-01

    Th2 lymphocytes play a crucial role in the development of allergy. These pathologies are caused by coordinated production of the cytokines IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 that regulate the activity of eosinophils, basophils and B cells. According to the 'hygiene hypothesis', the reduced exposure to microorganisms favors allergy occurrence. The advances in medicine in the field of infection therapy promoted an increasing application of antibiotics which, apart from eliminating pathogens, also partially eliminate the microbiota. Epicutaneous (EC) immunization with ovalbumin (OVA) followed by OVA challenge was used to study the influence of partial gut flora depletion by oral treatment with enrofloxacin on type-2 immune response. Current work describes the influence of enrofloxacin application on anti-OVA antibody production and cytokine synthesis in young and adult mice. Immune response in adult mice is less sensitive to modification of natural gut flora. We observed that enrofloxacin treatment of adult mice leads to significant decrease of anti-OVA IgG2a production while synthesis of anti-OVA IgE was not changed. The production of type-1 (IFN-γ), type-2 (IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13) and Th17-associated (IL-17A) cytokines was inhibited. On the other hand, treatment of young mice with enrofloxacin significantly upregulates the production of anti-OVA IgE and inhibits the secretion of anti-OVA IgG2a antibodies. Additionally, treatment with enrofloxacin early in life prior to OVA immunization results in increased production of type-2 (IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13) cytokines. Our results clearly indicate that the immune system is more vulnerable to decreased bacterial exposure early in life that may promote development of allergy. Copyright © 2015 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  5. Early Program Development

    1970-01-01

    This artist's concept from 1970 shows a Nuclear Shuttle taking on fuel from an orbiting Liquid Hydrogen Depot. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development persornel, the Nuclear Shuttle would deliver payloads to lunar orbit or other destinations then return to Earth orbit for refueling and additional missions.

  6. Early Program Development

    1970-01-01

    This 1970 artist's concept shows a Nuclear Shuttle in flight. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development engineers, the Nuclear Shuttle would deliver payloads to lunar orbit or other destinations then return to Earth orbit for refueling and additional missions.

  7. Early Program Development

    1971-01-01

    In this 1971 artist's concept, the Nuclear Shuttle is shown in various space-based applications. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development persornel, the Nuclear Shuttle would deliver payloads to geosychronous Earth orbits or lunar orbits then return to low Earth orbit for refueling. A cluster of Nuclear Shuttle units could form the basis for planetary missions.

  8. Early Program Development

    1971-01-01

    This 1971 artist's concept shows the Nuclear Shuttle in both its lunar logistics configuraton and geosynchronous station configuration. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development persornel, the Nuclear Shuttle would deliver payloads to lunar orbits or other destinations then return to Earth orbit for refueling and additional missions.

  9. Early Program Development

    1963-01-01

    This artist's concept from 1963 shows a proposed NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) incorporating the NRX-A1, the first NERVA-type cold flow reactor. The NERVA engine, based on Kiwi nuclear reactor technology, was intended to power a RIFT (Reactor-In-Flight-Test) nuclear stage, for which Marshall Space Flight Center had development responsibility.

  10. Maternal influences on fetal microbial colonization and immune development

    PubMed Central

    Romano-Keeler, Joann; Weitkamp, Jörn-Hendrik

    2014-01-01

    While critical for normal development, the exact timing of establishment of the intestinal microbiome is unknown. For example, although preterm labor and birth have been associated with bacterial colonization of the amniotic cavity and fetal membranes for many years, the prevailing dogma of a sterile intrauterine environment during normal term pregnancies has been challenged more recently. While found to be a key contributor of evolution in the animal kingdom, maternal transmission of commensal bacteria may also constitute a critical process during healthy pregnancies in humans with yet unclear developmental importance. Metagenomic sequencing has elucidated a rich placental microbiome in normal term pregnancies likely providing important metabolic and immune contributions to the growing fetus. Conversely, an altered microbial composition during pregnancy may produce aberrant metabolites impairing fetal brain development and life-long neurological outcomes. Here we review the current understanding of microbial colonization at the feto-maternal interface and explain how normal gut colonization drives a balanced neonatal mucosal immune system, while dysbiosis contributes to aberrant immune function early in life and beyond. We discuss how maternal genetics, diet, medications, and probiotics inform the fetal microbiome in preparation for perinatal and postnatal bacterial colonization. PMID:25310759

  11. Early Program Development

    2004-04-15

    This artist's concept illustrates the NERVA (Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application) engine's hot bleed cycle in which a small amount of hydrogen gas is diverted from the thrust nozzle, thus eliminating the need for a separate system to drive the turbine. The NERVA engine, based on KIWI nuclear reactor technology, would power a RIFT (Reactor-In-Flight-Test) nuclear stage, for which the Marshall Space Flight Center had development responsibility.

  12. Early Program Development

    1970-01-01

    In this 1970 artist's concept, the Nuclear Shuttle is shown in its lunar and geosynchronous orbit configuration and in its planetary mission configuration. As envisioned by Marshall Space Flight Center Program Development plarners, the Nuclear Shuttle would deliver payloads to lunar orbit or other destinations then return to Earth orbit for refueling. A cluster of Nuclear Shuttle units could form the basis for planetary missions.

  13. Early Program Development

    1996-06-20

    Engineers at one of MSFC's vacuum chambers begin testing a microthruster model. The purpose of these tests are to collect sufficient data that will enabe NASA to develop microthrusters that will move the Space Shuttle, a future space station, or any other space related vehicle with the least amount of expended energy. When something is sent into outer space, the forces that try to pull it back to Earth (gravity) are very small so that it only requires a very small force to move very large objects. In space, a force equal to a paperclip can move an object as large as a car. Microthrusters are used to produce these small forces.

  14. Biomechanics of Early Cardiac Development

    PubMed Central

    Goenezen, Sevan; Rennie, Monique Y.

    2012-01-01

    Biomechanics affect early cardiac development, from looping to the development of chambers and valves. Hemodynamic forces are essential for proper cardiac development, and their disruption leads to congenital heart defects. A wealth of information already exists on early cardiac adaptations to hemodynamic loading, and new technologies, including high resolution imaging modalities and computational modeling, are enabling a more thorough understanding of relationships between hemodynamics and cardiac development. Imaging and modeling approaches, used in combination with biological data on cell behavior and adaptation, are paving the road for new discoveries on links between biomechanics and biology and their effect on cardiac development and fetal programming. PMID:22760547

  15. Analysis of Drug Development Paradigms for Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Jardim, Denis L; de Melo Gagliato, Débora; Giles, Francis J; Kurzrock, Razelle

    2018-04-15

    Immune checkpoint inhibitors have unique toxicities and response kinetics compared with cytotoxic and gene-targeted anticancer agents. We investigated the impact of innovative/accelerated immunotherapy drug development/approval models on the accuracy of safety and efficacy assessments by searching the FDA website. Initial phase I trials for each agent were reviewed and safety and efficacy data compared with that found in later trials leading to regulatory approvals of the same agents. As of June 2017, the FDA approved six checkpoint inhibitors for a variety of cancer types. All checkpoint inhibitors received a priority review status and access to at least two additional FDA special access programs, more often breakthrough therapy designation and accelerated approval. Median clinical development time (investigational new drug application to approval) was 60.77 months [avelumab had the shortest timeline (52.33 months)]. Response rates during early phase I trials (median = 16%) are higher than for phase I trials of other agents (with the exception of gene-targeted agents tested with a biomarker). Doses approved were usually not identical to doses recommended on phase I trials. Approximately 50% of types of immune-related and 43% of types of clinically relevant toxicities from later trials were identified in early-phase trials. Even so, treatment-related mortality remains exceedingly low in later studies (0.33% of patients). In conclusion, efficacy and safety of immune checkpoint inhibitors appear to be reasonably predicted from the dose-finding portion of phase I trials, indicating that the fast-track development of these agents is safe and justified. Clin Cancer Res; 24(8); 1785-94. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  16. Innate immune response development in nestling tree swallows

    Stambaugh, T.; Houdek, B.J.; Lombardo, M.P.; Thorpe, P.A.; Caldwell, Hahn D.

    2011-01-01

    We tracked the development of innate immunity in nestling Tree Swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) and compared it to that of adults using blood drawn from nestlings during days 6, 12, and 18 of the ???20-day nestling period and from adults. Innate immunity was characterized using an in vitro assay of the ability of whole blood to kill Escherichia coli. The ability of whole blood to kill E. coli increased as nestlings matured. Neither this component of innate immunity nor right wing chord length on day18 were as developed as in adults indicating that development of the innate immune system and growth both continued after fledging. Narrow sense heritability analyses suggest that females with strong immune responses produced nestlings with strong immune responses. These data suggest nestling Tree Swallows allocated sufficient energy to support rapid growth to enable fledging by day 18, but that further development of innate immunity occurred post-fledging. ?? 2011 by the Wilson Ornithological Society.

  17. Early Nutrition as a Major Determinant of 'Immune Health': Implications for Allergy, Obesity and Other Noncommunicable Diseases.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Susan L

    2016-01-01

    Early-life nutritional exposures are significant determinants of the development and future health of all organ systems. The dramatic rise in infant immune diseases, most notably allergy, indicates the specific vulnerability of the immune system to early environmental changes. Dietary changes are at the center of the emerging epigenetic paradigms that underpin the rise in many modern inflammatory and metabolic diseases. There is growing evidence that exposures in pregnancy and the early postnatal period can modify gene expression and disease susceptibility. Although modern dietary changes are complex and involve changing patterns of many nutrients, there is also interest in the developmental effects of specific nutrients. Oligosaccharides (soluble fiber), antioxidants, polyunsaturated fatty acids, folate and other vitamins have documented effects on immune function as well as metabolism. Some have also been implicated in modified risk of allergic diseases in observational studies. Intervention studies are largely limited to trials with polyunsaturated fatty acids and oligosaccharides, showing preliminary but yet unconfirmed benefits in allergy prevention. Understanding how environmental influences disrupt the finely balanced development of immune and metabolic programming is of critical importance. Diet-sensitive pathways are likely to be crucial in these processes. While an epigenetic mechanism provides a strong explanation of how nutritional exposures can affect fetal gene expression and subsequent disease risk, other diet-induced tissue compositional changes may also contribute directly to altered immune and metabolic function--including diet-induced changes in the microbiome. A better understanding of nutritional programming of immune health, nutritional epigenetics and the biological processes sensitive to nutritional exposures early in life may lead to dietary strategies that provide more tolerogenic conditions during early immune programming and reduce the

  18. Early growth response 2 and Egr3 are unique regulators in immune system.

    PubMed

    Taefehshokr, Sina; Key, Yashar Azari; Khakpour, Mansour; Dadebighlu, Pourya; Oveisi, Amin

    2017-01-01

    The immune system is evolved to defend the body against pathogens and is composed of thousands of complicated and intertwined pathways, which are highly controlled by processes such as transcription and repression of cellular genes. Sometimes the immune system malfunctions and a break down in self-tolerance occurs. This lead to the inability to distinguish between self and non-self and cause attacks on host tissues, a condition also known as autoimmunity, which can result in chronic debilitating diseases. Early growth response genes are family of transcription factors comprising of four members, Egr1, Egr2, Egr3 and Egr4. All of which contain three cyc2-His2 zinc fingers. Initially, Egr2 function was identified in the regulation of peripheral nerve myelination, hindbrain segmentation. Egr3, on the other hand, is highly expressed in muscle spindle development. Egr2 and Egr3 are induced due to the antigen stimulation and this signaling is implemented through the B and T cell receptors in the adaptive immunity. T cell receptor signaling plays a key role in Egr 2 and 3 expressions via their interaction with NFAT molecules. Egr 2 and 3 play a crucial role in regulation of the immune system and their involvement in B and T cell activation, anergy induction and preventing the autoimmune disease has been investigated. The deficiency of these transcription factors has been associated to deficient Cbl-b expression, a resistant to anergy phenotype, and expression of effector and activated T cells.

  19. Microbiota regulate the development and function of the immune cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qing; Jia, Anna; Li, Yan; Bi, Yujing; Liu, Guangwei

    2018-03-04

    Microbiota is a group of microbes coexisting and co-evolving with the immune system in the host body for millions of years. There are mutual interaction between microbiota and the immune system. Immune cells can shape the populations of microbiota in the gut of animals and humans, and the presence of microbiota and the microbial products can regulate the development and function of the immune cells in the host. Although microbiota resides mainly at the mucosa, the effect of microbiota on the immune system can be both local at the mucosa and systemic through the whole body. At the mucosal sites, the presences of microbiota and microbial products have a direct effect on the immune cells. Microbiota induces production of effectors from immune cells, such as cytokines and inflammatory factors, influencing the further development and function of the immune cells. Experimental data have shown that microbial products can influence the activity of some key factors in signaling pathways. At the nonmucosal sites, such as the bone marrow, peripheral lymph nodes, and spleen, microbiota can also regulate the development and function of the immune cells via several mechanisms in mice, such as introduction of chromatin-level changes through histone acetylation and DNA methylation. Given the important effect of microbiota on the immune system, many immunotherapies that are mediated by immune system rely on gut microbiota. Thus, the study of how microbiota influences immune system bring a potential therapy prospect in preventing and treating diseases.

  20. Early immune responses are independent of RGC dysfunction in glaucoma with complement component C3 being protective

    PubMed Central

    Harder, Jeffrey M.; Braine, Catherine E.; Williams, Pete A.; Zhu, Xianjun; MacNicoll, Katharine H.; Sousa, Gregory L.; Buchanan, Rebecca A.; Smith, Richard S.; Howell, Gareth R.; John, Simon W. M.

    2017-01-01

    Various immune response pathways are altered during early, predegenerative stages of glaucoma; however, whether the early immune responses occur secondarily to or independently of neuronal dysfunction is unclear. To investigate this relationship, we used the Wlds allele, which protects from axon dysfunction. We demonstrate that DBA/2J.Wlds mice develop high intraocular pressure (IOP) but are protected from retinal ganglion cell (RGC) dysfunction and neuroglial changes that otherwise occur early in DBA/2J glaucoma. Despite this, immune pathways are still altered in DBA/2J.Wlds mice. This suggests that immune changes are not secondary to RGC dysfunction or altered neuroglial interactions, but may be directly induced by the increased strain imposed by high IOP. One early immune response following IOP elevation is up-regulation of complement C3 in astrocytes of DBA/2J and DBA/2J.Wlds mice. Unexpectedly, because the disruption of other complement components, such as C1Q, is protective in glaucoma, C3 deficiency significantly increased the number of DBA/2J eyes with nerve damage and RGC loss at an early time point after IOP elevation. Transcriptional profiling of C3-deficient cultured astrocytes implicated EGFR signaling as a hub in C3-dependent responses. Treatment with AG1478, an EGFR inhibitor, also significantly increased the number of DBA/2J eyes with glaucoma at the same early time point. These findings suggest that C3 protects from early glaucomatous damage, a process that may involve EGFR signaling and other immune responses in the optic nerve head. Therefore, therapies that target specific components of the complement cascade, rather than global inhibition, may be more applicable for treating human glaucoma. PMID:28446616

  1. Early immune responses are independent of RGC dysfunction in glaucoma with complement component C3 being protective.

    PubMed

    Harder, Jeffrey M; Braine, Catherine E; Williams, Pete A; Zhu, Xianjun; MacNicoll, Katharine H; Sousa, Gregory L; Buchanan, Rebecca A; Smith, Richard S; Libby, Richard T; Howell, Gareth R; John, Simon W M

    2017-05-09

    Various immune response pathways are altered during early, predegenerative stages of glaucoma; however, whether the early immune responses occur secondarily to or independently of neuronal dysfunction is unclear. To investigate this relationship, we used the Wld s allele, which protects from axon dysfunction. We demonstrate that DBA/2J .Wld s mice develop high intraocular pressure (IOP) but are protected from retinal ganglion cell (RGC) dysfunction and neuroglial changes that otherwise occur early in DBA/2J glaucoma. Despite this, immune pathways are still altered in DBA/2J .Wld s mice. This suggests that immune changes are not secondary to RGC dysfunction or altered neuroglial interactions, but may be directly induced by the increased strain imposed by high IOP. One early immune response following IOP elevation is up-regulation of complement C3 in astrocytes of DBA/2J and DBA/2J. Wld s mice. Unexpectedly, because the disruption of other complement components, such as C1Q, is protective in glaucoma, C3 deficiency significantly increased the number of DBA/2J eyes with nerve damage and RGC loss at an early time point after IOP elevation. Transcriptional profiling of C3-deficient cultured astrocytes implicated EGFR signaling as a hub in C3-dependent responses. Treatment with AG1478, an EGFR inhibitor, also significantly increased the number of DBA/2J eyes with glaucoma at the same early time point. These findings suggest that C3 protects from early glaucomatous damage, a process that may involve EGFR signaling and other immune responses in the optic nerve head. Therefore, therapies that target specific components of the complement cascade, rather than global inhibition, may be more applicable for treating human glaucoma.

  2. U. S. Veterinary Immune Reagents Network: Progress with poultry immune reagents development

    A major obstacle to advances in veterinary immunology and disease research is the lack of sufficient immunological reagents specific for veterinary animal species. In 2006, U. S. Veterinary Immune Reagent Network (VIRN) Consortium (www.vetimm.org) was developed to develop immune reagents against ma...

  3. B-cell development and pneumococcal immunity in vertically acquired HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Eisen, Sarah; Hayden, Clare; Young, Carmel J; Gilson, Richard; Jungmann, Eva; Jacobsen, Marianne C; Poulsom, Hannah; Goldblatt, David; Klein, Nigel J; Baxendale, Helen E

    2016-07-31

    Many children with HIV infection now survive into adulthood. This study explored the impact of vertically acquired HIV in the era of antiretroviral therapy on the development of humoral immunity. Natural and vaccine-related immunity to pneumococcus and B-cell phenotype was characterized and compared in three groups of young adults: those with vertically-acquired infection, those with horizontally acquired infection and healthy controls. Serotype-specific pneumococcal (Pnc) immunoglobulin M and G concentrations before and up to 1 year post-Pnc polysaccharide (Pneumovax) immunization were determined, and opsonophagocytic activity was analysed. B-cell subpopulations and dynamic markers of B-cell signalling, turnover and susceptibility to apoptosis were evaluated by flow cytometry. HIV-infected patients showed impaired natural Pnc immunity and reduced humoral responses to immunization with Pneumovax; this was greatest in those viraemic at time of the study. Early-life viral control before the age of 10 years diminished these changes. Expanded populations of abnormally activated and immature B-cells were seen in both HIV-infected cohorts. Vertically infected patients were particularly vulnerable to reductions in marginal zone and switched memory populations. These aberrations were reduced in patients with early-life viral control. In children with HIV, damage to B-cell memory populations and impaired natural and vaccine immunity to pneumococcus is evident in early adult life. Sustained viral control from early childhood may help to limit this effect and optimize humoral immunity in adult life.

  4. Early life allergen and air pollutant exposures alter longitudinal blood immune profiles in infant rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Crowley, Candace M; Fontaine, Justin H; Gerriets, Joan E; Schelegle, Edward S; Hyde, Dallas M; Miller, Lisa A

    2017-08-01

    Early life is a critical period for the progressive establishment of immunity in response to environmental stimuli; the impact of airborne challenges on this process is not well defined. In a longitudinal fashion, we determined the effect of episodic house dust mite (HDM) aerosol and ozone inhalation, both separately and combined, on peripheral blood immune cell phenotypes and cytokine expression from 4 to 25weeks of age in an infant rhesus monkey model of childhood development. Immune profiles in peripheral blood were compared with lung lavage at 25weeks of age. Independent of exposure, peripheral blood cell counts fluctuated with chronologic age of animals, while IFNγ and IL-4 mRNA levels increased over time in a linear fashion. At 12weeks of age, total WBC, lymphocyte numbers, FoxP3 mRNA and IL-12 mRNA were dramatically reduced relative to earlier time points, but increased to a steady state with age. Exposure effects were observed for monocyte numbers, as well as CCR3, FoxP3, and IL-12 mRNA levels in peripheral blood. Significant differences in cell surface marker and cytokine expression were detected following in vitro HDM or PMA/ionomycin stimulation of PBMC isolated from animals exposed to either HDM or ozone. Lavage revealed a mixed immune phenotype of FoxP3, IFNγ and eosinophilia in association with combined HDM plus ozone exposure, which was not observed in blood. Collectively, our findings show that airborne challenges during postnatal development elicit measureable cell and cytokine changes in peripheral blood over time, but exposure-induced immune profiles are not mirrored in the lung. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The interplay of early-life stress, nutrition, and immune activation programs adult hippocampal structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Hoeijmakers, Lianne; Lucassen, Paul J.; Korosi, Aniko

    2015-01-01

    Early-life adversity increases the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline later in life. This association is supported by clinical and preclinical studies. Remarkably, experiences of stress during this sensitive period, in the form of abuse or neglect but also early malnutrition or an early immune challenge elicit very similar long-term effects on brain structure and function. During early-life, both exogenous factors like nutrition and maternal care, as well as endogenous modulators, including stress hormones and mediator of immunological activity affect brain development. The interplay of these key elements and their underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. We discuss here the hypothesis that exposure to early-life adversity (specifically stress, under/malnutrition and infection) leads to life-long alterations in hippocampal-related cognitive functions, at least partly via changes in hippocampal neurogenesis. We further discuss how these different key elements of the early-life environment interact and affect one another and suggest that it is a synergistic action of these elements that shapes cognition throughout life. Finally, we consider different intervention studies aiming to prevent these early-life adversity induced consequences. The emerging evidence for the intriguing interplay of stress, nutrition, and immune activity in the early-life programming calls for a more in depth understanding of the interaction of these elements and the underlying mechanisms. This knowledge will help to develop intervention strategies that will converge on a more complete set of changes induced by early-life adversity. PMID:25620909

  6. Immunosuppression in Early Postnatal Days Induces Persistent and Allergen-Specific Immune Tolerance to Asthma in Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan; Zhang, Jin; Lu, Yong; Wang, Libo

    2015-01-01

    Bronchial asthma is a chronic airway inflammatory condition with high morbidity, and effective treatments for asthma are limited. Allergen-specific immunotherapy can only induce peripheral immune tolerance and is not sustainable. Exploring new therapeutic strategies is of great clinical importance. Recombinant adenovirus (rAdV) was used as a vector to make cells expressing cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4-immunoglobulin (CTLA4Ig) a soluble CTLA4 immunoglobulin fusion protein. Dendritic cells (DCs) were modified using the rAdVs together with allergens. Then these modified DCs were transplanted to mice before allergen sensitization. The persistence and specificity of immune tolerance were evaluated in mice challenged with asthma allergens at 3 and 7 months. DCs modified by CTLA4Ig showed increased IL-10 secretion, decreased IL-12 secretion, and T cell stimulation in vitro. Mice treated with these DCs in the early neonatal period developed tolerance against the allergens that were used to induce asthma in the adult stage. Asthma symptoms, lung damage, airway reactivity, and inflammatory response all improved. Humoral immunity indices showed that this therapeutic strategy strongly suppressed mice immune responses and was maintained for as long as 7 months. Furthermore, allergen cross-sensitization and challenge experiments demonstrated that this immune tolerance was allergen-specific. Treatment with CTLA4Ig modified DCs in the early neonatal period, inducing persistent and allergen-specific immune tolerance to asthma in adult mice. Our results suggest that it may be possible to develop a vaccine for asthma. PMID:25860995

  7. Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy Suppresses the Early Proinflammatory Immune Response to a Severe Cutaneous Burn Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    Burn wound model Mice were anaesthetised using isoflurane inha- lation. After shaving the dorsum, the exposed skin was washed gently with room...Extracorporeal shock wave therapy suppresses the early proinflammatory immune response to a severe cutaneous burn injury* Thomas A Davis, Alexander...S, Peoples GE, Tadaki D, Elster EA. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy suppresses the early proinflammatory immune response to a severe cutaneous burn

  8. Early Immune Function and Duration of Organ Dysfunction in Critically Ill Septic Children.

    PubMed

    Muszynski, Jennifer A; Nofziger, Ryan; Moore-Clingenpeel, Melissa; Greathouse, Kristin; Anglim, Larissa; Steele, Lisa; Hensley, Josey; Hanson-Huber, Lisa; Nateri, Jyotsna; Ramilo, Octavio; Hall, Mark W

    2018-02-22

    Late immune suppression is associated with nosocomial infection and mortality in septic adults and children. Relationships between early immune suppression and outcomes in septic children remain unclear. Prospective observational study to test the hypothesis that early innate and adaptive immune suppression are associated with longer duration of organ dysfunction in children with severe sepsis/septic shock. Methods, Measurements and Main Results: Children aged < 18 years meeting consensus criteria for severe sepsis or septic shock were sampled within 48 hours of sepsis onset. Healthy controls were sampled once. Innate immune function was quantified by whole blood ex vivo lipopolysaccharide-induced TNFα production capacity. Adaptive immune function was quantified by ex vivo phytohemagglutinin-induced IFNγ production capacity. 102 septic children and 35 healthy children were enrolled. Compared to healthy children, septic children demonstrated lower LPS-induced TNFα production (p < 0.0001) and lower PHA-induced IFNγ production (p<0.0001). Among septic children, early innate and adaptive immune suppression were associated with greater number of days with multiple organ dysfunction (MODS) and greater number of days with any organ dysfunction. On multivariable analyses, early innate immune suppression remained independently associated with increased MODS days [aRR 1.2 (1.03, 1.5)] and organ dysfunction days [aRR 1.2 (1.1, 1.3)]. Critically ill children with severe sepsis or septic shock demonstrate early innate and adaptive immune suppression. Early suppression of both innate and adaptive immunity are associated with longer duration of organ dysfunction and may be useful markers to guide investigations of immunomodulatory therapies in septic children.

  9. Effects of early developmental conditions on innate immunity are only evident under favourable adult conditions in zebra finches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Coster, Greet; Verhulst, Simon; Koetsier, Egbert; de Neve, Liesbeth; Briga, Michael; Lens, Luc

    2011-12-01

    Long-term effects of unfavourable conditions during development can be expected to depend on the quality of the environment experienced by the same individuals during adulthood. Yet, in the majority of studies, long-term effects of early developmental conditions have been assessed under favourable adult conditions only. The immune system might be particularly vulnerable to early environmental conditions as its development, maintenance and use are thought to be energetically costly. Here, we studied the interactive effects of favourable and unfavourable conditions during nestling and adult stages on innate immunity (lysis and agglutination scores) of captive male and female zebra finches ( Taeniopygia guttata). Nestling environmental conditions were manipulated by a brood size experiment, while a foraging cost treatment was imposed on the same individuals during adulthood. This combined treatment showed that innate immunity of adult zebra finches is affected by their early developmental conditions and varies between both sexes. Lysis scores, but not agglutination scores, were higher in individuals raised in small broods and in males. However, these effects were only present in birds that experienced low foraging costs. This study shows that the quality of the adult environment may shape the long-term consequences of early developmental conditions on innate immunity, as long-term effects of nestling environment were only evident under favourable adult conditions.

  10. Early DNA vaccination of puppies against canine distemper in the presence of maternally derived immunity.

    PubMed

    Griot, Christian; Moser, Christian; Cherpillod, Pascal; Bruckner, Lukas; Wittek, Riccardo; Zurbriggen, Andreas; Zurbriggen, Rinaldo

    2004-01-26

    Canine distemper (CD) is a disease in carnivores caused by CD virus (CDV), a member of the morbillivirus genus. It still is a threat to the carnivore and ferret population. The currently used modified attenuated live vaccines have several drawbacks of which lack of appropriate protection from severe infection is the most outstanding one. In addition, puppies up to the age of 6-8 weeks cannot be immunized efficiently due to the presence of maternal antibodies. In this study, a DNA prime modified live vaccine boost strategy was investigated in puppies in order to determine if vaccinated neonatal dogs induce a neutralizing immune response which is supposed to protect animals from a CDV challenge. Furthermore, a single DNA vaccination of puppies, 14 days after birth and in the presence of high titers of CDV neutralizing maternal antibodies, induced a clear and significant priming effect observed as early as 3 days after the subsequent booster with a conventional CDV vaccine. It was shown that the priming effect develops faster and to higher titers in puppies preimmunized with DNA 14 days after birth than in those vaccinated 28 days after birth. Our results demonstrate that despite the presence of maternal antibodies puppies can be vaccinated using the CDV DNA vaccine, and that this vaccination has a clear priming effect leading to a solid immune response after a booster with a conventional CDV vaccine.

  11. Telomere lengthening early in development.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin; Bailey, Susan M; Okuka, Maja; Muñoz, Purificación; Li, Chao; Zhou, Lingjun; Wu, Chao; Czerwiec, Eva; Sandler, Laurel; Seyfang, Andreas; Blasco, Maria A; Keefe, David L

    2007-12-01

    Stem cells and cancer cells maintain telomere length mostly through telomerase. Telomerase activity is high in male germ line and stem cells, but is low or absent in mature oocytes and cleavage stage embryos, and then high again in blastocysts. How early embryos reset telomere length remains poorly understood. Here, we show that oocytes actually have shorter telomeres than somatic cells, but their telomeres lengthen remarkably during early cleavage development. Moreover, parthenogenetically activated oocytes also lengthen their telomeres, thus the capacity to elongate telomeres must reside within oocytes themselves. Notably, telomeres also elongate in the early cleavage embryos of telomerase-null mice, demonstrating that telomerase is unlikely to be responsible for the abrupt lengthening of telomeres in these cells. Coincident with telomere lengthening, extensive telomere sister-chromatid exchange (T-SCE) and colocalization of the DNA recombination proteins Rad50 and TRF1 were observed in early cleavage embryos. Both T-SCE and DNA recombination proteins decrease in blastocyst stage embryos, whereas telomerase activity increases and telomeres elongate only slowly. We suggest that telomeres lengthen during the early cleavage cycles following fertilization through a recombination-based mechanism, and that from the blastocyst stage onwards, telomerase only maintains the telomere length established by this alternative mechanism.

  12. Beyond empiricism: informing vaccine development through innate immunity research.

    PubMed

    Levitz, Stuart M; Golenbock, Douglas T

    2012-03-16

    Although a great public heath success, vaccines provide suboptimal protection in some patient populations and are not available to protect against many infectious diseases. Insights from innate immunity research have led to a better understanding of how existing vaccines work and have informed vaccine development. New adjuvants and delivery systems are being designed based upon their capacity to stimulate innate immune sensors and target antigens to dendritic cells, the cells responsible for initiating adaptive immune responses. Incorporating these adjuvants and delivery systems in vaccines can beneficially alter the quantitative and qualitative nature of the adaptive immune response, resulting in enhanced protection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Beyond empiricism: Informing vaccine development through innate immunity research

    PubMed Central

    Levitz, Stuart M.; Golenbock, Douglas T.

    2012-01-01

    Summary While a great public heath success, vaccines provide suboptimal protection in some patient populations and are not available to protect against many infectious diseases. Insights from innate immunity research have led to a better understanding of how existing vaccines work and informed vaccine development. New adjuvants and delivery systems are being designed based upon their capacity to stimulate innate immune sensors and target antigens to dendritic cells, the cells responsible for initiating adaptive immune responses. Incorporating these adjuvants and delivery systems in vaccines can beneficially alter the quantitative and qualitative nature of the adaptive immune response resulting in enhanced protection. PMID:22424235

  14. [Immune system aging rate in patients with early forms of chronic cerebrovascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Kochetkova, N G; Al'tman, D Sh; Teplova, S N

    2009-01-01

    Using the Bioage and Snake software the immune and cardiovascular system aging rate was diagnosed in patients having early forms of chronic cerebrovascular diseases (CCVD). The indicators of biological, cardiopulmonary and immunological age were studied in patients showing early symptoms of cerebrovascular insufficiency and dyscirculatory encephalopathy of the 1st stage. The rate of age-dependent physiological changes was diagnosed compared to general body aging rate. Some specific patterns of immune system aging were found in patients with early forms of CCVDs, the cardinal aging symptoms (heterotropia, heterochronia) were verified.

  15. A zebrafish larval model reveals early tissue-specific innate immune responses to Mucor circinelloides.

    PubMed

    Voelz, Kerstin; Gratacap, Remi L; Wheeler, Robert T

    2015-11-01

    Mucormycosis is an emerging fungal infection that is clinically difficult to manage, with increasing incidence and extremely high mortality rates. Individuals with diabetes, suppressed immunity or traumatic injury are at increased risk of developing disease. These individuals often present with defects in phagocytic effector cell function. Research using mammalian models and phagocytic effector cell lines has attempted to decipher the importance of the innate immune system in host defence against mucormycosis. However, these model systems have not been satisfactory for direct analysis of the interaction between innate immune effector cells and infectious sporangiospores in vivo. Here, we report the first real-time in vivo analysis of the early innate immune response to mucormycete infection using a whole-animal zebrafish larval model system. We identified differential host susceptibility, dependent on the site of infection (hindbrain ventricle and swim bladder), as well as differential functions of the two major phagocyte effector cell types in response to viable and non-viable spores. Larval susceptibility to mucormycete spore infection was increased upon immunosuppressant treatment. We showed for the first time that macrophages and neutrophils were readily recruited in vivo to the site of infection in an intact host and that spore phagocytosis can be observed in real-time in vivo. While exploring innate immune effector recruitment dynamics, we discovered the formation of phagocyte clusters in response to fungal spores that potentially play a role in fungal spore dissemination. Spores failed to activate pro-inflammatory gene expression by 6 h post-infection in both infection models. After 24 h, induction of a pro-inflammatory response was observed only in hindbrain ventricle infections. Only a weak pro-inflammatory response was initiated after spore injection into the swim bladder during the same time frame. In the future, the zebrafish larva as a live whole

  16. Novel vaccine development strategies for inducing mucosal immunity

    PubMed Central

    Fujkuyama, Yoshiko; Tokuhara, Daisuke; Kataoka, Kosuke; Gilbert, Rebekah S; McGhee, Jerry R; Yuki, Yoshikazu; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Fujihashi, Kohtaro

    2012-01-01

    To develop protective immune responses against mucosal pathogens, the delivery route and adjuvants for vaccination are important. The host, however, strives to maintain mucosal homeostasis by responding to mucosal antigens with tolerance, instead of immune activation. Thus, induction of mucosal immunity through vaccination is a rather difficult task, and potent mucosal adjuvants, vectors or other special delivery systems are often used, especially in the elderly. By taking advantage of the common mucosal immune system, the targeting of mucosal dendritic cells and microfold epithelial cells may facilitate the induction of effective mucosal immunity. Thus, novel routes of immunization and antigen delivery systems also show great potential for the development of effective and safe mucosal vaccines against various pathogens. The purpose of this review is to introduce several recent approaches to induce mucosal immunity to vaccines, with an emphasis on mucosal tissue targeting, new immunization routes and delivery systems. Defining the mechanisms of mucosal vaccines is as important as their efficacy and safety, and in this article, examples of recent approaches, which will likely accelerate progress in mucosal vaccine development, are discussed. PMID:22380827

  17. The developing immune system - from foetus to toddler.

    PubMed

    Ygberg, Sofia; Nilsson, Anna

    2012-02-01

    During foetal development, neonatal period and childhood, the immune system is constantly maturing. In the foetus, infection responsiveness is low and associates with spontaneous abortion. During the neonatal period, the infection response shifts towards a more pro-inflammatory response. The immune system of the newborn acquires adaptive features as a result of exposure to microbes. The development of the human immune system is a continuous process where both accelerated and retarded development is deleterious. © 2011 The Author(s)/Acta Paediatrica © 2011 Foundation Acta Paediatrica.

  18. Role of dietary immunomodulatory factors in the development of immune tolerance.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Susan L

    2009-01-01

    The development of oral tolerance occurs during critical early stages of immune development. Rising rates of food allergy and other immune-mediated food reactions are an indication that oral tolerance is highly susceptible to environmental change. There is growing evidence that this many not be due food allergens per se, but rather to changing exposure to other key immunomodulatory exposures in this critical period. Successful tolerance appears to depend on many concurrent environmental influences during the period of first allergen encounter, including favorable gut colonization, and the presence of key immunomodulatory factors in breast milk and the infant diet. This review explores the potential effects of early dietary and nutritional factors in tolerogenic immune processes that are normally initiated during initial food allergen encounter. Copyright 2009 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Spaceflight and Development of Immune Responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald

    1996-01-01

    Evidence from both human and rodent studies has indicated that alterations in immunological parameters occur after space flight. The number of flight experiments has been small, and the full breadth of immunological alterations occurring after space flight remains to be established. Among the major effects on immune responses after space flight that have been reported are: alterations in lymphocyte blastogenesis and natural killer cell activity, alterations in production of cytokines, changes in leukocyte sub-population distribution, and decreases in the ability of bone marrow cells to respond to colony stimulating factors. Changes have been reported in immunological parameters of both humans and rodents. The significance of these alterations in relation to resistance to infection remains to be established. The objective of the studies contained in this project was to determine the effects of space flight on immune responses of pregnant rats and their offspring. The hypothesis was that space flight and the attendant period of microgravity will result in alteration of immunological parameters of both the pregnant rats as well as their offspring carried in utero during the flight. The parameters tested included: production of cytokines, composition of leukocyte sub- populations, response of bone marrow/liver cells to granulocyte/monocyte colony stimulating factor, and leukocyte blastogenesis. Changes in immune responses that could yield alterations in resistance to infection were determined. This yielded useful information for planning studies that could contribute to crew health. Additional information that could eventually prove useful to determine the potential for establishment of a permanent colony in space was obtained.

  20. 78 countries: immunization financing in developing and transitional countries.

    PubMed

    Deroeck, D; Levin, A

    1999-01-01

    The Special Initiative on Immunization Financing is a project that reviews available information on immunization costs and financing in developing countries in order to inform planned field-based activities to increase sustainability of immunization programs. While routine immunization costs just pennies a dose, newer vaccines such as hepatitis B vaccine cost much more; the full cost of making them routine are not yet known. However, a growing number of governments are paying for these vaccines. Three-quarters of the countries responding to the survey have immunization and vaccination programs in their national budgets. Moreover, international organizations have set up fund and procurement mechanisms to aid countries purchase low-cost, high-quality vaccines.

  1. Cognitive Development in Early Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Chari; Elkind, David

    Some studies of early readers are discussed. It is pointed out that study of early readers has relevance for practical and theoretical issues in psychology and education. Of interest in this document are the following questions: (1) Are there any special talents or traits distinguishing early from non-early readers? (2) Do children who read early…

  2. [Early childhood growth and development].

    PubMed

    Arce, Melitón

    2015-01-01

    This article describes and discusses issues related to the process of childhood growth and development, with emphasis on the early years, a period in which this process reaches critical speed on major structures and functions of the human economy. We reaffirm that this can contribute to the social availability of a generation of increasingly better adults, which in turn will be able to contribute to building a better world and within it a society that enjoys greater prosperity. In the first chapter, we discuss the general considerations on the favorable evolution of human society based on quality of future adults, meaning the accomplishments that today’s children will gain. A second chapter mentions the basics of growth and development in the different fields and the various phenomena that occur in it. In the third we refer to lost opportunities and negative factors that can affect delaying the process and thereby result in not obtaining the expected accomplishments. In the fourth, conclusions and recommendations are presented confirming the initial conception that good early child care serves to build a better society and some recommendations are formulated to make it a good practice.

  3. Microglia and Beyond: Innate Immune Cells As Regulators of Brain Development and Behavioral Function.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Kathryn M; Nelson, Lars H

    2018-01-01

    Innate immune cells play a well-documented role in the etiology and disease course of many brain-based conditions, including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, traumatic brain and spinal cord injury, and brain cancers. In contrast, it is only recently becoming clear that innate immune cells, primarily brain resident macrophages called microglia, are also key regulators of brain development. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding microglia in brain development, with particular emphasis on how microglia during development are distinct from microglia later in life. We also summarize the effects of early life perturbations on microglia function in the developing brain, the role that biological sex plays in microglia function, and the potential role that microglia may play in developmental brain disorders. Finally, given how new the field of developmental neuroimmunology is, we highlight what has yet to be learned about how innate immune cells shape the development of brain and behavior.

  4. Maternal stress, nutrition and physical activity: Impact on immune function, CNS development and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Marques, Andrea Horvath; Bjørke-Monsen, Anne-Lise; Teixeira, Antônio L; Silverman, Marni N

    2015-08-18

    Evidence suggests that maternal and fetal immune dysfunction may impact fetal brain development and could play a role in neurodevelopmental disorders, although the definitive pathophysiological mechanisms are still not completely understood. Stress, malnutrition and physical inactivity are three maternal behavioral lifestyle factors that can influence immune and central nervous system (CNS) functions in both the mother and fetus, and may therefore, increase risk for neurodevelopmental/psychiatric disorders. First, we will briefly review some aspects of maternal-fetal immune system interactions and development of immune tolerance. Second, we will discuss the bidirectional communication between the immune system and CNS and the pathways by which immune dysfunction could contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders. Third, we will discuss the effects of prenatal stress and malnutrition (over and undernutrition) on perinatal programming of the CNS and immune system, and how this might influence neurodevelopment. Finally, we will discuss the beneficial impact of physical fitness during pregnancy on the maternal-fetal unit and infant and how regular physical activity and exercise can be an effective buffer against stress- and inflammatory-related disorders. Although regular physical activity has been shown to promote neuroplasticity and an anti-inflammatory state in the adult, there is a paucity of studies evaluating its impact on CNS and immune function during pregnancy. Implementing stress reduction, proper nutrition and ample physical activity during pregnancy and the childbearing period may be an efficient strategy to counteract the impact of maternal stress and malnutrition/obesity on the developing fetus. Such behavioral interventions could have an impact on early development of the CNS and immune system and contribute to the prevention of neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Further research is needed to elucidate this relationship and the underlying

  5. Early childhood poverty, immune-mediated disease processes, and adult productivity.

    PubMed

    Ziol-Guest, Kathleen M; Duncan, Greg J; Kalil, Ariel; Boyce, W Thomas

    2012-10-16

    This study seeks to understand whether poverty very early in life is associated with early-onset adult conditions related to immune-mediated chronic diseases. It also tests the role that these immune-mediated chronic diseases may play in accounting for the associations between early poverty and adult productivity. Data (n = 1,070) come from the US Panel Study of Income Dynamics and include economic conditions in utero and throughout childhood and adolescence coupled with adult (age 30-41 y) self-reports of health and economic productivity. Results show that low income, particularly in very early childhood (between the prenatal and second year of life), is associated with increases in early-adult hypertension, arthritis, and limitations on activities of daily living. Moreover, these relationships and particularly arthritis partially account for the associations between early childhood poverty and adult productivity as measured by adult work hours and earnings. The results suggest that the associations between early childhood poverty and these adult disease states may be immune-mediated.

  6. Brugia pahangi: Immunization with early L3 ES alters parasite migration, and reduces microfilaremia and lymphatic lesion formation in gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus)

    PubMed Central

    Zipperer, Ginger R.; Arumugam, Sridhar; Chirgwin, Sharon R.; Coleman, Sharon U.; Shakya, Krishna P.; Klei, Thomas R.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that intradermally (ID) injected B. pahangi L3s migrate through various tissues and into the lymphatics of gerbils in a distinct pattern. Excretory/secretory products (ES) produced at the time of invasion of B. pahangi are likely to be important in this early migration phase of the parasite life cycle in their rodent host. Hence, early L3 ES was collected from 24 hr in vitro cultures of B. pahangi L3 larvae and used in immunization experiments to investigate the effect of immunity to early L3 ES on worm migration, survival and development of B. pahangi. Immunization of gerbils with ES in RIBI adjuvant produced antibodies to numerous ES proteins eliciting a strong humoral response to ES and indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA) assay using anti-ES serum recognized the ES proteins on the surface of B. pahangi L3 larvae. Following ES immunization, gerbils were challenged either ID or intraperitoneally (IP) with 100 L3s of B. pahangi and euthanized at 3 or 106 days post inoculation (DPI). Immunization with early ES slowed the migration of ID inoculated L3 at 3DPI and significantly altered the locations of adult worms at 106 DPI. Immunization did not induce protection in any treatment group. However, immunized animals had significantly fewer microfilariae per female worm suggesting the antigens in ES are important in microfilariae development or survival in the host. The number of lymphatic granulomas was also significantly reduced in ES immunized animals. It is important to note that microfilariae serve as a nidus in these granulomas. Our results shows immunization with early B. malayi L3 ES alters the worm migration, affects circulating microfilarial numbers and reduces lymphatic granulomas associated with B. pahangi infection in gerbils. PMID:23981910

  7. Innate immune memory: implications for development of pediatric immunomodulatory agents and adjuvanted vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Ofer; Netea, Mihai G.

    2014-01-01

    Unique features of immunity early in life include a distinct immune system particularly reliant on innate immunity, with weak T helper (Th)1-polarizing immune responses, and impaired responses to certain vaccines leading to a heightened susceptibility to infection. To these important aspects, we now add an increasingly appreciated concept that the innate immune system displays epigenetic memory of an earlier infection or vaccination, a phenomenon that has been named “trained immunity”. Exposure of neonatal leukocytes in vitro or neonatal animals or humans in vivo to specific innate immune stimuli results in an altered innate immune set point. Given the particular importance of innate immunity early in life, trained immunity to early life infection and/or immunization may play an important role in modulating both acute and chronic diseases. PMID:24352476

  8. To Give or Not to Give: Approaches to Early Childhood Immunization Delivery in Oregon Rural Primary Care Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagnan, Lyle J.; Shipman, Scott A.; Gaudino, James A.; Mahler, Jo; Sussman, Andrew L.; Holub, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Context: Little is known about rural clinicians' perspectives regarding early childhood immunization delivery, their adherence to recommended best immunization practices, or the specific barriers they confront. Purpose: To examine immunization practices, beliefs, and barriers among rural primary care clinicians for children in Oregon and compare…

  9. Immune response profiling in early rheumatoid arthritis: discovery of a novel interaction of treatment response with viral immunity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction It remains challenging to predict the outcomes of therapy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The objective of this study was to identify immune response signatures that correlate with clinical treatment outcomes in patients with RA. Methods A cohort of 71 consecutive patients with early RA starting treatment with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) was recruited. Disease activity at baseline and after 21 to 24 weeks of follow-up was measured using the Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28). Immune response profiling was performed by analyzing multi-cytokine production from peripheral blood cells following incubation with a panel of stimuli, including a mixture of human cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) lysates. Profiles identified via principal components analysis (PCA) for each stimulus were then correlated with the ΔDAS28 from baseline to follow-up. A clinically meaningful improvement in the DAS28 was defined as a decrease of ≥1.2. Results A profile of T-cell cytokines (IL-13, IL-4, IL-5, IL-2, IL-12, and IFN-γ) produced in response to CMV/EBV was found to correlate with the ΔDAS28 from baseline to follow-up. At baseline, a higher magnitude of the CMV/EBV immune response profile predicted inadequate DAS28 improvement (mean PCA-1 scores: 65.6 versus 50.2; P = 0.029). The baseline CMV/EBV response was particularly driven by IFN-γ (P = 0.039) and IL-4 (P = 0.027). Among patients who attained clinically meaningful DAS28 improvement, the CMV/EBV PCA-1 score increased from baseline to follow-up (mean +11.6, SD 25.5), whereas among patients who responded inadequately to DMARD therapy, the CMV/EBV PCA-1 score decreased (mean -12.8, SD 25.4; P = 0.002). Irrespective of the ΔDAS28, methotrexate use was associated with up-regulation of the CMV/EBV response. The CMV/EBV profile was associated with positive CMV IgG (P <0.001), but not EBV IgG (P = 0.32), suggesting this response was related to

  10. The cellular immunity and oxidative stress markers in early pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Daglar, Korkut; Biberoglu, Ebru; Kirbas, Ayse; Dirican, Aylin Onder; Genc, Metin; Avci, Aslihan; Biberoglu, Kutay

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether changes in cellular immunity and oxidative stress in pregnancy have any association with spontaneous miscarriage. Circulating adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity as a marker of cellular immunity and malondialdehyde (MDA) and catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) as markers of T lymphocyte activation and parameters of oxidative stress and antioxidant defense were compared between 40 women with early pregnancy loss and another 40 women with ungoing healthy pregnancy. Women with miscarriage had higher serum ADA and GPx levels when compared with women with normal pregnancy (p = 0.034 and p < 0.001, respectively). Although serum MDA level was slightly higher in women with miscarriage, the difference was not significant (p = 0.083). CAT levels were alike in both groups. We have demonstrated an increased cellular immunity and perhaps a compensated oxidative stress related to increased antioxidant activation in women with early spontaneous pregnancy loss.

  11. CHANGES IN HUMORAL IMMUNITY OCCURRING DURING THE EARLY STAGES OF EXPERIMENTAL PNEUMOCOCCUS INFECTION

    PubMed Central

    Terrell, Edward E.

    1930-01-01

    A study was made of the changes in humoral immunity occurring during the early phases of experimental pneumococcus infection in the dog and cat. The methods devised by Robertson and Sia were employed to demonstrate the presence of anti-pneumococcus properties in the serum of animals naturally resistant to this micro-organism. It was found that with a generalized and overwhelming infection accompanied by early blood invasion, there was a prompt and rapid decrease in the concentration of natural humoral immune bodies which frequently disappeared entirely by the time of death. This same early diminution of humoral immune substances, opsonins, agglutinins, and pneumococcidal-promoting bodies was observed in animals that survived a moderately severe generalized infection but the concentration of immune bodies rose again with the onset of recovery. The decrease in concentration of humoral immune substances during a severe generalized infection appeared to be due to the combination of "S" substance with the normal immune bodies. When the pneumococcus infection was more localized as in the case of true lobar pneumonia a quite different sequence of events was observed to occur. Several animals, in which extensive lobar pneumonia was produced, showed the presence in quantity of humoral immune bodies in the blood throughout the course of an infection terminating fatally. These findings suggest that after the inception of pneumococcus infection in the dog and cat the chief function of natural anti-pneurnococcus substances in the blood is to limit or prevent blood invasion. When pneumococcic infection is localized these circulating antibodies appear to have little effect either in preventing the spread of the process or determining the outcome of the disease. PMID:19869701

  12. γδ T Cells Are a Component of Early Immunity against Preerythrocytic Malaria Parasites

    PubMed Central

    McKenna, Kyle C.; Tsuji, Moriya; Sarzotti, Marcella; Sacci, John B.; Witney, Adam A.; Azad, Abdu F.

    2000-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that γδ T cells are a component of an early immune response directed against preerythrocytic malaria parasites that are required for the induction of an effector αβ T-cell immune response generated by irradiated-sporozoite (irr-spz) immunization. γδ T-cell-deficient (TCRδ−/−) mice on a C57BL/6 background were challenged with Plasmodium yoelii (17XNL strain) sporozoites, and then liver parasite burden was measured at 42 h postchallenge. Liver parasite burden was measured by quantification of parasite-specific 18S rRNA in total liver RNA by quantitative-competitive reverse transcription-PCR and by an automated 5′ exonuclease PCR. Sporozoite-challenged TCRδ−/− mice showed a significant (P < 0.01) increase in liver parasite burden compared to similarly challenged immunocompetent mice. In support of this result, TCRδ−/− mice were also found to be more susceptible than immunocompetent mice to a sporozoite challenge when blood-stage parasitemia was used as a readout. A greater percentage of TCRδ−/− mice than of immunocompetent mice progressed to a blood-stage infection when challenged with five or fewer sporozoites (odds ratio = 2.35, P = 0.06). TCRδ−/− mice receiving a single irr-spz immunization showed percent inhibition of liver parasites comparable to that of immunized immunocompetent mice following a sporozoite challenge. These data support the hypothesis that γδ T cells are a component of early immunity directed against malaria preerythrocytic parasites and suggest that γδ T cells are not required for the induction of an effector αβ T-cell immune response generated by irr-spz immunization. PMID:10722623

  13. The development of the immune tissues in marsupial pouch young.

    PubMed

    Borthwick, Casey R; Young, Lauren J; Old, Julie M

    2014-07-01

    Current knowledge of the development of the marsupial immune system, particularly in the context of lymphoid tissue development and the appearance of lymphocytes, has been examined and limitations identified. While primary lymphoid tissues like the thymus have been extensively studied, secondary lymphoid tissues such as the spleen and lymph nodes have been examined to a lesser extent, partly due to the difficulty of macroscopically identifying these structures, particularly in very small neonates. In addition, little research has been conducted on the mucosal-associated lymphoid tissues; tissues that directly trap antigens and play an important role in the maturity of adaptive immune responses. Research on the development of the marsupial immune tissues to date serves as a solid foundation for further research, particularly on the mechanisms behind the development of the immune system of marsupials. With the recent sequencing and annotation of whole marsupial genomes, the current wealth of sequence data will be essential in the development of marsupial specific reagents, including antibodies, that are required to widen our specific knowledge of the complex marsupial immune system and its development. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Mycobacterium tuberculosis manipulates pulmonary APCs subverting early immune responses.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Romo, Gina S; Pedroza-Gonzalez, Alexander; Lambrecht, Bart N; Aguilar-Leon, Diana; Estrada-Garcia, Iris; Hernandez-Pando, Rogelio; Flores-Romo, Leopoldo

    2013-03-01

    Alveolar macrophages (AM) and dendritic cells (DCs) are the main antigen presenting cells (APCs) in the respiratory tract. Whereas macrophages have been extensively studied in tuberculosis, in situ interactions of DC with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) are poorly explored. We aimed to characterize lung APCs during pulmonary tuberculosis in Balb/C mice infected with Mtb H37Rv. Mtb-infection via the airways induced a delayed and continuous accumulation of DCs and AM in the lungs. While lung DCs increased after day 3 post-infection, macrophages increased after 2-3 weeks. Although both populations accumulated in lungs during the infection, DCs decreased in the late stages. Infection induced differential expression of co-stimulatory molecules in these lung APCs, decreasing to basal levels in both APCs in the late stages. A remarkable segregation was found regarding bacillary burden. Many macrophages contained numerous bacilli, but DC contained scarce mycobacteria or none. Mtb-infection also induced delayed accumulation of DC in draining lymph nodes. This delayed recruitment was not associated with a lack of IL-12p40, which was detected from day 3 post-infection. Although AM and lung DCs behave differently during pulmonary tuberculosis, Mtb apparently manipulates both lung APCs subverting early protective responses resulting in disease progression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of Air Pollutants on Development of Allergic Immune Responses in the Respiratory Tract

    PubMed Central

    Gershwin, Laurel J.

    2003-01-01

    The increased incidence of allergic asthma in the human population worldwide has stimulated many explanatory theories. A concomitant decrease in air quality leads to epidemiological and laboratory-based studies to demonstrate a link between air pollutants and asthma. Specifically, ozone, environmental tobacco smoke, and diesel exhaust are associated with enhancement of respiratory allergy to inhaled allergens. This review summarizes the state of the knowledge, both human epidemiology and laboratory animal experiments, linking air pollution to allergy. Critical issues involve development of the lung and the fetal immune response, and the potential for substances like ozone and ETS in the air to modulate early immune responses with lifelong consequences. PMID:14768942

  16. Taiwanese Early Childhood Educators' Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Ching-Yun

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed based on a qualitative paradigm to explore the professional development of Taiwanese early childhood educators. The method of phenomenology was employed. The main research question addressed was "How do early childhood educators construe their professional development experience?" Seven Taiwanese early childhood…

  17. Early Childhood Diplomacy: Policy Planning for Early Childhood Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas-Barón, Emily; Diehl, Kristel

    2018-01-01

    Children who are well nurtured, appropriately cared for, and provided with positive learning opportunities in their early years have a better chance of becoming healthy and productive citizens of nations and of the world. This article reviews the art and science of policy planning for early childhood development (ECD) from a diplomacy perspective.…

  18. Prenatal Exposure to Respiratory Syncytial Virus Alters Postnatal Immunity and Airway Smooth Muscle Contractility during Early-Life Reinfections

    PubMed Central

    Harford, Terri J.; Agrawal, Vandana; Yen-Lieberman, Belinda; Rezaee, Fariba; Piedimonte, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Maternal viral infections can have pathological effects on the developing fetus which last long after birth. Recently, maternal-fetal transmission of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was shown to cause postnatal airway hyperreactivity (AHR) during primary early-life reinfection; however, the influence of prenatal exposure to RSV on offspring airway immunity and smooth muscle contractility during recurrent postnatal reinfections remains unknown. Therefore, we sought to determine whether maternal RSV infection impairs specific aspects of cell-mediated offspring immunity during early-life reinfections and the mechanisms leading to AHR. Red fluorescent protein-expressing recombinant RSV (rrRSV) was inoculated into pregnant rat dams at midterm, followed by primary and secondary postnatal rrRSV inoculations of their offspring at early-life time points. Pups and weanlings were tested for specific lower airway leukocyte populations by flow cytometry; serum cytokine/chemokine concentrations by multiplex ELISA and neurotrophins concentrations by standard ELISA; and ex vivo lower airway smooth muscle (ASM) contraction by physiological tissue bath. Pups born to RSV-infected mothers displayed elevated total CD3+ T cells largely lacking CD4+ and CD8+ surface expression after both primary and secondary postnatal rrRSV infection. Cytokine/chemokine analyses revealed reduced IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-12, IL-17A, IL-18, and TNF-α, as well as elevated nerve growth factor (NGF) expression. Prenatal exposure to RSV also increased ASM reactivity and contractility during early-life rrRSV infection compared to non-exposed controls. We conclude that maternal RSV infection can predispose offspring to postnatal lower airways dysfunction by altering immunity development, NGF signaling, and ASM contraction during early-life RSV reinfections. PMID:28178290

  19. Early immune response and regulation of IL-2 receptor subunits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes-Fulford, Millie; Sugano, Eiko; Schopper, Thomas; Li, Chai-Fei; Boonyaratanakornkit, J. B.; Cogoli, Augusto

    2005-01-01

    MAPK pathways plays a role in early T-cell activation and induction of IL-2, IL-2R(alpha) and IFN(gamma) gene expression.

  20. Early immune response and regulation of IL-2 receptor subunits.

    PubMed

    Hughes-Fulford, Millie; Sugano, Eiko; Schopper, Thomas; Li, Chai-Fei; Boonyaratanakornkit, J B; Cogoli, Augusto

    2005-09-01

    MAPK pathways plays a role in early T-cell activation and induction of IL-2, IL-2R(alpha) and IFN(gamma) gene expression.

  1. The ontogeny of immunity: development of innate immune strength in the honey bee (Apis mellifera).

    PubMed

    Wilson-Rich, Noah; Dres, Stephanie T; Starks, Philip T

    2008-01-01

    Honey bees (Apis mellifera) are of vital economic and ecological importance. These eusocial animals display temporal polyethism, which is an age-driven division of labor. Younger adult bees remain in the hive and tend to developing brood, while older adult bees forage for pollen and nectar to feed the colony. As honey bees mature, the types of pathogens they experience also change. As such, pathogen pressure may affect bees differently throughout their lifespan. We provide the first direct tests of honey bee innate immune strength across developmental stages. We investigated immune strength across four developmental stages: larvae, pupae, nurses (1-day-old adults), and foragers (22-30 days old adults). The immune strength of honey bees was quantified using standard immunocompetence assays: total hemocyte count, encapsulation response, fat body quantification, and phenoloxidase activity. Larvae and pupae had the highest total hemocyte counts, while there was no difference in encapsulation response between developmental stages. Nurses had more fat body mass than foragers, while phenoloxidase activity increased directly with honey bee development. Immune strength was most vigorous in older, foraging bees and weakest in young bees. Importantly, we found that adult honey bees do not abandon cellular immunocompetence as has recently been proposed. Induced shifts in behavioral roles may increase a colony's susceptibility to disease if nurses begin foraging activity prematurely.

  2. Kentucky's Statewide Early Childhood Professional Development System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rous, Beth; Grove, Jaime; Townley, Kim

    2007-01-01

    Public school systems have recently become major players in providing services for children in their early years. In addition, a number of other services are available to young children including child care, Head Start, and Early Head Start programs. The link between program quality and professional development of early care and education…

  3. Immunization

    MedlinePlus

    ... remembers" the germ and can fight it again. Vaccines contain germs that have been killed or weakened. When given to a healthy person, the vaccine triggers the immune system to respond and thus ...

  4. Ecdysone mediates the development of immunity in the Drosophila embryo.

    PubMed

    Tan, Kiri Louise; Vlisidou, Isabella; Wood, Will

    2014-05-19

    Beyond their role in cell metabolism, development, and reproduction, hormones are also important modulators of the immune system. In the context of inflammatory disorders, systemic administration of pharmacological doses of synthetic glucocorticoids (GCs) is widely used as an anti-inflammatory treatment [1, 2]. However, not all actions of GCs are immunosuppressive, and many studies have suggested that physiological concentrations of GCs can have immunoenhancing effects [3-7]. For a more comprehensive understanding of how steroid hormones regulate immunity and inflammation, a simple in vivo system is required. The Drosophila embryo has recently emerged as a powerful model system to study the recruitment of immune cells to sterile wounds [8] and host-pathogen dynamics [9]. Here we investigate the immune response of the fly embryo to bacterial infections and find that the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20-HE) can regulate the quality of the immune response and influence the resolution of infection in Drosophila embryos. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Hyperactive immune cells (T cells) may be responsible for acute lung injury in influenza virus infections: a need for early immune-modulators for severe cases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Yil; Rhim, Jung-Woo; Kang, Jin-Han

    2011-01-01

    It has been believed that acute lung injury in influenza virus infections is caused by a virus-induced cytopathy; viruses that have multiplied in the upper respiratory tract spread to lung tissues along the lower respiratory tract. However, some experimental and clinical studies have suggested that the pathogenesis of acute lung injury in influenza virus infections is associated with excessive host response including a cell-mediated immune reaction. During the pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza A virus infections in Korea, we experienced a dramatic effect of immune-modulators (corticosteroids) on the patients with severe pneumonia who had significant respiratory distress at presentation and those who showed rapidly progressive pneumonia during oseltamivir treatment. We also found that the pneumonia patients treated with corticosteroids showed the lowest lymphocyte differential and that the severity of pneumonia was associated with the lymphocyte count at presentation. From our findings and previous experimental and clinical studies, we postulated that hyperactive immune cells (T cells) may be involved in the acute lung injury of influenza virus infections, using a hypothesis of 'protein homeostasis system'; the inducers of the cell-mediated immune response are initially produced at the primary immune sites by the innate immune system. These substances reach the lung cells, the main target organ, via the systemic circulation, and possibly the cells of other organs, including myocytes or central nerve system cells, leading to extrapulmonary symptoms (e.g., myalgia and rhabdomyolysis, and encephalopathy). To control these substances that may be possibly toxic to host cells, the adaptive immune reaction may be operated by immune cells, mainly lymphocytes. Hyperimmune reaction of immune cells produces higher levels of cytokines which may be associated with acute lung injury, and may be controlled by early use of immune-modulators. Early initiation and proper dosage of immune

  6. Molecular clock of HIV-1 envelope genes under early immune selection

    DOE PAGES

    Park, Sung Yong; Love, Tanzy M. T.; Perelson, Alan S.; ...

    2016-06-01

    Here, the molecular clock hypothesis that genes or proteins evolve at a constant rate is a key tool to reveal phylogenetic relationships among species. Using the molecular clock, we can trace an infection back to transmission using HIV-1 sequences from a single time point. Whether or not a strict molecular clock applies to HIV-1’s early evolution in the presence of immune selection has not yet been fully examined.

  7. Molecular clock of HIV-1 envelope genes under early immune selection

    SciT

    Park, Sung Yong; Love, Tanzy M. T.; Perelson, Alan S.

    Here, the molecular clock hypothesis that genes or proteins evolve at a constant rate is a key tool to reveal phylogenetic relationships among species. Using the molecular clock, we can trace an infection back to transmission using HIV-1 sequences from a single time point. Whether or not a strict molecular clock applies to HIV-1’s early evolution in the presence of immune selection has not yet been fully examined.

  8. Evolution of JAK-STAT Pathway Components: Mechanisms and Role in Immune System Development

    PubMed Central

    Liongue, Clifford; O'Sullivan, Lynda A.; Trengove, Monique C.; Ward, Alister C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Lying downstream of a myriad of cytokine receptors, the Janus kinase (JAK) – Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) pathway is pivotal for the development and function of the immune system, with additional important roles in other biological systems. To gain further insight into immune system evolution, we have performed a comprehensive bioinformatic analysis of the JAK-STAT pathway components, including the key negative regulators of this pathway, the SH2-domain containing tyrosine phosphatase (SHP), Protein inhibitors against Stats (PIAS), and Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins across a diverse range of organisms. Results Our analysis has demonstrated significant expansion of JAK-STAT pathway components co-incident with the emergence of adaptive immunity, with whole genome duplication being the principal mechanism for generating this additional diversity. In contrast, expansion of upstream cytokine receptors appears to be a pivotal driver for the differential diversification of specific pathway components. Conclusion Diversification of JAK-STAT pathway components during early vertebrate development occurred concurrently with a major expansion of upstream cytokine receptors and two rounds of whole genome duplications. This produced an intricate cell-cell communication system that has made a significant contribution to the evolution of the immune system, particularly the emergence of adaptive immunity. PMID:22412924

  9. Arsenic and Immune Response to Infection During Pregnancy and Early Life.

    PubMed

    Attreed, Sarah E; Navas-Acien, Ana; Heaney, Christopher D

    2017-06-01

    Arsenic, a known carcinogen and developmental toxicant, is a major threat to global health. While the contribution of arsenic exposure to chronic diseases and adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes is recognized, its ability to impair critical functions of humoral and cell-mediated immunity-including the specific mechanisms in humans-is not well understood. Arsenic has been shown to increase risk of infectious diseases that have significant health implications during pregnancy and early life. Here, we review the latest research on the mechanisms of arsenic-related immune response alterations that could underlie arsenic-associated increased risk of infection during the vulnerable periods of pregnancy and early life. The latest evidence points to alteration of antibody production and transplacental transfer as well as failure of T helper cells to produce IL-2 and proliferate. Critical areas for future research include the effects of arsenic exposure during pregnancy and early life on immune responses to natural infection and the immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccines.

  10. Distinct plasma immune signatures in ME/CFS are present early in the course of illness.

    PubMed

    Hornig, Mady; Montoya, José G; Klimas, Nancy G; Levine, Susan; Felsenstein, Donna; Bateman, Lucinda; Peterson, Daniel L; Gottschalk, C Gunnar; Schultz, Andrew F; Che, Xiaoyu; Eddy, Meredith L; Komaroff, Anthony L; Lipkin, W Ian

    2015-02-01

    Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is an unexplained incapacitating illness that may affect up to 4 million people in the United States alone. There are no validated laboratory tests for diagnosis or management despite global efforts to find biomarkers of disease. We considered the possibility that inability to identify such biomarkers reflected variations in diagnostic criteria and laboratory methods as well as the timing of sample collection during the course of the illness. Accordingly, we leveraged two large, multicenter cohort studies of ME/CFS to assess the relationship of immune signatures with diagnosis, illness duration, and other clinical variables. Controls were frequency-matched on key variables known to affect immune status, including season of sampling and geographic site, in addition to age and sex. We report here distinct alterations in plasma immune signatures early in the course of ME/CFS ( n = 52) relative to healthy controls ( n = 348) that are not present in subjects with longer duration of illness ( n = 246). Analyses based on disease duration revealed that early ME/CFS cases had a prominent activation of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines as well as dissociation of intercytokine regulatory networks. We found a stronger correlation of cytokine alterations with illness duration than with measures of illness severity, suggesting that the immunopathology of ME/CFS is not static. These findings have critical implications for discovery of interventional strategies and early diagnosis of ME/CFS.

  11. Distinct plasma immune signatures in ME/CFS are present early in the course of illness

    PubMed Central

    Hornig, Mady; Montoya, José G.; Klimas, Nancy G.; Levine, Susan; Felsenstein, Donna; Bateman, Lucinda; Peterson, Daniel L.; Gottschalk, C. Gunnar; Schultz, Andrew F.; Che, Xiaoyu; Eddy, Meredith L.; Komaroff, Anthony L.; Lipkin, W. Ian

    2015-01-01

    Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is an unexplained incapacitating illness that may affect up to 4 million people in the United States alone. There are no validated laboratory tests for diagnosis or management despite global efforts to find biomarkers of disease. We considered the possibility that inability to identify such biomarkers reflected variations in diagnostic criteria and laboratory methods as well as the timing of sample collection during the course of the illness. Accordingly, we leveraged two large, multicenter cohort studies of ME/CFS to assess the relationship of immune signatures with diagnosis, illness duration, and other clinical variables. Controls were frequency-matched on key variables known to affect immune status, including season of sampling and geographic site, in addition to age and sex. We report here distinct alterations in plasma immune signatures early in the course of ME/CFS (n = 52) relative to healthy controls (n = 348) that are not present in subjects with longer duration of illness (n = 246). Analyses based on disease duration revealed that early ME/CFS cases had a prominent activation of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines as well as dissociation of intercytokine regulatory networks. We found a stronger correlation of cytokine alterations with illness duration than with measures of illness severity, suggesting that the immunopathology of ME/CFS is not static. These findings have critical implications for discovery of interventional strategies and early diagnosis of ME/CFS. PMID:26079000

  12. [THE DEVELOPMENT OF IMMUNE ENZYME AND IMMUNE CHROMATOGRAPHIC MONOCLONAL TEST-SYSTEM FOR DETECTING TULAREMIA AGENT].

    PubMed

    Eremkin, A V; Elagin, G D; Petchenkin, D V; Fomenkov, O O; Bogatcheva, N V; Kitmanov, A A; Kuklina, G V; Tikhvinskaya, O V

    2016-03-01

    The immune enzyme and immunochromatographic test-systems for detecting tularemia agent were developed on the basis of selected set of monoclonal antibodies having immunochemical activity to antigens Francisella tularensis. The evaluation of sensitivity and specificity of developed test-systems demonstrated that samples provided detection of strains of F. tularensis in concentration from 5.0 x 105 mkxcm-3 to 1.0 x 106 mkxcm-3 and gave no false positive results in analysis of heterologous microorganisms in concentration of 1.0 x 108 mkxcm-3.

  13. The Development of STAR Early Literacy. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Renaissance Inst., Inc., Madison, WI.

    This report describes the development and testing of a computerized early literacy diagnostic assessment for students in prekindergarten to grade 3 that can measure skills across a variety of preliteracy and reading domains. The STAR Early Literacy assessment was developed by a team of more than 50 people, including literacy experts,…

  14. Critical Issues in Early Childhood Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaslow, Martha, Ed.; Martinez-Beck, Ivelisse, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    Effective teaching leads to positive student outcomes, and professional development for early childhood teachers is key to improving both. But what exactly is meant by "professional development"? What effect does it have on school readiness? Which models and approaches really work? This is the book the early childhood field needs to take the…

  15. Early infections by myxoma virus of young rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) protected by maternal antibodies activate their immune system and enhance herd immunity in wild populations.

    PubMed

    Marchandeau, Stéphane; Pontier, Dominique; Guitton, Jean-Sébastien; Letty, Jérôme; Fouchet, David; Aubineau, Jacky; Berger, Francis; Léonard, Yves; Roobrouck, Alain; Gelfi, Jacqueline; Peralta, Brigitte; Bertagnoli, Stéphane

    2014-03-04

    The role of maternal antibodies is to protect newborns against acute early infection by pathogens. This can be achieved either by preventing any infection or by allowing attenuated infections associated with activation of the immune system, the two strategies being based on different cost/benefit ratios. We carried out an epidemiological survey of myxomatosis, which is a highly lethal infectious disease, in two distant wild populations of rabbits to describe the epidemiological pattern of the disease. Detection of specific IgM and IgG enabled us to describe the pattern of immunity. We show that maternal immunity attenuates early infection of juveniles and enables activation of their immune system. This mechanism associated with steady circulation of the myxoma virus in both populations, which induces frequent reinfections of immune rabbits, leads to the maintenance of high immunity levels within populations. Thus, myxomatosis has a low impact, with most infections being asymptomatic. This work shows that infection of young rabbits protected by maternal antibodies induces attenuated disease and activates their immune system. This may play a major role in reducing the impact of a highly lethal disease when ecological conditions enable permanent circulation of the pathogen.

  16. Early infections by myxoma virus of young rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) protected by maternal antibodies activate their immune system and enhance herd immunity in wild populations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The role of maternal antibodies is to protect newborns against acute early infection by pathogens. This can be achieved either by preventing any infection or by allowing attenuated infections associated with activation of the immune system, the two strategies being based on different cost/benefit ratios. We carried out an epidemiological survey of myxomatosis, which is a highly lethal infectious disease, in two distant wild populations of rabbits to describe the epidemiological pattern of the disease. Detection of specific IgM and IgG enabled us to describe the pattern of immunity. We show that maternal immunity attenuates early infection of juveniles and enables activation of their immune system. This mechanism associated with steady circulation of the myxoma virus in both populations, which induces frequent reinfections of immune rabbits, leads to the maintenance of high immunity levels within populations. Thus, myxomatosis has a low impact, with most infections being asymptomatic. This work shows that infection of young rabbits protected by maternal antibodies induces attenuated disease and activates their immune system. This may play a major role in reducing the impact of a highly lethal disease when ecological conditions enable permanent circulation of the pathogen. PMID:24589193

  17. Toxic effects of dietary methylmercury on immune system development in nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius)

    Fallacara, Dawn M.; Halbrook, Richard S.; French, John B.

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of dietary methylmercury (MeHg) on immune system development in captive-reared nestling American kestrels (Falco sparverius) to determine whether T cell–mediated and antibody-mediated adaptive immunity are targets for MeHg toxicity at environmentally relevant concentrations. Nestlings received various diets, including 0 (control), 0.6, and 3.9 μg/g (dry wt) MeHg for up to 18 d posthatch. Immunotoxicity endpoints included cell-mediated immunity (CMI) using the phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin-swelling assay and antibody-mediated immune response via the sheep red blood cell (SRBC) hemagglutination assay. T cell– and B cell–dependent histological parameters in the spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius were correlated with the functional assays. For nestlings in the 0.6 and 3.9 μg/g MeHg groups, CMI was suppressed by 73 and 62%, respectively, at 11 d of age. Results of this functional assay were correlated with T cell–dependent components of the spleen and thymus. Dose-dependent lymphoid depletion in spleen tissue directly affected the proliferation of T-lymphocyte populations, insofar as lower stimulation indexes from the PHA assay occurred in nestlings with lower proportions of splenic white pulp and higher THg concentrations. Nestlings in the 3.9 μg/g group also exhibited lymphoid depletion and a lack of macrophage activity in the thymus. Methylmercury did not have a noticeable effect on antibody-mediated immune function or B cell–dependent histological correlates. We conclude that T cell–mediated immunosuppression is the primary target of MeHg toward adaptive immunity in developing kestrels. This study provides evidence that environmentally relevant concentrations of MeHg may compromise immunocompetence in a developing terrestrial predator and raises concern regarding the long-term health effects of kestrels that were exposed to dietary MeHg during early avian development.

  18. Development and Function of the Mucosal Immune System in the Upper Respiratory Tract of Neonatal Calves.

    PubMed

    Osman, Rahwa; Malmuthuge, Nilusha; Gonzalez-Cano, Patricia; Griebel, Philip

    2018-02-15

    Respiratory infections remain the second most common cause of clinical disease and mortality in newborn calves, which has led to increased interest in using vaccines early in life to mitigate this risk. Intranasal vaccination of neonatal calves can be an effective strategy to circumvent vaccine interference by maternal antibody, but this raises questions regarding onset of immune competence in the upper respiratory tract (URT) following birth. Little is known, however, about the development and function of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) in the URT of newborn calves and what factors, including the commensal microbiome, contribute to this early development. We review the structure, development, and function of MALT in the bovine URT during the first six weeks of life and identify knowledge gaps regarding this early developmental time. This information is critical when designing vaccination programs for young calves, especially when targeting respiratory pathogens that may reside within the commensal microbiome.

  19. Control of early seed development.

    PubMed

    Chaudhury, A M; Koltunow, A; Payne, T; Luo, M; Tucker, M R; Dennis, E S; Peacock, W J

    2001-01-01

    Seed development requires coordinated expression of embryo and endosperm and has contributions from both sporophytic and male and female gametophytic genes. Genetic and molecular analyses in recent years have started to illuminate how products of these multiple genes interact to initiate seed development. Imprinting or differential expression of paternal and maternal genes seems to be involved in controlling seed development, presumably by controlling gene expression in developing endosperm. Epigenetic processes such as chromatin remodeling and DNA methylation affect imprinting of key seed-specific genes; however, the identity of many of these genes remains unknown. The discovery of FIS genes has illuminated control of autonomous endosperm development, a component of apomixis, which is an important developmental and agronomic trait. FIS genes are targets of imprinting, and the genes they control in developing endosperm are also regulated by DNA methylation and chromatin remodeling genes. These results define some exciting future areas of research in seed development.

  20. Immunization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerin, Nicole; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Contents of this double journal issue concern immunization and primary health care of children. The issue decribes vaccine storage and sterilization techniques, giving particular emphasis to the role of the cold chain, i.e., the maintenance of a specific temperature range to assure potency of vaccines as they are moved from a national storage…

  1. ALD1 Regulates Basal Immune Components and Early Inducible Defense Responses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Cecchini, Nicolás M; Jung, Ho Won; Engle, Nancy L; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Greenberg, Jean T

    2015-04-01

    Robust immunity requires basal defense machinery to mediate timely responses and feedback cycles to amplify defenses against potentially spreading infections. AGD2-LIKE DEFENSE RESPONSE PROTEIN 1 (ALD1) is needed for the accumulation of the plant defense signal salicylic acid (SA) during the first hours after infection with the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae and is also upregulated by infection and SA. ALD1 is an aminotransferase with multiple substrates and products in vitro. Pipecolic acid (Pip) is an ALD1-dependent bioactive product induced by P. syringae. Here, we addressed roles of ALD1 in mediating defense amplification as well as the levels and responses of basal defense machinery. ALD1 needs immune components PAD4 and ICS1 (an SA synthesis enzyme) to confer disease resistance, possibly through a transcriptional amplification loop between them. Furthermore, ALD1 affects basal defense by controlling microbial-associated molecular pattern (MAMP) receptor levels and responsiveness. Vascular exudates from uninfected ALD1-overexpressing plants confer local immunity to the wild type and ald1 mutants yet are not enriched for Pip. We infer that, in addition to affecting Pip accumulation, ALD1 produces non-Pip metabolites that play roles in immunity. Thus, distinct metabolite signals controlled by the same enzyme affect basal and early defenses versus later defense responses, respectively.

  2. Limited Colonization Undermined by Inadequate Early Immune Responses Defines the Dynamics of Decidual Listeriosis.

    PubMed

    Rizzuto, Gabrielle; Tagliani, Elisa; Manandhar, Priyanka; Erlebacher, Adrian; Bakardjiev, Anna I

    2017-08-01

    The bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes causes foodborne systemic disease in pregnant women, which can lead to preterm labor, stillbirth, or severe neonatal disease. Colonization of the maternal decidua appears to be an initial step in the maternal component of the disease as well as bacterial transmission to the placenta and fetus. Host-pathogen interactions in the decidua during this early stage of infection remain poorly understood. Here, we assessed the dynamics of L. monocytogenes infection in primary human decidual organ cultures and in the murine decidua in vivo A high inoculum was necessary to infect both human and mouse deciduas, and the data support the existence of a barrier to initial colonization of the murine decidua. If successful, however, colonization in both species was followed by significant bacterial expansion associated with an inability of the decidua to mount appropriate innate cellular immune responses. The innate immune deficits included the failure of bacterial foci to attract macrophages and NK cells, cell types known to be important for early defenses against L. monocytogenes in the spleen, as well as a decrease in the tissue density of inflammatory Ly6C hi monocytes in vivo These results suggest that the infectivity of the decidua is not the result of an enhanced recruitment of L. monocytogenes to the gestational uterus but rather is due to compromised local innate cellular immune responses. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  3. Immune Components in Human Milk Are Associated with Early Infant Immunological Health Outcomes: A Prospective Three-Country Analysis.

    PubMed

    Munblit, Daniel; Treneva, Marina; Peroni, Diego G; Colicino, Silvia; Chow, Li Yan; Dissanayeke, Shobana; Pampura, Alexander; Boner, Attilio L; Geddes, Donna T; Boyle, Robert J; Warner, John O

    2017-05-24

    The role of breastfeeding in improving allergy outcomes in early childhood is still unclear. Evidence suggests that immune mediators in human milk (HM) play a critical role in infant immune maturation as well as protection against atopy/allergy development. We investigated relationships between levels of immune mediators in colostrum and mature milk and infant outcomes in the first year of life. In a large prospective study of 398 pregnant/lactating women in the United Kingdom, Russia and Italy, colostrum and mature human milk (HM) samples were analysed for immune active molecules. Statistical analyses used models adjusting for the site of collection, colostrum collection time, parity and maternal atopic status. Preliminary univariate analysis showed detectable interleukin (IL) 2 and IL13 in HM to be associated with less eczema. This finding was further confirmed in multivariate analysis, with detectable HM IL13 showing protective effect OR 0.18 (95% CI 0.04-0.92). In contrast, a higher risk of eczema was associated with higher HM concentrations of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) 2 OR 1.04 (95% CI 1.01-1.06) per ng/mL. Parental-reported food allergy was reported less often when IL13 was detectable in colostrum OR 0.10 (95% CI 0.01-0.83). HM hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) was protective for common cold incidence at 12 months OR 0.19 (95% CI 0.04-0.92) per ng/mL. Data from this study suggests that differences in the individual immune composition of HM may have an influence on early life infant health outcomes. Increased TGFβ2 levels in HM are associated with a higher incidence of reported eczema, with detectable IL13 in colostrum showing protective effects for food allergy and sensitization. HGF shows some protective effect on common cold incidence at one year of age. Future studies should be focused on maternal genotype, human milk microbiome and diet influence on human milk immune composition and both short- and long-term health outcomes in the infant.

  4. Immune Components in Human Milk Are Associated with Early Infant Immunological Health Outcomes: A Prospective Three-Country Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Munblit, Daniel; Treneva, Marina; Peroni, Diego G.; Colicino, Silvia; Chow, Li Yan; Dissanayeke, Shobana; Pampura, Alexander; Boner, Attilio L.; Geddes, Donna T.; Boyle, Robert J.; Warner, John O.

    2017-01-01

    The role of breastfeeding in improving allergy outcomes in early childhood is still unclear. Evidence suggests that immune mediators in human milk (HM) play a critical role in infant immune maturation as well as protection against atopy/allergy development. We investigated relationships between levels of immune mediators in colostrum and mature milk and infant outcomes in the first year of life. In a large prospective study of 398 pregnant/lactating women in the United Kingdom, Russia and Italy, colostrum and mature human milk (HM) samples were analysed for immune active molecules. Statistical analyses used models adjusting for the site of collection, colostrum collection time, parity and maternal atopic status. Preliminary univariate analysis showed detectable interleukin (IL) 2 and IL13 in HM to be associated with less eczema. This finding was further confirmed in multivariate analysis, with detectable HM IL13 showing protective effect OR 0.18 (95% CI 0.04–0.92). In contrast, a higher risk of eczema was associated with higher HM concentrations of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) 2 OR 1.04 (95% CI 1.01–1.06) per ng/mL. Parental-reported food allergy was reported less often when IL13 was detectable in colostrum OR 0.10 (95% CI 0.01–0.83). HM hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) was protective for common cold incidence at 12 months OR 0.19 (95% CI 0.04–0.92) per ng/mL. Data from this study suggests that differences in the individual immune composition of HM may have an influence on early life infant health outcomes. Increased TGFβ2 levels in HM are associated with a higher incidence of reported eczema, with detectable IL13 in colostrum showing protective effects for food allergy and sensitization. HGF shows some protective effect on common cold incidence at one year of age. Future studies should be focused on maternal genotype, human milk microbiome and diet influence on human milk immune composition and both short- and long-term health outcomes in the

  5. Abnormal immune system development and function in schizophrenia helps reconcile diverse findings and suggests new treatment and prevention strategies.

    PubMed

    Anders, Sherry; Kinney, Dennis K

    2015-08-18

    Extensive research implicates disturbed immune function and development in the etiology and pathology of schizophrenia. In addition to reviewing evidence for immunological factors in schizophrenia, this paper discusses how an emerging model of atypical immune function and development helps explain a wide variety of well-established - but puzzling - findings about schizophrenia. A number of theorists have presented hypotheses that early immune system programming, disrupted by pre- and perinatal adversity, often combines with abnormal brain development to produce schizophrenia. The present paper focuses on the hypothesis that disruption of early immune system development produces a latent immune vulnerability that manifests more fully after puberty, when changes in immune function and the thymus leave individuals more susceptible to infections and immune dysfunctions that contribute to schizophrenia. Complementing neurodevelopmental models, this hypothesis integrates findings on many contributing factors to schizophrenia, including prenatal adversity, genes, climate, migration, infections, and stress, among others. It helps explain, for example, why (a) schizophrenia onset is typically delayed until years after prenatal adversity, (b) individual risk factors alone often do not lead to schizophrenia, and (c) schizophrenia prevalence rates actually tend to be higher in economically advantaged countries. Here we discuss how the hypothesis explains 10 key findings, and suggests new, potentially highly cost-effective, strategies for treatment and prevention of schizophrenia. Moreover, while most human research linking immune factors to schizophrenia has been correlational, these strategies provide ethical ways to experimentally test in humans theories about immune function and schizophrenia. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Neuroimmunology in Health And Disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Cross-stage immunity for malaria vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Nahrendorf, Wiebke; Scholzen, Anja; Sauerwein, Robert W; Langhorne, Jean

    2015-12-22

    A vaccine against malaria is urgently needed for control and eventual eradication. Different approaches are pursued to induce either sterile immunity directed against pre-erythrocytic parasites or to mimic naturally acquired immunity by controlling blood-stage parasite densities and disease severity. Pre-erythrocytic and blood-stage malaria vaccines are often seen as opposing tactics, but it is likely that they have to be combined into a multi-stage malaria vaccine to be optimally safe and effective. Since many antigenic targets are shared between liver- and blood-stage parasites, malaria vaccines have the potential to elicit cross-stage protection with immune mechanisms against both stages complementing and enhancing each other. Here we discuss evidence from pre-erythrocytic and blood-stage subunit and whole parasite vaccination approaches that show that protection against malaria is not necessarily stage-specific. Parasites arresting at late liver-stages especially, can induce powerful blood-stage immunity, and similarly exposure to blood-stage parasites can afford pre-erythrocytic immunity. The incorporation of a blood-stage component into a multi-stage malaria vaccine would hence not only combat breakthrough infections in the blood should the pre-erythrocytic component fail to induce sterile protection, but would also actively enhance the pre-erythrocytic potency of this vaccine. We therefore advocate that future studies should concentrate on the identification of cross-stage protective malaria antigens, which can empower multi-stage malaria vaccine development. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Cell-Intrinsic Glycogen Metabolism Supports Early Glycolytic Reprogramming Required for Dendritic Cell Immune Responses.

    PubMed

    Thwe, Phyu M; Pelgrom, Leonard; Cooper, Rachel; Beauchamp, Saritha; Reisz, Julie A; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Everts, Bart; Amiel, Eyal

    2017-09-05

    Dendritic cell (DC) activation by Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists causes rapid glycolytic reprogramming that is required to meet the metabolic demands of their immune activation. Recent efforts in the field have identified an important role for extracellular glucose sourcing to support DC activation. However, the contributions of intracellular glucose stores to these processes have not been well characterized. We demonstrate that DCs possess intracellular glycogen stores and that cell-intrinsic glycogen metabolism supports the early effector functions of TLR-activated DCs. Inhibition of glycogenolysis significantly attenuates TLR-mediated DC maturation and impairs their ability to initiate lymphocyte activation. We further report that DCs exhibit functional compartmentalization of glucose- and glycogen-derived carbons, where these substrates preferentially contribute to distinct metabolic pathways. This work provides novel insights into nutrient homeostasis in DCs, demonstrating that differential utilization of glycogen and glucose metabolism regulates their optimal immune function. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Arsenic and Immune Response to Infection During Pregnancy and Early Life

    PubMed Central

    Attreed, Sarah E.; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of Review Arsenic, a known carcinogen and developmental toxicant, is a major threat to global health. While the contribution of arsenic exposure to chronic diseases and adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes is recognized, its ability to impair critical functions of humoral and cell-mediated immunity—including the specific mechanisms in humans—is not well understood. Arsenic has been shown to increase risk of infectious diseases that have significant health implications during pregnancy and early life. Here, we review the latest research on the mechanisms of arsenic-related immune response alterations that could underlie arsenic-associated increased risk of infection during the vulnerable periods of pregnancy and early life. Recent Findings The latest evidence points to alteration of antibody production and transplacental transfer as well as failure of T helper cells to produce IL-2 and proliferate. Summary Critical areas for future research include the effects of arsenic exposure during pregnancy and early life on immune responses to natural infection and the immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccines. PMID:28488132

  9. Childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia and indicators of early immune stimulation: the Estelle study (SFCE)

    PubMed Central

    Ajrouche, R; Rudant, J; Orsi, L; Petit, A; Baruchel, A; Lambilliotte, A; Gambart, M; Michel, G; Bertrand, Y; Ducassou, S; Gandemer, V; Paillard, C; Saumet, L; Blin, N; Hémon, D; Clavel, J

    2015-01-01

    Background: Factors related to early stimulation of the immune system (breastfeeding, proxies for exposure to infectious agents, normal delivery, and exposure to animals in early life) have been suggested to decrease the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). Methods: The national registry-based case–control study, ESTELLE, was carried out in France in 2010–2011. Population controls were frequency matched with cases on age and gender. The participation rates were 93% for cases and 86% for controls. Data were obtained from structured telephone questionnaires administered to mothers. Odds ratios (OR) were estimated using unconditional regression models adjusted for age, gender, and potential confounders. Results: In all, 617 ALL and 1225 controls aged ⩾1 year were included. Inverse associations between ALL and early common infections (OR=0.8, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.6, 1.0), non-first born (⩾3 vs 1; OR=0.7, 95% CI: 0.5, 1.0), attendance of a day-care centre before age 1 year (OR=0.7, 95% CI: 0.5, 1.0), breastfeeding (OR=0.8, 95% CI: 0.7, 1.0), and regular contact with pets (OR=0.8, 95% CI: 0.7, 1.0) in infancy were observed. Conclusions: The results support the hypothesis that conditions promoting the maturation of the immune system in infancy have a protective role with respect to ALL. PMID:25675150

  10. Development of Microbiota in Infants and its Role in Maturation of Gut Mucosa and Immune System.

    PubMed

    Ximenez, Cecilia; Torres, Javier

    2017-11-01

    Dysbiosis of the gut microbiota has been associated with increasing numbers of diseases, including obesity, diabetes, inflammatory bowel disease, asthma, allergy, cancer and even neurologic or behavioral disorders. The other side of the coin is that a healthy microbiota leads to a healthy human development, to a mature and well trained immune system and to an efficient metabolic machinery. What we have learned in adults is in the end the result of a good start, a programmed, healthy development of the microbiota that must occur in the early years of life, probably even starting during the fetal stage. This review aims to present and discuss reports that helps us understand what we have learned of the development of microbiota during the early times of life, from pregnancy to delivery to the early years after birth. The impact of the establishment of "healthy" bacterial communities on human surfaces in the maturation of epithelia, immune system and metabolism will also be discussed. The right process of maturation of the bacterial communities that establish a symbiosis with human surfaces depends on a number of environmental, genetic and temporal factors that need to be understand in order to have tools to monitor a healthy development and eventually intervene to correct undesired courses. Copyright © 2017 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Early exposure to ultraviolet-B radiation decreases immune function later in life

    PubMed Central

    Ceccato, Emma; Cramp, Rebecca L.; Seebacher, Frank; Franklin, Craig E.

    2016-01-01

    Amphibians have declined dramatically worldwide. Many of these declines are occurring in areas where no obvious anthropogenic stressors are present. It is proposed that in these areas, environmental factors such as elevated solar ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation could be responsible. Ultraviolet-B levels have increased in many parts of the world as a consequence of the anthropogenic destruction of the ozone layer. Amphibian tadpoles are particularly sensitive to the damaging effects of UV-B radiation, with exposure disrupting growth and fitness in many species. Given that UV-B can disrupt immune function in other animals, we tested the hypothesis that early UV-B exposure suppresses the immune responses of amphibian tadpoles and subsequent juvenile frogs. We exposed Limnodynastes peronii tadpoles to sublethal levels of UV-B radiation for 6 weeks after hatching, then examined indices of immune function in both the tadpoles and the subsequent metamorphs. There was no significant effect of UV-B on tadpole leucocyte counts or on their response to an acute antigen (phytohaemagglutinin) challenge. However, early UV-B exposure resulted in a significant reduction in both metamorph leucocyte abundance and their response to an acute phytohaemagglutinin challenge. These data demonstrate that early UV-B exposure can have carry-over effects on later life-history traits even if the applied stressor has no immediately discernible effect. These findings have important implications for our understanding of the effects of UV-B exposure on amphibian health and susceptibility to diseases such as chytridiomycosis. PMID:27668081

  12. Innate immune response during herpes simplex virus encephalitis and development of immunomodulatory strategies.

    PubMed

    Piret, Jocelyne; Boivin, Guy

    2015-09-01

    Herpes simplex viruses are large double-stranded DNA viruses. These viruses have the ability to establish a lifelong latency in sensory ganglia and to invade and replicate in the CNS. Apart from relatively benign mucosal infections, HSV is responsible for severe illnesses including HSV encephalitis (HSE). HSE is the most common cause of sporadic, potentially fatal viral encephalitis in Western countries. If left untreated, the mortality rate associated with HSE is approximately 70%. Despite antiviral therapy, the mortality is still higher than 30%, and almost 60% of surviving individuals develop neurological sequelae. It is suggested that direct virus-related and indirect immune-mediated mechanisms contribute to the damages occurring in the CNS during HSE. In this manuscript, we describe the innate immune response to HSV, the development of HSE in mice knock-out for proteins of the innate immune system as well as inherited deficiencies in key components of the signaling pathways involved in the production of type I interferon that could predispose individuals to develop HSE. Finally, we review several immunomodulatory strategies aimed at modulating the innate immune response at a critical time after infection that were evaluated in mouse models and could be combined with antiviral therapy to improve the prognosis of HSE. In conclusion, the cerebral innate immune response that develops during HSE is a "double-edged sword" as it is critical to control viral replication in the brain early after infection, but, if left uncontrolled, may also result in an exaggerated inflammatory response that could be detrimental to the host. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. To give or not to give: Approaches to early childhood immunization delivery in Oregon rural primary care practices.

    PubMed

    Fagnan, Lyle J; Shipman, Scott A; Gaudino, James A; Mahler, Jo; Sussman, Andrew L; Holub, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about rural clinicians' perspectives regarding early childhood immunization delivery, their adherence to recommended best immunization practices, or the specific barriers they confront. To examine immunization practices, beliefs, and barriers among rural primary care clinicians for children in Oregon and compare those who deliver all recommended immunizations in their practices with those who do not. A mailed questionnaire was sent to all physicians, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants practicing primary care in rural communities throughout Oregon. While 39% of rural clinicians reported delivering all childhood immunizations in their clinic, 43% of clinicians reported that they refer patients elsewhere for some vaccinations, and 18% provided no immunizations in the clinic whatsoever. Leading reasons for referral include inadequate reimbursement, parental request, and storage and stocking difficulties. Nearly a third of respondents reported that they had some level of concern about the safety of immunizations, and 14% reported that concerns about safety were a specific reason for referring. Clinicians who delivered only some of the recommended immunizations were less likely than nonreferring clinicians to have adopted evidence-based best immunization practices. This study of rural clinicians in Oregon demonstrates the prevalence of barriers to primary care based immunization delivery in rural regions. While some barriers may be difficult to overcome, others may be amenable to educational outreach and support. Thus, efforts to improve population immunization rates should focus on promoting immunization "best practices" and enhancing the capacity of practices to provide immunizations and ensuring that any alternative means of delivering immunizations are effective. © 2011 National Rural Health Association.

  14. To Give or Not to Give: Approaches to Early Childhood Immunization Delivery in Oregon Rural Primary Care Practices

    PubMed Central

    Fagnan, Lyle J.

    2010-01-01

    Context Little is known about rural clinicians’ perspectives regarding early childhood immunization delivery, their adherence to recommended best immunization practices, or the specific barriers they confront. Purpose To examine immunization practices, beliefs, and barriers among rural primary care clinicians for children in Oregon and compare those who deliver all recommended immunizations in their practices with those who do not. Methods A mailed questionnaire sent to all physicians, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants practicing primary care in rural communities throughout Oregon. Findings While 39% of rural clinicians reported delivering all childhood immunizations in their clinic, 43% of clinicians reported that they refer patients elsewhere for some vaccinations and 18% provided no immunizations in the clinic whatsoever. Leading reasons for referral include inadequate reimbursement, parental request, and storage and stocking difficulties. Nearly a third of respondents reported that they had some level of concern about the safety of immunizations, and 14% reported that concerns about safety were a specific reason for referring. Clinicians who delivered only some of the recommended immunizations were less likely than non-referring clinicians to have adopted evidence-based best immunization practices. Conclusions This study of rural clinicians in Oregon demonstrates the prevalence of barriers to primary-care-based immunization delivery in rural regions. While some barriers may be difficult to overcome, others may be amenable to educational outreach and support. Thus, efforts to improve population immunization rates should focus on promoting immunization “best practices” and enhancing the capacity of practices to provide immunizations and assuring that any alternative means of delivering immunizations are effective. PMID:21967382

  15. Lower Pre-Treatment T Cell Activation in Early- and Late-Onset Tuberculosis-Associated Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Goovaerts, Odin; Jennes, Wim; Massinga-Loembé, Marguerite; Ondoa, Pascale; Ceulemans, Ann; Vereecken, Chris; Worodria, William; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Colebunders, Robert; Kestens, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) is an inflammatory complication in HIV-TB co-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). The role of disturbed T cell reconstitution in TB-IRIS is not well understood. We investigated T cell activation and maturation profiles in patients who developed TB-IRIS at different intervals during ART. Methods Twenty-two HIV-TB patients who developed early-onset TB-IRIS and 10 who developed late-onset TB-IRIS were matched for age, sex and CD4 count to equal numbers of HIV-TB patients who did not develop TB-IRIS. Flow cytometry analysis was performed on fresh blood, drawn before and after ART initiation and during TB-IRIS events. T cell activation and maturation was measured on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells using CD45RO, CD38, HLA-DR, CCR7 and CD27 antibodies. Results CD8+ T cell activation before ART was decreased in both early-onset (77% vs. 82%, p = 0.014) and late-onset (71% vs. 83%, p = 0.012) TB-IRIS patients compared to non-IRIS controls. After ART initiation, the observed differences in T cell activation disappeared. During late-onset, but not early-onset TB-IRIS, we observed a skewing from memory to terminal effector CD4+ and CD8+ T cell populations (p≤0.028). Conclusion Our data provide evidence of reduced CD8+ T cell activation before ART as a common predisposing factor of early- and late-onset TB-IRIS. The occurrence of TB-IRIS itself was not marked by an over-activated CD8+ T cell compartment. Late- but not early-onset TB-IRIS was characterized by a more terminally differentiated T cell phenotype. PMID:26208109

  16. Early Immune Responses in Rainbow Trout Liver upon Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus (VHSV) Infection

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Rosario; Abós, Beatriz; Pignatelli, Jaime; von Gersdorff Jørgensen, Louise; González Granja, Aitor; Buchmann, Kurt; Tafalla, Carolina

    2014-01-01

    Among the essential metabolic functions of the liver, in mammals, a role as mediator of systemic and local innate immunity has also been reported. Although the presence of an important leukocyte population in mammalian liver is well documented, the characterization of leukocyte populations in the teleost liver has been only scarcely addressed. In the current work, we have confirmed the presence of IgM+, IgD+, IgT+, CD8α+, CD3+ cells, and cells expressing major histocompatibility complex (MHC-II) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver by flow cytometry and/or immunohistochemistry analysis. Additionally, the effect of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) on the liver immune response was assessed. First, we studied the effect of viral intraperitoneal injection on the transcription of a wide selection of immune genes at days 1, 2 and 5 post-infection. These included a group of leukocyte markers genes, pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), chemokines, chemokine receptor genes, and other genes involved in the early immune response and in acute phase reaction. Our results indicate that T lymphocytes play a key role in the initial response to VHSV in the liver, since CD3, CD8, CD4, perforin, Mx and interferon (IFN) transcription levels were up-regulated in response to VHSV. Consequently, flow cytometry analysis of CD8α+ cells in liver and spleen at day 5 post-infection revealed a decrease in the number of CD8α+ cells in the spleen and an increased population in the liver. No differences were found however in the percentages of B lymphocyte (IgM+ or IgD+) populations. In addition, a strong up-regulation in the transcription levels of several PRRs and chemokines was observed from the second day of infection, indicating an important role of these factors in the response of the liver to viral infections. PMID:25338079

  17. [Clinical Development of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Patients with Small Cell Lung Cancer].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuang; Liu, Jingjing; Cheng, Ying

    2017-09-20

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is a poorly differentiated high-grade neuroendocrine tumor, accounts for approximately 14% of all lung cancers. SCLC is characterized by rapid growth, early metastasis without effective treatments after recurrence. It is urgently need to improve the therapy of patients with SCLC. In recent years Tumor immunotherapy has shown promising efficacy, especially in immune checkpoints including inhibitors programmed cell-death protein 1 (PD-1) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4). These immune checkpoint inhibitors of the researches are changing the clinical practice of many kinds of solid tumor. SCLC is a potential ideal type of tumor immunotherapy for tobacco exposure and the highest mutational load. In this report, the authors review the current state of the immunotherapy in SCLC, to discussing the problems, challenge and application development prospect.

  18. Innate and adaptive immunity in the development of depression: An update on current knowledge and technological advances.

    PubMed

    Haapakoski, Rita; Ebmeier, Klaus P; Alenius, Harri; Kivimäki, Mika

    2016-04-03

    The inflammation theory of depression, proposed over 20years ago, was influenced by early studies on T cell responses and since then has been a stimulus for numerous research projects aimed at understanding the relationship between immune function and depression. Observational studies have shown that indicators of immunity, especially C reactive protein and proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin 6, are associated with an increased risk of depressive disorders, although the evidence from randomized trials remains limited and only few studies have assessed the interplay between innate and adaptive immunity in depression. In this paper, we review current knowledge on the interactions between central and peripheral innate and adaptive immune molecules and the potential role of immune-related activation of microglia, inflammasomes and indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase in the development of depressive symptoms. We highlight how combining basic immune methods with more advanced 'omics' technologies would help us to make progress in unravelling the complex associations between altered immune function and depressive disorders, in the identification of depression-specific biomarkers and in developing immunotherapeutic treatment strategies that take individual variability into account. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Innate and adaptive immunity in the development of depression: An update on current knowledge and technological advances

    PubMed Central

    Haapakoski, Rita; Ebmeier, Klaus P.; Alenius, Harri; Kivimäki, Mika

    2016-01-01

    The inflammation theory of depression, proposed over 20 years ago, was influenced by early studies on T cell responses and since then has been a stimulus for numerous research projects aimed at understanding the relationship between immune function and depression. Observational studies have shown that indicators of immunity, especially C reactive protein and proinflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin 6, are associated with an increased risk of depressive disorders, although the evidence from randomized trials remains limited and only few studies have assessed the interplay between innate and adaptive immunity in depression. In this paper, we review current knowledge on the interactions between central and peripheral innate and adaptive immune molecules and the potential role of immune-related activation of microglia, inflammasomes and indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase in the development of depressive symptoms. We highlight how combining basic immune methods with more advanced ‘omics’ technologies would help us to make progress in unravelling the complex associations between altered immune function and depressive disorders, in the identification of depression-specific biomarkers and in developing immunotherapeutic treatment strategies that take individual variability into account. PMID:26631274

  20. Development of an active boring bar for increased chatter immunity

    SciT

    Redmond, J.; Barney, P.; Smith, D.

    The development and initial evaluation of a prototype boring bar featuring active vibration control for increased chatter immunity is described. The significance of active damping both normal and tangential to the workpiece surface is evaluated, indicating the need for two axis control to ensure adequate performance over expected variations in tool mounting procedures. The prototype tool features a commercially available boring bar modified to accommodate four PZT stack actuators for two axis bending control. Measured closed-loop dynamics are combined with a computer model of the boring process to simulate increased metal removal rate and improved workpiece surface finish through activemore » control.« less

  1. Early childhood development in deprived urban settlements.

    PubMed

    Nair, M K C; Radhakrishnan, S Rekha

    2004-03-01

    Poverty, the root cause of the existence of slums or settlement colonies in urban areas has a great impact on almost all aspects of life of the urban poor, especially the all-round development of children. Examples from countries, across the globe provide evidence of improved early child development, made possible through integrated slum improvement programs, are few in numbers. The observed 2.5% prevalence of developmental delay in the less than 2 year olds of deprived urban settlements, the presence of risk factors for developmental delay like low birth weight, birth asphyxia, coupled with poor environment of home and alternate child care services, highlights the need for simple cost effective community model for promoting early child development. This review on early child development focuses on the developmental status of children in the deprived urban settlements, who are yet to be on the priority list of Governments and international agencies working for the welfare of children, the contributory nature-nurture factors and replicable working models like infant stimulation, early detection of developmental delay in infancy itself, developmental screening of toddlers, skill assessment for preschool children, school readiness programs, identification of mental sub-normality and primary education enhancement program for primary school children. Further, the review probes feasible intervention strategies through community owned early child care and development facilities, utilizing existing programs like ICDS, Urban Basic Services and by initiating services like Development Friendly Well Baby Clinics, Community Extension services, Child Development Referral Units at district hospitals and involving trained manpower like anganwadi/creche workers, public health nurses and developmental therapists. With the decentralization process the local self-government at municipalities and city corporations are financially equipped to be the prime movers to initiate, monitor and

  2. Early adaption to the antarctic environment at dome C: consequences on stress-sensitive innate immune functions.

    PubMed

    Feuerecker, Matthias; Crucian, Brian; Salam, Alex P; Rybka, Ales; Kaufmann, Ines; Moreels, Marjan; Quintens, Roel; Schelling, Gustav; Thiel, Manfred; Baatout, Sarah; Sams, Clarence; Choukèr, Alexander

    2014-09-01

    Abstract Feuerecker, Matthias, Brian Crucian, Alex P. Salam, Ales Rybka, Ines Kaufmann, Marjan Moreels, Roel Quintens, Gustav Schelling, Manfred Thiel, Sarah Baatout, Clarence Sams, and Alexander Choukèr. Early adaption in the Antarctic environment at Dome C: Consequences on stress-sensitive innate immune functions. High Alt Med Biol 15:341-348, 2014.-Purpose/Aims: Medical reports of Antarctic expeditions indicate that health is affected under these extreme conditions. The present study at CONCORDIA-Station (Dome C, 3233 m) seeks to investigate the early consequences of confinement and hypobaric hypoxia on the human organism. Nine healthy male participants were included in this study. Data collection occurred before traveling to Antarctica (baseline), and at 1 week and 1 month upon arrival. Investigated parameters included basic physiological variables, psychological stress tests, cell blood count, stress hormones, and markers of innate immune functions in resting and stimulated immune cells. By testing for the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) production of stimulated polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs), the effects of the hypoxia-adenosine-sensitive immune modulatory pathways were examined. As compared to baseline data, reduced oxygen saturation, hemoconcentration, and an increase of secreted catecholamines was observed, whereas no psychological stress was seen. Upon stimulation, the activity of PMNs and L-selectin shedding was mitigated after 1 week. Endogenous adenosine concentration was elevated during the early phase. In summary, living conditions at high altitude influence the innate immune system's response. After 1 month, some of the early effects on the human organism were restored. As this early adaptation is not related to psychological stress, the changes observed are likely to be induced by environmental stressors, especially hypoxia. As hypoxia is triggering ATP-catabolism, leading to elevated endogenous adenosine concentrations, this and the increased

  3. Early Brain Development Research Review and Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiller, Pam

    2010-01-01

    Thanks to imaging technology used in neurobiology, people have access to useful and critical information regarding the development of the human brain. This information allows them to become much more effective in helping children in their early development. In fact, when people base their practices on the findings from medical science research,…

  4. Hepatitis C Virus Reveals a Novel Early Control in Acute Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Arnaud, Noëlla; Dabo, Stéphanie; Akazawa, Daisuke; Fukasawa, Masayoshi; Shinkai-Ouchi, Fumiko; Hugon, Jacques; Wakita, Takaji; Meurs, Eliane F.

    2011-01-01

    Recognition of viral RNA structures by the intracytosolic RNA helicase RIG-I triggers induction of innate immunity. Efficient induction requires RIG-I ubiquitination by the E3 ligase TRIM25, its interaction with the mitochondria-bound MAVS protein, recruitment of TRAF3, IRF3- and NF-κB-kinases and transcription of Interferon (IFN). In addition, IRF3 alone induces some of the Interferon-Stimulated Genes (ISGs), referred to as early ISGs. Infection of hepatocytes with Hepatitis C virus (HCV) results in poor production of IFN despite recognition of the viral RNA by RIG-I but can lead to induction of early ISGs. HCV was shown to inhibit IFN production by cleaving MAVS through its NS3/4A protease and by controlling cellular translation through activation of PKR, an eIF2α-kinase containing dsRNA-binding domains (DRBD). Here, we have identified a third mode of control of IFN induction by HCV. Using HCVcc and the Huh7.25.CD81 cells, we found that HCV controls RIG-I ubiquitination through the di-ubiquitine-like protein ISG15, one of the early ISGs. A transcriptome analysis performed on Huh7.25.CD81 cells silenced or not for PKR and infected with JFH1 revealed that HCV infection leads to induction of 49 PKR-dependent genes, including ISG15 and several early ISGs. Silencing experiments revealed that this novel PKR-dependent pathway involves MAVS, TRAF3 and IRF3 but not RIG-I, and that it does not induce IFN. Use of PKR inhibitors showed that this pathway requires the DRBD but not the kinase activity of PKR. We then demonstrated that PKR interacts with HCV RNA and MAVS prior to RIG-I. In conclusion, HCV recruits PKR early in infection as a sensor to trigger induction of several IRF3-dependent genes. Among those, ISG15 acts to negatively control the RIG-I/MAVS pathway, at the level of RIG-I ubiquitination.These data give novel insights in the machinery involved in the early events of innate immune response. PMID:22022264

  5. Regulatory parameters of the lung immune response during the early phase of experimental trichinellosis.

    PubMed

    Falduto, Guido H; Vila, Cecilia C; Saracino, María P; Gentilini, María V; Venturiello, Stella M

    2016-11-15

    Parasitic infection caused by Trichinella spiralis provokes an early stimulation of the mucosal immune system which causes an allergic inflammatory response in the lungs. The present work was intended to characterize the kinetics of emergence of regulatory parameters in Wistar rat lungs during this early inflammatory response, between days 0 and 13p.i. The presence of regulatory cells such as regulatory T cells (Tregs) and alternatively activated macrophages (AAM) was analyzed in lung cell suspensions. Moreover, a regulatory cytokine (TGF-β) was studied in lung tissue extracts. Considering that newborn larvae (NBL) travel along the pulmonary microvasculature, the ability of this parasite stage to modulate the activation of lung macrophages was evaluated. For this purpose, lung macrophages from non-infected or infected rats (day 6p.i.) were cultured with live or dead NBL. Arginase activity (characteristic of AAM) and nitric oxide (NO produced by iNOS, characteristic of classical activated macrophages) were measured after 48h. Our results revealed a significant increase in the percentage of Tregs on days 6 and 13p.i., arginase activity on day 13p.i. and TGF-β levels on days 6 and 13p.i. Lung macrophages from non-infected rats cultured with live NBL showed a significant increase in arginase activity and NO levels. Live and dead NBL induced a significant increase in arginase activity in lung macrophages from infected rats. Only live NBL significantly increased NO levels in these macrophages. The present work demonstrates for the first time, the emergence of regulatory parameters in the early lung immune response during T. spiralis infection. The immumodulatory properties exerted by NBL during its passage through this organ could be the cause of such regulation. Moreover, we have shown the ability of NBL to activate macrophages from the lung parenchyma by the classical and alternative pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Trans-Golgi network/early endosome: a central sorting station for cargo proteins in plant immunity.

    PubMed

    LaMontagne, Erica D; Heese, Antje

    2017-12-01

    In plants, the trans-Golgi network (TGN) functionally overlaps with the early endosome (EE), serving as a central sorting hub to direct newly synthesized and endocytosed cargo to the cell surface or vacuole. Here, we focus on the emerging role of the TGN/EE in sorting of immune cargo proteins for effective plant immunity against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. Specific vesicle coat and regulatory components at the TGN/EE ensure that immune cargoes are correctly sorted and transported to the location of their cellular functions. Our understanding of the identity of immune cargoes and the underlying cellular mechanisms regulating their sorting are still rudimentary, but this knowledge is essential to understanding the physiological contribution of the TGN/EE to effective immune responses. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Prenatal and early-life exposures alter expression of innate immunity genes: the PASTURE cohort study.

    PubMed

    Loss, Georg; Bitter, Sondhja; Wohlgensinger, Johanna; Frei, Remo; Roduit, Caroline; Genuneit, Jon; Pekkanen, Juha; Roponen, Marjut; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta; Dalphin, Jean-Charles; Dalphin, Marie-Laure; Riedler, Josef; von Mutius, Erika; Weber, Juliane; Kabesch, Michael; Michel, Sven; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte; Lauener, Roger

    2012-08-01

    There is evidence that gene expression of innate immunity receptors is upregulated by farming-related exposures. We sought to determine environmental and nutritional exposures associated with the gene expression of innate immunity receptors during pregnancy and the first year of a child's life. For the Protection Against Allergy: Study in Rural Environments (PASTURE) birth cohort study, 1133 pregnant women were recruited in rural areas of Austria, Finland, France, Germany, and Switzerland. mRNA expression of the Toll-like receptor (TLR) 1 through TLR9 and CD14 was assessed in blood samples at birth (n= 938) and year 1 (n= 752). Environmental exposures, as assessed by using questionnaires and a diary kept during year 1, and polymorphisms in innate receptor genes were related to gene expression of innate immunity receptors by using ANOVA and multivariate regression analysis. Gene expression of innate immunity receptors in cord blood was overall higher in neonates of farmers (P for multifactorial multivariate ANOVA= .041), significantly so for TLR7 (adjusted geometric means ratio [aGMR], 1.15; 95% CI, 1.02-1.30) and TLR8 (aGMR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.04-1.26). Unboiled farm milk consumption during the first year of life showed the strongest association with mRNA expression at year 1, taking the diversity of other foods introduced during that period into account: TLR4 (aGMR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.03-1.45), TLR5 (aGMR, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.01-1.41), and TLR6 (aGMR, 1.20; 95% CI, 1.04-1.38). A previously described modification of the association between farm milk consumption and CD14 gene expression by the single nucleotide polymorphism CD14/C-1721T was not found. Farming-related exposures, such as raw farm milk consumption, that were previously reported to decrease the risk for allergic outcomes were associated with a change in gene expression of innate immunity receptors in early life. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All

  8. Early-life experience affects honey bee aggression and resilience to immune challenge

    PubMed Central

    Rittschof, Clare C.; Coombs, Chelsey B.; Frazier, Maryann; Grozinger, Christina M.; Robinson, Gene E.

    2015-01-01

    Early-life social experiences cause lasting changes in behavior and health for a variety of animals including humans, but it is not well understood how social information ‘‘gets under the skin’’ resulting in these effects. Adult honey bees (Apis mellifera) exhibit socially coordinated collective nest defense, providing a model for social modulation of aggressive behavior. Here we report for the first time that a honey bee’s early-life social environment has lasting effects on individual aggression: bees that experienced high-aggression environments during pre-adult stages showed increased aggression when they reached adulthood relative to siblings that experienced low-aggression environments, even though all bees were kept in a common environment during adulthood. Unlike other animals including humans however, high-aggression honey bees were more, rather than less, resilient to immune challenge, assessed as neonicotinoid pesticide susceptibility. Moreover, aggression was negatively correlated with ectoparasitic mite presence. In honey bees, early-life social experience has broad effects, but increased aggression is decoupled from negative health outcomes. Because honey bees and humans share aspects of their physiological response to aggressive social encounters, our findings represent a step towards identifying ways to improve individual resiliency. Pre-adult social experience may be crucial to the health of the ecologically threatened honey bee. PMID:26493190

  9. Effects of early vitamin D deficiency rickets on bone and dental health, growth and immunity.

    PubMed

    Zerofsky, Melissa; Ryder, Mark; Bhatia, Suruchi; Stephensen, Charles B; King, Janet; Fung, Ellen B

    2016-10-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with adverse health outcomes, including impaired bone growth, gingival inflammation and increased risk for autoimmune disease, but the relationship between vitamin D deficiency rickets in childhood and long-term health has not been studied. In this study, we assessed the effect of early vitamin D deficiency on growth, bone density, dental health and immune function in later childhood to determine if children previously diagnosed with rickets were at greater risk of adverse health outcomes compared with healthy children. We measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, calcium, parathyroid hormone, bone mineral density, anthropometric measures, dietary habits, dental health, general health history, and markers of inflammation in 14 previously diagnosed rickets case children at Children's Hospital Oakland Research Center. We compared the findings in the rickets cases with 11 healthy children selected from the population of CHO staff families. Fourteen mothers of the rickets cases, five siblings of the rickets cases, and seven mothers of healthy children also participated. Children diagnosed with vitamin D deficiency rickets had a greater risk of fracture, greater prevalence of asthma, and more dental enamel defects compared with healthy children. Given the widespread actions of vitamin D, it is likely that early-life vitamin D deficiency may increase the risk of disease later in childhood. Further assessment of the long-term health effects of early deficiency is necessary to make appropriate dietary recommendations for infants at risk of deficiency. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Effects of early vitamin D deficiency rickets on bone and dental health, growth and immunity

    PubMed Central

    Zerofsky, Melissa; Ryder, Mark; Bhatia, Suruchi; Stephensen, Charles B.; King, Janet; Fung, Ellen B.

    2015-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with adverse health outcomes, including impaired bone growth, gingival inflammation and increased risk for autoimmune disease, but the relationship between vitamin D deficiency rickets in childhood and long-term health has not been studied. In this study, we assessed the effect of early vitamin D deficiency on growth, bone density, dental health and immune function in later childhood to determine if children previously diagnosed with rickets were at greater risk of adverse health outcomes compared with healthy children. We measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D, calcium, parathyroid hormone, bone mineral density, anthropometric measures, dietary habits, dental health, general health history, and markers of inflammation in 14 previously diagnosed rickets case children at Children’s Hospital Oakland Research Center. We compared the findings in the rickets cases with 11 healthy children selected from the population of CHO staff families. Fourteen mothers of the rickets cases, five siblings of the rickets cases, and seven mothers of healthy children also participated. Children diagnosed with vitamin D deficiency rickets had a greater risk of fracture, greater prevalence of asthma, and more dental enamel defects compared with healthy children. Given the widespread actions of vitamin D, it is likely that early-life vitamin D deficiency may increase the risk of disease later in childhood. Further assessment of the long-term health effects of early deficiency is necessary to make appropriate dietary recommendations for infants at risk of deficiency. PMID:25850574

  11. Adaptive maternal immune deviations as a ground for autism spectrum disorders development in children.

    PubMed

    Poletaev, Alexander B; Poletaeva, Alina A; Pukhalenko, Alexander I; Zamaleeva, Roza S; Cherepanova, Natalia A; Frizin, Dmitry V

    2014-01-01

    Autism is a vexed problem today. Overall, there is a high frequency of birth children (1:80 - 1:150) with late diagnosed autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and this trend is getting progressively stronger. The causes for the currently increased frequency of ASD and the pathogenesis of ASD are not fully understood yet. One of the most likely mechanisms inducing ASD may be a maternal immune imprinting. This phenomenon is based on transplacental translocation of maternal antibodies of IgG class and, as a consequence, on the epigenetic "tuning" of immune system of the fetus and child. This mechanism provides development of child's anti-infection resistance before meeting with microorganisms, but it can be also a cause of inborn pathology including the ASD appearance. The quantitative changes in maternal blood serum autoantibodies depend on a specific microbial population, or are induced by environmental chemical pollutants in association with some individual features of the maternal metabolism. These immune changes are adaptive in most cases for the maternal organism, but can be pathogenic for the fetus in some cases. We discuss in the present paper the possibilities to predict the risk from abnormal development of nervous system in fetus and early diagnosis of ASD in high-risk group of children.

  12. Early executive function predicts reasoning development.

    PubMed

    Richland, Lindsey E; Burchinal, Margaret R

    2013-01-01

    Analogical reasoning is a core cognitive skill that distinguishes humans from all other species and contributes to general fluid intelligence, creativity, and adaptive learning capacities. Yet its origins are not well understood. In the study reported here, we analyzed large-scale longitudinal data from the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development to test predictors of growth in analogical-reasoning skill from third grade to adolescence. Our results suggest an integrative resolution to the theoretical debate regarding contributory factors arising from smaller-scale, cross-sectional experiments on analogy development. Children with greater executive-function skills (both composite and inhibitory control) and vocabulary knowledge in early elementary school displayed higher scores on a verbal analogies task at age 15 years, even after adjusting for key covariates. We posit that knowledge is a prerequisite to analogy performance, but strong executive-functioning resources during early childhood are related to long-term gains in fundamental reasoning skills.

  13. Bioecological Theory, Early Child Development and the Validation of the Population-Level Early Development Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guhn, Martin; Goelman, Hillel

    2011-01-01

    The Early Development Instrument (EDI; Janus and Offord in "Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science" 39:1-22, 2007) project is a Canadian population-level, longitudinal research project, in which teacher ratings of Kindergarten children's early development and wellbeing are linked to health and academic achievement variables at the…

  14. Maternal immune activation and abnormal brain development across CNS disorders.

    PubMed

    Knuesel, Irene; Chicha, Laurie; Britschgi, Markus; Schobel, Scott A; Bodmer, Michael; Hellings, Jessica A; Toovey, Stephen; Prinssen, Eric P

    2014-11-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown a clear association between maternal infection and schizophrenia or autism in the progeny. Animal models have revealed maternal immune activation (mIA) to be a profound risk factor for neurochemical and behavioural abnormalities in the offspring. Microglial priming has been proposed as a major consequence of mIA, and represents a critical link in a causal chain that leads to the wide spectrum of neuronal dysfunctions and behavioural phenotypes observed in the juvenile, adult or aged offspring. Such diversity of phenotypic outcomes in the mIA model are mirrored by recent clinical evidence suggesting that infectious exposure during pregnancy is also associated with epilepsy and, to a lesser extent, cerebral palsy in children. Preclinical research also suggests that mIA might precipitate the development of Alzheimer and Parkinson diseases. Here, we summarize and critically review the emerging evidence that mIA is a shared environmental risk factor across CNS disorders that varies as a function of interactions between genetic and additional environmental factors. We also review ongoing clinical trials targeting immune pathways affected by mIA that may play a part in disease manifestation. In addition, future directions and outstanding questions are discussed, including potential symptomatic, disease-modifying and preventive treatment strategies.

  15. Early Phonological Development: Creating an Assessment Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoel-Gammon, Carol; Williams, A. Lynn

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a new protocol for assessing the phonological systems of two-year-olds with typical development and older children with delays in vocabulary acquisition. The test (Profiles of Early Expressive Phonological Skills ("PEEPS"), Williams & Stoel-Gammon, in preparation) differs from currently available assessments in…

  16. Early Intervention, Maternal Development and Children's Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, Diana T.

    The purposes of this longitudinal study of early intervention with 83 black mother-child dyads were (a) to test the thesis that sociocultural transmission influences childhood development in educationally significant ways, and (b) to describe the process through which such transmission can occur. Two social intervention programs were contrasted;…

  17. The Early Years: Development, Learning and Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulton-Lewis, Gillian, Ed.; Catherwood, Di, Ed.

    Designed for teachers, students, caregivers, and health professionals who work with children from birth to age 8, this book provides a review of recent research and theories of development and learning in the early childhood years, with an emphasis on implications for effective teaching. Where appropriate, the book takes an Australian perspective,…

  18. EARLY CRANIOFACIAL DEVELOPMENT: LIFE AMONG THE SIGNALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Early Craniofacial Development: Life Among the Signals. Sid Hunter and Keith Ward. Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, US EPA, RTP, NC, 27711

    Haloacetic acids (HAA) are chemicals formed during drinking water disinfection and present in finished tap water. Exposure o...

  19. Affect of Early Life Oxygen Exposure on Proper Lung Development and Response to Respiratory Viral Infections

    PubMed Central

    Domm, William; Misra, Ravi S.; O’Reilly, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Children born preterm often exhibit reduced lung function and increased severity of response to respiratory viruses, suggesting that premature birth has compromised proper development of the respiratory epithelium and innate immune defenses. Increasing evidence suggests that premature birth promotes aberrant lung development likely due to the neonatal oxygen transition occurring before pulmonary development has matured. Given that preterm infants are born at a point of time where their immune system is also still developing, early life oxygen exposure may also be disrupting proper development of innate immunity. Here, we review current literature in hopes of stimulating research that enhances understanding of how the oxygen environment at birth influences lung development and host defense. This knowledge may help identify those children at risk for disease and ideally culminate in the development of novel therapies that improve their health. PMID:26322310

  20. Breastfeeding, parenting, and early cognitive development.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Benjamin G; Forste, Renata

    2014-03-01

    To explain why breastfeeding is associated with children's cognitive development. By using a nationally representative longitudinal survey of early childhood (N = 7500), we examined how breastfeeding practices, the early introduction of solid foods, and putting an infant to bed with a bottle were associated with cognitive development across early childhood. We also explored whether this link can be explained by parenting behaviors and maternal education. There is a positive relationship between predominant breastfeeding for 3 months or more and child reading skills, but this link is the result of cognitively supportive parenting behaviors and greater levels of education among women who predominantly breastfed. We found little-to-no relationship between infant feeding practices and the cognitive development of children with less-educated mothers. Instead, reading to a child every day and being sensitive to a child's development were significant predictors of math and reading readiness outcomes. Although breastfeeding has important benefits in other settings, the encouragement of breastfeeding to promote school readiness does not appear to be a key intervention point. Promoting parenting behaviors that improve child cognitive development may be a more effective and direct strategy for practitioners to adopt, especially for disadvantaged children. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Immunity to airborne challenge with Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus develops rapidly after immunization with the attenuated vaccine strain TC-83.

    PubMed

    Phillpotts, R J

    1999-05-14

    Mice vaccinated subcutaneously with the attenuated vaccine strain of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) rapidly develop immunity to subcutaneous or airborne challenge with virulent VEEV. The specificity of this immune response was demonstrated by challenge with a heterologous virus (St. Louis encephalitis virus). Examination of the levels of VEEV-specific antibody classes in serum and respiratory secretions suggested that the rapid development of immunity was coincident with the appearance of specific IgM and IgG (but not IgA) in the respiratory tract. In order to confirm the role of respiratory tract antibody, mice were passively immunised either intraperitoneally or intranasally with polyclonal VEEV-specific IgG. Intranasal administration of specific IgG significantly enhanced protection against airborne challenge. These results confirm the need to emphasise local antibody production in the development of improved VEEV vaccines.

  2. Immune Response in Microgravity: Genetic Basis and Countermeasure Development Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Risin, Diana; Ward, Nancy E.; Risin, Semyon A.; Pellis, Neal R.

    2006-01-01

    Impairment of the immunity in astronauts and cosmonauts even in shortterm flights is a recognized risk. Longterm orbital space missions and anticipated interplanetary flights increase the concern for more pronounced effects on the immune system with potential clinical consequences. Studies in true and modeled microgravity (MG) have demonstrated that MG directly affects numerous lymphocyte functions. The purpose of this study was to screen for genes involved in lymphocytes response to modeled microgravity (MMG) that could explain the functional and structural changes observed earlier. The microgravity-induced changes in gene expression were analyzed by microarray DNA chip technology. CD3and IL2activated Tcells were cultured in 1g (static) and modeled microgravity (NASA Rotating Wall Vessel bioreactor) conditions for 24 hours. Total RNA was extracted using the RNeasy isolation kit (Qiagen, Valencia, CA). Microarray experiments were performed utilizing Affymetrix Gene Chips (U133A), allowing testing for 18,400 human genes. To decrease the biological variation and aid in detecting microgravity-associated changes, experiments were performed in triplicate using cells obtained from three different donors. Exposure to modeled microgravity resulted in alteration of 89 genes, 10 of which were upregulated and 79 down-regulated. Altered genes were categorized by their function, structural role and by association with metabolic and regulatory pathways. A large proportion was found to be involved in fundamental cellular processes: signal transduction, DNA repair, apoptosis, and multiple metabolic pathways. There was a group of genes directly related to immune and inflammatory responses (IL7R, granulysin, proteasome activator subunit 2, peroxiredoxin 4, HLADRA, lymphocyte antigen 75, IL18R and DOCK2 genes). Among these genes only one (IL7R) was upregulated, the rest were downregulated. The upregulation of the IL7 receptor gene was confirmed by RT PCR. Three genes with altered

  3. Creating sustainable financing and support for immunization programs in fifteen developing countries.

    PubMed

    McQuestion, Michael; Gnawali, Devendra; Kamara, Clifford; Kizza, Diana; Mambu-Ma-Disu, Helene; Mbwangue, Jonas; de Quadros, Ciro

    2011-06-01

    Immunization programs are important tools for reducing child mortality, and they need to be in place for each new generation. However, most national immunization programs in developing countries are financially and organizationally weak, in part because they depend heavily on funding from foreign sources. Through its Sustainable Immunization Financing Program, launched in 2007, the Sabin Vaccine Institute is working with fifteen African and Asian countries to establish stable internal funding for their immunization programs. The Sabin program advocates strengthening immunization programs through budget reforms, decentralization, and legislation. Six of the fifteen countries have increased their national immunization budgets, and nine are preparing legislation to finance immunization sustainably. Lessons from this work with immunization programs may be applicable in other countries as well as to other health programs.

  4. Modified Da Chengqi granules improvement in immune function in early severe acute pancreatitis patients.

    PubMed

    Jiang, D-L; Yang, J; Jiang, S-Y; Yuan, F-L; Gu, Y-L; Li, J-P; Pei, Z-J

    2016-06-24

    We investigated the role of modified Da Chengqi granules in improving immune function in early severe acute pancreatitis patients. Early severe acute pancreatitis patients who agreed to receive combined treatment of traditional Chinese and Western medicine were randomly assigned to the experimental or control group. All subjects received conventional therapy to support organ function. The experimental group also received modified Da Chengqi granules. Cytokine (interleukin-6, interleukin-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α) levels, immunological markers (HLA-DR, Treg, and Th1/Th2), urinary lactulose/mannitol ratio, and endotoxin levels were measured at 1, 3, 7, and 14 days after hospital admission. The total mortality rate was 11.69% (9/77), which was significantly lower in the experimental group [4.88% (2/41)] than in the control group [19.44% (7/36); χ(2) = 3.940, P < 0.05]. Serum interleukin-6, interleukin-10, tumor necrosis factor-α and endotoxin levels and the lactulose/mannitol ratio were significantly lower on day 7 and day 14 than on day 1 in experimental and control groups (P < 0.01). Immunological indices were significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control group on day 14 (all P < 0.01 or 0.05). HLA-DR-positive cell ratio gradually increased over 14 days in experimental and control groups (P < 0.01 vs day 1), but was higher in the experimental group than in the control group by day 14 (P < 0.05). Notably, Treg cell prevalence and Th1/Th2 cell ratio deteriorated within 7 days in both groups (P < 0.01 vs day 1), but then returned to day 1 levels (P < 0.01 or 0.05 vs day 1). Significant differences in Treg levels and Th1/Th2 cell ratio between experimental and control groups were observed on day 14 (P < 0.01). These results show that modified Da Chengqi granules can improve immune function in early severe acute pancreatitis patients.

  5. Nurturing care: promoting early childhood development.

    PubMed

    Britto, Pia R; Lye, Stephen J; Proulx, Kerrie; Yousafzai, Aisha K; Matthews, Stephen G; Vaivada, Tyler; Perez-Escamilla, Rafael; Rao, Nirmala; Ip, Patrick; Fernald, Lia C H; MacMillan, Harriet; Hanson, Mark; Wachs, Theodore D; Yao, Haogen; Yoshikawa, Hirokazu; Cerezo, Adrian; Leckman, James F; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2017-01-07

    The UN Sustainable Development Goals provide a historic opportunity to implement interventions, at scale, to promote early childhood development. Although the evidence base for the importance of early childhood development has grown, the research is distributed across sectors, populations, and settings, with diversity noted in both scope and focus. We provide a comprehensive updated analysis of early childhood development interventions across the five sectors of health, nutrition, education, child protection, and social protection. Our review concludes that to make interventions successful, smart, and sustainable, they need to be implemented as multi-sectoral intervention packages anchored in nurturing care. The recommendations emphasise that intervention packages should be applied at developmentally appropriate times during the life course, target multiple risks, and build on existing delivery platforms for feasibility of scale-up. While interventions will continue to improve with the growth of developmental science, the evidence now strongly suggests that parents, caregivers, and families need to be supported in providing nurturing care and protection in order for young children to achieve their developmental potential. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Early childhood development: putting knowledge into action.

    PubMed

    2000-11-01

    As part of its continuing mission to serve trustees and staff of health foundations and corporate giving programs, Grantmakers In Health (GIH) convened a select group of grantmakers and national experts who have made a major commitment to improve the health and well being of young children. The roundtable explored the latest research examining early childhood development, as well as public and private programs serving families with young children. The discussion ultimately centered upon the importance of grantmaker involvement to improve early childhood development, including the services delivered to young children and their families, training for professionals, and continued research and evaluation. This report brings together key points from the day's discussion with factual information on demographic, health and human services, and public policy trends drawn from a background paper prepared for the meeting. When available, recent findings, facts, and figures have been incorporated.

  7. QCD development in the early universe

    SciT

    Gromov, N. A., E-mail: gromov@dm.komisc.ru

    The high-energy limit of Quantum Chromodynamics is generated by the contraction of its gauge groups. Contraction parameters are taken identical with those of the Electroweak Model and tend to zero when energy increases. At the infinite energy limit all quarks lose masses and have only one color degree of freedom. The limit model represents the development of Quantum Chromodynamics in the early Universe from the Big Bang up to the end of several milliseconds.

  8. Characterization of the early local immune response to Ixodes ricinus tick bites in human skin.

    PubMed

    Glatz, Martin; Means, Terry; Haas, Josef; Steere, Allen C; Müllegger, Robert R

    2017-03-01

    Little is known about the immunomodulation by tick saliva during a natural tick bite in human skin, the site of the tick-host interaction. We examined the expression of chemokines, cytokines and leucocyte markers on the mRNA levels and histopathologic changes in human skin biopsies of tick bites (n=37) compared to unaffected skin (n=9). Early tick-bite skin lesions (<24 hours of tick attachment) were characterized by a predominance of macrophages and dendritic cells, elevated mRNA levels of macrophage chemoattractants (CCL2, CCL3, CCL4) and neutrophil chemoattractants (CXCL1, CXCL8), of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-1β, and the anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-5. In contrast, the numbers of lymphocytes and mRNA levels of lymphocyte cell markers (CD4, CD8, CD19), lymphocyte chemoattractants (CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, CXCL13, CCL1, CCL22), dendritic cell chemoattractants (CCL20), and other pro- (IL-6, IL-12p40, IFN-γ, TNF-α) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, TGF-β) did not differ from normal skin. With longer tick attachment (>24 hours), the numbers of innate immune cells and mediators (not significantly) declined, whereas the numbers of lymphocytes (not significantly) increased. Natural tick bites by Ixodes ricinus ticks initially elicit a strong local innate immune response in human skin. Beyond 24 hours of tick attachment, this response usually becomes less, perhaps because of immunomodulation by tick saliva. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Budesonide and Formoterol Reduce Early Innate Anti-Viral Immune Responses In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Janet M.; Carroll, Melanie L.; Li, Hongzhuo; Poh, Alisa M.; Kirkegard, Darren; Towers, Michelle; Upham, John W.

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory airways disease in which respiratory viral infections frequently trigger exacerbations. Current treatment of asthma with combinations of inhaled corticosteroids and long acting beta2 agonists improves asthma control and reduces exacerbations but what impact this might have on innate anti-viral immunity is unclear. We investigated the in vitro effects of asthma drugs on innate anti-viral immunity. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy and asthmatic donors were cultured for 24 hours with the Toll-like receptor 7 agonist, imiquimod, or rhinovirus 16 (RV16) in the presence of budesonide and/or formoterol. Production of proinflammatory cytokines and expression of anti-viral intracellular signalling molecules were measured by ELISA and RT-PCR respectively. In PBMC from healthy donors, budesonide alone inhibited IP-10 and IL-6 production induced by imiquimod in a concentration-dependent manner and the degree of inhibition was amplified when budesonide and formoterol were used in combination. Formoterol alone had little effect on these parameters, except at high concentrations (10−6 M) when IL-6 production increased. In RV16 stimulated PBMC, the combination of budesonide and formoterol inhibited IFNα and IP-10 production in asthmatic as well as healthy donors. Combination of budesonide and formoterol also inhibited RV16-stimulated expression of the type I IFN induced genes myxovirus protein A and 2′, 5′ oligoadenylate synthetise. Notably, RV16 stimulated lower levels of type Myxovirus A and oligoadenylate synthase in PBMC of asthmatics than control donors. These in vitro studies demonstrate that combinations of drugs commonly used in asthma therapy inhibit both early pro-inflammatory cytokines and key aspects of the type I IFN pathway. These findings suggest that budesonide and formoterol curtail excessive inflammation induced by rhinovirus infections in patients with asthma, but whether this inhibits viral clearance

  10. A novel immune function biomarker identifies patients at risk of clinical events early following liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sood, Siddharth; Haifer, Craig; Yu, Lijia; Pavlovic, Julie; Churilov, Leonid; Gow, Paul J; Jones, Robert M; Angus, Peter W; Visvanathan, Kumar; Testro, Adam G

    2017-04-01

    Balancing immunosuppression after liver transplant is difficult, with clinical events common. We investigate whether a novel immune biomarker based on a laboratory platform with widespread availability that measures interferon γ (IFNγ) after stimulation with a lyophilized ball containing an adaptive and innate immune stimulant can predict events following transplantation. A total of 75 adult transplant recipients were prospectively monitored in a blinded, observational study; 55/75 (73.3%) patients experienced a total of 89 clinical events. Most events occurred within the first month. Low week 1 results were significantly associated with risk of early infection (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUROC], 0.74; P = 0.008). IFNγ ≤ 1.30 IU/mL (likelihood ratio positive, 1.93; sensitivity, 71.4%; specificity, 63.0%) was associated with the highest risk for infection with minimal rejection risk. Nearly half the cohort (27/60, 45.0%) expressed IFNγ ≤ 1.30 IU/mL. Moreover, an elevated week 1 result was significantly associated with the risk of rejection within the first month after transplant (AUROC, 0.77; P = 0.002), but no episodes of infection. On multivariate logistic regression, IFNγ ≥ 4.49 IU/mL (odds ratio, 4.75) may be an independent predictor of rejection (P = 0.05). In conclusion, low IFNγ suggesting oversuppression is associated with infections, whereas high IFNγ indicating undersuppression is associated with rejection. This assay offers the potential to allow individualization and optimization of immunosuppression that could fundamentally alter the way patients are managed following transplantation. Liver Transplantation 23 487-497 2017 AASLD. © 2017 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  11. Whole-Killed Blood-Stage Vaccine-Induced Immunity Suppresses the Development of Malaria Parasites in Mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Feng; Liu, Taiping; Zhao, Chenhao; Lu, Xiao; Zhang, Jian; Xu, Wenyue

    2017-01-01

    As a malaria transmission-blocking vaccine alone does not confer a direct benefit to the recipient, it is necessary to develop a vaccine that not only blocks malaria transmission but also protects vaccinated individuals. In this study we observed that a whole-killed blood-stage vaccine (WKV) not only conferred protection against the blood-stage challenge but also markedly inhibited the transmission of different strains of the malaria parasite. Although the parasitemia is much lower in WKV-immunized mice challenged with malaria parasites, the gametocytemia is comparable between control and immunized mice during the early stages of infection. The depletion of CD4 + T cells prior to the adoptive transfer of parasites into WKV-immunized mice has no effect on the development of the malaria parasite in the mosquito, but the adoptive transfer of the serum from the immunized mice into the parasite-inoculated mice remarkably suppresses the development of malaria parasites in mosquitoes. Furthermore, immunized mice challenged with the malaria parasite generate higher levels of parasite-specific Abs and the inflammatory cytokines MCP-1 and IFN-γ. However, the adoptive transfer of parasite-specific IgG or the depletion of MCP-1, but not IFN-γ, to some extent is closely associated with the suppression of malaria parasite development in mosquitoes. These data strongly suggest that WKV-induced immune responses confer protection against the mosquito stage, which is largely dependent on malaria parasite-specific Abs and MCP-1. This finding sheds new light on blocking malaria transmission through the immunization of individuals with the WKV. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  12. Human immunization in developing countries: practical and theoretical problems and prospects.

    PubMed

    Arya, S C

    1994-11-01

    While measles, pertussis and tetanus were responsible during the early 1990s for nearly two million deaths in developing countries, no deaths were attributable to them in industrialized countries. More than 96% of global deaths by communicable diseases were also from developing countries. Respiratory infections ranked first in communicable morbidity at all ages. Even though vaccines of bacterial or viral origin or a prophylactic for passive immunization are produced in 24, 16 and 15 developing countries, respectively, none of the developing countries manufactures a plasma-derived prophylactic or biological response modifier. Nearly every country relies on import of one or more vaccines. The suboptimal performance of otherwise meritorious products has been due to faulty vaccine administration practices. Expanding populations, poverty and lack of education, cold-chain defects, and inadequate facilities for transport of vaccines to target populations in remote areas have been responsible for the poor performance of vaccines in the community. Mounting foreign debts and budgetary strains resulting from the care and prevention of AIDS/HIV have considerably strained national and international efforts to offer routine vaccinations in childhood and pregnancy. This dismal situation could be tackled through research to obtain environmentally stable products for prophylactic use and monoclonal antibody formulations for passive immunization, and through international financial and technical support. All countries should exercise some technical control of the quality of imported and indigenous vaccines during their use for curative or prophylactic purposes. The involvement of private clinicians in immunizations would strengthen national efforts for control of communicable diseases including AIDS, but this is not enough if the local factors cited above are not improved.

  13. Ebola virus: immune mechanisms of protection and vaccine development.

    PubMed

    Nyamathi, Adeline M; Fahey, John L; Sands, Heather; Casillas, Adrian M

    2003-04-01

    Vaccination is one of our most powerful antiviral strategies. Despite the emergence of deadly viruses such as Ebola virus, vaccination efforts have focused mainly on childhood communicable diseases. Although Ebola virus was once believed to be limited to isolated outbreaks in distant lands, forces of globalization potentiate outbreaks anywhere in the world through incidental transmission. Moreover, since this virus has already been transformed into weapon-grade material, the potential exists for it to be used as a biological weapon with catastrophic consequences for any population vulnerable to attack. Ebola hemorrhagic fever (EHF) is a syndrome that can rapidly lead to death within days of symptom onset. The disease directly affects the immune system and vascular bed, with correspondingly high mortality rates. Patients with severe disease produce dangerously high levels of inflammatory cytokines, which destroy normal tissue and microcirculation, leading to profound capillary leakage, renal failure, and disseminated intravascular coagulation. Vaccine development has been fraught with obstacles, primarily of a biosafety nature. Case reports of acutely ill patients with EHF showing improvement with the transfusion of convalescent plasma are at odds with animal studies demonstrating further viral replication with the same treatment. Using mRNA extracted from bone marrow of Ebola survivors, human monoclonal antibodies against Ebola virus surface protein have been experimentally produced and now raise the hope for the development of a safe vaccine.

  14. Life history linked to immune investment in developing amphibians.

    PubMed

    Woodhams, Douglas C; Bell, Sara C; Bigler, Laurent; Caprioli, Richard M; Chaurand, Pierre; Lam, Brianna A; Reinert, Laura K; Stalder, Urs; Vazquez, Victoria M; Schliep, Klaus; Hertz, Andreas; Rollins-Smith, Louise A

    2016-01-01

    The broad diversity of amphibian developmental strategies has been shaped, in part, by pathogen pressure, yet trade-offs between the rate of larval development and immune investment remain poorly understood. The expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in skin secretions is a crucial defense against emerging amphibian pathogens and can also indirectly affect host defense by influencing the composition of skin microbiota. We examined the constitutive or induced expression of AMPs in 17 species at multiple life-history stages. We found that AMP defenses in tadpoles of species with short larval periods (fast pace of life) were reduced in comparison with species that overwinter as tadpoles and grow to a large size. A complete set of defensive peptides emerged soon after metamorphosis. These findings support the hypothesis that species with a slow pace of life invest energy in AMP production to resist potential pathogens encountered during the long larval period, whereas species with a fast pace of life trade this investment in defense for more rapid growth and development.

  15. Psoriasis pathogenesis and the development of novel targeted immune therapies.

    PubMed

    Hawkes, Jason E; Chan, Tom C; Krueger, James G

    2017-09-01

    Psoriasis is caused by a complex interplay between the immune system, psoriasis-associated susceptibility loci, autoantigens, and multiple environmental factors. Over the last 2 decades, research has unequivocally shown that psoriasis represents a bona fide T cell-mediated disease primarily driven by pathogenic T cells that produce high levels of IL-17 in response to IL-23. The discovery of the central role for the IL-23/type 17 T-cell axis in the development of psoriasis has led to a major paradigm shift in the pathogenic model for this condition. The activation and upregulation of IL-17 in prepsoriatic skin produces a "feed forward" inflammatory response in keratinocytes that is self-amplifying and drives the development of mature psoriatic plaques by inducing epidermal hyperplasia, epidermal cell proliferation, and recruitment of leukocyte subsets into the skin. Clinical trial data for mAbs against IL-17 signaling (secukinumab, ixekizumab, and brodalumab) and newer IL-23p19 antagonists (tildrakizumab, guselkumab, and risankizumab) underscore the central role of these cytokines as predominant drivers of psoriatic disease. Currently, we are witnessing a translational revolution in the treatment and management of psoriasis. Emerging bispecific antibodies offer the potential for even better disease control, whereas small-molecule drugs offer future alternatives to the use of biologics and less costly long-term disease management. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Early colonial health developments in Mauritius.

    PubMed

    Parahoo, K A

    1986-01-01

    The historical development of Mauritius and in particular the early developments in health care are crucial to an understanding of the contemporary health system. The introduction of major epidemic diseases through the movements of French soldiers to and from India and the immigration of indentured laborers from India account for the high mortality and morbidity rates in the 18th and 19th centuries and later. The colonial economy created and fortified the dependence on a single cash crop and on imported food. It also contributed toward the impoverization of large sections of the Mauritian population. The colonial era is also responsible for initiating a three tier system of health care.

  17. CD14 and TLR4 are expressed early in tammar (Macropus eugenii) neonate development.

    PubMed

    Daly, Kerry A; Lefévre, Christophe; Nicholas, Kevin; Deane, Elizabeth; Williamson, Peter

    2008-04-01

    Marsupials are born in a relatively underdeveloped state and develop during a period of intensive maturation in the postnatal period. During this period, the young marsupial lacks a competent immune system, but manages to survive despite the potential of exposure to environmental pathogens. Passive immune transfer via the milk is one well-recognised strategy to compensate the neonate, but there also may be innate immune mechanisms in place. In this study, CD14 and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), integral molecular components of pathogen recognition, were identified and characterised for the first time in a marsupial, the tammar wallaby (Macropus eugenii). Functional motifs of tammar CD14 and the toll/interleukin receptor (TIR) domain of TLR4 were highly conserved. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) binding residues and the TLR4 interaction site of CD14 were conserved in all marsupials. The TIR signalling domain had 84% identity within marsupials and 77% with eutherians. Stimulation of adult tammar leukocytes resulted in the induction of a biphasic pattern of CD14 and TLR4 expression, and coincided with increased production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha. Differential patterns of expression of CD14 and TLR4 were observed in tammar pouch young early in development, suggesting that early maturation of the innate immune system in these animals may have developed as an immune survival strategy to protect the marsupial neonate from exposure to microbial pathogens.

  18. Developing Coping Skills in Early Childhood: Theory and Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forquer, Sandra L.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses techniques that child care workers can utilize to foster the development of coping skills in young children. Emphasizes the difference between psychological immunity to stress based on problem-solving abilities and pseudo-immunity created by overprotectiveness. Holds that challenges build children's competence and self-esteem.…

  19. Overcoming challenges to sustainable immunization financing: early experiences from GAVI graduating countries

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Robert; Kaddar, Miloud; Schmitt, Sarah; Ryckman, Theresa; Cornejo, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    Over the 5-year period ending in 2018, 16 countries with a combined birth cohort of over 6 million infants requiring life-saving immunizations are scheduled to transition (graduate) from outside financial and technical support for a number of their essential vaccines. This support has been provided over the past decade by the GAVI Alliance. Will these 16 countries be able to continue to sustain these vaccination efforts? To address this issue, GAVI and its partners are supporting transition planning, entailing country assessments of readiness to graduate and intensive dialogue with national officials to ensure a smooth transition process. This approach was piloted in Bhutan, Republic of Congo, Georgia, Moldova and Mongolia in 2012. The pilot showed that graduating countries are highly heterogeneous in their capacity to assume responsibility for their immunization programmes. Although all possess certain strengths, each country displayed weaknesses in some of the following areas: budgeting for vaccine purchase, national procurement practices, performance of national regulatory agencies, and technical capacity for vaccine planning and advocacy. The 2012 pilot experience further demonstrated the value of transition planning processes and tools. As a result, GAVI has decided to continue with transition planning in 2013 and beyond. As the graduation process advances, GAVI and graduating countries should continue to contribute to global collective thinking about how developing countries can successfully end their dependence on donor aid and achieve self-sufficiency. PMID:24510369

  20. Overcoming challenges to sustainable immunization financing: early experiences from GAVI graduating countries.

    PubMed

    Saxenian, Helen; Hecht, Robert; Kaddar, Miloud; Schmitt, Sarah; Ryckman, Theresa; Cornejo, Santiago

    2015-03-01

    Over the 5-year period ending in 2018, 16 countries with a combined birth cohort of over 6 million infants requiring life-saving immunizations are scheduled to transition (graduate) from outside financial and technical support for a number of their essential vaccines. This support has been provided over the past decade by the GAVI Alliance. Will these 16 countries be able to continue to sustain these vaccination efforts? To address this issue, GAVI and its partners are supporting transition planning, entailing country assessments of readiness to graduate and intensive dialogue with national officials to ensure a smooth transition process. This approach was piloted in Bhutan, Republic of Congo, Georgia, Moldova and Mongolia in 2012. The pilot showed that graduating countries are highly heterogeneous in their capacity to assume responsibility for their immunization programmes. Although all possess certain strengths, each country displayed weaknesses in some of the following areas: budgeting for vaccine purchase, national procurement practices, performance of national regulatory agencies, and technical capacity for vaccine planning and advocacy. The 2012 pilot experience further demonstrated the value of transition planning processes and tools. As a result, GAVI has decided to continue with transition planning in 2013 and beyond. As the graduation process advances, GAVI and graduating countries should continue to contribute to global collective thinking about how developing countries can successfully end their dependence on donor aid and achieve self-sufficiency. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2014; all rights reserved.

  1. Psychoneuroimmunology in Pregnancy: Immune Pathways Linking Stress with Maternal Health, Adverse Birth Outcomes, and Fetal Development

    PubMed Central

    Christian, Lisa M.

    2011-01-01

    It is well-established that psychological stress promotes immune dysregulation in nonpregnant humans and animals. Stress promotes inflammation, impairs antibody responses to vaccination, slows wound healing, and suppresses cell-mediated immune function. Importantly, the immune system changes substantially to support healthy pregnancy, with attenuation of inflammatory responses and impairment of cell-mediated immunity. This adaptation is postulated to protect the fetus from rejection by the maternal immune system. Thus, stress-induced immune dysregulation during pregnancy has unique implications for both maternal and fetal health, particularly preterm birth. However, very limited research has examined stress-immune relationships in pregnancy. The application of psychoneuroimmunology research models to the perinatal period holds great promise for elucidating biological pathways by which stress may affect adverse pregnancy outcomes, maternal health, and fetal development. PMID:21787802

  2. Breastmilk-Saliva Interactions Boost Innate Immunity by Regulating the Oral Microbiome in Early Infancy

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shehri, Saad S.; Knox, Christine L.; Liley, Helen G.; Cowley, David M.; Wright, John R.; Henman, Michael G.; Hewavitharana, Amitha K.; Charles, Bruce G.; Shaw, Paul N.; Sweeney, Emma L.; Duley, John A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Xanthine oxidase (XO) is distributed in mammals largely in the liver and small intestine, but also is highly active in milk where it generates hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Adult human saliva is low in hypoxanthine and xanthine, the substrates of XO, and high in the lactoperoxidase substrate thiocyanate, but saliva of neonates has not been examined. Results Median concentrations of hypoxanthine and xanthine in neonatal saliva (27 and 19 μM respectively) were ten-fold higher than in adult saliva (2.1 and 1.7 μM). Fresh breastmilk contained 27.3±12.2 μM H2O2 but mixing baby saliva with breastmilk additionally generated >40 μM H2O2, sufficient to inhibit growth of the opportunistic pathogens Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp. Oral peroxidase activity in neonatal saliva was variable but low (median 7 U/L, range 2–449) compared to adults (620 U/L, 48–1348), while peroxidase substrate thiocyanate in neonatal saliva was surprisingly high. Baby but not adult saliva also contained nucleosides and nucleobases that encouraged growth of the commensal bacteria Lactobacillus, but inhibited opportunistic pathogens; these nucleosides/bases may also promote growth of immature gut cells. Transition from neonatal to adult saliva pattern occurred during the weaning period. A survey of saliva from domesticated mammals revealed wide variation in nucleoside/base patterns. Discussion and Conclusion During breast-feeding, baby saliva reacts with breastmilk to produce reactive oxygen species, while simultaneously providing growth-promoting nucleotide precursors. Milk thus plays more than a simply nutritional role in mammals, interacting with infant saliva to produce a potent combination of stimulatory and inhibitory metabolites that regulate early oral–and hence gut–microbiota. Consequently, milk-saliva mixing appears to represent unique biochemical synergism which boosts early innate immunity. PMID:26325665

  3. Maternal immune activation alters fetal brain development through interleukin-6.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stephen E P; Li, Jennifer; Garbett, Krassimira; Mirnics, Karoly; Patterson, Paul H

    2007-10-03

    Schizophrenia and autism are thought to result from the interaction between a susceptibility genotype and environmental risk factors. The offspring of women who experience infection while pregnant have an increased risk for these disorders. Maternal immune activation (MIA) in pregnant rodents produces offspring with abnormalities in behavior, histology, and gene expression that are reminiscent of schizophrenia and autism, making MIA a useful model of the disorders. However, the mechanism by which MIA causes long-term behavioral deficits in the offspring is unknown. Here we show that the cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) is critical for mediating the behavioral and transcriptional changes in the offspring. A single maternal injection of IL-6 on day 12.5 of mouse pregnancy causes prepulse inhibition (PPI) and latent inhibition (LI) deficits in the adult offspring. Moreover, coadministration of an anti-IL-6 antibody in the poly(I:C) model of MIA prevents the PPI, LI, and exploratory and social deficits caused by poly(I:C) and normalizes the associated changes in gene expression in the brains of adult offspring. Finally, MIA in IL-6 knock-out mice does not result in several of the behavioral changes seen in the offspring of wild-type mice after MIA. The identification of IL-6 as a key intermediary should aid in the molecular dissection of the pathways whereby MIA alters fetal brain development, which can shed new light on the pathophysiological mechanisms that predispose to schizophrenia and autism.

  4. Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia and Indicators of Early Immune Stimulation: A Childhood Leukemia International Consortium Study

    PubMed Central

    Rudant, Jérémie; Lightfoot, Tracy; Urayama, Kevin Y.; Petridou, Eleni; Dockerty, John D.; Magnani, Corrado; Milne, Elizabeth; Spector, Logan G.; Ashton, Lesley J.; Dessypris, Nikolaos; Kang, Alice Y.; Miller, Margaret; Rondelli, Roberto; Simpson, Jill; Stiakaki, Eftichia; Orsi, Laurent; Roman, Eve; Metayer, Catherine; Infante-Rivard, Claire; Clavel, Jacqueline

    2015-01-01

    The associations between childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and several proxies of early stimulation of the immune system, that is, day-care center attendance, birth order, maternally reported common infections in infancy, and breastfeeding, were investigated by using data from 11 case-control studies participating in the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium (enrollment period: 1980–2010). The sample included 7,399 ALL cases and 11,181 controls aged 2–14 years. The data were collected by questionnaires administered to the parents. Pooled odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by unconditional logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, study, maternal education, and maternal age. Day-care center attendance in the first year of life was associated with a reduced risk of ALL (odds ratio = 0.77, 95% confidence interval: 0.71, 0.84), with a marked inverse trend with earlier age at start (P < 0.0001). An inverse association was also observed with breastfeeding duration of 6 months or more (odds ratio = 0.86, 95% confidence interval: 0.79, 0.94). No significant relationship with a history of common infections in infancy was observed even though the odds ratio was less than 1 for more than 3 infections. The findings of this large pooled analysis reinforce the hypothesis that day-care center attendance in infancy and prolonged breastfeeding are associated with a decreased risk of ALL. PMID:25731888

  5. Successful early romiplostim use in a case of severe immune thrombocytopenia with critical carotid arterial injury.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Reiko; Tabayashi, Takayuki; Tomikawa, Tatsuki; Sagawa, Morihiko; Anan-Nemoto, Tomoe; Kimura, Yuta; Takahashi, Yasuyuki; Tokuhira, Michihide; Otaki, Satoshi; Oi, Hidenori; Sawano, Makoto; Sugiyama, Satoshi; Kizaki, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    Thrombopoietin receptor (TPO-R) agonists have been shown to be effective in refractory chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP); however, their efficacy in patients under critical care is not known. We report the case of a female patient with a newly diagnosed ITP who experienced severe bleeding from an external wound. The patient was administered the standard treatments for ITP, which are high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) and corticosteroids. However, following failure of these treatments, we administered romiplostim on day 6 after the onset of ITP. On day 6 after the initiation of romiplostim, there was improvement in platelet count and bleeding tendency. We were subsequently able to perform a splenectomy successfully. The efficacy of TPO-R agonists in ITP has been reported in several situations, including before surgery in an ITP patient; however, the use of TPO-R for arterial bleeding with shock has not been reported. To our knowledge, the present article is a rare case report of the use of a TPO-R agonist in a patient with critical artery injury. Our data suggest that the early use of romiplostim is effective in emergency cases of newly diagnosed ITP with life-threatening bleeding, which is refractory to standard treatment.

  6. Pharmacogenomics in early-phase clinical development

    PubMed Central

    Burt, Tal; Dhillon, Savita

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacogenomics (PGx) offers the promise of utilizing genetic fingerprints to predict individual responses to drugs in terms of safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetics. Early-phase clinical trial PGx applications can identify human genome variations that are meaningful to study design, selection of participants, allocation of resources and clinical research ethics. Results can inform later-phase study design and pipeline developmental decisions. Nevertheless, our review of the clinicaltrials.gov database demonstrates that PGx is rarely used by drug developers. Of the total 323 trials that included PGx as an outcome, 80% have been conducted by academic institutions after initial regulatory approval. Barriers for the application of PGx are discussed. We propose a framework for the role of PGx in early-phase drug development and recommend PGx be universally considered in study design, result interpretation and hypothesis generation for later-phase studies, but PGx results from underpowered studies should not be used by themselves to terminate drug-development programs. PMID:23837482

  7. The developing hypopharyngeal microbiota in early life.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Martin Steen; Brejnrod, Asker Daniel; Roggenbuck, Michael; Abu Al-Soud, Waleed; Balle, Christina; Krogfelt, Karen Angeliki; Stokholm, Jakob; Thorsen, Jonathan; Waage, Johannes; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Bisgaard, Hans; Sørensen, Søren Johannes

    2016-12-30

    The airways of healthy humans harbor a distinct microbial community. Perturbations in the microbial community have been associated with disease, yet little is known about the formation and development of a healthy airway microbiota in early life. Our goal was to understand the establishment of the airway microbiota within the first 3 months of life. We investigated the hypopharyngeal microbiota in the unselected COPSAC 2010 cohort of 700 infants, using 16S rRNA gene sequencing of hypopharyngeal aspirates from 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months of age. Our analysis shows that majority of the hypopharyngeal microbiota of healthy infants belong to each individual's core microbiota and we demonstrate five distinct community pneumotypes. Four of these pneumotypes are dominated by the genera Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Moraxella, and Corynebacterium, respectively. Furthermore, we show temporal pneumotype changes suggesting a rapid development towards maturation of the hypopharyngeal microbiota and a significant effect from older siblings. Despite an overall common trajectory towards maturation, individual infants' microbiota are more similar to their own, than to others, over time. Our findings demonstrate a consolidation of the population of indigenous bacteria in healthy airways and indicate distinct trajectories in the early development of the hypopharyngeal microbiota.

  8. Pathophysiology of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus disease in rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri): early changes in blood and aspects of the immune Response after Injection of IHN Virus

    Amend, Donald F.; Smith, Lynnwood

    1974-01-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were injected with infectious hematopoietic necrosis (IHN) virus and various hematological and blood chemical changes were monitored over 9 days. The packed cell volume, hemoglobin, red blood cell count, and plasma bicarbonate were significantly depressed by day 4. Plasma chloride, calcium, phosphorus, total protein, and blood cell types did not change during the 9 days. Furthermore, plasma  LDH isozyme was significantly increased by the fourth day, and fish infected with infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, Vibrio anguillarum, Aeromonas salmonicida, and redmouth bacterium did not show specific LDH isozyme alterations. Acid-base alterations occurred at 10 C but not at 18 C. The acid-base imbalance and elevation of the  LDH isozyme were consistently associated with the early development of the disease.The immune response after injection of IHN virus was determined and protection from disease was tested by passive immunization. Actively immunized fish developed IHN-neutralizing antibodies within 54 days after injection of virus, and the antibodies were protective when juvenile fish were passively immunized and experimentally challenged with IHN virus.

  9. Early androgen exposure and human gender development.

    PubMed

    Hines, Melissa; Constantinescu, Mihaela; Spencer, Debra

    2015-01-01

    During early development, testosterone plays an important role in sexual differentiation of the mammalian brain and has enduring influences on behavior. Testosterone exerts these influences at times when the testes are active, as evidenced by higher concentrations of testosterone in developing male than in developing female animals. This article critically reviews the available evidence regarding influences of testosterone on human gender-related development. In humans, testosterone is elevated in males from about weeks 8 to 24 of gestation and then again during early postnatal development. Individuals exposed to atypical concentrations of testosterone or other androgenic hormones prenatally, for example, because of genetic conditions or because their mothers were prescribed hormones during pregnancy, have been consistently found to show increased male-typical juvenile play behavior, alterations in sexual orientation and gender identity (the sense of self as male or female), and increased tendencies to engage in physically aggressive behavior. Studies of other behavioral outcomes following dramatic androgen abnormality prenatally are either too small in their numbers or too inconsistent in their results, to provide similarly conclusive evidence. Studies relating normal variability in testosterone prenatally to subsequent gender-related behavior have produced largely inconsistent results or have yet to be independently replicated. For studies of prenatal exposures in typically developing individuals, testosterone has been measured in single samples of maternal blood or amniotic fluid. These techniques may not be sufficiently powerful to consistently detect influences of testosterone on behavior, particularly in the relatively small samples that have generally been studied. The postnatal surge in testosterone in male infants, sometimes called mini-puberty, may provide a more accessible opportunity for measuring early androgen exposure during typical development. This

  10. Unique aspects of the perinatal immune system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoming; Zhivaki, Dania; Lo-Man, Richard

    2017-08-01

    The early stages of life are associated with increased susceptibility to infection, which is in part due to an ineffective immune system. In the context of infection, the immune system must be stimulated to provide efficient protection while avoiding insufficient or excessive activation. Yet, in early life, age-dependent immune regulation at molecular and cellular levels contributes to a reduced immunological fitness in terms of pathogen clearance and response to vaccines. To enable microbial colonization to be tolerated at birth, epigenetic immune cell programming and early life-specific immune regulatory and effector mechanisms ensure that vital functions and organ development are supported and that tissue damage is avoided. Advancement in our understanding of age-related remodelling of immune networks and the consequent tuning of immune responsiveness will open up new possibilities for immune intervention and vaccine strategies that are designed specifically for early life.

  11. Recent insights into brassinosteroid signaling in plants: its dual control of plant immunity and stomatal development.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiangpei; Pan, Jiaowen; Cai, Guohua; Li, Dequan

    2012-11-01

    Brassinosteroid (BR) signaling, plant innate immunity, and stomatal developments are three pathways that are initiated by receptor-like kinases. This commentary focuses on the latest findings in the role of BR signaling in plant immunity and stomatal development that provide some insight into the molecular mechanism of the BR signal pathway interacting with other receptor signaling pathways.

  12. An immune reaction may be necessary for cancer development.

    PubMed

    Prehn, Richmond T

    2006-02-03

    The hypothesis of immunosurveillance suggests that new neoplasms arise very frequently, but most are destroyed almost at their inception by an immune response. Its correctness has been debated for many years. In its support, it has been shown that the incidences of many tumor types, though apparently not all, tend to be increased in immunodeficient animals or humans, but this observation does not end the debate. There is an alternative to the surveillance hypothesis; numerous studies have shown that the effect of an immune reaction on a tumor is biphasic. For each tumor, there is some quantitatively low level of immune reaction that, relative to no reaction, is facilitating, perhaps even necessary for the tumor's growth in vivo. The optimum level of this facilitating reaction may often be less than the level of immunity that the tumor might engender in a normal subject. The failure of a tumor to grow as well in the normal as it does in the immunosuppressed host is probably not caused by a lack of tumor-cell killing in the suppressed host. Instead, the higher level of immune response in a normal animal, even if it does not rise to tumor-inhibitory levels, probably gives less positive support to tumor growth. This seems more than a semantic distinction.

  13. An immune reaction may be necessary for cancer development

    PubMed Central

    Prehn, Richmond T

    2006-01-01

    Background The hypothesis of immunosurveillance suggests that new neoplasms arise very frequently, but most are destroyed almost at their inception by an immune response. Its correctness has been debated for many years. In its support, it has been shown that the incidences of many tumor types, though apparently not all, tend to be increased in immunodeficient animals or humans, but this observation does not end the debate. Alternative model There is an alternative to the surveillance hypothesis; numerous studies have shown that the effect of an immune reaction on a tumor is biphasic. For each tumor, there is some quantitatively low level of immune reaction that, relative to no reaction, is facilitating, perhaps even necessary for the tumor's growth in vivo. The optimum level of this facilitating reaction may often be less than the level of immunity that the tumor might engender in a normal subject. Conclusion The failure of a tumor to grow as well in the normal as it does in the immunosuppressed host is probably not caused by a lack of tumor-cell killing in the suppressed host. Instead, the higher level of immune response in a normal animal, even if it does not rise to tumor-inhibitory levels, probably gives less positive support to tumor growth. This seems more than a semantic distinction. PMID:16457723

  14. The development of acquired immunity to tapeworms and progress towards active immunization, with special reference to Echinococcus spp

    PubMed Central

    Gemmell, M. A.; Soulsby, E. J. L.

    1968-01-01

    An assessment is made of the present state of knowledge on acquired immune responses developed by the intermediate and definitive hosts to tapeworm infections. From this evaluation, some gaps in knowledge and some of the problems associated with the development of practical immunization techniques are described. The principal conclusion reached is that absolute resistance to the larval stage can be acquired and resistance to a number of cestode species can be artificially induced in a number of hosts. Thus, research directed towards isolation and characterization of the functional antigens may lead to the development of vaccines for use in public health programmes, such as for the control of echinococcosis, as well as for improving the present status of meat hygiene in regions where cysticercosis, for example, exists. PMID:4883063

  15. Supplementation of fructooligosaccharides to suckling piglets affects intestinal microbiota colonization and immune development.

    PubMed

    Schokker, Dirkjan; Fledderus, Jan; Jansen, Rutger; Vastenhouw, Stephanie A; de Bree, Freddy M; Smits, Mari A; Jansman, Alfons A J M

    2018-06-04

    Emerging knowledge shows the importance of early life events in programming the intestinal mucosal immune system and development of the intestinal barrier function. These processes depend heavily on close interactions between gut microbiota and host cells in the intestinal mucosa. In turn, development of the intestinal microbiota is largely dependent on available nutrients required for the specific microbial community structures to expand. It is currently not known what the specificities are of intestinal microbial community structures in relation to the programming of the intestinal mucosal immune system and development of the intestinal barrier function. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of a nutritional intervention on intestinal development of suckling piglets by daily oral administration of fructooligosaccharides (FOS) over a period of 12 d (days 2-14 of age). At the microbiota community level, a clear "bifidogenic" effect of the FOS administration was observed in the colon digesta at day 14. The former, however, did not translate into significant changes of local gene expression in the colonic mucosa. In the jejunum, significant changes were observed for microbiota composition at day 14, and microbiota diversity at day 25. In addition, significant differentially expressed gene sets in mucosal tissues of the jejunum were identified at both days 14 and 25 of age. At the age of 14 d, a lower activity of cell cycle-related processes and a higher activity of extracellular matrix processes were observed in the jejunal mucosa of piglets supplemented with FOS compared with control piglets. At day 25, the lower activity of immune-related processes in jejunal tissue was seen in piglets supplemented with FOS. Villi height and crypt depth in the jejunum were significantly different at day 25 between the experimental and control groups, where piglets supplemented with FOS had greater villi and deeper crypts. We conclude that oral FOS

  16. Independent and interactive effects of immune activation and larval diet on adult immune function, growth and development in the greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella).

    PubMed

    Kangassalo, Katariina; Valtonen, Terhi M; Sorvari, Jouni; Kecko, Sanita; Pölkki, Mari; Krams, Indrikis; Krama, Tatjana; Rantala, Markus J

    2018-06-29

    Organisms in the wild are likely to face multiple immune challenges as well as additional ecological stressors, yet their interactive effects on immune function are poorly understood. Insects are found to respond to cues of increased infection risk by enhancing their immune capacity. However, such adaptive plasticity in immune function may be limited by physiological and environmental constraints. Here, we investigated the effects of two environmental stressors - poor larval diet and an artificial parasite-like immune challenge at the pupal stage - on adult immune function, growth and development in the greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella). Males whose immune system was activated with an artificial parasite-like immune challenge had weaker immune response - measured as strength of encapsulation response - as adults compared to the control groups, but only when raised in high-nutrition larval diet. Immune activation did not negatively affect adult immune response in males reared in low-nutrition larval diet, indicating that poor larval diet improved the capacity of the insects to respond to repeated immune challenges. Low-nutrition larval diet also had a positive independent effect on immune capacity in females, yet it negatively affected development time and adult body mass in both sexes. As in the nature immune challenges are rarely isolated, and adverse nutritional environment may indicate an elevated risk of infection, resilience to repeated immune challenges as a response to poor nutritional environment could provide a significant fitness advantage. The present study highlights the importance of considering environmental context when investigating effects of immune activation in insects. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Early Literacy and Early Numeracy: The Value of Including Early Literacy Skills in the Prediction of Numeracy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purpura, David J.; Hume, Laura E.; Sims, Darcey M.; Lonigan, Cristopher J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether early literacy skills uniquely predict early numeracy skills development. During the first year of the study, 69 3- to 5-year-old preschoolers were assessed on the Preschool Early Numeracy Skills (PENS) test and the Test of Preschool Early Literacy Skills (TOPEL). Participants were assessed again a…

  18. A tetravalent alphavirus-vector based Dengue vaccine provides effective immunity in an early life mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Syed Muaz; Tonkin, Daniel R.; Mattocks, Melissa D.; Snead, Andrew T.; Johnston, Robert E.; White, Laura J.

    2014-01-01

    Dengue viruses (DENV1-4) cause 390 million clinical infections every year, several hundred thousand of which progress to severe hemorrhagic and shock syndromes. Preexisting immunity resulting from a previous DENV infection is the major risk factor for severe dengue during secondary heterologous infections. During primary infections in infants, maternal antibodies pose an analogous risk. At the same time, maternal antibodies are likely to prevent induction of endogenous anti-DENV antibodies in response to current live, attenuated virus (LAV) vaccine candidates. Any effective early life dengue vaccine has to overcome maternal antibody interference (leading to ineffective vaccination) and poor induction of antibody responses (increasing the risk of severe dengue disease upon primary infection). In a previous study, we demonstrated that a non-propagating Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus replicon expression vector (VRP), expressing the ectodomain of DENV E protein (E85), overcomes maternal interference in a BALB/c mouse model. We report here that a single immunization with a tetravalent VRP vaccine induced NAb and T-cell responses to each serotype at a level equivalent to the monovalent vaccine components, suggesting that this vaccine modality can overcome serotype interference. Furthermore, neonatal immunization was durable and could be boosted later in life to further increase NAb and T-cell responses. Although the neonatal immune response was lower in magnitude than responses in adult BALB/c mice, we demonstrate that VRP vaccines generated protective immunity from a lethal challenge after a single neonatal immunization. In summary, VRP vaccines expressing DENV antigens were immunogenic and protective in neonates, and hence are promising candidates for safe and effective vaccination in early life. PMID:24882043

  19. Early intestinal growth and development in poultry.

    PubMed

    Lilburn, M S; Loeffler, S

    2015-07-01

    While there are many accepted "facts" within the field of poultry science that are in truth still open for discussion, there is little debate with respect to the tremendous genetic progress that has been made with commercial broilers and turkeys (Havenstein et al., 2003, 2007). When one considers the changes in carcass development in poultry meat strains, these genetic "improvements" have not always been accompanied by correlated changes in other physiological systems and this can predispose some birds to developmental anomalies (i.e. ascites; Pavlidis et al., 2007; Wideman et al., 2013). Over the last decade, there has been increased interest in intestinal growth/health as poultry nutritionists have attempted to adopt new approaches to deal with the broader changes in the overall nutrition landscape. This landscape includes not only the aforementioned genetic changes but also a raft of governmental policies that have focused attention on the environment (phosphorus and nitrogen excretion), consumer pressure on the use of antibiotics, and renewable biofuels with its consequent effects on ingredient costs. Intestinal morphology has become a common research tool for assessing nutritional effects on the intestine but it is only one metric among many that can be used and histological results can often be interpreted in a variety of ways. This study will address the broader body of research on intestinal growth and development in commercial poultry and will attempt to integrate the topics of the intestinal: microbial interface and the role of the intestine as an immune tissue under the broad umbrella of intestinal physiology. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  20. Development of Life on Early Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; Wentworth, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    Exploration of Mars has begun to unveil the history of the planet. Combinations of remote sensing, in situ compositional measurements and photographic observations have shown Mars had a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution encompassed conditions that were suitable for supporting life. A habitable planet must have water, carbon and energy sources along with a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 My of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of (i) Water- as shown by carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001, well-dated at 3.9 Gy, (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon, water and a likely thicker atmosphere from extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H20, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic pattern in the crust [1]. The question arises: "Why would life not develop from these favorable conditions on Mars in its first 600 My?" During this period, environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would favor the formation of early life. (Even if life developed elsewhere on Earth, Venus, or on other bodies-it was transported to Mars where surface conditions were suitable for life to evolve). The commonly stated requirement that life would need hundreds of millions of year to get started is only an assumption; we know of no evidence that requires such a long interval for the development of life, if the proper habitable

  1. [The historical development of immunization in Germany. From compulsory smallpox vaccination to a National Action Plan on Immunization].

    PubMed

    Klein, S; Schöneberg, I; Krause, G

    2012-11-01

    In the German Reich, smallpox vaccinations were organized by the state. A mandatory vaccination throughout the empire was introduced in 1874, which was continued in the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG) and the German Democratic Republic (GDR) until 1982/1983. From 1935, health departments were responsible for vaccinations. In the GDR, immunization was tightly organized: The state made great efforts to achieve high vaccination rates. Responsibilities were clearly defined at all levels and for all ages. While vaccination was initially mandatory only at the regional level, the legally mandated immunization schedule later contained compulsory vaccinations, e.g., against measles. In the beginning there were mandatory vaccinations in the FRG at the Länder level. Since 1961, the Federal Epidemics Act has impeded obligatory vaccinations. Instead, voluntary vaccinations based on recommendations were stressed. Since the 1980s, vaccinations have been shifted from the public health service sector to office-based physicians. Today, public health authorities offer mainly supplementary vaccinations. In 2007, protective immunizations were introduced as compulsory benefits of the statutory health insurance (SHI). Recently, the German federal states developed a National Vaccination Plan to support immunization strategies.

  2. Cell fate regulation in early mammalian development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oron, Efrat; Ivanova, Natalia

    2012-08-01

    Preimplantation development in mammals encompasses a period from fertilization to implantation and results in formation of a blastocyst composed of three distinct cell lineages: epiblast, trophectoderm and primitive endoderm. The epiblast gives rise to the organism, while the trophectoderm and the primitive endoderm contribute to extraembryonic tissues that support embryo development after implantation. In many vertebrates, such as frog or fish, maternally supplied lineage determinants are partitioned within the egg. Cell cleavage that follows fertilization results in polarization of these factors between the individual blastomeres, which become restricted in their developmental fate. In contrast, the mouse oocyte and zygote lack clear polarity and, until the eight-cell stage, individual blastomeres retain the potential to form all lineages. How are cell lineages specified in the absence of a maternally supplied blueprint? This is a fundamental question in the field of developmental biology. The answer to this question lies in understanding the cell-cell interactions and gene networks involved in embryonic development prior to implantation and using this knowledge to create testable models of the developmental processes that govern cell fates. We provide an overview of classic and contemporary models of early lineage development in the mouse and discuss the emerging body of work that highlights similarities and differences between blastocyst development in the mouse and other mammalian species.

  3. How Early Hormones Shape Gender Development

    PubMed Central

    Berenbaum, Sheri A.; Beltz, Adriene M.

    2015-01-01

    Many important psychological characteristics show sex differences, and are influenced by sex hormones at different developmental periods. We focus on the role of sex hormones in early development, particularly the differential effects of prenatal androgens on aspects of gender development. Increasing evidence confirms that prenatal androgens have facilitative effects on male-typed activity interests and engagement (including child toy preferences and adult careers), and spatial abilities, but relatively minimal effects on gender identity. Recent emphasis has been directed to the psychological mechanisms underlying these effects (including sex differences in propulsive movement, and androgen effects on interest in people versus things), and neural substrates of androgen effects (including regional brain volumes, and neural responses to mental rotation, sexually arousing stimuli, emotion, and reward). Ongoing and planned work is focused on understanding the ways in which hormones act jointly with the social environment across time to produce varying trajectories of gender development, and clarifying mechanisms by which androgens affect behaviors. Such work will be facilitated by applying lessons from other species, and by expanding methodology. Understanding hormonal influences on gender development enhances knowledge of psychological development generally, and has important implications for basic and applied questions, including sex differences in psychopathology, women’s underrepresentation in science and math, and clinical care of individuals with variations in gender expression. PMID:26688827

  4. Cord blood gene expression supports that prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances causes depressed immune functionality in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Pennings, Jeroen L A; Jennen, Danyel G J; Nygaard, Unni C; Namork, Ellen; Haug, Line S; van Loveren, Henk; Granum, Berit

    2016-01-01

    Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) are a class of synthetic compounds that have widespread use in consumer and industrial applications. PFAS are considered environmental pollutants that have various toxic properties, including effects on the immune system. Recent human studies indicate that prenatal exposure to PFAS leads to suppressed immune responses in early childhood. In this study, data from the Norwegian BraMat cohort was used to investigate transcriptomics profiles in neonatal cord blood and their association with maternal PFAS exposure, anti-rubella antibody levels at 3 years of age and the number of common cold episodes until 3 years. Genes associated with PFAS exposure showed enrichment for immunological and developmental functions. The analyses identified a toxicogenomics profile of 52 PFAS exposure-associated genes that were in common with genes associated with rubella titers and/or common cold episodes. This gene set contains several immunomodulatory genes (CYTL1, IL27) as well as other immune-associated genes (e.g. EMR4P, SHC4, ADORA2A). In addition, this study identified PPARD as a PFAS toxicogenomics marker. These markers can serve as the basis for further mechanistic or epidemiological studies. This study provides a transcriptomics connection between prenatal PFAS exposure and impaired immune function in early childhood and supports current views on PPAR- and NF-κB-mediated modes of action. The findings add to the available evidence that PFAS exposure is immunotoxic in humans and support regulatory policies to phase out these substances.

  5. Characteristics of the Early Immune Response Following Transplantation of Mouse ES Cell Derived Insulin-Producing Cell Clusters

    PubMed Central

    Boyd, Ashleigh S.; Wood, Kathryn J.

    2010-01-01

    Background The fully differentiated progeny of ES cells (ESC) may eventually be used for cell replacement therapy (CRT). However, elements of the innate immune system may contribute to damage or destruction of these tissues when transplanted. Methodology/Principal Findings Herein, we assessed the hitherto ill-defined contribution of the early innate immune response in CRT after transplantation of either ESC derived insulin producing cell clusters (IPCCs) or adult pancreatic islets. Ingress of neutrophil or macrophage cells was noted immediately at the site of IPCC transplantation, but this infiltration was attenuated by day three. Gene profiling identified specific inflammatory cytokines and chemokines that were either absent or sharply reduced by three days after IPCC transplantation. Thus, IPCC transplantation provoked less of an early immune response than pancreatic islet transplantation. Conclusions/Significance Our study offers insights into the characteristics of the immune response of an ESC derived tissue in the incipient stages following transplantation and suggests potential strategies to inhibit cell damage to ensure their long-term perpetuation and functionality in CRT. PMID:20532031

  6. Characteristics of the early immune response following transplantation of mouse ES cell derived insulin-producing cell clusters.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Ashleigh S; Wood, Kathryn J

    2010-06-04

    The fully differentiated progeny of ES cells (ESC) may eventually be used for cell replacement therapy (CRT). However, elements of the innate immune system may contribute to damage or destruction of these tissues when transplanted. Herein, we assessed the hitherto ill-defined contribution of the early innate immune response in CRT after transplantation of either ESC derived insulin producing cell clusters (IPCCs) or adult pancreatic islets. Ingress of neutrophil or macrophage cells was noted immediately at the site of IPCC transplantation, but this infiltration was attenuated by day three. Gene profiling identified specific inflammatory cytokines and chemokines that were either absent or sharply reduced by three days after IPCC transplantation. Thus, IPCC transplantation provoked less of an early immune response than pancreatic islet transplantation. Our study offers insights into the characteristics of the immune response of an ESC derived tissue in the incipient stages following transplantation and suggests potential strategies to inhibit cell damage to ensure their long-term perpetuation and functionality in CRT.

  7. Early immune response following Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium infection in porcine jejunal gut loops

    PubMed Central

    Meurens, François; Berri, Mustapha; Auray, Gael; Melo, Sandrine; Levast, Benoît; Virlogeux-Payant, Isabelle; Chevaleyre, Claire; Gerdts, Volker; Salmon, Henri

    2009-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Typhimurium, commonly called S. Typhimurium, can cause intestinal infections in humans and various animal species such as swine. To analyze the host response to Salmonella infection in the pig we used an in vivo gut loop model, which allows the analysis of multiple immune responses within the same animal. Four jejunal gut-loops were each inoculated with 3×108 cfu of S. Typhimurium in 3 one-month-old piglets and mRNA expressions of various cytokines, chemokines, transcription factors, antimicrobial peptides, toll like and chemokine receptors were assessed by quantitative real-time PCR in the Peyer’s patch and the gut wall after 24 h. Several genes such as the newly cloned CCRL1/CCX-CKR were assessed for the first time in the pig at the mRNA level. Pro-inflammatory and T-helper type-1 (Th1) cytokine mRNA were expressed at higher levels in infected compared to non-infected control loops. Similarly, some B cell activation genes, NOD2 and toll like receptor 2 and 4 transcripts were more expressed in both tissues while TLR5 mRNA was down-regulated. Interestingly, CCL25 mRNA expression as well as the mRNA expressions of its receptors CCR9 and CCRL1 were decreased both in the Peyer’s patch and gut wall suggesting a potential Salmonella strategy to reduce lymphocyte homing to the intestine. In conclusion, these results provide insight into the porcine innate mucosal immune response to infection with entero-invasive microorganisms such as S. Typhimurium. In the future, this knowledge should help in the development of improved prophylactic and therapeutic approaches against porcine intestinal S. Typhimurium infections. PMID:18922229

  8. Early Life Wildfire Smoke Exposure Is Associated with Immune Dysregulation and Lung Function Decrements in Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Black, Carolyn; Gerriets, Joan E; Fontaine, Justin H; Harper, Richart W; Kenyon, Nicholas J; Tablin, Fern; Schelegle, Edward S; Miller, Lisa A

    2017-05-01

    The long-term health effects of wildfire smoke exposure in pediatric populations are not known. The objectives of this study were to determine if early life exposure to wildfire smoke can affect parameters of immunity and airway physiology that are detectable with maturity. We studied a mixed-sex cohort of rhesus macaque monkeys that were exposed as infants to ambient wood smoke from a series of Northern California wildfires in the summer of 2008. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and pulmonary function measures were obtained when animals were approximately 3 years of age. PBMCs were cultured with either LPS or flagellin, followed by measurement of secreted IL-8 and IL-6 protein. PBMCs from a subset of female animals were also evaluated by Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway mRNA analysis. Induction of IL-8 protein synthesis with either LPS or flagellin was significantly reduced in PBMC cultures from wildfire smoke-exposed female monkeys. In contrast, LPS- or flagellin-induced IL-6 protein synthesis was significantly reduced in PBMC cultures from wildfire smoke-exposed male monkeys. Baseline and TLR ligand-induced expression of the transcription factor, RelB, was globally modulated in PBMCs from wildfire smoke-exposed monkeys, with additional TLR pathway genes affected in a ligand-dependent manner. Wildfire smoke-exposed monkeys displayed significantly reduced inspiratory capacity, residual volume, vital capacity, functional residual capacity, and total lung capacity per unit of body weight relative to control animals. Our findings suggest that ambient wildfire smoke exposure during infancy results in sex-dependent attenuation of systemic TLR responses and reduced lung volume in adolescence.

  9. Early Life Wildfire Smoke Exposure Is Associated with Immune Dysregulation and Lung Function Decrements in Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Black, Carolyn; Gerriets, Joan E.; Fontaine, Justin H.; Harper, Richart W.; Kenyon, Nicholas J.; Tablin, Fern; Schelegle, Edward S.

    2017-01-01

    The long-term health effects of wildfire smoke exposure in pediatric populations are not known. The objectives of this study were to determine if early life exposure to wildfire smoke can affect parameters of immunity and airway physiology that are detectable with maturity. We studied a mixed-sex cohort of rhesus macaque monkeys that were exposed as infants to ambient wood smoke from a series of Northern California wildfires in the summer of 2008. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and pulmonary function measures were obtained when animals were approximately 3 years of age. PBMCs were cultured with either LPS or flagellin, followed by measurement of secreted IL-8 and IL-6 protein. PBMCs from a subset of female animals were also evaluated by Toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway mRNA analysis. Induction of IL-8 protein synthesis with either LPS or flagellin was significantly reduced in PBMC cultures from wildfire smoke–exposed female monkeys. In contrast, LPS- or flagellin-induced IL-6 protein synthesis was significantly reduced in PBMC cultures from wildfire smoke–exposed male monkeys. Baseline and TLR ligand–induced expression of the transcription factor, RelB, was globally modulated in PBMCs from wildfire smoke–exposed monkeys, with additional TLR pathway genes affected in a ligand-dependent manner. Wildfire smoke–exposed monkeys displayed significantly reduced inspiratory capacity, residual volume, vital capacity, functional residual capacity, and total lung capacity per unit of body weight relative to control animals. Our findings suggest that ambient wildfire smoke exposure during infancy results in sex-dependent attenuation of systemic TLR responses and reduced lung volume in adolescence. PMID:28208028

  10. Dynamic range of Nef-mediated evasion of HLA class II-restricted immune responses in early HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Mahiti, Macdonald; Brumme, Zabrina L; Jessen, Heiko; Brockman, Mark A; Ueno, Takamasa

    2015-07-31

    HLA class II-restricted CD4(+) T lymphocytes play an important role in controlling HIV-1 replication, especially in the acute/early infection stage. But, HIV-1 Nef counteracts this immune response by down-regulating HLA-DR and up-regulating the invariant chain associated with immature HLA-II (Ii). Although functional heterogeneity of various Nef activities, including down-regulation of HLA class I (HLA-I), is well documented, our understanding of Nef-mediated evasion of HLA-II-restricted immune responses during acute/early infection remains limited. Here, we examined the ability of Nef clones from 47 subjects with acute/early progressive infection and 46 subjects with chronic progressive infection to up-regulate Ii and down-regulate HLA-DR and HLA-I from the surface of HIV-infected cells. HLA-I down-regulation function was preserved among acute/early Nef clones, whereas both HLA-DR down-regulation and Ii up-regulation functions displayed relatively broad dynamic ranges. Nef's ability to down-regulate HLA-DR and up-regulate Ii correlated positively at this stage, suggesting they are functionally linked in vivo. Acute/early Nef clones also exhibited higher HLA-DR down-regulation and lower Ii up-regulation functions compared to chronic Nef clones. Taken together, our results support enhanced Nef-mediated HLA class II immune evasion activities in acute/early compared to chronic infection, highlighting the potential importance of these functions following transmission. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Development and maintenance of the brain's immune toolkit: Microglia and non-parenchymal brain macrophages.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Atalaya, Jose P; Askew, Katharine E; Sierra, Amanda; Gomez-Nicola, Diego

    2018-06-01

    Microglia and non-parenchymal macrophages located in the perivascular space, the meninges and the choroid plexus are independent immune populations that play vital roles in brain development, homeostasis, and tissue healing. Resident macrophages account for a significant proportion of cells in the brain and their density remains stable throughout the lifespan thanks to constant turnover. Microglia develop from yolk sac progenitors, later evolving through intermediate progenitors in a fine-tuned process in which intrinsic factors and external stimuli combine to progressively sculpt their cell type-specific transcriptional profiles. Recent evidence demonstrates that non-parenchymal macrophages are also generated during early embryonic development. In recent years, the development of powerful fate mapping approaches combined with novel genomic and transcriptomic methodologies have greatly expanded our understanding of how brain macrophages develop and acquire specialized functions, and how cell population dynamics are regulated. Here, we review the transcription factors, epigenetic remodeling, and signaling pathways orchestrating the embryonic development of microglia and non-parenchymal macrophages. Next, we describe the dynamics of the macrophage populations of the brain and discuss the role of progenitor cells, to gain a better understanding of their functions in the healthy and diseased brain. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 78: 561-579, 2018. © 2017 The Authors Developmental Neurobiology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Bifidobacterium CECT 7765 modulates early stress-induced immune, neuroendocrine and behavioral alterations in mice.

    PubMed

    Moya-Pérez, A; Perez-Villalba, A; Benítez-Páez, A; Campillo, I; Sanz, Y

    2017-10-01

    could partly explain the restoration of immune, neuroendocrine and behavioral alterations caused by stress in early and later life. In summary, we show that B. pseudocatenulatum CECT 7765 is able to beneficially modulate the consequences of chronic stress on the HPA response produced by MS during infancy with long-lasting effects in adulthood, via modulation of the intestinal neurotransmitter and cytokine network with short and long-term consequences in brain biochemistry and behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. PERIPHERAL IMMUNE SYSTEM SUPPRESSION IN EARLY ABSTINENT ALCOHOL DEPENDENT INDIVIDUALS: LINKS TO STRESS AND CUE-RELATED CRAVING

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Helen C; Milivojevic, Verica; Angarita, Gustavo A; Stowe, Raymond; Sinha, Rajita

    2017-01-01

    Background Peripheral immune system cytokines may play an integral role in underlying sensitized stress response and alcohol craving during early withdrawal. To date, the nature of these immune changes during early abstinence have not been examined. Methods Thirty-nine early abstinent, treatment-seeking alcohol dependent individuals and 46 socially drinking controls were exposed to three guided imageries: stress, alcohol cue and neutral. These were presented randomly across consecutive days. Plasma measures of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-10 (IL-10), were collected at baseline, immediately after imagery and at various recovery time-points. Ratings of alcohol craving, negative mood and anxiety were also obtained at the same time-points. Results The alcohol group demonstrated decreased basal IL-10 compared with controls particularly following exposure to alcohol cue. They also showed a dampened TNFα and TNFR1 response to stress and cue, respectively, and a generalized suppression of IL-6. In the alcohol group, these immune system adaptations occurred alongside significant elevations in anxiety, negative mood and alcohol craving. Conclusions Findings demonstrate that broad immuno-suppression is still observed in alcohol dependent individuals after three weeks of abstinence and may be linked to motivation for alcohol. PMID:28675117

  14. Effects of immune activation during early or late gestation on schizophrenia-related behaviour in adult rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Meehan, Crystal; Harms, Lauren; Frost, Jade D; Barreto, Rafael; Todd, Juanita; Schall, Ulrich; Shannon Weickert, Cynthia; Zavitsanou, Katerina; Michie, Patricia T; Hodgson, Deborah M

    2017-07-01

    Maternal exposure to infectious agents during gestation has been identified as a significant risk factor for schizophrenia. Using a mouse model, past work has demonstrated that the gestational timing of the immune-activating event can impact the behavioural phenotype and expression of dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission markers in the offspring. In order to determine the inter-species generality of this effect to rats, another commonly used model species, the current study investigated the impact of a viral mimetic Poly (I:C) at either an early (gestational day 10) or late (gestational day 19) time-point on schizophrenia-related behaviour and neurotransmitter receptor expression in rat offspring. Exposure to Poly (I:C) in late, but not early, gestation resulted in transient impairments in working memory. In addition, male rats exposed to maternal immune activation (MIA) in either early or late gestation exhibited sensorimotor gating deficits. Conversely, neither early nor late MIA exposure altered locomotor responses to MK-801 or amphetamine. In addition, increased dopamine 1 receptor mRNA levels were found in the nucleus accumbens of male rats exposed to early gestational MIA. The findings from this study diverge somewhat from previous findings in mice with MIA exposure, which were often found to exhibit a more comprehensive spectrum of schizophrenia-like phenotypes in both males and females, indicating potential differences in the neurodevelopmental vulnerability to MIA exposure in the rat with regards to schizophrenia related changes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Parental Legacy in Insects: Variation of Transgenerational Immune Priming during Offspring Development

    PubMed Central

    Trauer, Ute; Hilker, Monika

    2013-01-01

    In insects, a parental immune challenge can prepare and enhance offspring immune activity. Previous studies of such transgenerational immune priming (TGIP) mainly focused on a single offspring life stage. However, different developmental stages may be exposed to different risks and show different susceptibility to parental immune priming. Here we addressed the question (i) whether TGIP effects on the immunity of Manduca sexta offspring vary among the different developmental offspring stages. We differentiated between unchallenged and immunochallenged offspring; for the latter type of offspring, we further investigated (ii) whether TGIP has an impact on the time that enhanced immune levels persist after offspring immune challenge. Finally, we determined (iii) whether TGIP effects on offspring performance depend on the offspring stage. Our results show that TGIP effects on phenoloxidase (PO) activity, but not on antibacterial activity, vary among unchallenged offspring stages. In contrast, TGIP effects on PO and antibacterial activity did not vary among immunochallenged offspring stages. The persistence of enhanced immune levels in immunochallenged offspring was dependent on the parental immune state. Antibacterial (but not PO) activity in offspring of immunochallenged parents decreased over five days after pupal immune challenge, whereas no significant change over time was detectable in offspring of control parents. Finally, TGIP effects on the developmental time of unchallenged offspring varied among stages; young larvae of immunochallenged parents developed faster and gained more weight than larvae of control parents. However, offspring females of immunochallenged parents laid fewer eggs than females derived from control parents. These findings suggest that the benefits which the offspring gains from TGIP during juvenile development are paid by the adults with reduced reproductive power. Our study shows that TGIP effects vary among offspring stages and depend on

  16. Association between immune activation and early depressive symptoms in cancer patients treated with interleukin-2-based therapy.

    PubMed

    Capuron, L; Ravaud, A; Gualde, N; Bosmans, E; Dantzer, R; Maes, M; Neveu, P J

    2001-11-01

    The relationship between immune activation and the development of early depressive symptoms were studied in 33 cancer patients undergoing cytokine therapy. Patients were treated either with subcutaneous IL-2 administered alone (n=13) or in association with IFN-alpha (n=5), or with IFN-alpha alone administered subcutaneously at low doses (n=5) or intravenously at high doses (n=10). The intensity of depressive symptoms was assessed during a clinical interview carried out before the start of cytokine therapy and five days later using the Montgomery and Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). On the same days, blood samples were collected for each patient to measure serum concentrations of cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, IL-1ra) and cytokine-receptors (sIL-2R, LIF-R). Results showed that patients treated with IL-2 or IL-2+IFN-alpha displayed concomitant mood symptoms and increased serum cytokine levels during treatment. In these patients, the intensity of depressive symptoms at endpoint was positively correlated with the increases measured in serum levels of IL-10 between baseline and endpoint. IL-10 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine that is produced in response to the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and thereby reflects an inflammatory response. These results support the hypothesis of close relationship between depressive symptoms and the activation of the cytokine network.

  17. [The role of immune system in the control of cancer development and growth].

    PubMed

    Sütő, Gábor

    2016-06-01

    The role of immune system is the maintenace of the integritiy of the living organism. The elements of the immune system are connected by several ways forming a complex biological network. This network senses the changes of the inner and outer environment and works out the most effective response against infections and tumors. Dysfunction of the immune system leads to the development of cancer development and chronic inflammatory diseases. Modulation of the checkpoints of the immune system opened new perspecitves in the treatment of rheumatological and oncological diseases as well. Beside the potent antiinflammatory activity, new therapies are able to stimulate anticancer activity of the immune system. The result of these recent developments is a better outcome of malignant diseases, which had an unfavorable outcome in the past. Orv. Hetil., 2016, 157(Suppl. 2), 3-8.

  18. The suppressive effect of immune stress on LH secretion is absent in the early neonatal period in rats.

    PubMed

    Munkhzaya, Munkhsaikhan; Matsuzaki, Toshiya; Iwasa, Takeshi; Tungalagsuvd, Altankhuu; Kawami, Takako; Kato, Takeshi; Kuwahara, Akira; Irahara, Minoru

    2015-11-01

    Some physiological functions display weak responses to stress in the early neonatal period; i.e., they exhibit stress hyporesponse periods. In this study, we evaluated whether gonadotropin regulatory factors exhibit stress hyporesponsive periods in male and female rats. Rats were intraperitoneally injected with lipopolysaccharide (100μg/kg) (LPS group) or saline (control group) on postnatal day (PND) 5, 10, 15, or 25. Then, their serum luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations and hypothalamic mRNA levels of gonadotropin regulatory factors; i.e., kisspeptin (Kiss1), the kisspeptin receptor (Kiss1r), and gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), were measured at 2h after the injection. The hypothalamic mRNA levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines were also measured because they suppress gonadotropin secretion. The serum LH concentration of the LPS group was lower than that of the control group at PND25 in both sexes, but no such difference was seen at PND5, 10, or 15 in either sex. In both sexes, the hypothalamic tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α and interleukin (IL)-6 mRNA expression levels of the LPS group were higher than those of the control group at PND25, but not at PND5 or 10. The hypothalamic IL-1β mRNA expression level of the LPS group was higher than that of the control group at all time points. The hypothalamic Kiss1, Kiss1r, and GnRH mRNA expression levels of the LPS and control groups did not differ at any time point in either sex. These findings suggest that gonadotropin regulatory factors exhibit stress hyporesponse periods. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG) might become responsive to immune stress between PND15 and 25, which could be related to enhanced hypothalamic cytokine expression. The avoidance of infectious stress during the early neonatal period might be important for normal development of the HPG axis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Early Vascular Ageing - A Concept in Development.

    PubMed

    M Nilsson, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a prevalent condition in the elderly, often associated with metabolic disturbance and type 2 diabetes. For a number of years, research dedicated to understand atherosclerosis dominated, and for many good reasons, this pathophysiological process being proximal to the CVD events. In recent years, research has been devoted to an earlier stage of vascular pathology named arteriosclerosis (arterial stiffness) and the new concept of early vascular ageing (EVA), developed by a group of mostly European researchers. This overview describes recent developments in research dedicated to EVA and new emerging aspects found in studies of families at high cardiovascular risk. There are new aspects related to genetics, telomere biology and the role of gut microbiota. However, there is still no unifying definition available of EVA and no direct treatment, but rather only recommendations for conventional cardiovascular risk factor control. New interventions are being developed - not only new antihypertensive drugs, but also new drugs for vascular protection - the selective angiotensin-II (AT2) agonist Compound 21 (C21). Human studies are eagerly awaited. Even new functional food products could have the potential to positively influence cardiometabolic regulation, to be confirmed.

  20. Vaccination Enhances Early Immune Responses in White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei after Secondary Exposure to Vibrio alginolyticus

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yong-Chin; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Morni, Wan Zabidii W.; Putra, Dedi Fazriansyah; Huang, Chien-Lun; Li, Chang-Che; Hsieh, Jen-Fang

    2013-01-01

    Background Recent work suggested that the presence of specific memory or some form of adaptive immunity occurs in insects and shrimp. Hypervariable pattern recognition molecules, known as Down syndrome cell adhesion molecules, are able to mount specific recognition, and immune priming in invertebrates. In the present study, we attempted to understand the immune response pattern of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei which received primary (PE) and secondary exposure (SE) to Vibrio alginolyticus. Methodology Immune parameters and proliferation of haematopoietic tissues (HPTs) of shrimp which had received PE and SE to V. alginolyticus were measured. In the PE trial, the immune parameters and proliferation of HPTs of shrimp that received heat-killed V. alginolyticus (HVa) and formalin-inactivated V. alginolyticus (FVa) were measured. Mortality, immune parameters and proliferation of HPTs of 7-day-HVa-PE shrimp (shrimp that received primary exposure to HVa after 7 days) and 7-day-FVa-PE shrimp (shrimp that received primary exposure to FVa after 7 days) following SE to live V. alginolyticus (LVa) were measured. Phagocytic activity and clearance efficiency were examined for the 7∼35-day-HVa-PE and FVa-PE shrimp. Results HVa-receiving shrimp showed an earlier increase in the immune response on day 1, whereas FVa-receiving shrimp showed a late increase in the immune response on day 5. The 7-day-FVa-PE shrimp showed enhancement of immunity when encountering SE to LVa, whereas 7-day-HVa-PE shrimp showed a minor enhancement in immunity. 7-day-FVa-PE shrimp showed higher proliferation and an HPT mitotic index. Both phagocytic activity and clearance maintained higher for both HVa-PE and FVa-PE shrimp after 28 days. Conclusions HVa- and FVa-receiving shrimp showed the bacteria agglutinated prior to being phagocytised. FVa functions as a vaccine, whereas HVa functions as an inducer and can be used as an immune adjuvant. A combined mixture of FVa and HVa can serve as a

  1. Calcium at fertilization and in early development

    PubMed Central

    Whitaker, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Fertilization calcium waves are introduced and the evidence from which we can infer general mechanisms of these waves is presented. The two main classes of hypothesis put forward to explain the generation of the fertilization calcium wave are set out and it is concluded that initiation of the fertilization calcium wave can be most generally explained in inverterbrates by a mechanism in which an activating substance enters the egg from the sperm on sperm-egg fusion, activating the egg by stimulating phospholipase C activation through a src family kinase pathway and in mammals by the diffusion of a sperm-specific phospholipase C from sperm to egg on sperm-egg fusion. The fertilization calcium wave is then set into the context of cell cycle control and the mechanism of repetitive calcium spiking in mammalian eggs is investigated. Evidence that calcium signals control cell division in early embryos is reviewed, and it is concluded that calcium signals are essential at all three stages of cell division in early embryos. Evidence that phosphoinositide signalling pathways control the resumption of meiosis during oocyte maturation is considered. It is concluded on balance that the evidence points to a need for phosphoinositide/calcium signalling during resumption of meiosis. Changes to the calcium signalling machinery occur during meiosis to enable the production of a calcium wave in the mature oocyte when it is fertilized; evidence that the shape and structure of the endoplasmic reticulum alters dynamically during maturation and after fertilization is reviewed and the link between ER dynamics and the cytoskeleton is discussed. There is evidence that calcium signalling plays a key part in the development of patterning in early embryos. Morphogenesis in ascidian, frog and zebrafish embryos is briefly described to provide the developmental context in which calcium signals act. Intracellular calcium waves that may play a role in axis formation in ascidian are discussed

  2. Variability in Humoral Immunity to Measles Vaccine: New Developments

    PubMed Central

    Haralambieva, Iana H.; Kennedy, Richard B.; Ovsyannikova, Inna G.; Whitaker, Jennifer A.; Poland, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the existence of an effective measles vaccine, resurgence in measles cases in the United States and across Europe has occurred, including in individuals vaccinated with two doses of the vaccine. Host genetic factors result in inter-individual variation in measles vaccine-induced antibodies, and play a role in vaccine failure. Studies have identified HLA and non-HLA genetic influences that individually or jointly contribute to the observed variability in the humoral response to vaccination among healthy individuals. In this exciting era, new high-dimensional approaches and techniques including vaccinomics, systems biology, GWAS, epitope prediction and sophisticated bioinformatics/statistical algorithms, provide powerful tools to investigate immune response mechanisms to the measles vaccine. These might predict, on an individual basis, outcomes of acquired immunity post measles vaccination. PMID:26602762

  3. [Effects of Early Enteral Immunonutrition on Postoperative Immune Function and Rehabilitation of Patients with Gastric Cancer and Nutritional Risk].

    PubMed

    Peng, Chang-Bing; Li, Wen-Zhong; Xu, Rui; Zhuang, Wen

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the effects of early enteral immunonutrition on postoperative immune function and rehabilitation of gastric cancer patients with nutritional risk. New hospitalized patients with gastric cancer were evaluated the nutrient status based on NRS 2002. The patients who scored between 3 to 5 points were randomized into two groups(30 cases for each group), and those in experimental group were given 7-d early postoperative enteral immune nutrition, those in control group were given normal nutrition. The immune indexes (CD3 + , CD4 + , CD8 + and CD4 + /CD8 + ) and nutritional indexes(transferrin, pre-albumin, albumin) were measured before operation and at the 3 rd and 7 th day postoperatively. In addition, the first flatus time, gastrointestinal adverse reactions and complications, length of hospital stays were compared between the two groups. The level of CD4 + /CD8 + and transferrin, pre-albumin, albumin in experimental group were significantly higher than those in control group at the third and seventh day postoperatively ( P <0.05).Compared with the control group, the experimental group had shorter first flatus time after surgery, which were (63.5±7.3) h vs. (72.8±8.6 ) h respectively ( P <0.05).There were no statistically difference on pneumonia, anastomosis leakage, severe abdominal distension, inflammatory bowel obstruction and total postoperative hospitalization time between the two groups ( P >0.05). Early enteral immunonutrition can effectively promote the recovery of nutritional status and immune function in gastric cancer patients with nutrition risk.

  4. Development of a human adaptive immune system in cord blood cell-transplanted mice.

    PubMed

    Traggiai, Elisabetta; Chicha, Laurie; Mazzucchelli, Luca; Bronz, Lucio; Piffaretti, Jean-Claude; Lanzavecchia, Antonio; Manz, Markus G

    2004-04-02

    Because ethical restrictions limit in vivo studies of the human hemato-lymphoid system, substitute human to small animal xenotransplantation models have been employed. Existing models, however, sustain only limited development and maintenance of human lymphoid cells and rarely produce immune responses. Here we show that intrahepatic injection of CD34+ human cord blood cells into conditioned newborn Rag2-/-gammac-/- mice leads to de novo development of B, T, and dendritic cells; formation of structured primary and secondary lymphoid organs; and production of functional immune responses. This provides a valuable model to study development and function of the human adaptive immune system in vivo.

  5. Novel therapeutic strategies targeting innate immune responses and early inflammation after stroke.

    PubMed

    Shichita, Takashi; Ago, Tetsuro; Kamouchi, Masahiro; Kitazono, Takanari; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Ooboshi, Hiroaki

    2012-11-01

    Post-ischemic inflammation is an essential step in the progression of ischemic stroke. This review focuses on the function of infiltrating immune cells, macrophages, and T cells, in ischemic brain injury. The brain is a sterile organ; however, the activation of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 and TLR4 is pivotal in the beginning of post-ischemic inflammation. Some endogenous TLR ligands are released from injured brain cells, including high mobility group box 1 and peroxiredoxin family proteins, and activate the infiltrating macrophages and induce the expression of inflammatory cytokines. Following this step, T cells also infiltrate into the ischemic brain and mediate post-ischemic inflammation in the delayed phase. Various cytokines from helper T cells and γδT cells function as neurotoxic (IL-23/IL-17, IFN-γ) or neuroprotective (IL-10, IL-4) mediators. Novel neuroprotective strategies should therefore be developed through more detailed understanding of this process and the regulation of post-ischemic inflammation. © 2012 The Authors Journal of Neurochemistry © International Society for Neurochemistry.

  6. Bidirectional Expression of Metabolic, Structural, and Immune Pathways in Early Myopia and Hyperopia

    PubMed Central

    Riddell, Nina; Giummarra, Loretta; Hall, Nathan E.; Crewther, Sheila G.

    2016-01-01

    Myopia (short-sightedness) affects 1.45 billion people worldwide, many of whom will develop sight-threatening secondary disorders. Myopic eyes are characterized by excessive size while hyperopic (long-sighted) eyes are typically small. The biological and genetic mechanisms underpinning the retina's local control of these growth patterns remain unclear. In the present study, we used RNA sequencing to examine gene expression in the retina/RPE/choroid across 3 days of optically-induced myopia and hyperopia induction in chick. Data were analyzed for differential expression of single genes, and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) was used to identify gene sets correlated with ocular axial length and refraction across lens groups. Like previous studies, we found few single genes that were differentially-expressed in a sign-of-defocus dependent manner (only BMP2 at 1 day). Using GSEA, however, we are the first to show that more subtle shifts in structural, metabolic, and immune pathway expression are correlated with the eye size and refractive changes induced by lens defocus. Our findings link gene expression with the morphological characteristics of refractive error, and suggest that physiological stress arising from metabolic and inflammatory pathway activation could increase the vulnerability of myopic eyes to secondary pathologies. PMID:27625591

  7. Early Years Practitioners' Views on Early Personal, Social and Emotional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubrey, Carol; Ward, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Current policy guidance stresses the need for early identification of obstacles to learning and appropriate intervention. New standards for learning (Early Years Foundation Stage) place personal, social and emotional development (PSED) as central to learning and development. This paper reports a survey and follow-up interviews with early years…

  8. Sensitive periods for 17β-estradiol exposure during immune system development in sea bass head kidney.

    PubMed

    Seemann, Frauke; Knigge, Thomas; Duflot, Aurélie; Marie, Sabine; Olivier, Stéphanie; Minier, Christophe; Monsinjon, Tiphaine

    2016-06-01

    An increasing body of evidence suggests that sex steroids play an important role in the development and regulation of vertebrate immune defense. Therefore, compounds with estrogenic activity may influence the immune system via receptor-mediated pathways. The presence of estrogen receptors in immune cells and organs during the early stages of development may indicate that female steroid hormones are involved in the maturation of the fish immune system. This is of particular importance, as some marine fish are probably exposed to sources of exogenous estrogens while they reside in their estuarine nursery grounds. In this study, the influence of 17β-estradiol (E2) on estrogen receptor and cytokine gene expression was assessed in juvenile sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) together with characterization of the head kidney leukocyte populations and corresponding phagocytic activity during organ regionalization from 98 to 239 dph. E2 exposure, beginning at 90 dph resulted in indirect and delayed modifications of interleukin 1β and estrogen receptor α gene expression, which may affect B-lymphocyte proliferation in the sea bass head kidney. The E2 treatment of 120 dph fish led to an increase in estrogen receptor β2 and a decrease in transforming growth factor β1 gene expression, which coincided with decreased phagocytic activity of head kidney lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. Additionally, these changes were observed during developmental periods described as critical phases for B-lymphocyte development in mammals. Consequently, exogenous estrogens have the potential to modify the innate immune response in juvenile sea bass and to exert detrimental effects on head kidney development. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Experimental murine fascioliasis derives early immune suppression with increased levels of TGF-β and IL-4.

    PubMed

    Chung, Joon-Yong; Bae, Young-An; Yun, Doo-Hee; Yang, Hyun-Jong; Kong, Yoon

    2012-12-01

    In fascioliasis, T-helper 2 (Th2) responses predominate, while little is known regarding early immune phenomenon. We herein analyzed early immunophenotype changes of BALB/c, C57BL/6, and C3H/He mice experimentally infected with 5 Fasciola hepatica metacercariae. A remarkable expansion of CD19(+) B cells was observed as early as week 1 post-infection while CD4(+)/CD8(+) T cells were down-regulated. Accumulation of Mac1(+) cells with time after infection correlated well with splenomegaly of all mice strains tested. The expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α mRNA in splenocytes significantly decreased while that of IL-4 up-regulated. IL-1β expression was down-modulated in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, but not in C3H/He. Serum levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β were considerably elevated in all mice during 3 weeks of infection period. These collective results suggest that experimental murine fascioliasis might derive immune suppression with elevated levels of TGF-β and IL-4 during the early stages of infection.

  10. Preterm Birth Affects the Risk of Developing Immune-Mediated Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Goedicke-Fritz, Sybelle; Härtel, Christoph; Krasteva-Christ, Gabriela; Kopp, Matthias V.; Meyer, Sascha; Zemlin, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Prematurity affects approximately 10% of all children, resulting in drastically altered antigen exposure due to premature confrontation with microbes, nutritional antigens, and other environmental factors. During the last trimester of pregnancy, the fetal immune system adapts to tolerate maternal and self-antigens, while also preparing for postnatal immune defense by acquiring passive immunity from the mother. Since the perinatal period is regarded as the most important “window of opportunity” for imprinting metabolism and immunity, preterm birth may have long-term consequences for the development of immune-mediated diseases. Intriguingly, preterm neonates appear to develop bronchial asthma more frequently, but atopic dermatitis less frequently in comparison to term neonates. The longitudinal study of preterm neonates could offer important insights into the process of imprinting for immune-mediated diseases. On the one hand, preterm birth may interrupt influences of the intrauterine environment on the fetus that increase or decrease the risk of later immune disease (e.g., maternal antibodies and placenta-derived factors), whereas on the other hand, it may lead to the premature exposure to protective or harmful extrauterine factors such as microbiota and nutritional antigen. Solving this puzzle may help unravel new preventive and therapeutic approaches for immune diseases. PMID:29062316

  11. Effects of Moderate Prenatal Alcohol Exposure during Early Gestation in Rats on Inflammation across the Maternal-Fetal-Immune Interface and Later-Life Immune Function in the Offspring

    PubMed Central

    Terasaki, Laurne S.; Schwarz, Jaclyn M.

    2017-01-01

    During early brain development, microglial activation can negatively impact long-term neuroimmune and cognitive outcomes. It is well-known that significant alcohol exposure during early gestation results in a number of cognitive deficits associated with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Additionally, microglia are activated following high levels of alcohol exposure in rodent models of FASD. We sought to examine whether moderate prenatal alcohol exposure (70 mg/dL blood alcohol concentration) activates microglia in the fetal rat brain, and whether moderate fetal alcohol exposure has long-term negative consequences for immune function and cognitive function in the rat. We also measured inflammation within the placenta and maternal serum following moderate alcohol exposure to determine whether either could be a source of cytokine production in the fetus. One week of moderate prenatal alcohol exposure produced a sex-specific increase in cytokines and chemokines within the fetal brain. Cytokines were also increased within the placenta, regardless of the sex of the fetus, and independent of the low levels of circulating cytokines within the maternal serum. Adult offspring exposed to alcohol prenatally had exaggerated cytokine production in the brain and periphery in response to lipopolysaccharide (25 μg/kg), as well as significant memory deficits precipitated by this low-level of inflammation. Thus the immune system, including microglia, may be a key link to understanding the etiology of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and other unexplored cognitive or health risks associated with even low levels of fetal alcohol exposure. PMID:27318824

  12. Early detection of disease program: Evaluation of the cellular immune response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, B. S.; Knight, V.; Martin, R. R.; Kasel, J. A.

    1974-01-01

    The early cellular responses of specific components of the leukocyte and epithelial cell populations to foreign challenges of both an infectious and noninfectious character were evaluated. Procedures for screening potential flight crews were developed, documented, and tested on a control population. Methods for preparing suitable populations of lymphocytes, polymorphonuclear leukocytes, macrophages, and epithelial cells were first established and evaluated. Epithelial cells from viral infected individuals were screened with a number of anti-viral antisera. This procedure showed the earliest indication of disease as well as providing a specific diagnosis to the physicians. Both macrophages and polymorphonuclear leukocytes were studied from normal individuals, smokers, and patients with viral infections. Newer techniques enabling better definition of lymphocyte subpopulations were then developed, namely the E and EAC rosette procedures for recognition of T (thymus-derived) and B (bone-marrow-derived) lymphocyte subpopulations. Lymphocyte and lymphocyte subpopulation response to multiple mitogens have been evaluated.

  13. Early Parental Depression and Child Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulson, James F.; Keefe, Heather A.; Leiferman, Jenn A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To examine the effects of early maternal and paternal depression on child expressive language at age 24 months and the role that parent-to-child reading may play in this pathway. Participants and methods: The 9-month and 24-month waves from a national prospective study of children and their families, the Early Childhood Longitudinal…

  14. Initiation of ART during Early Acute HIV Infection Preserves Mucosal Th17 Function and Reverses HIV-Related Immune Activation

    PubMed Central

    Schuetz, Alexandra; Deleage, Claire; Sereti, Irini; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Phanuphak, Nittaya; Phuang-Ngern, Yuwadee; Estes, Jacob D.; Sandler, Netanya G.; Sukhumvittaya, Suchada; Marovich, Mary; Jongrakthaitae, Surat; Akapirat, Siriwat; Fletscher, James L. K.; Kroon, Eugene; Dewar, Robin; Trichavaroj, Rapee; Chomchey, Nitiya; Douek, Daniel C.; O′Connell, Robert J.; Ngauy, Viseth; Robb, Merlin L.; Phanuphak, Praphan; Michael, Nelson L.; Excler, Jean-Louis; Kim, Jerome H.; de Souza, Mark S.; Ananworanich, Jintanat

    2014-01-01

    Mucosal Th17 cells play an important role in maintaining gut epithelium integrity and thus prevent microbial translocation. Chronic HIV infection is characterized by mucosal Th17 cell depletion, microbial translocation and subsequent immune-activation, which remain elevated despite antiretroviral therapy (ART) correlating with increased mortality. However, when Th17 depletion occurs following HIV infection is unknown. We analyzed mucosal Th17 cells in 42 acute HIV infection (AHI) subjects (Fiebig (F) stage I-V) with a median duration of infection of 16 days and the short-term impact of early initiation of ART. Th17 cells were defined as IL-17+ CD4+ T cells and their function was assessed by the co-expression of IL-22, IL-2 and IFNγ. While intact during FI/II, depletion of mucosal Th17 cell numbers and function was observed during FIII correlating with local and systemic markers of immune-activation. ART initiated at FI/II prevented loss of Th17 cell numbers and function, while initiation at FIII restored Th17 cell numbers but not their polyfunctionality. Furthermore, early initiation of ART in FI/II fully reversed the initially observed mucosal and systemic immune-activation. In contrast, patients treated later during AHI maintained elevated mucosal and systemic CD8+ T-cell activation post initiation of ART. These data support a loss of Th17 cells at early stages of acute HIV infection, and highlight that studies of ART initiation during early AHI should be further explored to assess the underlying mechanism of mucosal Th17 function preservation. PMID:25503054

  15. Prenatal cadmium exposure alters postnatal immune cell development and function

    SciT

    Hanson, Miranda L.; Holásková, Ida; Elliott, Meenal

    2012-06-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is generally found in low concentrations in the environment due to its widespread and continual use, however, its concentration in some foods and cigarette smoke is high. Although evidence demonstrates that adult exposure to Cd causes changes in the immune system, there are limited reports of immunomodulatory effects of prenatal exposure to Cd. This study was designed to investigate the effects of prenatal exposure to Cd on the immune system of the offspring. Pregnant C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to an environmentally relevant dose of CdCl{sub 2} (10 ppm) and the effects on the immune system of the offspringmore » were assessed at two time points following birth (2 and 7 weeks of age). Thymocyte and splenocyte phenotypes were analyzed by flow cytometry. Prenatal Cd exposure did not affect thymocyte populations at 2 and 7 weeks of age. In the spleen, the only significant effect on phenotype was a decrease in the number of macrophages in male offspring at both time points. Analysis of cytokine production by stimulated splenocytes demonstrated that prenatal Cd exposure decreased IL-2 and IL-4 production by cells from female offspring at 2 weeks of age. At 7 weeks of age, splenocyte IL-2 production was decreased in Cd-exposed males while IFN-γ production was decreased from both male and female Cd-exposed offspring. The ability of the Cd-exposed offspring to respond to immunization with a S. pneumoniae vaccine expressing T-dependent and T-independent streptococcal antigens showed marked increases in the levels of both T-dependent and T-independent serum antibody levels compared to control animals. CD4{sup +}FoxP3{sup +}CD25{sup +} (nTreg) cell percentages were increased in the spleen and thymus in all Cd-exposed offspring except in the female spleen where a decrease was seen. CD8{sup +}CD223{sup +} T cells were markedly decreased in the spleens in all offspring at 7 weeks of age. These findings suggest that even very low levels of Cd exposure during

  16. Whole-exome sequencing and immune profiling of early-stage lung adenocarcinoma with fully annotated clinical follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Kadara, H; Choi, M; Zhang, J; Parra, E R; Rodriguez-Canales, J; Gaffney, S G; Zhao, Z; Behrens, C; Fujimoto, J; Chow, C; Yoo, Y; Kalhor, N; Moran, C; Rimm, D; Swisher, S; Gibbons, D L; Heymach, J; Kaftan, E; Townsend, J P; Lynch, T J; Schlessinger, J; Lee, J; Lifton, R P; Wistuba, I I; Herbst, R S

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Lung adenocarcinomas (LUADs) lead to the majority of deaths attributable to lung cancer. We performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) and immune profiling analyses of a unique set of clinically annotated early-stage LUADs to better understand the pathogenesis of this disease and identify clinically relevant molecular markers. Methods We performed WES of 108 paired stage I-III LUADs and normal lung tissues using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. Ten immune markers (PD-L1, PD-1, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD45ro, CD57, CD68, FOXP3 and Granzyme B) were profiled by imaging-based immunohistochemistry (IHC) in a subset of LUADs (n = 92). Associations among mutations, immune markers and clinicopathological variables were analyzed using ANOVA and Fisher’s exact test. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used for multivariate analysis of clinical outcome. Results LUADs in this cohort exhibited an average of 243 coding mutations. We identified 28 genes with significant enrichment for mutation. SETD2-mutated LUADs exhibited relatively poor recurrence- free survival (RFS) and mutations in STK11 and ATM were associated with poor RFS among KRAS-mutant tumors. EGFR, KEAP1 and PIK3CA mutations were predictive of poor response to adjuvant therapy. Immune marker analysis revealed that LUADs in smokers and with relatively high mutation burdens exhibited increased levels of immune markers. Analysis of immunophenotypes revealed that LUADs with STK11 mutations exhibited relatively low levels of infiltrating CD4+/CD8+ T-cells indicative of a muted immune response. Tumoral PD-L1 was significantly elevated in TP53 mutant LUADs whereas PIK3CA mutant LUADs exhibited markedly down-regulated PD-L1 expression. LUADs with TP53 or KEAP1 mutations displayed relatively increased CD57 and Granzyme B levels indicative of augmented natural killer (NK) cell infiltration. Conclusion(s) Our study highlights molecular and immune phenotypes that warrant further analysis for their

  17. Whole-exome sequencing and immune profiling of early-stage lung adenocarcinoma with fully annotated clinical follow-up.

    PubMed

    Kadara, H; Choi, M; Zhang, J; Parra, E R; Rodriguez-Canales, J; Gaffney, S G; Zhao, Z; Behrens, C; Fujimoto, J; Chow, C; Yoo, Y; Kalhor, N; Moran, C; Rimm, D; Swisher, S; Gibbons, D L; Heymach, J; Kaftan, E; Townsend, J P; Lynch, T J; Schlessinger, J; Lee, J; Lifton, R P; Wistuba, I I; Herbst, R S

    2017-01-01

    Lung adenocarcinomas (LUADs) lead to the majority of deaths attributable to lung cancer. We performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) and immune profiling analyses of a unique set of clinically annotated early-stage LUADs to better understand the pathogenesis of this disease and identify clinically relevant molecular markers. We performed WES of 108 paired stage I-III LUADs and normal lung tissues using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 platform. Ten immune markers (PD-L1, PD-1, CD3, CD4, CD8, CD45ro, CD57, CD68, FOXP3 and Granzyme B) were profiled by imaging-based immunohistochemistry (IHC) in a subset of LUADs (n = 92). Associations among mutations, immune markers and clinicopathological variables were analyzed using ANOVA and Fisher's exact test. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used for multivariate analysis of clinical outcome. LUADs in this cohort exhibited an average of 243 coding mutations. We identified 28 genes with significant enrichment for mutation. SETD2-mutated LUADs exhibited relatively poor recurrence- free survival (RFS) and mutations in STK11 and ATM were associated with poor RFS among KRAS-mutant tumors. EGFR, KEAP1 and PIK3CA mutations were predictive of poor response to adjuvant therapy. Immune marker analysis revealed that LUADs in smokers and with relatively high mutation burdens exhibited increased levels of immune markers. Analysis of immunophenotypes revealed that LUADs with STK11 mutations exhibited relatively low levels of infiltrating CD4+/CD8+ T-cells indicative of a muted immune response. Tumoral PD-L1 was significantly elevated in TP53 mutant LUADs whereas PIK3CA mutant LUADs exhibited markedly down-regulated PD-L1 expression. LUADs with TP53 or KEAP1 mutations displayed relatively increased CD57 and Granzyme B levels indicative of augmented natural killer (NK) cell infiltration. Our study highlights molecular and immune phenotypes that warrant further analysis for their roles in clinical outcomes and personalized immune

  18. Novel Roles for Immune Molecules in Neural Development: Implications for Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Garay, Paula A.; McAllister, A. Kimberley

    2010-01-01

    Although the brain has classically been considered “immune-privileged”, current research suggests an extensive communication between the immune and nervous systems in both health and disease. Recent studies demonstrate that immune molecules are present at the right place and time to modulate the development and function of the healthy and diseased central nervous system (CNS). Indeed, immune molecules play integral roles in the CNS throughout neural development, including affecting neurogenesis, neuronal migration, axon guidance, synapse formation, activity-dependent refinement of circuits, and synaptic plasticity. Moreover, the roles of individual immune molecules in the nervous system may change over development. This review focuses on the effects of immune molecules on neuronal connections in the mammalian central nervous system – specifically the roles for MHCI and its receptors, complement, and cytokines on the function, refinement, and plasticity of geniculate, cortical and hippocampal synapses, and their relationship to neurodevelopmental disorders. These functions for immune molecules during neural development suggest that they could also mediate pathological responses to chronic elevations of cytokines in neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia. PMID:21423522

  19. The early research and development of ebselen.

    PubMed

    Parnham, Michael J; Sies, Helmut

    2013-11-01

    Ebselen (2-phenyl-1,2-benzisoselenazol-3(2H)-one; PZ-51, DR-3305), is an organoselenium compound with glutathione peroxidase (GPx)-like, thiol-dependent, hydroperoxide reducing activity. As an enzyme mimic for activity of the selenoenzyme GPx, this compound has proved to be highly useful in research on mechanisms in redox biology. Furthermore, the reactivity of ebselen with protein thiols has helped to identify novel, selective targets for inhibitory actions on several enzymes of importance in pharmacology and toxicology. Importantly, the selenium in ebselen is not released and thus is not bioavailable, ebselen metabolites being excreted in bile and urine. As a consequence, initial concerns about selenium toxicity, fortunately, were unfounded. Potential applications in medical settings have been explored, notably in brain ischemia and stroke. More recently, there has been a surge in interest as new medical applications have been taken into consideration. The first publication on the biochemical effects of ebselen appeared 30 years ago (Müller et al.), which prompted the authors to retrace the early development from their perspective. It is a fascinating example of fruitful interaction between research-oriented industry and academia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Enhanced early innate and T cell-mediated responses in subjects immunized with Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed Plus CPG 7909 (AV7909).

    PubMed

    Minang, Jacob T; Inglefield, Jon R; Harris, Andrea M; Lathey, Janet L; Alleva, David G; Sweeney, Diane L; Hopkins, Robert J; Lacy, Michael J; Bernton, Edward W

    2014-11-28

    NuThrax™ (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed with CPG 7909 Adjuvant) (AV7909) is in development. Samples obtained in a phase Ib clinical trial were tested to confirm biomarkers of innate immunity and evaluate effects of CPG 7909 (PF-03512676) on adaptive immunity. Subjects received two intramuscular doses of commercial BioThrax(®) (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed, AVA), or two intramuscular doses of one of four formulations of AV7909. IP-10, IL-6, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels were elevated 24-48 h after administration of AV7909 formulations, returning to baseline by Day 7. AVA (no CPG 7909) resulted in elevated IL-6 and CRP, but not IP-10. Another marker of CpG, transiently decreased absolute lymphocyte counts (ALCs), correlated with transiently increased IP-10. Cellular recall responses to anthrax protective antigen (PA) or PA peptides were assessed by IFN-γ ELISpot assay performed on cryopreserved PBMCs obtained from subjects prior to immunization and 7 days following the second immunization (study day 21). One-half of subjects that received AV7909 with low-dose (0.25mg/dose) CPG 7909 possessed positive Day 21 T cell responses to PA. In contrast, positive T cell responses occurred at an 11% average rate (1/9) for AVA-treated subjects. Differences in cellular responses due to dose level of CPG 7909 were not associated with differences in humoral anti-PA IgG responses, which were elevated for recipients of AV7909 compared to recipients of AVA. Serum markers at 24 or 48 h (i.e. % ALC decrease, or increase in IL-6, IP-10, or CRP) correlated with the humoral (antibody) responses 1 month later, but did not correlate with cellular ELISpot responses. In summary, biomarkers of early responses to CPG 7909 were confirmed, and adding a CpG adjuvant to a vaccine administered twice resulted in increased T cell effects relative to vaccine alone. Changes in early biomarkers correlated with subsequent adaptive humoral immunity but not cellular immunity. Copyright © 2014 The Authors

  1. Parental Obesity and Early Childhood Development.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Edwina H; Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Xie, Yunlong; Buck Louis, Germaine

    2017-02-01

    Previous studies identified associations between maternal obesity and childhood neurodevelopment, but few examined paternal obesity despite potentially distinct genetic/epigenetic effects related to developmental programming. Upstate KIDS (2008-2010) recruited mothers from New York State (excluding New York City) at ∼4 months postpartum. Parents completed the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) when their children were 4, 8, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months of age corrected for gestation. The ASQ is validated to screen for delays in 5 developmental domains (ie, fine motor, gross motor, communication, personal-social functioning, and problem-solving ability). Analyses included 3759 singletons and 1062 nonrelated twins with ≥1 ASQs returned. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by using generalized linear mixed models accounting for maternal covariates (ie, age, race, education, insurance, marital status, parity, and pregnancy smoking). Compared with normal/underweight mothers (BMI <25), children of obese mothers (26% with BMI ≥30) had increased odds of failing the fine motor domain (aOR 1.67; confidence interval 1.12-2.47). The association remained after additional adjustment for paternal BMI (1.67; 1.11-2.52). Paternal obesity (29%) was associated with increased risk of failing the personal-social domain (1.75; 1.13-2.71), albeit attenuated after adjustment for maternal obesity (aOR 1.71; 1.08-2.70). Children whose parents both had BMI ≥35 were likely to additionally fail the problem-solving domain (2.93; 1.09-7.85). Findings suggest that maternal and paternal obesity are each associated with specific delays in early childhood development, emphasizing the importance of family information when screening child development. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Parental Obesity and Early Childhood Development

    PubMed Central

    Sundaram, Rajeshwari; Ghassabian, Akhgar; Xie, Yunlong; Buck Louis, Germaine

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies identified associations between maternal obesity and childhood neurodevelopment, but few examined paternal obesity despite potentially distinct genetic/epigenetic effects related to developmental programming. METHODS: Upstate KIDS (2008–2010) recruited mothers from New York State (excluding New York City) at ∼4 months postpartum. Parents completed the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) when their children were 4, 8, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months of age corrected for gestation. The ASQ is validated to screen for delays in 5 developmental domains (ie, fine motor, gross motor, communication, personal-social functioning, and problem-solving ability). Analyses included 3759 singletons and 1062 nonrelated twins with ≥1 ASQs returned. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) and 95% confidence intervals were estimated by using generalized linear mixed models accounting for maternal covariates (ie, age, race, education, insurance, marital status, parity, and pregnancy smoking). RESULTS: Compared with normal/underweight mothers (BMI <25), children of obese mothers (26% with BMI ≥30) had increased odds of failing the fine motor domain (aOR 1.67; confidence interval 1.12–2.47). The association remained after additional adjustment for paternal BMI (1.67; 1.11–2.52). Paternal obesity (29%) was associated with increased risk of failing the personal-social domain (1.75; 1.13–2.71), albeit attenuated after adjustment for maternal obesity (aOR 1.71; 1.08–2.70). Children whose parents both had BMI ≥35 were likely to additionally fail the problem-solving domain (2.93; 1.09–7.85). CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that maternal and paternal obesity are each associated with specific delays in early childhood development, emphasizing the importance of family information when screening child development. PMID:28044047

  3. THE EFFECT OF IONIZING RADIATION ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF IMMUNITY TO TETANUS AND TYPHOID

    SciT

    Shabarov, I.A.

    1958-01-01

    The general x-ray irradiation of mice (550 r) 2 days before immunization caused a marked fall in antitoxic (anti-tetanus) and in antibacterial (anti- typhoid) immunity. The immunity developing after the mice had been vaccinated (with 3 injections of tetravalent vaccine and 2 injections of crude toxoid) during a period when they exhibited marked symptoms of radiation sickness was only greater than the natural resistance of nonimmunized healthy mice to injections of tetanus toxin and to infection with typhoid bacilli. When mice were immunized 2 days after general irradiation with purified adsorbed toxoid the immunogenic properties of which greatly exceed thosemore » of ordinary crude toxoid, they exhibited a higher degree of antitoxic immunity than was obtained with ordinary toxoid; however, the difference in the immunological efficacy of these two preparations was less marked in the irradiated animals than in animals which had not been irradiated. (auth)« less

  4. The early interaction of Leishmania with macrophages and dendritic cells and its influence on the host immune response.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dong; Uzonna, Jude E

    2012-01-01

    The complicated interactions between Leishmania and the host antigen-presenting cells (APCs) have fundamental effects on the final outcome of the disease. Two major APCs, macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), play critical roles in mediating resistance and susceptibility during Leishmania infection. Macrophages are the primary resident cell for Leishmania: they phagocytose and permit parasite proliferation. However, these cells are also the major effector cells to eliminate infection. The effective clearance of parasites by macrophages depends on activation of appropriate immune response, which is usually initiated by DCs. Here, we review the early interaction of APCs with Leishmania parasites and how these interactions profoundly impact on the ensuing adaptive immune response. We also discuss how the current knowledge will allow further refinement of our understanding of the interplay between Leishmania and its hosts that leads to resistance or susceptibility.

  5. The early interaction of Leishmania with macrophages and dendritic cells and its influence on the host immune response

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dong; Uzonna, Jude E.

    2012-01-01

    The complicated interactions between Leishmania and the host antigen-presenting cells (APCs) have fundamental effects on the final outcome of the disease. Two major APCs, macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs), play critical roles in mediating resistance and susceptibility during Leishmania infection. Macrophages are the primary resident cell for Leishmania: they phagocytose and permit parasite proliferation. However, these cells are also the major effector cells to eliminate infection. The effective clearance of parasites by macrophages depends on activation of appropriate immune response, which is usually initiated by DCs. Here, we review the early interaction of APCs with Leishmania parasites and how these interactions profoundly impact on the ensuing adaptive immune response. We also discuss how the current knowledge will allow further refinement of our understanding of the interplay between Leishmania and its hosts that leads to resistance or susceptibility. PMID:22919674

  6. Maternal Milk T Cells Drive Development of Transgenerational Th1 Immunity in Offspring Thymus.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Mrinal K; Nguyen, Virginia; Muller, H Konrad; Walker, Ameae M

    2016-09-15

    Using multiple murine foster-nursing protocols, thereby eliminating placental transfer and allowing a distinction between dam- and pup-derived cells, we show that foster nursing by an immunized dam results in development of CD8(+) T cells in nonimmunized foster pups that are specific for Ags against which the foster dam was immunized (Mycobacterium tuberculosis or Candida albicans). We have dubbed this process "maternal educational immunity" to distinguish it from passive cellular immunity. Of the variety of maternal immune cells present in milk, only T cells were detected in pup tissues. Maternal T cells, a substantial percentage of which were CD4(+)MHC class II(+), accumulated in the pup thymus and spleen during the nursing period. Further analysis of maternal cells in the pup thymus showed that a proportion was positive for maternal immunogen-specific MHC class II tetramers. To determine the outcome of Ag presentation in the thymus, the maternal or foster pup origin of immunogen-responding CD8(+) cells in foster pup spleens was assessed. Whereas ∼10% were maternally derived in the first few weeks after weaning, all immunogen-responding CD8(+) T cells were pup derived by 12 wk of age. Pup-derived immunogen-responsive CD8(+) cells persisted until at least 1 y of age. Passive cellular immunity is well accepted and has been demonstrated in the human population. In this study, we show an arguably more important role for transferred immune cells: the direction of offspring T cell development. Harnessing maternal educational immunity through prepregnancy immunization programs has potential for improvement of infant immunity. Copyright © 2016 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  7. Deep brain stimulation during early adolescence prevents microglial alterations in a model of maternal immune activation.

    PubMed

    Hadar, Ravit; Dong, Le; Del-Valle-Anton, Lucia; Guneykaya, Dilansu; Voget, Mareike; Edemann-Callesen, Henriette; Schweibold, Regina; Djodari-Irani, Anais; Goetz, Thomas; Ewing, Samuel; Kettenmann, Helmut; Wolf, Susanne A; Winter, Christine

    2017-07-01

    In recent years schizophrenia has been recognized as a neurodevelopmental disorder likely involving a perinatal insult progressively affecting brain development. The poly I:C maternal immune activation (MIA) rodent model is considered as a neurodevelopmental model of schizophrenia. Using this model we and others demonstrated the association between neuroinflammation in the form of altered microglia and a schizophrenia-like endophenotype. Therapeutic intervention using the anti-inflammatory drug minocycline affected altered microglia activation and was successful in the adult offspring. However, less is known about the effect of preventive therapeutic strategies on microglia properties. Previously we found that deep brain stimulation of the medial prefrontal cortex applied pre-symptomatically to adolescence MIA rats prevented the manifestation of behavioral and structural deficits in adult rats. We here studied the effects of deep brain stimulation during adolescence on microglia properties in adulthood. We found that in the hippocampus and nucleus accumbens, but not in the medial prefrontal cortex, microglial density and soma size were increased in MIA rats. Pro-inflammatory cytokine mRNA was unchanged in all brain areas before and after implantation and stimulation. Stimulation of either the medial prefrontal cortex or the nucleus accumbens normalized microglia density and soma size in main projection areas including the hippocampus and in the area around the electrode implantation. We conclude that in parallel to an alleviation of the symptoms in the rat MIA model, deep brain stimulation has the potential to prevent the neuroinflammatory component in this disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Short-term stress enhances cellular immunity and increases early resistance to squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dhabhar, Firdaus S; Saul, Alison N; Daugherty, Christine; Holmes, Tyson H; Bouley, Donna M; Oberyszyn, Tatiana M

    2010-01-01

    In contrast to chronic/long-term stress that suppresses/dysregulates immune function, an acute/short-term fight-or-flight stress response experienced during immune activation can enhance innate and adaptive immunity. Moderate ultraviolet-B (UV) exposure provides a non-invasive system for studying the naturalistic emergence, progression and regression of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Because SCC is an immunoresponsive cancer, we hypothesized that short-term stress experienced before UV exposure would enhance protective immunity and increase resistance to SCC. Control and short-term stress groups were treated identically except that the short-term stress group was restrained (2.5h) before each of nine UV-exposure sessions (minimum erythemal dose, 3-times/week) during weeks 4-6 of the 10-week UV exposure protocol. Tumors were measured weekly, and tissue collected at weeks 7, 20, and 32. Chemokine and cytokine gene expression was quantified by real-time PCR, and CD4+ and CD8+ T cells by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. Compared to controls, the short-term stress group showed greater cutaneous T-cell attracting chemokine (CTACK)/CCL27, RANTES, IL-12, and IFN-gamma gene expression at weeks 7, 20, and 32, higher skin infiltrating T cell numbers (weeks 7 and 20), lower tumor incidence (weeks 11-20) and fewer tumors (weeks 11-26). These results suggest that activation of short-term stress physiology increased chemokine expression and T cell trafficking and/or function during/following UV exposure, and enhanced Type 1 cytokine-driven cell-mediated immunity that is crucial for resistance to SCC. Therefore, the physiological fight-or-flight stress response and its adjuvant-like immuno-enhancing effects, may provide a novel and important mechanism for enhancing immune system mediated tumor-detection/elimination that merits further investigation.

  9. Symposium review: Modulating adipose tissue lipolysis and remodeling to improve immune function during the transition period and early lactation of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Contreras, G Andres; Strieder-Barboza, Clarissa; De Koster, Jenne

    2018-03-01

    Despite major advances in our understanding of transition and early lactation cow physiology and the use of advanced dietary, medical, and management tools, at least half of early lactation cows are reported to develop disease and over half of cow deaths occur during the first week of lactation. Excessive lipolysis, usually measured as plasma concentrations of free fatty acids (FFA), is a major risk factor for the development of displaced abomasum, ketosis, fatty liver, and metritis, and may also lead to poor lactation performance. Lipolysis triggers adipose tissue (AT) remodeling that is characterized by enhanced humoral and cell-mediated inflammatory responses and changes in its distribution of cellular populations and extracellular matrix composition. Uncontrolled AT inflammation could perpetuate lipolysis, as we have observed in cows with displaced abomasum, especially in those animals with genetic predisposition for excessive lipolysis responses. Efficient transition cow management ensures a moderate rate of lipolysis that is rapidly reduced as lactation progresses. Limiting FFA release from AT benefits immune function as several FFA are known to promote dysregulation of inflammation. Adequate formulation of pre- and postpartum diet reduces the intensity of AT lipolysis. Additionally, supplementation with niacin, monensin, and rumen-protected methyl donors (choline and methionine) during the transition period is reported to minimize FFA release into systemic circulation. Targeted supplementation of energy sources during early lactation improves energy balance and increases insulin concentration, which limits AT lipolytic responses. This review elaborates on the mechanisms by which uncontrolled lipolysis triggers inflammatory disorders. Details on current nutritional and pharmacological interventions that aid the modulation of FFA release from AT and their effect on immune function are provided. Understanding the inherent characteristics of AT biology in

  10. Early systemic bacterial dissemination and a rapid innate immune response characterize genetic resistance to plague of SEG mice.

    PubMed

    Demeure, Christian E; Blanchet, Charlène; Fitting, Catherine; Fayolle, Corinne; Khun, Huot; Szatanik, Marek; Milon, Geneviève; Panthier, Jean-Jacques; Jaubert, Jean; Montagutelli, Xavier; Huerre, Michel; Cavaillon, Jean-Marc; Carniel, Elisabeth

    2012-01-01

    Although laboratory mice are usually highly susceptible to Yersinia pestis, we recently identified a mouse strain (SEG) that exhibited an exceptional capacity to resist bubonic plague and used it to identify immune mechanisms associated with resistance. The kinetics of infection, circulating blood cells, granulopoiesis, lesions, and cellular populations in the spleen, and cytokine production in various tissues were compared in SEG and susceptible C57BL/6J mice after subcutaneous infection with the virulent Y. pestis CO92. Bacterial invasion occurred early (day 2) but was transient in SEG/Pas mice, whereas in C57BL/6J mice it was delayed but continuous until death. The bacterial load in all organs significantly correlated with the production of 5 cytokines (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC), macrophage cationic peptide-1 (MCP-1), interleukin 1α, and interleukin 6) involved in monocyte and neutrophil recruitment. Indeed, higher proportions of these 2 cell types in blood and massive recruitment of F4/80(+)CD11b(-) macrophages in the spleen were observed in SEG/Pas mice at an early time point (day 2). Later times after infection (day 4) were characterized in C57BL/6J mice by destructive lesions of the spleen and impaired granulopoiesis. A fast and efficient Y. pestis dissemination in SEG mice may be critical for the triggering of an early and effective innate immune response necessary for surviving plague.

  11. Development and function of human innate immune cells in a humanized mouse model.

    PubMed

    Rongvaux, Anthony; Willinger, Tim; Martinek, Jan; Strowig, Till; Gearty, Sofia V; Teichmann, Lino L; Saito, Yasuyuki; Marches, Florentina; Halene, Stephanie; Palucka, A Karolina; Manz, Markus G; Flavell, Richard A

    2014-04-01

    Mice repopulated with human hematopoietic cells are a powerful tool for the study of human hematopoiesis and immune function in vivo. However, existing humanized mouse models cannot support development of human innate immune cells, including myeloid cells and natural killer (NK) cells. Here we describe two mouse strains called MITRG and MISTRG, in which human versions of four genes encoding cytokines important for innate immune cell development are knocked into their respective mouse loci. The human cytokines support the development and function of monocytes, macrophages and NK cells derived from human fetal liver or adult CD34(+) progenitor cells injected into the mice. Human macrophages infiltrated a human tumor xenograft in MITRG and MISTRG mice in a manner resembling that observed in tumors obtained from human patients. This humanized mouse model may be used to model the human immune system in scenarios of health and pathology, and may enable evaluation of therapeutic candidates in an in vivo setting relevant to human physiology.

  12. The enkephalinergic nervous system and its immunomodulation on the developing immune system during the ontogenesis of oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaoqun; Zhou, Zhi; Wang, Lingling; Song, Xiaorui; Chen, Hao; Wang, Weilin; Liu, Rui; Wang, Mengqiang; Wang, Hao; Song, Linsheng

    2015-08-01

    Enkephalinergic neuroendocrine-immune regulatory system is one of the most important neuroendocrine-immune systems in both vertebrates and invertebrates for its significant role in the immune regulation. In the present study, the early onset of enkephalinergic nervous system and its immunomodulation on the developing immune system during the ontogenesis of oyster Crassostrea gigas were investigated to illustrate the function of neural regulation on the innate immune system in oyster larvae. [Met(5)]-enkephalin (Met-ENK) was firstly observed on the marginal of the dorsal half of D-hinged larvae. Six immune-related molecules, including four PRRs (CgCTL-1, CgCTL-2, CgCTL-4, CgNatterin-3) and two immune effectors (CgTNF-1 and CgEcSOD) were detected in the early developmental stages of trochophore, D-hinged and umbo larvae of oyster. After incubated with [Met(5)]-enkephalin, the mRNA expression level of all the PRRs changed significantly (p < 0.05). In trochophore larvae, the expression level of CgNatterin-3 decreased dramatically (p < 0.05) at 6 h, and the expression level of CgCTL-4 was significantly down-regulated at 3 h and 6 h (p < 0.05), respectively. In D-hinged and umbo larvae, only CgCTL-1 was significantly down-regulated and the differences were significant at 3 h and 6 h (p < 0.05), while the expression level of CgCTL-2 and CgCTL-4 increased significantly at 3 h after treatment (p < 0.05). Moreover, the expression levels of immune effectors were up-regulated significantly at 3 h and 6 h in trochophore larvae (p < 0.05). The expression level of CgTNF-1 in both blank and experiment groups was up-regulated but there was no significant difference in D-hinged larvae stage. On the contrary, the expression level of CgEcSOD in D-hinged larvae decreased dramatically at 3 h and 6 h after [Met(5)]-enkephalin incubation (p < 0.05). In umbo larvae, the expression level of CgTNF-1 and CgEcSOD in the experiment group increased significantly at 6 h after [Met(5)]-enkephalin

  13. TGF-β in tolerance, development and regulation of immunity

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Chris J.C.; Smyth, Danielle J.; Dresser, David W.; Maizels, Rick M.

    2016-01-01

    The TGF-β superfamily is an ancient metazoan protein class which cuts across cell and tissue differentiation, developmental biology and immunology. Its many members are regulated at multiple levels from intricate control of gene transcription, post-translational processing and activation, and signaling through overlapping receptor structures and downstream intracellular messengers. We have been interested in TGF-β homologues firstly as key players in the induction of immunological tolerance, the topic so closely associated with Ray Owen. Secondly, our interests in how parasites may manipulate the immune system of their host has also brought us to study the TGF-β pathway in infections with longlived, essentially tolerogenic, helminth parasites. Finally, within the spectrum of mammalian TGF-β proteins is an exquisitely tightly-regulated gene, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), whose role in sex determination underpins the phenotype of freemartin calves that formed the focus of Ray’s seminal work on immunological tolerance. PMID:26617281

  14. Effects of immunization with natural and recombinant lysine decarboxylase on canine gingivitis development.

    PubMed

    Peters, Jennifer L; DeMars, Paul L; Collins, Lindsay M; Stoner, Julie A; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Komori, Naoka; Singh, Anil; Feasley, Christa L; Haddock, James A; Levine, Martin

    2012-10-19

    Periodontal disease, gingival inflammation (gingivitis) and periodontal attachment loss (periodontitis), causes tooth loss and susceptibility to chronic inflammation. Professionally scaling and cleaning the teeth regularly controls the disease, but is expensive in companion animals. Eikenella corrodens is common in canine oral cavities where it is a source of lysine decarboxylase (LDC). In human dental biofilms (plaques), LDC converts lysine to cadaverine and impairs the gingival epithelial barrier to bacteria. LDC vaccination may therefore retard gingivitis development. Year-old beagle dogs provided blood samples, and had weight and clinical measurements (biofilm and gingivitis) recorded. After scaling and cleaning, two dogs were immunized subcutaneously with 0.2mg native LDC from E. corrodens and 2 sets of four dogs with 0.2mg recombinant LDC purified from Escherichia coli. A third set of 4 dogs was immunized intranasally. Rehydragel(®), Emulsigen(®), Polygen™ or Carbigen™ were used as adjuvant. Four additional pairs of dogs were sham-immunized with each adjuvant alone (controls). Immunizations were repeated twice, 3 weeks apart, and clinical measurements were obtained after another 2 weeks, when the teeth were scaled and cleaned again. Tooth brushing was then stopped and the diet was changed from hard to soft chow. Clinical measurements were repeated after 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 weeks. Compared with sham-immunized dogs, gingivitis was reduced over all 8 weeks of soft diet after subcutaneous immunization with native LDC, or after intranasal immunization with recombinant LDC in Carbigen™, but for only 6 of the 8 weeks after subcutaneous immunization with recombinant LDC in Emulsigen(®) (repeated measures ANOVA). Subcutaneous vaccination induced a strong serum IgG antibody response that decreased during the soft diet period, whereas intranasal immunization induced a weak serum IgA antibody response that did not decrease. Immunization with recombinant LDC may

  15. Maternal Exposure to Occupational Asthmagens during Pregnancy and Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Study to Explore Early Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, Alison B.; Windham, Gayle C.; Croen, Lisa A.; Daniels, Julie L.; Lee, Brian K.; Qian, Yinge; Schendel, Diana E.; Fallin, M. Daniele; Burstyn, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Maternal immune activity has been linked to children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We examined maternal occupational exposure to asthma-causing agents during pregnancy in relation to ASD risk. Our sample included 463 ASD cases and 710 general population controls from the Study to Explore Early Development whose mothers reported at least one…

  16. Early Intervention Paraprofessional Standards: Development and Field Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Rashida; Chopra, Ritu V.; DiPalma, Geraldine

    2017-01-01

    Personnel standards are the foundations for how states and nations approve a program, engage in systemic assessment, and provide effective professional development to its early childhood professionals. However, despite the extensive use of paraprofessionals in early intervention/early childhood special education programs, there is a lack of…

  17. Alterations in early cytokine-mediated immune responses to Plasmodium falciparum infection in Tanzanian children with mineral element deficiencies: a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Deficiencies in vitamins and mineral elements are important causes of morbidity in developing countries, possibly because they lead to defective immune responses to infection. The aim of the study was to assess the effects of mineral element deficiencies on early innate cytokine responses to Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Methods Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 304 Tanzanian children aged 6-72 months were stimulated with P. falciparum-parasitized erythrocytes obtained from in vitro cultures. Results The results showed a significant increase by 74% in geometric mean of TNF production in malaria-infected individuals with zinc deficiency (11% to 240%; 95% CI). Iron deficiency anaemia was associated with increased TNF production in infected individuals and overall with increased IL-10 production, while magnesium deficiency induced increased production of IL-10 by 46% (13% to 144%) in uninfected donors. All donors showed a response towards IL-1β production, drawing special attention for its possible protective role in early innate immune responses to malaria. Conclusions In view of these results, the findings show plasticity in cytokine profiles of mononuclear cells reacting to malaria infection under conditions of different micronutrient deficiencies. These findings lay the foundations for future inclusion of a combination of precisely selected set of micronutrients rather than single nutrients as part of malaria vaccine intervention programmes in endemic countries. PMID:20470442

  18. Therapeutics targeting tumor immune escape: towards the development of new generation anticancer vaccines.

    PubMed

    Mocellin, Simone; Nitti, Donato

    2008-05-01

    Despite the evidence that immune effectors can play a significant role in controlling tumor growth under natural conditions or in response to therapeutic manipulation, it is clear that malignant cells evade immune surveillance in most cases. Considering that anticancer vaccination has reached a plateau of results and currently no vaccination regimen is indicated as a standard anticancer therapy, the dissection of the molecular events underlying tumor immune escape is the necessary condition to make anticancer vaccines a therapeutic weapon effective enough to be implemented in the routine clinical setting. Recent years have witnessed significant advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying tumor immune escape. These mechanistic insights are fostering the development of rationally designed therapeutics aimed at reverting the immunosuppressive circuits that undermine an effective antitumor immune response. In this review, the best characterized mechanisms that allow cancer cells to evade immune surveillance are overviewed and the most debated controversies constellating this complex field are highlighted. In addition, the latest therapeutic strategies devised to overcome tumor immune escape are described, with special regard to those entering clinical phase investigation. Copyright (c) 2007 Wiley-Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Early Developments in Argumentation in Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazerman, Charles

    An evaluation of four seventeenth and eighteenth century essays on optics revealed early trends in the evolution of scientific articles. The later articles showed a growing tendency to (1) separate practice from pure knowledge, (2) organize information around problems of knowledge and theory rather than around chronological events, (3) emphasize…

  20. The Development of Self-Regulation across Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montroy, Janelle J.; Bowles, Ryan P.; Skibbe, Lori E.; McClelland, Megan M.; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2016-01-01

    The development of early childhood self-regulation is often considered an early life marker for later life successes. Yet little longitudinal research has evaluated whether there are different trajectories of self-regulation development across children. This study investigates the development of behavioral self-regulation between the ages of 3 and…

  1. Early Development and the Brain: Teaching Resources for Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilkerson, Linda, Ed.; Klein, Rebecca, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This nine-unit curriculum translates current scientific research on early brain development into practical suggestions to help early childhood professionals understand the reciprocal link between caregiving and brain development. The curriculum was created and extensively field-tested by the Erikson Institute Faculty Development Project on the…

  2. Parents' Role in the Early Head Start Children's Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, Cecelia Smalls

    2014-01-01

    The development of language during a child's early years has been linked to parental involvement. While Early Head Start (EHS) researchers have theorized that parental involvement is an important factor in language development, there has been little research on how parents view their roles in the language development process. The purpose of this…

  3. Classroom Effects of an Early Childhood Educator Professional Development Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Algozzine, Bob; Babb, Julie; Algozzine, Kate; Mraz, Maryann; Kissel, Brian; Spano, Sedra; Foxworth, Kimberly

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated an Early Childhood Educator Professional Development (ECEPD) project that provided high-quality, sustained, and intensive professional development designed to support developmentally appropriate instruction for preschool-age children based on the best available research on early childhood pedagogy, child development, and preschool…

  4. The mother-offspring dyad: microbial transmission, immune interactions and allergy development.

    PubMed

    Jenmalm, M C

    2017-12-01

    The increasing prevalence of allergy in affluent countries may be caused by reduced intensity and diversity of microbial stimulation, resulting in abnormal postnatal immune maturation. Most studies investigating the underlying immunomodulatory mechanisms have focused on postnatal microbial exposure, for example demonstrating that the gut microbiota differs in composition and diversity during the first months of life in children who later do or do not develop allergic disease. However, it is also becoming increasingly evident that the maternal microbial environment during pregnancy is important in childhood immune programming, and the first microbial encounters may occur already in utero. During pregnancy, there is a close immunological interaction between the mother and her offspring, which provides important opportunities for the maternal microbial environment to influence the immune development of the child. In support of this theory, combined pre- and postnatal supplementations seem to be crucial for the preventive effect of probiotics on infant eczema. Here, the influence of microbial and immune interactions within the mother-offspring dyad on childhood allergy development will be discussed. In addition, how perinatal transmission of microbes and immunomodulatory factors from mother to offspring may shape appropriate immune maturation during infancy and beyond, potentially via epigenetic mechanisms, will be examined. Deeper understanding of these interactions between the maternal and offspring microbiome and immunity is needed to identify efficacious preventive measures to combat the allergy epidemic. © 2017 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  5. A novel dendritic cell-based immunization approach for the induction of durable Th1-polarized anti-HER-2/neu responses in women with early breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Koski, Gary K.; Koldovsky, Ursula; Xu, Shuwen; Mick, Rosemarie; Sharma, Anupama; Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth; Weinstein, Susan; Nisenbaum, Harvey; Levine, Bruce L; Fox, Kevin; Zhang, Paul; Czerniecki, Brian J

    2011-01-01

    Twenty-seven subjects with HER-2/neu over-expressing ductal carcinoma in situ of the breast were enrolled in a neoadjuvant immunization trial for safety and immunogenicity of DC1-polarized dendritic cells (DC1) pulsed with six HER-2/neu promiscuous MHC class II-binding peptides, plus two additional HLA-A2.1 class I-binding peptides. DC1 were generated with IFN-γ plus a special clinical-grade bacterial endotoxin (LPS) and administered directly into groin lymph nodes four times at weekly intervals prior to scheduled surgical resection of DCIS. Subjects were monitored for the induction of new or enhanced anti-peptide reactivity by IFN-γ ELIspot and ELISA assays performed on Th cells obtained from peripheral blood or excised sentinel lymph nodes. Responses by CTL against HLA-A2.1-binding peptides were measured using peptide-pulsed T2 target cells or HER-2/neu-expressing or non-expressing tumor cell lines. DC1 showed surface phenotype indistinct from “gold standard” inflammatory cocktail-activated DC, but displayed a number of distinguishing functional characteristics including the secretion of soluble factors and enhanced “killer DC” capacity against tumor cells in vitro. Post-immunization, we observed sensitization of Th cells to at least 1 class II peptide in 22 of 25 (88%, 95% exact CI 68.8 – 97.5%) evaluable subjects, while eleven of 13 (84.6%, 95% exact CI 64 – 99.8%) HLA-A2.1 subjects were successfully sensitized to class I peptides. Perhaps most importantly, anti-HER-2/neu peptide responses were observed up to 52 months post-immunization. These data show even in the presence of early breast cancer such DC1 are potent inducers of durable type I-polarized immunity, suggesting potential clinical value for development of cancer immunotherapy. PMID:22130160

  6. RNA-seq analysis of early enteromyxosis in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus): new insights into parasite invasion and immune evasion strategies.

    PubMed

    Ronza, Paolo; Robledo, Diego; Bermúdez, Roberto; Losada, Ana Paula; Pardo, Belén G; Sitjà-Bobadilla, Ariadna; Quiroga, María Isabel; Martínez, Paulino

    2016-07-01

    Enteromyxum scophthalmi, an intestinal myxozoan parasite, is the causative agent of a threatening disease for turbot (Scophthalmus maximus, L.) aquaculture. The colonisation of the digestive tract by this parasite leads to a cachectic syndrome associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. This myxosporidiosis has a long pre-patent period and the first detectable clinical and histopathological changes are subtle. The pathogenic mechanisms acting in the early stages of infection are still far from being fully understood. Further information on the host-parasite interaction is needed to assist in finding efficient preventive and therapeutic measures. Here, a RNA-seq-based transcriptome analysis of head kidney, spleen and pyloric caeca from experimentally-infected and control turbot was performed. Only infected fish with early signs of infection, determined by histopathology and immunohistochemical detection of E. scophthalmi, were selected. The RNA-seq analysis revealed, as expected, less intense transcriptomic changes than those previously found during later stages of the disease. Several genes involved in IFN-related pathways were up-regulated in the three organs, suggesting that the IFN-mediated immune response plays a main role in this phase of the disease. Interestingly, an opposite expression pattern had been found in a previous study on severely infected turbot. In addition, possible strategies for immune system evasion were suggested by the down-regulation of different genes encoding complement components and acute phase proteins. At the site of infection (pyloric caeca), modulation of genes related to different structural proteins was detected and the expression profile indicated the inhibition of cell proliferation and differentiation. These transcriptomic changes provide indications regarding the mechanisms of parasite attachment to and invasion of the host. The current results contribute to a better knowledge of the events that characterise the early

  7. Combined Chromatin and Expression Analysis Reveals Specific Regulatory Mechanisms within Cytokine Genes in the Macrophage Early Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Emanuelsson, Olof; Sennblad, Bengt; Pirmoradian Najafabadi, Mohammad; Folkersen, Lasse; Mälarstig, Anders; Lagergren, Jens; Eriksson, Per; Hamsten, Anders; Odeberg, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Macrophages play a critical role in innate immunity, and the expression of early response genes orchestrate much of the initial response of the immune system. Macrophages undergo extensive transcriptional reprogramming in response to inflammatory stimuli such as Lipopolysaccharide (LPS). To identify gene transcription regulation patterns involved in early innate immune responses, we used two genome-wide approaches - gene expression profiling and chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq) analysis. We examined the effect of 2 hrs LPS stimulation on early gene expression and its relation to chromatin remodeling (H3 acetylation; H3Ac) and promoter binding of Sp1 and RNA polymerase II phosphorylated at serine 5 (S5P RNAPII), which is a marker for transcriptional initiation. Our results indicate novel and alternative gene regulatory mechanisms for certain proinflammatory genes. We identified two groups of up-regulated inflammatory genes with respect to chromatin modification and promoter features. One group, including highly up-regulated genes such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF), was characterized by H3Ac, high CpG content and lack of TATA boxes. The second group, containing inflammatory mediators (interleukins and CCL chemokines), was up-regulated upon LPS stimulation despite lacking H3Ac in their annotated promoters, which were low in CpG content but did contain TATA boxes. Genome-wide analysis showed that few H3Ac peaks were unique to either +/−LPS condition. However, within these, an unpacking/expansion of already existing H3Ac peaks was observed upon LPS stimulation. In contrast, a significant proportion of S5P RNAPII peaks (approx 40%) was unique to either condition. Furthermore, data indicated a large portion of previously unannotated TSSs, particularly in LPS-stimulated macrophages, where only 28% of unique S5P RNAPII peaks overlap annotated promoters. The regulation of the inflammatory response appears to occur in a very specific manner at the

  8. Early literacy and early numeracy: the value of including early literacy skills in the prediction of numeracy development.

    PubMed

    Purpura, David J; Hume, Laura E; Sims, Darcey M; Lonigan, Christopher J

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether early literacy skills uniquely predict early numeracy skills development. During the first year of the study, 69 3- to 5-year-old preschoolers were assessed on the Preschool Early Numeracy Skills (PENS) test and the Test of Preschool Early Literacy Skills (TOPEL). Participants were assessed again a year later on the PENS test and on the Applied Problems and Calculation subtests of the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement. Three mixed effect regressions were conducted using Time 2 PENS, Applied Problems, and Calculation as the dependent variables. Print Knowledge and Vocabulary accounted for unique variance in the prediction of Time 2 numeracy scores. Phonological Awareness did not uniquely predict any of the mathematics domains. The findings of this study identify an important link between early literacy and early numeracy development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. DNA Immunization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shixia; Lu, Shan

    2013-01-01

    DNA immunization was discovered in early 1990s and its use has been expanded from vaccine studies to a broader range of biomedical research, such as the generation of high quality polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies as research reagents. In this unit, three common DNA immunization methods are described: needle injection, electroporation and gene gun. In addition, several common considerations related to DNA immunization are discussed. PMID:24510291

  10. Conceptions of and Early Childhood Educators' Experiences in Early Childhood Professional Development Programs: A Qualitative Metasynthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christopher P.; Englehardt, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Policy makers and early childhood stakeholders across the United States continue to seek policy solutions that improve early educators' instruction of young children. A primary vehicle for attaining this goal is professional development. This has led to an influx of empirical studies that seek to develop a set of best practices for professional…

  11. Applying Mathematical Tools to Accelerate Vaccine Development: Modeling Shigella Immune Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Courtney L.; Wahid, Rezwanul; Toapanta, Franklin R.; Simon, Jakub K.

    2013-01-01

    We establish a mathematical framework for studying immune interactions with Shigella, a bacteria that kills over one million people worldwide every year. The long-term goal of this novel approach is to inform Shigella vaccine design by elucidating which immune components and bacterial targets are crucial for establishing Shigella immunity. Our delay differential equation model focuses on antibody and B cell responses directed against antigens like lipopolysaccharide in Shigella’s outer membrane. We find that antibody-based vaccines targeting only surface antigens cannot elicit sufficient immunity for protection. Additional boosting prior to infection would require a four-orders-of-magnitude increase in antibodies to sufficiently prevent epithelial invasion. However, boosting anti-LPS B memory can confer protection, which suggests these cells may correlate with immunity. We see that IgA antibodies are slightly more effective per molecule than IgG, but more total IgA is required due to spatial functionality. An extension of the model reveals that targeting both LPS and epithelial entry proteins is a promising avenue to advance vaccine development. This paper underscores the importance of multifaceted immune targeting in creating an effective Shigella vaccine. It introduces mathematical models to the Shigella vaccine development effort and lays a foundation for joint theoretical/experimental/clinical approaches to Shigella vaccine design. PMID:23589755

  12. Applying mathematical tools to accelerate vaccine development: modeling Shigella immune dynamics.

    PubMed

    Davis, Courtney L; Wahid, Rezwanul; Toapanta, Franklin R; Simon, Jakub K; Sztein, Marcelo B; Levy, Doron

    2013-01-01

    We establish a mathematical framework for studying immune interactions with Shigella, a bacteria that kills over one million people worldwide every year. The long-term goal of this novel approach is to inform Shigella vaccine design by elucidating which immune components and bacterial targets are crucial for establishing Shigella immunity. Our delay differential equation model focuses on antibody and B cell responses directed against antigens like lipopolysaccharide in Shigella's outer membrane. We find that antibody-based vaccines targeting only surface antigens cannot elicit sufficient immunity for protection. Additional boosting prior to infection would require a four-orders-of-magnitude increase in antibodies to sufficiently prevent epithelial invasion. However, boosting anti-LPS B memory can confer protection, which suggests these cells may correlate with immunity. We see that IgA antibodies are slightly more effective per molecule than IgG, but more total IgA is required due to spatial functionality. An extension of the model reveals that targeting both LPS and epithelial entry proteins is a promising avenue to advance vaccine development. This paper underscores the importance of multifaceted immune targeting in creating an effective Shigella vaccine. It introduces mathematical models to the Shigella vaccine development effort and lays a foundation for joint theoretical/experimental/clinical approaches to Shigella vaccine design.

  13. Vaccine development: From concept to early clinical testing.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Anthony L; Garçon, Nathalie; Leo, Oberdan; Friedland, Leonard R; Strugnell, Richard; Laupèze, Béatrice; Doherty, Mark; Stern, Peter

    2016-12-20

    In the 21st century, an array of microbiological and molecular allow antigens for new vaccines to be specifically identified, designed, produced and delivered with the aim of optimising the induction of a protective immune response against a well-defined immunogen. New knowledge about the functioning of the immune system and host pathogen interactions has stimulated the rational design of vaccines. The design toolbox includes vaccines made from whole pathogens, protein subunits, polysaccharides, pathogen-like particles, use of viral/bacterial vectors, plus adjuvants and conjugation technology to increase and broaden the immune response. Processes such as recombinant DNA technology can simplify the complexity of manufacturing and facilitate consistent production of large quantities of antigen. Any new vaccine development is greatly enhanced by, and requires integration of information concerning: 1. Pathogen life-cycle & epidemiology. Knowledge of pathogen structure, route of entry, interaction with cellular receptors, subsequent replication sites and disease-causing mechanisms are all important to identify antigens suitable for disease prevention. The demographics of infection, specific risk groups and age-specific infection rates determine which population to immunise, and at what age. 2. Immune control & escape. Interactions between the host and pathogen are explored, with determination of the relative importance of antibodies, T-cells of different types and innate immunity, immune escape strategies during infection, and possible immune correlates of protection. This information guides identification and selection of antigen and the specific immune response required for protection. 3. Antigen selection & vaccine formulation. The selected antigen is formulated to remain suitably immunogenic and stable over time, induce an immune response that is likely to be protective, plus be amenable to eventual scale-up to commercial production. 4. Vaccine preclinical

  14. Constructivist Early Education for Moral Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVries, Rheta; Hildebrandt, Carolyn; Zan, Betty

    2000-01-01

    Examines role that constructivist teachers play in fostering moral development in young children. Traces development of perspective taking, autonomy, and self- regulation, and examines effects of different teaching and parenting practices on children's character development. Provides suggestions for teachers to promote optimal moral development by…

  15. Beyond infection - Maternal immune activation by environmental factors, microglial development, and relevance for autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Bilbo, Staci D; Block, Carina L; Bolton, Jessica L; Hanamsagar, Richa; Tran, Phuong K

    2018-01-01

    Immune molecules such as cytokines and chemokines and the cells that produce them within the brain, notably microglia, are critical for normal brain development. This recognition has in recent years led to the working hypothesis that inflammatory events during pregnancy, e.g. in response to infection, may disrupt the normal expression of immune molecules during critical stages of neural development and thereby contribute to the risk for neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This hypothesis has in large part been shepherded by the work of Dr. Paul Patterson and colleagues, which has elegantly demonstrated that a single viral infection or injection of a viral mimetic to pregnant mice significantly and persistently impacts offspring immune and nervous system function, changes that underlie ASD-like behavioral dysfunction including social and communication deficits. Subsequent studies by many labs - in humans and in non-human animal models - have supported the hypothesis that ongoing disrupted immune molecule expression and/or neuroinflammation contributes to at least a significant subset of ASD. The heterogeneous clinical and biological phenotypes observed in ASD strongly suggest that in genetically susceptible individuals, environmental risk factors combine or synergize to create a tipping or threshold point for dysfunction. Importantly, animal studies showing a link between maternal immune activation (MIA) and ASD-like outcomes in offspring involve different species and diverse environmental factors associated with ASD in humans, beyond infection, including toxin exposures, maternal stress, and maternal obesity, all of which impact inflammatory or immune pathways. The goal of this review is to highlight the broader implications of Dr. Patterson's work for the field of autism, with a focus on the impact that MIA by diverse environmental factors has on fetal brain development, immune system development, and the pathophysiology of ASD

  16. Redefining Leadership: Lessons from an Early Education Leadership Development Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglass, Anne

    2018-01-01

    This study examined how experienced early educators developed as change agents in the context of a leadership development program. Unlike in many other professions, experienced early educators lack opportunities to grow throughout their careers and access the supports they need to lead change in their classrooms, organizations, the profession, and…

  17. Promoting Professional Development for Physical Therapists in Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catalino, Tricia; Chiarello, Lisa A.; Long, Toby; Weaver, Priscilla

    2015-01-01

    Early intervention service providers are expected to form cohesive teams to build the capacity of a family to promote their child's development. Given the differences in personnel preparation across disciplines of service providers, the Early Childhood Personnel Center is creating integrated and comprehensive professional development models for…

  18. Investments for Future: Early Childhood Development and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kartal, Hulya

    2007-01-01

    Investments relevant to the first years of life are directly connected to the future of societies. It can be argued that investments for early childhood development and education are one of the best ways of decreasing social inequality caused by adverse environments which hinder development in early ages and tackling poverty by reducing the rate…

  19. Assessing Home Environment for Early Child Development in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadeem, Sanober; Rafique, Ghazala; Khowaja, Liaquat; Yameen, Anjum

    2014-01-01

    Family environment plays a very important role in early child development and the availability of stimulating material in the early years of a child's life is crucial for optimising development. The Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) inventory is one of the most widely used measures to assess the quality and quantity of…

  20. Early Communication Development and Intervention for Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landa, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder defined by impairments in social and communication development, accompanied by stereotyped patterns of behavior and interest. The focus of this paper is on the early development of communication in autism, and early intervention for impairments in communication associated with this disorder. An overview of…

  1. Active Suppression of Early Immune Response in Tobacco by the Human Pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium

    PubMed Central

    Shirron, Natali; Yaron, Sima

    2011-01-01

    The persistence of enteric pathogens on plants has been studied extensively, mainly due to the potential hazard of human pathogens such as Salmonella enterica being able to invade and survive in/on plants. Factors involved in the interactions between enteric bacteria and plants have been identified and consequently it was hypothesized that plants may be vectors or alternative hosts for enteric pathogens. To survive, endophytic bacteria have to escape the plant immune systems, which function at different levels through the plant-bacteria interactions. To understand how S. enterica survives endophyticaly we conducted a detailed analysis on its ability to elicit or evade the plant immune response. The models of this study were Nicotiana tabacum plants and cells suspension exposed to S. enterica serovar Typhimurium. The plant immune response was analyzed by looking at tissue damage and by testing oxidative burst and pH changes. It was found that S. Typhimurium did not promote disease symptoms in the contaminated plants. Live S. Typhimurium did not trigger the production of an oxidative burst and pH changes by the plant cells, while heat killed or chloramphenicol treated S. Typhimurium and purified LPS of Salmonella were significant elicitors, indicating that S. Typhimurium actively suppress the plant response. By looking at the plant response to mutants defective in virulence factors we showed that the suppression depends on secreted factors. Deletion of invA reduced the ability of S. Typhimurium to suppress oxidative burst and pH changes, indicating that a functional SPI1 TTSS is required for the suppression. This study demonstrates that plant colonization by S. Typhimurium is indeed an active process. S. Typhimurium utilizes adaptive strategies of altering innate plant perception systems to improve its fitness in the plant habitat. All together these results suggest a complex mechanism for perception of S. Typhimurium by plants. PMID:21541320

  2. Super-resolution microscopy reveals protein spatial reorganization in early innate immune responses.

    SciT

    Carson, Bryan D.; Aaron, Jesse S.; Timlin, Jerilyn Ann

    2010-10-01

    Over the past decade optical approaches were introduced that effectively break the diffraction barrier. Of particular note were introductions of Stimulated Emission/Depletion (STED) microscopy, Photo-Activated Localization Microscopy (PALM), and the closely related Stochastic Optical Reconstruction Microscopy (STORM). STORM represents an attractive method for researchers, as it does not require highly specialized optical setups, can be implemented using commercially available dyes, and is more easily amenable to multicolor imaging. We implemented a simultaneous dual-color, direct-STORM imaging system through the use of an objective-based TIRF microscope and filter-based image splitter. This system allows for excitation and detection of two fluorophors simultaneously, viamore » projection of each fluorophor's signal onto separate regions of a detector. We imaged the sub-resolution organization of the TLR4 receptor, a key mediator of innate immune response, after challenge with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacteria-specific antigen. While distinct forms of LPS have evolved among various bacteria, only some LPS variations (such as that derived from E. coli) typically result in significant cellular immune response. Others (such as from the plague bacteria Y. pestis) do not, despite affinity to TLR4. We will show that challenge with LPS antigens produces a statistically significant increase in TLR4 receptor clusters on the cell membrane, presumably due to recruitment of receptors to lipid rafts. These changes, however, are only detectable below the diffraction limit and are not evident using conventional imaging methods. Furthermore, we will compare the spatiotemporal behavior of TLR4 receptors in response to different LPS chemotypes in order to elucidate possible routes by which pathogens such as Y. pestis are able to circumvent the innate immune system. Finally, we will exploit the dual-color STORM capabilities to simultaneously image LPS and TLR4 receptors in the

  3. MenTORing Immunity: mTOR Signaling in the Development and Function of Tissue-Resident Immune Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Russell G.; Pearce, Edward J.

    2017-01-01

    Tissue-resident immune cells must balance survival in peripheral tissues with the capacity to respond rapidly upon infection or tissue damage, and in turn couple these responses with intrinsic metabolic control and conditions in the tissue microenvironment. The serine/threonine kinase mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central integrator of extracellular and intracellular growth signals and cellular metabolism and plays important roles in both innate and adaptive immune responses. This review discusses the function of mTOR signaling in the differentiation and function of tissue-resident immune cells, with focus on the role of mTOR as a metabolic sensor and its impact on metabolic regulation in innate and adaptive immune cells. We also discuss the impact of metabolic constraints in tissues on immune homeostasis and disease, and how manipulating mTOR activity with drugs such as rapamycin can modulate immunity in these contexts. PMID:28514674

  4. MenTORing Immunity: mTOR Signaling in the Development and Function of Tissue-Resident Immune Cells.

    PubMed

    Jones, Russell G; Pearce, Edward J

    2017-05-16

    Tissue-resident immune cells must balance survival in peripheral tissues with the capacity to respond rapidly upon infection or tissue damage, and in turn couple these responses with intrinsic metabolic control and conditions in the tissue microenvironment. The serine/threonine kinase mammalian/mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central integrator of extracellular and intracellular growth signals and cellular metabolism and plays important roles in both innate and adaptive immune responses. This review discusses the function of mTOR signaling in the differentiation and function of tissue-resident immune cells, with focus on the role of mTOR as a metabolic sensor and its impact on metabolic regulation in innate and adaptive immune cells. We also discuss the impact of metabolic constraints in tissues on immune homeostasis and disease, and how manipulating mTOR activity with drugs such as rapamycin can modulate immunity in these contexts. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Commensal microbiome effects on mucosal immune system development in the ruminant gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Taschuk, Ryan; Griebel, Philip J

    2012-06-01

    Commensal microflora play many roles within the mammalian gastrointestinal tract (GIT) that benefit host physiology by way of direct or indirect interactions with mucosal surfaces. Commensal flora comprises members across all microbial phyla, although predominantly bacterial, with population dynamics varying with host species, genotype, and environmental factors. Little is known, however, about the complex mechanisms regulating host-commensal interactions that underlie this mutually beneficial relationship and how alterations in the microbiome may influence host development and susceptibility to infection. Research into the gut microbiome has intensified as it becomes increasingly evident that symbiont-host interactions have a significant impact on mucosal immunity and health. Furthermore, evidence that microbial populations vary significantly throughout the GIT suggest that regional differences in the microbiome may also influence immune function within distinct compartments of the GIT. Postpartum colonization of the GIT has been shown to have a direct effect on mucosal immune system development, but information is limited regarding regional effects of the microbiome on the development, activation, and maturation of the mucosal immune system. This review discusses factors influencing the colonization and establishment of the microbiome throughout the GIT of newborn calves and the evidence that regional differences in the microbiome influence mucosal immune system development and maturation. The implications of this complex interaction are also discussed in terms of possible effects on responses to enteric pathogens and vaccines.

  6. Effects of stress in early life on immune functions in rats with asthma and the effects of music therapy.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yanxia; Liu, Meng; Shi, Shousen; Jiang, Hong; Yang, Lejin; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Qian; Pan, Fang

    2010-06-01

    Although studies have shown that psychological stress has detrimental effects on bronchial asthma, there are few objective data on whether early-life stress, as early postnatal psychosocial environment, has a long-lasting effect on adult asthma and the potential pathophysiologic mechanism. This study aims to examine the effects on immune function and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses in adult asthmatic rats that experienced stress in early life and the potential ameliorative effects of music therapy on these parameters. Forty male Wistar rat pups were randomly assigned to the asthma group, the adulthood-stressed asthma group, the childhood-stressed asthma group, the music group, and the control group. Restraint stress and Mozart's Sonata K.448 were applied to ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthmatic rats to establish psychological stress and music therapy models. The levels of serum corticosterone were examined in both childhood after stress and adulthood after OVA challenge. Immune indicators in blood, lung, and brain tissues were measured after the last OVA challenge. Stress in both childhood and adulthood resulted in increases in leukocyte and eosinophil numbers and serum interleukin (IL)-4 levels. The adulthood-stressed group demonstrated increased corticosterone levels after challenge, whereas the childhood-stressed group showed increased corticosterone concentration in childhood but decreased level in adulthood. Central IL-1beta exhibited a similar tendency. Music group rats showed reduced serum IL-4 and corticosterone. Stress in childhood and adulthood resulted in different HPA axis responsiveness in the exacerbation of markers of asthma. These data provide the first evidence of the long-term normalizing effects of music on asthmatic rats.

  7. Comparative transcriptomics of early dipteran development

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Modern sequencing technologies have massively increased the amount of data available for comparative genomics. Whole-transcriptome shotgun sequencing (RNA-seq) provides a powerful basis for comparative studies. In particular, this approach holds great promise for emerging model species in fields such as evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo). Results We have sequenced early embryonic transcriptomes of two non-drosophilid dipteran species: the moth midge Clogmia albipunctata, and the scuttle fly Megaselia abdita. Our analysis includes a third, published, transcriptome for the hoverfly Episyrphus balteatus. These emerging models for comparative developmental studies close an important phylogenetic gap between Drosophila melanogaster and other insect model systems. In this paper, we provide a comparative analysis of early embryonic transcriptomes across species, and use our data for a phylogenomic re-evaluation of dipteran phylogenetic relationships. Conclusions We show how comparative transcriptomics can be used to create useful resources for evo-devo, and to investigate phylogenetic relationships. Our results demonstrate that de novo assembly of short (Illumina) reads yields high-quality, high-coverage transcriptomic data sets. We use these data to investigate deep dipteran phylogenetic relationships. Our results, based on a concatenation of 160 orthologous genes, provide support for the traditional view of Clogmia being the sister group of Brachycera (Megaselia, Episyrphus, Drosophila), rather than that of Culicomorpha (which includes mosquitoes and blackflies). PMID:23432914

  8. History and early development of INCAP.

    PubMed

    Scrimshaw, Nevin S

    2010-02-01

    Nevin Scrimshaw was the founding Director of the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP), serving as Director from 1949 to 1961. In this article, he reviews the history of the founding of INCAP, including the role of the Rockefeller and Kellogg Foundations, the Central American governments, and the Pan American Health Organization. The objectives pursued by INCAP in its early years were to assess the nutrition and related health problems of Central America, to carry out research to find practical solutions to these problems, and to provide technical assistance to its member countries to implement solutions. INCAP pursued a strategy of selecting promising Central Americans for advanced education and training in the US who assumed positions of leadership on their return. After this early phase, talented non-Central Americans of diverse origins were brought to INCAP, as well as additional researchers from the region. Growth of INCAP, as reflected in its annual budget and in the physical plant, was rapid and this was accompanied by high scientific productivity. Several field studies were launched that contributed impetus and design elements for the Oriente Longitudinal Study, which is the focus of this supplement.

  9. Developments in early intervention for psychosis in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wong, G H Y; Hui, C L M; Wong, D Y; Tang, J Y M; Chang, W C; Chan, S K W; Lee, E H M; Xu, J Q; Lin, J J X; Lai, D C; Tam, W; Kok, J; Chung, D W S; Hung, S F; Chen, E Y H

    2012-09-01

    The year 2011 marked the 10-year milestone of early intervention for psychosis in Hong Kong. Since 2001, the landscape of early psychosis services has changed markedly in Hong Kong. Substantial progress has been made in the areas of early intervention service implementation, knowledge generation, and public awareness promotion. Favourable outcomes attributable to the early intervention service are supported by solid evidence from local clinical research studies; early intervention service users showed improved functioning, ameliorated symptoms, and decreased hospitalisation and suicide rates. Continued development of early intervention in Hong Kong over the decade includes the introduction and maturation of several key platforms, such as the Hospital Authority Early Assessment Service for Young People with Psychosis programme, the Psychosis Studies and Intervention Unit by the University of Hong Kong, the Hong Kong Early Psychosis Intervention Society, the Jockey Club Early Psychosis Project, and the postgraduate Psychological Medicine (Psychosis Studies) programme. In this paper, we reviewed some of the major milestones in local service development with reference to features of the Hong Kong mental health system. We describe chronologically the implementation and consolidation of public early intervention services as well as recent progresses in public awareness work that are tied in with knowledge generation and transfer, and outline the prospects for early intervention in the next decade and those that follow.

  10. Development of fetal and placental innate immune responses during establishment of persistent infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Natalia P; Webb, Brett T; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle; Van Campen, Hana; Antoniazzi, Alfredo Q; Morarie, Susan E; Hansen, Thomas R

    2012-08-01

    Transplacental viral infections are dependent upon complex interactions between feto-placental and maternal immune responses and the stage of fetal development at which the infection occurs. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) has the ability to cross the placenta and infect the fetus. Infection early in gestation with non-cytopathic (ncp) BVDV leads to persistent infection. Establishment of fetal persistent infection results in life-long viremia, virus-specific immunotolerance, and may have detrimental developmental consequences. We have previously shown that heifers infected experimentally with ncp BVDV type 2 on d. 75 of gestation had transient robust up-regulation of the type I interferon (IFN) stimulated genes (ISGs) 3-15 days after viral inoculation. Blood from persistently infected (PI) fetuses, collected 115 days post maternal infection, demonstrated moderate chronic up-regulation of ISGs. This infection model was used to delineate timing of the development of innate immune responses in the fetus and placenta during establishment of persistent infection. It was hypothesized that: (i) chronic stimulation of innate immune responses occurs following infection of the fetus and (ii) placental production of the type I IFN contributes to up-regulation of ISGs in PI fetuses. PI fetuses, generated by intranasal inoculation of pregnant heifers with ncp BVDV, and control fetuses from uninfected heifers, were collected via Cesarean sections on d. 82, 89, 97, 192, and 245 of gestation. Fetal viremia was confirmed starting on d. 89. Significant up-regulation of mRNA encoding cytosolic dsRNA sensors -RIG-I and MDA5 - was detected on d. 82-192. Detection of viral dsRNA by cytosolic sensors leads to the stimulation of ISGs, which was reflected in significant up-regulation of ISG15 mRNA in fetal blood on d. 89, 97, and 192. No difference in IFN-α and IFN-β mRNA concentration was found in fetal blood or caruncular tissue, while a significant increase in both IFN-α and IFN

  11. Sex Role Development in Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittig, Michele Andrisin

    1983-01-01

    Research involving adolescent identification with and development of sex roles is reviewed in the areas of cognitive skills and personality traits, theories of sex role development, and minority group adolescent sex role development. Emerging issues and educational implications in these areas are discussed. (CJ)

  12. Exposure to dim light at night during early development increases adult anxiety-like responses.

    PubMed

    Borniger, Jeremy C; McHenry, Zachary D; Abi Salloum, Bachir A; Nelson, Randy J

    2014-06-22

    Early experiences produce effects that may persist throughout life. Therefore, to understand adult phenotype, it is important to investigate the role of early environmental stimuli in adult behavior and health. Artificial light at night (LAN) is an increasingly common phenomenon throughout the world. However, animals, including humans, evolved under dark night conditions. Many studies have revealed affective, immune, and metabolic alterations provoked by aberrant light exposure and subsequent circadian disruption. Pups are receptive to entraining cues from the mother and then light early during development, raising the possibility that the early life light environment may influence subsequent behavior. Thus, to investigate potential influences of early life exposure to LAN on adult phenotype, we exposed mice to dim (~5 lux; full spectrum white light) or dark (~0 lux) nights pre- and/or postnatally. After weaning at 3 weeks of age, all mice were maintained in dark nights until adulthood (9 weeks of age) when behavior was assessed. Mice exposed to dim light in early life increased anxiety-like behavior and fearful responses on the elevated plus maze and passive avoidance tests. These mice also displayed reduced growth rates, which ultimately normalized during adolescence. mRNA expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a neurotrophin previously linked to early life environment and adult phenotype, was not altered in the prefrontal cortex or hippocampus by early life LAN exposure. Serum corticosterone concentrations were similar between groups at weaning, suggesting that early life LAN does not elicit a long-term physiologic stress response. Dim light exposure did not influence behavior on the open field, novel object, sucrose anhedonia, or forced swim tests. Our data highlight the potential deleterious consequences of low levels of light during early life to development and subsequent behavior. Whether these changes are due to altered maternal behavior

  13. SUSCEPTIBILITY OF THE DEVELOPING IMMUNE SYSTEM OF THE RAT TO IMMUNOSUPPRESSION BY THE PESTICIDE HEPTACHLOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determination of the Potential Susceptibility of the Developing Immune System of the Rat to Immunosuppression by the Pesticide Heptachlor
    R.J. Smialowicz1 W.C. Williams1, C.B. Copeland1, and R.A. Matulka2
    1Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environment...

  14. Current developments in the treatment of early-stage classical Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Borchmann, Sven; von Tresckow, Bastian; Engert, Andreas

    2016-09-01

    After presenting the current treatment recommendations for early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma, we give an overview on recently published clinical trials in this setting. Furthermore, the potential influence of current trials on the treatment of early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma and integration of newly emerging drugs into treatment protocols will be discussed. Trials attempting treatment de-escalation and omission of radiotherapy on the basis of early interim PET-scans have been disappointing so far, but results of some large trials employing this strategy are still awaited. In contrast, a more defensive strategy of starting treatment with less aggressive doxorubicine, bleomycin, vinblastine, dacarbazine (ABVD) chemotherapy and intensifying treatment in early interim PET-positive patients has shown encouraging results. New drugs such as brentuximab vedotin and immune checkpoint inhibitors have shown promising results in relapsed and refractory Hodgkin lymphoma. Clinical trials of brentuximab vedotin in early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma have been initiated. Additionally, biomarker-based treatment de-escalation might be a possible route for future improvements. The challenge for future clinical research in early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma is to continue to cure the majority of patients with first-line treatment while reducing long-term toxicity. New strategies to achieve that goal are currently being developed and will further refine treatment of early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma.

  15. Immunity, immunopathology, and human vaccine development against sexually transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis

    PubMed Central

    Rey-Ladino, Jose; Ross, Allen GP; Cripps, Allan W

    2014-01-01

    This review examines the immunity, immunopathology, and contemporary problems of vaccine development against sexually transmitted Chlamydia trachomatis. Despite improved surveillance and treatment initiatives, the incidence of C. trachomatis infection has increased dramatically over the past 30 years in both the developed and developing world. Studies in animal models have shown that protective immunity to C. trachomatis is largely mediated by Th1 T cells producing IFN-γ which is needed to prevent dissemination of infection. Similar protection appears to develop in humans but in contrast to mice, immunity in humans may take years to develop. Animal studies and evidence from human infection indicate that immunity to C. trachomatis is accompanied by significant pathology in the upper genital tract. Although no credible evidence is currently available to indicate that autoimmunity plays a role, nevertheless, this underscores the necessity to design vaccines strictly based on chlamydial-specific antigens and to avoid those displaying even minimal sequence homologies with host molecules. Current advances in C. trachomatis vaccine development as well as alternatives for designing new vaccines for this disease are discussed. A novel approach for chlamydia vaccine development, based on targeting endogenous dendritic cells, is described. PMID:25483666

  16. Humoral Immunity to Primary Smallpox Vaccination: Impact of Childhood versus Adult Immunization on Vaccinia Vector Vaccine Development in Military Populations.

    PubMed

    Slike, Bonnie M; Creegan, Matthew; Marovich, Mary; Ngauy, Viseth

    2017-01-01

    Modified Vaccinia virus has been shown to be a safe and immunogenic vector platform for delivery of HIV vaccines. Use of this vector is of particular importance to the military, with the implementation of a large scale smallpox vaccination campaign in 2002 in active duty and key civilian personnel in response to potential bioterrorist activities. Humoral immunity to smallpox vaccination was previously shown to be long lasting (up to 75 years) and protective. However, using vaccinia-vectored vaccine delivery for other diseases on a background of anti-vector antibodies (i.e. pre-existing immunity) may limit their use as a vaccine platform, especially in the military. In this pilot study, we examined the durability of vaccinia antibody responses in adult primary vaccinees in a healthy military population using a standard ELISA assay and a novel dendritic cell neutralization assay. We found binding and neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses to vaccinia waned after 5-10 years in a group of 475 active duty military, born after 1972, who were vaccinated as adults with Dryvax®. These responses decreased from a geometric mean titer (GMT) of 250 to baseline (<20) after 10-20 years post vaccination. This contrasted with a comparator group of adults, ages 35-49, who were vaccinated with Dryvax® as children. In the childhood vaccinees, titers persisted for >30 years with a GMT of 210 (range 112-3234). This data suggests limited durability of antibody responses in adult vaccinees compared to those vaccinated in childhood and further that adult vaccinia recipients may benefit similarly from receipt of a vaccinia based vaccine as those who are vaccinia naïve. Our findings may have implications for the smallpox vaccination schedule and support the ongoing development of this promising viral vector in a military vaccination program.

  17. Humoral Immunity to Primary Smallpox Vaccination: Impact of Childhood versus Adult Immunization on Vaccinia Vector Vaccine Development in Military Populations

    PubMed Central

    Slike, Bonnie M.; Creegan, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    Modified Vaccinia virus has been shown to be a safe and immunogenic vector platform for delivery of HIV vaccines. Use of this vector is of particular importance to the military, with the implementation of a large scale smallpox vaccination campaign in 2002 in active duty and key civilian personnel in response to potential bioterrorist activities. Humoral immunity to smallpox vaccination was previously shown to be long lasting (up to 75 years) and protective. However, using vaccinia-vectored vaccine delivery for other diseases on a background of anti-vector antibodies (i.e. pre-existing immunity) may limit their use as a vaccine platform, especially in the military. In this pilot study, we examined the durability of vaccinia antibody responses in adult primary vaccinees in a healthy military population using a standard ELISA assay and a novel dendritic cell neutralization assay. We found binding and neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses to vaccinia waned after 5–10 years in a group of 475 active duty military, born after 1972, who were vaccinated as adults with Dryvax®. These responses decreased from a geometric mean titer (GMT) of 250 to baseline (<20) after 10–20 years post vaccination. This contrasted with a comparator group of adults, ages 35–49, who were vaccinated with Dryvax® as children. In the childhood vaccinees, titers persisted for >30 years with a GMT of 210 (range 112–3234). This data suggests limited durability of antibody responses in adult vaccinees compared to those vaccinated in childhood and further that adult vaccinia recipients may benefit similarly from receipt of a vaccinia based vaccine as those who are vaccinia naïve. Our findings may have implications for the smallpox vaccination schedule and support the ongoing development of this promising viral vector in a military vaccination program. PMID:28046039

  18. Breast milk immune complexes are potent inducers of oral tolerance in neonates and prevent asthma development.

    PubMed

    Mosconi, E; Rekima, A; Seitz-Polski, B; Kanda, A; Fleury, S; Tissandie, E; Monteiro, R; Dombrowicz, D D; Julia, V; Glaichenhaus, N; Verhasselt, V

    2010-09-01

    Allergic asthma is a chronic lung disease resulting from an inappropriate T helper (Th)-2 response to environmental antigens. Early tolerance induction is an attractive approach for primary prevention of asthma. Here, we found that breastfeeding by antigen-sensitized mothers exposed to antigen aerosols during lactation induced a robust and long-lasting antigen-specific protection from asthma. Protection was more profound and persistent than the one induced by antigen-exposed non-sensitized mothers. Milk from antigen-exposed sensitized mothers contained antigen-immunoglobulin (Ig) G immune complexes that were transferred to the newborn through the neonatal Fc receptor resulting in the induction of antigen-specific FoxP3(+) CD25(+) regulatory T cells. The induction of oral tolerance by milk immune complexes did not require the presence of transforming growth factor-beta in milk in contrast to tolerance induced by milk-borne free antigen. Furthermore, neither the presence of IgA in milk nor the expression of the inhibitory FcgammaRIIb in the newborn was required for tolerance induction. This study provides new insights on the mechanisms of tolerance induction in neonates and highlights that IgG immune complexes found in breast milk are potent inducers of oral tolerance. These observations may pave the way for the identification of key factors for primary prevention of immune-mediated diseases such as asthma.

  19. Development and validation of immune dysfunction score to predict 28-day mortality of sepsis patients

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Wen-Feng; Douglas, Ivor S.; Chen, Yu-Mu; Lin, Chiung-Yu; Kao, Hsu-Ching; Fang, Ying-Tang; Huang, Chi-Han; Chang, Ya-Ting; Huang, Kuo-Tung; Wang, Yi-His; Wang, Chin-Chou

    2017-01-01

    Background Sepsis-induced immune dysfunction ranging from cytokines storm to immunoparalysis impacts outcomes. Monitoring immune dysfunction enables better risk stratification and mortality prediction and is mandatory before widely application of immunoadjuvant therapies. We aimed to develop and validate a scoring system according to patients’ immune dysfunction status for 28-day mortality prediction. Methods A prospective observational study from a cohort of adult sepsis patients admitted to ICU between August 2013 and June 2016 at Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital in Taiwan. We evaluated immune dysfunction status through measurement of baseline plasma Cytokine levels, Monocyte human leukocyte-DR expression by flow cytometry, and stimulated immune response using post LPS stimulated cytokine elevation ratio. An immune dysfunction score was created for 28-day mortality prediction and was validated. Results A total of 151 patients were enrolled. Data of the first consecutive 106 septic patients comprised the training cohort, and of other 45 patients comprised the validation cohort. Among the 106 patients, 21 died and 85 were still alive on day 28 after ICU admission. (mortality rate, 19.8%). Independent predictive factors revealed via multivariate logistic regression analysis included segmented neutrophil-to-monocyte ratio, granulocyte-colony stimulating factor, interleukin-10, and monocyte human leukocyte antigen-antigen D–related levels, all of which were selected to construct the score, which predicted 28-day mortality with area under the curve of 0.853 and 0.789 in the training and validation cohorts, respectively. Conclusions The immune dysfunction scoring system developed here included plasma granulocyte-colony stimulating factor level, interleukin-10 level, serum segmented neutrophil-to-monocyte ratio, and monocyte human leukocyte antigen-antigen D–related expression appears valid and reproducible for predicting 28-day mortality. PMID:29073262

  20. Early Numeracy Assessment: The Development of the Preschool Early Numeracy Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purpura, David J.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The focus of this study was to construct and validate 12 brief early numeracy assessment tasks that measure the skills and concepts identified as key to early mathematics development by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (2006) and the National Mathematics Advisory Panel (2008)-as well as critical developmental…

  1. Parents Resourcing Children's Early Development and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Sue; Nixon, Helen; Pudney, Valerie; Jurvansuu, Sari

    2009-01-01

    Parents deal with a complex web of choices when seeking and using knowledge and resources related to their young children's literacy development. Information concerning children's learning and development comes in many forms and is produced by an increasingly diverse range of players including governments, non-government organizations and…

  2. Got worms? Perinatal exposure to helminths prevents persistent immune sensitization and cognitive dysfunction induced by early-life infection.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Lauren L; McKenney, Erin A; Holzknecht, Zoie E; Belliveau, Christine; Rawls, John F; Poulton, Susan; Parker, William; Bilbo, Staci D

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases has risen dramatically in post-industrial societies. "Biome depletion" - loss of commensal microbial and multicellular organisms such as helminths (intestinal worms) that profoundly modulate the immune system - may contribute to these increases. Hyperimmune-associated disorders also affect the brain, especially neurodevelopment, and increasing evidence links early-life infection to cognitive and neurodevelopmental disorders. We have demonstrated previously that rats infected with bacteria as newborns display life-long vulnerabilities to cognitive dysfunction, a vulnerability that is specifically linked to long-term hypersensitivity of microglial cell function, the resident immune cells of the brain. Here, we demonstrate that helminth colonization of pregnant dams attenuated the exaggerated brain cytokine response of their offspring to bacterial infection, and that combined with post-weaning colonization of offspring with helminths (consistent with their mothers treatment) completely prevented enduring microglial sensitization and cognitive dysfunction in adulthood. Importantly, helminths had no overt impact on adaptive immune cell subsets, whereas exaggerated innate inflammatory responses in splenic macrophages were prevented. Finally, helminths altered the effect of neonatal infection on the gut microbiome; neonatal infection with Escherichia coli caused a shift from genera within the Actinobacteria and Tenericutes phyla to genera in the Bacteroidetes phylum in rats not colonized with helminths, but helminths attenuated this effect. In sum, these data point toward an inter-relatedness of various components of the biome, and suggest potential mechanisms by which this helminth might exert therapeutic benefits in the treatment of neuroinflammatory and cognitive disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Good outcome of brain stem progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in an immunosuppressed renal transplant patient: Importance of early detection and rapid immune reconstitution.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Roland; Gölitz, Philipp; Jacobi, Johannes; Schwab, Stefan; Linker, Ralf A; Lee, De-Hyung

    2017-04-15

    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare, opportunistic and often fatal disease of the CNS which may occur under immunosuppression in transplant patients. Brain stem PML is associated with a particularly bad prognosis. Here, we present a case of a renal transplant patient treated with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and tacrolimus who developed brain stem PML with limb ataxia, dysarthria and dysphagia. Diagnosis was established by typical MRI features and detection of JCV-DNA in the CSF. Immune reconstitution after stopping MMF and tacrolimus led to a complete and sustained remission of symptoms with improvement of the brain stem lesion over a follow-up over 20months. In summary, early detection of PML and consequent treatment may improve neurological outcomes even in brain stem disease with a notorious bad prognosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of a time efficient immunization strategy for anti-PAH antibody development

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Kaattari, Stephen L.; Vogelbein, Mary Ann; Unger, Michael A.

    2016-01-01

    The development of monoclonal antibodies (mAb) with affinity to small molecules can be a time-consuming process. To evaluate shortening the time for mAb production, we examined mouse antisera at different time points post-immunization to measure titer and to evaluate the affinity to the immunogen PBA (pyrene butyric acid). Fusions were also conducted temporally to evaluate antibody production success at various time periods. We produced anti-PBA antibodies 7 weeks post-immunization and selected for anti-PAH reactivity during the hybridoma screening process. Moreover, there were no obvious sensitivity differences relative to antibodies screened from a more traditional 18 week schedule. Our results demonstrate a more time efficient immunization strategy for anti-PAH antibody development that may be applied to other small molecules. PMID:27282486

  5. Early psychosis workforce development: Core competencies for mental health professionals working in the early psychosis field.

    PubMed

    Osman, Helen; Jorm, Anthony F; Killackey, Eoin; Francey, Shona; Mulcahy, Dianne

    2017-08-09

    The aim of this study was to identify the core competencies required of mental health professionals working in the early psychosis field, which could function as an evidence-based tool to support the early psychosis workforce and in turn assist early psychosis service implementation and strengthen early psychosis model fidelity. The Delphi method was used to establish expert consensus on the core competencies. In the first stage, a systematic literature search was conducted to generate competency items. In the second stage, a panel consisting of expert early psychosis clinicians from around the world was formed. Panel members then rated each of the competency items on how essential they are to the clinical practice of all early psychosis clinicians. In total, 1023 pieces of literature including textbooks, journal articles and grey literature were reviewed. A final 542 competency items were identified for inclusion in the questionnaire. A total of 63 early psychosis experts participated in 3 rating rounds. Of the 542 competency items, 242 were endorsed as the required core competencies. There were 29 competency items that were endorsed by 62 or more experts, and these may be considered the foundational competencies for early psychosis practice. The study generated a set of core competencies that provide a common language for early psychosis clinicians across professional disciplines and country of practice, and potentially are a useful professional resource to support early psychosis workforce development and service reform. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Akt signaling is critical for memory CD8+ T-cell development and tumor immune surveillance.

    PubMed

    Rogel, Anne; Willoughby, Jane E; Buchan, Sarah L; Leonard, Henry J; Thirdborough, Stephen M; Al-Shamkhani, Aymen

    2017-02-14

    Memory CD8 + T cells confer long-term immunity against tumors, and anticancer vaccines therefore should maximize their generation. Multiple memory CD8 + T-cell subsets with distinct functional and homing characteristics exist, but the signaling pathways that regulate their development are ill defined. Here we examined the role of the serine/threonine kinase Akt in the generation of protective immunity by CD8 + T cells. Akt is known to be activated by the T-cell antigen receptor and the cytokine IL-2, but its role in T-cell immunity in vivo has not been explored. Using CD8 + T cells from pdk1 K465E/K465E knockin mice, we found that decreased Akt activity inhibited the survival of T cells during the effector-to-memory cell transition and abolished their differentiation into C-X-C chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3) lo CD43 lo effector-like memory cells. Consequently, antitumor immunity by CD8 + T cells that display defective Akt signaling was substantially diminished during the memory phase. Reduced memory T-cell survival and altered memory cell differentiation were associated with up-regulation of the proapoptotic protein Bim and the T-box transcription factor eomesodermin, respectively. These findings suggest an important role for effector-like memory CD8 + T cells in tumor immune surveillance and identify Akt as a key signaling node in the development of protective memory CD8 + T-cell responses.

  7. Akt signaling is critical for memory CD8+ T-cell development and tumor immune surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Rogel, Anne; Willoughby, Jane E.; Buchan, Sarah L.; Leonard, Henry J.; Thirdborough, Stephen M.; Al-Shamkhani, Aymen

    2017-01-01

    Memory CD8+ T cells confer long-term immunity against tumors, and anticancer vaccines therefore should maximize their generation. Multiple memory CD8+ T-cell subsets with distinct functional and homing characteristics exist, but the signaling pathways that regulate their development are ill defined. Here we examined the role of the serine/threonine kinase Akt in the generation of protective immunity by CD8+ T cells. Akt is known to be activated by the T-cell antigen receptor and the cytokine IL-2, but its role in T-cell immunity in vivo has not been explored. Using CD8+ T cells from pdk1K465E/K465E knockin mice, we found that decreased Akt activity inhibited the survival of T cells during the effector-to-memory cell transition and abolished their differentiation into C-X-C chemokine receptor 3 (CXCR3)loCD43lo effector-like memory cells. Consequently, antitumor immunity by CD8+ T cells that display defective Akt signaling was substantially diminished during the memory phase. Reduced memory T-cell survival and altered memory cell differentiation were associated with up-regulation of the proapoptotic protein Bim and the T-box transcription factor eomesodermin, respectively. These findings suggest an important role for effector-like memory CD8+ T cells in tumor immune surveillance and identify Akt as a key signaling node in the development of protective memory CD8+ T-cell responses. PMID:28137869

  8. Application of nanotechnologies for improved immune response against infectious diseases in the developing world

    PubMed Central

    Look, Michael; Bandyopadhyay, Arunima; Blum, Jeremy S.; Fahmy, Tarek M.

    2010-01-01

    There is an urgent need for new strategies to combat infectious diseases in developing countries. Many pathogens have evolved to elude immunity and this has limited the utility of current therapies. Additionally, the emergence of co-infections and drug resistant pathogens has increased the need for advanced therapeutic and diagnostic strategies. These challenges can be addressed with therapies that boost the quality and magnitude of an immune response in a predictable, designable fashion that can be applied for wide-spread use. Here, we discuss how biomaterials and specifically nanoscale delivery vehicles can be used to modify and improve the immune system response against infectious diseases. Immunotherapy of infectious disease is the enhancement or modulation of the immune system response to more effectively prevent or clear pathogen infection. Nanoscale vehicles are particularly adept at facilitating immunotherapeutic approaches because they can be engineered to have different physical properties, encapsulated agents, and surface ligands. Additionally, nanoscaled point-of-care diagnostics offer new alternatives for portable and sensitive health monitoring that can guide the use of nanoscale immunotherapies. By exploiting the unique tunability of nanoscale biomaterials to activate, shape, and detect immune system effector function, it may be possible in the near future to generate practical strategies for the prevention and treatment of infectious diseases in the developing world. PMID:19922750

  9. Induced Genome-Wide Binding of Three Arabidopsis WRKY Transcription Factors during Early MAMP-Triggered Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Birkenbihl, Rainer P.; Kracher, Barbara; Roccaro, Mario

    2017-01-01

    During microbial-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity (MTI), molecules derived from microbes are perceived by cell surface receptors and upon signaling to the nucleus initiate a massive transcriptional reprogramming critical to mount an appropriate host defense response. WRKY transcription factors play an important role in regulating these transcriptional processes. Here, we determined on a genome-wide scale the flg22-induced in vivo DNA binding dynamics of three of the most prominent WRKY factors, WRKY18, WRKY40, and WRKY33. The three WRKY factors each bound to more than 1000 gene loci predominantly at W-box elements, the known WRKY binding motif. Binding occurred mainly in the 500-bp promoter regions of these genes. Many of the targeted genes are involved in signal perception and transduction not only during MTI but also upon damage-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity, providing a mechanistic link between these functionally interconnected basal defense pathways. Among the additional targets were genes involved in the production of indolic secondary metabolites and in modulating distinct plant hormone pathways. Importantly, among the targeted genes were numerous transcription factors, encoding predominantly ethylene response factors, active during early MTI, and WRKY factors, supporting the previously hypothesized existence of a WRKY subregulatory network. Transcriptional analysis revealed that WRKY18 and WRKY40 function redundantly as negative regulators of flg22-induced genes often to prevent exaggerated defense responses. PMID:28011690

  10. Induced Genome-Wide Binding of Three Arabidopsis WRKY Transcription Factors during Early MAMP-Triggered Immunity.

    PubMed

    Birkenbihl, Rainer P; Kracher, Barbara; Somssich, Imre E

    2017-01-01

    During microbial-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity (MTI), molecules derived from microbes are perceived by cell surface receptors and upon signaling to the nucleus initiate a massive transcriptional reprogramming critical to mount an appropriate host defense response. WRKY transcription factors play an important role in regulating these transcriptional processes. Here, we determined on a genome-wide scale the flg22-induced in vivo DNA binding dynamics of three of the most prominent WRKY factors, WRKY18, WRKY40, and WRKY33. The three WRKY factors each bound to more than 1000 gene loci predominantly at W-box elements, the known WRKY binding motif. Binding occurred mainly in the 500-bp promoter regions of these genes. Many of the targeted genes are involved in signal perception and transduction not only during MTI but also upon damage-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity, providing a mechanistic link between these functionally interconnected basal defense pathways. Among the additional targets were genes involved in the production of indolic secondary metabolites and in modulating distinct plant hormone pathways. Importantly, among the targeted genes were numerous transcription factors, encoding predominantly ethylene response factors, active during early MTI, and WRKY factors, supporting the previously hypothesized existence of a WRKY subregulatory network. Transcriptional analysis revealed that WRKY18 and WRKY40 function redundantly as negative regulators of flg22-induced genes often to prevent exaggerated defense responses. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  11. Early development of fern gametophytes in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roux, Stanley J.; Chatterjee, Ani; Hillier, Sheila; Cannon, Tom

    2003-01-01

    Dormant spores of the fern Ceratopteris richardii were flown on Shuttle mission STS-93 to evaluate the effects of micro-g on their development and on their pattern of gene expression. Prior to flight the spores were sterilized and sown into one of two environments: (1) Microscope slides in a video-microscopy module; and (2) Petri dishes. All spores were then stored in darkness until use. Spore germination was initiated on orbit after exposure to light. For the spores on microscope slides, cell level changes were recorded through the clear spore coat of the spores by video microscopy. After their exposure to light, spores in petri dishes were frozen in orbit at four different time points during which on earth gravity fixes the polarity of their development. Spores were then stored frozen in Biological Research in Canister units until recovery on earth. The RNAs from these cells and from 1-g control cells were extracted and analyzed on earth after flight to assay changes in gene expression. Video microscopy results revealed that the germinated spores developed normally in microgravity, although the polarity of their development, which is guided by gravity on earth, was random in space. Differential Display-PCR analyses of RNA extracted from space-flown cells showed that there was about a 5% change in the pattern of gene expression between cells developing in micro-g compared to those developing on earth. c2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  12. Peripheral and placental immune responses in goats after primoinfection with Neospora caninum at early, mid and late gestation.

    PubMed

    Porto, Wagnner José Nascimento; Horcajo, Pilar; Kim, Pomy de Cássia Peixoto; Regidor-Cerrillo, Javier; Romão, Elton Amorim; Álvarez-García, Gema; Mesquita, Emanuela Polimeni de; Mota, Rinaldo Aparecido; Ortega-Mora, Luis Miguel

    2017-08-15

    Neospora caninum can cause reproductive failure in goats. However, the pathogenesis of neosporosis in this domestic species remains largely unknown. We recently demonstrated that the outcome of experimental infection by N. caninum in pregnant goats is highly dependent on the time of gestation, during which infection occurs. In the present study, we examined the peripheral and placental immune responses in these groups of goats infected with 10 6 tachyzoites of the Nc-Spain7 isolate at early (G1, at day 40 of gestation, dg), mid (G2, 90 dg) and late (G3, 120 dg) gestation, together with a group of non-infected goats as a control group (G4). Seroconversion was observed as early as day 10 post-infection (pi) in all goats from G1 that aborted earlier (10-11 pi). The remaining infected goats had seroconverted by day 14 pi. Similar IFN-γ kinetic profiles were found in sera from goats in G1 and G2 with a significant increase in the IFN-γ levels on days 7 and 10 pi. This increase was not observed in G3. A similar pattern of placental cytokine expression was found in all infected groups. IFN-γ and IL-4 showed the highest increase, followed by a weaker up-regulation in TNF-α and IL-10. The lowest up-regulation was observed for IL-12 expression. In summary, this study provides information regarding the dynamics of immune responses and their relationship with the outcome of N. caninum infection in goats during gestation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Chaos, Poverty, and Parenting: Predictors of Early Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Garrett-Peters, Patricia; Willoughby, Michael; Mills-Koonce, Roger

    2012-01-01

    Studies have shown that distal family risk factors like poverty and maternal education are strongly related to children's early language development. Yet, few studies have examined these risk factors in combination with more proximal day-to-day experiences of children that might be critical to understanding variation in early language. Young…

  14. Online Professional Development: Choices for Early Childhood Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Heather; Donaldson, Ana J.; Hudson, Susan D.

    2010-01-01

    Early childhood educators are responsible for providing young children with the best possible early care and education. Research on child care workers' education has shown that professional preparation makes a significant impact on children's cognitive and emotional development (National Association for the Education of Young Children [NAEYC],…

  15. Alberta Learning: Early Development Instrument Pilot Project Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meaney, Wanda; Harris-Lorenze, Elayne

    The Early Development Instrument (EDI) was designed by McMaster University to measure the outcomes of childrens early years as they influence their readiness to learn at school. The EDI was piloted in several Canadian cities in recent years through two national initiatives. Building on these initiatives, Alberta Learning piloted the EDI as a…

  16. Activities for Career Development in Early Childhood Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yawkey, Thomas Daniels; Aronin, Eugene L.

    The book presents career education activities and approaches for use by teachers, administrators, counselors, and students involved in early childhood education (ages three through eight). Part One stresses the importance of and rationale for career development in the early childhood curriculum. Research support for the approach to career…

  17. Family Strategies to Support and Develop Resilience in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taket, A. R.; Nolan, A.; Stagnitti, K.

    2014-01-01

    Early childhood is an important time for the development of resilience. A recently completed study has followed three cohorts of resilient children and young people living in disadvantaged areas in Victoria, Australia, through different transitions in their educational careers. This paper focuses on the early childhood cohort, where we have…

  18. Developing Prosocial Behaviors in Early Adolescence with Reactive Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fung, Annis L. C.

    2008-01-01

    Despite the alarming rise of early adolescence aggression in Hong Kong, it is the pioneer evidence-based outcome study on Anger Coping Training (ACT) program for early adolescence with reactive aggression to develop their prosocial behaviors. This research program involved experimental and control groups with pre- and post-comparison using a …

  19. Early Speech Motor Development: Cognitive and Linguistic Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nip, Ignatius S. B.; Green, Jordan R.; Marx, David B.

    2009-01-01

    This longitudinal investigation examines developmental changes in orofacial movements occurring during the early stages of communication development. The goals were to identify developmental trends in early speech motor performance and to determine how these trends differ across orofacial behaviors thought to vary in cognitive and linguistic…

  20. The piglet as a model for B cell and immune system development

    PubMed Central

    Butler, J.E.; Lager, K.M.; Splichal, I.; Francis, D.; Kacskovics, I.; Sinkora, M.; Wertz, N.; Sun, J.; Zhao, Y.; Brown, W.R.; DeWald, R.; Dierks, S.; Muyldermans, S.; Lunney, J.K.; McCray, P.B.; Rogers, C.S.; Welsh, M.J.; Navarro, P.; Klobasa, F.; Habe, F.; Ramsoondar, J.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to identify factors responsible for disease in all species depends on the ability to separate those factors which are environmental from those that are intrinsic. This is particularly important for studies on the development of the adaptive immune response of neonates. Studies on laboratory rodents or primates have been ambiguous because neither the effect of environmental nor maternal factors on the newborn can be controlled in mammals that: (i) transmit potential maternal immunoregulatory factors in utero and (ii) are altricial and cannot be reared after birth without their mothers. Employing the newborn piglet model can address each of these concerns. However, it comes at the price of having first to characterize the immune system of swine and its development. This review focuses on the porcine B cell system, especially on the methods used for its characterization in fetal studies and neonatal piglets. Understanding these procedures is important in the interpretation of the data obtained. Studies on neonatal piglets have (a) provided valuable information on the development of the adaptive immune system, (b) lead to important advances in evolutionary biology, (c) aided our understanding of passive immunity and (d) provided opportunities to use swine to address specific issues in veterinary and biomedical research and immunotherapy. This review summarizes the history of the development of the piglet as a model for antibody repertoire development, thus providing a framework to guide future investigators. PMID:19056129

  1. ECR-MAPK regulation in liver early development.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiu-Ju; Zhuo, Hexian

    2014-01-01

    Early growth is connected to a key link between embryonic development and aging. In this paper, liver gene expression profiles were assayed at postnatal day 22 and week 16 of age. Meanwhile another independent animal experiment and cell culture were carried out for validation. Significance analysis of microarrays, qPCR verification, drug induction/inhibition assays, and metabonomics indicated that alpha-2u globulin (extracellular region)-socs2 (-SH2-containing signals/receptor tyrosine kinases)-ppp2r2a/pik3c3 (MAPK signaling)-hsd3b5/cav2 (metabolism/organization) plays a vital role in early development. Taken together, early development of male rats is ECR and MAPK-mediated coordination of cancer-like growth and negative regulations. Our data represent the first comprehensive description of early individual development, which could be a valuable basis for understanding the functioning of the gene interaction network of infant development.

  2. 2015 Guidance on cancer immunotherapy development in early-phase clinical studies.

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    The development of cancer immunotherapies is progressing rapidly with a variety of technological approaches. They consist of "cancer vaccines", which are based on the idea of vaccination, "effector cell therapy", classified as passive immunotherapy, and "inhibition of immunosuppression", which intends to break immunological tolerance to autoantigens or immunosuppressive environments characterizing antitumor immune responses. Recent reports showing clinical evidence of efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors and adoptive immunotherapies with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and tumor-specific receptor gene-modified T cells indicate the beginning of a new era for cancer immunotherapy. This guidance summarizes ideas that will be helpful to those who plan to develop cancer immunotherapy. The aims of this guidance are to discuss and offer important points in early phase clinical studies of innovative cancer immunotherapy, with future progress in this field, and to contribute to the effective development of cancer immunotherapy aligned with the scope of regulatory science. This guidance covers cancer vaccines, effector cell therapy, and inhibition of immunosuppression, including immune checkpoint inhibitors. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Science published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  3. Reading Development Subtypes and Their Early Characteristics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torppa, Minna; Tolvanen, Asko; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Eklund, Kenneth; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Leskinen, Esko; Lyytinen, Heikki

    2007-01-01

    The present findings are drawn from the Jyvaskyla Longitudinal Study of Dyslexia (JLD), in which approximately 100 children with familial risk of dyslexia and 100 control children have been followed from birth. In this paper we report data on the reading development of the JLD children and their classmates, a total of 1,750 children from four…

  4. Developing an Engineering Identity in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pantoya, Michelle L.; Aguirre-Munoz, Zenaida; Hunt, Emily M.

    2015-01-01

    This project describes a strategy to introduce young children to engineering in a way that develops their engineering identity. The targeted age group is 3-7 year old students because they rarely experience purposeful engineering instruction. The curriculum was designed around an engineering storybook and included interactive academic discussions…

  5. Early developments in solar cooling equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    A brief description of a development program to design, fabricate and field test a series of solar operated or driven cooling devices, undertaken by the Marshall Space Flight Center in the context of the Solar Heating and Cooling Demonstration Act of 1974, is presented. Attention is given to two basic design concepts: the Rankine cycle principle and the use of a dessicant for cooling.

  6. School Building in Early Development. Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dijkgraaf, C.; Giertz, L. M.

    1975-01-01

    Development is characterized by urbanization. New settlements grow either as enlargements of existing ones or as new population concentrations. Three periods may be distinguished in the growth of a settlement: (1) the wild period of first settling, (2) the consolidation period, and (3) the stabilized society. The number of school-aged children per…

  7. Economic Deprivation and Early Childhood Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined the relationship between poverty and children's developmental outcomes, the effects of the timing and duration of poverty, and the effects of poverty at the family and neighborhood level, analyzing data from two longitudinal surveys. Found that poverty status was strongly related to low levels of cognitive development, even after…

  8. The Early Development of Programmable Machinery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Martin D.

    1985-01-01

    Programmable equipment innovations, precursors of today's technology, are examined, including the development of the binary code and feedback control systems, such as temperature sensing devices, interchangeable parts, punched cards carrying instructions, continuous flow oil refining process, assembly lines for mass production, and the…

  9. Early Events Leading to the Host Protective Th2 Immune Response to an Intestinal Nematode Parasite

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    expansion, eosinophilia , and IL-4 production (51;52). Similar down regulations of Th2 associated cytokines were observed using monoclonal antibodies...1. Kightlinger,L.K., Seed,J.R., and Kightlinger,M.B., The epidemiology of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and hookworm in children in...Copyright Statement The author hereby certifies that the use of any copyrighted material in the thesis manuscript entitled: “Early Events

  10. Using immunization delivery strategies to accelerate progress in Africa towards achieving the Millennium Development Goals.

    PubMed

    Clements, C John; Nshimirimanda, Deo; Gasasira, Alex

    2008-04-07

    Integration of health services brings together common functions within and between organizations to solve common problems, developing a commitment to a shared vision and goals, and using common technologies and resources to achieve these goals. Integration has been the frustrated rally call of Primary Health Care for 30 years. This paper discusses the process of integrating child survival strategies and other heath services with immunization in Africa. Immunization is arguably the most successful health programme throughout the continent, making it the logical vehicle for add-on services. Strong health systems are the best way of delivering cost-effective child survival interventions in a most sustainable manner. But the reality in many African countries is that health systems have been weak for a number of reasons. Joining additional cost-effective child survival interventions on to immunization services may provide the needed boost. The unacceptably high childhood mortality in parts of Africa makes it the ideal location to undertake this exercise. The urgency to scale-up child survival interventions that have proven cost-effective is especially important if the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are to be met by 2015. Africa has more to loose than most in failing to scale up to meet these goals, bearing as it does the highest burden of childhood mortality in the world. But so far, prospects do not look good for achieving MDG-4 for the countries with the highest mortality rates. The timeliness of this initiative towards integration could not be better. In the last five years, countries in Africa have received massive injections of financial resources for polio eradication and measles control as well as additional funding for a range of immunization-strengthening activities and the introduction of new and under-utilized vaccines. While the data to support integration are limited, the information to hand suggests the effectiveness of the strategy. Where

  11. Sudden appearance of anti-protein IgG1-forming cell precursors early during primary immunization.

    PubMed

    Nossal, G J; Riedel, C

    1989-06-01

    The anti-keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) B-cell repertoire of unimmunized adult mice was examined by culture of splenocytes (generally 100-3000) at limiting dilution. Cells were polyclonally stimulated with Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and an interleukin-4-containing lymphokine mixture in the presence of 3T3 fibroblast filler cells. After 7 days of culture, supernatants were examined for their content of anti-KLH IgM and IgG1 antibody by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Parallel cultures of smaller numbers (generally 1-15) of splenocytes were examined to determine the cloning efficiency of B cells in terms of total IgM and IgG1 production. Whereas one spleen cell in 370 produced clones secreting anti-KLH IgM, only 1% of these produced IgG1 that could bind to KLH, despite the fact that about half of the clones switched to IgG1 production with these stimuli. In mice immunized with KLH, this situation did not change until day 5, when there was a sudden, explosive emergence of B cells that could form clones secreting anti-KLH IgG1. The absolute number of such cells in the spleen was found to rise by a factor of 350 between days 3 and 7 of immunization. Moreover, the median amount of IgG1 antibody formed per clone and binding to KLH also rose markedly. In contrast, neither the numbers nor the median KLH-binding antibody content of anti-KLH IgM clones changed significantly after immunization. The results show that the repertoire of anti-protein B cells detected through IgM formation in ELISA consists chiefly of cells producing antibody of low avidity and of doubtful in vivo significance. Assuming that the small proportion of these cells making antibody that is of sufficient avidity to bind as the IgG1 isotype are the ancestors of the many such cells found on day 7 of the primary immune response, one would have to postulate a very high recruitment and/or division rate to account for the increase in numbers and avidity that occurs. It is possible

  12. Plasticity during Early Brain Development Is Determined by Ontogenetic Potential.

    PubMed

    Krägeloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Lidzba, Karen; Pavlova, Marina A; Wilke, Marko; Staudt, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Two competing hypotheses address neuroplasticity during early brain development: the "Kennard principle" describes the compensatory capacities of the immature developing CNS as superior to those of the adult brain, whereas the "Hebb principle" argues that the young brain is especially sensitive to insults. We provide evidence that these principles are not mutually exclusive. Following early brain lesions that are unilateral, the brain can refer to homotopic areas of the healthy hemisphere. This potential for reorganization is unique to the young brain but available only when, during ontogenesis of brain development, these areas have been used for the functions addressed. With respect to motor function, ipsilateral motor tracts can be recruited, which are only available during early brain development. Language can be reorganized to the right after early left hemispheric lesions, as the representation of the language network is initially bilateral. However, even in these situations, compensatory capacities of the developing brain are found to have limitations, probably defined by early determinants. Thus, plasticity and adaptivity are seen only within ontogenetic potential; that is, axonal or cortical structures cannot be recruited beyond early developmental possibilities. The young brain is probably more sensitive and vulnerable to lesions when these are bilateral. This is shown here for bilateral periventricular white matter lesions that clearly have an impact on cortical architecture and function, thus probably interfering with early network building. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Breast-feeding regulates immune system development via transforming growth factor-β in mice pups.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Keita; Koyanagi, Akemi; Kamachi, Fumitaka; Harauma, Akiko; Chiba, Asako; Hisata, Ken; Moriguchi, Toru; Shimizu, Toshiaki; Miyake, Sachiko

    2018-03-01

    Breast milk contains important nutrients and immunoregulatory factors that are essential for newborn infants. Recently, epidemiological studies suggested that breast-feeding prevents a wide range of infectious diseases and lowers the incidence of infant allergic diseases. To examine the effects of breast milk on immunological development in infancy, we established an artificial rearing system for hand-feeding mice and compared mouse pups fed with either breast milk or milk substitute. All mice were killed at 14 days of age and immune cells in the thymus, spleen, and small intestine were examined on flow cytometry. The number of thymocytes was higher whereas that of total immune cells of peripheral lymphoid tissues was lower in mice fed breast milk compared with milk substitute-fed mice. In peripheral lymphoid tissues, the proportion of B cells was higher and that of CD8 + T cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, and granulocytes was significantly lower in breast milk-fed mice. The same alteration in immune cells of the thymus and peripheral lymphoid tissues in milk substitute-fed mice was also observed in pups reared by mother mice treated with anti-transforming growth factor-β (anti-TGF-β) monoclonal antibody. Breast milk regulates the differentiation and expansion of innate and adaptive immune cells partly due to TGF-β. Hence, TGF-β in breast milk may be a new therapeutic target for innate immune system-mediated diseases of infancy. © 2017 Japan Pediatric Society.

  14. Loss of Roquin induces early death and immune deregulation but not autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Bertossi, Arianna; Aichinger, Martin; Sansonetti, Paola; Lech, Maciej; Neff, Frauke; Pal, Martin; Wunderlich, F Thomas; Anders, Hans-Joachim; Klein, Ludger; Schmidt-Supprian, Marc

    2011-08-29

    The substitution of one amino acid in the Roquin protein by the sanroque mutation induces a dramatic autoimmune syndrome in mice. This is believed to occur through ectopic expression of inducible T cell co-stimulator (ICOS) and unrestrained differentiation of follicular T helper cells, which induce spontaneous germinal center reactions to self-antigens. In this study, we demonstrate that tissue-specific ablation of Roquin in T or B cells, in the entire hematopoietic system, or in epithelial cells of transplanted thymi did not cause autoimmunity. Loss of Roquin induced elevated expression of ICOS through T cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic mechanisms, which itself was not sufficient to break self-tolerance. Instead, ablation of Roquin in the hematopoietic system caused defined changes in immune homeostasis, including the expansion of macrophages, eosinophils, and T cell subsets, most dramatically CD8 effector-like T cells, through cell-autonomous and nonautonomous mechanisms. Germline Roquin deficiency led to perinatal lethality, which was partially rescued on the genetic background of an outbred strain. However, not even complete absence of Roquin resulted in overt self-reactivity, suggesting that the sanroque mutation induces autoimmunity through an as yet unknown mechanism. © 2011 Bertossi et al.

  15. Lessons in AIDS Vaccine Development Learned from Studies of Equine Infectious, Anemia Virus Infection and Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Craigo, Jodi K.; Montelaro, Ronald C.

    2013-01-01

    Equine infectious anemia (EIA), identified in 1843 [1] as an infectious disease of horses and as a viral infection in 1904, remains a concern in veterinary medicine today. Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) has served as an animal model of HIV-1/AIDS research since the original identification of HIV. Similar to other lentiviruses, EIAV has a high propensity for genomic sequence and antigenic variation, principally in its envelope (Env) proteins. However, EIAV possesses a unique and dynamic disease presentation that has facilitated comprehensive analyses of the interactions between the evolving virus population, progressive host immune responses, and the definition of viral and host correlates of immune control and vaccine efficacy. Summarized here are key findings in EIAV that have provided important lessons toward understanding long term immune control of lentivirus infections and the parameters for development of an enduring broadly protective AIDS vaccine. PMID:24316675

  16. Monitoring Results in Routine Immunization: Development of Routine Immunization Dashboard in Selected African Countries in the Context of the Polio Eradication Endgame Strategic Plan.

    PubMed

    Poy, Alain; van den Ent, Maya M V X; Sosler, Stephen; Hinman, Alan R; Brown, Sidney; Sodha, Samir; Ehlman, Daniel C; Wallace, Aaron S; Mihigo, Richard

    2017-07-01

    To monitor immunization-system strengthening in the Polio Eradication Endgame Strategic Plan 2013-2018 (PEESP), the Global Polio Eradication Initiative identified 1 indicator: 10% annual improvement in third dose of diphtheria- tetanus-pertussis-containing vaccine (DTP3) coverage in polio high-risk districts of 10 polio focus countries. A multiagency team, including staff from the African Region, developed a comprehensive list of outcome and process indicators measuring various aspects of the performance of an immunization system. The development and implementation of the dashboard to assess immunization system performance allowed national program managers to monitor the key immunization indicators and stratify by high-risk and non-high-risk districts. Although only a single outcome indicator goal (at least 10% annual increase in DTP3 coverage achieved in 80% of high-risk districts) initially existed in the endgame strategy, we successfully added additional outcome indicators (eg, decreasing the number of DTP3-unvaccinated children) as well as program process indicators focusing on cold chain, stock availability, and vaccination sessions to better describe progress on the pathway to raising immunization coverage. When measuring progress toward improving immunization systems, it is helpful to use a comprehensive approach that allows for measuring multiple dimensions of the system. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  17. Resource Prospector (RP) - Early Prototyping and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, D.; Colaprete, A.; Quinn, J.; Bluethmann, B.; Trimble, J.

    2015-01-01

    The Resource Prospector (RP) is an In-Situ Resource Utilization (ISRU) technology demonstration mission under study by the NASA Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate's (HEOMD) Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Division. The mission, currently planned to launch in 2020, will demonstrate extraction of oxygen from lunar regolith to validate ISRU capability. The mission will address key Strategic Knowledge Gaps (SKGs) for robotic and human exploration to the Moon, Near Earth Asteroids (NEAs), and ultimately Mars, as well as meet the strategic goals of the Global Exploration Roadmap (GER), offered by the International Space Exploration Coordination Group (ISECG). In this roadmap, the use of local resources is specifically addressed relating to human exploration. RP will provide knowledge to inform the selection of future mission destinations, support the development of exploration systems, and reduce the risk associated with human exploration. Expanding human presence beyond low-Earth orbit to asteroids and Mars will require the maximum possible use of local materials, so-called in-situ resources. The moon presents a unique destination to conduct robotic investigations that advance ISRU capabilities, as well as providing significant exploration and science value. Lunar regolith contains useful resources such as oxygen, water, silicon, and light metals, like aluminum and titanium. Oxygen can be separated from the regolith for life support (breathable air), or used to create rocket propellant (oxidizer). Regolith can be used to protect against radiation exposure, be processed into solar cells, or used to manufacture construction materials such as bricks and glass. RP will characterize the constituents and distribution of water and other volatiles at the poles of the Moon, enabling innovative uses of local resources, in addition to validating ISRU capabilities. This capability, as well as a deeper understanding of regolith, will be valuable in the

  18. The effect of siblings on early development: a potential contributor to personality differences in mammals.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Robyn; Bautista, Amando; Reyes-Meza, Verónica; Montor, Jorge Morales; Rödel, Heiko G

    2011-09-01

    Although most mammals grow up in the company of same or different age sibs (or half sibs), surprisingly little attention has been given to how relations among them might influence the development of individual differences in morphology, physiology, and behavior. Here we review evidence from our work on domestic and wild European rabbits, and more recently on laboratory rats, mice, and domestic cats, supporting the proposition that in mammals early sibling relations contribute to the development of individual differences in these three domains and thereby to long-term behavioral differences of the kind we might consider part of an animal's behavioral style or personality. First we report a consistent and marked negative relation between litter size and individuals' body mass at birth and weaning, as well as marked within-litter differences in prenatal body mass and placental efficiency. We then report individual differences in preweaning behaviors associated with these morphological variables such as position occupied in the litter huddle and development of motor ability, as well as physiological differences in thermoregulation, immune parameters, and endocrine indicators of stress. Finally, we report first evidence from wild rabbits that early relations among littermates may have long-term consequences for individual differences in behavioral style. We conclude that in mammals, individual differences in early growth, physiology and behavior potentially important for the development of animal personality, are shaped to an appreciable extent by early sibling relations and that this little-researched field deserves closer attention. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Human Hsp10 and Early Pregnancy Factor (EPF) and their relationship and involvement in cancer and immunity: current knowledge and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Corrao, Simona; Campanella, Claudia; Anzalone, Rita; Farina, Felicia; Zummo, Giovanni; Conway de Macario, Everly; Macario, Alberto J L; Cappello, Francesco; La Rocca, Giampiero

    2010-01-30

    This article is about Hsp10 and its intracellular and extracellular forms focusing on the relationship of the latter with Early Pregnancy Factor and on their roles in cancer and immunity. Cellular physiology and survival are finely regulated and depend on the correct functioning of the entire set of proteins. Misfolded or unfolded proteins can cause deleterious effects and even cell death. The chaperonins Hsp10 and Hsp60 act together inside the mitochondria to assist protein folding. Recent studies demonstrated that these proteins have other roles inside and outside the cell, either together or independently of each other. For example, Hsp10 was found increased in the cytosol of different tumors (although in other tumors it was found decreased). Moreover, Hsp10 localizes extracellularly during pregnancy and is often indicated as Early Pregnancy Factor (EPF), which is released during the first stages of gestation and is involved in the establishment of pregnancy. Various reports show that extracellular Hsp10 and EPF modulate certain aspects of the immune response with anti-inflammatory effects in patients with autoimmune conditions improving clinically after treatment with recombinant Hsp10. Moreover, Hsp10 and EPF are involved in embryonic development, acting as a growth factor, and in cell proliferation/differentiation mechanisms. Therefore, it becomes evident that Hsp10 is not only a co-chaperonin, but an active player in its own right in various cellular functions. In this article, we present an overview of various aspects of Hsp10 and EPF as they participate in physiological and pathological processes such as the antitumor response and autoimmune diseases. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Intestinal and Systemic Immune Development and Response to Vaccination Are Unaffected by Dietary (1,3/1,6)-β-d-Glucan Supplementation in Neonatal Piglets

    PubMed Central

    Hester, Shelly N.; Comstock, Sarah S.; Thorum, Shannon C.; Monaco, Marcia H.; Pence, Brandt D.; Woods, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    Infants are susceptible to infections in early life and must rely on their innate immune system for protection. β-Glucans potentiate immune responses. Therefore, we evaluated the influence of purified yeast (1,3/1,6)-β-d-glucan (Wellmune WGP, here referred to as WGP) on the development of the gastrointestinal tract and the intestinal and systemic immune systems in neonatal piglets. Piglets were fed formula containing 0 (control), 1.8, 18, or 90 mg WGP/kg body weight (BW) and were vaccinated against human influenza. Piglets were euthanized at 7 or 21 days of age. Piglet weight and small intestinal length and weight were unaffected by dietary WGP. In addition, WGP did not affect ileal crypt depth, villus height, or ascending colon cuff depth. Immune parameters not affected by WGP supplementation included T cell phenotypes, cytokine gene expression, and cell proliferation. However, vaccination and developmental effects were seen. Overall, the doses of 1.8, 18, and 90 mg/kg BW of dietary WGP had no effect on intestinal or immune development and did not improve the antibody response to vaccination in neonatal piglets. PMID:22815151

  1. Development and function of human innate immune cells in a humanized mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Rongvaux, Anthony; Willinger, Tim; Martinek, Jan; Strowig, Till; Gearty, Sofia V.; Teichmann, Lino L.; Saito, Yasuyuki; Marches, Florentina; Halene, Stephanie; Palucka, A. Karolina; Manz, Markus G.; Flavell, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Mice repopulated with human hematopoietic cells are a powerful tool for the study of human hematopoiesis and immune function in vivo. However, existing humanized mouse models are unable to support development of human innate immune cells, including myeloid cells and NK cells. Here we describe a mouse strain, called MI(S)TRG, in which human versions of four genes encoding cytokines important for innate immune cell development are knocked in to their respective mouse loci. The human cytokines support the development and function of monocytes/macrophages and natural killer cells derived from human fetal liver or adult CD34+ progenitor cells injected into the mice. Human macrophages infiltrated a human tumor xenograft in MI(S)TRG mice in a manner resembling that observed in tumors obtained from human patients. This humanized mouse model may be used to model the human immune system in scenarios of health and pathology, and may enable evaluation of therapeutic candidates in an in vivo setting relevant to human physiology. PMID:24633240

  2. Depletion of Neutrophils Exacerbates the Early Inflammatory Immune Response in Lungs of Mice Infected with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Lopera, Damaris; Urán-Jiménez, Martha Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils predominate during the acute phase of the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection. Herein, we determined the role of the neutrophil during the early stages of experimental pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis using a monoclonal antibody (mAb) specific for neutrophils. Male BALB/c mice were inoculated intranasally with 1.5 × 106 or 2 × 106 P. brasiliensis yeast cells. The mAb was administered 24 h before infection, followed by doses every 48 h until mice were sacrificed. Survival time was evaluated and mice were sacrificed at 48 h and 96 h after inoculation to assess cellularity, fungal load, cytokine/chemokine levels, and histopathological analysis. Neutrophils from mAb-treated mice were efficiently depleted (99.04%). Eighty percent of the mice treated with the mAb and infected with 1.5 × 106 yeast cells died during the first two weeks after infection. When mice were treated and infected with 2 × 106 yeast cells, 100% of them succumbed by the first week after infection. During the acute inflammatory response significant increases in numbers of eosinophils, fungal load and levels of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines were observed in the mAb-treated mice. We also confirmed that neutrophils are an important source of IFN-γ and IL-17. These results indicate that neutrophils are essential for protection as well as being important for regulating the early inflammatory immune response in experimental pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis. PMID:27642235

  3. Systems biology of immunity to MF59-adjuvanted versus nonadjuvanted trivalent seasonal influenza vaccines in early childhood

    PubMed Central

    Nakaya, Helder I.; Clutterbuck, Elizabeth; Kazmin, Dmitri; Wang, Lili; Cortese, Mario; Bosinger, Steven E.; Patel, Nirav B.; Zak, Daniel E.; Aderem, Alan; Dong, Tao; Del Giudice, Giuseppe; Rappuoli, Rino; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Pollard, Andrew J.; Pulendran, Bali; Siegrist, Claire-Anne

    2016-01-01

    The dynamics and molecular mechanisms underlying vaccine immunity in early childhood remain poorly understood. Here we applied systems approaches to investigate the innate and adaptive responses to trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) and MF59-adjuvanted TIV (ATIV) in 90 14- to 24-mo-old healthy children. MF59 enhanced the magnitude and kinetics of serum antibody titers following vaccination, and induced a greater frequency of vaccine specific, multicytokine-producing CD4+ T cells. Compared with transcriptional responses to TIV vaccination previously reported in adults, responses to TIV in infants were markedly attenuated, limited to genes regulating antiviral and antigen presentation pathways, and observed only in a subset of vaccinees. In contrast, transcriptional responses to ATIV boost were more homogenous and robust. Interestingly, a day 1 gene signature characteristic of the innate response (antiviral IFN genes, dendritic cell, and monocyte responses) correlated with hemagglutination at day 28. These findings demonstrate that MF59 enhances the magnitude, kinetics, and consistency of the innate and adaptive response to vaccination with the seasonal influenza vaccine during early childhood, and identify potential molecular correlates of antibody responses. PMID:26755593

  4. Advancing Early Childhood Development: from Science to Scale 1

    PubMed Central

    Black, Maureen M; Walker, Susan P; Fernald, Lia C H; Andersen, Christopher T; DiGirolamo, Ann M; Lu, Chunling; McCoy, Dana C; Fink, Günther; Shawar, Yusra R; Shiffman, Prof Jeremy; Devercelli, Amanda E; Wodon, Quentin T; Vargas-Barón, Emily; Grantham-McGregor, Sally

    2018-01-01

    Early childhood development programmes vary in coordination and quality, with inadequate and inequitable access, especially for children younger than 3 years. New estimates, based on proxy measures of stunting and poverty, indicate that 250 million children (43%) younger than 5 years in low-income and middle-income countries are at risk of not reaching their developmental potential. There is therefore an urgent need to increase multisectoral coverage of quality programming that incorporates health, nutrition, security and safety, responsive caregiving, and early learning. Equitable early childhood policies and programmes are crucial for meeting Sustainable Development Goals, and for children to develop the intellectual skills, creativity, and wellbeing required to become healthy and productive adults. In this paper, the first in a three part Series on early childhood development, we examine recent scientific progress and global commitments to early childhood development. Research, programmes, and policies have advanced substantially since 2000, with new neuroscientific evidence linking early adversity and nurturing care with brain development and function throughout the life course. PMID:27717614

  5. Functional programming of the autonomic nervous system by early life immune exposure: implications for anxiety.

    PubMed

    Sominsky, Luba; Fuller, Erin A; Bondarenko, Evgeny; Ong, Lin Kooi; Averell, Lee; Nalivaiko, Eugene; Dunkley, Peter R; Dickson, Phillip W; Hodgson, Deborah M

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal exposure of rodents to an immune challenge alters a variety of behavioural and physiological parameters in adulthood. In particular, neonatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.05 mg/kg, i.p.) exposure produces robust increases in anxiety-like behaviour, accompanied by persistent changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning. Altered autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity is an important physiological contributor to the generation of anxiety. Here we examined the long term effects of neonatal LPS exposure on ANS function and the associated changes in neuroendocrine and behavioural indices. ANS function in Wistar rats, neonatally treated with LPS, was assessed via analysis of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the adrenal glands on postnatal days (PNDs) 50 and 85, and via plethysmographic assessment of adult respiratory rate in response to mild stress (acoustic and light stimuli). Expression of genes implicated in regulation of autonomic and endocrine activity in the relevant brain areas was also examined. Neonatal LPS exposure produced an increase in TH phosphorylation and activity at both PNDs 50 and 85. In adulthood, LPS-treated rats responded with increased respiratory rates to the lower intensities of stimuli, indicative of increased autonomic arousal. These changes were associated with increases in anxiety-like behaviours and HPA axis activity, alongside altered expression of the GABA-A receptor α2 subunit, CRH receptor type 1, CRH binding protein, and glucocorticoid receptor mRNA levels in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus. The current findings suggest that in addition to the commonly reported alterations in HPA axis functioning, neonatal LPS challenge is associated with a persistent change in ANS activity, associated with, and potentially contributing to, the anxiety-like phenotype. The findings of this study reflect the importance of changes in the perinatal microbial environment on the ontogeny of physiological processes.

  6. Early analysis of surrogate endpoints for metastatic melanoma in immune checkpoint inhibitor trials.

    PubMed

    Petrelli, Fausto; Coinu, Andrea; Cabiddu, Mary; Borgonovo, Karen; Ghilardi, Mara; Lonati, Veronica; Barni, Sandro

    2016-06-01

    Recent major phase III trials led to the approval of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ipilimumab, pembrolizumab, and nivolumab) in metastatic malignant melanoma (MM). We aim to assess whether median progression-free survival, and 1 and 2-year overall survival (OS) rates are reliable surrogate endpoints for median OS through a meta-analysis of published trials involving immunotherapy. A systematic literature search in PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, and SCOPUS of published phase II to III trials with immunotherapy as the treatment for MM was conducted. Adjusted weighted linear regression was used to calculate Pearson correlations (R) between surrogates and median OS, and between treatment effects on surrogates and median OS. A total of 13 studies involving 3373 patients with MM were identified. The correlation of progression-free survival with OS was not significant (R = 0.45, P = .11). Conversely, the correlation between 1-year OS and median OS was very strong (R = 0.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.84-0.96, P < .00001), as was the correlation between 2-year OS and OS (R = 0.79, 95% CI 0.51-0.91, P = .0001). The correlation between the treatment effects on 1-year OS and OS was also significant (R = -0.86, 95% CI -0.3 to 0.97, P = .01). Similar results were obtained for 2-year OS. According to the available study data, 1-year OS rate could be regarded as a potential surrogate for median OS in novel immunotherapy trials of metastatic MM. Waiting for ongoing studies (e.g., pembrolizumab), we suggest that this intermediate endpoint could be considered as a potential primary endpoint in future clinical trials.

  7. Functional Programming of the Autonomic Nervous System by Early Life Immune Exposure: Implications for Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Sominsky, Luba; Fuller, Erin A.; Bondarenko, Evgeny; Ong, Lin Kooi; Averell, Lee; Nalivaiko, Eugene; Dunkley, Peter R.; Dickson, Phillip W.; Hodgson, Deborah M.

    2013-01-01

    Neonatal exposure of rodents to an immune challenge alters a variety of behavioural and physiological parameters in adulthood. In particular, neonatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 0.05 mg/kg, i.p.) exposure produces robust increases in anxiety-like behaviour, accompanied by persistent changes in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning. Altered autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity is an important physiological contributor to the generation of anxiety. Here we examined the long term effects of neonatal LPS exposure on ANS function and the associated changes in neuroendocrine and behavioural indices. ANS function in Wistar rats, neonatally treated with LPS, was assessed via analysis of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the adrenal glands on postnatal days (PNDs) 50 and 85, and via plethysmographic assessment of adult respiratory rate in response to mild stress (acoustic and light stimuli). Expression of genes implicated in regulation of autonomic and endocrine activity in the relevant brain areas was also examined. Neonatal LPS exposure produced an increase in TH phosphorylation and activity at both PNDs 50 and 85. In adulthood, LPS-treated rats responded with increased respiratory rates to the lower intensities of stimuli, indicative of increased autonomic arousal. These changes were associated with increases in anxiety-like behaviours and HPA axis activity, alongside altered expression of the GABA-A receptor α2 subunit, CRH receptor type 1, CRH binding protein, and glucocorticoid receptor mRNA levels in the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus. The current findings suggest that in addition to the commonly reported alterations in HPA axis functioning, neonatal LPS challenge is associated with a persistent change in ANS activity, associated with, and potentially contributing to, the anxiety-like phenotype. The findings of this study reflect the importance of changes in the perinatal microbial environment on the ontogeny of physiological processes

  8. Evidence for immune cell involvement in decidual spiral arteriole remodeling in early human pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Smith, Samantha D; Dunk, Caroline E; Aplin, John D; Harris, Lynda K; Jones, Rebecca L

    2009-05-01

    Decidual artery remodeling is essential for a healthy pregnancy. This process involves loss of vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelium, which are replaced by endovascular trophoblasts (vEVTs) embedded in fibrinoid. Remodeling is impaired during pre-eclampsia, a disease of pregnancy that results in maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. Early vascular changes occur in the absence of vEVTs, suggesting that another cell type is involved; evidence from animal models indicates that decidual leukocytes play a role. We hypothesized that leukocytes participate in remodeling through the triggering of apoptosis or extracellular matrix degradation. Decidua basalis samples (8 to 12 weeks gestation) were examined by immunohistochemistry to elucidate associations between leukocytes, vEVTs, and key remodeling events. Trophoblast-independent and -dependent phases of remodeling were identified. Based on a combination of morphological attributes, vessel profiles were classified into a putative temporal series of four stages. In early stages of remodeling, vascular smooth muscle cells showed dramatic disruption and disorganization before vEVT presence. Leukocytes (identified as uterine natural killer cells and macrophages) were apparent infiltrating vascular smooth muscle cells layers and were matrix metalloproteinase-7 and -9 immunopositive. A proportion of vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells were terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling positive, suggesting remodeling involves apoptosis. We thus confirm that vascular remodeling occurs in distinct trophoblast-independent and -dependent stages and provide the first evidence of decidual leukocyte involvement in trophoblast-independent stages.

  9. Transcriptome analysis reveals regional and temporal differences in mucosal immune system development in the small intestine of neonatal calves.

    PubMed

    Liang, Guanxiang; Malmuthuge, Nilusha; Bao, Hua; Stothard, Paul; Griebel, Philip J; Guan, Le Luo

    2016-08-11

    bacterial recognition (miR-100) during the first week of small intestine development. The rapid development of transcriptional differences between jejunum and ileum reveal that these two intestinal regions make distinct contributions to the intestinal mucosal immune system during the early neonatal period. In addition, transcriptome analysis indicates that the first week after birth is a very dynamic developmental period for the intestinal mucosal immune system and these changes may be regulated by both miRNAs and microbial colonization. Findings from this study indicate that a detailed analysis of both the abundance and diversity of the colonizing microbiome may be necessary to understand factors regulating the rapid development of the mucosal immune system during the first week of life.

  10. 45 CFR 1304.21 - Education and early childhood development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... as art, music, movement, and dialogue; (iii) Promoting interaction and language use among children... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND... early childhood development. (a) Child development and education approach for all children. (1) In order...

  11. 45 CFR 1304.21 - Education and early childhood development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... as art, music, movement, and dialogue; (iii) Promoting interaction and language use among children... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND... early childhood development. (a) Child development and education approach for all children. (1) In order...

  12. 45 CFR 1304.21 - Education and early childhood development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... as art, music, movement, and dialogue; (iii) Promoting interaction and language use among children... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND... early childhood development. (a) Child development and education approach for all children. (1) In order...

  13. 45 CFR 1304.21 - Education and early childhood development.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... as art, music, movement, and dialogue; (iii) Promoting interaction and language use among children... DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND... early childhood development. (a) Child development and education approach for all children. (1) In order...

  14. Global Vaccine and Immunization Research Forum: Opportunities and challenges in vaccine discovery, development, and delivery.

    PubMed

    Ford, Andrew Q; Touchette, Nancy; Hall, B Fenton; Hwang, Angela; Hombach, Joachim

    2016-03-18

    The World Health Organization, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, part of the National Institutes of Health, and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation convened the first Global Vaccine and Immunization Research Forum (GVIRF) in March 2014. This first GVIRF aimed to track recent progress of the Global Vaccine Action Plan research and development agenda, identify opportunities and challenges, promote partnerships in vaccine research, and facilitate the inclusion of all stakeholders in vaccine research and development. Leading scientists, vaccine developers, and public health officials from around the world discussed scientific and technical challenges in vaccine development, research to improve the impact of immunization, and regulatory issues. This report summarizes the discussions and conclusions from the forum participants. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Transcriptional Innate Immune Response of the Developing Chicken Embryo to Newcastle Disease Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Schilling, Megan A.; Katani, Robab; Memari, Sahar; Cavanaugh, Meredith; Buza, Joram; Radzio-Basu, Jessica; Mpenda, Fulgence N.; Deist, Melissa S.; Lamont, Susan J.; Kapur, Vivek

    2018-01-01

    Traditional approaches to assess the immune response of chickens to infection are through animal trials, which are expensive, require enhanced biosecurity, compromise welfare, and are frequently influenced by confounding variables. Since the chicken embryo becomes immunocompetent prior to hatch, we here characterized the transcriptional response of selected innate immune genes to Newcastle disease virus (NDV) infection in chicken embryos at days 10, 14, and 18 of embryonic development. The results suggest that the innate immune response 72 h after challenge of 18-day chicken embryo is both consistent and robust. The expression of CCL5, Mx1, and TLR3 in lung tissues of NDV challenged chicken embryos from the outbred Kuroiler and Tanzanian local ecotype lines showed that their expression was several orders of magnitude higher in the Kuroiler than in the local ecotypes. Next, the expression patterns of three additional innate-immunity related genes, IL-8, IRF-1, and STAT1, were examined in the highly congenic Fayoumi (M5.1 and M15.2) and Leghorn (Ghs6 and Ghs13) sublines that differ only at the microchromosome bearing the major histocompatibility locus. The results show that the Ghs13 Leghorn subline had a consistently higher expression of all genes except IL-8 and expression seemed to be subline-dependent rather than breed-dependent, suggesting that the innate immune response of chicken embryos to NDV infection may be genetically controlled by the MHC-locus. Taken together, the results suggest that the chicken embryo may represent a promising model to studying the patterns and sources of variation of the avian innate immune response to infection with NDV and related pathogens. PMID:29535762

  16. Effects of small increases in corticosterone levels on morphology, immune function, and feather development.

    PubMed

    Butler, Michael W; Leppert, Lynda L; Dufty, Alfred M

    2010-01-01

    Stressors encountered during avian development may affect an individual's phenotype, including immunocompetence, growth, and feather quality. We examined effects of simulated chronic low-level stress on American kestrel (Falco sparverius) nestlings. Continuous release of corticosterone, a hormone involved in the stress response, can model chronic stress in birds. We implanted 13-d-old males with either corticosterone-filled implants or shams and measured their growth, immune function, and feather coloration. We found no significant differences between groups at the end of the weeklong exposure period in morphometrics (mass, tarsus, wing length, and asymmetry), immunocompetence (cutaneous immunity, heterophil/lymphocyte ratio, and humoral immunity), or feather coloration. One week subsequent to implant removal, however, differences were detected. Sham-implanted birds had significantly longer wings and a reduced level of cutaneous immune function compared with those of birds given corticosterone-filled implants. Therefore, increases of only 2 ng/mL in basal corticosterone titer can have small but measurable effects on subsequent avian development.

  17. Early development of an enterprise health data warehouse.

    PubMed

    Househ, Mowafa Said; Al-Tuwaijri, Majid

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe early development challenges of an enterprise data warehouse within a Saudi Arabian academic healthcare facility. An action case research method was selected for this paper. The study took place between December 2009 and February 2010. Data collection included interviews, meeting observations, and meeting minutes. Early development challenges centered on the development of clear contracts with vendors; development of a clear project plan; a need to fast-track bureaucracy; and educate clinicians and staff about the project; and lack of data standardization.

  18. Effect of hen age and maternal vitamin D source on performance, hatchability, bone mineral density, and progeny in vitro early innate immune function.

    PubMed

    Saunders-Blades, J L; Korver, D R

    2015-06-01

    The metabolite 25-hydroxy vitamin D3 (25-OHD) can complement or replace vitamin D3 in poultry rations, and may influence broiler production and immune function traits. The effect of broiler breeder dietary 25-OHD on egg production, hatchability, and chick early innate immune function was studied. We hypothesized that maternal dietary 25-OHD would support normal broiler breeder production and a more mature innate immune system of young chicks. Twenty-three-week-old Ross 308 hens (n=98) were placed in 4 floor pens and fed either 2,760 IU vitamin D3 (D) or 69 μg 25-OHD/kg feed. Hen weights were managed according to the primary breeder management guide. At 29 to 31 wk (Early), 46 to 48 wk (Mid), and 61 to 63 wk (Late), hens were artificially inseminated and fertile eggs incubated and hatched. Chicks were placed in cages based on maternal treatment and grown to 7 d age. Innate immune function and plasma 25-OHD were assessed at 1 and 4 d post-hatch on 15 chicks/treatment. Egg production, hen BW, and chick hatch weight were not affected by diet (P>0.05). Total in vitro Escherichia coli (E. coli) killing by 25-OHD chicks was greater than the D chicks at 4 d for the Early and Mid hatches, and 1 and 4 d for the Late hatch. This can be partly explained by the 25-OHD chicks from the Late hatch also having a greater E. coli phagocytic capability. No consistent pattern of oxidative burst response was observed. Chicks from the Mid hatch had greater percent phagocytosis, phagocytic capability, and E. coli killing than chicks from Early and Late hatches. Overall, maternal 25-OHD increased hatchability and in vitro chick innate immunity towards E. coli. Regardless of treatment, chicks from Late and Early hens had weaker early innate immune responses than chicks from Mid hens. The hen age effect tended to be the greatest factor influencing early chick innate immunity, but maternal 25-OHD also increased several measures relative to D. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. Early Brain and Child Development: Connections to Early Education and Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romano, Judith T.

    2013-01-01

    The vast majority of young children spend time in settings outside of the home, and the nature of those settings directly impacts the child's health and development. The ecobiodevelopmental framework of early brain and child development serve as the backdrop for establishing quality. This article describes the use of quality rating systems,…

  20. Integrated and Early Childhood Education: Preparation for Social Development. Theme A: Relevant Provision for Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Axton, J. H. M.

    Factors which influence child development are listed and briefly discussed. These factors are (1) mother's childhood, (2) mother's age, (3) care during pregnancy and delivery, (4) early neonatal factors, (5) birth interval, (6) effect of repeated infection and malnutrition on brain growth and intellectual development, and (7) home environment. The…

  1. Getting an Early Start on Early Child Development. Education Notes. 30194

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Mary Eming; Dunkelberg, Erika

    2004-01-01

    The children born this year--2004--will be eleven years old in 2015--the age of primary school completion in most countries. This is the MDG (Millennium Development Goal) generation--for whom the international community has pledged that by 2015, all children will be able to complete primary schooling. Ensuring good early child development is the…

  2. Towards development of novel immunization strategies against leishmaniasis using PLGA nanoparticles loaded with kinetoplastid membrane protein-11.

    PubMed

    Santos, Diego M; Carneiro, Marcia W; de Moura, Tatiana R; Fukutani, Kiyoshi; Clarencio, Jorge; Soto, Manuel; Espuelas, Socorro; Brodskyn, Claudia; Barral, Aldina; Barral-Netto, Manoel; de Oliveira, Camila I

    2012-01-01

    Vaccine development has been a priority in the fight against leishmaniases, which are vector-borne diseases caused by Leishmania protozoa. Among the different immunization strategies employed to date is inoculation of plasmid DNA coding for parasite antigens, which has a demonstrated ability to induce humoral and cellular immune responses. In this sense, inoculation of plasmid DNA encoding Leishmania kinetoplasmid membrane protein-11 (KMP-11) was able to confer protection against visceral leishmaniasis. However, recently the use of antigen delivery systems such as poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles has also proven effective for eliciting protective immune responses. In the present work, we tested two immunization strategies with the goal of obtaining protection, in terms of lesion development and parasite load, against cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. braziliensis. One strategy involved immunization with plasmid DNA encoding L. infantum chagasi KMP-11. Alternatively, mice were primed with PLGA nanoparticles loaded with the recombinant plasmid DNA and boosted using PLGA nanoparticles loaded with recombinant KMP-11. Both immunization strategies elicited detectable cellular immune responses with the presence of both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines; mice receiving the recombinant PLGA nanoparticle formulations also demonstrated anti-KMP-11 IgG1 and IgG2a. Mice were then challenged with L. braziliensis, in the presence of sand fly saliva. Lesion development was not inhibited following either immunization strategy. However, immunization with PLGA nanoparticles resulted in a more prominent reduction in parasite load at the infection site when compared with immunization using plasmid DNA alone. This effect was associated with a local increase in interferon-gamma and in tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Both immunization strategies also resulted in a lower parasite load in the draining lymph nodes, albeit not significantly. Our results

  3. Promoting equity through integrated early child development and nutrition interventions.

    PubMed

    Black, Maureen M; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable development, a foundation of the post-2015 global agenda, depends on healthy and productive citizens. The origins of adult health begin early in life, stemming from genetic-environmental interactions that include adequate nutrition and opportunities for responsive learning. Inequities associated with inadequate nutrition and early learning opportunities can undermine children's health and development, thereby compromising their productivity and societal contributions. Transactional theory serves as a useful framework for examining the associations that link early child development and nutrition because it emphasizes the interplay that occurs between children and the environment, mediated through caregiver interactions. Although single interventions targeting early child development or nutrition can be effective, there is limited evidence on the development, implementation, evaluation, and scaling up of integrated interventions. This manuscript introduces a special edition of papers on six topics central to integrated child development/nutrition interventions: (1) review of integrated interventions; (2) methods and topics in designing integrated interventions; (3) economic considerations related to integrated interventions; (4) capacity-building considerations; (5) examples of integrated interventions; and (6) policy implications of integrated interventions. Ensuring the health and development of infants and young children through integrated child development/nutrition interventions promotes equity, a critical component of sustainable development. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  4. Early feed restriction of lambs modifies ileal epimural microbiota and affects immunity parameters during the fattening period.

    PubMed

    Frutos, J; Andrés, S; Yáñez-Ruiz, D R; Benavides, J; López, S; Santos, A; Martínez-Valladares, M; Rozada, F; Giráldez, F J

    2018-04-22

    Bacteria firmly attached to the gastrointestinal epithelium during the pre-weaning phase may show a significant impact on nutrient processing, immunity parameters, health and feed efficiency of lambs during post-weaning phases. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe the differences in the ileal epimural microbiota (e.g. total bacteria, Prevotella spp., Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus spp.) of fattening lambs promoted by early feed restriction during the suckling phase trying to elucidate some of the underlying mechanisms behind changes in feed efficiency during the fattening period. A total of 24 Merino lambs (average BW 4.81±0.256 kg) were used, 12 of them (ad libitum, ADL) kept permanently in individual pens with their mothers, whereas the other 12 lambs were separated from their dams for 9 h each day to be exposed to milk restriction (RES). After weaning (BW=15 kg) all the animals were penned individually, offered the same complete pelleted diet (35 g/kg BW per day) and slaughtered at a BW of 27 kg. During the fattening period, reduced gain : feed ratio (0.320 v. 0.261, P<0.001) was observed for the RES group. Moreover, increments of Prevotella spp. were detected in the ileal epimural microbiota of RES lambs (P<0.05). There were also higher numbers of infiltrated lymphocytes (T and B cells) in the ileal lamina propria (P<0.05), a higher M-cell labelling intensity in ileal Peyer's patches domes (P<0.05) and a trend towards a thickening of the submucosa layer when compared with the ADL group (P=0.057). Some other immunological parameters, such as an increased immunoglobulin A (IgA) production (pg IgA/µg total protein) and increments in CD45+ cells were also observed in the ileum of RES group (P<0.05), whereas transforming growth factor β and toll-like receptor gene expression was reduced (P<0.05). In conclusion, early feed restriction during the suckling phase promoted changes in ileal epimural microbiota and several immunity parameters that could

  5. Functionally Redundant RXLR Effectors from Phytophthora infestans Act at Different Steps to Suppress Early flg22-Triggered Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Fraiture, Malou; Liu, Xiaoyu; Boevink, Petra C.; Gilroy, Eleanor M.; Chen, Ying; Kandel, Kabindra; Sessa, Guido; Birch, Paul R. J.; Brunner, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    Genome sequences of several economically important phytopathogenic oomycetes have revealed the presence of large families of so-called RXLR effectors. Functional screens have identified RXLR effector repertoires that either compromise or induce plant defense responses. However, limited information is available about the molecular mechanisms underlying the modes of action of these effectors in planta. The perception of highly conserved pathogen- or microbe-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs/MAMPs), such as flg22, triggers converging signaling pathways recruiting MAP kinase cascades and inducing transcriptional re-programming, yielding a generic anti-microbial response. We used a highly synchronizable, pathogen-free protoplast-based assay to identify a set of RXLR effectors from Phytophthora infestans (PiRXLRs), the causal agent of potato and tomato light blight that manipulate early stages of flg22-triggered signaling. Of thirty-three tested PiRXLR effector candidates, eight, called Suppressor of early Flg22-induced Immune response (SFI), significantly suppressed flg22-dependent activation of a reporter gene under control of a typical MAMP-inducible promoter (pFRK1-Luc) in tomato protoplasts. We extended our analysis to Arabidopsis thaliana, a non-host plant species of P. infestans. From the aforementioned eight SFI effectors, three appeared to share similar functions in both Arabidopsis and tomato by suppressing transcriptional activation of flg22-induced marker genes downstream of post-translational MAP kinase activation. A further three effectors interfere with MAMP signaling at, or upstream of, the MAP kinase cascade in tomato, but not in Arabidopsis. Transient expression of the SFI effectors in Nicotiana benthamiana enhances susceptibility to P. infestans and, for the most potent effector, SFI1, nuclear localization is required for both suppression of MAMP signaling and virulence function. The present study provides a framework to decipher the molecular

  6. From Famine to Feast: Developing Early-Phase Combination Immunotherapy Trials Wisely.

    PubMed

    Day, Daphne; Monjazeb, Arta M; Sharon, Elad; Ivy, S Percy; Rubin, Eric H; Rosner, Gary L; Butler, Marcus O

    2017-09-01

    Not until the turn of this century has immunotherapy become a fundamental component of cancer treatment. While monotherapy with immune modulators, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors, provides a subset of patients with durable clinical benefit and possible cure, combination therapy offers the potential for antitumor activity in a greater number of patients. The field of immunology has provided us with a plethora of potential molecules and pathways to target. This abundance makes it impractical to empirically test all possible combinations efficiently. We recommend that potential immunotherapy combinations be chosen based on sound rationale and available data to address the mechanisms of primary and acquired immune resistance. Novel trial designs may increase the proportion of patients receiving potentially efficacious treatments and, at the same time, better define the balance of clinical activity and safety. We believe that implementing a strategic approach in the early development of immunotherapy combinations will expedite the delivery of more effective therapies with improved safety and durable outcomes. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Early childhood traumatic development and its impact on gender identity.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Y

    2001-03-01

    The author clarifies issues of gender identity typical to contemporary Western societies. Nowadays, we tend to emphasize self-autonomy as the main target of the individual's development. In adolescence this may cause many questions as to the adolescent's conception of his or her gender and sexual identity. These questions are the outcome of early development, and thus early traumas may impact the entire gender development. In this context, trauma includes not only major violations such as sexual abuse, terror attacks, and so forth, but also comprises events heretofore considered minor.

  8. Early Learning and Development: Cultural-Historical Concepts in Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleer, Marilyn

    2010-01-01

    "Early Learning and Development" provides a unique synthesis of cultural-historical theory from Vygotsky, Elkonin and Leontiev in the 20th century to the ground-breaking research of scholars such as Siraj-Blatchford, Kratsova and Hedegaard today. It demonstrates how development and learning are culturally embedded and institutionally defined, and…

  9. Child Development, Early Childhood Education and Family Life: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Beverly, Comp.

    This bibliographical listing of approximately 2500 books on child development, early childhood education and family life was compiled as a resource for parents and students. Books are listed alphabetically by author and are grouped according to the following categories: child development; observation of children; adolescence; language…

  10. Helping Families Connect Early Literacy with Social-Emotional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Rosa Milagros; Fettig, Angel; Shaffer, LaShorage

    2012-01-01

    Early childhood educators know that home is a child's first learning environment. From birth, children are comforted by hearing and listening to their caregivers' voices. The language used by families supports young children's development of oral language skills. Exposure to print materials in the home also supports literacy development. Literacy…

  11. Aesthetic Experience and Early Language and Literacy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Helen L.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper explores the connections between theory and research in language development and aesthetic education and their implications for early childhood classroom practice. The present paper posits that arts experiences make a unique and vital contribution to the child's development of language and literacy, as well as to the sense of…

  12. Professional development session for early career scientists at SITC 2012

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC) 2012 Professional Development Session was held as part of the SITC 27th Annual Meeting, Washington, DC, on October 24, 2012. The session was designed as a new opportunity for early career investigators to learn about relevant career development topics in a didactic setting. PMID:25742323

  13. Promising Directions for Research and Development in Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliott, David L.

    A survey of research and development studies currently needed in early childhood education stresses child development and its relation to instruction. Topics which have been discussed are perception, oral language, concept formation, learning set, motivation, and the psychology of learning. Universities and public school systems working together…

  14. Instructional Development for Early Career Academics: An Overview of Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stes, Ann; Van Petegem, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Background: Over the past decades, the issue of improving teaching in higher education has been seriously addressed. Centres for instructional development, aimed at enhancing teaching, have been set up in many countries. Instructional development for early career academics is perceived to be of particular importance. Given the considerable…

  15. Early Markers of Vulnerable Language Skill Development in Galactosaemia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Fiona M.; Coman, David J.; Syrmis, Maryanne

    2014-01-01

    There are no known biomedical or genetic markers to identify which infants with galactosaemia (GAL) are most at risk of poor language skill development, yet pre-linguistic communicative "red flag" behaviours are recognised as early identifiers of heightened vulnerability to impaired language development. We report on pre-linguistic…

  16. Understanding Emotional Development: Helping Early Childhood Providers Better Support Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Nicole Megan

    2012-01-01

    This article is intended to provide early childhood providers with a concise overview of emerging emotional development in young children (birth-5), the important role of primary caregivers, and the link between parenting, emotional development, and behavior. Specific suggestions that have been shared with urban Head Start mothers are offered,…

  17. Culture and Early Language Development: Implications for Assessment and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parada, Patricia M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study--"Culture and Early Language Development: Implications for Assessment and Intervention"--was to explore and describe the perceptions and beliefs of Salvadoran mothers of low socioeconomic status regarding the language development of their young children in order to identify cultural variations in…

  18. Evaluation of humoral immunity profiles to identify heart recipients at risk for development of severe infections: A multicenter prospective study.

    PubMed

    Sarmiento, Elizabeth; Jaramillo, Maria; Calahorra, Leticia; Fernandez-Yañez, Juan; Gomez-Sanchez, Miguel; Crespo-Leiro, Maria G; Paniagua, Maria; Almenar, Luis; Cebrian, Monica; Rabago, Gregorio; Levy, Beltran; Segovia, Javier; Gomez-Bueno, Manuel; Lopez, Javier; Mirabet, Sonia; Navarro, Joaquin; Rodriguez-Molina, Juan Jose; Fernandez-Cruz, Eduardo; Carbone, Javier

    2017-05-01

    New biomarkers are necessary to improve detection of the risk of infection in heart transplantation. We performed a multicenter study to evaluate humoral immunity profiles that could better enable us to identify heart recipients at risk of severe infections. We prospectively analyzed 170 adult heart recipients at 8 centers in Spain. Study points were before transplantation and 7 and 30 days after transplantation. Immune parameters included IgG, IgM, IgA and complement factors C3 and C4, and titers of specific antibody to pneumococcal polysaccharide antigens (anti-PPS) and to cytomegalovirus (CMV). To evaluate potential immunologic mechanisms leading to IgG hypogammaglobulinemia, before heart transplantation we assessed serum B-cell activating factor (BAFF) levels using enzyme-linked immunoassay. The clinical follow-up period lasted 6 months. Clinical outcome was need for intravenous anti-microbials for therapy of infection. During follow-up, 53 patients (31.2%) developed at least 1 severe infection. We confirmed that IgG hypogammaglobulinemia at Day 7 (defined as IgG <600 mg/dl) is a risk factor for infection in general, bacterial infections in particular, and CMV disease. At Day 7 after transplantation, the combination of IgG <600 mg/dl + C3 <80 mg/dl was more strongly associated with the outcome (adjusted odds ratio 7.40; 95% confidence interval 1.48 to 37.03; p = 0.014). We found that quantification of anti-CMV antibody titers and lower anti-PPS antibody concentrations were independent predictors of CMV disease and bacterial infections, respectively. Higher pre-transplant BAFF levels were a risk factor of acute cellular rejection. Early immunologic monitoring of humoral immunity profiles proved useful for the identification of heart recipients who are at risk of severe infection. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Active Immunization in the United States: Developments over the Past Decade

    PubMed Central

    Dennehy, Penelope H.

    2001-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has identified immunization as the most important public health advance of the 20th century. The purpose of this article is to review the changes that have taken place in active immunization in the United States over the past decade. Since 1990, new vaccines have become available to prevent five infectious diseases: varicella, rotavirus, hepatitis A, Lyme disease, and Japanese encephalitis virus infection. Improved vaccines have been developed to prevent Haemophilus influenzae type b, pneumococcus, pertussis, rabies, and typhoid infections. Immunization strategies for the prevention of hepatitis B, measles, meningococcal infections, and poliomyelitis have changed as a result of the changing epidemiology of these diseases. Combination vaccines are being developed to facilitate the delivery of multiple antigens, and improved vaccines are under development for cholera, influenza, and meningococcal disease. Major advances in molecular biology have enabled scientists to devise new approaches to the development of vaccines against diseases ranging from respiratory viral to enteric bacterial infections that continue to plague the world's population. PMID:11585789

  20. Systemic Immunization with Papillomavirus L1 Protein Completely Prevents the Development of Viral Mucosal Papillomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzich, Joann A.; Ghim, Shin-Je; Palmer-Hill, Frances J.; White, Wendy I.; Tamura, James K.; Bell, Judith A.; Newsome, Joseph A.; Bennett Jenson, A.; Schlegel, Richard

    1995-12-01

    Infection of mucosal epithelium by papillomaviruses is responsible for the induction of genital and oral warts and plays a critical role in the development of human cervical and oropharyngeal cancer. We have employed a canine model to develop a systemic vaccine that completely protects against experimentally induced oral mucosal papillomas. The major capsid protein, L1, of canine oral papillomavirus (COPV) was expressed in Sf9 insect cells in native conformation. L1 protein, which self-assembled into virus-like particles, was purified on CsCl gradients and injected intradermally into the foot pad of beagles. Vaccinated animals developed circulating antibodies against COPV and became completely resistant to experimental challenge with COPV. Successful immunization was strictly dependent upon native L1 protein conformation and L1 type. Partial protection was achieved with as little as 0.125 ng of L1 protein, and adjuvants appeared useful for prolonging the host immune response. Serum immunoglobulins passively transferred from COPV L1-immunized beagles to naive beagles conferred protection from experimental infection with COPV. Our results indicate the feasibility of developing a human vaccine to prevent mucosal papillomas, which can progress to malignancy.

  1. Confocal Imaging of Early Heart Development in Xenopus laevis

    PubMed Central

    Kolker, Sandra J.; Tajchman, Urszula; Weeks, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    Xenopus laevis provides a number of advantages for studies on cardiovascular development. The embryos are fairly large, easy to obtain, and can develop at ambient temperature in simple buffer solutions. Although classic descriptions of heart development exist, the ability to use whole mount immunohistochemical methods and confocal microscopy may enhance the ability to understand both normal and experimentally perturbed cardiovascular development. We have started to examine the early stages of cardiac development in Xenopus, seeking to identify antibodies and fixatives that allow easy examination of the developing heart. We have used monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) raised against bovine cardiac troponin T and chicken tropomyosin to visualize cardiac muscle, a goat antibody recognizing bovine type VI collagen to stain the lining of vessels, and the JB3 mAb raised against chicken fibrillin which allows the visualization of a variety of cardiovascular tissues during early development. Results from embryonic stages 24–46 are presented. PMID:10644411

  2. Challenges in early clinical development of adjuvanted vaccines.

    PubMed

    Della Cioppa, Giovanni; Jonsdottir, Ingileif; Lewis, David

    2015-06-08

    A three-step approach to the early development of adjuvanted vaccine candidates is proposed, the goal of which is to allow ample space for exploratory and hypothesis-generating human experiments and to select dose(s) and dosing schedule(s) to bring into full development. Although the proposed approach is more extensive than the traditional early development program, the authors suggest that by addressing key questions upfront the overall time, size and cost of development will be reduced and the probability of public health advancement enhanced. The immunogenicity end-points chosen for early development should be critically selected: an established immunological parameter with a well characterized assay should be selected as primary end-point for dose and schedule finding; exploratory information-rich end-points should be limited in number and based on pre-defined hypothesis generating plans, including system biology and pathway analyses. Building a pharmacodynamic profile is an important aspect of early development: to this end, multiple early (within 24h) and late (up to one year) sampling is necessary, which can be accomplished by sampling subgroups of subjects at different time points. In most cases the final target population, even if vulnerable, should be considered for inclusion in early development. In order to obtain the multiple formulations necessary for the dose and schedule finding, "bed-side mixing" of various components of the vaccine is often necessary: this is a complex and underestimated area that deserves serious research and logistical support. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of Early Measures of Comprehension: Innovation in Individual Growth and Development Indicators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wackerle-Hollman, Alisha K.; Rodriguez, Megan I.; Bradfield, Tracy A.; Rodriguez, Michael C.; McConnell, Scott R.

    2015-01-01

    Early comprehension is an important, but not well-understood, contribution to early literacy and language development. Specifically, research regarding the nature of skills representative of early comprehension, including how they contribute to later reading success, is needed to support best practices to adequately prepare students. This article…

  4. Generation of anti-porcine CD69 monoclonal antibodies and their usefulness to evaluate early activation of cellular immunity by flow cytometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Yumiko; Okutani, Mie; Ogawa, Shohei; Tsukahara, Takamitsu; Inoue, Ryo

    2018-05-01

    T cell-mediated cellular immunity and humoral immunity are equally important for the prevention of diseases. To assess activation of human and mouse cellular immunity, early activation markers of lymphocytes are often used in flow cytometry targeting expression of CD69 molecules. Response of humoral immunity against infection or vaccination has been well investigated in pigs, but that of cellular immunity has been largely neglected due to lack of direct evaluation tools. Thus, in pig research a proper assay of antibody reacted with porcine CD69 is still unavailable. In the present study, two anti-porcine CD69 mAb-producing mouse hybridomas, 01-14-22-51 (IgG2b-κ) and 01-22-44-102 (IgG2a-κ), both showing fine reactivity with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and ionomycin-stimulated porcine peripheral blood lymphocytes in flow cytometry, were established. When porcine peripheral blood lymphocytes were activated with PMA and ionomycin and analyzed by flow cytometry, it was found that both mAbs generated in this study stained about 70% of lymphocytes. In contrast, after an identical procedure, only 5% and 13.5% of lymphocytes were stained with anti-interferon-γ mAb and anti-tumor necrosis factor-α mAb, respectively. These results indicate that evaluation of cellular immunity activation turns more sensitive after using our newly generated mAbs. © 2018 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. The development of self-regulation across early childhood.

    PubMed

    Montroy, Janelle J; Bowles, Ryan P; Skibbe, Lori E; McClelland, Megan M; Morrison, Frederick J

    2016-11-01

    The development of early childhood self-regulation is often considered an early life marker for later life successes. Yet little longitudinal research has evaluated whether there are different trajectories of self-regulation development across children. This study investigates the development of behavioral self-regulation between the ages of 3 and 7 years, with a direct focus on possible heterogeneity in the developmental trajectories, and a set of potential indicators that distinguish unique behavioral self-regulation trajectories. Across 3 diverse samples, 1,386 children were assessed on behavioral self-regulation from preschool through first grade. Results indicated that majority of children develop self-regulation rapidly during early childhood, and that children follow 3 distinct developmental patterns of growth. These 3 trajectories were distinguishable based on timing of rapid gains, as well as child gender, early language skills, and maternal education levels. Findings highlight early developmental differences in how self-regulation unfolds, with implications for offering individualized support across children. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. The Development of Self-Regulation across Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Montroy, Janelle J.; Bowles, Ryan P.; Skibbe, Lori E.; McClelland, Megan M.; Morrison, Frederick J.

    2016-01-01

    The development of early childhood self-regulation is often considered an early life marker for later life successes. Yet little longitudinal research has evaluated whether there are different trajectories of self-regulation development across children. This study investigates the development of behavioral self-regulation between the ages of three and seven, with a direct focus on possible heterogeneity in the developmental trajectories, and a set of potential indicators that distinguish unique behavioral self-regulation trajectories. Across three diverse samples, 1,386 children were assessed on behavioral self-regulation from preschool through first grade. Results indicated that majority of children develop self-regulation rapidly during early childhood, and that children follow three distinct developmental patterns of growth. These three trajectories were distinguishable based on timing of rapid gains, as well as child gender, early language skills, and maternal education levels. Findings highlight early developmental differences in how self-regulation unfolds with implications for offering individualized support across children. PMID:27709999

  7. Immunization knowledge and practice among Malaysian parents: a questionnaire development and pilot-testing.

    PubMed

    Awadh, Ammar Ihsan; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi; Al-lela, Omer Qutaiba; Bux, Siti Halimah; Elkalmi, Ramadan M; Hadi, Hazrina

    2014-10-27

    Parents are the main decision makers for their children vaccinations. This fact makes parents' immunization knowledge and practices as predictor factors for immunization uptake and timeliness. The aim of this pilot study was to develop a reliable and valid instrument in Malaysian language to measure immunization knowledge and practice (KP) of Malaysian parents. A cross-sectional prospective pilot survey was conducted among 88 Malaysian parents who attended public health facilities that provide vaccinations. Translated immunization KP questionnaires (Bahasa Melayu version) were used. Descriptive statistics were applied, face and content validity were assessed, and internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct validity were determined. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) of the knowledge scores was 7.36 ± 2.29 and for practice scores was 7.13 ± 2.20. Good internal consistency was found for knowledge and practice items (Cronbach's alpha = 0.757 and 0.743 respectively); the test-retest reliability value was 0.740 (p = 0.014). A panel of three specialist pharmacists who are experts in this field judged the face and content validity of the final questionnaire. Parents with up-to-date immunized children had significantly better knowledge and practice scores than parents who did not (p < 0.001 and p = 0.001 respectively), suggesting a good construct validity. A significant difference was found in knowledge and practice scores among parents' age (p = 0.006 and p = 0.029 respectively) and place of living (p = 0.037 and p = 0.043). The parents' knowledge level was positively associated with their practice toward immunization (Spearman's rank correlation coefficient 0.310, p = 0.003). The pilot study concluded that the Bahasa Melayu version of the immunization KP questionnaire has good reliability and validity for measuring the knowledge and practices of Malaysian parents and therefore this version can be used in

  8. [The clinical economic analysis of application of immune correcting preparations to prevent respiratory infections and their complications in frequently ill children of early school age].

    PubMed

    Maiorov, R V; Derbenov, D P

    2014-01-01

    The article presents the results of clinical economic analysis of effect of different immune correcting preparations on rate of respiratory infections in 548 frequently ill children of early school age. It is established that preventive immune correction with lysates of bacteria or glucosaminyl muramyl dipeptide in aggregate with vitamin mineral complex results in statistically significant decreasing of rate of respiratory infections and dramatic decreasing of direct and indirect costs of treatment of infectious diseases of respiratory ways. The preventive application of juice of cone-flower herb or interferon in aggregate with vitamnin mineral complex statistically significantly decreases rate of respiratory infections and negligibly decreases direct and indirect costs of their treatment.

  9. Horses experimentally infected with Sarcocystis neurona develop altered immune responses in vitro.

    PubMed

    Witonsky, Sharon G; Ellison, Siobhan; Yang, Jibing; Gogal, Robert M; Lawler, Heather; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Sriranganathan, Namalwar; Andrews, Frank; Ward, Daniel; Lindsay, David S

    2008-10-01

    Equine protozoal myeloencephalitis (EPM) due to Sarcocystis neurona infection is 1 of the most common neurologic diseases in horses in the United States. The mechanisms by which most horses resist disease, as well as the possible mechanisms by which the immune system may be suppressed in horses that develop EPM, are not known. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to determine whether horses experimentally infected with S. neurona developed suppressed immune responses. Thirteen horses that were negative for S. neurona antibodies in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were randomly assigned to control (n = 5) or infected (n = 8) treatment groups. Neurologic exams and cerebrospinal fluid analyses were performed prior to, and following, S. neurona infection. Prior to, and at multiple time points following infection, immune parameters were determined. All 8 S. neurona-infected horses developed clinical signs consistent with EPM, and had S. neurona antibodies in the serum and CSF. Both infected and control horses had increased percentages (P < 0.05) of B cells at 28 days postinfection. Infected horses had significantly decreased (P < 0.05) proliferation responses as measured by thymidine incorporation to nonspecific mitogens phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and ionomycin (I) as soon as 2 days postinfection.

  10. Breast-fed and bottle-fed infant rhesus macaques develop distinct gut microbiotas and immune systems

    PubMed Central

    Ardeshir, Amir; Narayan, Nicole R.; Méndez-Lagares, Gema; Lu, Ding; Rauch, Marcus; Huang, Yong; Van Rompay, Koen K. A.; Lynch, Susan V.; Hartigan-O'Connor, Dennis J.

    2015-01-01

    Diet has a strong influence on the intestinal microbiota in both humans and animal models. It is well established that microbial colonization is required for normal development of the immune system and that specific microbial constituents prompt the differentiation or expansion of certain immune cell subsets. Nonetheless, it has been unclear how profoundly diet might shape the primate immune system or how durable the influence might be. We show that breast-fed and bottle-fed infant rhesus macaques develop markedly different immune systems, which remain different 6 months after weaning when the animals begin receiving identical diets. In particular, breast-fed infants develop robust populations of memory T cells as well as T helper 17 (TH17) cells within the memory pool, whereas bottle-fed infants do not. These findings may partly explain the variation in human susceptibility to conditions with an immune basis, as well as the variable protection against certain infectious diseases. PMID:25186175

  11. Early detection of disease program: Evaluation of the cellular immune response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, B. S.; Knight, V.; Martin, R. R.; Kasel, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    Surfaces of normal, cultured, and mitogen-stimulated mouse lymphoid cells were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Lymphocytes with smooth, highly villous and intermediate surfaces were observed in cell suspensions from both spleens and thymuses of normal mice and from spleens of congenitally athymic (nude) mice. Several strain-specific surface features were noted, including the spine-like appearance of microvilli on C57B1/6 lymphocytes. Although thymus cell suspensions contained somewhat more smooth cells than did spleen cell preparations, lymphocyte derivation could not be inferred from SEM examination. Studies of cells stimulated with mitogenic agents for thymus-derived lymphocytes (concanavalin A) or for bone marrow-derived lymphocytes (lipopolysaccharide) suggested that, in the mouse, development of a complex villous surface is a general concomitant of lymphocyte activation and transformation.

  12. Critical disease windows shaped by stress exposure alter allocation trade-offs between development and immunity.

    PubMed

    Kirschman, Lucas J; Crespi, Erica J; Warne, Robin W

    2018-01-01

    Ubiquitous environmental stressors are often thought to alter animal susceptibility to pathogens and contribute to disease emergence. However, duration of exposure to a stressor is likely critical, because while chronic stress is often immunosuppressive, acute stress can temporarily enhance immune function. Furthermore, host susceptibility to stress and disease often varies with ontogeny; increasing during critical developmental windows. How the duration and timing of exposure to stressors interact to shape critical windows and influence disease processes is not well tested. We used ranavirus and larval amphibians as a model system to investigate how physiological stress and pathogenic infection shape development and disease dynamics in vertebrates. Based on a resource allocation model, we designed experiments to test how exposure to stressors may induce resource trade-offs that shape critical windows and disease processes because the neuroendocrine stress axis coordinates developmental remodelling, immune function and energy allocation in larval amphibians. We used wood frog larvae (Lithobates sylvaticus) to investigate how chronic and acute exposure to corticosterone, the dominant amphibian glucocorticoid hormone, mediates development and immune function via splenocyte immunohistochemistry analysis in association with ranavirus infection. Corticosterone treatments affected immune function, as both chronic and acute exposure suppressed splenocyte proliferation, although viral replication rate increased only in the chronic corticosterone treatment. Time to metamorphosis and survival depended on both corticosterone treatment and infection status. In the control and chronic corticosterone treatments, ranavirus infection decreased survival and delayed metamorphosis, although chronic corticosterone exposure accelerated rate of metamorphosis in uninfected larvae. Acute corticosterone exposure accelerated metamorphosis increased survival in infected larvae. Interactions

  13. Temperament, Executive Control, and ADHD across Early Development

    PubMed Central

    Rabinovitz, Beth B.; O’Neill, Sarah; Rajendran, Khushmand; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Research examining factors linking early temperament and later ADHD is limited by cross-sectional approaches and having the same informant rate both temperament and psychopathology. We used multi-informant/multi-method longitudinal data to test the hypothesis that negative emotionality during preschool is positively associated with ADHD symptom severity in middle childhood, but developing executive control mediates this relation. Children (N=161) with and without ADHD were evaluated three times: Parent and teacher temperament ratings and NEPSY Visual Attention at ages 3–4 years; WISC-IV Working Memory Index and NEPSY Response Set at age 6 years; and ADHD symptoms using the Kiddie-SADS at age 7 years. Parent and teacher ratings of preschoolers’ temperament were combined to form an Anger/Frustration composite. Similarly, an Executive Functioning composite was derived from age 6 measures. Bootstrapping was used to determine whether age 6 Executive Functioning mediated the relation between early Anger/Frustration and later ADHD symptom severity, while controlling for early executive functioning. Preschoolers’ Anger/Frustration was significantly associated with later ADHD symptoms, with this relation partially mediated by age 6 Executive Functioning. Developing executive control mediates the relation between early Anger/Frustration and later ADHD symptom severity, suggesting that Anger/Frustration influences ADHD symptom severity through its impact on developing executive control. Early interventions targeting the harmful influences of negative emotionality or enhancing executive functioning may diminish later ADHD severity. PMID:26854505

  14. Embedded Professional Development and Classroom-Based Early Reading Intervention: Early Diagnostic Reading Intervention through Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amendum, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current mixed-methods study was to investigate a model of professional development and classroom-based early reading intervention implemented by the 1st-grade teaching team in a large urban/suburban school district in the southeastern United States. The intervention provided teachers with ongoing embedded professional…

  15. New Hampshire Early Childhood Professional Development System: Guide to Early Childhood Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnell, Tessa, Ed.

    The community of child care providers in New Hampshire has adopted the Early Childhood Professional Development System as an initial step toward assuring quality care and education for children. This guide describes the components of that system and is presented in eight sections. Section 1 of the guide introduces the system based on a set of two…

  16. The Australian Early Development Index: Reshaping Family-Child Relationships in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peers, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the cultural significance of the Australian Early Development Index (AEDI) and discusses changes that the discourse of this instrument makes to the way in which the child is conceptualised. It analyses the technological function of the AEDI to examine how it makes the child a universal resource for human capital. The article…

  17. Early Learning Foundations. Indiana's Early Learning Development Framework Aligned to the Indiana Academic Standards, 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The "Foundations" (English/language arts, mathematics, social emotional skills, approaches to play and learning, science, social studies, creative arts, and physical health and growth) are Indiana's early learning development framework and are aligned to the 2014 Indiana Academic Standards. This framework provides core elements that…

  18. Early childhood obesity is associated with compromised cerebellar development.

    PubMed

    Miller, Jennifer L; Couch, Jessica; Schwenk, Krista; Long, Michelle; Towler, Stephen; Theriaque, Douglas W; He, Guojun; Liu, Yijun; Driscoll, Daniel J; Leonard, Christiana M

    2009-01-01

    As part of a study investigating commonalities between Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS-a genetic imprinting disorder) and early-onset obesity of unknown etiology (EMO) we measured total cerebral and cerebellar volume on volumetric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images. Individuals with PWS (N = 16) and EMO (N = 12) had smaller cerebellar volumes than a control group of 15 siblings (p = .02 control vs. EMO; p = .0005 control vs. PWS), although there was no difference among the groups in cerebral volume. Individuals with PWS and EMO also had impaired cognitive function: general intellectual ability (GIA): PWS 65 +/- 25; EMO 81 +/- 19; and Controls 112 +/- 13 (p < .0001 controls vs. PWS and controls vs. EMO). As both conditions are characterized by early-onset obesity and slowed cognitive development, these results raise the possibility that early childhood obesity retards both cerebellar and cognitive development.

  19. Maternal antibody transfer can lead to suppression of humoral immunity in developing zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata).

    PubMed

    Merrill, Loren; Grindstaff, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    Maternally transferred antibodies have been documented in a wide range of taxa and are thought to adaptively provide protection against parasites and pathogens while the offspring immune system is developing. In most birds, transfer occurs when females deposit immunoglobulin Y into the egg yolk, and it is proportional to the amount in the female's plasma. Maternal antibodies can provide short-term passive protection as well as specific and nonspecific immunological priming, but high levels of maternal antibody can result in suppression of the offspring's humoral immune response. We injected adult female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) with one of two antigens (lipopolysaccharide [LPS] or keyhole limpet hemocyanin [KLH]) or a control and then injected offspring with LPS, KLH, or a control on days 5 and 28 posthatch to examine the impact of maternally transferred antibodies on the ontogeny of the offspring's humoral immune system. We found that offspring of females exposed to KLH had elevated levels of KLH-reactive antibody over the first 17-28 days posthatch but reduced KLH-specific antibody production between days 28 and 36. We also found that offspring exposed to either LPS or KLH exhibited reduced total antibody levels, compared to offspring that received a control injection. These results indicate that high levels of maternal antibodies or antigen exposure during development can have negative repercussions on short-term antibody production and may have long-term fitness repercussions for the offspring.

  20. Maternal Antibody Transfer Can Lead to Suppression of Humoral Immunity in Developing Zebra Finches (Taeniopygia guttata)

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Loren; Grindstaff, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Maternally transferred antibodies have been documented in a wide range of taxa and are thought to adaptively provide protection against parasites and pathogens while the offspring immune system is developing. In most birds, transfer occurs when females deposit immunoglobulin Y into the egg yolk, and it is proportional to the amount in the female’s plasma. Maternal antibodies can provide short-term passive protection as well as specific and nonspecific immunological priming, but high levels of maternal antibody can result in suppression of the offspring’s humoral immune response. We injected adult female zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) with one of two antigens (lipo-polysaccharide [LPS] or keyhole limpet hemocyanin [KLH]) or a control and then injected offspring with LPS, KLH, or a control on days 5 and 28 posthatch to examine the impact of maternally transferred antibodies on the ontogeny of the offspring’s humoral immune system. We found that offspring of females exposed to KLH had elevated levels of KLH-reactive antibody over the first 17–28 days posthatch but reduced KLH-specific antibody production between days 28 and 36. We also found that offspring exposed to either LPS or KLH exhibited reduced total antibody levels, compared to offspring that received a control injection. These results indicate that high levels of maternal antibodies or antigen exposure during development can have negative repercussions on short-term antibody production and may have long-term fitness repercussions for the offspring. PMID:25244385

  1. Activated ovarian endothelial cells promote early follicular development and survival.

    PubMed

    Kedem, Alon; Aelion-Brauer, Anate; Guo, Peipei; Wen, Duancheng; Ding, Bi-Sen; Lis, Raphael; Cheng, Du; Sandler, Vladislav M; Rafii, Shahin; Rosenwaks, Zev

    2017-09-19

    New data suggests that endothelial cells (ECs) elaborate essential "angiocrine factors". The aim of this study is to investigate the role of activated ovarian endothelial cells in early in-vitro follicular development. Mouse ovarian ECs were isolated using magnetic cell sorting or by FACS and cultured in serum free media. After a constitutive activation of the Akt pathway was initiated, early follicles (50-150 um) were mechanically isolated from 8-day-old mice and co-cultured with these activated ovarian endothelial cells (AOEC) (n = 32), gel (n = 24) or within matrigel (n = 27) in serum free media for 14 days. Follicular growth, survival and function were assessed. After 6 passages, flow cytometry showed 93% of cells grown in serum-free culture were VE-cadherin positive, CD-31 positive and CD 45 negative, matching the known EC profile. Beginning on day 4 of culture, we observed significantly higher follicular and oocyte growth rates in follicles co-cultured with AOECs compared with follicles on gel or matrigel. After 14 days of culture, 73% of primary follicles and 83% of secondary follicles co-cultured with AOEC survived, whereas the majority of follicles cultured on gel or matrigel underwent atresia. This is the first report of successful isolation and culture of ovarian ECs. We suggest that co-culture with activated ovarian ECs promotes early follicular development and survival. This model is a novel platform for the in vitro maturation of early follicles and for the future exploration of endothelial-follicular communication. In vitro development of early follicles necessitates a complex interplay of growth factors and signals required for development. Endothelial cells (ECs) may elaborate essential "angiocrine factors" involved in organ regeneration. We demonstrate that co-culture with ovarian ECs enables culture of primary and early secondary mouse ovarian follicles.

  2. Development of Subunit Vaccines that Provide High Level Protection and Sterilizing Immunity Against Acute Inhalational Melioidosis.

    PubMed

    Burtnick, Mary N; Shaffer, Teresa L; Ross, Brittany N; Muruato, Laura A; Sbrana, Elena; DeShazer, David; Torres, Alfredo G; Brett, Paul J

    2017-11-06

    Burkholderia pseudomallei , the etiologic agent of melioidosis, causes severe disease in humans and animals. Diagnosis and treatment of melioidosis can be challenging and no licensed vaccines currently exist. Several studies have shown that this pathogen expresses a variety of structurally conserved protective antigens that include cell-surface polysaccharides and cell-associated/-secreted proteins. Based on this, such antigens have become important components of the subunit vaccine candidates that we are currently developing. In the present study, the 6-deoxyheptan capsular polysaccharide (CPS) from B. pseudomallei was purified, chemically activated and covalently linked to recombinant CRM197 diphtheria toxin mutant (CRM197) to produce CPS-CRM197. Additionally, tandem nickel-cobalt affinity chromatography was used to prepare highly purified recombinant B. pseudomallei Hcp1 and TssM proteins. Immunization of C57BL/6 mice with CPS-CRM197 produced high-titer IgG and opsonizing antibody responses against the CPS component of the glycoconjugate while immunization with Hcp1 and TssM produced high titer IgG and robust IFN-γ secreting T cell responses against the proteins. Extending upon these studies, we found that when vaccinated with a combination of CPS-CRM197 plus Hcp1, 100% of the mice survived a lethal inhalational challenge of B. pseudomallei Remarkably, 70% of the survivors had no culturable bacteria in their lungs, livers or spleens indicating that the vaccine formulation had generated sterilizing immune responses. Collectively, these studies help to better establish surrogates of antigen-induced immunity against B. pseudomallei as well as provide valuable insights towards the development of a safe, affordable and effective melioidosis vaccine. Copyright © 2017 Burtnick et al.

  3. Early development of synchrony in cortical activations in the human.

    PubMed

    Koolen, N; Dereymaeker, A; Räsänen, O; Jansen, K; Vervisch, J; Matic, V; Naulaers, G; De Vos, M; Van Huffel, S; Vanhatalo, S

    2016-05-13

    Early intermittent cortical activity is thought to play a crucial role in the growth of neuronal network development, and large scale brain networks are known to provide the basis for higher brain functions. Yet, the early development of the large scale synchrony in cortical activations is unknown. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the early intermittent cortical activations seen in the human scalp EEG show a clear developmental course during the last trimester of pregnancy, the period of intensive growth of cortico-cortical connections. We recorded scalp EEG from altogether 22 premature infants at post-menstrual age between 30 and 44 weeks, and the early cortical synchrony was quantified using recently introduced activation synchrony index (ASI). The developmental correlations of ASI were computed for individual EEG signals as well as anatomically and mathematically defined spatial subgroups. We report two main findings. First, we observed a robust and statistically significant increase in ASI in all cortical areas. Second, there were significant spatial gradients in the synchrony in fronto-occipital and left-to-right directions. These findings provide evidence that early cortical activity is increasingly synchronized across the neocortex. The ASI-based metrics introduced in our work allow direct translational comparison to in vivo animal models, as well as hold promise for implementation as a functional developmental biomarker in future research on human neonates. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Regulation of early Xenopus development by ErbB signaling

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Shuyi; Chang, Chenbei

    2008-01-01

    ErbB signaling has long been implicated in cancer formation and progression and is shown to regulate cell division, migration and death during tumorigenesis. The functions of the ErbB pathway during early vertebrate embryogenesis, however, are not well understood. Here we report characterization of ErbB activities during early frog development. Gain-of-function analyses show that EGFR, ErbB2 and ErbB4 induce ectopic tumor-like cell mass that contains increased numbers of mitotic cells. Both the muscle and the neural markers are expressed in these ectopic protrusions. ErbBs also induce mesodermal markers in ectodermal explants. Loss-of-function studies using carboxyl terminal-truncated dominant-negative ErbB receptors demonstrate that blocking ErbB signals leads to defective gastrulation movements and malformation of the embryonic axis with a reduction in the head structures in early frog embryos. These data, together with the observation that ErbBs are expressed early during frog embryogenesis, suggest that ErbBs regulate cell proliferation, movements and embryonic patterning during early Xenopus development. PMID:16258939

  5. Immunotoxicity of bisphenol S and F are similar to that of bisphenol A during zebrafish early development.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Wenhui; Shao, Haiyang; Lei, Penghui; Zheng, Chunmiao; Qiu, Cunxin; Yang, Ming; Zheng, Yi

    2018-03-01

    Bisphenol S (BPS) and bisphenol F (BPF) have been increasingly used as alternatives to bisphenol A (BPA) owing to health concerns. The present study aims to evaluate the impact of these two BPA analogs on oxidative stress and the immune system during zebrafish embryonic and larval development. Environmentally relevant levels of BPS and BPF exposure could increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, nitric oxide (NO) content, nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity, and the expression of immunity-related genes in concentration dependent manners during the early developmental stages in zebrafish. At a concentration of 100 μg/L, BPS and BPF showed similar effects on the immune toxicity of zebrafish as that of BPA. Moreover, BPS and BPF induced both erα and nf-κb expression, and antagonists of estrogen receptor and NF-κB blocked the effects on immunity-related gene expression, providing evidence that the two pathways mediate the actions of BPS and BPF on fish immune response and functions. Thus we conclude that the presence of BPS and BPF in the environment, similar to BPA, may also pose risks to ecosystem and human health and cannot be widely used without limitations and precautions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Family Concepts in Early Learning and Development Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Bridget A.; Sanchez, Claudia; Lee, Angela M.; Casillas, Nicole; Hansen, Caitlynn

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the use of concepts related to families, parents, and the home in 51 state-level early learning and development standards documents. Guidelines from six national family involvement, engagement, and school-partnership models were used to create the Family Involvement Models Analysis Chart (FIMAC), which served as…

  7. Regionalism and Development in Early Nineteenth Century Spanish America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Douglas

    An understanding of regionalism in early 19th century Spanish America is crucial to any understanding of this region's economic development. Regionalism became the barrier to the kind of integrated national economy that some writers claim could have been implemented had it not been for the imposition of dependency by external forces. This…

  8. Starting Smart: How Early Experiences Affect Brain Development. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Theresa

    Based on recent research, it is now believed that brain growth is highly dependent upon children's early experiences. Neurons allow communication and coordinated functioning among various brain areas. Brain development after birth consists of an ongoing process of wiring and rewiring the connections among neurons. The forming and breaking of…

  9. Applying cognitive training to target executive functions during early development.

    PubMed

    Wass, Sam V

    2015-01-01

    Developmental psychopathology is increasingly recognizing the importance of distinguishing causal processes (i.e., the mechanisms that cause a disease) from developmental outcomes (i.e., the symptoms of the disorder as it is eventually diagnosed). Targeting causal processes early in disordered development may be more effective than waiting until outcomes are established and then trying to reverse the pathogenic process. In this review, I evaluate evidence suggesting that neural and behavioral plasticity may be greatest at very early stages of development. I also describe correlational evidence suggesting that, across a number of conditions, early emerging individual differences in attentional control and working memory may play a role in mediating later-developing differences in academic and other forms of learning. I review the currently small number of studies that applied direct and indirect cognitive training targeted at young individuals and discuss methodological challenges associated with targeting this age group. I also discuss a number of ways in which early, targeted cognitive training may be used to help us understand the developmental mechanisms subserving typical and atypical cognitive development.

  10. The Ecology of Early Reading Development for Children in Poverty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kainz, Kirsten; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2007-01-01

    In this study we investigated reading development from kindergarten to third grade for 1,913 economically disadvantaged children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort. Characteristics of the child, the family, classroom instruction, and school composition were used to model influences from multiple levels of children's…

  11. Rethinking Early Learning and Development Standards in the Ugandan Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ejuu, Godfrey

    2013-01-01

    Concerns that the African child is being tailored to be a "global child," alongside other homogenizing and dominating projections, such as early learning and development standards (ELDS), have increased. African communities need to be assured that global standards and global indicators will not further homogenize nations and thereby risk…

  12. Changing the Perspective on Early Development of Rett Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marschik, Peter B.; Kaufmann, Walter E.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Wolin, Thomas; Zhang, Dajie; Bartl-Pokorny, Katrin D.; Pini, Giorgio; Zappella, Michele; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Einspieler, Christa; Johnston, Michael V.

    2013-01-01

    We delineated the achievement of early speech-language milestones in 15 young children with Rett syndrome ("MECP2" positive) in the first two years of life using retrospective video analysis. By contrast to the commonly accepted concept that these children are normal in the pre-regression period, we found markedly atypical development of…

  13. Model of Early Support of Child Development in Poland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Czyz, Anna Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    The development of a child, especially a child with a disability, is conditional upon the initiation of rehabilitation measures immediately after the problem has been identified. The quality of the reaction is conditioned by the functioning of the therapeutic team. The main purpose of the research was the diagnosis of early support system for…

  14. Identification of the Social Development in Early Childhood in Pakistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malik, Asif; Sarwar, Muhammad; Khan, Naeemullah

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify the social development in early childhood years. It was delimited to eight private schools of Lahore City from the area of Faisal Town and Shadman. Forty students (male and female) were randomly selected as the sample. Five students from Nursery, Prep and grade one were selected from each school. A checklist…

  15. The Use of Electrophysiology in the Study of Early Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szucs, Denes

    2005-01-01

    Electrophysiology is a timely and important tool in the study of early cognitive development. This commentary polishes the definition of event-related potential (ERP) components; often interpreted as expressions of mental processes. Further, attention is drawn to time-frequency analysis of the electroencephalogram (EEG) which conveys much more…

  16. Development of the Life Story in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Kristina L.; Pillemer, David B.

    2018-01-01

    Life span developmental psychology proposes that the ability to create a coherent life narrative does not develop until early adolescence. Using a novel methodology, 10-, 12-, and 14-year-old participants were asked to tell their life stories aloud to a researcher. Later, participants separated their transcribed narratives into self-identified…

  17. MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT: EARLY LIFE EFFECTS FROM THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mammary Gland Development: Early Life Effects from the Environment

    S.E. Fenton. Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Laboratory, ORD, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711.

    As signs of precocious puberty in girls reach ...

  18. Predictors of Early versus Later Spelling Development in Danish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nielsen, Anne-Mette Veber; Juul, Holger

    2016-01-01

    The present study examined phoneme awareness, phonological short term memory, letter knowledge, rapid automatized naming (RAN), and visual-verbal paired associate learning (PAL) as longitudinal predictors of spelling skills in an early phase (Grade 2) and a later phase (Grade 5) of development in a sample of 140 children learning to spell in the…

  19. Career Planning and Development for Early-Career Scientists

    EPA Science Inventory

    Early career development can be looked at as being of two major phases. The first phase is the formal educational process leading to an awarded degree, postdoctoral training, and potentially formal certification in a scientific discipline. The second phase is the informal educa...

  20. Early Intervention and Its Effects on Maternal and Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, Diana T.

    1983-01-01

    The longitudinal study reported used an intervention strategy to test the thesis that sociocultural background, mediated by maternal attitudes and behaviors, influences Black children's early development in educationally significant ways. Two models of parent education were contrasted: the Levenstein toy demonstration program and the…

  1. Developing Early Undergraduate Research at a Two-Year College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibbernsen, Kendra

    2013-01-01

    Two-year college (TYC) physics teachers are not often required to provide student research experiences as a part of their contracted duties. However, some TYC physics faculty members are interested in developing research opportunities for their freshman- and sophomore-level students, often called "early undergraduate research" (EUR).…

  2. Applying cognitive training to target executive functions during early development

    PubMed Central

    Wass, Sam V.

    2015-01-01

    Developmental psychopathology is increasingly recognizing the importance of distinguishing causal processes (i.e., the mechanisms that cause a disease) from developmental outcomes (i.e., the symptoms of the disorder as it is eventually diagnosed). Targeting causal processes early in disordered development may be more effective than waiting until outcomes are established and then trying to reverse the pathogenic process. In this review, I evaluate evidence suggesting that neural and behavioral plasticity may be greatest at very early stages of development. I also describe correlational evidence suggesting that, across a number of conditions, early emerging individual differences in attentional control and working memory may play a role in mediating later-developing differences in academic and other forms of learning. I review the currently small number of studies that applied direct and indirect cognitive training targeted at young individuals and discuss methodological challenges associated with targeting this age group. I also discuss a number of ways in which early, targeted cognitive training may be used to help us understand the developmental mechanisms subserving typical and atypical cognitive development. PMID:24511910

  3. Guidelines for Making a Video Presentation on Early Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Carolyn S.; And Others

    This paper discusses the production of videotape recordings illustrating developmental milestones of early childhood to serve as a reference point in working with parents or staff caring for young children who have disabilities. Procedures for making a video presentation include the following steps: select a topic (such as motor development,…

  4. Approaches to Developing Health in Early Years Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooney, Ann; Boddy, Janet; Statham, June; Warwick, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to consider the opportunities and difficulties in developing health-promotion work in early years settings in the UK. Design/methodology/approach: As the first study of its kind conducted in the UK, a multi-method approach was adopted involving: an overview of health-related guidance and of effective…

  5. Formative Evaluation of the Early Development Instrument: Progress and Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keating, Daniel P.

    2007-01-01

    This article is a commentary for the special issue on the Early Development Instrument (EDI), a community tool to assess children's school readiness and developmental outcomes at a group level. The EDI is administered by kindergarten teachers, who assess their kindergarten students on 5 developmental domains: physical health and well-being, social…

  6. State Guide to Developing Successful Early Childhood Data Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ICF International (NJ1), 2012

    2012-01-01

    Early education leaders--inside and outside of government--are looking for new ways to improve quality, accountability, and efficiency across many different programs serving young children and their families, and they see investment in data systems as a pivotal part of that effort. However, it can be challenging to develop and implement effective…

  7. Towards Sustainable National Development through Well Managed Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Nath M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses issues relating to sustainable development and effective management of early childhood education. The child is the "owner" of the future. The problems that confront the current generation are complex and serious that cannot be addressed in the same way they were created. But they can be addressed. The concept of…

  8. More Alike than Different: Early Childhood Professional Development in Guatemala

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardin, Belinda J.; Vardell, Rosemarie; de Castaneda, Albertina

    2008-01-01

    This article describes an early childhood professional development project that took place in the summer of 2005 in Guatemala City. Located in Central America, Guatemala has a population of approximately 12.3 million people, including more than two million children under the age of 5 (UNESCO Institute for Statistics, 2007; UNICEF, 2004). Events…

  9. Black Female Faculty Success and Early Career Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Tamara Bertrand; Osborne-Lampkin, La'Tara

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, a number of Black female junior scholars have participated in an early career professional development program designed to address socialization issues through individual and small group mentoring. This descriptive qualitative study investigated scholars' perceptions of the importance and effectiveness of a research…

  10. HIV Infection: Transmission, Effects on Early Development, and Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenthal, Barbara

    1997-01-01

    Describes the modes of transmission of HIV and the course of the disease in infants and toddlers. Information is provided on its effects on early development, medical screening and treatments, therapies, psychosocial assistance, and interventions, including nutritional therapy, occupational and physical therapies, and speech and language therapy.…

  11. Long-term persistence of immunity and B-cell memory following Haemophilus influenzae type B conjugate vaccination in early childhood and response to booster.

    PubMed

    Perrett, K P; John, T M; Jin, C; Kibwana, E; Yu, L-M; Curtis, N; Pollard, A J

    2014-04-01

    Protection against Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), a rapidly invading encapsulated bacteria, is dependent on maintenance of an adequate level of serum antibody through early childhood. In many countries, Hib vaccine booster doses have been implemented after infant immunization to sustain immunity. We investigated the long-term persistence of antibody and immunological memory in primary-school children following infant (with or without booster) Hib vaccination. Anti-polyribosylribitol phosphate (PRP) immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration and the frequency of circulating Hib-specific memory B cells were measured before a booster of a Hib-serogroup C meningococcal (MenC) conjugate vaccine and again 1 week, 1 month, and 1 year after the booster in 250 healthy children aged 6-12 years in an open-label phase 4 clinical study. Six to 12 years following infant priming with 3 doses of Hib conjugate vaccine, anti-PRP IgG geometric mean concentrations were 3.11 µg/mL and 0.71 µg/mL and proportions with anti-PRP IgG ≥1.0 µg/mL were 79% and 43% in children who had or had not, respectively, received a fourth Hib conjugate vaccine dose (mean age, 3.9 years). Higher baseline and post-Hib-MenC booster responses (anti-PRP IgG and memory B cells) were found in younger children and in those who had received a fourth Hib dose. Sustained Hib conjugate vaccine-induced immunity in children is dependent on time since infant priming and receipt of a booster. Understanding the relationship between humoral and cellular immunity following immunization with conjugate vaccines may direct vaccine design and boosting strategies to sustain individual and population immunity against encapsulated bacteria in early childhood. Clinical Trials Registration ISRCTN728588998.

  12. Immune response

    MedlinePlus

    Innate immunity; Humoral immunity; Cellular immunity; Immunity; Inflammatory response; Acquired (adaptive) immunity ... normal and usually does not react against them. INNATE IMMUNITY Innate, or nonspecific, immunity is the defense ...

  13. Immune system

    This chapter is an update on the swine Immune System. It will be Chapter 16 in the 11th Edition (2018) of Diseases of Swine. The chapter outlines all aspects of the swine immune system in development and in responses to infection and vaccination. It illustrates the tremendous influence that the immu...

  14. Early Enteral Combined with Parenteral Nutrition Treatment for Severe Traumatic Brain Injury: Effects on Immune Function, Nutritional Status and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Fan, Mingchao; Wang, Qiaoling; Fang, Wei; Jiang, Yunxia; Li, Liandi; Sun, Peng; Wang, Zhihong

    2016-11-20

    aspirated pneumonia (27.5% vs. 50.0%; χ 2 = 6.39, P<0.05), hypoproteinemia (17.5% vs. 55.0%; χ 2 = 18.26, P<0.01) and diarrhea (20.0% vs. 60.0%; χ 2 = 20.00, P<0.01). The EN+PN group also had significant less length of stay in NICU (t=2.51, 4.82; P<0.05, P<0.01), number of patients receiving assisted mechanical ventilation (χ 2 = 6.08, 12.88; P<0.05, P<0.01) and its durations (t=3.41, 9.08; P<0.05, P<0.01), and the death rate (χ 2 =7.50, 16.37; P<0.05, P<0.01) than those of EN or PN group. Conclusion Early EN+PN treatment could promote the recovery of the immune function, enhance nutritional status, decrease complications and improve the clinical outcomes in patients with severe traumatic brain injury.

  15. Development of immune-diagnostic reagents to diagnose bovine tuberculosis in cattle.

    PubMed

    Vordermeier, H Martin; Jones, Gareth J; Buddle, Bryce M; Hewinson, R Glyn

    2016-11-15

    Bovine tuberculosis remains a major economic and animal welfare concern worldwide. As part of control strategies, cattle vaccination is being considered. This approach, used alongside conventional control policies, also requires the development of vaccine compatible diagnostic assays to distinguish infected from vaccinated animals (DIVA). In this review we discuss recent advances in DIVA development based on the detection of host cellular immune responses by blood testing or skin testing approaches. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Mutation profiles in early-stage lung squamous cell carcinoma with clinical follow-up and correlation with markers of immune function.

    PubMed

    Choi, M; Kadara, H; Zhang, J; Parra, E R; Rodriguez-Canales, J; Gaffney, S G; Zhao, Z; Behrens, C; Fujimoto, J; Chow, C; Kim, K; Kalhor, N; Moran, C; Rimm, D; Swisher, S; Gibbons, D L; Heymach, J; Kaftan, E; Townsend, J P; Lynch, T J; Schlessinger, J; Lee, J; Lifton, R P; Herbst, R S; Wistuba, I I

    2017-01-01

    Lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC) accounts for 20–30% of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs). There are limited treatment strategies for LUSC in part due to our inadequate understanding of the molecular underpinnings of the disease. We performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) and comprehensive immune profiling of a unique set of clinically annotated early-stage LUSCs to increase our understanding of the pathobiology of this malignancy. Matched pairs of surgically resected stage I-III LUSCs and normal lung tissues (n = 108) were analyzed by WES. Immunohistochemistry and image analysis-based profiling of 10 immune markers were done on a subset of LUSCs (n = 91). Associations among mutations, immune markers and clinicopathological variables were statistically examined using analysis of variance and Fisher’s exact test. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used for statistical analysis of clinical outcome. This early-stage LUSC cohort displayed an average of 209 exonic mutations per tumor. Fourteen genes exhibited significant enrichment for somatic mutation: TP53, MLL2, PIK3CA, NFE2L2, CDH8, KEAP1, PTEN, ADCY8, PTPRT, CALCR, GRM8, FBXW7, RB1 and CDKN2A. Among mutated genes associated with poor recurrence-free survival, MLL2 mutations predicted poor prognosis in both TP53 mutant and wild-type LUSCs. We also found that in treated patients, FBXW7 and KEAP1 mutations were associated with poor response to adjuvant therapy, particularly in TP53-mutant tumors. Analysis of mutations with immune markers revealed that ADCY8 and PIK3CA mutations were associated with markedly decreased tumoral PD-L1 expression, LUSCs with PIK3CA mutations exhibited elevated CD45ro levels and CDKN2A-mutant tumors displayed an up-regulated immune response. Our findings pinpoint mutated genes that may impact clinical outcome as well as personalized strategies for targeted immunotherapies in early-stage LUSC.

  17. Cholinergic Mechanisms, Early Brain Development, and Risk for Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Randal G; Stevens, Karen E; Proctor, William R; Leonard, Sherry; Kisley, Michael A; Hunter, Sharon K; Freedman, Robert; Adams, Catherine E

    2009-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric diseases are complex illnesses where the onset of diagnostic symptomology is often the end result of a decades-long process of aberrant brain development. The identification of novel treatment strategies aimed at normalizing early brain development and preventing mental illness should be a major therapeutic goal; however, there are few models for how this goal might be achieved. This report uses the attentional deficits of schizophrenia as an example and reviews data from genetic, anatomical, physiological, and pharmacologic studies to hypothesize a developmental model with translational primary prevention implications. Specifically, the model suggests that an early interaction between α7 nicotinic receptor density and choline availability may contribute to the development of schizophrenia-associated attentional deficits. Translational implications, including perinatal dietary choline supplementation, are discussed. It is hoped that presentation of this model will stimulate other efforts to develop empirically-driven primary prevention strategies. PMID:19925602

  18. Developing International Collaborations for Early Career Researchers in Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Julianne C.; Barrett, Emma L.; Crome, Erica; Forbes, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    International collaboration is becoming increasingly vital as the emphasis on unmet need for mental health across cultures and nations grows. Opportunities exist for early career researchers to engage in international collaboration. However, little information is provided about such opportunities in most current psychology training models. The authors are early career researchers in psychology from U.S. and Australia who have developed a collaborative relationship over the past two years. Our goal is to increase awareness of funding opportunities to support international research and to highlight the benefits and challenges associated with international collaboration based on our experience. PMID:27453624

  19. Early development of Xenopus embryos is affected by simulated gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yokota, Hiroki; Neff, Anton W.; Malacinski, George M.

    1994-01-01

    Early amphibian (Xenopus laevis) development under clinostat-simulated weightlessness and centrifuge-simulated hypergravity was studied. The results revealed significant effects on (i) 'morphological patterning' such as the cleavage furrow pattern in the vegetal hemisphere at the eight-cell stage and the shape of the dorsal lip in early gastrulae and (ii) 'the timing of embryonic events' such as the third cleavage furrow completion and the dorsal lip appearance. Substantial variations in sensitivity to simulated force fields were observed, which should be considered in interpreting spaceflight data.

  20. The origin and development of the immune system with a view to stem cell therapy.

    PubMed

    Anastassova-Kristeva, Marlene

    2003-04-01

    Careful study of the phylogeny and ontogeny of the three components of the immune system reveals that the macrophage, lymphatic, and hematopoietic systems originate independently of each other. Chronologically, the most ancient is the macrophage system, which arises in the coelomic cavity as mesenchymal ameboid cells having the properties to recognize self from non-self and to ingest foreign particles. The lymphatic system later develops from the endoderm of pharyngeal pouches, where the thymic anlage differentiates. The lymphocytes that originate here seed all lymphatic organs and retain the ability to divide and thereby form multiple colonies (lymphatic nodules) in the respiratory and digestive tract; further diversification of lymphocytes follows after confrontation with antigens. The last component of the immune system to appear is the hematopoietic system, which originates from the splanchnic mesoderm of the yolk sac as hematogenic tissue, containing hemangioblasts. The hematogenic tissue remains attached to the outer wall of the vitelline vessels, which provides an efficient mechanism for introducing the hematogenic tissue into the embryo. In an appropriate microenvironment, the hemangioblasts give rise to sinusoidal endothelium and to hemocytoblasts - the bone marrow stem cells for erythrocytes, myeloid cells, and megakaryocytes. The facts and opinions presented in this article are not in agreement with the currently accepted dogma that a common "hematolymphatic stem cell" localized in the marrow generates all of the cellular components of blood and the immune system.

  1. Developmental immunotoxicity (DIT): assays for evaluating effects of exogenous agents on development of the immune system.

    PubMed

    DeWitt, Jamie C; Peden-Adams, Margie M; Keil, Deborah E; Dietert, Rodney R

    2012-02-01

    Developmental immunotoxicity (DIT) occurs when exposure to environmental risk factors prior to adulthood, including chemical, biological, physical, or physiological factors, alters immune system development. DIT may elicit suppression, hyperactivation, or misregulation of immune responses and may present clinically as decreased resistance to pathogens, allergic and autoimmune diseases, and inflammatory diseases. Immunotoxicity testing guidelines established by the Environmental Protection Agency for adult animals (OPPTS 8703.7800) require functional tests and immunophenotyping that are suitable for detecting immunomodulation, especially immunosuppression. However, evaluating immune function in offspring that are not fully immunocompetent yields results that are challenging to interpret. Therefore, this unit will describe an optimum exposure scenario, reference two assays (immunophenotyping and histopathology) appropriate for detecting immunomodulation in weaning-age offspring, and reference four assays (immunophenotyping, histopathology, T cell-dependent antibody responses, and delayed-type hypersensitivity) appropriate for detecting immunomodulation in immunocompetent offspring. The protocol also will reference other assays (natural killer cell and cytotoxic T lymphocyte) with potential utility for assessing DIT. © 2012 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  2. Epigenetic Matters: The Link between Early Nutrition, Microbiome, and Long-term Health Development

    PubMed Central

    Indrio, Flavia; Martini, Silvia; Francavilla, Ruggiero; Corvaglia, Luigi; Cristofori, Fernanda; Mastrolia, Salvatore Andrea; Neu, Josef; Rautava, Samuli; Russo Spena, Giovanna; Raimondi, Francesco; Loverro, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications are among the most important mechanisms by which environmental factors can influence early cellular differentiation and create new phenotypic traits during pregnancy and within the neonatal period without altering the deoxyribonucleic acid sequence. A number of antenatal and postnatal factors, such as maternal and neonatal nutrition, pollutant exposure, and the composition of microbiota, contribute to the establishment of epigenetic changes that can not only modulate the individual adaptation to the environment but also have an influence on lifelong health and disease by modifying inflammatory molecular pathways and the immune response. Postnatal intestinal colonization, in turn determined by maternal flora, mode of delivery, early skin-to-skin contact and neonatal diet, leads to specific epigenetic signatures that can affect the barrier properties of gut mucosa and their protective role against later insults, thus potentially predisposing to the development of late-onset inflammatory diseases. The aim of this review is to outline the epigenetic mechanisms of programming and development acting within early-life stages and to examine in detail the role of maternal and neonatal nutrition, microbiota composition, and other environmental factors in determining epigenetic changes and their short- and long-term effects. PMID:28879172

  3. Simultaneous Presence of Non- and Highly Mutated Keyhole Limpet Hemocyanin (KLH)-Specific Plasmablasts Early after Primary KLH Immunization Suggests Cross-Reactive Memory B Cell Activation.

    PubMed

    Giesecke, Claudia; Meyer, Tim; Durek, Pawel; Maul, Jochen; Preiß, Jan; Jacobs, Joannes F M; Thiel, Andreas; Radbruch, Andreas; Ullrich, Reiner; Dörner, Thomas

    2018-06-15

    There are currently limited insights into the progression of human primary humoral immunity despite numerous studies in experimental models. In this study, we analyzed a primary and related secondary parenteral keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) immunization in five human adults. The primary challenge elicited discordant KLH-specific serum and blood effector B cell responses (i.e., dominant serum KLH-specific IgG and IgM levels versus dominant KLH-specific IgA plasmablast frequencies). Single-cell IgH sequencing revealed early appearance of highly (>15 mutations) mutated circulating KLH-specific plasmablasts 2 wk after primary KLH immunization, with simultaneous KLH-specific plasmablasts carrying non- and low-mutated IgH sequences. The data suggest that the highly mutated cells might originate from cross-reactive memory B cells (mBCs) rather than from the naive B cell repertoire, consistent with previous reported mutation rates and the presence of KLH-reactive mBCs in naive vaccinees prior to immunization. Whereas upon secondary immunization, serum Ab response kinetics and plasmablast mutation loads suggested the exclusive reactivation of KLH-specific mBCs, we, however, detected only little clonal overlap between the peripheral KLH-specific secondary plasmablast IgH repertoire and the primary plasmablast and mBC repertoire, respectively. Our data provide novel mechanistic insights into human humoral immune responses and suggest that primary KLH immunization recruits both naive B cells and cross-reactive mBCs, whereas secondary challenge exclusively recruits from a memory repertoire, with little clonal overlap with the primary response. Copyright © 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  4. Effects of early life stress on amygdala and striatal development

    PubMed Central

    Fareri, Dominic S.; Tottenham, Nim

    2016-01-01

    Species-expected caregiving early in life is critical for the normative development and regulation of emotional behavior, the ability to effectively evaluate affective stimuli in the environment, and the ability to sustain social relationships. Severe psychosocial stressors early in life (early life stress; ELS) in the form of the absence of species expected caregiving (i.e., caregiver deprivation), can drastically impact one’s social and emotional success, leading to the onset of internalizing illness later in life. Development of the amygdala and striatum, two key regions supporting affective valuation and learning, is significantly affected by ELS, and their altered developmental trajectories have important implications for cognitive, behavioral and socioemotional development. However, an understanding of the impact of ELS on the development of functional interactions between these regions and subsequent behavioral effects is lacking. In this review, we highlight the roles of the amygdala and striatum in affective valuation and learning in maturity and across development. We discuss their function separately as well as their interaction. We highlight evidence across species characterizing how ELS induced changes in the development of the amygdala and striatum mediate subsequent behavioral changes associated with internalizing illness, positing a particular import of the effect of ELS on their interaction. PMID:27174149

  5. Effects of early life stress on amygdala and striatal development.

    PubMed

    Fareri, Dominic S; Tottenham, Nim

    2016-06-01

    Species-expected caregiving early in life is critical for the normative development and regulation of emotional behavior, the ability to effectively evaluate affective stimuli in the environment, and the ability to sustain social relationships. Severe psychosocial stressors early in life (early life stress; ELS) in the form of the absence of species expected caregiving (i.e., caregiver deprivation), can drastically impact one's social and emotional success, leading to the onset of internalizing illness later in life. Development of the amygdala and striatum, two key regions supporting affective valuation and learning, is significantly affected by ELS, and their altered developmental trajectories have important implications for cognitive, behavioral and socioemotional development. However, an understanding of the impact of ELS on the development of functional interactions between these regions and subsequent behavioral effects is lacking. In this review, we highlight the roles of the amygdala and striatum in affective valuation and learning in maturity and across development. We discuss their function separately as well as their interaction. We highlight evidence across species characterizing how ELS induced changes in the development of the amygdala and striatum mediate subsequent behavioral changes associated with internalizing illness, positing a particular import of the effect of ELS on their interaction. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Development and analysis of a novel cytokine biosensor concept for astronaut immune system monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aponte, Vanessa M.

    The dynamics of how astronauts' immune systems respond to space flight have been studied extensively, but the complex process has not to date been thoroughly characterized, nor have the underlying principles of what causes the immune system to change in microgravity been fully determined. To obtain statistically significant results regarding overall immunological effects in space, collecting in vivo data during flight is desirable, but no sensor is currently capable of performing such function in this environment. The aims of this research were to establish appropriate markers for in-flight monitoring of the immune system and develop a novel approach for a benchtop sensor to measure them. Quartz Crystal Microbalances (QCMs) were used as platforms to study a surface biochemistry process selective towards cytokines, which are used as stress-related immune markers in space and ground medicine. Pilot studies elucidated that a thiolated streptavidin-biotinylated antibody surface assembly did not form the protein monolayer necessary for stable cytokine sensing. Improved experiments incorporated self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) by using di-thiol tethers at the base of a dual antibody sandwich and fluorophore assembly. The goals of the improved experiments were to achieve a stable monolayer of covalently bound tethers, to enhance sensitivity by the addition of a second monoclonal antibody, and to have a fluorescence tether attached to the last antibody layer as a way to corroborate the amount of proteins attached to the surface by using confocal fluorescence microscopy (CFM). Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) results confirmed the formation of an even protein monolayer at the surface of the QCM, while CFM corroborated that the entire sandwich assembly had been achieved. Frequency changes increased directly proportional to concentration of cytokines, adhering to non-linear behavior explained by viscoelastic fluid models. Results point to the promising use of this surface

  7. Fathers' sensitive parenting and the development of early executive functioning.

    PubMed

    Towe-Goodman, Nissa R; Willoughby, Michael; Blair, Clancy; Gustafsson, Hanna C; Mills-Koonce, W Roger; Cox, Martha J

    2014-12-01

    Using data from a diverse sample of 620 families residing in rural, predominately low-income communities, this study examined longitudinal links between fathers' sensitive parenting in infancy and toddlerhood and children's early executive functioning, as well as the contribution of maternal sensitive parenting. After accounting for the quality of concurrent and prior parental care, children's early cognitive ability, and other child and family factors, fathers' and mothers' sensitive and supportive parenting during play at 24 months predicted children's executive functioning at 3 years of age. In contrast, paternal parenting quality during play at 7 months did not make an independent contribution above that of maternal care, but the links between maternal sensitive and supportive parenting and executive functioning seemed to operate in similar ways during infancy and toddlerhood. These findings add to prior work on early experience and children's executive functioning, suggesting that both fathers and mothers play a distinct and complementary role in the development of these self-regulatory skills.

  8. A comparative analysis of early child health and development services and outcomes in countries with different redistributive policies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    breastfeeding and immunization rates. In the analysis of child care and early education, the lack of uniform measures of early child development outcomes was apparent. Conclusions This paper provides further support for an association between redistributive policies and early child health and development outcomes, along with the organization of early child health and development services. PMID:24195544

  9. A comparative analysis of early child health and development services and outcomes in countries with different redistributive policies.

    PubMed

    van den Heuvel, Meta; Hopkins, Jessica; Biscaro, Anne; Srikanthan, Cinntha; Feller, Andrea; Bremberg, Sven; Verkuijl, Nienke; Flapper, Boudien; Ford-Jones, Elizabeth Lee; Williams, Robin

    2013-11-06

    The social environment is a fundamental determinant of early child development and, in turn, early child development is a determinant of health, well-being, and learning skills across the life course. Redistributive policies aimed at reducing social inequalities, such as a welfare state and labour market policies, have shown a positive association with selected health indicators. In this study, we investigated the influence of redistributive policies specifically on the social environment of early child development in five countries with different political traditions. The objective of this analysis was to highlight similarities and differences in social and health services between the countries and their associations with other health outcomes that can inform better global early child development policies and improve early child health and development. Four social determinants of early child development were selected to provide a cross-section of key time periods in a child's life from prenatal to kindergarten. They included: 1) prenatal care, 2) maternal leave, 3) child health care, and 4) child care and early childhood education. We searched international databases and reports (e.g. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, World Bank, and UNICEF) to obtain information about early child development policies, services and outcomes. Although a comparative analysis cannot claim causation, our analysis suggests that redistributive policies aimed at reducing social inequalities are associated with a positive influence on the social determinants of early child development. Generous redistributive policies are associated with a higher maternal leave allowance and pay and more preventive child healthcare visits. A decreasing trend in infant mortality, low birth weight rate, and under five mortality rate were observed with an increase in redistributive policies. No clear influence of redistributive policies was observed on breastfeeding and immunization

  10. Early development of physical aggression and early risk factors for chronic physical aggression in humans.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Richard E

    2014-01-01

    This chapter describes the state of knowledge on the development of physical aggression from early childhood to adulthood, the long term outcomes of chronic physical aggression during childhood and the risk factors for chronic physical aggression. Unraveling the development of physical aggression is important to understand when and why humans start using physical aggression, to understand why some humans suffer from chronic physical aggression and to understand how to prevent the development of this disorder which causes much distress to the aggressors and their victims. The study of the developmental origins of aggression also sheds light on the reasons why situational prevention of aggression is important at all ages and in all cultures.

  11. Alternatives to the fish early life-stage test: Developing a conceptual model for early fish development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chronic fish toxicity is a key parameter for hazard classification and environmental risk assessment of chemicals, and the OECD 210 fish early life-stage (FELS) test is the primary guideline test used for various international regulatory programs. There exists a need to develop ...

  12. Gross Motor Development, Movement Abnormalities, and Early Identification of Autism

    PubMed Central

    Young, Gregory S.; Goldring, Stacy; Greiss-Hess, Laura; Herrera, Adriana M.; Steele, Joel; Macari, Suzanne; Hepburn, Susan; Rogers, Sally J.

    2015-01-01

    Gross motor development (supine, prone, rolling, sitting, crawling, walking) and movement abnormalities were examined in the home videos of infants later diagnosed with autism (regression and no regression subgroups), developmental delays (DD), or typical development. Group differences in maturity were found for walking, prone, and supine, with the DD and Autism-No Regression groups both showing later developing motor maturity than typical children. The only statistically significant differences in movement abnormalities were in the DD group; the two autism groups did not differ from the typical group in rates of movement abnormalities or lack of protective responses. These findings do not replicate previous investigations suggesting that early motor abnormalities seen on home video can assist in early identification of autism. PMID:17805956

  13. Early stress and human behavioral development: emerging evolutionary perspectives.

    PubMed

    Del Giudice, M

    2014-08-01

    Stress experienced early in life exerts a powerful, lasting influence on development. Converging empirical findings show that stressful experiences become deeply embedded in the child's neurobiology, with an astonishing range of long-term effects on cognition, emotion, and behavior. In contrast with the prevailing view that such effects are the maladaptive outcomes of 'toxic' stress, adaptive models regard them as manifestations of evolved developmental plasticity. In this paper, I offer a brief introduction to adaptive models of early stress and human behavioral development, with emphasis on recent theoretical contributions and emerging concepts in the field. I begin by contrasting dysregulation models of early stress with their adaptive counterparts; I then introduce life history theory as a unifying framework, and review recent work on predictive adaptive responses (PARs) in human life history development. In particular, I discuss the distinction between forecasting the future state of the environment (external prediction) and forecasting the future state of the organism (internal prediction). Next, I present the adaptive calibration model, an integrative model of individual differences in stress responsivity based on life history concepts. I conclude by examining how maternal-fetal conflict may shape the physiology of prenatal stress and its adaptive and maladaptive effects on postnatal development. In total, I aim to show how theoretical work from evolutionary biology is reshaping the way we think about the role of stress in human development, and provide researchers with an up-to-date conceptual map of this fascinating and rapidly evolving field.

  14. Immune dysfunction in cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Sipeki, Nora; Antal-Szalmas, Peter; Lakatos, Peter L; Papp, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Innate and adaptive immune dysfunction, also referred to as cirrhosis-associated immune dysfunction syndrome, is a major component of cirrhosis, and plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of both the acute and chronic worsening of liver function. During the evolution of the disease, acute decompensation events associated with organ failure(s), so-called acute-on chronic liver failure, and chronic decompensation with progression of liver fibrosis and also development of disease specific complications, comprise distinct clinical entities with different immunopathology mechanisms. Enhanced bacterial translocation associated with systemic endotoxemia and increased occurrence of systemic bacterial infections have substantial impacts on both clinical situations. Acute and chronic exposure to bacteria and/or their products, however, can result in variable clinical consequences. The immune status of patients is not constant during the illness; consequently, alterations of the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory processes result in very different dynamic courses. In this review we give a detailed overview of acquired immune dysfunction and its consequences for cirrhosis. We demonstrate the substantial influence of inherited innate immune dysfunction on acute and chronic inflammatory processes in cirrhosis caused by the pre-existing acquired immune dysfunction with limited compensatory mechanisms. Moreover, we highlight the current facts and future perspectives of how the assessment of immune dysfunction can assist clinicians in everyday practical decision-making when establishing treatment and care strategies for the patients with end-stage liver disease. Early and efficient recognition of inappropriate performance of the immune system is essential for overcoming complications, delaying progression and reducing mortality. PMID:24627592

  15. Immune dysfunction in cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Sipeki, Nora; Antal-Szalmas, Peter; Lakatos, Peter L; Papp, Maria

    2014-03-14

    Innate and adaptive immune dysfunction, also referred to as cirrhosis-associated immune dysfunction syndrome, is a major component of cirrhosis, and plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of both the acute and chronic worsening of liver function. During the evolution of the disease, acute decompensation events associated with organ failure(s), so-called acute-on chronic liver failure, and chronic decompensation with progression of liver fibrosis and also development of disease specific complications, comprise distinct clinical entities with different immunopathology mechanisms. Enhanced bacterial translocation associated with systemic endotoxemia and increased occurrence of systemic bacterial infections have substantial impacts on both clinical situations. Acute and chronic exposure to bacteria and/or their products, however, can result in variable clinical consequences. The immune status of patients is not constant during the illness; consequently, alterations of the balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory processes result in very different dynamic courses. In this review we give a detailed overview of acquired immune dysfunction and its consequences for cirrhosis. We demonstrate the substantial influence of inherited innate immune dysfunction on acute and chronic inflammatory processes in cirrhosis caused by the pre-existing acquired immune dysfunction with limited compensatory mechanisms. Moreover, we highlight the current facts and future perspectives of how the assessment of immune dysfunction can assist clinicians in everyday practical decision-making when establishing treatment and care strategies for the patients with end-stage liver disease. Early and efficient recognition of inappropriate performance of the immune system is essential for overcoming complications, delaying progression and reducing mortality.

  16. Mother’s Milk: A Purposeful Contribution to the Development of the Infant Microbiota and Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Le Doare, Kirsty; Holder, Beth; Bassett, Aisha; Pannaraj, Pia S.

    2018-01-01

    Breast milk is the perfect nutrition for infants, a result of millions of years of evolution. In addition to providing a source of nutrition, breast milk contains a diverse array of microbiota and myriad biologically active components that are thought to guide the infant’s developing mucosal immune system. It is believed that bacteria from the mother’s intestine may translocate to breast milk and dynamically transfer to the infant. Such interplay between mother and her infant is a key to establishing a healthy infant intestinal microbiome. These intestinal bacteria protect against many respiratory and diarrheal illnesses, but are subject to environmental stresses such as antibiotic use. Orchestrating the development of the microbiota are the human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), the synthesis of which are partially determined by the maternal genotype. HMOs are thought to play a role in preventing pathogenic bacterial adhesion though multiple mechanisms, while also providing nutrition for the microbiome. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes, carry a diverse cargo, including mRNA, miRNA, and cytosolic and membrane-bound proteins, and are readily detectable in human breast milk. Strongly implicated in cell–cell signaling, EVs could therefore may play a further role in the development of the infant microbiome. This review considers the emerging role of breast milk microbiota, bioactive HMOs, and EVs in the establishment of the neonatal microbiome and the consequent potential for modulation of neonatal immune system development. PMID:29599768

  17. Mother's Milk: A Purposeful Contribution to the Development of the Infant Microbiota and Immunity.

    PubMed

    Le Doare, Kirsty; Holder, Beth; Bassett, Aisha; Pannaraj, Pia S

    2018-01-01

    Breast milk is the perfect nutrition for infants, a result of millions of years of evolution. In addition to providing a source of nutrition, breast milk contains a diverse array of microbiota and myriad biologically active components that are thought to guide the infant's developing mucosal immune system. It is believed that bacteria from the mother's intestine may translocate to breast milk and dynamically transfer to the infant. Such interplay between mother and her infant is a key to establishing a healthy infant intestinal microbiome. These intestinal bacteria protect against many respiratory and diarrheal illnesses, but are subject to environmental stresses such as antibiotic use. Orchestrating the development of the microbiota are the human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), the synthesis of which are partially determined by the maternal genotype. HMOs are thought to play a role in preventing pathogenic bacterial adhesion though multiple mechanisms, while also providing nutrition for the microbiome. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes, carry a diverse cargo, including mRNA, miRNA, and cytosolic and membrane-bound proteins, and are readily detectable in human breast milk. Strongly implicated in cell-cell signaling, EVs could therefore may play a further role in the development of the infant microbiome. This review considers the emerging role of breast milk microbiota, bioactive HMOs, and EVs in the establishment of the neonatal microbiome and the consequent potential for modulation of neonatal immune system development.

  18. The development of a fully-integrated immune response model (FIRM) simulator of the immune response through integration of multiple subset models

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The complexity and multiscale nature of the mammalian immune response provides an excellent test bed for the potential of mathematical modeling and simulation to facilitate mechanistic understanding. Historically, mathematical models of the immune response focused on subsets of the immune system and/or specific aspects of the response. Mathematical models have been developed for the humoral side of the immune response, or for the cellular side, or for cytokine kinetics, but rarely have they been proposed to encompass the overall system complexity. We propose here a framework for integration of subset models, based on a system biology approach. Results A dynamic simulator, the Fully-integrated Immune Response Model (FIRM), was built in a stepwise fashion by integrating published subset models and adding novel features. The approach used to build the model includes the formulation of the network of interacting species and the subsequent introduction of rate laws to describe each biological process. The resulting model represents a multi-organ structure, comprised of the target organ where the immune response takes place, circulating blood, lymphoid T, and lymphoid B tissue. The cell types accounted for include macrophages, a few T-cell lineages (cytotoxic, regulatory, helper 1, and helper 2), and B-cell activation to plasma cells. Four different cytokines were accounted for: IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-12. In addition, generic inflammatory signals are used to represent the kinetics of IL-1, IL-2, and TGF-β. Cell recruitment, differentiation, replication, apoptosis and migration are described as appropriate for the different cell types. The model is a hybrid structure containing information from several mammalian species. The structure of the network was built to be physiologically and biochemically consistent. Rate laws for all the cellular fate processes, growth factor production rates and half-lives, together with antibody production rates and half

  19. Conditions on Early Mars Might Have Fostered Rapid and Early Development of Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; Wentworth, Susan J.

    2007-01-01

    The exploration of Mars during the past decades has begun to unveil the history of the planet. The combinations of remote sensing, in situ geochemical compositional measurements and photographic observations from both above and on the surface have shown Mars to have a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution clearly had conditions that were suitable for supporting life. For a planet to be able to be habitable, it must have water, carbon sources, energy sources and a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 My of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of (i) Water-carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001 well-dated at approx.3.9 Gy., (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, early active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon and water from possibly extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H2O, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) some crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic pattern in the crust. The question arises: "Why would life not evolve from these favorable conditions on early Mars in its first 600 My?" During this period, it seems likely that environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would all favor the formation of early life. Even if life developed elsewhere (on Earth, Venus, or on other solar systems) and was transported to Mars, the surface conditions were likely very hospitable for that introduced life to multiply and evolve.

  20. Characteristics of effective professional development for early career science teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Shirley; Campbell, Sandra; Johnson, Sally; Stylianidou, Fani

    2011-04-01

    The research reported here set out to investigate the features in schools and science departments that were seen as effective in contributing to the continuing professional development (CPD) of early career science teachers. Ten schools took part in the study, selected on the basis of their reputation for having effective CPD practices. To gain different perspectives from within the organisations we conducted interviews with senior members of staff, heads of science departments and early career teachers. A thematic analysis of the interviews is presented, drawing on findings from across the 10 schools, and exemplified in more detail by a vignette to show specific features of effective CPD practice. The study has revealed a wealth of practice across the 10 schools, which included a focus on broadening experience beyond the classroom, having an open, sharing, non-threatening culture and systemic procedures for mentoring and support that involved ring-fenced budgets. The schools also deployed staff judiciously in critical roles that model practice and motivate early career science teachers. Early career teachers were concerned primarily with their overall development as teachers, though some science specific examples such as observing practical work and sessions to address subject knowledge were seen as important.

  1. Endosperm turgor pressure decreases during early Arabidopsis seed development.

    PubMed

    Beauzamy, Léna; Fourquin, Chloé; Dubrulle, Nelly; Boursiac, Yann; Boudaoud, Arezki; Ingram, Gwyneth

    2016-09-15

    In Arabidopsis, rapid expansion of the coenocytic endosperm after fertilisation has been proposed to drive early seed growth, which is in turn constrained by the seed coat. This hypothesis implies physical heterogeneity between the endosperm and seed coat compartments during early seed development, which to date has not been demonstrated. Here, we combine tissue indentation with modelling to show that the physical properties of the developing seed are consistent with the hypothesis that elevated endosperm-derived turgor pressure drives early seed expansion. We provide evidence that whole-seed turgor is generated by the endosperm at early developmental stages. Furthermore, we show that endosperm cellularisation and seed growth arrest are associated with a drop in endosperm turgor pressure. Finally, we demonstrate that this decrease is perturbed when the function of POLYCOMB REPRESSIVE COMPLEX 2 is lost, suggesting that turgor pressure changes could be a target of genomic imprinting. Our results indicate a developmental role for changes in endosperm turgor pressure in the Arabidopsis seed. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Development of novel O-polysaccharide based glycoconjugates for immunization against glanders.

    PubMed

    Burtnick, Mary N; Heiss, Christian; Schuler, A Michele; Azadi, Parastoo; Brett, Paul J

    2012-01-01

    Burkholderia mallei the etiologic agent of glanders, causes severe disease in humans and animals and is a potential agent of biological warfare and terrorism. Diagnosis and treatment of glanders can be challenging, and in the absence of chemotherapeutic intervention, acute human disease is invariably fatal. At present, there are no human or veterinary vaccines available for immunization against disease. One of the goals of our research, therefore, is to identify and characterize protective antigens expressed by B. mallei and use them to develop efficacious glanders vaccine candidates. Previous studies have demonstrated that the O-polysaccharide (OPS) expressed by B. mallei is both a virulence factor and a protective antigen. Recently, we demonstrated that Burkholderia thailandensis, a closely related but non-pathogenic species, can be genetically manipulated to express OPS antigens that are recognized by B. mallei OPS-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). As a result, these antigens have become important components of the various OPS-based subunit vaccines that we are currently developing in our laboratory. In this study, we describe a method for isolating B. mallei-like OPS antigens from B. thailandensis oacA mutants. Utilizing these purified OPS antigens, we also describe a simple procedure for coupling the polysaccharides to protein carriers such as cationized bovine serum albumin, diphtheria toxin mutant CRM197 and cholera toxin B subunit. Additionally, we demonstrate that high titer IgG responses against purified B. mallei LPS can be generated by immunizing mice with the resulting constructs. Collectively, these approaches provide a rational starting point for the development of novel OPS-based glycoconjugates for immunization against glanders.

  3. Development of novel O-polysaccharide based glycoconjugates for immunization against glanders

    PubMed Central

    Burtnick, Mary N.; Heiss, Christian; Schuler, A. Michele; Azadi, Parastoo; Brett, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Burkholderia mallei the etiologic agent of glanders, causes severe disease in humans and animals and is a potential agent of biological warfare and terrorism. Diagnosis and tre