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Sample records for early implant failure

  1. Characteristics of early versus late implant failure: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Manor, Yifat; Oubaid, Saheer; Mardinger, Ofer; Chaushu, Gavriel; Nissan, Joseph

    2009-12-01

    Implant failures can be divided into early and late according to the timing of failure. The purpose of this study was to characterize and compare both types. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in 194 patients (98 men and 96 women) who presented after dental implant failures during a 6-year period (2000 to 2006). The patient served as the unit of analysis. A history of at least 1 failed and removed dental implant served as the inclusion criterion. Patients were excluded from this study whenever their files had missing data. The collected data included a patient's characteristics, failure characteristics, and the anatomic status of the alveolar ridge after failure. Late failures were associated with moderate to severe bone loss, a larger number of failed implants per patient, a higher incidence in men, and mostly in posterior areas. Early failures were associated with minimal bone loss, occurred more in women, at a younger age, and in most cases the implants were intended to support single crowns. Meticulous follow-up is needed to reveal and treat failing or ailing implants. Once established as hopeless, they should be removed as soon as possible to prevent further bone loss.

  2. Early diagnosis of orthopedic implant failure using macromolecular imaging agents.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ke; Dusad, Anand; Zhang, Yijia; Purdue, P Edward; Fehringer, Edward V; Garvin, Kevin L; Goldring, Steven R; Wang, Dong

    2014-08-01

    To develop and evaluate diagnostic tools for early detection of wear particle-induced orthopaedic implant loosening. N-(2-Hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA) copolymer was tagged with a near infrared dye and used to detect the inflammation induced by polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) particles in a murine peri-implant osteolysis model. It was established by inserting an implant into the distal femur and challenging with routine PMMA particles infusion. The osteolysis was evaluated by micro-CT and histological analysis at different time points. Significant peri-implant osteolysis was found 3-month post PMMA particle challenge by micro-CT and histological analysis. At 1-month post challenge, when there was no significant peri-implant bone loss, the HPMA copolymer-near infrared dye conjugate was found to specifically target the femur with PMMA particles deposition, but not the contralateral control femur with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) infusion. The results from this study demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing the macromolecular diagnostic agent to detect particle-induced peri-implant inflammation prior to the development of detectable osteolysis. Recognition of this early pathological event would provide the window of opportunity for prevention of peri-implant osteolysis and subsequent orthopaedic implant failure.

  3. Risk factors associated with early implant failure: A 5-year retrospective clinical study.

    PubMed

    Olmedo-Gaya, Maris Victoria; Manzano-Moreno, Francisco J; Cañaveral-Cavero, Esther; de Dios Luna-del Castillo, Juan; Vallecillo-Capilla, Manuel

    2016-02-01

    The replacement of lost teeth with dental implants is a widespread treatment whose associated problems are also frequently encountered. Nevertheless, the factors associated with early implant failure have not been well documented. Further analyses of the factors influencing osseointegration establishment are required to maximize the predictability of the procedure and minimize implant failures. The purpose of this retrospective clinical study was to explore the association between possible risk factors and early implant failure. This retrospective clinical study evaluated 142 participants who received 276 external connection BTI implants between 2007 and 2011. Participant variables (age, sex, systemic disease, tobacco use, alcohol consumption, bruxism, and degree of periodontal disease), implant variables (type of edentulism, localization, area, diameter, length, and bone quality), intervention variables (expansion mechanisms, sinus augmentation techniques, bone regeneration, and implant insertion), and postoperative variables (presence of pain/inflammation at 1 week postsurgery) were studied. A multilevel logistic regression model (mixed effects-type model) was used to determine the influence of variables on early implant failure. Early implant failure was significantly associated with the male sex (P=.001), severe periodontal disease (P=.005), short implants (P=.001), expansion technique (P=.002), and postoperative pain/inflammation at 1 week postsurgery (P<.001). Early dental implant failure is more frequent in men and in individuals with severe periodontal disease, short implants, pain/inflammation at 1 week postsurgery, or bone expansion treatment. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Does antibiotic prophylaxis at implant placement decrease early implant failures? A Cochrane systematic review.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Marco; Grusovin, Maria Gabriella; Loli, Vasiliki; Coulthard, Paul; Worthington, Helen V

    2010-01-01

    Marco Esposito is the first author of two of the included studies; however, he was not involved in the quality assessment of these trials. This review is based on a Cochrane systematic review entitled 'Interventions for replacing missing teeth: antibiotics at dental implant placement to prevent complications' published in The Cochrane Library (see http://www.cochrane.org for more information). Cochrane systematic reviews are regularly updated to include new research, and in response to comments and criticisms from readers. If you wish to comment on this review, please send your comments to the Cochrane website or to Marco Esposito. The Cochrane Library should be consulted for the most recent version of the review. The results of a Cochrane Review can be interpreted differently, depending on people's perspectives and circumstances. Please consider the conclusions presented carefully. They are the opinions of the review authors, and are not necessarily shared by the Cochrane Collaboration. To assess the beneficial or harmful effects of systemic prophylactic antibiotics at dental implant placement versus no antibiotic/placebo administration and, if antibiotics are of benefit, to find which type, dosage and duration is the most effective. The Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched up to 2 June 2010 for randomised controlled clinical trials (RCTs) with a follow-up of at least 3 months comparing the administration of various prophylactic antibiotic regimens versus no antibiotics to patients undergoing dental implant placement. Outcome measures were prosthesis failures, implant failures, postoperative infections and adverse events (gastrointestinal, hypersensitivity, etc.). Screening of eligible studies, assessment of the methodological quality of the trials and data extraction were conducted in duplicate and independently by two review authors. Meta-analyses were

  5. DEALING WITH DENTAL IMPLANT FAILURES

    PubMed Central

    Levin, Liran

    2008-01-01

    An implant-supported restoration offers a predictable treatment for tooth replacement. Reported success rates for dental implants are high. Nevertheless, failures that mandate immediate implant removal do occur. The consequences of implant removal jeopardize the clinician's efforts to accomplish satisfactory function and esthetics. For the patient, this usually involves further cost and additional procedures. The aim of this paper is to describe different methods and treatment modalities to deal with dental implant failure. The main topics for discussion include identifying the failing implant, implants replacing failed implants at the exact site, and the use of other restorative options. When an implant fails, a tailor made treatment plan should be provided to each patient according to all relevant variables. Patients should be informed regarding all possible treatment modalities following implant failure and give their consent to the most appropriate treatment option for them. PMID:19089213

  6. Early failure of total hip replacements implanted at distant hospitals to reduce waiting lists.

    PubMed Central

    Ciampolini, Jac; Hubble, Matthew J. W.

    2005-01-01

    AIM: In the years 1990-1993, in an effort to reduce waiting-list time, a small number of patients were sent from Exeter to hospitals in London to undergo elective total hip replacement. No medium- or long-term follow-up was arranged. Our aim was to audit the outcome of these hip replacements. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Review of the records of the referring medical practices, Regional Health Authority, local orthopaedic hospital and the distant centres at which the surgery was performed identified 31 cases. A total of 27 hip replacements in 24 patients were available for clinical and radiological review. RESULTS: 12 (44%) hips have so far required revision surgery, at a mean of 6.5 years. Of these, three (11%) have been for deep infection. A further three hips (11%) are radiologically loose and are being closely monitored. Two patients (7%) suffered permanent sciatic nerve palsy. CONCLUSIONS: Patients whose surgery was performed locally over a similar time period have a published failure rate of only 4.9%. This difference is highly statistically significant (P < 0.001). The causes for such a difference in outcome were analysed and include surgical technique, implant selection and absence of follow-up. In the light of this evidence, we would like to urge the government to address waiting list problems by investing in the local infrastructure. Expanding those facilities where properly audited and fully accountable surgeons operate must be the way forward. PMID:15720905

  7. Predicting Failure in Early Acute Prosthetic Joint Infection Treated With Debridement, Antibiotics, and Implant Retention: External Validation of the KLIC Score.

    PubMed

    Löwik, Claudia A M; Jutte, Paul C; Tornero, Eduard; Ploegmakers, Joris J W; Knobben, Bas A S; de Vries, Astrid J; Zijlstra, Wierd P; Dijkstra, Baukje; Soriano, Alex; Wouthuyzen-Bakker, Marjan

    2018-03-27

    Debridement, antibiotics, and implant retention (DAIR) is a widely used treatment modality for early acute prosthetic joint infection (PJI). A preoperative risk score was previously designed for predicting DAIR failure, consisting of chronic renal failure (K), liver cirrhosis (L), index surgery (I), cemented prosthesis (C), and C-reactive protein >115 mg/L (KLIC). The aim of this study was to validate the KLIC score in an external cohort. We retrospectively evaluated patients with early acute PJI treated with DAIR between 2006 and 2016 in 3 Dutch hospitals. Early acute PJI was defined as <21 days of symptoms and DAIR performed within 90 days after index surgery. Failure was defined as the need for (1) second DAIR, (2) implant removal, (3) suppressive antimicrobial treatment, or (4) infection-related death within 60 days after debridement. A total of 386 patients were included. Failure occurred in 148 patients (38.3%). Patients with KLIC scores of ≤2, 2.5-3.5, 4-5, 5.5-6.5, and ≥7 had failure rates of 27.9%, 37.1%, 49.3%, 54.5%, and 85.7%, respectively (P < .001). The receiver-operating characteristic curve showed an area under the curve of 0.64 (95% confidence interval 0.59-0.69). A KLIC score higher than 6 points showed a specificity of 97.9%. The KLIC score is a relatively good preoperative risk score for DAIR failure in patients with early acute PJI and appears to be most useful in clinical practice for patients with low or high KLIC scores. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Failure analysis of fractured dental zirconia implants.

    PubMed

    Gahlert, M; Burtscher, D; Grunert, I; Kniha, H; Steinhauser, E

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was the macroscopic and microscopic failure analysis of fractured zirconia dental implants. Thirteen fractured one-piece zirconia implants (Z-Look3) out of 170 inserted implants with an average in situ period of 36.75±5.34 months (range from 20 to 56 months, median 38 months) were prepared for macroscopic and microscopic (scanning electron microscopy [SEM]) failure analysis. These 170 implants were inserted in 79 patients. The patient histories were compared with fracture incidences to identify the reasons for the failure of the implants. Twelve of these fractured implants had a diameter of 3.25 mm and one implant had a diameter of 4 mm. All fractured implants were located in the anterior side of the maxilla and mandibula. The patient with the fracture of the 4 mm diameter implant was adversely affected by strong bruxism. By failure analysis (SEM), it could be demonstrated that in all cases, mechanical overloading caused the fracture of the implants. Inhomogeneities and internal defects of the ceramic material could be excluded, but notches and scratches due to sandblasting of the surface led to local stress concentrations that led to the mentioned mechanical overloading by bending loads. The present study identified a fracture rate of nearly 10% within a follow-up period of 36.75 months after prosthetic loading. Ninety-two per cent of the fractured implants were so-called diameter reduced implants (diameter 3.25 mm). These diameter reduced implants cannot be recommended for further clinical use. Improvement of the ceramic material and modification of the implant geometry has to be carried out to reduce the failure rate of small-sized ceramic implants. Nevertheless, due to the lack of appropriate laboratory testing, only clinical studies will demonstrate clearly whether and how far the failure rate can be reduced. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  9. Preventing Early Learning Failure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sornson, Bob, Ed.

    Noting that thousands of young children with the capacity to experience school success do not because they are unprepared for school learning activities, have experienced physical or emotional setbacks that cause them to be at risk for early learning failure, have never experienced limits on their behavior, or have mild sensory or motor deficits,…

  10. Risk factors for implant failure: a retrospective study in an educational institution using GEE analyses.

    PubMed

    Borba, Marcelo; Deluiz, Daniel; Lourenço, Eduardo José Veras; Oliveira, Luciano; Tannure, Patrícia Nivoloni

    2017-08-21

    This study aimed to evaluate dental implant outcomes and to identify risk factors associated with implant failure over 12 years via dental records of patients attending an educational institution. Dental records of 202 patients receiving 774 dental implants from 2002 to 2014 were analyzed by adopting a more reliable statistical method to evaluate risk factors with patients as the unit [generalized estimating equation (GEE)]. Information regarding patient age at implantation, sex, use of tobacco, and history of systemic diseases was collected. Information about implant location in the arch region and implant length, diameter, and placement in a grafted area was evaluated after 2 years under load. Systemic and local risk factors for early and late implant failure were studied. A total of 18 patients experienced 25 implant failures, resulting in an overall survival rate of 96.8% (2.84% and 0.38% early and late implant failures, respectively). The patient-based survival rate was 91.8%. GEE univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that a significant risk factor for implant failure was the maxillary implant (p = 0.006 and p = 0.014, respectively). Bone grafting appeared to be a risk factor for implant failure (p = 0.054). According to GEE analyses, maxillary implants had significantly worse outcomes in this population and were considered to be a risk factor for implant failure. Our results suggested that implants placed in a bone augmentation area had a tendency to fail.

  11. [Right heart failure after pacemaker implantation].

    PubMed

    Gallego Galiana, Juan; López Castellanos, Genoveva; Gioia, Francesca; Ruiz Ortega, Raúl Antonio; Cobo Reinoso, Maria Eugenia; Manzano Espinosa, Luis

    2015-06-22

    Severe tricuspid regurgitation (TR) secondary to interference pacemaker (PM) cable is a rare cause of progressive right heart failure (HF), which can worsen patient outcomes. We present 3 clinical cases of right HF secondary to TR after PM implantation. In these patients the clinic is right HF, which can appear early, as in our second patient, or after years of implementation of the PM, as in the first and third patients. The diagnosis is confirmed by echocardiography, the most accurate 3D, followed by transesophageal. The 2D transthoracic can not detect it, because it has low sensitivity for TR associated with PM. Medical treatment is always the first choice, since any other procedure carries significant morbidity and mortality. Probably this is a condition that we will diagnose with increasing frequency, because there are more and more patients with devices and, at the same time, the diagnostic tools are improving. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  12. Implantable Hemodynamic Monitoring for Heart Failure Patients.

    PubMed

    Abraham, William T; Perl, Leor

    2017-07-18

    Rates of heart failure hospitalization remain unacceptably high. Such hospitalizations are associated with substantial patient, caregiver, and economic costs. Randomized controlled trials of noninvasive telemedical systems have failed to demonstrate reduced rates of hospitalization. The failure of these technologies may be due to the limitations of the signals measured. Intracardiac and pulmonary artery pressure-guided management has become a focus of hospitalization reduction in heart failure. Early studies using implantable hemodynamic monitors demonstrated the potential of pressure-based heart failure management, whereas subsequent studies confirmed the clinical utility of this approach. One large pivotal trial proved the safety and efficacy of pulmonary artery pressure-guided heart failure management, showing a marked reduction in heart failure hospitalizations in patients randomized to active pressure-guided management. "Next-generation" implantable hemodynamic monitors are in development, and novel approaches for the use of this data promise to expand the use of pressure-guided heart failure management. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Failure of Synthetic Implants: Strategies and Management.

    PubMed

    Jang, Yong Ju; Kim, Shin Ae; Alharethy, Sami

    2018-06-01

    Dorsal augmentation with synthetic implants is the most commonly performed rhinoplasty procedure, especially in the East-Asian region. However, as in all other surgical procedures, complications are inevitable. Complications that need to be managed surgically include displacement, deviation, suboptimal aesthetic outcome, extrusion, inflammation, infection, and changes in skin quality. Most complications can be easily managed with revision surgery. After the removal of the synthetic implant from the nasal dorsum, different dorsal implant materials such as dermofat, alloderm, or fascia-wrapped diced cartilage, conchal cartilage with perichondrial attachment, and costal cartilage are preferred. An irreversible change in the skin/soft tissue envelope poses a challenge that usually requires reconstructive surgery with a local flap. Therefore, early detection and prompt management of the complication are essential for minimizing the severity of the deformity and the complexity of the surgical procedures. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. [Assisted hatching following embryo implantation failure].

    PubMed

    Carballo Mondragón, Esperanza; Durán Monterrosas, Leonor; Campos Cañas, Jorge A; González de Jesús, Patricia; Kably Ambe, Alberto

    2012-08-01

    Assisted hatching in reproduction techniques has improved the successful implantation rates in certain groups of patients with poor prognosis. This study focuses on its effect in groups of patients with previous implantation failure and according to age groups. Compare the pregnancy rates of patients who turned to this technique following an implantation failure using in vitro fertilization with those of patients who did not use assisted hatching before another attempt of in vitro fertilization and according to specific age groups. Cases of patients using assisted hatching in our Center between January 2008 and December 2009 were studied. The results were compared in terms of age in three groups: group I, >35 years; group II, 35-39 years, and group III, > 40 years. Patients in group II had better pregnancy rate (30%) than those in groups I and III (16.98 and 20.83%, respectively). When comparing the results of the group of patients using assisted hatching with those of the group that did not, the first reported a 20% pregnancy rate versus no pregnancy in the other group.

  15. Early trends in N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide values after left ventricular assist device implantation for chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Hasin, Tal; Kushwaha, Sudhir S; Lesnick, Timothy G; Kremers, Walter; Boilson, Barry A; Schirger, John A; Clavell, Alfredo L; Rodeheffer, Richard J; Frantz, Robert P; Edwards, Brooks S; Pereira, Naveen L; Stulak, John M; Joyce, Lyle; Daly, Richard; Park, Soon J; Jaffe, Allan S

    2014-10-15

    Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) acutely decrease left ventricular wall stress. Thus, early postoperative levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) should decrease. This study investigated postoperative changes in NT-proBNP levels, the parameters related to changes, and the possible association with complications by performing a retrospective analysis of changes in daily NT-proBNP (pg/ml) levels from admission to discharge both before and after LVAD implantation in a tertiary referral center. For 72 patients implanted with HeartMate II LVADs, baseline NT-proBNP levels were elevated at 3,943 ng/ml (interquartile range 1,956 to 12,964). Preoperative stabilization led to marked decreases in NT-proBNP. Levels peaked 3 days after surgery and subsequently decreased. Patients with complicated postoperative courses had higher early postoperative elevations. By discharge, NT-proBNP decreased markedly but was still 2.83 (1.60 to 5.76) times the age-based upper limit of normal. The 26% reduction in NT-proBNP between admission and discharge was due mostly to the preoperative reductions and not those induced by the LVAD itself. The decrease was not associated with decreases in LV volume. In conclusion, preoperative treatment reduces NT-proBNP values. The magnitude of early postoperative changes is related to the clinical course. Levels at discharge remain markedly elevated and similar to values after preoperative stabilization despite presumptive acute LV unloading. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical retrospective study of self-reported penicillin allergy on dental implant failures and infections.

    PubMed

    French, David; Noroozi, Mehdi; Shariati, Batoul; Larjava, Hannu

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate whether self-reported allergy to penicillin may contribute to a higher rate of postsurgical infection and implant failure. This retrospective, non-interventional, open cohort study reports on implant survival and infection complications of 5,576 implants placed in private practice by one periodontist, and includes 4,132 implants that were followed for at least 1 year. Logistic regression was applied to examine the relationship between self-reported allergy to penicillin and implant survival, while controlling for potential confounders such as smoking, implant site, bone augmentation, loading protocol, immediate implantation, and bone level at baseline. The cumulative survival rate (CSR) was calculated according to the life table method and the Cox proportional hazard model was fitted to data. Out of 5,106 implants placed in patients taking penicillin it was found that 0.8% failed, while 2.1% failed of the 470 implants placed for patients with self-reported allergy to penicillin (P = .002). Odds of failure for implants placed in penicillin-allergic patients were 3.1 times higher than in non-allergic patients. For immediate implant placement, penicillin-allergic patients had a failure rate 10-times higher than the non-allergic cohort. Timing of implant failure occurring within 6 months following implantation was 80% in the penicillin-allergic group versus 54% in the non-allergic group. From the 48 implant sites showing postoperative infection: penicillin-allergic patients had an infection rate of 3.4% (n = 16/470) versus 0.6% in the non-allergic group (n = 32/5,106) (P < .05). Self-reported penicillin allergy was associated with a higher rate of infection, and primarily affected early implant failure.

  17. Impact of Different Surgeons on Dental Implant Failure.

    PubMed

    Chrcanovic, Bruno Ramos; Kisch, Jenö; Albrektsson, Tomas; Wennerberg, Ann

    To assess the influence of several factors on the prevalence of dental implant failure, with special consideration of the placement of implants by different dental surgeons. This retrospective study is based on 2,670 patients who received 10,096 implants at one specialist clinic. Only the data of patients and implants treated by surgeons who had inserted a minimum of 200 implants at the clinic were included. Kaplan-Meier curves were stratified with respect to the individual surgeon. A generalized estimating equation (GEE) method was used to account for the fact that repeated observations (several implants) were placed in a single patient. The factors bone quantity, bone quality, implant location, implant surface, and implant system were analyzed with descriptive statistics separately for each individual surgeon. A total of 10 surgeons were eligible. The differences between the survival curves of each individual were statistically significant. The multivariate GEE model showed the following variables to be statistically significant: surgeon, bruxism, intake of antidepressants, location, implant length, and implant system. The surgeon with the highest absolute number of failures was also the one who inserted the most implants in sites of poor bone and used turned implants in most cases, whereas the surgeon with the lowest absolute number of failures used mainly modern implants. Separate survival analyses of turned and modern implants stratified for the individual surgeon showed statistically significant differences in cumulative survival. Different levels of failure incidence could be observed between the surgeons, occasionally reaching significant levels. Although a direct causal relationship could not be ascertained, the results of the present study suggest that the surgeons' technique, skills, and/or judgment may negatively influence implant survival rates.

  18. Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator Lead Failure and Management.

    PubMed

    Swerdlow, Charles D; Kalahasty, Gautham; Ellenbogen, Kenneth A

    2016-03-22

    The implantable-cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) lead is the most vulnerable component of the ICD system. Despite advanced engineering design, sophisticated manufacturing techniques, and extensive bench, pre-clinical, and clinical testing, lead failure (LF) remains the Achilles' heel of the ICD system. ICD LF has a broad range of adverse outcomes, ranging from intermittent inappropriate pacing to proarrhythmia leading to patient mortality. ICD LF is often considered in the context of design or construction defects, but is more appropriately considered in the context of the finite service life of a mechanical component placed in chemically stressful environment and subjected to continuous mechanical stresses. This clinical review summarizes LF mechanisms, assessment, and differential diagnosis of LF, including lead diagnostics, recent prominent lead recalls, and management of LF and functioning, but recalled leads. Despite recent advances in lead technology, physicians will likely continue to need to understand how to manage patients with transvenous ICD leads. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Barriers to early cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Dettman, Shani; Choo, Dawn; Dowell, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Identify variables associated with paediatric access to cochlear implants (CIs). Part 1. Trends over time for age at CI surgery (N = 802) and age at hearing aid (HA) fitting (n = 487) were examined with regard to periods before, during, and after newborn hearing screening (NHS). Part 2. Demographic factors were explored for 417 children implanted under 3 years of age. Part 3. Pre-implant steps for the first 20 children to receive CIs under 12 months were examined. Part 1. Age at HA fitting and CI surgery reduced over time, and were associated with NHS implementation. Part 2. For children implanted under 3 years, earlier age at HA fitting and higher family socio-economic status were associated with earlier CI. Progressive hearing loss was associated with later CIs. Children with a Connexin 26 diagnosis received CIs earlier than children with a premature / low birth weight history. Part 3. The longest pre-CI steps were Step 1: Birth to diagnosis/identification of hearing loss (mean 16.43 weeks), and Step 11: MRI scans to implant surgery (mean 15.05 weeks) for the first 20 infants with CIs under 12 months. NHS implementation was associated with reductions in age at device intervention in this cohort.

  20. Evaluation of possible prognostic factors for the success, survival, and failure of dental implants.

    PubMed

    Geckili, Onur; Bilhan, Hakan; Geckili, Esma; Cilingir, Altug; Mumcu, Emre; Bural, Canan

    2014-02-01

    To analyze the prognostic factors that are associated with the success, survival, and failure rates of dental implants. Data including implant sizes, insertion time, implant location, and prosthetic treatment of 1656 implants have been collected, and the association of these factors with success, survival, and failure of implants was analyzed. The success rate was lower for short and maxillary implants. The failure rate of maxillary implants exceeded that of mandibular implants, and the failure rate of implants that were placed in the maxillary anterior region was significantly higher than other regions. The failure rates of implants that were placed 5 years ago or more were higher than those that were placed later. Anterior maxilla is more critical for implant loss than other sites. Implants in the anterior mandible show better success compared with other locations, and longer implants show better success rates. The learning curve of the clinician influences survival and success rates of dental implants.

  1. Cadaveric study validating in vitro monitoring techniques to measure the failure mechanism of glenoid implants against clinical CT.

    PubMed

    Junaid, Sarah; Gregory, Thomas; Fetherston, Shirley; Emery, Roger; Amis, Andrew A; Hansen, Ulrich

    2018-03-23

    Definite glenoid implant loosening is identifiable on radiographs, however, identifying early loosening still eludes clinicians. Methods to monitor glenoid loosening in vitro have not been validated to clinical imaging. This study investigates the correlation between in vitro measures and CT images. Ten cadaveric scapulae were implanted with a pegged glenoid implant and fatigue tested to failure. Each scapulae were cyclically loaded superiorly and CT scanned every 20,000 cycles until failure to monitor progressive radiolucent lines. Superior and inferior rim displacements were also measured. A finite element (FE) model of one scapula was used to analyze the interfacial stresses at the implant/cement and cement/bone interfaces. All ten implants failed inferiorly at the implant-cement interface, two also failed at the cement-bone interface inferiorly, and three showed superior failure. Failure occurred at of 80,966 ± 53,729 (mean ± SD) cycles. CT scans confirmed failure of the fixation, and in most cases, was observed either before or with visual failure. Significant correlations were found between inferior rim displacement, vertical head displacement and failure of the glenoid implant. The FE model showed peak tensile stresses inferiorly and high compressive stresses superiorly, corroborating experimental findings. In vitro monitoring methods correlated to failure progression in clinical CT images possibly indicating its capacity to detect loosening earlier for earlier clinical intervention if needed. Its use in detecting failure non-destructively for implant development and testing is also valuable. The study highlights failure at the implant-cement interface and early signs of failure are identifiable in CT images. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Orthopaedic Research ® Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the Orthopaedic Research Society. J Orthop Res 9999:XX-XX, 2018. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Orthopaedic Research® Published by

  2. Implant experience with an implantable hemodynamic monitor for the management of symptomatic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Steinhaus, David; Reynolds, Dwight W; Gadler, Fredrik; Kay, G Neal; Hess, Mike F; Bennett, Tom

    2005-08-01

    Management of congestive heart failure is a serious public health problem. The use of implantable hemodynamic monitors (IHMs) may assist in this management by providing continuous ambulatory filling pressure status for optimal volume management. The Chronicle system includes an implanted monitor, a pressure sensor lead with passive fixation, an external pressure reference (EPR), and data retrieval and viewing components. The tip of the lead is placed near the right ventricular outflow tract to minimize risk of sensor tissue encapsulation. Implant technique and lead placement is similar to that of a permanent pacemaker. After the system had been successfully implanted in 148 patients, the type and frequency of implant-related adverse events were similar to a single-chamber pacemaker implant. R-wave amplitude was 15.2 +/- 6.7 mV and the pressure waveform signal was acceptable in all but two patients in whom presence of artifacts required lead repositioning. Implant procedure time was not influenced by experience, remaining constant throughout the study. Based on this evaluation, permanent placement of an IHM in symptomatic heart failure patients is technically feasible. Further investigation is warranted to evaluate the use of the continuous hemodynamic data in management of heart failure patients.

  3. Early Implantation of Primary Prevention Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators for Patients with Newly Diagnosed Severe Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Voskoboinik, Aleksandr; Bloom, Jason; Taylor, Andrew; Mariani, Justin

    2016-09-01

    Primary prevention implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) reduce mortality in selected patients with severe systolic dysfunction. Current guidelines suggest a 3- to 6-month waiting period before implantation. We retrospectively studied 29 consecutive patients with newly diagnosed nonischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) who underwent primary prevention ICD implantation within 6 months of diagnosis between January 2008 and April 2014. Cardiac MRI (CMR) evaluated left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and regional fibrosis preimplant. The primary end point was "failure to qualify for an ICD at 12 months postimplant," either due to LVEF ≥ 35% or deterioration necessitating mechanical support or transplantation, without appropriate ICD therapy. Secondary end points were appropriate and inappropriate ICD therapy. Baseline mean age was 44.2 ± 14.8 years and median LVEF 16.4%. Median time from diagnosis to implant was 32 days. At 12 months, 17 patients (58.6%) no longer qualified for an ICD, mainly due to LVEF improvement. At follow-up (mean 32.0 ± 20.6 months), three patients received appropriate therapy (one for ventricular fibrillation). All three had CMR late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT) preimplant. Cardiac resynchronization at implant predicted LVEF improvement. Early appropriate therapy, particularly for ventricular fibrillation, is infrequent for patients with very severe NICM who have ICDs implanted within 6 months of diagnosis. The majority of these patients would not qualify for an ICD at 12 months postinsertion. In the absence of a multimodality risk score, early ICD insertion should only be considered in selected cases (presence of LGE and NSVT). Wearable cardioverter defibrillators may have a role as a bridge to ICD decision. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Experimental and failure analysis of the prosthetic finger joint implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naidu, Sanjiv H.

    Small joint replacement arthroplasty of the hand is a well accepted surgical procedure to restore function and cosmesis in an individual with a crippled hand. Silicone elastomers have been used as prosthetic material in various small hand joints for well over three decades. Although the clinical science aspects of silicone elastomer failure are well known, the physical science aspects of prosthetic failure are scant and vague. In the following thesis, using both an animal model, and actual retrieved specimens which have failed in human service, experimental and failure analysis of silicone finger joints are presented. Fractured surfaces of retrieved silicone trapezial implants, and silicone finger joint implants were studied with both FESEM and SEM; the mode of failure for silicone trapezium is by wear polishing, whereas the finger joint implants failed either by fatigue fracture or tearing of the elastomer, or a combination of both. Thermal analysis revealed that the retrieved elastomer implants maintained its viscoelastic properties throughout the service period. In order to provide for a more functional and physiologic arthroplasty a novel finger joint (Rolamite prosthesis) is proposed using more recently developed thermoplastic polymers. The following thesis also addresses the outcome of the experimental studies of the Rolamite prosthesis in a rabbit animal model, in addition to the failure analysis of the thermoplastic polymers while in service in an in vivo synovial environment. Results of retrieved Rolamite specimens suggest that the use for thermoplastic elastomers such as block copolymer based elastomers in a synovial environment such as a mammalian joint may very well be limited.

  5. Failure rates of mini-implants placed in the infrazygomatic region.

    PubMed

    Uribe, Flavio; Mehr, Rana; Mathur, Ajay; Janakiraman, Nandakumar; Allareddy, Veerasathpurush

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the failure rates of mini-implants placed in the infrazygomatic region and to evaluate factors that affect their stability. A retrospective cohort study of 30 consecutive patients (55 mini-implants) who had infrazygomatic mini-implants at a University Clinic were evaluated for failure rates. Patient, mini-implant, orthodontic, surgical, and mini-implant maintenance factors were evaluated by univariate logistic regression models for association to failure rates. A 21.8 % failure rate of mini-implants placed in the infazygomatic region was observed. None of the predictor variables were significantly associated with higher or lower odds for failed implants. Failure rates for infrazygomatic mini-implants were slightly higher than those reported in other maxilla-mandibular osseous locations. No predictor variables were found to be associated to the failure rates.

  6. Starflo glaucoma implant: early experience in Hungary

    PubMed Central

    István, Cseke; Péter, Vámosi; Mária, Bausz

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To present the early experience with the implantation technique, safety and efficiency of STARflo™ device for open angle glaucoma (OAG). Methods: referring intra- and postoperative clinical experience with a series of seven cases in three glaucoma centers in Hungary. Results: No intraoperative complications were observed. Postoperative inflammatory signs disappeared rapidly. The mean IOP reduction was from 27,6 ± 5,0 mmHg to 18,9±3,4 mmHg (32% reduction/ patient) at six months postoperatively. Conclusion: STARflo™ implant was safe and (except for one case with neovascular glaucoma) effective in our cases. The learning curve for experienced anterior segment surgeons was short. PMID:27220226

  7. Contribution of immunology to implantation failure of euploid embryos.

    PubMed

    Franasiak, Jason M; Scott, Richard T

    2017-06-01

    Outcomes in assisted reproduction have seen marked improvement. With increased ability in the embryology laboratory to use extended embryo culture which in turn enables other selective techniques, such as trophectoderm biopsy and comprehensive chromosome screening, the chance of success per embryo transfer is increased. However, even the selection of a euploid blastocyst, which selects out many embryonic factors, does not yield successful implantation and ultimately delivery in all cases. Among the factors that affect implantation failure of apparently reproductively competent embryos, the immune system has been perhaps both the most plausible and the most debated. There are data on T-helper cells, in particular the T H 1-T H 2 balance, peripheral and uterine natural killer cells, and autoantibodies, all of which have been shown to have variable effects on implantation. Many investigators have developed and used a wide range of immune tests and treatments aimed at manipulating the milieu to favor implantation. Although it is certain that the immune system plays a role in implantation, our understanding of the physiology, let alone the pathophysiology, remains incomplete. It is imperative that we gain more clear evidence of causes and test and implement treatment paradigms. In the meantime, immune testing or empirical treatment with the use of immune modulators must be approached with caution. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Statistical analysis of early failures in electromigration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gall, M.; Capasso, C.; Jawarani, D.; Hernandez, R.; Kawasaki, H.; Ho, P. S.

    2001-07-01

    The detection of early failures in electromigration (EM) and the complicated statistical nature of this important reliability phenomenon have been difficult issues to treat in the past. A satisfactory experimental approach for the detection and the statistical analysis of early failures has not yet been established. This is mainly due to the rare occurrence of early failures and difficulties in testing of large sample populations. Furthermore, experimental data on the EM behavior as a function of varying number of failure links are scarce. In this study, a technique utilizing large interconnect arrays in conjunction with the well-known Wheatstone Bridge is presented. Three types of structures with a varying number of Ti/TiN/Al(Cu)/TiN-based interconnects were used, starting from a small unit of five lines in parallel. A serial arrangement of this unit enabled testing of interconnect arrays encompassing 480 possible failure links. In addition, a Wheatstone Bridge-type wiring using four large arrays in each device enabled simultaneous testing of 1920 interconnects. In conjunction with a statistical deconvolution to the single interconnect level, the results indicate that the electromigration failure mechanism studied here follows perfect lognormal behavior down to the four sigma level. The statistical deconvolution procedure is described in detail. Over a temperature range from 155 to 200 °C, a total of more than 75 000 interconnects were tested. None of the samples have shown an indication of early, or alternate, failure mechanisms. The activation energy of the EM mechanism studied here, namely the Cu incubation time, was determined to be Q=1.08±0.05 eV. We surmise that interface diffusion of Cu along the Al(Cu) sidewalls and along the top and bottom refractory layers, coupled with grain boundary diffusion within the interconnects, constitutes the Cu incubation mechanism.

  9. Analysis of risk factors for cluster behavior of dental implant failures.

    PubMed

    Chrcanovic, Bruno Ramos; Kisch, Jenö; Albrektsson, Tomas; Wennerberg, Ann

    2017-08-01

    Some studies indicated that implant failures are commonly concentrated in few patients. To identify and analyze cluster behavior of dental implant failures among subjects of a retrospective study. This retrospective study included patients receiving at least three implants only. Patients presenting at least three implant failures were classified as presenting a cluster behavior. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models and generalized estimating equations analysis evaluated the effect of explanatory variables on the cluster behavior. There were 1406 patients with three or more implants (8337 implants, 592 failures). Sixty-seven (4.77%) patients presented cluster behavior, with 56.8% of all implant failures. The intake of antidepressants and bruxism were identified as potential negative factors exerting a statistically significant influence on a cluster behavior at the patient-level. The negative factors at the implant-level were turned implants, short implants, poor bone quality, age of the patient, the intake of medicaments to reduce the acid gastric production, smoking, and bruxism. A cluster pattern among patients with implant failure is highly probable. Factors of interest as predictors for implant failures could be a number of systemic and local factors, although a direct causal relationship cannot be ascertained. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Reliability and failure modes of narrow implant systems.

    PubMed

    Hirata, Ronaldo; Bonfante, Estevam A; Anchieta, Rodolfo B; Machado, Lucas S; Freitas, Gileade; Fardin, Vinicius P; Tovar, Nick; Coelho, Paulo G

    2016-09-01

    Narrow implants are indicated in areas of limited bone width or when grafting is nonviable. However, the reduction of implant diameter may compromise their performance. This study evaluated the reliability of several narrow implant systems under fatigue, after restored with single-unit crowns. Narrow implant systems were divided (n = 18 each), as follows: Astra (ASC); BioHorizons (BSC); Straumann Roxolid (SNC), Intra-Lock (IMC), and Intra-Lock one-piece abutment (ILO). Maxillary central incisor crowns were cemented and subjected to step-stress accelerated life testing in water. Use level probability Weibull curves and reliability for a mission of 100,000 cycles at 130- and 180-N loads (90 % two-sided confidence intervals) were calculated. Scanning electron microscopy was used for fractography. Reliability for 100,000 cycles at 130 N was ∼99 % in group ASC, ∼99 % in BSC, ∼96 % in SNC, ∼99 % in IMC, and ∼100 % in ILO. At 180 N, reliability of ∼34 % resulted for the ASC group, ∼91 % for BSC, ∼53 % for SNC, ∼70 % for IMC, and ∼99 % for ILO. Abutment screw fracture was the main failure mode for all groups. Reliability was not different between systems for 100,000 cycles at the 130-N load. A significant decrease was observed at the 180-N load for ASC, SNC, and IMC, whereas it was maintained for BSC and ILO. The investigated narrow implants presented mechanical performance under fatigue that suggests their safe use as single crowns in the anterior region.

  11. Remote management of heart failure using implantable electronic devices

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, John M.; Kitt, Sue; Gill, Jas; McComb, Janet M.; Ng, Ghulam Andre; Raftery, James; Roderick, Paul; Seed, Alison; Williams, Simon G.; Witte, Klaus K.; Wright, David Jay; Harris, Scott; Cowie, Martin R.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Aims Remote management of heart failure using implantable electronic devices (REM-HF) aimed to assess the clinical and cost-effectiveness of remote monitoring (RM) of heart failure in patients with cardiac implanted electronic devices (CIEDs). Methods and results Between 29 September 2011 and 31 March 2014, we randomly assigned 1650 patients with heart failure and a CIED to active RM or usual care (UC). The active RM pathway included formalized remote follow-up protocols, and UC was standard practice in nine recruiting centres in England. The primary endpoint in the time to event analysis was the 1st event of death from any cause or unplanned hospitalization for cardiovascular reasons. Secondary endpoints included death from any cause, death from cardiovascular reasons, death from cardiovascular reasons and unplanned cardiovascular hospitalization, unplanned cardiovascular hospitalization, and unplanned hospitalization. REM-HF is registered with ISRCTN (96536028). The mean age of the population was 70 years (range 23–98); 86% were male. Patients were followed for a median of 2.8 years (range 0–4.3 years) completing on 31 January 2016. Patient adherence was high with a drop out of 4.3% over the course of the study. The incidence of the primary endpoint did not differ significantly between active RM and UC groups, which occurred in 42.4 and 40.8% of patients, respectively [hazard ratio 1.01; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.87–1.18; P = 0.87]. There were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to any of the secondary endpoints or the time to the primary endpoint components. Conclusion Among patients with heart failure and a CIED, RM using weekly downloads and a formalized follow up approach does not improve outcomes. PMID:28575235

  12. Comparative study of the failure rates among 3 implantable defibrillator leads.

    PubMed

    van Malderen, Sophie C H; Szili-Torok, Tamas; Yap, Sing C; Hoeks, Sanne E; Zijlstra, Felix; Theuns, Dominic A M J

    2016-12-01

    After the introduction of the Biotronik Linox S/SD high-voltage lead, several cases of early failure have been observed. The purpose of this article was to assess the performance of the Linox S/SD lead in comparison to 2 other contemporary leads. We used the prospective Erasmus MC ICD registry to identify all implanted Linox S/SD (n = 408), Durata (St. Jude Medical, model 7122) (n = 340), and Endotak Reliance (Boston Scientific, models 0155, 0138, and 0158) (n = 343) leads. Lead failure was defined by low- or high-voltage impedance, failure to capture, sense or defibrillate, or the presence of nonphysiological signals not due to external interference. During a median follow-up of 5.1 years, 24 Linox (5.9%), 5 Endotak (1.5%), and 5 Durata (1.5%) leads failed. At 5-year follow-up, the cumulative failure rate of Linox leads (6.4%) was higher than that of Endotak (0.4%; P < .0001) and Durata (2.0%; P = .003) leads. The incidence rate was higher in Linox leads (1.3 per 100 patient-years) than in Endotak and Durata leads (0.2 and 0.3 per 100 patient-years, respectively; P < .001). A log-log analysis of the cumulative hazard for Linox leads functioning at 3-year follow-up revealed a stable failure rate of 3% per year. The majority of failures consisted of noise (62.5%) and abnormal impedance (33.3%). This study demonstrates a higher failure rate of Linox S/SD high-voltage leads compared to contemporary leads. Although the mechanism of lead failure is unclear, the majority presents with abnormal electrical parameters. Comprehensive monitoring of Linox S/SD high-voltage leads includes remote monitoring to facilitate early detection of lead failure. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary myopathy with early respiratory failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Health Conditions HMERF Hereditary myopathy with early respiratory failure Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable ... expand/collapse boxes. Description Hereditary myopathy with early respiratory failure ( HMERF ) is an inherited muscle disease that ...

  14. Bruxism and dental implant failures: a multilevel mixed effects parametric survival analysis approach.

    PubMed

    Chrcanovic, B R; Kisch, J; Albrektsson, T; Wennerberg, A

    2016-11-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the insertion of dental implants in patients being diagnosed with bruxism negatively affected the implant failure rates. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between the bruxism and the risk of dental implant failure. This retrospective study is based on 2670 patients who received 10 096 implants at one specialist clinic. Implant- and patient-related data were collected. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the patients and implants. Multilevel mixed effects parametric survival analysis was used to test the association between bruxism and risk of implant failure adjusting for several potential confounders. Criteria from a recent international consensus (Lobbezoo et al., J Oral Rehabil, 40, 2013, 2) and from the International Classification of Sleep Disorders (International classification of sleep disorders, revised: diagnostic and coding manual, American Academy of Sleep Medicine, Chicago, 2014) were used to define and diagnose the condition. The number of implants with information available for all variables totalled 3549, placed in 994 patients, with 179 implants reported as failures. The implant failure rates were 13·0% (24/185) for bruxers and 4·6% (155/3364) for non-bruxers (P < 0·001). The statistical model showed that bruxism was a statistically significantly risk factor to implant failure (HR 3·396; 95% CI 1·314, 8·777; P = 0·012), as well as implant length, implant diameter, implant surface, bone quantity D in relation to quantity A, bone quality 4 in relation to quality 1 (Lekholm and Zarb classification), smoking and the intake of proton pump inhibitors. It is suggested that the bruxism may be associated with an increased risk of dental implant failure. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Remote monitoring to Improve long-term prognosis in heart failure patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Ono, Maki; Varma, Niraj

    2017-05-01

    Strong evidence exists for the utility of remote monitoring in cardiac implantable electronic devices for early detection of arrhythmias and evaluation of system performance. The application of remote monitoring for the management of chronic disease such as heart failure has been an active area of research. Areas covered: This review aims to cover the latest evidence of remote monitoring of implantable cardiac defibrillators in terms of heart failure prognosis. This article also updates the current technology relating to the method and discusses key factors to be addressed in order to better use the approach. PubMed and internet searches were conducted to acquire most recent data and technology information. Expert commentary: Multiparameter monitoring with automatic transmission is useful for heart failure management. Improved adherence to remote monitoring and an optimal algorithm for transmitted alerts and their management are warranted in the management of heart failure.

  16. Modes of failure of Osteonics constrained tripolar implants: a retrospective analysis of forty-three failed implants.

    PubMed

    Guyen, Olivier; Lewallen, David G; Cabanela, Miguel E

    2008-07-01

    The Osteonics constrained tripolar implant has been one of the most commonly used options to manage recurrent instability after total hip arthroplasty. Mechanical failures were expected and have been reported. The purpose of this retrospective review was to identify the observed modes of failure of this device. Forty-three failed Osteonics constrained tripolar implants were revised at our institution between September 1997 and April 2005. All revisions related to the constrained acetabular component only were considered as failures. All of the devices had been inserted for recurrent or intraoperative instability during revision procedures. Seven different methods of implantation were used. Operative reports and radiographs were reviewed to identify the modes of failure. The average time to failure of the forty-three implants was 28.4 months. A total of five modes of failure were observed: failure at the bone-implant interface (type I), which occurred in eleven hips; failure at the mechanisms holding the constrained liner to the metal shell (type II), in six hips; failure of the retaining mechanism of the bipolar component (type III), in ten hips; dislocation of the prosthetic head at the inner bearing of the bipolar component (type IV), in three hips; and infection (type V), in twelve hips. The mode of failure remained unknown in one hip that had been revised at another institution. The Osteonics constrained tripolar total hip arthroplasty implant is a complex device involving many parts. We showed that failure of this device can occur at most of its interfaces. It would therefore appear logical to limit its application to salvage situations.

  17. Polymorphisms of Il-10 (-1082) and RANKL (-438) Genes and the Failure of Dental Implants

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Rodrigo; Melo, Rayanne; Tortamano Neto, Pedro; Vajgel, André

    2017-01-01

    Background. Genetic polymorphisms in certain cytokines and chemokines have been investigated to understand why some individuals display implant flaws despite having few risk factors at the time of implant. Purpose. To investigate the association of genetic polymorphisms in interleukin- (IL-) 10 [-1082 region (A/G)] and RANKL [-438 region (A/G)] with the failure of dental implants. Materials and Methods. This study included 90 partially edentulous male and female patients who were rehabilitated with a total of 245 Straumann dental implants. An implant was considered a failure if any of the following occurred: mobility, persistent subjective complaint, recurrent peri-implant infection with suppuration, continuous radiolucency around the implant, probing depth ≥ 5 mm, and bleeding on probing. Buccal mucosal cells were collected for analysis of RANKL438 and IL-10. Results. The implant success rate in this population was 34.4%. The mutant allele (G) in RANKL had an incidence of 52.3% and mutant allele (A) in IL-10 was observed in 37.8%. No statistically significant difference was detected between the failure of the implant and the genotypes and allelic frequencies. Conclusion. No association was detected between the genetic polymorphisms of RANKL (-438) and IL-10 (-1082) and the failure of dental implants in the population studied. PMID:28348592

  18. Polymorphisms of Il-10 (-1082) and RANKL (-438) Genes and the Failure of Dental Implants.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Rodrigo; Melo, Rayanne; Tortamano Neto, Pedro; Vajgel, André; Souza, Paulo Roberto Eleutério; Cimões, Renata

    2017-01-01

    Background . Genetic polymorphisms in certain cytokines and chemokines have been investigated to understand why some individuals display implant flaws despite having few risk factors at the time of implant. Purpose . To investigate the association of genetic polymorphisms in interleukin- (IL-) 10 [-1082 region (A/G)] and RANKL [-438 region (A/G)] with the failure of dental implants. Materials and Methods . This study included 90 partially edentulous male and female patients who were rehabilitated with a total of 245 Straumann dental implants. An implant was considered a failure if any of the following occurred: mobility, persistent subjective complaint, recurrent peri-implant infection with suppuration, continuous radiolucency around the implant, probing depth ≥ 5 mm, and bleeding on probing. Buccal mucosal cells were collected for analysis of RANKL438 and IL-10 . Results . The implant success rate in this population was 34.4%. The mutant allele (G) in RANKL had an incidence of 52.3% and mutant allele (A) in IL-10 was observed in 37.8%. No statistically significant difference was detected between the failure of the implant and the genotypes and allelic frequencies. Conclusion . No association was detected between the genetic polymorphisms of RANKL (-438) and IL-10 (-1082) and the failure of dental implants in the population studied.

  19. Forensic Study of Early Failures with Unbonded Concrete Overlays

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2017-11-01

    A forensic investigation was conducted to identify failure mechanisms responsible for early failures of unbonded concrete overlays on selected projects in Ohio, including I-70 in Madison County, I-77 in Washington and Noble Counties, and I-90 in Lake...

  20. Is a high serum copper concentration a risk factor for implantation failure?

    PubMed

    Matsubayashi, Hidehiko; Kitaya, Kotaro; Yamaguchi, Kohei; Nishiyama, Rie; Takaya, Yukiko; Ishikawa, Tomomoto

    2017-08-10

    Copper-containing contraceptive devices may deposit copper ions in the endometrium, resulting in implantation failure. The deposition of copper ions in many organs has been reported in patients with untreated Wilson's disease. Since these patients sometimes exhibit subfertility and/or early pregnancy loss, copper ions were also considered to accumulate in the uterine endometrium. Wilson's disease patients treated with zinc successfully delivered babies because zinc interfered with the absorption of copper from the gastrointestinal tract. These findings led to the hypothesis that infertile patients with high serum copper concentrations may have implantation failure due to the excess accumulation of copper ions. The relationship between implantation (pregnancy) rates and serum copper concentrations has not yet been examined. The Japanese government recently stated that actual copper intake was higher among Japanese than needed. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether serum copper concentrations are related to the implantation (pregnancy) rates of human embryos in vivo. We included 269 patients (age <40 years old) who underwent vitrifying and warming single embryo transfer with a hormone replacement cycle using good blastocysts (3BB or more with Gardner's classification). Serum hCG, copper, and zinc concentrations were measured 16 days after the first date of progesterone replacement. We compared 96 women who were pregnant without miscarriage at 10 weeks of gestation (group P) and 173 women who were not pregnant (group NP). No significant differences were observed in age or BMI between the groups. Copper concentrations were significantly higher in group NP (average 193.2 μg/dL) than in group P (average 178.1 μg/dL). According to the area under the curve (AUC) on the receiver operating characteristic curve for the prediction of clinical pregnancy rates, the Cu/Zn ratio (AUC 0.64, 95% CI 0.54-0.71) was a better predictor than copper or

  1. Fracture Resistance and Mode of Failure of Ceramic versus Titanium Implant Abutments and Single Implant-Supported Restorations.

    PubMed

    Sghaireen, Mohd G

    2015-06-01

    The material of choice for implant-supported restorations is affected by esthetic requirements and type of abutment. This study compares the fracture resistance of different types of implant abutments and implant-supported restorations and their mode of failure. Forty-five Oraltronics Pitt-Easy implants (Oraltronics Dental Implant Technology GmbH, Bremen, Germany) (4 mm diameter, 10 mm length) were embedded in clear autopolymerizing acrylic resin. The implants were randomly divided into three groups, A, B and C, of 15 implants each. In group A, titanium abutments and metal-ceramic crowns were used. In group B, zirconia ceramic abutments and In-Ceram Alumina crowns were used. In group C, zirconia ceramic abutments and IPS Empress Esthetic crowns were used. Specimens were tested to failure by applying load at 130° from horizontal plane using an Instron Universal Testing Machine. Subsequently, the mode of failure of each specimen was identified. Fracture resistance was significantly different between groups (p < .05). The highest fracture loads were associated with metal-ceramic crowns supported by titanium abutments (p = .000). IPS Empress crowns supported by zirconia abutments had the lowest fracture loads (p = .000). Fracture modes of metal-ceramic crowns supported by titanium abutments included screw fracture and screw bending. Fracture of both crown and abutment was the dominant mode of failure of In-Ceram/IPS Empress crowns supported by zirconia abutments. Metal-ceramic crowns supported by titanium abutments were more resistant to fracture than In-Ceram crowns supported by zirconia abutments, which in turn were more resistant to fracture than IPS Empress crowns supported by zirconia abutments. In addition, failure modes of restorations supported by zirconia abutments were more catastrophic than those for restorations supported by titanium abutments. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Successful weaning of a left ventricular assist device implanted for ischemic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Beurtheret, Sylvain; Mordant, Pierre; Pavie, Alain; Leprince, Pascal

    2010-10-01

    We report the case of a patient stabilized under extra-corporeal membrane oxygenation after a refractory cardiogenic shock following myocardial infarction. Persistent left ventricular failure required secondary implantation of the left ventricular assist device (LVAD) HeartMate II. LVAD succeeded in the gradual recovery of myocardial contractility, allowing weaning of the device five months after implantation. Simultaneously, the patient beneficiated from coronary revascularization and resumed normal activity. This case emphasizes potential late recoveries after myocardial infarction complicated by left ventricular failure.

  3. [Retrieval and failure analysis of surgical implants in Brazil: the need for proper regulation].

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Cesar R de Farias; Hippert, Eduardo

    2002-01-01

    This paper summarizes several cases of metallurgical failure analysis of surgical implants conducted at the Laboratory of Failure Analysis, Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnológicas (IPT), in Brazil. Failures with two stainless steel femoral compression plates, one stainless steel femoral nail plate, one Ti-6Al-4V alloy maxillary reconstruction plate, and five Nitinol wires were investigated. The results showed that the implants were not in accordance with ISO standards and presented evidence of corrosion-assisted fracture. Furthermore, some of the implants presented manufacturing/processing defects which also contributed to their premature failure. Implantation of materials that are not biocompatible may cause several types of adverse effects in the human body and lead to premature implant failure. A review of prevailing health legislation is needed in Brazil, along with the adoption of regulatory mechanisms to assure the quality of surgical implants on the market, providing for compulsory procedures in the reporting and investigation of surgical implants which have failed in service.

  4. Early pregnancy failure management among family physicians.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Robin; Dehlendorf, Christine; Vittinghoff, Eric; Gold, Katherine J; Dalton, Vanessa K

    2013-03-01

    Family physicians, as primary care providers for reproductive-aged women, frequently initiate or refer patients for management of early pregnancy failure (EPF). Safe and effective options for EPF treatment include expectant management, medical management with misoprostol, and aspiration in the office or operating room. Current practice does not appear to reflect patient preferences or to utilize the most cost-effective treatments. We compared characteristics and practice patterns among family physicians who do and do not provide multiple options for EPF care. We performed a secondary analysis of a national survey of women's health providers to describe demographic and practice characteristics among family physicians who care for women with EPF. We used multivariate logistic regression to identify correlates of providing more than one option for EPF management. The majority of family physicians provide only one option for EPF; expectant management was most frequently used among our survey respondents. Misoprostol and office-based aspiration were rarely used. Providing more than one option for EPF management was associated with more years in practice, smaller county population, larger proportions of Medicaid patients, intrauterine contraception provision, and prior training in office-based aspiration. Family physicians are capable of providing a comprehensive range of options for EPF management in the outpatient setting but few providers currently do so. To create a more patient-centered and cost-effective model of care for EPF, additional resources should be directed at education, skills training, and system change initiatives to prepare family physicians to offer misoprostol and office-based aspiration to women with EPF.

  5. Increased crown-to-implant ratio may not be a risk factor for dental implant failure under appropriate plaque control.

    PubMed

    Okada, Shinsuke; Koretake, Katsunori; Miyamoto, Yasunari; Oue, Hiroshi; Akagawa, Yasumasa

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether increased crown-to-implant (C/I) ratio influences implant stability or not under proper healthy control of peri-implant mucosa. The hypothesis of this study is that implant stability can be maintained despite High C/I, under appropriate plaque control. Five male Beagle-Labrador hybrid dogs (2 years old) were used. Their bilateral mandibular premolar extraction was performed. After allowing 12 weeks for bone healing, 3 types of vertical marginal bone loss were simultaneously prepared randomly. Then, 30 titanium implants were placed in the edentulous areas and defined as High C/I, Mid C/I and Low C/I groups. This time point was designated as the baseline (0 Week). Twelve weeks after implant placement, metal superstructures were cemented to the implants and an occlusal plate was set at the opposite side. At the same time, Calcein green was injected for remodeling evaluation. Implants were loaded by feeding the dogs a hard pellet diet. Tooth brushing was performed 5 days per week during the study to maintain healthy peri-implant mucosa. Twenty-four weeks following implant placement, the interface structure was evaluated clinically, radiologically, and histologically. Implant stability quotient (ISQ) increased with time in all 3 groups, without any significant correlation with the C/I value (p >0.05). Moreover, mean marginal bone loss adjacent around implants in all 3 groups ranged between 0.11 and 0.19 mm, with no significant difference (p >0.05). Many fluorescence-labeled bones are shown in the High C/I group. It is considered that high remodeling activity prevent marginal bone loss in the High C/I group and this may provide favorable implant stability under proper plaque control. These findings suggest that increased C/I may not be a risk factor for implant failure if the peri-implant mucosa is kept healthy, as was the case in this animal model.

  6. The Failure Envelope Concept Applied To The Bone-Dental Implant System.

    PubMed

    Korabi, R; Shemtov-Yona, K; Dorogoy, A; Rittel, D

    2017-05-17

    Dental implants interact with the jawbone through their common interface. While the implant is an inert structure, the jawbone is a living one that reacts to mechanical stimuli. Setting aside mechanical failure considerations of the implant, the bone is the main component to be addressed. With most failure criteria being expressed in terms of stress or strain values, their fulfillment can mean structural flow or fracture. However, in addition to those effects, the bony structure is likely to react biologically to the applied loads by dissolution or remodeling, so that additional (strain-based) criteria must be taken into account. While the literature abounds in studies of particular loading configurations, e.g. angle and value of the applied load to the implant, a general study of the admissible implant loads is still missing. This paper introduces the concept of failure envelopes for the dental implant-jawbone system, thereby defining admissible combinations of vertical and lateral loads for various failure criteria of the jawbone. Those envelopes are compared in terms of conservatism, thereby providing a systematic comparison of the various failure criteria and their determination of the admissible loads.

  7. Fatigue failure of dental implants in simulated intraoral media.

    PubMed

    Shemtov-Yona, K; Rittel, D

    2016-09-01

    Metallic dental implants are exposed to various intraoral environments and repetitive loads during service. Relatively few studies have systematically addressed the potential influence of the environment on the mechanical integrity of the implants, which is therefore the subject of this study. Four media (groups) were selected for room temperature testing, namely dry air, saliva substitute, same with 250ppm of fluoride, and saline solution (0.9%). Monolithic Ti-6Al-4V implants were loaded until fracture, using random spectrum loading. The study reveals that the only aggressive medium of all is the saline solution, as it shortens significantly the spectrum fatigue life of the implants. The quantitative scanning electron fractographic analysis indicates that all the tested implants grew fatigue cracks of similar lengths prior to catastrophic fracture. However, the average crack growth rate in the saline medium was found to largely exceed that in other media, suggesting a decreased fracture toughness. The notion of a characteristic timescale for environmental degradation was proposed to explain the results of our spectrum tests that blend randomly low and high cycle fatigue. Random spectrum fatigue testing is powerful technique to assess and compare the mechanical performance of dental implants for various designs and/or environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Clinical outcomes of immediate/early loading of dental implants. A literature review of recent controlled prospective clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Sennerby, L; Gottlow, J

    2008-06-01

    Two previous reviews have evaluated the clinical outcomes of immediate/early loading of dental implants based on studies published until 2005.(1,2) The aim of the present paper was to review controlled clinical studies on the subject published since 2005 including at least 10 patients in each group followed for at least one year in function. Six comparative studies were found and none of these showed any differences in survival rates or marginal bone loss after one to five years. Most authors used specified inclusion criteria to avoid known risk factors such as soft bone, short implants and bruxism. Data from one randomized study in the edentulous maxilla showed no differences between early and delayed loading in consecutive clinical routine cases including short implants and soft bone. Three additional studies comparing different surfaces or implant designs under immediate loading were reviewed. No differences between implants with a moderately rough or smooth surface topography were observed. The data add to the previous bulk of evidence that various designs of implants can be loaded shortly after their placement in both the mandible and the maxilla. However, one study reported on marginal bone loss around a novel one-piece implant design leading to implant failure which was not seen for control two-piece implants.(3).

  9. A computational method for comparing the behavior and possible failure of prosthetic implants

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, C.; Hollerbach, K.; Perfect, S.

    1995-05-01

    Prosthetic joint implants currently in use exhibit high Realistic computer modeling of prosthetic implants provides an opportunity for orthopedic biomechanics researchers and physicians to understand possible in vivo failure modes, without having to resort to lengthy and costly clinical trials. The research presented here is part of a larger effort to develop realistic models of implanted joint prostheses. The example used here is the thumb carpo-metacarpal (cmc) joint. The work, however, can be applied to any other human joints for which prosthetic implants have been designed. Preliminary results of prosthetic joint loading, without surrounding human tissue (i.e., simulating conditions undermore » which the prosthetic joint has not yet been implanted into the human joint), are presented, based on a three-dimensional, nonlinear finite element analysis of three different joint implant designs.« less

  10. Implant failure and history of failed endodontic treatment: A retrospective case-control study.

    PubMed

    Chatzopoulos, Georgios S; Wolff, Larry F

    2017-11-01

    Residual bacterial biofilm and/or bacteria in planktonic form may be survived in the bone following an extraction of an infected tooth that was endodontically treated unsuccessfully Failed endodontic treatment may be associated with failure of implants to osseointegrate in the same sites. Therefore, the aim of this retrospective case-control study is to examine the risk of implant failure in previous failed endodontic sites. This retrospective case-control study is based on 94 dental records of implants placed at the University of Minnesota School of Dentistry. Dental records of patients who received an implant in sites with previously failed endodontic therapy in the dental school were identified from the electronic database, while control subjects were obtained from the same pool of patients with the requirement to have received an implant in a site that was not endodontically treated. The mean age of the population was 62.89±14.17 years with 57.4% of the sample being females and 42.6% of them being males. In regards to the socio-economic status and dental insurance, 84.0% of this population was classified as low socio-economic status and 68.1% had dental insurance. Tobacco use was self-reported by 9.6% and hypercholesterolemia was the most prevalent systemic medical condition. Dental implant failure was identified in two of the included records (2.1%), both of which were placed in sites with a history of failed endodontic treatment. Within the limitations of this retrospective case-control study, further investigation with a larger population group into implant failure of sites that previously had unsuccessful endodontic treatment would be warranted. Implant failure may be associated with a history of failed endodontic treatment. Key words: Implantology, endodontics, osseointegration, treatment outcome, case-control study.

  11. Intraoperative Transesophageal Echocardiography and Right Ventricular Failure After Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation.

    PubMed

    Silverton, Natalie A; Patel, Ravi; Zimmerman, Josh; Ma, Jianing; Stoddard, Greg; Selzman, Craig; Morrissey, Candice K

    2018-02-15

    To determine whether intraoperative measures of right ventricular (RV) function using transesophageal echocardiography are associated with subsequent RV failure after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation. Retrospective, nonrandomized, observational study. Single tertiary-level, university-affiliated hospital. The study comprised 100 patients with systolic heart failure undergoing elective LVAD implantation. Transesophageal echocardiographic images before and after cardiopulmonary bypass were analyzed to quantify RV function using tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (TAPSE), tricuspid annular systolic velocity (S'), fractional area change (FAC), RV global longitudinal strain, and RV free wall strain. A chart review was performed to determine which patients subsequently developed RV failure (right ventricular assist device placement or prolonged inotrope requirement ≥14 days). Nineteen patients (19%) subsequently developed RV failure. Postbypass FAC was the only measure of RV function that distinguished between the RV failure and non-RV failure groups (21.2% v 26.5%; p = 0.04). The sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve of an abnormal RV FAC (<35%) for RV failure after LVAD implantation were 84%, 20%, and 0.52, respectively. No other intraoperative measure of RV function was associated with subsequent RV failure. RV failure increased ventilator time, intensive care unit and hospital length of stay, and mortality. Intraoperative measures of RV function such as tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion, tricuspid annular systolic velocity, and RV strain were not associated with RV failure after LVAD implantation. Decreased postbypass FAC was significantly associated with RV failure but showed poor discrimination. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Calculation of the ALMA Risk of Right Ventricular Failure After Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation.

    PubMed

    Loforte, Antonio; Montalto, Andrea; Musumeci, Francesco; Amarelli, Cristiano; Mariani, Carlo; Polizzi, Vincenzo; Lilla Della Monica, Paola; Grigioni, Francesco; Di Bartolomeo, Roberto; Marinelli, Giuseppe

    2018-05-08

    Right ventricular failure after continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation is still an unsolved issue and remains a life-threatening event for patients. We undertook this study to determine predictors of the patients who are candidates for isolated LVAD therapy as opposed to biventricular support (BVAD). We reviewed demographic, echocardiographic, hemodynamic, and laboratory variables for 258 patients who underwent both isolated LVAD implantation and unplanned BVAD because of early right ventricular failure after LVAD insertion, between 2006 and 2017 (LVAD = 170 and BVAD = 88). The final study patients were randomly divided into derivation (79.8%, n = 206) and validation (20.1%, n = 52) cohorts. Fifty-seven preoperative risk factors were compared between patients who were successfully managed with an LVAD and those who required a BVAD. Nineteen variables demonstrated statistical significance on univariable analysis. Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified destination therapy (odds ratio [OR] 2.0 [1.7-3.9], p = 0.003), a pulmonary artery pulsatility index <2 (OR 3.3 [1.7-6.1], p = 0.001), a right ventricle/left ventricle end-diastolic diameter ratio >0.75 (OR 2.7 [1.5-5.5], p = 0.001), an right ventricle stroke work index <300 mm Hg/ml/m (OR 4.3 [2.5-7.3], p < 0.001), and a United Network for Organ Sharing modified Model for End-Stage Liver Disease Excluding INR score >17 (OR 3.5 [1.9-6.9], p < 0.001) as the major predictors of the need for BVAD. Using these data, we propose a simple risk calculator to determine the suitability of patients for isolated LVAD support in the era of continuous-flow mechanical circulatory support devices.

  13. Preventing Early Reading Failure: An Argument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Darrell

    2015-01-01

    Across the pendulum-like changes in beginning reading instruction over the past 30 years, three interrelated ideas emerge as the key to preventing reading failure in kindergarten and first grade: (1) an interesting, carefully-leveled book curriculum; (2) a leveled phonics curriculum; and (3) a well-trained teacher who knows how to integrate guided…

  14. Biodegradable Magnesium (Mg) Implantation Does Not Impose Related Metabolic Disorders in Rats with Chronic Renal Failure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiali; Xu, Jiankun; Liu, Waiching; Li, Yangde; Qin, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Mg and its alloys have been considered as one of the most promising biodegradable medical devices, but it was still unclear whether hypermagnesemia involved health risks would occur in persons with kidney disease due to their deteriorated kidney function for Mg ions excretion from their body. In this study, we established a chronic renal failure (CRF) model in rats induced by adenine administration prior to Mg implantation, aiming to predict if CRF patients are suitable for the use of Mg implants. The results showed that Mg levels in serum, urine, feces and internal organs had no significant changes after Mg implantation for both normal and CRF rats. Biochemical indices detection and histopathological analysis in kidney, liver and heart tissue confirmed that Mg implants did not induce any extra damage in animals even with renal failure. Our study indicates that Mg based orthopaedic medical device may be considered for use in CRF patients without biosafety concerns. PMID:27210744

  15. Biodegradable Magnesium (Mg) Implantation Does Not Impose Related Metabolic Disorders in Rats with Chronic Renal Failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiali; Xu, Jiankun; Liu, Waiching; Li, Yangde; Qin, Ling

    2016-05-01

    Mg and its alloys have been considered as one of the most promising biodegradable medical devices, but it was still unclear whether hypermagnesemia involved health risks would occur in persons with kidney disease due to their deteriorated kidney function for Mg ions excretion from their body. In this study, we established a chronic renal failure (CRF) model in rats induced by adenine administration prior to Mg implantation, aiming to predict if CRF patients are suitable for the use of Mg implants. The results showed that Mg levels in serum, urine, feces and internal organs had no significant changes after Mg implantation for both normal and CRF rats. Biochemical indices detection and histopathological analysis in kidney, liver and heart tissue confirmed that Mg implants did not induce any extra damage in animals even with renal failure. Our study indicates that Mg based orthopaedic medical device may be considered for use in CRF patients without biosafety concerns.

  16. Neuropsychiatric symptoms following metal-on-metal implant failure with cobalt and chromium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Green, Ben; Griffiths, Emily; Almond, Solomon

    2017-01-24

    There were at least 31,171 metal-on-metal (MoM) hip implants in the UK between 2003 and 2011. Some of these were subject to failure and widescale recalls and revisions followed. This is a presentation of ten cases (mean age 60 years) where we evaluated neuropsychiatric morbidity following metal-on-metal hip implant failure and revision. Implants were ASR total hip replacement (acetabular implant, taper sleeve adaptor and unipolar femoral implants) performed between 2005 and 2009. This case series describes, for the first time, neuropsychiatric complications after revision where there has been cobalt and chromium toxicity. Pre-revision surgery, nine patients had toxic levels of chromium and cobalt (mean level chromium 338 nmol/l, mean cobalt 669.4 nmol/l). Depression assessment showed 9 of 9 respondents fulfilled the BDI criteria for depression and 3 of these were being treated. 7 of 9 patients showing short term memory deficit with mean mini mental state examination score of 24.2. The normal population mean MMSE for this group would be expected to be 28 with <25 indicating possible dementia. We found neurocognitive and depressive deficits after cobalt and chromium metallosis following MoM implant failure. Larger studies of neurocognitive effects are indicated in this group. There may be implications for public health.

  17. Immediate versus early loading of two implants placed with a flapless technique supporting mandibular bar-retained overdentures: a single-blinded, randomised controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Cannizzaro, Gioacchino; Leone, Michele; Esposito, Marco

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of immediate loading versus early loading at 6 weeks of bar-retained mandibular overdentures supported by two implants placed with a flapless technique. Sixty patients were randomised: 30 to the immediately loaded group and 30 to the early loaded group. To be immediately loaded, implants had to be inserted with a minimum torque > 48 Ncm. Outcome measures were prosthesis and implant failures, biological and biomechanical complications, patient satisfaction, and Implant Stability Quotient (ISQ) assessed with a resonance frequency analysis instrument. Sixty implants were placed in each group. Flaps had to be raised in nine patients to check drill direction or to better visualise the area after multiple teeth extraction. Two implants in two patients did not reach the planned insertion torque and were immediately replaced by larger diameters ones. After 1 year no drop out occurred and two early loaded implants failed in two patients. There were no statistically significant differences between groups for prosthesis failures, implant losses, complications, and mean ISQ values; however, patients in the immediately loaded group were significantly more satisfied than those loaded early. When comparing mean ISQ values taken 6 weeks after placement with 1-year data within each group, values decreased significantly. Mandibular overdentures can be successfully loaded the same day of implant placement with a minimally invasive surgery, increasing patient satisfaction while decreasing treatment time and patient discomfort. No apparent advantages were seen when loading the overdentures at 6 weeks.

  18. Does early reading failure decrease children's reading motivation?

    PubMed

    Morgan, Paul L; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L; Cordray, David S; Fuchs, Lynn S

    2008-01-01

    The authors used a pretest-posttest control group design with random assignment to evaluate whether early reading failure decreases children's motivation to practice reading. First, they investigated whether 60 first-grade children would report substantially different levels of interest in reading as a function of their relative success or failure in learning to read. Second, they evaluated whether increasing the word reading ability of 15 at-risk children would lead to gains in their motivation to read. Multivariate analyses of variance suggest marked differences in both motivation and reading practice between skilled and unskilled readers. However, bolstering at-risk children's word reading ability did not yield evidence of a causal relationship between early reading failure and decreased motivation to engage in reading activities. Instead, hierarchical regression analyses indicate a covarying relationship among early reading failure, poor motivation, and avoidance of reading.

  19. Does Bruxism Contribute to Dental Implant Failure? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yi; Gao, Jinxia; Luo, Le; Wang, Yining

    2016-04-01

    Bruxism was usually considered as a contraindication for oral implanting. The causal relationship between bruxism and dental implant failure was remained controversial in existing literatures. This meta-analysis was performed to investigate the relationship between them. This review conducted an electronic systematic literature search in MEDLINE (PubMed) and EmBase in November 2013 without time and language restrictions. Meanwhile, a hand searching for all the relevant references of included studies was also conducted. Study information extraction and methodological quality assessments were accomplished by two reviewers independently. A discussion ensued if any disagreement occurred, and unresolved issues were solved by consulting a third reviewer. Methodological quality was assessed by using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale tool. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was pooled to estimate the relative effect of bruxism on dental implant failures. Fixed effects model was used initially; if the heterogeneity was high, random effects model was chosen for meta-analysis. Statistical analyses were carried out by using Review Manager 5.1. In this meta-analysis review, extracted data were classified into two groups based on different units. Units were based on the number of prostheses (group A) and the number of patients (group B). In group A, the total pooled OR of bruxers versus nonbruxers for all subgroups was 4.72 (95% CI: 2.66-8.36, p = .07). In group B, the total pooled OR of bruxers versus nonbruxers for all subgroups was 3.83 (95% CI: 2.12-6.94, p = .22). This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate the relationship between bruxism and dental implant failure. In contrast to nonbruxers, prostheses in bruxers had a higher failure rate. It suggests that bruxism is a contributing factor of causing the occurrence of dental implant technical/biological complications and plays a role in dental implant failure. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Overview of implantable cardioverter defibrillator and cardiac resynchronisation therapy in heart failure management

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Pow-Li; Foo, David

    2016-01-01

    Clinical trials have established the benefits of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) and cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) in the treatment of heart failure patients. As adjuncts to guideline-directed medical therapy, ICDs confer mortality benefits from sudden cardiac arrest, while CRT reduces mortality, hospitalisation rates and improves functional capacity. This review discusses the use of ICDs and CRT devices in heart failure management, outlining the evidence supporting their use, indications and contraindications. PMID:27440409

  1. Early Failures Benefit Subsequent Task Performance.

    PubMed

    Igata, Hideyoshi; Sasaki, Takuya; Ikegaya, Yuji

    2016-02-17

    Animals navigate using cognitive maps. However, how they adaptively exploit these maps in changing environments is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the problem-solving behaviors of mice in a complicated maze in which multiple routes with different intersections were available (Test 1). Although all mice eventually settled on the shortest route, mice that initially exhibited more trial-and-error exploration solved the maze more rapidly. We then introduced one or two barriers that obstructed learned routes such that mice had to establish novel roundabout detours (Tests 2/3). Solutions varied among mice but were predictable based on individual early trial-and-error patterns observed in Test 1: mice that had initially explored more extensively found better solutions. Finally, when the barriers were removed (Test 4), all mice reverted to the best solution after active exploration. Thus, early active exploration helps mice to develop optimal strategies.

  2. [The Development and Application of the Orthopaedics Implants Failure Database Software Based on WEB].

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiahua; Zhou, Hai; Zhang, Binbin; Ding, Biao

    2015-09-01

    This article develops a new failure database software for orthopaedics implants based on WEB. The software is based on B/S mode, ASP dynamic web technology is used as its main development language to achieve data interactivity, Microsoft Access is used to create a database, these mature technologies make the software extend function or upgrade easily. In this article, the design and development idea of the software, the software working process and functions as well as relative technical features are presented. With this software, we can store many different types of the fault events of orthopaedics implants, the failure data can be statistically analyzed, and in the macroscopic view, it can be used to evaluate the reliability of orthopaedics implants and operations, it also can ultimately guide the doctors to improve the clinical treatment level.

  3. Does autoimmunity play a role in the risk of implantation failures?

    PubMed

    Motak-Pochrzest, Hanna; Malinowski, Andrzej

    2018-02-01

    158 non-pregnant women with recurrent implantation failures after IVF/ET procedures were tested for peripheral blood autoimmune profile. The control group consisted of 76 patients after first successful IVF procedure and pregnancy outcome. The objective of this study was to investigate different autoantibodies peripheral blood profile after excluding anatomical, endocrinological, endometrial and genetic disorders and to estimate the risk of implantation failures. The study's including criteria were 1.indications for IVF/ET determined by male factor and unexplained infertility 2. absence of implantation after two consecutive cycles of IVF, ICSI or frozen embryo replacement cycles. The presence of ANA in the sera increased the risk of RIF after ET/IVF procedures, especially in older patients. Patients with RIF have a higher frequency of the presence of autoantibodies ACA IgG, IgM and anti-β2GP I IgG in the sera than in patients with successful pregnancies after IVF/ET procedures.

  4. Incidence and Determinants of Dental Implant Failure: A Review of Electronic Health Records in a U.S. Dental School.

    PubMed

    Hickin, Matthew Parker; Shariff, Jaffer A; Jennette, Philip J; Finkelstein, Joseph; Papapanou, Panos N

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to use electronic health care records (EHRs) to examine retrospectively the incidence of and attributes associated with dental implant failures necessitating implant removal in a large cohort of patients treated in the student clinics of a U.S. dental school over three and a half years. EHRs were searched for all patients who received dental implants between July 1, 2011, and December 31, 2014. Characteristics of patients and implants that were actively removed due to irrevocable failure of any etiology ("failure cohort") during this period were compared to those of all other patients who received dental implants during the same time frame ("reference cohort"). Differences in the frequency distribution of various characteristics between the failure and reference cohorts were compared. Of a total 6,129 implants placed in 2,127 patients during the study period, 179 implants (2.9%) in 120 patients (5.6%) were removed. In the multivariate analysis, presence of a removable (OR=2.86) or fixed temporary prosthesis (OR=3.71) was statistically significantly associated with increased risk for implant failure. In contrast, antibiotic coverage (pre- and post-surgery OR=0.16; post-surgery only OR=0.38) and implants of certain manufacturers were associated with lower risk of implant failure. In this sizeable cohort of patients receiving care in dental student clinics, the review of EHRs facilitated identification of multiple variables associated with implant failure resulting in removal; however, these findings do not suggest causative relationships. The adopted analytical approach can enhance quality assurance measures and may contribute to the identification of true risk factors for dental implant failure.

  5. Reduced Anxiety and Depression in Patients With Advanced Heart Failure After Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation.

    PubMed

    Yost, Gardner; Bhat, Geetha; Mahoney, Edward; Tatooles, Antone

    Despite the high prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients with advanced heart failure, the effects of left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation on these critically important aspects of mental health are not well understood. We sought to assess changes in depression and anxiety following LVAD implantation. The Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) were administered to 54 patients by a clinical psychologist at a mean of 12 days before LVAD implantation and 251 days after implantation. Patient demographics and clinical data were collected concurrently to psychologic testing. Changes in BDI-II, BAI, and clinical markers of heart failure were assessed using paired t-tests. A p < 0.05 was considered significant. The average age of the group was 56.63 years with a mean ejection fraction 20.8%. Before implantation, mean BAI and BDI scores indicated mild depression and anxiety. Following LVAD implantation, average scores for both BDI-II and BAI decreased significantly, indicating minimal depression and anxiety (12.6-8.54, p = 0.001 and 12.06-6.6, p < 0.001, respectively). Mean scores were significantly lowered in 11 and 8 of the 21 subdomains tested by the BAI and BDI, respectively. Significant improvements were noted in post-LVAD B-type natriuretic peptide, serum sodium, and blood urea nitrogen. Depression and anxiety scores improved significantly after LVAD implantation. Factors contributing to changes in depression and anxiety after LVAD could be related to the improvement in acute heart failure symptoms, functional capacity, and quality of life. Prospective studies with larger sample sizes are warranted. Copyright © 2017 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Total artificial heart implantation for biventricular failure due to eosinophilic myocarditis.

    PubMed

    Kawabori, Masashi; Kurihara, Chitaru; Miller, Yair; Heck, Kent A; Bogaev, Roberta C; Civitello, Andrew B; Cohn, William E; Frazier, O H; Morgan, Jeffrey A

    2017-09-01

    Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome is a condition of unknown etiology characterized by proliferation of eosinophils and their infiltration into tissues. Although cardiac involvement is rare, eosinophilic myocarditis can lead to life-threating fulminant congestive heart failure. Treatment of patients with eosinophilic myocarditis is challenging as heart failure can be caused by biventricular dysfunction. To our knowledge, this is the first case reported in the literature describing a patient with acute severe biventricular heart failure caused by eosinophilic myocarditis with mural left ventricular apical thrombus who was successfully treated with implantation of a total artificial heart as a bridge to heart transplant.

  7. Effect of anabolic implants on adrenal cortisol synthesis in feedlot beef cattle implanted early or late in the finishing phase.

    PubMed

    Gifford, C A; Branham, K A; Ellison, J O; Gómez, B I; Lemley, C O; Hart, C G; Krehbiel, C R; Bernhard, B C; Maxwell, C L; Goad, C L; Hallford, D M; Hernandez Gifford, J A

    2015-01-01

    Implantation of anabolic steroids to increase growth rate in beef cattle impacts adrenal glucocorticoid production. The mechanism by which combination androgen and estrogen implants reduce cortisol biosynthesis in heifers is not clear. The objective of this study was to identify whether pituitary or adrenal gene expression and liver enzyme activity may contribute to altered serum cortisol concentrations in heifers receiving a combination implant. On d 0 of a 122-d finishing phase, 187 predominantly Angus heifers (361 kg) approximately 14 months old were randomly assigned to one of three implant groups: (1) non-implanted control, (2) implanted at the beginning of the finishing phase (d 0; early implant) with a combination implant (200mg TBA+20mg E2; Revalor 200®), and (3) implanted during the late stage of the finishing phase (d 56; late implant) with Revalor 200®. At d 56, body weight (BW) was greater (P<0.0001) for the early implanted heifers (456 ± 1.9 kg) compared to 437 and 435 (± 1.8) kg for control and late implanted heifers, respectively. Final BW (d 122) was similar between both implanted groups and heavier than non-implanted controls (P<0.0001). Serum cortisol was similar among groups at d 0 (P=0.86) however, by d 28 heifers receiving the combination implant had reduced (P<0.05) serum cortisol concentrations (31.2 ng/mL) compared to controls (49.4 ng/mL) and late (48.2 ng/mL) groups. On d 84 cortisol was similar (P=0.75) among implanted heifers and was less (P<0.01) than non-implanted heifers. Expression of pituitary and adrenal genes involved in glucocorticoid synthesis was evaluated at d 28/29 or 84/85; however, despite decreased serum cortisol in implanted heifers, no change in mRNA expression was demonstrated. Liver CYP3A enzyme activity at d 28/29 was decreased 59% in early implanted heifers compared to control heifers (P=0.01). Additionally, at d 84/85 AKR1C activity was greatest (P=0.01) in control heifers compared to both implanted groups. Data

  8. Disease management: remote monitoring in heart failure patients with implantable defibrillators, resynchronization devices, and haemodynamic monitors.

    PubMed

    Abraham, William T

    2013-06-01

    Heart failure represents a major public health concern, associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. A particular focus of contemporary heart failure management is reduction of hospital admission and readmission rates. While optimal medical therapy favourably impacts the natural history of the disease, devices such as cardiac resynchronization therapy devices and implantable cardioverter defibrillators have added incremental value in improving heart failure outcomes. These devices also enable remote patient monitoring via device-based diagnostics. Device-based measurement of physiological parameters, such as intrathoracic impedance and heart rate variability, provide a means to assess risk of worsening heart failure and the possibility of future hospitalization. Beyond this capability, implantable haemodynamic monitors have the potential to direct day-to-day management of heart failure patients to significantly reduce hospitalization rates. The use of a pulmonary artery pressure measurement system has been shown to significantly reduce the risk of heart failure hospitalization in a large randomized controlled study, the CardioMEMS Heart Sensor Allows Monitoring of Pressure to Improve Outcomes in NYHA Class III Heart Failure Patients (CHAMPION) trial. Observations from a pilot study also support the potential use of a left atrial pressure monitoring system and physician-directed patient self-management paradigm; these observations are under further investigation in the ongoing LAPTOP-HF trial. All these devices depend upon high-intensity remote monitoring for successful detection of parameter deviations and for directing and following therapy.

  9. Early Sign Language Exposure and Cochlear Implantation Benefits.

    PubMed

    Geers, Ann E; Mitchell, Christine M; Warner-Czyz, Andrea; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Eisenberg, Laurie S

    2017-07-01

    Most children with hearing loss who receive cochlear implants (CI) learn spoken language, and parents must choose early on whether to use sign language to accompany speech at home. We address whether parents' use of sign language before and after CI positively influences auditory-only speech recognition, speech intelligibility, spoken language, and reading outcomes. Three groups of children with CIs from a nationwide database who differed in the duration of early sign language exposure provided in their homes were compared in their progress through elementary grades. The groups did not differ in demographic, auditory, or linguistic characteristics before implantation. Children without early sign language exposure achieved better speech recognition skills over the first 3 years postimplant and exhibited a statistically significant advantage in spoken language and reading near the end of elementary grades over children exposed to sign language. Over 70% of children without sign language exposure achieved age-appropriate spoken language compared with only 39% of those exposed for 3 or more years. Early speech perception predicted speech intelligibility in middle elementary grades. Children without sign language exposure produced speech that was more intelligible (mean = 70%) than those exposed to sign language (mean = 51%). This study provides the most compelling support yet available in CI literature for the benefits of spoken language input for promoting verbal development in children implanted by 3 years of age. Contrary to earlier published assertions, there was no advantage to parents' use of sign language either before or after CI. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Relationship between sponsorship and failure rate of dental implants: a systematic approach.

    PubMed

    Popelut, Antoine; Valet, Fabien; Fromentin, Olivier; Thomas, Aurélie; Bouchard, Philippe

    2010-04-21

    The number of dental implant treatments increases annually. Dental implants are manufactured by competing companies. Systematic reviews and meta-analysis have shown a clear association between pharmaceutical industry funding of clinical trials and pro-industry results. So far, the impact of industry sponsorship on the outcomes and conclusions of dental implant clinical trials has never been explored. The aim of the present study was to examine financial sponsorship of dental implant trials, and to evaluate whether research funding sources may affect the annual failure rate. A systematic approach was used to identify systematic reviews published between January 1993 and December 2008 that specifically deal with the length of survival of dental implants. Primary articles were extracted from these reviews. The failure rate of the dental implants included in the trials was calculated. Data on publication year, Impact Factor, prosthetic design, periodontal status reporting, number of dental implants included in the trials, methodological quality of the studies, presence of a statistical advisor, and financial sponsorship were extracted by two independent reviewers (kappa = 0.90; CI(95%) [0.77-1.00]). Univariate quasi-Poisson regression models and multivariate analysis were used to identify variables that were significantly associated with failure rates. Five systematic reviews were identified from which 41 analyzable trials were extracted. The mean annual failure rate estimate was 1.09%.(CI(95%) [0.84-1.42]). The funding source was not reported in 63% of the trials (26/41). Sixty-six percent of the trials were considered as having a risk of bias (27/41). Given study age, both industry associated (OR = 0.21; CI(95%) [0.12-0.38]) and unknown funding source trials (OR = 0.33; (CI(95%) [0.21-0.51]) had a lower annual failure rates compared with non-industry associated trials. A conflict of interest statement was disclosed in 2 trials. When controlling for other factors, the

  11. Relationship between Sponsorship and Failure Rate of Dental Implants: A Systematic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Popelut, Antoine; Valet, Fabien; Fromentin, Olivier; Thomas, Aurélie; Bouchard, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Background The number of dental implant treatments increases annually. Dental implants are manufactured by competing companies. Systematic reviews and meta-analysis have shown a clear association between pharmaceutical industry funding of clinical trials and pro-industry results. So far, the impact of industry sponsorship on the outcomes and conclusions of dental implant clinical trials has never been explored. The aim of the present study was to examine financial sponsorship of dental implant trials, and to evaluate whether research funding sources may affect the annual failure rate. Methods and Findings A systematic approach was used to identify systematic reviews published between January 1993 and December 2008 that specifically deal with the length of survival of dental implants. Primary articles were extracted from these reviews. The failure rate of the dental implants included in the trials was calculated. Data on publication year, Impact Factor, prosthetic design, periodontal status reporting, number of dental implants included in the trials, methodological quality of the studies, presence of a statistical advisor, and financial sponsorship were extracted by two independent reviewers (kappa  = 0.90; CI95% [0.77–1.00]). Univariate quasi-Poisson regression models and multivariate analysis were used to identify variables that were significantly associated with failure rates. Five systematic reviews were identified from which 41 analyzable trials were extracted. The mean annual failure rate estimate was 1.09%.(CI95% [0.84–1.42]). The funding source was not reported in 63% of the trials (26/41). Sixty-six percent of the trials were considered as having a risk of bias (27/41). Given study age, both industry associated (OR = 0.21; CI95% [0.12–0.38]) and unknown funding source trials (OR = 0.33; (CI95% [0.21–0.51]) had a lower annual failure rates compared with non-industry associated trials. A conflict of interest statement was disclosed in 2

  12. Outcomes of patients with right ventricular failure on milrinone after left ventricular assist device implantation.

    PubMed

    Tsiouris, Athanasios; Paone, Gaetano; Brewer, Robert J; Nemeh, Hassan W; Borgi, Jamil; Morgan, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have grouped together both patients requiring right ventricular assist devices (RVADs) with patients requiring prolonged milrinone therapy after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation. We retrospectively identified 149 patients receiving LVADs and 18 (12.1%) of which developed right ventricular (RV) failure. We then separated these patients into those requiring RVADs versus prolonged milrinone therapy. This included 10 patients who were treated with prolonged milrinone and eight patients who underwent RVAD placement. Overall, the RV failure group had worse survival compared with the non-RV failure cohort (p = 0.038). However, this was only for the subgroup of patients who required RVADs, who had a 1, 6, 12, and 24 month survival of 62.5%, 37.5%, 37.5%, and 37.5%, respectively, versus 96.8%, 92.1%, 86.7%, and 84.4% for patients without RV failure (p < 0.001). Patients treated with prolonged milrinone therapy for RV failure had similar survivals compared with patients without RV failure. In the RV failure group, age, preoperative renal failure, and previous cardiac surgery were predictors of the need for prolonged postoperative milrinone. As LVADs become a more widely used therapy for patients with refractory, end-stage heart failure, it will be important to reduce the incidence of RV failure, as it yields significant morbidity and increases cost.

  13. Uterine Deletion of Gp130 or Stat3 Shows Implantation Failure with Increased Estrogenic Responses

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xiaofei; Bartos, Amanda; Whitsett, Jeffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), a downstream target of estrogen, is essential for implantation in mice. LIF function is thought to be mediated by its binding to LIF receptor (LIFR) and recruitment of coreceptor GP130 (glycoprotein 130), and this receptor complex then activates signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)1/3. However, the importance of LIFR and GP130 acting via STAT3 in implantation remains uncertain, because constitutive inactivation of Lifr, Gp130, or Stat3 shows embryonic lethality in mice. To address this issue, we generated mice with conditional deletion of uterine Gp130 or Stat3 and show that both GP130 and STAT3 are critical for uterine receptivity and implantation. Implantation failure in these deleted mice is associated with higher uterine estrogenic responses prior to the time of implantation. These heightened estrogenic responses are not due to changes in ovarian hormone levels or expression of their nuclear receptors. In the deleted mice, estrogen-responsive gene, Lactoferrin (Ltf), and Mucin 1 protein, were up-regulated in the uterus. In addition, progesterone-responsive genes, Hoxa10 and Indian hedgehog (Ihh), were markedly down-regulated in STAT3-inactivated uteri. These changes in uteri of deleted mice were reflected by the failure of differentiation of the luminal epithelium, which is essential for blastocyst attachment. PMID:23885093

  14. Immediate versus early non-occlusal loading of dental implants placed flapless in partially edentulous patients: a 3-year randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Merli, Mauro; Moscatelli, Marco; Mariotti, Giorgia; Piemontese, Matteo; Nieri, Michele

    2012-02-01

    To compare immediate versus early non-occlusal loading of dental implants placed flapless in a 3-year, parallel group, randomized clinical trial. The study was conducted in a private dental clinic between July 2005 and July 2010. Patients 18 years or older were randomized to receive implants for fixed partial dentures in cases of partial edentulism. The test group was represented by immediate non-occlusal implant loading, whereas the control group was represented by early non-occlusal implant loading. The outcome variables were implant failure, complications and radiographic bone level at implant sites 3 years after loading, measured from the implant-abutment junction to the most coronal point of bone-to-implant contact. Randomization was computer-generated with allocation concealment by opaque sequentially numbered sealed envelopes, and the measurer was blinded to group assignment. Sixty patients were randomized: 30 to the immediately loaded group and 30 to the early loaded group. Four patients dropped out; however, the data of all patients were included in the analysis. No implant failure occurred. Two complications occurred in the control group and one in the test group. The mean bone level at 3 years was 1.91 mm for test group and 1.59 mm for control group. The adjusted difference in bone level was 0.26 mm (CI 95% -0.08 to 0.59, p = 0.1232). The null hypothesis of no difference in failure rates, complications and bone level between implants that were loaded immediately or early at 3 years cannot be rejected in this randomized clinical trial. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Survival of Implants in Immediate Extraction Sockets of Anterior Teeth: Early Clinical Results

    PubMed Central

    Sabir, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background The aims and objectives of this study were placement of implants in freshly extracted sockets of anterior teeth and to evaluate the implant stability, peri-implant radiolucency and gingival inflammation around implant over a short period of 30 months. Materials and Methods A total of 12 patients (8 male and 4 female), ranging in the age from 20 to 50 years, from March 2007 to June 2007, were evaluated for immediate implant placement into 22 fresh extraction sockets. Only maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth/roots (central incisors, lateral incisors and canines) were considered for replacement with implants. One piece implant with integrated abutment and integrated surface, non-submerged, threaded and tapered at apical 5 mm, sand-blasted and acid etched surfaced implants (HI-TEC TRX-OP Implants of Life Care Company) were used. Results The mobility was not present in any of the implants at all the follow up visits. There were 2 implants at 6 month, 1 implant at 12 month, 1 implant at 18 month visits, showing peri-implant radiolucency at some sites at bone to implant contact site. Severe gingival inflammation was not observed in any of the implant site. At every follow-up visit, every implant met the criteria of success and none was found to be failed over a 30 months duration i.e. 100% success rate was achieved by implants in immediate extraction socket. Conclusion The success rate of implant survival in this study was found 100%. These implants have fulfilled all the criteria of implant success and based on the defined criteria, the success rate of implants placed in immediate extraction sockets of anterior teeth compared favorably with the conventional implants. The early results of the present study showed that high survival rates with the implants in immediate extraction sockets can be achieved. PMID:26266220

  16. Survival of Implants in Immediate Extraction Sockets of Anterior Teeth: Early Clinical Results.

    PubMed

    Sabir, Mohammad; Alam, Mohammad Nazish

    2015-06-01

    The aims and objectives of this study were placement of implants in freshly extracted sockets of anterior teeth and to evaluate the implant stability, peri-implant radiolucency and gingival inflammation around implant over a short period of 30 months. A total of 12 patients (8 male and 4 female), ranging in the age from 20 to 50 years, from March 2007 to June 2007, were evaluated for immediate implant placement into 22 fresh extraction sockets. Only maxillary and mandibular anterior teeth/roots (central incisors, lateral incisors and canines) were considered for replacement with implants. One piece implant with integrated abutment and integrated surface, non-submerged, threaded and tapered at apical 5 mm, sand-blasted and acid etched surfaced implants (HI-TEC TRX-OP Implants of Life Care Company) were used. The mobility was not present in any of the implants at all the follow up visits. There were 2 implants at 6 month, 1 implant at 12 month, 1 implant at 18 month visits, showing peri-implant radiolucency at some sites at bone to implant contact site. Severe gingival inflammation was not observed in any of the implant site. At every follow-up visit, every implant met the criteria of success and none was found to be failed over a 30 months duration i.e. 100% success rate was achieved by implants in immediate extraction socket. The success rate of implant survival in this study was found 100%. These implants have fulfilled all the criteria of implant success and based on the defined criteria, the success rate of implants placed in immediate extraction sockets of anterior teeth compared favorably with the conventional implants. The early results of the present study showed that high survival rates with the implants in immediate extraction sockets can be achieved.

  17. Does Early Reading Failure Decrease Children's Reading Motivation?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Paul L.; Fuchs, Douglas; Compton, Donald L.; Cordray, David S.; Fuchs, Lynn S.

    2008-01-01

    The authors used a pretest-posttest control group design with random assignment to evaluate whether early reading failure decreases children's motivation to practice reading. First, they investigated whether 60 first-grade children would report substantially different levels of interest in reading as a function of their relative success or failure…

  18. Social conversational skills development in early implanted children.

    PubMed

    Guerzoni, Letizia; Murri, Alessandra; Fabrizi, Enrico; Nicastri, Maria; Mancini, Patrizia; Cuda, Domenico

    2016-09-01

    Social conversational skills are a salient aspect of early pragmatic development in young children. These skills include two different abilities, assertiveness and responsiveness. This study investigated the development of these abilities in early implanted children and their relationships with lexical development and some language-sensitive variables. Prospective, observational, nonrandomized study. Participants included 28 children with congenital profound sensorineural hearing loss. The mean age at device activation was 13.3 months (standard deviation [SD] ±4.2). The Social-Conversational Skills Rating Scale was used to evaluate assertiveness and responsiveness. The MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory (Words and Sentences form) was used to analyze the lexical development. The device experience was 12 months for each child, and the mean age at testing was 25.9 months (SD ±4.6). Assertiveness and responsiveness scores were within the normal range of normal-hearing age-matched peers. Age at cochlear implant activation exerted a significant impact, with the highest scores associated to the youngest patients. The residual correlations between assertiveness and responsiveness with the lexical development were positive and strongly significant (r = 0.69 and 0.73, respectively). Preoperative hearing threshold demonstrated an associated significant coefficient on the assertiveness score. Age at diagnosis and maternal education level were not correlated with the social conversational skills. Early-implanted children developed social conversational skills that are similar to normal-hearing peers matched for age 1 year after device activation. Social conversational skills and lexical development were strongly correlated, but the present study design cannot specify the direction of this relationship. Children with better preoperative residual hearing exhibited better assertive ability. 4 Laryngoscope, 126:2098-2105, 2016. © 2015 The American Laryngological

  19. Fatigue Failure of External Hexagon Connections on Cemented Implant-Supported Crowns.

    PubMed

    Malta Barbosa, João; Navarro da Rocha, Daniel; Hirata, Ronaldo; Freitas, Gileade; Bonfante, Estevam A; Coelho, Paulo G

    2018-01-17

    To evaluate the probability of survival and failure modes of different external hexagon connection systems restored with anterior cement-retained single-unit crowns. The postulated null hypothesis was that there would be no differences under accelerated life testing. Fifty-four external hexagon dental implants (∼4 mm diameter) were used for single cement-retained crown replacement and divided into 3 groups: (3i) Full OSSEOTITE, Biomet 3i (n = 18); (OL) OEX P4, Osseolife Implants (n = 18); and (IL) Unihex, Intra-Lock International (n = 18). Abutments were torqued to the implants, and maxillary central incisor crowns were cemented and subjected to step-stress-accelerated life testing in water. Use-level probability Weibull curves and probability of survival for a mission of 100,000 cycles at 200 N (95% 2-sided confidence intervals) were calculated. Stereo and scanning electron microscopes were used for failure inspection. The beta values for 3i, OL, and IL (1.60, 1.69, and 1.23, respectively) indicated that fatigue accelerated the failure of the 3 groups. Reliability for the 3i and OL (41% and 68%, respectively) was not different between each other, but both were significantly lower than IL group (98%). Abutment screw fracture was the failure mode consistently observed in all groups. Because the reliability was significantly different between the 3 groups, our postulated null hypothesis was rejected.

  20. Failure location prediction by finite element analysis for an additive manufactured mandible implant.

    PubMed

    Huo, Jinxing; Dérand, Per; Rännar, Lars-Erik; Hirsch, Jan-Michaél; Gamstedt, E Kristofer

    2015-09-01

    In order to reconstruct a patient with a bone defect in the mandible, a porous scaffold attached to a plate, both in a titanium alloy, was designed and manufactured using additive manufacturing. Regrettably, the implant fractured in vivo several months after surgery. The aim of this study was to investigate the failure of the implant and show a way of predicting the mechanical properties of the implant before surgery. All computed tomography data of the patient were preprocessed to remove metallic artefacts with metal deletion technique before mandible geometry reconstruction. The three-dimensional geometry of the patient's mandible was also reconstructed, and the implant was fixed to the bone model with screws in Mimics medical imaging software. A finite element model was established from the assembly of the mandible and the implant to study stresses developed during mastication. The stress distribution in the load-bearing plate was computed, and the location of main stress concentration in the plate was determined. Comparison between the fracture region and the location of the stress concentration shows that finite element analysis could serve as a tool for optimizing the design of mandible implants. Copyright © 2015 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Early Ahmed Glaucoma Valve Implantation after Penetrating Keratoplasty Leads to Better Outcomes in an Asian Population with Preexisting Glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Ming-Cheng; Chen, Yi-Hao; Cheng, Jen-Hao; Liang, Chang-Min; Chen, Jiann-Torng; Chen, Ching-Long; Lu, Da-Wen

    2012-01-01

    Background To evaluate the efficacy of Ahmed Glaucoma Valve (AGV) surgery and the optimal interval between penetrating keratoplasty (PKP) and AGV implantation in a population of Asian patients with preexisting glaucoma who underwent PKP. Methodology/Principal Findings In total, 45 eyes of 45 patients were included in this retrospective chart review. The final intraocular pressures (IOPs), graft survival rate, and changes in visual acuity were assessed to evaluate the outcomes of AGV implantations in eyes in which AGV implantation occurred within 1 month of post-PKP IOP elevation (Group 1) and in eyes in which AGV implantation took place more than 1 month after the post-PKP IOP evaluation (Group 2). Factors that were associated with graft failure were analyzed, and the overall patterns of complications were reviewed. By their final follow-up visits, 58% of the patients had been successfully treated for glaucoma. After the operation, there were no statistically significant differences between the groups with respect to graft survival (p = 0.98), but significant differences for IOP control (p = 0.049) and the maintenance of visual acuity (VA) (p<0.05) were observed. One year after surgery, the success rates of IOP control in Group 1 and Group 2 were 80% and 46.7%, respectively, and these rates fell to 70% and 37.3%, respectively, by 2 years. Factors that were associated with a high risk of AGV failure were a diagnosis of preexisting angle-closure glaucoma, a history of previous PKP, and a preoperative IOP that was >21 mm Hg. The most common surgical complication, aside from graft failure, was hyphema. Conclusions/Significance Early AGV implantation results in a higher probability of AGV survival and a better VA outcome without increasing the risk of corneal graft failure as a result of post-PKP glaucoma drainage tube implantation. PMID:22629464

  2. Factors affecting the outcome of "endometrial scratch" in women with recurrent implantation failure.

    PubMed

    Coughlan, Carol; Yuan, Xi; Demirol, Aygul; Ledger, William; Li, Tin Chiu

    2014-01-01

    To examine factors affecting the outcome of the endometrial scratch in women with recurrent implantation failure. A total of 57 eligible patients with a history of recurrent implantation failure underwent an endometrial biopsy in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle in the month immediately preceding the embryo transfer cycle. The comparative group consisted of a retrospective cohort of 66 women with recurrent implantation failure but without endometrial biopsy. There were no significant differences between the intervention and control groups in terms of age, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), free androgen index, anti-Müllerian hormone, body mass index, the number of embryos transferred, and the number of embryo transfer cycles. The clinical pregnancy rate in the intervention group (53%) was significantly (p < 0.001) higher than that of the control group (15%). The only predictive factor was FSH. Women with FSH < or =10 IU/L had a pregnancy rate of 57.8%, significantly (p < 0.05) higher than that (20%) of women with FSH >10 IU/L. Women with a normal FSH are more likely to derive benefit from endometrial scratch.

  3. Allergic reaction to vanadium causes a diffuse eczematous eruption and titanium alloy orthopedic implant failure.

    PubMed

    Engelhart, Sally; Segal, Robert J

    2017-04-01

    Allergy as a cause of adverse outcomes in patients with implanted orthopedic hardware is controversial. Allergy to titanium-based implants has not been well researched, as titanium is traditionally thought to be inert. We highlight the case of a patient who developed systemic dermatitis and implant failure after surgical placement of a titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) plate in the left foot. The hardware was removed and the eruption cleared in the following weeks. The plate and screws were submitted for metal analysis. The elemental composition of both the plate and screws included 3 major elements-titanium, aluminum, and vanadium-as well as trace elements. Metal analysis revealed that the plate and screws had different microstructures, and electrochemical studies demonstrated that galvanic corrosion could have occurred between the plate and screws due to their different microstructures, contributing to the release of vanadium in vivo. The patient was patch tested with several metals including components of the implant and had a positive patch test reaction only to vanadium trichloride. These findings support a diagnosis of vanadium allergy and suggests that clinicians should consider including vanadium when patch testing patients with a suspected allergic reaction to vanadium-containing implants.

  4. Scanning electron microscopy observations of failures of implant overdenture bars: a case series report.

    PubMed

    Waddell, J Neil; Payne, Alan G T; Swain, Michael V; Kieser, Jules A

    2010-03-01

    Soldered or cast bars are used as a standard of care in attachment systems supporting maxillary and mandibular implant overdentures. When failures of these bars occur, currently there is a lack of evidence in relation to their specific etiology, location, or nature. To investigate the failure process of a case series of six failed soldered bars, four intact soldered bars, and one intact cast milled bar, which had been supporting implant overdentures. A total of 11 different overdenture bars were removed from patients with different configuration of opposing arches. A failed bar (FB) group (n = 6) had failed soldered overdenture bars, which were recovered from patients following up to 2 years of wear before requiring prosthodontic maintenance and repair. An intact bar (IB) group (n = 5) had both soldered bars and a single cast milled bar, which had been worn by patients for 2 to 5 years prior to receiving other aspects of prosthodontic maintenance. All bars were examined using scanning electron microscopy to establish the possible mode of failure (FB) or to identify evidence of potential failure in the future (IB). Evidence of a progressive failure mode of corrosion fatigue and creep were observed on all the FB and IB usually around the solder areas and nonoxidizing gold cylinder. Fatigue and creep were also observed in all the IB. Where the level of corrosion was substantial, there was no evidence of wear from the matrices of the attachment system. Evidence of an instantaneous failure mode, ductile and brittle overload, was observed on the fracture surfaces of all the FB, within the solder and the nonoxidizing gold cylinders, at the solder/cylinder interface. Corrosion, followed by corrosion fatigue, appears to be a key factor in the onset of the failure process for overdenture bars in this case series of both maxillary and mandibular overdentures. Limited sample size and lack of standardization identify trends only but prevent broad interpretation of the findings.

  5. Early Vocabulary Development in Children with Bilateral Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Välimaa, Taina; Kunnari, Sari; Laukkanen-Nevala, Päivi; Lonka, Eila

    2018-01-01

    Background: Children with unilateral cochlear implants (CIs) may have delayed vocabulary development for an extended period after implantation. Bilateral cochlear implantation is reported to be associated with improved sound localization and enhanced speech perception in noise. This study proposed that bilateral implantation might also promote…

  6. Implantable cardiac resynchronization therapy devices to monitor heart failure clinical status.

    PubMed

    Fung, Jeffrey Wing-Hong; Yu, Cheuk-Man

    2007-03-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy is a standard therapy for selected patients with heart failure. With advances in technology and storage capacity, the device acts as a convenient platform to provide valuable information about heart failure status in these high-risk patients. Unlike other modalities of investigation which may only allow one-off evaluation, heart failure status can be monitored by device diagnostics including heart rate variability, activity status, and intrathoracic impedance in a continuous basis. These parameters do not just provide long-term prognostic information but also may be useful to predict upcoming heart failure exacerbation. Prompt and early intervention may abort decompensation, prevent hospitalization, improve quality of life, and reduce health care cost. Moreover, this information may be applied to titrate the dosage of medication and monitor response to heart failure treatment. This review will focus on the prognostic and predictive values of heart failure status monitoring provided by these devices.

  7. Right Ventricular Failure Post LVAD Implantation Corrected with Biventricular Support: An In Vitro Model.

    PubMed

    Shehab, Sajad; Allida, Sabine M; Davidson, Patricia M; Newton, Phillip J; Robson, Desiree; Jansz, Paul C; Hayward, Christopher S

    Right ventricular failure after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation is associated with high mortality. Management remains limited to pharmacologic therapy and temporary mechanical support. Delayed right ventricular assist device (RVAD) support after LVAD implantation is associated with poorer outcomes. With the advent of miniaturized, durable, continuous flow ventricular assist device systems, chronic RVAD and biventricular assist device (BiVAD) support has been used with some success. The purpose of this study was to assess combined BiVAD and LVAD with delayed RVAD support within a four-elemental mock circulatory loop (MCL) simulating the human cardiovascular system. Our hypothesis was that delayed continuous flow RVAD (RVAD) would produce similar hemodynamic and flow parameters to those of initial BiVAD support. Using the MCL, baseline biventricular heart failure with elevated right and left filling pressures with low cardiac output was simulated. The addition of LVAD within a biventricular configuration improved cardiac output somewhat, but was associated with persistent right heart failure with elevated right-sided filling pressures. The addition of an RVAD significantly improved LVAD outputs and returned filling pressures to normal throughout the circulation. In conclusion, RVAD support successfully restored hemodynamics and flow parameters of biventricular failure supported with isolated LVAD with persistent elevated right atrial pressure.

  8. Mechanical failure modes of chronically implanted planar silicon-based neural probes for laminar recording

    PubMed Central

    Kozai, Takashi D. Y.; Catt, Kasey; Li, Xia; Gugel, Zhannetta V.; Olafsson, Valur T.; Vazquez, Alberto L.; Cui, X. Tracy

    2014-01-01

    Penetrating intracortical electrode arrays that record brain activity longitudinally are powerful tools for basic neuroscience research and emerging clinical applications. However, regardless of the technology used, signals recorded by these electrodes degrade over time. The failure mechanisms of these electrodes are understood to be a complex combination of the biological reactive tissue response and material failure of the device over time. While mechanical mismatch between the brain tissue and implanted neural electrodes have been studied as a source of chronic inflammation and performance degradation, the electrode failure caused by mechanical mismatch between different material properties and different structural components within a device have remained poorly characterized. Using Finite Element Model (FEM) we simulate the mechanical strain on a planar silicon electrode. The results presented here demonstrate that mechanical mismatch between iridium and silicon leads to concentrated strain along the border of the two materials. This strain is further focused on small protrusions such as the electrical traces in planar silicon electrodes. These findings are confirmed with chronic in vivo data (133–189 days) in mice by correlating a combination of single-unit electrophysiology, evoked multi-unit recordings, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy from traces and electrode sites with our modeling data. Several modes of mechanical failure of chronically implanted planar silicon electrodes are found that result in degradation and/or loss of recording. These findings highlight the importance of strains and material properties of various subcomponents within an electrode array. PMID:25453935

  9. Failure at the Tibial Cement-Implant Interface With the Use of High-Viscosity Cement in Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Kopinski, Judith E; Aggarwal, Ajay; Nunley, Ryan M; Barrack, Robert L; Nam, Denis

    2016-11-01

    Recent literature has shown debonding of the tibial implant-cement interface as a potential cause for implant loosening. The purpose of this case series is to report this phenomenon in a historically well-performing implant when used with high-viscosity cement (HVC). Thirteen primary cemented Biomet Vanguard total knee arthroplasties were referred to 1 of 2 institutions with complaints of persistent pain after their index procedure. A radiographic and infectious work-up was completed for each patient. All 13 patients underwent a revision of the index surgery with intraoperative diagnosis of tibial component debonding at the implant-cement interface. HVC (Cobalt, DJO Surgical, Vista, CA and Depuy HVC; Depuy Inc, Warsaw, IN) was used in all index cases. The average time to revision surgery for the 13 patients was 2.7 ± 1.9 years from the index surgery. Laboratory infectious markers were within normal in most cases, and all intra-articular aspirations showed no bacterial, fungal, or anaerobic growth. Eleven of 13 patients showed no radiographic evidence of loosening; however, all cases demonstrated tibial component debonding intraoperatively. Given our institution's experience and previously reported data demonstrating excellent survivorship with this total knee arthroplasty prosthesis, we propose that the early failures seen in this case series may be associated with the use of HVC cement. In the setting of a negative infectious work-up and no radiographic evidence to suggest loosening, the surgeon should consider debonding of the tibial component as a potential cause for persistent pain if HVC cement was used with this prosthetic design. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Load to failure of different zirconia implant abutments with titanium components.

    PubMed

    Mascarenhas, Faye; Yilmaz, Burak; McGlumphy, Edwin; Clelland, Nancy; Seidt, Jeremy

    2017-06-01

    Abutments with a zirconia superstructure and a titanium insert have recently become popular. Although they have been tested under static load, their performance under simulated mastication is not well known. The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the cyclic load to failure of 3 types of zirconia abutments with different mechanisms of retention of the zirconia to the titanium interface. Fifteen implants (n=5 per system) and abutments (3 groups: 5 friction fit [Frft]; 5 bonded; and 5 titanium ring friction fit [Ringfrft]) were used. Abutments were thermocycled in water between 5°C and 55°C for 15000 cycles and then cyclically loaded for 20000 cycles or until failure at a frequency of 2 Hz by using a sequentially increased loading protocol up to a maximum of 720 N. The load to failure for each group was recorded, and 1-way analysis of variance was performed. The mean load-to-failure values for the Frft group was 526 N, for the Bond group 605 N, and for the Ringfrft group 288 N. A statistically significant difference was found among all abutments tested (P<.05). Abutments with the bonded connection showed the highest load-to-failure value, and the abutment with the titanium ring friction fit connection showed the lowest load-to-failure value. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Hysteroscopic Findings in Patients with A History of Two Implantation Failures Following In Vitro Fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Moini, Ashraf; Kiani, Kiandokht; Ghaffari, Firouzeh; Hosseini, Fatemeh

    2012-01-01

    Background This study was designed to evaluate the incidence of uterine pathologies in infertile women with a history of two implantation failures after in vitro fertilization (IVF) and estimate the effect of hysteroscopic correction on achieving a pregnancy in these patients. Materials and Methods The retrospective study population included 238 infertile women attended the outpatient infertility clinic between November 2007 and December 2008. Patients with at least two previous IVF failures were eligible for this study. All patients had normal findings on hysterosalpingography performed prior their first attempt for IVF. Standard transvaginal ultrasonography and diagnostic hysteroscopy were performed in patients before the subsequent IVF attempt. Results Out of 238 patients with previous IVF failure who underwent hysteroscopic evaluation, 158 patients (66.4%) showed normal uterine cavity. Abnormal cavity was found in 80 patients (33.6%). We found polyp as the most common abnormality (19.7%) in the patients with previous history of IVF failure. The pregnancy rate was similar between IVF failure patients who treated by hysteroscopy for a detected uterine abnormality (24.6%) and similar patients with normal uterine cavity (21.2%) in hysteroscopic examinations. Conclusion The intrauterine lesions diagnosed by hysteroscopy in patients with previous IVF failure ranges from 0.8%-19.7%. Correction of abnormalities such as myoma and polyp showed good outcome, similar to that achieved in patients with a normal hysteroscopy. PMID:25505508

  12. Rupture rate and patterns of shell failure with the McGhan Style 153 double-lumen breast implant.

    PubMed

    Neaman, Keith C; Albert, Mark; Hammond, Dennis C

    2011-01-01

    In 2005, the McGhan Style 153 double-lumen breast implant was removed from the market secondary to a higher rupture rate when contrasted with other implants in the Core Study group. The high rupture rate was attributed to the development of a posterior tear in the shell where the inner implant is bonded to the posterior wall of the device. The purpose of this study was to report the existing rupture rate and describe the apparent mechanism of failure in the Style 153 double-lumen breast implant. Ninety-seven patients (157 implants) who received the McGhan Style 153 double-lumen breast implant by the senior author were reviewed. Intraoperative observations and photographic images of ruptured implants were reviewed and characterized based on severity and location of implant rupture. With a mean length of follow-up of greater than 6 years (82 months), the rupture rate was 19.1 percent per implant. Physical examination (60 percent) was the most common method of rupture detection. Ruptures tended to occur in the marginal aspect (63 percent) of the implant. Only three ruptures occurred secondary to a disruption of the inner bladder from the posterior portion of the implant. The rupture rate of the Style 153 double-lumen breast implant is higher than previously thought, with a rate of 19.1 percent. A majority of ruptures occurred in the peripheral aspects of the implant. It is postulated that these ruptures were likely secondary to fold flaws that led to failure of the implant shell.

  13. A novel aragonite-based scaffold for osteochondral regeneration: early experience on human implants and technical developments.

    PubMed

    Kon, Elizaveta; Robinson, Dror; Verdonk, Peter; Drobnic, Matej; Patrascu, Jenel Mariano; Dulic, Oliver; Gavrilovic, Gordon; Filardo, Giuseppe

    2016-12-01

    Chondral and osteochondral lesions represent a debilitating disease. Untreated lesions remain a risk factor for more extensive joint damage. The objective of this clinical study is to evaluate safety and early results of an aragonite-based scaffold used for osteochondral unit repair, by analysing both clinical outcome and MRI results, as well as the benefits of the procedure optimization through novel tapered shaped implants. A crystalline aragonite bi-phasic scaffold was implanted in patients affected by focal chondral-osteochondral knee lesions of the condyle and trochlea. Twenty-one patients (17 men, 4 women with a mean age of 31.0 ± 8.6 years) without severe OA received tapered shaped implants for the treatment of 2.5 ±1.7 cm 2 sized defects. The control group consisted of 76 patients selected according to the same criteria from a database of patients who previously underwent implantation of cylindrical-shaped implants. The clinical outcome of all patients was evaluated with the IKDC subjective score, the Lysholm score, and all 5 KOOS subscales administered preoperatively and at 6 and 12 months after surgery, while MRI evaluation was performed at the 12 month follow-up. A statistically significant improvement in all clinical scores was documented both in the tapered implants and the cylindrical group. No difference could be detected in the comparison between the improvement obtained with the two implant types, neither in the clinical nor in imaging evaluations. A difference could be detected instead in terms of revision rate, which was lower in the tapered implant group with no implant removal - 0% vs 8/76-10.5% failures in the cylindrical implants. This study highlighted both safety and potential of a novel aragonite-based scaffold for the treatment of chondral and osteochondral lesions in humans. A tapered shape relative to the cylindrical shaped implant design, improved the scaffold's safety profile. Tapered scaffolds maintain the clinical improvement

  14. Implant failure in lower limb long bone diaphyseal fractures at a tertiary hospital in Ile- Ife. Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Esan, O; Ikem, I C; Orimolade, E A; Esan, O T

    2014-06-01

    This included determining aetiology of failure and comparing the failure rate in implant fixations using solid intramedullary nail and DCP. A retrospective study conducted at the Orthopaedic Department, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital, Ile-Ife,Nigeria. Records of all operated cases of lower limb long bone diaphyseal fractures including those with failed fixations from August 2006-July 2011 were reviewed. Data retrieved included type of implant used, aetiology and characteristics of Implant failure. Data were analysed using SPSS version 16. Frequency distribution of the variables of interest was done. Difference in failure rate of intramedullary nail versus DCP was tested using chi-square. Statistical significance was inferred at p<0.05. A total of 280 patients were studied out of which two hundred and twenty-one patients had long bone diaphyseal fractures and met inclusion criteria, of which 135 had intramedullary nail fixation and 86 had DCP. The rate of implant failure in intramedullary nail was 1.5% while it was 5.8% in patients with DCP (p=0.113; 0R=4.10; 95% CI=0.65- 43.77). Implant fracture was the commonest type of failure seen (100% versus 60%) and non union was the commonest cause of failure seen (50% versus 40%) in the intramedullary nailing and DCP groups respectively. The likelihood of a failed implant is higher in fixations done with DCP compared with intramedullary nail though the difference was not statistically significant. Commonest reason for failure in both groups was non-union. Findings from this study may guide surgeons in choice of implant in the management of long bone fractures.

  15. Early neurodevelopmental outcomes of infants with intestinal failure.

    PubMed

    So, Stephanie; Patterson, Catherine; Gold, Anna; Rogers, Alaine; Kosar, Christina; de Silva, Nicole; Burghardt, Karolina Maria; Avitzur, Yaron; Wales, Paul W

    2016-10-01

    The survival rate of infants and children with intestinal failure is increasing, necessitating a greater focus on their developmental trajectory. To evaluate neurodevelopmental outcomes in children with intestinal failure at 0-15months corrected age. Analysis of clinical, demographic and developmental assessment results of 33 children followed in an intestinal rehabilitation program between 2011 and 2014. Outcome measures included: Prechtl's Assessment of General Movements, Movement Assessment of Infants, Alberta Infant Motor Scale and Mullen Scales of Early Learning. Clinical factors were correlated with poorer developmental outcomes at 12-15months corrected age. Thirty-three infants (17 males), median gestational age 34weeks (interquartile range 29.5-36.0) with birth weight 1.98kg (interquartile range 1.17-2.50). Twenty-nine (88%) infants had abnormal General Movements. More than half had suspect or abnormal scores on the Alberta Infant Motor Scale and medium to high-risk scores for future neuromotor delay on the Movement Assessment of Infants. Delays were seen across all Mullen subscales, most notably in gross motor skills. Factors significantly associated with poorer outcomes at 12-15months included: prematurity, low birth weight, central nervous system co-morbidity, longer neonatal intensive care admission, necrotizing enterocolitis diagnosis, number of operations and conjugated hyperbilirubinemia. Multiple risk factors contribute to early developmental delay in children with intestinal failure, highlighting the importance of close developmental follow-up. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Fatigue properties on the failure mode of a dental implant in a simulated body environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Min Gun

    2011-10-01

    This study undertook a fatigue test in a simulated body environment that has reflected the conditions (such as the body fluid conditions, the micro-current of cell membranes, and the chewing force) within a living body. First, the study sought to evaluate the fatigue limit under normal conditions and in a simulated body environment, looking into the governing factors of implant fatigue strength through an observation of the fracture mode. In addition, the crack initiation behavior of a tungsten-carbide-coated abutment screw was examined. The fatigue limit of an implant within the simulated body environment decreased by 19 % compared to the limit noted under normal conditions. Several corrosion pits were observed on the abutment screw after the fatigue test in the simulated body environment. For the model used in this study, the implant fracture was mostly governed by the fatigue failure of the abutment screw; accordingly, the influence by the fixture on the fatigue strength of the implant was noted to be low. For the abutment screw coated with tungsten carbide, several times the normal amount of stress was found to be concentrated on the contact part due to the elastic interaction between the coating material and the base material.

  17. Novel mechanism of premature battery failure due to lithium cluster formation in implantable cardioverter-defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Pokorney, Sean D; Greenfield, Ruth Ann; Atwater, Brett D; Daubert, James P; Piccini, Jonathan P

    2014-12-01

    Battery failure is an uncommon complication of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs), but unanticipated battery depletion can have life-threatening consequences. The purpose of this study was to describe the prevalence of a novel mechanism of battery failure in St. Jude Medical Fortify and Unify ICDs. Cases of premature Fortify battery failure from a single center are reported. A search (January 1, 2010 through November 30, 2013) for Fortify and Unify premature batter failure was conducted of the Food and Drug Administration's Manufacturer and User Facility Device Experience Database (MAUDE). These findings were supplemented with information provided by St. Jude Medical. Premature battery failure for 2 Fortify ICDs in our practice were attributed to the presence of lithium clusters near the cathode, causing a short circuit and high current drain. The prevalence of this mechanism of premature battery failure was 0.6% in our practice. A MAUDE search identified 39 cases of Fortify (30) and Unify (9) premature battery depletion confirmed by the manufacturer, representing a 0.03% prevalence. Four additional Fortify and 2 Unify cases were identified in MAUDE as suspected premature battery depletion, but in these cases the pulse generator was not returned to the manufacturer for evaluation. St. Jude Medical identified 10 cases of premature battery failure due to lithium clusters in Fortify devices (9) and Unify devices (1), representing a 0.004% prevalence. The deposition of lithium clusters near the cathode is a novel mechanism of premature battery failure. The prevalence of this problem is unknown. Providers should be aware of this mechanism for patient management. Copyright © 2014 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Implantable hemodynamic monitoring (the Chronicle IHM system): remote telemonitoring for patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Ho, C

    2008-01-01

    (1) Remote monitoring for ambulatory heart failure patients uses an implantable device to record hemodynamic data and transmit it to a central server for continuous assessment. (2) Preliminary evidence from observational studies suggests a potential for reducing hospitalizations with the use of right ventricle implantable hemodynamic monitoring (IHM). However, although a multicentre, randomized controlled trial (COMPASS-HF) showed a reduction in hospitalizations in the IHM group the results were not statistically significant and the US Food and Drug Administration panel concluded the trial failed to meet its primary efficacy endpoint. (3) In the COMPASS-HF study the most common device-related complication was lead dislodgement. (4) Large randomized controlled trials are needed to demonstrate the clinical utility of IHM, particularly in terms of its impact on reducing hospitalization and improving patient outcomes.

  19. Early pregnancy failure: factors affecting successful medical treatment.

    PubMed

    Odeh, Marwan; Tendler, Rene; Kais, Mohamad; Maximovsky, Olga; Ophir, Ella; Bornstein, Jacob

    2010-06-01

    The results of medical treatment for early pregnancy failure are conflicting. To determine whether gestational sac volume measurement as well as other variables can predict the success rate of medical treatment for early pregnancy failure. The study group comprised 81 women diagnosed with missed abortion or anembryonic pregnancy who consented to medical treatment. Demographic data were collected and beta-human chorionic gonadotropin level was documented. Crown-rump length and the sac volume were measured using transvaginal ultrasound. TVU was performed 12-24 hours after intravaginal administration of 800 micro g misoprostol. If the thickness of the uterine cavity was less than 30 mm, the women were discharged. If the sac was still intact or the thickness of the uterine cavity exceeded 30 mm, they were offered an additional dosage of intravaginal misoprostol or surgical uterine evacuation. Medical treatment successfully terminated 32 pregnancies (39.5%), 30 after one dose of misoprostol and 2 after two doses (group A); 49 underwent surgical evacuation (group B), 47 following one dose of misoprostol and 2 following two doses. There were no significant differences between the groups in age and gestational week. Gestational sac volume did not differ between groups A and B (10.03 and 11.98 ml respectively, P = 0.283). Parity (0.87 and 1.43, P = 0.015), previous pregnancies (2.38 and 2.88, P = 0.037), and betahCG concentration (6961 and 28,748 mlU, P = 0.013) differed significantly between the groups. Gestational sac volume is not a predictor of successful medical treatment for early pregnancy failure. Previous pregnancies and deliveries and higher betahCG concentration negatively affect the success rate of medical treatment.

  20. Subgingival Microbiome Colonization and Cytokine Production during Early Dental Implant Healing.

    PubMed

    Payne, Jeffrey B; Johnson, Paul G; Kok, Car Reen; Gomes-Neto, João C; Ramer-Tait, Amanda E; Schmid, Marian J; Hutkins, Robert W

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about longitudinal development of the peri-implant subgingival microbiome and cytokine production as a new sulcus forms after dental implant placement. Therefore, the purpose of this observational study was to evaluate simultaneous longitudinal changes in the oral microbiome and cytokine production in the developing peri-implant sulcus compared to control natural teeth. Four and 12 weeks after implant placement and abutment connection, a dental implant and a natural tooth were sampled in 25 patients for subgingival plaque and gingival crevicular fluid (GCF [around teeth] and peri-implant crevicular fluid [PICF] around implants). DNA from plaque samples was extracted and sequenced using Illumina-based 16S rRNA sequencing. GCF and PICF samples were analyzed using a customized Milliplex human cytokine and chemokine magnetic bead panel. Beta diversity analysis revealed that natural teeth and implants had similar subgingival microbiomes, while teeth had greater alpha diversity than implants. At the genus level, however, few differences were noted between teeth and dental implants over 12 weeks. Specifically, Actinomyces and Selenomonas were significantly elevated around teeth versus dental implants at both 4 weeks and 12 weeks, while Corynebacterium and Campylobacter were significantly elevated only at 4 weeks around teeth. The only difference between PICF and GCF biomarkers was significantly elevated granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor levels around teeth versus dental implants at the 4-week visit. The subgingival microbiome and cytokine production were similar between teeth and implants during early healing, suggesting that these profiles are driven by the patient following dental implant placement and are not determined by anatomical niche. IMPORTANCE Dental implants are a common treatment option offered to patients for tooth replacement. However, little is known regarding initial colonization of the subgingival microbiome and

  1. [Implantable sensors for outpatient assessment of ventricular filling pressure in advanced heart failure : Which telemonitoring design is optimal?

    PubMed

    Herrmann, E; Fichtlscherer, S; Hohnloser, S H; Zeiher, A M; Aßmus, B

    2016-12-01

    Patients with advanced heart failure suffer from frequent hospitalizations. Non-invasive hemodynamic telemonitoring for assessment of ventricular filling pressure has been shown to reduce hospitalizations. We report on the right ventricular (RVP), the pulmonary artery (PAP) and the left atrial pressure (LAP) sensor for non-invasive assessment of the ventricular filling pressure. A literature search concerning the available implantable pressure sensors for noninvasive haemodynamic telemonitoring in patients with advanced heart failure was performed. Until now, only implantation of the PAP-sensor was able to reduce hospitalizations for cardiac decompensation and to improve quality of life. The right ventricular pressure sensor missed the primary endpoint of a significant reduction of hospitalizations, clinical data using the left atrial pressure sensor are still pending. The implantation of a pressure sensor for assessment of pulmonary artery filling pressure is suitable for reducing hospitalizations for heart failure and for improving quality of life in patients with advanced heart failure.

  2. Development and testing of an algorithm to detect implantable cardioverter-defibrillator lead failure.

    PubMed

    Gunderson, Bruce D; Gillberg, Jeffrey M; Wood, Mark A; Vijayaraman, Pugazhendhi; Shepard, Richard K; Ellenbogen, Kenneth A

    2006-02-01

    Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) lead failures often present as inappropriate shock therapy. An algorithm that can reliably discriminate between ventricular tachyarrhythmias and noise due to lead failure may prevent patient discomfort and anxiety and avoid device-induced proarrhythmia by preventing inappropriate ICD shocks. The goal of this analysis was to test an ICD tachycardia detection algorithm that differentiates noise due to lead failure from ventricular tachyarrhythmias. We tested an algorithm that uses a measure of the ventricular intracardiac electrogram baseline to discriminate the sinus rhythm isoelectric line from the right ventricular coil-can (i.e., far-field) electrogram during oversensing of noise caused by a lead failure. The baseline measure was defined as the product of the sum (mV) and standard deviation (mV) of the voltage samples for a 188-ms window centered on each sensed electrogram. If the minimum baseline measure of the last 12 beats was <0.35 mV-mV, then the detected rhythm was considered noise due to a lead failure. The first ICD-detected episode of lead failure and inappropriate detection from 24 ICD patients with a pace/sense lead failure and all ventricular arrhythmias from 56 ICD patients without a lead failure were selected. The stored data were analyzed to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the algorithm to detect lead failures. The minimum baseline measure for the 24 lead failure episodes (0.28 +/- 0.34 mV-mV) was smaller than the 135 ventricular tachycardia (40.8 +/- 43.0 mV-mV, P <.0001) and 55 ventricular fibrillation episodes (19.1 +/- 22.8 mV-mV, P <.05). A minimum baseline <0.35 mV-mV threshold had a sensitivity of 83% (20/24) with a 100% (190/190) specificity. A baseline measure of the far-field electrogram had a high sensitivity and specificity to detect lead failure noise compared with ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation.

  3. Dissolution behavior and early bone apposition of calcium phosphate-coated machined implants

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ji-Wan; Lee, Eun-Ung; Lee, Jung-Seok; Jung, Ui-Won; Lee, In-Seop

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Calcium phosphate (CaP)-coated implants promote osseointegration and survival rate. The aim of this study was to (1) analyze the dissolution behavior of the residual CaP particles of removed implants and (2) evaluate bone apposition of CaP-coated machined surface implants at the early healing phase. Methods Mandibular premolars were extracted from five dogs. After eight weeks, the implants were placed according to drilling protocols: a nonmobile implant (NI) group and rotational implant (RI) group. For CaP dissolution behavior analysis, 8 implants were removed after 0, 1, 2, and 4 weeks. The surface morphology and deposition of the coatings were observed. For bone apposition analysis, block sections were obtained after 1-, 2-, and 4-week healing periods and the specimens were analyzed. Results Calcium and phosphorus were detected in the implants that were removed immediately after insertion, and the other implants were composed mainly of titanium. There were no notable differences between the NI and RI groups in terms of the healing process. The bone-to-implant contact and bone density in the RI group showed a remarkable increase after 2 weeks of healing. Conclusions It can be speculated that the CaP coating dissolves early in the healing phase and chemically induces early bone formation regardless of the primary stability. PMID:24455442

  4. Recommendations for pacemaker implantation for the treatment of atrial tachyarrhythmias and resynchronisation therapy for heart failure

    PubMed Central

    van Hemel, N.M.; Dijkman, B.; de Voogt, W.G.; Beukema, W.P.; Bosker, H.A.; de Cock, C.C.; Jordaens, L.J.L.M.; van Gelder, I.C.; van Gelder, L.M.; van Mechelen, R.; Ruiter, J.H.; Sedney, M.I.; Slegers, L.C.

    2004-01-01

    Today, new pacing algorithms and stimulation methods for the prevention and interruption of atrial tachyarrhythmias can be applied on patients who need bradycardia pacing for conventional reasons. In addition, biventricular pacing as additive treatment for patients with severe congestive heart failure due to ventricular systolic dysfunction and prolonged intraventricular conduction has shown to improve symptoms and reduce hospital admissions. These new pacing technologies and the optimising of the pacing programmes are complex, expensive and time-consuming. Based on many clinical studies the indications for these devices are beginning to emerge. To support the cardiologist's decision-making and to prevent waste of effort and resources, the 'ad hoc committee' has provided preliminary recommendations for implantable devices to treat atrial tachyarrhythmias and to extend the treatment of congestive heart failure respectively. PMID:25696255

  5. Central hemodynamic responses during serial exercise tests in heart failure patients using implantable hemodynamic monitors.

    PubMed

    Ohlsson, A; Steinhaus, D; Kjellström, B; Ryden, L; Bennett, T

    2003-06-01

    Exercise testing is commonly used in patients with congestive heart failure for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. Such testing may be even more valuable if invasive hemodynamics are acquired. However, this will make the test more complex and expensive and only provides information from isolated moments. We studied serial exercise tests in heart failure patients with implanted hemodynamic monitors allowing recording of central hemodynamics. Twenty-one NYHA Class II-III heart failure patients underwent maximal exercise tests and submaximal bike or 6-min hall walk tests to quantify their hemodynamic responses and to study the feasibility of conducting exercise tests in patients with such devices. Patients were followed for 2-3 years with serial exercise tests. During maximal tests (n=70), heart rate increased by 52+/-19 bpm while S(v)O(2) decreased by 35+/-10% saturation units. RV systolic and diastolic pressure increased 29+/-11 and 11+/-6 mmHg, respectively, while pulmonary artery diastolic pressure increased 21+/-8 mmHg. Submaximal bike (n=196) and hall walk tests (n=172) resulted in S(v)O(2) changes of 80 and 91% of the maximal tests, while RV pressures ranged from 72 to 79% of maximal responses. An added potential value of implantable hemodynamic monitors in heart failure patients may be to quantitatively determine the true hemodynamic profile during standard non-invasive clinical exercise tests and to compare that to hemodynamic effects of regular exercise during daily living. It would be of interest to study whether such information could improve the ability to predict changes in a patient's clinical condition and to improve tailoring patient management.

  6. Cost-Effectiveness of Implantable Pulmonary Artery Pressure Monitoring in Chronic Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Alexander T; Goldhaber-Fiebert, Jeremy D; Owens, Douglas K; Turakhia, Mintu P; Kaiser, Daniel W; Heidenreich, Paul A

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the CardioMEMS (CardioMEMS Heart Failure System, St Jude Medical Inc, Atlanta, Georgia) device in patients with chronic heart failure. The CardioMEMS device, an implantable pulmonary artery pressure monitor, was shown to reduce hospitalizations for heart failure and improve quality of life in the CHAMPION (CardioMEMS Heart Sensor Allows Monitoring of Pressure to Improve Outcomes in NYHA Class III Heart Failure Patients) trial. We developed a Markov model to determine the hospitalization, survival, quality of life, cost, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of CardioMEMS implantation compared with usual care among a CHAMPION trial cohort of patients with heart failure. We obtained event rates and utilities from published trial data; we used costs from literature estimates and Medicare reimbursement data. We performed subgroup analyses of preserved and reduced ejection fraction and an exploratory analysis in a lower-risk cohort on the basis of the CHARM (Candesartan in Heart failure: Reduction in Mortality and Morbidity) trials. CardioMEMS reduced lifetime hospitalizations (2.18 vs. 3.12), increased quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) (2.74 vs. 2.46), and increased costs ($176,648 vs. $156,569), thus yielding a cost of $71,462 per QALY gained and $48,054 per life-year gained. The cost per QALY gained was $82,301 in patients with reduced ejection fraction and $47,768 in those with preserved ejection fraction. In the lower-risk CHARM cohort, the device would need to reduce hospitalizations for heart failure by 41% to cost <$100,000 per QALY gained. The cost-effectiveness was most sensitive to the device's durability. In populations similar to that of the CHAMPION trial, the CardioMEMS device is cost-effective if the trial effectiveness is sustained over long periods. Post-marketing surveillance data on durability will further clarify its value. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation

  7. [Early efficacy of dexamethasone implant (OZURDEX®) in diabetic macular edema: Real life study].

    PubMed

    Sarda, V; Fajnkuchen, F; Nghiem-Buffet, S; Grenet, T; Chaine, G; Giocanti-Auregan, A

    2017-05-01

    To assess early efficacy of dexamethasone intravitreal implant 0.7mg (OZURDEX ® ) at the time of peak efficacy (2 months after injection) in patients with decreased visual acuity secondary to diabetic macular edema (DME). Retrospective monocentric study. Inclusion criteria were best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA)≤70 letters (20/40) due to DME and central retinal thickness (CRT)≥300 microns (Cirrus 2, Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc, Dublin). Enrolled patients could be treatment naive or not (after failure of laser photocoagulation and/or anti-VEGF therapy). Follow-up was at least 6 months. Our primary endpoint was BCVA gain at M2 after injection. Secondary endpoints were best-corrected visual acuity at 2 and 4 months, central retinal thickness at 2 and 4 months, mean interval between 2 injections, and adverse events. Nineteen eyes of 19 patients were included in this study. The mean age was 67.45 years, sex ratio was 2.17 men/women, and the patients were all type 2 diabetics. Three of 19 patients were treatment naive for anti-VEGF intravitreal injection, and 52.3% were pseudophakic (10/19 patients). The mean gain of BCVA at M2 was +7.7 letters. The mean BCVA was 51.1 ETDRS letters at baseline and 58.8 at M2. Mean CRT was 568.9μm at baseline and 291.2μm at M2. Treatment with dexamethasone implant was mainly a second-line treatment after failure of other treatments (macular laser photocoagulation and/or intravitreal injection of anti-VEGF). Three patients were naive of anti-VEGF treatment. Intraocular pressure≥25mmHg was found in 2 patients, and controlled medically. No glaucoma surgery was performed. The dexamethasone implant (OZURDEX ® ) allows an anatomical and functional improvement in patients suffering from vision loss due to DME. In this series, the implant was well tolerated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. [Failure of zirconia-based prostheses on natural teeth and implants: focus on risk factors].

    PubMed

    Dupont, N; Koenig, V; Vanheusden, A; Mainjot, A

    2014-01-01

    Cohesive fracture of the veneering ceramic (chipping) is the first cause of failure of zirconia-based prostheses on natural teeth and implants. Besides risk factors related to the material (thermal stresses generated during the manufacturing process, framework inappropriate design), there are some clinical risk factors, which can influence the restoration prognosis. Indeed, unfavorable occlusal relationships and/or the presence of parafunctions such as bruxism and clenching, which are frequent pathologies, engender significant overloading. A retrospective study was performed at the University Hospital Center (CHU) of Liege on 147 dental and implants prostheses, placed between May 2003 and January 2012. This study highlighted a significant correlation between chipping and the absence of an occlusal nightguard (p = 0.0048), the presence of a ceramic restoration as an antagonist (p = 0.013), the presence of occlusal parafunctions (p = 0.018), and the presence of implants as support of the restorations (p = 0.026). These results underline the importance of external stress and occlusal risk factors diagnosis, as the need to perform an occlusal nightguard to patients with parafunctions.

  9. Early speech perception in Mandarin-speaking children at one-year post cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuan; Wong, Lena L N; Zhu, Shufeng; Xi, Xin

    2016-01-01

    The aim in this study was to examine early speech perception outcomes in Mandarin-speaking children during the first year of cochlear implant (CI) use. A hierarchical early speech perception battery was administered to 80 children before and 3, 6, and 12 months after implantation. Demographic information was obtained to evaluate its relationship with these outcomes. Regardless of dialect exposure and whether a hearing aid was trialed before implantation, implant recipients were able to attain similar pre-lingual auditory skills after 12 months of CI use. Children speaking Mandarin developed early Mandarin speech perception faster than those with greater exposure to other Chinese dialects. In addition, children with better pre-implant hearing levels and younger age at implantation attained significantly better speech perception scores after 12 months of CI use. Better pre-implant hearing levels and higher maternal education level were also associated with a significantly steeper growth in early speech perception ability. Mandarin-speaking children with CIs are able to attain early speech perception results comparable to those of their English-speaking counterparts. In addition, consistent single language input via CI probably enhances early speech perception development at least during the first-year of CI use. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of fracture strength and failure mode of different ceramic implant abutments.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, Adham; Wille, Sebastian; Al-Akhali, Majed; Kern, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    The whitish color of zirconia (ZrO 2 ) abutments offers favorable esthetics compared with the grayish color of titanium (Ti) abutments. Nonetheless, ZrO 2 has greater opacity, making it difficult to achieve natural tooth color. Therefore, lithium disilicate (LaT) abutments have been suggested to replace metal abutments. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the fracture strength and failure mode of single-tooth implant restorations using ZrO 2 and LaT abutments, and to compare them with titanium (Ti) abutments. Five different types of abutments, Ti; ZrO 2 with no metal base; ZrO 2 with a metal base (ZrT); LaT; and LaT combination abutment and crown (LcT) were assembled on 40 Ti implants and restored with LaT crowns. Specimens were subjected to quasistatic loading using a universal testing machine, until the implant-abutment connection failed. As bending of the metal would be considered a clinical failure, the values of force (N) at which the plastic deformation of the metal occurred were calculated, and the rate of deformation was analyzed. Statistical analysis was done using the Mann-Whitney U test (α=.05). Group ZrO 2 revealed the lowest resistance to failure with a mean of 202 ±33 N. Groups ZrT, LaT, and LaC withstood higher forces without fracture or debonding of the ceramic suprastructure, and failure was due to deformation of metal bases, with no statistically significant differences between these groups regarding the bending behavior. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, it was concluded that LaT abutments have the potential to withstand the physiological occlusal forces that occur in the anterior region and that ZrO 2 abutments combined with Ti inserts have much higher fracture strength than pure ZrO 2 abutments. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Long-term outcomes after primary failures of artificial urinary sphincter implantation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rou; McGuire, Edward J; He, Chang; Faerber, Gary J; Latini, Jerilyn M

    2012-04-01

    To assess our institutional outcomes after primary artificial urinary sphincter (AUS) failures. From 1985 to 2010, a total of 149 patients underwent 318 primary and additional AUS procedures. We classified additional procedures as revisions, replacements, or explantations. At a median of 52 months (range, 6-250 months), 53% of patients had required at least 1 additional procedure beyond their initial implantation. These included 106 (63%) revisions, 42 (24.9%) explantations, and 21 (12.4%) replacements. The most common revision was reservoir upsizing (37/106). Reasons for first revision included recurrent incontinence (56.7%), mechanical malfunction (22%), and infection or erosion (18.6%). Explantations were performed primarily for infection and erosion (64.3%). Median time to first revision was 20.1 months (range, 0.1-173 months) after implantation, with a median of 9.5 months (range, 1-102 months) between revisions. Explantation occurred at a median of 22 months (range, 1-221 months) after implant, and subsequent replacement at a median of 33.6 months (range, 2-138 months). At 5 years, 28/83 (33.7%) patients had undergone no additional procedures. Patients with previous radiation were more likely to experience infection (P = .03; OR 3.99; 95% CI 1.03-15.42). Patients with previous myocardial infarction were more likely to experience erosion (P = .04; OR 2.29; 95% CI 1.05-5.02), and obese patients were more likely to experience mechanical malfunction (P = .04; OR 2.62; 95% CI 1.07-6.4). More than half of patients with an AUS will require additional procedures, most likely revision. Radiation, previous myocardial infarction, and obesity are linked to complications. Median time to first revision or explantation is slightly less than 2 years, indicating that long-term follow-up is required after initial implantation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Persistent Language Delay versus Late Language Emergence in Children with Early Cochlear Implantation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geers, Ann E.; Nicholas, Johanna; Tobey, Emily; Davidson, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present investigation is to differentiate children using cochlear implants (CIs) who did or did not achieve age-appropriate language scores by mid-elementary grades and to identify risk factors for persistent language delay following early cochlear implantation. Materials and Method: Children receiving unilateral CIs at…

  13. Changes in Speech Production in an Early Deafened Adult with a Cochlear Implant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Patrick C. M.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims: The current study is a first investigation reporting the speech production characteristics of an early deafened adult cochlear implant user after a course of speech-language treatment. Methods and Procedures: The participant is culturally deaf and received the cochlear implant when she was 43 years old. A 24-week ABCABC…

  14. Comprehensive analysis of cochlear implant failure: usefulness of clinical symptom-based algorithm combined with in situ integrity testing.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; O'Leary, Stephen; Moran, Michelle; Briggs, Robert

    2014-04-01

    Accurate diagnosis of cochlear implant failures is important for management; however, appropriate strategies to assess possible device failures are not always clear. The purpose of this study is to understand correlation between causes of device failure and the presenting clinical symptoms as well as results of in situ integrity testing and to propose effective strategies for diagnosis of device failure. Retrospective case review. Cochlear implant center at a tertiary referral hospital. Twenty-seven cases with suspected device failure of Cochlear Nucleus systems (excluding CI512 failures) on the basis of deterioration in auditory perception from January 2000 to September 2012 in the Melbourne cochlear implant clinic. Clinical presentations and types of abnormalities on in situ integrity testing were compared with modes of device failure detected by returned device analysis. Sudden deterioration in auditory perception was always observed in cases with "critical damage": either fracture of the integrated circuit or most or all of the electrode wires. Subacute or gradually progressive deterioration in auditory perception was significantly associated with a more limited number of broken electrode wires. Cochlear implant mediated auditory and nonauditory symptoms were significantly associated with an insulation problem. An algorithm based on the time course of deterioration in auditory perception and cochlear implant-mediated auditory and nonauditory symptoms was developed on the basis of these retrospective analyses, to help predict the mode of device failure. In situ integrity testing, which included close monitoring of device function in routine programming sessions as well as repeating the manufacturer's integrity test battery, was sensitive enough to detect malfunction in all suspected device failures, and each mode of device failure showed a characteristic abnormality on in situ integrity testing. Our clinical manifestation-based algorithm combined with in situ

  15. Provider knowledge, attitudes and treatment preferences for early pregnancy failure

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Vanessa K.; Harris, Lisa H.; Gold, Katherine J.; Kane-Low, Lisa; Schulkin, Jay; Guire, Ken; Fendrick, A. Mark

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe health care provider knowledge, attitudes and treatment preferences for early pregnancy failure (EPF). Study Design We surveyed 976 obstetrician/gynecologists, midwives and family medicine practitioners on their knowledge and attitudes toward treatment options for EPF, and barriers to adopting misoprostol and office uterine evacuations. We used descriptive statistics to compare practices by provider specialty and logistic regression to identify associations between provider factors and treatment practices. Results Seventy percent of providers have not used misoprostol and 91% have not used an office uterine evacuation to treat EPF in the past 6 months. Beliefs about safety and patient preferences, and prior induced abortion training were significantly associated with use of both of these treatments. Conclusions Increasing education and training on the use of misoprostol and office uterine evacuation, and clarifying patient treatment preferences may increase the willingness of providers to adopt new practices for EPF treatment. PMID:20227674

  16. [Heart failure as early manifestation of neonatal hyperthyroidism. Case report].

    PubMed

    Alvarado S, Jorge Luis; Fernández V, Zhirly Andrea

    2014-04-01

    Neonatal hyperthyroidism is usually a self-limited condition frequently associated with transplacental passage of thyroid stimulating antibodies secondary to maternal autoimmune disorders. To timely detect mothers with this medical antecedents decreases the risk for fetal adverse events. To report a case of neonatal hyperthyroidism associated with intrauterine growth restriction and heart failure. A 36 week-old newborn with birth weight of 1,240 g. Symptoms were tachycardia, distal coldness, exophthalmos, hepatomegaly and tremors. Echocardiogram ruled out structural heart disorders. Due to maternal symptoms suggestive of hyperthyroidism, TSH tests were performed showing 0.01 ulU/ml, free T4 7.7 ng/dl, so the diagnosis of neonatal hyperthyroidism was confirmed. It was treated with methimazole and propanol, alleviating the symptoms and decreasing the levels of free T4. To know the maternal history helps identify and manage neonatal complications of hyperthyroidism. Heart failure and other cardiopulmonary disorders are determinants of mortality during early neonatal period. High-risk newborns should receive follow up assessments.

  17. Bio-Environment-Induced Degradation and Failure of Internal Fixation Implants.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yan; Perkins, Luke A; Wang, Guodong; Zhou, Dongsheng; Liang, Hong

    2015-10-15

    Internal fixations provide fast healing but their failure remains problematic to patients. Here, we report an experimental study in failure of three typical cases of metals: a bent intramedullary stainless steel nail, a broken exterior pure Ti plate, and a broken intramedullary stainless steel nail. Characterization of the bent nail indicates that those metals are vulnerable to corrosion with the evidence of increased surface roughness and embrittlement. Depredated surface of the Ti plate resulted debris particles in the surrounding tissue of 15.2 ± 6.5 μm in size. Nanoparticles were observed in transmission electron microscope. The electron diffraction pattern of the debris indicates a combination of nanocrystalline and amorphous phases. The failure mode of the broken nail made of stainless steel was found to be fatigue initiated from the surface. This study clearly shows the biological-attack induced surface degradation resulting in debris and fatigue. Future design and selection of implant materials should consider such factors for improvement.

  18. Early versus delayed loading of mandibular implant-supported overdentures: 5-year results.

    PubMed

    Turkyilmaz, Ilser; Tözüm, Tolga F; Tumer, Celal

    2010-05-01

    Because of poor retention of complete removable dentures for edentulous patients, implant-supported mandibular overdentures have lately become a popular alternative for them. The aims of this prospective study were to evaluate treatment outcomes of mandibular overdentures supported by two unsplinted early-loaded implants and compare these results with those for delayed-loaded implants. A total of 26 edentulous patients were treated with two unsplinted implants supporting a mandibular overdenture. All implants were placed in the canine regions of each mandible according to the one-stage surgical protocol. There were two groups: test group, in which the overdenture was connected 1 week after surgery, and control group, in which the overdenture was connected 3 months after surgery. Standardized clinical and radiographic parameters were recorded at surgery, and after 3, 6, 12, and 18 months, and 2, 3, 4, and 5 years. No implants were lost, and 0.93 +/- 0.3 mm marginal bone resorption was noted for all implants after 5 years. Clinical implant stability measurements, clinical peri-implant parameters, and marginal bone resorptions showed no statistically significant differences between the two groups over 5 years. The results of this prospective clinical study suggest that there is no significant difference in the clinical and radiographic state of patients treated with implant supported mandibular overdentures loaded either 1 week or 3 months after surgery.

  19. State-of-the-art implantable cardiac assist device therapy for heart failure: bridge to transplant and destination therapy.

    PubMed

    Park, S J; Kushwaha, S S; McGregor, C G A

    2012-01-01

    Congestive heart failure is associated with poor quality of life (QoL) and low survival rates. The development of state-of-the-art cardiac devices holds promise for improved therapy in patients with heart failure. The field of implantable cardiac assist devices is changing rapidly with the emergence of continuous-flow pumps (CFPs). The important developments in this field, including pertinent clinical trials, registry reports, innovative research, and potential future directions are discussed in this paper.

  20. Early infection risk with primary versus staged Hemodialysis Reliable Outflow (HeRO) graft implantation.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Andrew S; Gage, Shawn M; Lawson, Jeffrey H; Kim, Charles Y

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluated whether the use of a staged Hemodialysis Reliable Outflow (HeRO; Merit Medical, South Jordan, Utah) implantation strategy incurs increased early infection risk compared with conventional primary HeRO implantation. A retrospective review was performed of 192 hemodialysis patients who underwent HeRO graft implantation: 105 patients underwent primary HeRO implantation in the operating room, and 87 underwent a staged implantation where a previously inserted tunneled central venous catheter was used for guidewire access for the venous outflow component. Within the staged implantation group, 32 were performed via an existing tunneled hemodialysis catheter (incidentally staged), and 55 were performed via a tunneled catheter inserted across a central venous occlusion in an interventional radiology suite specifically for HeRO implantation (intentionally staged). Early infection was defined as episodes of bacteremia or HeRO infection requiring resection ≤30 days of HeRO implantation. For staged HeRO implantations, the median interval between tunneled catheter insertion and conversion to a HeRO graft was 42 days. The overall HeRO-related infection rate ≤30 days of implantation was 8.6% for primary HeRO implantation and 2.3% for staged implantations (P = .12). The rates of early bacteremia and HeRO resection requiring surgical resection were not significantly different between groups (P = .19 and P = .065, respectively), nor were age, gender, laterality, anastomosis to an existing arteriovenous access, human immunodeficiency virus status, diabetes, steroids, chemotherapy, body mass index, or graft location. None of the patient variables, techniques, or graft-related variables correlated significantly with the early infection rate. The staged HeRO implantation strategy did not result in an increased early infection risk compared with conventional primary implantation and is thus a reasonable strategy for HeRO insertion in hemodialysis patients

  1. First time description of early lead failure of the Linox Smart lead compared to other contemporary high-voltage leads.

    PubMed

    Weberndörfer, Vanessa; Nyffenegger, Tobias; Russi, Ian; Brinkert, Miriam; Berte, Benjamin; Toggweiler, Stefan; Kobza, Richard

    2018-05-01

    Early lead failure has recently been reported in ICD patients with Linox SD leads. We aimed to compare the long-term performance of the following lead model Linox Smart SD with other contemporary high-voltage leads. All patients receiving high-voltage leads at our center between November 2009 and May 2017 were retrospectively analyzed. Lead failure was defined as the occurrence of one or more of the following: non-physiological high-rate episodes, low- or high-voltage impedance anomalies, undersensing, or non-capture. In total, 220 patients were included (Linox Smart SD, n = 113; contemporary lead, n = 107). During a median follow-up of 3.8 years (IQR 1.6-5.9 years), a total of 16 (14 in Linox Smart SD and 2 in contemporary group) lead failures occurred, mostly due to non-physiological high-rate sensing or impedance abnormalities. Lead failure incidence rates per 100 person-years were 2.9 (95% CI 1.7-4.9) and 0.6 (95% CI 0.1-2.3) for Linox Smart SD compared to contemporary leads respectively. Kaplan Meier estimates of 5-year lead failure rates were 14.0% (95% CI 8.1-23.6%) and 1.3% (95% CI 0.2-8.9%), respectively (log-rank p = 0.028). Implantation of a Linox Smart SD lead increased the risk of lead failure with a hazard ratio (HR) of 4.53 (95% CI 1.03-19.95, p = 0.046) and 4.44 (95% CI 1.00-19.77, p = 0.05) in uni- and multivariable Cox models. The new Linox Smart SD lead model was associated with high failure rates and should be monitored closely to detect early signs of lead failure.

  2. Immediate and early function of Brånemark System implants placed in the esthetic zone: a 1-year prospective clinical multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Maló, Paulo; Friberg, Bertil; Polizzi, Giovanni; Gualini, Federico; Vighagen, Torbjörn; Rangert, Bo

    2003-01-01

    Immediate/early implant function means great benefits for patients and therapists because treatment time and cost can be substantially reduced. This concept has become an accepted alternative for complete arch fixed restorations in the mandible, and clinical documentation is emerging for other indications. The purpose of this prospective clinical multicenter study was to evaluate the outcome of implants placed in incisor, canine, and premolar regions in maxillas or mandibles. Implants were loaded with provisional crowns and bridges on the same day or within a few days and were followed up for 1 year during function. Four centers treated 76 patients each in need of an implant-retained prosthesis in the anterior and premolar regions in the maxilla or mandible. A total of 116 titanium implants with machined surfaces (Brånemark System , Nobel Biocare AB, Gothenburg, Sweden) were placed: 74 in maxillas and 42 in mandibles. Eighty-seven prostheses were made, of which 63 were single crowns and 24 were bridges (supported by 53 splinted implants). Twenty-two implants in 14 patients were placed in fresh extraction sites. The goal with the preparation and insertion technique was to achieve good primary implant stability and a minimum implant insertion torque of 30 Ncm before the implant was completely seated. The occlusion was adjusted to eliminate direct contact with the provisional prostheses. After 6 months, the patients received their permanent prostheses. Sixty-seven patients were followed for 1 year. Five implants were lost in five patients, three in the maxilla and two in the mandible. Four of the lost implants were single-tooth replacements and one was splinted. The cumulative survival rate (CSR) was 95.7% for all implants after 1 year and 93.7% and 98.1% for single-tooth and splinted implants, respectively. There were no implant losses in the extraction sites. The CSR of 96% at 1 year indicates that immediate function of Brånemark System implants placed in incisor

  3. Feasibility of early discharge after implantable cardioverter-defibrillator procedures.

    PubMed

    Choudhuri, Indrajit; Desai, Dipan; Walburg, Jon; August, Phyllis; Keller, Seth I; Suri, Ranjit

    2012-10-01

    Registry data demonstrate considerably low complication rates after implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) procedures for primary prevention of sudden death. Yet standard of care includes postimplant overnight in-hospital observation that may levy substantial unnecessary financial burden on health care systems. In appropriate patients, discharge soon after implant could translate into significant cost savings, if such practice does not result in complications. We applied a simple clinical algorithm to assess feasibility of discharge on the same day of ICD implantation in patients at low risk for procedural complications. We prospectively randomized primary prevention ICD candidates at low risk for complications (not pacing-dependent or requiring bridging heparin anticoagulation) to next-day discharge with overnight in-hospital observation, or same-day discharge with remote monitoring for 24 hours after ICD implant. Implants were performed via cephalic vein access, and randomization occurred after 4-hours clinical observation and device interrogation. All patients were followed for a minimum of 6 weeks to assess acute procedural complications. 71 patients comprised the study cohort (mean age 62, 79% male) after 3 were excluded. The most common indication for ICD implant was ischemic cardiomyopathy with ejection fraction ≤35%. Device data obtained through 24-hour remote monitoring was comparable to 4-hour postimplant parameters in same-day discharge patients. No acute complications occurred in same-day discharge patients; 1 next-day discharge patient developed pneumothorax. ICD implantation with same-day discharge is reasonable in patients at low risk for complications. Remote monitoring can be useful in indicating lead-parameter stability during the immediate postoperative period. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Adult consequences of growth failure in early childhood123

    PubMed Central

    Hoddinott, John; Behrman, Jere R; Maluccio, John A; Melgar, Paul; Quisumbing, Agnes R; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Stein, Aryeh D; Yount, Kathryn M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Growth failure is associated with adverse consequences, but studies need to control adequately for confounding. Objective: We related height-for-age z scores (HAZs) and stunting at age 24 mo to adult human capital, marriage, fertility, health, and economic outcomes. Design: In 2002–2004, we collected data from 1338 Guatemalan adults (aged 25–42 y) who were studied as children in 1969–1977. We used instrumental variable regression to correct for estimation bias and adjusted for potentially confounding factors. Results: A 1-SD increase in HAZ was associated with more schooling (0.78 grades) and higher test scores for reading and nonverbal cognitive skills (0.28 and 0.25 SDs, respectively), characteristics of marriage partners (1.39 y older, 1.02 grade more schooling, and 1.01 cm taller) and, for women, a higher age at first birth (0.77 y) and fewer number of pregnancies and children (0.63 and 0.43, respectively). A 1-SD increase in HAZ was associated with increased household per capita expenditure (21%) and a lower probability of living in poverty (10 percentage points). Conversely, being stunted at 2 y was associated with less schooling, a lower test performance, a lower household per capita expenditure, and an increased probability of living in poverty. For women, stunting was associated with a lower age at first birth and higher number of pregnancies and children. There was little relation between either HAZ or stunting and adult health. Conclusion: Growth failure in early life has profound adverse consequences over the life course on human, social, and economic capital. PMID:24004889

  5. Numerical assessment of bone remodeling around conventionally and early loaded titanium and titanium-zirconium alloy dental implants.

    PubMed

    Akça, Kıvanç; Eser, Atılım; Çavuşoğlu, Yeliz; Sağırkaya, Elçin; Çehreli, Murat Cavit

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate conventionally and early loaded titanium and titanium-zirconium alloy implants by three-dimensional finite element stress analysis. Three-dimensional model of a dental implant was created and a thread area was established as a region of interest in trabecular bone to study a localized part of the global model with a refined mesh. The peri-implant tissues around conventionally loaded (model 1) and early loaded (model 2) implants were implemented and were used to explore principal stresses, displacement values, and equivalent strains in the peri-implant region of titanium and titanium-zirconium implants under static load of 300 N with or without 30° inclination applied on top of the abutment surface. Under axial loading, principal stresses in both models were comparable for both implants and models. Under oblique loading, principal stresses around titanium-zirconium implants were slightly higher in both models. Comparable stress magnitudes were observed in both models. The displacement values and equivalent strain amplitudes around both implants and models were similar. Peri-implant bone around titanium and titanium-zirconium implants experiences similar stress magnitudes coupled with intraosseous implant displacement values under conventional loading and early loading simulations. Titanium-zirconium implants have biomechanical outcome comparable to conventional titanium implants under conventional loading and early loading.

  6. Thyroid Autoimmunity is Associated with Decreased Cytotoxicity T Cells in Women with Repeated Implantation Failure

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chunyu; Liang, Peiyan; Diao, Lianghui; Liu, Cuicui; Chen, Xian; Li, Guangui; Chen, Cong; Zeng, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid autoimmunity (TAI), which is defined as the presence of autoantibodies against thyroid peroxidase (TPO) and/or thyroglobulin (TG), is related to repeated implantation failure (RIF). It is reported that TAI was involved in reproductive failure not only through leading thyroid function abnormality, but it can also be accompanied with immune imbalance. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the association of thyroid function, immune status and TAI in women with RIF. Blood samples were drawn from 72 women with RIF to evaluate the prevalence of TAI, the thyroid function, the absolute numbers and percentages of lymphocytes. The prevalence of thyroid function abnormality in RIF women with TAI was not significantly different from that in RIF women without TAI (χ2 = 0.484, p > 0.05). The absolute number and percentage of T cells, T helper (Th) cells, B cells and natural killer (NK) cells were not significantly different in RIF women with TAI compared to those without TAI (all p > 0.05). The percentage of T cytotoxicity (Tc) cells was significantly decreased in RIF women with TAI compared to those without TAI (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, Th/Tc ratio was significantly increased (p < 0.05). These results indicated that the decreased Tc percentage and increased Th/Tc ratio may be another influential factor of adverse pregnancy outcomes in RIF women with TAI. PMID:26308040

  7. Performance of 2014 NICE defibrillator implantation guidelines in heart failure risk stratification.

    PubMed

    Cubbon, Richard M; Witte, Klaus K; Kearney, Lorraine C; Gierula, John; Byrom, Rowenna; Paton, Maria; Sengupta, Anshuman; Patel, Peysh A; Mn Walker, Andrew; Cairns, David A; Rajwani, Adil; Hall, Alistair S; Sapsford, Robert J; Kearney, Mark T

    2016-05-15

    Define the real-world performance of recently updated National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines (TA314) on implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) use in people with chronic heart failure. Multicentre prospective cohort study of 1026 patients with stable chronic heart failure, associated with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤45% recruited in cardiology outpatient departments of four UK hospitals. We assessed the capacity of TA314 to identify patients at increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) or appropriate ICD shock. The overall risk of SCD or appropriate ICD shock was 2.1 events per 100 patient-years (95% CI 1.7 to 2.6). Patients meeting TA314 ICD criteria (31.1%) were 2.5-fold (95% CI 1.6 to 3.9) more likely to suffer SCD or appropriate ICD shock; they were also 1.5-fold (95% CI 1.1 to 2.2) more likely to die from non-cardiovascular causes and 1.6-fold (95% CI 1.1 to 2.3) more likely to die from progressive heart failure. Patients with diabetes not meeting TA314 criteria experienced comparable absolute risk of SCD or appropriate ICD shock to patients without diabetes who met TA314 criteria. Patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy not meeting TA314 criteria experienced comparable absolute risk of SCD or appropriate ICD shock to patients with non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy who met TA314 criteria. TA314 can identify patients with reduced LVEF who are at increased relative risk of sudden death. Clinicians should also consider clinical context and the absolute risk of SCD when advising patients about the potential risks and benefits of ICD therapy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. The public health challenge of early growth failure in India.

    PubMed

    Young, M F; Martorell, R

    2013-05-01

    Recent recognition of the early onset and high prevalence of wasting (30%) and stunting (20%) among infants 0-5 months in India draws attention to the need to understand the causes and develop prevention strategies. Such growth failure has dire consequences in the short (increased mortality) and long-term (loss of human capital and increased risk of chronic diseases). Food interventions before 6 months will increase morbidity/mortality through contamination in settings of poor sanitation and hygiene. Waiting to improve nutrition only after the initiation of complementary feeding at 6 months is a missed opportunity and may permanently alter life trajectory and potential. This underscores the importance of maternal nutrition. Iron and folic acid and protein energy supplementation during pregnancy are interventions that can improve maternal nutrition and birth outcomes. Maternal supplementation during lactation should be considered as a means to improve maternal and child outcomes, although the evidence needs strengthening. Support and counseling are also required to improve maternal diets and promote exclusive breastfeeding. Programs focused on improving maternal nutrition across the continuum of preconception, pregnancy and lactation are likely to have the greatest impact as mothers are central gatekeepers to the health and future of their children.

  9. Retrospective analysis of reasons for failure of DDD pacemaker implantation in patients operated on between 1993 and 2005.

    PubMed

    Lelakowski, Jacek; Majewski, Jacek; Małecka, Barbara; Bednarek, Jacek; Stypuła, Paweł; Szeglowski, Marcin

    2007-01-01

    During implantation of a DDD pacemaker the following difficulties may be encountered: venous anomalies (the absence of vessels of adequate calibre or difficulty in subclavian vein puncture), arrhythmias during implantation (episodes of atrial flutter/fibrillation while the atrial leads are being positioned), lack of mechanical stability of the electrode in the heart chamber and inability to achieve an acceptable pacing and sensing threshold during implantation. The purpose of the study was to analyse retrospectively the reasons for DDD pacemaker failure in patients operated on between 1993 and 2005. We reviewed retrospectively all implantation data from 1988 to 2005 to identify patients with primary failure of DDD pacemaker implantation. Further analysis included patients who had received a DDD pacemaker between 1993 and 2005, when this type of pacemaker made up between 9 and 40% of all pacemaker implantations. We implanted 7469 pacemakers, including 1958 (26.2%) dual-chamber pacemakers, in 783 patients with atrioventricular block (AVB), 392 with sick sinus syndrome (SSS), 450 with AVB +/- SSS and 333 with tachy-brady syndrome (TBS). The mean age of the patients was 65.5 +/- 17.3 years. DDD pacing was unsuccessful in 108 (1.4%) patients, including 32 with AVB, 22 with SSS, 16 with SSS +/- AVB and 38 with TBS. The mean age of these patients was 78.5 +/- 19.4 years. The reasons for failed implantation were venous anomalies in 12%, an arrhythmia episode in 27.8%, a high pacing threshold in the atrium in 17.6%, low atrial potential amplitude in 25.9% and lack of mechanical stability of the electrode in 16.7% of patients. The difficulties were encountered in elderly patients (p < 0.01), most frequently in patients with SSS and TBS (71). Between 2004 and 2005 venous anomalies and a high pacing threshold were the main causes of failure. Currently the main difficulties encountered during pacemaker implantation are venous anomalies and a high pacing threshold. Arrhythmia

  10. Economic impact of remote monitoring after implantable defibrillators implantation in heart failure patients: an analysis from the EFFECT study.

    PubMed

    Capucci, Alessandro; De Simone, Antonio; Luzi, Mario; Calvi, Valeria; Stabile, Giuseppe; D'Onofrio, Antonio; Maffei, Simone; Leoni, Loira; Morani, Giovanni; Sangiuolo, Raffaele; Amellone, Claudia; Checchinato, Catia; Ammendola, Ernesto; Buja, Gianfranco

    2017-09-01

    Heart failure (HF) patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD) require admissions for disease management and out-patient visits for disease management and assessment of device performance. These admissions place a significant burden on the National Health Service. Remote monitoring (RM) is an effective alternative to frequent hospital visits. The EFFECT study was a multicentre observational investigation aiming to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of RM compared with in-office visits standard management (SM). The present analysis is an economic evaluation of the results of the EFFECT trial. The present analysis considered the direct consumption of healthcare resources over 12-month follow-up. Standard tariffs were applied to hospitalizations, in-office visits and remote device interrogations. Economic comparisons were also carried out by means of propensity score (PS) analysis to take into account the lack of randomization in the study design. The analysis involved 858 patients with ICD or CRT-D. Of these, 401 (47%) were followed up via an SM approach, while 457 (53%) were assigned to RM. The rate of hospitalizations was 0.27/year in the SM group and 0.16/year in the RM group (risk reduction =0.59; P = 0.0004). In the non-adjusted analysis, the annual cost for each patient was €817 in the SM group and €604 in the RM group (P = 0.014). Propensity score analysis, in which 292 RM patients were matched with 292 SM patients, confirmed the results of the non-adjusted analysis (€872 in the SM group vs. €757 in the RM group; P < 0.0001). There is a reduction in direct healthcare costs of RM for HF patients with ICDs, particularly CRT-D, compared with standard monitoring. http://clinicaltrials.gov/Identifier, NCT01723865. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Enduring Advantages of Early Cochlear Implantation for Spoken Language Development

    PubMed Central

    Geers, Ann E.; Nicholas, Johanna G.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether the precise age of implantation (AOI) remains an important predictor of spoken language outcomes in later childhood for those who received a cochlear implant (CI) between 12–38 months of age. Relative advantages of receiving a bilateral CI after age 4.5, better pre-CI aided hearing, and longer CI experience were also examined. Method Sixty children participated in a prospective longitudinal study of outcomes at 4.5 and 10.5 years of age. Twenty-nine children received a sequential second CI. Test scores were compared to normative samples of hearing age-mates and predictors of outcomes identified. Results Standard scores on language tests at 10.5 years of age remained significantly correlated with age of first cochlear implantation. Scores were not associated with receipt of a second, sequentially-acquired CI. Significantly higher scores were achieved for vocabulary as compared with overall language, a finding not evident when the children were tested at younger ages. Conclusion Age-appropriate spoken language skills continued to be more likely with younger AOI, even after an average of 8.6 years of additional CI use. Receipt of a second implant between ages 4–10 years and longer duration of device use did not provide significant added benefit. PMID:23275406

  12. To ventricular assist devices or not: When is implantation of a ventricular assist device appropriate in advanced ambulatory heart failure?

    PubMed Central

    Cerier, Emily; Lampert, Brent C; Kilic, Arman; McDavid, Asia; Deo, Salil V; Kilic, Ahmet

    2016-01-01

    Advanced heart failure has been traditionally treated via either heart transplantation, continuous inotropes, consideration for hospice and more recently via left ventricular assist devices (LVAD). Heart transplantation has been limited by organ availability and the futility of other options has thrust LVAD therapy into the mainstream of therapy for end stage heart failure. Improvements in technology and survival combined with improvements in the quality of life have made LVADs a viable option for many patients suffering from heart failure. The question of when to implant these devices in those patients with advanced, yet still ambulatory heart failure remains a controversial topic. We discuss the current state of LVAD therapy and the risk vs benefit of these devices in the treatment of heart failure. PMID:28070237

  13. Mandibular single-implant overdentures: preliminary results of a randomised-control trial on early loading with different implant diameters and attachment systems.

    PubMed

    Alsabeeha, Nabeel H M; Payne, Alan G T; De Silva, Rohana K; Thomson, W Murray

    2011-03-01

    To determine surgical and prosthodontic outcomes of mandibular single-implant overdentures, opposing complete maxillary dentures, using a wide diameter implant and large ball attachment system compared with different regular diameter implants with standard attachment systems. Thirty-six edentulous participants (mean age 68 years, SD 9.2) were randomly assigned into three treatment groups (n=12). A single implant was placed in the mandibular midline of participants to support an overdenture using a 6-week loading protocol. The control group received Southern regular implants and standard ball attachments. One group received Southern 8-mm-wide implants and large ball attachments. Another group received Neoss regular implants and Locator attachments. Parametric and non-parametric tests of a statistical software package (SPSS) were used to determine between groups differences in marginal bone loss, implant stability, implant, and prosthodontic success (P<0.05). Implant success after 1 year was 75% for Southern regular implant (control) group; and 100% for the Southern wide and Neoss regular implant groups (P=0.038). Mean marginal bone loss at 1 year was 0.19 mm (SD 0.39) without significant differences observed. Implant stability quotient (ISQ) at baseline was significantly lower for the Southern regular (control) group than the other two groups (P=0.001; P=0.009). At 1 year, no significant difference in implant stability was observed (mean ISQ 74.6, SD 6.1). The change in implant stability from baseline to 1 year was significant for the control group (P=0.025). Prosthodontic success was comparable between the groups but the maintenance (41 events overall, mean 1.2) was greater for the Locator and the standard ball attachments. Mandibular single-implant overdentures are a successful treatment option for older edentulous adults with early loading protocol using implants of different diameters and with different attachment systems. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Endometrial injury to overcome recurrent embryo implantation failure: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Potdar, Neelam; Gelbaya, Tarek; Nardo, Luciano G

    2012-12-01

    Mechanical endometrial injury (biopsy/scratch or hysteroscopy) in the cycle preceding ovarian stimulation for IVF has been proposed to improve implantation in women with unexplained recurrent implantation failure (RIF). This is a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies comparing the efficacy of endometrial injury versus no intervention in women with RIF undergoing IVF. All controlled studies of endometrial biopsy/scratch or hysteroscopy performed in the cycle preceding ovarian stimulation were included and the primary outcome measure was clinical pregnancy rate. Pooling of seven controlled studies (four randomized and three non-randomized), with 2062 participants, showed that local endometrial injury induced in the cycle preceding ovarian stimulation is 70% more likely to result in a clinical pregnancy as opposed to no intervention. There was no statistically significant heterogeneity in the methods used, clinical pregnancy rates being twice as high with biopsy/scratch (RR 2.32, 95% CI 1.72-3.13) as opposed to hysteroscopy (RR 1.51, 95% CI 1.30-1.75). The evidence is strongly in favour of inducing local endometrial injury in the preceding cycle of ovarian stimulation to improve pregnancy outcomes in women with unexplained RIF. However, large randomized studies are required before iatrogenic induction of local endometrial injury can be warranted in routine clinical practice. Some women undergoing IVF treatment fail to conceive despite several attempts with good-quality embryos and no identifiable reason. We call this 'recurrent implantation failure' (RIF) where the embryo fails to embed or implant within the lining of the womb. Studies have shown that inducing injury to the lining of the womb in the cycle before starting ovarian stimulation for IVF can help improve the chances of achieving pregnancy. Injury can be induced by either scratching the lining of the womb using a biopsy tube or by telescopic investigation of the womb using a camera. We performed a

  15. Early bone anchorage to micro- and nano-topographically complex implant surfaces in hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Ajami, Elnaz; Bell, Spencer; Liddell, Robert S; Davies, John E

    2016-07-15

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of implant surface design on early bone anchorage in the presence of hyperglycemia. 108 Wistar rats were separated into euglycemic (EG) controls and STZ-treated hyperglycemic (HG) groups, and received bilateral femoral custom rectangular implants of two surface topographies: grit blasted (GB) and grit-blast with a superimposed calcium phosphate nanotopography (GB-DCD). The peri-implant bone was subjected to a tensile disruption test 5, 7, and 9days post-operatively (n=28/time point); the force was measured; and the residual peri-implant bone was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Disruption forces at 5days were not significantly different from zero for the GB implants (p=0.24) in either metabolic group; but were for GB+DCD implants in both metabolic groups (p<0.001). Contact osteogenesis was greater on GB-DCD than the GB surface. The nano-and micro-surfaced implants showed significantly different disruption forces at all time points (e.g. >15N and <5N respectively at 9days). Such differences were not seen within the GB implants, as all values were very low (<5N). Even in hyperglycemia the GB-DCD surface outperformed the GB surfaces in both metabolic groups. Significantly, SEM of peri-implant bone showed compromised intra-fibrillar collagen mineralization in hyperglycemia, while inter-fibrillar and cement line mineralization remained unaffected. Enhanced bone anchorage to the implant surfaces was observed on the nanotopographically complex surface independent of metabolic group. The compromised intra-fibrillar mineralization observed provides a mechanism by which early bone mineralization is affected in hyperglycemia. It is generally accepted that the hyperglycemia associated with diabetes mellitus compromises bone quality, although the mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. Uncontrolled hyperglycemia is therefore a contra-indication for bone implant placement. It is also known that nano

  16. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator lead failure in children and young adults: a matter of lead diameter or lead design?

    PubMed

    Janson, Christopher M; Patel, Akash R; Bonney, William J; Smoots, Karen; Shah, Maully J

    2014-01-21

    This study aimed to investigate the impact of lead diameter and design on implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) lead survival in children and young adults. Recent reports have called attention to high rates of lead failure in adults with small-diameter ICD leads, but data in the pediatric population is limited. We reviewed lead performance in consecutive subjects ≤30 years with transvenous right ventricular ICD leads implanted at our center between January 1995 and October 2011. Lead failure was defined as fracture, perforation, or sensing failure necessitating revision. A total of 120 ICD leads were implanted in 101 patients at a mean age of 15.5 ± 4.9 years. There were 47 small-diameter (≤8-F) and 73 standard-diameter (>8-F) leads. During a median follow-up of 28.7 months (interquartile range: 14.4 to 59.2 months), there were 25 lead failures (21% prevalence), with an incidence of 5.6%/year (95% confidence interval: 3.4 to 7.8). Sprint Fidelis (SF) (Medtronic, Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota) leads had lower 3-year (69% vs. 92%, p < 0.01) and 5-year (44% vs. 86%, p < 0.01) survival probabilities than standard-diameter leads. In multivariate Cox regression, SF design conferred the greatest hazard ratio for lead failure (hazard ratio: 4.42, 95% confidence interval: 1.73 to 11.29, p < 0.01). Age and linear growth were not significantly associated with lead failure. In this single-center pediatric study that evaluated lead diameter, lead design, and patient factors, the SF design conferred the highest risk of lead failure, suggesting that design rather than diameter is the critical issue in ICD lead performance. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Pacemaker implantation rate after transcatheter aortic valve implantation with early and new-generation devices: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    van Rosendael, Philippe J; Delgado, Victoria; Bax, Jeroen J

    2018-06-01

    The incidence of new-onset conduction abnormalities requiring permanent pacemaker implantation (PPI) after transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) with new-generation prostheses remains debated. This systematic review analyses the incidence of PPI after TAVI with new-generation devices and evaluates the electrical, anatomical, and procedural factors associated with PPI. In addition, the incidence of PPI after TAVI with early generation prostheses was reviewed for comparison. According to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses checklist, this systematic review screened original articles published between October 2010 and October 2017, reporting on the incidence of PPI after implantation of early and new-generation TAVI prostheses. Of the 1406 original articles identified in the first search for new-generation TAVI devices, 348 articles were examined for full text, and finally, 40 studies (n = 17 139) were included. The incidence of a PPI after the use of a new-generation TAVI prosthesis ranged between 2.3% and 36.1%. For balloon-expandable prostheses, the PPI rate remained low when using an early generation SAPIEN device (ranging between 2.3% and 28.2%), and with the new-generation SAPIEN 3 device, the PPI rate was between 4.0% and 24.0%. For self-expandable prostheses, the PPI rates were higher with the early generation CoreValve device (16.3-37.7%), and despite a reduction in PPI rates with the new Evolut R, the rates remained relatively higher (14.7-26.7%). When dividing the studies according to the highest (>26.0%) and the lowest (<12.1%) quintile of PPI rate, patients within the highest quintile were more frequently women when compared with the lowest quintile group (50.9% vs. 46.3%, P < 0.001). Pre-existent conduction abnormalities (electrical factor), calcification of the left ventricular outflow tract (anatomical factor), and balloon valvuloplasty and depth of implantation (procedural factors) were associated

  18. Retrospective analysis of porcelain failures of metal ceramic crowns and fixed partial dentures supported by 729 implants in 152 patients: patient-specific and implant-specific predictors of ceramic failure.

    PubMed

    Kinsel, Richard P; Lin, Dongming

    2009-06-01

    Porcelain fracture associated with an implant-supported, metal ceramic crown or fixed partial denture occurs at a higher rate than in tooth-supported restorations, according to the literature. Implant-specific and patient-specific causes of ceramic failure have not been fully evaluated. The purpose of this retrospective study was to evaluate the potential statistical predictors for porcelain fracture of implant-supported, metal ceramic restorations. Over a 6-month period, a consecutive series of patients having previously received implant-supported, metal ceramic fixed restorations were examined during periodic recall appointments. The number of supporting implants, number of dental units, type of restoration, date of prosthesis insertion, location in the dental arch, opposing dentition, type of occlusion, presence of parafunctional habits, use of an occlusal protective device, presence or absence of ceramic fractures, gender, and age were recorded for each patient. The generalized estimating equation (GEE) approach was used for the intrasubject correlated measurements analysis of categorical outcomes (presence or absence of ceramic fractures) to determine which patient- and implant-specific factors would predict porcelain fracture (alpha=.05). Data were collected from 152 patients representing 998 dental units (390 single crowns and 94 fixed partial dentures) supported by 729 implants. Porcelain fractures of 94 dental units occurred in 35 patients. The fractures were significantly (P<.05) associated with opposing implant-supported metal ceramic restorations, bruxism, and not wearing a protective occlusal device. Metal ceramic prostheses (single crown or fixed partial dentures) had approximately 7 times higher odds of porcelain fracture (odds ratio (OR)=7.06; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.57 to 19.37) and 13 times greater odds of a fracture requiring either repair or replacement (OR=13.95; 95% CI: 2.25 to 86.41) when in occlusion with another implant

  19. Downregulation of ILT4+ dendritic cells in recurrent miscarriage and recurrent implantation failure.

    PubMed

    Liu, Su; Wei, Hongxia; Li, Yuye; Huang, Chunyu; Lian, Ruochun; Xu, Jian; Chen, Lanna; Zeng, Yong

    2018-06-14

    The role of ILT4 + DCs in healthy fertile controls and patients with recurrent miscarriages (RM) and recurrent implantation failure (RIF) is unclear. We studied the expression of ILT4 from peripheral blood and endometrial samples from healthy controls and patients with RM and RIF by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry analysis. Endometrial Foxp3 expression was also investigated using immunohistochemistry. In peripheral blood, there was a significant increase in the percentage of ILT4 + DCs in healthy fertile controls compared with patients with RM and RIF. The presence of ILT4 + DC is even more prominent in the endometrium of healthy fertile controls compared with patients with RM and RIF. Moreover, there was a strong correlation between the number of ILT4 + cells and Foxp3 + Tregs in healthy fertile controls, but not in patients with RM and RIF. Our data indicate that ILT4 + DCs play an important role in the maintenance of immune tolerance during pregnancy, probably through the induction of Foxp3 + Treg cells, a process which is impaired in RM and RIF. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Implication of sperm chromosomal abnormalities in recurrent abortion and multiple implantation failure.

    PubMed

    Caseiro, Ana Lara; Regalo, Ana; Pereira, Elisa; Esteves, Telma; Fernandes, Fernando; Carvalho, Joaquim

    2015-10-01

    Currently, some infertility treatment centres provide sperm karyotype analysis, although the impact of sperm chromosomal abnormalities on fertility is not yet fully understood. Several studies using fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) to analyse sperm chromosomal constitution discovered that the incidence of aneuploidy is increased in individuals with a history of repeated abortion or implantation failure and is even higher in cases of oligoasthenoteratozoospermia (OAT), abnormal somatic karyotype or in spermatozoa retrieved directly from the testis or epididymis, showing that the application of FISH in these cases may be of some benefit for improving the reproductive outcome. This article presents the results of clinical trials of FISH analysis on spermatozoa, the medical indications for performing this examination, its results in infertile patients and the advantages when performing genetic counselling prior to treatment. Also discussed is the possibility of applying the latest techniques of genetic analysis in these cases and the potential benefits for improving the prognosis of male infertility. Copyright © 2015 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The Relationship between Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor 1154G/A Polymorphism and Recurrent Implantation Failure

    PubMed Central

    Vagnini, Laura D.; Nascimento, Adriana M.; Canas, Maria do Carmo T.; Renzi, Adriana; Oliveira-Pelegrin, Gabriela R.; Petersen, Claudia G.; Mauri, Ana L.; Oliveira, João Batista A.; Baruffi, Ricardo L.R.; Cavagna, Mario; Franco, José G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between herpesvirus-associated ubiquitin-specific protease (HAUSP A/G, rs1529916), tumor protein p53 (TP53 Arg/Pro, rs1042522), leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF G/T, rs929271), glycoprotein 130 (gp130 A/T, rs1900173) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF G/A, rs1570360) polymorphisms and recurrent implantation failure (RIF) in Brazilian women. Subjects and Methods A total of 120 women with RIF (i.e. those with ≥5 cleaved embryos transferred and a minimum of 2 failed in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection attempts) were included. The control group involved 89 women who had experienced at least 1 live birth (without any infertility treatment). DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood of all participants, and the abovementioned single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The data were evaluated using Fisher's test. Results A significant difference between the RIF and control groups was found in the VEGF gene where the GG genotype showed a 2.1-fold increased chance of not being included in the RIF group, while the presence of an A allele increased this risk 1.6-fold. No significant differences were found for the other polymorphisms. Conclusion This study showed an association between the VEGF -1154G/A polymorphism and RIF in Brazilian women. PMID:26305668

  2. Long-Term Mortality Effect of Early Pacemaker Implantation After Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement.

    PubMed

    Greason, Kevin L; Lahr, Brian D; Stulak, John M; Cha, Yong-Mei; Rea, Robert F; Schaff, Hartzell V; Dearani, Joseph A

    2017-10-01

    The need for pacemaker implantation is a well-described complication of aortic valve replacement. Not so well described is the effect such an event has on long-term outcome. This study reviewed a 21-year experience at the Mayo Clinic (Rochester, Minnesota) with aortic valve replacement to understand the influence of early postoperative pacemaker implantation on long-term mortality rates more clearly. This study retrospectively reviewed the records of 5,842 patients without previous pacemaker implantation who underwent surgical aortic valve replacement from January 1993 through June 2014. The median age of these patients was 73 years (range, 65 to 79 years), the median ejection fraction was 62% (range, 53% to 68%), 3,853 patients were male (66%), and coronary artery bypass graft operation was performed in 2,553 (44%) of the patients studied. Early pacemaker implantation occurred in 146 patients (2.5%) within 30 days of surgical aortic valve replacement. The median follow-up of patients was 11.1 years (range, 5.8 to 16.5 years), and all-cause mortality rates were 2.4% at 30 days, 6.4% at 1 year, 23.1% at 5 years, 48.3% at 10 years, and 67.9% at 15 years postoperatively. Early pacemaker implantation was associated with an increased risk of death after multivariable adjustment for baseline patients' characteristics (hazard ratio, 1.49; 95% confidence interval, 1.20, 1.84; p < 0.001). Early pacemaker implantation as a complication of surgical aortic valve replacement is associated with an increased risk of long-term death. Valve replacement-related pacemaker implantation rates should be important considerations with respect to new valve replacement paradigms, especially in younger and lower-risk patients. Copyright © 2017 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The effect of implant macro-thread design on implant stability in the early post-operative period: a randomized, controlled pilot study.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Jeffrey J; Klokkevold, Perry R

    2017-10-01

    Available literature suggests there is a transient drop in implant stability from approximately week 0 to week 3-4 as a result of peri-implant bone remodeling as it transitions from a primary, mechanical stability to a secondary, biological stability. Research investigating the influence of macro-thread design on this process is scant. The specific aim of this study was to evaluate the role of macro-thread design on implant stability in the early post-operative healing period using resonance frequency analysis (RFA). Seven patients, each missing at least two posterior teeth in the same arch, were included in the study. Three patients qualified for four implants resulting in a total of 10 matched pairs. All sites were healed (>6 months), non-grafted sites with sufficient bone to place implants. Each site in a matched pair was randomly assigned to receive either a control (Megagen EZ Plus Internal; EZ) or test (Megagen AnyRidge; AR) implant. The test implant incorporates a novel thread design with a wide thread depth and increased thread pitch. RFA was used to determine implant stability quotient (ISQ) values for each implant at the time of placement and weekly for the first 8 weeks. Implants consistently achieved a relatively high insertion torque (30-45 N/cm) and high initial ISQ value (79.8 ± 1.49). Baseline ISQ values for test (AR; 79.55 ± 1.61) and control (EZ; 80.05 ± 1.37) implants were similar. A general pattern of stability from baseline through all eight follow-up evaluations was observed for the test implants. A pattern of decreasing ISQ values was observed for the control implants across the early follow-up evaluations up to week four, where the value plateaued. There was a statistically significant main effect due to implant type (P < 0.01) and a statistically significant interaction between implant type and time (P < 0.01), indicating that the test and control implants performed differently at certain time points. Within the limitations

  4. [An assessment tool for analysing the early vocal development of young children with cochlear implant].

    PubMed

    Lang, S; Leistner, S; Sandrieser, P; Kröger, B J

    2009-05-01

    Early vocal development of German-speaking cochlear implant recipients has rarely been assessed so far. There-fore the purpose of this study was to describe the early vocal development following successful implantation. A case study was designed to assess the temporal progression of early vocal development in a young cochlear implant recipient who was bilaterally implanted at the age of 8;3 months. Data were collected during one year by recording parent-child interactions on a monthly basis. The first recording was made before the onset of the signal-processors, the 12 following recordings were made during the first year of implant use. The child's vocalizations were classified according to the vocalization categories and developmental levels from the Stark Assessment of Early Vocal Development--Revised (SAEVD-R). This assessment tool was translated into German in this study and used with German-speaking children for the first time. It allows a coding of prelinguistic utterances via auditory perceptual analysis. The results show an overall decrease of early vocalizations and an increase of speech-like vowels and consonants. In the first six months no apparent progress took place; The child produced almost exclusively vocalizations from Levels 1-3. In the second half of the year an increase of canonical utterances (Level 4) and advanced forms (Level 5) was observed. However, vocalizations beyond the canonical babbling phase, especially vocants and closants as well as their combinations, continued to be dominant throughout the first year of implant use. The progress of development of the child investigated in this study is comparable to other children implanted at young age who had also been assessed with the SAEVD-R. In comparison to normal-hearing children, the implanted child's development seemed to progress slightly faster. Interrater- and intrarater-reliability using the SAEVD-R were measured for two independent observers and for a first and second coding

  5. A glass fiber-reinforced composite - bioactive glass cranioplasty implant: A case study of an early development stage implant removed due to a late infection.

    PubMed

    Posti, Jussi P; Piitulainen, Jaakko M; Hupa, Leena; Fagerlund, Susanne; Frantzén, Janek; Aitasalo, Kalle M J; Vuorinen, Ville; Serlo, Willy; Syrjänen, Stina; Vallittu, Pekka K

    2015-03-01

    This case study describes the properties of an early development stage bioactive glass containing fiber-reinforced composite calvarial implant with histology that has been in function for two years and three months. The patient is a 33-year old woman with a history of substance abuse, who sustained a severe traumatic brain injury later unsuccessfully treated with an autologous bone flap and a custom-made porous polyethylene implant. She was thereafter treated with developmental stage glass fiber-reinforced composite - bioactive glass implant. After two years and three months, the implant was removed due to an implant site infection. The implant was analyzed histologically, mechanically, and in terms of chemistry and dissolution of bioactive glass. Mechanical integrity of the load bearing fiber-reinforced composite part of the implant was not affected by the in vivo period. Bioactive glass particles demonstrated surface layers of hydroxyapatite like mineral and dissolution, and related increase of pH was considerably less after two and three months period than that for fresh bioactive glass. There was a difference in the histology of the tissues inside the implant areas near to the margin of the implant that absorbed blood during implant installation surgery, showed fibrous tissue with blood vessels, osteoblasts, collagenous fibers with osteoid formation, and tiny clusters of more mature hard tissue. In the center of the implant, where there was less absorbed blood, only fibrous tissue was observed. This finding is in line with the combined positron emission tomography - computed tomography examination with (18F)-fluoride marker, which demonstrated activity of the mineralizing bone by osteoblasts especially at the area near to the margin of the implant 10 months after implantation. Based on these promising reactions found in the bioactive glass containing fiber-reinforced composite implant that has been implanted for two years and three months, calvarial

  6. Metronomic chemotherapy in platinum-insensitive failures and/or early failures postmultimodality management in oral cancers

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Vijay M.; Noronha, Vanita; Joshi, Amit; Pinninti, Rakesh; Dhumal, Sachin; Bhattacharjee, Atanu; Prabhash, Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Oral cancer patients with platinum-resistant disease and or early failures have limited treatment options. This analysis was planned to study the efficacy of metronomic chemotherapy in this group of patients. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of oral cancer patients who had squamous cell carcinoma and had an early failure and/or platinum-insensitive failure. Early failure was defined as a failure either within 1-month of adjuvant radiotherapy or within 6 months of chemoradiation (CTRT). A sample size of 100 patients was selected for this study. If ≥39 of 100 patients would have survived at 6 months with metronomic chemotherapy, then additional studies would be warranted. Results: The ECOG PS was 0-1 in 92 patients and 2 in 8 patients. The subsite of primary was buccal mucosa in 38 patients (38%), anterior two-third tongue (oral tongue) in 51 patients (51%), and alveolus in 11 patients (11%). The median estimated overall survival was 110 days (95% confidence interval [CI]: 85-134 days). The proportion of patients surviving at 6 months was 26.4% (95% CI: 17.9-35.6). Conclusion: Metronomic combination of methotrexate and celecoxib failed to meet its prespecified efficacy limit and should not be used in these patients as routine. PMID:26855524

  7. [Osteoclasts and early bone remodeling after orthodontic micro-implant placement].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Guo, Jia-jia; Zhu, Wen-qian; Tang, Guo-hua

    2013-08-01

    To observe the incidence of osteoclasts during early bone remodeling after orthodontic micro-implant placement. Twenty New Zealand rabbits were randomly allotted into 4 groups. One micro-implant was implanted proximal to the epiphyseal plate of the tibia. Animals were sacrificed on day 3, 7, 14 and 28 (n=5). The sequence of histological changes around the micro-implants were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining. Osteoclasts were identified by TRAP staining. The differences of the number of the osteoclasts among each time point were analyzed by one way ANOVA with SPSS 19.0 software package. After 3 days of implantation, a large number of erythrocytes, inflammatory cells, mesenchymal cells and bone debris were seen at the implant bone interfaces. Few osteoclasts were observed. On day 7, granular woven bone was formed and some osteoclasts were found in the Howship's lacunae. New bone formation and mineralization were apparent on day 14. Meanwhile, large amounts of osteoclasts were found in the latticed woven bone. On day 28, woven trabeculae with lamellate structures connected to lamellar bone and fewer osteoclasts were identified. Semi-quantitative analysis showed that the number of the osteoclasts was at peak on day 14. There were significant differences among each time point (P<0.01). Osteoclast activity is closely related to bone formation and remodeling after micro-implant insertion.

  8. The role of G-CSF in recurrent implantation failure: A randomized double blind placebo control trial.

    PubMed

    Davari-Tanha, Fatemeh; Shahrokh Tehraninejad, Ensieh; Ghazi, Mohadese; Shahraki, Zahra

    2016-12-01

    Recurrent implantation failure (RIF) is the absence of implantation after three consecutive In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) cycles with transferring at least four good quality embryos in a minimum of three fresh or frozen cycles in a woman under 40 years. The definition and management of RIF is under constant scrutiny. To investigate the effects of Granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) on RIF, pregnancy rate, abortion rate and implantation rates. A double blind placebo controlled randomized trial was conducted at two tertiary university based hospitals. One hundred patients with the history of RIF from December 2011 until January 2014 were recruited in the study. G-CSF 300µg/1ml was administered at the day of oocyte puncture or day of progesterone administration of FET cycle. Forty patients were recruited at G-CSF group, 40 in saline and 20 in placebo group. The mean age for whole study group was 35.3±4.2 yrs (G-CSF 35.5±4.32, saline 35.3±3.98, placebo 35.4±4.01, respectively). Seventeen patients had a positive pregnancy test after embryo transfer [10 (25%) in G-CSF; 5 (12.5%) in saline; and 2 (10%) in placebo group]. The mean of abortion rates was 17.6% (3), two of them in G-CSF, one in saline group. The implantation rate was 12.3% in G-CSF, 6.1% in saline and 4.7% in placebo group. G-CSF may increase chemical pregnancy and implantation rate in patients with recurrent implantation failure but clinical pregnancy rate and abortion rate was unaffected.

  9. UAV Swarm Behavior Modeling for Early Exposure of Failure Modes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-01

    Systems Center Atlantic, for his patience with me through this two-year process. He worked with my schedule and was very understanding of the...emergence of new failure modes? The MP modeling environment provides a breakdown of all potential event traces. Given that the research questions call...for the revelation of potential failure modes, MP was selected as the modeling environment because it provides a substantial set of results and data

  10. Sources of variability in language development of children with cochlear implants: age at implantation, parental language, and early features of children's language construction.

    PubMed

    Szagun, Gisela; Schramm, Satyam A

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the relative influence of age at implantation, parental expansions, and child language internal factors on grammatical progress in children with cochlear implants (CI). Data analyses used two longitudinal corpora of spontaneous speech samples, one with twenty-two and one with twenty-six children, implanted between 0;6 and 3;10. Analyses were performed on the combined and separate samples. Regression analyses indicate that early child MLU is the strongest predictor of child MLU two and two-and-a-half years later, followed by parental expansions and age at implantation. Associations between earliest MLU gains and MLU two years later point to stability of individual differences. Early type and token frequencies of determiners predict MLU two years later more strongly than early frequency of lexical words. We conclude that features of CI children's very early language have considerable predictive value for later language outcomes.

  11. [Local injection of exogenous nerve growth factor improves early bone maturation of implants].

    PubMed

    Yao, Yang; Du, Yu; Gu, Xia; Guang, Meng-Kai; Huang, Bo; Gong, Ping

    2018-04-01

    To investigate the effects of nerve growth factor (NGF) in the osteogenic action of implants and the maturation and reconstruction changes in bone tissues in the early stage of osseointegration. The mouse implant model was established by placing titanium in the femoral head of the mouse and locally injecting NGF in the implant zone. On 1, 2 and 4 weeks after operation, stain samples were collected from animals using hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and Masson staining. The effect of NGF on the bone maturation was compared at different time points of early stage osseointegration. The results of HE and Masson staining indicated that the local injection of external NGF can up-regulate bone mass, amount of bone trabecula, and bone maturity in the mouse model. The mature bone rate in treatment group of 1 week and 4 weeks after operation were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05). NGF can shorten the period of bone maturation.

  12. Effects of Early Moderate Loading on Implant Stability: A Retrospective Investigation of 634 Implants with Platform Switching and Morse-Tapered Connections.

    PubMed

    Romanos, Georgios; Grizas, Eleftherios; Laukart, Elena; Nentwig, Georg-Hubertus

    2016-04-01

    This retrospective investigation aimed to evaluate the effect of early moderate loading (EML) on implant stability. Following 6 weeks of conventional healing, 634 dental implants (Ankylos®, Dentsply Implants, Mannheim, Germany) inserted in 247 patients were uncovered. Provisional restorations were placed in infra-occlusion in partially edentulous patients and in full occlusion in edentulous patients. Patients were instructed to consume a soft/liquid diet until final restorations were delivered after approximately 6 weeks. Periotest values (PTVs) at the time of uncovering and after EML were assessed in order to calculate the change in PTV (ΔPTV). Improvement of the PTV was analyzed to account for dependencies between measurements on multiple implants of a single patient, along with other factors. No implant was lost during the EML. After a mean loading time of 3 years (± 1.7 years), the implant survival rate was 98.74%. The PTV of 556 implants decreased (improved) over the course of the study. The ΔPTV was statistically significant (p = .0001), and none of the factors analyzed appeared to influence it. The EML of implants does not impair the implants' stability, as determined by Periotest. On the contrary, early moderate loading seems to be beneficial at compromised bone qualities. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Reasons for mini-implants failure: choosing installation site should be valued!

    PubMed Central

    Consolaro, Alberto; Romano, Fábio Lourenço

    2014-01-01

    Mini-implant loss is often associated with physical and mechanical aspects that result from choosing an inappropriate placement site. It is worth highlighting that: a) Interdental alveolar bone crests are flexible and deformable. For this reason, they may not offer the ideal absolute anchorage. The more cervical the structures, the more delicate they are, thus offering less physical support for mini-implant placement; b) Alveolar bone crests of triangular shape are more deformable, whereas those of rectangular shape are more flexible; c) The bases of the alveolar processes of the maxilla and the mandible are not flexible, for this reason, they are more likely to receive mini-implants; d) The more cervical a mini-implant is placed, the higher the risk of loss; the more apical a mini-implant is placed, the better its prognosis will be; e) 3D evaluations play a major role in planning the use of mini-implants. Based on the aforementioned considerations, the hypotheses about mini-implant loss are as follows: 1) Deflection of maxillary and mandibular alveolar processes when mini-implants are more cervically placed; 2) Mini-implants placed too near the periodontal ligament, with normal intra-alveolar tooth movement; 3) Low bone density, low thickness and low alveolar bone volume; 4) Low alveolar cortical bone thickness; 5) Excessive pressure inducing trabecular bone microfracture; 6) Sites of higher anatomical weakness in the mandible and the maxilla; 7) Thicker gingival tissue not considered when choosing the mini-implant. PMID:24945511

  14. Hip Implant Modified To Increase Probability Of Retention

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canabal, Francisco, III

    1995-01-01

    Modification in design of hip implant proposed to increase likelihood of retention of implant in femur after hip-repair surgery. Decreases likelihood of patient distress and expense associated with repetition of surgery after failed implant procedure. Intended to provide more favorable flow of cement used to bind implant in proximal extreme end of femur, reducing structural flaws causing early failure of implant/femur joint.

  15. Hemodynamic-guided heart-failure management using a wireless implantable sensor: Infrastructure, methods, and results in a community heart failure disease-management program.

    PubMed

    Jermyn, Rita; Alam, Amit; Kvasic, Jessica; Saeed, Omar; Jorde, Ulrich

    2017-03-01

    The real-world impact of remote pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) monitoring on New York Heart Association (NYHA) class improvement and heart failure (HF) hospitalization rate is presented here from a single center. METHODS: Seventy-seven previously hospitalized outpatients with NYHA class III HF were offered PAP monitoring via device implantation in a multidisciplinary HF-management program. Prospective effectiveness analyses compared outcomes in 34 hemodynamically monitored patients to a group of similar patients (n = 32) who did not undergo device implantation but received usual care. NYHA class and 6-minute walk testing were assessed at baseline and 90 days. All hospitalizations were collected after 6 months of the implantation date (average follow-up, 15 months) and compared with the number of hospitalizations experienced prior to hemodynamic monitoring. Patients in both groups had similar distributions of age, sex, and ejection fraction. After 90 days, 61.8% of the monitored patients had NYHA class improvement of ≥1, compared with 12.5% in the controls (P < 0.001). Distance walked in 6 minutes increased by 54.5 meters in the monitored group (253.0 ± 25.6 meters to 307.4 ± 26.3 meters; P < 0.005), whereas no change was seen in the usual-care group. After implantation, 19.4% of the monitored group had ≥1 HF hospitalization, compared with 100% who had been hospitalized in the year prior to implantation. The monitored group had a significantly lower HF hospitalization rate (0.16; 95% confidence interval: 0.06-0.35 hospitalizations/patient-year) compared with the year prior (1.0 hospitalizations/patient-year; P < 0.001). Hemodynamic-guided HF management leads to significant improvements in NYHA class and HF hospitalization rate in a real-world setting compared with usual care delivered in a comprehensive disease-management program. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Recurrent implantation failure in IVF: features of cycles that eventually ended in conception.

    PubMed

    Bord, Ilia; Tamir, Belle; Harlev, Avraham; Har-Vardi, Iris; Lunenfeld, Eitan; Friger, Michael; Levitas, Eliahu

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the characteristics of patients and IVF cycles with recurrent implantation failure who eventually succeeded to conceive compared to those who failed to do so. In a retrospective study, we explored our database for patients younger than 35 years old who underwent at least three unsuccessful fresh IVF cycles. The following parameters were analyzed: cause of infertility, FSH level, stimulation cycle characteristics, fertilization rate, the type of luteal support, and cycle outcome. Uterine cavity assessment was also included. The relationship between endometrial scratching and the outcome of the following IVF cycle was assessed for the subsequent pregnancy rate. The study included 184 patients who underwent 854 IVF cycles. There were no statistically significant differences between patients who eventually conceived and those who did not in terms of ovarian reserve and response to gonadotropin treatment. IVF cycles that eventually ended with conception were characterized by shorter stimulation (10.87 ± 2.17 versus 11.34 ± 2.33 days, p < 0.05), higher estrogen level on the day of hCG administration (1661 ± 667 versus 1472 ± 633 pg/ml, p = 0.009), more fertilized oocytes via ICSI (5.04 ± 4.29 versus 3.85 ± 3.45, p = 0.002), and more embryos available for transfer (5.98 ± 3.89 versus 5.12 ± 3.31, p = 0.002). Combined estrogen and progesterone luteal support combined with endometrial scratching prior to the subsequent IVF cycle has been positively related to increased pregnancy rates. Young patients with RIF having a normal ovarian reserve and satisfactory ovarian response to superovulation should be encouraged to pursue IVF, even though the probability to conceive is relatively low compared to the general IVF population.

  17. Failure to Treat Life-Threatening Ventricular Tachyarrhythmias in Contemporary Implantable Cardioverter–Defibrillators

    PubMed Central

    Thøgersen, Anna Margrethe; Larsen, Jacob Moesgaard; Johansen, Jens Brock; Abedin, Moeen

    2017-01-01

    Background: In clinical trials, manufacturer-specific, strategic programming of implantable cardioverter–defibrillators (ICDs), including faster detection rates, reduces unnecessary therapy but permits therapy for ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation (VF). Present consensus recommends a generic rate threshold between 185 and 200 beats per minute, which exceeds the rate tested in clinical trials for some manufacturers. In a case series, we sought to determine the relationship between programmed parameters and failure of modern ICDs to treat VF. Methods and Results: We reviewed cases in which normally functioning ICDs failed to deliver timely therapy for VF from April 2015 to January 2017 at 4 institutions. Of 10 ambulatory patients, 5 died from untreated VF, 4 had cardiac arrests requiring external shocks, and 1 was rescued by a delayed ICD shock. VF did not satisfy programmed detection criteria in 9 patients (90%). Seven of these patients had slowest detection rates that were consistent with generic recommendations but not tested in a peer-reviewed trial for their manufacturer’s ICDs. Manufacturer-specific factors interacted with fast detection rates to withhold therapy, including strict VF episode termination rules, enhancements to minimize T-wave oversensing, and features that restrict therapy to regular rhythms in ventricular tachycardia zones. Untreated VF despite recommended programming accounted for 56% of sudden deaths and 11% of all deaths during the study period. Conclusions: Complex and unanticipated interactions between manufacturer-specific features and generic programming can prevent therapy for VF. More data are needed to assess the risks and benefits of translating evidence-based detection parameters from one manufacturer to another. PMID:28916511

  18. Failure modes of Y-TZP abutments with external hex implant-abutment connection determined by fractographic analysis.

    PubMed

    Basílio, Mariana de Almeida; Delben, Juliana Aparecida; Cesar, Paulo Francisco; Rizkalla, Amin Sami; Santos Junior, Gildo Coelho; Arioli Filho, João Neudenir

    2016-07-01

    Yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia (Y-TZP) was introduced as ceramic implant abutments due to its excellent mechanical properties. However, the damage patterns for Y-TZP abutments are limited in the literature. Fractographic analyses can provide insights as to the failure origin and related mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to analyze fractured Y-TZP abutments to establish fractographic patterns and then possible reasons for failure. Thirty two prefabricated Y-TZP abutments on external hex implants were retrieved from a single-load-to failure test according to the ISO 14801. Fractographic analyses were conducted under polarized-light estereo and scanning electro microscopy. The predominant fracture pattern was abutment fracture at the connecting region. Classic fractographic features such as arrest lines, hackle, and twist hackle established that failure started where Y-TZP abutments were in contact with the retention screw edges. The abutment screw design and the loading point were the reasons for localized stress concentration and fracture patterns. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Surgical management of early pregnancy failure: history, politics, and safe, cost-effective care.

    PubMed

    Harris, Lisa H; Dalton, Vanessa K; Johnson, Timothy R B

    2007-05-01

    Early pregnancy failure and induced abortion are often managed differently, even though safe uterine evacuation is the goal in both. Early pregnancy failure is commonly treated by curettage in operating room settings in anesthetized patients. Induced abortion is most commonly managed by office vacuum aspiration in awake or sedated patients. Medical evidence does not support routine operating room management of early pregnancy failure. This commentary reviews historical origins of these different care standards, explores political factors responsible for their perpetuation, and uses experience at University of Michigan to dramatize the ways in which history, politics, and biomedicine intersect to produce patient care. The University of Michigan initiated office uterine evacuations for early pregnancy failure treatment. Patients previously went to the operating room. These changes required faculty, staff, and resident education. Our efforts blurred the lines between spontaneous and induced abortion management, improved patient care and better utilized hospital resources.

  20. The early days of the multi channel cochlear implant: efforts and achievement in France.

    PubMed

    Chouard, C H

    2015-04-01

    On September 10th 2013, the clinical medical research Lasker award winners were rewarded for their work on multichannel cochlear implant. It has been my pleasure to see that such a major topic had caught the attention of the Members of the Jury for this prestigious award. That is why I accepted an invitation to participate in a special issue of Hearing Research devoted to the three winners. Here I highlight four scientific contributions made by the French team in late 1970s and early 1980s to modern multichannel cochlear implant development. 1) Chouard and MacLeod plotted an approximate frequency map of the whole length of the human cochlea, including its "hidden face" corresponding to speech frequencies. Moreover MacLeod suggested a sequential display of electrical stimulation as a function of each electrode, a precursor to today's electrodogram and interleaved stimulation. 2) Chouard performed total cochlear implantation in a deaf adult male with 8 electrically independent electrodes that were evenly distributed along the cochlea. 3) Chouard and MacLeod described in a patent detailed sound signal processing for a functional multichannel cochlear implant and reported speech discrimination without help of lip reading in some totally deafened patients. 4) Chouard experimentally demonstrated in the guinea pig the advantage of early cochlear implantation in treating profound neonatal deafness. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled . Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of early complications on outcomes in patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator for primary prevention.

    PubMed

    Ascoeta, Maria Soledad; Marijon, Eloi; Defaye, Pascal; Klug, Didier; Beganton, Frankie; Perier, Marie-Cécile; Gras, Daniel; Algalarrondo, Vincent; Deharo, Jean-Claude; Leclercq, Christophe; Fauchier, Laurent; Babuty, Dominique; Bordachar, Pierre; Sadoul, Nicolas; Boveda, Serge; Piot, Olivier

    2016-05-01

    The lifesaving benefit of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) has been demonstrated. Their use has increased considerably in the past decade, but related complications have become a major concern. The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence and effect on outcomes of early (≤30 days) complications after ICD implantation for primary prevention in a large French population. We analyzed data from 5539 patients from the multicenter French DAI-PP (Défibrillateur Automatique Implantable-Prévention Primaire) registry (2002-2012) who had coronary artery disease or dilated cardiomyopathy and were implanted with an ICD for primary prevention. Overall, early complications occurred in 707 patients (13.5%), mainly related to lead dislodgment or hematoma (57%). Independent factors associated with occurrence of early complications were severe renal impairment (odds ratio [OR] 1.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17-2.37, P = .02), age ≥75 years (OR 1.01, 95% CI 1.00-1.02, P = .03), cardiac resynchronization therapy (OR 1.58, 95% CI 1.16-2.17, P = .01), and anticoagulant therapy (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.02-1.61, P = .03). During a mean ± SD follow-up of 3.1 ± 2.3 years, 824 (15.8%) patients experienced ≥1 late complication (>30 days), and 782 (14.9%) patients died. After adjustment, early complications remained associated with occurrence of late complications (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.73-2.66, P < .0001) and mortality (OR 1.70, 95% CI 1.34-2.17, P = .003). Early complications are common after ICD implantation for primary prevention, occurring in 1 in 7 patients, and are associated with an increased risk of late complications and overall mortality. Further studies are needed to investigate the underlying mechanisms of such associations. Copyright © 2016 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Core Competencies and the Prevention of School Failure and Early School Leaving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; O'Brennan, Lindsey M.; McNeely, Clea A.

    2008-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness that school failure and early school leaving are processes, rather than discrete events, that often co-occur and can have lasting negative effects on children's development. Most of the literature has focused on risk factors for failure and dropout rather than on the promotion of competencies that can increase…

  3. Early Exercise Rehabilitation of Muscle Weakness in Acute Respiratory Failure Patients

    PubMed Central

    Berry, Michael J.; Morris, Peter E.

    2013-01-01

    Acute Respiratory Failure patients experience significant muscle weakness which contributes to prolonged hospitalization and functional impairments post-hospital discharge. Based on our previous work, we hypothesize that an exercise intervention initiated early in the intensive care unit aimed at improving skeletal muscle strength could decrease hospital stay and attenuate the deconditioning and skeletal muscle weakness experienced by these patients. Summary Early exercise has the potential to decrease hospital length of stay and improve function in Acute Respiratory Failure patients. PMID:23873130

  4. Timing Discrepancies of Early Intervention Hearing Services in Urban and Rural Cochlear Implant Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Bush, Matthew L.; Burton, Mary; Loan, Ashley; Shinn, Jennifer B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the timing of early intervention diagnostic and therapeutic services in cochlear implant recipients from rural and urban areas. Study design Retrospective case series review Setting Tertiary referral center Patients Cochlear implant recipients from a single comprehensive hearing institute born with severe congenital sensorineural hearing loss were examined. Timing of diagnostic and therapeutic services was examined. Intervention(s) Diagnosis, amplification, and eventual cochlear implantation for all patients in the study Main outcome measure(s) Time points of definitive diagnosis, amplification, and cochlear implantation for children from urban and rural regions were examined. Correlation analysis of distance to testing center and timing of services was also assessed. Results 40 children born with congenital hearing loss were included in the study and were diagnosed at a median age of 13 weeks after birth. Children from rural regions obtained amplification at a median age of 47.7 weeks after birth, while urban children were amplified at 26 weeks after birth. Cochlear implantation was performed at a median age of 182 weeks after birth in those from rural areas and at 104 weeks after birth in urban-dwelling patients. A linear relationship was identified between distance to the implant center and timing of hearing aid amplification (r=0.5, p=0.033) and cochlear implantation (r=0.5, p=0.016). Conclusions Children residing outside of metro areas may be at higher risk of delayed rehabilitative services and cochlear implantation than those residing in urban areas that may be closer in proximity to tertiary care centers. PMID:24136305

  5. Early failure mechanisms of constrained tripolar acetabular sockets used in revision total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Christopher C; Hozack, William; Lavernia, Carlos; Sharkey, Peter; Shastri, Shani; Rothman, Richard H

    2003-10-01

    Fifty-eight patients received an Osteonics constrained acetabular implant for recurrent instability (46), girdlestone reimplant (8), correction of leg lengthening (3), and periprosthetic fracture (1). The constrained liner was inserted into a cementless shell (49), cemented into a pre-existing cementless shell (6), cemented into a cage (2), and cemented directly into the acetabular bone (1). Eight patients (13.8%) required reoperation for failure of the constrained implant. Type I failure (bone-prosthesis interface) occurred in 3 cases. Two cementless shells became loose, and in 1 patient, the constrained liner was cemented into an acetabular cage, which then failed by pivoting laterally about the superior fixation screws. Type II failure (liner locking mechanism) occurred in 2 cases. Type III failure (femoral head locking mechanism) occurred in 3 patients. Seven of the 8 failures occurred in patients with recurrent instability. Constrained liners are an effective method for treatment during revision total hip arthroplasty but should be used in select cases only.

  6. Aesthetic outcome of single-tooth implant restorations following early implant placement and guided bone regeneration: crown and soft tissue dimensions compared with contralateral teeth.

    PubMed

    Cosyn, Jan; De Rouck, Tim

    2009-10-01

    The aim of this study was to compare crown and soft tissue dimensions of single-tooth implant restorations following early implant placement and guided bone regeneration (GBR) with contralateral non-restored teeth. Twenty-seven patients treated by one and the same surgeon and prosthodontist to restore a single-tooth gap with a class I bone defect in the premaxilla by means of an implant-supported restoration were reviewed. Patients were examined at least 6 months following placement of the crown. All implants had been inserted 6-8 weeks following tooth extraction in conjunction with GBR. At evaluation, crown dimensions, soft tissue dimensions, clinical conditions and patients' aesthetic satisfaction were assessed by one clinician who had not been involved in the treatment. Implant-supported crowns were not significantly longer than contralateral teeth and midfacial soft tissues showed comparable levels after on average 21 months of function. Our data also indicated significant papilla loss especially at the distal aspect of the implants. As the patient's aesthetic appreciation was favourable in 88% of the cases, this appeared to be of trivial importance. Favourable aesthetics may be achieved for single-tooth implant restorations following early implant placement and GBR. The impact of the latter on papilla levels, however, remains to be determined in longitudinal studies.

  7. Age and Outcomes of Primary Prevention Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators in Patients With Nonischemic Systolic Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Elming, Marie Bayer; Nielsen, Jens C; Haarbo, Jens; Videbæk, Lars; Korup, Eva; Signorovitch, James; Olesen, Line Lisbeth; Hildebrandt, Per; Steffensen, Flemming H; Bruun, Niels E; Eiskjær, Hans; Brandes, Axel; Thøgersen, Anna M; Gustafsson, Finn; Egstrup, Kenneth; Videbæk, Regitze; Hassager, Christian; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Høfsten, Dan E; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Pehrson, Steen; Køber, Lars; Thune, Jens Jakob

    2017-11-07

    The DANISH study (Danish Study to Assess the Efficacy of ICDs [Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators] in Patients With Non-Ischemic Systolic Heart Failure on Mortality) did not demonstrate an overall effect on all-cause mortality with ICD implantation. However, the prespecified subgroup analysis suggested a possible age-dependent association between ICD implantation and mortality with survival benefit seen only in the youngest patients. The nature of this relationship between age and outcome of a primary prevention ICD in patients with nonischemic systolic heart failure warrants further investigation. All 1116 patients from the DANISH study were included in this prespecified subgroup analysis. We assessed the relationship between ICD implantation and mortality by age, and an optimal age cutoff was estimated nonparametrically with selection impact curves. Modes of death were divided into sudden cardiac death and nonsudden death and compared between patients younger and older than this age cutoff with the use of χ 2 analysis. Median age of the study population was 63 years (range, 21-84 years). There was a linearly decreasing relationship between ICD and mortality with age (hazard ratio [HR], 1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.003-1.06; P =0.03). An optimal age cutoff for ICD implantation was present at ≤70 years. There was an association between reduced all-cause mortality and ICD in patients ≤70 years of age (HR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.51-0.96; P =0.03) but not in patients >70 years of age (HR, 1.05; 95% CI, 0.68-1.62; P =0.84). For patients ≤70 years old, the sudden cardiac death rate was 1.8 (95% CI, 1.3-2.5) and nonsudden death rate was 2.7 (95% CI, 2.1-3.5) events per 100 patient-years, whereas for patients >70 years old, the sudden cardiac death rate was 1.6 (95% CI, 0.8-3.2) and nonsudden death rate was 5.4 (95% CI, 3.7-7.8) events per 100 patient-years. This difference in modes of death between the 2 age groups was statistically significant ( P =0

  8. [Pulse wave velocity as an early marker of diastolic heart failure in patients with hypertension].

    PubMed

    Moczulska, Beata; Kubiak, Monika; Bryczkowska, Anna; Malinowska, Ewa

    2017-04-21

    According to the WHO, hypertension is one of the major causes of death worldwide. It leads to a number of severe complications. Diastolic heart failure, that is heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF), is especially common. New, but simple, indices for the early detection of patients who have not yet developed complications or are in their early developmental stages are still searched for. The aim of this study is to examine the correlation between pulse wave velocity (PWV) and markers of diastolic heart failure (DHF) assessed in echocardiography in patients with hypertension and no symptoms of heart failure. The study was comprised of 65 patients with treated hypertension. Patients with symptoms of heart failure, those with diabetes and smokers were excluded. Arterial stiffness was measured with the Mobil-O-Graph NG PWA. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) was estimated. The following markers of diastolic heart failure were assessed in the echocardiographic examination: E/A ratio - the ratio of the early (E) to late (A) ventricular filling velocities, DT - decceleration time, E/E' - the ratio of mitral peak velocity of early filling (E) to early diastolic mitral annular velocity E' in tissue Doppler echocardiography. PWV was statistically significantly higher in the DHF group. In the group of patients with heart failure, the average E/A ratio was significantly lower as compared to the group with no heart failure. Oscillometric measurement of pulse wave velocity is non-invasive, lasts a few minutes and does not require the presence of a specialist. It allows for an early detection of patients at risk of diastolic heart failure even within the conditions of primary health care.

  9. Association between Serum Uric Acid Level and Ventricular Tachyarrhythmia in Heart Failure Patients with Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator.

    PubMed

    Nodera, Minoru; Suzuki, Hitoshi; Matsumoto, Yoshiyuki; Kamioka, Masashi; Kaneshiro, Takashi; Yoshihisa, Akiomi; Ohira, Tetsuya; Takeishi, Yasuchika

    2018-05-25

    The uric acid (UA) level is related to cardiac events and mortality, but little is known about the clinical significance of serum UA with regard to the ventricular tachyarrhythmia (VT) risk in patients with heart failure. The present study enrolled 56 patients with ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathy (37 males, mean age 64.7 ± 11.1 years) who received prophylactic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation. Based on a median serum UA value, study subjects were divided into two groups: serum UA < 6.1 mg/dL (group L, n = 29) and ≥6.1 mg/dL (group H, n = 27). Echo- and electrocardiograms (QRS duration and QTc intervals) were examined in each group. During the follow-up period (30 ± 8 months), 22 (39%) patients had appropriate ICD therapies for sustained VT. There was no significant difference in the electro- and echocardiographic data between both groups. However, appropriate ICD therapies were significantly higher in group H than in group L (p  =  0.02). In multivariate analysis, UA was an independent predictor of appropriate ICD therapies (hazard ratio 1.826, 95% confidence interval 1.248-2.671, p = 0.002). Serum UA levels might be a predictor of VT, providing new aspects regarding the decision to adapt ICD implantation in patients with heart failure. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Dielectric Spectroscopic Detection of Early Failures in 3-D Integrated Circuits.

    PubMed

    Obeng, Yaw; Okoro, C A; Ahn, Jung-Joon; You, Lin; Kopanski, Joseph J

    The commercial introduction of three dimensional integrated circuits (3D-ICs) has been hindered by reliability challenges, such as stress related failures, resistivity changes, and unexplained early failures. In this paper, we discuss a new RF-based metrology, based on dielectric spectroscopy, for detecting and characterizing electrically active defects in fully integrated 3D devices. These defects are traceable to the chemistry of the insolation dielectrics used in the through silicon via (TSV) construction. We show that these defects may be responsible for some of the unexplained early reliability failures observed in TSV enabled 3D devices.

  11. Early graft failure of small-sized porcine valved conduits in reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Christian; Sassen, Stefanie; Kostolny, Martin; Hörer, Jürgen; Cleuziou, Julie; Wottke, Michael; Holper, Klaus; Fend, Falko; Eicken, Andreas; Lange, Rüdiger

    2006-07-01

    The quest for an alternative to homografts for reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract is ongoing. The Shelhigh No-React (NR-4000PA series) treated porcine pulmonic valve conduit (SPVC) was developed as a potential alternative. During a 12-month period from May 2004 to May 2005, the SPVC was implanted in 34 patients, of whom 62% were younger than 1 year. Median age at operation was 7 months (range, 5 days to 12 years). Thirteen SPCV conduits size 10, 11 size 12, 8 size 14, and 2 size 16 were initially implanted. Since May 2005, however, we have temporarily abandoned its implantation as we were concerned about a number of early failures. Until November 2005, 1 early and 1 late death have occurred. Both were not conduit related. Fifteen conduits were replaced in 13 patients. Of these, 10 were size 10, 3 size 12, 2 size 14, and none size 16. Mean time to replacement of the SPVC was 313 +/- 116 days. A pseudointimal peel formation and chronic inflammation with foreign-body reaction was found in all explanted conduits at all levels. The maximum of the inflammatory reaction occurred at the valvular level around the porcine tissues, with shrinkage of the valve and hemodynamic compromise. At valvular level, small punctuate calcifications were observed in 2 cases. In 6 patients an acute inflammatory component was observed. At late follow-up (mean follow-up 366 +/- 102 days, 34 patient-years), echocardiography showed a mean graft gradient of 39.8 +/- 29.7 mm Hg, with mild to moderate insufficiency in 4 patients. Although the No-React treated valve largely resists calcification, pseudointimal peel formation was found in all explanted conduits and led to multilevel conduit stenoses. The small-sized SPVC can not be regarded as an ideal conduit for right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction.

  12. Successful continuous-flow left ventricular assist device implantation with adjuvant tricuspid valve repair for advanced heart failure.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chih-Hsien; Wei, Jeng

    The prevalence of end-stage heart failure (HF) is on the increase, however, the availability of donor hearts remains limited. Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) are increasingly being used for treating patients with end-stage HF. LVADs are not only used as a bridge to transplantation but also as a destination therapy. HeartMate II, a new-generation, continuous-flow LVAD (cf-LVAD), is currently an established treatment option for patients with HF. Technological progress and increasing implantation of cf-LVADs have significantly improved survival in patients with end-stage HF. Here we report a case of a patient with end-stage HF who was successfully supported using cf-LVAD implantation with adjuvant tricuspid valve repair in a general district hospital.

  13. Lessons learnt from early failure of a patient trial with a polymer-on-polymer resurfacing hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Van Susante, Job L C; Verdonschot, Nico; Bom, L Paul A; Tomaszewski, Pawel; Campbell, Pat; Ebramzadeh, Edward; Schreurs, B Wim

    2018-02-01

    Background and purpose - Hip resurfacing (HR) is a treatment option promoted for hip arthritis in young and active patients. However, adverse reactions to metal are a concern and the search for non-metallic bearing options proceeds. We present the first clinical study performed in patients using a newly developed hydrophilic polymer-on-polymer hip resurfacing device. Patients and methods - After performing extensive hip simulator tests, biocompatibility testing and animal tests (ISO 14242-1,3; 10993-3,4,5,10,11), approval was obtained from the IRB committee to enroll 15 patients in the first clinical study in humans using this experimental polymer-on-polymer hip resurfacing device. All surgeries were done by 2 experienced hip resurfacing surgeons. Clinical scores and standard radiographs as well as routine MRIs were obtained at regular intervals. Results - The surgical technique proved feasible with successful implantation of the new device using PMMA cement fixation on both sides without complications. Postoperative imaging revealed a well-positioned and well-fixed polymer resurfacing hip arthroplasty in all 4 initial cases. All 4 patients were free of pain and had good function for the first 2 months. However, in all 4 cases early cup loosening occurred between 8 and 11 weeks after surgery, necessitating immediate closure of the study. All 4 patients had a reoperation and were revised to a conventional THA. Retrieval analyses confirmed early cup loosening at the implant-cement interface in all 4 cases. The femoral components remained well attached to the cement. The periprosthetic tissues showed only small amounts of polymeric wear debris and there was only a very mild inflammatory reaction to this. Interpretation - Early cup loosening mandated a premature arrest of this study. After additional laboratory testing this failure mode was found to be the result of a small, yet measurable contraction in the cup size after exposing these implants to biological fluid

  14. Early healing of nanothickness bioceramic coatings on dental implants. An experimental study in dogs.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Paulo G; Cardaropoli, Giuseppe; Suzuki, Marcelo; Lemons, Jack E

    2009-02-01

    Thick bioceramic coatings like plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite have been shown to increase the overall tissue response and biomechanical fixation of dental implants. However, the presence and potential fracture of a bone-coating-metallic substrate interface at long times after implantation led these implants to fall from favor in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical fixation and biological response of Ca- and P-based, 20-50 nm thickness bioceramic deposition on a previously alumina-blasted/acid-etched Ti-6Al-4V implant surface in a dog model. Cylindrical alumina-blasted/acid-etched (AB/AE) (Control, n = 16), and Nanothickness bioceramic coated AB/AE(Nano, n = 16) implant surfaces were surgically placed in dogs proximal tibia and remained for 2 and 4 weeks in vivo. Following euthanization, the implants-in-bone were mounted in epoxy and pullout at a 0.5 mm/min rate. Following mechanical testing, the specimens were decalcified and processed (Hematoxylin and Eosin) for standard transmitted light microscopy evaluation. Percent bone-to-implant contact (BIC) to the pulled out implant surface was determined through computer software. Statistical analyses were performed by one-way ANOVA at 95% level of significance and Tukey's post-hoc multiple comparisons. No significant differences in pullout force were observed (p > 0.88): 2W Control (212.08 +/- 42.96 N), 2W Nano (224.35 +/- 42.97 N), 4W Control (207.07 +/- 42.97 N), and 4W Nano (190.15 +/- 45.94 N). No significant differences in %BIC were observed (p > 0.94): 2W Control (72.66 +/- 8.51), 2W Nano (69.44 +/- 8.51), 4W Control (70.44 +/- 8.51), and 4W Nano (69.11 +/- 9.09). It is shown that 20-50 nm thickness bioceramic depositions onto previously alumina-blasted/acid-etched substrates did not improve the biomechanical fixation and the BIC at early implantation times, and studies concerning shorter and longer implantation times are recommended for confirmation or before a conclusion

  15. Evolution and acceptability of medical applications of RFID implants among early users of technology.

    PubMed

    Smith, Alan D

    2007-01-01

    RFID as a wireless identification technology that may be combined with microchip implants have tremendous potential in today's market. Although these implants have their advantages and disadvantages, recent improvements how allowed for implants designed for humans. Focus was given to the use of RFID tags and its effects on technology and CRM through a case study on VeriChip, the only corporation to hold the rights and the patent to the implantable chip for humans, and an empirically based study on working professionals to measure perceptions by early adopters of such technology. Through hypotheses-testing procedures, it was found that although some resistance to accept microchip implants was found in several applications, especially among gender, it was totally expected that healthcare and medical record keeping activities would be universally treated in a positive light and the use of authorities (namely governmental agencies) would be equally treated in a negative light by both sexes. Future trends and recommendations are presented along with statistical results collected through personal interviews.

  16. Headsprout Early Reading for Students at Risk for Reading Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreskey, Donna D.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of using Headsprout Early Reading (Headsprout, 2007) to supplement a balanced literacy curriculum for kindergarten and first grade students in a suburban public school system. Headsprout, which is an example of computer aided instruction (CAI), provided internet-based, supplemental reading instruction that…

  17. Word learning in deaf children with cochlear implants: effects of early auditory experience.

    PubMed

    Houston, Derek M; Stewart, Jessica; Moberly, Aaron; Hollich, George; Miyamoto, Richard T

    2012-05-01

    Word-learning skills were tested in normal-hearing 12- to 40-month-olds and in deaf 22- to 40-month-olds 12 to 18 months after cochlear implantation. Using the Intermodal Preferential Looking Paradigm (IPLP), children were tested for their ability to learn two novel-word/novel-object pairings. Normal-hearing children demonstrated learning on this task at approximately 18 months of age and older. For deaf children, performance on this task was significantly correlated with early auditory experience: Children whose cochlear implants were switched on by 14 months of age or who had relatively more hearing before implantation demonstrated learning in this task, but later implanted profoundly deaf children did not. Performance on this task also correlated with later measures of vocabulary size. Taken together, these findings suggest that early auditory experience facilitates word learning and that the IPLP may be useful for identifying children who may be at high risk for poor vocabulary development. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Word learning in deaf children with cochlear implants: effects of early auditory experience

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Derek M.; Stewart, Jessica; Moberly, Aaron; Hollich, George; Miyamoto, Richard T.

    2013-01-01

    Word-learning skills were tested in normal-hearing 12- to 40-month-olds and in deaf 22- to 40-month-olds 12 to 18 months after cochlear implantation. Using the Intermodal Preferential Looking Paradigm (IPLP), children were tested for their ability to learn two novel-word/novel-object pairings. Normal-hearing children demonstrated learning on this task at approximately 18 months of age and older. For deaf children, performance on this task was significantly correlated with early auditory experience: Children whose cochlear implants were switched on by 14 months of age or who had relatively more hearing before implantation demonstrated learning in this task, but later implanted profoundly deaf children did not. Performance on this task also correlated with later measures of vocabulary size. Taken together, these findings suggest that early auditory experience facilitates word learning and that the IPLP may be useful for identifying children who may be at high risk for poor vocabulary development. PMID:22490184

  19. Could anterior papillary muscle partial necrosis explain early mitral valve repair failure?

    PubMed

    Pozzi, Matteo; Generali, Tommaso; Henaine, Roland; Mitchell, Julia; Lemaire, Anais; Chiari, Pascal; Fran, Jean; Obadia, Jean François

    2014-09-01

    Standardized techniques of mitral valve repair (MVR) have recently witnessed the introduction of a 'respect rather than resect' concept, the strategy of which involves the use of artificial chordae. MVR displays several advantages over mitral valve replacement in degenerative mitral regurgitation (MR), but the risk of reoperation for MVR failure must be taken into account. Different mechanisms could be advocated as the leading cause of MVR failure; procedure-related mechanisms are usually involved in early MVR failure, while valve-related mechanisms are common in late failure. Here, the case is reported of an early failure of MVR using artificial chordae that could be explained by an unusual procedure-related mechanism, namely anterior papillary muscle necrosis. MVR failure is a well-known complication after surgical repair of degenerative MR, but anterior papillary muscle partial necrosis might also be considered a possible mechanism of procedure-related MVR failure, especially when considering the increasing use of artificial chordae. Owing to the encouraging results obtained, mitral valve re-repair might be considered a viable solution, but must be selected after only a meticulous evaluation of the underlying mechanism of MVR failure.

  20. Biological and technical complications and failures with fixed partial dentures (FPD) on implants and teeth after four to five years of function.

    PubMed

    Brägger, U; Aeschlimann, S; Bürgin, W; Hämmerle, C H; Lang, N P

    2001-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the frequency of biological and technical complications with fixed partial dentures (FPDs) on implants, teeth and as mixed tooth-implant supported FPDs over 4 to 5 years of function. All implants belonged to the ITI Dental Implant System. Group I-I (implant FPD) included 33 patients with 40 FPDs, group T-T (tooth FPDs) 40 patients with 58 FPDs, group I-T (mixed tooth-implant FPDs) 15 with 18 FPD. Of the bridge abutments 144 were teeth and 105 were implants. The median number of units replaced by the FPDs was 3 (range 2-14). The mean age of the patients was 55.7 years (range 23-83). Complete failures resulted in the loss of one FPD in each group. Two implants were lost due to fracture secondarily to development of a bone defect. One tooth had a vertical fracture and 1 tooth was lost due to periodontitis. Biological complications (peri-implantitis, PPD > or = 5 mm and BOP+) occurred at 9.6% (10) of the implants. This number was, however, reduced to 5% if the threshold for definition of peri-implantitis was set at PPD > or = 6 mm and BOP+. Biological complications occurred in 11.8% (17) of the abutment teeth (NS compared to implants); 2.8% (4) had secondary caries, 4.9% (7) endodontic problems and 4.1% (6) had periodontitis (PPD > or = 5 mm, BOP+). Ten out of 32 patients with a general health problem indicated a biological complication, whereas 9 out of 53 patients with no general health problem had a biological complication (chi 2: NS). Statistically significantly more technical complications were found in FPDs on implants (chi 2, P < or = 0.05). The technical complications were associated with bruxism. Out of 10 bruxers 6 had a technical complication whereas 13 out of 75 non-bruxers had such a complication (chi 2 < or = 0.01). Extensions were associated with more technical complications (13 out of 35 with extensions versus 9 out of 81 without). In conclusion, favourable clinical conditions were found at tooth and implant

  1. Genome Wide assessment of Early Osseointegration in Implant-Adherent Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thalji, Ghadeer N.

    Objectives: To determine the molecular processes involved in osseointegration. Materials and methods: A structured literature review concerning in vitro and in vivo molecular assessment of osseointegration was performed. A rat and a human model were then used to identify the early molecular processes involved in osseointegration associated with a micro roughened and nanosurface superimposed featured implants. In the rat model, 32 titanium implants with surface topographies exhibiting a micro roughened (AT-II) and nanosurface superimposed featured implants (AT-I) were placed in the tibiae of 8 rats and subsequently harvested at 2 and 4 days after placement. Whereas in the human model, four titanium mini-implants with either a moderately roughened surface (TiOblast) or super-imposed nanoscale topography (Osseospeed) were placed in edentulous sites of eleven systemically healthy subjects and subsequently removed after 3 and 7 days. Total RNA was isolated from cells adherent to retrieved implants. A whole genome microarray using the Affymetrix 1.1 ST Array platform was used to describe the gene expression profiles that were differentially regulated by the implant surfaces. Results: The literature review provided evidence that particular topographic cues can be specifically integrated among the many extracellular signals received by the cell in its signal transduction network. In the rat model, functionally relevant categories related to ossification, skeletal system development, osteoblast differentiation, bone development and biomineral tissue development were upregulated and more prominent at AT-I compared to AT-II. In the human model, there were no significant differences when comparing the two-implant surfaces at each time point. However, the microarray identified several genes that were differentially regulated at day 7 vs. day 3 for both implant surfaces. Functionally relevant categories related to the extracellular matrix, collagen fibril organization and

  2. The Pathology of Orthopedic Implant Failure Is Mediated by Innate Immune System Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Landgraeber, Stefan; Jäger, Marcus; Jacobs, Joshua J.; Hallab, Nadim James

    2014-01-01

    All of the over 1 million total joint replacements implanted in the US each year are expected to eventually fail after 15–25 years of use, due to slow progressive subtle inflammation at the bone implant interface. This inflammatory disease state is caused by implant debris acting, primarily, on innate immune cells, that is, macrophages. This slow progressive pathological bone loss or “aseptic loosening” is a potentially life-threatening condition due to the serious complications in older people (>75 yrs) of total joint replacement revision surgery. In some people implant debris (particles and ions from metals) can influence the adaptive immune system as well, giving rise to the concept of metal sensitivity. However, a consensus of studies agrees that the dominant form of this response is due to innate reactivity by macrophages to implant debris where both danger (DAMP) and pathogen (PAMP) signalling elicit cytokine-based inflammatory responses. This paper discusses implant debris induced release of the cytokines and chemokines due to activation of the innate (and the adaptive) immune system and the subsequent formation of osteolysis. Different mechanisms of implant-debris reactivity related to the innate immune system are detailed, for example, danger signalling (e.g., IL-1β, IL-18, IL-33, etc.), toll-like receptor activation (e.g., IL-6, TNF-α, etc.), apoptosis (e.g., caspases 3–9), bone catabolism (e.g., TRAP5b), and hypoxia responses (Hif1-α). Cytokine-based clinical and basic science studies are in progress to provide diagnosis and therapeutic intervention strategies. PMID:24891761

  3. Evaluation of early bone response to fluoride-modified and anodically oxidized titanium implants through continuous removal torque analysis.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Taek-Ka; Lee, Hyo-Jung; Min, Seung-Ki; Yeo, In-Sung

    2012-10-01

    To compare between a bioactive and a bioinert implant with different geometries by continuous measurement of the removal torque and calculation of the angular momentum of each surfaced implant. Six New Zealand white rabbits were used in the study. Each rabbit received 2 implants. A bioactive fluoride-modified implant with a conical connection and microthread design was inserted into one tibia, and a bioinert anodically oxidized implant with an external connection design was inserted into the other. After 2 weeks of implant insertion, the removal torque values were continuously measured according to time. Using the time-torque curve resulting from the measurements, the maximum values were determined, and the angular momenta were calculated. The anodically oxidized implant had significantly higher peak removal torque and angular momentum values than the fluoride-modified implant (P < 0.05). The impact of the fluoride-modified bioactive implant on early bone response remains unclear. Considering the angular momentum of dental implants may assist in the elucidation of the effect of implant geometry on bone response.

  4. Expression profiling of endometrium from women with endometriosis reveals candidate genes for disease-based implantation failure and infertility.

    PubMed

    Kao, L C; Germeyer, A; Tulac, S; Lobo, S; Yang, J P; Taylor, R N; Osteen, K; Lessey, B A; Giudice, L C

    2003-07-01

    Endometriosis is clinically associated with pelvic pain and infertility, with implantation failure strongly suggested as an underlying cause for the observed infertility. Eutopic endometrium of women with endometriosis provides a unique experimental paradigm for investigation into molecular mechanisms of reproductive dysfunction and an opportunity to identify specific markers for this disease. We applied paralleled gene expression profiling using high-density oligonucleotide microarrays to investigate differentially regulated genes in endometrium from women with vs. without endometriosis. Fifteen endometrial biopsy samples (obtained during the window of implantation from eight subjects with and seven subjects without endometriosis) were processed for expression profiling on Affymetrix Hu95A microarrays. Data analysis was conducted with GeneChip Analysis Suite, version 4.01, and GeneSpring version 4.0.4. Nonparametric testing was applied, using a P value of 0.05, to assess statistical significance. Of the 12,686 genes analyzed, 91 genes were significantly increased more than 2-fold in their expression, and 115 genes were decreased more than 2-fold. Unsupervised clustering demonstrated down-regulation of several known cell adhesion molecules, endometrial epithelial secreted proteins, and proteins not previously known to be involved in the pathogenesis of endometriosis, as well as up-regulated genes. Selected dysregulated genes were randomly chosen and validated with RT-PCR and/or Northern/dot-blot analyses, and confirmed up-regulation of collagen alpha2 type I, 2.6-fold; bile salt export pump, 2.0-fold; and down-regulation of N-acetylglucosamine-6-O-sulfotransferase (important in synthesis of L-selectin ligands), 1.7-fold; glycodelin, 51.5-fold; integrin alpha2, 1.8-fold; and B61 (Ephrin A1), 4.5-fold. Two-way overlapping layer analysis used to compare endometrial genes in the window of implantation from women with and without endometriosis further identified three

  5. The natural history of new-onset heart failure with a severely depressed left ventricular ejection fraction: implications for timing of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantation.

    PubMed

    Teeter, William A; Thibodeau, Jennifer T; Rao, Krishnasree; Brickner, M Elizabeth; Toto, Kathleen H; Nelson, Lauren L; Mishkin, Joseph D; Ayers, Colby R; Miller, Justin G; Mammen, Pradeep P A; Patel, Parag C; Markham, David W; Drazner, Mark H

    2012-09-01

    Guidelines recommend that patients with new-onset systolic heart failure (HF) receive a trial of medical therapy before an implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD). This strategy allows for improvement of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), thereby avoiding an ICD, but exposes patients to risk of potentially preventable sudden cardiac death during the trial of medical therapy. We reviewed a consecutive series of patients with HF of <6 months duration with a severely depressed LVEF (<30%) evaluated in a HF clinic (N = 224). The ICD implantation was delayed with plans to reassess LVEF approximately 6 months after optimization of β-blockers. Mortality was ascertained by the National Death Index. Follow-up echocardiograms were performed in 115 of the 224 subjects. Of these, 50 (43%) had mildly depressed or normal LVEF at follow-up ("LVEF recovery") such that an ICD was no longer indicated. In a conservative sensitivity analysis (using the entire study cohort, whether or not a follow-up echocardiogram was obtained, as the denominator), 22% of subjects had LVEF recovery. Mortality at 6, 12, and 18 months in the entire cohort was 2.3%, 4.5%, and 6.8%, respectively. Of 87 patients who tolerated target doses of β-blockers, only 1 (1.1%) died during the first 18 months. Patients with new-onset systolic HF have both a good chance of LVEF recovery and low 6-month mortality. Achievement of target β-blocker dose identifies a very low-risk population. These data support delaying ICD implantation for a trial of medical therapy. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Implantation failure in mice with a disruption in Phospholipase C beta 1 gene: lack of embryonic attachment, aberrant steroid hormone signalling and defective endocannabinoid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Filis, Panayiotis; Kind, Peter C.; Spears, Norah

    2013-01-01

    Phospholipase C beta 1 (PLCβ1) is a downstream effector of G-protein-coupled receptor signalling and holds central roles in reproductive physiology. Mice with a disruption in the Plcβ1 gene are infertile with pleiotropic reproductive defects, the major reproductive block in females being implantation failure. Here, PLCβ1 was demonstrated at the luminal and glandular epithelia throughout the pre- and peri-implantation period, with transient stromal expression during 0.5–1.5 days post coitum (dpc). Examination of implantation sites at 4.5 dpc showed that in females lacking functional PLCβ1 (knock-out (KO) females), embryos failed to establish proper contact with the uterine epithelium. Proliferating luminal epithelial cells were evident in KO implantation sites, indicating failure to establish a receptive uterus. Real-time PCR demonstrated that KO implantation sites had aberrant ovarian steroid signalling, with high levels of estrogen receptor α, lactoferrin and amphiregulin mRNA, while immunohistochemistry revealed very low levels of estrogen receptor α protein, possibly due to rapid receptor turnover. KO implantation sites expressed markedly less fatty acid amide hydrolase and monoacylglycerol lipase, indicating that endocannabinoid metabolism was also affected. Collectively, our results show that PLCβ1 is essential for uterine preparation for implantation, and that defective PLCβ1-mediated signalling during implantation is associated with aberrant ovarian steroid signalling and endocannabinoid metabolism. PMID:23295235

  7. Risk factors for early failure after peripheral endovascular intervention: application of a reliability engineering approach.

    PubMed

    Meltzer, Andrew J; Graham, Ashley; Connolly, Peter H; Karwowski, John K; Bush, Harry L; Frazier, Peter I; Schneider, Darren B

    2013-01-01

    We apply an innovative and novel analytic approach, based on reliability engineering (RE) principles frequently used to characterize the behavior of manufactured products, to examine outcomes after peripheral endovascular intervention. We hypothesized that this would allow for improved prediction of outcome after peripheral endovascular intervention, specifically with regard to identification of risk factors for early failure. Patients undergoing infrainguinal endovascular intervention for chronic lower-extremity ischemia from 2005 to 2010 were identified in a prospectively maintained database. The primary outcome of failure was defined as patency loss detected by duplex ultrasonography, with or without clinical failure. Analysis included univariate and multivariate Cox regression models, as well as RE-based analysis including product life-cycle models and Weibull failure plots. Early failures were distinguished using the RE principle of "basic rating life," and multivariate models identified independent risk factors for early failure. From 2005 to 2010, 434 primary endovascular peripheral interventions were performed for claudication (51.8%), rest pain (16.8%), or tissue loss (31.3%). Fifty-five percent of patients were aged ≥75 years; 57% were men. Failure was noted after 159 (36.6%) interventions during a mean follow-up of 18 months (range, 0-71 months). Using multivariate (Cox) regression analysis, rest pain and tissue loss were independent predictors of patency loss, with hazard ratios of 2.5 (95% confidence interval, 1.6-4.1; P < 0.001) and 3.2 (95% confidence interval, 2.0-5.2, P < 0.001), respectively. The distribution of failure times for both claudication and critical limb ischemia fit distinct Weibull plots, with different characteristics: interventions for claudication demonstrated an increasing failure rate (β = 1.22, θ = 13.46, mean time to failure = 12.603 months, index of fit = 0.99037, R(2) = 0.98084), whereas interventions for critical limb

  8. Semantic and syntactic reading comprehension strategies used by deaf children with early and late cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Carlos; Martín-Aragoneses, M Teresa; López-Higes, Ramón; Pisón, Guzmán

    2016-01-01

    Deaf students have traditionally exhibited reading comprehension difficulties. In recent years, these comprehension problems have been partially offset through cochlear implantation (CI), and the subsequent improvement in spoken language skills. However, the use of cochlear implants has not managed to fully bridge the gap in language and reading between normally hearing (NH) and deaf children, as its efficacy depends on variables such as the age at implant. This study compared the reading comprehension of sentences in 19 children who received a cochlear implant before 24 months of age (early-CI) and 19 who received it after 24 months (late-CI) with a control group of 19 NH children. The task involved completing sentences in which the last word had been omitted. To complete each sentence children had to choose a word from among several alternatives that included one syntactic and two semantic foils in addition to the target word. The results showed that deaf children with late-CI performed this task significantly worse than NH children, while those with early-CI exhibited no significant differences with NH children, except under more demanding processing conditions (long sentences with infrequent target words). Further, the error analysis revealed a preference of deaf students with early-CI for selecting the syntactic foil over a semantic one, which suggests that they draw upon syntactic cues during sentence processing in the same way as NH children do. In contrast, deaf children with late-CI do not appear to use a syntactic strategy, but neither a semantic strategy based on the use of key words, as the literature suggests. Rather, the numerous errors of both kinds that the late-CI group made seem to indicate an inconsistent and erratic response when faced with a lack of comprehension. These findings are discussed in relation to differences in receptive vocabulary and short-term memory and their implications for sentence reading comprehension. Copyright © 2015

  9. Lower early postnatal oxygen saturation target and risk of ductus arteriosus closure failure.

    PubMed

    Inomata, Kei; Taniguchi, Shinji; Yonemoto, Hiroki; Inoue, Takeshi; Kawase, Akihiko; Kondo, Yuichi

    2016-11-01

    Early postnatal hyperoxia is a major risk factor for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in extremely premature infants. To reduce the occurrence of ROP, we adopted a lower early postnatal oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) target range (85-92%) from April 2011. Lower SpO 2 target range, however, may lead to hypoxemia and an increase in the risk of ductus arteriosus (DA) closure failure. The aim of this study was therefore to determine whether a lower SpO 2 target range, during the early postnatal stage, increases the risk of DA closure failure. Infants born at <28 weeks' gestation were enrolled in this study. Oxygen saturation target range during the first postnatal 72 h was 84-100% in study period 1 and 85-92% in period 2. Eighty-two infants were included in period 1, and 61 were included in period 2. The lower oxygen saturation target range increased the occurrence of hypoxemia during the first postnatal 72 h. Prevalence of DA closure failure in period 2 (21%) was significantly higher than that in period 1 (1%). On multivariate logistic regression analysis, the lower oxygen saturation target range was an independent risk factor for DA closure failure. Lower early postnatal oxygen saturation target range increases the risk of DA closure failure. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  10. Diabetes Mellitus and Outcomes of Cardiac Resynchronization With Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Therapy in Older Patients With Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B; Masoudi, Frederick A; Bao, Haikun; Spatz, Erica S; Fonarow, Gregg C

    2016-08-01

    Large-scale data on outcomes with cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator in patients with diabetes mellitus are limited. We compared outcomes after cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator implantation among patients with heart failure who have diabetes mellitus versus those without diabetes mellitus. Survival curves and covariate adjusted hazard ratio (HR) or odds ratio were used to assess the risks for death, readmission, and device-related complications by diabetes mellitus status among 18 428 patients at least 65 years old receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator from the National Cardiovascular Data Registry, implantable cardioverter-defibrillator registry between 2006 and 2009, with up to 3 years of follow-up. Accounting for differences between groups, compared with those without diabetes mellitus (n=11 345), patients with diabetes mellitus (n=7083) had a higher risk of death both at 1 year (HR, 1.16 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05-1.29]; P=0.0037) and 3 years (HR, 1.21 [1.14-1.29]; P<0.001) after device implantation and higher risks of all-cause readmission (sub-HR, 1.16 [1.11-1.21] at 1 year; P<0.0001; sub-HR, 1.15 [1.11-1.19] at 3 years; P<0.0001) and heart failure-related readmission (sub-HR, 1.18 [1.09-1.28] at 1 year; P<0.0001; and sub-HR, 1.22 [1.15-1.30] at 3 years; P<0.0001). Device-related complications within 90 days did not differ between those with and without diabetes mellitus (odds ratio: 0.90 [0.77-1.06]; P=0.37). Interactions of age, sex, ischemic cardiomyopathy, renal failure, or QRS duration were not significant. In older patients with heart failure receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator, diabetes mellitus was independently associated with greater risks of death and rehospitalization, but similar risks of procedural complications. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. A multicenter prospective study to assess the effect of early cleavage on embryo quality, implantation, and live-birth rate.

    PubMed

    de los Santos, Maria José; Arroyo, Gemma; Busquet, Ana; Calderón, Gloria; Cuadros, Jorge; Hurtado de Mendoza, Maria Victoria; Moragas, Marta; Herrer, Raquel; Ortiz, Agueda; Pons, Carme; Ten, Jorge; Vilches, Miguel Angel; Figueroa, Maria José

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the impact of early cleavage (EC) on embryo quality, implantation, and live-birth rates. Prospective cross-sectional study. Multicenter study. Seven hundred embryo transfers and 1,028 early-stage human embryos. None. Implantation according to the presence of EC and embryo quality. The presence of EC is associated with embryo quality, especially in cycles with autologous oocytes. However, the use of EC as an additional criterion for selecting an embryo for transfer does not appear to significantly improve likelihood of implantation. Furthermore, embryos that presented EC had live-birth rates per implanted embryo similar to those that did not show any sign of cleavage. At least for conventional embryo culture and morphologic evaluations, the additional evaluation of EC in embryos may not be valuable to improve embryo implantation. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of Abutment Design on Stiffness, Strength, and Failure of Implant-Supported Monolithic Resin Nano Ceramic (RNC) Crowns.

    PubMed

    Joda, Tim; Huber, Samuel; Bürki, Alexander; Zysset, Philippe; Brägger, Urs

    2015-12-01

    Recent technical development allows the digital manufacturing of monolithic reconstructions with high-performance materials. For implant-supported crowns, the fixation requires an abutment design onto which the reconstruction can be bonded. The aim of this laboratory investigation was to analyze stiffness, strength, and failure modes of implant-supported, computer-assisted design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM)-generated resin nano ceramic (RNC) crowns bonded to three different titanium abutments. Eighteen monolithic RNC crowns were produced and loaded in a universal testing machine under quasi-static condition according to DIN ISO 14801. With regard to the type of titanium abutment, three groups were defined: (1) prefabricated cementable standard; (2) CAD/CAM-constructed individualized; and (3) novel prefabricated bonding base. Stiffness and strength were measured and analyzed statistically with Wilcoxon rank sum test. Sections of the specimens were examined microscopically. Stiffness demonstrated high stability for all specimens loaded in the physiological loading range with means and standard deviations of 1,579 ± 120 N/mm (group A), 1,733 ± 89 N/mm (group B), and 1,704 ± 162 N/mm (group C). Mean strength of the novel prefabricated bonding base (group C) was 17% lower than of the two other groups. Plastic deformations were detectable for all implant-abutment crown connections. Monolithic implant crowns made of RNC seem to represent a feasible and stable prosthetic construction under laboratory testing conditions with strength higher than the average occlusal force, independent of the different abutment designs used in this investigation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Clinical Management of Implant Prostheses in Patients with Bruxism

    PubMed Central

    Komiyama, Osamu; Lobbezoo, Frank; De Laat, Antoon; Iida, Takashi; Kitagawa, Tsuyoshi; Murakami, Hiroshi; Kato, Takao; Kawara, Misao

    2012-01-01

    There is general agreement that excessive stress to the bone-implant interface may result in implant overload and failure. Early failure of the implant due to excessive loading occurs shortly after uncovering the implant. Excess load on a final restoration after successful implant integration can result in physical failure of the implant structure. Many clinicians believe that overload of dental implants is a risk factor for vertical peri-implant bone loss and/or may be detrimental for the suprastructure in implant prostheses. It has been documented that occlusal parafunction, such as, bruxism (tooth grinding and clenching) affects the outcome of implant prostheses, but there is no evidence for a causal relation between the failures and overload of dental implants. In spite of this lack of evidence, often metal restorations are preferred instead of porcelain for patients in whom bruxism is presumed on the basis of tooth wear. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the importance of the occlusal scheme used in implant restorations for implant longevity and to suggest a clinical approach and occlusal materials for implant prostheses in order to prevent complications related to bruxism. PMID:22701484

  14. Early Bimodal Stimulation Benefits Language Acquisition for Children With Cochlear Implants.

    PubMed

    Moberly, Aaron C; Lowenstein, Joanna H; Nittrouer, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Adding a low-frequency acoustic signal to the cochlear implant (CI) signal (i.e., bimodal stimulation) for a period of time early in life improves language acquisition. Children must acquire sensitivity to the phonemic units of language to develop most language-related skills, including expressive vocabulary, working memory, and reading. Acquiring sensitivity to phonemic structure depends largely on having refined spectral (frequency) representations available in the signal, which does not happen with CIs alone. Combining the low-frequency acoustic signal available through hearing aids with the CI signal can enhance signal quality. A period with this bimodal stimulation has been shown to improve language skills in very young children. This study examined whether these benefits persist into childhood. Data were examined for 48 children with CIs implanted under age 3 years, participating in a longitudinal study. All children wore hearing aids before receiving a CI, but upon receiving a first CI, 24 children had at least 1 year of bimodal stimulation (Bimodal group), and 24 children had only electric stimulation subsequent to implantation (CI-only group). Measures of phonemic awareness were obtained at second and fourth grades, along with measures of expressive vocabulary, working memory, and reading. Children in the Bimodal group generally performed better on measures of phonemic awareness, and that advantage was reflected in other language measures. Having even a brief period of time early in life with combined electric-acoustic input provides benefits to language learning into childhood, likely because of the enhancement in spectral representations provided.

  15. Chronicity of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Deficiency, Part 2: Radiographic Predictors of Early Graft Failure

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Yoshinari; Kita, Keisuke; Takao, Rikio; Amano, Hiroshi; Uchida, Ryohei; Shiozaki, Yoshiki; Yonetani, Yasukazu; Kinugasa, Kazutaka; Mae, Tatsuo; Horibe, Shuji

    2018-01-01

    Background: Accumulating evidence suggests that long-term anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficiency can give rise to an abnormal tibiofemoral relationship and subsequent intra-articular lesions. However, the effects of chronic ACL deficiency (ACLD) on early graft failure after anatomic reconstruction remain unclear. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that patients with long-term ACLD lasting more than 5 years would have a greater rate of early graft failure due to insufficient intraoperative reduction of the tibia and that the preoperative and immediately postoperative abnormal tibiofemoral relationship in the sagittal plane, such as anterior tibial subluxation (ATS), would correlate with the graft status on postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Study Design: Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. Methods: A total of 358 patients who had undergone anatomic ACL reconstruction with hamstring grafts were divided into 5 groups based on chronicity of ACLD: (1) 0 to 6 months, (2) 6 months to 1 year, (3) 1 to 2 years, (4) 2 to 5 years, and (5) longer than 5 years. Preoperatively and immediately postoperatively, lateral radiographs in full extension were taken in all patients to evaluate the tibiofemoral relationship, specifically with regard to ATS, space for the ACL (sACL), and extension angle. All patients underwent MRI at 6 months to reveal graft status. Groups with a high rate of graft failure were further analyzed to compare demographic and radiographic factors between the intact and failure subgroups, followed by multivariate logistic regression analysis to identify predisposing factors. Results: Graft failure without trauma was observed in 4 (1.8%), 0 (0%), 1 (3.7%), 3 (9.7%), and 8 patients (17.7%) in groups 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5, respectively. Of the 76 patients in groups 4 and 5, significant differences were noted between the failure and intact subgroups in preoperative ATS (4.9 vs 2.4 mm, respectively; P < .01), side-to-side differences in sACL (sACL-SSD) (4.7 vs

  16. Lessons learnt from early failure of a patient trial with a polymer-on-polymer resurfacing hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Van Susante, Job L C; Verdonschot, Nico; Bom, L Paul A; Tomaszewski, Pawel; Campbell, Pat; Ebramzadeh, Edward; Schreurs, B Wim

    2018-01-01

    Background and purpose Hip resurfacing (HR) is a treatment option promoted for hip arthritis in young and active patients. However, adverse reactions to metal are a concern and the search for non-metallic bearing options proceeds. We present the first clinical study performed in patients using a newly developed hydrophilic polymer-on-polymer hip resurfacing device. Patients and methods After performing extensive hip simulator tests, biocompatibility testing and animal tests (ISO 14242-1,3; 10993-3,4,5,10,11), approval was obtained from the IRB committee to enroll 15 patients in the first clinical study in humans using this experimental polymer-on-polymer hip resurfacing device. All surgeries were done by 2 experienced hip resurfacing surgeons. Clinical scores and standard radiographs as well as routine MRIs were obtained at regular intervals. Results The surgical technique proved feasible with successful implantation of the new device using PMMA cement fixation on both sides without complications. Postoperative imaging revealed a well-positioned and well-fixed polymer resurfacing hip arthroplasty in all 4 initial cases. All 4 patients were free of pain and had good function for the first 2 months. However, in all 4 cases early cup loosening occurred between 8 and 11 weeks after surgery, necessitating immediate closure of the study. All 4 patients had a reoperation and were revised to a conventional THA. Retrieval analyses confirmed early cup loosening at the implant–cement interface in all 4 cases. The femoral components remained well attached to the cement. The periprosthetic tissues showed only small amounts of polymeric wear debris and there was only a very mild inflammatory reaction to this. Interpretation Early cup loosening mandated a premature arrest of this study. After additional laboratory testing this failure mode was found to be the result of a small, yet measurable contraction in the cup size after exposing these implants to biological fluid divalent

  17. Early Retinal and Choroidal Coat Thickness Changes After Intravitreal Dexamethasone Implant Injection for Diabetic Macular Edema.

    PubMed

    Horozoğlu, Fatih; Sever, Özkan

    2018-06-05

    Intravitreal steroid injection is one of the treatment choices in diabetic macular edema (DME). Dexamethasone (Dx) implant is the most novel form of intravitreal steroid therapy. Macular thickness improvement is well known effect of Dx implant however; subfoveal choroidal coat thickness (SFCT) changes need to be investigated. To evaluate the early central macular thickness (CMT) and SFCT alterations after single dose dexamethasone implant injection in DME. Retrospective cross-sectional study. We identified 29 patients with DME (29 eyes) who underwent optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fundus fluoroscein angiography (FFA). All patients received a single dose intravitreal Dx implant and were followed for CMT and SFCT alterations for the post-injection first hour, first day, first week, first month and third month. The preoperative mean CMT and SFCT measurements were 592.3±122.3 (412-879) μm and 264.8±53.7 (165-397) μm, respectively. CMT measurements significantly decreased from the first hour (p<0.050) and kept decreasing till 3 month (p<0.001); while SFCT decrement was just significant at the first day (p<0.05). When we compared the decrease in SFCT and CMT, 1 hour was similar, however not significant, 1.5% SFCT and 5% CMT decrease was, respectively (p>0.050). CMT decrease rate was significantly higher than SFCT at 1 day, 1 week, 1 month and 3 month (p<0.001). Intravitreal Dx implant has got a meaningful effect on CMT in patients with DME while SFCT decreases significantly at first hour and first day.

  18. Reliability and failure modes of implant-supported zirconium-oxide fixed dental prostheses related to veneering techniques

    PubMed Central

    Baldassarri, Marta; Zhang, Yu; Thompson, Van P.; Rekow, Elizabeth D.; Stappert, Christian F. J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Objectives To compare fatigue failure modes and reliability of hand-veneered and over-pressed implant-supported three-unit zirconium-oxide fixed-dental-prostheses(FDPs). Methods Sixty-four custom-made zirconium-oxide abutments (n=32/group) and thirty-two zirconium-oxide FDP-frameworks were CAD/CAM manufactured. Frameworks were veneered with hand-built up or over-pressed porcelain (n=16/group). Step-stress-accelerated-life-testing (SSALT) was performed in water applying a distributed contact load at the buccal cusp-pontic-area. Post failure examinations were carried out using optical (polarized-reflected-light) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to visualize crack propagation and failure modes. Reliability was compared using cumulative-damage step-stress analysis (Alta-7-Pro, Reliasoft). Results Crack propagation was observed in the veneering porcelain during fatigue. The majority of zirconium-oxide FDPs demonstrated porcelain chipping as the dominant failure mode. Nevertheless, fracture of the zirconium-oxide frameworks was also observed. Over-pressed FDPs failed earlier at a mean failure load of 696 ± 149 N relative to hand-veneered at 882 ± 61 N (profile I). Weibull-stress-number of cycles-unreliability-curves were generated. The reliability (2-sided at 90% confidence bounds) for a 400N load at 100K cycles indicated values of 0.84 (0.98-0.24) for the hand-veneered FDPs and 0.50 (0.82-0.09) for their over-pressed counterparts. Conclusions Both zirconium-oxide FDP systems were resistant under accelerated-life-time-testing. Over-pressed specimens were more susceptible to fatigue loading with earlier veneer chipping. PMID:21557985

  19. Surgical factors in pediatric cochlear implantation and their early effects on electrode activation and functional outcomes.

    PubMed

    Francis, Howard W; Buchman, Craig A; Visaya, Jiovani M; Wang, Nae-Yuh; Zwolan, Teresa A; Fink, Nancy E; Niparko, John K

    2008-06-01

    To assess the impact of surgical factors on electrode status and early communication outcomes in young children in the first 2 years of cochlear implantation. Prospective multicenter cohort study. Six tertiary referral centers. Children 5 years or younger before implantation with normal nonverbal intelligence. Cochlear implant operations in 209 ears of 188 children. Percent active channels, auditory behavior as measured by the Infant Toddler Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale/Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale and Reynell receptive language scores. Stable insertion of the full electrode array was accomplished in 96.2% of ears. At least 75% of electrode channels were active in 88% of ears. Electrode deactivation had a significant negative effect on Infant Toddler Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale/Meaningful Auditory Integration Scale scores at 24 months but no effect on receptive language scores. Significantly fewer active electrodes were associated with a history of meningitis. Surgical complications requiring additional hospitalization and/or revision surgery occurred in 6.7% of patients but had no measurable effect on the development of auditory behavior within the first 2 years. Negative, although insignificant, associations were observed between the need for perioperative revision of the device and 1) the percent of active electrodes and 2) the receptive language level at 2-year follow-up. Activation of the entire electrode array is associated with better early auditory outcomes. Decrements in the number of active electrodes and lower gains of receptive language after manipulation of the newly implanted device were not statistically significant but may be clinically relevant, underscoring the importance of surgical technique and the effective placement of the electrode array.

  20. Infraclavicular versus axillary nerve catheters: A retrospective comparison of early catheter failure rate.

    PubMed

    Quast, Michaela B; Sviggum, Hans P; Hanson, Andrew C; Stoike, David E; Martin, David P; Niesen, Adam D

    2018-05-01

    Continuous brachial plexus catheters are often used to decrease pain following elbow surgery. This investigation aimed to assess the rate of early failure of infraclavicular (IC) and axillary (AX) nerve catheters following elbow surgery. Retrospective study. Postoperative recovery unit and inpatient hospital floor. 328 patients who received IC or AX nerve catheters and underwent elbow surgery were identified by retrospective query of our institution's database. Data collected included unplanned catheter dislodgement, catheter replacement rate, postoperative pain scores, and opioid administration on postoperative day 1. Catheter failure was defined as unplanned dislodging within 24 h of placement or requirement for catheter replacement and evaluated using a covariate adjusted model. 119 IC catheters and 209 AX catheters were evaluated. There were 8 (6.7%) failed IC catheters versus 13 (6.2%) failed AX catheters. After adjusting for age, BMI, and gender there was no difference in catheter failure rate between IC and AX nerve catheters (p = 0.449). These results suggest that IC and AX nerve catheters do not differ in the rate of early catheter failure, despite differences in anatomic location and catheter placement techniques. Both techniques provided effective postoperative analgesia with median pain scores < 3/10 for patients following elbow surgery. Reasons other than rate of early catheter failure should dictate which approach is performed. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. The influence of microstructure on the probability of early failure in aluminum-based interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwyer, V. M.

    2004-09-01

    For electromigration in short aluminum interconnects terminated by tungsten vias, the well known "short-line" effect applies. In a similar manner, for longer lines, early failure is determined by a critical value Lcrit for the length of polygranular clusters. Any cluster shorter than Lcrit is "immortal" on the time scale of early failure where the figure of merit is not the standard t50 value (the time to 50% failures), but rather the total probability of early failure, Pcf. Pcf is a complex function of current density, linewidth, line length, and material properties (the median grain size d50 and grain size shape factor σd). It is calculated here using a model based around the theory of runs, which has proved itself to be a useful tool for assessing the probability of extreme events. Our analysis shows that Pcf is strongly dependent on σd, and a change in σd from 0.27 to 0.5 can cause an order of magnitude increase in Pcf under typical test conditions. This has implications for the web-based two-dimensional grain-growth simulator MIT/EmSim, which generates grain patterns with σd=0.27, while typical as-patterned structures are better represented by a σd in the range 0.4 - 0.6. The simulator will consequently overestimate interconnect reliability due to this particular electromigration failure mode.

  2. Early laparotomy wound failure as the mechanism for incisional hernia formation

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Liyu; Culbertson, Eric J.; Wen, Yuan; Franz, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Incisional hernia is the most common complication of abdominal surgery leading to reoperation. In the United States, 200,000 incisional hernia repairs are performed annually, often with significant morbidity. Obesity is increasing the risk of laparotomy wound failure. Methods We used a validated animal model of incisional hernia formation. We intentionally induced laparotomy wound failure in otherwise normal adult, male Sprague-Dawley rats. Radio-opaque, metal surgical clips served as markers for the use of x-ray images to follow the progress of laparotomy wound failure. We confirmed radiographic findings of the time course for mechanical laparotomy wound failure by necropsy. Results Noninvasive radiographic imaging predicts early laparotomy wound failure and incisional hernia formation. We confirmed both transverse and craniocaudad migration of radio-opaque markers at necropsy after 28 d that was uniformly associated with the clinical development of incisional hernias. Conclusions Early laparotomy wound failure is a primary mechanism for incisional hernia formation. A noninvasive radiographic method for studying laparotomy wound healing may help design clinical trials to prevent and treat this common general surgical complication. PMID:23036516

  3. Remote monitoring reduces healthcare use and improves quality of care in heart failure patients with implantable defibrillators: the evolution of management strategies of heart failure patients with implantable defibrillators (EVOLVO) study.

    PubMed

    Landolina, Maurizio; Perego, Giovanni B; Lunati, Maurizio; Curnis, Antonio; Guenzati, Giuseppe; Vicentini, Alessandro; Parati, Gianfranco; Borghi, Gabriella; Zanaboni, Paolo; Valsecchi, Sergio; Marzegalli, Maurizio

    2012-06-19

    Heart failure patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) or an ICD for resynchronization therapy often visit the hospital for unscheduled examinations, placing a great burden on healthcare providers. We hypothesized that Internet-based remote interrogation systems could reduce emergency healthcare visits. This multicenter randomized trial involving 200 patients compared remote monitoring with standard patient management consisting of scheduled visits and patient response to audible ICD alerts. The primary end point was the rate of emergency department or urgent in-office visits for heart failure, arrhythmias, or ICD-related events. Over 16 months, such visits were 35% less frequent in the remote arm (75 versus 117; incidence density, 0.59 versus 0.93 events per year; P=0.005). A 21% difference was observed in the rates of total healthcare visits for heart failure, arrhythmias, or ICD-related events (4.40 versus 5.74 events per year; P<0.001). The time from an ICD alert condition to review of the data was reduced from 24.8 days in the standard arm to 1.4 days in the remote arm (P<0.001). The patients' clinical status, as measured by the Clinical Composite Score, was similar in the 2 groups, whereas a more favorable change in quality of life (Minnesota Living With Heart Failure Questionnaire) was observed from the baseline to the 16th month in the remote arm (P=0.026). Remote monitoring reduces emergency department/urgent in-office visits and, in general, total healthcare use in patients with ICD or defibrillators for resynchronization therapy. Compared with standard follow-up through in-office visits and audible ICD alerts, remote monitoring results in increased efficiency for healthcare providers and improved quality of care for patients. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00873899.

  4. Early fixation of cobalt-chromium based alloy surgical implants to bone using a tissue-engineering approach.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Munehiro; Tohma, Yasuaki; Ohgushi, Hajime; Takakura, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2012-01-01

    To establish the methods of demonstrating early fixation of metal implants to bone, one side of a Cobalt-Chromium (CoCr) based alloy implant surface was seeded with rabbit marrow mesenchymal cells and the other side was left unseeded. The mesenchymal cells were further cultured in the presence of ascorbic acid, β-glycerophosphate and dexamethasone, resulting in the appearance of osteoblasts and bone matrix on the implant surface. Thus, we succeeded in generating tissue-engineered bone on one side of the CoCr implant. The CoCr implants were then implanted in rabbit bone defects. Three weeks after the implantation, evaluations of mechanical test, undecalcified histological section and electron microscope analysis were performed. Histological and electron microscope images of the tissue engineered surface exhibited abundant new bone formation. However, newly formed bone tissue was difficult to detect on the side without cell seeding. In the mechanical test, the mean values of pull-out forces were 77.15 N and 44.94 N for the tissue-engineered and non-cell-seeded surfaces, respectively. These findings indicate early bone fixation of the tissue-engineered CoCr surface just three weeks after implantation.

  5. Early Fixation of Cobalt-Chromium Based Alloy Surgical Implants to Bone Using a Tissue-engineering Approach

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Munehiro; Tohma, Yasuaki; Ohgushi, Hajime; Takakura, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2012-01-01

    To establish the methods of demonstrating early fixation of metal implants to bone, one side of a Cobalt-Chromium (CoCr) based alloy implant surface was seeded with rabbit marrow mesenchymal cells and the other side was left unseeded. The mesenchymal cells were further cultured in the presence of ascorbic acid, β-glycerophosphate and dexamethasone, resulting in the appearance of osteoblasts and bone matrix on the implant surface. Thus, we succeeded in generating tissue-engineered bone on one side of the CoCr implant. The CoCr implants were then implanted in rabbit bone defects. Three weeks after the implantation, evaluations of mechanical test, undecalcified histological section and electron microscope analysis were performed. Histological and electron microscope images of the tissue engineered surface exhibited abundant new bone formation. However, newly formed bone tissue was difficult to detect on the side without cell seeding. In the mechanical test, the mean values of pull-out forces were 77.15 N and 44.94 N for the tissue-engineered and non-cell-seeded surfaces, respectively. These findings indicate early bone fixation of the tissue-engineered CoCr surface just three weeks after implantation. PMID:22754313

  6. Failure mode and bending moment of canine pancarpal arthrodesis constructs stabilized with two different implant systems.

    PubMed

    Wininger, Fred A; Kapatkin, Amy S; Radin, Alex; Shofer, Frances S; Smith, Gail K

    2007-12-01

    To compare failure mode and bending moment of a canine pancarpal arthrodesis construct using either a 2.7 mm/3.5 mm hybrid dynamic compression plate (HDCP) or a 3.5 mm dynamic compression plate (DCP). Paired in vitro biomechanical testing of canine pancarpal arthrodesis constructs stabilized with either a 2.7/3.5 HDCP or 3.5 DCP. Paired cadaveric canine antebrachii (n=5). Pancarpal arthrodesis constructs were loaded to failure (point of maximum load) in 4-point bending using a materials-testing machine. Using this point of failure, bending moments were calculated from system variables for each construct and the 2 plating systems compared using a paired t-test. To examine the relationship between metacarpal diameter and screw diameter failure loads, linear regression was used and Pearson' correlation coefficient was calculated. Significance was set at P<.05. HDCP failed at higher loads than DCP for 9 of 10 constructs. The absolute difference in failure rates between the 2 plates was 0.552+/-0.182 N m, P=.0144 (95% confidence interval: -0.58 to 1.68). This is an 8.1% mean difference in bending strength. There was a significant linear correlation r=0.74 (P-slope=.014) and 0.8 (P-slope=.006) between metacarpal diameter and failure loads for the HDCP and 3.5 DCP, respectively. There was a small but significant difference between bending moment at failure between 2.7/3.5 HDCP and 3.5 DCP constructs; however, the difference may not be clinically evident in all patients. The 2.7/3.5 HDCP has physical and mechanical properties making it a more desirable plate for pancarpal arthrodesis.

  7. Visualization of early post-implantation mouse embryogenesis using 3D imaging modality (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Chih-Wei; Le, Henry H.; Li-Villarreal, Nanbing; Piazza, Victor G.; Kalaga, Sowmya; Dickinson, Mary E.

    2017-02-01

    Hemodynamic force is vital to cardiovascular remodeling in the early post-implantation mouse embryo. Here, we present work using microCT and lightsheet microscopy to establish the critical sequence of developmental events required for forming functional vasculature and circulation in the embryo, yolk sac, and placenta in the context of normal and impaired flow. A flow impaired model, Mlc2a+/- will be used to determine how hemodynamic force affects the specific events during embryonic development and vascular remodeling between the 4 and 29-somite stage using microCT. We have recently established high-resolution methods for the generation of 3D image volumes from the whole embryo within the deciduum (Hsu et al., in revision). This method enables the careful characterization of 3D images of vitelline and umbilical vessel remodeling to define how poor blood flow impacts both vitelline and umbilical vessel remodeling. Novel lightsheet live imaging techniques will be used to determine the consequence of impaired blood flow on yolk sac vasculature remodeling and formation of umbilical vessels using transgenic reporters: Flk-myr::mCherry, Flk1-H2B::YFP, or ɛGlobin-GFP. High-resolution 3D imaging of fixed and ScaleA2-cleared whole mount embryos labeled with Ki67 and Caspase3 will also be performed using lightsheet microscopy to quantify the proliferation and apoptotic indexes of early post-implanted embryos and yolk sac. This multi-modality approach is aimed at revealing further information about the cellular mechanisms required for proper vessel remodeling and the initial stages in placentation during early post-implantation development.

  8. Surface modification of implants in long bone.

    PubMed

    Förster, Yvonne; Rentsch, Claudia; Schneiders, Wolfgang; Bernhardt, Ricardo; Simon, Jan C; Worch, Hartmut; Rammelt, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Coatings of orthopedic implants are investigated to improve the osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties of the implant surfaces and thus to enhance periimplant bone formation. By applying coatings that mimic the extracellular matrix a favorable environment for osteoblasts, osteoclasts and their progenitor cells is provided to promote early and strong fixation of implants. It is known that the early bone ongrowth increases primary implant fixation and reduces the risk of implant failure. This review presents an overview of coating titanium and hydroxyapatite implants with components of the extracellular matrix like collagen type I, chondroitin sulfate and RGD peptide in different small and large animal models. The influence of these components on cells, the inflammation process, new bone formation and bone/implant contact is summarized.

  9. Surface modification of implants in long bone

    PubMed Central

    Förster, Yvonne; Rentsch, Claudia; Schneiders, Wolfgang; Bernhardt, Ricardo; Simon, Jan C.; Worch, Hartmut; Rammelt, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Coatings of orthopedic implants are investigated to improve the osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties of the implant surfaces and thus to enhance periimplant bone formation. By applying coatings that mimic the extracellular matrix a favorable environment for osteoblasts, osteoclasts and their progenitor cells is provided to promote early and strong fixation of implants. It is known that the early bone ongrowth increases primary implant fixation and reduces the risk of implant failure. This review presents an overview of coating titanium and hydroxyapatite implants with components of the extracellular matrix like collagen type I, chondroitin sulfate and RGD peptide in different small and large animal models. The influence of these components on cells, the inflammation process, new bone formation and bone/implant contact is summarized. PMID:23507866

  10. 3D perfusion bioreactor-activated porous granules on implant fixation and early bone formation in sheep.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ming; Henriksen, Susan S; Martinetti, Roberta; Overgaard, Søren

    2017-11-01

    Early fixation of total joint arthroplasties is crucial for ensuring implant survival. An alternative bone graft material in revision surgery is needed to replace the current gold standard, allograft, seeing that the latter is associated with several disadvantages. The incubation of such a construct in a perfusion bioreactor has been shown to produce viable bone graft materials. This study aimed at producing larger amounts of viable bone graft material (hydroxyapatite 70% and β-tricalcium-phosphate 30%) in a novel perfusion bioreactor. The abilities of the bioreactor-activated graft material to induce early implant fixation were tested in a bilateral implant defect model in sheep, with allograft as the control group. Defects were bilaterally created in the distal femurs of the animals, and titanium implants were inserted. The concentric gaps around the implants were randomly filled with either allograft, granules, granules with bone marrow aspirate or bioreactor-activated graft material. Following an observation time of 6 weeks, early implant fixation and bone formation were assessed by micro-CT scanning, mechanical testing, and histomorphometry. Bone formations were seen in all groups, while no significant differences between groups were found regarding early implant fixation. The microarchitecture of the bone formed by the synthetic graft materials resembled that of allograft. Histomorphometry revealed that allograft induced significantly more bone and less fibrous tissue (p < 0.05). In conclusion, bone formation was observed in all groups, while the bioreactor-activated graft material did not reveal additional effects on early implant fixation comparable to allograft in this model. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 2465-2476, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Auditory maturation in premature infants: a potential pitfall for early cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Hof, Janny R; Stokroos, Robert J; Wix, Eduard; Chenault, Mickey; Gelders, Els; Brokx, Jan

    2013-08-01

    To describe spontaneous hearing improvement in the first years of life of a number of preterm neonates relative to cochlear implant candidacy. Retrospective case study. Hearing levels of 14 preterm neonates (mean gestational age at birth = 29 weeks) referred after newborn hearing screening were evaluated. Initial hearing thresholds ranged from 40 to 105 dBHL (mean = 85 dBHL). Hearing level improved to normal levels for four neonates and to moderate levels for five, whereas for five neonates, no improvement in hearing thresholds was observed and cochlear implantation was recommended. Three of the four neonates in whom the hearing improved to normal levels were born prior to 28 weeks gestational age. Hearing improvement was mainly observed prior to a gestational age of 80 weeks. Delayed maturation of an immature auditory pathway might be an important reason for referral after newborn hearing screening in premature infants. Caution is advised regarding early cochlear implantation in preterm born infants. Audiological follow-ups until at least 80 weeks gestational age are therefore recommended. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  12. Persistent Language Delay Versus Late Language Emergence in Children With Early Cochlear Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, Johanna; Tobey, Emily; Davidson, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the present investigation is to differentiate children using cochlear implants (CIs) who did or did not achieve age-appropriate language scores by midelementary grades and to identify risk factors for persistent language delay following early cochlear implantation. Materials and Method Children receiving unilateral CIs at young ages (12–38 months) were tested longitudinally and classified with normal language emergence (n = 19), late language emergence (n = 22), or persistent language delay (n = 19) on the basis of their test scores at 4.5 and 10.5 years of age. Relative effects of demographic, audiological, linguistic, and academic characteristics on language emergence were determined. Results Age at CI was associated with normal language emergence but did not differentiate late emergence from persistent delay. Children with persistent delay were more likely to use left-ear implants and older speech processor technology. They experienced higher aided thresholds and lower speech perception scores. Persistent delay was foreshadowed by low morphosyntactic and phonological diversity in preschool. Logistic regression analysis predicted normal language emergence with 84% accuracy and persistent language delay with 74% accuracy. Conclusion CI characteristics had a strong effect on persistent versus resolving language delay, suggesting that right-ear (or bilateral) devices, technology upgrades, and improved audibility may positively influence long-term language outcomes. PMID:26501740

  13. Live birth in a woman with recurrent implantation failure and adenomyosis following transfer of refrozen-warmed embryos.

    PubMed

    Safari, Somayyeh; Faramarzi, Azita; Agha-Rahimi, Azam; Khalili, Mohammad Ali

    2016-09-01

    The aim was to report a healthy live birth using re-vitrified-warmed cleavage-stage embryos derived from supernumerary warmed embryos after frozen embryo transfer (ET) in a patient with recurrent implantation failure (RIF). The case was a 39-year-old female with a history of polycystic ovarian syndrome and adenomyosis, along with RIF. After ovarian hyperstimulation, 33 cumulus-oocyte complexes were retrieved and fertilized with conventional in vitro fertilization and intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Because of the risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome, 16 grade B and C embryos were vitrified. After 3 and 6 months, 3 and 4 B-C warmed embryos were transferred to the uterus, respectively. However, implantation did not take place. Ten months later, four embryos were warmed, two grade B 8-cell embryos were transferred, and two embryos were re-vitrified. One year later, the two re-vitrified cleavage-stage embryos were warmed, which resulted in a successful live birth. This finding showed that following first warming, it is feasible to refreeze supernumerary warmed embryos for subsequent ET in patients with a history of RIF.

  14. Genetic counseling for men with recurrent pregnancy loss or recurrent implantation failure due to abnormal sperm chromosomal aneuploidy.

    PubMed

    Kohn, Taylor P; Kohn, Jaden R; Darilek, Sandra; Ramasamy, Ranjith; Lipshultz, Larry

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to review recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) due to sperm chromosomal abnormalities and discuss the genetic counseling that is required for men with sperm chromosomal abnormalities. The literature was reviewed, and a genetic counselor lends her expertise as to how couples with RPL and sperm chromosomal abnormalities ought to be counseled. The review of the literature was performed using MEDLINE. Sperm fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) can be used to determine if disomy or unbalanced chromosomal translocations are present. In men with aneuploidy in sperm or who carry a chromosomal translocation, pre-implantation genetic screening (PGS) combined with in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) can increase chances of live birth. In men with abnormal sperm FISH results, the degree of increased risk of abnormal pregnancy remains unclear. Genetic counselors can provide information to couples about the risk for potential trisomies and sex chromosome aneuploidies and discuss their reproductive and testing options such as PGS, use of donor sperm, and adoption. The provision of genetic counseling also allows a couple to be educated about recommended prenatal testing since pregnancies conceived with a partner who has had abnormal sperm FISH are considered to be at increased risk for aneuploidy. We review the literature and discuss genetic counseling for couples with RPL or recurrent implantation failure due to increased sperm aneuploidy.

  15. Early Postimplant Speech Perception and Language Skills Predict Long-Term Language and Neurocognitive Outcomes Following Pediatric Cochlear Implantation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Cynthia R.; Kronenberger, William G.; Castellanos, Irina; Pisoni, David B.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: We sought to determine whether speech perception and language skills measured early after cochlear implantation in children who are deaf, and early postimplant growth in speech perception and language skills, predict long-term speech perception, language, and neurocognitive outcomes. Method: Thirty-six long-term users of cochlear…

  16. The influence of direct laser metal sintering implants on the early stages of osseointegration in diabetic mini-pigs

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Naiwen; Liu, Xiangwei; Cai, Yanhui; Zhang, Sijia; Jian, Bo; Zhou, Yuchao; Xu, Xiaoru; Ren, Shuai; Wei, Hongbo; Song, Yingliang

    2017-01-01

    Background High failure rates of oral implants have been reported in diabetic patients due to the disruption of osseointegration. The aim of this study was to investigate whether direct laser metal sintering (DLMS) could improve osseointegration in diabetic animal models. Methods Surface characterizations were carried out on two types of implants. Cell morphology and the osteogenic-related gene expression of MG63 cells were observed under conditions of DLMS and microarc oxidation (MAO). A diabetes model in mini-pigs was established by intravenous injection of streptozotocin (150 mg/kg), and a total of 36 implants were inserted into the mandibular region. Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and histologic evaluations were performed 3 and 6 months after implantation. Results The Ra (the average of the absolute height of all points) of MAO surface was 2.3±0.3 µm while the DLMS surface showed the Ra of 27.4±1.1 µm. The cells on DLMS implants spread out more podia than those on MAO implants through cell morphology analysis. Osteogenic-related gene expression was also dramatically increased in the DLMS group. Obvious improvement was observed in the micro-CT and Van Gieson staining analyses of DLMS implants compared with MAO at 3 months, although this difference disappeared by 6 months. DLMS implants showed a higher bone–implant contact percentage (33.2%±11.2%) at 3 months compared with MAO group (18.9%±7.3%) while similar results were showed at 6 months between DLMS group (42.8%±10.1%) and MAO group (38.3%±10.8%). Conclusion The three-dimensional environment of implant surfaces with highly porous and fully interconnected channel and pore architectures can improve cell spreading and accelerate the progress of osseointegration in diabetic mini-pigs. PMID:28814861

  17. The influence of direct laser metal sintering implants on the early stages of osseointegration in diabetic mini-pigs.

    PubMed

    Tan, Naiwen; Liu, Xiangwei; Cai, Yanhui; Zhang, Sijia; Jian, Bo; Zhou, Yuchao; Xu, Xiaoru; Ren, Shuai; Wei, Hongbo; Song, Yingliang

    2017-01-01

    High failure rates of oral implants have been reported in diabetic patients due to the disruption of osseointegration. The aim of this study was to investigate whether direct laser metal sintering (DLMS) could improve osseointegration in diabetic animal models. Surface characterizations were carried out on two types of implants. Cell morphology and the osteogenic-related gene expression of MG63 cells were observed under conditions of DLMS and microarc oxidation (MAO). A diabetes model in mini-pigs was established by intravenous injection of streptozotocin (150 mg/kg), and a total of 36 implants were inserted into the mandibular region. Micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and histologic evaluations were performed 3 and 6 months after implantation. The Ra (the average of the absolute height of all points) of MAO surface was 2.3±0.3 µm while the DLMS surface showed the Ra of 27.4±1.1 µm. The cells on DLMS implants spread out more podia than those on MAO implants through cell morphology analysis. Osteogenic-related gene expression was also dramatically increased in the DLMS group. Obvious improvement was observed in the micro-CT and Van Gieson staining analyses of DLMS implants compared with MAO at 3 months, although this difference disappeared by 6 months. DLMS implants showed a higher bone-implant contact percentage (33.2%±11.2%) at 3 months compared with MAO group (18.9%±7.3%) while similar results were showed at 6 months between DLMS group (42.8%±10.1%) and MAO group (38.3%±10.8%). The three-dimensional environment of implant surfaces with highly porous and fully interconnected channel and pore architectures can improve cell spreading and accelerate the progress of osseointegration in diabetic mini-pigs.

  18. Hypertensive phase and early complications after Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation with intraoperative subtenon triamcinolone acetonide.

    PubMed

    Turalba, Angela V; Pasquale, Louis R

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate intraoperative subtenon triamcinolone acetonide (TA) as an adjunct to Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation. Retrospective comparative case series. Forty-two consecutive cases of uncontrolled glaucoma undergoing AGV implantation: 19 eyes receiving intraoperative subtenon TA and 23 eyes that did not receive TA. A retrospective chart review was performed on consecutive pseudophakic adult patients with uncontrolled glaucoma undergoing AGV with and without intraoperative subtenon TA injection by a single surgeon. Clinical data were collected from 42 eyes and analyzed for the first 6 months after surgery. Primary outcomes included intraocular pressure (IOP) and number of glaucoma medications prior to and after AGV implantation. The hypertensive phase (HP) was defined as an IOP measurement of greater than 21 mmHg (with or without medications) during the 6-month postoperative period that was not a result of tube obstruction, retraction, or malfunction. Postoperative complications and visual acuity were analyzed as secondary outcome measures. Five out of 19 (26%) TA cases and 12 out of 23 (52%) non-TA cases developed the HP (P=0.027). Mean IOP (14.2±4.6 in TA cases versus [vs] 14.7±5.0 mmHg in non-TA cases; P=0.78), and number of glaucoma medications needed (1.8±1.3 in TA cases vs 1.6±1.1 in the comparison group; P=0.65) were similar between both groups at 6 months. Although rates of serious complications did not differ between the groups (13% in the TA group vs 16% in the non-TA group), early tube erosion (n=1) and bacterial endophthalmitis (n=1) were noted with TA but not in the non-TA group. Subtenon TA injection during AGV implantation may decrease the occurrence of the HP but does not alter the ultimate IOP outcome and may pose increased risk of serious complications within the first 6 months of surgery.

  19. Loss of Bmal1 decreases oocyte fertilization, early embryo development and implantation potential in female mice.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Li, Yan; Wang, Yizi; Xu, Yanwen; Zhou, Canquan

    2016-10-01

    Biological clock genes expressed in reproductive tissues play important roles in maintaining the normal functions of reproductive system. However, disruption of female circadian rhythm on oocyte fertilization, preimplantation embryo development and blastocyst implantation potential is still unclear. In this study, ovulation, in vivo and in vitro oocyte fertilization, embryo development, implantation and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in ovary and oviduct were studied in female Bmal1+/+ and Bmal1-/- mice. The number of naturally ovulated oocyte in Bmal1-/- mice decreased (5.2 ± 0.8 vs 7.8 ± 0.8, P < 0.001), with an increasing abnormal oocyte ratio (20.4 ± 3.5 vs 11.7 ± 2.0%, P = 0.001) after superovulation. Significantly lower fertilization rate and obtained blastocyst number were observed in Bmal1-/- female mice either mated with wild-type in vivo or fertilized by sperm from wild-type male mice in vitro (all P < 0.05). Interestingly, in vitro fertilization rate of oocytes derived from Bmal1-/- increased significantly compared with in vivo study (P < 0.01). After transferring blastocysts derived from Bmal1+/+ and Bmal1-/- female mice to pseudopregnant mice, the implantation sites of the latter decreased 5 days later (8.0 ± 0.8 vs 5.3 ± 1.0, P = 0.005). The intracellular ROS levels in the ovary on proestrus day and in the oviduct on metestrus day increased significantly in Bmal1-/- mice compared with that of Bmal1+/+ mice. Deletion of the core biological clock gene Bmal1 significantly decreases oocyte fertilization rate, early embryo development and implantation potential in female mice, and these may be possibly caused by excess ROS levels generated in ovary and oviduct.

  20. The Effect of Non-Infectious Wound Complications after Mastectomy on Subsequent Surgical Procedures and Early Implant Loss

    PubMed Central

    Nickel, Katelin B; Fox, Ida K; Margenthaler, Julie A; Wallace, Anna E; Fraser, Victoria J; Olsen, Margaret A

    2016-01-01

    Background Non-infectious wound complications (NIWCs) following mastectomy are not routinely tracked and data are generally limited to single-center studies. Our objective was to determine the rates of NIWCs among women undergoing mastectomy and assess the impact of immediate reconstruction (IR). Study Design We established a retrospective cohort using commercial claims data of women aged 18–64 years with procedure codes for mastectomy from 1/2004–12/2011. NIWCs within 180 days after operation were identified by ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes and rates were compared among mastectomy with and without autologous flap and/or implant IR. Results 18,696 procedures (10,836 [58%] with IR) among 18,085 women were identified. The overall NIWC rate was 9.2% (1,714/18,696); 56% required surgical treatment. The NIWC rates were 5.8% (455/7,860) after mastectomy-only, 10.3% (843/8,217) after mastectomy + implant, 17.4% (337/1,942) after mastectomy + flap, and 11.7% (79/677) after mastectomy + flap and implant (p<0.001). The rates of individual NIWCs varied by specific complication and procedure type, ranging from 0.5% for fat necrosis after mastectomy-only to 7.2% for dehiscence after mastectomy + flap. The percentage of NIWCs resulting in surgical wound care varied from 50% (210/416) for mastectomy + flap to 60% (507/843) for mastectomy + implant. Early implant removal within 60 days occurred after 6.2% of mastectomy + implant; 66% of the early implant removals were due to NIWCs and/or surgical site infection. Conclusions The rate of NIWC was approximately two-fold higher after mastectomy with IR than after mastectomy-only. NIWCs were associated with additional surgical treatment, particularly in women with implant reconstruction, and with early implant loss. PMID:27010582

  1. Recent refinements to cranial implants for rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta)

    PubMed Central

    Johnston, Jessica M.; Cohen, Yale E.; Shirley, Harry; Tsunada, Joji; Bennur, Sharath; Christison-Lagay, Kate; Veeder, Christin L.

    2017-01-01

    The advent of cranial implants revolutionized primate neurophysiological research because they allow researchers to stably record neural activity from monkeys during active behavior. Cranial implants have improved over the years since their introduction, but chronic implants still increase the risk for medical complications including bacterial contamination and resultant infection, chronic inflammation, bone and tissue loss and complications related to the use of dental acrylic. These complications can lead to implant failure and early termination of study protocols. In an effort to reduce complications, we describe several refinements that have helped us improve cranial implants and the wellbeing of implanted primates. PMID:27096188

  2. Intricate Assessment and Evaluation of Effect of Bruxism on Long-term Survival and Failure of Dental Implants: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Kajal; Nagpal, Abhishek; Agarwal, S K; Kochhar, Aarti

    2016-08-01

    Dental implants are one of the common lines of treatment used for the treatment of missing tooth. Various risk factors are responsible for the failure of the dental implants and occurrence of postoperative complications. Bruxism is one such factor responsible for the failure of the dental implants. The actual relation between bruxism and dental implants is a subject of long-term controversy. Hence, we carried out this retrospective analysis to assess the complications occurring in dental implants in patients with and without bruxism. The present study included 1100 patients which were treated for rehabilitation by dental implant procedure at 21 dental offices of Ghaziabad (India) from 2004 to 2014. Analyzing the clinical records of the patients along with assessing the photographs of the patients was done for confirming the diagnosis of bruxism. Clinical re-evaluation of the patients, who came back for follow-up, was done to confirm the diagnosis of bruxism. Systemic questionnaires as used by previous workers were used to evaluate the patients about the self-conscience of the condition. Estimation of the mechanical complications was done only in those cases which occurred on the surfaces of the restoration of the dental implants. All the results were analyzed by Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software. Student's t-test and Pearson's chi-square test were used to evaluate the level of significance. In both bruxer and non-bruxers, maximum number of dental implants was placed in anterior maxillary region. Significant difference was obtained while comparing the two groups for dimensions of the dental implants used. On comparing the total implant failed cases between bruxers and non-bruxers group, statistically significant result was obtained. Statistically significant difference was obtained while comparing the two study groups based on the health parameters, namely hypertension, diabetes, and smoking habit. Success of dental implant is significantly

  3. Bone Response to Surface-Modified Titanium Implants: Studies on the Early Tissue Response to Implants with Different Surface Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Larsson Wexell, C.; Thomsen, P.; Aronsson, B.-O.; Tengvall, P.; Rodahl, M.; Lausmaa, J.; Kasemo, B.; Ericson, L. E.

    2013-01-01

    In a series of experimental studies, the bone formation around systematically modified titanium implants is analyzed. In the present study, three different surface modifications were prepared and evaluated. Glow-discharge cleaning and oxidizing resulted in a highly stoichiometric TiO2 surface, while a glow-discharge treatment in nitrogen gas resulted in implants with essentially a surface of titanium nitride, covered with a very thin titanium oxide. Finally, hydrogen peroxide treatment of implants resulted in an almost stoichiometric TiO2, rich in hydroxyl groups on the surface. Machined commercially pure titanium implants served as controls. Scanning Auger Electron Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, and Atomic Force Microscopy revealed no significant differences in oxide thickness or surface roughness parameters, but differences in the surface chemical composition and apparent topography were observed. After surface preparation, the implants were inserted in cortical bone of rabbits and evaluated after 1, 3, and 6 weeks. Light microscopic evaluation of the tissue response showed that all implants were in contact with bone and had a large proportion of newly formed bone within the threads after 6 weeks. There were no morphological differences between the four groups. Our study shows that a high degree of bone contact and bone formation can be achieved with titanium implants of different surface composition and topography. PMID:24174936

  4. Early bone growth on the surface of titanium implants in rat femur is enhanced by an amorphous diamond coating.

    PubMed

    Jaatinen, Jarkko J P; Korhonen, Rami K; Pelttari, Alpo; Helminen, Heikki J; Korhonen, Hannu; Lappalainen, Reijo; Kröger, Heikki

    2011-08-01

    Amorphous diamond (AD) is a durable and compatible biomaterial for joint prostheses. Knowledge regarding bone growth on AD-coated implants and their early-stage osseointegration is poor. We investigated bone growth on AD-coated cementless intramedullary implants implanted in rats. Titanium was chosen as a reference due to its well-known performance. We placed AD-coated and non-coated titanium implants (R(a) ≈ 0.2 μm) into the femoral bone marrow of 25 rats. The animals were divided in 2 groups according to implant coating and they were killed after 4 or 12 weeks. The osseointegration of the implants was examined from hard tissue specimens by measuring the new bone formation on their surface. 4 weeks after the operation, the thickness of new bone in the AD-coated group was greater than that in the non-coated group (15.3 (SD 7.1) μm vs. 7.6 (SD 6.0) μm). 12 weeks after the operation, the thickness of new bone was similar in the non-coated group and in the AD-coated group. We conclude that AD coating of femoral implants can enhance bone ongrowth in rats in the acute, early stage after the operation and might be an improvement over earlier coatings.

  5. Histomorphometry and bone mechanical property evolution around different implant systems at early healing stages: an experimental study in dogs.

    PubMed

    Jimbo, Ryo; Anchieta, Rodolfo; Baldassarri, Marta; Granato, Rodrigo; Marin, Charles; Teixeira, Hellen S; Tovar, Nick; Vandeweghe, Stefan; Janal, Malvin N; Coelho, Paulo G

    2013-12-01

    Commercial implants differ at macro-, micro-, and nanolevels, which makes it difficult to distinguish their effect on osseointegration. The aim of this study was to evaluate the early integration of 5 commercially available implants (Astra OsseoSpeed, Straumann SLA, Intra-Lock Blossom Ossean, Nobel Active, and OsseoFix) by histomorphometry and nanoindentation. Implants were installed in the tibiae of 18 beagle dogs. Samples were retrieved at 1, 3, and 6 weeks (n = 6 for each time point) and were histologically and nanomechanically evaluated. The results presented that both time (P < 0.01) and implant system and time interaction (P < 0.02) significantly affected the bone-to-implant contact (BIC). At 1 week, the different groups presented statistically different outcomes. No significant changes in BIC were noted thereafter. There were no significant differences in rank elastic modulus (E) or in rank hardness (H) for time (E: P > 0.80; H: P > 0.75) or implant system (E: P > 0.90; H: P > 0.85). The effect of different implant designs on osseointegration was evident especially at early stages of bone healing.

  6. Morpho-syntactic reading comprehension in children with early and late cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    López-Higes, Ramón; Gallego, Carlos; Martín-Aragoneses, María Teresa; Melle, Natalia

    2015-04-01

    This study explores morpho-syntactic reading comprehension in 19 Spanish children who received a cochlear implant (CI) before 24 months of age (early CI [e-CI]) and 19 Spanish children who received a CI after 24 months (late CI [l-CI]). They all were in primary school and were compared to a hearing control (HC) group of 19 children. Tests of perceptual reasoning, working memory, receptive vocabulary, and morpho-syntactic comprehension were used in the assessment. It was observed that while children with l-CI showed a delay, those with e-CI reached a level close to that which was obtained by their control peers in morpho-syntactic comprehension. Thus, results confirm a positive effect of early implantation on morpho-syntactic reading comprehension. Inflectional morphology and simple sentence comprehension were noted to be better in the e-CI group than in the l-CI group. The most important factor in distinguishing between the HC and l-CI groups or the e-CI and l-CI groups was verbal inflectional morphology. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Flow Test to Predict Early Hypotony and Hypertensive Phase After Ahmed Glaucoma Valve (AGV) Surgical Implantation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jason; Beltran-Agullo, Laura; Buys, Yvonne M; Moss, Edward B; Gonzalez, Johanna; Trope, Graham E

    2016-06-01

    To assess the validity of a preimplantation flow test to predict early hypotony [intraocular pressure (IOP)≤5 mm Hg on 2 consecutive visits and hypertensive phase (HP) (IOP>21 mm Hg) after Ahmed Glaucoma Valve (AGV) implantation. Prospective interventional study on patients receiving an AGV. A preimplantation flow test using a gravity-driven reservoir and an open manometer was performed on all AGVs. Opening pressure (OP) and closing pressure (CP) were defined as the pressure at which fluid was seen to flow or stop flowing through the AGV, respectively. OP and CP were measured twice per AGV. Patients were followed for 12 weeks. In total, 20 eyes from 19 patients were enrolled. At 12 weeks the mean IOP decreased from 29.2±9.1 to 16.8±5.2 mm Hg (P<0.01). The mean AGV OP was 17.5±5.4 mm Hg and the mean CP was 6.7±2.3 mm Hg. Early (within 2 wk postoperative) HP occurred in 37% and hypotony in 16% of cases. An 18 mm Hg cutoff for the OP gave a sensitivity of 0.71, specificity of 0.83, positive predictive value of 0.71, and negative predictive value of 0.83 for predicting an early HP. A 7 mm Hg cutoff for the CP yielded a sensitivity of 1.0, specificity of 0.38, positive predictive value of 0.23, and negative predictive value of 1.0 for predicting hypotony. Preoperative OP and CP may predict early hypotony or HP and may be used as a guide as to which AGV valves to discard before implantation surgery.

  8. Outcome of Early Initiation of Peritoneal Dialysis in Patients with End-Stage Renal Failure

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Kook-Hwan; Hwang, Young-Hwan; Cho, Jung-Hwa; Kim, Mira; Ju, Kyung Don; Joo, Kwon Wook; Kim, Dong Ki; Kim, Yon Su; Ahn, Curie

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies reported that early initiation of hemodialysis may increase mortality. However, studies that assessed the influence of early initiation of peritoneal dialysis (PD) yielded controversial results. In the present study, we evaluated the prognosis of early initiation of PD on the various outcomes of end stage renal failure patients by using propensity-score matching methods. Incident PD patients (n = 491) who started PD at SNU Hospital were enrolled. The patients were divided into 'early starters (n = 244)' and 'late starters (n = 247)' on the basis of the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at the start of dialysis. The calculated propensity-score was used for one-to-one matching. After propensity-score-based matching (n = 136, for each group), no significant differences were observed in terms of all-cause mortality (P = 0.17), technique failure (P = 0.62), cardiovascular event (P = 0.96) and composite event (P = 0.86) between the early and late starters. Stratification analysis in the propensity-score quartiles (n = 491) exhibited no trend toward better or poorer survival in terms of all-cause mortality. In conclusion, early commencement of PD does not reduce the mortality risk and other outcomes. Although the recent guidelines suggest that initiation of dialysis at higher eGFR, physicians should not determine the time to initiate PD therapy simply rely on the eGFR alone. PMID:22323864

  9. Effect of Sleep-Disordered Breathing on Appropriate Implantable Cardioverter-defibrillator Therapy in Patients With Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Younghoon; Koene, Ryan J.; Kwon, Osung; Kealhofer, Jessica V.; Adabag, Selcuk; Duval, Sue

    2017-01-01

    Background Patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction are at increased risk of malignant ventricular arrhythmias. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is recommended to prevent sudden cardiac death in some of these patients. Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is highly prevalent in this population and may impact arrhythmogenicity. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective studies that assessed the impact of SDB on ICD therapy. Methods and Results Relevant prospective studies were identified in the Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Google Scholar databases. Weighted risk ratios of the association between SDB and appropriate ICD therapies were estimated using random effects meta-analysis. Nine prospective cohort studies (n=1274) were included in this analysis. SDB was present in 52% of the participants. SDB was associated with a 55% higher risk of appropriate ICD therapies (45% versus 28%; risk ratio, 1.55; 95% confidence interval, 1.32–1.83). In a subgroup analysis based on the subtypes of SDB, the risk was higher in both central (risk ratio, 1.50; 95% confidence interval, 1.11–2.02) and obstructive (risk ratio, 1.43; 95% confidence interval, 1.01–2.03) sleep apnea. Conclusions SDB is associated with an increased risk of appropriate ICD therapy in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. PMID:28213507

  10. Outcomes of Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation in advanced primary congenital glaucoma with previous surgical failure.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jingjing; Lin, Jialiu; Wu, Ziqiang; Xu, Hongzhi; Zuo, Chengguo; Ge, Jian

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intermediate surgical results of Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation in patients less than 7 years of age, with advanced primary congenital glaucoma who have failed previous surgeries. Consecutive patients with advanced primary congenital glaucoma that failed previous operations and had undergone subsequent AGV implantation were evaluated retrospectively. Surgical success was defined as 1) intraocular pressure (IOP) ≥6 and ≤21 mmHg; 2) IOP reduction of at least 30% relative to preoperative values; and 3) without the need for additional surgical intervention for IOP control, loss of light perception, or serious complications. Fourteen eyes of eleven patients were studied. Preoperatively, the average axial length was 27.71±1.52 (25.56-30.80) mm, corneal diameter was 14.71±1.07 (13.0-16.0) mm, cup-to-disc ratio was 0.95±0.04 (0.9-1.0), and IOP was 39.5±5.7 (30-55) mmHg. The mean follow-up time was 18.29±10.96 (5-44, median 18) months. There were significant reductions in IOPs and the number of glaucoma medications (P<0.001) postoperatively. The IOPs after operation were 11.3±3.4, 13.6±5.1, 16.3±2.7, and 16.1±2.6 mmHg at 1 month, 6 months, 12 months, and 18 months, respectively. Kaplan-Meier estimates of the cumulative probability of valve success were 85.7%, 71.4%, and 71.4% at 6, 12, and 18 months, respectively. Severe surgical complications, including erosion of tube, endophthalmitis, retinal detachment, choroidal detachment, and delayed suprachoroidal hemorrhage, occurred in 28.6% cases. AGV implantation remains a viable option for patients with advanced primary congenital glaucoma unresponsive to previous surgical intervention, despite a relatively high incidence of severe surgical complications.

  11. Outcomes of Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation in advanced primary congenital glaucoma with previous surgical failure

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jingjing; Lin, Jialiu; Wu, Ziqiang; Xu, Hongzhi; Zuo, Chengguo; Ge, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to evaluate the intermediate surgical results of Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation in patients less than 7 years of age, with advanced primary congenital glaucoma who have failed previous surgeries. Patients and methods Consecutive patients with advanced primary congenital glaucoma that failed previous operations and had undergone subsequent AGV implantation were evaluated retrospectively. Surgical success was defined as 1) intraocular pressure (IOP) ≥6 and ≤21 mmHg; 2) IOP reduction of at least 30% relative to preoperative values; and 3) without the need for additional surgical intervention for IOP control, loss of light perception, or serious complications. Results Fourteen eyes of eleven patients were studied. Preoperatively, the average axial length was 27.71±1.52 (25.56–30.80) mm, corneal diameter was 14.71±1.07 (13.0–16.0) mm, cup-to-disc ratio was 0.95±0.04 (0.9–1.0), and IOP was 39.5±5.7 (30–55) mmHg. The mean follow-up time was 18.29±10.96 (5–44, median 18) months. There were significant reductions in IOPs and the number of glaucoma medications (P<0.001) postoperatively. The IOPs after operation were 11.3±3.4, 13.6±5.1, 16.3±2.7, and 16.1±2.6 mmHg at 1 month, 6 months, 12 months, and 18 months, respectively. Kaplan–Meier estimates of the cumulative probability of valve success were 85.7%, 71.4%, and 71.4% at 6, 12, and 18 months, respectively. Severe surgical complications, including erosion of tube, endophthalmitis, retinal detachment, choroidal detachment, and delayed suprachoroidal hemorrhage, occurred in 28.6% cases. Conclusion AGV implantation remains a viable option for patients with advanced primary congenital glaucoma unresponsive to previous surgical intervention, despite a relatively high incidence of severe surgical complications. PMID:26082610

  12. The effect of a single infusion of zoledronic acid on early implant migration in total hip arthroplasty. A randomized, double-blind, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Friedl, Gerald; Radl, Roman; Stihsen, Christoph; Rehak, Peter; Aigner, Reingard; Windhager, Reinhard

    2009-02-01

    Aseptic loosening is the most frequent cause of implant failure in total hip arthroplasty. While a direct link between aseptic loosening and periprosthetic bone loss remains elusive, there is plentiful evidence for a close association with early implant migration. The present trial was primarily designed to evaluate whether a single infusion of 4 mg of zoledronic acid prevented early implant migration in patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Fifty patients were consecutively enrolled to receive either zoledronic acid or saline solution after cementless total hip arthroplasty. Radiographs, biochemical parameters of bone turnover, and the Harris hip-rating score were determined preoperatively and at each follow-up examination at seven weeks, six months, one year, and yearly thereafter. The median follow-up period was 2.8 years. We found a significant subsidence of the stem of up to a mean (and standard deviation) of -1.2 +/- 0.6 mm at two years within the control group, and the cups had a mean medialization of 0.6 +/- 1.0 mm and a mean cranialization of 0.6 +/- 0.8 mm (p < 0.001). Treatment with zoledronic acid effectively minimized the migration of the cups in both the transverse and the vertical direction (mean, 0.15 +/- 0.6 mm and 0.06 +/- 0.6 mm, respectively; p < 0.05), while only a trend to decreased subsidence of the stem was detected. Finally, the Harris hip score rapidly increased over time in both treatment groups, although this increase was significantly more pronounced in the zoledronate-treated group than in the control group (analysis of variance, p = 0.008). A single infusion of zoledronic acid shows promise in improving initial fixation of a cementless implant, which may improve the clinical outcome of total hip arthroplasty in patients with osteonecrosis of the femoral head.

  13. Circadian Rhythm and Cartilage Extracellular Matrix Genes in Osseointegration: A Genome-Wide Screening of Implant Failure by Vitamin D Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Mengatto, Cristiane Machado; Mussano, Federico; Honda, Yoshitomo; Colwell, Christopher S.; Nishimura, Ichiro

    2011-01-01

    Background Successful dental and orthopedic implants require the establishment of an intimate association with bone tissue; however, the mechanistic explanation of how biological systems accomplish osseointegration is still incomplete. We sought to identify critical gene networks involved in osseointegration by exploring the implant failure model under vitamin D deficiency. Methodology Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to control or vitamin D-deficient diet prior to the osteotomy surgery in the femur bone and the placement of T-shaped Ti4Al6V implant. Two weeks after the osteotomy and implant placement, tissue formed at the osteotomy site or in the hollow chamber of T-shaped implant was harvested and total RNA was evaluated by whole genome microarray analyses. Principal Findings Two-way ANOVA of microarray data identified 103 genes that were significantly (>2 fold) modulated by the implant placement and vitamin D deficiency. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analyses assigned the highest z-score to the circadian rhythm pathway including neuronal PAS domain 2 (NPAS2), and period homolog 2 (Per2). NPAS2 and Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like (ARNTL/Bmal 1) were upregulated around implant and diminished by vitamin D deficiency, whereas the expression pattern of Per2 was complementary. Hierarchical cluster analysis further revealed that NPAS2 was in a group predominantly composed of cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) genes. Whereas the expression of bone ECM genes around implant was not significantly affected by vitamin D deficiency, cartilage ECM genes were modulated by the presence of the implant and vitamin D status. In a proof-of-concept in vitro study, the expression of cartilage type II and X collagens was found upregulated when mouse mesenchymal stem cells were cultured on implant disk with 1,25D supplementation. Conclusions This study suggests that the circadian rhythm system and cartilage extracellular matrix may be

  14. Monitoring and Early Warning of the 2012 Preonzo Catastrophic Rockslope Failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loew, Simon; Gschwind, Sophie; Keller-Signer, Alexandra; Valenti, Giorgio

    2015-04-01

    In this contribution we describe the accelerated creep stage and early warning system of a 210'000 m3 rock slope failure that occurred in May 2012 above the village of Preonzo (Swiss Alps). The very rapid failure occurred from a larger and retrogressive instability in high-grade metamorphic ortho-gneisses and amphibolites with a total volume of about 350'000 m3 located at an alpine meadow called Alpe di Roscioro. This instability showed clearly visible signs of movements since 1989 and accelerated creep with significant hydro-mechanical forcing since about 1999. Because the instability at Preonzo threatened a large industrial facility and important transport routes a cost-effective early warning system was installed in 2010. The alarm thresholds for pre-alarm, general public alarm and evacuation were derived from 10 years of continuous displacement monitoring with crack extensometers and an automated total station. These thresholds were successfully applied to evacuate the industrial facility and close important roads a few days before the catastrophic slope failure of May 15th, 2012. The rock slope failure occurred in two events, exposing a planar rupture plane dipping 42° and generating deposits in the mid-slope portion with a travel angle of 38°. Two hours after the second rockslide, the fresh colluvial deposits became reactivated in a devastating de-bris avalanche reaching the foot of the slope.

  15. Early Listening and Speaking Skills Predict Later Reading Proficiency in Pediatric Cochlear Implant Users

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Linda J.; Oleson, Jacob J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Previous studies have reported that children who use cochlear implants (CIs) tend to achieve higher reading levels than their peers with profound hearing loss who use hearing aids. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influences of auditory information provided by the CI on the later reading skills of children born with profound deafness. The hypothesis was that there would be a positive and predictive relationship between earlier speech perception, production, and subsequent reading comprehension. Design The speech perception and production skills at the vowel, consonant, phoneme, and word level of 72 children with prelingual, profound hearing loss were assessed after 48 mos of CI use. The children's reading skills were subsequently assessed using word and passage comprehension measures after an average of 89.5 mos of CI use. A regression analysis determined the amount of variance in reading that could be explained by the variables of perception, production, and socioeconomic status. Results Regression analysis revealed that it was possible to explain 59% of the variance of later reading skills by assessing the early speech perception and production performance. The results indicated that early speech perception and production skills of children with profound hearing loss who receive CIs predict future reading achievement skills. Furthermore, the study implies that better early speech perception and production skills result in higher reading achievement. It is speculated that the early access to sound helps to build better phonological processing skills, which is one of the likely contributors to eventual reading success. PMID:18595191

  16. Design and fabrication of prototype system for early warning of impending bearing failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meacher, J.; Chen, H. M.

    1974-01-01

    A test program was conducted with the objective of developing a method and equipment for on-line monitoring of installed ball bearings to detect deterioration or impending failure of the bearings. The program was directed at the spin-axis bearings of a control moment gyro. The bearings were tested at speeds of 6000 and 8000 rpm, thrust loads from 50 to 1000 pounds, with a wide range of lubrication conditions, with and without a simulated fatigue spall implanted in the inner race ball track. It was concluded that a bearing monitor system based on detection and analysis of modulations of a fault indicating bearing resonance frequency can provide a low threshold of sensitivity.

  17. Infants Understand Deceptive Intentions to Implant False Beliefs about Identity: New Evidence for Early Mentalistic Reasoning

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Rose M.; Richman, Josh C.; Baillargeon, Renée

    2015-01-01

    Are infants capable of representing false beliefs, as the mentalistic account of early psychological reasoning suggests, or are they incapable of doing so, as the minimalist account suggests? The present research sought to shed light on this debate by testing the minimalist claim that a signature limit of early psychological reasoning is a specific inability to understand false beliefs about identity: because of their limited representational capabilities, infants should be unable to make sense of situations where an agent mistakes one object for another, visually identical object. To evaluate this claim, three experiments examined whether 17-month-olds could reason about the actions of a deceptive agent who sought to implant in another agent a false belief about the identity of an object. In each experiment, a thief attempted to secretly steal a desirable rattling toy during its owner’s absence by substituting a less desirable silent toy. Infants realized that this substitution could be effective only if the silent toy was visually identical to the rattling toy (Experiment 1) and the owner did not routinely shake her toy when she returned (Experiment 2). When these conditions were met, infants expected the owner to be deceived and to mistake the silent toy for the rattling toy she had left behind (Experiment 3). Together, these results cast doubt on the minimalist claim that infants cannot represent false beliefs about identity. More generally, these results indicate that infants in the 2nd year of life can reason not only about the actions of agents who hold false beliefs, but also about the actions of agents who seek to implant false beliefs, thus providing new support for the mentalistic claim that an abstract capacity to reason about false beliefs emerges early in human development. PMID:26374383

  18. Donor age and early graft failure after lung transplantation: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, M R; Peterson, E R; Easthausen, I; Quintanilla, I; Colago, E; Sonett, J R; D'Ovidio, F; Costa, J; Diamond, J M; Christie, J D; Arcasoy, S M; Lederer, D J

    2013-10-01

    Lungs from older adult organ donors are often unused because of concerns for increased mortality. We examined associations between donor age and transplant outcomes among 8860 adult lung transplant recipients using Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network and Lung Transplant Outcomes Group data. We used stratified Cox proportional hazard models and generalized linear mixed models to examine associations between donor age and both 1-year graft failure and primary graft dysfunction (PGD). The rate of 1-year graft failure was similar among recipients of lungs from donors age 18-64 years, but severely ill recipients (Lung Allocation Score [LAS] >47.7 or use of mechanical ventilation) of lungs from donors age 56-64 years had increased rates of 1-year graft failure (p-values for interaction = 0.04 and 0.02, respectively). Recipients of lungs from donors <18 and ≥65 years had increased rates of 1-year graft failure (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.23, 95% CI 1.01-1.50 and adjusted HR 2.15, 95% CI 1.47-3.15, respectively). Donor age was not associated with the risk of PGD. In summary, the use of lungs from donors age 56 to 64 years may be safe for adult candidates without a high LAS and the use of lungs from pediatric donors is associated with a small increase in early graft failure. © Copyright 2013 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  19. Early initiation of beta blockade in heart failure: issues and evidence.

    PubMed

    Williams, Randall E

    2005-09-01

    Despite clinical trials demonstrating that inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin and sympathetic nervous systems can reduce the mortality and morbidity risk associated with heart failure, these drugs have remained underutilized in general clinical practice. In particular, many patients with heart failure due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction fail to receive beta blockers, although this class of drugs, as well as other antihypertensive agents such as angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, are recommended as part of routine heart failure therapy by national expert consensus guidelines. In-hospital initiation of beta-blocker therapy may improve long-term utilization by physicians and compliance by patients through obviating many of the misperceived dangers associated with beta blockade. The following review of the clinical trial data from the Randomized Evaluation of Strategies for Left Ventricular Dysfunction (RESOLVD) trial, the Metoprolol Controlled-Release Randomized Intervention Trial in Heart Failure (MERIT-HF), the Cardiac Insufficiency Bisoprolol Study II (CIBIS-II), the Carvedilol Prospective Randomized Cumulative Survival (COPERNICUS) trial, and the Initiation Management Predischarge Process for Assessment of Carvedilol Therapy for Heart Failure (IMPACT-HF) trial on the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of beta blockers indicates that early initiation can be safely achieved and can improve patient outcomes.

  20. Timed artificial insemination should be performed early when used norgestomet ear implants are applied for synchronizing ovulation in beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Sá Filho, M F; Penteado, L; Siqueira, G R; Soares, J G; Mendanha, M F; Macedo, G G; Baruselli, P S

    2013-10-01

    The present study evaluated the effect of the type of norgestomet ear implant (new vs. used) on the ovarian follicular response (experiment 1) and pregnancy per artificial insemination (AI) (P/AI; experiment 2) of beef heifers subjected to an estradiol plus progestin timed artificial insemination (TAI) program. In experiment 1, 57 cyclic beef heifers were randomly assigned to one of two groups according to the type (new or previously used for 9 days) of norgestomet ear (NORG) implant. At the time of NORG implant insertion, the heifers were treated with 2 mg of intramuscular estradiol benzoate. Eight days later, the NORG implants were removed, and the heifers received an intramuscular administration of 150 μg of d-cloprostenol, 300 IU of equine chorionic gonadotropin, and 0.5 mg of estradiol cypionate. The heifers had their ovaries scanned every 12 hours from the time of NORG implant removal to 96 hours after verifying the occurrence and timing of ovulation. No difference (P = 0.89) was observed in the ovulation rates between the two treatments (new = 80.0%; 24/30 vs. used = 81.5%; 22/27). However, the heifers treated with a used NORG implant had (P = 0.04) higher proportion (36.4%; 8/22) of early ovulation (between 36 and 48 hours after NORG implant removal) compared with the heifers treated with a new NORG implant (8.3%; 2/24). In experiment 2, at the beginning of the synchronization protocol, 416 beef heifers were randomly assigned into two groups, as described in the experiment 1. Two days after the NORG implant removal, the heifers were reassigned to be inseminated at 48 or 54 hours after NORG implant removal. There was an interaction (P = 0.03) between the type of NORG implant and the timing of TAI on P/AI. The timing of insemination only had an effect (P = 0.02) on the P/AI when the heifers were treated with a used NORG implant [(TAI 54 hours = 41.9% (44/105) vs. TAI 48 hours = 58.6% (58/99)]. In conclusion, beef heifers synchronized with a used NORG implant

  1. Outcomes of Minimally Invasive Temporary Right Ventricular Assist Device Support for Acute Right Ventricular Failure During Minimally Invasive Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Andreas; Reichart, Daniel; Bernhardt, Alexander M; Kubik, Mathias; Barten, Markus J; Wagner, Florian M; Reichenspurner, Hermann; Philipp, Sebastian A; Deuse, Tobias

    Right ventricular failure (RVF) may still occur despite the benefits of minimally invasive left ventricular assist device (MI-LVAD) implantation. Our center strategy aims to avoid aggressive postoperative inotrope use by using mechanical support to facilitate right ventricle recovery and adaptation. We herein report first outcomes of patients with minimally invasive temporary right ventricular assist device (MI-t-RVAD) support for RVF during MI-LVAD implantation. Right ventricular failure was defined as requiring more than moderate inotopic support after weaning from cardiopulmonary bypass according to Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support adverse event definitions. All patients requiring MI-t-RVAD support for RVF during MI-LVAD implantation between January, 2012 and April, 2016 were retrospectively reviewed. Clinical endpoints were death or unsuccessful RVAD weaning. Overall 10 patients (90% male, mean age 49.6 ± 14.8 years) underwent MI-t-RVAD implantation. Duration of MI-t-RVAD support was 16.2 ± 11.6 days. Right ventricular assist device weaning and subsequent uneventful awake device explantation was successful in all cases. The 30 day survival was 80%. Our results confirm safety and feasibility of MI-t-RVAD support for acute RVF in the setting of MI-LVAD implantation. The potential benefits of this strategy are more stable hemodynamics in the first postoperative days that usually are crucial for LVAD patients and reduced inotrope requirement.

  2. Simple Predictive Model of Early Failure among Patients Undergoing First-Time Arteriovenous Fistula Creation.

    PubMed

    Eslami, Mohammad H; Zhu, Clara K; Rybin, Denis; Doros, Gheorghe; Siracuse, Jeffrey J; Farber, Alik

    2016-08-01

    Native arteriovenous fistulas (AVFs) have a high 1 year failure rate leading to a need for secondary procedures. We set out to create a predictive model of early failure in patients undergoing first-time AVF creation, to identify failure-associated factors and stratify initial failure risk. The Vascular Study Group of New England (VSGNE) (2010-2014) was queried to identify patients undergoing first-time AVF creation. Patients with early (within 3 months postoperation) AVF failure (EF) or no failure (NF) were compared, failure being defined as any AVF that could not be used for dialysis. A multivariate logistic regression predictive model of EF based on perioperative clinical variables was created. Backward elimination with alpha level of 0.2 was used to create a parsimonious model. We identified 376 first-time AVF patients with follow-up data available in VSGNE. EF rate was 17.5%. Patients in the EF group had lower rates of hypertension (80.3% vs. 93.2%, P = 0.003) and diabetes (47.0% vs. 61.3%, P = 0.039). EF patients were also more likely to have radial artery inflow (57.6% vs. 38.4%, P = 0.011) and have forearm cephalic vein outflow (57.6% vs. 36.5%, P = 0.008). Additionally, the EF group was noted to have significantly smaller mean diameters of target artery (3.1 ± 0.9 vs. 3.6 ± 1.1, P = 0.002) and vein (3.1 ± 0.7 vs. 3.6 ± 0.9, P < 0.001). Multivariate analyses revealed that hypertension, diabetes, and vein larger than 3 mm were protective of EF (P < 0.05). The discriminating ability of this model was good (C-statistic = 0.731) and the model fits the data well (Hosmer-Lemeshow P = 0.149). β-estimates of significant factors were used to create a point system and assign probabilities of EF. We developed a simple model that robustly predicts first-time AVF EF and suggests that anatomical and clinical factors directly affect early AVF outcomes. The risk score has the potential to be used in clinical settings to stratify risk and make

  3. Correlation between pulmonary artery pressure and thoracic impedance: Insights from daily monitoring through an implanted device in chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Perego, Giovanni Battista; Oldani, Matteo; Pellegrini, Dario; Brasca, Francesco Maria Angelo; Malfatto, Gabriella; Villani, Alessandra; Brambilla, Roberto; Rella, Valeria; Parati, Gianfranco

    2017-10-15

    Thoracic impedance (TI) decrease and pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) elevation precede acute decompensation in congestive heart failure (HF). However, the relationship between TI and PAP has been studied only in the context of acute decompensation. This prospective, observational study enrolled subjects with reduced ejection fraction HF, previously implanted with an ICD capable of measuring TI. Patients underwent implantation of a sensor for direct measurement of PAP (CardioMEMs™). Both TI and PAP were remotely monitored daily during follow up. Investigators were blinded to PAP values during the first three months, then PAP was used as a guide to therapy. Ten patients were followed up for 405±141days (3720 patient-days). During hemodynamic guided therapy, diastolic PAP (dPAP) decreased from 27.8±10.2mmHg to 24.0±8.0mmHg (p<0.001); non-significant variations of TI were observed. A significant negative correlation was found between the variations of TI and PAP vs. baseline (p<0.001). Episodes of sustained increase of PAP preceded subsequent periods of TI decrease by 5.6±3.9days, but the former were poor predictors of the latter (sensitivity 0.37). Our study confirms the strict correlation that exists between left ventricular filling pressures and lung water content, estimated by dPAP and TI, respectively. However, dPAP acute variation analysis showed a limited value in predicting subsequent episodes of TI decrease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Clavicular bone tunnel malposition leads to early failures in coracoclavicular ligament reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Cook, Jay B; Shaha, James S; Rowles, Douglas J; Bottoni, Craig R; Shaha, Steven H; Tokish, John M

    2013-01-01

    Modern techniques for the treatment of acromioclavicular (AC) joint dislocations have largely centered on free tendon graft reconstructions. Recent biomechanical studies have demonstrated that an anatomic reconstruction with 2 clavicular bone tunnels more closely matches the properties of native coracoclavicular (CC) ligaments than more traditional techniques. No study has analyzed tunnel position in regard to risk of early failure. To evaluate the effect of clavicular tunnel position in CC ligament reconstruction as a risk of early failure. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A retrospective review was performed of a consecutive series of CC ligament reconstructions performed with 2 clavicular bone tunnels and a free tendon graft. The population was largely a young, active-duty military group of patients. Radiographs were analyzed for the maintenance of reduction and location of clavicular bone tunnels using a picture archiving and communication system. The distance from the lateral border of the clavicle to the center of each bone tunnel was divided by the total clavicular length to establish a ratio. Medical records were reviewed for operative details and functional outcome. Failure was defined as loss of intraoperative reduction. The overall failure rate was 28.6% (8/28) at an average of 7.4 weeks postoperatively. Comparison of bone tunnel position showed that medialized bone tunnels were a significant predictor for early loss of reduction for the conoid (a ratio of 0.292 vs 0.248; P = .012) and trapezoid bone tunnels (a ratio of 0.171 vs 0.128; P = .004); this correlated to an average of 7 to 9 mm more medial in the reconstructions that failed. Reconstructions performed with a conoid ratio of ≥0.30 were significantly more likely to fail (5/5, 100%) than were those performed lateral to a ratio of 0.30 (3/23, 13.0%) (P < .01). There were no failures when the conoid ratio was <0.25 (0/10, 0%). Conoid tunnel placement was also statistically significant for

  5. Predictors of early graft failure after coronary artery bypass grafting for chronic total occlusion.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Hideki; Tokuda, Yoshiyuki; Araki, Yoshimori; Ishii, Hideki; Murohara, Toyoaki; Ozaki, Yukio; Usui, Akihiko

    2016-07-01

    Little is known regarding the transit-time flow measurement (TTFM) variables in grafts anastomosed to chronically totally occluded vessels (CTOs). We aimed to establish the TTFM cut-off values for detecting graft failure in bypass grafts anastomosed to chronically totally occluded arteries and clarify the relationship between early graft failure and the grade of collateral circulation/regional wall motion of the CTO territory. Among 491 patients who underwent isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) from 2009 to 2015, 196 cases with CTOs underwent postoperative coronary angiography within 1 month after CABG. Two hundred and forty-one CTOs in all patients were examined. Thirty-two CTOs (13%) were not bypassed and 214 conduits were anastomosed to CTOs and underwent intraoperative TTFM. Arterial conduits and saphenous vein grafts (SVGs) were used in 102 and 112 cases, respectively. Among the arterial conduit procedures that were performed, 78 involved the left internal thoracic artery (LITA), 10 involved the right internal thoracic artery (RITA) and 14 involved the right gastroepiploic artery (rGEA). Any graft showing Fitzgibbon type B or O lesions on angiography was considered to be a failing graft. The insufficiency rates for LITA, RITA, rGEA and SVG procedures were 5.1, 10, 14.3 and 7.1%, respectively. The TTFM variables recorded in failing grafts had a significantly lower mean flow (Qmean) and higher pulsatility index (PI) compared with patent grafts. Furthermore, akinetic or dyskinetic wall motion in the territory of bypassed CTOs was observed at a significantly higher rate in failing grafts. A multivariable regression analysis and receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed good predictors of early graft failure as follows: a Qmean value of < 11.5 ml/min for arterial conduits, a PI value of >5.85 and akinetic/dyskinetic wall motion in the CTO territory for SVGs. The Rentrop collateral grade was not associated with early graft failure. The Qmean

  6. Early High-Frequency Oscillatory Ventilation in Pediatric Acute Respiratory Failure. A Propensity Score Analysis.

    PubMed

    Bateman, Scot T; Borasino, Santiago; Asaro, Lisa A; Cheifetz, Ira M; Diane, Shelley; Wypij, David; Curley, Martha A Q

    2016-03-01

    The use of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) for acute respiratory failure in children is prevalent despite the lack of efficacy data. To compare the outcomes of patients with acute respiratory failure managed with HFOV within 24-48 hours of endotracheal intubation with those receiving conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) and/or late HFOV. This is a secondary analysis of data from the RESTORE (Randomized Evaluation of Sedation Titration for Respiratory Failure) study, a prospective cluster randomized clinical trial conducted between 2009 and 2013 in 31 U.S. pediatric intensive care units. Propensity score analysis, including degree of hypoxia in the model, compared the duration of mechanical ventilation and mortality of patients treated with early HFOV matched with those treated with CMV/late HFOV. Among 2,449 subjects enrolled in RESTORE, 353 patients (14%) were ever supported on HFOV, of which 210 (59%) had HFOV initiated within 24-48 hours of intubation. The propensity score model predicting the probability of receiving early HFOV included 1,064 patients (181 early HFOV vs. 883 CMV/late HFOV) with significant hypoxia (oxygenation index ≥ 8). The degree of hypoxia was the most significant contributor to the propensity score model. After adjusting for risk category, early HFOV use was associated with a longer duration of mechanical ventilation (hazard ratio, 0.75; 95% confidence interval, 0.64-0.89; P = 0.001) but not with mortality (odds ratio, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 0.92-1.79; P = 0.15) compared with CMV/late HFOV. In adjusted models including important oxygenation variables, early HFOV was associated with a longer duration of mechanical ventilation. These analyses make supporting the current approach to HFOV less convincing.

  7. The Number of Recalled Leads is Highly Predictive of Lead Failure: Results From the Pacemaker and Implantable Defibrillator Leads Survival Study ("PAIDLESS").

    PubMed

    Kersten, Daniel J; Yi, Jinju; Feldman, Alyssa M; Brahmbhatt, Kunal; Asheld, Wilbur J; Germano, Joseph; Islam, Shahidul; Cohen, Todd J

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if implantation of multiple recalled defibrillator leads is associated with an increased risk of lead failure. The authors of the Pacemaker and Implantable Defibrillator Leads Survival Study ("PAIDLESS") have previously reported a relationship between recalled lead status, lead failure, and patient mortality. This substudy analyzes the relationship in a smaller subset of patients who received more than one recalled lead. The specific effects of having one or more recalled leads have not been previously examined. This study analyzed lead failure and mortality of 3802 patients in PAIDLESS and compared outcomes with respect to the number of recalled leads received. PAIDLESS includes all patients at Winthrop University Hospital who underwent defibrillator lead implantation between February 1, 1996 and December 31, 2011. Patients with no recalled ICD leads, one recalled ICD lead, and two recalled ICD leads were compared using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank test. Sidak adjustment method was used to correct for multiple comparisons. All calculations were performed using SAS 9.4. P-values <.05 were considered statistically significant. This study included 4078 total ICD leads implanted during the trial period. There were 2400 leads (59%) in the no recalled leads category, 1620 leads (40%) in the one recalled lead category, and 58 leads (1%) in the two recalled leads category. No patient received more than two recalled leads. Of the leads categorized in the two recalled leads group, 12 experienced lead failures (21%), which was significantly higher (P<.001) than in the no recalled leads group (60 failures, 2.5%) and one recalled lead group (81 failures; 5%). Multivariable Cox's regression analysis found a total of six significant predictive variables for lead failure including the number of recalled leads (P<.001 for one and two recalled leads group). The number of recalled leads is highly predictive of lead failure. Lead

  8. Effect of abutment height on interproximal implant bone level in the early healing: A randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Juan; Pico, Alexandre; Caneiro, Leticia; Nóvoa, Lourdes; Batalla, Pilar; Martín-Lancharro, Pablo

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this randomized clinical trial was to compare the effect on the interproximal implant bone loss (IBL) of two different heights (1 and 3 mm) of definitive abutments placed at bone level implants with a platform switched design. Twenty-two patients received forty-four implants (6.5-10 mm length and 3.5-4 mm diameter) to replace at least two adjacent missing teeth, one bridge set to each patient-two implants per bridge. Patients were randomly allocated, and two different abutment heights, 1 and 3 mm using only one abutment height per bridge, were used. Clinical and radiological measurements were performed at 3 and 6 months after surgery. Interproximal bone level changes were compared between treatment groups. The association between IBL and categorical variables (history of periodontitis, smoking, implant location, implant diameter, implant length, insertion torque, width of keratinized mucosa, bone density, gingival biotype and antagonist) was also performed. At 3 months, implants with a 1-mm abutment had significantly greater IBL (0.83 ± 0.19 mm) compared to implants with a 3-mm abutment (0.14 ± 0.08 mm). At 6 months, a greater IBL was observed at implants with 1-mm abutments compared to implants with 3-mm abutments (0.91 ± 0.19 vs. 0.11 ± 0.09 mm). The analysis of the relation between patient characteristics and clinical variables with IBL revealed no significant differences at any moment except for smoking. Abutment height is an important factor to maintain interproximal implant bone level in early healing. Short abutments led to a greater interproximal bone loss in comparison with long abutments after 6 months. Other variables except smoking showed no relation with interproximal bone loss in early healing. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Long-Term Survival With Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator in Different Symptomatic Functional Classes of Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Biton, Yitschak; Rosero, Spencer; Moss, Arthur; Zareba, Wojciech; Kutyifa, Valentina; Baman, Jayson; Barsheshet, Alon; McNitt, Scott; Polonsky, Bronislava; Goldenberg, Ilan

    2018-03-01

    The ACC/AHA/HRS (American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines and the Heart Rhythm Society) guidelines recommend implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy primary prevention in all patients with severely reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (≤30%) regardless of New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class, whereas recent European guidelines limit the indication to those with symptomatic heart failure (NYHA ≥ II). We therefore aimed to evaluate the long-term survival benefit of primary ICD therapy among postmyocardial infarction patients with and without heart failure (HF) symptoms who were enrolled in MADIT-II (Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial II). We classified 1,164 MADIT-II patient groups according to the baseline NYHA class (NYHA I [n = 442], NYHA II [n = 425], and NYHA III [n = 297]); patients with NYHA IV were excluded. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression modeling was performed to compare the mortality reduction with ICD versus non-ICD therapy during 8 years of follow-up between the 3 NYHA groups. The median (interquartile range) follow-up time was 7.6 (3.5 to 9) years. At 8 years of follow-up, the cumulative probability of mortality in the non-ICD treatment arm was 57% for NYHA I, 57% for NYHA II, and 76% for NYHA III (p <0.001). Multivariate models demonstrated similar long-term mortality risk reduction with ICD compared with the non-ICD treatment arm regardless of HF symptoms: NYHA I (HR = 0.63, 0.46 to 0.85, p = 0.003), NYHA II (HR = 0.68, 0.50 to 0.93, p = 0.017), and NYHA III (HR = 0.68, 0.50 to 0.94, p = 0.018); p for NYHA class by treatment arm interaction >0.10. In conclusion, primary ICD therapy provides consistent long-term survival benefit among patients with previous myocardial infarction and severe left ventricular dysfunction, regardless of HF symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc

  10. Concurrent Left Ventricular Assist Device (LVAD) Implantation and Percutaneous Temporary RVAD Support via CardiacAssist Protek-Duo TandemHeart to Preempt Right Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Schmack, Bastian; Weymann, Alexander; Popov, Aron-Frederik; Patil, Nikhil Prakash; Sabashnikov, Anton; Kremer, Jamila; Farag, Mina; Brcic, Andreas; Lichtenstern, Christoph; Karck, Matthias; Ruhparwar, Arjang

    2016-05-05

    Right ventricular failure (RVF) is an unfortunate complication that continues to limit outcomes following durable left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation. Despite several 'RVF risk scores' having been proposed, preoperative prediction of post-LVAD RVF remains a guesstimate at best. Current strategies for institution of temporary RVAD support are invasive, necessitate additional re-thoracotomy, restrict postoperative mobilization, and/or entail prolonged retention of prosthetic material in-situ. The authors propose a novel surgical strategy comprising simultaneous implantation of a permanent LVAD and percutaneous TandemHeart® plus ProtekDuo® to provide temporary RVAD support and preempt RVF in patients with impaired RV function.

  11. Long-term survival of donor bone marrow multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells implanted into the periosteum of patients with allogeneic graft failure.

    PubMed

    Kuzmina, L A; Petinati, N A; Sats, N V; Drize, N J; Risinskaya, N V; Sudarikov, A B; Vasilieva, V A; Drokov, M Y; Michalzova, E D; Parovichnikova, E N; Savchenko, V G

    2016-09-01

    The present study involved three patients with graft failure following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT). We obtained multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from the original hematopoietic cell donors and implanted these cells in the periosteum to treat long-term bone marrow aplasia. The results showed that in all patients endogenous blood formation was recovered 2 weeks after MSC administration. Donor MSCs were found in recipient bone marrow three and 5 months following MSC implantation. Thus, our findings indicate that functional donor MSCs can persist in patient bone marrow.

  12. Evidence that the endometrial microbiota has an effect on implantation success or failure.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Inmaculada; Codoñer, Francisco M; Vilella, Felipe; Valbuena, Diana; Martinez-Blanch, Juan F; Jimenez-Almazán, Jorge; Alonso, Roberto; Alamá, Pilar; Remohí, Jose; Pellicer, Antonio; Ramon, Daniel; Simon, Carlos

    2016-12-01

    Bacterial cells in the human body account for 1-3% of total body weight and are at least equal in number to human cells. Recent research has focused on understanding how the different bacterial communities in the body (eg, gut, respiratory, skin, and vaginal microbiomes) predispose to health and disease. The microbiota of the reproductive tract has been inferred from the vaginal bacterial communities, and the uterus has been classically considered a sterile cavity. However, while the vaginal microbiota has been investigated in depth, there is a paucity of consistent data regarding the existence of an endometrial microbiota and its possible impact in reproductive function. This study sought to test the existence of an endometrial microbiota that differs from that in the vagina, assess its hormonal regulation, and analyze the impact of the endometrial microbial community on reproductive outcome in infertile patients undergoing in vitro fertilization. To identify the existence of an endometrial microbiota, paired samples of endometrial fluid and vaginal aspirates were obtained simultaneously from 13 fertile women in prereceptive and receptive phases within the same menstrual cycle (total samples analyzed n = 52). To investigate the hormonal regulation of the endometrial microbiota during the acquisition of endometrial receptivity, endometrial fluid was collected at prereceptive and receptive phases within the same cycle from 22 fertile women (n = 44). Finally, the reproductive impact of an altered endometrial microbiota in endometrial fluid was assessed by implantation, ongoing pregnancy, and live birth rates in 35 infertile patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (total samples n = 41) with a receptive endometrium diagnosed using the endometrial receptivity array. Genomic DNA was obtained either from endometrial fluid or vaginal aspirate and sequenced by 454 pyrosequencing of the V3-V5 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene; the resulting sequences were

  13. Diode Laser and Periodontal Regeneration-Assisted Management of Implant Complications in Anterior Maxilla.

    PubMed

    Salaria, Sanjeev Kumar; Sharma, Isha; Brar, Navjot Kaur; Kaur, Satwant

    2018-01-01

    Dental implant is being considered successful if the patient is pleased with both of its functional and esthetic outcome. As implant complications (such as peri-implantitis, inappropriate implant position, wrong angulation, and implant location too close to anatomical structures) have been frequently encountered in dental practice, therefore, thorough knowledge to manage such complications is the key prerequisite to prevent the failure of implant. The present case report discussed the etiology, diagnosis of early peri-implantitis, and periodontal abscess with their successful management through periodontal regeneration and diode laser-assisted therapy.

  14. Hypertensive phase and early complications after Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation with intraoperative subtenon triamcinolone acetonide

    PubMed Central

    Turalba, Angela V; Pasquale, Louis R

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate intraoperative subtenon triamcinolone acetonide (TA) as an adjunct to Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation. Design Retrospective comparative case series. Participants Forty-two consecutive cases of uncontrolled glaucoma undergoing AGV implantation: 19 eyes receiving intraoperative subtenon TA and 23 eyes that did not receive TA. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed on consecutive pseudophakic adult patients with uncontrolled glaucoma undergoing AGV with and without intraoperative subtenon TA injection by a single surgeon. Clinical data were collected from 42 eyes and analyzed for the first 6 months after surgery. Main outcome measures Primary outcomes included intraocular pressure (IOP) and number of glaucoma medications prior to and after AGV implantation. The hypertensive phase (HP) was defined as an IOP measurement of greater than 21 mmHg (with or without medications) during the 6-month postoperative period that was not a result of tube obstruction, retraction, or malfunction. Postoperative complications and visual acuity were analyzed as secondary outcome measures. Results Five out of 19 (26%) TA cases and 12 out of 23 (52%) non-TA cases developed the HP (P=0.027). Mean IOP (14.2±4.6 in TA cases versus [vs] 14.7±5.0 mmHg in non-TA cases; P=0.78), and number of glaucoma medications needed (1.8±1.3 in TA cases vs 1.6±1.1 in the comparison group; P=0.65) were similar between both groups at 6 months. Although rates of serious complications did not differ between the groups (13% in the TA group vs 16% in the non-TA group), early tube erosion (n=1) and bacterial endophthalmitis (n=1) were noted with TA but not in the non-TA group. Conclusions Subtenon TA injection during AGV implantation may decrease the occurrence of the HP but does not alter the ultimate IOP outcome and may pose increased risk of serious complications within the first 6 months of surgery. PMID:25050061

  15. Ongoing right ventricular hemodynamics in heart failure: clinical value of measurements derived from an implantable monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Adamson, Philip B; Magalski, Anthony; Braunschweig, Frieder; Böhm, Michael; Reynolds, Dwight; Steinhaus, David; Luby, Allyson; Linde, Cecilia; Ryden, Lars; Cremers, Bodo; Takle, Teri; Bennett, Tom

    2003-02-19

    This study examined the characteristics of continuously measured right ventricular (RV) hemodynamic information derived from an implantable hemodynamic monitor (IHM) in heart failure patients. Hemodynamic monitoring might improve the day-to-day management of patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Little is known about the characteristics of long-term hemodynamic information in patients with CHF or how such information relates to meaningful clinical events. Thirty-two patients with CHF received a permanent RV IHM system similar to a single-lead pacemaker. Right ventricular systolic and diastolic pressures, heart rate, and pressure derivatives were continuously measured for nine months without using the data for clinical decision-making or management of patients. Data were then made available to clinical providers, and the patients were followed up for 17 months. Pressure characteristics during optimal volume, clinically determined volume-overload exacerbations, and volume depletion events were examined. The effect of IHM on hospitalizations was examined using the patients' historical controls. Long-term RV pressure measurements had either marked variability or minimal time-related changes. During 36 volume-overload events, RV systolic pressures increased by 25 +/- 4% (p < 0.05) and heart rate increased by 11 +/- 2% (p < 0.05). Pressure increases occurred in 9 of 12 events 4 +/- 2 days before the exacerbations requiring hospitalization. Hospitalizations before using IHM data for clinical management averaged 1.08 per patient year and decreased to 0.47 per patient-year (57% reduction, p < 0.01) after hemodynamic data were used. Long-term ambulatory pressure measurements from an IHM may be helpful in guiding day-to-day clinical management, with a potentially favorable impact on CHF hospitalizations.

  16. Early warning indicators for monitoring the process failure of anaerobic digestion system of food waste.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; He, Qingming; Wei, Yunmei; He, Qin; Peng, Xuya

    2014-11-01

    To determine reliable state parameters which could be used as early warning indicators of process failure due to the acidification of anaerobic digestion of food waste, three mesophilic anaerobic digesters of food waste with different operation conditions were investigated. Such parameters as gas production, methane content, pH, concentrations of volatile fatty acid (VFA), alkalinity and their combined indicators were evaluated. Results revealed that operation conditions significantly affect the responses of parameters and thus the optimal early warning indicators of each reactor differ from each other. None of the single indicators was universally valid for all the systems. The universally valid indicators should combine several parameters to supply complementary information. A combination of total VFA, the ratio of VFA to total alkalinity (VFA/TA) and the ratio of bicarbonate alkalinity to total alkalinity (BA/TA) can reflect the metabolism of the digesting system and realize rapid and effective early warning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Essential Elements of Early Post Discharge Care of Patients with Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Soucier, Richard J; Miller, P Elliott; Ingrassia, Joseph J; Riello, Ralph; Desai, Nihar R; Ahmad, Tariq

    2018-06-01

    Heart failure is associated with an enormous burden on both patients and health care systems in the USA. Several national policy initiatives have focused on improving the quality of heart failure care, including reducing readmissions following hospitalization, which are common, costly, and, at least in part, preventable. The transition from inpatient to ambulatory care setting and the immediate post-hospitalization period present an opportunity to further optimize guideline concordant medical therapy, identify reversible issues related to worsening heart failure, and evaluate prognosis. It can also provide opportunities for medication reconciliation and optimization, consideration of device-based therapies, appropriate management of comorbidities, identification of individual barriers to care, and a discussion of goals of care based on prognosis. Recent studies suggest that attention to detail regarding patient comorbidities, barriers to care, optimization of both diuretic and neurohormonal therapies, and assessment of prognosis improve patient outcomes. Despite the fact that the transition period appears to be an optimal time to address these issues in a comprehensive manner, most patients are not referred to programs specializing in this approach post hospital discharge. The objective of this review is to provide an outline for early post discharge care that allows clinicians and other health care providers to care for these heart failure patients in a manner that is both firmly rooted in the guidelines and patient-centered. Data regarding which intervention is most likely to confer benefit to which subset of patients with this disease is lacking and warrants further study.

  18. [Early detection, prevention and management of renal failure in liver transplantation].

    PubMed

    Castells, Lluís; Baliellas, Carme; Bilbao, Itxarone; Cantarell, Carme; Cruzado, Josep Maria; Esforzado, Núria; García-Valdecasas, Juan Carlos; Lladó, Laura; Rimola, Antoni; Serón, Daniel; Oppenheimer, Federico

    2014-10-01

    Renal failure is a frequent complication in liver transplant recipients and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. A variety of risk factors for the development of renal failure in the pre- and post-transplantation periods have been described, as well as at the time of surgery. To reduce the negative impact of renal failure in this population, an active approach is required for the identification of those patients with risk factors, the implementation of preventive strategies, and the early detection of progressive deterioration of renal function. Based on published evidence and on clinical experience, this document presents a series of recommendations on monitoring RF in LT recipients, as well as on the prevention and management of acute and chronic renal failure after LT and referral of these patients to the nephrologist. In addition, this document also provides an update of the various immunosuppressive regimens tested in this population for the prevention and control of post-transplantation deterioration of renal function. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  19. Genetic Variation of Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase (MTHFR) and Thymidylate Synthase (TS) Genes Is Associated with Idiopathic Recurrent Implantation Failure.

    PubMed

    Choi, Youngsok; Kim, Jung Oh; Shim, Sung Han; Lee, Yubin; Kim, Ji Hyang; Jeon, Young Joo; Ko, Jung Jae; Lee, Woo Sik; Kim, Nam Keun

    2016-01-01

    The one-carbon metabolism pathway disorder was important role in successful pregnancy. The MTHFR and TS protein were crucial factor in one-carbon metabolism. To investigate the association between recurrent implantation failure (RIF) and enzymes in the one-carbon metabolism pathway. A total of 120 women diagnosed with RIF and 125 control subjects were genotyped for MTHFR 677C>T, 1298A>C, TSER 2R/3R and TS 1494del/ins by a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism assay. According to the gene-gene combination analysis, the MTHFR 677/MTHFR 1298 (TT/AA) and MTHFR 677/TS 1494 (TT/6bp6bp) genetic combinations were associated with relatively higher risks [adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 2.764; 95% CI, 1.065-7.174; P = 0.037 and AOR, 3.186; 95% CI, 1.241-8.178; P = 0.016] in RIF patients compared to the CC/AA (MTHFR 677/MTHFR 1298) and TT/6bp6bp (MTHFR 677/TS 1494) combinations, respectively. The results suggested that the combined MTHFR 677/MTHFR 1298 genotype might be associated with increased risk of RIF. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to elucidate the potential association of MTHFR, TS and TSER polymorphisms with RIF risk in Korean patients.

  20. Increased circulating cell-derived microparticle count is associated with recurrent implantation failure after IVF and embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Zamora, M Angeles; Tàssies, Dolors; Reverter, Juan Carlos; Creus, Montserrat; Casals, Gemma; Cívico, Salvadora; Carmona, Francisco; Balasch, Juan

    2016-08-01

    Cell-derived microparticles (cMPs) are small membrane vesicles that are released from many different cell types in response to cellular activation or apoptosis. Elevated cMP counts have been found in almost all thrombotic diseases and pregnancy wastage, such as recurrent spontaneous abortion and in a number of conditions associated with inflammation, cellular activation and angiogenesis. cMP count was investigated in patients experiencing unexplained recurrent implantation failure (RIF). The study group was composed of 30 women diagnosed with RIF (RIF group). The first control group (IVF group) (n = 30) comprised patients undergoing a first successful IVF cycle. The second control group (FER group) included 30 healthy women who had at least one child born at term and no history of infertility or obstetric complications. cMP count was significantly higher in the RIF group compared with the IVF and FER groups (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01, respectively) (RIF group: 15.8 ± 6.2 nM phosphatidylserine equivalent [PS eq]; IVF group: 10.9 ± 5.3 nM PS eq; FER group: 9.6 ± 4.0 nM PS eq). No statistical difference was found in cMP count between the IVF and FER groups. Increased cMP count is, therefore, associated with RIF after IVF and embryo transfer. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) in the endometrium of patients with repeated implantation failure after in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Turgut, A; Goruk, N Y; Tunc, S Y; Agaçayak, E; Alabalik, U; Yalinkaya, A; Gül, T

    2014-01-01

    To compare the immunohistochemical expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) in repeated implantation failure (RIF) patients with normal fertile controls. The study group consisted of primary infertile patients with RIF and normal fertile controls between January 2011 and February 2013. Endometrial samples received at the luteal phase were exposed to immunohistochemical staining for EMMPRIN antibodies. EMMPRIN expression of endometrial glandular epithelial cells, stromal cells and vascular endothelial cells were evaluated. The main outcome measure was defined as immunohistochemical score with regard to the severity and extent of staining. The study group consisted of 26 primary infertile patients, whereas the control group consisted of 40 normal fertile controls. The fertile group was found to have stronger expression of EMMPRIN than the study group when endometrial glandular epithelial cells, stromal cells and vascular endothelial cells were evaluated with regards to the severity of staining (p < 0.001), the extent of staining (p < 0.001) and total staining score (p < 0.001). This is the first study showing low expression of EMMPRIN in the endometrial cells of the patients with RIF compared with fertile healthy controls. We suggest that reduced EMMPRIN expression in the human endometrium may lead to poor endometrial receptivity.

  2. Prevalence of chronic endometritis in repeated unexplained implantation failure and the IVF success rate after antibiotic therapy.

    PubMed

    Cicinelli, Ettore; Matteo, Maria; Tinelli, Raffaele; Lepera, Achiropita; Alfonso, Raffaello; Indraccolo, Ugo; Marrocchella, Sonia; Greco, Pantaleo; Resta, Leonardo

    2015-02-01

    What is the prevalence of chronic endometritis (CE) in women with repeated unexplained implantation failure (RIF) at IVF, and how does antibiotic treatment affect the reproductive outcome? Chronic endometritis, associated with infection with common bacteria or mycoplasma, is common in women complaining of RIF and antibiotic treatment significantly improves the reproductive outcome at a subsequent IVF cycle. We have reported that CE is a frequent finding in women with repeated pregnancy loss and a significantly higher rate of successful pregnancies was achieved after adequate antibiotic treatment. Moreover, CE was identified in 30.3% of patients with repeated implantation failure at IVF and women diagnosed with CE had lower implantation rates (11.5%) after IVF cycles. In contrast, other authors reported that the clinical implication of CE should be considered minimal and that the reproductive outcome at IVF/ICSI cycles was not negatively affected by CE. A retrospective study was performed from January 2009 through June 2012 on 106 women with unexplained infertility and a history of RIF. All patients underwent hysteroscopy and endometrial sampling for histology and microbiological investigations. Women diagnosed with CE underwent antibiotic treatment and the effect of treatment was confirmed by hysteroscopy with biopsy. Within 6 months after treatment all women had a further IVF attempt. The IVF outcomes were compared in women without signs of CE (Group 1) and persistent CE (Group 2) after antibiotic treatment. Clinical pregnancy rate (PR), and live birth rate (LBR) were compared at post-treatment IVF attempt. Seventy (66.0%) women were diagnosed with CE at hysteroscopy. In 61 (57.5%) CE was confirmed by histology and 48 (45.0%) by cultures. Common bacteria and mycoplasma were the most prevalent agents. In 46 (75.4%) out of 61 women, with diagnosis of CE at hysteroscopy and histology, examinations were normal after appropriate antibiotic treatment control (Group 1

  3. Academic Outcomes for School-Aged Children with Severe-Profound Hearing Loss and Early Unilateral and Bilateral Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarant, Julia Z.; Harris, David C.; Bennet, Lisa A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study sought to (a) determine whether academic outcomes for children who received early cochlear implants (CIs) are age appropriate, (b) determine whether bilateral CI use significantly improves academic outcomes, and (c) identify other factors that are predictive of these outcomes. Method: Forty-four 8-year-old children with…

  4. Decreased PECAM1-mediated TGF-β1 expression in the mid-secretory endometrium in women with recurrent implantation failure.

    PubMed

    Guo, Feng; Si, Chenchen; Zhou, Mingjuan; Wang, Jingwen; Zhang, Dan; Leung, Peter C K; Xu, Bufang; Zhang, Aijun

    2018-05-01

    Is recurrent implantation failure (RIF) associated with decreased expression of platelet and endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1 (PECAM1) and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) in the endometrium during the implantation window? The present study demonstrates that the expression of PECAM1 and TGF-β1 is significantly decreased in the mid-secretory endometrium in women with RIF, which may account for embryo implantation failure. RIF has become a bottleneck issue that hampers the improvement of pregnancy rates in IVF-embryo transfer (IVF-ET). The causes of RIF are complex and may involve the dysregulation of various growth factors, metabolites, and inflammatory cytokines. At present, the precise pathogenesis of RIF has not been elucidated. This was a prospective case-control study. Endometrial tissue samples were obtained from January 2014 to December 2016 from two groups of women who had undergone IVF (RIF group, 22 women who underwent ≥3 ETs including a total of ≥4 good-quality embryos without pregnancy, control group, 18 women who conceived in their first treatment cycle). At the same time, samples were obtained from 18 women with infertility secondary to tubal factor in the early proliferative, late proliferative and mid-secretory phases of the menstrual cycle (n = 6 per group). Samples used for isolation of primary human endometrial epithelial cells and stromal cells (HEECs and HESCs) were collected in December 2017 from six women with infertility secondary to tubal factor. We investigated gene expression using integrative whole genome expression microarray analysis, including differentially expressed gene screening, principal component analysis, and functional enrichment analysis. RT-qPCR, western blotting, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence co-localization analysis and short hairpin RNA (shRNA) plasmid transfection in Ishikawa cell line, HEECs and HESCs were used to investigate the expression of PECAM1 and TGF-β1. Integrative data mining of

  5. Intraoperative Hemodynamic and Echocardiographic Measurements Associated With Severe Right Ventricular Failure After Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation.

    PubMed

    Gudejko, Michael D; Gebhardt, Brian R; Zahedi, Farhad; Jain, Ankit; Breeze, Janis L; Lawrence, Matthew R; Shernan, Stanton K; Kapur, Navin K; Kiernan, Michael S; Couper, Greg; Cobey, Frederick C

    2018-06-05

    Severe right ventricular failure (RVF) after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation increases morbidity and mortality. We investigated the association between intraoperative right heart hemodynamic data, echocardiographic parameters, and severe versus nonsevere RVF. A review of LVAD patients between March 2013 and March 2016 was performed. Severe RVF was defined by the need for a right ventricular mechanical support device, inotropic, and/or inhaled pulmonary vasodilator requirements for >14 days. From a chart review, the right ventricular failure risk score was calculated and right heart hemodynamic data were collected. Pulmonary artery pulsatility index (PAPi) [(pulmonary artery systolic pressure - pulmonary artery diastolic pressure)/central venous pressure (CVP)] was calculated for 2 periods: (1) 30 minutes before cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and (2) after chest closure. Echocardiographic data were recorded pre-CPB and post-CPB by a blinded reviewer. Univariate logistic regression models were used to examine the performance of hemodynamic and echocardiographic metrics. A total of 110 LVAD patients were identified. Twenty-five did not meet criteria for RVF. Of the remaining 85 patients, 28 (33%) met criteria for severe RVF. Hemodynamic factors associated with severe RVF included: higher CVP values after chest closure (18 ± 9 vs 13 ± 5 mm Hg; P = .0008) in addition to lower PAPi pre-CPB (1.2 ± 0.6 vs 1.7 ± 1.0; P = .04) and after chest closure (0.9 ± 0.5 vs 1.5 ± 0.8; P = .0008). Post-CPB echocardiographic findings associated with severe RVF included: larger right atrial diameter major axis (5.4 ± 0.9 vs 4.9 ± 1.0 cm; P = .03), larger right ventricle end-systolic area (22.6 ± 8.4 vs 18.5 ± 7.9 cm; P = .03), lower fractional area of change (20.2 ± 10.8 vs 25.9 ± 12.6; P = .04), and lower tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion (0.9 ± 0.2 vs 1.1 ± 0.3 cm; P = .008). Right ventricular failure risk score was not a significant predictor of

  6. Cost-Utility Analysis of the EVOLVO Study on Remote Monitoring for Heart Failure Patients With Implantable Defibrillators: Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Landolina, Maurizio; Marzegalli, Maurizio; Lunati, Maurizio; Perego, Giovanni B; Guenzati, Giuseppe; Curnis, Antonio; Valsecchi, Sergio; Borghetti, Francesca; Borghi, Gabriella; Masella, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Background Heart failure patients with implantable defibrillators place a significant burden on health care systems. Remote monitoring allows assessment of device function and heart failure parameters, and may represent a safe, effective, and cost-saving method compared to conventional in-office follow-up. Objective We hypothesized that remote device monitoring represents a cost-effective approach. This paper summarizes the economic evaluation of the Evolution of Management Strategies of Heart Failure Patients With Implantable Defibrillators (EVOLVO) study, a multicenter clinical trial aimed at measuring the benefits of remote monitoring for heart failure patients with implantable defibrillators. Methods Two hundred patients implanted with a wireless transmission–enabled implantable defibrillator were randomized to receive either remote monitoring or the conventional method of in-person evaluations. Patients were followed for 16 months with a protocol of scheduled in-office and remote follow-ups. The economic evaluation of the intervention was conducted from the perspectives of the health care system and the patient. A cost-utility analysis was performed to measure whether the intervention was cost-effective in terms of cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Results Overall, remote monitoring did not show significant annual cost savings for the health care system (€1962.78 versus €2130.01; P=.80). There was a significant reduction of the annual cost for the patients in the remote arm in comparison to the standard arm (€291.36 versus €381.34; P=.01). Cost-utility analysis was performed for 180 patients for whom QALYs were available. The patients in the remote arm gained 0.065 QALYs more than those in the standard arm over 16 months, with a cost savings of €888.10 per patient. Results from the cost-utility analysis of the EVOLVO study show that remote monitoring is a cost-effective and dominant solution. Conclusions Remote management of heart

  7. Cost-utility analysis of the EVOLVO study on remote monitoring for heart failure patients with implantable defibrillators: randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Zanaboni, Paolo; Landolina, Maurizio; Marzegalli, Maurizio; Lunati, Maurizio; Perego, Giovanni B; Guenzati, Giuseppe; Curnis, Antonio; Valsecchi, Sergio; Borghetti, Francesca; Borghi, Gabriella; Masella, Cristina

    2013-05-30

    Heart failure patients with implantable defibrillators place a significant burden on health care systems. Remote monitoring allows assessment of device function and heart failure parameters, and may represent a safe, effective, and cost-saving method compared to conventional in-office follow-up. We hypothesized that remote device monitoring represents a cost-effective approach. This paper summarizes the economic evaluation of the Evolution of Management Strategies of Heart Failure Patients With Implantable Defibrillators (EVOLVO) study, a multicenter clinical trial aimed at measuring the benefits of remote monitoring for heart failure patients with implantable defibrillators. Two hundred patients implanted with a wireless transmission-enabled implantable defibrillator were randomized to receive either remote monitoring or the conventional method of in-person evaluations. Patients were followed for 16 months with a protocol of scheduled in-office and remote follow-ups. The economic evaluation of the intervention was conducted from the perspectives of the health care system and the patient. A cost-utility analysis was performed to measure whether the intervention was cost-effective in terms of cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained. Overall, remote monitoring did not show significant annual cost savings for the health care system (€1962.78 versus €2130.01; P=.80). There was a significant reduction of the annual cost for the patients in the remote arm in comparison to the standard arm (€291.36 versus €381.34; P=.01). Cost-utility analysis was performed for 180 patients for whom QALYs were available. The patients in the remote arm gained 0.065 QALYs more than those in the standard arm over 16 months, with a cost savings of €888.10 per patient. Results from the cost-utility analysis of the EVOLVO study show that remote monitoring is a cost-effective and dominant solution. Remote management of heart failure patients with implantable defibrillators

  8. Influences of granulocyte growth factor in uterine perfusion on pregnancy outcome of patients with failure of embryo implantation for unknown reason.

    PubMed

    He, Jun; Liu, Juan; Zhou, Hua; Chen, Chao Jun

    2016-11-01

    To investigate the influence of granulocyte growth factor in uterine perfusion on the pregnancy outcome of patients with failure of embryo implantation for unknown reason. Then, 68 patients with failure of embryo implantation for unknown reason were enrolled in our hospital from November 2013 to February 2015, which were divided into observation group and control group by random (34 patients in each group). Patients in observation group received basic treatment for granulocyte growth factor in uterine perfusion on the next day, while patients in control group received basic treatment with placebo. Then, endometrial preparation, adverse reaction and pregnancy outcome of patients were compared between the two groups. Comparing the endometrial preparation and average endometrial thickness of patients in control group (9.87±2.12) with those in observation group [(9.87±2.12), there is no significant difference (P<0.05). After treatment, patients in both groups performed diabetes, hypertension and other pregnancy complications without difference of statistical significance (P<0.05). The embryo implantation rate and clinical pregnancy rate of patients in observation group were significantly higher than those in control group [(82.35%) and (44.12%) vs (52.94%) and (17.65%)]. Moreover, the live birth rate of patients in observation group performed significantly higher than that in control group [(41.18%) vs (14.71%)] with significant difference (P<0.05). By taking treatment of granulocyte growth factor, patients with failure of embryo implantation can effectively improve clinical pregnancy rate and embryo implantation rate without severe complication. Therefore, treatment of granlocyte growth factor can improve the pregnancy outcome of patients.

  9. Early administration of tolvaptan preserves renal function in elderly patients with acute decompensated heart failure.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Kazuhiro; Momose, Tomoyasu; Hasegawa, Tomoya; Morita, Takehiro; Misawa, Takuo; Motoki, Hirohiko; Izawa, Atsushi; Ikeda, Uichi

    2016-05-01

    Loop diuretics used in the treatment of heart failure often induce renal impairment. This study was conducted in order to evaluate the renal protective effect of adding tolvaptan (TLV), compared to increasing the furosemide (FRM) dose, for the treatment of acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) in a real-world elderly patient population. This randomized controlled trial enrolled 52 consecutive hospitalized patients (age 83.4±9.6 years) with ADHF. The patients were assigned alternately to either the TLV group (TLV plus conventional treatment, n=26) or the FRM group (increasing the dose of FRM, n=26). TLV was administered within 24h from admission. The incidence of worsening renal function (WRF) within 7 days from admission was significantly lower in the TLV group (26.9% vs. 57.7%, p=0.025). Furthermore, the rates of occurrence of persistent and late-onset (≥5 days from admission) WRF were significantly lower in the TLV group. Persistent and late-onset WRF were significantly associated with a higher incidence of cardiac death or readmission for worsening heart failure in the 90 days following discharge, compared to transient and early-onset WRF, respectively. Early administration of TLV, compared to increased FRM dosage, reduces the incidence of WRF in real-world elderly ADHF patients. In addition, it reduces the occurrence of 'worse' WRF-persistent and late-onset WRF-which are associated with increased rates of cardiac death or readmission for worsening heart failure in the 90 days after discharge. Copyright © 2015 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Detection of Taenia solium taeniasis coproantigen is an early indicator of treatment failure for taeniasis.

    PubMed

    Bustos, Javier A; Rodriguez, Silvia; Jimenez, Juan A; Moyano, Luz M; Castillo, Yesenia; Ayvar, Viterbo; Allan, James C; Craig, Philip S; Gonzalez, Armando E; Gilman, Robert H; Tsang, Victor C W; Garcia, Hector H

    2012-04-01

    Taenia solium causes taeniasis and cysticercosis, a zoonotic complex associated with a significant burden of epilepsy in most countries. Reliable diagnosis and efficacious treatment of taeniasis are needed for disease control. Currently, cure can be confirmed only after a period of at least 1 month, by negative stool microscopy. This study assessed the performance of detection by a coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CoAg-ELISA) for the early evaluation of the efficacy of antiparasitic treatment of human T. solium taeniasis. We followed 69 tapeworm carriers who received niclosamide as standard treatment. Stool samples were collected on days 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, and 90 after treatment and were processed by microscopy and CoAg-ELISA. The efficacy of niclosamide was 77.9% (53/68). Thirteen patients received a second course of treatment and completed the follow-up. CoAg-ELISA was therefore evaluated for a total of 81 cases (68 treatments, 13 retreatments). In successful treatments (n = 64), the proportion of patients who became negative by CoAg-ELISA was 62.5% after 3 days, 89.1% after 7 days, 96.9% after 15 days, and 100% after 30 days. In treatment failures (n = 17), the CoAg-ELISA result was positive for 70.6% of patients after 3 days, 94.1% after 7 days, and 100% after 15 and 30 days. Only 2 of 17 samples in cases of treatment failure became positive by microscopy by day 30. The presence of one scolex, but not multiple scolices, in posttreatment stools was strongly associated with cure (odds ratio [OR], 52.5; P < 0.001). CoAg-ELISA is useful for the assessment of treatment failure in taeniasis. Early assessment at day 15 would detect treatment failure before patients become infective.

  11. Detection of Taenia solium Taeniasis Coproantigen Is an Early Indicator of Treatment Failure for Taeniasis

    PubMed Central

    Bustos, Javier A.; Rodriguez, Silvia; Jimenez, Juan A.; Moyano, Luz M.; Castillo, Yesenia; Ayvar, Viterbo; Allan, James C.; Craig, Philip S.; Gonzalez, Armando E.; Gilman, Robert H.; Tsang, Victor C. W.

    2012-01-01

    Taenia solium causes taeniasis and cysticercosis, a zoonotic complex associated with a significant burden of epilepsy in most countries. Reliable diagnosis and efficacious treatment of taeniasis are needed for disease control. Currently, cure can be confirmed only after a period of at least 1 month, by negative stool microscopy. This study assessed the performance of detection by a coproantigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (CoAg-ELISA) for the early evaluation of the efficacy of antiparasitic treatment of human T. solium taeniasis. We followed 69 tapeworm carriers who received niclosamide as standard treatment. Stool samples were collected on days 1, 3, 7, 15, 30, and 90 after treatment and were processed by microscopy and CoAg-ELISA. The efficacy of niclosamide was 77.9% (53/68). Thirteen patients received a second course of treatment and completed the follow-up. CoAg-ELISA was therefore evaluated for a total of 81 cases (68 treatments, 13 retreatments). In successful treatments (n = 64), the proportion of patients who became negative by CoAg-ELISA was 62.5% after 3 days, 89.1% after 7 days, 96.9% after 15 days, and 100% after 30 days. In treatment failures (n = 17), the CoAg-ELISA result was positive for 70.6% of patients after 3 days, 94.1% after 7 days, and 100% after 15 and 30 days. Only 2 of 17 samples in cases of treatment failure became positive by microscopy by day 30. The presence of one scolex, but not multiple scolices, in posttreatment stools was strongly associated with cure (odds ratio [OR], 52.5; P < 0.001). CoAg-ELISA is useful for the assessment of treatment failure in taeniasis. Early assessment at day 15 would detect treatment failure before patients become infective. PMID:22336287

  12. A Retrospective Analysis of Dental Implants Replacing Failed Implants in Grafted Maxillary Sinus: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Manor, Yifat; Chaushu, Gavriel; Lorean, Adi; Mijiritzky, Eithan

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the survival rate of dental implants replacing failed implants in grafted maxillary sinuses using the lateral approach vs nongrafted posterior maxillae. A retrospective analysis was conducted to study the survival of secondary dental implants inserted in the posterior maxilla in previously failed implant sites between the years 2000 and 2010. The study group consisted of patients who had also undergone maxillary sinus augmentation, and the control group consisted of patients in whom implants in the posterior maxilla had failed. Clinical and demographic data were analyzed using a structured form. Seventy-five patients with a total of 75 replaced implants were included in the study. The study group comprised 40 patients and the control group, 35 patients. None of the replaced implants in the study group failed, resulting in an overall survival of 100%; three replaced implants in the control group failed (92% survival). The main reason for the primary implant removal was lack of osseointegration (35 [87.5%] of 40 study group implants and 23 [65.7%] of 35 control group implants [P = .027]). The difference between the groups with regard to the timing of primary implant failure was statistically significant. The study group had more early failures of the primary implant than did the control group (77% vs 62%; P = .038). Dental implants replaced in the posterior maxilla had a high survival rate. A higher rate of survival was found in augmented maxillary sinus sites. Within the limits of the present study, it can be concluded that previous implant failures in the grafted maxillary sinus should not discourage practitioners from a second attempt.

  13. Early Beginnings, Success and Failure in Teaching Young Children to Read: Some Abiding Questions and Intriguing Possibilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smethurst, Wood

    Questions pertaining to beginning reading, success, and failure are addressed. The issues of concern are: (1) When reading begins? (2) What preschool activities seem to help certain children succeed as readers? (3) What characteristics and conditions are associated with reading failure in first grade? (4) What early experiences might help children…

  14. Early onset of puberty and early ovarian failure in CYP7B1 knockout mice

    PubMed Central

    Omoto, Yoko; Lathe, Richard; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke

    2005-01-01

    CYP7B1 is the enzyme responsible for hydroxylation and termination of the estrogenic actions of the androgen metabolite, 5α-androstane-3β, 17β-diol (3βAdiol). 3βAdiol is estrogenic in ERα or ERβ positive cells only if they do not express CYP7B1. In this study we show that female CYP7B1–/– mice experience early onset of growth of the uterus and mammary glands and commence estrus cycles 2 days earlier than their wild-type littermates. Adult mammary glands and uteri appear to be under continuous estrogenic stimulation. We conclude that, by cell-specific regulation of the estrogenicity of 3βAdiol, CYP7B1 performs two major tasks: (i) it allows 3βAdiol to have growth inhibitory effects through ERβ and (ii) it permits estradiol-specific activation of estrogen receptors by protection of certain cells from the estrogenic effects of 3βAdiol. When CYP7B1 is inactivated, 3βAdiol activates estrogen receptors indiscriminately, and the overall effect is prolonged and inappropriate exposure to estrogen. PMID:15710898

  15. Early onset of puberty and early ovarian failure in CYP7B1 knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Omoto, Yoko; Lathe, Richard; Warner, Margaret; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake

    2005-02-22

    CYP7B1 is the enzyme responsible for hydroxylation and termination of the estrogenic actions of the androgen metabolite, 5alpha-androstane-3beta, 17beta-diol (3betaAdiol). 3betaAdiol is estrogenic in ERalpha or ERbeta positive cells only if they do not express CYP7B1. In this study we show that female CYP7B1(-/-) mice experience early onset of growth of the uterus and mammary glands and commence estrus cycles 2 days earlier than their wild-type littermates. Adult mammary glands and uteri appear to be under continuous estrogenic stimulation. We conclude that, by cell-specific regulation of the estrogenicity of 3betaAdiol, CYP7B1 performs two major tasks: (i) it allows 3betaAdiol to have growth inhibitory effects through ERbeta and (ii) it permits estradiol-specific activation of estrogen receptors by protection of certain cells from the estrogenic effects of 3betaAdiol. When CYP7B1 is inactivated, 3betaAdiol activates estrogen receptors indiscriminately, and the overall effect is prolonged and inappropriate exposure to estrogen.

  16. Micromotion-induced strain fields influence early stages of repair at bone-implant interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Wazen, Rima M.; Currey, Jennifer A.; Guo, Hongqiang; Brunski, John B.; Helms, Jill A.; Nanci, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Implant loading can create micromotion at the bone-implant interface. The interfacial strain associated with implant micromotion could contribute to regulating the tissue healing response. Excessive micromotion can lead to fibrous encapsulation and implant loosening. Our objective was to characterize the influence of interfacial strain on bone regeneration around implants in mouse tibiae. A micromotion system was used to create strain under conditions of (1) no initial contact between implant and bone, and (2) a direct bone-implant contact. Pin- and screw-shaped implants were subjected to displacements of 150 μm or 300 μm, 60 cycles/day, for 7 days. Pin-shaped implants placed in 5 animals were subjected to 3 sessions of 150 μm displacement per day, with 60 cycles per session. Control implants in both types of interfaces were stabilized throughout the healing period. Experimental strain analyses, microtomography, image-based displacement mapping, and finite element simulations were used to characterize interfacial strain fields. Calcified tissue sections were prepared and stained with Goldner to evaluate tissue reaction in higher and lower strain regions. In stable implants, bone formation occurred consistently around the implants. In implants subjected to micromotion, bone regeneration was disrupted in areas of high strain concentrations (e.g. > 30%), whereas lower strain values were permissive of bone formation. Increasing implant displacement or number of cycles per day also changed the strain distribution and disturbed bone healing. These results indicate that not only implant micromotion but also the associated interfacial strain field contributes to regulating the interfacial mechanobiology at healing bone-implant interfaces. PMID:23337705

  17. Understanding minds: early cochlear implantation and the development of theory of mind in children with profound hearing impairment.

    PubMed

    Sundqvist, Annette; Lyxell, Björn; Jönsson, Radoslava; Heimann, Mikael

    2014-03-01

    The present study investigates how auditory stimulation from cochlear implants (CI) is associated with the development of Theory of Mind (ToM) in severely and profoundly hearing impaired children with hearing parents. Previous research has shown that deaf children of hearing parents have a delayed ToM development. This is, however, not always the case with deaf children of deaf parents, who presumably are immersed in a more vivid signing environment. Sixteen children with CI (4.25 to 9.5 years of age) were tested on measures of cognitive and emotional ToM, language and cognition. Eight of the children received their first implant relatively early (before 27 months) and half of them late (after 27 months). The two groups did not differ in age, gender, language or cognition at entry of the study. ToM tests included the unexpected location task and a newly developed Swedish social-emotional ToM test. The tests aimed to test both cognitive and emotional ToM. A comparison group of typically developing hearing age matched children was also added (n=18). Compared to the comparison group, the early CI-group did not differ in emotional ToM. The late CI-group differed significantly from the comparison group on both the cognitive and emotional ToM tests. The results revealed that children with early cochlear implants solved ToM problems to a significantly higher degree than children with late implants, although the groups did not differ on language or cognitive measures at baseline. The outcome suggests that early cochlear implantation for deaf children in hearing families, in conjunction with early social and communicative stimulation in a language that is native to the parents, can provide a foundation for a more normalized ToM development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Early intervention and recovery among children with failure to thrive: follow-up at age 8.

    PubMed

    Black, Maureen M; Dubowitz, Howard; Krishnakumar, Ambika; Starr, Raymond H

    2007-07-01

    problems. Children in the clinical-intervention-plus-home-intervention group had fewer teacher-reported internalizing problems and better work habits than the clinical-intervention-only group. Early failure to thrive increased children's vulnerability to short stature, poor arithmetic performance, and poor work habits. Home visiting attenuated some of the negative effects of early failure to thrive, possibly by promoting maternal sensitivity and helping children build strong work habits that enabled them to benefit from school. Findings provide evidence for early intervention programs for vulnerable infants.

  19. Early osteoblast responses to orthopedic implants: Synergy of surface roughness and chemistry of bioactive ceramic coating.

    PubMed

    Aniket; Reid, Robert; Hall, Benika; Marriott, Ian; El-Ghannam, Ahmed

    2015-06-01

    Pro-osteogenic stimulation of bone cells by bioactive ceramic-coated orthopedic implants is influenced by both surface roughness and material chemistry; however, their concomitant impact on osteoblast behavior is not well understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of nano-scale roughness and chemistry of bioactive silica-calcium phosphate nanocomposite (SCPC50) coated Ti-6Al-4V on modulating early bone cell responses. Cell attachment was higher on SCPC50-coated substrates compared to the uncoated controls; however, cells on the uncoated substrate exhibited greater spreading and superior quality of F-actin filaments than cells on the SCPC50-coated substrates. The poor F-actin filament organization on SCPC50-coated substrates is thought to be due to the enhanced calcium uptake by the ceramic surface. Dissolution analyses showed that an increase in surface roughness was accompanied by increased calcium uptake, and increased phosphorous and silicon release, all of which appear to interfere with F-actin assembly and osteoblast morphology. Moreover, cell attachment onto the SCPC50-coated substrates correlated with the known adsorption of fibronectin, and was independent of surface roughness. High-throughput genome sequencing showed enhanced expression of extracellular matrix and cell differentiation related genes. These results demonstrate a synergistic relationship between bioactive ceramic coating roughness and material chemistry resulting in a phenotype that leads to early osteoblast differentiation. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Interferon-τ increases BoLA-I for implantation during early pregnancy in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhe; Li, Binbin; Wu, Yue; Wang, Xiao; Deng, GanZhen

    2017-11-10

    Interferon-τ (IFN-τ) signals pregnancy recognition in ruminants. We investigated the effects of IFN-τ produced by embryo trophoblastic cells (ETCs) on expression of bovine leukocyte antigen-I (BoLA-I), a bovine analogue of human MHC-I, in endometrial luminal epithelial cells (EECs) during early pregnancy in dairy cows. Expression of IFN-τ and BoLA-I was increased in endometrial tissues during early pregnancy. Expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was increased in endometrial tissues, while expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 was decreased, indicating immunosuppression. Progesterone increased IFN-τ expression in EECs. IFN-τ increased p-STAT1 and p-STAT3 levels in EECs, but reduced TRAF3 levels. In addition, IFN-τ increased expression of BoLA-I and IL-10, but decreased expression of IL-6 in EECs. These results indicate that IFN-τ enables stable implantation in dairy cows by increasing expression of BoLA-I, and by immunosuppression mediated by increased IL-10 and decreased IL-6 expression.

  1. Interferon-τ increases BoLA-I for implantation during early pregnancy in dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Zhe; Li, Binbin; Wu, Yue; Wang, Xiao; Deng, GanZhen

    2017-01-01

    Interferon-τ (IFN-τ) signals pregnancy recognition in ruminants. We investigated the effects of IFN-τ produced by embryo trophoblastic cells (ETCs) on expression of bovine leukocyte antigen-I (BoLA-I), a bovine analogue of human MHC-I, in endometrial luminal epithelial cells (EECs) during early pregnancy in dairy cows. Expression of IFN-τ and BoLA-I was increased in endometrial tissues during early pregnancy. Expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 was increased in endometrial tissues, while expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 was decreased, indicating immunosuppression. Progesterone increased IFN-τ expression in EECs. IFN-τ increased p-STAT1 and p-STAT3 levels in EECs, but reduced TRAF3 levels. In addition, IFN-τ increased expression of BoLA-I and IL-10, but decreased expression of IL-6 in EECs. These results indicate that IFN-τ enables stable implantation in dairy cows by increasing expression of BoLA-I, and by immunosuppression mediated by increased IL-10 and decreased IL-6 expression. PMID:29221114

  2. Reducing radiation exposure during CRT implant procedures: early experience with a sensor-based navigation system.

    PubMed

    Thibault, Bernard; Andrade, Jason G; Dubuc, Marc; Talajic, Mario; Guerra, Peter G; Dyrda, Katia; Macle, Laurent; Rivard, Léna; Roy, Denis; Mondésert, Blandine; Khairy, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) implant procedures are often complex and prolonged, resulting in significant ionizing radiation (IR) exposure to the patient and operator. We report our early experience working with a novel sensor-based electromagnetic tracking system (MediGuide™, MDG, St. Jude Medical Inc., St. Paul, MN, USA), in terms of procedural IR exposure reduction. Information regarding patient demographics, procedural details, procedural duration, and IR exposure were prospectively collected on 130 consecutive CRT procedures performed between January 2013 and January 2014. Sixty procedures were performed with MDG guidance, and 70 were performed without MDG guidance. Despite a nonsignificant trend toward shorter procedure duration with the use of MDG (120 minutes vs 138 minutes with non-MDG, P = 0.088), a 66% reduction in total IR exposure (median 769 μGray · m(2) vs 2,608 μGray · m(2), P < 0.001) was found. This reduction was primarily driven by a >90% reduction in IR dose required to cannulate the coronary sinus (median 80 μGray · m(2) vs 922 μGray · m(2), P < 0.001), and to a lesser extent from a reduction in IR dose required for LV lead placement (median 330 μGray·m(2) vs 737 μGray · m(2), P = 0.059). In addition, a significant learning curve effect was observed with a significantly shorter procedural duration for the last 15 cases compared to the first 15 cases (median 98 minutes vs 175 minutes, P < 0.001). The nonfluoroscopic MDG positioning system is associated with a dramatic reduction in exposure to IR during CRT implant procedures, with a 90% decrease in the IR dose required to cannulate the coronary sinus. A steep learning curve was quantified. ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Feasibility of Using Elastic Wave Velocity Monitoring for Early Warning of Rainfall-Induced Slope Failure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yulong; Irfan, Muhammad; Uchimura, Taro; Zhang, Ke

    2018-03-27

    Rainfall-induced landslides are one of the most widespread slope instability phenomena posing a serious risk to public safety worldwide so that their temporal prediction is of great interest to establish effective warning systems. The objective of this study is to determine the effectiveness of elastic wave velocities in the surface layer of the slope in monitoring, prediction and early warning of landslide. The small-scale fixed and varied, and large-scale slope model tests were conducted. Analysis of the results has established that the elastic wave velocity continuously decreases in response of moisture content and deformation and there was a distinct surge in the decrease rate of wave velocity when failure was initiated. Based on the preliminary results of this analysis, the method using the change in elastic wave velocity proves superior for landslide early warning and suggests that a warning be issued at switch of wave velocity decrease rate.

  4. Feasibility of Using Elastic Wave Velocity Monitoring for Early Warning of Rainfall-Induced Slope Failure

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yulong; Irfan, Muhammad; Uchimura, Taro; Zhang, Ke

    2018-01-01

    Rainfall-induced landslides are one of the most widespread slope instability phenomena posing a serious risk to public safety worldwide so that their temporal prediction is of great interest to establish effective warning systems. The objective of this study is to determine the effectiveness of elastic wave velocities in the surface layer of the slope in monitoring, prediction and early warning of landslide. The small-scale fixed and varied, and large-scale slope model tests were conducted. Analysis of the results has established that the elastic wave velocity continuously decreases in response of moisture content and deformation and there was a distinct surge in the decrease rate of wave velocity when failure was initiated. Based on the preliminary results of this analysis, the method using the change in elastic wave velocity proves superior for landslide early warning and suggests that a warning be issued at switch of wave velocity decrease rate. PMID:29584699

  5. Basic concepts in metal work failure after metastatic spine tumour surgery.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Naresh; Patel, Ravish; Wadhwa, Anshuja Charvi; Kumar, Aravind; Milavec, Helena Maria; Sonawane, Dhiraj; Singh, Gurpal; Benneker, Lorin Michael

    2018-04-01

    The development of spinal implants marks a watershed in the evolution of metastatic spine tumour surgery (MSTS), which has evolved from standalone decompressive laminectomy to instrumented stabilization and decompression with reconstruction when necessary. Fusion may not be feasible after MSTS due to poor quality of graft host bed along with adjunct chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy postoperatively. With an increase in the survival of patients with spinal tumours, there is a probability of an increase in the rate of implant failure. This review aims to help establish a clear understanding of implants/constructs used in MSTS and to highlight the fundamental biomechanics of implant/construct failures. Published literature on implant failure after spine surgery and MSTS has been reviewed. The evolution of spinal implants and their role in MSTS has been briefly described. The review defines implant/construct failures using radiological parameters that are practical, feasible, and derived from historical descriptions. We have discussed common modes of implant/construct failure after MSTS to allow further understanding, interception, and prevention of catastrophic failure. Implant failure rates in MSTS are in the range of 2-8%. Variability in patterns of failure has been observed based on anatomical region and the type of constructs used. Patients with construct/implant failures may or may not be symptomatic and present either as early (< 3months) or late failures (> 3months). It has been noted that not all the implant failures after MSTS result in revisions. Based on the observed radiological criteria and clinical presentations, we have proposed a clinico-radiological classification for implant/construct failure after MSTS.

  6. Continuous ambulatory right heart pressure measurements with an implantable hemodynamic monitor: a multicenter, 12-month follow-up study of patients with chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Magalski, Anthony; Adamson, Philip; Gadler, Frederick; Böehm, Michael; Steinhaus, David; Reynolds, Dwight; Vlach, Kathryn; Linde, Cecilia; Cremers, Bodo; Sparks, Brandon; Bennett, Tom

    2002-04-01

    We describe the performance of an implantable hemodynamic monitor (IHM) that allows continuous recording of heart rate, patient activity levels, and right ventricular systolic, right ventricular diastolic, and estimated pulmonary artery diastolic pressures. Pressure parameters derived from the implantable monitor were correlated to measurements made with a balloon-tipped catheter to establish accuracy and reproducibility over time in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). IHM devices were implanted in 32 patients with CHF (left ventricular ejection fraction, 29% +/- 11%; range, 14%-62%) and were tested with right heart catheterization at implantation and 3, 6, and 12 months later. Hemodynamic variables were digitally recorded simultaneously from the IHM and catheter. Values were recorded during supine rest, peak response of Valsalva maneuver, sitting, peak of a 2-stage (25-50 W) bicycle exercise test, and final rest period. The median of 21 paired beat-to-beat cardiac cycles was analyzed for each intervention. A total of 217 paired data values from all maneuvers were analyzed for 32 patients at implantation and 129 paired data values for 20 patients at 1 year. The IHM and catheter values were not different at baseline or at 1 year (P >.05). Combining all interventions, correlation coefficients were 0.96 and 0.94 for right ventricular systolic pressure, 0.96 and 0.83 for right ventricular diastolic pressure, and 0.87 and 0.87 for estimated pulmonary artery diastolic pressure at implantation and 1 year, respectively. The IHM and a standard reference pressure system recorded comparable right heart pressure values in patients with CHF. This implantable pressure transducer is accurate over time and provides a means to precisely monitor the hemodynamic condition of patients with CHF in a continuous fashion.

  7. [Study on the factors impacting on early cochlear implantation between the eastern and western region of China].

    PubMed

    Xiao, Hanqiong; Li, Wei; Ma, Ruixia; Gong, Zhengpeng; Shi, Haibo; Li, Huawei; Chen, Bing; Jiang, Ye; Dai, Chunfu

    2015-06-01

    To describe tne regional different factors which impact on early cochlear implantation in prelingual deaf children between eastern and western regions of China. The charts of 113 children who received the cochlear implantation after 24 months old were reviewed and analyzed. Forty-five of them came from the eastern region (Jiangsu, Zhejiang or Shanghai) while 68 of them came from the western region (Ningxia or Guizhou). Parental interviews were conducted to collect information regarding the factors that impact on early cochlear implantation. Result:Based on the univariate logistic regression analysis, the odds ratio (OR) value of universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) was 5. 481, which indicated the correlation of UNHS with early cochlear implantation is significant. There was statistical difference between the 2 groups (P<0. 01). For the financial burden, the OR value was 3. 521(strong correlation) and there was statistical difference between the 2 groups (P<0. 01). For the communication barriers and community location, the OR value was 0. 566 and 1. 128 respectively, and there was no statistical difference between the 2 groups (P>0. 05). The multivariate analysis indicated that the UNHS and financial burden are statistically different between the eastern and western regions (P=0. 00 and 0. 040 respectively). The UNHS and financial burden are statistically different between the eastern reinforced in the western region. In addition, the government and society should provide powerful policy and more financial support in the western region of China. The innovation of management system is also helpful to the early cochlear implantation.

  8. Failures and complications in patients with birth defects restored with fixed dental prostheses and single crowns on teeth and/or implants.

    PubMed

    Krieger, Oliver; Matuliene, Giedre; Hüsler, Jürg; Salvi, Giovanni E; Pjetursson, Bjarni; Brägger, Urs

    2009-08-01

    To assess retrospectively, over at least 5 years, the incidences of technical and biological complications and failures in young adult patients with birth defects affecting the formation of teeth. All insurance cases with a birth defect that had crowns and fixed dental prostheses (FDPs) inserted more than 5 years ago were contacted and asked to participate in a reexamination. The median age of the patients was 19.3 years (range 16.6-24.7 years) when prosthetic treatment was initiated. Over the median observation period of 15.7 years (range 7.4-24.9 years) and considering the treatment needs at the reexamination, 19 out of 33 patients (58%) with reconstructions on teeth remained free from all failures or complications. From the patients with FDPs and single unit crowns (SCs) on implants followed over a median observation period of 8 years (range 4.6-15.3 years), eight out of 17% or 47% needed a retreatment or repair at some point due to a failure or a complication. From the three groups of patients, the cases with amelogenesis/dentinogenesis imperfecta demonstrated the highest failure and complication rates. In the cases with cleft lip, alveolus and palate (CLAP) or hypodontia/oligodontia, 71% of the SCs and 73% of the FDPs on teeth (FDP T) remained complication free over a median observation period of about 16 years. Sixty-two percent of the SCs and 64% of the FDPs on implants remained complication free over 8 years. Complications occurred earlier with implant-supported reconstructions. Because healthy, pristine teeth can be left unprepared, implant-supported SCs and FDPs are the treatment choice in young adults with birth defects resulting in tooth agenesis and in whom the edentulous spaces cannot be closed by means of orthodontic therapy. However, the trend for earlier and more frequent complications with implant-supported reconstructions in young adults, expecting many years of function with the reconstructions, has to be weighed against the benefits of keeping

  9. Early Postimplant Speech Perception and Language Skills Predict Long-Term Language and Neurocognitive Outcomes Following Pediatric Cochlear Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Kronenberger, William G.; Castellanos, Irina; Pisoni, David B.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose We sought to determine whether speech perception and language skills measured early after cochlear implantation in children who are deaf, and early postimplant growth in speech perception and language skills, predict long-term speech perception, language, and neurocognitive outcomes. Method Thirty-six long-term users of cochlear implants, implanted at an average age of 3.4 years, completed measures of speech perception, language, and executive functioning an average of 14.4 years postimplantation. Speech perception and language skills measured in the 1st and 2nd years postimplantation and open-set word recognition measured in the 3rd and 4th years postimplantation were obtained from a research database in order to assess predictive relations with long-term outcomes. Results Speech perception and language skills at 6 and 18 months postimplantation were correlated with long-term outcomes for language, verbal working memory, and parent-reported executive functioning. Open-set word recognition was correlated with early speech perception and language skills and long-term speech perception and language outcomes. Hierarchical regressions showed that early speech perception and language skills at 6 months postimplantation and growth in these skills from 6 to 18 months both accounted for substantial variance in long-term outcomes for language and verbal working memory that was not explained by conventional demographic and hearing factors. Conclusion Speech perception and language skills measured very early postimplantation, and early postimplant growth in speech perception and language, may be clinically relevant markers of long-term language and neurocognitive outcomes in users of cochlear implants. Supplemental materials https://doi.org/10.23641/asha.5216200 PMID:28724130

  10. Early Shear Failure Prediction in Incremental Sheet Forming Process Using FEM and ANN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moayedfar, Majid; Hanaei, Hengameh; Majdi Rani, Ahmad; Musa, Mohd Azam Bin; Sadegh Momeni, Mohammad

    2018-03-01

    The application of incremental sheet forming process as a rapid forming technique is rising in variety of industries such as aerospace, automotive and biomechanical purposes. However, the sheet failure is a big challenge in this process which leads wasting lots of materials. Hence, this study tried to propose a method to predict the early sheet failure in this process using mathematical solution. For the feasibility of the study, design of experiment with the respond surface method is employed to extract a set of experiments data for the simulation. The significant forming parameters were recognized and their integration was used for prediction system. Then, the results were inserted to the artificial neural network as input parameters to predict a vast range of applicable parameters avoiding sheet failure in ISF. The value of accuracy R2 ∼0.93 was obtained and the maximum sheet stretch in the depth of 25mm were recorded. The figures generate from the trend of interaction between effective parameters were provided for future studies.

  11. Distant failure prediction for early stage NSCLC by analyzing PET with sparse representation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Hongxia; Zhou, Zhiguo; Wang, Jing

    2017-03-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been widely explored for treatment outcome prediction. Radiomicsdriven methods provide a new insight to quantitatively explore underlying information from PET images. However, it is still a challenging problem to automatically extract clinically meaningful features for prognosis. In this work, we develop a PET-guided distant failure predictive model for early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients after stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) by using sparse representation. The proposed method does not need precalculated features and can learn intrinsically distinctive features contributing to classification of patients with distant failure. The proposed framework includes two main parts: 1) intra-tumor heterogeneity description; and 2) dictionary pair learning based sparse representation. Tumor heterogeneity is initially captured through anisotropic kernel and represented as a set of concatenated vectors, which forms the sample gallery. Then, given a test tumor image, its identity (i.e., distant failure or not) is classified by applying the dictionary pair learning based sparse representation. We evaluate the proposed approach on 48 NSCLC patients treated by SABR at our institute. Experimental results show that the proposed approach can achieve an area under the characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.70 with a sensitivity of 69.87% and a specificity of 69.51% using a five-fold cross validation.

  12. [Heart rate control in chronic heart failure patients received cardiovascular implantable electronic device therapy: effects of optimized medication].

    PubMed

    Gao, Y; Liang, Y C; Yu, H B; Yan, X L; Xu, B G; Liu, R; Wang, N; Xu, G Q; Wang, Z L

    2018-03-24

    Objective: To investigate the heart rate control situation of chronic heart failure (CHF) patients who received cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) therapy, and to assess the heart rate control efficacy by optimized medication adjustment. Methods: We performed a perspective study in heart failure with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (HFrEF) patients who received CIED according to guideline recommendations, patients were enrolled from January 2012 to January 2017. Resting heart rate (RHR) recorded by electrocardiogram after 10 minutes' rest and medication usage within 1 month were recorded at baseline. RHR less than 70 beats per minute (bpm) was regarded as well controlled. β-receptor blockers and (or) ivabradine would be added in patients whose RHR were over 70 bpm. RHR after optimized medication adjustment was recorded during follow-up period. Results: One hundred and fifty patients were included in this study with average RHR (80.6±11.9) bpm. RHR was<70 bpm in 27.3% (41/150) patients at baseline and β-receptor blockers was underused in 80.7% patients (88/109) whose RHR was>70 bpm. The overall RHR decreased to (73.1±10.4) bpm and percent of patients with RHR<70 bpm increased to 70.0% (105/150) after up-titration of β-receptor blockers compared to baseline (χ 2 =52.958, P< 0.001). Ivabradine was added in the rest 45 patients and RHR was<70 bpm in 43 out of 45 patients after ivabradine use. The overall RHR decreased to (67.1±2.7) bpm and percent of RHR<70 bpm significantly increased to 98.7% (148/150) (χ 2 =44.504, P< 0.001 vs. up-titration of β-receptor blockers only). Conclusion: RHR in CHF patients who received CIED therapy is not ideally controlled in this patient cohort, individual up-titration ofβ-receptor blockers and ivabradine use may help to optimize RHR in these patients.

  13. Slope Failure Prediction and Early Warning Awareness Education for Reducing Landslides Casualty in Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koay, S. P.; Tay, L. T.; Fukuoka, H.; Koyama, T.; Sakai, N.; Jamaludin, S. B.; Lateh, H.

    2015-12-01

    Northeast monsoon causes heavy rain in east coast of Peninsular Malaysia from November to March, every year. During this monsoon period, besides the happening of flood along east coast, landslides also causes millions of Malaysian Ringgit economical losses. Hence, it is essential to study the prediction of slope failure to prevent the casualty of landslides happening. In our study, we introduce prediction method of the accumulated rainfall affecting the stability of the slope. If the curve, in the graph, which is presented by rainfall intensity versus accumulated rainfall, crosses over the critical line, the condition of the slope is considered in high risk where the data are calculated and sent from rain gauge in the site via internet. If the possibility of slope failure is going high, the alert message will be sent out to the authorities for decision making on road block or setting the warning light at the road side. Besides road block and warning light, we propose to disseminate short message, to pre-registered mobile phone user, to notify the public for easing the traffic jam and avoiding unnecessary public panic. Prediction is not enough to prevent the casualty. Early warning awareness of the public is very important to reduce the casualty of landslides happening. IT technology does not only play a main role in disseminating information, early warning awareness education, by using IT technology, should be conducted, in schools, to give early warning awareness on natural hazard since childhood. Knowing the pass history on landslides occurrence will gain experience on the landslides happening. Landslides historical events with coordinate information are stored in database. The public can browse these historical events via internet. By referring to such historical landslides events, the public may know where did landslides happen before and the possibility of slope failure occurrence again is considered high. Simulation of rainfall induced slope failure mechanism

  14. Effect of Clopidogrel on Early Failure of Arteriovenous Fistulas for Hemodialysis

    PubMed Central

    Dember, Laura M.; Beck, Gerald J.; Allon, Michael; Delmez, James A.; Dixon, Bradley S.; Greenberg, Arthur; Himmelfarb, Jonathan; Vazquez, Miguel A.; Gassman, Jennifer J.; Greene, Tom; Radeva, Milena K.; Braden, Gregory L.; Ikizler, T. Alp; Rocco, Michael V.; Davidson, Ingemar J.; Kaufman, James S.; Meyers, Catherine M.; Kusek, John W.; Feldman, Harold I.

    2016-01-01

    Context The arteriovenous fistula is the preferred type of vascular access for hemodialysis because of lower thrombosis and infection rates and lower health care expenditures compared with synthetic grafts or central venous catheters. Early failure of fistulas due to thrombosis or inadequate maturation is a barrier to increasing the prevalence of fistulas among patients treated with hemodialysis. Small, inconclusive trials have suggested that antiplatelet agents may reduce thrombosis of new fistulas. Objective To determine whether clopidogrel reduces early failure of hemodialysis fistulas. Design, Setting, and Participants Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted at 9 US centers composed of academic and community nephrology practices in 2003–2007. Eight hundred seventy-seven participants with end-stage renal disease or advanced chronic kidney disease were followed up until 150 to 180 days after fistula creation or 30 days after initiation of dialysis, whichever occurred later. Intervention Participants were randomly assigned to receive clopidogrel (300-mg loading dose followed by daily dose of 75 mg; n = 441) or placebo (n = 436) for 6 weeks starting within 1 day after fistula creation. Main Outcome Measures The primary outcome was fistula thrombosis, determined by physical examination at 6 weeks. The secondary outcome was failure of the fistula to become suitable for dialysis. Suitability was defined as use of the fistula at a dialysis machine blood pump rate of 300 mL/min or more during 8 of 12 dialysis sessions. Results Enrollment was stopped after 877 participants were randomized based on a stopping rule for intervention efficacy. Fistula thrombosis occurred in 53 (12.2%) participants assigned to clopidogrel compared with 84 (19.5%) participants assigned to placebo (relative risk, 0.63; 95% confidence interval, 0.46–0.97; P = .018). Failure to attain suitability for dialysis did not differ between the clopidogrel and placebo groups (61

  15. Interaction between shock coils increased the incidence of inappropriate therapies and lead failure in implantable cardioverter defibrillator.

    PubMed

    El Garhy, Mohammad; Ohlow, Marc-Alexander; Lauer, Bernward

    Shock coil interaction in patients with multiple implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) leads is occasionally observed. We aimed to evaluate the incidence of shock coil interaction and its clinical relevance. All ICD patients (646 patients) who came to follow up control in our ICD ambulance between January 1, 2011, and December 31, 2011 in the department of cardiology in Bad Berka hospital were retrospectively evaluated in this study. All baseline demographic, clinical, and procedural characteristics and postoperative chest x ray in postero-anterior and lateral view as well as clinical and ICD follow up data were evaluated. Among 646 patients 42 had multiple ICD leads (6.5%) of whom 36 patients (5.5% of total cohort patients and 85.7% of patients with multiple ICD leads) had shock coil interaction and presented the study group (Group I). The control group (Group II) consisted of 610 patients without coil-coil interaction including patients with single shock lead (604 patients) or patients with multiple leads but without interaction between shock coils (6 patients). Inappropriate anti-tachycardia therapies and RV lead revisions were more frequent in patients with interaction between shock coils (Group I vs Group II: 27.7% and 5.7%; p = 0.049 and 30.6% vs 6.4; p = 0.0001, respectively). Interaction between shock coils may be one of possible causes of lead failure and resulted in inappropriate therapies and subsequent lead revision. Copyright © 2018 Indian Heart Rhythm Society. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A review of economic evaluation models for cardiac resynchronization therapy with implantable cardioverter defibrillators in patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Tomini, F; Prinzen, F; van Asselt, A D I

    2016-12-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy with a biventricular pacemaker (CRT-P) is an effective treatment for dyssynchronous heart failure (DHF). Adding an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (CRT-D) may further reduce the risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). However, if the majority of patients do not require shock therapy, the cost-effectiveness ratio of CRT-D compared to CRT-P may be high. The objective of this study was to systematically review decision models evaluating the cost-effectiveness of CRT-D for patients with DHF, compare the structure and inputs of these models and identify the main factors influencing the ICERs for CRT-D. A comprehensive search strategy of Medline (Ovid), Embase (Ovid) and EconLit identified eight cost-effectiveness models evaluating CRT-D against optimal pharmacological therapy (OPT) and/or CRT-P. The selected economic studies differed in terms of model structure, treatment path, time horizons, and sources of efficacy data. CRT-D was found cost-effective when compared to OPT but its cost-effectiveness became questionable when compared to CRT-P. Cost-effectiveness of CRT-D may increase depending on improvement of all-cause mortality rates and HF mortality rates in patients who receive CRT-D, costs of the device, and battery life. In particular, future studies need to investigate longer-term mortality rates and identify CRT-P patients that will gain the most, in terms of life expectancy, from being treated with a CRT-D.

  17. The relationship between early biochemical failure and perineural invasion in pathological T2 prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Endrizzi, J; Seay, T

    2000-04-01

    To evaluate, in patients with pathologically localized prostate cancer, the relationship between early biochemical failure, i.e. an increasing prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level, and perineural invasion (PNI) on final pathology. The records were reviewed of 171 patients with prostate cancer who underwent prostatectomy at one institution between January 1992 and December 1995. Data on the histology, therapy and PSA level were collected and evaluated. Of the 171 patients with pathologically localized (pT2) prostate cancer, 131 were evaluable; 17 (13%) had a detectable PSA level in the first 5 years after surgery and 63 had PNI in the pathological specimen. Of those with PSA recurrence, 14 had PNI, one had no PNI and in two there was no comment on PNI. In comparison, only 10 of the 17 patients with recurrence had a Gleason sum of >/= 7. Perineural invasion seems to be an important predictor of early outcome in patients with organ-confined prostate cancer treated by prostatectomy. In this series it was the most sensitive predictor of biochemical failure. A more detailed pathological evaluation of prostate cancer may allow the clinician to provide closer surveillance and better informed clinical decision-making.

  18. The early indicators of financial failure: a study of bankrupt and solvent health systems.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Joseph S; Singh, Sher G

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a series of pertinent predictors of financial failure based on analysis of solvent and bankrupt health systems to identify which financial measures show the clearest distinction between success and failure. Early warning signals are evident from the longitudinal analysis as early as five years before bankruptcy. The data source includes seven years of annual statements filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission by 13 health systems before they filed bankruptcy. Comparative data were compiled from five solvent health systems for the same seven-year period. Seven financial solvency ratios are included in this study, including four cash liquidity measures, two leverage measures, and one efficiency measure. The results show distinct financial trends between solvent and bankrupt health systems, in particular for the operating-cash-flow-related measures, namely Ratio 1: Operating Cash Flow Percentage Change, from prior to current period; Ratio 2: Operating Cash Flow to Net Revenues; and Ratio 4: Cash Flow to Total Liabilities, indicating sensitivity in the hospital industry to cash flow management. The high dependence on credit from third-party payers is cited as a reason for this; thus, there is a great need for cash to fund operations. Five managerial policy implications are provided to help health system managers avoid financial solvency problems in the future.

  19. Inversion Method for Early Detection of ARES-1 Case Breach Failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackey, Ryan M.; Kulikov, Igor K.; Bajwa, Anupa; Berg, Peter; Smelyanskiy, Vadim

    2010-01-01

    A document describes research into the problem of detecting a case breach formation at an early stage of a rocket flight. An inversion algorithm for case breach allocation is proposed and analyzed. It is shown how the case breach can be allocated at an early stage of its development by using the rocket sensor data and the output data from the control block of the rocket navigation system. The results are simulated with MATLAB/Simulink software. The efficiency of an inversion algorithm for a case breach location is discussed. The research was devoted to the analysis of the ARES-l flight during the first 120 seconds after the launch and early prediction of case breach failure. During this time, the rocket is propelled by its first-stage Solid Rocket Booster (SRB). If a breach appears in SRB case, the gases escaping through it will produce the (side) thrust directed perpendicular to the rocket axis. The side thrust creates torque influencing the rocket attitude. The ARES-l control system will compensate for the side thrust until it reaches some critical value, after which the flight will be uncontrollable. The objective of this work was to obtain the start time of case breach development and its location using the rocket inertial navigation sensors and GNC data. The algorithm was effective for the detection and location of a breach in an SRB field joint at an early stage of its development.

  20. Altered LV inotropic reserve and mechanoenergetics early in the development of heart failure.

    PubMed

    Prabhu, S D; Freeman, G L

    2000-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that alterations in left ventricular (LV) mechanoenergetics and the LV inotropic response to afterload manifest early in the evolution of heart failure, we examined six anesthetized dogs instrumented with LV micromanometers, piezoelectric crystals, and coronary sinus catheters before and after 24 h of rapid ventricular pacing (RVP). After autonomic blockade, the end-systolic pressure-volume relation (ESPVR), myocardial O(2) consumption (MVO(2)), and LV pressure-volume area (PVA) were defined at several different afterloads produced by graded infusions of phenylephrine. Short-term RVP resulted in reduced preload with proportionate reductions in stroke work and the maximum first derivative of LV pressure but with no significant reduction in baseline LV contractile state. In response to increased afterload, the baseline ESPVR shifted to the left with maintained end-systolic elastance (E(es)). In contrast, after short-term RVP, in response to comparable increases in afterload, the ESPVR displayed reduced E(es) (P < 0.05) and significantly less leftward shift compared with control (P < 0.05). Compared with the control MVO(2)-PVA relation, short-term RVP significantly increased the MVO(2) intercept (P < 0.05) with no change in slope. These results indicate that short-term RVP produces attenuation of afterload-induced enhancement of LV performance and increases energy consumption for nonmechanical processes with maintenance of contractile efficiency, suggesting that early in the development of tachycardia heart failure, there is blunting of length-dependent activation and increased O(2) requirements for excitation-contraction coupling, basal metabolism, or both. Rather than being adaptive mechanisms, these abnormalities may be primary defects involved in the progression of the heart failure phenotype.

  1. Stability of implants placed in fresh sockets versus healed alveolar sites: Early findings.

    PubMed

    Gehrke, Sergio Alexandre; da Silva Neto, Ulisses Tavares; Rossetti, Paulo Henrique Orlato; Watinaga, Sidney Eiji; Giro, Gabriela; Shibli, Jamil Awad

    2016-05-01

    The present study measured implant stability quotient (ISQ) values at three different time points after surgical procedures to compare whether the stability values differed between implants placed in fresh extraction sockets versus healed alveolar sites. To measure implant stability, resonance frequency analysis (RFA) was performed in 77 patients (53 women, 24 men) with a total of 120 dental implants. These implants were divided into two groups: Group 1 included 60 implants in healed alveolar sites (22 in the maxilla, 38 in the mandible), and Group 2 included 60 implants in fresh sockets (41 in the maxilla, 19 in the mandible). Implant stability was measured immediately at implant placement (baseline), 90, and 150 days later. Statistical analysis was made using a multivariate regression linear model at implant level (α = 0.05). Overall, the means and standard deviations of the ISQ values were 62.7 ± 7.14 (95% confidence interval [CI], 39-88) at baseline, 70.0 ± 6.22 (95% CI, 46-88) at 90 days, and 73.4 ± 5.84 (95% CI, 58-88) at 150 days. In Group 1, the ISQs ranged between 64.3 ± 6.20 and 75.0 ± 5.69, while in Group 2, presented lower values that ranged between 61.2 ± 8.09 and 71.9 ± 5.99 (P = 0.002). Anatomic location and times periods were the only identified variables with an influence on ISQ values at implant level (P < 0.0001). The stabilities of the implants placed in the fresh sockets and in healed sites exhibited similar evolutions in ISQ values and thus osseointegration; however, the implants in the healed alveolar sites exhibited superior values at all time points. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. A Failure of Left Temporal Cortex to Specialize for Language Is an Early Emerging and Fundamental Property of Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eyler, Lisa T.; Pierce, Karen; Courchesne, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Failure to develop normal language comprehension is an early warning sign of autism, but the neural mechanisms underlying this signature deficit are unknown. This is because of an almost complete absence of functional studies of the autistic brain during early development. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we previously observed a trend…

  3. Does the presence of a Caesarean section scar affect implantation site and early pregnancy outcome in women attending an early pregnancy assessment unit?

    PubMed

    Naji, O; Wynants, L; Smith, A; Abdallah, Y; Saso, S; Stalder, C; Van Huffel, S; Ghaem-Maghami, S; Van Calster, B; Timmerman, D; Bourne, T

    2013-06-01

    Are there any differences in the location and distance to the internal cervical ostium of the implantation site of the intrauterine gestation sacs, early pregnancy symptoms and pregnancy outcome at 12 weeks gestation between women with and without a previous Caesarean section (CS)? The presence of a CS scar affects the site of implantation, and the distance between implantation site and the scar is related to the risk of spontaneous abortion. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY?: Little is known about the impact of a CS scar on implantation other than the risk of Caesarean scar pregnancy (CSP). Furthermore, there is a paucity of information on how the proximity of implantation to the scar impacts on pregnancy outcome in the first trimester. A prospective cohort study conducted over 15 months in the early pregnancy unit of a London Teaching Hospital. Three hundred and eighty women underwent a transvaginal scan at 6-11 weeks of gestation. A total of 170 women had undergone ≥1 CS, and 210 women had no history of CS. The 380 women were recruited as consecutive non-selected cases. The relationship between the implanted sac and the CS scar was assessed by quantifiable measures and by subjective impression. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the influence of the presence of a CS scar on pregnancy outcome. The final outcome of the study was the viability of the pregnancy at 12 weeks. Implantation was most frequently posterior (53%) in the CS group and fundal in the non-CS group (42%). Gestation sac implantation was 8.7 mm lower in the CS group (95% confidence interval (CI) 6.7-10.7, P < 0.0001). Presenting complaints differed in women with and without a previous CS (P = 0.0009). More frequent vaginal bleeding [73 versus 55%, difference -18, 95% CI (-27 to -8%] yet no clearly increased spontaneous abortion rates were noted in the CS group compared with the non-CS group (adjusted odds ratio = 1.1, 95% CI 0.6-1.9, P = 0.74). Subjective impression showed that in eight

  4. Oral Effects and Early Implant Survival Results After Imatinib Discontinuation Therapy for Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Douglas R; Yassin, Alaa

    2017-08-01

    Little is known regarding the success, failure, or complication rates of advanced implant procedures in patients after discontinuation therapy of long-term medications for the treatment of chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). This case report presents initial results of a case involving implant placement in the mandible and maxilla as well as reduction of palatal oral pigmentation in a patient discontinuing long-term tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy for CML. A 57-year-old male was referred to the Department of Periodontics, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, for an assessment of edentulous areas (tooth sites #3 and #14) and failing tooth #19. Previous medical treatment included oral administration (>10 years) of TKI for the treatment of CML. Systemic complications arising from long-term TKI therapy were treated with discontinuation of this medication. Concurrently, after multispecialty dental and medical consultation, extraction of tooth #19 with immediate implant placement and bilateral sinus augmentation with simultaneous implant placement were successfully performed during three separate surgical appointments. Additionally, marked reduction of oral palatal pigmentation was observed during the surgical and restorative phases after TKI discontinuation. Patients with a history of long-term TKIs for CML are at risk for developing complications that result in discontinuation of therapy. Long-term benefits of therapy may allow these patients to enjoy remission with an extended and improved quality of life. Patients undergoing discontinuation therapy may seek dental care. Therefore, dental providers need to understand these systemic interactions and, with multispecialty consultation, may help effectively treat these individuals.

  5. Predicting distant failure in early stage NSCLC treated with SBRT using clinical parameters.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhiguo; Folkert, Michael; Cannon, Nathan; Iyengar, Puneeth; Westover, Kenneth; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Choy, Hak; Timmerman, Robert; Yan, Jingsheng; Xie, Xian-J; Jiang, Steve; Wang, Jing

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study is to predict early distant failure in early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) treated with stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) using clinical parameters by machine learning algorithms. The dataset used in this work includes 81 early stage NSCLC patients with at least 6months of follow-up who underwent SBRT between 2006 and 2012 at a single institution. The clinical parameters (n=18) for each patient include demographic parameters, tumor characteristics, treatment fraction schemes, and pretreatment medications. Three predictive models were constructed based on different machine learning algorithms: (1) artificial neural network (ANN), (2) logistic regression (LR) and (3) support vector machine (SVM). Furthermore, to select an optimal clinical parameter set for the model construction, three strategies were adopted: (1) clonal selection algorithm (CSA) based selection strategy; (2) sequential forward selection (SFS) method; and (3) statistical analysis (SA) based strategy. 5-cross-validation is used to validate the performance of each predictive model. The accuracy was assessed by area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC), sensitivity and specificity of the system was also evaluated. The AUCs for ANN, LR and SVM were 0.75, 0.73, and 0.80, respectively. The sensitivity values for ANN, LR and SVM were 71.2%, 72.9% and 83.1%, while the specificity values for ANN, LR and SVM were 59.1%, 63.6% and 63.6%, respectively. Meanwhile, the CSA based strategy outperformed SFS and SA in terms of AUC, sensitivity and specificity. Based on clinical parameters, the SVM with the CSA optimal parameter set selection strategy achieves better performance than other strategies for predicting distant failure in lung SBRT patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Chemotherapy drug extravasation in totally implantable venous access port systems: how effective is early surgical lavage?

    PubMed

    Azaïs, Henri; Bresson, Lucie; Bassil, Alfred; Katdare, Ninad; Merlot, Benjamin; Houpeau, Jean-Louis; El Bedoui, Sophie; Meurant, Jean-Pierre; Tresch, Emmanuelle; Narducci, Fabrice

    2015-01-01

    Totally implantable venous access port systems (TIVAPS) are a widely used and an essential tool in the efficient delivery of chemotherapy. Chemotherapy drug extravasation (CDE) can have dire consequences and will delay treatment. The purpose of this study is to both clarify the management of CDE and show the effectiveness of early surgical lavage (ESL). Patients who had presented to the Cancer Center of Lille (France) with TIVAPS inserted between January 2004 and April 2013 and CDE had their medical records reviewed retrospectively. Thirty patients and 33 events were analyzed. Implicated agents were vesicants (51.5%), irritants (45.5%) and non-vesicants (3%). Huber needle malpositionning was involved in 27 cases. Surgery was performed in 97% of cases, 87.5% of which were for ESL with 53.1% of the latter requiring TIVAPS extraction. Six patients required a second intervention due to adverse outcomes (severe cases). Vesicants were found to be implicated in four out of six severe cases and oxaliplatin in two others. Extravasated volume was above 50 ml in 80% of cases. Only one patient required a skin graft. CDEs should be managed in specialized centers. ESL allows for limited tissue contact of the chemotherapy drug whilst using a simple, widely accessible technique. The two main factors that correlate with adverse outcome seem to be the nature of the implicated agent (vesicants) and the extravasated volume (above 50 ml) leading to worse outcomes. Oxaliplatin should be considered as a vesicant.

  7. Drilling dimension effects in early stages of osseointegration and implant stability in a canine model

    PubMed Central

    Baires-Campos, Felipe-Eduardo; Jimbo, Ryo; Fonseca-Oliveira, Maiolino-Thomaz; Moura, Camila; Zanetta-Barbosa, Darceny; Coelho, Paulo-Guilherme

    2015-01-01

    Background This study histologically evaluated two implant designs: a classic thread design versus another specifically designed for healing chamber formation placed with two drilling protocols. Material and Methods Forty dental implants (4.1 mm diameter) with two different macrogeometries were inserted in the tibia of 10 Beagle dogs, and maximum insertion torque was recorded. Drilling techniques were: until 3.75 mm (regular-group); and until 4.0 mm diameter (overdrilling-group) for both implant designs. At 2 and 4 weeks, samples were retrieved and processed for histomorphometric analysis. For torque and BIC (bone-to-implant contact) and BAFO (bone area fraction occupied), a general-linear model was employed including instrumentation technique and time in vivo as independent. Results The insertion torque recorded for each implant design and drilling group significantly decreased as a function of increasing drilling diameter for both implant designs (p<0.001). No significant differences were detected between implant designs for each drilling technique (p>0.18). A significant increase in BIC was observed from 2 to 4 weeks for both implants placed with the overdrilling technique (p<0.03) only, but not for those placed in the 3.75 mm drilling sites (p>0.32). Conclusions Despite the differences between implant designs and drilling technique an intramembranous-like healing mode with newly formed woven bone prevailed. Key words: Histomorphometry, biomechanical, in vivo, initial stability, insertion torque, osseointegration. PMID:25858087

  8. Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation using a double-lumen bi-caval cannula for severe respiratory failure post total artificial heart implantation.

    PubMed

    Miessau, J; Yang, Q; Unai, S; Entwistle, J W C; Cavarocchi, N C; Hirose, H

    2015-07-01

    We report a unique utilization of a double-lumen, bi-caval Avalon cannula for veno-venous (VV) extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) during placement of a total artificial heart (TAH, SynCardia, Tucson, AZ). A 22-year-old female with post-partum cardiomyopathy was rescued on veno-arterial (VA) ECMO because of cardiogenic shock. The inability to wean ECMO necessitated implantation of the TAH as a bridge to transplant. In addition, the patient continued to have respiratory failure and concomitant VV ECMO was planned with the implant. During TAH implantation, the Avalon cannula was placed percutaneously from the right internal jugular vein into the inferior vena cava (IVC) under direct vision while the right atrium was open. During VV ECMO support, adequate flows on both ECMO and TAH were maintained without adverse events. VV ECMO was discontinued, without reopening the chest, once the patient's respiratory failure improved. However, the patient subsequently developed a profound respiratory acidosis and required VV ECMO for CO2 removal. The Avalon cannula was placed in the femoral vein to avoid accessing the internal jugular vein and risking damage to the TAH. The patient's oxygenation eventually improved and the cannula was removed at the bedside. The patient was supported for 22 days on VV ECMO and successfully weaned from the ventilator prior to her orthotropic heart transplantation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Marginal Bone Loss Around Early-Loaded SLA and SLActive Implants: Radiological Follow-Up Evaluation Up to 6.5 Years.

    PubMed

    Şener-Yamaner, Işil Damla; Yamaner, Gökhan; Sertgöz, Atilla; Çanakçi, Cenk Fatih; Özcan, Mutlu

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare marginal bone loss around early-loaded SLA and SLActive tissue-level implants (Straumann Dental Implants; Institut Straumann AG, Basel, Switzerland) after a mean of 81-month follow-up period. One hundred seven SLA and 68 SLActive implants were placed in 55 patients and loaded with final restoration after 8 and 3 weeks of healing time, respectively. Marginal bone loss around implants was determined radiographically at initial and after a mean observation time ranging between 20 and 81 months. The effect of location (mandible vs maxilla), smoking habit, sex, implant length and diameter, and the type of prosthesis on the marginal bone loss was evaluated. The overall cumulative survival rate was 98.2% being 99% for SLA implants and 97% for SLActive implants. After 20-month follow-up period, mean marginal bone loss values for the SLA and SLActive implants were 0.24 and 0.17 mm, respectively. After 81 months, mean marginal bone loss for the SLA and SLActive implants reached 0.71 and 0.53 mm, respectively. Marginal bone loss was affected by the length and type of implant and patients' smoking habit after a mean observation time of 20 months. However, none of the parameters had any significant effect on the marginal bone loss after a follow-up period of 81 months. With both SLA and SLActive implants, successful clinical results could be achieved up to 6.5 years of follow-up period.

  10. Screening and treatment for heritable thrombophilia in pregnancy failure: inconsistencies among UK early pregnancy units.

    PubMed

    Norrie, Gillian; Farquharson, Roy G; Greaves, Mike

    2009-01-01

    The significance of heritable thrombophilia in pregnancy failure is controversial. We surveyed all UK Early Pregnancy Units and 70% responded. The majority test routinely for heritable thrombophilias; 80%, 76% and 88% undertook at least one screening test in late miscarriage, recurrent miscarriage and placental abruption, respectively. The range of thrombophilias sought is inconsistent: testing for proteins C and S deficiency and F5 R506Q (factor V Leiden) is most prevalent. Detection of heritable thrombophilia frequently leads to administration of antithrombotics in subsequent pregnancies. Thus, thrombophilia testing and use of antithrombotics are widespread in the UK despite controversies regarding the role of heritable thrombophilia in the pathogenesis of pregnancy complications, and the lack of robust evidence for the efficacy of antithrombotic therapy.

  11. Evaluation of Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction with Early Systolic Dysfunction Using Two-Dimensional Speckle Tracking Echocardiography in Canine Heart Failure Model.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei-Chun; Ma, Hong; Xie, Rong-Ai; Gao, Li-Jian; Tang, Yue; Wang, Hao

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated the role of two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (2DSTE) for predicting left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction in pacing-induced canine heart failure. Pacing systems were implanted in 8 adult mongrel dogs, and continuous rapid right ventricular pacing (RVP, 240 beats/min) was maintained for 2 weeks. The obtained measurements from 2DSTE included global strain rate during early diastole (SRe) and during late diastole (SRa) in the longitudinal (L-SRe, L-SRa), circumferential (C-SRe, C-SRa), and radial directions (R-SRe, R-SRa). Changes in heart morphology were observed by light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy at 2 weeks. The onset of LV diastolic dysfunction with early systolic dysfunction occurred 3 days after RVP initiation. Most of the strain rate imaging indices were altered at 1 or 3 days after RVP onset and continued to worsen until heart failure developed. Light and transmission electron microscopy showed myocardial vacuolar degeneration and mitochondrial swelling in the left ventricular at 2 weeks after RVP onset. Pearson's correlation analysis revealed that parameters of conventional echocardiography and 2DSTE showed moderate correlation with LV pressure parameters, including E/Esep' (r = 0.58, P < 0.01), L-SRe (r = -0.58, P < 0.01), E/L-SRe (r = 0.65, P < 0.01), and R-SRe (r = 0.53, P < 0.01). ROC curves analysis showed that these indices of conventional echocardiography and strain rate imaging could effectively predict LV diastolic dysfunction (area under the curve: E/Esep' 0.78; L-SRe 0.84; E/L-SRe 0.80; R-SRe 0.80). 2DSTE was a sensitive and accurate technique that could be used for predicting LV diastolic dysfunction in canine heart failure model. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Quality of life and acceptability of medical versus surgical management of early pregnancy failure*

    PubMed Central

    Harwood, B; Nansel, T

    2008-01-01

    Objective This study compares quality of life (QOL) and acceptability of medical versus surgical treatment of early pregnancy failure (EPF). Design A randomised clinical trial of treatment for EPF compared misoprostol vaginally versus vacuum aspiration (VA). Setting A multisite trial at four US Urban University Hospitals. Population A total of 652 women with an EPF were randomised to treatment. Methods Participants completed a daily symptom diary and a questionnaire 2 weeks after treatment. Main outcome measures The questionnaire assessment included subscales of the Short Form-36 Health Survey Revised for QOL and measures of wellbeing, recovery difficulties, and treatment acceptability. Results The two groups did not differ in mean scores for QOL except bodily pain; medical treatment was associated with higher levels of bodily pain than VA (P < 0.001). Success of treatment was not related to QOL, but acceptability of the procedure was decreased for medical therapy if unsuccessful (P = 0.003). Type of treatment was not associated with differences in recovery, and the two groups reported similar acceptability except for cramping (P = 0.02), bleeding (P < 0.001), and symptom duration (P = 0.03). Conclusions Despite reporting greater pain and lower acceptability of treatment-related symptoms, QOL and treatment acceptability were similar for medical and surgical treatment of EPF. Acceptability, but not QOL, was influenced by success or failure of medical management. PMID:18271887

  13. Transient variations of transthoracic impedance as a predictor of heart failure and death in patients with implanted defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Mitrani, Raul D; Sager, Solomon J; Moscucci, Mauro; Cogan, John; Myerburg, Robert J

    2014-08-20

    Transient variations in physiological parameters may forewarn of life-threatening cardiac events, but are difficult to identify clinically. Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) designed to measure transthoracic impedance provide a surrogate marker for pulmonary congestion. The aim of this study is to determine if the frequency of changes in transthoracic impedance (TTI) is associated with congestive heart failure (CHF) exacerbation and predicts mortality. We followed 109 consecutive patients (pts) with ICDs (n=58) or CRT-ICDs (n=51) for a mean of 21.3 (+10.2) months. Using 80 ohm-days as a reference, we correlated the frequency of TTI changes above this index to CHF hospitalizations or death. There was at least one TTI threshold crossing in 79 (72%) pts over 23.3 months follow-up, with a mean of 1.8 ± 3.4 per year. There were 18 pts with CHF hospitalizations who had a mean of 4.3 TTI threshold crossings/year (S.D.=±7.3; median=2.8), compared to 1.3 (S.D.=±1.5; median=0.8) among pts without CHF hospitalizations (p=0.0006). Among 20 patients who died during follow-up, there were 4.2 (S.D.=±7.0; median=2.9) TTI threshold crossings/year, compared with 1.3 (S.D.=±1.3; median=0.9) threshold crossings/year among survivors (p=0.0004). Using Cox Proportional Hazard modeling, after adjusting for age, baseline EF, and number of shocks, TTI threshold crossing was an independent predictor of death (HR 1.72, 95% CI 1.26-2.36, p=0.001). Increased frequency of TTI threshold crossings may be a useful predictor of transient risk for identifying a subgroup of ICD recipients at greater individual risk for death or CHF hospitalizations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Left ventricular hypertrophy in ascending aortic stenosis mice: anoikis and the progression to early failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, B.; Price, R. L.; Goldsmith, E. C.; Borg, T. K.; Yan, X.; Douglas, P. S.; Weinberg, E. O.; Bartunek, J.; Thielen, T.; Didenko, V. V.; hide

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To determine potential mechanisms of the transition from hypertrophy to very early failure, we examined apoptosis in a model of ascending aortic stenosis (AS) in male FVB/n mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Compared with age-matched controls, 4-week and 7-week AS animals (n=12 to 16 per group) had increased ratios of left ventricular weight to body weight (4.7+/-0.7 versus 3.1+/-0.2 and 5. 7+/-0.4 versus 2.7+/-0.1 mg/g, respectively, P<0.05) with similar body weights. Myocyte width was also increased in 4-week and 7-week AS mice compared with controls (19.0+/-0.8 and 25.2+/-1.8 versus 14. 1+/-0.5 microm, respectively, P<0.01). By 7 weeks, AS myocytes displayed branching with distinct differences in intercalated disk size and staining for beta(1)-integrin on both cell surface and adjacent extracellular matrix. In vivo left ventricular systolic developed pressure per gram as well as endocardial fractional shortening were similar in 4-week AS and controls but depressed in 7-week AS mice. Myocyte apoptosis estimated by in situ nick end-labeling (TUNEL) was extremely rare in 4-week AS and control mice; however, a low prevalence of TUNEL-positive myocytes and DNA laddering were detected in 7-week AS mice. The specificity of TUNEL labeling was confirmed by in situ ligation of hairpin oligonucleotides. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that myocyte apoptosis develops during the transition from hypertrophy to early failure in mice with chronic biomechanical stress and support the hypothesis that the disruption of normal myocyte anchorage to adjacent extracellular matrix and cells, a process called anoikis, may signal apoptosis.

  15. Camouflage of a high-angle skeletal Class II open-bite malocclusion in an adult after mini-implant failure during treatment.

    PubMed

    Franzotti Sant'Anna, Eduardo; Carneiro da Cunha, Amanda; Paludo Brunetto, Daniel; Franzotti Sant'Anna, Claudia

    2017-03-01

    The treatment of skeletal anterior open-bite malocclusion requires complex orthodontic planning that considers its multifactorial etiology, treatment limitations, and high relapse rates. This case report illustrates a successful treatment approach for a skeletal high-angle Class II malocclusion in an adult with a severe open bite. The treatment consisted of a high-pull headgear therapy after mini-implants failure during fixed orthodontic therapy. Adequate esthetics and function were achieved. Despite its low probability, the unexpected event of mini-implant loosening during complex treatments should be considered. Therefore, classic orthodontic mechanics should be established, especially when treating patients for whom invasive procedures such as miniplates or orthognathic surgery are not available options. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Separation, failure and temporary relinquishment: women's experiences of early mothering in the context of emergency hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Elmir, Rakime; Schmied, Virginia; Wilkes, Lesley; Jackson, Debra

    2012-04-01

    To describe the experiences of women who have had an emergency hysterectomy following a severe postpartum haemorrhage and the impact on their early mothering experiences. Postpartum haemorrhage and subsequent hysterectomy is a traumatic birth event. Traumatic birth experiences have the potential to impact on a woman's experience of motherhood and her initial relationship with her baby. The relative rarity of this event makes it easy to dismiss the experiences of women having a hysterectomy following childbirth. Little is known about a woman's early mothering experience in the context of having an emergency hysterectomy. Qualitative naturalistic inquiry approach. Data were collected through semi-structured qualitative interviews from 21 Australian women who had an emergency hysterectomy following a severe postpartum haemorrhage. Findings revealed three themes in relation to early mothering experiences in the context of having a hysterectomy following a severe postpartum haemorrhage. They were 'initial separation: lost bonding time', 'feelings of failure' and 'relinquishing care of the infant'. This paper highlights the ways undergoing emergency hysterectomy following childbirth can impact on the experience of early mothering in the postnatal period. Greater recognition and attention to the specific needs of women who have an emergency hysterectomy following childbirth is required. Providing women with an opportunity to talk, debrief and ask questions related to their birthing experiences, will help women to reconcile their feelings. Giving women the opportunity to have their infants with them in intensive care unit, together with ongoing emotional support and anticipatory guidance, may also be useful approaches in assisting women during this difficult and traumatic time. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Phrenic Nerve Conduction Study in the Early Stage of Guillain-Barre Syndrome as a Predictor of Respiratory Failure.

    PubMed

    Sen, Barun Kumar; Pandit, Alak

    2018-01-01

    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) has unpredictable clinical course with severe complication of respiratory failure. To identify clinical profiles and electrophysiological study particularly non-invasive Phrenic nerve conduction study in patients of early GBS to predict respiratory failure. 64 adult (age≥18yrs) patients of early GBS (onset ≤ 14 days) during the study period from January 2014 to October 2015 were evaluated by clinical profiles of age, gender, antecedent infection, time to peak disability, single breath counts, cranial nerve involvement, autonomic dysfunction and non-invasive Phrenic nerve conduction study. Patients with predisposition factors of polyneuropathy like diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, vitamin deficiency, renal failure were excluded. Among 64 patients abnormal phrenic nerve conduction study was seen in 65.62% cases (42/64) and 45.23% (19/42) of them developed respiratory failure. Phrenic nerve sum latency, amplitude, duration and area were abnormal in those who developed respiratory failure and they had sum of phrenic nerve latency >28 msec, sum of CMAP amplitude <300 μV, sum of CMAP duration >50 msec and sum of area < 4 mVmS. None with normal phrenic nerve study developed respiratory failure. It was found that age, gender, preceding infection, autonomic involvement and types of GB syndrome had no influence on development of respiratory failure (p>0.05). Rapid disease progression to peak disability, more severe disease, shorter single breath counts and cranial nerve involvement were seen more often in patients with respiratory failure. Abnormal Phrenic nerve conduction study in the early Guillain-Barré syndrome might be of great value independently in predicting impending respiratory failure.

  18. Phrenic Nerve Conduction Study in the Early Stage of Guillain–Barre Syndrome as a Predictor of Respiratory Failure

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Barun Kumar; Pandit, Alak

    2018-01-01

    Background: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) has unpredictable clinical course with severe complication of respiratory failure. Objective: To identify clinical profiles and electrophysiological study particularly non-invasive Phrenic nerve conduction study in patients of early GBS to predict respiratory failure. Methods: 64 adult (age≥18yrs) patients of early GBS (onset ≤ 14 days) during the study period from January 2014 to October 2015 were evaluated by clinical profiles of age, gender, antecedent infection, time to peak disability, single breath counts, cranial nerve involvement, autonomic dysfunction and non-invasive Phrenic nerve conduction study. Patients with predisposition factors of polyneuropathy like diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, vitamin deficiency, renal failure were excluded. Results: Among 64 patients abnormal phrenic nerve conduction study was seen in 65.62% cases (42/64) and 45.23% (19/42) of them developed respiratory failure. Phrenic nerve sum latency, amplitude, duration and area were abnormal in those who developed respiratory failure and they had sum of phrenic nerve latency >28 msec, sum of CMAP amplitude <300 μV, sum of CMAP duration >50 msec and sum of area < 4 mVmS. None with normal phrenic nerve study developed respiratory failure. It was found that age, gender, preceding infection, autonomic involvement and types of GB syndrome had no influence on development of respiratory failure (p>0.05). Rapid disease progression to peak disability, more severe disease, shorter single breath counts and cranial nerve involvement were seen more often in patients with respiratory failure. Conclusion: Abnormal Phrenic nerve conduction study in the early Guillain-Barré syndrome might be of great value independently in predicting impending respiratory failure. PMID:29720799

  19. Why do dental implants fail? Part I.

    PubMed

    el Askary, A S; Meffert, R M; Griffin, T

    1999-01-01

    Many factors are attributed to failure of the dental implant, either directly or indirectly. The focus of this article is to define the causation of dental implant failure, as well as to present an evaluation of the implant literature regarding etiology, classification, management, and treatment of implant failures. This article will highlight the initial signs of implant failure with a view of some clinical cases in terms of classification and degrees of implant failure. Finally, a dental implant failure checklist is formulated to guide the practitioner in defining the cause of implant failure, be it infective or noninfective, and to establish percentages and frequency of occurrence. The checklist applies to all implant systems and will help to determine the factors responsible for causation and the repair procedures, whether they are at the surgical or restorative phases. The definition of implant failure is set forth in terms of ailing, failing, failed, and surviving implants, and the appropriate treatments and dispositions are outlined.

  20. Early biomarkers of acute kidney failure after heart angiography or heart surgery in patients with acute coronary syndrome or acute heart failure.

    PubMed

    Torregrosa, Isidro; Montoliu, Carmina; Urios, Amparo; Elmlili, Nisrin; Puchades, María Jesús; Solís, Miguel Angel; Sanjuán, Rafael; Blasco, Maria Luisa; Ramos, Carmen; Tomás, Patricia; Ribes, José; Carratalá, Arturo; Juan, Isabel; Miguel, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in cardiac surgery and coronary angiography, which worsens patients' prognosis. The diagnosis is based on the increase in serum creatinine, which is delayed. It is necessary to identify and validate new biomarkers that allow for early and effective interventions. To assess the sensitivity and specificity of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in urine (uNGAL), interleukin-18 (IL-18) in urine and cystatin C in serum for the early detection of AKI in patients with acute coronary syndrome or heart failure, and who underwent cardiac surgery or catheterization. The study included 135 patients admitted to the intensive care unit for acute coronary syndrome or heart failure due to coronary or valvular pathology and who underwent coronary angiography or cardiac bypass surgery or valvular replacement. The biomarkers were determined 12 hours after surgery and serum creatinine was monitored during the next six days for the diagnosis of AKI. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for NGAL was 0.983, and for cystatin C and IL-18 the AUCs were 0.869 and 0.727, respectively. At a cut-off of 31.9 ng/ml for uNGAL the sensitivity was 100% and the specificity was 91%. uNGAL is an early marker of AKI in patients with acute coronary syndrome or heart failure and undergoing cardiac surgery and coronary angiography, with a higher predictive value than cystatin C or IL-18.

  1. Early experimental and clinical experience with a focal implant for lower extremity post-angioplasty dissection.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Peter A; Giasolli, Robert; Ebner, Adrian; Virmani, Renu; Granada, Juan F

    2015-02-01

    This study provides preliminary data on the safety and feasibility of the use of a novel focal implant for managing post-percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty (post-PTA) dissection. Post-PTA dissection of the lower extremity arteries is managed with stent placement. This provides an acceptable post-intervention result but has long-term disadvantages, such as in-stent restenosis. Focal treatment of post-PTA dissection and avoidance of stents are the objectives of the Tack-It (Intact Vascular, Inc., Wayne, Pennsylvania) device. A preclinical study and first-in-human data are presented. Seven swine underwent superficial femoral artery device placement, with a self-expanding nitinol stent on 1 side and a series of 4 Tack-It devices on the other side. Specimens were harvested at 28 days. The clinical study included 15 limbs that underwent revascularization for critical limb ischemia (n = 9) or claudication (n = 6). Twenty-five lesions were treated in the superficial femoral (n = 8), popliteal (n = 7), and tibial (n = 10) arteries. The preclinical study demonstrated a reduction in stenosis with the Tack-It (16.8 ± 2.6%) compared with stents (46.4 ± 9.8%). Neointimal thickness and injury score decreased with the Tack-It. Clinically, Tack-It placement resulted in acute technical success with resolution of the post-PTA dissection in 100% of lesions. There were no device-related complications or major amputations. Eighteen of the 25 lesions were available for angiographic follow-up at 1-year, and patency was 83.3%. Preclinical data suggest that the Tack-It device causes minimal vessel injury. Clinical use of the Tack-It to manage post-PTA dissection was safe and feasible in this early study and resulted in apposition of dissection flaps without stent placement. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Early outcomes of percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation using the Edwards SAPIEN XT transcatheter heart valve system.

    PubMed

    Haas, Nikolaus A; Carere, Ronald Giacomo; Kretschmar, Oliver; Horlick, Eric; Rodés-Cabau, Josep; de Wolf, Daniël; Gewillig, Marc; Mullen, Michael; Lehner, Anja; Deutsch, Cornelia; Bramlage, Peter; Ewert, Peter

    2018-01-01

    Patients with congenital or acquired heart defects affecting the pulmonary valve and right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) commonly require multiple surgical interventions, resulting in significant morbidity. A less invasive alternative is percutaneous pulmonary valve implantation (PPVI). Though studies have previously reported the safety and efficacy of the early generation transcatheter heart valves (THVs), data on more recent devices are severely lacking. We performed a multinational, multicentre, retrospective, observational registry analysis of patients who underwent PPVI using the Edwards SAPIEN XT THV. Of the 46 patients that were enrolled, the majority had tetralogy of Fallot as the underlying diagnosis (58.7%), and stentless xenograft as the most common RVOT anatomy (34.8%). Procedural success rate was high (93.5%), with a low frequency of periprocedural complications and adverse events (6.5% and 10.9%, respectively). At 30days post-procedure, NYHA class had improved significantly (90.6% were at NYHA I or II). The rate of moderate/severe pulmonary regurgitation had decreased from 76.1% at baseline to 5.0% at 30days, and the calculated peak systolic gradient had decreased from 45.2 (SD±21.3) mmHg to 16.4 (SD±8.0) mmHg, with these values remaining low up to 2years. The data suggest the efficacy and safety of the SAPIEN XT THV in PPVI in common anatomies in patients with conduits, as well as those with native pulmonary valves or transannular patches. Continued data collection is necessary to verify long-term findings. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT02302131. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Management of early pregnancy failure and induced abortion by family medicine educators.

    PubMed

    Herbitter, Cara; Bennett, Ariana; Schubert, Finn D; Bennett, Ian M; Gold, Marji

    2013-01-01

    Reproductive health care, including treatment of early pregnancy failure (EPF) and induced abortion, is an integral part of patient-centered care provided by family physicians, but data suggest that comprehensive training is not widely available to family medicine residents. The purpose of this study was to assess EPF and induced abortion management practices and attitudes of family medicine physician educators throughout the United States and Canada. These data were collected as part of a cross-sectional survey conducted by the Council of Academic Family Medicine Educational Research Alliance that was distributed via E-mail to 3152 practicing physician members of Council of Academic Family Medicine organizations. The vast majority of respondents (88.2%) had treated EPF, whereas few respondents (15.3%) had provided induced medication or aspiration abortions. Of those who had treated EPF, most had offered medication management (72.7%), whereas a minority had provided aspiration management (16.4%). Almost all respondents (95%) agreed that EPF management is within the scope of family medicine, and nearly three-quarters (73.2%) agreed that early induced abortion is within the scope of family medicine. Our findings suggest that family physician educators are more experienced with EPF management than elective abortion. Given the overlap of skills needed for provision of these services, there is the potential to increase the number of family physician faculty members providing induced abortions.

  4. Baroreflex control of renal sympathetic nerve activity in early heart failure assessed by the sequence method

    PubMed Central

    Lataro, Renata Maria; Silva, Luiz Eduardo Virgilio; Silva, Carlos Alberto Aguiar; Salgado, Helio Cesar

    2017-01-01

    Key points The integrity of the baroreflex control of sympathetic activity in heart failure (HF) remains under debate.We proposed the use of the sequence method to assess the baroreflex control of renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA).The sequence method assesses the spontaneous arterial pressure (AP) fluctuations and their related changes in heart rate (or other efferent responses), providing the sensitivity and the effectiveness of the baroreflex. Effectiveness refers to the fraction of spontaneous AP changes that elicits baroreflex‐mediated variations in the efferent response.Using three different approaches, we showed that the baroreflex sensitivity between AP and RSNA is not altered in early HF rats. However, the sequence method provided evidence that the effectiveness of baroreflex in changing RSNA in response to AP changes is markedly decreased in HF.The results help us better understand the baroreflex control of the sympathetic nerve activity. Abstract In heart failure (HF), the reflex control of the heart rate is known to be markedly impaired; however, the baroreceptor control of the sympathetic drive remains under debate. Applying the sequence method to a series of arterial pressure (AP) and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA), we demonstrated a clear dysfunction in the baroreflex control of sympathetic activity in rats with early HF. We analysed the baroreflex control of the sympathetic drive using three different approaches: AP vs. RSNA curve, cross‐spectral analysis and sequence method between AP and RSNA. The sequence method also provides the baroreflex effectiveness index (BEI), which represents the percentage of AP ramps that actually produce a reflex response. The methods were applied to control rats and rats with HF induced by myocardial infarction. None of the methods employed to assess the sympathetic baroreflex gain were able to detect any differences between the control and the HF group. However, rats with HF exhibited a lower BEI

  5. Short-Term and Working Memory Impairments in Early-Implanted, Long-Term Cochlear Implant Users Are Independent of Audibility and Speech Production.

    PubMed

    AuBuchon, Angela M; Pisoni, David B; Kronenberger, William G

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether early-implanted, long-term cochlear implant (CI) users display delays in verbal short-term and working memory capacity when processes related to audibility and speech production are eliminated. Twenty-three long-term CI users and 23 normal-hearing controls each completed forward and backward digit span tasks under testing conditions that differed in presentation modality (auditory or visual) and response output (spoken recall or manual pointing). Normal-hearing controls reproduced more lists of digits than the CI users, even when the test items were presented visually and the responses were made manually via touchscreen response. Short-term and working memory delays observed in CI users are not due to greater demands from peripheral sensory processes such as audibility or from overt speech-motor planning and response output organization. Instead, CI users are less efficient at encoding and maintaining phonological representations in verbal short-term memory using phonological and linguistic strategies during memory tasks.

  6. Short-Term and Working Memory Impairments in Early-Implanted, Long-Term Cochlear Implant Users Are Independent of Audibility and Speech Production

    PubMed Central

    AuBuchon, Angela M.; Pisoni, David B.; Kronenberger, William G.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES Determine if early-implanted, long-term cochlear implant (CI) users display delays in verbal short-term and working memory capacity when processes related to audibility and speech production are eliminated. DESIGN Twenty-three long-term CI users and 23 normal-hearing controls each completed forward and backward digit span tasks under testing conditions which differed in presentation modality (auditory or visual) and response output (spoken recall or manual pointing). RESULTS Normal-hearing controls reproduced more lists of digits than the CI users, even when the test items were presented visually and the responses were made manually via touchscreen response. CONCLUSIONS Short-term and working memory delays observed in CI users are not due to greater demands from peripheral sensory processes such as audibility or from overt speech-motor planning and response output organization. Instead, CI users are less efficient at encoding and maintaining phonological representations in verbal short-term memory utilizing phonological and linguistic strategies during memory tasks. PMID:26496666

  7. Biomaterial-host interactions: consequences, determined by implant retrieval analysis.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, S S

    1994-01-01

    Prosthetic biomaterials have had a profound impact on reconstructive surgery but complete biocompatability remains illusive. This review considers the retrieval analysis of four common prosthetic structures: the hip, the knee, heart valves, and blood vessels. We show that despite a fine record of early success, deterioration due to mechanical failure or deleterious host responses to the implant may compromise long term function. The eventual retrieval and detailed analysis of implanted structures provides an invaluable opportunity to determine the characteristics of implant success or failure and to provoke the development of still better materials.

  8. Early Validation of Failure Detection, Isolation, and Recovery Design Using Heterogeneous Modelling and Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Plas, Peter; Guerriero, Suzanne; Cristiano, Leorato; Rugina, Ana

    2012-08-01

    Modelling and simulation can support a number of use cases across the spacecraft development life-cycle. Given the increasing complexity of space missions, the observed general trend is for a more extensive usage of simulation already in the early phases. A major perceived advantage is that modelling and simulation can enable the validation of critical aspects of the spacecraft design before the actual development is started, as such reducing the risk in later phases.Failure Detection, Isolation, and Recovery (FDIR) is one of the areas with a high potential to benefit from early modelling and simulation. With the increasing level of required spacecraft autonomy, FDIR specifications can grow in such a way that the traditional document-based review process soon becomes inadequate.This paper shows that FDIR modelling and simulation in a system context can provide a powerful tool to support the FDIR verification process. It is highlighted that FDIR modelling at this early stage requires heterogeneous modelling tools and languages, in order to provide an adequate functional description of the different components (i.e. FDIR functions, environment, equipment, etc.) to be modelled.For this reason, an FDIR simulation framework is proposed in this paper. This framework is based on a number of tools already available in the Avionics Systems Laboratory at ESTEC, which are the Avionics Test Bench Functional Engineering Simulator (ATB FES), Matlab/Simulink, TASTE, and Real Time Developer Studio (RTDS).The paper then discusses the application of the proposed simulation framework to a real case-study, i.e. the FDIR modelling of a satellite in support of actual ESA mission. Challenges and benefits of the approach are described. Finally, lessons learned and the generality of the proposed approach are discussed.

  9. Literacy Skills in Children With Cochlear Implants: The Importance of Early Oral Language and Joint Storybook Reading

    PubMed Central

    Ambrose, Sophie E.; Eisenberg, Laurie S.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to longitudinally examine relationships between early factors (child and mother) that may influence children's phonological awareness and reading skills 3 years later in a group of young children with cochlear implants (N = 16). Mothers and children were videotaped during two storybook interactions, and children's oral language skills were assessed using the “Reynell Developmental Language Scales, third edition.” Three years later, phonological awareness, reading skills, and language skills were assessed using the “Phonological Awareness Test,” the “Woodcock–Johnson-III Diagnostic Reading Battery,” and the “Oral Written Language Scales.” Variables included in the data analyses were child (age, age at implant, and language skills) and mother factors (facilitative language techniques) and children's phonological awareness and reading standard scores. Results indicate that children's early expressive oral language skills and mothers’ use of a higher level facilitative language technique (open-ended question) during storybook reading, although related, each contributed uniquely to children's literacy skills. Individual analyses revealed that the children with expressive standard scores below 70 at Time 1 also performed below average (<85) on phonological awareness and total reading tasks 3 years later. Guidelines for professionals are provided to support literacy skills in young children with cochlear implants. PMID:18417463

  10. In vivo dendritic cell depletion reduces breeding efficiency, affecting implantation and early placental development in mice.

    PubMed

    Krey, Gesa; Frank, Pierre; Shaikly, Valerie; Barrientos, Gabriela; Cordo-Russo, Rosalia; Ringel, Frauke; Moschansky, Petra; Chernukhin, Igor V; Metodiev, Metodi; Fernández, Nelson; Klapp, Burghard F; Arck, Petra C; Blois, Sandra M

    2008-09-01

    Implantation of mammalian embryos into their mother's uterus ensures optimal nourishment and protection throughout development. Complex molecular interactions characterize the implantation process, and an optimal synchronization of the components of this embryo-maternal dialogue is crucial for a successful reproductive outcome. In the present study, we investigated the role of dendritic cells (DC) during implantation process using a transgenic mouse system (DTRtg) that allows transient depletion of CD11c+ cells in vivo through administration of diphtheria toxin. We observed that DC depletion impairs the implantation process, resulting in a reduced breeding efficiency. Furthermore, the maturity of uterine natural killer cells at dendritic cell knockout (DCKO) implantation sites was affected as well; as demonstrated by decreased perforin expression and reduced numbers of periodic-acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive cells. This was accompanied by disarrangements in decidual vascular development. In the present study, we were also able to identify a novel DC-dependent protein, phosphatidylinositol transfer protein beta (PITPbeta), involved in implantation and trophoblast development using a proteomic approach. Indeed, DCKO mice exhibited substantial anomalies in placental development, including hypocellularity of the spongiotrophoblast and labyrinthine layers and reduced numbers of trophoblast giant cells. Giant cells also down-regulated their expression of two characteristic markers of trophoblast differentiation, placental lactogen 1 and proliferin. In view of these findings, dendritic cells emerge as possible modulators in the orchestration of events leading to the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy.

  11. Activation of PPAR-α in the early stage of heart failure maintained myocardial function and energetics in pressure-overload heart failure.

    PubMed

    Kaimoto, Satoshi; Hoshino, Atsushi; Ariyoshi, Makoto; Okawa, Yoshifumi; Tateishi, Shuhei; Ono, Kazunori; Uchihashi, Motoki; Fukai, Kuniyoshi; Iwai-Kanai, Eri; Matoba, Satoaki

    2017-02-01

    Failing heart loses its metabolic flexibility, relying increasingly on glucose as its preferential substrate and decreasing fatty acid oxidation (FAO). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α) is a key regulator of this substrate shift. However, its role during heart failure is complex and remains unclear. Recent studies reported that heart failure develops in the heart of myosin heavy chain-PPAR-α transgenic mice in a manner similar to that of diabetic cardiomyopathy, whereas cardiac dysfunction is enhanced in PPAR-α knockout mice in response to chronic pressure overload. We created a pressure-overload heart failure model in mice through transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and activated PPAR-α during heart failure using an inducible transgenic model. After 8 wk of TAC, left ventricular (LV) function had decreased with the reduction of PPAR-α expression in wild-type mice. We examined the effect of PPAR-α induction during heart failure using the Tet-Off system. Eight weeks after the TAC operation, LV construction was preserved significantly by PPAR-α induction with an increase in PPAR-α-targeted genes related to fatty acid metabolism. The increase of expression of fibrosis-related genes was significantly attenuated by PPAR-α induction. Metabolic rates measured by isolated heart perfusions showed a reduction in FAO and glucose oxidation in TAC hearts, but the rate of FAO preserved significantly owing to the induction of PPAR-α. Myocardial high-energy phosphates were significantly preserved by PPAR-α induction. These results suggest that PPAR-α activation during pressure-overloaded heart failure improved myocardial function and energetics. Thus activating PPAR-α and modulation of FAO could be a promising therapeutic strategy for heart failure. NEW & NOTEWORTHY The present study demonstrates the role of PPAR-α activation in the early stage of heart failure using an inducible transgenic mouse model. Induction of PPAR-α preserved heart

  12. Toward early safety alert endpoints: exploring biomarkers suggestive of microbicide failure.

    PubMed

    Mauck, Christine K; Lai, Jaim Jou; Weiner, Debra H; Chandra, Neelima; Fichorova, Raina N; Dezzutti, Charlene S; Hillier, Sharon L; Archer, David F; Creinin, Mitchell D; Schwartz, Jill L; Callahan, Marianne M; Doncel, Gustavo F

    2013-11-01

    Several microbicides, including nonoxynol-9 (N-9) and cellulose sulfate (CS), looked promising during early trials but failed in efficacy trials. We aimed to identify Phase I mucosal safety endpoints that might explain that failure. In a blinded, randomized, parallel trial, 60 healthy premenopausal sexually abstinent women applied Universal HEC placebo, 6% CS or 4% N-9 gel twice daily for 13½ days. Endpoints included immune biomarkers in cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) and endocervical cytobrushes, inflammatory infiltrates in vaginal biopsies, epithelial integrity by naked eye, colposcopy, and histology, CVL anti-HIV activity, vaginal microflora, pH, and adverse events. Twenty women enrolled per group. Soluble/cellular markers were similar with CS and placebo, except secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) levels decreased in CVL, and CD3(+) and CD45(+) cells increased in biopsies after CS use. Increases in interleukin (IL)-8, IL-1, IL-1RA, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) and decreases in SLPI were significant with N-9. CVL anti-HIV activity was significantly higher during CS use compared to N-9 or placebo. CS users tended to have a higher prevalence of intermediate Nugent score, Escherichia coli, and Enterococcus and fewer gram-negative rods. Most Nugent scores diagnostic for bacterial vaginosis were in N-9 users. All cases of histological inflammation or deep epithelial disruption occurred in N-9 users. While the surfactant N-9 showed obvious biochemical and histological signs of inflammation, more subtle changes, including depression of SLPI, tissue influx of CD45(+) and CD3(+) cells, and subclinical microflora shifts were associated with CS use and may help to explain the clinical failure of nonsurfactant microbicides.

  13. Aspirin and Statin Nonuse Associated With Early Biochemical Failure After Prostate Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Zaorsky, Nicholas G.; Buyyounouski, Mark K., E-mail: mark.buyyounouski@fccc.edu; Li, Tianyu

    Purpose: To present the largest retrospective series investigating the effect of aspirin and statins, which are hypothesized to have antineoplastic properties, on biochemical failure (nadir plus 2 ng/mL) after prostate radiation therapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Between 1989 and 2006, 2051 men with clinically localized prostate cancer received definitive RT alone (median dose, 76 Gy). The rates of aspirin use and statin use (defined as any use at the time of RT or during follow-up) were 36% and 34%, respectively. The primary endpoint of the study was an interval to biochemical failure (IBF) of less than 18 months, which hasmore » been shown to be the single strongest predictor of distant metastasis, prostate cancer survival, and overall survival after RT. Patient demographic characteristics and tumor staging factors were assessed with regard to associations with the endpoint. Univariate analysis was performed with the {chi}{sup 2} test for categorical variables and the Wilcoxon test for continuous variables. Multivariable analysis was performed with a multiple logistic regression. Results: The median follow-up was 75 months. Univariate analysis showed that an IBF of less than 18 months was associated with aspirin nonuse (P<.0001), statin nonuse (P<.0001), anticoagulant nonuse (P=.0006), cardiovascular disease (P=.0008), and prostate-specific antigen (continuous) (P=.008) but not with Gleason score, age, RT dose, or T stage. On multivariate analysis, only aspirin nonuse (P=.0012; odds ratio, 2.052 [95% confidence interval, 1.328-3.172]) and statin nonuse (P=.0002; odds ratio, 2.465 [95% confidence interval, 1.529-3.974]) were associated with an IBF of less than 18 months. Conclusions: In patients who received RT for prostate cancer, aspirin or statin nonuse was associated with early biochemical failure, a harbinger of distant metastasis and death. Further study is needed to confirm these findings and to determine the optimal dosing and schedule, as well as the

  14. Right ventricular response to pulsatile load is associated with early right heart failure and mortality after left ventricular assist device.

    PubMed

    Grandin, E Wilson; Zamani, Payman; Mazurek, Jeremy A; Troutman, Gregory S; Birati, Edo Y; Vorovich, Esther; Chirinos, Julio A; Tedford, Ryan J; Margulies, Kenneth B; Atluri, Pavan; Rame, J Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Right ventricular (RV) adaptation to afterload is crucial for patients undergoing continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (cf-LVAD) implantation. We hypothesized that stratifying patients by RV pulsatile load, using pulmonary arterial compliance (PAC), and RV response to load, using the ratio of central venous to pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (CVP:PCWP), would identify patients at high risk for early right heart failure (RHF) and 6-month mortality after cf-LVAD. During the period from January 2008 to June 2014, we identified 151 patients at our center with complete hemodynamics prior to cf-LVAD. Pulsatile load was estimated using PAC indexed to body surface area (BSA), according to the formula: indexed PAC (PACi) = [SV / (PA systolic - PA diastolic )] / BSA, where SV is stroke volume and PA is pulmonary artery. Patients were divided into 4 hemodynamic groups by PACi and CVP:PCWP. RHF was defined as the need for unplanned RVAD, inotropic support ≥14 days or death due to RHF within 14 days. Risk factors for RHF and 6-month mortality were examined using logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards modeling. Sixty-one patients (40.4%) developed RHF and 34 patients (22.5%) died within 6 months. Patients with RHF had lower PACi (0.92 vs 1.17 ml/mm Hg/m 2 , p = 0.008) and higher CVP:PCWP (0.48 vs 0.37, p = 0.001). Higher PACi was associated with reduced risk of RHF (adjusted odds ratio [adj-OR] 0.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.39 to 0.94, p = 0.025) and low PACi with increased risk of 6-month mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [adj-HR] 3.18, 95% CI 1.40 to 7.25, p = 0.006). Compared to patients with low load (high PACi) and adequate right heart response to load (low CVP:PCWP), patients with low PACi and high CVP:PCWP had an increased risk of RHF (OR 4.74, 95% CI 1.23 to 18.24, p = 0.02) and 6-month mortality (HR 8.68, 95% CI 2.79 to 26.99, p < 0.001). A hemodynamic profile combining RV pulsatile load and response to load identifies patients at high

  15. The role of cerebral hyperperfusion in postoperative neurologic dysfunction after left ventricular assist device implantation for end-stage heart failure.

    PubMed

    Lietz, Katherine; Brown, Kevin; Ali, Syed S; Colvin-Adams, Monica; Boyle, Andrew J; Anderson, David; Weinberg, Alan D; Miller, Leslie W; Park, Soon; John, Ranjit; Lazar, Ronald M

    2009-04-01

    Cerebral hyperperfusion is a life-threatening syndrome that can occur in patients with chronically hypoperfused cerebral vasculature whose normal cerebral circulation was re-established after carotid endarterectomy or angioplasty. We sought to determine whether the abrupt restoration of perfusion to the brain after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation produced similar syndromes. We studied the role of increased systemic flow after LVAD implantation on neurologic dysfunction in 69 consecutive HeartMate XVE LVAD (Thoratec, Pleasanton, Calif) recipients from October 2001 through June 2006. Neurologic dysfunction was defined as postoperative permanent or transient central change in neurologic status, including confusion, focal neurologic deficits, visual changes, seizures, or coma for more than 24 hours within 30 days after LVAD implantation. We found that 19 (27.5%) patients had neurologic dysfunction, including encephalopathy (n = 11), coma (n = 3), and other complications (n = 5). The multivariate analysis showed that an increase in cardiac index from the preoperative baseline value (relative risk, 1.33 per 25% cardiac index increase; P = .01) and a previous coronary bypass operation (relative risk, 4.53; P = .02) were the only independent predictors of neurologic dysfunction. Reduction of left ventricular assist device flow in 16 of the 19 symptomatic patients led to improvement of symptoms in 14 (87%) patients. Our findings showed that normal flow might overwhelm cerebral autoregulation in patients with severe heart failure, suggesting that cerebral hyperperfusion is possible in recipients of mechanical circulatory support with neurologic dysfunction.

  16. Implementation of predictive data mining techniques for identifying risk factors of early AVF failure in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Rezapour, Mohammad; Khavanin Zadeh, Morteza; Sepehri, Mohammad Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Arteriovenous fistula (AVF) is an important vascular access for hemodialysis (HD) treatment but has 20-60% rate of early failure. Detecting association between patient's parameters and early AVF failure is important for reducing its prevalence and relevant costs. Also predicting incidence of this complication in new patients is a beneficial controlling procedure. Patient safety and preservation of early AVF failure is the ultimate goal. Our research society is Hasheminejad Kidney Center (HKC) of Tehran, which is one of Iran's largest renal hospitals. We analyzed data of 193 HD patients using supervised techniques of data mining approach. There were 137 male (70.98%) and 56 female (29.02%) patients introduced into this study. The average of age for all the patients was 53.87 ± 17.47 years. Twenty eight patients had smoked and the number of diabetic patients and nondiabetics was 87 and 106, respectively. A significant relationship was found between "diabetes mellitus," "smoking," and "hypertension" with early AVF failure in this study. We have found that these mentioned risk factors have important roles in outcome of vascular surgery, versus other parameters such as "age." Then we predicted this complication in future AVF surgeries and evaluated our designed prediction methods with accuracy rates of 61.66%-75.13%.

  17. Early warning systems for the management of chronic heart failure: a systematic literature review of cost-effectiveness models.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque De Almeida, Fernando; Al, Maiwenn; Koymans, Ron; Caliskan, Kadir; Kerstens, Ankie; Severens, Johan L

    2018-04-01

    Describing the general and methodological characteristics of decision-analytical models used in the economic evaluation of early warning systems for the management of chronic heart failure patients and performing a quality assessment of their methodological characteristics is expected to provide concise and useful insight to inform the future development of decision-analytical models in the field of heart failure management. Areas covered: The literature on decision-analytical models for the economic evaluation of early warning systems for the management of chronic heart failure patients was systematically reviewed. Nine electronic databases were searched through the combination of synonyms for heart failure and sensitive filters for cost-effectiveness and early warning systems. Expert commentary: The retrieved models show some variability with regards to their general study characteristics. Overall, they display satisfactory methodological quality, even though some points could be improved, namely on the consideration and discussion of any competing theories regarding model structure and disease progression, identification of key parameters and the use of expert opinion, and uncertainty analyses. A comprehensive definition of early warning systems and further research under this label should be pursued. To improve the transparency of economic evaluation publications, authors should make available detailed technical information regarding the published models.

  18. PreImplantation Factor (PIF) correlates with early mammalian embryo development-bovine and murine models

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background PreImplantation Factor (PIF), a novel peptide secreted by viable embryos is essential for pregnancy: PIF modulates local immunity, promotes decidual pro-adhesion molecules and enhances trophoblast invasion. To determine the role of PIF in post-fertilization embryo development, we measured the peptide's concentration in the culture medium and tested endogenous PIF's potential trophic effects and direct interaction with the embryo. Methods Determine PIF levels in culture medium of multiple mouse and single bovine embryos cultured up to the blastocyst stage using PIF-ELISA. Examine the inhibitory effects of anti-PIF-monoclonal antibody (mAb) added to medium on cultured mouse embryos development. Test FITC-PIF uptake by cultured bovine blastocysts using fluorescent microscopy. Results PIF levels in mouse embryo culture medium significantly increased from the morula to the blastocyst stage (ANOVA, P = 0.01). In contrast, atretic embryos medium was similar to the medium only control. Detectable - though low - PIF levels were secreted already by 2-cell stage mouse embryos. In single bovine IVF-derived embryos, PIF levels in medium at day 3 of culture were higher than non-cleaving embryos (control) (P = 0.01) and at day 7 were higher than day 3 (P = 0.03). In non-cleaving embryos culture medium was similar to medium alone (control). Anti-PIF-mAb added to mouse embryo cultures lowered blastocyst formation rate 3-fold in a dose-dependent manner (2-way contingency table, multiple groups, X2; P = 0.01) as compared with non-specific mouse mAb, and medium alone, control. FITC-PIF was taken-up by cultured bovine blastocysts, but not by scrambled FITC-PIF (control). Conclusions PIF is an early embryo viability marker that has a direct supportive role on embryo development in culture. PIF-ELISA use to assess IVF embryo quality prior to transfer is warranted. Overall, our data supports PIF's endogenous self sustaining role in embryo development and the utility of PIF

  19. Failure of Urological Implants in Spinal Cord Injury Patients due to Infection, Malfunction, and Implants Becoming Obsolete due to Medical Progress and Age-Related Changes in Human Body Making Implant Futile: Report of Three Cases.

    PubMed

    Vaidyanathan, Subramanian; Soni, Bakul; Singh, Gurpreet; Hughes, Peter; Selmi, Fahed; Mansour, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Any new clinical data, whether positive or negative, generated about a medical device should be published because health professionals should know which devices do not work, as well as those which do. We report three spinal cord injury patients in whom urological implants failed to work. In the first, paraplegic, patient, a sacral anterior root stimulator failed to produce erection, and a drug delivery system for intracavernosal administration of vasoactive drugs was therefore implanted; however, this implant never functioned (and, furthermore, such penile drug delivery systems to produce erection had effectively become obsolete following the advent of phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors). Subsequently, the sacral anterior root stimulator developed a malfunction and the patient therefore learned to perform self-catheterisation. In the second patient, also paraplegic, an artificial urinary sphincter was implanted but the patient developed a postoperative sacral pressure sore. Eight months later, a suprapubic cystostomy was performed as urethral catheterisation was very difficult. The pressure sore had not healed completely even after five years. In the third case, a sacral anterior root stimulator was implanted in a tetraplegic patient in whom, after five years, a penile sheath could not be fitted because of penile retraction. This patient was therefore established on urethral catheter drainage. Later, infection with Staphylococcus aureus around the receiver block necessitated its removal. In conclusion, spinal cord injury patients are at risk of developing pressure sores, wound infections, malfunction of implants, and the inability to use implants because of age-related changes, as well as running the risk of their implants becoming obsolete due to advances in medicine. Some surgical procedures such as dorsal rhizotomy are irreversible. Alternative treatments such as intermittent catheterisations may be less damaging than bladder stimulator in the long term.

  20. Early activation of deleterious molecular pathways in the kidney in experimental heart failure with atrial remodeling.

    PubMed

    Ichiki, Tomoko; Huntley, Brenda K; Harty, Gail J; Sangaralingham, S Jeson; Burnett, John C

    2017-05-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a major health problem with worsening outcomes when renal impairment is present. Therapeutics for early phase HF may be effective for cardiorenal protection, however the detailed characteristics of the kidney in early-stage HF (ES-HF), and therefore treatment for potential renal protection, are poorly defined. We sought to determine the gene and protein expression profiles of specific maladaptive pathways of ES-HF in the kidney and heart. Experimental canine ES-HF, characterized by de-novo HF with atrial remodeling but not ventricular fibrosis, was induced by right ventricular pacing for 10 days. Kidney cortex (KC), medulla (KM), left ventricle (LV), and left atrial (LA) tissues from ES-HF versus normal canines ( n  = 4 of each) were analyzed using RT-PCR microarrays and protein assays to assess genes and proteins related to inflammation, renal injury, apoptosis, and fibrosis. ES-HF was characterized by increased circulating natriuretic peptides and components of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and decreased sodium and water excretion with mild renal injury and up-regulation of CNP and renin genes in the kidney. Compared to normals, widespread genes, especially genes of the inflammatory pathways, were up-regulated in KC similar to increases seen in LA Protein expressions related to inflammatory cytokines were also augmented in the KC Gene and protein changes were less prominent in the LV and KM The ES-HF displayed mild renal injury with widespread gene changes and increased inflammatory cytokines. These changes may provide important clues into the pathophysiology of ES-HF and for therapeutic molecular targets in the kidney of ES-HF. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  1. Early Prediction of Persistent Organ Failure by Serum Angiopoietin-2 in Patients with Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Ping; Liu, Chang; Ye, Lei; Yu, Na; Ye, Yuan-Ning; Sun, Wen-Rong; Wu, Lin; Wang, Fang-Yu

    2016-12-01

    Biomarkers for the early prediction of the severity of acute pancreatitis (AP) are urgently needed for clinical management of the disease. Angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2), one of the autocrine peptides that reduce endothelial permeability, has been found to be associated with various diseases, including inflammatory disorders. This study aimed to determine whether serum Ang-2 could serve as a noninvasive biomarker for the early prediction of persistent organ failure (POF) in acute pancreatitis. A total of 120 AP patients were prospectively enrolled at Jinling Hospital. Serum samples were collected on admission. Clinical and laboratory data were recorded. Ang-2 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A total of 37 patients developed POF and were classified as having severe AP (SAP). Ang-2 was significantly higher on admission in patients who developed POF than in those who did not (p < 0.001 for all). Furthermore, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis revealed that Ang-2 could distinguish patients who developed POF from mild AP (MAP, area under ROC curve [AUC] = 0.88, 95 % CI 0.78-0.94) and moderately severe AP patients (MSAP, AUC = 0.74, 95 % CI 0.63-0.83). In addition, multivariate logistic regression showed that increased Ang-2 was an independent predictor of developing POF between subgroups with MSAP and SAP (OR 7.2, 95 % CI 2.7-19.4) and among all AP patients (OR 12.1, 95 % CI 4.8-30.3). Elevated serum Ang-2 levels on admission may be a promising biomarker for the prediction of POF in AP.

  2. Oxygen Uptake Efficiency Plateau Best Predicts Early Death in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, James E.; Stringer, William W.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The responses of oxygen uptake efficiency (ie, oxygen uptake/ventilation = V˙o2/V˙e) and its highest plateau (OUEP) during incremental cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) in patients with chronic left heart failure (HF) have not been previously reported. We planned to test the hypothesis that OUEP during CPET is the best single predictor of early death in HF. Methods: We evaluated OUEP, slope of V˙o2 to log(V˙e) (oxygen uptake efficiency slope), oscillatory breathing, and all usual resting and CPET measurements in 508 patients with low-ejection-fraction (< 35%) HF. Each had further evaluations at other sites, including cardiac catheterization. Outcomes were 6-month all-reason mortality and morbidity (death or > 24 h cardiac hospitalization). Statistical analyses included area under curve of receiver operating characteristics, ORs, univariate and multivariate Cox regression, and Kaplan-Meier plots. Results: OUEP, which requires only moderate exercise, was often reduced in patients with HF. A low % predicted OUEP was the single best predictor of mortality (P < .0001), with an OR of 13.0 (P < .001). When combined with oscillatory breathing, the OR increased to 56.3, superior to all other resting or exercise parameters or combinations of parameters. Other statistical analyses and morbidity analysis confirmed those findings. Conclusions: OUEP is often reduced in patients with HF. Low % predicted OUEP (< 65% predicted) is the single best predictor of early death, better than any other CPET or other cardiovascular measurement. Paired with oscillatory breathing, it is even more powerful. PMID:22030802

  3. Serum microRNA expression patterns that predict early treatment failure in prostate cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Singh, Prashant K; Preus, Leah; Hu, Qiang; Yan, Li; Long, Mark D; Morrison, Carl D; Nesline, Mary; Johnson, Candace S; Koochekpour, Shahriar; Kohli, Manish; Liu, Song; Trump, Donald L; Sucheston-Campbell, Lara E; Campbell, Moray J

    2014-02-15

    We aimed to identify microRNA (miRNA) expression patterns in the serum of prostate cancer (CaP) patients that predict the risk of early treatment failure following radical prostatectomy (RP). Microarray and Q-RT-PCR analyses identified 43 miRNAs as differentiating disease stages within 14 prostate cell lines and reflectedpublically available patient data. 34 of these miRNA were detectable in the serum of CaP patients. Association with time to biochemical progression was examined in a cohort of CaP patients following RP. A greater than two-fold increase in hazard of biochemical progression associated with altered expression of miR-103, miR-125b and miR-222 (p<.0008) in the serum of CaP patients. Prediction models based on penalized regression analyses showed that the levels of the miRNAs and PSA together were better at detecting false positives than models without miRNAs, for similar level of sensitivity. Analyses of publically available data revealed significant and reciprocal relationships between changes in CpG methylation and miRNA expression patterns suggesting a role for CpG methylation to regulate miRNA. Exploratory validation supported roles for miR-222 and miR-125b to predict progression risk in CaP. The current study established that expression patterns of serum-detectable miRNAs taken at the time of RP are prognostic for men who are at risk of experiencing subsequent early biochemical progression. These non-invasive approaches could be used to augment treatment decisions.

  4. Interdependence of Linguistic and Indexical Speech Perception Skills in School-Aged Children with Early Cochlear Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Geers, Ann; Davidson, Lisa; Uchanski, Rosalie; Nicholas, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This study documented the ability of experienced pediatric cochlear implant (CI) users to perceive linguistic properties (what is said) and indexical attributes (emotional intent and talker identity) of speech, and examined the extent to which linguistic (LSP) and indexical (ISP) perception skills are related. Pre-implant aided hearing, age at implantation, speech processor technology, CI-aided thresholds, sequential bilateral cochlear implantation, and academic integration with hearing age-mates were examined for their possible relationships to both LSP and ISP skills. Design Sixty 9–12 year olds, first implanted at an early age (12–38 months), participated in a comprehensive test battery that included the following LSP skills: 1) recognition of monosyllabic words at loud and soft levels, 2) repetition of phonemes and suprasegmental features from non-words, and 3) recognition of keywords from sentences presented within a noise background, and the following ISP skills: 1) discrimination of male from female and female from female talkers and 2) identification and discrimination of emotional content from spoken sentences. A group of 30 age-matched children without hearing loss completed the non-word repetition, and talker- and emotion-perception tasks for comparison. Results Word recognition scores decreased with signal level from a mean of 77% correct at 70 dB SPL to 52% at 50 dB SPL. On average, CI users recognized 50% of keywords presented in sentences that were 9.8 dB above background noise. Phonetic properties were repeated from non-word stimuli at about the same level of accuracy as suprasegmental attributes (70% and 75%, respectively). The majority of CI users identified emotional content and differentiated talkers significantly above chance levels. Scores on LSP and ISP measures were combined into separate principal component scores and these components were highly correlated (r = .76). Both LSP and ISP component scores were higher for children

  5. Regenerative Surgical Treatment of Peri-implantitis

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-31

    Failure of Dental Implant Due to Infection; Infection; Inflammation; Peri-implantitis; Bacterial Infections; Bleeding of Subgingival Space; Molecular Sequence Variation; Periodontal Diseases; Mouth Diseases

  6. Early Caffeine Prophylaxis and Risk of Failure of Initial Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in Very Low Birth Weight Infants.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ravi M; Zimmerman, Kanecia; Carlton, David P; Clark, Reese; Benjamin, Daniel K; Smith, P Brian

    2017-11-01

    To test the hypothesis that early caffeine treatment on the day of birth, compared with later treatment in very low birth weight (VLBW, <1500 g) infants receiving continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy, is associated with a decreased risk of CPAP failure in the first week of life. Multicenter, observational cohort study in 366 US neonatal intensive care units. We evaluated inborn, VLBW infants discharged from 2000 to 2014, who received only CPAP therapy without surfactant treatment on day of life (DOL) 0, had a 5-minute Apgar ≥3, and received caffeine in the first week of life. We used multivariable conditional logistic regression to compare the risk of CPAP failure, defined as invasive mechanical ventilation or surfactant therapy on DOL 1-6, by timing of caffeine treatment as either early (initiation on DOL 0) or routine (initiation on DOL 1-6). We identified 11 133 infants; 4528 (41%) received early caffeine and 6605 (59%) received routine caffeine. Median gestational age was lower in the early caffeine group, 29 weeks (25th, 75th percentiles; 28, 30) vs the routine caffeine group, 30 weeks (29, 31); P < 0.001. The incidence of CPAP failure on DOL 1-6 was similar between the early and routine caffeine groups: 22% vs 21%; adjusted OR = 1.05 (95% CI: 0.93, 1.18). Early caffeine treatment on the day of birth was not associated with a decreased risk of CPAP failure in the first week of life for VLBW infants initially treated with CPAP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Nursing student profiles and occurrence of early academic failure: Findings from an explorative European study.

    PubMed

    Dante, Angelo; Ferrão, Sónia; Jarosova, Darja; Lancia, Loreto; Nascimento, Carla; Notara, Venetia; Pokorna, Andrea; Rybarova, Lubica; Skela-Savič, Brigita; Palese, Alvisa

    2016-03-01

    In the European context regulated by the Bologna Process principles, there is little evidence to date on the different profiles, if any, of nursing students enrolled in the 1st academic year and their academic outcomes. To describe and compare the nursing student profiles and their academic outcomes at the end of the 1st year across European Bachelor of Nursing Science (BNS) courses. An exploratory multicentre cohort study involving five countries: Nursing students who were enrolled in nursing programmes for the academic year 2011/2012 in the participating BNS courses, willing to participate and regularly admitted to the 2nd academic year, were included in this study undertaken in 2013. Individual and faculty level variables were collected after having ensured the validity of the tools developed in English and then appropriately translated into the language of each participating country. A total of 378/710 (53.2%) students participated in the study. They attended from 390 to 810h of lessons, while clinical experience ranged from 162 to 536h. The students reported a mean average age of 21.4 (Confidence of Interval [CI] 95%, 21.0-22.3) and foreign students were limited in number (on average 3.7%). The students reported adopting mainly individual learning strategies (92.9%), duplicating notes or lecture notes prepared by professors (74.4%), and concentrating their study before exams (74.6%). The majority reported experiencing learning difficulties (49.7%) and a lack of academic support (84.9%). Around 33.2% reported economic difficulties and the need to work while studying nursing on average for 24h/week. Personal expectations regarding the nursing role were different (45.6%) than the role encountered during the 1st year, as learning workloads were higher (57.2%) with regard to expectations. Around one-third of students reported the intention to leave nursing education while the proportion of those reporting early academic failure was on average 5.6%. More strategies

  8. Word Learning in Deaf Children with Cochlear Implants: Effects of Early Auditory Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Derek M.; Stewart, Jessica; Moberly, Aaron; Hollich, George; Miyamoto, Richard T.

    2012-01-01

    Word-learning skills were tested in normal-hearing 12- to 40-month-olds and in deaf 22- to 40-month-olds 12 to 18 months after cochlear implantation. Using the Intermodal Preferential Looking Paradigm (IPLP), children were tested for their ability to learn two novel-word/novel-object pairings. Normal-hearing children demonstrated learning on this…

  9. Expressive Vocabulary, Morphology, Syntax and Narrative Skills in Profoundly Deaf Children after Early Cochlear Implantation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boons, Tinne; De Raeve, Leo; Langereis, Margreet; Peeraer, Louis; Wouters, Jan; van Wieringen, Astrid

    2013-01-01

    Practical experience and research reveal generic spoken language benefits after cochlear implantation. However, systematic research on specific language domains and error analyses are required to probe sub-skills. Moreover, the effect of predictive factors on distinct language domains is unknown. In this study, outcomes of 70 school-aged children…

  10. Expression of caveolin-1 in the early phase of beta-TCP implanted in dog mandible.

    PubMed

    Chou, Cherng-Tzeh; Bhawal, Ujjal K; Watanabe, Nobuyuki; Kuboyama, Noboru; Chang, Wei-Jen; Lee, Sheng-Yang; Abiko, Yoshimitsu

    2013-07-01

    Caveolin is an essential and signature protein of caveolae. Caveolin-1 participates in signal transduction processes by acting as a scaffolding protein that concentrates, organizes and functional regulates signalling molecules within caveolar membranes. Beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) has been widely used for scaffold in tissue engineering due to its high biodegradability, osteoconductivity, easy manipulation, and lack of histotoxicity. To better understand the role of caveolin-1 in bone homeostasis and response to β-TCP scaffold, β-TCP was implanted into the dog mandible defects in beagle dogs, and gene expression profiles were examined focused on the molecular components involved in caveolin-1 regulation. Here we showed the quantitative imageology analysis characterized using in vivo micro-computed tomography (CT) images at 4 and 7 days after β-TCP implanted in dog mandibles. The bone reformation by using the β-TCP scaffolds began within 4 days of surgery, and was healing well at 7 days after surgery. Higher mRNA level of caveolin-1 was observed in β-TCP-implanted Beagle dog mandibles compared with controls at day 4 and day 7 post-surgery. The enhancement of caveolin-1 by β-TCP was further confirmed by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence analysis. We further revealed increased Smad7 and Phospho Stat3 expression in β-TCP-implanted specimens. Taken together, these results suggest that the enhancement of caveolin-1 play an important role in accelerating bone formation by β-TCP. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Interdependence of linguistic and indexical speech perception skills in school-age children with early cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Geers, Ann E; Davidson, Lisa S; Uchanski, Rosalie M; Nicholas, Johanna G

    2013-09-01

    This study documented the ability of experienced pediatric cochlear implant (CI) users to perceive linguistic properties (what is said) and indexical attributes (emotional intent and talker identity) of speech, and examined the extent to which linguistic (LSP) and indexical (ISP) perception skills are related. Preimplant-aided hearing, age at implantation, speech processor technology, CI-aided thresholds, sequential bilateral cochlear implantation, and academic integration with hearing age-mates were examined for their possible relationships to both LSP and ISP skills. Sixty 9- to 12-year olds, first implanted at an early age (12 to 38 months), participated in a comprehensive test battery that included the following LSP skills: (1) recognition of monosyllabic words at loud and soft levels, (2) repetition of phonemes and suprasegmental features from nonwords, and (3) recognition of key words from sentences presented within a noise background, and the following ISP skills: (1) discrimination of across-gender and within-gender (female) talkers and (2) identification and discrimination of emotional content from spoken sentences. A group of 30 age-matched children without hearing loss completed the nonword repetition, and talker- and emotion-perception tasks for comparison. Word-recognition scores decreased with signal level from a mean of 77% correct at 70 dB SPL to 52% at 50 dB SPL. On average, CI users recognized 50% of key words presented in sentences that were 9.8 dB above background noise. Phonetic properties were repeated from nonword stimuli at about the same level of accuracy as suprasegmental attributes (70 and 75%, respectively). The majority of CI users identified emotional content and differentiated talkers significantly above chance levels. Scores on LSP and ISP measures were combined into separate principal component scores and these components were highly correlated (r = 0.76). Both LSP and ISP component scores were higher for children who received a CI

  12. The use of seasonal forecasts in a crop failure early warning system for West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicklin, K. J.; Challinor, A.; Tompkins, A.

    2011-12-01

    Seasonal rainfall in semi-arid West Africa is highly variable. Farming systems in the region are heavily dependent on the monsoon rains leading to large variability in crop yields and a population that is vulnerable to drought. The existing crop yield forecasting system uses observed weather to calculate a water satisfaction index, which is then related to expected crop yield (Traore et al, 2006). Seasonal climate forecasts may be able to increase the lead-time of yield forecasts and reduce the humanitarian impact of drought. This study assesses the potential for a crop failure early warning system, which uses dynamic seasonal forecasts and a process-based crop model. Two sets of simulations are presented. In the first, the crop model is driven with observed weather as a control run. Observed rainfall is provided by the GPCP 1DD data set, whilst observed temperature and solar radiation data are given by the ERA-Interim reanalysis. The crop model used is the groundnut version of the General Large Area Model for annual crops (GLAM), which has been designed to operate on the grids used by seasonal weather forecasts (Challinor et al, 2004). GLAM is modified for use in West Africa by allowing multiple planting dates each season, replanting failed crops and producing parameter sets for Spanish- and Virginia- type West African groundnut. Crop yields are simulated for three different assumptions concerning the distribution and relative abundance of Spanish- and Virginia- type groundnut. Model performance varies with location, but overall shows positive skill in reproducing observed crop failure. The results for the three assumptions are similar, suggesting that the performance of the system is limited by something other than information on the type of groundnut grown. In the second set of simulations the crop model is driven with observed weather up to the forecast date, followed by ECMWF system 3 seasonal forecasts until harvest. The variation of skill with forecast date

  13. The perception of prosody and associated auditory cues in early-implanted children: the role of auditory working memory and musical activities.

    PubMed

    Torppa, Ritva; Faulkner, Andrew; Huotilainen, Minna; Järvikivi, Juhani; Lipsanen, Jari; Laasonen, Marja; Vainio, Martti

    2014-03-01

    To study prosodic perception in early-implanted children in relation to auditory discrimination, auditory working memory, and exposure to music. Word and sentence stress perception, discrimination of fundamental frequency (F0), intensity and duration, and forward digit span were measured twice over approximately 16 months. Musical activities were assessed by questionnaire. Twenty-one early-implanted and age-matched normal-hearing (NH) children (4-13 years). Children with cochlear implants (CIs) exposed to music performed better than others in stress perception and F0 discrimination. Only this subgroup of implanted children improved with age in word stress perception, intensity discrimination, and improved over time in digit span. Prosodic perception, F0 discrimination and forward digit span in implanted children exposed to music was equivalent to the NH group, but other implanted children performed more poorly. For children with CIs, word stress perception was linked to digit span and intensity discrimination: sentence stress perception was additionally linked to F0 discrimination. Prosodic perception in children with CIs is linked to auditory working memory and aspects of auditory discrimination. Engagement in music was linked to better performance across a range of measures, suggesting that music is a valuable tool in the rehabilitation of implanted children.

  14. Prospective Single-Arm, Multi-Center Trial of a Patient-Specific Interpositional Knee Implant: Early Clinical Results

    PubMed Central

    Koeck, F.X; Luring, C; Goetz, J; Handel, M; Tingart, M; Grifka, J; Beckmann, J

    2011-01-01

    Background: The treatment of unicompartmental arthritis in younger patients is challenging. The aim of this study is to report final safety and efficacy analysis results for the iForma patient–specific interpositional device, which is designed for the treatment of isolated medial or lateral compartment arthritis of the knee. Methods: From June 2005 to June 2008 78 subjects (42 men, 36 women) received an iForma implant. The mean age was 53 years, the mean Body Mass Index 29.0. We surveyed the WOMAC scores, the visual analog pain scale and the Knee Society Scores. Results: The mean follow up was 16.4 months. The mean WOMAC knee scores increased from 48.3 before surgery to 71.3 after 24 months. A reduction in pain was achieved for all five pain measures using a standard visual analog scale (VAS). Knee Society Knee Score improved from 39.2 before to 61.9 24 month after surgery. The Knee Society Function Scores improved form preoperative 64.5 to 82.5 2 years postoperative. The preoperative range of motion could be restored. The overall revision rate was 24%. 15 implants were removed early, 4 knees were revised without implant removal. Conclusion: Within narrow indication of patients with unicompartmental disease, the iForma device can provide improvement in knee function and reduction in pain, however, with a significant higher risk of early revision compared to traditional arthroplasty. Respecting this limitation it may be an alternative option for arthritic patients with unicompartmental disease who have contraindications to High Tibial Osteotomy or are too young for knee replacement; the iForma device further has the distinct advantage of time and cost saving compared to those procedures. PMID:21552462

  15. Renal impairment and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction early post-myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Jorapur, Vinod; Lamas, Gervasio A; Sadowski, Zygmunt P; Reynolds, Harmony R; Carvalho, Antonio C; Buller, Christopher E; Rankin, James M; Renkin, Jean; Steg, Philippe Gabriel; White, Harvey D; Vozzi, Carlos; Balcells, Eduardo; Ragosta, Michael; Martin, C Edwin; Srinivas, Vankeepuram S; Wharton III, William W; Abramsky, Staci; Mon, Ana C; Kronsberg, Shari S; Hochman, Judith S

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To study if impaired renal function is associated with increased risk of peri-infarct heart failure (HF) in patients with preserved ejection fraction (EF). METHODS: Patients with occluded infarct-related arteries (IRAs) between 1 to 28 d after myocardial infarction (MI) were grouped into chronic kidney disease (CKD) stages based on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Rates of early post-MI HF were compared among eGFR groups. Logistic regression was used to explore independent predictors of HF. RESULTS: Reduced eGFR was present in 71.1% of 2160 patients, with significant renal impairment (eGFR < 60 mL/min every 1.73 m2) in 14.8%. The prevalence of HF was higher with worsening renal function: 15.5%, 17.8% and 29.4% in patients with CKD stages 1, 2 and 3 or 4, respectively (P < 0.0001), despite a small absolute difference in mean EF across eGFR groups: 48.2 ± 10.0, 47.9 ± 11.3 and 46.2 ± 12.1, respectively (P = 0.02). The prevalence of HF was again higher with worsening renal function among patients with preserved EF: 10.1%, 13.6% and 23.6% (P < 0.0001), but this relationship was not significant among patients with depressed EF: 27.1%, 26.2% and 37.9% (P = 0.071). Moreover, eGFR was an independent correlate of HF in patients with preserved EF (P = 0.003) but not in patients with depressed EF (P = 0.181). CONCLUSION: A significant proportion of post-MI patients with occluded IRAs have impaired renal function. Impaired renal function was associated with an increased rate of early post-MI HF, the association being strongest in patients with preserved EF. These findings have implications for management of peri-infarct HF. PMID:20885993

  16. Length of stay and risk of very early readmission in acute heart failure.

    PubMed

    Miñana, Gema; Bosch, Maria José; Núñez, Eduardo; Mollar, Anna; Santas, Enrique; Valero, Ernesto; García-Blas, Sergio; Pellicer, Mauricio; Bodí, Vicent; Chorro, Francisco J; Sanchis, Juan; Núñez, Julio

    2017-07-01

    In patients admitted for acute heart failure (AHF), optimal length of stay (LOS) remains controversial. Longer hospitalizations are associated with worse prognosis, but little is known about short hospitalizations. The aim of this work was to evaluate the relationship between LOS and the risk of short-term readmission in patients discharged after a hospitalization for AHF. We included 2110 consecutive patients. The independent associations between LOS and unplanned 10, 15 and 30-day readmissions were evaluated by Cox regression analysis adjusted for competing events. LOS was categorized as LOS1: ≤4days, LOS2: 5-7days, LOS3: 8-10days, and LOS4: >10days. The mean age was 73±11years and 52.6% exhibited left ventricle ejection fraction≥50%. The median (IQR) LOS was 7 (5-11) days. At 10, 15 and 30-day follow-up, 130 (6.2%), 181 (8.6%), and 282 (13.4%) unplanned readmissions were registered. Rates of 10 and 15-day readmission among LOS categories showed a J-shaped pattern with lower rates for those in LOS2 and higher at the both extremes (p=0.001). At 30-day, only longer stays showed higher rates of readmission (p=0.002). In the multivariate analysis, the U-shaped curve remained significant for 10 and 15-day readmissions (p<0.05). Compared to LOS2, LOS1, LOS3 and LOS4 showed about two-fold increased risk. At 30-day only longer stays showed a borderline and modest increase of risk. Shorter and longer stays are associated with the risk of very early readmissions after an episode of AHF. These associations are marginal for 30-day readmissions. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Early prediction of norepinephrine dependency and refractory septic shock with a multimodal approach of vascular failure.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Marie; Perez, Pierre; Thivilier, Carine; Levy, Bruno

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of the study is to improve our ability to detect catecholamine dependency and refractory septic shock. Fifty-one patients with septic shock were studied within the first 4 hours of norepinephrine administration. Patients were divided into 2 groups according to their evolution in the intensive care unit, namely, group A, shock reversal, and group B, no shock reversal. Reversal of shock was defined as the maintenance of a systolic blood pressure greater than or equal to 90 mm Hg without vasopressor support for 24 hours or more. Vascular reactivity was tested using incremental doses of phenylephrine. Muscle tissue oxygen saturation and its changes during a vascular occlusion test were measured. Group B patients had a higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score and lactate level and more frequently received norepinephrine and renal replacement. Overall mortality was 100% in group B (16/16) and 20% (7/35) in group A. Phenylephrine increased mean arterial pressure in a dose-dependent manner more significantly in group A patients than in group B (P = .0004). Basal tissue oxygen saturation and the recovery slope after vascular occlusion test were lower in group B. In multivariate analysis, 4 parameters remained independently associated with mortality: the increase in mean arterial pressure at phenylephrine 6 μg/kg per minute, the recovery slope, SOFA score, and norepinephrine doses at H0. The intensity of septic shock-induced vascular hyporesponsiveness to vasopressor is tightly linked to septic shock severity and evolution and may potentially be identified early with simple to obtain parameters such as near-infrared spectroscopy value, SOFA score, or norepinephrine dose. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Autologous transplantation versus allogeneic transplantation in patients with follicular lymphoma experiencing early treatment failure.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sonali M; Godfrey, James; Ahn, Kwang Woo; DiGilio, Alyssa; Ahmed, Sairah; Agrawal, Vaibhav; Bachanova, Veronika; Bacher, Ulrike; Bashey, Asad; Bolaños-Meade, Javier; Cairo, Mitchell; Chen, Andy; Chhabra, Saurabh; Copelan, Edward; Dahi, Parastoo B; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Farooq, Umar; Ganguly, Siddhartha; Hertzberg, Mark; Holmberg, Leona; Inwards, David; Kanate, Abraham S; Karmali, Reem; Kenkre, Vaishalee P; Kharfan-Dabaja, Mohamed A; Klein, Andreas; Lazarus, Hillard M; Mei, Matthew; Mussetti, Alberto; Nishihori, Taiga; Ramakrishnan Geethakumari, Praveen; Saad, Ayman; Savani, Bipin N; Schouten, Harry C; Shah, Nirav; Urbano-Ispizua, Alvaro; Vij, Ravi; Vose, Julie; Sureda, Anna; Hamadani, Mehdi

    2018-06-15

    Early treatment failure (ETF) in follicular lymphoma (FL), defined as relapse or progression within 2 years of frontline chemoimmunotherapy, is a newly recognized marker of poor survival and identifies a high-risk group of patients with an expected 5-year overall survival (OS) rate of approximately 50%. Transplantation is an established option for relapsed FL, but its efficacy in this specific ETF FL population has not been previously evaluated. This study compared autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HCT) with either matched sibling donor (MSD) or matched unrelated donor (MUD) allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT) as the first transplantation approach for patients with ETF FL (age ≥ 18 years) undergoing auto-HCT or allo-HCT between 2002 and 2014. The primary endpoint was OS. The secondary endpoints were progression-free survival, relapse, and nonrelapse mortality (NRM). Four hundred forty FL patients had ETF (auto-HCT, 240; MSD hematopoietic stem cell transplantation [HCT], 105; and MUD HCT, 95). With a median follow-up of 69 to 73 months, the adjusted probability of 5-year OS was significantly higher after auto-HCT (70%) or MSD HCT (73%) versus MUD HCT (49%; P = .0008). The 5-year adjusted probability of NRM was significantly lower for auto-HCT (5%) versus MSD (17%) or MUD HCT (33%; P < .0001). The 5-year adjusted probability of disease relapse was lower with MSD (31%) or MUD HCT (23%) versus auto-HCT (58%; P < .0001). Patients with high-risk FL, as defined by ETF, undergoing auto-HCT for FL have low NRM and a promising 5-year OS rate (70%). MSD HCT has lower relapse rates than auto-HCT but similar OS. Cancer 2018;124:2541-51. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  19. Relationship between Early Physician Follow-Up and 30-Day Readmission after Acute Myocardial Infarction and Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Yu-Chi; Chang, Guann-Ming; Chang, Hsien-Yen

    2017-01-01

    Background Thirty-day readmission rates after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and heart failure are important patient outcome metrics. Early post-discharge physician follow-up has been promoted as a method of reducing 30-day readmission rates. However, the relationships between early post-discharge follow-up and 30-day readmission for AMI and heart failure are inconclusive. We used nationwide population-based data to examine associations between 7-day physician follow-up and 30-day readmission, and further associations of 7-day same physician (during the index hospitalization and at follow-up) and cardiologist follow-up with 30-day readmission for non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) or heart failure. Methods We analyzed all patients 18 years or older with NSTEMI and heart failure and discharged from hospitals in 2010 in Taiwan through Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database. Cox proportional hazard models with robust sandwich variance estimates and propensity score weighting were performed after adjustment for patient and hospital characteristics to test associations between 7-day physician follow-up and 30-day readmission. Results The study population for NSTEMI and heart failure included 5,008 and 13,577 patients, respectively. Early physician follow-up was associated with a lower hazard ratio of readmission compared with no early physician follow-up for patients with NSTEMI (hazard ratio [HR], 0.47; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39–0.57), and for patients with heart failure (HR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.48–0.60). Same physician follow-up was associated with a reduced hazard ratio of readmission compared with different physician follow-up for patients with NSTEMI (HR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.48–0.65), and for patients with heart failure (HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.62–0.76). Conclusions For each condition, patients who have an outpatient visit with a physician within 7 days of discharge have a lower risk of 30-day readmission. Moreover

  20. TP53 PIN3 and PEX4 polymorphisms and infertility associated with endometriosis or with post-in vitro fertilization implantation failure

    PubMed Central

    Paskulin, D D; Cunha-Filho, J S L; Souza, C A B; Bortolini, M C; Hainaut, P; Ashton-Prolla, P

    2012-01-01

    p53 has a crucial role in human fertility by regulating the expression of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), a secreted cytokine critical for blastocyst implantation. To examine whether TP53 polymorphisms may be involved with in vitro fertilization (IVF) failure and endometriosis (END), we have assessed the associations between TP53 polymorphism in intron 2 (PIN2; G/C, intron 2), PIN3 (one (N, non-duplicated) or two (D, duplicated) repeats of a 16-bp motif, intron 3) and polymorphism in exon 4 (PEX4; C/G, p.P72R, exon 4) in 98 women with END and 115 women with post-IVF failure. In addition, 134 fertile women and 300 women unselected with respect to fertility-related features were assessed. TP53 polymorphisms and haplotypes were identified by amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction. TP53 PIN3 and PEX4 were associated with both END (P=0.042 and P=0.007, respectively) and IVF (P=0.004 and P=0.009, respectively) when compared with women both selected and unselected for fertility-related features. Haplotypes D-C and N-C were related to higher risk for END (P=0.002, P=0.001, respectively) and failure of IVF (P=0.018 and P=0.002, respectively) when compared with the Fertile group. These results support that specific TP53 haplotypes are associated with an increased risk of END-associated infertility and with post-IVF failure. PMID:23013791

  1. Effect of 1,25(OH)2 vitamin D3 on cytokine production by endometrial cells of women with repeated implantation failure.

    PubMed

    Rajaei, Samira; Mirahmadian, Mahroo; Jeddi-Tehrani, Mahmood; Tavakoli, Maryam; Zonoobi, Mojdeh; Dabbagh, Ali; Zarnani, Amir Hassan

    2012-11-01

    Repeated implantation failure (RIF) is a worldwide health problem that imposes a great deal of cost on patients and health care system. Vitamin D(3) has been proposed to have positive impact on the process of implantation. The present study was performed to compare the effect of 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) on cytokine production by endometrial cells of women with RIF and healthy fertile controls. Whole endometrial cells (WECs) and endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) from RIF and normal fertile women were treated with 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). The levels of IL-10, TGF-β, IFNγ, Il-6, IL-8 and IL-17 in culture supernatants were assayed by ELISA. Also, ability of the cells from both groups to produce 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) was evaluated and compared. 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) down-regulated cytokine production in WECs from both groups except for IL-8 which was upraised. Similar trends were also observed in ESCs except up-regulation of TGF-β in RIF group. Endometrial cells of both groups had comparable capacity to produce 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). Based on the minimal differential immunoregulatory effect of vitamin D(3) on endometrial cells from RIF and control women, it may be suggested that circulating levels of maternal vitamin D(3) be the subject of further investigation.

  2. Appropriate evaluation and treatment of heart failure patients after implantable cardioverter-defibrillator discharge: time to go beyond the initial shock.

    PubMed

    Mishkin, Joseph D; Saxonhouse, Sherry J; Woo, Gregory W; Burkart, Thomas A; Miles, William M; Conti, Jamie B; Schofield, Richard S; Sears, Samuel F; Aranda, Juan M

    2009-11-24

    Multiple clinical trials support the use of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) for prevention of sudden cardiac death in patients with heart failure (HF). Unfortunately, several complicating issues have arisen from the universal use of ICDs in HF patients. An estimated 20% to 35% of HF patients who receive an ICD for primary prevention will experience an appropriate shock within 1 to 3 years of implant, and one-third of patients will experience an inappropriate shock. An ICD shock is associated with a 2- to 5-fold increase in mortality, with the most common cause being progressive HF. The median time from initial ICD shock to death ranges from 168 to 294 days depending on HF etiology and the appropriateness of the ICD therapy. Despite this prognosis, current guidelines do not provide a clear stepwise approach to managing these high-risk patients. An ICD shock increases HF event risk and should trigger a thorough evaluation to determine the etiology of the shock and guide subsequent therapeutic interventions. Several combinations of pharmacologic and device-based interventions such as adding amiodarone to baseline beta-blocker therapy, adjusting ICD sensitivity, and employing antitachycardia pacing may reduce future appropriate and inappropriate shocks. Aggressive HF surveillance and management is required after an ICD shock, as the risk of sudden cardiac death is transformed to an increased HF event risk.

  3. Acute effects of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator shocks on biomarkers of myocardial injury, apoptosis, heart failure, and systemic inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Brewster, Jordan; Sexton, Travis; Dhaliwal, Gary; Charnigo, Richard; Morales, Gustavo; Parrott, Kevin; Darrat, Yousef; Gurley, John; Smyth, Susan; Elayi, Claude S.

    2017-01-01

    Background ICD shocks are potentially associated with myocardial injury, altered hemodynamics, apoptosis and inflammatory signaling. Their precise cellular impact can be explored after defibrillation testing (DFT) via biomarkers. We evaluated changes in biomarkers after ICD shocks during DFT. Methods We prospectively enrolled outpatients presenting for first implantation of a cardiac device. Biomarkers indicative of myocardial injury, inflammation and apoptosis were measured before and after implantation, and compared between patients receiving DFT (DFT+) to those not (DFT−). Results Sixty-three patients were enrolled, 40 in the DFT+ group and 23 in the DFT− group. Average levels of troponin I, hsCRP, Calprotectin, NTproBNP, and sFas increased by >50% after cardiac device implantation compared to baseline. Increase in troponin never exceeded 50 fold upper limit of normal (2ng/mL). Troponin trended higher in the DFT+ group at 8 hours (median 0.18 ng/mL, IQR 0.11–0.48) versus the DFT− group (0.10 ng/mL, IQR 0.06–0.28, P=0.0501); NTproBNP had a similar trend (p=0.0581). sFas significantly increased in the DFT+ group from baseline (median 4663 pg/mL, IQR 2908–5679) to 24 hours (5039 pg/mL, IQR 3274–6261; p=0.0338) but not in the DFT− group (p=0.4705). Conclusion DFT testing is associated with acutely increased plasma levels of troponin and sFas, a biomarker of apoptosis, along with a trend towards higher NTproBNP. PMID:28156007

  4. Early prognostic markers for fatal fulminant hepatic failure cases with viral hepatitis: proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic studies of serum.

    PubMed

    Bala, Lakshmi; Mehrotra, Mayank; Mohindra, Samir; Saxena, Rajan; Khetrapal, Chunni Lal

    2013-02-01

    Fulminant hepatic failure is associated with liver metabolic derangements which could have fatal consequences. The aim of the present study is to identify serum markers for early prediction of the outcome. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic studies of serum of fulminant hepatic failure patients due to viral hepatitis with grade II/III of encephalopathy (twenty-four: ten prospective and fourteen retrospective) and twenty-five controls were undertaken. Of the twenty-four patients, fifteen survived with medical management alone while nine had fatal outcome. The results demonstrated significantly elevated indices of amino acids (alanine, lysine, glutamine, histidine, tyrosine, phenylalanine and 1,2-propanediol) in fatal cases compared to survivors and controls. Principal component analysis showed clear separation of fatal and surviving cases. Liver function parameters were significantly deranged in patients but they failed to provide early significant differences between surviving and fatal cases. Compared to model for end-stage liver disease scores, principal component analysis appear to be better as an early prognostic indicator. Biochemical mapping of pathways suggested interruptions in amino acid metabolism and urea cycle. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance studies of serum have the potential of rapidly identifying patients with irreversible fulminant hepatic failure requiring liver transplantation as life saving option. Copyright © 2012 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Dietary Sodium Modulation of Aldosterone Activation and Renal Function During the Progression of Experimental Heart Failure Miller: Dietary Sodium and Early Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Wayne L.; Borgeson, Daniel D.; Grantham, J. Aaron; Luchner, Andreas; Redfield, Margaret M.; Burnett, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Aldosterone activation is central to the sodium-fluid retention that marks the progression of heart failure (HF). The actions of dietary sodium restriction, a mainstay in HF management, on cardiorenal and neuroendocrine adaptations during the progression of HF are poorly understood. The study aim was to assess the role of dietary sodium during the progression of experimental HF. Methods and Results Experimental HF was produced in a canine model by rapid right ventricular pacing which evolves from early mild HF to overt, severe HF. Dogs were fed one of three diets: 1) high sodium [250 mEq (5.8 grams) per day, n=6]; 2) standard sodium [58 mEq (1.3 grams) per day, n=6]; and 3) sodium restriction [11 mEq (0.25 grams) per day, n=6]. During the 38 day study hemodynamics, renal function, renin activity (PRA), and aldosterone were measured. Changes in hemodynamics at 38 days were similar in all three groups, as were changes in renal function. Aldosterone activation was demonstrated in all three groups, however, dietary sodium restriction, in contrast to high sodium, resulted in early (10 days) activation of PRA and aldosterone. High sodium demonstrated significant suppression of aldosterone activation over the course of HF progression. Conclusions Excessive dietary sodium restriction particularly in early stage HF results in early aldosterone activation, while normal and excess sodium intake are associated with delayed or suppressed activation. These findings warrant evaluation in humans to determine if dietary sodium manipulation, particularly during early stage HF, may have a significant impact on neuroendocrine disease progression. PMID:25823360

  6. The effects of early auditory-based intervention on adult bilateral cochlear implant outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lim, Stacey R

    2017-09-01

    The goal of this exploratory study was to determine the types of improvement that sequentially implanted auditory-verbal and auditory-oral adults with prelingual and childhood hearing loss received in bilateral listening conditions, compared to their best unilateral listening condition. Five auditory-verbal adults and five auditory-oral adults were recruited for this study. Participants were seated in the center of a 6-loudspeaker array. BKB-SIN sentences were presented from 0° azimuth, while multi-talker babble was presented from various loudspeakers. BKB-SIN scores in bilateral and the best unilateral listening conditions were compared to determine the amount of improvement gained. As a group, the participants had improved speech understanding scores in the bilateral listening condition. Although not statistically significant, the auditory-verbal group tended to have greater speech understanding with greater levels of competing background noise, compared to the auditory-oral participants. Bilateral cochlear implantation provides individuals with prelingual and childhood hearing loss with improved speech understanding in noise. A higher emphasis on auditory development during the critical language development years may add to increased speech understanding in adulthood. However, other demographic factors such as age or device characteristics must also be considered. Although both auditory-verbal and auditory-oral approaches emphasize spoken language development, they emphasize auditory development to different degrees. This may affect cochlear implant (CI) outcomes. Further consideration should be made in future auditory research to determine whether these differences contribute to performance outcomes. Additional investigation with a larger participant pool, controlled for effects of age and CI devices and processing strategies, would be necessary to determine whether language learning approaches are associated with different levels of speech understanding

  7. Sources of Variability in Language Development of Children with Cochlear Implants: Age at Implantation, Parental Language, and Early Features of Children's Language Construction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szagun, Gisela; Schramm, Satyam A.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the relative influence of age at implantation, parental expansions, and child language internal factors on grammatical progress in children with cochlear implants (CI). Data analyses used two longitudinal corpora of spontaneous speech samples, one with twenty-two and one with twenty-six children,…

  8. Outflow resistance of the Baerveldt glaucoma drainage implant and modifications for early postoperative intraocular pressure control.

    PubMed

    Breckenridge, R Reid; Bartholomew, Luanna R; Crosson, Craig E; Kent, Alexander R

    2004-10-01

    To determine outflow resistance of the Baerveldt glaucoma implant using different tube configurations. Outflow resistance of 6 tube configurations (C1- C6) of Baerveldt implants was measured under conditions of constant pressure perfusion. Pressures ranged from 2 to 55 mm Hg. Venting slits were created using a 7-0 Vicryl, spatulated suture-needle. Seton tubes were occluded by threading a retrograde suture approximately 1.5 cm into the lumen. At pressures between 2 and 55 mm Hg, mean outflow resistance of the normally configured seton (ie, open tube; C1) was 0.41 (+/- 0.6) mm Hg/microL/min. Resistance was unchanged (mean 0.41 (+/- 0.4) mm Hg/microL/min) by the addition of 4 venting slits (C2) to the seton tube. Occlusion of the open seton tube with a 3-0 Supramid suture (C3) significantly increased (P < 0.001) mean outflow resistance to 14.99 (+/- 0.6) mm Hg/microL/min. Occlusion of the tube with a 4-0 Supramid suture (C4) significantly increased (P < 0.001) mean outflow resistance to 1.09 (+/- 0.5) mm Hg/microL/min. In implants where tubes were occluded with a 3-0 Supramid suture, the addition of venting slits (C5) significantly decreased (P = 0.038) mean outflow resistance to 8.98 (+/- 0.4) mm Hg/microL/min. In tubes occluded with a 4-0 Supramid suture, the addition of venting slits (C6) decreased mean outflow resistance to 0.98 (+/- 0.6) mm Hg/microL/min. Although these results cannot be directly correlated to the clinical setting, they do show that outflow resistance can be modified at the time of surgery by changing tube configuration of the Baerveldt glaucoma implant. Configuration C5 (3-0 Supramid with venting slits) closely approximates the outflow rate in the normal intraocular pressure range.

  9. The immunologic and antioxidant effects of L-phenylalanine on the uterine implantation of mice embryos during early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yulan; Bai, Yongping; Liu, Guanhui; Wang, Zixu; Cao, Jing; Chen, Yaoxing; Yang, Hongliang

    2014-10-01

    L-phenylalanine (L-PHE) is a synthetic precursor of catecholamines. Because it cannot be synthesised by an organism, it must be absorbed from the environment. Despite the wide use of L-PHE, whether L-PHE has a negative impact on embryo implantation and development is poorly understood. This study attempted to determine the roles of L-PHE in embryo implantation and development and in the immune response and antioxidant status of the uterus in early pregnancy mice injected intraperitoneally with 320 mg/kg L-PHE. The embryo number of treated mice decreased by 57.6%, and the size of their embryos was reduced by 2.8% (P⟩0.05) along the long diameter and 11.9% (P⟨0.05) along the short diameter at E9 compared with control mice. In addition, L-PHE significantly suppressed B lymphocyte proliferation. L-PHE increased IL-2 secretion but decreased the IL-4 concentration, thereby up-regulating the ratio of IL-2/IL-4 to 1.37-8.45. An analysis of the oxidant and antioxidant status showed that, compared with the control mice, the level of superoxide dismutase activity decreased by 21.54-39.94% and the glutathione peroxidase activity decreased by 15.27-18.96% among the L-PHE-treated mice at E1-E9. However, the malonaldehyde content increased by 14.29%-90.11% among the L-PHE-treated mice. Therefore, L-PHE impaired embryo implantation by disrupting cytokine-based immunity and oxidative stress in the uterus.

  10. Early Loading of Fluoridated Implants Placed in Fresh Extraction Sockets and Healed Bone: A 3- to 5-Year Clinical and Radiographic Follow-Up Study of 39 Consecutive Patients.

    PubMed

    Oxby, Gert; Oxby, Fredrik; Oxby, Johan; Saltvik, Tomas; Nilsson, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Immediate placement of implants in extraction sockets for early loading is an attractive treatment modality due to reduced treatment time. However, the outcome of fluoridated implants in this situation with regard to bone levels and health of soft tissues is not well documented. To evaluate the outcome of early loading of OsseoSpeed(™) dental implants placed into fresh extraction sockets and healed bone in consecutive patients treated in a private clinic. A total of 182 OsseoSpeed(™) implants (Astra Tech Implant System, DENTSPLY Implants, Mölndal, Sweden), 72 in immediate extraction sockets and 110 in healed sites, were placed in 39 consecutive patients. The implants were loaded with permanent restorations within 60 days (average 31 days). Clinical and radiographic follow-up examinations were performed annually for at least 3 years (mean 55 months). An aesthetic index was used to evaluate the soft tissues adjacent to the prosthetic restorations. No implant was lost during the observation period, giving a survival rate of 100%. Bone level changes during the observation period were minimal, with a mean marginal bone loss of 0.3 ± 0.9 mm around the delayed implants and a mean marginal bone gain of 0.3 ± 1.4 mm around the immediate implants (p = .0036). The frequency distribution of bone level revealed that 85% of implants placed in fresh extraction sockets and 84% of implants in healed bone did not show any loss of bone level during follow-up (p = NS). Soft tissue complications were observed at two immediate implant sites in one patient. The remaining 180 implants received the highest aesthetic score. Moreover, no signs of peri-implant purulent infection or aggressive bone loss were found during the follow-up period. Early loading of fluoridated implants with permanent constructions appears to be a viable therapy for implants placed immediately in extraction sites and in healed bone. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Early Adoption of Sacubitril/Valsartan for Patients With Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction: Insights From Get With the Guidelines-Heart Failure (GWTG-HF).

    PubMed

    Luo, Nancy; Fonarow, Gregg C; Lippmann, Steven J; Mi, Xiaojuan; Heidenreich, Paul A; Yancy, Clyde W; Greiner, Melissa A; Hammill, Bradley G; Hardy, N Chantelle; Turner, Stuart J; Laskey, Warren K; Curtis, Lesley H; Hernandez, Adrian F; Mentz, Robert J; O'Brien, Emily C

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and variation in angiotensin receptor/neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) prescription among a real-world population with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved sacubitril/valsartan for patients with HFrEF in July 2015. Little is known about the early patterns of use of this novel therapy. The study included patients discharged alive from hospitals in Get With the Guidelines-Heart Failure (GWTG-HF), a registry of hospitalized patients with heart failure, between July 2015 and June 2016 who had documentation of whether ARNIs were prescribed at discharge. Patient and hospital characteristics were compared among patients with HFrEF (ejection fraction ≤40%) with and without ARNI prescription at discharge, excluding those with documented contraindications to ARNIs. To evaluate hospital variation, hospitals with at least 10 eligible hospitalizations during the study period were assessed. Of 21,078 patients hospitalized with HFrEF during the study period, 495 (2.3%) were prescribed ARNIs at discharge. Patients prescribed ARNIs were younger (median age 65 years vs. 70 years; p < 0.001), had lower ejection fractions (median 23% vs. 25%; p < 0.001), and had higher use of aldosterone antagonists (45% vs. 31%; p < 0.001) at discharge. At the 241 participating hospitals with 10 or more eligible admissions, 125 (52%) reported no discharge prescriptions of ARNIs. Approximately 2.3% of patients hospitalized for HFrEF in a national registry were prescribed ARNI therapy in the first 12 months following Food and Drug Administration approval. Further study is needed to identify and overcome barriers to implementing new evidence into practice, such as ARNI use among eligible patients with HFrEF. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Early implant placement for a patient with ectodermal dysplasia: Thirteen years of clinical care.

    PubMed

    Knobloch, Lisa A; Larsen, Peter E; Saponaro, Paola C; L'Homme-Langlois, Emilie

    2017-11-29

    Patients with ectodermal dysplasia have abnormalities of 2 or more structures that originate from the ectoderm. The oral manifestations often include the congenital absence of teeth and malformed teeth. This clinical report describes the interdisciplinary care from childhood through the definitive dental rehabilitation completed at skeletal maturation to replace the missing teeth in a patient with ectodermal dysplasia. Treatment began at 9 years of age with an implant-assisted mandibular overdenture to improve function and replace the missing mandibular teeth. Orthodontic treatment for the consolidation of space, composite resin restorations, and interim removable dental prostheses were provided to improve esthetics and replace the missing maxillary teeth. Skeletal growth was monitored, and orthognathic surgery was performed at the cessation of growth. The definitive rehabilitation consisted of a mandibular fixed dental prosthesis supported by dental implants and a maxillary removable dental prosthesis to restore the patient to esthetics and function. Copyright © 2017 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. GenSo-EWS: a novel neural-fuzzy based early warning system for predicting bank failures.

    PubMed

    Tung, W L; Quek, C; Cheng, P

    2004-05-01

    Bank failure prediction is an important issue for the regulators of the banking industries. The collapse and failure of a bank could trigger an adverse financial repercussion and generate negative impacts such as a massive bail out cost for the failing bank and loss of confidence from the investors and depositors. Very often, bank failures are due to financial distress. Hence, it is desirable to have an early warning system (EWS) that identifies potential bank failure or high-risk banks through the traits of financial distress. Various traditional statistical models have been employed to study bank failures [J Finance 1 (1975) 21; J Banking Finance 1 (1977) 249; J Banking Finance 10 (1986) 511; J Banking Finance 19 (1995) 1073]. However, these models do not have the capability to identify the characteristics of financial distress and thus function as black boxes. This paper proposes the use of a new neural fuzzy system [Foundations of neuro-fuzzy systems, 1997], namely the Generic Self-organising Fuzzy Neural Network (GenSoFNN) [IEEE Trans Neural Networks 13 (2002c) 1075] based on the compositional rule of inference (CRI) [Commun ACM 37 (1975) 77], as an alternative to predict banking failure. The CRI based GenSoFNN neural fuzzy network, henceforth denoted as GenSoFNN-CRI(S), functions as an EWS and is able to identify the inherent traits of financial distress based on financial covariates (features) derived from publicly available financial statements. The interaction between the selected features is captured in the form of highly intuitive IF-THEN fuzzy rules. Such easily comprehensible rules provide insights into the possible characteristics of financial distress and form the knowledge base for a highly desired EWS that aids bank regulation. The performance of the GenSoFNN-CRI(S) network is subsequently benchmarked against that of the Cox's proportional hazards model [J Banking Finance 10 (1986) 511; J Banking Finance 19 (1995) 1073], the multi

  14. Comparison of Early versus Delayed Timing of Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation as a Bridge-to-Transplantation: An Analysis of the UNOS Dataset

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Zhezhen; Clerkin, Kevin; Homma, Shunichi; Mancini, Donna M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Placement of left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) as a bridge-to-heart transplantation (HTx) has rapidly expanded due to organ donor shortage. However, the timing of LVAD implantation is variable and it remains unclear if earlier implantation improves survival. Methods We analyzed 14,187 adult candidates from the United Network of Organ Sharing database. Patients were classified by 3 treatment strategies including patients medically treated alone (MED, n=11,009), patients on LVAD support at listing (Early-LVAD, n=1588) and patients undergoing LVAD placement while awaiting HTx (Delayed-LVAD, n=1590). Likelihood of HTx and event-free survival were assessed in patients subcategorized by clinical strategies and UNOS status at listing. Results The device support strategy, despite the timing of placement, was not associated with increased likelihood of HTx compared to MED group. However, both LVAD implantation strategies showed better survival compared to MED group (Early-LVAD: HR 0.811 and 0.633, 95% CI 0.668-0.984 and 0.507-0.789, for 1A and 1B; p=0.034 and p<0.001, Delayed-LVAD: HR 0.553 and 0.696, 95% CI 0.415-0.736 and 0.571-0.847, for 1A and 1B; both p<0.001, respectively). Furthermore, there was no significant difference in survival between these LVAD implantation strategies in patients listed as 1B (p=0.500), although Early-LVAD implantation showed worse survival in patients listed as 1A (HR 1.467, 95% CI 1.076-2.000; p=0.015). Conclusion LVAD support strategies offer a safe bridge-to-HTx. Those candidates who receive urgent upfront LVAD implantation for HTx, and improve to 1B status, would achieve competitive survival with those who receive elective LVAD implantation. PMID:26618255

  15. Comparison of early versus delayed timing of left ventricular assist device implantation as a bridge-to-transplantation: An analysis of the UNOS dataset.

    PubMed

    Kitada, Shuichi; Schulze, P Christian; Jin, Zhezhen; Clerkin, Kevin; Homma, Shunichi; Mancini, Donna M

    2016-01-15

    Placement of left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) as a bridge-to-heart transplantation (HTx) has rapidly expanded due to organ donor shortage. However, the timing of LVAD implantation is variable and it remains unclear if earlier implantation improves survival. We analyzed 14,187 adult candidates from the United Network of Organ Sharing database. Patients were classified by 3 treatment strategies including patients medically treated alone (MED, n=11,009), patients on LVAD support at listing (Early-LVAD, n=1588) and patients undergoing LVAD placement while awaiting HTx (Delayed-LVAD, n=1590). Likelihood of HTx and event-free survival were assessed in patients subcategorized by clinical strategies and UNOS status at listing. The device support strategy, despite the timing of placement, was not associated with increased likelihood of HTx compared to MED group. However, both LVAD implantation strategies showed better survival compared to MED group (Early-LVAD: HR 0.811 and 0.633, 95% CI 0.668-0.984 and 0.507-0.789, for 1A and 1B; p=0.034 and p<0.001, Delayed-LVAD: HR 0.553 and 0.696, 95% CI 0.415-0.736 and 0.571-0.847, for 1A and 1B; both p<0.001, respectively). Furthermore, there was no significant difference in survival between these LVAD implantation strategies in patients listed as 1B (p=0.500), although Early-LVAD implantation showed worse survival in patients listed as 1A (HR 1.467, 95% CI 1.076-2.000; p=0.015). LVAD support strategies offer a safe bridge-to-HTx. Those candidates who receive urgent upfront LVAD implantation for HTx, and improve to 1B status, would achieve competitive survival with those who receive elective LVAD implantation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Positive effects of cell-free porous PLGA implants and early loading exercise on hyaline cartilage regeneration in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Chang, Nai-Jen; Lin, Chih-Chan; Shie, Ming-You; Yeh, Ming-Long; Li, Chien-Feng; Liang, Peir-In; Lee, Kuan-Wei; Shen, Pei-Hsun; Chu, Chih-Jou

    2015-12-01

    The regeneration of hyaline cartilage remains clinically challenging. Here, we evaluated the therapeutic effects of using cell-free porous poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) graft implants (PGIs) along with early loading exercise to repair a full-thickness osteochondral defect. Rabbits were randomly allocated to a treadmill exercise (TRE) group or a sedentary (SED) group and were prepared as either a PGI model or an empty defect (ED) model. TRE was performed as a short-term loading exercise; SED was physical inactivity in a free cage. The knees were evaluated at 6 and 12 weeks after surgery. At the end of testing, none of the knees developed synovitis, formed osteophytes, or became infected. Macroscopically, the PGI-TRE group regenerated a smooth articular surface, with transparent new hyaline-like tissue soundly integrated with the neighboring cartilage, but the other groups remained distinct at the margins with fibrous or opaque tissues. In a micro-CT analysis, the synthesized bone volume/tissue volume (BV/TV) was significantly higher in the PGI-TRE group, which also had integrating architecture in the regeneration site. The thickness of the trabecular (subchondral) bone was improved in all groups from 6 to 12 weeks. Histologically, remarkable differences in the cartilage regeneration were visible. At week 6, compared with SED groups, the TRE groups manifested modest inflammatory cells with pro-inflammatory cytokines (i.e., TNF-α and IL-6), improved collagen alignment and higher glycosaminoglycan (GAG) content, particularly in the PGI-TRE group. At week 12, the PGI-TRE group had the best regeneration outcomes, showing the formation of hyaline-like cartilage, the development of columnar rounded chondrocytes that expressed enriched levels of collagen type II and GAG, and functionalized trabecular bone with osteocytes. In summary, the combination of implanting cell-free PLGA and performing an early loading exercise can significantly promote the full

  17. Landslide early warning based on failure forecast models: the example of the Mt. de La Saxe rockslide, northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manconi, A.; Giordan, D.

    2015-07-01

    We apply failure forecast models by exploiting near-real-time monitoring data for the La Saxe rockslide, a large unstable slope threatening Aosta Valley in northern Italy. Starting from the inverse velocity theory, we analyze landslide surface displacements automatically and in near real time on different temporal windows and apply straightforward statistical methods to obtain confidence intervals on the estimated time of failure. Here, we present the result obtained for the La Saxe rockslide, a large unstable slope located in Aosta Valley, northern Italy. Based on this case study, we identify operational thresholds that are established on the reliability of the forecast models. Our approach is aimed at supporting the management of early warning systems in the most critical phases of the landslide emergency.

  18. Landslide early warning based on failure forecast models: the example of Mt. de La Saxe rockslide, northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manconi, A.; Giordan, D.

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the use of landslide failure forecast models by exploiting near-real-time monitoring data. Starting from the inverse velocity theory, we analyze landslide surface displacements on different temporal windows, and apply straightforward statistical methods to obtain confidence intervals on the estimated time of failure. Here we describe the main concepts of our method, and show an example of application to a real emergency scenario, the La Saxe rockslide, Aosta Valley region, northern Italy. Based on the herein presented case study, we identify operational thresholds based on the reliability of the forecast models, in order to support the management of early warning systems in the most critical phases of the landslide emergency.

  19. Agenesis of the ductus venosus-A case with favorable outcome after early signs of cardiac failure.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Sigrun R; Heilmann, Antje; Häusler, Hans J; Kamin, Gabriele; Nitzsche, Katharina I

    2013-01-01

    Absence of the ductus venosus (ADV) is a rare vascular anomaly. Its prognosis depends on the pathway of the umbilical flow to the systemic venous circulation, and the presence or absence of associated structural or chromosomal anomalies, sometimes resulting in hydrops fetalis. In cases with isolated ADV in the absence of associated anomalies, survival rates are as high as 85%, depending on the shunt situation. Here, we report a patient with ADV and extrahepatic umbilical vein drainage with favorable outcome after intrauterine reversal of early signs of cardiac failure. Diagnosis was made after the appearance of moderate cardiomegaly in the 25th gestational week. Thus, in the case of cardiomegaly with or without further signs of cardiac failure, ultrasound imaging of the venous duct should be considered. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Effect of Early Vasopressin vs Norepinephrine on Kidney Failure in Patients With Septic Shock: The VANISH Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Anthony C; Mason, Alexina J; Thirunavukkarasu, Neeraja; Perkins, Gavin D; Cecconi, Maurizio; Cepkova, Magda; Pogson, David G; Aya, Hollmann D; Anjum, Aisha; Frazier, Gregory J; Santhakumaran, Shalini; Ashby, Deborah; Brett, Stephen J

    2016-08-02

    Norepinephrine is currently recommended as the first-line vasopressor in septic shock; however, early vasopressin use has been proposed as an alternative. To compare the effect of early vasopressin vs norepinephrine on kidney failure in patients with septic shock. A factorial (2×2), double-blind, randomized clinical trial conducted in 18 general adult intensive care units in the United Kingdom between February 2013 and May 2015, enrolling adult patients who had septic shock requiring vasopressors despite fluid resuscitation within a maximum of 6 hours after the onset of shock. Patients were randomly allocated to vasopressin (titrated up to 0.06 U/min) and hydrocortisone (n = 101), vasopressin and placebo (n = 104), norepinephrine and hydrocortisone (n = 101), or norepinephrine and placebo (n = 103). The primary outcome was kidney failure-free days during the 28-day period after randomization, measured as (1) the proportion of patients who never developed kidney failure and (2) median number of days alive and free of kidney failure for patients who did not survive, who experienced kidney failure, or both. Rates of renal replacement therapy, mortality, and serious adverse events were secondary outcomes. A total of 409 patients (median age, 66 years; men, 58.2%) were included in the study, with a median time to study drug administration of 3.5 hours after diagnosis of shock. The number of survivors who never developed kidney failure was 94 of 165 patients (57.0%) in the vasopressin group and 93 of 157 patients (59.2%) in the norepinephrine group (difference, -2.3% [95% CI, -13.0% to 8.5%]). The median number of kidney failure-free days for patients who did not survive, who experienced kidney failure, or both was 9 days (interquartile range [IQR], 1 to -24) in the vasopressin group and 13 days (IQR, 1 to -25) in the norepinephrine group (difference, -4 days [95% CI, -11 to 5]). There was less use of renal replacement therapy in the vasopressin group

  1. Clinical usefulness of blood metal measurements to assess the failure of metal-on-metal hip implants

    PubMed Central

    Sampson, Barry; Hart, Alister

    2012-01-01

    In April 2010, a Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency safety alert concerning all metal-on-metal (MOM) hip replacements recommended measuring chromium and cobalt concentrations when managing patients with painful prostheses. The need for this review is illustrated by the recent surge in requests for these blood tests from orthopaedic surgeons following this alert. The aim is to provide guidance to laboratories in assessing these requests and advising clinicians on interpretation. First, we summarize the basic terminology regarding the types of hip replacements, with emphasis on the MOM type. Second, we describe the clinical concerns over implant-derived wear debris in the local tissues and distant sites. Analytical aspects of the measurement of the relevant metal ions and what factors affect the levels measured are discussed. The application of inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry techniques to the measurement of these metals is considered in detail. The biological effects of metal wear products are summarized with local toxicity and systemic biological effects considered, including carcinogenicity, genotoxicity and systemic toxicity. Clinical cases are used to illustrate pertinent points. PMID:22155921

  2. Primary Prevention of Reading Failure: Effect of Universal Peer Tutoring in the Early Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Giavana; Ostojic, Dragana; Menard, Jessica; Picard, Erin; Miller, Carlin J.

    2017-01-01

    Reading is typically considered a survival skill in our technology- and literacy-bound culture. Individuals who struggle with learning to read are at significantly elevated risk for a number of negative outcomes, including school failure, under- and unemployment, and special education placement. Thus, those who do not learn to read fluently will…

  3. Prediction and prevention of failure: an early intervention to assist at-risk medical students.

    PubMed

    Winston, Kalman A; van der Vleuten, Cees P M; Scherpbier, Albert J J A

    2014-01-01

    Consistent identification and prevention of failure for at-risk medical students is challenging, failing courses is costly to all stakeholders, and there is need for further research into duration, timing and structure of interventions to help students in difficulty. To verify the value of a new exam two weeks into medical school as a predictor of failure, and explore the requirements for a preventative intervention. Students who failed the two-week exam were invited to a series of large-group workshops and small-group follow-up meetings. Participants' subsequent exam performance was compared with non-participants. About 71% of students who performed poorly in the new exam subsequently failed a course. Attendance at the workshops made no difference to short- or long-term pass rates. Attendance at more than three follow-up small group sessions significantly improved pass rates two semesters later, and was influenced by teacher experience. Close similarity between predictor task and target task is important for accurate prediction of failure. Consideration should be given to dose effect and class size in the prevention of failure of at-risk students, and we recommend a systemic approach to intervention/remediation programmes, involving a whole semester of mandatory, weekly small group meetings with experienced teachers.

  4. Success after Failure: Academic Effects and Psychological Implications of Early Universal Algebra Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Keith A.; Scott, Allison; Romero, Martin; Saddler, Derrick

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the authors use the High School Longitudinal Study 2009 (HSLS:09) national database to analyze the relationships between algebra failure, subsequent performance, motivation, and college readiness. Students who failed eighth-grade Algebra I did not differ significantly in mathematics proficiency from those who passed lower-level…

  5. Early safety outcome following transcatheter aortic valve implantation: is the amount of contrast media used a matter of concern?

    PubMed

    Vontobel, Jan; Possner, Mathias; Schütz, Philipp; Müller, Beat; Taramasso, Maurizio; Binder, Roland K; Haueis, Sabine; Attinger-Toller, Adrian; Maisano, Francesco; Nietlispach, Fabian

    2015-01-01

    The study objective was to evaluate the impact of the amount of contrast medium used for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) on short-term outcome. Patients undergoing TAVI are exposed to repeat contrast medium application both for preprocedural screening and during the TAVI procedure itself. Whether the amount of contrast media is associated with worse outcome is unclear. A total of 257 patients were included (median age 82.7 years) and divided into two groups with preserved and reduced kidney function (glomerular filtration rate <60 ml/min/1.73 m2), respectively. Total volume of contrast media administered during and within 5 days prior to TAVI was analysed. A combined early safety endpoint at 30 days was evaluated. The early safety endpoint was reached by 31 patients and acute kidney injury occurred in 22 patients. The median total volume of contrast media administered was 144 ml (interquartile range 81-225 ml). The amount of contrast did not independently predict the early safety endpoint in the overall population (odds ratio [OR] 0.93, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56 to 1.53, p = 0.774) and in subgroups with preserved and reduced kidney function. Change in creatinine was an independent strong predictor of the early safety endpoint in the overall population (OR 18.13, 95% CI 4.70 to 69.99, p <0.001), as well as in subgroups with preserved and reduced kidney function. The amount of contrast did not predict a change in creatinine within 72 hours following TAVI (r = 0.02, 95% CI -0.02 to 0.07, p = 0.368). Decreased kidney function after TAVI influences outcome. When rather small amounts of contrast media are used for screening and the TAVI procedure itself, the amount of contrast media seems not to be an independent predictor of outcome, further suggesting that decreased kidney function after TAVI is multifactorial.

  6. Early management of patients with acute heart failure: state of the art and future directions. A consensus document from the society for academic emergency medicine/heart failure society of America acute heart failure working group.

    PubMed

    Collins, Sean; Storrow, Alan B; Albert, Nancy M; Butler, Javed; Ezekowitz, Justin; Felker, G Michael; Fermann, Gregory J; Fonarow, Gregg C; Givertz, Michael M; Hiestand, Brian; Hollander, Judd E; Lanfear, David E; Levy, Phillip D; Pang, Peter S; Peacock, W Frank; Sawyer, Douglas B; Teerlink, John R; Lenihan, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) afflicts nearly 6 million Americans, resulting in one million emergency department (ED) visits and over one million annual hospital discharges. An aging population and improved survival from cardiovascular diseases is expected to further increase HF prevalence. Emergency providers play a significant role in the management of patients with acute heart failure (AHF). It is crucial that emergency physicians and other providers involved in early management understand the latest developments in diagnostic testing, therapeutics and alternatives to hospitalization. Further, clinical trials must be conducted in the ED in order to improve the evidence base and drive optimal initial therapy for AHF. Should ongoing and future studies suggest early phenotype-driven therapy improves in-hospital and post-discharge outcomes, ED treatment decisions will need to evolve accordingly. The potential impact of future studies which incorporate risk-stratification into ED disposition decisions cannot be underestimated. Predictive instruments that identify a cohort of patients safe for ED discharge, while simultaneously addressing barriers to successful outpatient management, have the potential to significantly impact quality of life and resource expenditures. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Application of implantable hemodynamic monitoring in the management of patients with diastolic heart failure: a subgroup analysis of the COMPASS-HF trial.

    PubMed

    Zile, Michael R; Bourge, Robert C; Bennett, Tom D; Stevenson, Lynne Warner; Cho, Yong K; Adamson, Philip B; Aaron, Mark F; Aranda, Juan M; Abraham, William T; Smart, Frank W; Kueffer, Fred J

    2008-12-01

    Nearly half of all patients with chronic heart failure (HF) have a normal ejection fraction (EF), and abnormal diastolic function (ie, diastolic heart failure [DHF]). However, appropriate management of DHF patients remains a difficult and uncertain challenge. The Chronicle Offers Management to Patients with Advanced Signs and Symptoms of Heart Failure (COMPASS-HF) trial was designed to evaluate whether an implantable hemodynamic monitor (IHM) was safe and effective in reducing the number of heart failure-related events (HFRE) in patients with chronic HF. The current study presents data on a prespecified and planned subgroup analysis from the COMPASS-HF trial: 70 patients with an EF > or =50% (ie, DHF). As such, this represents a subgroup analysis of the COMPASS-HF Trial. DHF patients were randomized to IHM-guided care (treatment) vs. standard care (control) for 6 months. All 70 patients received optimal medical therapy, but the hemodynamic information from the IHM was used to guide patient management only in the treatment group. The HFRE rate in DHF patients randomized to treatment was 0.58 events/6 months compared with DHF patients randomized to control, which was 0.73 events/6 months; this represented a 20% nonsignificant reduction in the overall HFRE rate in the treatment group (95% CI = -46, 56, P = .66). There was a 29% nonsignificant reduction in the relative risk of a HF hospitalization in the DHF patients randomized to treatment compared with DHF patients randomized to control (95% CI = -69, 70, P = .43). The IHM was shown to be safe and was associated with a very low system-related and procedure-related complication rate in DHF patients. However, in this subgroup analysis limited to 70 DHF patients, the addition IHM-guided care did not significantly lower the rate of HFR events. The results of this subgroup analysis in DHF patients, for whom there are currently no proven, effective management strategies, will be used to design future studies defining the

  8. An XRCC4 Splice Mutation Associated With Severe Short Stature, Gonadal Failure, and Early-Onset Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    de Bruin, Christiaan; Mericq, Verónica; Andrew, Shayne F.; van Duyvenvoorde, Hermine A.; Verkaik, Nicole S.; Losekoot, Monique; Porollo, Aleksey; Garcia, Hernán; Kuang, Yi; Hanson, Dan; Clayton, Peter; van Gent, Dik C.; Wit, Jan M.; Hwa, Vivian

    2015-01-01

    Context: Severe short stature can be caused by defects in numerous biological processes including defects in IGF-1 signaling, centromere function, cell cycle control, and DNA damage repair. Many syndromic causes of short stature are associated with medical comorbidities including hypogonadism and microcephaly. Objective: To identify an underlying genetic etiology in two siblings with severe short stature and gonadal failure. Design: Clinical phenotyping, genetic analysis, complemented by in vitro functional studies of the candidate gene. Setting: An academic pediatric endocrinology clinic. Patients or Other Participants: Two adult siblings (male patient [P1] and female patient 2 [P2]) presented with a history of severe postnatal growth failure (adult heights: P1, −6.8 SD score; P2, −4 SD score), microcephaly, primary gonadal failure, and early-onset metabolic syndrome in late adolescence. In addition, P2 developed a malignant gastrointestinal stromal tumor at age 28. Intervention(s): Single nucleotide polymorphism microarray and exome sequencing. Results: Combined microarray analysis and whole exome sequencing of the two affected siblings and one unaffected sister identified a homozygous variant in XRCC4 as the probable candidate variant. Sanger sequencing and mRNA studies revealed a splice variant resulting in an in-frame deletion of 23 amino acids. Primary fibroblasts (P1) showed a DNA damage repair defect. Conclusions: In this study we have identified a novel pathogenic variant in XRCC4, a gene that plays a critical role in non-homologous end-joining DNA repair. This finding expands the spectrum of DNA damage repair syndromes to include XRCC4 deficiency causing severe postnatal growth failure, microcephaly, gonadal failure, metabolic syndrome, and possibly tumor predisposition. PMID:25742519

  9. In Vitro Investigation of the Effect of Oral Bacteria in the Surface Oxidation of Dental Implants.

    PubMed

    Sridhar, Sathyanarayanan; Wilson, Thomas G; Palmer, Kelli L; Valderrama, Pilar; Mathew, Mathew T; Prasad, Shalini; Jacobs, Michael; Gindri, Izabelle M; Rodrigues, Danieli C

    2015-10-01

    Bacteria are major contributors to the rising number of dental implant failures. Inflammation secondary to bacterial colonization and bacterial biofilm is a major etiological factor associated with early and late implant failure (peri-implantitis). Even though there is a strong association between bacteria and bacterial biofilm and failure of dental implants, their effect on the surface of implants is yet not clear. To develop and establish an in vitro testing methodology to investigate the effect of early planktonic bacterial colonization on the surface of dental implants for a period of 60 days. Commercial dental implants were immersed in bacterial (Streptococcus mutans in brain-heart infusion broth) and control (broth only) media. Immersion testing was performed for a period of 60 days. During testing, optical density and pH of immersion media were monitored. The implant surface was surveyed with different microscopy techniques post-immersion. Metal ion release in solution was detected with an electrochemical impedance spectroscopy sensor platform called metal ion electrochemical biosensor (MIEB). Bacteria grew in the implant-containing medium and provided a sustained acidic environment. Implants immersed in bacterial culture displayed various corrosion features, including surface discoloration, deformation of rough and smooth interfaces, pitting attack, and severe surface rusting. The surface features were confirmed by microscopic techniques, and metal particle generation was detected by the MIEB. Implant surface oxidation occurred in bacteria-containing medium even at early stages of immersion (2 days). The incremental corrosion resulted in dissolution of metal ions and debris into the testing solution. Dissolution of metal ions and particles in the oral environment can trigger or contribute to the development of peri-implantitis at later stages. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Presence and Implication of Temporal Nonuniformity of Early Diastolic Left Ventricular Wall Expansion in Patients With Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Iwano, Hiroyuki; Kamimura, Daisuke; Fox, Ervin R; Hall, Michael E; Vlachos, Pavlos; Little, William C

    2016-12-01

    Early-diastolic left ventricular (LV) longitudinal expansion is delayed with diastolic dysfunction. We hypothesized that, in patients with heart failure (HF), regardless of LV ejection fraction (EF), there is diastolic temporal nonuniformity with a delay of longitudinal relative to circumferential expansion. Echocardiography was performed in 143 HF patients-50 with preserved EF (HFpEF) and 93 with reduced EF (HFrEF)-as well as 31 normal control subjects. The delay of early-diastolic mitral annular velocity from the mitral Doppler E (T E-e' ) was measured as a parameter of the longitudinal expansion delay. The delay of the longitudinal early-diastolic global strain rate (SR E ) relative to circumferential SR E (Delay C-L ) was calculated as a parameter of temporal nonuniformity. Intra-LV pressure difference (IVPD) was estimated with the use of color M-mode Doppler data as a parameter of LV diastolic suction. Although normal control subjects had symmetric LV expansion in early diastole, T E-e' and Delay C-L were significantly prolonged in HF regardless of EF (P < .01 vs control for all). Multivariate analysis revealed that Delay C-L was the independent determinant of IVPD among the parameters of LV geometry and contraction (β = -0.21; P < .05). An abnormal temporal nonuniformity of early-diastolic expansion is present in HF regardless of EF, which was associated with reduced LV suction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A longitudinal study of lexical and grammar development in deaf Italian children provided with early cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Chilosi, Anna Maria; Comparini, Alessandro; Scusa, Maria Flora; Orazini, Laura; Forli, Francesca; Cipriani, Paola; Berrettini, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    A growing number of studies on deaf children with cochlear implant (CI) document a significant improvement in receptive and expressive language skills after implantation, even if they show language delay when compared with normal-hearing peers. Data on language acquisition in CI Italian children are still scarce and limited to only certain aspects of language. The purpose of this study is to prospectively describe the trajectories of language development in early CI Italian children, with particular attention to the transition from first words to combinatorial speech and to acquisition of complex grammar in a language with rich morphology, such as Italian. Six children, with profound prelingual deafness, provided with CI, between 16 and 24 months of age were prospectively assessed and followed over a mean period of up to 34.8 months postimplant. During follow-up, each child received between four to five individual language evaluations through a combination of indirect procedures (parent reports of early lexical and grammar development) and direct ones (administration of standardized receptive and expressive language tests with Italian norms and collection of spontaneous language samples). In relation to chronological age, the acquisition of expressive vocabulary was delayed. However, considering the duration of hearing experience, most CI participants showed an earlier start and faster growth of expressive rather than receptive vocabulary in comparison with typically developing children. This quite atypical result persisted right up until the end of the follow-up. The acquisition of expressive grammar was delayed relative to chronological age, though all but one CI participant achieved the expected grammar level after approximately 3 years of CI use. In addition, the rate of grammar acquisition was not homogeneous during development, showing two different paces: one comparable with normal hearing in the transition from holophrastic to primitive combinatorial speech

  12. Early outcome of patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI): The Auckland City Hospital experience 2011-2015.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sylvia S Y; Wang, Tom Kai Ming; Nand, Parma; Ramanathan, Tharumenthiran; Webster, Mark; Stewart, Jim

    2016-01-08

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is an alternative to surgical aortic valve replacement (AVR) in high-risk patients. We report the initial TAVI experience at Auckland City Hospital. The records of patients undergoing TAVI between 2011 and 2015 at Auckland City Hospital were reviewed. We report the procedural success and outcome, including major adverse events (death, stroke, myocardial infarction, bleeding, vascular complications and rehospitalisations), degree of aortic regurgitation and symptom status up to 1-year follow-up. Mean age was 80.7 years and mean Euroscore II and Society of Thoracic Surgeons' scores were 8.2% and 6.3% respectively; 50% had undergone previous cardiac surgery. Successful deployment of the valve was achieved in all patients. The cumulative mortality rates at 30 days, 6 months and 1 year were 2.4%, 6.1% and 12.2% and cumulative stroke rates 1.2%, 3% and 8.2% respectively. Severe aortic regurgitation occurred in 2.3% TAVI is available in the New Zealand public hospital system for patients who are high-risk candidates for AVR. Early results are excellent and indicate that the technology is being used appropriately, according to current access criteria. If the early cost effectiveness data are confirmed, the indications for TAVI may widen.

  13. Early Cochlear Implant Experience and Emotional Functioning during Childhood: Loneliness in Middle and Late Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schorr, Efrat A.

    2006-01-01

    The importance of early intervention for children with hearing loss has been demonstrated persuasively in areas including speech perception and production and spoken language. The present research shows that feelings of loneliness, a significant emotional outcome, are affected by the age at which children receive intervention with cochlear…

  14. Early Gains in Renal Function Following Implantation of HeartMate II Left Ventricular Assist Devices May Not Persist to One Year.

    PubMed

    Hasin, Tal; Grupper, Avishay; Dillon, John J; Maleszewski, Joseph J; Li, Zhuo; Topilsky, Yan; Frantz, Robert P; Edwards, Brooks S; Pereira, Naveen L; Maltais, Simon; Stulak, John M; Joyce, Lyle; Daly, Richard; Park, Soon J; Kushwaha, Sudhir S

    Renal function improves early after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation but later decline has been observed. We sought to determine the occurrence and evaluate possible causes for this decline. In 62 consecutive patients with HeartMateII LVAD with available calculated glomerular filtration rate (GFR, ml/min/1.73 m) 1 year after implant, GFR was assessed repeatedly and possible predictors for decline from 3 to 12 months were investigated. Post-mortem renal specimens for patients supported with an LVAD were evaluated. GFR 54.5 ± 19.5 at admission increased to 66.4 ± 22.3 preoperatively and to 79.2 ± 30.1 ~1 month after implantation. Subsequently at ~3 months GFR declined to 74.7 ± 25.4, at ~6 months to 68.8 ± 23.1, and ~1 year after implant to 63.9 ± 17.7. Glomerular filtration rate at 1 year was significantly lower (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, p = 0.005) than GFR 1, 3, and 6 months after implant. Early rise in GFR after surgery was not associated with late decline. Shorter bypass time (β = -0.09, p = 0.048) and higher albumin 3 months after LVAD (β = 14.4, p = 0.025) were significantly associated with less later decline in GFR. Arteriosclerosis was identified in autopsy renal specimens. In conclusion, early gains in renal function after LVAD implant are not sustained in many patients. Patient, device, and operative factors may influence long-term renal function in these patients.

  15. Use of Early Inhaled Nitric Oxide Therapy in Fat Embolism Syndrome to Prevent Right Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Koyfman, Leonid; Kutz, Ruslan; Frenkel, Amit; Gruenbaum, Shaun E.; Zlotnik, Alexander; Klein, Moti

    2014-01-01

    Fat embolism syndrome (FES) is a life-threatening condition in which multiorgan dysfunction manifests 48–72 hours after long bone or pelvis fractures. Right ventricular (RV) failure, especially in the setting of pulmonary hypertension, is a frequent feature of FES. We report our experience treating 2 young, previously healthy trauma patients who developed severe hypoxemia in the setting of FES. Neither patient had evidence of RV dysfunction on echocardiogram. The patients were treated with inhaled nitric oxide (NO), and their oxygenation significantly improved over the subsequent few days. Neither patient developed any cardiovascular compromise. Patients with FES that have severe hypoxemia and evidence of adult respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are likely at risk for developing RV failure. We recommend that these patients with FES and severe refractory hypoxemia should be treated with inhaled NO therapy prior to the onset of RV dysfunction. PMID:25180103

  16. Comparisons of maximum deformation and failure forces at the implant–abutment interface of titanium implants between titanium-alloy and zirconia abutments with two levels of marginal bone loss

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Zirconia materials are known for their optimal aesthetics, but they are brittle, and concerns remain about whether their mechanical properties are sufficient for withstanding the forces exerted in the oral cavity. Therefore, this study compared the maximum deformation and failure forces of titanium implants between titanium-alloy and zirconia abutments under oblique compressive forces in the presence of two levels of marginal bone loss. Methods Twenty implants were divided into Groups A and B, with simulated bone losses of 3.0 and 1.5 mm, respectively. Groups A and B were also each divided into two subgroups with five implants each: (1) titanium implants connected to titanium-alloy abutments and (2) titanium implants connected to zirconia abutments. The maximum deformation and failure forces of each sample was determined using a universal testing machine. The data were analyzed using the nonparametric Mann–Whitney test. Results The mean maximum deformation and failure forces obtained the subgroups were as follows: A1 (simulated bone loss of 3.0 mm, titanium-alloy abutment) = 540.6 N and 656.9 N, respectively; A2 (simulated bone loss of 3.0 mm, zirconia abutment) = 531.8 N and 852.7 N; B1 (simulated bone loss of 1.5 mm, titanium-alloy abutment) = 1070.9 N and 1260.2 N; and B2 (simulated bone loss of 1.5 mm, zirconia abutment) = 907.3 N and 1182.8 N. The maximum deformation force differed significantly between Groups B1 and B2 but not between Groups A1 and A2. The failure force did not differ between Groups A1 and A2 or between Groups B1 and B2. The maximum deformation and failure forces differed significantly between Groups A1 and B1 and between Groups A2 and B2. Conclusions Based on this experimental study, the maximum deformation and failure forces are lower for implants with a marginal bone loss of 3.0 mm than of 1.5 mm. Zirconia abutments can withstand physiological occlusal forces applied in the anterior region. PMID

  17. Long-Term Survival of Dental Implants with Different Prosthetic Loading Times in Healthy Patients: A 5-Year Retrospective Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Muelas-Jiménez, M Isabel; Olmedo-Gaya, Maria Victoria; Manzano-Moreno, Francisco J; Reyes-Botella, Candela; Vallecillo-Capilla, Manuel

    2017-02-01

    To compare survival rates among dental implants restored with immediate, early, and conventional loading protocols, also comparing between maxillary and mandibular implants, and to evaluate the influence of implant length and diameter and the type of prosthesis on treatment outcomes. This retrospective cohort study initially included all 52 patients receiving dental implants between July 2006 and February 2008 at a private oral surgery clinic in Granada (Southern Spain). Clinical and radiographic examinations were performed, including periapical or panoramic radiographs, and incidences during completion of the restoration were recorded at 1 week, 3 months, 6 months, and at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years. After a 5-year follow-up, 1 patient had died, 3 were lost to follow-up, and 6 required grafting before implant placement; therefore, the final study sample comprised 42 patients with 164 implants. Variables associated with the survival/failure of the restoration were: number of implants (higher failure rate with fewer implants), bone type (higher failure rate in type III or IV bone), and type of prosthesis (higher failure rate with single crowns). No significant association was found in univariate or multivariate analyses between survival rate and the loading protocol, implant length or diameter, or maxillary/mandibular location. Immediate occlusal loading, immediate provisionalization without occlusal loading, and early loading are viable treatment options with similar survival rates to those obtained with conventional loading. Bone quality and number of implants per patient were the most influential factors. © 2015 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  18. Patients with the worst outcomes after paracetamol (acetaminophen)-induced liver failure have an early monocytopenia.

    PubMed

    Moore, J K; MacKinnon, A C; Man, T Y; Manning, J R; Forbes, S J; Simpson, K J

    2017-02-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Studies have implicated the immune response, especially monocyte/macrophages as being important in dictating outcome. To investigate changes in the circulating monocytes and other immune cells serially in patients with ALF, relate these with cytokine concentrations, monocyte gene expression and patient outcome. In a prospective case-control study in the Scottish Liver Transplant Unit, Royal Infirmary Edinburgh, 35 consecutive patients admitted with paracetamol-induced liver failure (POD-ALF), 10 patients with non-paracetamol causes of ALF and 16 controls were recruited. The peripheral blood monocyte phenotype was analysed by flow cytometry, circulating cytokines quantified by protein array and monocyte gene expression array performed and related to outcome. On admission, patients with worst outcomes after POD-ALF had a significant monocytopenia, characterised by reduced classical and expanded intermediate monocyte population. This was associated with reduced circulating lymphocytes and natural killer cells, peripheral cytokine patterns suggestive of a 'cytokine storm' and increased concentrations of cytokines associated with monocyte egress from the bone marrow. Gene expression array did not differentiate patient outcome. At day 4, there was no significant difference in monocyte, lymphocyte or natural killer cells between survivors and the patients with adverse outcomes. Severe paracetamol liver failure is associated with profound changes in the peripheral blood compartment, particularly in monocytes, related with worse outcomes. This is not seen in patients with non-paracetamol-induced liver failure. Significant monocytopenia on admission may allow earlier clarification of prognosis, and it highlights a potential target for therapeutic intervention. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Renal Function and Outcomes With Use of Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation and Inotropes in End-Stage Heart Failure: A Retrospective Single Center Study.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sean; Bassily, Emmanuel; Leighton, Shane; Mhaskar, Rahul; Sunjic, Igor; Martin, Angel; Rihana, Nancy; Jarmi, Tambi; Bassil, Claude

    2017-07-01

    Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) and inotrope therapy serve as a bridge to transplant (BTT) or as destination therapy in patients who are not heart transplant candidates. End-stage heart failure patients often have impaired renal function, and renal outcomes after LVAD therapy versus inotrope therapy have not been evaluated. In this study, 169 patients with continuous flow LVAD therapy and 20 patients with continuous intravenous inotrope therapy were analyzed. The two groups were evaluated at baseline and at 3 and 6 months after LVAD or inotrope therapy was started. The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI), need for renal replacement therapy (RRT), BTT rate, and mortality for 6 months following LVAD or inotrope therapy were studied. Results between the groups were compared using Mann-Whitney U test and Chi-square with continuity correction or Fischer's exact at the significance level of 0.05. Mean glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was not statistically different between the two groups, with P = 0.471, 0.429, and 0.847 at baseline, 3 and 6 months, respectively. The incidence of AKI, RRT, and BTT was not statistically different. Mortality was less in the inotrope group (P < 0.001). Intravenous inotrope therapy in end-stage heart failure patients is non-inferior for mortality, incidence of AKI, need for RRT, and renal function for 6-month follow-up when compared to LVAD therapy. Further studies are needed to compare the effectiveness of inotropes versus LVAD implantation on renal function and outcomes over a longer time period.

  20. Renal Function and Outcomes With Use of Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation and Inotropes in End-Stage Heart Failure: A Retrospective Single Center Study

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Sean; Bassily, Emmanuel; Leighton, Shane; Mhaskar, Rahul; Sunjic, Igor; Martin, Angel; Rihana, Nancy; Jarmi, Tambi; Bassil, Claude

    2017-01-01

    Background Left ventricular assist device (LVAD) and inotrope therapy serve as a bridge to transplant (BTT) or as destination therapy in patients who are not heart transplant candidates. End-stage heart failure patients often have impaired renal function, and renal outcomes after LVAD therapy versus inotrope therapy have not been evaluated. Methods In this study, 169 patients with continuous flow LVAD therapy and 20 patients with continuous intravenous inotrope therapy were analyzed. The two groups were evaluated at baseline and at 3 and 6 months after LVAD or inotrope therapy was started. The incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI), need for renal replacement therapy (RRT), BTT rate, and mortality for 6 months following LVAD or inotrope therapy were studied. Results between the groups were compared using Mann-Whitney U test and Chi-square with continuity correction or Fischer’s exact at the significance level of 0.05. Results Mean glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was not statistically different between the two groups, with P = 0.471, 0.429, and 0.847 at baseline, 3 and 6 months, respectively. The incidence of AKI, RRT, and BTT was not statistically different. Mortality was less in the inotrope group (P < 0.001). Conclusion Intravenous inotrope therapy in end-stage heart failure patients is non-inferior for mortality, incidence of AKI, need for RRT, and renal function for 6-month follow-up when compared to LVAD therapy. Further studies are needed to compare the effectiveness of inotropes versus LVAD implantation on renal function and outcomes over a longer time period. PMID:28611860

  1. Implant Failure After Motec Wrist Joint Prosthesis Due to Failure of Ball and Socket-Type Articulation-Two Patients With Adverse Reaction to Metal Debris and Polyether Ether Ketone.

    PubMed

    Karjalainen, Teemu; Pamilo, Konsta; Reito, Aleksi

    2018-04-21

    We describe 2 cases of articulation-related failures resulting in revision surgery after a Motec total wrist arthroplasty: one with an adverse reaction to metal debris and the other with an adverse reaction to polyether ether ketone. In the first patient, blood cobalt and chrome levels were elevated and magnetic resonance imaging showed clear signs of a pseudotumor. The other patient had an extensive release of polyether ether ketone particles into the surrounding synovia due to adverse wear conditions in the cup, leading to the formation of a fluid-filled cyst sac with a black lining and diffuse lymphocyte-dominated inflammation in the synovia. We recommend regular follow-up including x-rays, monitoring of cobalt and chrome ion levels, and a low threshold for cross-sectional imaging in patients who have undergone total wrist arthroplasty with a Motec joint prosthesis. Wear-related problems can also develop in implants in which polyether ether ketone is the bulk material. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. High early event rates in patients with questionable eligibility for advanced heart failure therapies: Results from the Medical Arm of Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support (Medamacs) Registry.

    PubMed

    Ambardekar, Amrut V; Forde-McLean, Rhondalyn C; Kittleson, Michelle M; Stewart, Garrick C; Palardy, Maryse; Thibodeau, Jennifer T; DeVore, Adam D; Mountis, Maria M; Cadaret, Linda; Teuteberg, Jeffrey J; Pamboukian, Salpy V; Cantor, Ryan S; Lindenfeld, JoAnn

    2016-06-01

    The prognosis of ambulatory patients with advanced heart failure (HF) who are not yet inotrope dependent and implications for evaluation and timing for transplant or destination therapy with a left ventricular assist device (DT-LVAD) are unknown. We hypothesized that the characteristics defining eligibility for advanced HF therapies would be a primary determinant of outcomes in these patients. Ambulatory patients with advanced HF (New York Heart Association class III-IV, Interagency Registry for Mechanically Assisted Circulatory Support profiles 4-7) were enrolled across 11 centers from May 2013 to February 2015. Patients were stratified into 3 groups: likely transplant eligible, DT-LVAD eligible, and ineligible for both transplant and DT-LVAD. Clinical characteristics were collected, and patients were prospectively followed for death, transplant, and left ventricular assist device implantation. The study enrolled 144 patients with a mean follow-up of 10 ± 6 months. Patients in the ineligible cohort (n = 43) had worse congestion, renal function, and anemia compared with transplant (n = 51) and DT-LVAD (n = 50) eligible patients. Ineligible patients had higher mortality (23.3% vs 8.0% in DT-LVAD group and 5.9% in transplant group, p = 0.02). The differences in mortality were related to lower rates of transplantation (11.8% in transplant group vs 2.0% in DT-LVAD group and 0% in ineligible group, p = 0.02) and left ventricular assist device implantation (15.7% in transplant group vs 2.0% in DT-LVAD group and 0% in ineligible group, p < 0.01). Ambulatory patients with advanced HF who were deemed ineligible for transplant and DT-LVAD had markers of greater HF severity and a higher rate of mortality compared with patients eligible for transplant or DT-LVAD. The high early event rate in this group emphasizes the need for timely evaluation and decision making regarding lifesaving therapies. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation

  3. Remote monitoring improves outcome after ICD implantation: the clinical efficacy in the management of heart failure (EFFECT) study.

    PubMed

    De Simone, Antonio; Leoni, Loira; Luzi, Mario; Amellone, Claudia; Stabile, Giuseppe; La Rocca, Vincenzo; Capucci, Alessandro; D'onofrio, Antonio; Ammendola, Ernesto; Accardi, Francesco; Valsecchi, Sergio; Buja, Gianfranco

    2015-08-01

    Internet-based remote interrogation systems have been shown to reduce emergency department and in-office visits in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs), resulting in increased efficiency for healthcare providers. Nonetheless, studies sized to demonstrate the impact of remote monitoring on patients' outcome have been lacking. The EFFECT study was a multicentre clinical trial aimed at measuring and comparing the outcome of ICD patients conventionally followed-up by means of in-clinic visits (Standard arm) or by remote monitoring (Remote arm) in the clinical practice of 25 Italian centres. From 2011 to 2013, 987 consecutive patients were enrolled and followed up for at least 12 months. The primary endpoint was the rate of death and cardiovascular hospitalizations. Remote monitoring was adopted by 499 patients. Patients in the Standard and Remote arms did not differ significantly in terms of baseline clinical characteristics, except for a more frequent use of ICD with cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT-D) in the Remote arm (48 vs. 36%, P < 0.001). One-year rates of the primary combined endpoint were 0.27 events/year for patients in the Standard arm and were 0.15 events/year for those in the Remote arm (incident rate ratio, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.41-0.73; P < 0.001). The endpoint rates in the Standard and Remote arms were 0.27 and 0.08 events/year, respectively, among CRT-D recipients (P < 0.001), and 0.28 vs. 0.21 among ICD patients (P = 0.094). The rates of in-office visits were 1.9 per year in the Standard arm and 1.7 per year in the Remote arm. Compared with the standard follow-up through in-office visits, remote monitoring is associated with reduced death and cardiovascular hospitalizations in patients with ICD in clinical practice. URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ Identifier: NCT01723865. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Early Phase Contingency Trajectory Design for the Failure of the First Lunar Orbit Insertion Maneuver: Direct Recovery Options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Young-Joo; Bae, Jonghee; Kim, Young-Rok; Kim, Bang-Yeop

    2017-12-01

    To ensure the successful launch of the Korea pathfinder lunar orbiter (KPLO) mission, the Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) is now performing extensive trajectory design and analysis studies. From the trajectory design perspective, it is crucial to prepare contingency trajectory options for the failure of the first lunar brake or the failure of the first lunar orbit insertion (LOI) maneuver. As part of the early phase trajectory design and analysis activities, the required time of flight (TOF) and associated delta-V magnitudes for each recovery maneuver (RM) to recover the KPLO mission trajectory are analyzed. There are two typical trajectory recovery options, direct recovery and low energy recovery. The current work is focused on the direct recovery option. Results indicate that a quicker execution of the first RM after the failure of the first LOI plays a significant role in saving the magnitudes of the RMs. Under the conditions of the extremely tight delta-V budget that is currently allocated for the KPLO mission, it is found that the recovery of the KPLO without altering the originally planned mission orbit (a 100 km circular orbit) cannot be achieved via direct recovery options. However, feasible recovery options are suggested within the boundaries of the currently planned delta-V budget. By changing the shape and orientation of the recovered final mission orbit, it is expected that the KPLO mission may partially pursue its scientific mission after successful recovery, though it will be limited.

  5. Changing Trends within the Population of Children Who Are Deaf or Hard of Hearing in Flanders (Belgium): Effects of 12 Years of Universal Newborn Hearing Screening, Early Intervention, and Early Cochlear Implantation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Raeve, Leo; Lichtert, Guido

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to show the changing trends within the population of children who are deaf and hard of hearing in Belgium over the last 12 years. The combination of Universal Newborn Hearing Screening programs, early intervention, and cochlear implants have tremendously influenced the education and support of children who are deaf or…

  6. A study of intrauterine infusion of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) before frozen-thawed embryo transfer after two or more implantation failures.

    PubMed

    Huang, Pinxiu; Wei, Lihong; Li, Xinlin

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the effect of intrauterine infusion of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) before frozen-thawed embryo transfer (FET) after two or more implantation failures (TIFs). The study was a prospective randomized single-blind study of 161 cycles in patients undergoing FET who had TIFs. The intervention group received an intrauterine injection of 1000 IU of hCG before embryo transfer (ET) (n = 62). A placebo group (n = 49) received an intrauterine injection of physiological saline before ET. A control group (n = 50) did not receive an intrauterine injection. Clinical pregnancy rates, abortion rates, and ongoing pregnancy rates were compared between the three groups. The clinical pregnancy rates were 59.68%, 53.06%, and 32.00% in the hCG group, placebo group, and control group, respectively. The clinical pregnancy rates were significantly higher in the hCG and placebo groups than in the control group. There were no significant differences in the abortion rates among the three groups. An intrauterine administration of hCG before FET significantly improved the pregnancy rates after TIFs. But local injury caused by the operation of intrauterine perfusion may play an important role in improving clinical pregnancy rates.

  7. Sex and Race/Ethnicity Differences in Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Counseling and Use Among Patients Hospitalized With Heart Failure: Findings from the Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure Program.

    PubMed

    Hess, Paul L; Hernandez, Adrian F; Bhatt, Deepak L; Hellkamp, Anne S; Yancy, Clyde W; Schwamm, Lee H; Peterson, Eric D; Schulte, Phillip J; Fonarow, Gregg C; Al-Khatib, Sana M

    2016-08-16

    Previous studies have found that women and black patients eligible for a primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) are less likely than men or white patients to receive one. We performed an observational analysis of the Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure Program from January 1, 2011, to March 21, 2014. Patients admitted with heart failure and an ejection fraction ≤35% without an ICD were included. Rates of ICD counseling among eligible patients and ICD receipt among counseled patients were examined by sex and race/ethnicity. Among 21 059 patients from 236 sites, 4755 (22.6%) received predischarge ICD counseling. Women were counseled less frequently than men (19.3% versus 24.6%, P<0.001, adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.78-0.91). Racial and ethnic minorities were less likely to receive counseling than white patients (black 22.6%, Hispanic 18.6%, other race/ethnic group 14.4% versus white 24.3%, P<0.001 for each): adjusted OR versus white, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.63 to 0.76 for black patients; adjusted OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.55 to 0.70 for Hispanic patients; adjusted OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.65 for other patients. Among the 4755 counseled patients, 2977 (62.6%) received an ICD or had one planned for placement after hospital stay. Among those counseled, women and men were similarly likely to receive an ICD (adjusted OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.99-1.29). However, black (adjusted OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.56-0.88) and Hispanic patients (adjusted OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.46-1.01) were less likely to receive an ICD. Up to 4 of 5 hospitalized patients with heart failure eligible for ICD counseling did not receive it, particularly women and minority patients. Among counseled patients, ICD use differences by race and ethnicity persisted. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Autoinflammation Around AES Total Ankle Replacement Implants.

    PubMed

    Koivu, Helka; Takakubo, Yuya; Mackiewicz, Zygmunt; Al-Samadi, Ahmed; Soininen, Antti; Peled, Nitai; Kukis, Modestas; Trokovic, Nina; Konttinen, Yrjö T

    2015-12-01

    Failure of total ankle replacement (TAR) can be characterized by early peri-implant osteolysis even in the presence of very modest numbers of wear particles. The hypothesis of the study was that this reaction is in part mediated by autoinflammatory responses mediated via damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs, danger signals) and pattern-recognizing danger signal receptors (PRRs). Peri-implant tissue and control samples from 10 patients with AES implants were immunostained for hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), activated caspase-3, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), receptor for advanced glycation end product (RAGE), and toll-like receptors TLR2 and TLR4. Results were evaluated on a 0 to 4 scale (from 0% to >50% stained area). Peri-implant tissue around failed TAR implants had a relatively high mean HIF-1α score of 3 on a scale, which however was similar in control samples. HMGB1 (a DAMP) was seen to be mobilized from nuclei to cellular cytoplasm, and the active caspase-3(+) cells were increased. All PRRs were increased in revision samples. Increased expression of HMGB1 and other danger signals together with increased PRR-dependent responsiveness could contribute to autoinflammatory peri-implantitis, multilocular cyst formation, and osteolysis in failed TAR implants. Level IV, case series. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Possibilities And Influencing Parameters For The Early Detection Of Sheet Metal Failure In Press Shop Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Gerlach, Joerg; Kessler, Lutz; Paul, Udo

    2007-05-17

    The concept of forming limit curves (FLC) is widely used in industrial practice. The required data should be delivered for typical material properties (measured on coils with properties in a range of +/- of the standard deviation from the mean production values) by the material suppliers. In particular it should be noted that its use for the validation of forming robustness providing forming limit curves for the variety of scattering in the mechanical properties is impossible. Therefore a forecast of the expected limit strains without expensive cost and time-consuming experiments is necessary. In the paper the quality of a regressionmore » analysis for determining forming limit curves based on tensile test results is presented and discussed.Owing to the specific definition of limit strains with FLCs following linear strain paths, the significance of this failure definition is limited. To consider nonlinear strain path effects, different methods are given in literature. One simple method is the concept of limit stresses. It should be noted that the determined value of the critical stress is dependent on the extrapolation of the tensile test curve. When the yield curve extrapolation is very similar to an exponential function, the definition of the critical stress value is very complicated due to the low slope of the hardening function at large strains.A new method to determine general failure behavior in sheet metal forming is the common use and interpretation of three criteria: onset on material instability (comparable with FLC concept), value of critical shear fracture and the value of ductile fracture. This method seems to be particularly successful for newly developed high strength steel grades in connection with more complex strain paths for some specific material elements. Nevertheless the identification of the different failure material parameters or functions will increase and the user has to learn with the interpretation of the numerical results.« less

  10. Rates of Reconstruction Failure in Patients Undergoing Immediate Reconstruction With Tissue Expanders and/or Implants and Postmastectomy Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Fowble, Barbara, E-mail: BFowble@radonc.ucsf.edu; Park, Catherine; Wang, Frederick

    2015-07-01

    Objectives: Mastectomy rates for breast cancer have increased, with a parallel increase in immediate reconstruction. For some women, tissue expander and implant (TE/I) reconstruction is the preferred or sole option. This retrospective study examined the rate of TE/I reconstruction failure (ie, removal of the TE or I with the inability to replace it resulting in no final reconstruction or autologous tissue reconstruction) in patients receiving postmastectomy radiation therapy (PMRT). Methods and Materials: Between 2004 and 2012, 99 women had skin-sparing mastectomies (SSM) or total nipple/areolar skin-sparing mastectomies (TSSM) with immediate TE/I reconstruction and PMRT for pathologic stage II to IIImore » breast cancer. Ninety-seven percent had chemotherapy (doxorubicin and taxane-based), 22% underwent targeted therapies, and 78% had endocrine therapy. Radiation consisted of 5000 cGy given in 180 to 200 cGy to the reconstructed breast with or without treatment to the supraclavicular nodes. Median follow-up was 3.8 years. Results: Total TE/I failure was 18% (12% without final reconstruction, 6% converted to autologous reconstruction). In univariate analysis, the strongest predictor of reconstruction failure (RF) was absence of total TE/I coverage (acellular dermal matrix and/or serratus muscle) at the time of radiation. RF occurred in 32.5% of patients without total coverage compared to 9% with coverage (P=.0069). For women with total coverage, the location of the mastectomy scar in the inframammary fold region was associated with higher RF (19% vs 0%, P=.0189). In multivariate analysis, weight was a significant factor for RF, with lower weight associated with a higher RF. Weight appeared to be a surrogate for the interaction of total coverage, thin skin flaps, interval to exchange, and location of the mastectomy scar. Conclusions: RFs in patients receiving PMRT were lowered with total TE/I coverage at the time of radiation by avoiding inframammary fold

  11. Early Ambulation Among Hospitalized Heart Failure Patients Is Associated With Reduced Length of Stay and 30-Day Readmissions.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Lisa M; Zhao, Xin; DeVore, Adam D; Heidenreich, Paul A; Yancy, Clyde W; Fonarow, Gregg C; Hernandez, Adrian F; Kociol, Robb D

    2018-04-01

    Early ambulation (EA) is associated with improved outcomes for mechanically ventilated and stroke patients. Whether the same association exists for patients hospitalized with acute heart failure is unknown. We sought to determine whether EA among patients hospitalized with heart failure is associated with length of stay, discharge disposition, 30-day post discharge readmissions, and mortality. The study population included 369 hospitals and 285 653 patients with heart failure enrolled in the Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure registry. We used multivariate logistic regression with generalized estimating equations at the hospital level to identify predictors of EA and determine the association between EA and outcomes. Sixty-five percent of patients ambulated by day 2 of the hospital admission. Patient-level predictors of EA included younger age, male sex, and hospitalization outside of the Northeast ( P <0.01 for all). Hospital size and academic status were not predictive. Hospital-level analysis revealed that those hospitals with EA rates in the top 25% were less likely to have a long length of stay (defined as >4 days) compared with those in the bottom 25% (odds ratio, 0.83; confidence interval, 0.73-0.94; P =0.004). Among a subgroup of fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries, we found that hospitals in the highest quartile of rates of EA demonstrated a statistically significant 24% lower 30-day readmission rates ( P <0.0001). Both end points demonstrated a dose-response association and statistically significant P for trend test. Multivariable-adjusted hospital-level analysis suggests an association between EA and both shorter length of stay and lower 30-day readmissions. Further prospective studies are needed to validate these findings. © 2018 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. All-on-4® Treatment Concept for the Rehabilitation of the Completely Edentulous Mandible: A 7-Year Clinical and 5-Year Radiographic Retrospective Case Series with Risk Assessment for Implant Failure and Marginal Bone Level.

    PubMed

    Maló, Paulo; de Araújo Nobre, Miguel; Lopes, Armando; Ferro, Ana; Gravito, Inês

    2015-10-01

    Studies are needed to evaluate long-term outcomes of the All-on-4® treatment concept (Nobel Biocare AB) for rehabilitation of edentulous mandibles by assessing marginal bone levels and risk indicators for implant failure. To evaluate 7-year clinical outcomes and 5-year radiographic outcomes of the All-on-4 treatment concept. This retrospective case series included patients admitted for implant rehabilitations in the mandible, who were followed for 7 years clinically and 5 years radiographically. Primary outcome measures were cumulative prosthetic and implant survival using patient as the unit of analysis (Kaplan-Meier product limit estimator). Secondary outcome measure was marginal bone level (MBL) at 5 years. Variables associated with implant failure were analyzed using the Cox proportional hazards regression model to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Binary logistic regression was used to compute odds ratio (OR) with 95% CIs for variables associated with MBL ≥2.8 mm at 5 years. A total of 324 patients (194 women, 130 men, average age = 58.9 years) were rehabilitated with 1,296 implants supporting 324 full-arch fixed immediately loaded mandibular prostheses. Sixty-four patients (19.8%) were lost to follow-up. Prosthetic survival was 323/324 (99.7%), and 14 patients lost 18 implants, with an estimated cumulative survival rate of 95.4% at 7 years. Variables associated with implant failure were smoking (HR = 5.28; 95% CI: 1.33, 20.91]) and the learning curve effect (0.69 < HR < 0.33 for more experienced levels). Mean MBL at 5 years was 1.81 mm (95% CI: 1.70, 1.92), and smoking was associated with MBL ≥2.8 mm (OR = 2.4; 95% CI: 1.02, 5.62). The high implant and prosthetic survival rates and excellent MBL outcome confirm the predictability and safety of the All-on-4 treatment concept over a longer term than previously reported. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. [Early exercise training after exacerbation in patients with chronic respiratory failure].

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hiromitsu; Molleyres, Sandrine; Dousse, Nicolas; Contal, Olivier; Janssens, Jean-Paul

    2011-11-23

    Patients who suffered from an exacerbation of a chronic respiratory disorder are often very limited in terms of their exercise capacity because of severe dyspnea and amyotrophy of peripheral muscles. Early implementation of pulmonary rehabilitation may help these patients to avoid the complications of a prolonged bedridden period, and increase more rapidly their mobility. Early rehabilitation has become more frequent, but requires special skills from the care givers (chest therapists). Techniques which enhance muscular performance and motility of patients who are recovering from an exacerbation such as electromoystimulation or mobilisation under non-invasive ventilation, give encouraging results; their impact on length of hospital stay requires further studies.

  14. Predicting Early Academic Failure in High School from Prior Academic Achievement, Psychosocial Characteristics, and Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casillas, Alex; Robbins, Steve; Allen, Jeff; Kuo, Yi-Lung; Hanson, Mary Ann; Schmeiser, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the differential effects of prior academic achievement, psychosocial, behavioral, demographic, and school context factors on early high school grade point average (GPA) using a prospective study of 4,660 middle-school students from 24 schools. The findings suggest that (a) prior grades and standardized achievement are the…

  15. The unsuitability of implantable Doppler probes for the early detection of renal vascular complications – a porcine model for prevention of renal transplant loss

    PubMed Central

    Jespersen, Bente; Møldrup, Ulla; Keller, Anna K.

    2017-01-01

    Background Vascular occlusion is a rare, but serious complication after kidney transplantation often resulting in graft loss. We therefore aimed to develop an experimental porcine model for stepwise reduction of the renal venous blood flow and to compare an implantable Doppler probe and microdialysis for fast detection of vascular occlusion. Methods In 20 pigs, implantable Doppler probes were placed on the renal artery and vein and a microdialysis catheter was placed in the renal cortex. An arterial flowprobe served as gold standard. Following two-hour baseline measurements, the pigs were randomised to stepwise venous occlusion, complete venous occlusion, complete arterial occlusion or controls. Results All parameters were stable through baseline measurements. Glutamate and lactate measured by microdialysis increased significantly (p = 0.02 and p = 0.03 respectively) 30 minutes after a 2/3 (66%) reduction in renal blood flow. The implantable Doppler probe was not able to detect flow changes until there was total venous occlusion. Microdialysis detected changes in local metabolism after both arterial and venous occlusion; the implantable Doppler probe could only detect vascular occlusions on the vessel it was placed. Conclusions We developed a new model for stepwise renal venous blood flow occlusion. Furthermore, the first comparison of the implantable Doppler probe and microdialysis for detection of renal vascular occlusions was made. The implantable Doppler probe could only detect flow changes after a complete occlusion, whereas microdialysis detected changes earlier, and could detect both arterial and venous occlusion. Based on these results, the implantable Doppler probe for early detection of vascular occlusions cannot be recommended. PMID:28542429

  16. Early serum interleukin-8 evaluation may prove useful in localizing abnormally implanted human gestations after in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Morelli, Sara S; Keegan, Debbra A; Krey, Lewis C; Katz, Joseph; Liu, Mengling; Noyes, Nicole

    2008-12-01

    To determine whether early measurement of the serum cytokines interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R), IL-6, and IL-8 along with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and progesterone (P(4)) can differentiate an ectopic from an intrauterine gestation. Retrospective analysis. University-based fertility center. 75 women who underwent treatment with in vitro fertilization (IVF) and subsequently had an ectopic gestation (n = 15), spontaneous abortion (SAB) (n = 30), or term delivery (TD) (n = 30). Serum samples were obtained 14 (day 28) and 21 (day 35)