Science.gov

Sample records for early implementation experience

  1. The Community Options Program: An Evaluation of Early Implementation Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Health and Social Services, Madison.

    This document contains a preliminary report on the implementation of Wisconsin's Community Options Program (COP), a program designed both to divert persons from entering nursing homes and to deinstitutionalize current nursing home residents who can be effectively served by community-based alternatives. The introduction of this report provides a…

  2. Nurses' experiences using a nursing information system: early stage of technology implementation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ting-Ting

    2007-01-01

    Adoption of information technology in nursing practice has become a trend in healthcare. The impact of this technology on users has been widely studied, but little attention has been given to its influence at the beginning stage of implementation. Knowing the barriers to adopting technology could shorten this transition stage and minimize its negative influences. The purpose of this study was to explore nurses' experiences in the early stage of implementing a nursing information system. Focus groups were used to collect data at a medical center in Taiwan. The results showed that nurses had problems with the system's content design, had insufficient training, were concerned about data security, were stressed by added work, and experienced poor interdisciplinary cooperation. To smooth this beginning stage, the author recommends involving nurses early in the system design, providing sufficient training in keyboard entry skills, redesigning workflow, and improving interdisciplinary communication.

  3. Integrating primary care into community behavioral health settings: programs and early implementation experiences.

    PubMed

    Scharf, Deborah M; Eberhart, Nicole K; Schmidt, Nicole; Vaughan, Christine A; Dutta, Trina; Pincus, Harold Alan; Burnam, M Audrey

    2013-07-01

    This article describes the characteristics and early implementation experiences of community behavioral health agencies that received Primary and Behavioral Health Care Integration (PBHCI) grants from the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration to integrate primary care into programs for adults with serious mental illness. Data were collected from 56 programs, across 26 states, that received PBHCI grants in 2009 (N=13) or 2010 (N=43). The authors systematically extracted quantitative and qualitative information about program characteristics from grantee proposals and semistructured telephone interviews with core program staff. Quarterly reports submitted by grantees were coded to identify barriers to implementing integrated care. Grantees shared core features required by the grant but varied widely in terms of characteristics of the organization, such as size and location, and in the way services were integrated, such as through partnerships with a primary care agency. Barriers to program implementation at start-up included difficulty recruiting and retaining qualified staff and issues related to data collection and use of electronic health records, licensing and approvals, and physical space. By the end of the first year, some problems, such as space issues, were largely resolved, but other issues, including problems with staffing and data collection, remained. New challenges, such as patient recruitment, had emerged. Early implementation experiences of PBHCI grantees may inform other programs that seek to integrate primary care into behavioral health settings as part of new, large-scale government initiatives, such as specialty mental health homes.

  4. Schools' Responses to Voucher Policy: Participation Decisions and Early Implementation Experiences in the Indiana Choice Scholarship Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Megan J.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the supply side of voucher programs, despite schools' central role in program effectiveness. Using survey and interview data on the Indiana Choice Scholarship Program (ICSP), I analyze schools' participation decisions and early implementation experiences to understand better how schools respond to program regulations. I find…

  5. Alternative Student Growth Measures for Teacher Evaluation: Implementation Experiences of Early-Adopting Districts. REL 2015-093

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCullough, Moira; English, Brittany; Angus, Megan Hague; Gill, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Alternative student growth measures for teacher evaluation: Implementation experiences of early-adopting districts: State requirements to include student achievement growth in teacher evaluations are prompting the development of alternative ways to measure growth in grades and subjects not covered by state assessments. These alternative growth…

  6. Lessons Learned From Early Implementation of Option B+: The Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation Experience in 11 African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Mattingly, Meghan; Giphart, Anja; van de Ven, Roland; Chouraya, Caspian; Walakira, Moses; Boon, Alexandre; Mikusova, Silvia; Simonds, R. J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: “Option B+” is a World Health Organization-recommended approach to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission whereby all HIV-positive pregnant and lactating women initiate lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART). This review of early Option B+ implementation experience is intended to inform Ministries of Health and others involved in implementing Option B+. Methods: This implementation science study analyzed data from 11 African countries supported by the Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation (EGPAF) to describe early experience implementing Option B+. Data are from 4 sources: (1) national guidelines for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission and Option B+ implementation plans, (2) aggregated service delivery data between January 2013 and March 2014 from EGPAF-supported sites, (3) field visits to Option B+ implementation sites, and (4) relevant EGPAF research, quality improvement, and evaluation studies. Results: Rapid adoption of Option B+ led to large increases in percentage of HIV-positive pregnant women accessing ART in antenatal care. By the end of 2013, most programs reached at least 50% of HIV-positive women in antenatal care with ART, even in countries using a phased approach to implementation. Scaling up Option B+ through integrating ART in maternal and child health settings has required expansion of the workforce, and task shifting to allow nurse-led ART initiation has created staffing pressure on lower-level cadres for counseling and community follow-up. Complex data collection needs may be impairing data quality. Discussion: Early experiences with Option B+ implementation demonstrate promise. Continued program evaluation is needed, as is specific attention to counseling and support around initiation of lifetime ART in the context of pregnancy and lactation. PMID:25436817

  7. Lessons learned from early implementation of option B+: the Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation experience in 11 African countries.

    PubMed

    Kieffer, Mary Pat; Mattingly, Meghan; Giphart, Anja; van de Ven, Roland; Chouraya, Caspian; Walakira, Moses; Boon, Alexandre; Mikusova, Silvia; Simonds, R J

    2014-12-01

    "Option B+" is a World Health Organization-recommended approach to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission whereby all HIV-positive pregnant and lactating women initiate lifelong antiretroviral therapy (ART). This review of early Option B+ implementation experience is intended to inform Ministries of Health and others involved in implementing Option B+. This implementation science study analyzed data from 11 African countries supported by the Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation (EGPAF) to describe early experience implementing Option B+. Data are from 4 sources: (1) national guidelines for prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission and Option B+ implementation plans, (2) aggregated service delivery data between January 2013 and March 2014 from EGPAF-supported sites, (3) field visits to Option B+ implementation sites, and (4) relevant EGPAF research, quality improvement, and evaluation studies. Rapid adoption of Option B+ led to large increases in percentage of HIV-positive pregnant women accessing ART in antenatal care. By the end of 2013, most programs reached at least 50% of HIV-positive women in antenatal care with ART, even in countries using a phased approach to implementation. Scaling up Option B+ through integrating ART in maternal and child health settings has required expansion of the workforce, and task shifting to allow nurse-led ART initiation has created staffing pressure on lower-level cadres for counseling and community follow-up. Complex data collection needs may be impairing data quality. Early experiences with Option B+ implementation demonstrate promise. Continued program evaluation is needed, as is specific attention to counseling and support around initiation of lifetime ART in the context of pregnancy and lactation.

  8. [Early prenatal interview: implementation of a sheet link "carried" by patient. The Aurore perinatal network experience].

    PubMed

    Dupont, C; Gonnaud, F; Touzet, S; Luciani, F; Perié, M-A; Molenat, F; Evrard, A; Fernandez, M-P; Roy, J; Rudigoz, R-C

    2008-11-01

    Early prenatal interview has needed the implementation of a new communication tool between follow-up pregnancy professionals: a link sheet filled and carried by patients. To assess the utilization of link sheet by trained professionals, the contribution of the interview and the patient acceptation of the link sheet. Descriptive survey from the database of link sheets returned by professionals to Aurore perinatal network and semi-guided interviews with 100 randomized patients. One thousand one hundred and nineteen link sheets were sent to Aurore perinatal network by 55 professionals out of 78 trained. For primipare, precocious prenatal interview contribution has concerned health care security (60%) and emotional security (56%). For multipare, this contribution has concerned mainly emotional security (80%). No interviewed patient has refused link sheet principle. Link sheet principle, like implemented by Aurore perinatal network, seems pertinent to professionals and patients but it constitutes only one of the elements of network elaboration of personalized care.

  9. Implementing Obstetric Early Warning Systems.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Alexander M; Campbell, Mary L; Kline, Carolyn R; Wiesner, Suzanne; D'Alton, Mary E; Shields, Laurence E

    2018-04-01

    Severe maternal morbidity and mortality are often preventable and obstetric early warning systems that alert care providers of potential impending critical illness may improve maternal safety. While literature on outcomes and test characteristics of maternal early warning systems is evolving, there is limited guidance on implementation. Given current interest in early warning systems and their potential role in care, the 2017 Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM) Annual Meeting dedicated a session to exploring early warning implementation across a wide range of hospital settings. This manuscript reports on key points from this session. While implementation experiences varied based on factors specific to individual sites, common themes relevant to all hospitals presenting were identified. Successful implementation of early warnings systems requires administrative and leadership support, dedication of resources, improved coordination between nurses, providers, and ancillary staff, optimization of information technology, effective education, evaluation of and change in hospital culture and practices, and support in provider decision-making. Evolving data on outcomes on early warning systems suggest that maternal risk may be reduced. To effectively reduce maternal, risk early warning systems that capture deterioration from a broad range of conditions may be required in addition to bundles tailored to specific conditions such as hemorrhage, thromboembolism, and hypertension.

  10. Lessons Learned During Implementation and Early Operations of the DS1 Beacon Monitor Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Rob; Wyatt, Jay; Hotz, Henry; Schlutsmeyer, Alan; Sue, Miles

    1998-01-01

    A new approach to mission operations will be flight validated on NASA's New Millennium Program Deep Space One (DS1) mission which launched in October 1998. The Beacon Monitor Operations Technology is aimed at decreasing the total volume of downlinked engineering telemetry by reducing the frequency of downlink and the volume of data received per pass. Cost savings are achieved by reducing the amount of routine telemetry processing and analysis performed by ground staff. The technology is required for upcoming NASA missions to Pluto, Europa, and possibly some other missions. With beacon monitoring, the spacecraft will assess its own health and will transmit one of four beacon messages each representing a unique frequency tone to inform the ground how urgent it is to track the spacecraft for telemetry. If all conditions are nominal, the tone provides periodic assurance to ground personnel that the mission is proceeding as planned without having to receive and analyze downlinked telemetry. If there is a problem, the tone will indicate that tracking is required and the resulting telemetry will contain a concise summary of what has occurred since the last telemetry pass. The primary components of the technology are a tone monitoring technology, AI-based software for onboard engineering data summarization, and a ground response system. In addition, there is a ground visualization system for telemetry summaries. This paper includes a description of the Beacon monitor concept, the trade-offs with adapting that concept as a technology experiment, the current state of the resulting implementation on DS1, and our lessons learned during the initial checkout phase of the mission. Applicability to future missions is also included.

  11. Implementation of a Proficiency-Based Diploma System: Phase I--Early Experiences in Maine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stump, Erika K.; Silvernail, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Following the passage of No Child Left Behind, there has been increased attention among researchers, policymakers, and practitioners on the emergence and implementation of standards-based education. Existing literature documents both the promise of standards-based education and the various potential obstacles to achieving success that teachers,…

  12. IMPLEMENTING AN ATTACHMENT-BASED PARENTING INTERVENTION WITHIN HOME-BASED EARLY HEAD START: HOME-VISITORS' PERCEPTIONS AND EXPERIENCES.

    PubMed

    West, Allison L; Aparicio, Elizabeth M; Berlin, Lisa J; Jones Harden, Brenda

    2017-07-01

    Implementation of evidence-based interventions in "real-world" settings is enhanced when front-line staff view the intervention as acceptable, appropriate, and feasible. This qualitative study addresses Early Head Start (EHS) home visitors' perceptions and experiences of an evidence-based parenting intervention, the Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-up program (M. Dozier, O. Lindhiem, & J. Ackerman, 2005), when added to EHS services as usual within the context of a research-practice partnership. Thematic analysis of in-depth, qualitative interviews indicates that home visitors experienced the intervention as positive and helpful for EHS families. Some challenges included scheduling and uncertainty regarding the goals of the intervention. Concerns over participation in the research centered on information exchange, confidentiality, and time limitations. © 2017 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health.

  13. Early Experience in Implementation of a Learning Assessment Toolkit in the AOTrauma Geriatric Fracture Course

    PubMed Central

    O’Malley, Natasha T.; Cunningham, Michael; Leung, Frankie; Blauth, Michael; Kates, Stephen L.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Surgical education is continually expanding to encompass new techniques and technologies. It is vital that educational activity is directed at gaps in knowledge and ability to improve the quality of learning. Aim: The aim of this study is to describe a published learning assessment toolkit when applied to participants attending AOTrauma Orthogeriatric Fracture courses. Methods: Precourse, participants received a questionnaire covering 10 competencies to assess knowledge gaps and a 20-question clinical knowledge test. The knowledge gap between perceived and desired knowledge was correlated with clinical knowledge test results to help course faculty focus the course curriculum to meet identified educational needs. A commitment to change survey was also administered. Results: Over 3 courses, 48% of registered attendees responded to the precourse survey, 44.5% responded postcourse. The precourse gap scores were generally highest for 2 competencies (“address secondary prevention,” “build a system of care”) indicating a higher level of motivation to learn in these topics and lowest for a variety of competencies (eg. “restore function early,” “co-manage patient care in the US surgeons group”) indicating lower motivation to learn in these competencies. These precourse gap scores guided adaptations in the course structure. Postcourse gaps were reduced in the 4 cohorts. Large improvements were seen in “Address secondary prevention” and “Build a system of care” in many of the cohorts. Competencies with the lowest precourse knowledge test scores were noted in each cohort. Where low pretest scores were noted, it highlighted the need for faculty to put appropriate emphasis on these topics in the delivery of the course content. Conclusion: The technique of evaluating and identifying gaps in knowledge and ability allows course designers to focus on areas of deficits. Measurable success was shown with a subjectively decreased gap score and

  14. GMPLS-based control plane for optical networks: early implementation experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hang; Pendarakis, Dimitrios; Komaee, Nooshin; Saha, Debanjan

    2002-07-01

    Generalized Multi-Protocol Label Switching (GMPLS) extends MPLS signaling and Internet routing protocols to provide a scalable, interoperable, distributed control plane, which is applicable to multiple network technologies such as optical cross connects (OXCs), photonic switches, IP routers, ATM switches, SONET and DWDM systems. It is intended to facilitate automatic service provisioning and dynamic neighbor and topology discovery across multi-vendor intelligent transport networks, as well as their clients. Efforts to standardize such a distributed common control plane have reached various stages in several bodies such as the IETF, ITU and OIF. This paper describes the design considerations and architecture of a GMPLS-based control plane that we have prototyped for core optical networks. Functional components of GMPLS signaling and routing are integrated in this architecture with an application layer controller module. Various requirements including bandwidth, network protection and survivability, traffic engineering, optimal utilization of network resources, and etc. are taken into consideration during path computation and provisioning. Initial experiments with our prototype demonstrate the feasibility and main benefits of GMPLS as a distributed control plane for core optical networks. In addition to such feasibility results, actual adoption and deployment of GMPLS as a common control plane for intelligent transport networks will depend on the successful completion of relevant standardization activities, extensive interoperability testing as well as the strengthening of appropriate business drivers.

  15. Investigating and Learning Lessons from Early Experiences of Implementing ePrescribing Systems into NHS Hospitals: A Questionnaire Study

    PubMed Central

    Cresswell, Kathrin; Coleman, Jamie; Slee, Ann; Williams, Robin; Sheikh, Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Background ePrescribing systems have significant potential to improve the safety and efficiency of healthcare, but they need to be carefully selected and implemented to maximise benefits. Implementations in English hospitals are in the early stages and there is a lack of standards guiding the procurement, functional specifications, and expected benefits. We sought to provide an updated overview of the current picture in relation to implementation of ePrescribing systems, explore existing strategies, and identify early lessons learned. Methods A descriptive questionnaire-based study, which included closed and free text questions and involved both quantitative and qualitative analysis of the data generated. Results We obtained responses from 85 of 108 NHS staff (78.7% response rate). At least 6% (n = 10) of the 168 English NHS Trusts have already implemented ePrescribing systems, 2% (n = 4) have no plans of implementing, and 34% (n = 55) are planning to implement with intended rapid implementation timelines driven by high expectations surrounding improved safety and efficiency of care. The majority are unclear as to which system to choose, but integration with existing systems and sophisticated decision support functionality are important decisive factors. Participants highlighted the need for increased guidance in relation to implementation strategy, system choice and standards, as well as the need for top-level management support to adequately resource the project. Although some early benefits were reported by hospitals that had already implemented, the hoped for benefits relating to improved efficiency and cost-savings remain elusive due to a lack of system maturity. Conclusions Whilst few have begun implementation, there is considerable interest in ePrescribing systems with ambitious timelines amongst those hospitals that are planning implementations. In order to ensure maximum chances of realising benefits, there is a need for increased guidance in

  16. FAA Loran early implementation project

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1990-03-01

    The Early Implementation Project (EIP), established by FAA Administrator Admiral : Donald C. Engen, was the initial step in the process of Loran integration into the : National Airsace System (NAS). The EIP was designed to give the FAA and the Loran ...

  17. Following a natural experiment of guideline adaptation and early implementation: a mixed-methods study of facilitation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Facilitation is emerging as an important strategy in the uptake of evidence. However, it is not entirely clear from a practical perspective how facilitation occurs to help move research evidence into nursing practice. The Canadian Partnership Against Cancer, also known as the 'Partnership,' is a Pan-Canadian initiative supporting knowledge translation activity for improved care through guideline use. In this case-series study, five self-identified groups volunteered to use a systematic methodology to adapt existing clinical practice guidelines for Canadian use. With 'Partnership' support, local and external facilitators provided assistance for groups to begin the process by adapting the guidelines and planning for implementation. Methods To gain a more comprehensive understanding of the nature of facilitation, we conducted a mixed-methods study. Specifically, we examined the role and skills of individuals actively engaged in facilitation as well as the actual facilitation activities occurring within the 'Partnership.' The study was driven by and builds upon a focused literature review published in 2010 that examined facilitation as a role and process in achieving evidence-based practice in nursing. An audit tool outlining 46 discrete facilitation activities based on results of this review was used to examine the facilitation noted in the documents (emails, meeting minutes, field notes) of three nursing-related cases participating in the 'Partnership' case-series study. To further examine the concept, six facilitators were interviewed about their practical experiences. The case-audit data were analyzed through a simple content analysis and triangulated with participant responses from the focus group interview to understand what occurred as these cases undertook guideline adaptation. Results The analysis of the three cases revealed that almost all of the 46 discrete, practical facilitation activities from the literature were evidenced. Additionally, case

  18. AWBATTM: Early Clinical Experience

    PubMed Central

    Vandenberg, Victoria B.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this article is to describe the early clinical experience with AWBAT. Methods: Burn patients requiring (1) donor sites or (2) treatment of a superficial burn wound injury were treated. A total of 45 patients with 69 distinct wounds were included. AWBATTM-D was evaluated in donor sites and AWBATTM-S was evaluated in superficial partial-thickness burns. Days to healing, pain, hematoma/seroma formation, and infection were noted. Ease of application, adherence, transparency, and physical adaptability details were collected. Results: Average period to healing of donor sites treated with AWBAT-D (n=22 patients with n=26 wounds) was 11.2 days, σ =1.95, with a range of 8–15 days and a median of 11 days. Pain rating at 24 hours was 1.2, σ =0.43 (n=18) and at 48 hours mean was 1.2, σ =0.46 (n=15). Average period to healing of superficial burns treated with AWBAT-S (n=15 patients with n=18 wounds) was 8.1 days, σ =2.48, with a range of 5–13 days and a median of 7 days. Pain rating at 24 hours was 1.5, σ =0.85 (n=10) and at 48 hours mean was 1.75, σ =0.89 (n=8). There was zero incidence of hematoma/seroma. No infections were seen. Results indicate that AWBAT was easily applied with good initial adherence. It was noted to be transparent, conformant, and pliable. Discussion: Early experience demonstrates that AWBAT performs well on donor sites and superficial partial-thickness burns and delivers the desired attributes of a temporary skin substitute including good adherence, infection control, transparency, adapatability, and pain control. PMID:20361005

  19. AWBAT: early clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Vandenberg, Victoria B

    2010-03-15

    The purpose of this article is to describe the early clinical experience with AWBAT. Burn patients requiring (1) donor sites or (2) treatment of a superficial burn wound injury were treated. A total of 45 patients with 69 distinct wounds were included. AWBAT-D was evaluated in donor sites and AWBAT-S was evaluated in superficial partial-thickness burns. Days to healing, pain, hematoma/seroma formation, and infection were noted. Ease of application, adherence, transparency, and physical adaptability details were collected. Average period to healing of donor sites treated with AWBAT-D (n=22 patients with n=26 wounds) was 11.2 days, sigma =1.95, with a range of 8-15 days and a median of 11 days. Pain rating at 24 hours was 1.2, sigma =0.43 (n=18) and at 48 hours mean was 1.2, sigma =0.46 (n=15). Average period to healing of superficial burns treated with AWBAT-S (n=15 patients with n=18 wounds) was 8.1 days, sigma =2.48, with a range of 5-13 days and a median of 7 days. Pain rating at 24 hours was 1.5, sigma =0.85 (n=10) and at 48 hours mean was 1.75, sigma =0.89 (n=8). There was zero incidence of hematoma/seroma. No infections were seen. Results indicate that AWBAT was easily applied with good initial adherence. It was noted to be transparent, conformant, and pliable. Early experience demonstrates that AWBAT performs well on donor sites and superficial partial-thickness burns and delivers the desired attributes of a temporary skin substitute including good adherence, infection control, transparency, adapatability, and pain control.

  20. The Early Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garvey, Gerald

    2013-04-01

    Stuart Freedman obtained his PhD at Berkley with an experimental thesis providing very strong evidence against theories requiring local hidden variables. He then came to Princeton in 1972 and began collaboration on a search for second-class currents. These measurements are quite difficult as the effects are the order of 1%, demonstrating Freedman's drive to take on hard but important experiments. After carrying out some relatively standard nuclear physics measurements he moved on to Stanford in 1976. There, Freedman was involved in identifying measurements sensitive to the existence of light axions. He also carried out searches for various exotica that might be produced from cosmic rays or the SLAC beam stop. During this time he was collaborating with us at Argonne investigating nuclear parity violation and time-like axial beta decay. In 1982 Freedman came to Argonne where he worked on fundamental issues in neutron beta decay. He also initiated what was to become one of his trademarks, demonstrating that surprising peaks in the e^+-e^- spectrum observed in very heavy ion collisions were spurious. He further launched his first neutrino oscillation experiment. This period of early research was marked by a remarkable diversity of subject matter and approach.

  1. Implementing a Robotics Curriculum in an Early Childhood Montessori Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elkin, Mollie; Sullivan, Amanda; Bers, Marina Umaschi

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores how robotics can be used as a new educational tool in a Montessori early education classroom. It presents a case study of one early educator's experience of designing and implementing a robotics curriculum integrated with a social science unit in her mixed-age classroom. This teacher had no prior experience using robotics in…

  2. Music Experiences in Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andress, Barbara

    This book presents a program of music experiences for young children (3-5-year-olds) which focuses on an experiential discovery approach to music, rather than on imposing ideas and a repertoire on the child. Early sections of the book discuss the importance of the child-centered music program, its process and characteristics, and the role of the…

  3. ABCs of Early Mathematics Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensen, Laurie E.

    2005-01-01

    Children begin to develop mathematical thinking before they enter school. Art, baking, playing with blocks, counting numbers, games, puzzles, singing, playing with pretend money, water play all these early mathematical experiences help the children to learn in the elementary school years.

  4. Soil Vapor Extraction Implementation Experiences

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This issue paper identifies issues and summarizes experiences with soil vapor extraction (SVE) as a remedy for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in soils. The issues presented here reflect discussions with over 30 Remedial Project Managers (RPMs)...

  5. Implementing antiretroviral resistance testing in a primary health care HIV treatment programme in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa: early experiences, achievements and challenges.

    PubMed

    Lessells, Richard J; Stott, Katharine E; Manasa, Justen; Naidu, Kevindra K; Skingsley, Andrew; Rossouw, Theresa; de Oliveira, Tulio

    2014-03-07

    Antiretroviral drug resistance is becoming increasingly common with the expansion of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment programmes in high prevalence settings. Genotypic resistance testing could have benefit in guiding individual-level treatment decisions but successful models for delivering resistance testing in low- and middle-income countries have not been reported. An HIV Treatment Failure Clinic model was implemented within a large primary health care HIV treatment programme in northern KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Genotypic resistance testing was offered to adults (≥16 years) with virological failure on first-line antiretroviral therapy (one viral load >1000 copies/ml after at least 12 months on a standard first-line regimen). A genotypic resistance test report was generated with treatment recommendations from a specialist HIV clinician and sent to medical officers at the clinics who were responsible for patient management. A quantitative process evaluation was conducted to determine how the model was implemented and to provide feedback regarding barriers and challenges to delivery. A total of 508 specimens were submitted for genotyping between 8 April 2011 and 31 January 2013; in 438 cases (86.2%) a complete genotype report with recommendations from the specialist clinician was sent to the medical officer. The median turnaround time from specimen collection to receipt of final report was 18 days (interquartile range (IQR) 13-29). In 114 (26.0%) cases the recommended treatment differed from what would be given in the absence of drug resistance testing. In the majority of cases (n = 315, 71.9%), the subsequent treatment prescribed was in line with the recommendations of the report. Genotypic resistance testing was successfully implemented in this large primary health care HIV programme and the system functioned well enough for the results to influence clinical management decisions in real time. Further research will explore the impact and cost

  6. Early perception and structural identity: neural implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ligomenides, Panos A.

    1992-03-01

    It is suggested that there exists a minimal set of rules for the perceptual composition of the unending variety of spatio-temporal patterns in our perceptual world. Driven by perceptual discernment of "sudden change" and "unexpectedness", these rules specify conditions (such as co-linearity and virtual continuation) for perceptual grouping and for recursive compositions of perceptual "modalities" and "signatures". Beginning with a smallset of primitive perceptual elements, selected contextually at some relevant level of abstraction, perceptual compositions can graduate to an unlimited variety of spatiotemporal signatures, scenes and activities. Local discernible elements, often perceptually ambiguous by themselves, may be integrated into spatiotemporal compositions, which generate unambiguous perceptual separations between "figure" and "ground". The definition of computational algorithms for the effective instantiation of the rules of perceptual grouping remains a principal problem. In this paper we present our approach for solving the problem of perceptual recognition within the confines of one-D variational profiles. More specifically, concerning "early" (pre-attentive) recognition, we define the "structural identity of a k-norm, k ∈ K,"--SkID--as a tool for discerning and locating the instantiation of spatiotemporal objects or events. The SkID profile also serves a s a reference coordinate framework for the "perceptual focusing of attention" and the eventual assessment of resemblance. Neural network implementations of pre-attentive and attentive recognition are also discussed briefly. Our principles are exemplified by application to one-D perceptual profiles, which allows simplicity of definitions and of the rules of perceptual composition.

  7. Enduring Influences of Early Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lipsitt, Lewis P.

    Implications of three basic facts about very young infants are delineated in this summary. Normally, human infants are capable of a wide range of functions, such as "appetitive responses" (e.g., the rooting reflex) and defensive maneuvers. They experience pleasure and feel pain. Additionally, they undergo a transition from subcortical to…

  8. Early Childhood Curriculum: Planning, Assessment, and Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLachlan, Claire; Fleer, Marilyn; Edwards, Susan

    2010-01-01

    "Early Childhood Curriculum" addresses current approaches to curriculum for infants, toddlers and young children, ages birth to eight. It provides a comprehensive introduction to the curriculum issues that student teachers and emerging practitioners will face and equips them with the decision-making tools that will ultimately enhance and promote…

  9. Implementing Children's Rights in Early Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Te One, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    Recent research (Te One, 2009) investigated perceptions of children's rights in a New Zealand early childhood care and education service (the Creche) for under-two-year-olds. Focus group interviews, interviews with teachers, observational field notes, photographs and a researcher's journal were used to generate data. Findings revealed that…

  10. Seven Elements Important to Successful Implementation of Early Literacy Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foorman, Barbara; Dombek, Jennifer; Smith, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article is to describe seven elements important to successful implementation of early literacy intervention. The seven elements are drawn from research as well as from the authors' recent randomized controlled trial of effective early literacy interventions in kindergarten through second grade in 55 schools across Florida.…

  11. Issues of Implementation of Early Childhood Education and Support Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prinsen, Bert

    This document comprises three papers related to the implementation of early childhood education, health care, and support programs. The first paper is a brief reflection on the nature of implementation, based on the contributions of Boudewijn Bekkers. The second is a proceedings chapter by Marian Hanrahan titled "Community Based Innovative…

  12. Brachytherapy in early prostate cancer--early experience.

    PubMed

    Jose, B O; Bailen, J L; Albrink, F H; Steinbock, G S; Cornett, M S; Benson, D C; Schmied, W K; Medley, R N; Spanos, W J; Paris, K J; Koerner, P D; Gatenby, R A; Wilson, D L; Meyer, R

    1999-01-01

    Use of brachytherapy with radioactive seeds in the management of early prostate cancer is commonly used in the United States. The early experience has been reported from the prostate treatment centers in Seattle for the last 10 years. In this manuscript we are reporting our early experience of 150 radioactive seed implantations in early stage prostate cancer using either Iodine 125 or Palladium 103 seeds. The average age of the patient is 66 years and the median Gleason score is 5.4 with a median PSA of 6. A brief description of the evolution of the treatment of prostate cancer as well as the preparation for the seed implantation using the volume study with ultrasound of the prostate, pubic arch study using CT scan of the pelvis and the complete planning using the treatment planning computers are discussed. We also have described the current technique which is used in our experience based on the Seattle guidelines. We plan a follow-up report with the results of the studies with longer follow-up.

  13. Footprints of "experiment" in early Arabic optics.

    PubMed

    Kheirandish, Elaheh

    2009-01-01

    This study traces the early developments of the concept of experiment with a view of extending the subject in both content and approach. It extends the content of the subject slightly backward, prior to the methodological breakthroughs of the Optics of Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen or Alhacen, d. ca. 1040), which are credited as a "significant landmark in the history of experimental science." And it extends the approach to the subject slightly forward, from the premise that early science was "largely carried out in books," to a close examination of the books through which the footprints of'experiment' may be traced. The point of departure is the Optics of Ahmad ibn 'Isă, a revealing text for the early developments of concepts such as 'demonstration' and 'experiment', and one through which some modern discussions are examined and extended with reference to this and other historical sources.

  14. Early treatment of penile fractures: our experience.

    PubMed

    García Gómez, Borja; Romero, Javier; Villacampa, Felipe; Tejido, Angel; Díaz, Rafael

    2012-09-01

    To report our experience in early surgery of penile fractures. We review retrospectively all the cases that underwent surgery at our center from 1989 to 2009, with a total of 24. The cause of the fracture was sexual intercourse in most cases, and in all of them, surgical management was performed according to clinical presentation and physical exploration. In only 7 cases an ultrasound was performed as a complementary test. Early surgery allows prompt resolution of the problem with excellent functional outcomes and little side effects. The prognosis after emergency surgery was excellent in this review.

  15. Gamma astrometric measurement experiment -science and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gai, Mario; Vecchiato, Alberto; Lattanzi, Mario G.; Ligori, Sebastiano; Loreggia, Davide; Fineschi, Silvano

    GAME (Gamma Astrometric Measurement Experiment) is a mission concept taking advantage of astronomical techniques for high precision measurements of interest to Fundamental Physics, and in particular the γ parameter of the Parameterized Post-Newtonian formulation of gravi-tation theories modifying the General Relativity. A space based telescope, looking close to the Solar limb thanks to coronagraphic techniques, may implement astrometric measurements sim-ilar to those performed in the solar eclipse of 1919, when Dyson, Eddington and collaborators measured for the first time the gravitational bending of light. Simulations show that the final accuracy of GAME can reach the 10-7 level. GAME will be a decisive experiment for the understanding of gravity physics, cosmology and the Universe evolution. The observations leading to Dark Matter (e.g. galaxy rotation curves) and Dark Energy (accelerated expansion of the Universe) might be explained with a modified version of General Relativity, e.g. in which the curvature invariant R is no longer constant as in Einstein's equations, i.e. the f (R) gravity theories. A 10-7 level determination of γ will provide stringent constraints on acceptable theories. Also, high precision astrometry makes accessible other appealing measurements, e.g. the light deflection induced by the quadrupole moment of giant planets, like Jupiter or Saturn, and, by high precision determination of the orbits of Mercury and high elongation asteroids, the PPN parameter β. GAME may also carry out measurements on selected astrophysical targets, e.g. nearby, bright stars known to host companions with minimum masses in the planetary/brown dwarf regime, and orbital radii in the 3-7 AU range, which are observed by no other present or planned campaigns. GAME, also thanks to high-cadence, high-precision photometry on transit-ing exoplanet systems, will thus improve on our understanding of the actual mass distribution and multiplicity of sub-stellar companions

  16. Preparing Early Interventionists to Implement Family-Centered Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hile, Kimberly A.; Milagros Santos, Rosa; Hughes, Mary-alayne

    2016-01-01

    The reauthorization of IDEA in 1997 placed greater emphasis on providing early intervention services to the family unit versus solely focusing on children with disabilities or children who are at risk for disabilities. Due to the shift from child-focused services to family-focused services, the need to implement family-centered practices became…

  17. Implementation of and experiences with new automation.

    PubMed

    Mahmud, I; Kim, D

    2000-01-01

    In an environment where cost, timeliness, and quality drives the business, it is essential to look for answers in technology where these challenges can be met. In the Novartis Pharmaceutical Quality Assurance Department, automation and robotics have become just the tools to meet these challenges. Although automation is a relatively new concept in our department, we have fully embraced it within just a few years. As our company went through a merger, there was a significant reduction in the workforce within the Quality Assurance Department through voluntary and involuntary separations. However the workload remained constant or in some cases actually increased. So even with reduction in laboratory personnel, we were challenged internally and from the headquarters in Basle to improve productivity while maintaining integrity in quality testing. Benchmark studies indicated the Suffern site to be the choice manufacturing site above other facilities. This is attributed to the Suffern facility employees' commitment to reduce cycle time, improve efficiency, and maintain high level of regulatory compliance. One of the stronger contributing factors was automation technology in the laboratoriess, and this technology will continue to help the site's status in the future. The Automation Group was originally formed about 2 years ago to meet the demands of high quality assurance testing throughput needs and to bring our testing group up to standard with the industry. Automation began with only two people in the group and now we have three people who are the next generation automation scientists. Even with such a small staff,we have made great strides in laboratory automation as we have worked extensively with each piece of equipment brought in. The implementation process of each project was often difficult because the second generation automation group came from the laboratory and without much automation experience. However, with the involvement from the users at 'get-go', we were

  18. Implementation of and experiences with new automation

    PubMed Central

    Mahmud, Ifte; Kim, David

    2000-01-01

    In an environment where cost, timeliness, and quality drives the business, it is essential to look for answers in technology where these challenges can be met. In the Novartis Pharmaceutical Quality Assurance Department, automation and robotics have become just the tools to meet these challenges. Although automation is a relatively new concept in our department, we have fully embraced it within just a few years. As our company went through a merger, there was a significant reduction in the workforce within the Quality Assurance Department through voluntary and involuntary separations. However the workload remained constant or in some cases actually increased. So even with reduction in laboratory personnel, we were challenged internally and from the headquarters in Basle to improve productivity while maintaining integrity in quality testing. Benchmark studies indicated the Suffern site to be the choice manufacturing site above other facilities. This is attributed to the Suffern facility employees' commitment to reduce cycle time, improve efficiency, and maintain high level of regulatory compliance. One of the stronger contributing factors was automation technology in the laboratoriess, and this technology will continue to help the site's status in the future. The Automation Group was originally formed about 2 years ago to meet the demands of high quality assurance testing throughput needs and to bring our testing group up to standard with the industry. Automation began with only two people in the group and now we have three people who are the next generation automation scientists. Even with such a small staff,we have made great strides in laboratory automation as we have worked extensively with each piece of equipment brought in. The implementation process of each project was often difficult because the second generation automation group came from the laboratory and without much automation experience. However, with the involvement from the users at ‘get-go’, we

  19. Planning and Implementation of Remote Sensing Experiments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Contents: TEKTITE II experiment-upwelling detection (NASA Mx 138); Design of oceanographic experiments (Gulf of Mexico, Mx 159); Design of oceanographic experiments (Gulf of Mexico, Mx 165); Experiments on thermal pollution; Remote sensing newsletter; Symposium on remote sensing in marine biology and fishery resources.

  20. Implementing drought early warning systems: policy lessons and future needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, Ana; Werner, Micha; Maia, Rodrigo; Garrote, Luis; Nyabeze, Washington

    2014-05-01

    Drought forecasting and Warning provides the potential of reducing impacts to society due to drought events. The implementation of effective drought forecasting and warning, however, requires not only science to support reliable forecasting, but also adequate policy and societal response. Here we propose a protocol to develop drought forecasting and early warning based in the international cooperation of African and European institutions in the DEWFORA project (EC, 7th Framework Programme). The protocol includes four major phases that address the scientific knowledge and the social capacity to use the knowledge: (a) What is the science available? Evaluating how signs of impending drought can be detected and predicted, defining risk levels, and analysing of the signs of drought in an integrated vulnerability approach. (b) What are the societal capacities? In this the institutional framework that enables policy development is evaluated. The protocol gathers information on vulnerability and pending hazard in advance so that early warnings can be declared at sufficient lead time and drought mitigation planning can be implemented at an early stage. (c) How can science be translated into policy? Linking science indicators into the actions/interventions that society needs to implement, and evaluating how policy is implemented. Key limitations to planning for drought are the social capacities to implement early warning systems. Vulnerability assessment contributes to identify these limitations and therefore provides crucial information to policy development. Based on the assessment of vulnerability we suggest thresholds for management actions to respond to drought forecasts and link predictive indicators to relevant potential mitigation strategies. Vulnerability assessment is crucial to identify relief, coping and management responses that contribute to a more resilient society. (d) How can society benefit from the forecast? Evaluating how information is provided to

  1. Early intervention for psychotic disorders: Real-life implementation in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wong, Gloria H Y; Hui, Christy L M; Tang, Jennifer Y M; Chang, Wing-Chung; Chan, Sherry K W; Xu, Jia-Qi; Lin, Jessie J X; Lai, Dik-Chee; Tam, Wendy; Kok, Joy; Chung, Dicky; Hung, S F; Chen, Eric Y H

    2012-03-01

    Hong Kong is among the first few cities in Asia to have implemented early intervention for psychosis in 2001. Substantial changes in psychosis service have since taken place. We reviewed available outcome data in Hong Kong, with reference to the philosophy of early intervention in psychosis, discussing experience and lessons learned from the implementation process, and future opportunities and challenges. Data accumulated in the past decade provided evidence for the benefits and significance of early intervention programmes: patients under the care of early intervention service showed improved functioning, milder symptoms, and fewer hospitalizations and suicides. Early intervention is more cost-effective compared with standard care. Stigma and misconception remains an issue, and public awareness campaigns are underway. In recent years, a critical mass is being formed, and Hong Kong has witnessed the unfolding of public service extension, new projects and organizations, and increasing interest from the community. Several major platforms are in place for coherent efforts, including the public Early Assessment Service for Young people with psychosis (EASY) programme, the Psychosis Studies and Intervention (PSI) research unit, the independent Hong Kong Early Psychosis Intervention Society (EPISO), the Jockey Club Early Psychosis (JCEP) project, and the postgraduate Psychological Medicine (Psychosis Studies) programme. The first decade of early intervention work has been promising; consolidation and further development is needed on many fronts of research, service and education. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Starflo glaucoma implant: early experience in Hungary

    PubMed Central

    István, Cseke; Péter, Vámosi; Mária, Bausz

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To present the early experience with the implantation technique, safety and efficiency of STARflo™ device for open angle glaucoma (OAG). Methods: referring intra- and postoperative clinical experience with a series of seven cases in three glaucoma centers in Hungary. Results: No intraoperative complications were observed. Postoperative inflammatory signs disappeared rapidly. The mean IOP reduction was from 27,6 ± 5,0 mmHg to 18,9±3,4 mmHg (32% reduction/ patient) at six months postoperatively. Conclusion: STARflo™ implant was safe and (except for one case with neovascular glaucoma) effective in our cases. The learning curve for experienced anterior segment surgeons was short. PMID:27220226

  3. Two functions of early language experience.

    PubMed

    Arshavsky, Yuri I

    2009-05-01

    The unique human ability of linguistic communication, defined as the ability to produce a practically infinite number of meaningful messages using a finite number of lexical items, is determined by an array of "linguistic" genes, which are expressed in neurons forming domain-specific linguistic centers in the brain. In this review, I discuss the idea that infants' early language experience performs two complementary functions. In addition to allowing infants to assimilate the words and grammar rules of their mother language, early language experience initiates genetic programs underlying language production and comprehension. This hypothesis explains many puzzling characteristics of language acquisition, such as the existence of a critical period for acquiring the first language and the absence of a critical period for the acquisition of additional language(s), a similar timetable for language acquisition in children belonging to families of different social and cultural status, the strikingly similar timetables in the acquisition of oral and sign languages, and the surprisingly small correlation between individuals' final linguistic competence and the intensity of their training. Based on the studies of microcephalic individuals, I argue that genetic factors determine not only the number of neurons and organization of interneural connections within linguistic centers, but also the putative internal properties of neurons that are not limited to their electrophysiological and synaptic properties.

  4. Implementation of the IHR Joint External Evaluation: Taiwan's Experiences.

    PubMed

    Lo, Yi-Chun

    In February 2016, the World Health Organization developed the Joint External Evaluation (JEE) tool to independently assess country capacity to prevent, detect, and respond to public health threats as part of the International Health Regulations (IHR) (2005) monitoring and evaluation framework. In light of this, the Taiwan government actively engaged at least 19 government agencies or institutions and voluntarily implemented the JEE. An External Assessment Team consisting of 6 US subject matter experts conducted the external evaluation, including site visits, from June 21 to July 1, 2016. The results, published on October 18, 2016, are useful and will be translated into actions and change in the system. Based on Taiwan's experiences, early stakeholder engagement and an experts' pre-JEE pilot visit would contribute to a successful JEE process.

  5. Measuring the implementation of early childhood development programs.

    PubMed

    Aboud, Frances E; Prado, Elizabeth L

    2018-05-01

    In this paper we describe ways to measure variables of interest when evaluating the implementation of a program to improve early childhood development (ECD). The variables apply to programs delivered to parents in group sessions and home or clinic visits, as well as in early group care for children. Measurements for four categories of variables are included: training and assessment of delivery agents and supervisors; program features such as quality of delivery, reach, and dosage; recipients' acceptance and enactment; and stakeholders' engagement. Quantitative and qualitative methods are described, along with when measures might be taken throughout the processes of planning, preparing, and implementing. A few standard measures are available, along with others that researchers can select and modify according to their goals. Descriptions of measures include who might collect the information, from whom, and when, along with how information might be analyzed and findings used. By converging on a set of common methods to measure implementation variables, investigators can work toward improving programs, identifying gaps that impede the scalability and sustainability of programs, and, over time, ascertain program features that lead to successful outcomes. © 2018 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of New York Academy of Sciences.

  6. Parent Experience of Implementing Effective Home Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Iona

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this preliminary study was to describe parent views about implementing effective home programs to inform practice recommendations. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 parents of children with cerebral palsy (2 fathers and 8 mothers) who had participated in a home program by using a partnership-based approach. Transcripts…

  7. Implementing Basic Education: An African Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banya, Kingsley; Elu, Juliet

    1999-01-01

    Analyses some of the difficulties involved in implementing the recently approved Basic Education Program for primary and secondary education in Sierra Leone. Discusses issues such as funding, training, and retention of teachers, curriculum reform, language development, equipment and supplies, and evaluation. Concludes that political stability is…

  8. Implementation and Early Utilization of a Suicide Hotline for Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, Janet; McKeon, Richard; Katz, Ira R.

    2012-01-01

    Suicide crisis lines have a respected history as a strategy for reducing deaths from suicide and suicidal behaviors. Until recently, however, evidence of the effectiveness of these crisis lines has been sparse. Studies published during the past decade suggest that crisis lines offer an alternative to populations who may not be willing to engage in treatment through traditional mental health settings. Given this promising evidence, in 2007, the Department of Veterans Affairs in collaboration with the Department of Health and Human Services’ Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration implemented a National Suicide Hotline that is staffed 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, by Veterans Affairs clinical staff. We report here on the implementation of this suicide hotline and our early observations of its utilization in a largely male population. PMID:22390596

  9. Implementation and early utilization of a Suicide Hotline for veterans.

    PubMed

    Knox, Kerry L; Kemp, Janet; McKeon, Richard; Katz, Ira R

    2012-03-01

    Suicide crisis lines have a respected history as a strategy for reducing deaths from suicide and suicidal behaviors. Until recently, however, evidence of the effectiveness of these crisis lines has been sparse. Studies published during the past decade suggest that crisis lines offer an alternative to populations who may not be willing to engage in treatment through traditional mental health settings. Given this promising evidence, in 2007, the Department of Veterans Affairs in collaboration with the Department of Health and Human Services' Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration implemented a National Suicide Hotline that is staffed 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, by Veterans Affairs clinical staff. We report here on the implementation of this suicide hotline and our early observations of its utilization in a largely male population.

  10. Implementation Experience with Deep Discount Fares

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1994-09-01

    This report reviews the experiences of transit agencies across the country with Deep Discount fares, a new public transit pricing strategy, between 1988 and 1993. Based on new market research findings, Deep Discounting has shown that it is possible t...

  11. Early experiences with E-prescribing.

    PubMed

    Halamka, John

    2006-01-01

    Most physicians understand that e-prescribing will reduce medical errors and will be perceived by patients as making the prescription process easier. However, they are skeptical about a number of things. They worry whether their office processes will be improved or streamlined; e-prescribing will interface seamlessly with their existing practice management software; training and support will be available; e-prescribing data will be seamlessly transferable to an electronic health record when they implement a more advanced clinical record system for their practice; and if they will achieve a return on investment. Early adopting clinicians in Massachusetts can convince the majority of clinicians to adopt e-prescribing by sharing their motivations for adopting e-prescribing, the challenges that they needed to overcome, the hardware and software requirements, and integration into their office workflow. Finally, interaction with the physicians and practice managers in the audience makes the adoption of e-prescribing seem both reasonable and exciting. Resources such as vendor lists, questions to ask, and hardware and software requirements also need to be readily available and in a form that non-technical staff can read and understand. Physicians who know the "why" would also like to know

  12. Biological Perspectives on the Effects of Early Psychosocial Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Peter J.; Kenney, Justin W.

    2009-01-01

    There is much current interest in how adverse experiences early in life might affect certain elements of physiological, behavioral, and psychological functioning across the lifespan. Recent conceptual frameworks for studying the effects of early experience have involved constructs such as experience-expectant, experience-dependent, and…

  13. "During early implementation you just muddle through": factors that impacted a statewide arthritis program's implementation.

    PubMed

    Conte, Kathleen P; Marie Harvey, S; Turner Goins, R

    2017-12-01

    The need to scale-up effective arthritis self-management programs is pressing as the prevalence of arthritis increases. The CDC Arthritis Program funds state health departments to work with local delivery systems to embed arthritis programs into their day-to-day work. To encourage organizational ownership and sustainability of programs, funding is restricted to offset program start-up costs. The purpose of this study was to identify factors that impacted the success of implementing an evidence-based arthritis self-management program, funded by the CDC Arthritis Program, into the Oregon Extension Service. We interviewed staff and partners involved in implementation who had and had not successfully delivered Walk With Ease (N = 12) to identify barriers and facilitators to scaling-up. Document analysis of administrative records was used to triangulate and expand on findings. Delivery goals defined by the funder were not met in Year 1: only 3 of the expected 28 programs were delivered. Barriers to implementation included insufficient planning for implementation driven by pressure to deliver programs and insufficient resources to support staff time. Facilitators included centralized administration of key implementation activities and staffs' previous experience implementing new programs. The importance of planning and preparing for implementation cannot be overlooked. Funders, however, eager to see deliverables, continue to define implementation goals in terms of program reach, exclusive of capacity-building. Lack of capacity-building can jeopardize staff buy-in, implementation quality, and sustainability. Based on our findings coupled with support from implementation literature, we offer recommendations for future large-scale implementation efforts operating under such funding restrictions.

  14. Studying the Effects of Early Experiences on Women's Career Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lykes, M. Brinton; Stewart, Abigail J.

    Virtually all psychological theories assume that early life experiences have an impact on later life choices. However, increasing doubts have been expressed about the universality and permanence of the relationship between women's work and family lives. To explore how early family experiences and early adult decisions affect women's later career…

  15. Assessing early implementation of state autism insurance mandates.

    PubMed

    Baller, Julia Berlin; Barry, Colleen L; Shea, Kathleen; Walker, Megan M; Ouellette, Rachel; Mandell, David S

    2016-10-01

    In the United States, health insurance coverage for autism spectrum disorder treatments has been historically limited. In response, as of 2015, 40 states and Washington, DC, have passed state autism insurance mandates requiring many health plans in the private insurance market to cover autism diagnostic and treatment services. This study examined five states' experiences implementing autism insurance mandates. Semi-structured, key-informant interviews were conducted with 17 participants representing consumer advocacy organizations, provider organizations, and health insurance companies. Overall, participants thought that the mandates substantially affected the delivery of autism services. While access to autism treatment services has increased as a result of implementation of state mandates, states have struggled to keep up with the demand for services. Participants provided specific information about barriers and facilitators to meeting this demand. Understanding of key informants' perceptions about states' experiences implementing autism insurance mandates is useful for other states considering adopting or expanding mandates or other policies to expand access to autism treatment services. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Implementing Professional Experiences to Prepare Preservice Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuangchalerm, Prasart

    2009-01-01

    In the correlation between professional experiences of preservice science teacher and classroom managerial skills, professional experiences were designed to prepare science teacher in the future. The effects of program were described the result of implementing professional experiences of 67 preservice science teachers. Data were collected by using…

  17. Polish Experience of Implementing Vision Zero.

    PubMed

    Jamroz, Kazimierz; Michalski, Lech; Żukowska, Joanna

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to present an outline and the principles of Poland's road safety strategic programming as it has developed over the last 25 years since the first Integrated Road Safety System with a strong focus on Sweden's "Vision Zero". Countries that have successfully improved road safety have done so by following strategies centred around the idea that people are not infallible and will make mistakes. The human body can only take a limited amount of energy upon impact, so roads, vehicles and road safety programmes must be designed to address this. The article gives a summary of Poland's experience of programming preventative measures that have "Vision Zero" as their basis. It evaluates the effectiveness of relevant programmes.

  18. Correlates of Bulimia Nervosa: Early Family Mealtime Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Debra A. F.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined relationship of early mealtime experiences to later bulimia in 128 female college students. Found significant group differences among bulimics, nonbulimics, and repeat dieters on early meal experience questionnaire, with bulimic group reporting most negative and unusual experiences. Found significant differences among groups on depression…

  19. Learning from the Implementers in a Design Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toh, Tin Lam; Dindyal, Jaguthsing; Tay, Eng Guan

    2013-01-01

    In a design experiment, the feedback from the teacher-implementer is crucial to the success of the innovation simply because the teacher is finally the one that brings the innovation to life in front of the students. We describe in this paper the feedback made by the teacher-implementer after teaching one cycle of the problem solving module in a…

  20. School Counselors and Their Experiences Implementing Comprehensive Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holby, Nicole

    2017-01-01

    The following research study answered the following question: "What is the experience of high school counselors implementing an ASCA-based school counseling program?" School counselor experiences of the process were largely absent in the current and previous literature, as well as the profession's representation in qualitative research.…

  1. Concerns of Teacher Candidates in an Early Field Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Sau Hou

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the concerns of teacher candidates in an early field experience. Thirty-five teacher candidates completed the Teacher Concerns Checklist (TCC, Fuller & Borich, 2000) at the beginning, middle and end of their early field experiences. Results showed that teacher candidates ranked impact as the highest concern, self as…

  2. The Importance of Early Experiences: Clinical, Research, and Policy Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeanah, Charles H.

    2009-01-01

    The degree to which early adverse experiences exert long term effects on development and how much early adversity may be overcome through subsequent experiences are important mental health questions. The clinical, research and policy perspectives on these questions lead to different answers. From a clinical perspective, change is always possible,…

  3. A digitally implemented communications experiment utilizing the Hermes (CTS) satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, H. D.; Fiala, J. L.

    1977-01-01

    The Hermes (CTS) experiment program made possible a significant effort directed toward new developments which will reduce the costs associated with the distribution of satellite services. Advanced satellite transponder technology and small inexpensive earth terminals were demonstrated as part of the Hermes program. Another system element that holds promise for reduced transmission cost is associated with the communication link implementation. An experiment is described which uses CTS to demonstrate digital link implementation and its advantages over conventional analog systems. A Digitally Implemented Communications experiment which demonstrates the flexibility and efficiency of digital transmission of television video and audio, telephone voice and high-bit-rate data is also described. Presentation of the experiment concept which concentrates on the evaluation of full-duplex digital television in the teleconferencing environment is followed by a description of unique equipment that was developed.

  4. Ontario's emergency department process improvement program: the experience of implementation.

    PubMed

    Rotteau, Leahora; Webster, Fiona; Salkeld, Erin; Hellings, Chelsea; Guttmann, Astrid; Vermeulen, Marian J; Bell, Robert S; Zwarenstein, Merrick; Rowe, Brian H; Nigam, Amit; Schull, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, Lean manufacturing principles have been applied to health care quality improvement efforts to improve wait times. In Ontario, an emergency department (ED) process improvement program based on Lean principles was introduced by the Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care as part of a strategy to reduce ED length of stay (LOS) and to improve patient flow. This article aims to describe the hospital-based teams' experiences during the ED process improvement program implementation and the teams' perceptions of the key factors that influenced the program's success or failure. A qualitative evaluation was conducted based on semistructured interviews with hospital implementation team members, such as team leads, medical leads, and executive sponsors, at 10 purposively selected hospitals in Ontario, Canada. Sites were selected based, in part, on their changes in median ED LOS following the implementation period. A thematic framework approach as used for interviews, and a standard thematic coding framework was developed. Twenty-four interviews were coded and analyzed. The results are organized according to participants' experience and are grouped into four themes that were identified as significantly affecting the implementation experience: local contextual factors, relationship between improvement team and support players, staff engagement, and success and sustainability. The results demonstrate the importance of the context of implementation, establishing strong relationships and communication strategies, and preparing for implementation and sustainability prior to the start of the project. Several key factors were identified as important to the success of the program, such as preparing for implementation, ensuring strong executive support, creation of implementation teams based on the tasks and outcomes of the initiative, and using multiple communication strategies throughout the implementation process. Explicit incorporation of these factors into the

  5. The Legacy of Early Experiences in Development: Formalizing Alternative Models of How Early Experiences Are Carried Forward over Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraley, R. Chris; Roisman, Glenn I.; Haltigan, John D.

    2013-01-01

    Psychologists have long debated the role of early experience in social and cognitive development. However, traditional approaches to studying this issue are not well positioned to address this debate. The authors present simulations that indicate that the associations between early experiences and later outcomes should approach different…

  6. Implementation of early intensive behavioural intervention for children with autism in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Studer, Nadja; Gundelfinger, Ronnie; Schenker, Tanja; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph

    2017-01-21

    There is a major gap between the US and most European countries regarding the implementation of early intensive behavioural intervention (EIBI) for children with autism. The present paper reports on the current status of EIBI in Switzerland and on the effectiveness of EIBI under clinical conditions in a Swiss pilot project. The paper combines a narrative report of the care system for children with autism in Switzerland and an initial evaluation of EIBI as implemented in the Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, University of Zurich. The current situation of the implementation of EIBI for children with autism in Switzerland is characterized by marked deficits in its acceptance. Major reasons include insufficient governmental approval and lacking legal and financial support. In addition, ignorance among health care providers and educational professionals has contributed to this situation precluding that children with autism receive the most beneficial assistance. The authors have initiated and been working in an intervention centre offering EIBI for a decade and report on their experience with the implementation of EIBI. Based on their clinical practice, they document that EIBI also works efficiently under ordinary mental health service conditions. EIBI needs to be implemented more intensively in Switzerland. Although the effects of EIBI as implemented in Zurich are promising, the results are not as pronounced as under controlled research conditions.

  7. Experiences from site-specific landslide early warning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michoud, C.; Bazin, S.; Blikra, L. H.; Derron, M.-H.; Jaboyedoff, M.

    2013-10-01

    Landslide early warning systems (EWSs) have to be implemented in areas with large risk for populations or infrastructures when classical structural remediation measures cannot be set up. This paper aims to gather experiences of existing landslide EWSs, with a special focus on practical requirements (e.g., alarm threshold values have to take into account the smallest detectable signal levels of deployed sensors before being established) and specific issues when dealing with system implementations. Within the framework of the SafeLand European project, a questionnaire was sent to about one-hundred institutions in charge of landslide management. Finally, we interpreted answers from experts belonging to 14 operational units related to 23 monitored landslides. Although no standard requirements exist for designing and operating EWSs, this review highlights some key elements, such as the importance of pre-investigation work, the redundancy and robustness of monitoring systems, the establishment of different scenarios adapted to gradual increasing of alert levels, and the necessity of confidence and trust between local populations and scientists. Moreover, it also confirms the need to improve our capabilities for failure forecasting, monitoring techniques and integration of water processes into landslide conceptual models.

  8. Early experiences in developing and managing the neuroscience gateway.

    PubMed

    Sivagnanam, Subhashini; Majumdar, Amit; Yoshimoto, Kenneth; Astakhov, Vadim; Bandrowski, Anita; Martone, MaryAnn; Carnevale, Nicholas T

    2015-02-01

    The last few decades have seen the emergence of computational neuroscience as a mature field where researchers are interested in modeling complex and large neuronal systems and require access to high performance computing machines and associated cyber infrastructure to manage computational workflow and data. The neuronal simulation tools, used in this research field, are also implemented for parallel computers and suitable for high performance computing machines. But using these tools on complex high performance computing machines remains a challenge because of issues with acquiring computer time on these machines located at national supercomputer centers, dealing with complex user interface of these machines, dealing with data management and retrieval. The Neuroscience Gateway is being developed to alleviate and/or hide these barriers to entry for computational neuroscientists. It hides or eliminates, from the point of view of the users, all the administrative and technical barriers and makes parallel neuronal simulation tools easily available and accessible on complex high performance computing machines. It handles the running of jobs and data management and retrieval. This paper shares the early experiences in bringing up this gateway and describes the software architecture it is based on, how it is implemented, and how users can use this for computational neuroscience research using high performance computing at the back end. We also look at parallel scaling of some publicly available neuronal models and analyze the recent usage data of the neuroscience gateway.

  9. Early experiences in developing and managing the neuroscience gateway

    PubMed Central

    Sivagnanam, Subhashini; Majumdar, Amit; Yoshimoto, Kenneth; Astakhov, Vadim; Bandrowski, Anita; Martone, MaryAnn; Carnevale, Nicholas. T.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The last few decades have seen the emergence of computational neuroscience as a mature field where researchers are interested in modeling complex and large neuronal systems and require access to high performance computing machines and associated cyber infrastructure to manage computational workflow and data. The neuronal simulation tools, used in this research field, are also implemented for parallel computers and suitable for high performance computing machines. But using these tools on complex high performance computing machines remains a challenge because of issues with acquiring computer time on these machines located at national supercomputer centers, dealing with complex user interface of these machines, dealing with data management and retrieval. The Neuroscience Gateway is being developed to alleviate and/or hide these barriers to entry for computational neuroscientists. It hides or eliminates, from the point of view of the users, all the administrative and technical barriers and makes parallel neuronal simulation tools easily available and accessible on complex high performance computing machines. It handles the running of jobs and data management and retrieval. This paper shares the early experiences in bringing up this gateway and describes the software architecture it is based on, how it is implemented, and how users can use this for computational neuroscience research using high performance computing at the back end. We also look at parallel scaling of some publicly available neuronal models and analyze the recent usage data of the neuroscience gateway. PMID:26523124

  10. Implementation of a Seismic Early Warning System in Portugal Mainland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madureira, Guilherme; Carrilho, Fernando

    2017-04-01

    Portugal mainland is located near the border between the Eurasian and Nubian plates, whose interaction is the main responsible for a significant seismic activity in the area, with historical occurrence of several catastrophic events (e.g. Lisbon 1755 earthquake [Mag 8.7]), most of which haviguilhng epicenter rise in submerged area, located in the Cadiz Gulf and Southwest of San Vincent Cape. Early Warning Systems (EEWS) is presently a very effective concept to be applied in the mitigation of the effects caused by large earthquakes. For the mentioned area a feasibility study of a EEWS was made in the ALERT-ES project. It was found that the system could be effective to protect cities and infrastructures located at larger distances (ex: Lisbon) from the areas, located south and southwest of PT mainland, where the larger earthquakes are expected to be originated. Considering the use of a new strong-motion network recently implemented in the south of PT mainland, we concluded that the lead-times could be improved. We opted by the implementation of the well known computational platform PRESTO. In the adaptation of the mentioned platform to the local reality one of the challenges was the computation of fast moment magnitude estimates, because regional attenuation must be properly considered, and a specific study was made on this issue. The several simulations that were performed showed a reasonably good performance of the system, both on magnitude evaluation and epicentre location. However we also noted that the problems in the acquisition instruments are a very important source of disturbance in the performance of the EEWS, pointing to a need of a very accurate quality control of the strong-motion network. Considering end-users, we are also developing specific software for intensity estimation at the target places and to trigger visual and audio alerts in accordance to the expected level of shaking. This work is supported by the EU project TSUMAPS-NEAM, Agreement Number

  11. Assessing Teacher Beliefs about Early Literacy Curriculum Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenney, Susan; Bradley, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Against the backdrop of growing international concern for a narrowing view of early literacy, this study was initiated to determine how teachers of four-year-olds view their task of fostering early literacy. This paper reports on the first steps to design and validate an instrument which captures teachers' perceptions of early literacy content…

  12. Early Practicum Experiences: Preservice Early Childhood Students' Perceptions and Sense of Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Schagen Johnson, Amy; La Paro, Karen M.; Crosby, Danielle A.

    2017-01-01

    The current study explored early practicum experiences (those occurring before student teaching) in an early childhood birth to kindergarten teacher education program. Undergraduates enrolled in practicum courses completed questionnaires about their overall practicum experience including: socio-emotional components (their perceived fit with their…

  13. Early Results from the Qweak Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Androic, D.; Armstrong, D. S.; Asaturyan, A.; Averett, T.; Balewski, J.; Beaufait, J.; Beminiwattha, R. S.; Benesch, J.; Benmokhtar, F.; Birchall, J.; Carlini, R. D.; Cates, G. D.; Cornejo, J. C.; Covrig, S.; Dalton, M. M.; Davis, C. A.; Deconinck, W.; Diefenbach, J.; Dowd, J. F.; Dunne, J. A.; Dutta, D.; Duvall, W. S.; Elaasar, M.; Falk, W. R.; Finn, J. M.; Forest, T.; Gaskell, D.; Gericke, M. T. W.; Grames, J.; Gray, V. M.; Grimm, K.; Guo, F.; Hoskins, J. R.; Johnston, K.; Jones, D.; Jones, M.; Jones, R.; Kargiantoulakis, M.; King, P. M.; Korkmaz, E.; Kowalski, S.; Leacock, J.; Leckey, J.; Lee, A. R.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, L.; MacEwan, S.; Mack, D.; Magee, J. A.; Mahurin, R.; Mammei, J.; Martin, J.; McHugh, M. J.; Meekins, D.; Mei, J.; Michaels, R.; Micherdzinska, A.; Mkrtchyan, A.; Mkrtchyan, H.; Morgan, N.; Myers, K. E.; Narayan, A.; Ndukum, L. Z.; Nelyubin, V.; Nuruzzaman; van Oers, W. T. H.; Opper, A. K.; Page, S. A.; Pan, J.; Paschke, K.; Phillips, S. K.; Pitt, M. L.; Poelker, M.; Rajotte, J. F.; Ramsay, W. D.; Roche, J.; Sawatzky, B.; Seva, T.; Shabestari, M. H.; Silwal, R.; Simicevic, N.; Smith, G. R.; Solvignon, P.; Spayde, D. T.; Subedi, A.; Subedi, R.; Suleiman, R.; Tadevosyan, V.; Tobias, W. A.; Tvaskis, V.; Waidyawansa, B.; Wang, P.; Wells, S. P.; Wood, S. A.; Yang, S.; Young, R. D.; Zhamkochyan, S.

    2014-03-01

    A subset of results from the recently completed Jefferson Lab Qweak experiment are reported. This experiment, sensitive to physics beyond the Standard Model, exploits the small parity-violating asymmetry in elastic e{{p}} scattering to provide the first determination of the proton's weak charge Q_w^p. The experiment employed a 180 μA longitudinally polarized 1.16 GeV electron beam on a 35 cm long liquid hydrogen target. Scattered electrons in the angular range 6° < θ < 12° corresponding to Q2 = 0.025 GeV2 were detected in eight Cerenkov detectors arrayed symmetrically around the beam axis. The goals of the experiment were to provide a measure of e{{p}} to 4.2% (combined statisstatistical and systematic error), which implies a measure of sin2(θw) at the level of 0.3%, and to help constrain the vector weak quark charges C1u and C1d. The experimental method is described, with particular focus on the challenges associated with the world's highest power LH2 target. The new constraints on C1u and C1d provided by the subset of the experiment's data analyzed to date will also be shown, together with the extracted weak charge of the neutron.

  14. Roadmap for Early Childhood and K-12 Data Linkages: Key Focus Areas to Ensure Quality Implementation. Quality Implementation Roadmaps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Every state can create secure, robust linkages between early childhood and K-12 data systems, and effectively use the information from these linkages to implement initiatives to support programs and children, answer key policy questions, and be transparent about how the state's early childhood investments prepare students for success in school and…

  15. Early space experiments in materials processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J.

    1979-01-01

    A comprehensive survey of the flight experiments conducted in conjunction with the United States Materials Processing in Space Program is presented. Also included are a brief description of the conditions prevailing in an orbiting spacecraft and the research implications provided by this unique environment. What was done and what was learned are summarized in order to serve as a background for future experiments. It is assumed that the reader has some knowledge of the physical sciences but no background in spaceflight experimentation or in the materials science per se.

  16. Transformers: Movement Experiences for Early Childhood Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vagovic, Julia

    2008-01-01

    Transformers are simple movement experiences for the classroom that engage the mind and body, focus energy, and help children transition to the next activity. Teachers can use them throughout the day, every day. The author explains the basic movements and suggests ways to build on them. They range from deep breathing to gentle wake-up movements to…

  17. The Experiences of Early Career Teachers: New Initiatives and Old Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuck, Sandy; Aubusson, Peter; Buchanan, John; Varadharajan, Meera; Burke, Paul F.

    2018-01-01

    The task of supporting beginning teachers has received considerable attention in recent years, and numerous initiatives have been implemented. In this article we investigate the experiences of early career teachers (ECTs) in New South Wales, Australia, at a time when their employing authority mandated the provision of mentors and a reduction in…

  18. Development of sensorial experiments and their implementation into undergraduate laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromfield Lee, Deborah Christina

    "Visualization" of chemical phenomena often has been limited in the teaching laboratories to the sense of sight. We have developed chemistry experiments that rely on senses other than eyesight to investigate chemical concepts, make quantitative determinations, and familiarize students with chemical techniques traditionally designed using only eyesight. Multi-sensory learning can benefit all students by actively engaging them in learning through stimulation or an alternative way of experiencing a concept or ideas. Perception of events or concepts usually depends on the information from the different sensory systems combined. The use of multi-sensory learning can take advantage of all the senses to reinforce learning as each sense builds toward a more complete experience of scientific data. Research has shown that multi-sensory representations of scientific phenomena is a valuable tool for enhancing understanding of chemistry as well as displacing misconceptions through experience. Multi-sensory experiences have also been shown to enrich memory performance. There are few experiments published which utilize multiple senses in the teaching laboratory. The sensorial experiments chosen were conceptually similar to experiments currently performed in undergraduate laboratories; however students collect different types of data using multi-sensory observations. The experiments themselves were developed by using chemicals that would provide different sensory changes or capitalizing on sensory observations that were typically overlooked or ignored and obtain similar and precise results as in traditional experiments. Minimizing hazards and using safe practices are especially essential in these experiments as students utilize senses traditionally not allowed to be used in the laboratories. These sensorial experiments utilize typical equipment found in the teaching laboratories as well as inexpensive chemicals in order to aid implementation. All experiments are rigorously tested

  19. A Necessary Evil: The Experiences of Managers Implementing Downsizing Programmes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noronha, Ernesto; D'Cruz, Premilla

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a phenomenological study, which describes the experiences of human resource (HR) managers implementing a downsizing program in a steel manufacturing organization in India. Data were collected through conversational interviews. Following van Manens sententious analytic approach, the core theme of a necessary…

  20. Implementation and Critical Assessment of the Flipped Classroom Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheg, Abigail G., Ed.

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, traditional classroom teaching models have been transformed in order to better promote active learning and learner engagement. "Implementation and Critical Assessment of the Flipped Classroom Experience" seeks to capture the momentum of non-traditional teaching methods and provide a necessary resource for individuals…

  1. The International Space Station human life sciences experiment implementation process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, L. J.; Haven, C. P.; McCollum, S. G.; Lee, A. M.; Kamman, M. R.; Baumann, D. K.; Anderson, M. E.; Buderer, M. C.

    2001-01-01

    The selection, definition, and development phases of a Life Sciences flight research experiment has been consistent throughout the past decade. The implementation process, however, has changed significantly within the past two years. This change is driven primarily by the shift from highly integrated, dedicated research missions on platforms with well defined processes to self contained experiments with stand alone operations on platforms which are being concurrently designed. For experiments manifested on the International Space Station (ISS) and/or on short duration missions, the more modular, streamlined, and independent the individual experiment is, the more likely it is to be successfully implemented before the ISS assembly is completed. During the assembly phase of the ISS, science operations are lower in priority than the construction of the station. After the station has been completed, it is expected that more resources will be available to perform research. The complexity of implementing investigations increases with the logistics needed to perform the experiment. Examples of logistics issues include- hardware unique to the experiment; large up and down mass and volume needs; access to crew and hardware during the ascent or descent phases; maintenance of hardware and supplies with a limited shelf life,- baseline data collection schedules with lengthy sessions or sessions close to the launch or landing; onboard stowage availability, particularly cold stowage; and extensive training where highly proficient skills must be maintained. As the ISS processes become better defined, experiment implementation will meet new challenges due to distributed management, on-orbit resource sharing, and adjustments to crew availability pre- and post-increment. c 2001. Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Early Intervention for Children with Disabilities: The Australian Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieterse, Moira, Ed.; And Others

    A collection of papers on the Australian experience with early intervention for children with disabilities gives regional overviews, describes specific intervention programs, and discusses a variety of issues. Overviews are given of early intervention in Australia in general, New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, Western…

  3. Early thinning experiments established by the Fort Valley Experimental Forest

    Benjamin P. De Blois; Alex. J. Finkral; Andrew J. Sanchez Meador; Margaret M. Moore

    2008-01-01

    Between 1925 and 1936, the Fort Valley Experimental Forest (FVEF) scientists initiated a study to examine a series of forest thinning experiments in second growth ponderosa pine stands in Arizona and New Mexico. These early thinning plots furnished much of the early background for the development of methods used in forest management in the Southwest. The plots ranged...

  4. Implementing three evidence-based program models: early lessons from the Teen Pregnancy Prevention Replication Study.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, Meredith; Layzer, Jean

    2014-03-01

    This article describes some of the early implementation challenges faced by nine grantees participating in the Teen Pregnancy Prevention Replication Study and their response to them. The article draws on information collected as part of a comprehensive implementation study. Sources include site and program documents; program officer reports; notes from site investigation, selection and negotiation; ongoing communications with grantees as part of putting the study into place; and semi-structured interviews with program staff. The issues faced by grantees in implementing evidence-based programs designed to prevent teen pregnancy varied by program model. Grantees implementing a classroom-based curriculum faced challenges in delivering the curriculum within the constraints of school schedules and calendars (program length and size of class). Grantees implementing a culturally tailored curriculum faced a series of challenges, including implementing the intervention as part of the regular school curriculum in schools with diverse populations; low attendance when delivered as an after-school program; and resistance on the part of schools to specific curriculum content. The third set of grantees, implementing a program in clinics, faced challenges in identifying and recruiting young women into the program and in retaining young women once they were in the program. The experiences of these grantees reflect some of the complexities that should be carefully considered when choosing to replicate evidence-based programs. The Teen Pregnancy Prevention replication study will provide important context for assessing the effectiveness of some of the more widely replicated evidence-based programs. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  5. Early experiences of accredited clinical informatics fellowships.

    PubMed

    Longhurst, Christopher A; Pageler, Natalie M; Palma, Jonathan P; Finnell, John T; Levy, Bruce P; Yackel, Thomas R; Mohan, Vishnu; Hersh, William R

    2016-07-01

    Since the launch of the clinical informatics subspecialty for physicians in 2013, over 1100 physicians have used the practice and education pathways to become board-certified in clinical informatics. Starting in 2018, only physicians who have completed a 2-year clinical informatics fellowship program accredited by the Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education will be eligible to take the board exam. The purpose of this viewpoint piece is to describe the collective experience of the first four programs accredited by the Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education and to share lessons learned in developing new fellowship programs in this novel medical subspecialty. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Consumer-directed health plans: enrollee views, early employer experience.

    PubMed

    Frates, Janice; Severoni, Ellen

    2005-06-01

    Consumer-directed health plans (CDHPs) are a new health insurance product that is of growing interest to employers who are struggling to cope with rising health insurance premium costs and to consumers who are desiring more choice and engagement in their health care. This paper presents the results of a study of California consumer awareness of, and attitudes toward, CDHPs in the context of several national surveys and the experiences of some early-adopting employers. California Health Decisions conducted a telephone survey of 800 insured adult California residents in November 2002. Few respondents had heard of CDHPs. They appealed more to younger, single, less educated, and healthier respondents and those who did not understand them well. The most attractive CDHP features were greater provider choice and health savings accounts' portability and flexibility. Concerns centered on personal financial exposure. While CDHPs' commercial market penetration is increasing, their greatest potential future contributions might be to reduce the number of uninsured Americans by offering an affordable health insurance product and to fund additional health services for retirees. As CDHPs further evolve, more consumer involvement in their refinement, implementation, and evaluation is essential.

  7. Music Experience in Early Childhood: Potential for Emotion Knowledge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vist, Torill

    2011-01-01

    Most cultures carry an idea of music being connected to emotion. New research suggests that we may also acquire emotion knowledge from our music experiences. This article investigates music experience as a mediating tool for emotion knowledge in early childhood, as revealed through qualitative interviews of adults. The interviewees describe music…

  8. Playing with Maths: Implications for Early Childhood Mathematics Teaching from an Implementation Study in Melbourne, Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohrssen, Caroline; Tayler, Collette; Cloney, Dan

    2015-01-01

    The Early Years Learning Framework for Australia governs early childhood education in the years before school in Australia. Since this framework is not a curriculum, early childhood educators report uncertainty regarding what mathematical concepts to teach and how to teach them. This implementation study, positioned within the broader E4Kids…

  9. Implementation Challenges for Tier One and Tier Two School-Based Programs for Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaRusso, Maria D.; Donovan, Suzanne; Snow, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    This mixed-method study examined the implementation and the challenges to implementation for participants in randomized controlled trials of two school-based programs for early adolescents: the Tier One Word Generation (WG) program, and the Tier Two Strategic Adolescent Reading Intervention (STARI). Levels of implementation for WG and STARI varied…

  10. Mars Pathfinder Microrover- Implementing a Low Cost Planetary Mission Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matijevic, J.

    1996-01-01

    The Mars Pathfinder Microrover Flight Experiment (MFEX) is a NASA Office of Space Access and Technology (OSAT) flight experiment which has been delivered and integrated with the Mars Pathfinder (MPF) lander and spacecraft system. The total cost of the MFEX mission, including all subsystem design and development, test, integration with the MPF lander and operations on Mars has been capped at $25 M??is paper discusses the process and the implementation scheme which has resulted in the development of this first Mars rover.

  11. State experiences implementing youth sports concussion laws: challenges, successes, and lessons for evaluating impact.

    PubMed

    Lowrey, Kerri McGowan; Morain, Stephanie R

    2014-01-01

    While provisions of youth sports concussion laws are very similar, little is known as to how they are being implemented, factors that promote or impede implementation, or the level of compliance in each jurisdiction. We aimed to describe state experiences with implementation in order to inform ongoing efforts to reduce the harm of sports-related traumatic brain injury and to guide future evaluations of the laws' impacts and the development of future public health laws. We conducted key-informant interviews in 35 states with recently enacted concussion legislation. States varied considerably in their readiness and capacity for implementation. Factors facilitating implementation included existing partnerships, procedures, and resources; centralized implementation authority; prior related efforts; and involvement in the policymaking process by those now charged with implementation. Inhibitors included ambiguous statutory language, unclear delegation of authority, and compliance difficulties. Ongoing challenges persist, including primary prevention; determining which providers are qualified to make return-to-play assessments and contents of those assessments; compliance difficulties in rural and under-served areas; and unclear responsibility for enforcement. Despite the similarity of youth sports concussion laws, early evidence suggests there is considerable variation in their implementation. These findings are critical for ongoing empirical investigations to accurately evaluate the laws' provisions and to identify successful legal approaches to protecting young athletes. © 2014 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  12. Implementation of Attachment Theory into Early Childhood Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shirvanian, Natalia; Michael, Tony

    2017-01-01

    Because numerous studies show that early child-adult attachment significantly affects a child's socio-emotional and cognitive development, we propose that establishing attachment-based child care can contribute to a healthy and happy childhood. This proposition is part of a new theoretical and experimental field and, thus, research is limited.…

  13. Implementing an Inpatient Social Early Warning System for Child Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atabaki, Armita; Heddaeus, Daniela; Metzner, Franka; Schulz, Holger; Siefert, Sonke; Pawils, Silke

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The current article describes the process evaluation of a social early warning system (SEWS) for the prevention of child maltreatment in the federal state of Hamburg. This prevention initiative targets expectant mothers and their partners including an initial screening of risk factors for child maltreatment, a subsequent structured…

  14. Steps to Implementing Technology in Inclusive Early Childhood Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Catherine D.; Tredwell, Claire T.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty-first-century preschool children, with and without disabilities, may be found using technology, including assistive technologies, on a daily basis in their homes, schools, and communities. Early childhood educators are exploring opportunities to integrate technology and interactive media into the present-day curriculum. The authors suggest…

  15. Developing, Implementing, and Assessing an Early Alert System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tampke, Dale R.

    2013-01-01

    Early alert systems offer institutions systematic approaches to identifying and intervening with students exhibiting at-risk behaviors. Many of these systems rely on a common format for student referral to central receiving point. Systems at larger institutions often use web-based technology to allow for a scalable (available campus wide) approach…

  16. Hickam Air Force Base Fuel Cell Vehicles : Early Implementation Experience

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2008-07-01

    This report describes operations at Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District (AC Transit) for three prototype fuel cell buses and six diesel buses operating from the same location. This is the third evaluation report for this site, and it describes new ...

  17. Cultural sensitivity or professional acculturation in early clinical experience?

    PubMed

    Whitford, David L; Hubail, Amal Redha

    2014-11-01

    This study aimed to explore the early clinical experience of medical students following the adaptation of an Early Patient Contact curriculum from a European culture in Ireland to an Arab culture in Bahrain. Medical students in Bahrain took part in an Early Patient Contact module modelled on a similar module from a partner medical school in Ireland. We used a qualitative approach employing thematic analysis of 54 student reflective logbooks. Particular attention was placed on reflections of cultural influences of experience in the course. Medical students undergoing this module received reported documented benefits of early clinical experience. However, students in Bahrain were exposed to cultural norms of the local Arab society including gender values, visiting the homes of strangers, language barriers and generous hospitality that led to additional challenges and learning for the medical students in acculturating to norms of the medical profession. Modules intended for curriculum adaptation between two cultures would be best served by a group of "core" learning outcomes with "secondary" outcomes culturally appropriate to each site. Within the context of the Arab culture, early clinical experience has the added benefit of allowing students to learn about both local and professional cultural norms, thereby facilitating integration of these two cultures.

  18. Results from early programmatic implementation of Xpert MTB/RIF testing in nine countries.

    PubMed

    Creswell, Jacob; Codlin, Andrew J; Andre, Emmanuel; Micek, Mark A; Bedru, Ahmed; Carter, E Jane; Yadav, Rajendra-Prasad; Mosneaga, Andrei; Rai, Bishwa; Banu, Sayera; Brouwer, Miranda; Blok, Lucie; Sahu, Suvanand; Ditiu, Lucica

    2014-01-02

    versatility and impact of the technology, but also outlines various surmountable barriers to implementation. The study is not representative of all early implementer experiences with MTB/RIF testing but rather provides an overview of the shared issues as well as the many different approaches to programmatic MTB/RIF implementation.

  19. Results from early programmatic implementation of Xpert MTB/RIF testing in nine countries

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    detect. The study demonstrates the versatility and impact of the technology, but also outlines various surmountable barriers to implementation. The study is not representative of all early implementer experiences with MTB/RIF testing but rather provides an overview of the shared issues as well as the many different approaches to programmatic MTB/RIF implementation. PMID:24383553

  20. Precedents of perceived social support: personality and early life experiences.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, T; Kijima, N; Watanabe, K; Takezaki, Y; Tanaka, E

    1999-12-01

    In order to examine the effects of personality and early life experiences on perceived social support, a total of 97 young Japanese women were investigated. Current interpersonal relationships were measured by an interview modified from Henderson et al.'s Interview Schedule for Social Interaction (ISSI). Personality was measured by Cloninger et al.'s Temperament and Character Inventory. Early life experiences at home and outside of home were also identified in the interview. The number of sources of perceived support was correlated with self-directness, while satisfaction with perceived support was correlated with novelty seeking and with low harm avoidance. No early life experiences--early loss of a parent, perceived parenting, childhood abuse experiences, experiences of being bullied and/or other life events--showed significant correlations with the number or satisfaction of supportive people. The quantity and quality of perception of social support differ in their link to personality, and perceived social support may, to some extent, be explainable in terms of personality.

  1. Experience with early postoperative feeding after abdominal aortic surgery.

    PubMed

    Ko, Po-Jen; Hsieh, Hung-Chang; Liu, Yun-Hen; Liu, Hui-Ping

    2004-03-01

    Abdominal aortic surgery is a form of major vascular surgery, which traditionally involves long hospital stays and significant postoperative morbidity. Experiences with transit ileus are often encountered after the aortic surgery. Thus traditional postoperative care involves delayed oral feeding until the patients regain their normal bowel activities. This report examines the feasibility of early postoperative feeding after abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) open-repair. From May 2002 through May 2003, 10 consecutive patients with infrarenal AAA who underwent elective surgical open-repair by the same surgeon in our department were reviewed. All of them had been operated upon and cared for according to the early feeding postoperative care protocol, which comprised of adjuvant epidural anesthesia, postoperative patient controlled analgesia, early postoperative feeding and early rehabilitation. The postoperative recovery and length of hospital stay were reviewed and analyzed. All patients were able to sip water within 1 day postoperatively without trouble (Average; 12.4 hours postoperatively). All but one patient was put on regular diet within 3 days postoperatively (Average; 2.2 days postoperatively). The average postoperative length of stay in hospital was 5.8 days. No patient died or had major morbidity. Early postoperative feeding after open repair of abdominal aorta is safe and feasible. The postoperative recovery could be improved and the length of stay reduced by simply using adjuvant epidural anesthesia during surgery, postoperative epidural patient-controlled analgesia, early feeding, early ambulation, and early rehabilitation. The initial success of our postoperative recovery program of aortic repair was demonstrated.

  2. Experience of Implementing ISO 15189 Accreditation at a University Laboratory

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The present article summarizes the authors’ experience with the implementation of a quality management system based on ISO 17025 and ISO 15189 standards at university laboratories. The accreditation of the analytical procedures at the Universidad Mariano Gálvez represented a challenge due to the unique nature of an educational institution and the difference in nature to the standards implemented. Sample handling and care of the patient were combined to achieve an integrated management system. We explain the development of the management system, the obstacles and benefits of the system and concluding that it is possible to design a management system based on ISO 15189 for the university lab that allowed delivering results assuring technical competence to patient care and welfare. PMID:27683499

  3. ROS-based ground stereo vision detection: implementation and experiments.

    PubMed

    Hu, Tianjiang; Zhao, Boxin; Tang, Dengqing; Zhang, Daibing; Kong, Weiwei; Shen, Lincheng

    This article concentrates on open-source implementation on flying object detection in cluttered scenes. It is of significance for ground stereo-aided autonomous landing of unmanned aerial vehicles. The ground stereo vision guidance system is presented with details on system architecture and workflow. The Chan-Vese detection algorithm is further considered and implemented in the robot operating systems (ROS) environment. A data-driven interactive scheme is developed to collect datasets for parameter tuning and performance evaluating. The flying vehicle outdoor experiments capture the stereo sequential images dataset and record the simultaneous data from pan-and-tilt unit, onboard sensors and differential GPS. Experimental results by using the collected dataset validate the effectiveness of the published ROS-based detection algorithm.

  4. Community Clinicians and the Veterans Choice Program for PTSD Care: Understanding Provider Interest During Early Implementation.

    PubMed

    Finley, Erin P; Noël, Polly H; Mader, Michael; Haro, Elizabeth; Bernardy, Nancy; Rosen, Craig S; Bollinger, Mary; Garcia, Hector; Sherrieb, Kathleen; Pugh, Mary Jo V

    2017-07-01

    In 2014, the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) implemented the Veterans Choice Program (VCP) to provide reimbursement for community-based care to eligible veterans. Inadequate networks of participating providers may impact the utility of VCP for veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a complex condition occurring at lower frequency among civilians. To compare characteristics and attitudes of community-based primary care and mental health providers reporting interest or no interest in VCP participation during early implementation; and to examine perceptions and experiences of VCP among "early adopters." Cross-sectional surveys with 2 samples: a stratified random sample of mental health and primary care prescribers and psychotherapists drawn from state licensing boards (Community Sample); and a stratified random sample of prescribers and psychotherapists identified as VCP-authorized providers (VCP-Authorized). Five hundred fifty-three respondents in the Community Sample and 115 in the VCP-Authorized (total, n=668; 21.1% response). Surveys assessed provider and practice characteristics, attitudes to VA and VCP, and experiences and satisfaction with the VCP; an open-ended survey item assessed providers' reasons for interest or lack of interest in VCP participation. Few providers reported VCP participation during this period. Interest in VCP participation was associated across provider groups with factors including being a veteran and receiving VA reimbursement; currently providing treatment for PTSD was associated with interest in VCP participation among psychotherapists, but not prescribers. Developing networks of VCP providers to serve Veterans with PTSD is likely to require targeting more receptive provider groups, reducing barriers to participation, and more effectively communicating the value of VCP participation to providers.

  5. Regional early flood warning system: design and implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, L. C.; Yang, S. N.; Kuo, C. L.; Wang, Y. F.

    2017-12-01

    This study proposes a prototype of the regional early flood inundation warning system in Tainan City, Taiwan. The AI technology is used to forecast multi-step-ahead regional flood inundation maps during storm events. The computing time is only few seconds that leads to real-time regional flood inundation forecasting. A database is built to organize data and information for building real-time forecasting models, maintaining the relations of forecasted points, and displaying forecasted results, while real-time data acquisition is another key task where the model requires immediately accessing rain gauge information to provide forecast services. All programs related database are constructed in Microsoft SQL Server by using Visual C# to extracting real-time hydrological data, managing data, storing the forecasted data and providing the information to the visual map-based display. The regional early flood inundation warning system use the up-to-date Web technologies driven by the database and real-time data acquisition to display the on-line forecasting flood inundation depths in the study area. The friendly interface includes on-line sequentially showing inundation area by Google Map, maximum inundation depth and its location, and providing KMZ file download of the results which can be watched on Google Earth. The developed system can provide all the relevant information and on-line forecast results that helps city authorities to make decisions during typhoon events and make actions to mitigate the losses.

  6. Starting Smart: How Early Experiences Affect Brain Development. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Theresa

    Based on recent research, it is now believed that brain growth is highly dependent upon children's early experiences. Neurons allow communication and coordinated functioning among various brain areas. Brain development after birth consists of an ongoing process of wiring and rewiring the connections among neurons. The forming and breaking of…

  7. New Directions in the Study of Early Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertenthal, Bennett I; Campos, Joseph J.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews Greenough, Black, and Wallace's (1987) conceptual framework for understanding the effects of early experience and sensitive periods on development, and illustrates the applicability of their model with recent data on the consequences for animals and human infants of the acquistion of self-produced locomotion. (BN)

  8. Aesthetic Experience and Early Language and Literacy Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Helen L.

    2007-01-01

    The present paper explores the connections between theory and research in language development and aesthetic education and their implications for early childhood classroom practice. The present paper posits that arts experiences make a unique and vital contribution to the child's development of language and literacy, as well as to the sense of…

  9. Early results from the ultra heavy cosmic ray experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osullivan, D.; Thompson, A.; Bosch, J.; Keegan, R.; Wenzel, K.-P.; Jansen, F.; Domingo, C.

    1995-01-01

    Data extraction and analysis of the LDEF Ultra Heavy Cosmic Ray Experiment is continuing. Almost twice the pre LDEF world sample has been investigated and some details of the charge spectrum in the region from Z approximately 70 up to and including the actinides are presented. The early results indicate r process enhancement over solar system source abundances.

  10. Early Academic Experiences of Recently Incarcerated African American Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffers, Adam R.

    2010-01-01

    This project examines the early educational experiences of 6 young African American males (ages 18-25) who attended urban schools in San Diego, California. All 6 men were incarcerated for at least 1-year before participating in a pre-release program. The participants were part of a pre-release program in San Diego, California, which was selected…

  11. Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) RPC Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estep, Leland; Spruce, Joseph P.; Hall, Callie

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews the background, objectives, methodology, validation, and present status of the Coral Reef Early Warning System (CREWS) Rapid Prototyping Capability (RPC) experiment. The potential NASA contribution to CREWS Decision Support Tool (DST) centers on remotely sensed imagery products.

  12. Implementing Observation Protocols: Lessons for K-12 Education from the Field of Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pianta, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    This report draws from decades of experience using observation in early childhood education, which has implications for administrative decisions, evaluation practices, and policymaking in K-12. Early childhood education has long embraced the value of observing classrooms and teacher-child interactions. In early childhood education the features of…

  13. Experience with a Genetic Algorithm Implemented on a Multiprocessor Computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plassman, Gerald E.; Sobieszczanski-Sobieski, Jaroslaw

    2000-01-01

    Numerical experiments were conducted to find out the extent to which a Genetic Algorithm (GA) may benefit from a multiprocessor implementation, considering, on one hand, that analyses of individual designs in a population are independent of each other so that they may be executed concurrently on separate processors, and, on the other hand, that there are some operations in a GA that cannot be so distributed. The algorithm experimented with was based on a gaussian distribution rather than bit exchange in the GA reproductive mechanism, and the test case was a hub frame structure of up to 1080 design variables. The experimentation engaging up to 128 processors confirmed expectations of radical elapsed time reductions comparing to a conventional single processor implementation. It also demonstrated that the time spent in the non-distributable parts of the algorithm and the attendant cross-processor communication may have a very detrimental effect on the efficient utilization of the multiprocessor machine and on the number of processors that can be used effectively in a concurrent manner. Three techniques were devised and tested to mitigate that effect, resulting in efficiency increasing to exceed 99 percent.

  14. A Guide for Supervisors and Trainers on Implementing "The Creative Curriculum for Early Childhood, Third Edition."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodge, Diane Trister; And Others

    This guide is designed for early childhood educators who are helping their staffs implement the Creative Curriculum for Early Childhood, a curriculum that is based on child development theory and is developmentally appropriate for preschool and kindergarten children. A carefully organized and rich environment serves as the focus of this…

  15. Closing the Gap Early: Implementing a Literacy Intervention for At-Risk Kindergartners in Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Colleen; Figueredo, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    A history of poverty and low academic achievement in four urban schools pointed to the need to implement an early intervention focused on oral language and emergent literacy. The Kindergarten Early Literacy Tutoring (KELT) Program was designed to target senior (5 year old) kindergarten students most at-risk. The intervention consisted of an extra…

  16. Experiences of Early Transdisciplinary Teams in Pediatric Community Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubin, Tamie; Mortenson, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Although a transdisciplinary approach (TA) is considered best practice for children aged 0-3 years, there is limited information for professionals on how to successfully implement TA services. Using qualitative inquiry, in-depth interviews were conducted to explore the experiences of 6 service providers and managers who took part in early…

  17. The Early Childhood Cluster Initiative of Palm Beach County, Florida. Early Implementation Study and Evaluability Assessment. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spielberger, Julie; Goyette, Paul

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes findings from the first year of an implementation study of the Early Childhood Cluster Initiative (ECCI). ECCI is a prekindergarten program in ten elementary schools and a community child care center in Palm Beach County, based on the design of the High/Scope Perry Preschool model. The initiative is characterized by low…

  18. Developing eLearning Technologies to Implement Competency Based Medical Education: Experiences from Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagunwa, Thomas; Lwoga, Edda

    2012-01-01

    This paper provides the practical experience of developing an eLearning technology as a tool to implement Competency-based Medical Education (CBME) in Tanzania medical universities, with a specific focus on Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences. The paper provides a background to eLearning and the early attempt to adopt it in 2006 at…

  19. Medical students, early general practice placements and positive supervisor experiences.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Margaret; Upham, Susan; King, David; Dick, Marie-Louise; van Driel, Mieke

    2018-03-01

    Introduction Community-based longitudinal clinical placements for medical students are becoming more common globally. The perspective of supervising clinicians about their experiences and processes involved in maximising these training experiences has received less attention than that of students. Aims This paper explores the general practitioner (GP) supervisor perspective of positive training experiences with medical students undertaking urban community-based, longitudinal clinical placements in the early years of medical training. Methods Year 2 medical students spent a half-day per week in general practice for either 13 or 26 weeks. Transcribed semi-structured interviews from a convenience sample of participating GPs were thematically analysed by two researchers, using a general inductive approach. Results Identified themes related to the attributes of participating persons and organisations: GPs, students, patients, practices and their supporting institution; GPs' perceptions of student development; and triggers enhancing the experience. A model was developed to reflect these themes. Conclusions Training experiences were enhanced for GPs supervising medical students in early longitudinal clinical placements by the synergy of motivated students and keen teachers with support from patients, practice staff and academic institutions. We developed an explanatory model to better understand the mechanism of positive experiences. Understanding the interaction of factors enhancing teaching satisfaction is important for clinical disciplines wishing to maintain sustainable, high quality teaching.

  20. Early experience shapes vocal neural coding and perception in songbirds

    PubMed Central

    Woolley, Sarah M. N.

    2012-01-01

    Songbirds, like humans, are highly accomplished vocal learners. The many parallels between speech and birdsong and conserved features of mammalian and avian auditory systems have led to the emergence of the songbird as a model system for studying the perceptual mechanisms of vocal communication. Laboratory research on songbirds allows the careful control of early life experience and high-resolution analysis of brain function during vocal learning, production and perception. Here, I review what songbird studies have revealed about the role of early experience in the development of vocal behavior, auditory perception and the processing of learned vocalizations by auditory neurons. The findings of these studies suggest general principles for how exposure to vocalizations during development and into adulthood influences the perception of learned vocal signals. PMID:22711657

  1. Videothoracoscopy in the diagnosis of intrathoracic pathology: early experience.

    PubMed Central

    Waller, D. A.; Hasan, A.; Forty, J.; Morritt, G. N.

    1994-01-01

    We report our experience using the new technique of videothoracoscopy in the diagnosis of intrathoracic pathology. In the last 12 months, 40 patients (24 male; 16 female) have undergone investigation by this method. Lung biopsy has been performed in 17 patients, pleural biopsy in 20 patients and mediastinal biopsy in three patients. The majority had been referred after other investigations had been inconclusive. All biopsies were diagnostic except one mediastinal biopsy. This early experience suggests that videothoracoscopic biopsy is a well-tolerated technique with high diagnostic yield. PMID:8154806

  2. Components of the Early Apollo Scientific Experiments Package (EASEP)

    1969-07-20

    AS11-37-5551 (20 July 1969) --- Two components of the Early Apollo Scientific Experiments Package (EASEP) are seen deployed on the lunar surface in this view photographed from inside the Lunar Module (LM). In the far background is the Passive Seismic Experiment Package (PSEP); and to the right and closer to the camera is the Laser Ranging Retro-Reflector (LR-3). The footprints of Apollo 11 astronauts Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr. are very distinct in the lunar soil.

  3. Final Report to the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee, Title V Implementation Experience

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    In 2004, the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee established the Task Force on Title V Implementation Experience to report on stakeholder experience with implementation of the Title V operating permit program. This report details their recommendations.

  4. The Use of Concrete Experiences in Early Childhood Mathematics Instruction.

    PubMed

    Baroody, Arthur J

    2017-01-01

    Addressed are four key issues regarding concrete instruction: What is concrete? What is a worthwhile concrete experience? How can concrete experiences be used effectively in early childhood mathematics instruction? Is there evidence such experiences work? I argue that concrete experiences are those that build on what is familiar to a child and can involve objects, verbal analogies, or virtual images. The use of manipulatives or computer games, for instance, does not in itself guarantee an educational experience. Such experiences are worthwhile if they target and further learning (e.g., help children extend their informal knowledge or use their informal knowledge to understand and learn formal knowledge). A crucial guideline for the effective use of concrete experience is Dewey's principle of interaction-external factors (e.g., instructional activities) need to mesh with internal factors (readiness, interest). Cognitive views of concrete materials, such as the cognitive alignment perspective and dual-representation hypothesis, provide useful guidance about external factors but do not adequately take into account internal factors and their interaction with external factors. Research on the effectiveness of concrete experience is inconclusive because it frequently overlooks internal factors. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [Implementation of an early rheumatoid athritis unit for the early recognition and treatment of the disease].

    PubMed

    Espinoza, Francisco; Monckeberg, Gustavo; Hassi, Isabel; Queirolo, Alejandra; Chicao, Fernando; Sandoval, Ximena; Jorquera, Evelyn; Badilla, Alejandro

    2018-01-01

    Early recognition of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) provides clinical benefits in terms of remission induction, reduced disease progression, and eventually treatment free remission. To describe the setting of a Unit devoted exclusively to the recognition and treatment of early RA in patients referred from primary healthcare centers (PHC) in Chile. Patients were referred from nine participating PHC from 2014 through 2016. PHC physicians received a formal training to enhance criteria recognition and program adherence. Mandatory referral criteria were an age above 17 years, and arthralgia of less than 1-year duration, plus at least one of the following: morning stiffness of more than 30 minutes, swelling involving more than 3 joints for more than 1 month, a positive squeeze test or abnormal inflammatory serum markers. One hundred twenty patients aged 45 ± 12 years (90% women) were assessed at the early rheumatoid arthritis unit. Median time to referral from PHC to the Unit was 14.6 days. The median duration of symptoms for the overall sample of patients was 10.8 months. RA was identified in 43 patients (36%), with a delay between onset of symptoms and diagnosis of 8.3 months. Regarding the performance of referral criteria, the most sensitive was morning stiffness (80%, sensitivity 95% confidence intervals (CI) 64-89%) and synovitis was the most specific (specificity 83%, 95% CI 72-90%). The positive predictive value of the three clinical criteria altogether was 68.1% (95% CI 47-83%). Institution of an early RA unit was feasible within the Chilean healthcare system enabling the identification of early RA in one-third of patients.

  6. Implementing change: staff experiences of changes to prison mental healthcare in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Caulfield, Laura S; Twort, Hannah

    2012-01-01

    Stemming from substantial criticism during the late twentieth and early twenty-first century, the UK government and HM Prison Service developed a number of policies and protocols aimed at improving the state of prison mental healthcare. While it is difficult to fault the purpose of the government's intentions, criticism has continued relating to problems with the implementation of government led change within the prison system. Existing research leads people to question whether policies are being implemented as intended; and if not, why not? The only clear way to answer these questions is to ask those involved in the actual implementation of these recommendations within the prison service. This paper aims to answer these questions. This paper documents findings from a national survey of senior mental healthcare staff working in prisons in England and Wales. Staff were surveyed about their views on the implementation of recommendations from recent key government documents, their perceptions of prison mental healthcare versus community mental healthcare, and their views on the relationship between HM Prison Service and the National Health Service. While many staff report improvements in prison mental healthcare, many have struggled with the implementation of new ways of working and the findings here suggest there is still some way to go towards providing offenders in prison with effective and appropriate care. Where effective ways of implementing change were identified, these are discussed. Listening to the experiences of the staff involved in prison healthcare has helped identify where implementation of changes could be improved and thus highlights where support might best be targeted in future.

  7. Early Childhood Educators' Meta-Cognitive Knowledge of Problem-Solving Strategies and Quality of Childcare Curriculum Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Yeon Ha

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to explore the impact of early childhood educators' meta-cognitive knowledge on the quality of their childcare curriculum implementation, and to gain insights regarding successful problem-solving strategies associated with early education and care. Early childhood educators' implementation of general problem-solving strategies in…

  8. State of the science on implementation research in early child development and future directions.

    PubMed

    Aboud, Frances E; Yousafzai, Aisha K; Nores, Milagros

    2018-05-01

    We summarize the state of the field of implementation research and practice for early child development and propose recommendations. First, conclusions are drawn regarding what is generally known about the implementation of early childhood development programs, based on papers and discussions leading to a published series on the topic. Second, recommendations for short-term activities emphasize the use of newly published guidelines for reporting data collection methods and results for implementation processes; knowledge of the guidelines and a menu of measures allows for planning ahead. Additional recommendations include careful documentation of early-stage implementation, such as adapting a program to a different context and assessing feasibility, as well as the process of sustaining and scaling up a program. Using existing implementation information by building on and improving past programs and translating them into policy are recommended. Longer term goals are to identify implementation characteristics of effective programs and determinants of these characteristics. © 2018 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of The New York Academy of Sciences.

  9. Implementation of a laboratory quality assurance program: the Louisville experience.

    PubMed

    Metz, Michael J; Abdel-Azim, Tamer; Miller, Cynthia J; Lin, Wei-Shao; ZandiNejad, Amirali; Oliveira, Gustavo M; Morton, Dean

    2014-02-01

    Remakes, or the refabrication of dental prostheses, can occur as a result of inherent inaccuracies in both clinical and laboratory procedures. Because dental schools manage large numbers of predoctoral dental students with limited familiarity and expertise as related to clinical prosthodontic techniques, it is likely these schools will experience an elevated incidence of laboratory remakes and their ramifications. The University of Louisville School of Dentistry, not unlike other dental schools, has experienced remakes associated with both fixed and removable prosthodontic procedures. Limitations in faculty standardization and variable enforcement of established preclinical protocols have been identified as variables associated with the high percentage of remakes documented. The purpose of this study was to introduce the implementation of a new multidepartmental quality assurance program designed to increase consistency and quality in both information provided to commercial dental laboratories and the prostheses returned. The program has shown to be advantageous in terms of cost-effectiveness and treatment outcomes. A statistically significant decrease in remake percentages has been recorded from inception of this program in December 2010 until December 2012. Furthermore, this program has resulted in more consistent communication between the dental school and commercial dental laboratories, among faculty members, and between faculty and students.

  10. Early Life Experiences and Exercise Associate with Canine Anxieties.

    PubMed

    Tiira, Katriina; Lohi, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Personality and anxiety disorders across species are affected by genetic and environmental factors. Shyness-boldness personality continuum exists across species, including the domestic dog, with a large within- and across-breed variation. Domestic dogs are also diagnosed for several anxiety-related behavioral conditions, such as generalized anxiety disorders, phobias, and separation anxiety. Genetic and environmental factors contributing to personality and anxiety are largely unknown. We collected questionnaire data from a Finnish family dog population (N = 3264) in order to study the associating environmental factors for canine fearfulness, noise sensitivity, and separation anxiety. Early life experiences and exercise were found to associate with anxiety prevalence. We found that fearful dogs had less socialization experiences (p = 0.002) and lower quality of maternal care (p < 0.0001) during puppyhood. Surprisingly, the largest environmental factor associating with noise sensitivity (p < 0.0001) and separation anxiety (p = 0.007) was the amount of daily exercise; dogs with noise sensitivity and separation anxiety had less daily exercise. Our findings suggest that dogs share many of the same environmental factors that contribute to anxiety in other species as well, such as humans and rodents. Our study highlights the importance of early life experiences, especially the quality of maternal care and daily exercise for the welfare and management of the dogs, and reveals important confounding factors to be considered in the genetic characterization of canine anxiety.

  11. Modification of visual function by early visual experience.

    PubMed

    Blakemore, C

    1976-07-01

    Physiological experiments, involving recording from the visual cortex in young kittens and monkeys, have given new insight into human developmental disorders. In the visual cortex of normal cats and monkeys most neurones are selectively sensitive to the orientation of moving edges and they receive very similar signals from both eyes. Even in very young kittens without visual experience, most neurones are binocularly driven and a small proportion of them are genuinely orientation selective. There is no passive maturation of the system in the absence of visual experience, but even very brief exposure to patterned images produces rapid emergence of the adult organization. These results are compared to observations on humans who have "recovered" from early blindness. Covering one eye in a kitten or a monkey, during a sensitive period early in life, produces a virtually complete loss of input from that eye in the cortex. These results can be correlated with the production of "stimulus deprivation amblyopia" in infants who have had one eye patched. Induction of a strabismus causes a loss of binocularity in the visual cortex, and in humans it leads to a loss of stereoscopic vision and binocular fusion. Exposing kittens to lines of one orientation modifies the preferred orientations of cortical cells and there is an analogous "meridional amblyopia" in astigmatic humans. The existence of a sensitive period in human vision is discussed, as well as the possibility of designing remedial and preventive treatments for human developmental disorders.

  12. Early breastfeeding experiences of adolescent mothers: a qualitative prospective study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Teen mothers face many challenges to successful breastfeeding and are less likely to breastfeed than any other population group in the U.S. Few studies have investigated this population; all prior studies are cross-sectional and collect breastfeeding data retrospectively. The purpose of our qualitative prospective study was to understand the factors that contribute to the breastfeeding decisions and practices of teen mothers. Methods This prospective study took place from January through December 2009 in Greensboro, North Carolina in the U.S. We followed the cohort from pregnancy until two weeks after they ceased all breastfeeding and milk expression. We conducted semi-structured interviews at baseline and follow-up, and tracked infant feeding weekly by phone. We analyzed the data to create individual life and breastfeeding journeys and then identified themes that cut across the individual journeys. Results Four of the five teenagers breastfed at the breast for nine days: in contrast, one teen breastfed exclusively for five months. Milk expression by pumping was associated with significantly longer provision of human milk. Breastfeeding practices and cessation were closely connected with their experiences as new mothers in the context of ongoing multiple roles, complex living situations, youth and dependency, and poor knowledge of the fundamentals of breastfeeding and infant development. Breastfeeding cessation was influenced by inadequate breastfeeding skill, physically unpleasant and painful early experiences they were unprepared to manage, and inadequate health care response to real problems. Conclusions Continued breastfeeding depends on a complex interplay of multiple factors, including having made an informed choice and having the skills, support and experiences needed to sustain the belief that breastfeeding is the best choice for them and their baby given their life situation. Teenagers in the US context need to have a positive early

  13. Utilisation of the healthcare system for authentic early experience placements.

    PubMed

    Hays, Richard B

    2013-01-01

    Authentic early experience in clinical contexts adds interest and relevance to basic medical education, and is regarded positively by both learners and teachers. However, with the recent expansion of medical education, the healthcare system appears close to reaching its capacity for student supervision. This study explores the utilisation of the healthcare system for early clinical placements. A secondary analysis was conducted of data from the Medical Schools Outcomes Database, collected from the 2010 annual questionnaire, focusing on the timing, duration and location of clinical placements during 2009 within the first half of basic medical education programs in Australia. Data was received for 67% of Australian medical students, reporting a total of 16 812 early clinical placements that occupied 97 319 days of supervised time in a wide variety of hospital, general practice and Indigenous health contexts, both urban and rural, across the Australian healthcare system. These early placements occupied about 16% of total clinical placement time for all students in all training years during 2009. The majority of these placements were for only a few hours or days; exceptions were longitudinal placements in regional and rural communities at a minority of schools. Early clinical placements may pose significant resource costs for placement providers, particularly supervision time and expertise. As medical education expands and the teaching capacity of the Australian healthcare system appears to reach its limits, it may be necessary to allocate placements according to their specific learning outcomes, prioritise more acute settings for more senior students, and increase capacity in less acute health and social care settings.

  14. The Eole experiment - Early results and current objectives.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morel, P.; Bandeen, W.

    1973-01-01

    The Eole experiment with 480 constant level balloons released in the Southern Hemisphere is described. Each balloon, floating freely at approximately the 200-mb level, is a precise tracer of the horizontal motion of air masses, the accuracy of which is limited only by the laminated structure of the stratospheric flow, within an rms uncertainty of 1.5 m/sec. The balloons were found after 2 months to distribute at random over the whole hemisphere outside the tropics, irrespective of their original launching site. Early results of Eulerian and Lagrangian averages of the Eole wind data are given for describing the mean 200-mb zonal and meridional circulations.

  15. Early Results from the RAIDS Experiment on the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budzien, S. A.; Bishop, R. L.; Stephan, A. W.; Christensen, A. B.; Hecht, J. H.; Straus, P. R.

    2009-12-01

    The Remote Atmospheric and Ionospheric Detection System (RAIDS) is a suite of three photometers, three spectrometers, and two spectrographs which span the wavelength range 55-874 nm and remotely sense the thermosphere and ionosphere by scanning and imaging the limb. RAIDS was scheduled to fly to the Japanese Experiment Module—Exposed Facility (JEM-EF) aboard the International Space Station (ISS) in September 2009. RAIDS along with a companion hyperspectral imaging experiment will serve as the first US payload on the JEM-EF. The scientific objectives of the new RAIDS experiment are to study the temperature of the lower thermosphere (100-200 km), to measure composition and chemistry of the lower thermosphere and ionosphere, and to measure the initial source of OII 83.4 nm emission. RAIDS will provide valuable data useful for exploring tidal effects in the thermosphere and ionosphere system, validating dayside ionospheric remote sensing methods, and studying local time variations in important chemical and thermal processes. Early observational results from the RAIDS experiment will be presented. The RAIDS sensor suite performs multispectral limb scanning from the open end of the HICO-RAIDS Experiment Payload aboard the ISS.

  16. Milgram's Obedience to Authority experiments: origins and early evolution.

    PubMed

    Russell, Nestar John Charles

    2011-03-01

    Stanley Milgram's Obedience to Authority experiments remain one of the most inspired contributions in the field of social psychology. Although Milgram undertook more than 20 experimental variations, his most (in)famous result was the first official trial run - the remote condition and its 65% completion rate. Drawing on many unpublished documents from Milgram's personal archive at Yale University, this article traces the historical origins and early evolution of the obedience experiments. Part 1 presents the previous experiences that led to Milgram's conception of his rudimentary research idea and then details the role of his intuition in its refinement. Part 2 traces the conversion of Milgram's evolving idea into a reality, paying particular attention to his application of the exploratory method of discovery during several pilot studies. Both parts illuminate Milgram's ad hoc introduction of various manipulative techniques and subtle tension-resolving refinements. The procedural adjustments continued until Milgram was confident that the first official experiment would produce a high completion rate, a result contrary to expectations of people's behaviour. Showing how Milgram conceived of, then arrived at, this first official result is important because the insights gained may help others to determine theoretically why so many participants completed this experiment. ©2010 The British Psychological Society.

  17. Protocol for a pre-implementation and post-implementation study on shared decision-making in the surgical treatment of women with early-stage breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Savelberg, Wilma; Moser, Albine; Smidt, Marjolein; Boersma, Liesbeth; Haekens, Christel; van der Weijden, Trudy

    2015-03-31

    The majority of patients diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer are in a position to choose between having a mastectomy or lumpectomy with radiation therapy (breast-conserving therapy). Since the long-term survival rates for mastectomy and for lumpectomy with radiation therapy are comparable, patients' informed preferences are important for decision-making. Although most clinicians believe that they do include patients in the decision-making process, the information that women with breast cancer receive regarding the surgical options is often rather subjective, and does not invite patients to express their preferences. Shared decision-making (SDM) is meant to help patients clarify their preferences, resulting in greater satisfaction with their final choice. Patient decision aids can be very supportive in SDM. We present the protocol of a study to β test a patient decision aid and optimise strategies for the implementation of SDM regarding the treatment of early-stage breast cancer in the actual clinical setting. This paper concerns a pre-implementation and post-implementation study, lasting from October 2014 to June 2015. The intervention consists of implementing SDM using a patient decision aid. The intervention will be evaluated using qualitative and quantitative measures, acquired prior to, during and after the implementation of SDM. Outcome measures are knowledge about treatment, perceived SDM and decisional conflict. We will also conduct face-to-face interviews with a sample of these patients and their care providers, to assess their experiences with the implementation of SDM and the patient decision aid. This protocol was approved by the Maastricht University Medical Centre (MUMC) ethics committee. The findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed journal articles and presentations at national conferences. Findings will be used to finalise a multi-faceted implementation strategy to test the implementation of SDM and a patient decision aid in terms of

  18. Making Visible Teacher Reports of Their Teaching Experiences: The Early Childhood Teacher Experiences Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fantuzzo, John; Perlman, Staci; Sproul, Faith; Minney, Ashley; Perry, Marlo A.; Li, Feifei

    2012-01-01

    The study developed multiple independent scales of early childhood teacher experiences (ECTES). ECTES was co-constructed with preschool, kindergarten, and first grade teachers in a large urban school district. Demographic, ECTES, and teaching practices data were collected from 584 teachers. Factor analyses documented three teacher experience…

  19. Early experiences with big data at an academic medical center.

    PubMed

    Halamka, John D

    2014-07-01

    Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC), an academic health care institution affiliated with Harvard University, has been an early adopter of electronic applications since the 1970s. Various departments of the medical center and the physician practice groups affiliated with it have implemented electronic health records, filmless imaging, and networked medical devices to such an extent that data storage at BIDMC now amounts to three petabytes and continues to grow at a rate of 25 percent a year. Initially, the greatest technical challenge was the cost and complexity of data storage. However, today the major focus is on transforming raw data into information, knowledge, and wisdom. This article discusses the data growth, increasing importance of analytics, and changing user requirements that have shaped the management of big data at BIDMC. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  20. Implementing the Early Childhood Development Teacher Training Framework in Uganda: Gains and Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ejuu, Godfrey

    2012-01-01

    Training of quality early childhood development (ECD) teachers is paramount in ensuring quality ECD service provision. This exploratory study focuses on the gains and challenges met in the implementation of the Uganda ECD teacher training framework. Data were obtained using questionnaires and interviews from principals and tutors of ECD teacher…

  1. The Challenges Facing the Implementation of Early Childhood Development and Education Policy in Bungoma County, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wangila, Violet Muyoka

    2017-01-01

    This paper scrutinises the challenges facing the implementation of Early Childhood Development and Education policy in Bungoma County, Kenya. The study used a mixed research design and study population comprised of the QASOs, the Head teachers, ECDE teachers and the non-teaching staff in respective ECDCs. The sample size of the study comprised of…

  2. Implementing an Early Childhood Professional Development Course across 10 Sites and 15 Sections: Lessons Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoCasale-Crouch, Jennifer; Kraft-Sayre, Marcia; Pianta, Robert C.; Hamre, Bridget K.; Downer, Jason T.; Leach, Allison; Burchinal, Margaret; Howes, Carollee; La Paro, Karen; Scott-Little, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    In this article we describe the design and implementation of the National Center for Research on Early Childhood Education's (NCRECE's) college-level course and its delivery to teachers across 10 settings and 15 instructional sections. This professional development intervention, found effective in changing teachers' beliefs, knowledge, and actual…

  3. Intensive Evaluation of Head Start Implementation in the Tucson Early Education Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rentfrow, Robert K.

    As part of the national Head Start Planned Variation Study, this study used a relatively small sample in an intensive evaluation of program implementation in one field community using the Tucson Early Education Model (TEEM). A modified Solomon four-group research design formed the organization framework. Evaluation of six TEEM classrooms and two…

  4. A Systematic Review of Fidelity of Implementation in Parent-Mediated Early Communication Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberman-Betz, Rebecca G.

    2015-01-01

    This article examined the reporting of four elements of fidelity of implementation (FOI) in parent-mediated early communication treatment studies. Thirty-five studies were reviewed to extract information regarding reporting of dosage, adherence, quality, and participant responsiveness for both practitioners and parents involved in parent-delivered…

  5. Improving the Design and Implementation of In-Service Professional Development in Early Childhood Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunst, Carl J.

    2015-01-01

    A model for designing and implementing evidence-­based in­-service professional development in early childhood intervention as well as the key features of the model are described. The key features include professional development specialist (PDS) description and demonstration of an intervention practice, active and authentic job-­embedded…

  6. Creating Teacher Capacity in Early Childhood Education and Care Institutions Implementing an Authoritative Adult Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omdal, Heidi

    2018-01-01

    The being together intervention intends to raise teacher capacity in Norwegian Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) institutions and promote social and emotional development in preschoolers by implementing an authoritative (warm and predictable) adult style in the institution. An authoritative adult balances between building up high quality…

  7. Implementing Guided Pathways: Early Insights from the AACC Pathways Colleges. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Davis; Lahr, Hana; Fink, John

    2017-01-01

    This summary is a digest of key findings from "Implementing Guided Pathways: Early Insights From the AACC Pathways Colleges," a report based on Community College Research Center's (CCRC's) research on the 30 colleges involved in the American Association of Community Colleges' (AACC) Pathways Project. The research presented in this report…

  8. A Practitioner's Guide to Implementing Early Warning Systems. REL 2015-056

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazelle, Sarah; Nagel, Aisling

    2015-01-01

    To stem the tide of students dropping out, many schools and districts are turning to early warning systems (EWS) that signal whether a student is at risk of not graduating from high school. While some research exists about establishing these systems, there is little information about the actual implementation strategies that are being used across…

  9. The experiences of districts in implementing a national incentive programme to promote safe delivery in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Powell-Jackson, Timothy; Morrison, Joanna; Tiwari, Suresh; Neupane, Basu Dev; Costello, Anthony M

    2009-01-01

    Background Nepal's Safe Delivery Incentive Programme (SDIP) was introduced nationwide in 2005 with the intention of increasing utilisation of professional care at childbirth. It provided cash to women giving birth in a health facility and an incentive to the health provider for each delivery attended, either at home or in the facility. We explored early implementation of the programme at the district-level to understand the factors that have contributed to its low uptake. Methods We conducted in ten study districts a series of key informant interviews and focus group discussions with staff from health facilities and the district health office and other stakeholders involved in implementation. Manual content analysis was used to categorise data under emerging themes. Results Problems at the central level imposed severe constraints on the ability of district-level actors to implement the programme. These included bureaucratic delays in the disbursement of funds, difficulties in communicating the policy, both to implementers and the wider public and the complexity of the programme's design. However, some district implementers were able to cope with these problems, providing reasons for why uptake of the programme varied considerably between districts. Actions appeared to be influenced by the pressure to meet local needs, as well individual perceptions and acceptance of the programme. The experience also sheds light on some of the adverse effects of the programme on the wider health system. Conclusion The success of conditional cash transfer programmes in Latin America has led to a wave of enthusiasm for their adoption in other parts of the world. However, context matters and proponents of similar programmes in south Asia should give due attention to the challenges to implementation when capacity is weak and health services inadequate. PMID:19508710

  10. Early Warning System Implementation Guide: For Use with the National High School Center's Early Warning System Tool v2.0

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Therriault, Susan Bowles; Heppen, Jessica; O'Cummings, Mindee; Fryer, Lindsay; Johnson, Amy

    2010-01-01

    This Early Warning System (EWS) Implementation Guide is a supporting document for schools and districts that are implementing the National High School Center's Early Warning System (EWS) Tool v2.0. Developed by the National High School Center at the American Institutes for Research (AIR), the guide and tool support the establishment and…

  11. Women's experiences of having an early medical abortion at home.

    PubMed

    Hedqvist, Maria; Brolin, Lina; Tydén, Tanja; Larsson, Margareta

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess women's experiences of having an early medical abortion at home and to investigate their perceptions of the information provided before the abortion. The study also aimed to investigate possible differences between groups of women. The study is cross-sectional with a descriptive and comparative design. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 119 women who had undergone a medical abortion at home. Almost half of the women (43%, n = 51) experienced the bleeding as more than expected and one-fourth (26%, n = 31) bled for more than four weeks. One-third (34%, n = 41) stated a lack of information, especially about the bleeding and pain. The experience of pain differed between groups. Women who had undergone an earlier abortion and women who had previously given birth experienced the abortion as being less painful than that experienced by first-time gravidae (p < 0.05). The finding that women experience information about the pain and bleeding to be insufficient suggests that information in those areas can be improved. The result that women without previous experience of abortion or childbirth stated the pain as being worse than other groups investigated suggests that special attention should be paid to those women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Language experience enhances early cortical pitch-dependent responses

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Ananthanarayan; Gandour, Jackson T.; Ananthakrishnan, Saradha; Vijayaraghavan, Venkatakrishnan

    2014-01-01

    Pitch processing at cortical and subcortical stages of processing is shaped by language experience. We recently demonstrated that specific components of the cortical pitch response (CPR) index the more rapidly-changing portions of the high rising Tone 2 of Mandarin Chinese, in addition to marking pitch onset and sound offset. In this study, we examine how language experience (Mandarin vs. English) shapes the processing of different temporal attributes of pitch reflected in the CPR components using stimuli representative of within-category variants of Tone 2. Results showed that the magnitude of CPR components (Na-Pb and Pb-Nb) and the correlation between these two components and pitch acceleration were stronger for the Chinese listeners compared to English listeners for stimuli that fell within the range of Tone 2 citation forms. Discriminant function analysis revealed that the Na-Pb component was more than twice as important as Pb-Nb in grouping listeners by language affiliation. In addition, a stronger stimulus-dependent, rightward asymmetry was observed for the Chinese group at the temporal, but not frontal, electrode sites. This finding may reflect selective recruitment of experience-dependent, pitch-specific mechanisms in right auditory cortex to extract more complex, time-varying pitch patterns. Taken together, these findings suggest that long-term language experience shapes early sensory level processing of pitch in the auditory cortex, and that the sensitivity of the CPR may vary depending on the relative linguistic importance of specific temporal attributes of dynamic pitch. PMID:25506127

  13. Early experience with human papillomavirus vaccine introduction in the United States, Canada and Australia.

    PubMed

    Shefer, Abigail; Markowitz, Lauri; Deeks, Shelley; Tam, Theresa; Irwin, Kathleen; Garland, Suzanne M; Schuchat, Anne

    2008-08-19

    Successful incorporation of a new vaccine into a nation's vaccination program requires addressing a number of issues, including: 1) establishing national recommendations; 2) assuring education of and acceptance by the public and medical community; 3) establishing and maintaining an appropriate infrastructure for vaccine delivery; 4) financing the vaccine and the program, in addition to political will. This article reviews the early experience with implementation of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programs. It focuses on the United States of America and Canada and provides a brief report on Australia, where introduction is underway.

  14. Experiences from the implementation of a biosafety system in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Milavec, Mojca; Racman, Darja Stanic

    2007-09-01

    The development and implementation of an effective national biosafety system is important for several key reasons: to ensure safe access to products of modern biotechnology, to build public confidence, to encourage the growth of domestic modern biotechnology, and to comply with international standards and agreements. There is no single best approach in the development and implementation of a national biosafety system and each country is faced with unique challenges. Slovenia is a small country and a new EU Member State. However, it has developed and implemented an efficient national biosafety system. The key elements of this system are administrative procedure, risk assessment, enforcement, and public participation and information.

  15. Characteristics of Early Work Experiences and Their Association with Future Employment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnall, Michele Capella; O'Mally, Jamie

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Early work experiences are a key predictor of future employment for transition-age youths with visual impairments. We investigated how specific characteristics of early work experiences influence future employment and whether the receipt of Supplemental Security Income (SSI) benefits is associated with early work experiences among…

  16. The early postpartum experience of previously infertile mothers.

    PubMed

    Ladores, Sigrid; Aroian, Karen

    2015-01-01

    To explore the lived experience of becoming a new mother from the unique perspectives of previously infertile women. A descriptive phenomenological design was used to extract the fundamental structure of the postpartum experience of previously infertile mothers. Central Florida. Twelve first-time, previously infertile mothers age 27 to 43 years. Face-to-face interviews were conducted twice with each participant. Recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed using Colaizzi's approach. Two main themes emerged that described the early postpartum experience of first-time, previously infertile mothers: (a) lingering identity as infertile and (b) gratitude for the gift of motherhood. Participants reported that their lingering identities as infertile and immense gratitude for the gift of motherhood propelled them to establish unrealistic expectations to be perfect mothers. When they were unable to live up this expectation, they censored their feelings of inadequacy, guilt, and shame. Findings from this study may help to sensitize health care providers to the difficulties faced by previously infertile women during their transition to motherhood. © 2015 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  17. Hemispheric differences in processing of vocalizations depend on early experience.

    PubMed

    Phan, Mimi L; Vicario, David S

    2010-02-02

    An intriguing phenomenon in the neurobiology of language is lateralization: the dominant role of one hemisphere in a particular function. Lateralization is not exclusive to language because lateral differences are observed in other sensory modalities, behaviors, and animal species. Despite much scientific attention, the function of lateralization, its possible dependence on experience, and the functional implications of such dependence have yet to be clearly determined. We have explored the role of early experience in the development of lateralized sensory processing in the brain, using the songbird model of vocal learning. By controlling exposure to natural vocalizations (through isolation, song tutoring, and muting), we manipulated the postnatal auditory environment of developing zebra finches, and then assessed effects on hemispheric specialization for communication sounds in adulthood. Using bilateral multielectrode recordings from a forebrain auditory area known to selectively process species-specific vocalizations, we found that auditory responses to species-typical songs and long calls, in both male and female birds, were stronger in the right hemisphere than in the left, and that right-side responses adapted more rapidly to stimulus repetition. We describe specific instances, particularly in males, where these lateral differences show an influence of auditory experience with song and/or the bird's own voice during development.

  18. Early access programs: Benefits, challenges, and key considerations for successful implementation

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Sanjaykumar

    2016-01-01

    Early access programs, (EAPs) are adopted by an increasing number of pharma companies due to several benefits offered by these programs. EAPs offer ethical, compliant, and controlled mechanisms of access to investigational drugs outside of the clinical trial space and before the commercial launch of the drug, to patients with life-threatening diseases having no treatment options available. In addition to the development of positive relationships with key opinion leaders (KOL), patients, advocacy groups and regulators, the data captured from the implementation of EAPs supports in the formulation of global commercialization strategies. This white paper outlines various circumstances to be considered for the implementation of EAPs named patient programs, the regulatory landscape, the benefits and challenges associated with implementing these programs and the key considerations for their successful implementation. PMID:26955570

  19. Early experiences building a software quality prediction model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agresti, W. W.; Evanco, W. M.; Smith, M. C.

    1990-01-01

    Early experiences building a software quality prediction model are discussed. The overall research objective is to establish a capability to project a software system's quality from an analysis of its design. The technical approach is to build multivariate models for estimating reliability and maintainability. Data from 21 Ada subsystems were analyzed to test hypotheses about various design structures leading to failure-prone or unmaintainable systems. Current design variables highlight the interconnectivity and visibility of compilation units. Other model variables provide for the effects of reusability and software changes. Reported results are preliminary because additional project data is being obtained and new hypotheses are being developed and tested. Current multivariate regression models are encouraging, explaining 60 to 80 percent of the variation in error density of the subsystems.

  20. Sweet and Sour Preferences During Childhood: Role of Early Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Liem, Djin Gie; Mennella, Julie A.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the effects of early experience on sweet and sour preferences in children. Eighty-three children were divided into four groups based on the type of formula fed during infancy and age. By using a forced-choice, sip-and-swallow procedure, we determined the level of sweetness and sourness preferred in juice. Children who were fed protein hydrolysate formulas, which have a distinctive sour and bitter taste and unpleasant odor, preferred higher levels of citric acid in juice when compared to older children who were fed similar formulas. No such difference was observed between the groups for sweet preference. However, the level of sweetness preferred in juice was related to the sugar content of the child's favorite cereal and whether the mother routinely added sugar to their foods. These data illustrate the wide variety of experiential factors that can influence flavor preferences during childhood. PMID:12430162

  1. Early experience in microtia reconstruction: the first 100 cases.

    PubMed

    Sabbagh, Walid

    2011-04-01

    Auricular reconstruction in Microtia is a challenging operation with a steep learning curve. In view its rarity attaining a high standard for new surgeons is extremely difficult. This study analyses the first 100 microtia cases looking at complications, technique, pattern of progress and aesthetic outcome. The author performed 100 autologous ear reconstructions for microtia over a period of 4 years utilizing the two stage technique popularised by Nagata and Firmin. In 11 cases a temroparietal fascial flap was utilised because of either a low hairline or scarring. Follow up ranged from 3 to 36 months. Data was collected prospectively. There were 7 cases of partial skin necrosis, 3 of which healed with conservative management. In early cases deficiencies were seen in the proportions of the reconstructed ear and the quality of definition. Better shape and definition were evident as more surgical experience was gained. This occurred as a result of increased appreciation of the ear proportions and improved framework carving. Although two stages were planned 21 cases required further procedures. The series demonstrates the early learning curve in microtia reconstruction and underlines the importance of appropriate training and case availability in achieving high quality results in autologous ear reconstruction. Copyright © 2010 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Early MIMD experience on the CRAY X-MP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhoades, Clifford E.; Stevens, K. G.

    1985-07-01

    This paper describes some early experience with converting four physics simulation programs to the CRAY X-MP, a current Multiple Instruction, Multiple Data (MIMD) computer consisting of two processors each with an architecture similar to that of the CRAY-1. As a multi-processor, the CRAY X-MP together with the high speed Solid-state Storage Device (SSD) in an ideal machine upon which to study MIMD algorithms for solving the equations of mathematical physics because it is fast enough to run real problems. The computer programs used in this study are all FORTRAN versions of original production codes. They range in sophistication from a one-dimensional numerical simulation of collisionless plasma to a two-dimensional hydrodynamics code with heat flow to a couple of three-dimensional fluid dynamics codes with varying degrees of viscous modeling. Early research with a dual processor configuration has shown speed-ups ranging from 1.55 to 1.98. It has been observed that a few simple extensions to FORTRAN allow a typical programmer to achieve a remarkable level of efficiency. These extensions involve the concept of memory local to a concurrent subprogram and memory common to all concurrent subprograms.

  3. Accountable Care Organization Implementation Experiences and Rural Participation: Considerations for Nurses.

    PubMed

    Bagwell, Matt Thomas; Bushy, Angeline; Ortiz, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Little is known about how accountable care organizations (ACOs) participate with rural health providers. This pilot study examines ACO participation with rural health clinics (RHCs). Telephone interviews with 8 ACO administrators were conducted to determine the early implementation experiences of these organizations, and their participation with rural health providers, such as RHCs, using qualitative content analysis, ACO characteristics, and emerging themes from the ACO executive responses was identified. Three predominant themes emerged: 1) ACOs are growing in size and number and have various organizational structures; 2) there is an expanding emphasis on preventive primary care and chronic disease management for patients; and 3) there is a need for improved information technology integration with clinical services and financial systems. Of 8 participants, 7 reported that their ACO was planning to expand into rural areas and partner with rural providers.

  4. Snow, Ice, & Satellites: An Early Career Researcher's Experience with Twitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pope, A.; Scambos, T. A.

    2014-12-01

    As a doctoral student, I was lucky enough to be able to experiment with a variety of communication and outreach activities (classroom visits, museum events, science festivals, blogging, social media, etc.) to build communication skills and learn how to talk about my science without writing a journal article. More importantly, the wide range of experience helped me identify what worked for me. My favorite way to share my science now? Twitter. To many, Twitter is a frivolous platform for sharing snippets 140 characters or less. To me, however, it is how I can connect directly with the elusive "wider public" and share my science. Specifically, I use satellite imagery (mostly Landsat 8) to study glaciers around the world. I look at long-term change related to climate, and I also investigate new, innovative ways to use satellite imagery to better understand glaciers and ice sheets. Luckily for me, my research is very visual. Whether fieldwork snapshots or satellite data, images make for great, shareable, accessible tweets. In this presentation, I propose to share my experience of tweeting as an early career researcher. I will include successful strategies (e.g. particular #hashtags, creating new content, using story-telling, timely tweets), as well as some not-so-successful attempts. I will also talk about how I built my Twitter network. In addition to anecdotes, I will include evaluation of my Twitter activity using available metrics and analytics (e.g. followers, favorites, re-tweets, Klout score, etc.). While misunderstood by many in the scientific community, Twitter is a platform increasingly being adopted by researchers. Used correctly, it can be a great tool for connecting directly with an interested, non-technical audience eager to learn about your research. With my experiences and evaluation, I will show how both scientists and the networks that they join and create can benefit by using Twitter as a platform for science communication.

  5. Implementing Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training Programs in High Schools: Iowa's Experience

    PubMed Central

    Hoyme, Derek B.; Atkins, Dianne L.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To understand perceived barriers to providing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) education, implementation processes, and practices in high schools. Study design Iowa has required CPR as a graduation requirement since 2011 as an unfunded mandate. A cross-sectional study was performed through multiple choice surveys sent to Iowa high schools to collect data about school demographics, details of CPR programs, cost, logistics, and barriers to implementation, as well as automated external defibrillator training and availability. Results Eighty-four schools responded (26%), with the most frequently reported school size of 100-500 students and faculty size of 25-50. When the law took effect, 51% of schools had training programs already in place; at the time of the study, 96% had successfully implemented CPR training. Perceived barriers to implementation were staffing, time commitment, equipment availability, and cost. The average estimated startup cost was <$1000 US, and the yearly maintenance cost was <$500 with funds typically allocated from existing school resources. The facilitator was a school official or volunteer for 81% of schools. Average estimated training time commitment per student was <2 hours. Automated external defibrillators are available in 98% of schools, and 61% include automated external defibrillator training in their curriculum. Conclusions Despite perceived barriers, school CPR training programs can be implemented with reasonable resource and time allocations. PMID:27852456

  6. Implementing Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Training Programs in High Schools: Iowa's Experience.

    PubMed

    Hoyme, Derek B; Atkins, Dianne L

    2017-02-01

    To understand perceived barriers to providing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) education, implementation processes, and practices in high schools. Iowa has required CPR as a graduation requirement since 2011 as an unfunded mandate. A cross-sectional study was performed through multiple choice surveys sent to Iowa high schools to collect data about school demographics, details of CPR programs, cost, logistics, and barriers to implementation, as well as automated external defibrillator training and availability. Eighty-four schools responded (26%), with the most frequently reported school size of 100-500 students and faculty size of 25-50. When the law took effect, 51% of schools had training programs already in place; at the time of the study, 96% had successfully implemented CPR training. Perceived barriers to implementation were staffing, time commitment, equipment availability, and cost. The average estimated startup cost was <$1000 US, and the yearly maintenance cost was <$500 with funds typically allocated from existing school resources. The facilitator was a school official or volunteer for 81% of schools. Average estimated training time commitment per student was <2 hours. Automated external defibrillators are available in 98% of schools, and 61% include automated external defibrillator training in their curriculum. Despite perceived barriers, school CPR training programs can be implemented with reasonable resource and time allocations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Relationship between adverse early experiences, stressors, psychosocial resources and wellbeing.

    PubMed

    Mc Elroy, Sharon; Hevey, David

    2014-01-01

    The study examined a diathesis stress model of the relationship between adverse child experiences (ACEs), stressors and psychosocial resources to explore their relationship with wellbeing. A cross sectional study was conducted across two mental health and addiction treatment centers. 176 individuals were interviewed using a demographics form, SCID-DSM-IV(First, Spitzer, Gibbon, &Williams, 2002), Child Trauma Questionnaire (Bernstein & Fink, 1998), NEO-Five Factor Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1992), Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (Petrides, 2009), The Coping, Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) (Endler & Parker, 1990), Recent Life Events Questionnaire (Department of Health, 1985) and perceived social support from family, friends and religion. Multiple, regressions and correlations were used to analyze the data. All early experiences, except physical, abuse and death of a parent in childhood, were significantly correlated with increased number of, stressors and lower wellbeing scores. This is possibly because of sample specific issues. Number of stressors partially mediated the relationship between ACEs and wellbeing. Increased number of ACEs was related to higher neuroticism and emotion-focused coping and lower conscientiousness, agreeableness, trait emotional intelligence and task coping scores. These resources were significantly related to increased stressors and lower wellbeing. Distraction and emotion coping significantly moderated the relationship between number of stressors and wellbeing. These findings support the diathesis stress model and indicate that there are significant relationships between ACEs, psychosocial, resources, stressors and wellbeing. Recommendations to improve wellbeing are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Adverse Childhood Experiences and Child Health in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Flaherty, Emalee G.; Thompson, Richard; Dubowitz, Howard; Harvey, Elizabeth M; English, Diana J.; Everson, Mark D.; Proctor, Laura J.; Runyan, Desmond K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective 1) Examine the relationship between previous adverse childhood experiences and somatic complaints and health problems in early adolescence, and 2) examine the role of the timing of adverse exposures. Design Prospective analysis of the Longitudinal Studies of Child Abuse and Neglect interview data when children were 4, 6, 8, 12 and 14 years old. Setting Children reported or at risk for maltreatment in the South, East, Midwest, Northwest, and Southwest United States LONGSCAN sites Participants 933 children. Main Exposures Eight categories of adversity (psychological maltreatment, physical abuse, sexual abuse, neglect, caregiver’s substance use/alcohol abuse, caregiver’s depressive symptoms, caregiver treated violently, and criminal behavior by household member) experienced during the first 6 years of life, the second six years of life, the most recent 2 years, and overall adversity Outcome Measures Child health problems including poor health, illness requiring a doctor, somatic complaints and any health problem at age 14. Results More than 90% of the youth had experienced an adverse childhood event by age 14. There was a graded relationship between adverse childhood exposures and any health problem, while 2 and ≥3 adverse exposures were associated with somatic complaints. Recent adversity uniquely predicted poor health, somatic complaints and any health problem. Conclusions Childhood adversities, particularly recent adversities, already impair the health of young adolescents. Increased efforts to prevent and mitigate these experiences may improve the health of adolescents and adults. PMID:23645114

  9. The hardwood ecosystem experiment: goals, design, and implementation

    Rebecca A. Kalb; Cortney J. Mycroft

    2013-01-01

    The Hardwood Ecosystem Experiment (HEE) is a long-term, landscape-level field experiment initiated in 2006 by the Indiana Department of Natural Resources-Division of Forestry. The HEE is a multi-disciplinary, collaborative research project involving researchers from Purdue University, Indiana State University, Ball State University, Indiana University of Pennsylvania,...

  10. Implementing Multiple Intelligences: The New City School Experience. Fastback 407.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoerr, Thomas R.

    This brief reviews the concept of multiple intelligences (MI) and discusses the implementation of the theory of MI in the New City School, an independent school in St. Louis (Missouri). The theory of MI, as developed by Howard Gardner, says that there are at least seven different intelligences: linguistic, logical, musical, bodily-kinesthetic,…

  11. Language Planning and Student Experiences: Intention, Rhetoric and Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lo Bianco, Joseph; Aliani, Renata

    2013-01-01

    This book is a timely comparison of the divergent worlds of policy implementation and policy ambition, the messy, often contradictory here-and-now reality of languages in schools and the sharp-edged, shiny, future-oriented representation of languages in policy. Two deep rooted tendencies in Australian political and social life, multiculturalism…

  12. Evaluating and Implementing Learning Environments: A United Kingdom Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingraham, Bruce; Watson, Barbara; McDowell, Liz; Brockett, Adrian; Fitzpatrick, Simon

    2002-01-01

    Reports on ongoing work at five universities in northeastern England that have been evaluating and implementing online learning environments known as virtual learning environments (VLEs) or managed learning environments (MLEs). Discusses do-it-yourself versus commercial systems; transferability; Web-based versus client-server; integration with…

  13. Summaries of early materials processing in space experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Naumann, R. J.; Mason, D.

    1979-01-01

    Objectives, methods, and results of low-gravity materials processing experiments are summarized, and a bibliography of published results for each experiment is provided. Included are drop tower experiments, the Apollo demonstration experiments, the skylab experiments and demonstration experiments, and the Apollo-Soyuz experiments and demonstrations. The findings of these experiments in the fields of crystal growth, metallurgy, and fluid behavior are summarized.

  14. Challenges in Implementation of Early Childhood Education in Nigeria: The Way Forward

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akinrotimi, Adenike A.; Olowe, Peter K.

    2016-01-01

    Early Childhood Education (ECE) comprises essential programmes and activities which are critical to holistic development, academic success and future achievements of children. ECE is recognised by the federal government of Nigeria as a foundational and essential programme that Nigerian children must experience. This is why the government has given…

  15. Adverse Experiences in Early Childhood and Kindergarten Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Jimenez, Manuel E; Wade, Roy; Lin, Yong; Morrow, Lesley M; Reichman, Nancy E

    2016-02-01

    To examine associations between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in early childhood and teacher-reported academic and behavioral problems in kindergarten. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a national urban birth cohort. Subjects with primary caregiver-reported information on ACE exposures ascertained at 5 years and teacher-reported outcomes at the end of the child's kindergarten year were included. Outcomes included teacher ratings of academic skills, emergent literacy skills, and behavior. We included 8 ACE exposures on the basis of the original Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Kaiser study and created an ACE score by summing individual adversities. We examined the associations between teacher-reported academic and behavioral outcomes and ACE scores by using logistic regression. In the study sample, 1007 children were included. Fifty-five percent had experienced 1 ACE and 12% had experienced ≥ 3. Adjusting for potential confounders, experiencing ≥ 3 ACEs was associated with below-average language and literacy skills (adjusted odds ratio [AORs]: 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1-2.9) and math skills (AOR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-2.9), poor emergent literacy skills, attention problems (AOR: 3.5, 95% CI: 1.8-6.5), social problems (AOR: 2.7, 95% CI: 1.4-5.0), and aggression (AOR: 2.3, 95% CI: 1.2-4.6). In this study of urban children, experiencing ACEs in early childhood was associated with below-average, teacher-reported academic and literacy skills and behavior problems in kindergarten. These findings underscore the importance of integrated approaches that promote optimal development among vulnerable children. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. Early clinical experience: do students learn what we expect?

    PubMed

    Helmich, Esther; Bolhuis, Sanneke; Laan, Roland; Koopmans, Raymond

    2011-07-01

    Early clinical experience is thought to contribute to the professional development of medical students, but little is known about the kind of learning processes that actually take place. Learning in practice is highly informal and may be difficult to direct by predefined learning outcomes. Learning in medical practice includes a socialisation process in which some learning outcomes may be valued, but others neglected or discouraged. This study describes students' learning goals (prior to a Year 1 nursing attachment) and learning outcomes (after the attachment) in relation to institutional educational goals, and evaluates associations between learning outcomes, student characteristics and place of attachment. A questionnaire containing open-ended questions about learning goals and learning outcomes was administered to all Year 1 medical students (n = 347) before and directly after a 4-week nursing attachment in either a hospital or a nursing home. Two confirmatory focus group interviews were conducted and data were analysed using qualitative and quantitative content analyses. Students' learning goals corresponded with educational goals with a main emphasis on communication and empathy. Other learning goals included gaining insight into the organisation of health care and learning to deal with emotions. Self-reported learning outcomes were the same, but students additionally mentioned reflection on professional behaviour and their own future development. Women and younger students mentioned communication and empathy more often than men and older students. Individual learning goals, with the exception of communicating and empathising with patients, did not predict learning outcomes. Students' learning goals closely match educational goals, which are adequately met in early nursing attachments in both hospitals and nursing homes. Learning to deal with emotions was under-represented as a learning goal and learning outcome, which may indicate that emotional aspects

  17. Insights from Australian parents into educational experiences in the early postnatal period.

    PubMed

    McKellar, Lois V; Pincombe, Jan I; Henderson, Ann M

    2006-12-01

    to investigate the provision of parent education during the early postnatal period in order to gain insight that, through stakeholder collaboration, will contribute to the development of innovative strategies to enhance the provision of postnatal education in a contemporary health-care environment. the study comprises the first stage of an action-research project. The first stage of research sought to explore the experiences of mothers and fathers in the early postnatal period by conducting a questionnaire within 4 weeks of the birth of their baby. The data obtained from the questionnaire is to inform an action-research group for stage two of the project. The Children, Youth and Women's Health Service, a large city maternity hospital in South Australia, covering a range of socio-economic strata. 85 parents completed and returned the questionnaire, comprising 52 mothers and 33 fathers. an anonymous self-report questionnaire was purpose designed to provide each parent with an opportunity to reflect on their own experience, with particular emphasis given to the provision of education and support during the early postnatal period. a number of themes emerged, including a window of opportunity during the postnatal hospital stay to provide education and support, despite the reduction in the length of stay; the need for a family-centred approach to maternity services; and the significance of self and social network in the early transition to parenthood. The findings from this stage of the research, combined with a review of the literature, provide insight that will contribute to stage two of the study. At this stage, an action-research group will continue planning to develop specific actions to enhance the provision of education to parents in the early postnatal period. These actions will subsequently be implemented and assessed.

  18. Multistage switching hardware and software implementations for student experiment purpose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sani, A.; Suherman

    2018-02-01

    Current communication and internet networks are underpinned by the switching technologies that interconnect one network to the others. Students’ understanding on networks rely on how they conver the theories. However, understanding theories without touching the reality may exert spots in the overall knowledge. This paper reports the progress of the multistage switching design and implementation for student laboratory activities. The hardware and software designs are based on three stages clos switching architecture with modular 2x2 switches, controlled by an arduino microcontroller. The designed modules can also be extended for batcher and bayan switch, and working on circuit and packet switching systems. The circuit analysis and simulation show that the blocking probability for each switch combinations can be obtained by generating random or patterned traffics. The mathematic model and simulation analysis shows 16.4% blocking probability differences as the traffic generation is uniform. The circuits design components and interfacing solution have been identified to allow next step implementation.

  19. Implementation of Pediatric Early Warning Score; Adherence to Guidelines and Influence of Context.

    PubMed

    Almblad, Ann-Charlotte; Siltberg, Petra; Engvall, Gunn; Målqvist, Mats

    To describe data of Pediatric Early Warning Score (PEWS) registrations and to evaluate the implementation of PEWS by examining adherence to clinical guidelines based on measured PEWS, and to relate findings to work context. PEWS, as a part of a concept called Early Detection and Treatment-Children (EDT-C) was implemented at three wards at a Children's Hospital in Sweden. Data were collected from the Electronic Patient Record (EPR) retrospectively to assess adherence to guidelines. The Alberta Context Tool (ACT) was used to assess work context among healthcare professionals (n=109) before implementation of EDT-C. The majority of PEWS registrations in EPR were low whereas 10% were moderate to high. Adherences to ward-specific guidelines at admission and for saturation in respiratory distress were high whereas adherence to pain assessment was low. There were significant differences in documented recommended actions between wards. Some differences in leadership and evaluation between wards were identified. Evaluation of PEWS implementation indicated frequent use of the tool despite most scores being low. High scores (5-9) occurred 28 times, which may indicate that patients with a high risk of clinical deterioration were identified. Documentation of the consequent recommended actions was however incomplete and there was a large variation in adherence to guidelines. Contextual factors may have an impact on adherence. EDT-C can lead to increased knowledge about early detection of deterioration, strengthen nurses as professionals, optimize treatment and teamwork and thereby increase patient safety for children treated in hospitals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The EOLE experiment: Early results and current objectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morel, P.; Bandeen, W. R.

    1972-01-01

    The EOLE experiment with 480 constant level balloons released in the Southern Hemisphere is described. Each balloon floating freely at approximately the 200 mb level, is a precise tracer of the horizontal motion of air masses, the accuracy of which is limited only by the laminated structure of the stratospheric flow, within an RMS uncertainty of 1.5 m/sec. The balloons were found after 2 months to distribute at random over the whole hemisphere outside the tropics, irrespective of their original launching site. Early results of Eulerian and Lagrangian averages of the EOLE wind data are given for describing the mean 200 mb zonal and meridional circulations. The effect of the small scale eddies of two-dimensional turbulence has been studied with respect to the relative eddy diffusion of pairs of balloons and the relative dispersion of triangular clusters. New estimates of the RMS divergence of the 200 mb flow are given, together with their scale dependence which was found to be a logarithmic law.

  1. Early experience with endoscopic lumbar sympathectomy for plantar hyperhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sanjay; Kaur, Simranjit; Wilson, Paul

    2016-05-01

    We describe our endoscopic lumbar sympathectomy technique and our early experience using it to treat plantar hyperhidrosis. We reviewed 20 lumbar sympathectomies performed in our vascular unit for plantar hyperhidrosis in 10 patients from 2011 and 2014. Demographics and outcomes were analyzed and a review of the literature conducted. All procedures were carried out endoscopically with no intraoperative or postoperative morbidity. Plantar anhidrosis was achieved in all the patients, although two patients (20%) suffered a relapse. Unwanted side-effects occurred in the form of compensatory sweating in three patients (30%) and post-sympathectomy neuralgia in two patients (20%). None of the patients experienced sexual dysfunction. Management of plantar hyperhidrosis may be based upon a therapeutic ladder starting with conservative measures and working up to surgery depending on the severity of the disease. Minimally invasive (endoscopic) sympathectomy for the thoracic chain is well established, but minimally invasive sympathectomy for the lumbar chain is a relatively new technique. Endoscopic lumbar sympathectomy provides an effective, minimally invasive method of surgical management, but long-term data are lacking. © 2016 Japan Society for Endoscopic Surgery, Asia Endosurgery Task Force and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. Early adverse experiences and the neurobiology of facial emotion processing.

    PubMed

    Moulson, Margaret C; Fox, Nathan A; Zeanah, Charles H; Nelson, Charles A

    2009-01-01

    To examine the neurobiological consequences of early institutionalization, the authors recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) from 3 groups of Romanian children--currently institutionalized, previously institutionalized but randomly assigned to foster care, and family-reared children--in response to pictures of happy, angry, fearful, and sad facial expressions of emotion. At 3 assessments (baseline, 30 months, and 42 months), institutionalized children showed markedly smaller amplitudes and longer latencies for the occipital components P1, N170, and P400 compared to family-reared children. By 42 months, ERP amplitudes and latencies of children placed in foster care were intermediate between the institutionalized and family-reared children, suggesting that foster care may be partially effective in ameliorating adverse neural changes caused by institutionalization. The age at which children were placed into foster care was unrelated to their ERP outcomes at 42 months. Facial emotion processing was similar in all 3 groups of children; specifically, fearful faces elicited larger amplitude and longer latency responses than happy faces for the frontocentral components P250 and Nc. These results have important implications for understanding of the role that experience plays in shaping the developing brain.

  3. Development of Sensorial Experiments and Their Implementation into Undergraduate Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromfield Lee, Deborah Christina

    2009-01-01

    "Visualization" of chemical phenomena often has been limited in the teaching laboratories to the sense of sight. We have developed chemistry experiments that rely on senses other than eyesight to investigate chemical concepts, make quantitative determinations, and familiarize students with chemical techniques traditionally designed using only…

  4. Ozone Research with Advanced Cooperative Lidar Experiment (ORACLE) Implementation Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stadler, John H.; Browell, Edward V.; Ismail, Syed; Dudelzak, Alexander E.; Ball, Donald J.

    1998-01-01

    New technological advances have made possible new active remote sensing capabilities from space. Utilizing these technologies, the Ozone Research with Advanced Cooperative Lidar Experiment (ORACLE) will provide high spatial resolution measurements of ozone, clouds and aerosols in the stratosphere and lower troposphere. Simultaneous measurements of ozone, clouds and aerosols will assist in the understanding of global change, atmospheric chemistry and meteorology.

  5. Implementing Effective Mission Systems Engineering Practices During Early Project Formulation Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moton, Tryshanda

    2016-01-01

    Developing and implementing a plan for a NASA space mission can be a complicated process. The needs, goals, and objectives of any proposed mission or technology must be assessed early in the Project Life Cycle. The key to successful development of a space mission or flight project is the inclusion of systems engineering in early project formulation, namely during Pre-phase A, Phase A, and Phase B of the NASA Project Life Cycle. When a space mission or new technology is in pre-development, or "pre-Formulation", feasibility must be determined based on cost, schedule, and risk. Inclusion of system engineering during project formulation is key because in addition to assessing feasibility, design concepts are developed and alternatives to design concepts are evaluated. Lack of systems engineering involvement early in the project formulation can result in increased risks later in the implementation and operations phases of the project. One proven method for effective systems engineering practice during the pre-Formulation Phase is the use of a mission conceptual design or technology development laboratory, such as the Mission Design Lab (MDL) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This paper will review the engineering process practiced routinely in the MDL for successful mission or project development during the pre-Formulation Phase.

  6. Early Child Development and Nutrition: A Review of the Benefits and Challenges of Implementing Integrated Interventions.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Kristen M; Yousafzai, Aisha K; Lopez-Boo, Florencia

    2016-03-01

    Poor nutrition (substandard diet quantity and/or quality resulting in under- or overnutrition) and the lack of early learning opportunities contribute to the loss of developmental potential and life-long health and economic disparities among millions of children aged <5 y. Single-sector interventions representing either early child development (ECD) or nutrition have been linked to positive child development and/or nutritional status, and recommendations currently advocate for the development and testing of integrated interventions. We reviewed the theoretical and practical benefits and challenges of implementing integrated nutrition and ECD interventions along with the evidence for best practice and benefit-cost and concluded that the strong theoretical rationale for integration is more nuanced than the questions that the published empirical evidence have addressed. For example, further research is needed to 1) answer questions related to how integrated messaging influences caregiver characteristics such as well-being, knowledge, and behavior and how these influence early child nutrition and development outcomes; 2) understand population and nutritional contexts in which integrated interventions are beneficial; and 3) explore how varying implementation processes influence the efficacy, uptake, and cost-benefit of integrated nutrition and ECD interventions. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. IMPLEMENTATION OF GASTRIC CANCER SCREENING – THE GLOBAL EXPERIENCE

    PubMed Central

    Leja, Mārcis; You, Weicheng; Camargo, M. Constanza; Saito, Hiroshi

    2018-01-01

    Gastric cancer (GC) is still an important global healthcare problem, and in absolute figures it is going to remain at the present level in foreseeable future. In general, survival of patients with GC is poor mainly due to advanced-stage diagnosis. Early-stage GC can be cured by endoscopic resection or less invasive surgical treatment. Unfortunately, there is no appropriate screening strategy available for global application. This article provides a description of established national and regional GC screening programs and the screening modalities used. This review also summarizes current approaches to develop cancer-screening biomarkers. Although candidates with initial promising results have been suggested, moving discovery into clinical practice is still a major challenge. Well-designed biomarker studies, with systematic validation steps, are needed to decrease the burden of this fatal disease. PMID:25439074

  8. The CHOICE pilot project: Challenges of implementing a combined peer work and shared decision-making programme in an early intervention service.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Magenta B; Coates, Dominiek; Batchelor, Samantha; Dimopoulos-Bick, Tara; Howe, Deborah

    2017-12-12

    Youth participation is central to early intervention policy and quality frameworks. There is good evidence for peer support (individuals with lived experience helping other consumers) and shared decision making (involving consumers in making decisions about their own care) in adult settings. However, youth programs are rarely tested or described in detail. This report aims to fill this gap by describing a consumer focused intervention in an early intervention service. This paper describes the development process, intervention content and implementation challenges of the Choices about Healthcare Options Informed by Client Experiences and Expectations (CHOICE) Pilot Project. This highly novel and innovative project combined both youth peer work and youth shared decision making. Eight peer workers were employed to deliver an online shared decision-making tool at a youth mental health service in New South Wales, Australia. The intervention development involved best practice principles, including international standards and elements of co-design. The implementation of the peer workforce in the service involved a number of targeted strategies designed to support this new service model. However, several implementation challenges were experienced which resulted in critical learning about how best to deliver these types of interventions. Delivering peer work and shared decision making within an early intervention service is feasible, but not without challenges. Providing adequate detail about interventions and implementation strategies fills a critical gap in the literature. Understanding optimal youth involvement strategies assists others to deliver acceptable and effective services to young people who experience mental ill health. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Implementation of Early Childhood Development Education Service Standard Guidelines on Physical Facilities in Public and Private Early Childhood Education Centres Kakamega County, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitati, Emmily M.; Ndirangu, Mwangi; Kennedy, Bota; Rapongo, George S.

    2016-01-01

    In 2006, the Kenyan Ministry of Education (MoE) developed an early childhood development education (ECDE) service standard guidelines to guide the ECDE stakeholders in provision of early childhood education (ECE) programmes. The study sought to investigate the implementation of the ECDE service standard guidelines on provision of physical…

  10. Early experience with Suboxone maintenance therapy in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Demetrovics, Zsolt; Farkas, Judit; Csorba, József; Németh, Attila; Mervó, Barbara; Szemelyácz, János; Fleischmann, Enikö; Kassai-Farkas, Akos; Petke, Zsolt; Oroján, Tibor; Rózsa, Sándor; Rigó, Péter; Funk, Sándor; Kapitány, Máté; Kollár, Anna; Rácz, József

    2009-12-01

    Suboxone (Buprenorphine/naloxone) is a novel drug used in opiate substitution therapy. In Hungary, it was introduced in November 2007. Suboxone is a product for sublingual administration containing the partial mu-receptor agonist buprenorphine and antagonist naloxone in a 4:1 ratio. Objectives of our study were to monitor and evaluate the effects of Suboxone treatment. 6 outpatient centers participated in the study, 3 from Budapest and 3 from smaller cities in Hungary. At these centers, all patients entering Suboxone maintenance therapy between November 2007 and March 2008, altogether 80 persons (55 males, 35 females, mean age = 30.2 years, SD=5.48) were included in the study sample. During the 6-month period of treatment, data were collected 4 times; when entering treatment, 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months after entering treatment. Applied measures were the Addiction Severity Index, SCID-I, SCID-II, Hamilton Depression Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Scale, STAI-S State Anxiety Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, Heroin Craving Questionnaire, WHO Well-being Inventory, Perceived Stress Scale, ADHD retrospective questionnaire, TCI short version, and Ways of Coping questionnaire. Nearly fourth of the altogether 80 heroin dependent patients (18 persons, 22.5%) dropped out of treatment during the first month (the majority, 12 persons [15%] during the first week) or chose methadone substitution instead. Following this period however, dropout rate decreased and the six-month treatment period was completed by 32 patients (40%). During the first month of treatment significant positive changes were experienced in all studied psychological and behavioral dimensions that proved to be stabile throughout the studied period. According to the early experience with Suboxone treatment, it is a well tolerable and successfully applicable drug in the substitution therapy of opiate addicts. A critical phase seems to be the first one or two weeks of treatment. Dropout rate is high during this

  11. Implementing NICU critical thinking programs: one unit's experience.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Denise; Pilcher, Jobeth

    2008-01-01

    Critical thinking is the hallmark of today's nursing practice environment. Nowhere is this more critical than in the high-tech environment of the NICU. Despite the importance of critical thinking in nursing practice, there is limited information on the process of teaching new NICU nurses to think critically. Based on the principles of adult education, orientation and continuing education for NICU nurses should be goal directed, build on the learner's prior experience, and build in opportunities for active participation, reflection, and experiential learning. This article reviews the principles of adult education and their application to the process of teaching critical thinking in the NICU. One unit's experience of critical thinking education is used to provide concrete examples of how NICU education can be transformed from a traditional didactic methodology to a more dynamic experiential approach.

  12. UB Matrix Implementation for Inelastic Neutron Scattering Experiments

    SciT

    Lumsden, Mark D; Robertson, Lee; Yethiraj, Mohana

    The UB matrix approach has been extended to handle inelastic neutron scattering experiments with differing k{sub i} and k{sub f}. We have considered the typical goniometer employed on triple-axis and time-of-flight spectrometers. Expressions are derived to allow for calculation of the UB matrix and for converting from observables to Q-energy space. In addition, we have developed appropriate modes for calculation of angles for a specified Q-energy position.

  13. Implementing Statewide Severe Maternal Morbidity Review: The Illinois Experience.

    PubMed

    Koch, Abigail R; Roesch, Pamela T; Garland, Caitlin E; Geller, Stacie E

    2018-03-07

    Severe maternal morbidity (SMM) rates in the United States more than doubled between 1998 and 2010. Advanced maternal age and chronic comorbidities do not completely explain the increase in SMM or how to effectively address it. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists have called for facility-level multidisciplinary review of SMM for potential preventability and have issued implementation guidelines. Within Illinois, SMM was identified as any intensive or critical care unit admission and/or 4 or more units of packed red blood cells transfused at any time from conception through 42 days postpartum. All cases meeting this definition were counted during statewide surveillance. Cases were selected for review on the basis of their potential to yield insights into factors contributing to preventable SMM or best practices preventing further morbidity or death. If the SMM review committee deemed a case potentially preventable, it identified specific factors associated with missed opportunities and made actionable recommendations for quality improvement. Approximately 1100 cases of SMM were identified from July 1, 2016, to June 30, 2017, yielding a rate of 76 SMM cases per 10 000 pregnancies. Reviews were conducted on 142 SMM cases. Most SMM cases occurred during delivery hospitalization and more than half were delivered by cesarean section. Hemorrhage was the primary cause of SMM (>50% of the cases). Facility-level SMM review was feasible and acceptable in statewide implementation. States that are planning SMM reviews across obstetric facilities should permit ample time for translation of recommendations to practice. Although continued maternal mortality reviews are valuable, they are not sufficient to address the increasing rates of SMM and maternal death. In-depth multidisciplinary review offers the potential to identify factors associated with SMM and interventions to prevent women from moving along the

  14. Early experiences with the multidose drug dispensing system – A matter of trust?

    PubMed Central

    Wekre, Liv Johanne; Melby, Line; Grimsmo, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study early experiences with multidose drug dispensing (MDD) among different groups of health personnel. Design Qualitative study based on focus-group interviews. Setting Primary health care, Trondheim, Norway. Main outcome The importance of trust in the technology and in collaborating partners is actualized in the early implementation of MDD. Results GPs, home-care nurses, pharmacists, and medical secretaries trusted the new MDD technology. The quality of the GPs’ medication records improved. However, health personnel, including the GPs themselves, would not always trust the medication records of the GPs. Checking the multidose bags arriving from the pharmacy was considered unnecessary in the written routines dealing with MDD. However, home-care nurses experienced errors and continued to manually check the bags. Nurses in the home-care service felt a loss of knowledge with regard to the patients’ medications and in turn experienced reduced ability to give medical information to patients and to observe the effects of the drugs. The home-care services’ routines for drug handling were not always trusted by the other groups of health personnel involved. Conclusion Health personnel faced some challenges during the implementation of the MDD system, but most of them remained confident in the new system. Building trust has to be a process that runs in parallel with the introduction of new technology and the establishment of new routines for improving the quality in handling of medicines and to facilitate better cooperation and communication. PMID:21323496

  15. Getting Ready for School: The Early Childhood Cluster Initiative of Palm Beach County, Florida. Program Implementation and Early Outcomes: Year 3 Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spielberger, Julie; Baker, Stephen; Winje, Carolyn; Mayers, Leifa

    2009-01-01

    Chapin Hall has been conducting an implementation and evaluability study of the ECCI (Early Childhood Cluster Initiative) project since the midway point of its first year. As described in the authors' first report (Spielberger & Goyette, 2006), the initiative made considerable progress in its initial year, particularly in implementing the…

  16. Implementing an innovative intervention to increase research capacity for enhancing early psychosis care in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Renwick, L; Irmansyah; Keliat, B A; Lovell, K; Yung, A

    2017-11-01

    WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE TOPIC?: In low- and middle-income settings (LMICs) such as Indonesia, the burden from psychotic illness is significant due to large gaps in treatment provision Mental health workers and community nurses are a growing workforce requiring new evidence to support practice and enhanced roles and advanced competencies among UK mental health nurses also requires greater research capacity Research capacity building projects can strengthen research institutions, enhance trial capacity, improve quality standards and improve attitudes towards the importance of health research. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS?: Delivering innovative, cross-cultural workshops to enhance research capacity to multidisciplinary, early career researchers in Indonesia and the UK are rated highly by attendees Supporting people in this way helps them to gain competitive grant funding to complete their own research which can improve the health of the population To our knowledge, there are no other studies reporting the attainment of grant income as a successful outcome of international research partnerships for mental health nursing so our finding is novel. WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE?: This method could be implemented to improve networking and collaboration between UK academics and early career researchers in other lower- and middle-income settings This strategy can also strengthen existing partnerships among early career researchers in the UK to meet the demands for greater research mentorship and leadership among mental health nurses and enhance nurses capabilities to contribute to evidence for practice. Aim To strengthen research capacity for nurses and early career researchers in Indonesia and the UK to develop a local evidence base in Indonesia to inform policy and improve the nation's health. These strategies can strengthen research institutions, enhance trial capacity, improve quality standards and improve attitudes towards the importance of health research. Methods Four

  17. Filling the implementation gap: a community-academic partnership approach to early intervention in psychosis.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Kate V; Moore, Melissa; Rose, Demian; Bennett, Robert; Jackson-Lane, Carletta; Gause, Michael; Jackson, Alma; Loewy, Rachel

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the development of a sustainable community early psychosis programme created through an academic-community partnership in the United States to other parties interested in implementing early psychosis services founded upon evidence-based practices within community settings. The service was developed around a sustainable core of key components, founded upon evidence-based practice, with additional flexible elements that could be adapted to the needs of the individual commissioning county. This paper describes the ways in which funding was sourced and secured as well as the partnerships developed through this process. Successful development of the Prevention and Recovery from Early Psychosis (PREP) programme in San Francisco County, California. PREP clinicians have received extensive training in the evidence-based approaches that are available through the programme and treated 30 clients and their families in the first year of operation. Development of a sustainable community programme of this type in a non-universal health-care setting, which is historically seen as non-integrated, required extensive partnering with agencies familiar with local resources. Implementation of the community-academic partnership bridged the gap between research and practice with successful integration of fidelity practice at the community level. The community partners were effective in sourcing funding and allocating resources, while the academic side of the partnership provided training in evidence-based models and oversight of clinical implementation of the model. Stringent evaluation of the impact of the service is our next focus. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  18. ESOC's System for Interplanetary Orbit Determination: Implementation and Operational Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budnik, F.; Morley, T. A.; MacKenzie, R. A.

    A system for interplanetary orbit determination has been developed at ESOC over the past six years. Today, the system is in place and has been proven to be both reliable and robust by successfully supporting critical operations of ESA's interplanetary spacecraft Rosetta, Mars Express, and SMART-1. To reach this stage a long and challenging way had to be travelled. This paper gives a digest about the journey from the development and testing to the operational use of ESOC's new interplanetary orbit determination system. It presents the capabilities and reflects experiences gained from the performed tests and tracking campaigns.

  19. Implementing mental health peer support: a South Australian experience.

    PubMed

    Franke, Carmen C D; Paton, Barbara C; Gassner, Lee-Anne J

    2010-01-01

    Mental illness is among the greatest causes of disability, diminished quality of life and reduced productivity. Mental health policy aims to reform services to meet consumers' needs and one of the strategies is to increase the number of consumers working in the mental health service system. In South Australia, the Peer Work Project was established to provide a program for the training of consumers to work alongside mental health services. The project developed a flexible training pathway that consisted of an information session, the Introduction to Peer Work (IPW) course and further training pathways for peer workers. External evaluation indicated that the IPW course was a good preparation for peer workers, but a crucial factor in the implementation process of employing peer workers was commitment and leadership within the organisation in both preparing the organisation and supporting peer workers in their role. To assist organisations wanting to employ peer workers, a three step model was developed: prepare, train and support. The project has been successful in establishing employment outcomes for IPW graduates. The outcomes increased with time after graduation and there was a shift from voluntary to paid employment.

  20. Implementation of Reach Up early childhood parenting program: acceptability, appropriateness, and feasibility in Brazil and Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Smith, Joanne A; Baker-Henningham, Helen; Brentani, Alexandra; Mugweni, Rose; Walker, Susan P

    2018-05-01

    Young children need nurturing care, which includes responsive caregiver-child interactions and opportunities to learn. However, there are few extant large-scale programs that build parents' abilities to provide this. We have developed an early childhood parenting training package, called Reach Up, with the aim of providing an evidence-based, adaptable program that is feasible for low-resource settings. Implementation of Reach Up was evaluated in Brazil and Zimbabwe to inform modifications needed and identify challenges that implementers and delivery agents encountered. Interview guides were developed to collect information on the program's appropriateness, acceptability, and feasibility from mothers, home visitors, and supervisors. Information on adaptation was obtained from country program leads and Reach Up team logs, as well as quality of visits from observations conducted by supervisors. The program was well accepted by mothers and visitors, who perceived benefits for the children; training was viewed as appropriate, and visitors felt well-prepared to conduct visits. A need for expansion of supervisor training was identified and the program was feasible to implement, although challenges were identified, including staff turnover; implementation was less feasible for staff with other work commitments (in Brazil). However, most aspects of visit quality were high. We conclude that the Reach Up program can expand capacity for parenting programs in low- and middle-income countries. © 2018 The Authors. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of New York Academy of Sciences.

  1. Professional Socialization Experiences of Early Career Urban Physical Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flory, Sara Barnard

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to examine how three physical education (PE) teachers' professional socialization programmes influenced their early careers in urban schools in the US. Using cultural relevance theory and occupational socialization theory, three early career PE teachers were observed and interviewed for a period of six weeks each.…

  2. The First Three Years: Experiences of Early Career Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenwick, Ashley

    2011-01-01

    This study considers two discourses of current relevance to national and international educators--early professional learning (EPL) and curriculum change. Induction arrangements for early career teachers (ECTs), EPL and informal learning have received considerable attention in the past few years. Changes to induction inevitably have knock-on…

  3. Health in All Policies in South Australia: what has supported early implementation?

    PubMed

    Delany, Toni; Lawless, Angela; Baum, Frances; Popay, Jennie; Jones, Laura; McDermott, Dennis; Harris, Elizabeth; Broderick, Danny; Marmot, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Health in All Policies (HiAP) is a policy development approach that facilitates intersectoral responses to addressing the social determinants of health and health equity whilst, at the same time, contributing to policy priorities across the various sectors of government. Given that different models of HiAP have been implemented in at least 16 countries, there is increasing interest in how its effectiveness can be optimized. Much of the existing literature on HiAP remains descriptive, however, and lacks critical, empirically informed analyses of the elements that support implementation. Furthermore, literature on HiAP, and intersectoral action more generally, provides little detail on the practical workings of policy collaborations. This paper contributes empirical findings from a multi-method study of HiAP implementation in South Australia (SA) between 2007 and 2013. It considers the views of public servants and presents analysis of elements that have supported, and impeded, implementation of HiAP in SA. We found that HiAP has been implemented in SA using a combination of interrelated elements. The operation of these elements has provided a strong foundation, which suggests the potential for HiAP to extend beyond being an isolated strategy, to form a more integrated and systemic mechanism of policy-making. We conclude with learnings from the SA experience of HiAP implementation to inform the ongoing development and implementation of HiAP in SA and internationally. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. A Mobile Health Platform for Clinical Monitoring in Early Psychosis: Implementation in Community-Based Outpatient Early Psychosis Care

    PubMed Central

    Iosif, Ana-Maria; Zakskorn, Lauren N; Nye, Kathleen E; Zia, Aqsa; Niendam, Tara Ann

    2018-01-01

    Background A growing body of literature indicates that smartphone technology is a feasible add-on tool in the treatment of individuals with early psychosis (EP) . However, most studies to date have been conducted independent of outpatient care or in a research clinic setting, often with financial incentives to maintain user adherence to the technology. Feasibility of dissemination and implementation of smartphone technology into community mental health centers (CMHCs) has yet to be tested, and whether young adults with EP will use this technology for long periods of time without incentive is unknown. Furthermore, although EP individuals willingly adopt smartphone technology as part of their treatment, it remains unclear whether providers are amenable to integrating smartphone technology into treatment protocols. Objective This study aimed to establish the feasibility of implementing a smartphone app and affiliated Web-based dashboard in 4 community outpatient EP clinics in Northern California. Methods EP individuals in 4 clinics downloaded an app on their smartphone and responded to daily surveys regarding mood and symptoms for up to 5 months. Treatment providers at the affiliated clinics viewed survey responses on a secure Web-based dashboard in sessions with their clients and between appointments. EP clients and treatment providers filled out satisfaction surveys at study end regarding usability of the app. Results Sixty-one EP clients and 20 treatment providers enrolled in the study for up to 5 months. Forty-one EP clients completed the study, and all treatment providers remained in the study for their duration in the clinic. Survey completion for all 61 EP clients was moderate: 40% and 39% for daily and weekly surveys, respectively. Completion rates were slightly higher in the participants who completed the study: 44% and 41% for daily and weekly surveys, respectively. Twenty-seven of 41 (66%) EP clients who completed the study and 11 of 13 (85%) treatment

  5. Reported experiences from occupational therapists interacting with teachers in inclusive early childhood classrooms.

    PubMed

    Bose, Pia; Hinojosa, Jim

    2008-01-01

    This grounded theory study described the perspectives of school-based occupational therapists working in inclusive early childhood classrooms emphasizing interactions with teaching staff. Six therapists were interviewed multiple times over several months. The participants viewed their interactions with teaching staff as challenging but potentially rewarding experiences. Viewing collaboration as valuable, their descriptions nonetheless generally omitted many collaborative features, with therapists often assigned the role of "expert." Data analysis revealed four major themes: (1) "It's Not Like I Don't Value Collaboration" (the benefits of collaboration); (2) "Collaboration--I Can't Do It Alone" (the challenges of interactions); (3) "My Opinion, Please Ask for It" (attachment to the expert status), and (4) "Is This Collaboration?" (interactions in practice). The results of this study suggest that current recommendations for collaboration for inclusion in school-based occupational therapy are not optimally implemented in all practice settings.

  6. Early experiences in evolving an enterprise-wide information model for laboratory and clinical observations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Elizabeth S; Zhou, Li; Kashyap, Vipul; Schaeffer, Molly; Dykes, Patricia C; Goldberg, Howard S

    2008-11-06

    As Electronic Healthcare Records become more prevalent, there is an increasing need to ensure unambiguous data capture, interpretation, and exchange within and across heterogeneous applications. To address this need, a common, uniform, and comprehensive approach for representing clinical information is essential. At Partners HealthCare System, we are investigating the development and implementation of enterprise-wide information models to specify the representation of clinical information to support semantic interoperability. This paper summarizes our early experiences in: (1) defining a process for information model development, (2) reviewing and comparing existing healthcare information models, (3) identifying requirements for representation of laboratory and clinical observations, and (4) exploring linkages to existing terminology and data standards. These initial findings provide insight to the various challenges ahead and guidance on next steps for adoption of information models at our organization.

  7. Conceptual design of the early implementation of the NEutron Detector Array (NEDA) with AGATA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hüyük, Tayfun; Di Nitto, Antonio; Jaworski, Grzegorz; Gadea, Andrés; Javier Valiente-Dobón, José; Nyberg, Johan; Palacz, Marcin; Söderström, Pär-Anders; Jose Aliaga-Varea, Ramon; de Angelis, Giacomo; Ataç, Ayşe; Collado, Javier; Domingo-Pardo, Cesar; Egea, Francisco Javier; Erduran, Nizamettin; Ertürk, Sefa; de France, Gilles; Gadea, Rafael; González, Vicente; Herrero-Bosch, Vicente; Kaşkaş, Ayşe; Modamio, Victor; Moszynski, Marek; Sanchis, Enrique; Triossi, Andrea; Wadsworth, Robert

    2016-03-01

    The NEutron Detector Array (NEDA) project aims at the construction of a new high-efficiency compact neutron detector array to be coupled with large γ-ray arrays such as AGATA. The application of NEDA ranges from its use as selective neutron multiplicity filter for fusion-evaporation reaction to a large solid angle neutron tagging device. In the present work, possible configurations for the NEDA coupled with the Neutron Wall for the early implementation with AGATA has been simulated, using Monte Carlo techniques, in order to evaluate their performance figures. The goal of this early NEDA implementation is to improve, with respect to previous instruments, efficiency and capability to select multiplicity for fusion-evaporation reaction channels in which 1, 2 or 3 neutrons are emitted. Each NEDA detector unit has the shape of a regular hexagonal prism with a volume of about 3.23l and it is filled with the EJ301 liquid scintillator, that presents good neutron- γ discrimination properties. The simulations have been performed using a fusion-evaporation event generator that has been validated with a set of experimental data obtained in the 58Ni + 56Fe reaction measured with the Neutron Wall detector array.

  8. Going to Scale: Experiences Implementing a School-Based Trauma Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadeem, Erum; Jaycox, Lisa H.; Kataoka, Sheryl H.; Langley, Audra K.; Stein, Bradley D.

    2011-01-01

    This article describes implementation experiences "scaling up" the Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools (CBITS)--an intervention developed using a community partnered research framework. Case studies from two sites that have successfully implemented CBITS are used to examine macro- and school-level implementation…

  9. What Are the Teachers' Experiences When Implementing the Curriculum for Agricultural Science Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Misty D.; Velez, Jonathan J.; Elliott, Kristopher M.

    2014-01-01

    This multiple case study was designed to understand the experience of implementing the Curriculum for Agricultural Science Education (CASE) for five teachers at four high schools. All teachers were in their first year of implementing CASE. Through the use of weekly journals, semi-structured interviews and a focus group, researchers attempted to…

  10. Utilizing an Early Childhood Science Curriculum: Factors Influencing Implementation and How Variations Affect Students' Skills and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamas-Brandt, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Early childhood is a ripe time for students to begin learning science, but due to certain constraints, this instruction is not happening as frequently as it should. This mixed-methods, multiple case study examined how two teachers implemented an early childhood science curriculum, the "Young Scientist Series." The teacher participants…

  11. Implementation of the SSHAC Guidelines for Level 3 and 4 PSHAs - Experience Gained from Actual Applications

    Hanks, Thomas C.; Abrahamson, Norm A.; Boore, David M.; Coppersmith, Kevin J.; Knepprath, Nichole E.

    2009-01-01

    ongoing (as of this writing) studies are regional in scope. Updating existing PSHAs will depend more critically on the differences between site-specific and regional studies, and we will also address these differences in more detail in the companion report. Most of what we report here and in the second report on updating PSHAs emanates from three workshops held by the USGS at their Menlo Park facility: 'Lessons Learned from SSHAC Level 3 and 4 PSHAs' on January 30-31, 2008; 'Updates to Existing PSHAs' on May 6-7, 2008; and 'Draft Recommendations, SSHAC Implementation Guidance' on June 4-5, 2009. These workshops were attended by approximately 40 scientists and engineers familiar with hazard studies for nuclear facilities. This company included four of the authors of SSHAC (1997) and four other experts whose contributions to this document are mentioned in the Acknowledgments section; numerous scientists and engineers who in one role or another have participated in one or more high-level SSHAC PSHAs summarized later in this report; and representatives of the nuclear industry, the consulting world, the regulatory community, and academia with a keen interest and expertise in hazard analysis. This report is a community-based set of recommendations to NRC for improved practical procedures for implementation of the SSHAC Guidelines. In an early publication specifically addressing the SSHAC Guidelines, Hanks (1997) noted that the SSHAC Guidelines were likely to evolve for some time to come, and this remains true today. While the broad philosophical and theoretical dimensions of the SSHAC Guidelines will not change, much has been learned during the past decade from various applications of the SSHAC Guidelines to real PSHAs in terms of how they are implemented. We anticipate that, in their practical applications, the SSHAC Guidelines will continue to evolve as more experience is gained from future SSHAC applications. Indeed, to the extent that every PSHA has its

  12. Implementation of a Centralized Patient Transfer Center: Improving the Care Experience of Patients and their Families

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-25

    Sharing Knowledge: Achieving Breakthrough Performance 2010 Military Health System Conference Implementation of a Centralized Patient Transfer...Improving the Care Experience of Patients and their Families Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the...Implementation of a Centralized Patient Transfer Center: Improving the Care Experience of Patients and their Families 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  13. Increased prevalence of hyperthyroidism as an early and transient side-effect of implementing iodine prophylaxis.

    PubMed

    Gołkowski, Filip; Buziak-Bereza, Monika; Trofimiuk, Małgorzata; Bałdys-Waligórska, Agata; Szybiński, Zbigniew; Huszno, Bohdan

    2007-08-01

    To assess the prevalence of hyperthyroidism just after implementation of iodine prophylaxis among adults from an area with iodine deficiency. A total of 1648 adults (age 16 years and older) were sampled from an area of southern Poland during two nationwide epidemiological surveys. Of these, 1424 adults with negative medical history for thyroid disorders qualified for final analysis. The authors compared thyroid dysfunction in participants prior to (1989-1990) and after implementation of iodine prophylaxis (1997-1999). The southern part of Poland. We found an increase in the serum concentration of anti-thyroid microsomal antibodies from 4.9% in the years 1989-1990 to 12.1% after introduction of iodised household salt (P < 0.0001). The prevalence of hyperthyroidism (defined as thyroid-stimulating hormone < 0.4 microU ml- 1) significantly increased in the equivalent period from 4.8 to 6.5% (P = 0.009). We concluded that a sudden rise in iodine intake after implementation of iodine prophylaxis among adults from the area with iodine deficiency may lead to an increase in thyroid autoimmunity and prevalence of hyperthyroidism. Those possible early side-effects appear to be only temporary and are acceptable when compared with the evident benefits of adequate iodine intake.

  14. Starting Smart: How Early Experiences Affect Brain Development. An Ounce of Prevention Fund Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ounce of Prevention Fund.

    Recent research has provided great insight into the impact of early experience on brain development. It is now believed that brain growth is highly dependent upon early experiences. Neurons allow communication and coordinated functioning among various brain areas. Brain development after birth consists of an ongoing process of wiring and rewiring…

  15. Examining the Content of Preservice Teachers' Reflections of Early Field Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramaniam, Karthigeyan

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes an exploratory study that examined the content of preservice elementary teachers' reflections of their documented early field experiences of science teaching in authentic contexts. The study used an early field experience model that was focused on the objective of profiling an elementary science teacher as the practical…

  16. The Influence of Technology-Rich Early Childhood Field Experiences on Preservice Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lux, Nicholas; Lux, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Despite a comprehensive body of research on field experiences in teacher education, technology-rich early field experiences in early childhood environments is one particular area of inquiry lacking substantive current research. Therefore, this study was conducted to better understand how preservice teachers' perceptions of global concepts related…

  17. Early Workplace Learning Experiences: What Are the Pedagogical Possibilities beyond Retention and Employability?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trede, Franziska; McEwen, Celina

    2015-01-01

    With this paper, we explore early placement experiences and their pedagogical potential, including ways of keeping students enrolled and persisting with their studies. Few university courses offer early placements because traditionally placement experiences have a focus on employability and work readiness of graduates, hence occur towards the end…

  18. Sustaining the Benefits of Early Childhood Education Experiences: A Research Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Rebecca E.

    2016-01-01

    Over the past decade, there has been increased recognition of the short- and long-term benefits of high-quality early childhood education programs, but the systems needed to sustain these benefits throughout early learning transitions (and beyond) have not yet been fully implemented. In this article, the author discusses the importance of early…

  19. Development of the Play Experience Model to Enhance Desirable Qualifications of Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panpum, Watchara; Soonthornrojana, Wimonrat; Nakunsong, Thatsanee

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to develop the play experience model and to study the effect of usage in play experience model for enhancing the early childhood's desirable qualification. There were 3 phases of research: 1) the document and context in experience management were studied, 2) the play experience model was developed, and 3) the…

  20. Conceptions of and Early Childhood Educators' Experiences in Early Childhood Professional Development Programs: A Qualitative Metasynthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christopher P.; Englehardt, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Policy makers and early childhood stakeholders across the United States continue to seek policy solutions that improve early educators' instruction of young children. A primary vehicle for attaining this goal is professional development. This has led to an influx of empirical studies that seek to develop a set of best practices for professional…

  1. Early breastfeeding problems: A mixed method study of mothers' experiences.

    PubMed

    Feenstra, Maria Monberg; Jørgine Kirkeby, Mette; Thygesen, Marianne; Danbjørg, Dorthe B; Kronborg, Hanne

    2018-06-01

    Breastfeeding problems are common and associated with early cessation. Still length of postpartum hospital stay has been reduced. This leaves new mothers to establish breastfeeding at home with less support from health care professionals. The objective was to explore mothers' perspectives on when breastfeeding problems were the most challenging and prominent early postnatal. The aim was also to identify possible factors associated with the breastfeeding problems. In a cross-sectional study, a mixed method approach was used to analyse postal survey data from 1437 mothers with full term singleton infants. Content analysis was used to analyse mothers' open text descriptions of their most challenging breastfeeding problem. Multiple logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios for early breastfeeding problems according to sociodemographic- and psychosocial factors. Up to 40% of the mothers had experienced early breastfeeding problems. The problems were associated with the mother, the infant and to lack of support from health care professionals. Most prominent problems were infant's inability to latch on (40%) and mothers having sore, wounded and cracked nipples (38%). Pain often occurred when experiencing breastfeeding problems. Factors associated with the problems were primiparity, lower self-efficacy and lower self-perceived knowledge of breastfeeding. Mothers with no or short education reported less frequently breastfeeding problems. Breastfeeding problems occurred frequently in the early postnatal period and often caused breastfeeding to be painful. Health care professionals should prepare mothers to deal with possible breastfeeding problems. New support options should be reviewed in an early postnatal discharge setting. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Model slope infiltration experiments for shallow landslides early warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damiano, E.; Greco, R.; Guida, A.; Olivares, L.; Picarelli, L.

    2009-04-01

    simple empirical models [Versace et al., 2003] based on correlation between some features of rainfall records (cumulated height, duration, season etc.) and the correspondent observed landslides. Laboratory experiments on instrumented small scale slope models represent an effective way to provide data sets [Eckersley, 1990; Wang and Sassa, 2001] useful for building up more complex models of landslide triggering prediction. At the Geotechnical Laboratory of C.I.R.I.AM. an instrumented flume to investigate on the mechanics of landslides in unsaturated deposits of granular soils is available [Olivares et al. 2003; Damiano, 2004; Olivares et al., 2007]. In the flume a model slope is reconstituted by a moist-tamping technique and subjected to an artificial uniform rainfall since failure happens. The state of stress and strain of the slope is monitored during the entire test starting from the infiltration process since the early post-failure stage: the monitoring system is constituted by several mini-tensiometers placed at different locations and depths, to measure suction, mini-transducers to measure positive pore pressures, laser sensors, to measure settlements of the ground surface, and high definition video-cameras to obtain, through a software (PIV) appositely dedicated, the overall horizontal displacement field. Besides, TDR sensors, used with an innovative technique [Greco, 2006], allow to reconstruct the water content profile of soil along the entire thickness of the investigated deposit and to monitor its continuous changes during infiltration. In this paper a series of laboratory tests carried out on model slopes in granular pyroclastic soils taken in the mountainous area north-eastern of Napoli, are presented. The experimental results demonstrate the completeness of information provided by the various sensors installed. In particular, very useful information is given by the coupled measurements of soil water content by TDR and suction by tensiometers. Knowledge of

  3. Fault-tolerant software - Experiment with the sift operating system. [Software Implemented Fault Tolerance computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brunelle, J. E.; Eckhardt, D. E., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Results are presented of an experiment conducted in the NASA Avionics Integrated Research Laboratory (AIRLAB) to investigate the implementation of fault-tolerant software techniques on fault-tolerant computer architectures, in particular the Software Implemented Fault Tolerance (SIFT) computer. The N-version programming and recovery block techniques were implemented on a portion of the SIFT operating system. The results indicate that, to effectively implement fault-tolerant software design techniques, system requirements will be impacted and suggest that retrofitting fault-tolerant software on existing designs will be inefficient and may require system modification.

  4. Elaborating on theory with middle managers' experience implementing healthcare innovations in practice.

    PubMed

    Birken, Sarah A; DiMartino, Lisa D; Kirk, Meredith A; Lee, Shoou-Yih D; McClelland, Mark; Albert, Nancy M

    2016-01-04

    The theory of middle managers' role in implementing healthcare innovations hypothesized that middle managers influence implementation effectiveness by fulfilling the following four roles: diffusing information, synthesizing information, mediating between strategy and day-to-day activities, and selling innovation implementation. The theory also suggested several activities in which middle managers might engage to fulfill the four roles. The extent to which the theory aligns with middle managers' experience in practice is unclear. We surveyed middle managers (n = 63) who attended a nursing innovation summit to (1) assess alignment between the theory and middle managers' experience in practice and (2) elaborate on the theory with examples from middle managers' experience overseeing innovation implementation in practice. Middle managers rated all of the theory's hypothesized four roles as "extremely important" but ranked diffusing and synthesizing information as the most important and selling innovation implementation as the least important. They reported engaging in several activities that were consistent with the theory's hypothesized roles and activities such as diffusing information via meetings and training. They also reported engaging in activities not described in the theory such as appraising employee performance. Middle managers' experience aligned well with the theory and expanded definitions of the roles and activities that it hypothesized. Future studies should assess the relationship between hypothesized roles and the effectiveness with which innovations are implemented in practice. If evidence supports the theory, the theory should be leveraged to promote the fulfillment of hypothesized roles among middle managers, doing so may promote innovation implementation.

  5. Early Childhood Professionals' Experience of Time to Facilitate Children's Thinking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fumoto, Hiroko; Robson, Sue

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on the second phase of the Froebel Research Fellowship project "Ownership and Autonomy in Early Childhood" (2003-5). Based on the first phase of the project (Robson and Hargreaves, 2005), a questionnaire survey of 80 professionals working in the Foundation Stage (age 3-5) in England was conducted to obtain an overview…

  6. Social Experiences in Infancy and Early Childhood Co-Sleeping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Marie J.; Fukumizu, Michio; Troese, Marcia; Sallinen, Bethany A.; Gilles, Allyson A.

    2007-01-01

    Infancy and early childhood sleep-wake behaviours from current and retrospective parental reports were used to explore the relationship between sleeping arrangements and parent-child nighttime interactions at both time points. Children (N = 45) from educated, middle-class families, mostly breastfed in infancy, composed a convenience sample that…

  7. Early Adverse Experiences and the Neurobiology of Facial Emotion Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulson, Margaret C.; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    To examine the neurobiological consequences of early institutionalization, the authors recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) from 3 groups of Romanian children--currently institutionalized, previously institutionalized but randomly assigned to foster care, and family-reared children--in response to pictures of happy, angry, fearful, and sad…

  8. Early Field Experience in Career and Technical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smalley, Scott Walter

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the three studies in this dissertation was to enhance career and technical education in the area of agriculture, business, and family and consumer sciences. This dissertation contains three papers: (1) a Delphi study identifying the purpose, expected outcomes, and methods of documenting preservice teacher early field experience…

  9. New Languages of Possibility: Early Experiments in Education as Dissent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Brendan; Lalor, John

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews the work of four early radical educators: the cultural nationalist Rabindranath Tagore (1861-1941), Asia's first Nobel Laureate; Bertrand Russell (1872-1970), Cambridge mathematician and philosopher; the Irish educationalist and insurgent Patrick Pearse (1879-1916) and Leonard Elmhirst (1893-1975), co-founder of Dartington Hall…

  10. The Minnesota Experience with Family-Centered Early Childhood Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engstrom, Lois

    1988-01-01

    The author describes Minnesota's Early Childhood Family Education program for all children from birth to kindergarten and their parents. Topics include the types of activities each local program undertakes, administration and planning, and financing. A list of important program attributes is included. (CH)

  11. A Narration of a Physical Science Teacher's Experience of Implementing a New Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koopman, Oscar; Le Grange, Lesley; de Mink, Karen Joy

    2016-01-01

    This article narrates the lived experiences of a Physical Science teacher named Thobani (pseudonym) in implementing a new curriculum in South Africa. Drawing on the work of Husserl and Heidegger, the article describes the objects of direct experience in Thobani's consciousness about his life as a learner and teacher as revealed during an in-depth…

  12. Redefining Authentic Research Experiences in Introductory Biology Laboratories and Barriers to Their Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spell, Rachelle M.; Guinan, Judith A.; Miller, Kristen R.; Beck, Christopher W.

    2014-01-01

    Incorporating authentic research experiences in introductory biology laboratory classes would greatly expand the number of students exposed to the excitement of discovery and the rigor of the scientific process. However, the essential components of an authentic research experience and the barriers to their implementation in laboratory classes are…

  13. Naturalistic Experience and the Early Use of Symbolic Artifacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Troseth, Georgene L.; Casey, Amy M.; Lawver, Kelly A.; Walker, Joan M. T.; Cole, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Experience with a variety of symbolic artifacts has been proposed as a mechanism underlying symbolic development. In this study, the parents of 120 2-year-old children who participated in symbolic object retrieval tasks completed a questionnaire regarding their children's naturalistic experience with symbolic artifacts and activities. In separate…

  14. Team functioning as a predictor of patient outcomes in early medical home implementation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Frances M; Rubenstein, Lisa V; Yoon, Jean

    New models of patient-centered primary care such as the patient-centered medical home (PCMH) depend on high levels of interdisciplinary primary care team functioning to achieve improved outcomes. A few studies have qualitatively assessed barriers and facilitators to optimal team functioning; however, we know of no prior study that assesses PCMH team functioning in relationship to patient health outcomes. The aim of the study was to assess the relationships between primary care team functioning, patients' use of acute care, and mortality. Retrospective longitudinal cohort analysis of patient outcomes measured at two time points (2012 and 2013) after PCMH implementation began in Veterans Health Administration practices. Multilevel models examined practice-level measures of team functioning in relationship to patient outcomes (all-cause and ambulatory care-sensitive condition-related hospitalizations, emergency department visits, and mortality). We controlled for practice-level factors likely to affect team functioning, including leadership support, provider and staff burnout, and staffing sufficiency, as well as for individual patient characteristics. We also tested the model among a subgroup of vulnerable patients (homeless, mentally ill, or with dementia). In adjusted analyses, higher team functioning was associated with lower mortality (OR = 0.92, p = .04) among all patients and with fewer all-cause admissions (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.90, p < 0.01), ambulatory care-sensitive condition-related admissions (IRR = 0.91, p = .04), and emergency department visits (IRR = 0.91, p = .03) in the vulnerable patient subgroup. These early findings give support for the importance of team functioning within PCMH models for achieving improved patient outcomes. A focus on team functioning is important especially in the early implementation of team-based primary care models.

  15. Early Implementation of QbD in Biopharmaceutical Development: A Practical Example

    PubMed Central

    Zurdo, Jesús; Arnell, Andreas; Obrezanova, Olga; Smith, Noel; Gómez de la Cuesta, Ramón; Gallagher, Thomas R. A.; Michael, Rebecca; Stallwood, Yvette; Ekblad, Caroline; Abrahmsén, Lars; Höidén-Guthenberg, Ingmarie

    2015-01-01

    In drug development, the “onus” of the low R&D efficiency has been put traditionally onto the drug discovery process (i.e., finding the right target or “binding” functionality). Here, we show that manufacturing is not only a central component of product success, but also that, by integrating manufacturing and discovery activities in a “holistic” interpretation of QbD methodologies, we could expect to increase the efficiency of the drug discovery process as a whole. In this new context, early risk assessment, using developability methodologies and computational methods in particular, can assist in reducing risks during development in a cost-effective way. We define specific areas of risk and how they can impact product quality in a broad sense, including essential aspects such as product efficacy and patient safety. Emerging industry practices around developability are introduced, including some specific examples of applications to biotherapeutics. Furthermore, we suggest some potential workflows to illustrate how developability strategies can be introduced in practical terms during early drug development in order to mitigate risks, reduce drug attrition and ultimately increase the robustness of the biopharmaceutical supply chain. Finally, we also discuss how the implementation of such methodologies could accelerate the access of new therapeutic treatments to patients in the clinic. PMID:26075248

  16. Decision making and action implementation: evidence for an early visually triggered motor activation specific to potential actions.

    PubMed

    Tandonnet, Christophe; Garry, Michael I; Summers, Jeffery J

    2013-07-01

    To make a decision may rely on accumulating evidence in favor of one alternative until a threshold is reached. Sequential-sampling models differ by the way of accumulating evidence and the link with action implementation. Here, we tested a model's prediction of an early action implementation specific to potential actions. We assessed the dynamics of action implementation in go/no-go and between-hand choice tasks by transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex (single- or paired-pulse TMS; 3-ms interstimulus interval). Prior to implementation of the selected action, the amplitude of the motor evoked potential first increased whatever the visual stimulus but only for the hand potentially involved in the to-be-produced action. These findings suggest that visual stimuli can trigger an early motor activation specific to potential actions, consistent with race-like models with continuous transmission between decision making and action implementation. Copyright © 2013 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  17. Barriers to implementing evidence-based clinical guidelines: A survey of early adopters

    PubMed Central

    Spallek, Heiko; Song, Mei; Polk, Deborah E; Bekhuis, Tanja; Frantsve-Hawley, Julie; Aravamudhan, Krishna

    2010-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to identify barriers that early-adopting dentists perceive as common and challenging when implementing recommendations from evidence-based (EB) clinical guidelines. Method This is a cross-sectional study. Dentists who attended the 2008 Evidence-based Dentistry Champion Conference were eligible for inclusion. Forty-three dentists (34%) responded to a 22-item questionnaire administered online. Two investigators independently coded and categorized responses to open-ended items. Descriptive statistics were computed to assess the frequency of barriers and perceived challenges. Results The most common barriers to implementation are difficulty in changing current practice model, resistance and criticism from colleagues, and lack of trust in evidence or research. Barriers perceived as serious problems have to do with lack of up-to-date evidence, lack of clear answers to clinical questions, and contradictory information in the scientific literature. Conclusions Knowledge of barriers will help improve translation of biomedical research for dentists. Information in guidelines needs to be current, clear, and simplified for use at chairside; dentists’ fears need to be addressed. PMID:21093800

  18. Detecting gender before you know it: How implementation intentions control early gender categorization.

    PubMed

    Hügelschäfer, Sabine; Jaudas, Alexander; Achtziger, Anja

    2016-10-15

    Gender categorization is highly automatic. Studies measuring ERPs during the presentation of male and female faces in a categorization task showed that this categorization is extremely quick (around 130ms, indicated by the N170). We tested whether this automatic process can be controlled by goal intentions and implementation intentions. First, we replicated the N170 modulation on gender-incongruent faces as reported in previous research. This effect was only observed in a task in which faces had to be categorized according to gender, but not in a task that required responding to a visual feature added to the face stimuli (the color of a dot) while gender was irrelevant. Second, it turned out that the N170 modulation on gender-incongruent faces was altered if a goal intention was set that aimed at controlling a gender bias. We interpret this finding as an indicator of nonconscious goal pursuit. The N170 modulation was completely absent when this goal intention was furnished with an implementation intention. In contrast, intentions did not alter brain activity at a later time window (P300), which is associated with more complex and rather conscious processes. In line with previous research, the P300 was modulated by gender incongruency even if individuals were strongly involved in another task, demonstrating the automaticity of gender detection. We interpret our findings as evidence that automatic gender categorization that occurs at a very early processing stage can be effectively controlled by intentions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. How the Timing and Quality of Early Experiences Influence the Development of Brain Architecture

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Sharon E.; Levitt, Pat; Nelson, Charles A.

    2009-01-01

    Early life events can exert a powerful influence on both the pattern of brain architecture and behavioral development. In this paper a conceptual framework is provided for considering how the structure of early experience gets “under the skin.” The paper begins with a description of the genetic framework that lays the foundation for brain development, and then to the ways experience interacts with and modifies the structures and functions of the developing brain. Much of the attention is focused on early experience and sensitive periods, although it is made clear that later experience also plays an important role in maintaining and elaborating this early wiring diagram, which is critical to establishing a solid footing for development beyond the early years. PMID:20331653

  20. Early phase clinical trials with human immunodeficiency virus-1 and malaria vectored vaccines in The Gambia: frontline challenges in study design and implementation.

    PubMed

    Afolabi, Muhammed O; Adetifa, Jane U; Imoukhuede, Egeruan B; Viebig, Nicola K; Kampmann, Beate; Bojang, Kalifa

    2014-05-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and malaria are among the most important infectious diseases in developing countries. Existing control strategies are unlikely to curtail these diseases in the absence of efficacious vaccines. Testing of HIV and malaria vaccines candidates start with early phase trials that are increasingly being conducted in developing countries where the burden of the diseases is high. Unique challenges, which affect planning and implementation of vaccine trials according to internationally accepted standards have thus been identified. In this review, we highlight specific challenges encountered during two early phase trials of novel HIV-1 and malaria vectored vaccine candidates conducted in The Gambia and how some of these issues were pragmatically addressed. We hope our experience will be useful for key study personnel involved in day-to-day running of similar clinical trials. It may also guide future design and implementation of vaccine trials in resource-constrained settings.

  1. Experiences integrating autonomous components and legacy systems into tsunami early warning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reißland, S.; Herrnkind, S.; Guenther, M.; Babeyko, A.; Comoglu, M.; Hammitzsch, M.

    2012-04-01

    Fostered by and embedded in the general development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) the evolution of Tsunami Early Warning Systems (TEWS) shows a significant development from seismic-centred to multi-sensor system architectures using additional sensors, e.g. sea level stations for the detection of tsunami waves and GPS stations for the detection of ground displacements. Furthermore, the design and implementation of a robust and scalable service infrastructure supporting the integration and utilisation of existing resources serving near real-time data not only includes sensors but also other components and systems offering services such as the delivery of feasible simulations used for forecasting in an imminent tsunami threat. In the context of the development of the German Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) and the project Distant Early Warning System (DEWS) a service platform for both sensor integration and warning dissemination has been newly developed and demonstrated. In particular, standards of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) and the Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information Standards (OASIS) have been successfully incorporated. In the project Collaborative, Complex, and Critical Decision-Support in Evolving Crises (TRIDEC) new developments are used to extend the existing platform to realise a component-based technology framework for building distributed TEWS. This talk will describe experiences made in GITEWS, DEWS and TRIDEC while integrating legacy stand-alone systems and newly developed special-purpose software components into TEWS using different software adapters and communication strategies to make the systems work together in a corporate infrastructure. The talk will also cover task management and data conversion between the different systems. Practical approaches and software solutions for the integration of sensors, e.g. providing seismic and sea level data, and utilisation of special

  2. Accelerating Digital Mental Health Research From Early Design and Creation to Successful Implementation and Sustainment.

    PubMed

    Mohr, David C; Lyon, Aaron R; Lattie, Emily G; Reddy, Madhu; Schueller, Stephen M

    2017-05-10

    Mental health problems are common and pose a tremendous societal burden in terms of cost, morbidity, quality of life, and mortality. The great majority of people experience barriers that prevent access to treatment, aggravated by a lack of mental health specialists. Digital mental health is potentially useful in meeting the treatment needs of large numbers of people. A growing number of efficacy trials have shown strong outcomes for digital mental health treatments. Yet despite their positive findings, there are very few examples of successful implementations and many failures. Although the research-to-practice gap is not unique to digital mental health, the inclusion of technology poses unique challenges. We outline some of the reasons for this gap and propose a collection of methods that can result in sustainable digital mental health interventions. These methods draw from human-computer interaction and implementation science and are integrated into an Accelerated Creation-to-Sustainment (ACTS) model. The ACTS model uses an iterative process that includes 2 basic functions (design and evaluate) across 3 general phases (Create, Trial, and Sustain). The ultimate goal in using the ACTS model is to produce a functioning technology-enabled service (TES) that is sustainable in a real-world treatment setting. We emphasize the importance of the service component because evidence from both research and practice has suggested that human touch is a critical ingredient in the most efficacious and used digital mental health treatments. The Create phase results in at least a minimally viable TES and an implementation blueprint. The Trial phase requires evaluation of both effectiveness and implementation while allowing optimization and continuous quality improvement of the TES and implementation plan. Finally, the Sustainment phase involves the withdrawal of research or donor support, while leaving a functioning, continuously improving TES in place. The ACTS model is a step

  3. Accelerating Digital Mental Health Research From Early Design and Creation to Successful Implementation and Sustainment

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, Aaron R; Lattie, Emily G; Reddy, Madhu; Schueller, Stephen M

    2017-01-01

    Mental health problems are common and pose a tremendous societal burden in terms of cost, morbidity, quality of life, and mortality. The great majority of people experience barriers that prevent access to treatment, aggravated by a lack of mental health specialists. Digital mental health is potentially useful in meeting the treatment needs of large numbers of people. A growing number of efficacy trials have shown strong outcomes for digital mental health treatments. Yet despite their positive findings, there are very few examples of successful implementations and many failures. Although the research-to-practice gap is not unique to digital mental health, the inclusion of technology poses unique challenges. We outline some of the reasons for this gap and propose a collection of methods that can result in sustainable digital mental health interventions. These methods draw from human-computer interaction and implementation science and are integrated into an Accelerated Creation-to-Sustainment (ACTS) model. The ACTS model uses an iterative process that includes 2 basic functions (design and evaluate) across 3 general phases (Create, Trial, and Sustain). The ultimate goal in using the ACTS model is to produce a functioning technology-enabled service (TES) that is sustainable in a real-world treatment setting. We emphasize the importance of the service component because evidence from both research and practice has suggested that human touch is a critical ingredient in the most efficacious and used digital mental health treatments. The Create phase results in at least a minimally viable TES and an implementation blueprint. The Trial phase requires evaluation of both effectiveness and implementation while allowing optimization and continuous quality improvement of the TES and implementation plan. Finally, the Sustainment phase involves the withdrawal of research or donor support, while leaving a functioning, continuously improving TES in place. The ACTS model is a step

  4. The Early Childhood Cluster Initiative of Palm Beach County, Florida. Early Implementation Study And Evaluability Assessment. Final Report. Chapin Hall Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spielberger, Julie; Goyette, Paul

    2006-01-01

    This publication reports findings from the first year of an implementation study of the Early Childhood Cluster Initiative (ECCI). ECCI is a prekindergarten program in ten elementary schools and a community child care center in Palm Beach County, based on the design of the High/Scope Perry Preschool model. The initiative is characterized by low…

  5. Behavioral and neural plasticity caused by early social experiences: the case of the honeybee

    PubMed Central

    Arenas, Andrés; Ramírez, Gabriela P.; Balbuena, María Sol; Farina, Walter M.

    2013-01-01

    Cognitive experiences during the early stages of life play an important role in shaping future behavior. Behavioral and neural long-term changes after early sensory and associative experiences have been recently reported in the honeybee. This invertebrate is an excellent model for assessing the role of precocious experiences on later behavior due to its extraordinarily tuned division of labor based on age polyethism. These studies are mainly focused on the role and importance of experiences occurred during the first days of the adult lifespan, their impact on foraging decisions, and their contribution to coordinate food gathering. Odor-rewarded experiences during the first days of honeybee adulthood alter the responsiveness to sucrose, making young hive bees more sensitive to assess gustatory features about the nectar brought back to the hive and affecting the dynamic of the food transfers and the propagation of food-related information within the colony. Early olfactory experiences lead to stable and long-term associative memories that can be successfully recalled after many days, even at foraging ages. Also they improve memorizing of new associative learning events later in life. The establishment of early memories promotes stable reorganization of the olfactory circuits inducing structural and functional changes in the antennal lobe (AL). Early rewarded experiences have relevant consequences at the social level too, biasing dance and trophallaxis partner choice and affecting recruitment. Here, we revised recent results in bees' physiology, behavior, and sociobiology to depict how the early experiences affect their cognition abilities and neural-related circuits. PMID:23986708

  6. Nurse Leaders' Experiences of Implementing Career Advancement Programs for Nurses in Iran.

    PubMed

    Sheikhi, Mohammad Reza; Fallahi Khoshknab, Masoud; Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Oskouie, Fatemeh

    2015-02-24

    Career advancement programs are currently implemented in many countries. In Iran, the first career advancement program was Nurses' Career Advancement Pathway. The purpose of this study was to explore nurse leaders' experiences about implementing the Nurses' Career Advancement Pathway program in Iran. This exploratory qualitative study was conducted in 2013. Sixteen nurse managers were recruited from the teaching hospitals affiliated to Shahid Behesthi, Qazvin, and Iran Universities of Medical Sciences in Iran. Participants were recruited using purposive sampling method. Study data were collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews. The conventional content analysis approach was used for data analysis. participants' experiences about implementing the Nurses' Career Advancement Pathway fell into three main categories including: a) the shortcomings of performance evaluation, b) greater emphasis on point accumulation, c) the advancement-latitude mismatch. The Nurses' Career Advancement pathway has several shortcomings regarding both its content and its implementation. Therefore, it is recommended to revise the program.

  7. Early disaster response in Haiti: the Israeli field hospital experience.

    PubMed

    Kreiss, Yitshak; Merin, Ofer; Peleg, Kobi; Levy, Gad; Vinker, Shlomo; Sagi, Ram; Abargel, Avi; Bartal, Carmi; Lin, Guy; Bar, Ariel; Bar-On, Elhanan; Schwaber, Mitchell J; Ash, Nachman

    2010-07-06

    The earthquake that struck Haiti in January 2010 caused an estimated 230,000 deaths and injured approximately 250,000 people. The Israel Defense Forces Medical Corps Field Hospital was fully operational on site only 89 hours after the earthquake struck and was capable of providing sophisticated medical care. During the 10 days the hospital was operational, its staff treated 1111 patients, hospitalized 737 patients, and performed 244 operations on 203 patients. The field hospital also served as a referral center for medical teams from other countries that were deployed in the surrounding areas. The key factor that enabled rapid response during the early phase of the disaster from a distance of 6000 miles was a well-prepared and trained medical unit maintained on continuous alert. The prompt deployment of advanced-capability field hospitals is essential in disaster relief, especially in countries with minimal medical infrastructure. The changing medical requirements of people in an earthquake zone dictate that field hospitals be designed to operate with maximum flexibility and versatility regarding triage, staff positioning, treatment priorities, and hospitalization policies. Early coordination with local administrative bodies is indispensable.

  8. Medical abortion in early pregnancy: experience in China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Linan

    2006-07-01

    When medical abortion was first introduced in China, prostaglandins (PGs) were used alone or in combination with Chinese herbs or steroid drugs, but the results were not satisfactory. Mifepristone is now produced in three companies in China and is commonly used with PGs for medical abortion. We performed a Chinese- and English-language literature review of medical abortion in early pregnancy in China. A large multicenter trial conducted in China showed that, when used with a PGF(2alpha) analogue, the complete abortion rate in women given multiple doses of mifepristone (total, 150 mg) was significantly higher than that in women given a single dose of 200 mg of mifepristone. Oral misoprostol (0.6 mg) with mifepristone is now the most commonly used regimen, with a complete abortion rate of over 93%. In China, medical abortion is currently restricted to pregnancies before 49 days, but some hospitals have recently extended the use of medical abortion to pregnancies beyond 49 days. Prolonged bleeding is the main medical abortion side effect and is more likely to occur if the blood levels of human chorionic gonadotrophin fall slowly or when the gestational sac is big. Prescription of testosterone propionate may reduce the duration of bleeding. Over 80% of Chinese women are satisfied with current medical abortion regimens and will choose medical abortion again if they need to terminate a future unwanted pregnancy. Currently, medical abortion is a safe, efficient and acceptable method for the termination of early pregnancy in China.

  9. Motor experience with a sport-specific implement affects motor imagery

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hua; Shen, Cheng; Zhang, Jian

    2018-01-01

    The present study tested whether sport-specific implements facilitate motor imagery, whereas nonspecific implements disrupt motor imagery. We asked a group of basketball players (experts) and a group of healthy controls (novices) to physically perform (motor execution) and mentally simulate (motor imagery) basketball throws. Subjects produced motor imagery when they were holding a basketball, a volleyball, or nothing. Motor imagery performance was measured by temporal congruence, which is the correspondence between imagery and execution times estimated as (imagery time minus execution time) divided by (imagery time plus execution time), as well as the vividness of motor imagery. Results showed that experts produced greater temporal congruence and vividness of kinesthetic imagery while holding a basketball compared to when they were holding nothing, suggesting a facilitation effect from sport-specific implements. In contrast, experts produced lower temporal congruence and vividness of kinesthetic imagery while holding a volleyball compared to when they were holding nothing, suggesting the interference effect of nonspecific implements. Furthermore, we found a negative correlation between temporal congruence and the vividness of kinesthetic imagery in experts while holding a basketball. On the contrary, the implement manipulation did not modulate the temporal congruence of novices. Our findings suggest that motor representation in experts is built on motor experience associated with specific-implement use and thus was subjected to modulation of the implement held. We conclude that sport-specific implements facilitate motor imagery, whereas nonspecific implements could disrupt motor representation in experts. PMID:29719738

  10. Early School Experiences: Gender Differences in Mathematics Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leder, Gilah C.

    This study of gender differences in mathematics learning examined two 4-year-olds who attended a Melbourne, Australia preschool. The study traces the experiences of the students, one female and one male, during their first formal exposure to mathematics in kindergarten. Of particular concern was how the preschoolers interacted with their teacher,…

  11. Enhancing the Early Reading Experience: Books, Strategies, and Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickland, Michael; Abbott, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Selecting books for young children can not only be a fun and rewarding experience but also a little daunting, considering the number of books available. Frequent collaboration between an author and a public librarian has produced valuable insights about how to begin reading with very young children. Suggestions are offered for how parents and…

  12. Some Early Optics: Classical and Medieval. Experiment No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devons, Samuel

    Information related to the history of optics with emphasis on the classical and medieval periods is presented. Notes are included on experiments dealing with refraction at a plane interface between two media; refraction by transparent spheres; light, color, and reflection by transparent spheres. (Author/SA)

  13. Technical experiences of implementing a wireless tracking and facial biometric verification system for a clinical environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Brent; Lee, Jasper; Documet, Jorge; Guo, Bing; King, Nelson; Huang, H. K.

    2006-03-01

    By implementing a tracking and verification system, clinical facilities can effectively monitor workflow and heighten information security in today's growing demand towards digital imaging informatics. This paper presents the technical design and implementation experiences encountered during the development of a Location Tracking and Verification System (LTVS) for a clinical environment. LTVS integrates facial biometrics with wireless tracking so that administrators can manage and monitor patient and staff through a web-based application. Implementation challenges fall into three main areas: 1) Development and Integration, 2) Calibration and Optimization of Wi-Fi Tracking System, and 3) Clinical Implementation. An initial prototype LTVS has been implemented within USC's Healthcare Consultation Center II Outpatient Facility, which currently has a fully digital imaging department environment with integrated HIS/RIS/PACS/VR (Voice Recognition).

  14. Experience measuring performance improvement in multiphase picture archiving and communications systems implementations.

    PubMed

    Reed, G; Reed, D H

    1999-05-01

    When planning a picture archiving and communications system (PACS) implementation and determining which equipment will be implemented in earlier and later phases, collection and analysis of selected data will aid in setting implementation priorities. If baseline data are acquired relative to performance objectives, the same information used for implementation planning can be used to measure performance improvement and outcomes. The main categories of data to choose from are: (1) financial data; (2) productivity data; (3) operational parameters; (4) clinical data; and (5) information about customer satisfaction. In the authors' experience, detailed workflow data have not proved valuable in measuring PACS performance and outcomes. Reviewing only one category of data in planning will not provide adequate basis for targeting operational improvements that will lead to the most significant gains. Quality improvement takes into account all factors in production: human capacity, materials, operating capital and assets. Once we have identified key areas of focus for quality improvement in each phase, we can translate objectives into implementation requirements and finally into detailed functional and performance requirements. Here, Integration Resources reports its experience measuring PACS performance relative to phased implementation strategies for three large medical centers. Each medical center had its own objectives for overcoming image management, physical/geographical, and functional/technical barriers. The report outlines (1) principal financial and nonfinancial measures used as performance indicators; (2) implementation strategies chosen by each of the three medical centers; and (3) the results of those strategies as compared with baseline data.

  15. Making music out of noise. The Sentara Healthcare Experience Implementing e-Care.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Chon; Reese, Bertram

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes insights from the an implementation experience with a project titled eCare, a comprehensive health IT solution integrating all environments of care and the primary business functions at Sentara Healthcare, the largest system in southeastern Virginia and northeastern North Carolina. eCare is expected to account for more than $16 million by the end of 2009, from realized benefits in quality of care, process efficiencies and firm performance. Made evident by Sentara's experience, eCare-type technology may be as much of a market differentiator for healthcare as the ATM was for banking industry, but prudent management in the implementation process is key.

  16. Understanding the feasibility and implications of implementing early peanut introduction for prevention of peanut allergy.

    PubMed

    Koplin, Jennifer J; Peters, Rachel L; Dharmage, Shyamali C; Gurrin, Lyle; Tang, Mimi L K; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Matheson, Melanie; Togias, Alkis; Lack, Gideon; Allen, Katrina J

    2016-10-01

    A recent randomized trial (the Learning Early About Peanut Allergy [LEAP] study) provided evidence that earlier dietary peanut introduction reduces peanut allergy prevalence in high-risk infants. However, questions remain as to how to identify and target the "at-risk" population to facilitate timely introduction of peanut. We sought to use population-based infant peanut allergy data to understand feasibility and implications of implementing the LEAP trial intervention. Using the HealthNuts study cohort (n = 5276) of 1-year-old infants, we explored the impact of using various criteria to identify infants at high risk of developing peanut allergy, and the implications of skin prick test (SPT) screening before peanut introduction. Screening all infants with early onset eczema and/or egg allergy could require testing 16% of the population and would still miss 23% of peanut allergy cases; 29% of screened infants would require clinical follow-up because of being SPT-positive. Around 11% of high-risk infants were excluded from the LEAP study because of an SPT wheal size of more than 4 mm to peanut at baseline; data from the HealthNuts study suggest that 80% of these would be peanut allergic on food challenge. There were no life-threatening events among either low- or high-risk infants whose parents chose to introduce peanut at home in the first year of life, or in 150 peanut-allergic infants during hospital-based challenges. Based on this large epidemiological study, a population program aiming to identify and screen all infants at risk of peanut allergy would pose major cost and logistic challenges that need to be carefully considered. Further research might be required to provide data for low-risk infants. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Implementation and evaluation of early gastroscopy for patients with dyspepsia and warning signs in Primary Care.

    PubMed

    García-Alonso, Francisco Javier; Hernández Tejero, María; Rubio Benito, Elvira; Valer, Paz; Guerra, Iván; García Ceballos, Victoria Gema; Noguerol, Mar; Llinares, Victoria; Bermejo, Fernando

    2017-05-01

    Dyspepsia is a common disorder in both Primary (PC) and Specialised Care (SC). Gastroscopy is recommended at the start of the study if there are warning signs, although it is not always available in PC. We developed a pilot project establishing an early gastroscopy programme for patients with dyspepsia and warning signs in PC, subsequently extending it to the entire healthcare area. The aim was to evaluate the requirements, impact and opinion of this service at the PC level. Demographic, symptomatic and endoscopic variables on the patients referred to SC from the pilot centre were recorded. A satisfaction survey was conducted among the PC physicians. The one-year pilot study and the first year of implementation of the programme were evaluated. A total of 355 patients were included (median age 56.4 years; IQR 45.5-64.3); 61.2% (56.1-66.3%) were women. The waiting time for examination was 1.5 weeks (IQR 1.5-2.5). Gastroscopy was correctly indicated in 82.7% (78.4-86.3%) of patients. The median number of requests per month was 1.1 per 10,000 adults (range 0.8-1.6). Monthly referrals to SC clinics from the pilot centre fell by 11 subjects (95% CI 5.9-16) with respect to the previous median of 58 (IQR 48-64.5). Almost all those polled (98.4%) considered the programme useful in routine practice. The availability of an early gastroscopy programme in PC for patients with dyspepsia and warning signs reduced the number of referrals to SC. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U., AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  18. Implementation of a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Augmentation to Tsunami Early Warning Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaBrecque, John

    2016-04-01

    The Global Geodetic Observing System has issued a Call for Participation to research scientists, geodetic research groups and national agencies in support of the implementation of the IUGG recommendation for a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Augmentation to Tsunami Early Warning Systems. The call seeks to establish a working group to be a catalyst and motivating force for the definition of requirements, identification of resources, and for the encouragement of international cooperation in the establishment, advancement, and utilization of GNSS for Tsunami Early Warning. During the past fifteen years the populations of the Indo-Pacific region experienced a series of mega-thrust earthquakes followed by devastating tsunamis that claimed nearly 300,000 lives. The future resiliency of the region will depend upon improvements to infrastructure and emergency response that will require very significant investments from the Indo-Pacific economies. The estimation of earthquake moment magnitude, source mechanism and the distribution of crustal deformation are critical to rapid tsunami warning. Geodetic research groups have demonstrated the use of GNSS data to estimate earthquake moment magnitude, source mechanism and the distribution of crustal deformation sufficient for the accurate and timely prediction of tsunamis generated by mega-thrust earthquakes. GNSS data have also been used to measure the formation and propagation of tsunamis via ionospheric disturbances acoustically coupled to the propagating surface waves; thereby providing a new technique to track tsunami propagation across ocean basins, opening the way for improving tsunami propagation models, and providing accurate warning to communities in the far field. These two new advancements can deliver timely and accurate tsunami warnings to coastal communities in the near and far field of mega-thrust earthquakes. This presentation will present the justification for and the details of the GGOS Call for

  19. Detection and Evaluation of Early Breast Cancer via Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Studies of Mouse Models and Clinical Implementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    CONTRACT NUMBER Detection and Evaluation of Early Breast Cancer via Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Studies of Mouse Models and Clinical Implementation...research proposed here can directly lead to clinical improvements in both early breast cancer detection, as well as effective breast cancer therapy. To date... cancer is a major prognostic factor in the management of the disease. In particular, detecting breast cancer in its pre-invasive form as ductal carcinoma

  20. Early Implementation of Large Scale Carbon Dioxide Removal Projects through the Cement Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeman, F. S.

    2014-12-01

    The development of large-scale carbon dioxide reduction projects requires high purity CO2and a reactive cation source. A project seeking to provide both of these requirements will likely face cost barriers with current carbon prices. The cement industry is a suitable early implementation site for such projects by virtue of the properties of its exhaust gases and those of waste concrete. Cement plants are the second largest source of industrial CO2 emissions, globally. It is also the second largest commodity after water, has no ready substitute and is literally the foundation of society. Finally, half of the CO2 emissions originate from process reactions rather than fossil fuel combustion resulting in higher flue gas CO2concentrations. These properties, with the co-benefits of oxygen combustion, create a favorable environment for spatially suitable projects. Oxygen combustion involves substituting produced oxygen for air in a combustion reaction. The absence of gaseous N2 necessitates the recirculation of exhaust gases to maintain kiln temperatures, which increase the CO2 concentrations from 28% to 80% or more. Gas exit temperatures are also elevated (>300oC) and can reach higher temperatures if the multi stage pre-heater towers, that recover heat, are re-designed in light of FGR. A ready source of cations can be found in waste concrete, a by-product of construction and demolition activities. These wastes can be processed to remove cations and then reacted with atmospheric CO2 to produce carbonate minerals. While not carbon negative, they represent a demonstration opportunity for binding atmospheric CO2while producing a saleable product (precipitated calcium carbonate). This paper will present experimental results on PCC production from waste concrete along with modeling results for oxygen combustion at cement facilities. The results will be presented with a view to mineral sequestration process design and implementation.

  1. Reflecting on the Challenges of Informal Contexts: Early Field Experiences with Technology in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lux, Nick; Obery, Amanda; Cornish, Jamie; Grimberg, Bruna Irene; Hartshorn, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    Early field experiences, or those that come early in a teacher's preparation before more formalized opportunities like practicum and student teaching, can provide a venue for pre service teachers to practice technology-specific instructional decision-making and reflective practice. Although research exists on the potential roles of field…

  2. Early Care, Education, and Family Life in Rural Fiji: Experiences and Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Janis

    2005-01-01

    As a member of a delegation of educators, physicians, and lay people to rural Fiji the author shares her experiences and reflections of early care, education, and family life on a small, remote island. She discusses her visits to the village and boarding school, and her interactions with teachers, children, and parents in the early childhood…

  3. Enhancing Research and Practice in Early Childhood through Formative and Design Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Barbara A.; Reinking, David

    2011-01-01

    This article describes formative and design experiments and how they can advance research and instructional practices in early childhood education. We argue that this relatively new approach to education research closes the gap between research and practice, and it addresses limitations that have been identified in early childhood research. We…

  4. Exploring a Comprehensive Model for Early Childhood Vocabulary Instruction: A Design Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, X. Christine; Christ, Tanya; Chiu, Ming Ming

    2014-01-01

    Addressing a critical need for effective vocabulary practices in early childhood classrooms, we conducted a design experiment to achieve three goals: (1) developing a comprehensive model for early childhood vocabulary instruction, (2) examining the effectiveness of this model, and (3) discerning the contextual conditions that hinder or facilitate…

  5. Preparing Beginning Reading Teachers: An Experimental Comparison of Initial Early Literacy Field Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Lake, Vickie E.; Greulich, Luana; Folsom, Jessica S.; Guidry, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    This randomized-control trial examined the learning of preservice teachers taking an initial Early Literacy course in an early childhood education program and of the kindergarten or first grade students they tutored in their field experience. Preservice teachers were randomly assigned to one of two tutoring programs: Book Buddies and Tutor…

  6. Reflective Processes: A Qualitative Study Exploring Early Learning Student Teacher Mentoring Experiences in Student Teaching Practicums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    This doctoral thesis explored mentoring in early learning teacher preparation programs. This study explored the reflective processes embedded in the work between student teachers and their mentors during early learning student teacher experiences at Washington State community and technical colleges. Schon's (1987a) concepts of…

  7. Synchronising Pedagogy and Musical Experiences in Early Childhood: Addressing Challenges in Preschool Music Education in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andang'o, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines pedagogy in early childhood music education and the resultant learning experiences in music for children in Kenyan preschools. Two important principles proposed for the synchronisation of teaching and learning in early childhood music education are cultural relevance and developmental appropriateness. These terms are…

  8. Early thinning experiments established by the Fort Valley Experimental Forest (P-53)

    Benjamin P. De Blois; Alex. J. Finkral; Andrew J. Sánchez Meador; Margaret M. Moore

    2008-01-01

    Between 1925 and 1936, the Fort Valley Experimental Forest (FVEF) scientists initiated a study to examine a series of forest thinning experiments in second growth ponderosa pine stands in Arizona and New Mexico. These early thinning plots furnished much of the early background for the development of methods used in forest management in the Southwest. The plots ranged...

  9. Safe Start: How Early Experiences Can Help Reduce Violence. An Ounce of Prevention Fund Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawley, Theresa

    Noting that many communities have overlooked a promising approach to reducing violence in the United States, this report examines early risk factors for violence and discusses the potential of prevention and intervention programs for children ages birth to 5 years. The report defines violence and discusses the importance of early experiences in…

  10. How the Timing and Quality of Early Experiences Influence the Development of Brain Architecture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Sharon E.; Levitt, Pat; Nelson, Charles A., III.

    2010-01-01

    Early life events can exert a powerful influence on both the pattern of brain architecture and behavioral development. In this study a conceptual framework is provided for considering how the structure of early experience gets "under the skin." The study begins with a description of the genetic framework that lays the foundation for brain…

  11. A Systems Perspective on Practicum Experiences in Early Childhood Teacher Education: Focus on Interprofessional Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Paro, Karen M.; Van Schagen, Amy; King, Elizabeth; Lippard, Christine

    2018-01-01

    High quality early childhood teachers have a wealth of knowledge and use a range of skills in their daily classroom practices, and research has consistently demonstrated the positive influence effective early childhood teachers have on children's development and long-term outcomes. Given the importance of practicum experiences in the development…

  12. Designing Informal Learning Experiences for Early Career Academics Using a Knowledge Ecosystem Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Faye; Partridge, Helen; Bruce, Christine; Hemmings, Brian

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a "knowledge ecosystem" model of how early career academics experience using information to learn while building their social networks for developmental purposes. Developed using grounded theory methodology, the model offers a way of conceptualising how to empower early career academics through (1) agency…

  13. Development and implementation of a peer mentoring program for early career gerontological faculty.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Ashley Leak; Aizer Brody, Abraham; Perez, Adriana; Shillam, Casey; Edelman, Linda S; Bond, Stewart M; Foster, Victoria; Siegel, Elena O

    2015-05-01

    The Hartford Gerontological Nursing Leaders (HGNL) formerly known as the Building Academic Geriatric Nursing Capacity Initiative (BAGNC), in conjunction with the National Hartford Centers of Gerontological Nursing Excellence (NHCGNE), developed and executed a peer mentoring program beginning in 2011 to enhance both (a) the experience of newly selected scholars and fellows to the NHCGNE and (b) the ongoing professional development of HGNL members. The purpose of this article is to describe key strategies used to develop and execute the peer mentoring program and to present formative program evaluation. The program was launched in January 2011 with seven peer mentor and mentee matches. In June 2012, the peer mentoring committee solicited feedback on the development of the peer mentoring program and changes were made for the subsequent cohorts. An additional 12 matches were made in the following 2 years (2012 and 2013), for a total of 31 matches to date. We have learned several key lessons from our three cohorts regarding how to structure, implement, and carefully evaluate a peer mentoring program. Informal evaluation of our peer mentoring program noted several challenges for both peer mentors and mentees. Having knowledge of and addressing those challenges may increase the overall quality and effectiveness of peer mentoring programs and, in turn, benefit academic nursing by strengthening the faculty workforce. Findings from development and implementation of a peer mentoring program for gerontological faculty could lead to new and adaptable programs in a variety of clinical and education settings. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  14. Development and Implementation of a Peer Mentoring Program for Early Career Gerontological Faculty

    PubMed Central

    Bryant, Ashley Leak; Brody, Ab; Perez, Adriana; Shillam, Casey; Edelman, Linda S.; Bond, Stewart M.; Foster, Victoria; Siegel, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Purpose In conjunction with the National Hartford Centers of Gerontological Nursing Excellence (NHCGNE), formerly known as the Building Academic Geriatric Nursing Capacity Initiative (BAGNC), the Hartford Gerontological Nursing Leaders (HGNL) developed and executed a program beginning in 2011 to enhance both (a) the experience of newly selected scholars and fellows to the NHCGNE and (b) the ongoing professional development of the HGNL. The purpose of this article is to describe key strategies used to develop and execute the mentoring program and to present the formative and summative program evaluation. Design The program was launched in January 2011 with seven peer mentor and mentee matches. In June 2012, the peer mentoring committee solicited feedback on the development of the peer mentoring program and changes were made for the subsequent cohorts. Findings An additional 12 matches were made in the following 2 years (2012 and 2013), for a total of 31 matches to date. We have learned several key lessons from our three cohorts regarding how to structure, implement, and carefully evaluate a peer mentoring program. Conclusions Informal evaluation of our peer mentoring program noted several challenges for both peer mentors and mentees. Having knowledge of and addressing those challenges may increase the overall quality and effectiveness of peer mentoring programs and, in turn, benefit academic nursing by strengthening the faculty workforce. Clinical Relevance Findings from development and implementation of a peer mentoring program for gerontological faculty could lead to new and adaptable programs in a variety of clinical and education settings. PMID:25808927

  15. BookFun--"There's More to It than Reading a Book"--Implementing a Danish Early Literacy Programme That Supports Professionalism, Language Development and Social Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clasen, Line Engel; Jensen de López, Kristine

    2017-01-01

    Several early literacy programmes have documented their effectiveness in enhancing children's early literacy and language development. Despite recent interest in implementing evidence-based programmes, only a few studies have set out to capture the implementation process of early literacy programmes as seen from the programme users' perspectives.…

  16. Relationships between Childhood Traumatic Experiences, Early Maladaptive Schemas and Interpersonal Styles

    PubMed Central

    KAYA TEZEL, Fulya; TUTAREL KIŞLAK, Şennur; BOYSAN, Murat

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Cognitive theories of psychopathology have generally proposed that early experiences of childhood abuse and neglect may result in the development of early maladaptive self-schemas. Maladaptive core schemas are central in the development and maintenance of psychological symptoms in a schema-focused approach. Psychosocial dysfunction in individuals with psychological problems has been consistently found to be associated with symptom severity. However, till date, linkages between psychosocial functioning, early traumatic experiences and core schemas have received little attention. The aim of the present study was to explore the relations among maladaptive interpersonal styles, negative experiences in childhood and core self-schemas in non-clinical adults. Methods A total of 300 adults (58% women) participated in the study. The participants completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, Young Schema Questionnaire, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and Interpersonal Style Scale. Results Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the Disconnection and Rejection and Impaired Limits schema domains were significant antecedents of maladaptive interpersonal styles after controlling for demographic characteristics and childhood abuse and neglect. Associations of child sexual abuse with Emotionally Avoidant, Manipulative and Abusive interpersonal styles were mediated by early maladaptive schemas. Early maladaptive schemas mediated the relations of emotional abuse with Emotionally Avoidant and Avoidant interpersonal styles as well as the relations of physical abuse with Avoidant and Abusive interpersonal styles. Conclusion Interpersonal styles in adulthood are significantly associated with childhood traumatic experiences. Significant relations between early traumatic experiences and maladaptive interpersonal styles are mediated by early maladaptive schemas. PMID:28360715

  17. Relationships between Childhood Traumatic Experiences, Early Maladaptive Schemas and Interpersonal Styles.

    PubMed

    Kaya Tezel, Fulya; Tutarel Kişlak, Şennur; Boysan, Murat

    2015-09-01

    Cognitive theories of psychopathology have generally proposed that early experiences of childhood abuse and neglect may result in the development of early maladaptive self-schemas. Maladaptive core schemas are central in the development and maintenance of psychological symptoms in a schema-focused approach. Psychosocial dysfunction in individuals with psychological problems has been consistently found to be associated with symptom severity. However, till date, linkages between psychosocial functioning, early traumatic experiences and core schemas have received little attention. The aim of the present study was to explore the relations among maladaptive interpersonal styles, negative experiences in childhood and core self-schemas in non-clinical adults. A total of 300 adults (58% women) participated in the study. The participants completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, Young Schema Questionnaire, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and Interpersonal Style Scale. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the Disconnection and Rejection and Impaired Limits schema domains were significant antecedents of maladaptive interpersonal styles after controlling for demographic characteristics and childhood abuse and neglect. Associations of child sexual abuse with Emotionally Avoidant, Manipulative and Abusive interpersonal styles were mediated by early maladaptive schemas. Early maladaptive schemas mediated the relations of emotional abuse with Emotionally Avoidant and Avoidant interpersonal styles as well as the relations of physical abuse with Avoidant and Abusive interpersonal styles. Interpersonal styles in adulthood are significantly associated with childhood traumatic experiences. Significant relations between early traumatic experiences and maladaptive interpersonal styles are mediated by early maladaptive schemas.

  18. Fidelity of Implementation of Research Experience for Teachers in the Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sen, Tapati

    In this study, the Arizona State University Mathematics and Science Teaching Fellows 2010 program was analyzed qualitatively from start to finish to determine the impact of the research experience on teachers in the classroom. The sample for the study was the 2010 cohort of eight high school science teachers. Erickson’s (1986) interpretive, participant observational fieldwork method was used to report data by means of detailed descriptions of the research experience and classroom implementation. Data was collected from teacher documents, interviews, and observations. The findings revealed various factors that were responsible for an ineffective implementation of the research experience in the classroom such as research experience, curriculum support, availability of resources, and school curriculum. Implications and recommendations for future programs are discussed in the study.

  19. Including Alternative Resources in State Renewable Portfolio Standards: Current Design and Implementation Experience

    SciT

    Heeter, J.; Bird, L.

    2012-11-01

    Currently, 29 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico have instituted a renewable portfolio standard (RPS). An RPS sets a minimum threshold for how much renewable energy must be generated in a given year. Each state policy is unique, varying in percentage targets, timetables, and eligible resources. This paper examines state experience with implementing renewable portfolio standards that include energy efficiency, thermal resources, and non-renewable energy and explores compliance experience, costs, and how states evaluate, measure, and verify energy efficiency and convert thermal energy. It aims to gain insights from the experience of states for possible federal clean energymore » policy as well as to share experience and lessons for state RPS implementation.« less

  20. Decision, Implementation, and Confirmation: Experiences of Instructors behind Tourism and Hospitality MOOCs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jingjing; Cantoni, Lorenzo

    2018-01-01

    As the popularity of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs) continues to grow, studies are emerging to investigate various topics in this area. Most have focused on the learners' perspective, leaving a gap in the literature about MOOC instructors. The current research--conducted in the field of tourism and hospitality--explored early experiences of…

  1. Tuned by experience: How orientation probability modulates early perceptual processing.

    PubMed

    Jabar, Syaheed B; Filipowicz, Alex; Anderson, Britt

    2017-09-01

    Probable stimuli are more often and more quickly detected. While stimulus probability is known to affect decision-making, it can also be explained as a perceptual phenomenon. Using spatial gratings, we have previously shown that probable orientations are also more precisely estimated, even while participants remained naive to the manipulation. We conducted an electrophysiological study to investigate the effect that probability has on perception and visual-evoked potentials. In line with previous studies on oddballs and stimulus prevalence, low-probability orientations were associated with a greater late positive 'P300' component which might be related to either surprise or decision-making. However, the early 'C1' component, thought to reflect V1 processing, was dampened for high-probability orientations while later P1 and N1 components were unaffected. Exploratory analyses revealed a participant-level correlation between C1 and P300 amplitudes, suggesting a link between perceptual processing and decision-making. We discuss how these probability effects could be indicative of sharpening of neurons preferring the probable orientations, due either to perceptual learning, or to feature-based attention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Early flight test experience with Cockpit Displayed Traffic Information (CDTI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, T. S.; Moen, G. C.; Person, L. H., Jr.; Keyser, G. L., Jr.; Yenni, K. R.; Garren, J. F., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Coded symbology, based on the results of early human factors studies, was displayed on the electronic horizontal situation indicator and flight tested on an advanced research aircraft in order to subject the coded traffic symbology to a realistic flight environment and to assess its value by means of a direct comparison with simple, uncoded traffic symbology. The tests consisted of 28 curved, decelerating approaches, flown by research-pilot flight crews. The traffic scenarios involved both conflict-free and blunder situations. Subjective pilot commentary was obtained through the use of a questionnaire and extensive pilot debriefing sessions. The results of these debriefing sessions group conveniently under either of two categories: display factors or task performance. A major item under the display factor category was the problem of display clutter. The primary contributors to clutter were the use of large map-scale factors, the use of traffic data blocks, and the presentation of more than a few aircraft. In terms of task performance, the cockpit displayed traffic information was found to provide excellent overall situation awareness.

  3. Videothoracoscopy in the treatment of early empyema: an initial experience.

    PubMed Central

    Hornick, P.; Townsend, E. R.; Clark, D.; Fountain, S. W.

    1996-01-01

    Seventeen consecutive patients were referred for management of empyema between April 1991 and March 1992. Fourteen patients defined as having an 'early' empyema were initially treated by videothoracoscopy. The other three patients, defined as having a 'late' empyema proceeded directly to thoracotomy. Videothoracoscopy was successful in 10 out of the 14 patients. The mean postoperative stay was 7.8 days. At a mean follow-up at 16.7 months, these patients were rendered apyrexial with full lung expansion and no residual pleural collection. The postoperative results were at least equivalent to other conventional forms of treatment without an undue level of complications. In this series, thoracoscopy was found to be successful when symptoms had been present up to 31 days before presentation at the first hospital, and the mean length of treatment before referral to Harefield was 47 days. It is now our policy to videothoracoscope all patients with empyema thoracis, regardless of the length of referral. It may circumvent the need for a thoracotomy, it does not add any increased risk of complications, and does not appreciably increase the length of hospital stay should thoracotomy ultimately be required. PMID:8659973

  4. Implementation of fluorescence confocal mosaicking microscopy by ``early adopter'' Mohs surgeons and dermatologists: recent progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Manu; Rajadhyaksha, Milind; Nehal, Kishwer

    2017-02-01

    Confocal mosaicking microscopy (CMM) enables rapid imaging of large areas of fresh tissue ex vivo without the processing that is necessary for conventional histology. When performed in fluorescence mode using acridine orange (nuclear specific dye), it enhances nuclei-to-dermis contrast that enables detection of all types of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs), including micronodular and thin strands of infiltrative types. So far, this technique has been mostly validated in research settings for the detection of residual BCC tumor margins with high sensitivity of 89% to 96% and specificity of 99% to 89%. Recently, CMM has advanced to implementation and testing in clinical settings by "early adopter" Mohs surgeons, as an adjunct to frozen section during Mohs surgery. We summarize the development of CMM guided imaging of ex vivo skin tissues from bench to bedside. We also present its current state of application in routine clinical workflow not only for the assessment of residual BCC margins in the Mohs surgical setting but also for some melanocytic lesions and other skin conditions in clinical dermatology settings. Last, we also discuss the potential limitations of this technology as well as future developments. As this technology advances further, it may serve as an adjunct to standard histology and enable rapid surgical pathology of skin cancers at the bedside.

  5. Media Messages and Perceptions of the Affordable Care Act during the Early Phase of Implementation.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Erika Franklin; Baum, Laura M; Barry, Colleen L; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Gollust, Sarah E

    2017-02-01

    Public opinion about the Affordable Care Act (ACA) has been polarized since the law's passage. Past research suggests these conditions would make any media influence on the public limited at best. However, during the early phase of implementation, locally broadcast ACA-related media messages-in the form of paid health insurance and political advertisements and news media stories-abounded as advocates, insurance marketers, and politicians sought to shape the public's perceptions of the law. To what extent did message exposure affect ACA perceptions during the first open enrollment period? We merge data on volumes of messaging at the media market level with nationally representative survey data to examine the relationship between estimated exposure to media messaging and the public's perceptions of how informed they were about and favorable toward the ACA in October 2013. We find that higher volumes of insurance advertising and local news coverage are associated with participants' perceptions of being informed about the law. Volumes of insurance advertising and of local news coverage are also associated with participants' favorability toward the law, but the relationship varies with partisanship, supporting the growing body of research describing partisan perceptual bias. Copyright © 2017 by Duke University Press.

  6. The Gravity Probe B experiment and early results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conklin, John W.; Gravity Probe B Collaboration

    2008-11-01

    The NASA Gravity Probe B orbiting gyroscope test of General Relativity, launched from Vandenberg Air Force Base on 20 April, 2004 tests two consequences of Einstein's theory: 1) the predicted 6.6 arcs/yr geodetic effect due to the motion of the gyroscope through the curved space-time around the Earth; 2) the predicted 0.039 arcs/yr frame-dragging effect due to the rotating Earth. The mission required the development of many technologies that did not exist when experiment was conceived in 1960. Cryogenic gyroscopes with drift-rates 7 orders of magnitude better than the best inertial navigation gyroscopes, a < 1 marcs star tracking telescope, and other essential technologies were developed as a result of an intensive collaboration between Stanford physicists and engineers, NASA and industry. Gravity Probe B collected science data from August 27, 2004 through September 29, 2005. Analysis of the data began during the mission and is on-going. This paper describes the main features and challenges of the experiment and presents the preliminary results to date.

  7. Early Experiences Writing Performance Portable OpenMP 4 Codes

    SciT

    Joubert, Wayne; Hernandez, Oscar R

    In this paper, we evaluate the recently available directives in OpenMP 4 to parallelize a computational kernel using both the traditional shared memory approach and the newer accelerator targeting capabilities. In addition, we explore various transformations that attempt to increase application performance portability, and examine the expressiveness and performance implications of using these approaches. For example, we want to understand if the target map directives in OpenMP 4 improve data locality when mapped to a shared memory system, as opposed to the traditional first touch policy approach in traditional OpenMP. To that end, we use recent Cray and Intel compilersmore » to measure the performance variations of a simple application kernel when executed on the OLCF s Titan supercomputer with NVIDIA GPUs and the Beacon system with Intel Xeon Phi accelerators attached. To better understand these trade-offs, we compare our results from traditional OpenMP shared memory implementations to the newer accelerator programming model when it is used to target both the CPU and an attached heterogeneous device. We believe the results and lessons learned as presented in this paper will be useful to the larger user community by providing guidelines that can assist programmers in the development of performance portable code.« less

  8. The effect of implementing a care coordination program on team dynamics and the patient experience.

    PubMed

    Di Capua, Paul; Clarke, Robin; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Wilhalme, Holly; Sednew, Renee; McDonald, Kathryn M; Skootsky, Samuel A; Wenger, Neil

    2017-08-01

    Care coordination programs are frequently implemented in the redesign of primary care systems, focused on improving patient outcomes and reducing utilization. However, redesign can be disruptive, affect patient experiences, and undermine elements in the patient-centered medical home, such as team-based care. Case-controlled study with difference-in-differences (DID) and cross-sectional analyses. The phased implementation of a care coordination program permitted evaluation of a natural experiment to compare measures of patient experience and teamwork in practices with and without care coordinators. Patient experience scores were compared before and after the introduction of care coordinators, using DID analyses. Cross-sectional data were used to compare teamwork, based on the relational coordination survey, and physician-perceived barriers to coordinated care between clinics with and without care coordinators. We evaluated survey responses from 459 staff and physicians and 13,441 patients in 26 primary care practices. Practices with care coordinators did not have significantly different relational coordination scores compared with practices without care coordinators, and physicians in these practices did not report reduced barriers to coordinated care. After implementation of the program, patients in practices with care coordinators reported a more positive experience with staff over time (DID, 2.6 percentage points; P = .0009). A flexible program that incorporates care coordinators into the existing care team was minimally disruptive to existing team dynamics, and the embedded care coordinators were associated with a small increase in patient ratings that reflected a more positive experience with staff.

  9. TU-CD-BRD-03: UCSD Experience, with Focus On Implementing Change

    SciT

    Brown, D.

    2015-06-15

    It has long been standard practice in radiation oncology to report internally when a patient’s treatment has not gone as planned and to report events to regulatory agencies when legally required. Most potential errors are caught early and never affect the patient. Quality assurance steps routinely prevent errors from reaching the patient, and these “near misses” are much more frequent than treatment errors. A growing number of radiation oncology facilities have implemented incident learning systems to report and analyze both errors and near misses. Using the term “incident learning” instead of “event reporting” emphasizes the need to use these experiencesmore » to change the practice and make future errors less likely and promote an educational, non-punitive environment. There are challenges in making such a system practical and effective. Speakers from institutions of different sizes and practice environments will share their experiences on how to make such a system work and what benefits their clinics have accrued. Questions that will be addressed include: How to create a system that is easy for front line staff to access How to motivate staff to report How to promote the system as positive and educational and not punitive or demeaning How to organize the team for reviewing and responding to reports How to prioritize which reports to discuss in depth How not to dismiss the rest How to identify underlying causes How to design corrective actions and implement change How to develop useful statistics and analysis tools How to coordinate a departmental system with a larger risk management system How to do this without a dedicated quality manager Some speakers’ experience is with in-house systems and some will share experience with the AAPM/ASTRO national Radiation Oncology Incident Learning System (RO-ILS). Reports intended to be of value nationally need to be comprehensible to outsiders; examples of useful reports will be shown. There will be ample

  10. Lidar In-space Technology Experiment: Overview and early results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCormick, M. Patrick

    1995-01-01

    The September 1994 Shuttle flight of the Lidar In-space Technology Experiment (LITE) brought to fruition 10 years of effort at NASA's Langley Research Center where it was built. Being the first flight of a spaceborne lidar to measure atmospheric constituents and parameters and surface properties, it culminates the efforts of many worldwide over the last 20 years to usher in this new remote sensing technique from space. This paper will describe the LITE instrument, the in-orbit performance, and initial results. In addition, the global correlative measurements program will be outlined which involved 60 groups in 20 countries who made various simultaneous ground-based or aircraft measurements as LITE flew overhead.

  11. New designs of LMJ targets for early ignition experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    C-Clérouin, C.; Bonnefille, M.; Dattolo, E.; Fremerye, P.; Galmiche, D.; Gauthier, P.; Giorla, J.; Laffite, S.; Liberatore, S.; Loiseau, P.; Malinie, G.; Masse, L.; Poggi, F.; Seytor, P.

    2008-05-01

    The LMJ experimental plans include the attempt of ignition and burn of an ICF capsule with 40 laser quads, delivering up to 1.4MJ and 380TW. New targets needing reduced laser energy with only a small decrease in robustness are then designed for this purpose. A first strategy is to use scaled-down cylindrical hohlraums and capsules, taking advantage of our better understanding of the problem, set on theoretical modelling, simulations and experiments. Another strategy is to work specifically on the coupling efficiency parameter, i.e. the ratio of the energy absorbed by the capsule to the laser energy, which is with parametric instabilities a crucial drawback of indirect drive. An alternative design is proposed, made up of the nominal 60 quads capsule, named A1040, in a rugby-shaped hohlraum. Robustness evaluations of these different targets are in progress.

  12. Global Equity Gauge Alliance: reflections on early experiences.

    PubMed

    McCoy, David; Bambas, Lexi; Acurio, David; Baya, Banza; Bhuiya, Abbas; Chowdhury, A Mushtaque R; Grisurapong, Siriwan; Liu, Yuanli; Ngom, Pierre; Ngulube, Thabale J; Ntuli, Antoinette; Sanders, David; Vega, Jeanette; Shukla, Abhay; Braveman, Paula A

    2003-09-01

    The paper traces the evolution and working of the Global Equity Gauge Alliance (GEGA) and its efforts to promote health equity. GEGA places health equity squarely within a larger framework of social justice, linking findings on socioeconomic and health inequalities with differentials in power, wealth, and prestige in society. The Alliance's 11 country-level partners, called Equity Gauges, share a common action-based vision and framework called the Equity Gauge Strategy. An Equity Gauge seeks to reduce health inequities through three broad spheres of action, referred to as the 'pillars' of the Equity Gauge Strategy, which define a set of interconnected and overlapping actions. Measuring and tracking the inequalities and interpreting their ethical import are pursued through the Assessment and Monitoring pillar. This information provides an evidence base that can be used in strategic ways for influencing policy-makers through actions in the Advocacy pillar and for supporting grassroots groups and civil society through actions in the Community Empowerment pillar. The paper provides examples of strategies for promoting pro-equity policy and social change and reviews experiences and lessons, both in terms of technical success of interventions and in relation to the conceptual development and refinement of the Equity Gauge Strategy and overall direction of the Alliance. To become most effective in furthering health equity at both national and global levels, the Alliance must now reach out to and involve a wider range of organizations, groups, and actors at both national and international levels. Sustainability of this promising experiment depends, in part, on adequate resources but also on the ability to attract and develop talented leadership.

  13. Academics' Perceptions of the Challenges and Barriers to Implementing Research-Based Experiences for Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brew, Angela; Mantai, Lilia

    2017-01-01

    How can universities ensure that strategic aims to integrate research and teaching through engaging students in research-based experiences be effectively realised within institutions? This paper reports on the findings of a qualitative study exploring academics' perceptions of the challenges and barriers to implementing undergraduate research.…

  14. Developing and Implementing a Voluntary Personal Computer Program in the Business School: One College's Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darter, Marvin E.; Wise, Donald E.

    1989-01-01

    Describes the experiences of Rider College School of Business Administration in implementing the use of microcomputers for courses in the business curriculum. Topics discussed include student purchase of microcomputers; cost effectiveness; software considerations; security for student equipment; printers; large screen projection facilities; and…

  15. Implementing the Singapore Mathematics Curriculum in South Africa: Experiences of Foundation Phase Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naroth, Charmon; Luneta, Kakoma

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on the findings from individual interviews and focus group discussions involving six teachers implementing the Singapore Mathematics Curriculum (SMC) in the Foundation Phase (Grade R to Grade 3) in a school in South Africa. The interviews presented an opportunity to explore teachers' experiences with their attempts to use the…

  16. Effect of Implementing a Birth Plan on Womens' Childbirth Experiences and Maternal & Neonatal Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farahat, Amal Hussain; Mohamed, Hanan El Sayed; Elkader, Shadia Abd; El-Nemer, Amina

    2015-01-01

    Childbirth satisfaction represents a sense of feeling good about one's birth. It is thought to result from having a sense of control, having expectations met, feeling empowered, confident and supported. The aim of this study was to implement a birth plan and evaluate its effect on women's childbirth experiences and maternal, neonatal outcomes. A…

  17. Shriners Hospitals for Children, Honolulu's experience with telemedicine: program implementation, maintenance, growth, and lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Ono, Craig M; Lindsey, Jana L

    2004-10-01

    Shriners Hospitals for Children, Honolulu Telemedicine Program conducts real-time video consultations with remotes sites in Hawaii, Guam, Saipan, American Samoa, the Federated States of Micronesia, and the Republic of the Marshall Islands. The program began in 1999 and has provided over 240 consultations. This report is a summary of the Shriners Hospitals experience and lessons learned regarding program implementation and maintenance.

  18. Medical Home Implementation Gaps for Seniors: Perceptions and Experiences of Primary Care Medical Practices.

    PubMed

    Hoff, Timothy; DePuccio, Matthew

    2018-07-01

    The study objective was to better understand specific implementation gaps for various aspects of patient-centered medical home (PCMH) care delivered to seniors. The study illuminates the physician and staff experience by focusing on how individuals make sense of and respond behaviorally to aspects of PCMH implementation. Qualitative data from 51 in-depth, semi-structured interviews across six different National Committee for Quality Assurance (NCQA)-accredited primary care practices were collected and analyzed. Physicians and staff identified PCMH implementation gaps for their seniors: (a) performing in-depth clinical assessments, (b) identifying seniors' life needs and linking them with community resources, and (c) care management and coordination, in particular self-management support for seniors. Prior experiences trying to perform these aspects of PCMH care for older adults produced collective understandings that led to inaction and avoidance by medical practices around the first two gaps, and proactive behavior that took strategic advantage of external incentives for addressing the third gap. Greater understanding of physician and staff's PCMH implementation experiences, and the learning that accumulates from these experiences, allows for a deeper understanding of how primary care practices choose to enact the medical home model for seniors on an everyday basis.

  19. Teachers' Experience of the Implementation of Values in Education in Schools: "Mind the Gap"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreira, C.; Schulze, S.

    2014-01-01

    In many societies violence, crime and intolerance have become an everyday reality. In this context teachers are responsible for facilitating values in education. The study aimed to investigate teachers' experiences of the implementation of values in education in classroom praxis. Constructivism was used as conceptual framework. Data were collected…

  20. ICT Implementation Challenges and Strategies for ODL Institutions: The ZOU's National Centre Academic Staff Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nenge, Richard Tafara; Chimbadzwa, Zvinaiye; Mapolisa, Tichaona

    2012-01-01

    This study highlighted some of the major challenges that Zimbabwe Open University (ZOU) academic staff experiences in connection with Information Communication Technology (ICT) implementation. It employed a qualitative paradigm rooted in a case study research design focusing on ZOU Academic Staff at the selected Faculties. It purposively sampled…

  1. Secondary Social Studies Teachers' Experiences Implementing Common Core State Literacy Standards: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Krista Faith Huskey

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine the experiences of secondary social studies teachers who implemented Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts & Literacy in history/social studies, science and technical subjects in social studies courses requiring End of Course Tests at secondary schools in one suburban…

  2. Obesity Prevention in Early Child Care Settings: A Bistate (Minnesota and Wisconsin) Assessment of Best Practices, Implementation Difficulty, and Barriers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nanney, Marilyn S.; LaRowe, Tara L.; Davey, Cynthia; Frost, Natasha; Arcan, Chrisa; O'Meara, Joyce

    2017-01-01

    Background: Long-term evaluation studies reveal that high-quality early care and education (ECE) programs that include a lifestyle component predict later adult health outcomes. The purpose of this article is to characterize the nutrition and physical activity (PA) practices, including implementation difficulty and barriers, of licensed center-…

  3. Children Placed at Risk for Learning and Behavioral Difficulties: Implementing a School-Wide System of Early Identification and Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Shaughnessy, Tam E.; Lane, Kathleen L.; Gresham, Frank M.; Beebe-Frankenberger, Margaret E.

    2003-01-01

    This article describes a school-wide system of early identification and intervention for children recognized as being at risk for learning and behavior difficulties. Suggested guidelines for implementing such a program include: evaluating existing theory, knowledge, and practice; providing ongoing professional development; creating a school-wide…

  4. Using e-Coaching to Support an Early Intervention Provider's Implementation of a Functional Assessment-Based Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fettig, Angel; Barton, Erin E.; Carter, Alice S.; Eisenhower, Abbey S.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of e-coaching on the implementation of a functional assessment-based intervention delivered by an early intervention provider in reducing challenging behaviors during home visits. A multiple baseline design across behavior support plan components was used with a provider-child dyad. The e-coaching intervention…

  5. Listening to the Voices of Education Professionals Involved in Implementing an Oral Language and Early Literacy Program in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennox, Maria; Garvis, Susanne; Westerveld, Marleen

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores teachers' and teacher assistants' self-efficacy of delivering PrepSTART, a classroom based, oral language and early literacy program for five-year-old students. In the current study, speech pathologists developed, provided training and monitored program implementation. Teachers and teacher assistants (n = 17) shared their…

  6. Challenges Pre-School Teachers Face in the Implementation of the Early Childhood Curriculum in the Cape Coast Metropolis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ntumi, Simon

    2016-01-01

    The study examined the challenges that pre-school teachers encounter in the implementation of the early childhood curriculum; exploring teaching methods employed by pre-schools teachers in the Cape Coast Metropolis. The study employed descriptive survey as the research design. A convenient sample of 62 pre-school teachers were selected from a…

  7. Implementing College and Career Standards in Math Methods Course for Early Childhood and Elementary Education Teacher Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joohi

    2016-01-01

    This study is purposed to measure the efficacy of implementing College and Career Readiness Standards (CCRS) math standards into math methods courses for early childhood and elementary education teacher candidates at an urban university located in the Dallas and Fort Worth metroplex area. A total of 161 college seniors (teacher candidates)…

  8. Philosophy of experiment in early modern England: the case of Bacon, Boyle and Hooke.

    PubMed

    Anstey, Peter R

    2014-01-01

    Serious philosophical reflection on the nature of experiment began in earnest in the seventeenth century. This paper expounds the most influential philosophy of experiment in seventeenth-century England, the Bacon-Boyle-Hooke view of experiment. It is argued that this can only be understood in the context of the new experimental philosophy practised according to the Baconian theory of natural history. The distinctive typology of experiments of this view is discussed, as well as its account of the relation between experiment and theory. This leads into an assessment of other recent discussions of early modern experiment, namely, those of David Gooding, Thomas Kuhn, J.E. Tiles and Peter Dear.

  9. Robotic Inguinal Hernia Repair: Technique and Early Experience.

    PubMed

    Arcerito, Massimo; Changchien, Eric; Bernal, Oscar; Konkoly-Thege, Adam; Moon, John

    2016-10-01

    Laparoscopic inguinal hernia repair has been shown to have multiple advantages compared with open repair such as less postoperative pain and earlier resume of daily activities with a comparable recurrence rate. We speculate robotic inguinal hernia repair may yield equivalent benefits, while providing the surgeon added dexterity. One hundred consecutive robotic inguinal hernia repairs with mesh were performed with a mean age of 56 years (25-96). Fifty-six unilateral hernias and 22 bilateral hernias were repaired amongst 62 males and 16 females. Polypropylene mesh was used for reconstruction. All but, two patients were completed robotically. Mean operative time was 52 minutes per hernia repair (45-67). Five patients were admitted overnight based on their advanced age. Regular diet was resumed immediately. Postoperative pain was minimal and regular activity was achieved after an average of four days. One patient recurred after three months in our earlier experience and he was repaired robotically. Mean follow-up time was 12 months. These data, compared with laparoscopic approach, suggest similar recurrence rates and postoperative pain. We believe comparative studies with laparoscopic approach need to be performed to assess the role robotic surgery has in the treatment of inguinal hernia repair.

  10. Early Results and Spaceflight Implications of the SWAB Flight Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, C. Mark; Pierson, Duane L.

    2007-01-01

    Microbial monitoring of spacecraft environments provides key information in the assessment of infectious disease risk to the crew. Monitoring aboard the Mir space station and International Space Station (ISS) has provided a tremendous informational baseline to aid in determining the types and concentrations of microorganisms during a mission. Still, current microbial monitoring hardware utilizes culture-based methodology which may not detect many medically significant organisms, such as Legionella pneumophila. We hypothesize that evaluation of the ISS environment using non-culture-based technologies would reveal microorganisms not previously reported in spacecraft, allowing for a more complete health assessment. To achieve this goal, a spaceflight experiment, operationally designated as SWAB, was designed to evaluate the DNA from environmental samples collected from ISS and vehicles destined for ISS. Results from initial samples indicate that the sample collection and return procedures were successful. Analysis of these samples using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and targeted PCR primers for fungal contaminants is underway. The current results of SWAB and their implication for in-flight molecular analysis of environmental samples will be discussed.

  11. Effects of early dental office visits on dental caries experience.

    PubMed

    Beil, Heather; Rozier, R Gary; Preisser, John S; Stearns, Sally C; Lee, Jessica Y

    2014-10-01

    We determined the association between timing of a first dentist office visit before age 5 years and dental disease in kindergarten. We used North Carolina Medicaid claims (1999-2006) linked to state oral health surveillance data to compare caries experience for kindergarten students (2005-2006) who had a visit before age 60 months (n=11,394) to derive overall exposure effects from a zero-inflated negative binomial regression model. We repeated the analysis separately for children who had preventive and tertiary visits. Children who had a visit at age 37 to 48 and 49 to 60 months had significantly less disease than children with a visit by age 24 months (incidence rate ratio [IRR]=0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.81, 0.95; IRR=0.75; 95% CI=0.69, 0.82, respectively). Disease status did not differ between children who had a tertiary visit by age 24 months and other children. Medicaid-enrolled children in our study followed an urgent care type of utilization, and access to dental care was limited. Children at high risk for dental disease should be given priority for a preventive dental visit before age 3 years.

  12. Early clinical experience with Guidezilla for transradial interventions in China.

    PubMed

    Ma, Min; Diao, Kai-Yue; Liu, Xiao-Jing; He, Yong

    2018-04-03

    Anatomic variations, calcified, tortuous, angulated lesions, and lack of support to increase the complexity of transradial intervention (TRI). Guidezilla is a mother-and-child catheter enabling increased support during complex interventions. As there are few published reports of its use, we describe our experience using this device to assist TRI in Chinese patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy and safety of the Guidezilla guide extension catheter in complex coronary interventions. Thirty-two patients' clinical characteristics, angiographic details, and in-hospital outcome retrospectively collected between June 2015 and August 2017. Patients were 59.44 ± 10.48 years of age and 26 (81%) were men. The most frequent target vessels were the RCA (34%) and LAD (31%), patients had complex type C (53%) or B (47%) lesions, severely tortuous (41%) and angulated (22%).With the use of Guidezilla, technique success was 100%, and procedural success was 94%. The mean diameter of the deployed stents was 2.97 ± 0.37 mm, and the length was 27.19 ± 8.14 mm. The estimated mean distance of Guidezilla intubation into the target vessel was 7.66 ± 2.29 cm.The Guidezilla catheter extension safely facilitated successful completion of TRI in complex coronary artery lesions. This device can help interventionalists successfully perform difficult procedures.

  13. Early experience with influenza A H1N109 in an Australian intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Leen, Tim; Williams, Teresa A; Campbell, Lorraine; Chamberlain, Jenny; Gould, Andree; McEntaggart, Geraldine; Leslie, Gavin D

    2010-08-01

    Influenza is a common seasonal viral infection that affects large numbers of people. In early 2009, many people were admitted to hospitals in Mexico with severe respiratory failure following an influenza-like illness, subtyped as H1N1. An increased mortality rate was observed. By June 2009, H1N1 was upgraded to pandemic status. In June-July, Australian ICUs were experiencing increased activity due to the influenza pandemic. While hospitals implemented plans for the pandemic, the particularly heavy demand to provide critical care facilities to accommodate an influx of people with severe respiratory failure became evident and placed a great burden on provision of these services. This paper describes the initial experience (June to mid September) of the pandemic from the nursing perspective in a single Australian ICU. Patients were noted to be younger with a higher proportion of women, two of whom were pregnant. Two patients had APACHE III comorbidity. Of the 31 patients admitted during this period, three patients died in ICU and one patient died in hospital. Aerosol precautions were initiated for all patients. The requirement for single room accommodation placed enormous demands for bed management in ICU. Specific infection control procedures were developed to deal with this new pandemic influenza. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. QIN. Early experiences in establishing a regional quantitative imaging network for PET/CT clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Doot, Robert K.; Thompson, Tove; Greer, Benjamin E.; Allberg, Keith C.; Linden, Hannah M.; Mankoff, David A.; Kinahan, Paul E.

    2012-01-01

    The Seattle Cancer Care Alliance (SCCA) is a Pacific Northwest regional network that enables patients from community cancer centers to participate in multicenter oncology clinical trials where patients can receive some trial-related procedures at their local center. Results of positron emission tomography (PET) scans performed at community cancer centers are not currently used in SCCA Network trials since clinical trials customarily accept results from only trial-accredited PET imaging centers located at academic and large hospitals. Oncologists would prefer the option of using standard clinical PET scans from Network sites in multicenter clinical trials to increase accrual of patients for whom additional travel requirements for imaging is a barrier to recruitment. In an effort to increase accrual of rural and other underserved populations to Network trials, researchers and clinicians at the University of Washington, SCCA and its Network are assessing feasibility of using PET scans from all Network sites in their oncology clinical trials. A feasibility study is required because the reproducibility of multicenter PET measurements ranges from approximately 3% to 40% at national academic centers. Early experiences from both national and local PET phantom imaging trials are discussed and next steps are proposed for including patient PET scans from the emerging regional quantitative imaging network in clinical trials. There are feasible methods to determine and characterize PET quantitation errors and improve data quality by either prospective scanner calibration or retrospective post hoc corrections. These methods should be developed and implemented in multicenter clinical trials employing quantitative PET imaging of patients. PMID:22795929

  15. The earth radiation budget experiment: Early validation results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, G. Louis; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Harrison, Edwin F.

    The Earth Radiation Budget Experiment (ERBE) consists of radiometers on a dedicated spacecraft in a 57° inclination orbit, which has a precessional period of 2 months, and on two NOAA operational meteorological spacecraft in near polar orbits. The radiometers include scanning narrow field-of-view (FOV) and nadir-looking wide and medium FOV radiometers covering the ranges 0.2 to 5 μm and 5 to 50 μm and a solar monitoring channel. This paper describes the validation procedures and preliminary results. Each of the radiometer channels underwent extensive ground calibration, and the instrument packages include in-flight calibration facilities which, to date, show negligible changes of the instruments in orbit, except for gradual degradation of the suprasil dome of the shortwave wide FOV (about 4% per year). Measurements of the solar constant by the solar monitors, wide FOV, and medium FOV radiometers of two spacecraft agree to a fraction of a percent. Intercomparisons of the wide and medium FOV radiometers with the scanning radiometers show agreement of 1 to 4%. The multiple ERBE satellites are acquiring the first global measurements of regional scale diurnal variations in the Earth's radiation budget. These diurnal variations are verified by comparison with high temporal resolution geostationary satellite data. Other principal investigators of the ERBE Science Team are: R. Cess, SUNY, Stoneybrook; J. Coakley, NCAR; C. Duncan, M. King and A Mecherikunnel, Goddard Space Flight Center, NASA; A. Gruber and A.J. Miller, NOAA; D. Hartmann, U. Washington; F.B. House, Drexel U.; F.O. Huck, Langley Research Center, NASA; G. Hunt, Imperial College, London U.; R. Kandel and A. Berroir, Laboratory of Dynamic Meteorology, Ecole Polytechique; V. Ramanathan, U. Chicago; E. Raschke, U. of Cologne; W.L. Smith, U. of Wisconsin and T.H. Vonder Haar, Colorado State U.

  16. Child impulsiveness-inattention, early peer experiences, and the development of early onset conduct problems.

    PubMed

    Snyder, James; Prichard, Joy; Schrepferman, Lynn; Patrick, M Renee; Stoolmiller, Mike

    2004-12-01

    The conjoint influence of child impulsiveness-inattention (I/I) and peer relationships on growth trajectories of conduct problems was assessed in a community sample of 267 boys and girls. I/I reliably predicted teacher- and parent-reported conduct problems at kindergarten entry and growth in those problems over the next 2 years for boys and girls. The relation of boys' I/I to conduct problems was mediated, in part, by peer rejection and involvement in coercive exchanges with peers. The relation of girls' I/I to conduct problems was less clearly mediated by peer processes, but peer difficulties had additive effects. The impact of peer relationships on trajectories of conduct problems was apparent to parents as well as to teachers. Although I/I increments risk for early and persisting conduct problems in concert with poor peer relationships, it does so in complex and gender-specific ways.

  17. Early Career Teachers' Emotional Experiences and Development--A Norwegian Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakhelln, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Emotional experiences that are an integral part of the process of becoming teachers have been insufficiently explored in the research literature. The early experiences of three new teachers in a Norwegian upper secondary school are analysed using a collective case-study design and a socio-cultural theoretical framework. Emotions arising in the…

  18. Preparedness to Teach: Experiences of the University of Ibadan Early Career Academics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Udegbe, I. Bola

    2016-01-01

    This research examined the experiences of early career academics (ECAs) in terms of their preparedness to teach. Using a survey design involving 104 ECAs in a large Nigeria university, quantitative and qualitative data were obtained to address the research questions raised. Findings showed that (1) prior experience and training impacted on…

  19. Supporting Learning to Teach in Early Field Experiences: The UTE Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bieda, Kristen N.; Dillman, Brittany; Gundlach, Michael; Voogt, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Most teacher preparation programs require prospective teachers (PTs) to engage in early field experiences (EFEs) prior to completing required coursework. These EFEs, however, may lack meaningful connections to course content and provide limited opportunities to experience the demands of classroom teaching. In this paper, we share evidence from the…

  20. Private Management of Public Schools: Early Experiences in Four School Districts. Report to Congressional Committees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Health, Education, and Human Services Div.

    School districts nationwide are experimenting with a range of reform options, one of which is private management of public schools. This General Accounting Office (GAO) report describes the early experiences of four school districts that contracted with private companies for management of their public schools. Specifically, the report describes:…

  1. Early Intervention Experiences of Families of Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Qualitative Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grygas Coogle, Christan; Guerette, Amy R.; Hanline, Mary Frances

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain an understanding of the unique experiences of families who have a young child at risk for or identified with an autism spectrum disorder and their experiences with early intervention. Thirty-nine parents of children with or at risk for an autism spectrum disorder receiving Part C services in a state in the…

  2. A Road Like No Other: Mothers' Experiences with Early Intervention Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Amy Wickizer

    2010-01-01

    This dual case study utilizes qualitative research methods to examine the experiences of two mothers of young children with special needs. Over the course of ten months, the researcher spent many hours interviewing both mothers about their experiences with Early Intervention (EI) professionals. Observations of medical appointments, team meetings,…

  3. Effects of Experience on the Brain: The Role of Neuroscience in Early Development and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Twardosz, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: Research on the effect of experience on the structure and function of the brain across the lifespan pertains directly to the concerns of professionals involved with children's early development and education. This paper briefly reviews (a) the role of experience in shaping the developing brain, (b) individual adaptation to the…

  4. A Comparison of Premenarcheal Expectations and Postmenarcheal Experiences in Chinese Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Catherine So-Kum; Yeung, Dannii Y. L.; Lee, Antoinette Marie

    2004-01-01

    The present study examined Chinese early adolescents' expectations and experiences of their first menstruation. It included 952 participants, 476 premenarcheal and 476 postmenarcheal girls matched by age and by grade level. Results showed that compared to experiences of postmenarcheal girls, premenarcheal girls anticipated more negative emotional…

  5. Utilizing Field Experiences in an Early Childhood Center To Increase Competencies in Teacher Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Alfred L.

    The director of career education and coordinator of the department of human growth and development at a private college implemented a practicum designed to expand the knowledge level of early childhood students in teacher training by requiring that they participate in the college's day care center. The primary purpose of the practicum was to…

  6. Re-Emphasizing Character Education in Early Childhood Programs: Korean Children's Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Guang-Lea

    2013-01-01

    Character education efforts are influenced by the cultures in which they are implemented. This article describes the character education provided to children in Korea, both in school and at home. The author explores how the Korean early childhood education system strives to ensure positive character development among children. These discussions…

  7. Translating evidence-based interventions for implementation: Experiences from Project HEAL in African American churches.

    PubMed

    Holt, Cheryl L; Tagai, Erin K; Scheirer, Mary Ann; Santos, Sherie Lou Z; Bowie, Janice; Haider, Muhiuddin; Slade, Jimmie L; Wang, Min Qi; Whitehead, Tony

    2014-05-31

    Community-based approaches have been increasing in the effort to raise awareness and early detection for cancer and other chronic disease. However, many times, such interventions are tested in randomized trials, become evidence-based, and then fail to reach further use in the community. Project HEAL (Health through Early Awareness and Learning) is an implementation trial that aims to compare two strategies of implementing evidence-based cancer communication interventions in African American faith-based organizations. This article describes the community-engaged process of transforming three evidence-based cancer communication interventions into a coherent, branded strategy for training community health advisors with two delivery mechanisms. Peer community health advisors receive training through either a traditional classroom approach (with high technical assistance/support) or a web-based training portal (with low technical assistance/support). We describe the process, outline the intervention components, report on the pilot test, and conclude with lessons learned from each of these phases. Though the pilot phase showed feasibility, it resulted in modifications to data collection protocols and team and community member roles and expectations. Project HEAL offers a promising strategy to implement evidence-based interventions in community settings through the use of technology. There could be wider implications for chronic disease prevention and control.

  8. Interorganizational health care systems implementations: an exploratory study of early electronic commerce initiatives.

    PubMed

    Payton, F C; Ginzberg, M J

    2001-01-01

    Changing business practices, customers needs, and market dynamics have driven many organizations to implement interorganizational systems (IOSs). IOSs have been successfully implemented in the banking, cotton, airline, and consumer-goods industries, and recently attention has turned to the health care industry. This article describes an exploratory study of health care IOS implementations based on the voluntary community health information network (CHIN) model.

  9. Mothers' experience of caring for a child with early onset scoliosis: A qualitative descriptive study.

    PubMed

    Lauder, Bonnie; Sinclair, Peter M; Maguire, Jane

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to identify and describe the experience of parents of children diagnosed with early onset scoliosis living in Australia. Chronic childhood disease has a major impact on health-related quality of life. Caring for a child with a chronic illness is well documented but the specific experiences of parents who care for children with early onset scoliosis, a rare but devastating illness, has not been explored. Numerous studies have described the interrelated psychological, financial, social, physical and logistical factors that impact the experience of the caregiver role with various diseases, but in the case of early onset scoliosis, limited studies have been conducted about the parental experience. A qualitative descriptive design was used. A snowball sampling technique assisted in the recruitment. Parents invited to the study included mothers, fathers and guardians. Data were collected through semistructured interviews and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analysed thematically. Data collection complied with the Consolidated criteria for reporting qualitative research guidelines. Twelve mothers of children with early onset scoliosis were interviewed, as only mothers consented to participate. Four major themes emerged: emotional rollercoaster ride, a lack of resources, money talks and pervasive burden. Factors that impacted on the participants' ability to confront, manage and endure caring for a child with early onset scoliosis emerged from the data. The findings suggest there are multiple factors that influence the experience of mothers' caring for a child with early onset scoliosis. The recognition and appropriate management of these factors by healthcare professionals have the potential to improve the quality of life of parents who care for a child with early onset scoliosis. Healthcare professionals have first-line contact with parents of children with early onset scoliosis and are well placed to provide parents with evidence-based education

  10. Early implementation of WHO recommendations for the retention of health workers in remote and rural areas.

    PubMed

    Buchan, James; Couper, Ian D; Tangcharoensathien, Viroj; Thepannya, Khampasong; Jaskiewicz, Wanda; Perfilieva, Galina; Dolea, Carmen

    2013-11-01

    The maldistribution of health workers between urban and rural areas is a policy concern in virtually all countries. It prevents equitable access to health services, can contribute to increased health-care costs and underutilization of health professional skills in urban areas, and is a barrier to universal health coverage. To address this long-standing concern, the World Health Organization (WHO) has issued global recommendations to improve the rural recruitment and retention of the health workforce. This paper presents experiences with local and regional adaptation and adoption of WHO recommendations. It highlights challenges and lessons learnt in implementation in two countries - the Lao People's Democratic Republic and South Africa - and provides a broader perspective in two regions - Asia and Europe. At country level, the use of the recommendations facilitated a more structured and focused policy dialogue, which resulted in the development and adoption of more relevant and evidence-based policies. At regional level, the recommendations sparked a more sustained effort for cross-country policy assessment and joint learning. There is a need for impact assessment and evaluation that focus on the links between the rural availability of health workers and universal health coverage. The effects of any health-financing reforms on incentive structures for health workers will also have to be assessed if the central role of more equitably distributed health workers in achieving universal health coverage is to be supported.

  11. Redefining Authentic Research Experiences in Introductory Biology Laboratories and Barriers to Their Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Spell, Rachelle M.; Guinan, Judith A.; Miller, Kristen R.; Beck, Christopher W.

    2014-01-01

    Incorporating authentic research experiences in introductory biology laboratory classes would greatly expand the number of students exposed to the excitement of discovery and the rigor of the scientific process. However, the essential components of an authentic research experience and the barriers to their implementation in laboratory classes are poorly defined. To guide future reform efforts in this area, we conducted a national survey of biology faculty members to determine 1) their definitions of authentic research experiences in laboratory classes, 2) the extent of authentic research experiences currently experienced in their laboratory classes, and 3) the barriers that prevent incorporation of authentic research experiences into these classes. Strikingly, the definitions of authentic research experiences differ among faculty members and tend to emphasize either the scientific process or the discovery of previously unknown data. The low level of authentic research experiences in introductory biology labs suggests that more development and support is needed to increase undergraduate exposure to research experiences. Faculty members did not cite several barriers commonly assumed to impair pedagogical reform; however, their responses suggest that expanded support for development of research experiences in laboratory classes could address the most common barrier. PMID:24591509

  12. Redefining authentic research experiences in introductory biology laboratories and barriers to their implementation.

    PubMed

    Spell, Rachelle M; Guinan, Judith A; Miller, Kristen R; Beck, Christopher W

    2014-01-01

    Incorporating authentic research experiences in introductory biology laboratory classes would greatly expand the number of students exposed to the excitement of discovery and the rigor of the scientific process. However, the essential components of an authentic research experience and the barriers to their implementation in laboratory classes are poorly defined. To guide future reform efforts in this area, we conducted a national survey of biology faculty members to determine 1) their definitions of authentic research experiences in laboratory classes, 2) the extent of authentic research experiences currently experienced in their laboratory classes, and 3) the barriers that prevent incorporation of authentic research experiences into these classes. Strikingly, the definitions of authentic research experiences differ among faculty members and tend to emphasize either the scientific process or the discovery of previously unknown data. The low level of authentic research experiences in introductory biology labs suggests that more development and support is needed to increase undergraduate exposure to research experiences. Faculty members did not cite several barriers commonly assumed to impair pedagogical reform; however, their responses suggest that expanded support for development of research experiences in laboratory classes could address the most common barrier.

  13. What has changed in the evidence for early experience? Update of a BEME systematic review.

    PubMed

    Yardley, Sarah; Littlewood, Sonia; Margolis, Stephen A; Scherpbier, Albert; Spencer, John; Ypinazar, Valmae; Dornan, Tim

    2010-01-01

    We previously reviewed evidence published from 1992 to 2001 concerning early experience for healthcare undergraduates (Dornan T, Littlewood S, Margolis S, Scherpbier A, Spencer J, Ypinazar V. 2006. How can experience in clinical and community settings contribute to early medical education? A BEME systematic review. Med Teach 28:3-18). This subsequent study reviews evidence published from 2002 to 2008. Identify changes in the evidence base; determine the value of re-reviewing; set a future research agenda. The same search strategy as in the original review was repeated. Newly identified publications were critically appraised against the same benchmarks of strength and educational importance. Twenty-four new empirical studies of early authentic experience in education of health professionals met our inclusion criteria, yielding 96 outcomes. Sixty five outcomes (from 22 studies) were both educationally important and based on strong evidence. A new significant theme was found: the use of early experience to help students understand and align themselves with patient and community perspectives on illness and healthcare. More publications were now from outside Europe and North America. In addition to supporting the findings of our original review, this update shows an expansion in research sources, and a shift in research content focus. There are still questions, however, about how early authentic experience leads to particular learning outcomes and what will make it most educationally effective.

  14. Career Ladders and Teacher Incentives: The Utah Experiment. Part I: The Implementation. Final Report: Secretary's Discretionary Program Implementation Grant to Develop Teacher Incentive Structures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Ken; Kauchak, Don

    This volume, the first of two reports on development of teacher incentive structures, focuses on implementation of a career ladder design and teacher evaluation experiment in four Utah school districts. The report has five sections. Section 1 describes study background and implementation of an evaluation-reward system that featured data collection…

  15. Barriers and facilitators to implementing family support and education in Early Psychosis Intervention programmes: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Selick, Avra; Durbin, Janet; Vu, Nhi; O'Connor, Karen; Volpe, Tiziana; Lin, Elizabeth

    2017-10-01

    Family support is a core component of the Early Psychosis Intervention (EPI) model, yet it continues to have relatively low rates of implementation in practice. This paper reports results of a literature review on facilitators and barriers to delivering family interventions in EPI programmes. A search was conducted of 4 electronic databases, Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Joanna Briggs, from 2000 to 2015 using terms related to early onset psychosis, family work and implementation. Four thousand four hundred and two unique studies were identified, 7 of which met inclusion criteria. Barriers and facilitators were coded and aggregated to higher-level themes using a consensus approach. Five of 7 studies examined structured multifamily psychoeducation. Uptake by families was affected by: family/client interest and readiness to participate; ability to access supports; and support needs/preferences. Implementation by programmes was affected by staff access to training and resources to provide family support. A key finding across the identified studies was that families have different needs and preferences regarding the timing, length, intensity and content of the intervention. One size does not fit all and many families do not require the intensive psychoeducational programmes typically provided. The reviewed literature suggests that flexible, tiered approaches to care may better meet family needs and increase rates of uptake of family support. However, more research is needed on the effectiveness of different models of family support in early psychosis and how they can be successfully implemented. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  16. Tracking implementation strategies: a description of a practical approach and early findings.

    PubMed

    Bunger, Alicia C; Powell, Byron J; Robertson, Hillary A; MacDowell, Hannah; Birken, Sarah A; Shea, Christopher

    2017-02-23

    Published descriptions of implementation strategies often lack precision and consistency, limiting replicability and slowing accumulation of knowledge. Recent publication guidelines for implementation strategies call for improved description of the activities, dose, rationale and expected outcome(s) of strategies. However, capturing implementation strategies with this level of detail can be challenging, as responsibility for implementation is often diffuse and strategies may be flexibly applied as barriers and challenges emerge. We describe and demonstrate the development and application of a practical approach to identifying implementation strategies used in research and practice that could be used to guide their description and specification. An approach to tracking implementation strategies using activity logs completed by project personnel was developed to facilitate identification of discrete strategies. This approach was piloted in the context of a multi-component project to improve children's access to behavioural health services in a county-based child welfare agency. Key project personnel completed monthly activity logs that gathered data on strategies used over 17 months. Logs collected information about implementation activities, intent, duration and individuals involved. Using a consensus approach, two sets of coders categorised each activity based upon Powell et al.'s (Med Care Res Rev 69:123-57, 2012) taxonomy of implementation strategies. Participants reported on 473 activities, which represent 45 unique strategies. Initial implementation was characterised by planning strategies followed by educational strategies. After project launch, quality management strategies predominated, suggesting a progression of implementation over time. Together, these strategies accounted for 1594 person-hours, many of which were reported by the leadership team that was responsible for project design, implementation and oversight. This approach allows for identifying

  17. Health system strengthening: a qualitative evaluation of implementation experience and lessons learned across five African countries.

    PubMed

    Rwabukwisi, Felix Cyamatare; Bawah, Ayaga A; Gimbel, Sarah; Phillips, James F; Mutale, Wilbroad; Drobac, Peter

    2017-12-21

    Achieving the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals in sub-Saharan Africa will require substantial improvements in the coverage and performance of primary health care delivery systems. Projects supported by the Doris Duke Charitable Foundation's (DDCF) African Health Initiative (AHI) created public-private-academic and community partnerships in five African countries to implement and evaluate district-level health system strengthening interventions. In this study, we captured common implementation experiences and lessons learned to understand core elements of successful health systems interventions. We used qualitative data from key informant interviews and annual progress reports from the five Population Health Implementation and Training (PHIT) partnership projects funded through AHI in Ghana, Mozambique, Rwanda, Tanzania, and Zambia. Four major overarching lessons were highlighted. First, variety and inclusiveness of concerned key players (public, academic and private) are necessary to address complex health system issues at all levels. Second, a learning culture that promotes evidence creation and ability to efficiently adapt were key in order to meet changing contextual needs. Third, inclusion of strong implementation science tools and strategies allowed informed and measured learning processes and efficient dissemination of best practices. Fourth, five to seven years was the minimum time frame necessary to effectively implement complex health system strengthening interventions and generate the evidence base needed to advocate for sustainable change for the PHIT partnership projects. The AHI experience has raised remaining, if not overlooked, challenges and potential solutions to address complex health systems strengthening intervention designs and implementation issues, while aiming to measurably accomplish sustainable positive change in dynamic, learning, and varied contexts.

  18. Lived Experiences of Sex Life Difficulties in Men and Women with Early RA - The Swedish TIRA Project.

    PubMed

    Östlund, Gunnel; Björk, Mathilda; Valtersson, Eva; Sverker, Annette

    2015-12-01

    Men and women with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) experience restrictions in everyday life, in spite of the development of new medications. Recent research has described in detail how participation limitations are experienced in everyday life from a patient perspective. However, knowledge of how sex and intimate relationships are affected is still scarce. The aim of the present study was to explore sex life experiences in relation to sexual function and sexual relationships in men and women with early RA. The study formed part of TIRA-2 (the Swedish acronym for the prospective multicentre early arthritis project). The data collection included 45 interviews with 21 men and 24 women, aged 20-63, which were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The critical incident technique was used to collect data, and content analysis to categorize the results. Half the participants stated that RA affected their sex life. The general descriptions formed five categories: sex life and tiredness; sex life and ageing; emotional consequences of impaired sexual function; facilitators of sexual function and sexual relationships; and strain on the sexual relationship. Sex life is affected in early RA, in spite of new effective treatment strategies. New strategies of communication, assessment and self-managing interventions concerning the sex lives of patients with RA need to be implemented by a multidisciplinary healthcare team. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Nurse Leaders’ Experiences of Implementing Career Advancement Programs for Nurses in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sheikhi, Mohammad Reza; Khoshknab, Masoud Fallahi; Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Oskouie, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose: Career advancement programs are currently implemented in many countries. In Iran, the first career advancement program was Nurses’ Career Advancement Pathway. The purpose of this study was to explore nurse leaders’ experiences about implementing the Nurses’ Career Advancement Pathway program in Iran. Methods: This exploratory qualitative study was conducted in 2013. Sixteen nurse managers were recruited from the teaching hospitals affiliated to Shahid Behesthi, Qazvin, and Iran Universities of Medical Sciences in Iran. Participants were recruited using purposive sampling method. Study data were collected through in-depth semi-structured interviews. The conventional content analysis approach was used for data analysis. Results: participants’ experiences about implementing the Nurses’ Career Advancement Pathway fell into three main categories including: a) the shortcomings of performance evaluation, b) greater emphasis on point accumulation, c) the advancement-latitude mismatch. Conclusion: The Nurses’ Career Advancement pathway has several shortcomings regarding both its content and its implementation. Therefore, it is recommended to revise the program. PMID:26156907

  20. Experience implementing energy standards for commercial buildings and its lessons for the Philippines

    SciT

    Busch, John; Deringer, Joseph

    1998-10-01

    Energy efficiency standards for buildings have been adopted in over forty countries. This policy mechanism is pursued by governments as a means of increasing energy efficiency in the buildings sector, which typically accounts for about a third of most nations' energy consumption and half of their electricity consumption. This study reports on experience with implementation of energy standards for commercial buildings in a number of countries and U.S. states. It is conducted from the perspective of providing useful input to the Government of the Philippines' (GOP) current effort at implementing their building energy standard. While the impetus for this workmore » is technical assistance to the Philippines, the intent is to shed light on the broader issues attending implementation of building energy standards that would be applicable there and elsewhere. The background on the GOP building energy standard is presented, followed by the objectives for the study, the approach used to collect and analyze information about other jurisdictions' implementation experience, results, and conclusions and recommendations.« less

  1. Implementation of an object oriented track reconstruction model into multiple LHC experiments*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaines, Irwin; Gonzalez, Saul; Qian, Sijin

    2001-10-01

    An Object Oriented (OO) model (Gaines et al., 1996; 1997; Gaines and Qian, 1998; 1999) for track reconstruction by the Kalman filtering method has been designed for high energy physics experiments at high luminosity hadron colliders. The model has been coded in the C++ programming language and has been successfully implemented into the OO computing environments of both the CMS (1994) and ATLAS (1994) experiments at the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. We shall report: how the OO model was adapted, with largely the same code, to different scenarios and serves the different reconstruction aims in different experiments (i.e. the level-2 trigger software for ATLAS and the offline software for CMS); how the OO model has been incorporated into different OO environments with a similar integration structure (demonstrating the ease of re-use of OO program); what are the OO model's performance, including execution time, memory usage, track finding efficiency and ghost rate, etc.; and additional physics performance based on use of the OO tracking model. We shall also mention the experience and lessons learned from the implementation of the OO model into the general OO software framework of the experiments. In summary, our practice shows that the OO technology really makes the software development and the integration issues straightforward and convenient; this may be particularly beneficial for the general non-computer-professional physicists.

  2. Implementation Of The Configurable Fault Tolerant System Experiment On NPSAT 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE CONFIGURABLE FAULT TOLERANT SYSTEM EXPERIMENT ON NPSAT...open-source microprocessor without interlocked pipeline stages (MIPS) based processor softcore, a cached memory structure capable of accessing double...data rate type three and secure digital card memories, an interface to the main satellite bus, and XILINX’s soft error mitigation softcore. The

  3. Implementing an integrated engineering data base system: A developer's experience and the application to IPAD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruce, E. A.

    1980-01-01

    The software developed by the IPAD project, a new and very powerful tool for the implementation of integrated Computer Aided Design (CAD) systems in the aerospace engineering community, is discussed. The IPAD software is a tool and, as such, can be well applied or misapplied in any particular environment. The many benefits of an integrated CAD system are well documented, but there are few such systems in existence, especially in the mechanical engineering disciplines, and therefore little available experience to guide the implementor.

  4. STAR - Research Experiences at National Laboratory Facilities for Pre-Service and Early Career Teachers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, J. M.; Rebar, B.; Buxner, S.

    2012-12-01

    The STEM Teacher and Researcher (STAR) Program provides pre-service and beginning teachers the opportunity to develop identity as both teachers and researchers early in their careers. Founded and implemented by the Center for Excellence in Science and Mathematics Education (CESaME) at California Polytechnic State University on behalf of the California State University (CSU) system, STAR provides cutting edge research experiences and career development for students affiliated with the CSU system. Over the past three summers, STAR has also partnered with the NSF Robert Noyce Teacher Scholarship Program to include Noyce Scholars from across the country. Key experiences are one to three summers of paid research experience at federal research facilities associated with the Department of Energy (DOE), National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Association (NOAA), and the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO). Anchoring beginning teachers in the research community enhances participant understanding of what it means to be both researchers and effective teachers. Since its inception in 2007, the STAR Program has partnered with 15 national lab facilities to provide 290 research experiences to 230 participants. Several of the 68 STAR Fellows participating in the program during Summer 2012 have submitted abstracts to the Fall AGU Meeting. Through continued partnership with the Noyce Scholar Program and contributions from outside funding sources, the CSU is committed to sustaining the STAR Program in its efforts to significantly impact teacher preparation. Evaluation results from the program continue to indicate program effectiveness in recruiting high quality science and math majors into the teaching profession and impacting their attitudes and beliefs towards the nature of science and teaching through inquiry. Additionally, surveys and interviews are being conducted of participants who are now teaching in the classroom as

  5. Flood Early Warning in Bridge Management System: from idea to implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerin, Igor; Bekić, Damir; Michalis, Panagiotis; Šolman, Hrvoje; Cahill, Paul; Gilja, Gordon; Pakrashi, Vikram; Lapthorne, John; McKeogh, Eamon

    2017-04-01

    Recent advances in computational speed, cloud systems and GPRS data are some of the factors that have resulted in an increased number of operational and fully automatized Flood Early Warning Systems (FEWS). Flood forecasting is becoming a well-recognised solution for flood management as an indirect measure for minimising the risk should preventive or defence measures prove ineffective or are not feasible for implementation. Public acceptance of FEWS as a standalone solution is still considered to be at low level. Further public engagement regarding engineering risks and providing timely notifications and warnings can, however, establish the true value of such a system to the society in general. Flood risks can be direct, resulting in damage to buildings, infrastructure and natural resources, or indirect, which can be related to disaster losses leading to declines in commercial output or revenue and impact on wellbeing of people, typically from disruptions to the flow of goods and services. Flood risk and structural risks are closely related, thereby impacting the maintenance and management of bridges assets over watercourses. Many studies indicate that most bridge collapses are related to hydraulic effects and consequently scour issues (i.e. the removal of riverbed around bridge foundations due to flowing water). Consequently, hydraulic, hydrologic and geotechnical expertise and knowledge can lead to introducing FEWS as a key tool for Bridge Scour Management System (BSMS), forming a part of a BMS. The implementation of this concept was initiated with the EU/FP7 funded project BRIDGE SMS. The project introduces BSMS into the overall BMS to develop a reliable decision support tool which would efficiently manage bridge failure risks in a cost-effective way. This is accomplished through the development of FEWS, alongside monitoring systems that can provide important information about environmental and structural conditions at the catchment area and bridge site

  6. Trajectories of Early Childhood Developmental Skills and Early Adolescent Psychotic Experiences: Findings from the ALSPAC UK Birth Cohort.

    PubMed

    Hameed, Mohajer A; Lingam, Raghu; Zammit, Stanley; Salvi, Giovanni; Sullivan, Sarah; Lewis, Andrew J

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to use prospective data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) to examine association between trajectories of early childhood developmental skills and psychotic experiences (PEs) in early adolescence. Method: This study examined data from n = 6790 children from the ALSPAC cohort who participated in a semi-structured interview to assess PEs at age 12. Child development was measured using parental report at 6, 18, 30, and 42 months of age using a questionnaire of items adapted from the Denver Developmental Screening Test - II. Latent class growth analysis was used to generate trajectories over time for measures of fine and gross motor development, social, and communication skills. Logistic regression was used to investigate associations between developmental trajectories in each of these early developmental domains and PEs at age 12. Results: The results provided evidence that decline rather than enduringly poor social (adjusted OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.10-1.92, p = 0.044) and communication skills (adjusted OR 1.12, 95% CI = 1.03-1.22, p = 0.010) is predictive of suspected or definite PEs in early adolescence, than those with stable and/or improving skills. Motor skills did not display the same pattern of association; although gender specific effects provided evidence that only declining pattern of fine motor skills was associated with suspected and definite PEs in males compared to females (interaction OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.09-1.97, p = 0.012). Conclusion: Findings suggest that decline rather than persistent impairment in social and communication skills were most predictive of PEs in early adolescence. Findings are discussed in terms of study's strengths, limitations, and clinical implications.

  7. Trajectories of Early Childhood Developmental Skills and Early Adolescent Psychotic Experiences: Findings from the ALSPAC UK Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Hameed, Mohajer A.; Lingam, Raghu; Zammit, Stanley; Salvi, Giovanni; Sullivan, Sarah; Lewis, Andrew J.

    2018-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to use prospective data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) to examine association between trajectories of early childhood developmental skills and psychotic experiences (PEs) in early adolescence. Method: This study examined data from n = 6790 children from the ALSPAC cohort who participated in a semi-structured interview to assess PEs at age 12. Child development was measured using parental report at 6, 18, 30, and 42 months of age using a questionnaire of items adapted from the Denver Developmental Screening Test – II. Latent class growth analysis was used to generate trajectories over time for measures of fine and gross motor development, social, and communication skills. Logistic regression was used to investigate associations between developmental trajectories in each of these early developmental domains and PEs at age 12. Results: The results provided evidence that decline rather than enduringly poor social (adjusted OR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.10–1.92, p = 0.044) and communication skills (adjusted OR 1.12, 95% CI = 1.03–1.22, p = 0.010) is predictive of suspected or definite PEs in early adolescence, than those with stable and/or improving skills. Motor skills did not display the same pattern of association; although gender specific effects provided evidence that only declining pattern of fine motor skills was associated with suspected and definite PEs in males compared to females (interaction OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.09–1.97, p = 0.012). Conclusion: Findings suggest that decline rather than persistent impairment in social and communication skills were most predictive of PEs in early adolescence. Findings are discussed in terms of study’s strengths, limitations, and clinical implications. PMID:29375433

  8. Management experiences and trends for water reuse implementation in Northern California.

    PubMed

    Bischel, Heather N; Simon, Gregory L; Frisby, Tammy M; Luthy, Richard G

    2012-01-03

    In 2010, California fell nearly 300,000 acre-ft per year (AFY) short of its goal to recycle 1,000,000 AFY of municipal wastewater. Growth of recycled water in the 48 Northern California counties represented only 20% of the statewide increase in reuse between 2001 and 2009. To evaluate these trends and experiences, major drivers and challenges that influenced the implementation of recycled water programs in Northern California are presented based on a survey of 71 program managers conducted in 2010. Regulatory requirements limiting discharge, cited by 65% of respondents as a driver for program implementation, historically played an important role in motivating many water reuse programs in the region. More recently, pressures from limited water supplies and needs for system reliability are prevalent drivers. Almost half of respondents (49%) cited ecological protection or enhancement goals as drivers for implementation. However, water reuse for direct benefit of natural systems and wildlife habitat represents just 6-7% of total recycling in Northern California and few financial incentives exist for such projects. Economic challenges are the greatest barrier to successful project implementation. In particular, high costs of distribution systems (pipelines) are especially challenging, with $1 to 3 million/mile costs experienced. Negative perceptions of water reuse were cited by only 26% of respondents as major hindrances to implementation of surveyed programs.

  9. Implementing an Early Intervention Program for Residential Students Who Present with Suicide Risk: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivero, Estela M.; Cimini, M. Dolores; Bernier, Joseph E.; Stanley, Judith A.; Murray, Andrea D.; Anderson, Drew A.; Wright, Heidi R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This case study examined the effects of an early intervention program designed to respond to residential college students demonstrating risk for suicide. Participants: Participants were 108 undergraduates at a large northeastern public university referred to an early intervention program subsequent to presenting with risk factors for…

  10. State Early Childhood Advisory Councils: An Overview of Implementation across the States. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NGA Center for Best Practices, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Nearly all governors have designated a state early childhood advisory council to advise policymakers in the state on how to best meet the needs of children from birth to school entry. Early childhood advisory councils in the states vary in their structure and scope, but all of them provide recommendations on improving the quality, availability,…

  11. An Evaluation of the Implementation of Early Childhood Education Curriculum in Osun State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okewole, Johnson Oludele; Abuovbo, Iluezi-Ogbedu Veronica; Abosede, Osinowo Olufunke

    2015-01-01

    Early Childhood Education as a subject in primary schools in Nigeria was first noticed among the private primary schools in the 80s while the public primary schools did not incorporate it in their curriculum in Nigeria. Of recent, some state governments in Nigeria have just adopted and organized early childhood education unit into their primary…

  12. K-6 Early Intervention Project: Evaluation of the First Year of Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaid, Janet L.

    California's K-6 Early Intervention Project was established in 1986 under the authority of California Assembly Bill 1535, Pilot Project on Hyperactivity, to provide a system of early identification and assistance to children in kindergarten through grade 6 whose behavior problems interfere with learning. This report contains evaluation findings…

  13. Separation, failure and temporary relinquishment: women's experiences of early mothering in the context of emergency hysterectomy.

    PubMed

    Elmir, Rakime; Schmied, Virginia; Wilkes, Lesley; Jackson, Debra

    2012-04-01

    To describe the experiences of women who have had an emergency hysterectomy following a severe postpartum haemorrhage and the impact on their early mothering experiences. Postpartum haemorrhage and subsequent hysterectomy is a traumatic birth event. Traumatic birth experiences have the potential to impact on a woman's experience of motherhood and her initial relationship with her baby. The relative rarity of this event makes it easy to dismiss the experiences of women having a hysterectomy following childbirth. Little is known about a woman's early mothering experience in the context of having an emergency hysterectomy. Qualitative naturalistic inquiry approach. Data were collected through semi-structured qualitative interviews from 21 Australian women who had an emergency hysterectomy following a severe postpartum haemorrhage. Findings revealed three themes in relation to early mothering experiences in the context of having a hysterectomy following a severe postpartum haemorrhage. They were 'initial separation: lost bonding time', 'feelings of failure' and 'relinquishing care of the infant'. This paper highlights the ways undergoing emergency hysterectomy following childbirth can impact on the experience of early mothering in the postnatal period. Greater recognition and attention to the specific needs of women who have an emergency hysterectomy following childbirth is required. Providing women with an opportunity to talk, debrief and ask questions related to their birthing experiences, will help women to reconcile their feelings. Giving women the opportunity to have their infants with them in intensive care unit, together with ongoing emotional support and anticipatory guidance, may also be useful approaches in assisting women during this difficult and traumatic time. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Improved outcomes after successful implementation of a pediatric early warning system (PEWS) in a resource-limited pediatric oncology hospital.

    PubMed

    Agulnik, Asya; Mora Robles, Lupe Nataly; Forbes, Peter W; Soberanis Vasquez, Doris Judith; Mack, Ricardo; Antillon-Klussmann, Federico; Kleinman, Monica; Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos

    2017-08-01

    Hospitalized pediatric oncology patients are at high risk of clinical decline and mortality, particularly in resource-limited settings. Pediatric early warning systems (PEWS) aid in the early identification of clinical deterioration; however, there are limited data regarding their feasibility or impact in low-resource settings. This study describes the successful implementation of PEWS at the Unidad Nacional de Oncología Pediátrica (UNOP), a pediatric oncology hospital in Guatemala, resulting in improved inpatient outcomes. A modified PEWS was implemented at UNOP with systems to track errors, transfers to a higher level of care, and high scores. A retrospective cohort study was used to evaluate clinical deterioration events in the year before and after PEWS implementation. After PEWS implementation at UNOP, there was 100% compliance with PEWS documentation and an error rate of <10%. Implementation resulted in 5 high PEWS per week, with 30% of patients transferring to a higher level of care. Among patients requiring transfer to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU), 93% had an abnormal PEWS before transfer. The rate of clinical deterioration events decreased after PEWS implementation (9.3 vs 6.5 per 1000-hospitalpatient-days, p = .003). Despite an 18% increase in total hospital patient-days, PICU utilization for inpatient transfers decreased from 1376 to 1088 PICU patient-days per year (21% decrease; P<.001). This study describes the successful implementation of PEWS in a pediatric oncology hospital in Guatemala, resulting in decreased inpatient clinical deterioration events and PICU utilization. This work demonstrates that PEWS is a feasible and effective quality improvement measure to improve hospital care for children with cancer in hospitals with limited resources. Cancer 2017;123:2965-74. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  15. Early Adversity and Developmental Outcomes: Interaction Between Genetics, Epigenetics, and Social Experiences Across the Life Span.

    PubMed

    Champagne, Frances A

    2010-09-01

    Longitudinal studies in humans demonstrate the association between prenatal and postnatal experiences of adversity and long-term changes in neurodevelopment. These studies raise the question of how experiences become incorporated at a biological level to induce persistent changes in functioning. Laboratory studies using animal models and recent analyses in human cohorts implicate epigenetic mechanisms as a possible route through which these environmental effects are achieved. In particular, there is evidence that changes in DNA methylation are associated with early life experiences with consequences for gene expression and behavior. Despite the potential stability of DNA methylation, it is apparent that this epigenetic mark can be dynamically modified through pharmacological targeting and behavioral experiences. Developmental plasticity may also be achieved through modification of the juvenile environment. Although these juvenile experiences may lead to common endpoints, there is evidence suggesting that the effects of early and later life experiences may be achieved by different molecular pathways. This review discusses evidence for the role of epigenetic mechanisms in shaping developmental trajectories in response to early life experience as well as the potential plasticity that can occur beyond the perinatal period. These studies have implications for approaches to intervention and suggest the importance of considering individual differences in genetic and epigenetic vulnerability in developing treatment strategies. © The Author(s) 2010.

  16. Exposure to a mildly aversive early life experience leads to prefrontal cortex deficits in the rat.

    PubMed

    Stamatakis, Antonios; Manatos, Vasileios; Kalpachidou, Theodora; Stylianopoulou, Fotini

    2016-11-01

    Aversive early life experiences in humans have been shown to result in deficits in the function of the prefrontal cortex (PFC). In an effort to elucidate possible neurobiological mechanisms involved, we investigated in rats, the effects of a mildly aversive early experience on PFC structure and function. The early experience involved exposure of rat pups during postnatal days (PND) 10-13 to a T-maze in which they search for their mother, but upon finding her are prohibited contact with her, thus being denied the expected reward (DER). We found that the DER experience resulted in adulthood in impaired PFC function, as assessed by two PFC-dependent behavioral tests [attention set-shifting task (ASST) and fear extinction]. In the ASST, DER animals showed deficits specifically in the intra-dimensional reversal shifts and a lower activation-as determined by c-Fos immunohistochemistry-of the medial orbital cortex (MO), a PFC subregion involved in this aspect of the task. Furthermore, the DER experience resulted in decreased glutamatergic neuron and dendritic spine density in the MO and infralimbic cortex (IL) in the adult brain. The decreased neuronal density was detected as early as PND12 and was accompanied by increased micro- and astroglia-density in the MO/IL.

  17. Charting New Territory: Early Implementation of the Workforce Investment Act. Field Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Maria L.

    This report highlights issues for policymakers and provides guidance to states and localities implementing the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 (WIA) by describing the successes and struggles of five cities implementing the new legislation. It presents WIA's basic framework and discusses its impact on these four major audiences: employment and…

  18. Coaching Early Childhood Special Educators to Implement a Comprehensive Model for Promoting Young Children's Social Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Lise; Hemmeter, Mary; Snyder, Patricia; Binder, Denise Perez; Clarke, Shelley

    2011-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests the importance of practitioners implementing promotion, prevention, and intervention practices to foster children's social-emotional competence and address challenging behavior within schools. Limited research exists, however, on how to support teachers of school-age children to implement with fidelity comprehensive…

  19. [Emotional experience of early traumatic experiences and relationship-specific attachment styles in alcohol-dependent patients].

    PubMed

    Hebein, Ursula; Quantschnig, Bettina; Andreas, Sylke

    2018-03-01

    Emotional experience of early traumatic experiences and relationship-specific attachment styles in alcohol-dependent patients Objectives: The present investigation studied the differences in emotional experiences among alcohol-dependent patients in inpatient psychotherapy, taking into account their traumatic experiences and relationship-specific attachment styles. Three standardized instruments were used on this clinical sample of 70 patients in inpatient psychotherapy: (1) Scales for Experiencing Emotions (SEE), (2) Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), (3) Relationship-Specific Attachment Scales for Adults (RASA). The results showed that traumatic experiences in childhood and adolescence as well as relationship-specific attachment styles were indeed associated with deficits in emotional experience and regulation. Especially emotional abuse was associated with deficits in emotional experience. An insecure attachment style was associated with a lower level of acceptance of emotions, a lower level of self-control, and dysfunctional emotion regulation. In particular, the attachment style to the mother seems to be important. These results suggest that a distinction of alcohol-addicted patients, with respect to attachment styles and traumatic experiences in childhood and adolescent, seems to be important in order to define specific interventions to improve the ability to regulate emotions.

  20. Implementing and evaluating early intervention for children with autism: Where are the gaps and what should we do?

    PubMed

    Vivanti, Giacomo; Kasari, Connie; Green, Jonathan; Mandell, David; Maye, Melissa; Hudry, Kristelle

    2018-01-01

    Despite recent advances, the evidence base supporting early intervention for young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) remains relatively sparse. The International Society for Autism Research (INSAR) recently sponsored a Special Interest Group (SIG) on Implementing and Evaluating Community-Based Early Intervention. Across three meetings, in 2015, 2016, and 2017, conveners of this SIG engaged >200 members to identify knowledge gaps and research priorities for moving the field forward. Here, we summarize the perspectives that emerged from group discussion at the SIG meetings as represented by scholars working actively in the field. Despite encouraging progress, critical gaps and research priorities were identified across all the stages of intervention development and testing from conceptualization to community implementation. Key issues include the need for (a) formal theories to guide early intervention development, evaluation, and implementation; and alignment of intervention goals with scientific knowledge and societal changes that have occurred in the decades since interventions were originally developed; (b) increased focus on feasibility of treatment procedures and alignment with stakeholder values during pilot evaluations; (c) use of research designs that allow for comparisons of different interventions and formats, analyses of active ingredients of treatment, and identification of moderators and mediators of outcome; (d) use of community-partnered participatory research to guide adaptation of intervention models to community settings; (e) inclusion of constructs related to implementation processes and outcomes in treatment trials and; (f) an iterative approach to the progression of knowledge from intervention development to implementation. Autism Res 2018, 11: 16-23. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. In this article, we summarize the themes discussed at the INSAR Special Interest Group (SIG) on Implementing

  1. Effects of Cyberbullying Experience and Cyberbullying Tendency on School Violence in Early Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Mi-Kyoung; Kim, Miyoung

    2017-01-01

    Background: School violence in early adolescence, whose frequency and status have recently changed significantly. Objective: This study attempts to detect the cyber bullying inclination of youth in early adolescence when aggressiveness reaches its peak, to identify school violence, and to develop a school violence prevention program. Method: This study was a survey research, investigating participants who were 470 middle school students in South Korea. For the analysis, independent t-test, one-way ANOVA and hierarchical regression analysis. Results: It is suggested that the school violence victimization experience and cyber bullying infliction experience has an influence in the school violence infliction. And the cyber bullying victimization experience and school violence victimization experience variables exert effects. Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that school nurses who are connecting to the community-school-home should take an active part in the development of school violence mediation education program, considering the cultural characteristics of the country. PMID:29081871

  2. Early experiences in establishing a regional quantitative imaging network for PET/CT clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Doot, Robert K; Thompson, Tove; Greer, Benjamin E; Allberg, Keith C; Linden, Hannah M; Mankoff, David A; Kinahan, Paul E

    2012-11-01

    The Seattle Cancer Care Alliance (SCCA) is a Pacific Northwest regional network that enables patients from community cancer centers to participate in multicenter oncology clinical trials where patients can receive some trial-related procedures at their local center. Results of positron emission tomography (PET) scans performed at community cancer centers are not currently used in SCCA Network trials since clinical trials customarily accept results from only trial-accredited PET imaging centers located at academic and large hospitals. Oncologists would prefer the option of using standard clinical PET scans from Network sites in multicenter clinical trials to increase accrual of patients for whom additional travel requirements for imaging are a barrier to recruitment. In an effort to increase accrual of rural and other underserved populations to Network trials, researchers and clinicians at the University of Washington, SCCA and its Network are assessing the feasibility of using PET scans from all Network sites in their oncology clinical trials. A feasibility study is required because the reproducibility of multicenter PET measurements ranges from approximately 3% to 40% at national academic centers. Early experiences from both national and local PET phantom imaging trials are discussed, and next steps are proposed for including patient PET scans from the emerging regional quantitative imaging network in clinical trials. There are feasible methods to determine and characterize PET quantitation errors and improve data quality by either prospective scanner calibration or retrospective post hoc corrections. These methods should be developed and implemented in multicenter clinical trials employing quantitative PET imaging of patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Implementation of an intraoperative clinical experience for senior level baccalaureate nursing students.

    PubMed

    Mott, Jason

    2012-04-01

    Perioperative nursing is a specialty that has been eliminated from many nursing education programs. With the loss of perioperative clinical experiences, the number of students pursuing a career in perioperative nursing after graduation has declined. A faculty member at one Midwestern school of nursing developed and implemented a perioperative clinical experience for senior-level baccalaureate nursing students in a critical care nursing course. This program, developed with the assistance of four local hospitals and the college of nursing, included an eight-hour OR orientation and 56 clinical hours. Students were placed in the OR under preceptor guidance and supervision. Feedback from evaluations was positive and provided recommendations for improving the program, in particular, to allow more clinical hours and more hands-on experience for the students. Copyright © 2012 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Implementation of a Project Management Office (PMO)--experiences from year 1.

    PubMed

    Isola, Miriam; Polikaitis, Audrius; Laureto, Rose Ann

    2006-01-01

    Recognized as an early leader in clinical information systems, the University of Illinois Medical Center was challenged to meet the ever-increasing demand for information systems. Interviews with key stakeholders revealed unfavorable attitudes toward the Information Services department. Reasons given were that projects often are not aligned with business strategy, projects are delayed, IS itself is a barrier to progress, and a lack of proactive planning precipitates crises. Under the leadership of a new CIO, IS began developing a Project Management Office, or PMO, to better meet medical center business objectives and to more effectively manage technology projects. Successes during the first year included comprehensive IT strategic planning. Collaborative relationships were established with departmental leaders for planning, prioritizing, budgeting, and executing projects. A formal Web-based process for requesting IS projects was implemented, project management training was provided, and elements of standard project management methodology were implemented. While a framework for effective project management was created, significant effort is still required to firmly root these new processes within the organizational culture. Project management office goals for the second year include implementing a project portfolio management tool, refining the benefits methodology, and continuing the advancement of the project management methodology.

  5. Implementing National System of Health Research Ethics Regulations: The Nigerian Experience

    PubMed Central

    Adebamowo, Clement A.

    2013-01-01

    Efforts by Nigerian authorities to institutionalize health research dates back to the early 70's with the establishment of the Medical Research Council. Subsequently efforts to strengthen a national health research system in line with the concept of Essential National Health Research (ENHR) were made but albeit un-successfully. This may have been as a result of poor political support, and lack of regulations to promote health research in the country. However little is known about health research regulations and their implementation in Nigeria. Health and health research in Nigeria is not regulated via a set of clearly defined legislation. While the country has developed a regulation document for health research ethics, compliance to this document is likely to be affected by the lack of legislation in for the health system as an entity. In this paper we narrate the developments in health, health research, and health regulations; we describe process for, and extent of implementation of the National Code of Health Research Ethics. We conclude that several factors affect the extent of implementation of the ethics code amongst which legislation is an important one. PMID:24324978

  6. Implementing National System of Health Research Ethics Regulations: The Nigerian Experience.

    PubMed

    Yakubu, Aminu; Adebamowo, Clement A

    2012-01-01

    Efforts by Nigerian authorities to institutionalize health research dates back to the early 70's with the establishment of the Medical Research Council. Subsequently efforts to strengthen a national health research system in line with the concept of Essential National Health Research (ENHR) were made but albeit un-successfully. This may have been as a result of poor political support, and lack of regulations to promote health research in the country. However little is known about health research regulations and their implementation in Nigeria. Health and health research in Nigeria is not regulated via a set of clearly defined legislation. While the country has developed a regulation document for health research ethics, compliance to this document is likely to be affected by the lack of legislation in for the health system as an entity. In this paper we narrate the developments in health, health research, and health regulations; we describe process for, and extent of implementation of the National Code of Health Research Ethics. We conclude that several factors affect the extent of implementation of the ethics code amongst which legislation is an important one.

  7. Taking Ownership: The Implementation of a Non-Aboriginal Early Education Programme for on-Reserve Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatch, Michelle; Le Mare, Lucy

    2007-01-01

    In this qualitative study, over the period of one year, we assessed the appropriateness of a mainstream early childhood education intervention, the Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngsters (HIPPY) programme, in five on-reserve First Nations communities, by focusing on the experiences of the Aboriginal women who delivered the programme.…

  8. Implementation of the Early Start Denver Model in an Italian community.

    PubMed

    Colombi, Costanza; Narzisi, Antonio; Ruta, Liliana; Cigala, Virginia; Gagliano, Antonella; Pioggia, Giovanni; Siracusano, Rosamaria; Rogers, Sally J; Muratori, Filippo

    2018-02-01

    Identifying effective, community-based specialized interventions for young children with autism spectrum disorder is an international clinical and research priority. We evaluated the effectiveness of the Early Start Denver Model intervention in a group of young children with autism spectrum disorder living in an Italian community compared to a group of Italian children who received treatment as usual. A total of 22 young children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder received the Early Start Denver Model in a center-based context for 6 h per week over 6 months. The Early Start Denver Model group was compared to a group of 70 young children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder who received treatment as usual for an average of 5.2 h over 6 months. Children in both groups improved in cognitive, adaptive, and social skills after 3 months and 6 months of treatment. Children in the Early Start Denver Model group made larger gains in cognitive and social skills after 3 and 6 months of treatment. The Early Start Denver Model group made larger gains in adaptive skills after 3 months of treatment. Our results are discussed in terms of implications for intervention research and clinical practice. Our study supports the positive impact of the Early Start Denver Model in a non-English-speaking community.

  9. NHS Diabetes Prevention Programme in England: formative evaluation of the programme in early phase implementation.

    PubMed

    Penn, Linda; Rodrigues, Angela; Haste, Anna; Marques, Marta M; Budig, Kirsten; Sainsbury, Kirby; Bell, Ruth; Araújo-Soares, Vera; White, Martin; Summerbell, Carolyn; Goyder, Elizabeth; Brennan, Alan; Adamson, Ashley J; Sniehotta, Falko F

    2018-02-21

    Evaluation of the demonstrator phase and first wave roll-out of the National Health Service (NHS) Diabetes Prevention Programme (DPP) in England. To examine: (1) intervention design, provision and fidelity assessment procedures; (2) risk assessment and recruitment pathways and (3) data collection for monitoring and evaluation. To provide recommendations informing decision makers on programme quality, improvements and future evaluation. We reviewed programme documents, mapping against the NHS DPP specification and National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) public health guideline: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) prevention in people at high risk (PH38), conducted qualitative research using individual interviews and focus group discussions with stakeholders and examined recruitment, fidelity and data collection procedures. Seven NHS DPP demonstrator sites and, subsequently, 27 first wave areas across England. Intensive behavioural intervention with weight loss, diet and physical activity goals. The national programme specifies at least 13 sessions over 9 months, delivered face to face to groups of 15-20 adults with non-diabetic hyperglycaemia, mainly recruited from primary care and NHS Health Checks. Participants for qualitative research were purposively sampled to provide a spread of stakeholder experience. Documents for review were provided via the NHS DPP Management Group. The NHS DPP specification reflected current evidence with a clear framework for service provision. Providers, with national capacity to deliver, supplied intervention plans compliant with this framework. Stakeholders highlighted limitations in fidelity assessment and recruitment and retention challenges, especially in reach and equity, that could adversely impact on implementation. Risk assessment for first wave eligibility differed from NICE guidance. The NHS DPP provides an evidence-based behavioural intervention for prevention of T2D in adults at high risk, with capacity to deliver

  10. NHS Diabetes Prevention Programme in England: formative evaluation of the programme in early phase implementation

    PubMed Central

    Penn, Linda; Rodrigues, Angela; Haste, Anna; Marques, Marta M; Budig, Kirsten; Sainsbury, Kirby; Bell, Ruth; Araújo-Soares, Vera; White, Martin; Summerbell, Carolyn; Goyder, Elizabeth; Brennan, Alan; Adamson, Ashley J; Sniehotta, Falko F

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Evaluation of the demonstrator phase and first wave roll-out of the National Health Service (NHS) Diabetes Prevention Programme (DPP) in England. To examine: (1) intervention design, provision and fidelity assessment procedures; (2) risk assessment and recruitment pathways and (3) data collection for monitoring and evaluation. To provide recommendations informing decision makers on programme quality, improvements and future evaluation. Design We reviewed programme documents, mapping against the NHS DPP specification and National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) public health guideline: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) prevention in people at high risk (PH38), conducted qualitative research using individual interviews and focus group discussions with stakeholders and examined recruitment, fidelity and data collection procedures. Setting Seven NHS DPP demonstrator sites and, subsequently, 27 first wave areas across England. Interventions Intensive behavioural intervention with weight loss, diet and physical activity goals. The national programme specifies at least 13 sessions over 9 months, delivered face to face to groups of 15–20 adults with non-diabetic hyperglycaemia, mainly recruited from primary care and NHS Health Checks. Participants Participants for qualitative research were purposively sampled to provide a spread of stakeholder experience. Documents for review were provided via the NHS DPP Management Group. Findings The NHS DPP specification reflected current evidence with a clear framework for service provision. Providers, with national capacity to deliver, supplied intervention plans compliant with this framework. Stakeholders highlighted limitations in fidelity assessment and recruitment and retention challenges, especially in reach and equity, that could adversely impact on implementation. Risk assessment for first wave eligibility differed from NICE guidance. Conclusions The NHS DPP provides an evidence-based behavioural intervention

  11. The Social Experience of Early Childhood for Children with Learning Disabilities: Inclusion, Competence and Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nind, Melanie; Flewitt, Rosie; Payler, Jane

    2010-01-01

    This paper tells of the social experiences of three four-year-old children with learning disabilities as they negotiate their daily lives in their homes and early education settings in England. We apply a social model of childhood disability to the relatively unexplored territory of young children and use vignettes drawn from video observation to…

  12. Voices from the Other Side of the Fence: Early Childhood Teachers' Experiences with Mandatory Regulatory Requirements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bown, Kathryn; Sumsion, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    Guided by feminist research principles, the study reported in this article contributes to the growing research dialogue on early childhood teachers' experiences with, and perceptions of, the impact of regulatory requirements on their teaching and on their perceptions of themselves as professionals. Specifically, three teachers from metropolitan…

  13. Perinatal Experiences: The Association of Stress, Childbearing, Breastfeeding, and Early Mothering

    PubMed Central

    Humenick, Sharron S.; Howell, Olivia S.

    2003-01-01

    The support of women and their families through childbirth, breastfeeding, and early parenting experiences are often treated as separate areas of maternity care. In fact, growing evidence, as cited in this article, links their intertwined impact on the health of mothers, infants, and their families. PMID:17273350

  14. Early Experience and the Development of Cognitive Competence: Some Theoretical and Methodological Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ulvund, Stein Erik

    1982-01-01

    Argues that in analyzing effects of early experience on development of cognitive competence, theoretical analyses as well as empirical investigations should be based on a transactional model of development. Shows optimal stimulation hypothesis, particularly the enhancement prediction, seems to represent a transactional approach to the study of…

  15. DNA Methylation: A Mechanism for Embedding Early Life Experiences in the Genome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szyf, Moshe; Bick, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Although epidemiological data provide evidence that early life experience plays a critical role in human development, the mechanism of how this works remains in question. Recent data from human and animal literature suggest that epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation, are involved not only in cellular differentiation but also in the…

  16. Developing Reflexive Identities through Collaborative, Interdisciplinary and Precarious Work: The Experience of Early Career Researchers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enright, Bryony; Facer, Keri

    2017-01-01

    This paper explores the experiences of 24 Early Career Researchers working in interdisciplinary and precarious employment conditions in which they are managing collaborations with multiple partners beyond the university as part of the AHRC's "Connected Communities" Programme. These conditions emerge from conflicting sources--from…

  17. Early Experiences Can Alter Gene Expression and Affect Long-Term Development. Working Paper #10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2010

    2010-01-01

    New scientific research shows that environmental influences can actually affect whether and how genes are expressed. Thus, the old ideas that genes are "set in stone" or that they alone determine development have been disproven. In fact, scientists have discovered that early experiences can determine how genes are turned on and off and even…

  18. Teachers' Experiences of Georgia's Early Math Intervention Program: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Rachel Amanda Garner

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to investigate the perceptions that K-5 teachers have toward Georgia's mandated Early Intervention Math Program (EIP) on at risk learners in an elementary school in a rural, North Georgia community. The following questions guided the study: 1. How do K-5 teachers describe their experience with…

  19. Early Learning Experience and Adolescent Anxiety: A Cross-Cultural Comparison between Japan and England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essau, Cecilia A.; Ishikawa, Shin-ichi; Sasagawa, Satoko

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to compare the frequency of anxiety symptoms among adolescents in Japan and England, and to examine the association between early learning experiences and anxiety symptoms. A total of 299 adolescents (147 from England and 152 from Japan), aged 12 to 17 years were investigated. Results showed that adolescents in…

  20. Sexual Dysfunctions: Relationship to Childhood Sexual Abuse and Early Family Experiences in a Nonclinical Sample.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinzl, Johann F.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This study evaluated 202 female university students for early familial experience and childhood sexual abuse (CSA) in relation to adult sexual disorders: (1) victims of multiple CSA more frequently reported sexual desire disorders; and (2) single-incident victims and nonvictims reported no significantly different rates of sexual dysfunction.…

  1. Early Field Experience Innovations to Increase Positive Impact on K-12 Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Case, Anny Fritzen; Traynor, John

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes several innovations to an early field experience emerging from a community, school, and university partnership focused on a middle school serving diverse students from low-income neighborhoods. With the primary goal of utilizing teaching candidates to provide direct academic, social, and instructional support to the middle…

  2. Beyond Surviving: Gender Differences in Response to Early Sexual Experiences with Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Sally V.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this research project was to explore how men and women constructed a sense of self through narrative following an early sexual experience with an adult. Using narrative inquiry methodology, 22 in-depth interviews were conducted in New South Wales, Australia, with 13 women and 9 men ages between 25 and 70. All participants had an early…

  3. Teacher Attunement: Supporting Students' Peer Experiences in the Early Elementary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Abigail S.

    2012-01-01

    This multi-method, longitudinal study examines the role of teacher attunement (teacher accuracy in identifying the peer group memberships of individual students) in children's peer experiences in early elementary classrooms (1st-3rd grades). Social cognitive mapping (SCM) procedures assessed and compared students' and teachers'…

  4. ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH IN THE LARGE-SCALE BIOSPHERE–ATMOSPHERE EXPERIMENT IN AMAZONIA: EARLY RESULTS.

    M. Keller; A. Alencar; G. P. Asner; B. Braswell; M. Bustamente; E. Davidson; T. Feldpausch; E. Fern ndes; M. Goulden; P. Kabat; B. Kruijt; F. Luizao; S. Miller; D. Markewitz; A. D. Nobre; C. A. Nobre; N. Priante Filho; H. Rocha; P. Silva Dias; C von Randow; G. L. Vourlitis

    2004-01-01

    The Large-scale Biosphere–Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA) is a multinational, interdisciplinary research program led by Brazil. Ecological studies in LBA focus on how tropical forest conversion, regrowth, and selective logging influence carbon storage, nutrient dynamics, trace gas fluxes, and the prospect for sustainable land use in the Amazon region. Early...

  5. The Hidden Factor in Early Field Experience: Teachers' Perception of the Quality of Life at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Divins, Barbara; And Others

    This project identified work environment factors in eight schools where a teacher preparation program placed early field experience students and where the university students reported experiencing positive field placements. The purpose was to determine the impact of certain variables on teachers' perception of the quality of their own professional…

  6. Experience of Sexual Abuse in Childhood and Abortion in Adolescence and Early Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boden, Joseph M.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined the associations between the experience of sexual abuse in childhood (CSA) and the number of abortions in adolescence and early adulthood. Method: A 25-year prospective longitudinal study of the health, development, and adjustment of a birth cohort of 1,265 New Zealand children (630 females). Measures included…

  7. The Effects of Early Socialization Experiences on Content Mastery and Outcomes: A Mediational Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Howard J.; Fan, Jinyan; Preacher, Kristopher J.

    2006-01-01

    This field study examined how early socialization experiences affect new employee mastery of socialization content and socialization outcomes. New employees reported the realism of their preentry knowledge and the helpfulness of socialization agents. A follow-up survey assessed mastery of socialization content along with role clarity, job…

  8. The Effect of Early Classroom Teaching Experience Upon the Attitudes and Performance of Science Teacher Candidates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conradson, Diane R.

    Reported is a study on effects of early classroom teaching experience upon the attitudes and performance of teacher candidates from a student group primarily composed of science majors or minors. The subjects were paired mainly on their choice of a credential or noncredential program. One of each pair was randomly assigned to the experimental…

  9. The Impact of Discrimination on the Early Schooling Experiences of Children from Immigrant Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adair, Jennifer Keys

    2015-01-01

    How the young children of immigrants experience their early school years may in large part determine their academic future and negatively affect their emotional, social, and mental development. Children benefit from a positive, supportive learning environment where their contributions are valued; many from immigrant families, however, experience…

  10. INDIVIDUAL DIFFERENCES IN THE EFFECTS OF EARLY EXPERIENCE ON AFTER BEHAVIOR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FORGAYS, DONALD G.

    TWO SERIES OF STUDIES WHOSE SUBJECTS WERE EITHER HOODED AND ALBINO RATS OR YOUNG CHILDREN INVESTIGATED THE INFLUENCE OF EARLY EXPERIENCES ON LATER BEHAVIOR. IN THE FIRST, BOTH SUBSPECIES OF RATS WERE EXPOSED TO EITHER ENRICHED OR RESTRICTED ENVIRONMENTS TO ASSESS THEIR PROBLEM-SOLVING ABILITIES UNDER VARIOUS LEARNING CONDITIONS. THE RESULTS…

  11. Survey Examines Experiences of Families Entering Early Intervention. FPG Snapshot #14

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    FPG Child Development Institute, University of North Carolina, 2004

    2004-01-01

    A recent FPG study looked at families' initial experiences in determining their child's eligibility for early intervention (EI) services as mandated by Part C (IDEA), interactions with medical professionals, effort required to get services, participation in planning for services, satisfaction with services, and interactions with professionals. A…

  12. Parent-Child Relationships and Dyadic Friendship Experiences as Predictors of Behavior Problems in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sentse, Miranda; Laird, Robert D.

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on support and conflict in parent-child relationships and dyadic friendships as predictors of behavior problems in early adolescence (n = 182; M age = 12.9 years, 51% female, 45% African American, 74% two-parent homes). Support and conflict in one relationship context were hypothesized to moderate the effects of experiences in…

  13. Family Attachment Narrative Therapy: Healing the Experience of Early Childhood Maltreatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Joanne C.

    2005-01-01

    Based on attachment theory and research, Family Attachment Narrative Therapy is introduced as a new family therapy modality developed to heal the experience of early childhood maltreatment. Unresolved childhood trauma has been correlated with impaired and delayed cognitive, behavioral and emotional functioning. Gentle, soothing, nonprovocative and…

  14. Age at adoption from institutional care as a window into the lasting effects of early experiences

    PubMed Central

    Julian, Megan M.

    2013-01-01

    One of the major questions of human development is how early experience impacts the course of development years later. Children adopted from institutional care experience varying levels of deprivation in their early life followed by qualitatively better care in an adoptive home, providing a unique opportunity to study the lasting effects of early deprivation and its timing. The effects of age at adoption from institutional care are discussed for multiple domains of social and behavioral development within the context of several prominent developmental hypotheses about the effects of early deprivation (cumulative effects, experience-expectant developmental programming, and experience-adaptive developmental programming). Age at adoption effects are detected in a majority of studies, particularly when children experienced global deprivation and were assessed in adolescence. For most outcomes, institutionalization beyond a certain age is associated with a step-like increase in risk for lasting social and behavioral problems, with the step occurring at an earlier age for children who experienced more severe levels of deprivation. Findings are discussed in terms of their concordance and discordance with our current hypotheses, and speculative explanations for the findings are offered. PMID:23576122

  15. Aesthetic Experience in a Dynamic Cycle: Implications for Early Childhood Teachers and Teacher Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Booyeun

    2005-01-01

    This study describes early childhood teachers' own beliefs and concepts of aesthetic experience in young children. The teachers involved in this study were directly engaged in preschools for 4 and 5 year-olds where arts and aesthetic education are a primary consideration of their integrated curriculum. These teachers identified a variety of…

  16. Early Childhood Development and Social Integration: The Mediterranean Experience. A Background Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Oudenhoven, Nico; Wazir, Rekha

    This paper explores early childhood education (ECD) and social integration within a common framework and against the backdrop of experience gained in these fields in the following 12 Mediterranean nations: Algeria, Cyprus, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Malta, Morocco, Palestine, Syrian Arab Republic, Tunisia, and Turkey. The paper notes that…

  17. The Beliefs and Perceived Experiences of Preservice and Early Service Teachers Who Use Facebook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foss, Nathan D.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative research study was to identify commonly held beliefs and perceived experiences of preservice and early service teachers with regard to their use of the social networking site Facebook. This study included recorded and transcribed interviews of 14 participants as well as observations of their Facebook accounts. The…

  18. Early Experiences with Family Conflict: Implications for Arguments with a Close Friend.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrera, Carla; Dunn, Judy

    1997-01-01

    Examined associations between children's early experiences in family disputes and later conflict management with close friends. Found that argument used by mothers and siblings that considered children's needs was positively associated with children's later constructive argument and resolution techniques. Mothers' use of argument predicted…

  19. The Role of Family Experiences and ADHD in the Early Development of Oppositional Defiant Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Elizabeth A.; Metcalfe, Lindsay A.; Herbert, Sharonne D.; Fanton, John H.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined the role of family experiences in the early development and maintenance of oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms in preschool-age children with behavior problems. Method: Participants were 199 3-year-old children with behavior problems who took part in 4 annual child and family assessments. Results:…

  20. Socialization to Student Affairs: Early Career Experiences Associated with Professional Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirschy, Amy S.; Wilson, Maureen E.; Liddell, Debora L.; Boyle, Kathleen M.; Pasquesi, Kira

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the authors propose and test a model of professional identity development among early career student affairs professionals. Using survey data from 173 new professionals (0-5 years of experience), factor analysis revealed 3 dimensions of professional identity: commitment, values congruence, and intellectual investment. Multivariate…

  1. Early Labor Force Experiences and Debt Burden. Postsecondary Education Descriptive Analysis Reports. Statistical Analysis Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choy, Susan P.; Geis, Sonya; Carroll, C. Dennis

    This study used data from the Baccalaureate and Beyond (B&B) and Beginning Postsecondary Student (BPS) studies to examine: the early labor force experiences of college students who either graduated or dropped out; student borrowing for postsecondary education; and student loan debt burden and repayment status. The B&B group (n=11,000) was…

  2. Out of the Mouths of Babes: Early College High School Students' Transformational Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Denise; Farrell, Tina

    2012-01-01

    Focus Group interviews with 31 disadvantaged students in an Early College High School (ECHS) program present insights to students' experience in the hybrid school, specifically regarding their perceptions of college readiness. Student "voice" in research can yield significant information when examining aspects of school design that…

  3. Implicit Association to Infant Faces: How Genetics, Early Care Experiences, and Cultural Factors Influence Caregiving Propensities

    PubMed Central

    Senese, Vincenzo Paolo; Shinohara, Kazuyuki; Esposito, Gianluca; Doi, Hirokazu; Venuti, Paola; Bornstein, Marc H.

    2018-01-01

    Genetics, early experience, and culture shape caregiving, but it is still not clear how genetics, early experiences, and cultural factors might interact to influence specific caregiving propensities, such as adult responsiveness to infant cues. To address this gap, 80 Italian adults (50% M; 18-25 years) were (1) genotyped for two oxytocin receptor gene polymorphisms (rs53576 and rs2254298) and the serotonin transporter gene polymorphism (5-HTTLPR), which are implicated in parenting behaviour, (2) completed the Adult Parental Acceptance/Rejection Questionnaire to evaluate their recollections of parental behaviours toward them in childhood, and (3) were administered a Single Category Implicit Association Test to evaluate their implicit responses to faces of Italian infants, Japanese infants, and Italian adults. Analysis of implicit associations revealed that Italian infant faces were evaluated as most positive; participants in the rs53576 GG group had the most positive implicit associations to Italian infant faces; the serotonin polymorphism moderated the effect of early care experiences on adults’ implicit association to both Italian infant and adult female faces. Finally, 5-HTTLPR S carriers showed less positive implicit responses to Japanese infant faces. We conclude that adult in-group preference extends to in-group infant faces and that implicit responses to social cues are influenced by interactions of genetics, early care experiences, and cultural factors. These findings have implications for understanding processes that regulate adult caregiving. PMID:27650102

  4. Classroom Teachers' Feelings and Experiences in Teaching Early Reading and Writing: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastug, Muhammet

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed to reveal classroom teachers' feelings and experiences in teaching early reading and writing. Phenomenological research design was applied in the qualitative research methodology of the study. The participants of the study were 15 classroom teachers working in different cities. The data were collected through…

  5. Experiences, Perceived Challenges, and Support Systems of Early College High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sáenz, Karen P.; Combs, Julie P.

    2015-01-01

    In this qualitative study, the prior experiences, perceived challenges, and support systems of 17 Grade 12 Hispanic students at an early college high school were explored using the framework of social capital theory. Utilizing Moustakas's phenomenological design, data were collected using focus group and individuals interviews. Several themes…

  6. Seeing What They See--A Photovoice Analysis of Exploratory Early Field Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Marshall A.; Culbertson, Avery L.; Robinson, J. Shane; Ramsey, Jon W.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this photovoice study was to investigate what and how pre-service teachers conceive and make meaning of exploration observations of early field experiences (EFEs). EFEs are vital components of the teacher preparation program and include all activities that occur in pre-service teacher education prior to student teaching, including…

  7. Onboarding Experiences: An Examination of Early Institutional Advancement Professionals' Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radosh, Meghan E.

    2013-01-01

    Onboarding is a new employee orientation process that is designed to formalize and socialize new hires to an organization, or in this case higher education institutions. The onboarding experience that many new employees have can shape employee views and first impressions of their new employer, and shape their early career path to stay or leave…

  8. Developing the Effective Teaching Skills of Teacher Candidates during Early Field Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Kelly A.; Schaffer, Connie

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the development of effective teaching skills in teacher candidates in the context of early field experiences directly tied to a pedagogical course. Evidence from faculty instructors, mentor teachers, and teacher candidates suggests secondary education candidates were able to develop effective teaching skills related to…

  9. Marijuana Experiences, Voting Behaviors, and Early Perspectives Regarding Marijuana Legalization among College Students from 2 States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moreno, Megan A.; Whitehill, Jennifer M.; Quach, Vincent; Midamba, Nikita; Manskopf, Inga

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to understand college students' (1) views and experiences regarding marijuana, (2) voting behaviors, and (3) early perceptions of the impact of legislation. Participants: College students from Washington and Wisconsin were interviewed between May and September 2013. Methods: Participants…

  10. Oxytocin mediates early experience-dependent cross-modal plasticity in the sensory cortices.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jing-Jing; Li, Shu-Jing; Zhang, Xiao-Di; Miao, Wan-Ying; Zhang, Dinghong; Yao, Haishan; Yu, Xiang

    2014-03-01

    Sensory experience is critical to development and plasticity of neural circuits. Here we report a new form of plasticity in neonatal mice, where early sensory experience cross-modally regulates development of all sensory cortices via oxytocin signaling. Unimodal sensory deprivation from birth through whisker deprivation or dark rearing reduced excitatory synaptic transmission in the correspondent sensory cortex and cross-modally in other sensory cortices. Sensory experience regulated synthesis and secretion of the neuropeptide oxytocin as well as its level in the cortex. Both in vivo oxytocin injection and increased sensory experience elevated excitatory synaptic transmission in multiple sensory cortices and significantly rescued the effects of sensory deprivation. Together, these results identify a new function for oxytocin in promoting cross-modal, experience-dependent cortical development. This link between sensory experience and oxytocin is particularly relevant to autism, where hypersensitivity or hyposensitivity to sensory inputs is prevalent and oxytocin is a hotly debated potential therapy.

  11. Developing a discrete choice experiment in Malawi: eliciting preferences for breast cancer early detection services.

    PubMed

    Kohler, Racquel E; Lee, Clara N; Gopal, Satish; Reeve, Bryce B; Weiner, Bryan J; Wheeler, Stephanie B

    2015-01-01

    In Malawi, routine breast cancer screening is not available and little is known about women's preferences regarding early detection services. Discrete choice experiments are increasingly used to reveal preferences about new health services; however, selecting appropriate attributes that describe a new health service is imperative to ensure validity of the choice experiment. To identify important factors that are relevant to Malawian women's preferences for breast cancer detection services and to select attributes and levels for a discrete choice experiment in a setting where both breast cancer early detection and choice experiments are rare. We reviewed the literature to establish an initial list of potential attributes and levels for a discrete choice experiment and conducted qualitative interviews with health workers and community women to explore relevant local factors affecting decisions to use cancer detection services. We tested the design through cognitive interviews and refined the levels, descriptions, and designs. Themes that emerged from interviews provided critical information about breast cancer detection services, specifically, that breast cancer interventions should be integrated into other health services because asymptomatic screening may not be practical as an individual service. Based on participants' responses, the final attributes of the choice experiment included travel time, health encounter, health worker type and sex, and breast cancer early detection strategy. Cognitive testing confirmed the acceptability of the final attributes, comprehension of choice tasks, and women's abilities to make trade-offs. Applying a discrete choice experiment for breast cancer early detection was feasible with appropriate tailoring for a low-income, low-literacy African setting.

  12. Sociodemographic differences in women's experience of early labour care: a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Jane; Redshaw, Maggie

    2017-07-13

    To explore women's experiences of early labour care focusing on sociodemographic differences, and to examine the effect of antenatal education, using mixed methods. England, 2014. Women who completed postal questionnaires about their experience of maternity care, including questions about antenatal education, early labour and sociodemographic factors, included space for free-text comments. Worries about labour, contact with midwives in early labour and subsequent care. This study was based on secondary analysis of a national maternity survey carried out in England in 2014. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression; qualitative data were analysed using a thematic content analytic approach. Completed questionnaires were received from 4578 women (47% response rate). There were significant differences by sociodemographic factors, particularly ethnicity, in women's worries about early labour. Compared with white women, women from black or minority ethnic groups had an adjusted OR of 1.93 (95% CI 1.56 to 2.39) of feeling worried about not knowing when labour would start. Among women who contacted a midwife at the start of labour, 84% perceived their advice as appropriate, more in older and multiparous women. Overall, 64% of women were asked to come to the hospital at this time, more in multiparous women (adjusted OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.35 to 1.96). Those who did not have access to antenatal education experienced greater worry about early labour. Five themes emerged from the qualitative analysis: 'Differentiating between early and active labour', 'Staff attitudes', 'Not being allowed…', 'Previous labours' and 'Perceived consequences for women'. These findings reinforce the importance of providing reassurance to women in early labour, taking care that women do not feel neglected or dismissed. In particular, primiparous and ethnic minority women reported greater worry about early labour and require additional reassurance.

  13. Sociodemographic differences in women’s experience of early labour care: a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Jane; Redshaw, Maggie

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To explore women’s experiences of early labour care focusing on sociodemographic differences, and to examine the effect of antenatal education, using mixed methods. Setting England, 2014. Participants Women who completed postal questionnaires about their experience of maternity care, including questions about antenatal education, early labour and sociodemographic factors, included space for free-text comments. Outcome measures Worries about labour, contact with midwives in early labour and subsequent care. Methods This study was based on secondary analysis of a national maternity survey carried out in England in 2014. Quantitative data were analysed using descriptive statistics and binary logistic regression; qualitative data were analysed using a thematic content analytic approach. Results Completed questionnaires were received from 4578 women (47% response rate). There were significant differences by sociodemographic factors, particularly ethnicity, in women’s worries about early labour. Compared with white women, women from black or minority ethnic groups had an adjusted OR of 1.93 (95% CI 1.56 to 2.39) of feeling worried about not knowing when labour would start. Among women who contacted a midwife at the start of labour, 84% perceived their advice as appropriate, more in older and multiparous women. Overall, 64% of women were asked to come to the hospital at this time, more in multiparous women (adjusted OR 1.63, 95% CI 1.35 to 1.96). Those who did not have access to antenatal education experienced greater worry about early labour. Five themes emerged from the qualitative analysis: ‘Differentiating between early and active labour’, ‘Staff attitudes’, ‘Not being allowed…’, ‘Previous labours’ and ‘Perceived consequences for women’. Conclusion These findings reinforce the importance of providing reassurance to women in early labour, taking care that women do not feel neglected or dismissed. In particular, primiparous and

  14. What Is a Value Management Office? An Implementation Experience in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Makdisse, Marcia; Katz, Marcelo; Ramos, Pedro; Pereira, Adriano; Shiramizo, Sandra; Neto, Miguel Cendoroglo; Klajner, Sidney

    2018-05-02

    Value-based health care has been touted as the "strategy that will fix healthcare," yet putting this value agenda to work in the real world is not an easy task. Robert Kaplan and colleagues first introduced the concept of a value management office (VMO) that may help to accelerate the dissemination and adoption of this value agenda. In this article, we describe the first known experience of the implementation of a VMO in a Latin American hospital and the main steps we have already taken to accelerate this value agenda at Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein. We faced a number of challenges in implementing the VMO at Einstein, including integration with existing clinical and financial information areas, transition to a standardized outcomes model, adaptation to our "open medical staff" model by connecting the VMO with the Medical Practice Division, and involvement with our physician-led multidisciplinary groups. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. From Theory to Practice: One Agency's Experience with Implementing an Evidence-Based Model.

    PubMed

    Murray, Maureen; Culver, Tom; Farmer, Betsy; Jackson, Leslie Ann; Rixon, Brian

    2014-07-01

    As evidence-based practice is becoming integrated into children's mental health services as a means of improving outcomes for children and youth with severe behavioral and emotional problems, therapeutic foster care (TFC) which is a specialized treatment program for such youth, is one of few community-based programs considered to be evidence-based. "Together Facing the Challenge" (TFTC) which was developed as a component of a randomized trial of TFC has been identified as an evidence-based model. We describe the experiences reported by one of the agencies that participated in our study and how they have incorporated TFTC into their on-going practice. They highlight key implementation strategies, challenges faced, and lessons learned as they moved forward towards full implementation of TFTC throughout their agency.

  16. A digitally implemented communications experiment utilizing the communications technology satellite, Hermes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, H. D.; Fiala, J.

    1980-01-01

    Developments which will reduce the costs associated with the distribution of satellite services are considered with emphasis on digital communication link implementation. A digitally implemented communications experiment (DICE) which demonstrates the flexibility and efficiency of digital transmission of television video and audio, telephone voice, and high-bit-rate data is described. The utilization of the DICE system in a full duplex teleconferencing mode is addressed. Demonstration teleconferencing results obtained during the conduct of two sessions of the 7th AIAA Communication Satellite Systems Conference are discussed. Finally, the results of link characterization tests conducted to determine (1) relationships between the Hermes channel 1 EIRP and DICE model performance and (2) channel spacing criteria for acceptable multichannel operation, are presented.

  17. Implementation of a family intervention to increase fruit and vegetable intake: the Hi5+ experience.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Kathleen F; Franklin, Frank A; Davies, Susan L; Shewchuk, Richard M; Binns, Maria Brown

    2005-04-01

    Family is an important, yet challenging, target for dietary intervention. This article describes the implementation of Hi5+, a family fruit and vegetable (FV) promotion program. Complementing a fourth-grade school curriculum, the seven weekly Family Fun Nites were at-home family meal sharing and game evenings. A sample of families (N = 575; 69% consented) from schools in a southeastern U.S. urban area received tailored intervention materials based on their FV attitudes and family interaction styles. A pyramidal organizational design, using peer leaders, facilitated 71% of families to complete all seven sessions, whereas 84% completed at least one session. Significant independent predictors of program completion were attending an introductory Kick-Off Nite, interactive family style, additional adults in the household, married parents, being African American, earning more than 60,000 dollars, and additional children in the household. Family-specific issues and initial program experience are important considerations for implementing a family intervention.

  18. Governing the implementation of emergency obstetric care: experiences of rural district health managers, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mkoka, Dickson Ally; Kiwara, Angwara; Goicolea, Isabel; Hurtig, Anna-Karin

    2014-08-03

    Many health policies developed internationally often become adopted at the national level and are implemented locally at the district level. A decentralized district health system led by a district health management team becomes responsible for implementing such policies. This study aimed at exploring the experiences of a district health management team in implementing Emergency Obstetric Care (EmOC) related policies and identifying emerging governance aspects. The study used a qualitative approach in which data was obtained from thirteen individual interviews and one focus group discussion (FGD). Interviews were conducted with members of the district health management team, district health service boards and NGO representatives. The FGD included key informants who were directly involved in the work of implementing EmOC services in the district. Documentary reviews and observation were done to supplement the data. All the materials were analysed using a qualitative content analysis approach. Implementation of EmOC was considered to be a process accompanied by achievements and challenges. Achievements included increased institutional delivery, increased number of ambulances, training service providers in emergency obstetric care and building a new rural health centre that provides comprehensive emergency obstetric care. These achievements were associated with good leadership skills of the team together with partnerships that existed between different actors such as the Non-Governmental Organization (NGO), development partners, local politicians and Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs). Most challenges faced during the implementation of EmOC were related to governance issues at different levels and included delays in disbursement of funds from the central government, shortages of health workers, unclear mechanisms for accountability, lack of incentives to motivate overburdened staffs and lack of guidelines for partnership development. The study revealed that

  19. Governing the implementation of Emergency Obstetric Care: experiences of Rural District Health Managers, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many health policies developed internationally often become adopted at the national level and are implemented locally at the district level. A decentralized district health system led by a district health management team becomes responsible for implementing such policies. This study aimed at exploring the experiences of a district health management team in implementing Emergency Obstetric Care (EmOC) related policies and identifying emerging governance aspects. Methods The study used a qualitative approach in which data was obtained from thirteen individual interviews and one focus group discussion (FGD). Interviews were conducted with members of the district health management team, district health service boards and NGO representatives. The FGD included key informants who were directly involved in the work of implementing EmOC services in the district. Documentary reviews and observation were done to supplement the data. All the materials were analysed using a qualitative content analysis approach. Results Implementation of EmOC was considered to be a process accompanied by achievements and challenges. Achievements included increased institutional delivery, increased number of ambulances, training service providers in emergency obstetric care and building a new rural health centre that provides comprehensive emergency obstetric care. These achievements were associated with good leadership skills of the team together with partnerships that existed between different actors such as the Non-Governmental Organization (NGO), development partners, local politicians and Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs). Most challenges faced during the implementation of EmOC were related to governance issues at different levels and included delays in disbursement of funds from the central government, shortages of health workers, unclear mechanisms for accountability, lack of incentives to motivate overburdened staffs and lack of guidelines for partnership development

  20. Design and Implementation of the Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment on Space Shuttle Discovery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spanos, Theodoros A.; Micklos, Ann

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to better the understanding of high speed aerodynamics, a series of flight experiments were installed on Space Shuttle Discovery during the STS-119 and STS-128 missions. This experiment, known as the Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment (BLTFE), provided the technical community with actual entry flight data from a known height protuberance at Mach numbers at and above Mach 15. Any such data above Mach 15 is irreproducible in a laboratory setting. Years of effort have been invested in obtaining this valuable data, and many obstacles had to be overcome in order to ensure the success of implementing an Orbiter modification. Many Space Shuttle systems were involved in the installation of appropriate components that revealed 'concurrent engineering' was a key integration tool. This allowed the coordination of all various parts and pieces which had to be sequenced appropriately and installed at the right time. Several issues encountered include Orbiter configuration and access, design requirements versus current layout, implementing the modification versus typical processing timelines, and optimizing the engineering design cycles and changes. Open lines of communication within the entire modification team were essential to project success as the team was spread out across the United States, from NASA Kennedy Space Center in Florida, to NASA Johnson Space Center in Texas, to Boeing Huntington Beach, California among others. The forum permits the discussion of processing concerns from the design phase to the implementation phase, which eventually saw the successful flights and data acquisition on STS-119 in March 2009 and on STS-128 in September 2009.

  1. Ultrasound Imaging System Implementation and Ignition Protocol for the Microgravity Smoldering Combustion (MSC) Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walther, David C.; Anthenien, Ralph A.; Roslon, Mark; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; Urban, David L.

    1999-01-01

    The Microgravity Smoldering Combustion (MSC) experiment is a study of the smolder characteristics of porous combustible materials in a microgravity environment. The objective of the study is to provide a better understanding of the controlling mechanisms of smolder, both in microgravity and normal earth gravity. Experiments have been conducted aboard the NASA Space Shuttle in the Get Away Special Canister (GAS-CAN), an apparatus requiring completely remote operation. Future GAS-CAN experiments will utilize an ultrasound imaging system (UIS) which has been incorporated into the MSC experimental apparatus. Thermocouples are currently used to measure temperature and reaction front velocities. A less intrusive method is desirable, however, as smolder is a very weak reaction and it has been found that heat transfer along the thermocouple is sufficient to affect the smolder reaction. It is expected that the UIS system will eventually replace the existing array of thermocouples as a non-intrusive technique without compromising data acquisition. The UIS measures line of sight permeability, providing information about the reaction front position and extent. Additionally, the ignition sequence of the MSC experiments has been optimized from previous experiments to provide longer periods of self-supported smolder. An ignition protocol of a fixed power to the igniter for a fixed time is now implemented. This, rather than a controlled temperature profile ignition protocol at the igniter surface, along with the UIS system, will allow for better study of the effect of gravity on a smolder reaction.

  2. Health in All Policies: From rhetoric to implementation and evaluation - the Finnish experience.

    PubMed

    Ståhl, Timo

    2018-02-01

    The principles of the Health in All Policies (HiAP) approach are not new. Their international roots can be traced back to 1978 and the Alma-Ata Declaration and the 1986 Ottawa Charter. In Finland, the roots of HiAP go back to 1972 when the Economic Council of Finland, chaired by the Prime Minister, launched the 'Report of the working group exploring the goals of health'. The paper discusses the history, rationale, and implementation of the principles underlying the umbrella concept of HiAP. A rationale for implementing a new concept - HiAP in 2006 during the Finnish European Union presidency - is given. The focus here will be on implementation of HiAP. International material supporting the implementation is introduced and practical examples from Finland presented. The Benchmarking System for Health Promotion Capacity Building is introduced, since it has been used as a primary source of information for monitoring and evaluating HiAP in Finland at the local level. The experience from Finland clearly indicates that HiAP as an approach and as a way of working requires long-term commitment and vision. For working across sectors it is crucial to have data on health and health determinants and analyses of the links between health outcomes, health determinants, and policies across sectors and levels of governance. Intersectoral structures, processes, and tools for the identification of problems and solutions, decisions, and implementation across sectors are prerequisites of HiAP. Legislative backing has proven to be useful, especially in providing continuation and sustainability.

  3. Using Zebrafish to Implement a Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experience to Study Teratogenesis in Two Biology Laboratory Courses

    PubMed Central

    Chism, Grady W.; Vaughan, Martin A.; Muralidharan, Pooja; Marrs, Jim A.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A course-based undergraduate research experience (CURE) spanning three semesters was introduced into freshman and sophomore biology classes, with the hypothesis that participation in a CURE affects skills in research, communication, and collaboration, which may help students persist in science. Student research projects were centered on the hypothesis that nicotine and caffeine exposure during early development affects gastrulation and heart development in zebrafish. First, freshmen generated original data showing distinct effects of embryonic nicotine and caffeine exposure on zebrafish heart development and function. Next, Cell Biology laboratory students continued the CURE studies and identified novel teratogenic effects of nicotine and caffeine during gastrulation. Finally, new freshmen continued the CURE research, examining additional toxicant effects on development. Students designed new protocols, made measurements, presented results, and generated high-quality preliminary data that were studied in successive semesters. By implementing this project, the CURE extended faculty research and provided a scalable model to address national goals to involve more undergraduates in authentic scientific research. In addition, student survey results support the hypothesis that CUREs provide significant gains in student ability to (1) design experiments, (2) analyze data, and (3) make scientific presentations, translating into high student satisfaction and enhanced learning. PMID:26829498

  4. Using Zebrafish to Implement a Course-Based Undergraduate Research Experience to Study Teratogenesis in Two Biology Laboratory Courses.

    PubMed

    Sarmah, Swapnalee; Chism, Grady W; Vaughan, Martin A; Muralidharan, Pooja; Marrs, Jim A; Marrs, Kathleen A

    2016-08-01

    A course-based undergraduate research experience (CURE) spanning three semesters was introduced into freshman and sophomore biology classes, with the hypothesis that participation in a CURE affects skills in research, communication, and collaboration, which may help students persist in science. Student research projects were centered on the hypothesis that nicotine and caffeine exposure during early development affects gastrulation and heart development in zebrafish. First, freshmen generated original data showing distinct effects of embryonic nicotine and caffeine exposure on zebrafish heart development and function. Next, Cell Biology laboratory students continued the CURE studies and identified novel teratogenic effects of nicotine and caffeine during gastrulation. Finally, new freshmen continued the CURE research, examining additional toxicant effects on development. Students designed new protocols, made measurements, presented results, and generated high-quality preliminary data that were studied in successive semesters. By implementing this project, the CURE extended faculty research and provided a scalable model to address national goals to involve more undergraduates in authentic scientific research. In addition, student survey results support the hypothesis that CUREs provide significant gains in student ability to (1) design experiments, (2) analyze data, and (3) make scientific presentations, translating into high student satisfaction and enhanced learning.

  5. Testing Drugs and Trying Cures: Experiment and Medicine in Medieval and Early Modern Europe.

    PubMed

    Leong, Elaine; Rankin, Alisha

    2017-01-01

    This article examines traditions of testing drugs (as substances) and trying cures (on patients) in medieval and early modern Europe. It argues that the history of drug testing needs to be a more central story to overall histories of scientific experiment. The practice of conducting thoughtful-and sometimes contrived-tests on drugs has a rich and varied tradition dating back to antiquity, which expanded in the Middle Ages and early modern period. Learned physicians paired text-based knowledge (reason) with hands-on testing (experience or experiment) in order to make claims about drugs' properties or effects on humans. Lay practitioners similarly used hands-on testing to gain knowledge of pharmaceutical effects. Although drug testing practices expanded in scale, actors, and sites, therpublished a work extolling the virtues of drugs froe was significant continuity from the Middle Ages to the eighteenth century.

  6. Experiences of Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality-funded projects that implemented practices for safer patient care.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Stephanie L; Ridgely, M Susan; Greenberg, Michael D; Sorbero, Melony E S; Teleki, Stephanie S; Damberg, Cheryl L; Farley, Donna O

    2009-04-01

    To synthesize lessons learned from the experiences of Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality-funded patient safety projects in implementing safe practices. Self-reported data from individual and group interviews with Original, Challenge, and Partnerships in Implementing Patient Safety (PIPS) grantees, from 2003 to 2006. Interviews with three grantee groups (n=60 total) implementing safe practice projects, with comparisons on factors influencing project implementation and sustainability. Semi-structured protocols contained open-ended questions on lessons learned and more structured questions on factors associated with project implementation and sustainability. The grantees shared common experiences, frequently identifying lessons learned regarding structural components needing to be in place before implementation, components of the implementation process, components of interventions' results needed for sustainability, changes in timelines or activities, unanticipated issues, and staff acceptance/adoption. Also, fewer Original grants had many of the factors related project to implementation/sustainability than the PIPS or Challenge grantees had. Although much of what was reported seemed like common sense, surprisingly few projects actually planned for or expected many of the barriers or facilitators they experienced during their project implementation. Others implementing practice improvements likely will share the experiences and issues identified by these implementation projects and can learn from their lessons.

  7. Dissociation mediates the relationship between peer victimization and hallucinatory experiences among early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Syudo; Ando, Shuntaro; Koike, Shinsuke; Usami, Satoshi; Endo, Kaori; French, Paul; Sasaki, Tsukasa; Furukawa, Toshi A; Hasegawa-Hiraiwa, Mariko; Kasai, Kiyoto; Nishida, Atsushi

    2016-06-01

    Peer victimization increases the risk of experiencing psychotic symptoms among clinical and general populations, but the mechanism underlying this association remains unclear. Dissociation, which is related to peer victimization and hallucinatory experiences, has been demonstrated as a significant mediator in the relation between childhood victimization and hallucinatory experience among adult patients with psychosis. However, no studies have examined the mediating effect of dissociation in a general early adolescent population. We examined whether dissociation mediates the relationship between peer victimization and hallucinatory experiences among 10-year-old adolescents using a population-based cross-sectional survey of early adolescents and their main parent (Tokyo Early Adolescence Survey; N  = 4478). We examined the mediating effect of dissociation, as well as external locus of control and depressive symptoms, on the relationship between peer victimization and hallucinatory experiences using path analysis. The model assuming mediation effects indicated good model fit (comparative fit index = .999; root mean square error of approximation = .015). The mediation effect between peer victimization and hallucination via dissociation (standardized indirect effect = .038, p  < .001) was statistically significant, whereas the mediation effects of depressive symptoms (standardized indirect effect = -.0066, p  = 0.318) and external locus of control (standardized indirect effect = .0024, p  = 0.321) were not significant. These results suggest that dissociation is a mediator in the relation between peer victimization and hallucinatory experiences in early adolescence. For appropriate intervention strategies, assessing dissociation and peer victimization as they affect hallucinatory experiences is necessary.

  8. Does early-life family income influence later dental pain experience? A prospective 14-year study.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani, Z; Peres, M A; Liu, P; Mejia, G C; Armfield, J M; Peres, K G

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between early-life family income and dental pain experience from childhood to early adulthood. Data came from a 14-year prospective study (1991/1992-2005/2006) carried out in South Australia, which included children and adolescents aged 4-17 years (N = 9875) at baseline. The outcome was dental pain experience obtained at baseline, 14 years later in adulthood and at a middle point of time. The main explanatory variable was early-life family income collected at baseline. The prevalence of dental pain was 22.8% at baseline, 19.3% at 'middle time' and 39.3% at follow up. The proportion of people classified as 'poor' at baseline was 27.7%. Being poor early in life was significantly associated with dental pain at 14-year follow up (odds ratio = 1.45; 95% confidence interval = 1.27-1.66). Early-life relative poverty is associated with more frequent dental pain across the 14-year follow up and may be a key exposure variable for later dental conditions. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  9. Early Life Experience and Gut Microbiome: The Brain-Gut-Microbiota Signaling System.

    PubMed

    Cong, Xiaomei; Henderson, Wendy A; Graf, Joerg; McGrath, Jacqueline M

    2015-10-01

    Over the past decades, advances in neonatal care have led to substantial increases in survival among preterm infants. With these gains, recent concerns have focused on increases in neurodevelopment morbidity related to the interplay between stressful early life experiences and the immature neuroimmune systems. This interplay between these complex mechanisms is often described as the brain-gut signaling system. The role of the gut microbiome and the brain-gut signaling system have been found to be remarkably related to both short- and long-term stress and health. Recent evidence supports that microbial species, ligands, and/or products within the developing intestine play a key role in early programming of the central nervous system and regulation of the intestinal innate immunity. The purpose of this state-of-the-science review is to explore the supporting evidence demonstrating the importance of the brain-gut-microbiota axis in regulation of early life experience. We also discuss the role of gut microbiome in modulating stress and pain responses in high-risk infants. A conceptual framework has been developed to illustrate the regulation mechanisms involved in early life experience. The science in this area is just beginning to be uncovered; having a fundamental understanding of these relationships will be important as new discoveries continue to change our thinking, leading potentially to changes in practice and targeted interventions.

  10. Experiments to Evaluate and Implement Passive Tracer Gas Methods to Measure Ventilation Rates in Homes

    SciT

    Lunden, Melissa; Faulkner, David; Heredia, Elizabeth

    2012-10-01

    This report documents experiments performed in three homes to assess the methodology used to determine air exchange rates using passive tracer techniques. The experiments used four different tracer gases emitted simultaneously but implemented with different spatial coverage in the home. Two different tracer gas sampling methods were used. The results characterize the factors of the execution and analysis of the passive tracer technique that affect the uncertainty in the calculated air exchange rates. These factors include uncertainties in tracer gas emission rates, differences in measured concentrations for different tracer gases, temporal and spatial variability of the concentrations, the comparison betweenmore » different gas sampling methods, and the effect of different ventilation conditions.« less

  11. Construction and implementation of a novel dust dropper for the PPPL Dusty Plasma Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinguely, Roy; Dominguez, Arturo; Carpe, Andrew; Zwicker, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    The applications of dusty plasma research are far-reaching, from understanding astrophysical systems to studying plasma-wall interactions in magnetically confined plasma experiments. Unfortunately, dusty plasma environments can be difficult to control and replicate in laboratory settings. This poster details the construction, vacuum operation, and initial results of a multifaceted dust dropper, which is being implemented in the PPPL Dusty Plasma Experiment and is expected to improve the reproducibility and characterization of dust cloud formation. The cylindrical plastic shaker comprises four pairings of electromagnets and neodymium magnets, with eight stabilizing springs. The amplitude and frequency of a pulsed current determine the dust dispersal rate, while a biased metallic mesh regulates the area of dispersion and size and charge of dropped particles. Preliminary testing shows that, for 44 micron silica dust, steady dispersal rates as fast as 0.2 mg/s (approximately 1700 particles/s) can be achieved.

  12. Early Child Development and Nutrition: A Review of the Benefits and Challenges of Implementing Integrated Interventions1234

    PubMed Central

    Hurley, Kristen M; Yousafzai, Aisha K; Lopez-Boo, Florencia

    2016-01-01

    Poor nutrition (substandard diet quantity and/or quality resulting in under- or overnutrition) and the lack of early learning opportunities contribute to the loss of developmental potential and life-long health and economic disparities among millions of children aged <5 y. Single-sector interventions representing either early child development (ECD) or nutrition have been linked to positive child development and/or nutritional status, and recommendations currently advocate for the development and testing of integrated interventions. We reviewed the theoretical and practical benefits and challenges of implementing integrated nutrition and ECD interventions along with the evidence for best practice and benefit-cost and concluded that the strong theoretical rationale for integration is more nuanced than the questions that the published empirical evidence have addressed. For example, further research is needed to 1) answer questions related to how integrated messaging influences caregiver characteristics such as well-being, knowledge, and behavior and how these influence early child nutrition and development outcomes; 2) understand population and nutritional contexts in which integrated interventions are beneficial; and 3) explore how varying implementation processes influence the efficacy, uptake, and cost-benefit of integrated nutrition and ECD interventions. PMID:26980819

  13. Peer-Mediated Intervention for Preschoolers with ASD Implemented in Early Childhood Education Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Esther; Girolametto, Luigi

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of peer intervention on the social interactions of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In this model, a speech-language pathologist and three early childhood educators trained typically developing peers to engage children with ASD in play. Three preschool children with ASD and six…

  14. The Process and Policy Challenges of Adapting and Implementing the Early Development Instrument in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldfeld, Sharon; Sayers, Mary; Brinkman, Sally; Silburn, Sven; Oberklaid, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Research Findings: Australian state and federal governments have increasingly recognized early childhood as a critical period for investing in interventions. At the same time, a number of organizational, structural, and environmental responses have been put in place to build the capacity of communities to better support children and their…

  15. California's Early Assessment Program: Its Effectiveness and the Obstacles to Successful Program Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLean, Hilary

    2012-01-01

    The Early Assessment Program (EAP) has emerged as a national model for states seeking to design policies that increase the number of students who leave high school ready for college and careers. In addition, the two national consortia designing new assessments aligned to the Common Core State Standards have recognized the EAP as a model for the…

  16. The Reach up Early Childhood Parenting Program: Origins, Content, and Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Susan P.; Chang, Susan M.; Smith, Joanne A.; Baker-Henningham, Helen

    2018-01-01

    Nurturing care in early childhood requires responsive interactions and opportunities to learn; however, there are few large-scale programs in low- and middle-income countries that support parents' ability to provide responsive care and activities that help children learn. The Reach Up training program was developed to increase capacity of…

  17. A Primary Approach to Reading: Review of Early Literacy Interventions Implemented in Pediatric Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogg, Julia A.; Sundman-Wheat, Ashley N.; Bateman, Lisa P.

    2012-01-01

    Children who begin school with less developed early literacy skills often have a difficult time catching up to their peers, and children who are poor readers in the first few years of school continue struggling with reading when compared with their peers at later grades. Before school entry, schools may be limited in their regular access to…

  18. Evaluation of Academic Policy Formulation and Implementation Transmountain Early College High School, El Paso, Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heidemann, Virginia Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Transmountain Early College High School (TMECHS) opened in August 2008, created by a partnership between the El Paso Community College (EPCC) and the El Paso Independent School District (EPISD), and supported in its conceptualization, start-up, and first few years operation by grant funding and guidance from the Texas High School Project (THSP)…

  19. The Readiness of Schools in Zimbabwe for the Implementation of Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangwaya, Ezron; Blignaut, Sylvan; Pillay, Shervani K.

    2016-01-01

    This qualitative study focuses on primary schools' state of readiness for the introduction of early childhood education. Adopting a multiple case study design, the article explores, through semi-structured interviews and documentation, school heads, teachers-in-charge and classroom teachers' perceptions of their respective schools' state of…

  20. Reflections on the Development and Implementation of an Enrichment Program in Early Childhood: A Metaphorical Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garvis, Susanne; Prendergast, Donna

    2015-01-01

    The profile of gifted education is being raised in Queensland (Australia) schools in recognition of the potential benefits to students of engaging in such programs. Little is known, however, about what types of programs are being delivered, especially in the early years. Since many programs are created by individuals, it is important to understand…

  1. Implementation of Different Teaching Approaches in Early Childhood Education Practices in Estonia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimer, Merilin; Tuul, Maire; Õun, Tiia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the activities of Estonian preschool teachers in the context of different teaching approaches and to compare the assessments of teachers of their own teaching with the assessments of observers of their teaching. For the data collection, the Early Childhood Classroom Observation Measure (ECCOM) and a structured…

  2. Implementation of the Early Start Denver Model in an Italian Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colombi, Costanza; Narzisi, Antonio; Ruta, Liliana; Cigala, Virginia; Gagliano, Antonella; Pioggia, Giovanni; Siracusano, Rosamaria; Rogers, Sally J.; Muratori, Filippo

    2018-01-01

    Identifying effective, community-based specialized interventions for young children with autism spectrum disorder is an international clinical and research priority. We evaluated the effectiveness of the Early Start Denver Model intervention in a group of young children with autism spectrum disorder living in an Italian community compared to a…

  3. Implementation of Music Activities to Increase Language Skills in the At-Risk Early Childhood Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeman, Elissa

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the short-term effects of a music education intervention on the receptive language skills of students in an at-risk early childhood program. The target population was nine students ages 3, 4, and 5 in an at-risk, inclusive classroom in a Chicago public school. The problem of language delay is indicated in…

  4. Conditions for Implementation of the Science Curriculum in Early Childhood Development and Education Centres in Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaji, Milimu Gladys; Indoshi, Francis C.

    2008-01-01

    Cognitive development and teaching have highlighted the importance of learning based on the relationship among individuals and the learning environment. Teaching and learning of science in early childhood development and education (ECDE) can only be effective if adequate facilities, materials, equipment and activities are put in place. Teaching of…

  5. Early life experience alters behavior during social defeat: focus on serotonergic systems.

    PubMed

    Gardner, K L; Thrivikraman, K V; Lightman, S L; Plotsky, P M; Lowry, C A

    2005-01-01

    Early life experience can have prolonged effects on neuroendocrine, autonomic, and behavioral responses to stress. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of early life experience on behavior during social defeat, as well as on associated functional cellular responses in serotonergic and non-serotonergic neurons within the dorsal raphe nucleus, a structure which plays an important role in modulation of stress-related physiology and behavior. Male Long Evans rat pups were exposed to either normal animal facility rearing or 15 min or 180 min of maternal separation from postnatal days 2-14. As adults, these rats were exposed to a social defeat protocol. Differences in behavior were seen among the early life treatment groups during social defeat; rats exposed to 180 min of maternal separation from postnatal days 2-14 displayed more passive-submissive behaviors and less proactive coping behaviors. Analysis of the distribution of tryptophan hydroxylase and c-Fos-like immunoreactivity in control rats exposed to a novel cage and rats exposed to social defeat revealed that, independent of the early life experience, rats exposed to social defeat showed an increase in the number of c-Fos-like immunoreactive nuclei in serotonergic neurons in the middle and caudal parts of the dorsal dorsal raphe nucleus and caudal part of the ventral dorsal raphe nucleus, regions known to contain serotonergic neurons projecting to central autonomic and emotional motor control systems. This is the first study to show that the dorsomedial part of the mid-rostrocaudal dorsal raphe nucleus is engaged by a naturalistic stressor and supports the hypothesis that early life experience alters behavioral coping strategies during social conflict; furthermore, this study is consistent with the hypothesis that topographically organized subpopulations of serotonergic neurons principally within the mid-rostrocaudal and caudal part of the dorsal dorsal raphe nucleus modulate stress

  6. Experiences with developing and implementing a virtual clinic for glaucoma care in an NHS setting.

    PubMed

    Kotecha, Aachal; Baldwin, Alex; Brookes, John; Foster, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the development of a virtual glaucoma clinic, whereby technicians collect information for remote review by a consultant specialist. This was a hospital-based service evaluation study. Patients suitable for the stable monitoring service (SMS) were low-risk patients with "suspect", "early"-to-"moderate" glaucoma who were deemed stable by their consultant care team. Three technicians and one health care assistant ran the service. Patients underwent tests in a streamlined manner in a dedicated clinical facility, with virtual review of data by a consultant specialist through an electronic patient record. Feasibility of developing a novel service within a UK National Health Service setting and improvement of patient journey time within the service were studied. Challenges to implementation of virtual clinic include staffing issues and use of information technology. Patient journey time within the SMS averaged 51 minutes, compared with 92 minutes in the glaucoma outpatient department. Patient satisfaction with the new service was high. Implementing innovation into existing services of the National Health Service is challenging. However, the virtual clinic showed an improved patient journey time compared with that experienced within the general glaucoma outpatient department. There exists a discrepancy between patient management decisions of reviewers, suggesting that some may be more risk averse than others when managing patients seen within this model. Future work will assess the ability to detect progression of disease in this model compared with the general outpatient model of care.

  7. Hybrid Implementation Model of Community-Partnered Early Intervention for Toddlers with Autism: A Randomized Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shire, Stephanie Y.; Chang, Ya-Chih; Shih, Wendy; Bracaglia, Suzanne; Kodjoe, Maria; Kasari, Connie

    2017-01-01

    Background: Interventions found to be effective in research settings are often not as effective when implemented in community settings. Considering children with autism, studies have rarely examined the efficacy of laboratory-tested interventions on child outcomes in community settings using randomized controlled designs. Methods: One hundred and…

  8. Implementation and Early Outcomes of the Comprehensive School Reform Demonstration (CSRD) Program. Doc # 2004-15

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaPointe, Michelle; Stullich, Stephanie

    2004-01-01

    The Comprehensive School Reform (CSR) program provides financial assistance to help schools develop and implement systematic approaches to schoolwide improvement that are grounded in scientifically based research and effective practices. The goal of the program is to enable all children to meet challenging state academic content and achievement…

  9. Implementing the Early Childhood Formula: Programs under PL 99-457.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiele, Judith E.; Hamilton, James L.

    1991-01-01

    This article describes progress made by states and U.S. territories in implementing the Part H program for handicapped infants and toddlers and the Section 619 preschool grants program, both authorized by the 1986 Amendments to the Education of the Handicapped Act. Challenges faced by states include financing, personnel supply and standards, and…

  10. Self-Study Guide for Implementing Early Literacy Interventions. REL 2016-129

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dombek, Jennifer L.; Foorman, Barbara R.; Garcia, Mishel; Smith, Kevin G.

    2016-01-01

    While literacy interventions can be implemented in any grade, focusing on prevention and intervention in kindergarten through grade 2 is optimal because reading difficulties become expensive and challenging to remediate as students become older. The Individuals with Disabilities Act of 2004 allows districts to do just this, with 15 percent of…

  11. Scaling up STEM Academies Statewide: Implementation, Network Supports, and Early Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Viki; House, Ann; Sherer, David; Singleton, Corinne; Wang, Haiwen; Klopfenstein, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    This chapter presents a case study of scaling up the T-STEM initiative in Texas. Data come from the four-year longitudinal evaluation of the Texas High School Project (THSP). The evaluation studied the implementation and impact of T-STEM and the other THSP reforms using a mixed-methods design, including qualitative case studies; principal,…

  12. An Evaluation of the Early Implementation of School-Based Bullying Prevention Programs in Massachusetts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sautter Errichetti, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Background: A quarter of U.S. children are bullied annually. State legislatures have responded to high profile media exposure of bullying and increased public concern by passing legislation aimed at preventing bullying among school children. Methods: The RE-AIM (Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance) framework was used to…

  13. Forging Ahead! Teachers Reflect on the Early Adopter Program to Implement the Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koning, Erin; Houghtby, Beth; Izard, Patrice; Schuler, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    This "water cooler" column features e-mail conversations between Erin Koning and three teachers--Beth, Jenna, and Patrice--and is a reflection of their participation in a Chicago Public School (CPS), professional development series designed to support the implementation of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in grades K-12. At the…

  14. Examining the Impact of ABRACADABRA on Early Literacy in Northern Australia: An Implementation Fidelity Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolgemuth, Jennifer R.; Abrami, Philip C.; Helmer, Janet; Savage, Robert; Harper, Helen; Lea, Tess

    2014-01-01

    To address students' poor literacy outcomes, an intervention using a computer-based literacy tool, ABRACADABRA, was implemented in 6 Northern Australia primary schools. A pretest, posttest parallel group, single blind multisite randomized controlled trial was conducted with 308 students between the ages of 4 and 8 years old (M age = 5.8 years, SD…

  15. Quality Rating Improvement System "for" Early Care "and" Education: Development, Implementation, Evaluation and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Jianping; Ma, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Quality Rating Improvement System (QRIS) has gained national momentum. The authors first present a national scene of QRIS and then use Children's Services Council of Palm Beach County as a case study to illustrate a number of things. First, they look at the logic model behind the QRIS. Next, they review the design and implementation of the QRIS in…

  16. Instructional Experiences of Graduate Assistants Implementing Explicit and Reflective Introductory Biology Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bautista, Nazan Uludag; Schussler, Elisabeth E.; Rybczynski, Stephen M.

    2014-05-01

    Science education reform documents identify nature of science (NOS) as a critical component of scientific literacy and call for universities, colleges, and K-12 schools to explicitly integrate NOS learning into science curricula. In response to these calls, this study investigated the classroom practices of nine graduate assistants (GAs) who taught expository and inquiry laboratories that implemented an explicit and reflective (ER) pedagogy to teach NOS. The purpose of this qualitative study was to better understand the experiences that enabled or inhibited GA implementation of an ER strategy in a college setting. The findings revealed that achieving quality implementation in this setting was very difficult. Factors such as GAs' ability to foster meaningful classroom discussions, laboratory logistics (e.g. lack of time and supplies), and the value undergraduates and GAs saw in learning about NOS were identified by GAs and observed by the researchers as barriers to the technique maximizing its potential. Thus, for meaningful infusion of NOS into science curricula, pedagogical support for GAs to manage meaningful classroom discussions in support of NOS or other complex topics is recommended for an ER approach to NOS learning to be successful in college settings.

  17. Barriers to implementing the World Health Organization's Trauma Care Checklist: A Canadian single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Brodie; Zakirova, Rimma; Bridge, Jennifer; Nathens, Avery B

    2014-11-01

    Management of trauma patients is difficult because of their complexity and acuity. In an effort to improve patient care and reduce morbidity and mortality, the World Health Organization developed a trauma care checklist. Local stakeholder input led to a modified 16-item version that was subsequently piloted. Our study highlights the barriers and challenges associated with implementing this checklist at our hospital. The checklist was piloted over a 6-month period at St. Michael's Hospital, a Level 1 trauma center in Toronto, Canada. At the end of the pilot phase, individual, semistructured interviews were held with trauma team leaders and nursing staff regarding their experiences with the checklist. Axial coding was used to create a typology of attitudes and barriers toward the checklist, and then, vertical coding was used to further explore each identified barrier. Checklist compliance was assessed for the first 7 months. Checklist compliance throughout the pilot phase was 78%. Eight key barriers to implementing the checklist were identified as follows: perceived lack of time for the use of the checklist in critically ill patients, unclear roles, no memory trigger, no one to enforce completion, not understanding its importance or purpose, difficulty finding physicians at the end of resuscitation, staff/trainee changes, and professional hierarchy. The World Health Organization Trauma Care Checklist was a well-received tool; however, consideration of barriers to the implementation and staff adoption must be done for successful integration, with special attention to its use in critically ill patients. Therapeutic/care management, level V.

  18. Assessment and measurement of patient-centered medical home implementation: the BCBSM experience.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Jeffrey A; Paustian, Michael; Wise, Christopher G; Green, Lee A; Fetters, Michael D; Mason, Margaret; El Reda, Darline K

    2013-01-01

    Our goal was to describe an approach to patient-centered medical home (PCMH) measurement based on delineating the desired properties of the measurement relative to assumptions about the PCMH and the uses of the measure by Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan (BCBSM) and health services researchers. We developed and validated an approach to assess 13 functional domains of PCMHs and 128 capabilities within those domains. A measure of PCMH implementation was constructed using data from the validated self-assessment and then tested on a large sample of primary care practices in Michigan. Our results suggest that the measure adequately addresses the specific requirements and assumptions underlying the BCBSM PCMH program-ability to assess change in level of implementation; ability to compare across practices regardless of size, affiliation, or payer mix; and ability to assess implementation of the PCMH through different sequencing of capabilities and domains. Our experience illustrates that approaches to measuring PCMH should be driven by the measures' intended use(s) and users, and that a one-size-fits-all approach may not be appropriate. Rather than promoting the BCBSM PCMH measure as the gold standard, our study highlights the challenges, strengths, and limitations of developing a standardized approach to PCMH measurement.

  19. The use of workflows in the design and implementation of complex experiments in macromolecular crystallography.

    PubMed

    Brockhauser, Sandor; Svensson, Olof; Bowler, Matthew W; Nanao, Max; Gordon, Elspeth; Leal, Ricardo M F; Popov, Alexander; Gerring, Matthew; McCarthy, Andrew A; Gotz, Andy

    2012-08-01

    The automation of beam delivery, sample handling and data analysis, together with increasing photon flux, diminishing focal spot size and the appearance of fast-readout detectors on synchrotron beamlines, have changed the way that many macromolecular crystallography experiments are planned and executed. Screening for the best diffracting crystal, or even the best diffracting part of a selected crystal, has been enabled by the development of microfocus beams, precise goniometers and fast-readout detectors that all require rapid feedback from the initial processing of images in order to be effective. All of these advances require the coupling of data feedback to the experimental control system and depend on immediate online data-analysis results during the experiment. To facilitate this, a Data Analysis WorkBench (DAWB) for the flexible creation of complex automated protocols has been developed. Here, example workflows designed and implemented using DAWB are presented for enhanced multi-step crystal characterizations, experiments involving crystal reorientation with kappa goniometers, crystal-burning experiments for empirically determining the radiation sensitivity of a crystal system and the application of mesh scans to find the best location of a crystal to obtain the highest diffraction quality. Beamline users interact with the prepared workflows through a specific brick within the beamline-control GUI MXCuBE.

  20. Implementation of an Unequal Path Length, Heterodyne Interferometer on the MOCHI LabJet Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Card, Alexander Harrison

    The MOCHI LabJet experiment aims to explore the stability of magnetic flux tubes through the medium of laboratory astrophysical plasmas. The boundary conditions of large gravitational bodies, namely accretion disks, are replicated and allowed to influence a plasma over short timescales. Observation of the plasma is enabled through use of a variety of fast diagnostics, including an unequal path length, heterodyne, quadrature phase differential interferometer, the development and implementation of which is described in detail. The LabJet gun, a triple-electrode planar plasma gun featuring azimuthally symmetric gas injection achieves a new, long-duration, highly-stabilized, jet plasma formation. The line-integrated density in this new LabJet formation is found to be ne = (6 +/- 3)x1020 [m-2]. By observing the axial expansion rate of the jet over multiple chord locations (all perpendicular to the propagation axis), the interferometer provides an Alfvén velocity measurement of vA = 41.3 +/- 5.4 [km/s], which at the jet density observed indicates an axial magnetic field strength of Bz = 0.15 +/- 0.04 [T]. Various other laboratory components are also detailed, such as a shot-based MDSplus data storage architecture implemented into the LabVIEW experiment control code, and the production and performance of ten fast neutral gas injection valves which when fired in unison provide a total particle inventory of (7.8 +/- 0.6)x1023 [HI particles].

  1. Concussion guideline implementation perceptions and experiences among parents of community-level Australian Football junior players

    PubMed Central

    White, Peta E; Register-Mihalik, Johna; Donaldson, Alex; Sullivan, S John

    2017-01-01

    Background/aim Concussion guidelines exist for multiple community sports. Parents are key stakeholders in guideline implementation and in appropriate responses following concussive injury. The purpose of this qualitative investigation was to understand how parents of community-level Australian Football (AF) players experience and perceive concussion guidelines in order to inform the design and implementation of concussion guidelines in community sport. Methods A cross-sectional qualitative approach was adopted to allow for an open and detailed exploration of the views of parents of junior community AF players (ie, those aged <16 years) regarding concussion guidelines of the AF League (AFL)—the national governing body for AF. Participants were 15 parents of junior community AF players from two clubs affiliated with a large regional community AF League. Results The key experiences and perceptions of the parents included appreciation that the guidelines outlined the postconcussion process that should be followed, desires for better understanding of the guidelines by general practitioners (ie, medical doctors) who care for children with concussion, having more readily available information for parents and receiving more formal policy guiding timing of return-to-participation following concussion. Difficulties with the guidelines not addressing delayed presentations of concussion were also frequently mentioned. Conclusions Parents are key stakeholders in concussion prevention and care in community sport. As such, their input should be considered when developing guidelines and resources for community sport. Furthermore, concussion information should be made available to parents in an easily accessible and community-friendly form. PMID:28761707

  2. Design and implementation of a laboratory-based drug design and synthesis advanced pharmacy practice experience.

    PubMed

    Philip, Ashok; Stephens, Mark; Mitchell, Sheila L; Watkins, E Blake

    2015-04-25

    To provide students with an opportunity to participate in medicinal chemistry research within the doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum. We designed and implemented a 3-course sequence in drug design or drug synthesis for pharmacy students consisting of a 1-month advanced elective followed by two 1-month research advanced pharmacy practice experiences (APPEs). To maximize student involvement, this 3-course sequence was offered to third-year and fourth-year students twice per calendar year. Students were evaluated based on their commitment to the project's success, productivity, and professionalism. Students also evaluated the course sequence using a 14-item course evaluation rubric. Student feedback was overwhelmingly positive. Students found the experience to be a valuable component of their pharmacy curriculum. We successfully designed and implemented a 3-course research sequence that allows PharmD students in the traditional 4-year program to participate in drug design and synthesis research. Students report the sequence enhanced their critical-thinking and problem-solving skills and helped them develop as independent learners. Based on the success achieved with this sequence, efforts are underway to develop research APPEs in other areas of the pharmaceutical sciences.

  3. POSNA Quality Safety Value Initiative: From Vision to Implementation to Early Results.

    PubMed

    Waters, Peter M; Flynn, John M

    2015-01-01

    The POSNA Quality, Safety and Value Initiative (QSVI) formally started with POSNA board approval in early 2011. The initial vision statement was: "To lead in defining our members' value based clinical care. To partner with hospital based and orthopedic organizational efforts to guarantee safe, high quality outcomes for our patients. To communicate our initiatives and results cooperatively with payer, credentialing, and compliance organizations to improve pediatric orthopedic care in North America."

  4. The development and implementation of a pilot CBT for early psychosis service: achievements and challenges.

    PubMed

    Perry, Yael; Murrihy, Rachael C; Varlow, Megan; Dedousis-Wallace, Anna; Ellis, Danielle M; Langdon, Robyn; Kidman, Antony D

    2015-06-01

    Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) is a clinically indicated treatment for first-episode psychosis. Despite this, CBT for early psychosis is not routinely available as part of standard mental health services in Australia. The aim of this pilot project was to develop a CBT for early psychosis service to be provided as an adjunct to existing community mental health services. This study examined the feasibility of this service model, delivered in a real-world setting. A secondary aim was to explore the effectiveness of this service, as measured by clinical and functional outcomes. Participants living in northern Sydney, Australia, and who had recently experienced a first episode of psychosis, were offered up to 20 sessions of individual CBT. Service feasibility was measured via attrition rates, therapy attendance and referrer feedback. Measures of psychosis, depression, anxiety and psychosocial functioning, were assessed pretreatment, after six and 12 sessions, and at 3 months post-treatment. Nineteen clients attended treatment to completion. Survey feedback from referrers affirmed the positive impact of the service on clients' recovery. Additionally, clients showed improvements in symptoms of psychosis over the first three time points. Psychosocial functioning also shifted from the moderately to mildly impaired range by the end of treatment. The CBT for early psychosis service has been successfully integrated into the mental health landscape of northern Sydney. Outcomes of this pilot project are discussed with reference to the achievements of the service, as well as the obstacles encountered, and how they were overcome. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  5. Bullying Mediates Between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Childhood and Psychotic Experiences in Early Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Hennig, Timo; Jaya, Edo S; Lincoln, Tania M

    2017-09-01

    Although a childhood diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is known to be linked to psychotic experiences and psychotic disorders in later life, the developmental trajectories that could explain this association are unknown. Using a sample from the prospective population-based Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) (N = 8247), we hypothesized that the previously reported association of ADHD combined subtype in childhood and psychotic experiences in early adolescence is mediated by traumatic events and by involvement in bullying. Moreover, we expected this mediation to be specific to ADHD and tested this by comparison with specific phobia. Children with ADHD combined subtype at age 7 were more often involved in bullying at age 10 (OR 3.635, 95% CI 1.973-6.697) and had more psychotic experiences at age 12 (OR 3.362, 95% CI 1.781-6.348). Moreover, children who were involved in bullying had more psychotic experiences (2.005, 95% CI 1.684-2.388). Bullying was a significant mediator between ADHD and psychotic experiences accounting for 41%-50% of the effect. Traumatic events from birth to age 11 were also significantly associated with ADHD combined subtype and psychotic experiences; however, there was no evidence of mediation. Specific phobia was significantly associated with psychotic experiences, but not with bullying. To conclude, bullying is a relevant translating mechanism from ADHD in childhood to psychotic experiences in early adolescence. Interventions that eliminate bullying in children with ADHD could potentially reduce the risk of having psychotic experiences in later life by up to 50%. Clinicians should thus screen for bullying in routine assessments of children with ADHD. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Implementation of Malaria Dynamic Models in Municipality Level Early Warning Systems in Colombia. Part I: Description of Study Sites

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Daniel; Cerón, Viviana; Molina, Adriana M.; Quiñónes, Martha L.; Jiménez, Mónica M.; Ahumada, Martha; Gutiérrez, Patricia; Osorio, Salua; Mantilla, Gilma; Connor, Stephen J.; Thomson, Madeleine C.

    2014-01-01

    As part of the Integrated National Adaptation Pilot project and the Integrated Surveillance and Control System, the Colombian National Institute of Health is working on the design and implementation of a Malaria Early Warning System framework, supported by seasonal climate forecasting capabilities, weather and environmental monitoring, and malaria statistical and dynamic models. In this report, we provide an overview of the local ecoepidemiologic settings where four malaria process-based mathematical models are currently being implemented at a municipal level. The description includes general characteristics, malaria situation (predominant type of infection, malaria-positive cases data, malaria incidence, and seasonality), entomologic conditions (primary and secondary vectors, mosquito densities, and feeding frequencies), climatic conditions (climatology and long-term trends), key drivers of epidemic outbreaks, and non-climatic factors (populations at risk, control campaigns, and socioeconomic conditions). Selected pilot sites exhibit different ecoepidemiologic settings that must be taken into account in the development of the integrated surveillance and control system. PMID:24891460

  7. Early experiences with family conflict: implications for arguments with a close friend.

    PubMed

    Herrera, C; Dunn, J

    1997-09-01

    This study examined associations between children's early experiences in family disputes and their later management of conflicts with a close friend. Thirty-seven children were observed interacting with their mother and older sibling at 33 months and with a friend at 72 months. Children's early use of argument was not associated with their later behavior during disputes with a friend. However, argument used by the mother and sibling that considered the child needs was positively associated with the child's later use of constructive argument and resolution techniques. The mother's use of argument that focused on her own needs was negatively related to these outcomes. These associations were independent of global characteristics of the mother-child and sibling relationships. Moreover, the mother's use of argument predicted the child's later conflict management independent of the child's early argument patterns, emotion understanding, and verbal fluency.

  8. Exploring physiotherapists' experiences of implementing a cognitive behavioural approach for managing low back pain and identifying barriers to long-term implementation.

    PubMed

    Richmond, Helen; Hall, Amanda M; Hansen, Zara; Williamson, Esther; Davies, David; Lamb, Sarah E

    2018-03-01

    Our objectives were two-fold: (i) to describe physiotherapists' experiences of implementing a cognitive behavioural approach (CBA) for managing low back pain (LBP) after completing an extensive online training course (iBeST), and (ii) to identify how iBeST could be enhanced to support long-term implementation before scale up for widespread use. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 11 physiotherapists from six National Health Service departments in the Midlands, Oxfordshire and Derbyshire. Questions centred on (i) using iBeST to support implementation, (ii) what barriers they encountered to implementation and (iii) what of information or resources they required to support sustained implementation. Interviews were transcribed and thematically analysed using NVivo. Themes were categorised using the Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF). Evidence-based techniques were identified using the behaviour change technique taxonomy to target relevant TDF domains. Three themes emerged from interviews: anxieties about using a CBA, experiences of implementing a CBA, and sustainability for future implementation of a CBA. Themes crossed multiple TDF domains and indicated concerns with knowledge, beliefs about capabilities and consequences, social and professional roles, social influences, emotion, and environmental context and resources. We identified evidence-based strategies that may support sustainable implementation of a CBA for LBP in a physiotherapy setting. This study highlighted potential challenges for physiotherapists in the provision of evidence-based LBP care within the current UK NHS. Using the TDF provided the foundation to develop a tailored, evidence-based, implementation intervention to support long term use of a CBA by physiotherapists managing LBP within UK NHS outpatient departments. Copyright © 2017 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. All rights reserved.

  9. Implementation and assessment of an early home-based intervention on infant attachment organisation: the CAPEDP attachment study in France.

    PubMed

    Tereno, Susana; Guedeney, Nicole; Dugravier, Romain; Greacen, Tim; Saïas, Thomas; Tubach, Florence; Guédeney, Antoine

    2013-06-01

    Attachment is a long-term emotional link between infants and their mothers. Attachment quality influences subsequent psychosocial relationships, the ability to manage stress and, consequently, later mental health. Home intervention programmes targeting infant attachment have been implemented in several contexts with varying degrees of efficacy. Within the CAPEDP study (Parental Skills and Attachment in Early Childhood: reduction of risks linked to mental health problems and promotion of resilience), a subsample of 120 families were recruited with the objective of assessing the impact of this home-visiting programme on infant attachment organisation using the Strange Situation Procedure. The present paper describes the methodology used in this ancillary study.

  10. Implementation of a landslide early warning system based on near-real-time monitoring, multisensor mapping and geophysical measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teza, Giordano; Galgaro, Antonio; Francese, Roberto; Ninfo, Andrea; Mariani, Rocco

    2017-04-01

    An early warning system has been implemented to monitor the Perarolo di Cadore landslide (North-Eastern Italian Alps), which is a slump whose induced risk is fairly high because a slope collapse could form a temporary dam on the underlying torrent and, therefore, could directly threaten the close village. A robotic total station (RTS) measures, with 6h returning time, the positions of 23 retro-reflectors placed on the landslide upper and middle sectors. The landslide's kinematical behavior derived from these near-real-time (NRT) surface displacements is interpreted on the basis of available geomorphological and geological information, geometrical data provided by some laser scanning and photogrammetric surveys, and a landslide model obtained by means of 3D Electrical Resistivity Tomography (3D ERT) measurements. In this way, an analysis of the time series provided by RTS and a pluviometer, which cover several years, allows the definition of some pre-alert and alert kinematical and rainfall thresholds. These thresholds, as well as the corresponding operational recommendations, are currently used for early warning purposes by Authorities involved in risk management for the Perarolo landslide. It should be noted the fact that, as new RTS and pluviometric data are available, the thresholds can be updated and, therefore, a fine tuning of the early warning system can be carried out in order to improve its performance. Although the proposed approach has been implemented in a particular case, it can be used to develop an early warning system based on NRT data in each site where a landslide threatens infrastructures and/or villages that cannot be relocated.

  11. Factors associated with sustainability of 2 quality improvement programs after achieving early implementation success. A qualitative case study.

    PubMed

    Ament, Stephanie M C; Gillissen, Freek; Moser, Albine; Maessen, José M C; Dirksen, Carmen D; von Meyenfeldt, Maarten F; van der Weijden, Trudy

    2017-12-01

    Sustainability of innovations is a relatively new concept in health care research and has become an issue of growing interest. The current study explored factors related to the sustainability of 2 multidisciplinary hospital-based programs 3 to 6 years after achieving early implementation success. An exploratory qualitative study was conducted into 2 implementation cases, an Enhanced Recovery After Surgery program for colorectal surgery and a short-stay program for breast cancer surgery. Semistructured interviews were held with key persons involved in the care process in 14 hospitals from both cases minimally 3 years after the implementation, between March 2012 and May 2013. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research was used to direct the development of the interview guide, during data collection and during analysis. A directed content analysis was performed. A total of 21 interviews with 26 individuals were held, 18 regarding the Enhanced Recovery After Surgery case and 8 regarding the short-stay program case. Respondents mentioned the following factors associated with sustainability of the programs: modification and adaptability of the program, cost-effectiveness, institutionalization into existing systems, short communication lines within the multidisciplinary team, an innovative culture, benefits for patients, cosmopolitanism, the existence of external policies and incentives, trust and belief in the program, and spread of the program to other settings. Two factors are not covered by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research, ie, modification of the program over the years and spread of the program to other contexts. The factors associated with sustainability put forward in both cases were largely the same. Leadership and the implementation project were not mentioned as having influenced the long-term sustainability of the benefits achieved. Sustainability of the innovations is influenced by determinants stemming from all ecological

  12. Bias to pollen odors is affected by early exposure and foraging experience.

    PubMed

    Arenas, A; Farina, W M

    2014-07-01

    In many pollinating insects, foraging preferences are adjusted on the basis of floral cues learned at the foraging site. In addition, olfactory experiences gained at early adult stages might also help them to initially choose food sources. To understand pollen search behavior of honeybees, we studied how responses elicited by pollen-based odors are biased in foraging-age workers according to (i) their genetic predisposition to collect pollen, (ii) pollen related information gained during foraging and (iii) different experiences with pollen gained at early adult ages. Bees returning to the hive carrying pollen loads, were strongly biased to unfamiliar pollen bouquets when tested in a food choice device against pure odors. Moreover, pollen foragers' orientation response was specific to the odors emitted by the pollen type they were carrying on their baskets, which suggests that foragers retrieve pollen odor information to recognize rewarding flowers outside the hive. We observed that attraction to pollen odor was mediated by the exposure to a pollen diet during the first week of life. We did not observe the same attraction in foraging-age bees early exposed to an artificial diet that did not contain pollen. Contrary to the specific response observed to cues acquired during foraging, early exposure to single-pollen diets did not bias orientation response towards a specific pollen odor in foraging-age bees (i.e. bees chose equally between the exposed and the novel monofloral pollen odors). Our results show that pollen exposure at early ages together with olfactory experiences gained in a foraging context are both relevant to bias honeybees' pollen search behavior. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. On the causes of early life experience effects: evaluating the role of mom.

    PubMed

    Tang, Akaysha C; Reeb-Sutherland, Bethany C; Romeo, Russell D; McEwen, Bruce S

    2014-04-01

    Early life experiences are thought to have long-lasting effects on cognitive, emotional, and social function during adulthood. Changes in neuroendocrine function, particularly the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, contribute to these systems-level behavioral effects. In searching for causal mechanisms underlying these early experience effects, pioneering research has demonstrated an important role for maternal care in offspring development, and this has led to two persistent ideas that permeate current research and thinking: first, environmental impact on the developing infant is mediated through maternal care behavior; second, the more care that a mother provides, the better off her offspring. While a good beginning, the reality is likely more complex. In this review, we critically examine these ideas and propose a computationally-motivated theoretical framework, and within this framework, we consider evidence supporting a hypothesis of maternal modulation. These findings may inform policy decisions in the context of child health and development. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Early adverse experience and substance addiction: dopamine, oxytocin, and glucocorticoid pathways

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sohye; Kwok, Stephanie; Mayes, Linda C.; Potenza, Marc N.; Rutherford, Helena J. V.; Strathearn, Lane

    2016-01-01

    Substance addiction may follow a chronic, relapsing course and critically undermine the physical and psychological well-being of the affected individual and the social units of which the individual is a member. Despite the public health burden associated with substance addiction, treatment options remain suboptimal, with relapses often seen. The present review synthesizes growing insights from animal and human research to shed light upon developmental and neurobiological pathways that may increase susceptibility to addiction. We examine the dopamine system, the oxytocin system, and the glucocorticoid system, as they are particularly relevant to substance addiction. Our aim is to delineate how early adverse experience may induce long-lasting alterations in each of these systems at molecular, neuroendocrine, and behavioral levels and ultimately lead to heightened vulnerability to substance addiction. We further discuss how substance addiction in adulthood may increase the risk of suboptimal caregiving for the next generation, perpetuating the intergenerational cycle of early adverse experiences and addiction. PMID:27508337

  15. Early childhood experiences, cultural beliefs, and oral health of Mexican American women.

    PubMed

    Miltiades, Helen B

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative article examines how financial resources, cultural beliefs, and early childhood experiences affect perceptions of oral health and dental utilization of middle-aged and older Mexican American women. Fourteen in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted. The women's ages range from 49 to 87 years. Most had not visited the dentist in more than 2 years. Most women's early childhood experiences did not include dental visits or dental instruction. Some believed tooth loss was a normal aging process. Misconceptions regarding preventive care, the belief that dental visits were only necessary when experiencing pain, and finances were the primary reasons for not visiting the dentist. The results lend insight into the oral health, self-care practices, and dental utilization of middle-aged and older immigrant Mexican American women.

  16. Identifying key features of early stressful experiences that produce stress vulnerability and resilience in primates

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Karen J.; Maestripieri, Dario

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the complex role of early stressful experiences in producing both vulnerability and resilience to later stress-related psychopathology in a variety of primate models of human development. Two types of models are reviewed: Parental Separation Models (e.g., isolate-rearing, peer-rearing, parental separations, and stress inoculation) and Maternal Behavior Models (e.g., foraging demands, variation in maternal style, and maternal abuse). Based on empirical evidence, it is argued that early life stress exposure does not increase adult vulnerability to stress-related psychopathology as a linear function, as is generally believed, but instead reflects a quadratic function. Features of early stress exposure including the type, duration, frequency, ecological validity, sensory modality, and developmental timing, within and between species, are identified to better understand how early stressful experiences alter neurobiological systems to produce such diverse developmental outcomes. This article concludes by identifying gaps in our current knowledge, providing directions for future research, and discussing the translational implications of these primate models for human development and psychopathology. PMID:20851145

  17. Providing Quality Early Care and Education to Young Children Who Experience Maltreatment: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinehart, Laura H.; Katz, Lynne F.; Manfra, Louis; Ullery, Mary Anne

    2013-01-01

    The current paper highlights the few studies that examine the role of early care and education on the developmental and early academic outcomes of children who experience maltreatment. First, we argue that children who experience maltreatment are at significant risk for poor developmental outcomes as a result of the chronic exposure to stress that…

  18. "It's Just So Lovely to Hear Him Talking": Exploring the Early-Intervention Expectations and Experiences of Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Rena; O'Malley, Mary Pat; O'Connor, Patricia; Monaghan, Una

    2010-01-01

    Little research to date explores parental experiences of early intervention. This study uses action research over a six-month period to explore the expectations and experiences of parents whose children attended an early-intervention group for speech/language impairments. This intervention programme was facilitated by a speech and language…

  19. INEQUITY ISSUES AND MOTHERS' PREGNANCY, DELIVERY AND EARLY-AGE SURVIVAL EXPERIENCES IN ENDE DISTRICT, INDONESIA.

    PubMed

    Pardosi, Jerico Franciscus; Parr, Nick; Muhidin, Salut

    2015-11-01

    Indonesia's infant mortality rates are among the highest in South-East Asia, and there are substantial variations between its sub-national regions. This qualitative study aims to explore early mortality-related health service provision and gender inequity issues based on mothers' pregnancy, delivery and early-age survival experience in Ende district, Nusa Tenggara Timur province. Thirty-two mothers aged 18-45 years with at least one birth in the previous five years were interviewed in depth in May 2013. The results show most mothers have little knowledge about the danger signs for a child's illness. Mothers with early-age deaths generally did not know the cause of death. Very few mothers had received adequate information on maternal and child health during their antenatal and postnatal visits to the health facility. Some mothers expressed a preference for using a traditional birth attendant, because of their ready availability and the more extensive range of support services they provide, compared with local midwives. Unprofessional attitudes displayed by midwives were reported by several mothers. As elsewhere in Indonesia, the power of health decision-making lies with the husband. Policies aimed at elevating mothers' roles in health care decision-making are discussed as measures that would help to improve early-age survival outcomes. Widening the public health insurance distribution, especially among poorer mothers, and equalizing the geographical distribution of midwives and health facilities are recommended to tackle geographical inequities and to increase early-age survival in Ende district.

  20. The Multidimensional Relationship between Early Adult Body Weight and Women’s Childbearing Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Frisco, Michelle L.; Weden, Margaret M.; Lippert, Adam M.

    2011-01-01

    This study has three primary goals that make an important contribution to the literature on body weight and childbearing experiences among United States’ women. It sheds light on the physiological and social nature of this relationship by examining whether the consequences of early adult weight for lifetime childbearing are shaped by historical social context, women’s social characteristics, and their ability to marry. We analyze data from two female cohorts who participated in the National Longitudinal Study of Youth (NLSY79). Cohort 1 entered early adulthood before the U.S. obesity prevalence increased. Cohort 2 entered early adulthood after the obesity prevalence increased. We find that early adult weight is negatively related to the childbearing trajectories and marital status of Cohort 1 but not Cohort 2. Failing to account for race/ethnicity and women’s educational background as confounders masks some of these associations, which are evident for both White and Black women. Our results suggest that the health consequences of body weight do not fully drive its impact on childbearing. Rather, the lifetime fertility consequences of early adult weight are malleable, involve social processes, and are dependent on social context. PMID:21944717

  1. Seeding Entrepreneurship across Campus: Early Implementation Experiences of the Kauffman Campuses Initiative. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulsey, Lara; Rosenberg, Linda; Kim, Benita

    2006-01-01

    Although entrepreneurship has long been considered a fundamental aspect of American society, its development as an academic field in U.S. colleges and universities is relatively recent and on-campus entrepreneurship programs have been most commonly found in business schools. Because entrepreneurs and innovative ideas can arise from within any…

  2. Early Field Experiences in Language Teacher Education: An Ecological Analysis of a Program Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez Arroyo, Sandra

    2009-01-01

    Language teacher education (LTE) has received increased attention over the last several decades. Language teacher educators, university researchers, classroom teachers, and future teachers have contributed immensely to existing knowledge on how language teachers learn to teach. Researchers and practitioners have finally acknowledged that future…

  3. Early-life experience affects honey bee aggression and resilience to immune challenge

    PubMed Central

    Rittschof, Clare C.; Coombs, Chelsey B.; Frazier, Maryann; Grozinger, Christina M.; Robinson, Gene E.

    2015-01-01

    Early-life social experiences cause lasting changes in behavior and health for a variety of animals including humans, but it is not well understood how social information ‘‘gets under the skin’’ resulting in these effects. Adult honey bees (Apis mellifera) exhibit socially coordinated collective nest defense, providing a model for social modulation of aggressive behavior. Here we report for the first time that a honey bee’s early-life social environment has lasting effects on individual aggression: bees that experienced high-aggression environments during pre-adult stages showed increased aggression when they reached adulthood relative to siblings that experienced low-aggression environments, even though all bees were kept in a common environment during adulthood. Unlike other animals including humans however, high-aggression honey bees were more, rather than less, resilient to immune challenge, assessed as neonicotinoid pesticide susceptibility. Moreover, aggression was negatively correlated with ectoparasitic mite presence. In honey bees, early-life social experience has broad effects, but increased aggression is decoupled from negative health outcomes. Because honey bees and humans share aspects of their physiological response to aggressive social encounters, our findings represent a step towards identifying ways to improve individual resiliency. Pre-adult social experience may be crucial to the health of the ecologically threatened honey bee. PMID:26493190

  4. Early childhood experiences, parenting and the process of drug dependency among young people in Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Mirlashari, Jila; Demirkol, Apo; Salsali, Mahvash; Rafiey, Hassan; Jahanbani, Jahanfar

    2012-06-01

    Substance abuse has become a major public health problem in Iran. The process of developing an addiction is complex and multifaceted. Early childhood experiences are thought to be one of the important determinants of addictive behaviour. The aim of this qualitative study is to explore the early childhood experiences, especially the experiences within the immediate family, of current substance-using young adults in Iran. The study is qualitative in nature. In-depth interviews were conducted with 15 young men and women who were either in treatment for their addiction or were active drug users at the time of the interviews. Moreover, four interviews have been conducted with family members of participants. The majority of the participants experienced traumatic events during childhood and came from dysfunctional families. There appears to be a significant disconnect between these individuals and their families. An obedience-instilling parenting style and parents' knowledge and attitude toward drug using and prevention were also identified as important determinants of substance use. The results of this research point out the need for early interventions for at-risk families as well as at-risk individuals. © 2011 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  5. The Experience of Implementing Urban HEART Barcelona: a Tool for Action.

    PubMed

    Novoa, Ana M; Pérez, Glòria; Espelt, Albert; Echave, Cynthia; de Olalla, Patricia G; Calvo, M Jesús; Pasarín, Maribel; Diez, Èlia; Borrell, Carme; Calvo, M Jesús; Cormenzana, Berta; Cortés, Imma; Diez, Èlia; Echave, Cynthia; Espelt, Albert; de Olalla, Patrícia G; Gòmez, Josep; Novoa, Ana M; Pallarès, Montserrat; Pérez, Glòria; Rodríguez-Sanz, Maica

    2017-10-16

    Urban Health Equity Assessment and Response Tool (HEART) is a tool developed by the World Health Organization whose objective is to provide evidence on urban health inequalities so as to help to decide the best interventions aimed to promote urban health equity. The aim of this paper is to describe the experience of implementing Urban HEART in Barcelona city, both the adaptation of Urban HEART to the city of Barcelona, its use as a means of identifying and monitoring health inequalities among city neighbourhoods, and the difficulties and barriers encountered throughout the process. Although ASPB public health technicians participated in the Urban HEART Advisory Group, had large experience in health inequalities analysis and research and showed interest in implementing the tool, it was not until 2015, when the city council was governed by a new left-wing party for which reducing health inequalities was a priority that Urban HEART could be used. A provisional matrix was developed, including both health and health determinant indicators, which allowed to show how some neighbourhoods in the city systematically fare worse for most of the indicators while others systematically fare better. It also allowed to identify 18 neighbourhoods-those which fared worse in most indicators-which were considered a priority for intervention, which entered the Health in the Barcelona Neighbourhoods programme and the Neighbourhoods Plan. This provisional version was reviewed and improved by the Urban HEART Barcelona Working Group. Technicians with experience in public health and/or in indicator and database management were asked to indicate suitability and relevance from a list of potential indicators. The definitive Urban HEART Barcelona version included 15 indicators from the five Urban HEART domains and improved the previous version in several requirements. Several barriers were encountered, such as having to estimate indicators in scarcely populated areas or finding adequate

  6. First-time mothers' experiences of early labour in Italian maternity care services.

    PubMed

    Cappelletti, Giulia; Nespoli, Antonella; Fumagalli, Simona; Borrelli, Sara E

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to explore first-time mothers' experiences of early labour in Italian maternity care services when admitted to hospital or advised to return home after maternity triage assessment. The study was conducted in a second-level maternity hospital in northern Italy with an obstetric unit for both low- and high-risk women. The participants included 15 first-time mothers in good general health with spontaneous labour at term of a low-risk pregnancy who accessed maternity triage during early labour, and were either admitted to hospital or advised to return home. A qualitative interpretive phenomenological study was conducted. A face-to-face recorded semi-structured interview was conducted with each participant 48-72h after birth. Four key themes emerged from the interviews: (a) recognising signs of early labour; (b) coping with pain at home; (c) seeking reassurance from healthcare professionals; and (d) being admitted to hospital versus returning home. Uncertainty about the progression of labour and the need for reassurance were cited by women as the main reasons for hospital visit in early labour. An ambivalent feeling was reported by the participants when admitted to hospital in early labour. In fact, while the women felt reassured in the first instance, some women subsequently felt dissatisfied due to the absence of one-to-one dedicated care during early labour. When advised to return home, a number of women reported feelings of disappointment, anger, fear, discouragement and anxiety about not being admitted to hospital; however, some of these women reported a subsequent feeling of comfort due to being at home and putting in place the suggestions made by the midwives during the maternity triage assessment. The guidance provided by midwives during triage assessment seemed to be the key factor influencing women׳s satisfaction when advised either to return home or to stay at the hospital during early labour. During antenatal classes and clinics

  7. Hydrological and thermal effects of hydropeaking on early life stages of salmonids: A modelling approach for implementing mitigation strategies.

    PubMed

    Casas-Mulet, Roser; Saltveit, Svein Jakob; Alfredsen, Knut Tore

    2016-12-15

    Alterations in hydrological and thermal regimes can potentially affect salmonid early life stages development and survival. The dewatering of salmon spawning redds due to hydropeaking can lead to mortality in early life stages, with higher impact on the alevins as they have lower tolerance to dewatering than the eggs. Flow-related mitigation measures can reduce early life stage mortality. We present a set of modelling tools to assess impacts and mitigation options to minimise the risk of mortality in early life stages in hydropeaking rivers. We successfully modelled long-term hydrological and thermal alterations and consequences for development rates. We estimated the risk of early life stages mortality and assessed the cost-effectiveness of implementing three release-related mitigation options (A,B,C). The economic cost of mitigation was low and ranged between 0.7% and 2.6% of the annual hydropower production. Options reducing the flow during spawning (B and C) in addition to only release minimum flows during development (A) were considered more effective for egg and alevin survival. Options B and C were however constraint by water availability in the system for certain years, and therefore only option A was always feasible. The set of modelling tools used in this study were satisfactory and their applications can be useful especially in systems where little field data is available. Targeted measures built on well-informed modelling tools can be tested on their effectiveness to mitigate dewatering effects vs. the hydropower system capacity to release or conserve water for power production. Environmental flow releases targeting specific ecological objectives can provide better cost-effective options than conventional operational rules complying with general legislation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Linking implementation of evidence-based parenting programs to outcomes in early intervention.

    PubMed

    Kilburn, Janice E; Shapiro, Cheri J; Hardin, James W

    2017-11-01

    In the field of early intervention, only a few studies of parenting interventions include both participant and facilitator behaviors. Fidelity and supervision (facilitator characteristics) and dosage and satisfaction (participant characteristics) were tested on the outcome of improved parenting style in a sample of 36 parents of young children with disabilities. Results indicated that the facilitator behavior of fidelity was significantly and negatively related to the program outcome of parenting style; no effect was found for the facilitator behavior of supervision. For the participant behaviors, both dosage and satisfaction had non-significant relationships with the program outcome of parenting style at follow-up. The surprising negative relationship between content fidelity and parenting style was discussed.Two possible explanations were: (1) process or quality of intervention delivery is more influential than content fidelity, which considers only adherence to the intervention manual, and (2) the developmental stage of early intervention families calls for more focus on relationships between facilitators and parents and less on content of the specific intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Mixed-Methods Study of Early Intervention Implementation in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattern, Janet Anne

    2013-01-01

    Children grow and change more rapidly during the first eight years of life than any other time in their life span. Progression through the physical, cognitive, and social-emotional developmental stages varies for each individual child. Children with atypical development experience a wide spectrum of variability in their development. Over the past…

  10. Reflections on the implementation of governance structures for early-stage clinical innovation.

    PubMed

    Cowie, Luke; Sandall, Jane; Ehrich, Kathryn

    2013-12-01

    This paper seeks to further explore the question of how best to monitor and govern innovative clinical procedures in their earliest phase of development. We examine the potential value of proposed governance frameworks, such as the IDEAL model, and examine the functioning of a novel procedures review committee. The paper draws upon 20 qualitative, semi-structured interviews. Nine interviews were conducted with members of a committee that was established as a means of governing innovative procedures within a large National Health Service Foundation Trust hospital in the UK. Eleven interviews were conducted with health providers involved with the development of a variety of novel clinical procedures. Prominent themes from the data include the potential willingness of clinicians to engage with regulatory frameworks for innovative procedures, existing ways in which clinicians and others attempt to ensure patient's safety and manage uncertainty in the context of novel procedures, views on the potential benefits and drawbacks of engaging with a review committee for novel procedures, and the pragmatic considerations and potential unintended consequences that are entailed in the implementation of regulatory requirements for the monitoring of innovative procedures. The views of committee members and clinical innovators help us to understand the practical issues of implementing governance structures for novel clinical procedures. The data illustrate those factors that must be taken into account if governance is to support innovation rather than act as an inhibiting factor in the development of new clinical procedures. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Australian Community Pharmacists' Experience of Implementing a Chronic Kidney Disease Risk Assessment Service.

    PubMed

    Gheewala, Pankti A; Peterson, Gregory M; Zaidi, Syed Tabish R; Jose, Matthew D; Castelino, Ronald L

    2018-06-14

    Community pharmacists are well positioned to deliver chronic kidney disease (CKD) screening services. However, little is known about the challenges faced by pharmacists during service implementation. This study aimed to explore community pharmacists' experiences and perceived barriers of implementing a CKD risk assessment service. Data collection was performed by using semistructured, open-ended interview questions. Pharmacists who had implemented a CKD screening service in Tasmania, Australia, were eligible to participate. A purposeful sampling strategy was used to select pharmacists, with variation in demographics and pharmacy location. A conventional content analysis approach was used to conduct the qualitative study. Transcripts were thematically analyzed by using the NVivo 11 software program. Initially, a list of free nodes was generated and data were coded exhaustively into relevant nodes. These nodes were then regrouped to form highly conceptualized themes. Five broad themes emerged from the analysis: contextual fit within community pharmacy; perceived scope of pharmacy practice; customer perception toward disease prevention; CKD - an underestimated disease; and remuneration for a beneficial service. Pharmacists found the CKD service efficient, user-friendly, and of substantial benefit to their customers. However, several pharmacists observed that their customers lacked interest in disease prevention, and had limited understanding of CKD. More importantly, pharmacists perceived the scope of pharmacy practice to depend substantially on interprofessional collaboration between pharmacists and general practitioners, and customer acknowledgment of pharmacists' role in disease prevention. Community pharmacists perceived the CKD service to be worth incorporating into pharmacy practice. To increase uptake, future CKD services should aim to improve customer awareness about CKD before providing risk assessment. Further research investigating strategies to enhance

  12. [Implementation of the EndoCert system for certification of arthroplasty centers. Experiences from the pilot phase].

    PubMed

    Haas, H; Mittelmeier, W

    2014-06-01

    EndoCert is an initiative of the Deutschen Gesellschaft für Orthopädie und Orthopädische Chirurgie (DGOOC, German Society for Orthopedics and Orthopedic Surgery) which has been available since October 2012 and is the first system worldwide for certification of specialized arthroplasty centers. Before implementation of this certification concept two sequential pilot phases were carried out with representative treatment institutions. The results from these pilot clinics are presented with respect to quality improvement effects. Early effects on the quality of treatment have been achieved by rectification of nonconformities determined in the audit with respect to structural and process quality. A total of 172 nonconformities found in the 23 participating pilot clinics could be rectified. Long-term effects on the quality of results will in future be analyzed in cooperation with the German endoprosthesis register (EPRD) and by accompanying evaluations. A close feedback of the collated experiences and results to the certification committee, which is responsible for the procedure together with the DGOOC, allows continuous further development of the system EndoCert represents a substantial step towards a nationwide safety and improvement of the quality in arthroplasty treatment within the preoperative, perioperative and postoperative framework and can in future represent a decisive tool together with the EPRD in quality management.

  13. Experiment requirements and implementation plan (Erip) for semiconductor materials growth in low-G environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouch, R. K.; Fripp, A. L.; Debnam, W. J.; Clark, I. O.

    1983-01-01

    The MEA-2 A facility was used to test the effect of the low gravity environment on suppressing convective mixing in the growth of Pb(1-x)Sn(x)Te crystals. The need to eliminate convection, the furnace characteristics and operation that will be required for successful experimental implementation, and to the level that is presently known, the measured physical properties of the Pb(1-x)Sn(x)Te system were discussed. In addition, a brief background of the present and potential utilization of Pb(1-x)Sn(x)Te is given. Additional experiments are anticipated in future MEA-A, improved MEA and other dedicated materials processing in space flight apparatus.

  14. [Implementation of modern operating room management -- experiences made at an university hospital].

    PubMed

    Hensel, M; Wauer, H; Bloch, A; Volk, T; Kox, W J; Spies, C

    2005-07-01

    Caused by structural changes in health care the general need for cost control is evident for all hospitals. As operating room is one of the most cost-intensive sectors in a hospital, optimisation of workflow processes in this area is of particular interest for health care providers. While modern operating room management is established in several clinics yet, others are less prepared for economic challenges. Therefore, the operating room statute of the Charité university hospital useful for other hospitals to develop an own concept is presented. In addition, experiences made with implementation of new management structures are described and results obtained over the last 5 years are reported. Whereas the total number of operation procedures increased by 15 %, the operating room utilization increased more markedly in terms of time and cases. Summarizing the results, central operating room management has been proved to be an effective tool to increase the efficiency of workflow processes in the operating room.

  15. Challenges of Implementing ESD in the Education Sector; Experiences in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandås, Astrid; Benedict, Faye

    This article presents and reflects on Norwegian experiences over a period of about 15 years with implementing the Norwegian national strategy for education for sustainable development (ESD) in the education system. We extract lessons about integration of ESD into education systems. After an introduction to central ideas of sustainable development and ESD, the article discusses the need for appropriate strategies and instruments. Key factors are collaboration to allow pupils and schools to actively contribute to a positive development locally and globally, interdisciplinary approaches to complex sustainability issues, and appropriate use of the ICT and other media. ESD programmes and activities should support school development and build the capacity of schools and teachers for integration of ESD.

  16. Experience with the Implementation of Clinical Pharmacy Services and Processes in a University Hospital in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Somers, Annemie; Claus, Barbara; Vandewoude, Koen; Petrovic, Mirko

    2016-03-01

    This article summarizes the experience with the development of clinical pharmacy services in the Ghent University Hospital in Belgium. Implementation of clinical pharmacy services in Belgian hospitals has not been evident because these activities were initially not structurally financed. The aim is to describe the strengths and weaknesses of the clinical pharmacy development process, and the milestones that enhanced the progress. Furthermore, the organisation of clinical pharmacy in the Ghent University Hospital is explained, including back- and front-office activities, seamless pharmaceutical care and medication safety improvement. Some working methods, procedures and tools are explained for different clinical pharmacy services. In particular, the clinical pharmacy projects for geriatric patients as well as the preparation of clinical pharmacy services for the accreditation process are explained. We also reflect on the organisation model and the future development of clinical pharmacy, taking into consideration facilitators and potential barriers.

  17. Practical guide for implementing hybrid PET/MR clinical service: lessons learned from our experience

    PubMed Central

    Parikh, Nainesh; Friedman, Kent P.; Shah, Shetal N.; Chandarana, Hersh

    2015-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging, until recently, have been performed on separate PET and MR systems with varying temporal delay between the two acquisitions. The interpretation of these two separately acquired studies requires cognitive fusion by radiologists/nuclear medicine physicians or dedicated and challenging post-processing. Recent advances in hardware and software with introduction of hybrid PET/MR systems have made it possible to acquire the PET and MR images simultaneously or near simultaneously. This review article serves as a road-map for clinical implementation of hybrid PET/MR systems and briefly discusses hardware systems, the personnel needs, safety and quality issues, and reimbursement topics based on experience at NYU Langone Medical Center and Cleveland Clinic. PMID:25985966

  18. Implementing a robotics curriculum at an academic general surgery training program: our initial experience.

    PubMed

    Winder, Joshua S; Juza, Ryan M; Sasaki, Jennifer; Rogers, Ann M; Pauli, Eric M; Haluck, Randy S; Estes, Stephanie J; Lyn-Sue, Jerome R

    2016-09-01

    The robotic surgical platform is being utilized by a growing number of hospitals across the country, including academic medical centers. Training programs are tasked with teaching their residents how to utilize this technology. To this end, we have developed and implemented a robotic surgical curriculum, and share our initial experience here. Our curriculum was implemented for all General Surgical residents for the academic year 2014-2015. The curriculum consisted of online training, readings, bedside training, console simulation, participating in ten cases as bedside first assistant, and operating at the console. 20 surgical residents were included. Residents were provided the curriculum and notified the department upon completion. Bedside assistance and operative console training were completed in the operating room through a mix of biliary, foregut, and colorectal cases. During the fiscal years of 2014 and 2015, there were 164 and 263 robot-assisted surgeries performed within the General Surgery Department, respectively. All 20 residents completed the online and bedside instruction portions of the curriculum. Of the 20 residents trained, 13/20 (65 %) sat at the Surgeon console during at least one case. Utilizing this curriculum, we have trained and incorporated residents into robot-assisted cases in an efficient manner. A successful curriculum must be based on didactic learning, reading, bedside training, simulation, and training in the operating room. Each program must examine their caseload and resident class to ensure proper exposure to this platform.

  19. Implementing a Narrative Medicine Curriculum During the Internship Year: An Internal Medicine Residency Program Experience

    PubMed Central

    Wesley, Tiffany; Hamer, Diana; Karam, George

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Narrative medicine develops professional and communication skills that align with Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education competencies. However, little is known about a narrative medicine curriculum’s impact on physicians in training during residency. Implementing a narrative medicine curriculum during residency can be challenging because of time constraints and limited opportunity for nonclinical education. Methods Six sessions were implemented throughout one academic year to expose first-year internal medicine residents (interns) to narrative medicine. Attendance and participation were documented. At the end of the year, interns completed an open-ended survey to gauge their perception of their experience with the sessions. Results In total, 17 interns attended at least 1 narrative medicine session, and each session averaged 5.4 attendees. Thirteen eligible interns completed the survey. Thematic analysis identified 3 predominant themes: Mindfulness, physician well-being, and professionalism. Discussion Overall, the narrative medicine sessions were well attended and the curriculum was well received. This intervention demonstrates the value of a narrative medicine curriculum during medical resident training. Large prospective studies are necessary to identify the long-term benefits of such a curriculum. PMID:29702059

  20. Implementing a Narrative Medicine Curriculum During the Internship Year: An Internal Medicine Residency Program Experience.

    PubMed

    Wesley, Tiffany; Hamer, Diana; Karam, George

    2018-04-18

    Narrative medicine develops professional and communication skills that align with Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education competencies. However, little is known about a narrative medicine curriculum's impact on physicians in training during residency. Implementing a narrative medicine curriculum during residency can be challenging because of time constraints and limited opportunity for nonclinical education. Six sessions were implemented throughout one academic year to expose first-year internal medicine residents (interns) to narrative medicine. Attendance and participation were documented. At the end of the year, interns completed an open-ended survey to gauge their perception of their experience with the sessions. In total, 17 interns attended at least 1 narrative medicine session, and each session averaged 5.4 attendees. Thirteen eligible interns completed the survey. Thematic analysis identified 3 predominant themes: Mindfulness, physician well-being, and professionalism. Overall, the narrative medicine sessions were well attended and the curriculum was well received. This intervention demonstrates the value of a narrative medicine curriculum during medical resident training. Large prospective studies are necessary to identify the long-term benefits of such a curriculum.