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Sample records for early inflammatory polyarthritis

  1. N-terminal pro-brain-type natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) and mortality risk in early inflammatory polyarthritis: results from the Norfolk Arthritis Registry (NOAR)

    PubMed Central

    Mirjafari, Hoda; Welsh, Paul; Verstappen, Suzanne M M; Wilson, Paddy; Marshall, Tarnya; Edlin, Helena; Bunn, Diane; Chipping, Jacqueline; Lunt, Mark; Symmons, Deborah P M; Sattar, Naveed; Bruce, Ian N

    2014-01-01

    Background We measured N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP), a marker of cardiac dysfunction, in an inception cohort with early inflammatory polyarthritis (IP) and assessed its association with disease phenotype, cardiovascular disease (CVD), all-cause and CVD related mortality. Methods Subjects with early IP were recruited to the Norfolk Arthritis Register from January 2000 to December 2008 and followed up to death or until March 2010 including any data from the national death register. The associations of baseline NT-pro-BNP with IP related factors and CVD were assessed by linear regression. Cox proportional hazards models examined the independent association of baseline NT-pro-BNP with all-cause and CVD mortality. Results We studied 960 early IP subjects; 163 (17%) had prior CVD. 373 (39%) patients had a baseline NT-pro-BNP levels ≥100 pg/ml. NT-pro-BNP was associated with age, female gender, HAQ score, CRP, current smoking, history of hypertension, prior CVD and the presence of carotid plaque. 92 (10%) IP subjects died including 31 (3%) from CVD. In an age and gender adjusted analysis, having a raised NT-pro-BNP level (≥100 pg/ml) was associated with both all-cause and CVD mortality (adjusted HR (95% CI) 2.36 (1.42 to 3.94) and 3.40 (1.28 to 9.03), respectively). These findings were robust to adjustment for conventional CVD risk factors and prevalent CVD. Conclusions In early IP patients, elevated NT-pro-BNP is related to HAQ and CRP and predicts all-cause and CVD mortality independently of conventional CVD risk factors. Further study is required to identify whether NT-pro-BNP may be clinically useful in targeting intensive interventions to IP patients at greatest risk of CVD. PMID:23511225

  2. Risk factors for oral methotrexate failure in patients with inflammatory polyarthritis: results from a UK prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bluett, James; Sergeant, Jamie C; MacGregor, Alex J; Chipping, Jacqueline R; Marshall, Tarnya; Symmons, Deborah P M; Verstappen, Suzanne M M

    2018-03-20

    Oral methotrexate (MTX) is the first-line therapy for patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). However, approximately one quarter of patients discontinue MTX within 12 months. MTX failure, defined as MTX cessation or the addition of another anti-rheumatic drug, is usually due adverse event(s) and/or inefficacy. The aims of this study were to evaluate the rate and predictors of oral MTX failure. Subjects were recruited from the Norfolk Arthritis Register (NOAR), a primary care-based inception cohort of patients with early inflammatory polyarthritis (IP). Subjects were eligible if they commenced MTX as their first DMARD and were recruited between 2000 and 2008. Patient-reported reasons for MTX failure were recorded and categorised as adverse event, inefficacy or other. The addition of a second DMARD during the study period was categorised as failure due to inefficacy. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to assess potential predictors of MTX failure, accounting for competing risks. A total of 431 patients were eligible. The probability of patients remaining on MTX at 2 years was 82%. Competing risk analysis revealed that earlier MTX failure due to inefficacy was associated with rheumatoid factor (RF) positivity, younger age at symptom onset and higher baseline disease activity (DAS-28). MTX cessation due to an adverse event was less likely in the RF-positive cohort. RF-positive inflammatory polyarthritis patients who are younger with higher baseline disease activity have an increased risk of MTX failure due to inefficacy. Such patients may require combination therapy as a first-line treatment.

  3. Learned helplessness predicts functional disability, pain and fatigue in patients with recent-onset inflammatory polyarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Elizabeth M.; Verstappen, Suzanne M. M.; Chipping, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Cross-sectional studies have found that learned helplessness (LH) is associated with disease outcome in patients with RA. However, little is known about the longitudinal impact of LH. The aim of this study was to investigate whether LH is associated with future disease outcome (disability, pain and fatigue) and to investigate whether LH changes over time in patients with recent-onset inflammatory polyarthritis (IP), the broader group of conditions of which RA is the major constituent. Methods. Patients included in this investigation had been recruited to the Norfolk Arthritis Register, a primary-care-based inception cohort. LH was measured at baseline as patients’ total score on the Rheumatology Attitudes Index (RAI). A total of 443 patients completed the HAQ and visual analogue scales of pain and fatigue at baseline and after 2 years of follow-up. Results. Greater feelings of LH at baseline were associated with higher HAQ scores at follow-up [difference in HAQ score per 1-point increase in RAI score (β-coefficient) 0.02; 95% CI 0.01, 0.04]. Greater baseline LH was also associated with more pain (β-coefficient 1.0; 95% CI 0.4, 1.5) and more fatigue (β-coefficient 1.0; 95% CI 0.2, 1.4) at follow-up. LH was highly changeable during follow-up, with 87% of patients showing any change and 50% improving. Conclusion. Baseline LH independently predicted disability, pain and fatigue at follow-up. Half of patients reported fewer feelings of helplessness after 2 years of follow-up, suggesting that LH may potentially be a modifiable risk factor for disease outcome in IP and a target for intervention. PMID:23424265

  4. Association between socioeconomic status, learned helplessness, and disease outcome in patients with inflammatory polyarthritis.

    PubMed

    Camacho, E M; Verstappen, S M M; Symmons, D P M

    2012-08-01

    Independent investigations have shown that socioeconomic status (SES) and learned helplessness (LH) are associated with poor disease outcome in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our aim was to investigate the cross-sectional relationship between SES, LH, and disease outcome in patients with recent-onset inflammatory polyarthritis (IP), the broader group of conditions of which RA is the major constituent. SES was measured using the Index of Multiple Deprivation 2007 for 553 patients consecutively recruited to the Norfolk Arthritis Register. Patients also completed the Rheumatology Attitudes Index, a measure of LH. SES and LH were investigated as predictors of disease outcome (functional disability [Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ)] and disease activity [Disease Activity Score in 28 joints]) in a regression analysis, adjusted for age, sex, and symptom duration. The role of LH in the relationship between SES and disease outcome was then investigated. Compared to patients of the highest SES, those of the lowest SES had a significantly worse outcome (median difference in HAQ score 0.42; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.08, 0.75). Compared to patients with normal LH, patients with low LH had a significantly better outcome and patients with high LH had a significantly worse outcome (median difference in HAQ score 1.12; 95% CI 0.82, 1.41). There was a significant likelihood that LH mediated the association between SES and disease outcome (P = 0.04). LH is robustly associated with cross-sectional disease outcome in patients with IP, and appears to mediate the relationship between SES and disease outcome. As LH is potentially modifiable, these findings have potential clinical implications. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  5. Learned helplessness predicts functional disability, pain and fatigue in patients with recent-onset inflammatory polyarthritis.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Elizabeth M; Verstappen, Suzanne M M; Chipping, Jacqueline; Symmons, Deborah P M

    2013-07-01

    Cross-sectional studies have found that learned helplessness (LH) is associated with disease outcome in patients with RA. However, little is known about the longitudinal impact of LH. The aim of this study was to investigate whether LH is associated with future disease outcome (disability, pain and fatigue) and to investigate whether LH changes over time in patients with recent-onset inflammatory polyarthritis (IP), the broader group of conditions of which RA is the major constituent. Patients included in this investigation had been recruited to the Norfolk Arthritis Register, a primary-care-based inception cohort. LH was measured at baseline as patients' total score on the Rheumatology Attitudes Index (RAI). A total of 443 patients completed the HAQ and visual analogue scales of pain and fatigue at baseline and after 2 years of follow-up. Greater feelings of LH at baseline were associated with higher HAQ scores at follow-up [difference in HAQ score per 1-point increase in RAI score (β-coefficient) 0.02; 95% CI 0.01, 0.04]. Greater baseline LH was also associated with more pain (β-coefficient 1.0; 95% CI 0.4, 1.5) and more fatigue (β-coefficient 1.0; 95% CI 0.2, 1.4) at follow-up. LH was highly changeable during follow-up, with 87% of patients showing any change and 50% improving. Baseline LH independently predicted disability, pain and fatigue at follow-up. Half of patients reported fewer feelings of helplessness after 2 years of follow-up, suggesting that LH may potentially be a modifiable risk factor for disease outcome in IP and a target for intervention.

  6. Association between socioeconomic status, learned helplessness, and disease outcome in patients with inflammatory polyarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, E M; Verstappen, S M M; Symmons, D P M

    2012-01-01

    Objective Independent investigations have shown that socioeconomic status (SES) and learned helplessness (LH) are associated with poor disease outcome in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Our aim was to investigate the cross-sectional relationship between SES, LH, and disease outcome in patients with recent-onset inflammatory polyarthritis (IP), the broader group of conditions of which RA is the major constituent. Methods SES was measured using the Index of Multiple Deprivation 2007 for 553 patients consecutively recruited to the Norfolk Arthritis Register. Patients also completed the Rheumatology Attitudes Index, a measure of LH. SES and LH were investigated as predictors of disease outcome (functional disability [Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ)] and disease activity [Disease Activity Score in 28 joints]) in a regression analysis, adjusted for age, sex, and symptom duration. The role of LH in the relationship between SES and disease outcome was then investigated. Results Compared to patients of the highest SES, those of the lowest SES had a significantly worse outcome (median difference in HAQ score 0.42; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 0.08, 0.75). Compared to patients with normal LH, patients with low LH had a significantly better outcome and patients with high LH had a significantly worse outcome (median difference in HAQ score 1.12; 95% CI 0.82, 1.41). There was a significant likelihood that LH mediated the association between SES and disease outcome (P = 0.04). Conclusion LH is robustly associated with cross-sectional disease outcome in patients with IP, and appears to mediate the relationship between SES and disease outcome. As LH is potentially modifiable, these findings have potential clinical implications. PMID:22438290

  7. Long-term effects of a nurse-led group and individual patient education programme for patients with chronic inflammatory polyarthritis - a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Grønning, Kjersti; Rannestad, Toril; Skomsvoll, Johan F; Rygg, Lisbeth Ø; Steinsbekk, Aslak

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the long-term effect of a nurse-led hospital-based patient education programme combining group and individual education for patients with chronic inflammatory polyarthritis. Patient education interventions have shown short-term effects, but few studies have investigated whether the effects are sustained for a longer period. Randomised controlled trial. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and unspecified polyarthritis were randomised to the intervention group (n = 71) or a waiting list (n = 70). Primary outcomes were as follows: Global Well-Being and the Arthritis Self-Efficacy Other Symptoms Subscale. Secondary outcomes were as follows: patient activation, physical and psychological health status, patients' educational needs and a Disease Activity Score (DAS28-3). The intervention group had a statistically significant higher global well-being than the controls after 12 months, mean change score 8·2 (95% CI, 1·6-14·8; p-value = 0·015), but not in the Arthritis Self-Efficacy Other Symptoms Subscale, mean change score 2·6 (95% CI, -1·8 to 7·1; p-value = 0·245). Within each group, analyses showed a statistically significant improvement in DAS28-3, mean change -0·3 (95% CI, -0·5 to -0·1; p-value = 0·001), in the intervention group from baseline to 12 months, but not in the controls. The controls had a statistically significant deterioration in the Arthritis Self-Efficacy Other Symptoms Subscale, mean change -5·0 (95% CI, -8·6 to -1·3; p-value = 0·008), Arthritis Impact Measurement Scales - 2 Social, mean change 0·3 (95% CI, 0·1-0·5; p-value = 0·008), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale total, mean change 1·4 (95% CI, 0·3-2·5; p-value = 0·013). A combination of group and individual patient education has a long-term effect on patients' global well-being. Nurses should consider whether a combination of group and individual patient education for patients with chronic inflammatory polyarthritis is an

  8. Influence of arthritis and non-arthritis related factors on areal bone mineral density (BMDa) in women with longstanding inflammatory polyarthritis: a primary care based inception cohort.

    PubMed

    Pye, Stephen R; Marshall, Tarnya; Gaffney, Karl; Silman, Alan J; Symmons, Deborah P M; O'Neill, Terence W

    2010-05-28

    The aim of this analysis was to determine the relative influence of disease and non-disease factors on areal bone mineral density (BMDa) in a primary care based cohort of women with inflammatory polyarthritis. Women aged 16 years and over with recent onset inflammatory polyarthritis were recruited to the Norfolk Arthritis Register (NOAR) between 1990 and 1993. Subjects were examined at both baseline and follow up for the presence of tender, swollen and deformed joints. At the 10th anniversary visit, a sub-sample of women were invited to complete a bone health questionnaire and attend for BMDa (Hologic, QDR 4000). Linear regression was used to examine the association between BMDa with both (i) arthritis-related factors assessed at baseline and the 10th anniversary visit and (ii) standard risk factors for osteoporosis. Adjustments were made for age. 108 women, mean age 58.0 years were studied. Older age, decreasing weight and BMI at follow up were all associated with lower BMDa at both the spine and femoral neck. None of the lifestyle factors were linked. Indices of joint damage including 10th anniversary deformed joint count and erosive joint count were the arthritis-related variables linked with a reduction in BMDa at the femoral neck. By contrast, disease activity as determined by the number of tender and or swollen joints assessed both at baseline and follow up was not linked with BMDa at either site. Cumulative disease damage was the strongest predictor of reduced femoral bone density. Other disease and lifestyle factors have only a modest influence.

  9. Association Between Genetic Variation in FOXO3 and Reductions in Inflammation and Disease Activity in Inflammatory Polyarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Viatte, Sebastien; Lee, James C.; Fu, Bo; Espéli, Marion; Lunt, Mark; De Wolf, Jack N. E.; Wheeler, Lily; Reynolds, John A.; Castelino, Madhura; Symmons, Deborah P. M.; Lyons, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Genetic variation in FOXO3 (tagged by rs12212067) has been associated with a milder course of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and shown to limit monocyte‐driven inflammation through a transforming growth factor β1–dependent pathway. This genetic association, however, has not been consistently observed in other RA cohorts. We sought to clarify the contribution of FOXO3 to prognosis in RA by combining detailed analysis of nonradiographic disease severity measures with an in vivo model of arthritis. Methods Collagen‐induced arthritis, the most commonly used mouse model of RA, was used to assess how Foxo3 contributes to arthritis severity. Using clinical, serologic, and biochemical methods, the arthritis that developed in mice carrying a loss‐of‐function mutation in Foxo3 was compared with that which occurred in littermate controls. The association of rs12212067 with nonradiographic measures of RA severity, including the C‐reactive protein level, the swollen joint count, the tender joint count, the Disease Activity Score in 28 joints, and the Health Assessment Questionnaire score, were modeled longitudinally in a large prospective cohort of patients with early RA. Results Loss of Foxo3 function resulted in more severe arthritis in vivo (both clinically and histologically) and was associated with higher titers of anticollagen antibodies and interleukin‐6 in the blood. Similarly, rs12212067 (a single‐nucleotide polymorphism that increases FOXO3 transcription) was associated with reduced inflammation, both biochemically and clinically, and with lower RA activity scores. Conclusion Consistent with its known role in restraining inflammatory responses, FOXO3 limits the severity of in vivo arthritis and, through genetic variation that increases its transcription, is associated with reduced inflammation and disease activity in RA patients, effects that result in less radiographic damage. PMID:27214848

  10. An Internet-based technique for the identification of persons with symptoms of inflammatory polyarthritis of less than 12 weeks.

    PubMed

    Liang, Matthew H; Couto, Maura C M; Duarte, Cátia C M; Gall, Victoria; White, Patience; Naides, Stanley; Schumacher, H Ralph; Hwang, Andrew S; Holers, V Michael; Deane, Kevin D; Gupta, Samar; Ho, I-Cheng; Finckh, Axel; Kopec, Jacek; Choi, Chan-Bum; Sayre, Eric C

    2015-03-01

    Identifying persons with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a major challenge. The role of the Internet in making decisions about seeking care has not been studied. We developed a method for early diagnosis and referral using the Arthritis Foundation's website. A person with less than 3 months of joint pain symptom who has not yet sought medical attention was screened. Prescreened persons are linked to a self-scoring questionnaire and get a "likelihood" of RA statement. If "likely," the person is offered a free evaluation and biomarker testing performed by Quest Diagnostics. The system available only to Massachusetts's residents yielded a small steady flow of screen-positive individuals. Over 21 months, 43,244 persons took the Arthritis Foundation website prescreening questionnaire; 196 were from Massachusetts and 60 took the self-scoring algorithm. Of the 48 who screened positive, 29 set up an appointment for a free evaluation, but six never came in. Twenty-four subjects were evaluated and diagnosed independently by three rheumatologists. One met the 1987 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria for RA and two met the 2010 ACR/EULAR RA criteria. The 24 examined individuals were contacted at a minimum of 1 year and asked to redo the case-finding questionnaire and asked about their health resource utilization during the interval. Seventeen of the 24 subjects responded, and 10 had seen a health professional. Three of the 17 had a diagnosis of RA; all were on at least methotrexate. Internet case finding was useful in identifying new potential RA cases. The system's performance characteristics are theoretically limited only by the number of study sites available. However, the major barrier may be that seeing a health professional is not a priority for many individuals with early symptoms.

  11. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use does not appear to be associated with increased cardiovascular mortality in patients with inflammatory polyarthritis: results from a primary care based inception cohort of patients.

    PubMed

    Goodson, N J; Brookhart, A M; Symmons, D P M; Silman, A J; Solomon, D H

    2009-03-01

    There is controversy about the effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. The aim of this study was to explore associations between NSAID use and mortality in patients with inflammatory polyarthritis (IP). A total of 923 patients with new onset (IP), recruited to the UK Norfolk Arthritis Register (NOAR) between 1990-1994, were followed up to the end of 2004. Current medication was recorded annually for the first 6 years and then every 2-3 years. Rheumatoid factor (RF) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured. Logistic regression was used to calculate all cause and CVD mortality odds ratios (OR) for NSAID use at baseline and during follow-up, adjusting for gender and time-varying covariates: RF, CRP, joint counts, smoking, steroid use, DMARD use and other medication use. By 2004 there were 203 deaths, 85 due to CVD. At baseline, NSAIDs were used by 66% of patients. In final multivariate models, baseline NSAID use was inversely associated with all cause mortality (adjusted OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.84) and CVD mortality (adjusted OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.86). Interval NSAID use had weaker mortality associations: all cause mortality (adjusted OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.52 to 1.00), CVD mortality (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.66, 95% CI 0.40 to 1.08). No excess CVD or all cause mortality was observed in NSAID users in this cohort of patients with IP. This is at variance with the literature relating to NSAID use in the general population. It is unclear whether this represents unmeasured confounders influencing a doctor's decision to avoid NSAIDs in the treatment of IP.

  12. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use does not appear to be associated with increased cardiovascular mortality in patients with inflammatory polyarthritis: results from a primary care based inception cohort of patients

    PubMed Central

    Goodson, N J; Brookhart, A M; Symmons, D P M; Silman, A J; Solomon, D H

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: There is controversy about the effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. The aim of this study was to explore associations between NSAID use and mortality in patients with inflammatory polyarthritis (IP). Subjects and methods: A total of 923 patients with new onset (IP), recruited to the UK Norfolk Arthritis Register (NOAR) between 1990–1994, were followed up to the end of 2004. Current medication was recorded annually for the first 6 years and then every 2–3 years. Rheumatoid factor (RF) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured. Logistic regression was used to calculate all cause and CVD mortality odds ratios (OR) for NSAID use at baseline and during follow-up, adjusting for gender and time-varying covariates: RF, CRP, joint counts, smoking, steroid use, DMARD use and other medication use. Results: By 2004 there were 203 deaths, 85 due to CVD. At baseline, NSAIDs were used by 66% of patients. In final multivariate models, baseline NSAID use was inversely associated with all cause mortality (adjusted OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.84) and CVD mortality (adjusted OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.86). Interval NSAID use had weaker mortality associations: all cause mortality (adjusted OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.52 to 1.00), CVD mortality (adjusted hazard ratio (HR) 0.66, 95% CI 0.40 to 1.08). Conclusion: No excess CVD or all cause mortality was observed in NSAID users in this cohort of patients with IP. This is at variance with the literature relating to NSAID use in the general population. It is unclear whether this represents unmeasured confounders influencing a doctor’s decision to avoid NSAIDs in the treatment of IP. PMID:18408253

  13. An abrupt onset of seropositive polyarthritis with prominent distal tenosynovitis concomitant with bronochiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP): consideration of the relationship with RS3PE syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kato, Takashi; Ubara, Yoshifumi; Sawa, Naoki; Tagami, Tetsuo; Katori, Hideyuki; Takemoto, Fumi; Hara, Shigeko; Takaichi, Kenmei

    2004-02-01

    A 64-year-old Japanese woman with a two-week history of polyarthralgia and persistent cough was diagnosed as seropositive polyarthritis and fulfilled the criteria of early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In addition, inflammatory pitting edema of the distal extremities was apparent, suggestive of the remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema (RS3PE) syndrome. A number of investigations including hand MRI, bone scintigraphy and HLA typing supported a diagnosis of RS3PE syndrome rather than RA. Chest computed tomography revealed concomitant evidence of bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP). Treatment with 30 mg of prednisolone daily immediately ameliorated the polyarthritis and the BOOP. Seropositive polyarthritis with distal pitting edema may be categorized as both RA and the RS3PE syndrome.

  14. Using lifestyle factors to identify individuals at higher risk of inflammatory polyarthritis (results from the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer-Norfolk and the Norfolk Arthritis Register—the EPIC-2-NOAR Study)

    PubMed Central

    Lahiri, Manjari; Luben, Robert N; Morgan, Catharine; Bunn, Diane K; Marshall, Tarnya; Lunt, Mark; Verstappen, Suzanne M M; Symmons, Deborah P M; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Bruce, Ian N

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association of lifestyle factors with risk of inflammatory polyarthritis (IP) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods The European Prospective Investigation of Cancer, Norfolk, UK (EPIC-Norfolk) gathered lifestyle data from participants aged 40–79 years from 1993 to 1997. Individuals who subsequently developed IP were identified by linkage with the Norfolk Arthritis Register. A Cox proportional hazard model was developed, and a score assigned to each risk factor to calculate the odds of developing IP. Results 25 455 EPIC participants were followed for a median (IQR) of 14.2 (12.9, 15.3) years; 184 developed incident IP (138 cumulatively fulfilled criteria for RA; 107 were seropositive). Pack-years of smoking were associated with increased risk of IP and RA in men (HR 1.21 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.37) per 10-pack-years) and seropositive IP (HR 1.24 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.41)) for all. Diabetes mellitus was associated with increased risk of IP (HR 2.54 (95% CI 1.26 to 5.09)), while alcohol (HR 0.86 (95% CI 0.74 to 0.99) per unit/day) and higher social class (HR 0.36 (95% CI 0.15 to 0.89) for professionals vs manual workers) were associated with reduced risk. Body mass index was associated with seronegative IP (HR 2.75 (95% CI 1.39 to 5.46) for obese vs normal-weight participants). In women, parity (HR 2.81 (95% CI 1.37 to 5.76) for ≥2 vs no children) was associated with increased risk, and breast feeding (HR 0.66 (95% CI 0.46 to 0.94) for every 52 weeks of breast feeding) was inversely associated with risk. Risk factors from the model were used to generate a ‘risk score’. A total of 1159 (8.4%) women had scores reflecting a >3-fold increased risk of IP over those with a score of 0. Conclusions Several easily ascertained clinical and lifestyle factors can be used to stratify populations for risk of IP. PMID:23505230

  15. Acute onset polyarthritis in older people: Is it RS3PE syndrome?

    PubMed

    Salam, Abdul; Henry, Rafik; Sheeran, Tom

    2008-08-29

    Remitting Seronegative Symmetrical Synovitis with Pitting oedema syndrome, a rare inflammatory arthritis, commonly affects people in the older age group. It can present as an acute onset polyarthritis with associated pitting oedema of the extremities. Patients show excellent response to low dose steroids with complete and sustained remissions. It can also be a paraneoplastic manifestation of an underlying occult malignancy, hence thorough clinical evaluation is warranted.We discuss a case of Remitting Seronegative Symmetrical Synovitis with pitting oedema syndrome where the patient presented with acute onset polyarthritis and pitting oedema of the extremities without an underlying systemic cause. Patient showed dramatic response to low dose steroids.

  16. Acute onset polyarthritis in older people: Is it RS3PE syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Salam, Abdul; Henry, Rafik; Sheeran, Tom

    2008-01-01

    Remitting Seronegative Symmetrical Synovitis with Pitting oedema syndrome, a rare inflammatory arthritis, commonly affects people in the older age group. It can present as an acute onset polyarthritis with associated pitting oedema of the extremities. Patients show excellent response to low dose steroids with complete and sustained remissions. It can also be a paraneoplastic manifestation of an underlying occult malignancy, hence thorough clinical evaluation is warranted. We discuss a case of Remitting Seronegative Symmetrical Synovitis with pitting oedema syndrome where the patient presented with acute onset polyarthritis and pitting oedema of the extremities without an underlying systemic cause. Patient showed dramatic response to low dose steroids. PMID:18759976

  17. Epidemic polyarthritis and Ross River virus disease.

    PubMed

    Fraser, J R

    1986-08-01

    Ross River virus is a mosquito-transmitted alphavirus indigenous to Australia, Papua New Guinea and nearby islands, which recently appeared in other western and central South Pacific islands. Human infection can be manifest by varied constitutional disturbances, rash and rheumatic symptoms, known in Australia as epidemic polyarthritis and broadly similar to certain alphavirus diseases in other regions. Although usually short-lived, the rash can persist for 5 months. Rheumatic effects involve synovial joints, tendon and ligaments, and can continue or recur in peripheral joints and tissues as long as 6 years, though gradually improving without destructive changes. At different times, the disease can closely simulate rubella and other virus diseases, Henoch-Schönlein syndrome, rheumatoid and other chronic rheumatic diseases. Diagnosis rests upon geography, specific serology and judicious interpretation of clinical and supportive laboratory data. Skin and synovial lesions are characterized by infiltration of mononuclear cells. Their pathogenesis most likely depends on the reaction of these cells with persistent foci of virus disseminated during the early viraemic phase of infection.

  18. Chronic polyarthritis as isolated manifestation of toxocariasis.

    PubMed

    Viola, Gabriela R; Giacomin, Maria Fernanda A; França, Camila M P; Sallum, Adriana M E; Jacob, Cristina M A; Silva, Clovis A

    2016-01-01

    Human toxocariasis is a parasitic zoonosis mainly caused by Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati and is acquired by ingestion of the parasite's embryonated eggs. Arthralgia and/or arthritis were reported in up to 17% of the cases, generally with acute duration (less than 6 weeks). However, to our knowledge, chronic polyarthritis, as the isolated presentation of Toxocara infection, was not reported. One of the 5809 patients that was followed up at our service (0.017%) had chronic polyarthritis as the single manifestation of toxocariasis and was described herein. A 3-year-old girl was referred to our service with severe painful chronic polyarthritis for a period longer than 10 weeks and morning stiffness of 30min. Dog contact exposure history in the recreational areas of neighborhood was reported. Her exams showed high levels of eosinophils in peripheral blood (29%), bone marrow aspirate revealed marked eosinophilia (32%) and Toxocara enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (Elisa) was positive (1:1280). She was treated with paracetamol (40mg/kg/day) and thiabendazole (25mg/kg/day) for 10 days, and all manifestations reduced. After eight months of follow-up, she was on clinical and laboratorial remission. In conclusion, we described a case of chronic polyarthritis, as isolated manifestation of toxocariasis, mimicking juvenile idiopathic arthritis and leukemia. Importantly, this zoonosis should be considered in patients with arthritis and eosinophilia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Acute polyarthritis in a young patient caused by meningococcal and parvovirus B19 infections: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lavoipierre, Virginie; Dellyes, Anna; Aubry, Camille; Zandotti, Christine; Lafforgue, Pierre; Parola, Philippe; Lagier, Jean-Christophe

    2016-12-20

    Meningococcal infection is a multifaceted disease including acute polyarthritis. This presentation should be known by clinicians in order to prevent delay in treatment. We report what we believe to be the first case of an association of parvovirus B19 and meningococcal polyarthritis in a young adult. A 19-year-old Caucasian woman presented to our hospital with fever, intense leg pain, and a transient rash. A physical examination showed asymmetric polyarthritis and no neurological abnormalities. A parvovirus B19 polymerase chain reaction performed using a blood sample and knee fluid aspirate came back positive, but serology was negative for immunoglobulin M and positive for immunoglobulin G. A blood culture was positive for serotype C meningococcus; a polymerase chain reaction performed for Neisseria meningitidis was positive in joint fluid but negative in blood samples (performed after antibiotic treatment had begun). Our patient was treated with ceftriaxone for 15 days, associated with analgesic therapy. Hydroxychloroquine treatment was introduced 5 months after the onset of polyarthritis because of persisting inflammatory arthralgia. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of polyarthritis caused by concomitant meningococcal and parvovirus B19 infections. This unusual presentation of meningococcal disease may have resulted from the persistent parvovirus B19 infection. Our experience with this case illustrates the need for a systematic approach to the diagnosis of febrile acute polyarthritis. Only long-term follow-up will reveal if this infectious polyarthritis will evolve towards an autoimmune rheumatism.

  20. Pathologic features of early inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Sydney D; Sasatomi, Eizaburo; Regueiro, Miguel

    2002-03-01

    Often the pathologic changes of IBD are subtle and may not be present in a proportion of biopsy specimens. In cases of early disease, the changes may be missed, and additional specimens should be taken after a period of time. Modifying factors, such as prebiopsy treatment and coexisting disease, should be considered. A forum to review cases and allow for communication between gastroenterologists and pathologists is especially useful for clinicopathologic correlation and assignment of a working diagnosis to each case. Careful attention to the pathologic features of early UC and CD would be most useful when evaluating new therapies for IBD.

  1. Imaging diagnosis--necrotizing meningomyelitis and polyarthritis.

    PubMed

    Parry, Andrew T; Penning, Victoria A; Smith, Ken C; Kenny, Patrick J; Lamb, Christopher R

    2009-01-01

    A vaccinated 2-year-old female neutered Weimaraner had bilateral pelvic limb ataxia that progressed over 12 h. The dog became nonambulatory, with signs of pain on palpation of the lumbar spine. The dog also developed multiple joint effusions. On magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, there was a diffuse, asymmetric T2-hyperintensity in the thoracolumbar spinal cord which was characterized by contrast enhancement. Lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis had an elevated white blood cell count and protein. On the basis of MR images and CSF analysis, a presumptive diagnosis of diffuse myelitis was made. The dog became paraplegic and was euthanized. Postmortem examination confirmed the presence of myelitis with vasculitis and nonerosive polyarthritis.

  2. Cytokine profile in canine immune-mediated polyarthritis and osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Hegemann, N; Wondimu, A; Kohn, B; Brunnberg, L; Schmidt, M F G

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the cytokine profile in 21 dogs with canine immune-mediated polyarthritis (IMA) and 15 dogs with osteoarthritis (OA) caused by cranial cruciate ligament rupture (CCLR). The mRNA expression of interleukin (IL)-1alpha, IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-18, interferon (IFN)-gamma, transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta, and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha were analysed in synovial fluid by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, while TNF-alpha protein was determined by L929 cytotoxicity assay. The frequency of lymphocytes was analysed using FACScan. Both disorders reveal a similar cytokine expression pattern, except for significant lower IL-1beta expression in OA. Th1 cytokines IL-2 and IFN-gamma were detected, while IL-4 was nearly absent in IMA and OA. Furthermore, the bioassay demonstrates a significantly higher production of TNF-alpha in synovial fluid of dogs with IMA, compared to dogs with OA (p < 0.05). The frequency of CD4+, CD8+ and MHC class II+ cells was relatively higher in synovial fluids compared to peripheral blood in IMA. These findings reveal that the difference between the cytokine pattern of canine IMA and OA seems to be rather quantitative than qualitative. Both joint disorders show predominance of pro-inflammatory cytokines and absence of TH2 cytokine expression, indicating the potential of IL-4 for a gene therapeutic approach.

  3. Angioimmunoblastic T-Cell Lymphoma with Polyarthritis Resembling Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Yachoui, Ralph; Farooq, Nouman; Amos, Jonathan V; Shaw, Gene R

    2016-12-01

    Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) is a rare subtype of peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL). AITL typically presents with lymphadenopathy, fever, rash, hepatosplenomegaly, and rarely polyarthritis. We report the case of a 50-year-old female who presented with lymphadenopathy, rash, and symmetric polyarthritis. She was later diagnosed with AITL and was treated with chemotherapy with resolution of arthritis. AITL should be suspected in paitents presenting with rheumatoid-like arthritis and diffuse lymphadenopathy. © 2016 Marshfield Clinic.

  4. Early identification of 'acute-onset' chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Sung, Jia-Ying; Tani, Jowy; Park, Susanna B; Kiernan, Matthew C; Lin, Cindy Shin-Yi

    2014-08-01

    Distinguishing patients with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy from acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy prior to relapse is often challenging at the onset of their clinical presentation. In the present study, nerve excitability tests were used in conjunction with the clinical phenotype and disease staging, to differentiate between patients with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and patients with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy at an early stage, with the aim to better guide treatment. Clinical assessment, staging and nerve excitability tests were undertaken on patients initially fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy soon after symptom onset and their initial presentation. Patients were subsequently followed up for minimum of 12 months to determine if their clinical presentations were more consistent with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Clinical severity as evaluated by Medical Research Council sum score and Hughes functional grading scale were not significantly different between the two cohorts. There was no difference between the time of onset of initial symptoms and nerve excitability test assessment between the two cohorts nor were there significant differences in conventional nerve conduction study parameters. However, nerve excitability test profiles obtained from patients with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy demonstrated abnormalities in the recovery cycle of excitability, including significantly reduced superexcitability (P < 0.001) and prolonged relative refractory period (P < 0.01), without changes in threshold electrotonus. In contrast, in patients with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, a different pattern occurred with the recovery cycle shifted downward (increased superexcitability, P < 0.05; decreased subexcitability, P < 0.05) and increased

  5. Work instability and financial loss in early inflammatory arthritis.

    PubMed

    Looper, Karl J; Mustafa, Sally S; Zelkowitz, Phyllis; Purden, Margaret; Baron, Murray

    2012-12-01

    Inflammatory arthritis is associated with a high degree of work instability and financial burden. In this study, we examine the extent of work instability and financial loss as well as their association with disease characteristics during the first 18 months of inflammatory arthritis. One hundred and four patients in the early phase (more than 6 weeks, < 18 months) of inflammatory arthritis were recruited from a larger early inflammatory arthritis registry. Questionnaires recorded sociodemographic data and disease characteristics, including pain assessed using the Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) and physical functioning measured with the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) physical functioning score. The Rheumatoid Arthritis Work Instability Scale (RA-WIS) was used to measure patient-perceived functioning in the workplace and the Financial Loss Questionnaire (FLQ) measured the impact on family finances. Participants' mean age was 56 years, 70.2% were female and 49.0% were working. Average yearly household income was < 60 000 Canadian dollars (CAD) for 38.5% of the sample. Of our working patients, 43% had a medium or high risk of work loss as measured by the RA-WIS and 35% reported a financial loss. On multivariate analysis, MPQ and SF-36 contributed to the dependent variable work instability, while age and SF-36 contributed to financial loss. This study identifies pain and physical dysfunction as potential modifiable risk factors for negative socioeconomic repercussions of illness in early inflammatory arthritis. © 2012 The Authors International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases © 2012 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Spontaneous retrotransposon insertion into TNF 3'UTR causes heart valve disease and chronic polyarthritis.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Derek; Hickey, Peter; Arhatari, Benedicta D; O'Reilly, Lorraine A; Rohrbeck, Leona; Kiriazis, Helen; Du, Xiao-Jun; Bouillet, Philippe

    2015-08-04

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) are chronic inflammatory diseases that together affect 2-3% of the population. RA and AS predominantly involve joints, but heart disease is also a common feature in RA and AS patients. Here we have studied a new spontaneous mutation that causes severe polyarthritis in bone phenotype spontaneous mutation 1 (BPSM1) mice. In addition to joint destruction, mutant mice also develop aortic root aneurism and aorto-mitral valve disease that can be fatal depending on the genetic background. The cause of the disease is the spontaneous insertion of a retrotransposon into the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF), which triggers its strong overexpression in myeloid cells. We found that several members of a family of RNA-binding, CCCH-containing zinc-finger proteins control TNF expression through its 3'UTR, and we identified a previously unidentified regulatory element in the UTR. The disease in BPSM1 mice is independent of the adaptive immune system and does not appear to involve inflammatory cytokines other than TNF. To our knowledge, this is the first animal model showing both polyarthritis and heart disease as a direct result of TNF deregulation. These results emphasize the therapeutic potential of anti-TNF drugs for the treatment of heart valve disease and identify potential therapeutic targets to control TNF expression and inflammation.

  7. Polyarthritis and bone lesions complicating traumatic pancreatitis in two children.

    PubMed Central

    Goluboff, N.; Cram, R.; Ramgotra, B.; Singh, A.; Wilkinson, G. W.

    1978-01-01

    The association of bone lesions, polyarthritis and cutaneous nodules with pancreatic disease is being recognized and reported more frequently. In adults all forms of pancreatitis and carcinoma of the pancreas have been involved, but in the few children described these complications have been associated with acute traumatic pancreatitis. This paper describes two cases of acute traumatic pancreatitis in which polyarthritis and limb pains were noted after 2 to 3 weeks. In one child osteolytic lesions and periostitis were seen on roentgenograms 7 weeks after the onset of pancreatitis. In the other child minor roentgenographic changes were not seen until 5 months after the onset; however, bone scans showed clear-cut abnormalities after 1 month. Almost complete resolution could be expected within a year. Serum lipase and amylase concentrations remained elevated during the acute illness. Disseminated fat necrosis is apparently related to the excess amounts of circulating lipase. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 FIG. 3 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 FIG. 6 PMID:647564

  8. Early identification of ‘acute-onset’ chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Jia-Ying; Tani, Jowy; Park, Susanna B.; Kiernan, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Distinguishing patients with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy from acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy prior to relapse is often challenging at the onset of their clinical presentation. In the present study, nerve excitability tests were used in conjunction with the clinical phenotype and disease staging, to differentiate between patients with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy and patients with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy at an early stage, with the aim to better guide treatment. Clinical assessment, staging and nerve excitability tests were undertaken on patients initially fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy soon after symptom onset and their initial presentation. Patients were subsequently followed up for minimum of 12 months to determine if their clinical presentations were more consistent with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Clinical severity as evaluated by Medical Research Council sum score and Hughes functional grading scale were not significantly different between the two cohorts. There was no difference between the time of onset of initial symptoms and nerve excitability test assessment between the two cohorts nor were there significant differences in conventional nerve conduction study parameters. However, nerve excitability test profiles obtained from patients with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy demonstrated abnormalities in the recovery cycle of excitability, including significantly reduced superexcitability (P < 0.001) and prolonged relative refractory period (P < 0.01), without changes in threshold electrotonus. In contrast, in patients with acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, a different pattern occurred with the recovery cycle shifted downward (increased superexcitability, P < 0.05; decreased subexcitability, P < 0.05) and increased

  9. Neutrophilic dermatosis resembling pyoderma gangrenosum in a dog with polyarthritis.

    PubMed

    Bardagí, M; Lloret, A; Fondati, A; Ferrer, L

    2007-04-01

    This report describes a case of neutrophilic dermatosis in a dog, with a number of clinical and pathological similarities to human pyoderma gangrenosum. A seven-year-old, female German shepherd dog with a history of non-erosive idiopathic polyarthritis was presented with severe facial swelling, bilateral erosivoulcerative lesions on the muzzle and multiple, eroded, dermal-subcutaneous nodules on the cranial trunk. Histopathological examination of skin biopsies revealed a necrotising neutrophilic dermatitis. No infectious agents could be detected using specific stains, immunohistochemistry, serology and bacterial aerobic, anaerobic or fungal cultures. A sterile neutrophilic dermatosis resembling human pyoderma gangrenosum was presumptively diagnosed, and the patient showed an excellent response to treatment with prednisone and ciclosporin.

  10. [RS3PE syndrome: an acute edematous polyarthritis of the elderly with variable prognosis].

    PubMed

    Beyne-Rauzy, O; Revel, V; Desfossez, V; Bousquet, E; Nourhashemi, F; Adoue, D

    2001-06-01

    The RS3PE syndrome or subacute edematous polyarthritis of the elderly remains a doubtful entity. We report three cases that exhibited different courses: complete recovery, definite rheumatoid polyarthritis, and chronicity as a sign of myelodysplasic disease. These three different courses raise the question of whether RS3PE is a disease or a syndrome. Actually, the use of the term RS3PE syndrome should be restricted to cases with a favorable outcome. Definitive diagnosis thus cannot be reached before complete recovery.

  11. [Inflammasome and its role in immunological and inflammatory response at early stage of burns].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang; Li, Jiahui; Xia, Zhaofan

    2014-06-01

    Inflammasomes are large multi-protein complexes that serve as a platform for caspase-1 activation, and this process induces subsequent maturation and secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18, as well as pyroptosis. As an important component of the innate immune system, early activation of inflammasomes in a variety of immune cell subsets can mediate inflammatory response and immunological conditions after burn injury. Here, we review the current knowledge of inflammasomes and its role in immunological and inflammatory response at the early stage of burn injury.

  12. Chronic polyarthritis associated to Cercopithifilaria bainae infection in a dog.

    PubMed

    Gabrielli, Simona; Giannelli, Alessio; Brianti, Emanuele; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Bufalini, Massimiliano; Fraulo, Maurizio; La Torre, Francesco; Ramos, Rafael A N; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Latrofa, Maria Stefania; Cancrini, Gabriella; Otranto, Domenico

    2014-09-15

    Despite the widespread distribution of Cercopithifilaria bainae among canine and tick populations worldwide, this filarioid is currently considered of 'minor importance' in veterinary medicine, particularly when compared to related filarioids, such as Dirofilaria immitis and Dirofilaria repens. To date, only a single case of dermatological alterations possibly associated to infection by C. bainae had been reported in a dog. In the present study, we describe the first case of systemic alterations associated to C. bainae infection in a dog suffering from diffused chronic polyarthritis. The animal had a previous history of reluctance to move and stiff gait and displayed multiple joint pain during manipulation of limbs. No biochemical, haematological and X-ray alterations were detected; microfilariae were observed in the synovial fluids collected from the joints. In spite of the morphological and molecular identification of these microfilariae as C. bainae, the dog did not respond to multiple microfilaricidal treatments with milbemicyn oxyme. The potential role of C. bainae in the pathogenesis of this clinical condition is discussed. Given the potential pathogenicity of this parasite, improved knowledge of this little known tick-borne nematode is warranted in order to assist the development of novel and effective treatment strategies. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Immune complexes and Ross River virus disease (epidemic polyarthritis).

    PubMed

    Fraser, J R; Cunningham, A L; Mathews, J D; Riglar, A

    1988-01-01

    Immune complexes were sought in serum and synovial fluid in Ross River virus disease (epidemic polyarthritis). Multiple samples from 15 patients showing varied degrees of disease activity over a 3 month period were analysed for their content of complement components C3 and C4, and for C1q solid-phase and Raji cell binding activity. Levels of C3 and C1q binding activity were normal. C4 and Raji cell binding activity were normal except for three high levels of Raji cell binding, of which two were accompanied by low levels of C4, with normal C3 and C1q binding. Synovial fluid showed anomalous Raji cell reactivity of uncertain significance. Conglutinin solid-phase binding activity and IgG rheumatoid factor were compared in the serum of 20 patients during active disease and after recovery. The results were identical and within the normal range in both phases. One patient developed IgM rheumatoid factor in a low titre late in his illness. Although these findings do not entirely exclude a role for immune complexes formed at the onset in the circulation or tissues, it is concluded from this and other evidence that circulating complexes are not commonly responsible for the persistence of syndromes in this disease.

  14. A retrospective study of 40 dogs with polyarthritis.

    PubMed

    Jacques, David; Cauzinille, Laurent; Bouvy, Bernard; Dupre, Gilles

    2002-01-01

    To characterize the epidemiologic, clinical, laboratory, and radiographic findings from dogs with polyarthritis (PA). Retrospective clinical study. Forty dogs. Medical records of 40 dogs with a diagnosis of PA were reviewed. Retrieved data included breed, age at admission, sex, weight, clinical signs, and the results of synovial fluid analysis, complete blood count, serum chemistry profile, urinalysis, serologic screening tests for infectious diseases, and radiographic examination of affected joints. The incidence of PA was 0.37%. Twenty-nine breeds were represented; 16 dogs were male, and 24 were female. Mean body weight was 20.1 +/- 15 kg. The mean age at admission was 5.6 +/- 4 years. Eighty percent of dogs with PA had difficulty or reluctance walking, 35% were lame, 33% had spontaneous vocalization without any obvious reason, 20% had exercise intolerance, 18% were febrile, and 7.5% had an inability to rise or move. Joint pain was identified in 40% of dogs. Synovial fluid color varied from colorless (36%) to yellow-tinged (36%) or hemorrhagic (28%). Synovial fluid mean cell count varied from 10 cells (400x) to 50 cells (1,000x). Leukocytosis occurred in 59% of the dogs and was more frequently identified in dogs with very severe synovial inflammation. Thirty-one percent of affected dogs were anemic. Serum biochemical profiles were considered abnormal in 13% of the dogs. Joint radiography did not identify erosive arthritis. PA is a common cause of locomotor abnormalities in dogs; however, true lameness and articular pain are not common clinical findings in dogs with PA. PA should be considered in the differential diagnosis for all dogs with difficulty walking. Copyright 2002 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons

  15. Potentiation of neutrophil cyclooxygenase-2 by adenosine: an early anti-inflammatory signal

    PubMed Central

    Cadieux, Jean-Sébastien; Leclerc, Patrick; St-Onge, Mireille; Dussault, Andrée-Anne; Laflamme, Cynthia; Picard, Serge; Ledent, Catherine; Borgeat, Pierre; Pouliot, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Summary Neutrophils, which are often the first to migrate at inflamed sites, can generate leukotriene B4 from the 5-lipoxygenase pathway and prostaglandin E2 through the inducible cyclooxygenase-2 pathway. Adenosine, an endogenous autacoid with several anti-inflammatory properties, blocks the synthesis of leukotriene B4 while it potentiates the cyclooxygenase-2 pathway in fMLP-treated neutrophils, following activation of the A2A receptor. Using the murine air pouch model of inflammation, we observed that inflammatory leukocytes from mice lacking the A2A receptor have less cyclooxygenase-2 induction than wild-type animals. In human leukocytes, A2A receptor activation specifically elicited potentiation of cyclooxygenase-2 in neutrophils, but not in monocytes. Signal transduction studies indicated that the cAMP, ERK1/2, PI-3K and p38K intracellular pathways are implicated both in the direct upregulation of cyclooxygenase-2 and in its potentiation. Together, these results indicate that neutrophils are particularly important mediators of adenosine’s effects. Given the uncontrolled inflammatory phenotype observed in knockout mice and in view of the potent inhibitory actions of prostaglandin E2 on inflammatory cells, an increased cyclooxygenase-2 expression resulting from A2A receptor activation, observed particularly in neutrophils, may take part in an early modulatory mechanism promoting anti-inflammatory activities of adenosine. PMID:15769843

  16. A New Experimental Polytrauma Model in Rats: Molecular Characterization of the Early Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Weckbach, Sebastian; Perl, Mario; Heiland, Tim; Braumüller, Sonja; Stahel, Philip F.; Flierl, Michael A.; Ignatius, Anita; Gebhard, Florian; Huber-Lang, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Background. The molecular mechanisms of the immune response after polytrauma are highly complex and far from fully understood. In this paper, we characterize a new standardized polytrauma model in rats based on the early molecular inflammatory and apoptotic response. Methods. Male Wistar rats (250 g, 6–10/group) were anesthetized and exposed to chest trauma (ChT), closed head injury (CHI), or Tib/Fib fracture including a soft tissue trauma (Fx + STT) or to the following combination of injuries: (1) ChT; (2) ChT + Fx + STT; (3) ChT + CHI; (4) CHI; (5) polytrauma (PT = ChT + CHI + Fx + STT). Sham-operated rats served as negative controls. The inflammatory response was quantified at 2 hours and 4 hours after trauma by analysis of “key” inflammatory mediators, including selected cytokines and complement components, in serum and bronchoalveolar (BAL) fluid samples. Results. Polytraumatized (PT) rats showed a significant systemic and intrapulmonary release of cytokines, chemokines, and complement anaphylatoxins, compared to rats with isolated injuries or selected combinations of injuries. Conclusion. This new rat model appears to closely mimic the early immunological response of polytrauma observed in humans and may provide a valid basis for evaluation of the complex pathophysiology and future therapeutic immune modulatory approaches in experimental polytrauma. PMID:22481866

  17. Role overload, pain and physical dysfunction in early rheumatoid or undifferentiated inflammatory arthritis in Canada.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Sally Sabry; Looper, Karl Julian; Zelkowitz, Phyllis; Purden, Margaret; Baron, Murray

    2012-05-03

    Inflammatory arthritis impairs participation in societal roles. Role overload arises when the demands by a given role set exceed the resources; time and energy, to carry out the required tasks. The present study examines the association between role overload and disease outcomes in early inflammatory arthritis (EIA). Patients (n = 104) of 7.61 months mean duration of inflammatory arthritis completed self-report questionnaires on sociodemographics, disease characteristics and role overload. Pain was assessed using the Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) and physical functioning was measured with the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) physical functioning score. Role overload was measured by the Role Overload Scale. Patients indicated the number of social roles they occupied from a total of the three typical roles; marital, parental and paid work. Participants' mean age was 56 years and 70.2% were female. Role overload was not correlated to the number of social roles, however, it was positively associated with pain (p = 0.004) and negatively associated with physical functioning (p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis, role overload was negatively associated with physical functioning after controlling for the relevant sociodemographic variables. This study identifies a possible reciprocal relationship between role overload and physical functioning in patients with EIA.

  18. Role overload, pain and physical dysfunction in early rheumatoid or undifferentiated inflammatory arthritis in Canada

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Inflammatory arthritis impairs participation in societal roles. Role overload arises when the demands by a given role set exceed the resources; time and energy, to carry out the required tasks. The present study examines the association between role overload and disease outcomes in early inflammatory arthritis (EIA). Methods Patients (n = 104) of 7.61 months mean duration of inflammatory arthritis completed self-report questionnaires on sociodemographics, disease characteristics and role overload. Pain was assessed using the Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ) and physical functioning was measured with the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) physical functioning score. Role overload was measured by the Role Overload Scale. Patients indicated the number of social roles they occupied from a total of the three typical roles; marital, parental and paid work. Results Participants’ mean age was 56 years and 70.2% were female. Role overload was not correlated to the number of social roles, however, it was positively associated with pain (p = 0.004) and negatively associated with physical functioning (p = 0.001). On multivariate analysis, role overload was negatively associated with physical functioning after controlling for the relevant sociodemographic variables. Conclusion This study identifies a possible reciprocal relationship between role overload and physical functioning in patients with EIA. PMID:22554167

  19. [The development of a finger joint phantom for the optical simulation of early inflammatory rheumatic changes].

    PubMed

    Prapavat, V; Runge, W; Mans, J; Krause, A; Beuthan, J; Müller, G

    1997-11-01

    In the field of rheumatology, conventional diagnostic methods permit the detection only of advanced stages of the disease, which is at odds with the current clinical demand for the early diagnosis of inflammatory rheumatic diseases. Prompted by current needs, we developed a finger joint phantom that enables the optical and geometrical simulation of an early stage of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The results presented here form the experimental basis for an evaluation of new RA diagnostic systems based on near infrared light. The early stage of RA is characterised mainly by a vigorous proliferation of the synovial membrane and clouding of the synovial fluid. Using a double-integrating-sphere technique, the absorption and scattering coefficients (mua, mus') are experimentally determined for healthy and pathologically altered synovial fluid and capsule tissue. Using a variable mixture of Intralipid Indian ink and water as a scattering/absorption medium, the optical properties of skin, synovial fluid or capsule can be selected individually. Since the optical and geometrical properties of bone tissue remain constant in early-stage RA, a solid material is used for its simulation. Using the finger joint phantom described herein, the optical properties of joint regions can be adjusted specifically, enabling an evaluation of their effects on an optical signal--for example, during fluorography--and the investigation of these effects for diagnostically useful information. The experimental foundation for the development of a new optical system for the early diagnosis of RA has now been laid.

  20. Common variants at five new loci associated with early-onset inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Imielinski, Marcin; Baldassano, Robert N; Griffiths, Anne; Russell, Richard K; Annese, Vito; Dubinsky, Marla; Kugathasan, Subra; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Walters, Thomas D; Sleiman, Patrick; Kim, Cecilia E; Muise, Aleixo; Wang, Kai; Glessner, Joseph T; Saeed, Shehzad; Zhang, Haitao; Frackelton, Edward C; Hou, Cuiping; Flory, James H; Otieno, George; Chiavacci, Rosetta M; Grundmeier, Robert; Castro, Massimo; Latiano, Anna; Dallapiccola, Bruno; Stempak, Joanne; Abrams, Debra J; Taylor, Kent; McGovern, Dermot; Silber, Gary; Wrobel, Iwona; Quiros, Antonio; Barrett, Jeffrey C; Hansoul, Sarah; Nicolae, Dan L; Cho, Judy H; Duerr, Richard H; Rioux, John D; Brant, Steven R; Silverberg, Mark S; Taylor, Kent D; Barmuda, M Michael; Bitton, Alain; Dassopoulos, Themistocles; Datta, Lisa Wu; Green, Todd; Griffiths, Anne M; Kistner, Emily O; Murtha, Michael T; Regueiro, Miguel D; Rotter, Jerome I; Schumm, L Philip; Steinhart, A Hillary; Targan, Stephen R; Xavier, Ramnik J; Libioulle, Cécile; Sandor, Cynthia; Lathrop, Mark; Belaiche, Jacques; Dewit, Olivier; Gut, Ivo; Heath, Simon; Laukens, Debby; Mni, Myriam; Rutgeerts, Paul; Van Gossum, André; Zelenika, Diana; Franchimont, Denis; Hugot, J P; de Vos, Martine; Vermeire, Severine; Louis, Edouard; Cardon, Lon R; Anderson, Carl A; Drummond, Hazel; Nimmo, Elaine; Ahmad, Tariq; Prescott, Natalie J; Onnie, Clive M; Fisher, Sheila A; Marchini, Jonathan; Ghori, Jilur; Bumpstead, Suzannah; Gwillam, Rhian; Tremelling, Mark; Delukas, Panos; Mansfield, John; Jewell, Derek; Satsangi, Jack; Mathew, Christopher G; Parkes, Miles; Georges, Michel; Daly, Mark J; Heyman, Melvin B; Ferry, George D; Kirschner, Barbara; Lee, Jessica; Essers, Jonah; Grand, Richard; Stephens, Michael; Levine, Arie; Piccoli, David; Van Limbergen, John; Cucchiara, Salvatore; Monos, Dimitri S; Guthery, Stephen L; Denson, Lee; Wilson, David C; Grant, Straun F A; Daly, Mark; Silverberg, Mark S; Satsangi, Jack; Hakonarson, Hakon

    2009-12-01

    The inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are common causes of morbidity in children and young adults in the western world. Here we report the results of a genome-wide association study in early-onset IBD involving 3,426 affected individuals and 11,963 genetically matched controls recruited through international collaborations in Europe and North America, thereby extending the results from a previous study of 1,011 individuals with early-onset IBD. We have identified five new regions associated with early-onset IBD susceptibility, including 16p11 near the cytokine gene IL27 (rs8049439, P = 2.41 x 10(-9)), 22q12 (rs2412973, P = 1.55 x 10(-9)), 10q22 (rs1250550, P = 5.63 x 10(-9)), 2q37 (rs4676410, P = 3.64 x 10(-8)) and 19q13.11 (rs10500264, P = 4.26 x 10(-10)). Our scan also detected associations at 23 of 32 loci previously implicated in adult-onset Crohn's disease and at 8 of 17 loci implicated in adult-onset ulcerative colitis, highlighting the close pathogenetic relationship between early- and adult-onset IBD.

  1. Parenchymal and Stromal Cells Contribute to Pro-Inflammatory Myocardial Environment at Early Stages of Diabetes: Protective Role of Resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Savi, Monia; Bocchi, Leonardo; Sala, Roberto; Frati, Caterina; Lagrasta, Costanza; Madeddu, Denise; Falco, Angela; Pollino, Serena; Bresciani, Letizia; Miragoli, Michele; Zaniboni, Massimiliano; Quaini, Federico; Del Rio, Daniele; Stilli, Donatella

    2016-11-16

    Background: Little information is currently available concerning the relative contribution of cardiac parenchymal and stromal cells in the activation of the pro-inflammatory signal cascade, at the initial stages of diabetes. Similarly, the effects of early resveratrol (RSV) treatment on the negative impact of diabetes on the different myocardial cell compartments remain to be defined. Methods: In vitro challenge of neonatal cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts to high glucose and in vivo/ex vivo experiments on a rat model of Streptozotocin-induced diabetes were used to specifically address these issues. Results: In vitro data indicated that, besides cardiomyocytes, neonatal fibroblasts contribute to generating initial changes in the myocardial environment, in terms of pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. These findings were mostly confirmed at the myocardial tissue level in diabetic rats, after three weeks of hyperglycemia. Specifically, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and Fractalkine were up-regulated and initial abnormalities in cardiomyocyte contractility occurred. At later stages of diabetes, a selective enhancement of pro-inflammatory macrophage M1 phenotype and a parallel reduction of anti-inflammatory macrophage M2 phenotype were associated with a marked disorganization of cardiomyocyte ultrastructural properties. RSV treatment inhibited pro-inflammatory cytokine production, leading to a recovery of cardiomyocyte contractile efficiency and a reduced inflammatory cell recruitment. Conclusion: Early RSV administration could inhibit the pro-inflammatory diabetic milieu sustained by different cardiac cell types.

  2. Prevalence of Asymptomatic Arterial Hypertension and Its Correlation with Inflammatory Activity in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Bajraktari, Ismet H; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Berisha, Idriz; Lahu, Ali; Kryeziu, Avni; Durmishi, Bastri; Bajraktari, Halit; Bahtiri, Elton

    2017-08-15

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease that worsens during the course of the disease and can cause disability. Early RA refers to the onset of symptoms within the past 3 months. In RA, increased levels of mediators of inflammation may cause arterial stiffness consequently leading to arterial hypertension. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence of asymptomatic arterial hypertension in early RA patients as well as the correlation with parameters of inflammation. One hundred and seventy-nine early RA patients diagnosed in agreement with ACR/EULAR (American College of Rheumatology/ European League against Rheumatism) 2010 criteria were consecutively included in the study. CRP (C-reactive protein) and anti CCP (Antibodies to cyclic citrullinated peptides) serum levels, WBC (white blood cells) count and ESR (Erythrocyte sedimentation rate), likewise DAS-28 (28-joint disease activity score) were determined in all included patients. Parametric tests were used to compare the characteristics of the groups and to test the correlation of the variables. Statistical data analysis revealed that a majority of the patients were females (n = 141; 78.7%); the mean age at RA onset was 49.13 ± 12.13 years. Overall prevalence of hypertension was 44.13 % (n = 79). In comparison with the normotensive patients, the hypertensive patients were older and had significantly higher values of CRP, ESR, anti-CCP and DAS-28. A highly significant positive correlation between all the study parameters and systolic and diastolic blood pressure was observed. Presence of significantly higher values of CRP, ESR, anti-CCP and DAS-28 in hypertensive patients indicate that inflammation is associated with an increased risk of hypertension. In this context, early screening for arterial hypertension and adequate therapeutic measures should be considered in early RA patients.

  3. Prevalence of Asymptomatic Arterial Hypertension and Its Correlation with Inflammatory Activity in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Bajraktari, Ismet H.; Rexhepi, Sylejman; Berisha, Idriz; Lahu, Ali; Kryeziu, Avni; Durmishi, Bastri; Bajraktari, Halit; Bahtiri, Elton

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease that worsens during the course of the disease and can cause disability. Early RA refers to the onset of symptoms within the past 3 months. In RA, increased levels of mediators of inflammation may cause arterial stiffness consequently leading to arterial hypertension. AIM: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence of asymptomatic arterial hypertension in early RA patients as well as the correlation with parameters of inflammation. METHODS: One hundred and seventy-nine early RA patients diagnosed in agreement with ACR/EULAR (American College of Rheumatology/ European League against Rheumatism) 2010 criteria were consecutively included in the study. CRP (C-reactive protein) and anti CCP (Antibodies to cyclic citrullinated peptides) serum levels, WBC (white blood cells) count and ESR (Erythrocyte sedimentation rate), likewise DAS-28 (28-joint disease activity score) were determined in all included patients. Parametric tests were used to compare the characteristics of the groups and to test the correlation of the variables. RESULTS: Statistical data analysis revealed that a majority of the patients were females (n = 141; 78.7%); the mean age at RA onset was 49.13 ± 12.13 years. Overall prevalence of hypertension was 44.13 % (n = 79). In comparison with the normotensive patients, the hypertensive patients were older and had significantly higher values of CRP, ESR, anti-CCP and DAS-28. A highly significant positive correlation between all the study parameters and systolic and diastolic blood pressure was observed. CONCLUSION: Presence of significantly higher values of CRP, ESR, anti-CCP and DAS-28 in hypertensive patients indicate that inflammation is associated with an increased risk of hypertension. In this context, early screening for arterial hypertension and adequate therapeutic measures should be considered in early RA patients. PMID:28932306

  4. [Differential diagnosis of polyarthritis pain syndrome of the locomotor apparatus].

    PubMed

    Menninger, H

    1998-02-28

    Widespread pain syndromes of the musculoskeletal system present to general practitioners, internists, neurologists and orthopedic surgeons every day. The syndromes may result both from organic diseases (inflammatory joint diseases, rheumatic manifestations of organ diseases) as well as dysfunctional syndromes, the latter including mainly biomechanically induced syndromes and fibromyalgia. The approach is predominantly clinically oriented and requires laboratory means or technical procedures only in a limited extend. The duration of history, the recognition of synovitis and of myofascial trigger points or of integumental tender points allow in most patients to achieve appropriate diagnostic criteria.

  5. Investigation of potential early Histologic markers of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Bass, Julie A; Friesen, Craig A; Deacy, Amanda D; Neilan, Nancy A; Bracken, Julia M; Shakhnovich, Valentina; Singh, Vivekanand

    2015-10-13

    Early manifestations of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) can be relatively nonspecific. Initial mucosal biopsies may not be conclusive, delaying the diagnosis until subsequent biopsies demonstrate typical histologic features of IBD. We hypothesized that certain inflammatory cell types may be utilized as early histologic indicators of IBD in children. A retrospective analysis compared histologic findings from initially inconclusive or negative endoscopic studies in 22 patients who were subsequently diagnosed with IBD (after diagnostic endoscopy) to those of 20 comparison patients with functional abdominal pain matched for age, gender, and study type. A pediatric pathologist, blinded to study group, reviewed biopsies for histologic abnormalities. Eosinophil densities were obtained from the stomach, duodenum, and rectosigmoid areas. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining for tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) was performed on the stomach and rectosigmoid areas. Gastritis and colonic crypt distortion were present in the IBD group at a greater rate (61 % vs. 22 %, p = 0.020; 34 % vs. 4 %, p = 0.008, respectively). Peak and mean eosinophil densities in the rectosigmoid area were greater in the IBD group (17.0/hpf vs. 5.0/hpf, p = 0.0063; 12.3/hpf vs. 4.2/hpf, p = 0.0106, respectively). TNF-α and MMP-9 staining did not reveal any significant differences. Our data suggests that significantly greater inflammation in the stomach, crypt distortion in the colon, and eosinophilia in the rectosigmoid distinguished the IBD group from the comparison group at the time of the initial endoscopic evaluation.

  6. Achievement of NICE quality standards for patients with new presentation of inflammatory arthritis: observations from the National Clinical Audit for Rheumatoid and Early Inflammatory Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ledingham, Joanna M; Snowden, Neil; Rivett, Ali; Galloway, James; Ide, Zoe; Firth, Jill; MacPhie, Elizabeth; Kandala, Ngianga; Dennison, Elaine M; Rowe, Ian

    2017-02-01

    A national audit was performed assessing the early management of suspected inflammatory arthritis by English and Welsh rheumatology units. The aim of this audit was to measure the performance of rheumatology services against National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) quality standards (QSs) for the management of early inflammatory arthritis benchmarked to regional and national comparators for the first time in the UK. All individuals >16 years of age presenting to rheumatology services in England and Wales with suspected new-onset inflammatory arthritis were included in the audit. Information was collected against six NICE QSs that pertain to early inflammatory arthritis management. We present national data for the 6354 patients recruited from 1 February 2014 to 31 January 2015; 97% of trusts and health boards in England and Wales participated in this audit. Only 17% of patients were referred by their general practitioner within 3 days of first presentation. Specialist rheumatology assessment occurred within 3 weeks of referral in 38% of patients. The target of DMARD initiation within 6 weeks of referral was achieved in 53% of RA patients; 36% were treated with combination DMARDs and 82% with steroids within the first 3 months of specialist care. Fifty-nine per cent of patients received structured education on their arthritis within 1 month of diagnosis. In total, 91% of patients had a treatment target set; the agreed target was achieved within 3 months of specialist review in only 27% of patients. Access to urgent advice via a telephone helpline was reported to be available in 96% of trusts. The audit has highlighted gaps between NICE standards and delivery of care, as well as substantial geographic variability. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Chronic lung disease of prematurity and early childhood wheezing: is foetal inflammatory response syndrome to blame?

    PubMed

    Dessardo, Nada Sindičić; Dessardo, Sandro; Mustać, Elvira; Banac, Srđan; Petrović, Oleg; Peter, Branimir

    2014-09-01

    Long-lasting respiratory symptoms have a huge impact on the quality of life in prematurely born children. We aimed to investigate the perinatal and maternal risk factors involved in the development of chronic respiratory morbidity in preterm infants, with an emphasis on the importance of Foetal Inflammatory Response Syndrome (FIRS). Prospective cohort study. Demographic, antenatal, delivery and outcomes data were collected from 262 infants with less than 32 completed weeks of gestational age, over a 10-year period. Presence of chronic lung disease of prematurity and early childhood wheezing. In multivariate logistic regression analysis the presence of FIRS appears to be the most important risk factor for both, chronic lung disease of prematurity (OR 31.05, 95% CI 10.7-87.75, p<0.001) and early childhood wheezing (OR 5.63, 95% CI 2.42-13.05, p=0.01). In the alternative regression model for early childhood wheezing, with chronic lung disease included as a variable, the statistical significance of FIRS completely vanished (OR 1.15, 95% CI 0.39-3.34, p=0.79), whilst chronic lung disease became the most important risk factor (OR 23.45, 95% CI 8.5-63.25, p<0.001). Prenatal and early neonatal events are of utmost importance in the development of chronic respiratory symptoms in children. The influence of FIRS on the development of chronic respiratory symptoms goes far beyond its impact on gestational age and may be related to direct inflammation-mediated lung tissue damage. CLD appears to be an intermittent step on the way from FIRS to ECW. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. South American plants II: taspine isolation and anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Perdue, G P; Blomster, R N; Blake, D A; Farnsworth, N R

    1979-01-01

    Croton lechleri L. (Euphorbiaceae), a plant from the Upper Amazon Valley of Peru, yielded the alkaloid taspine. The anti-inflammatory activity of taspine hydrochloride was studied using the carrageenan-induced pedal edema method, the cotton pellet-induced granuloma method, and the adjuvant polyarthritis model.

  9. Peer-to-peer mentoring for individuals with early inflammatory arthritis: feasibility pilot.

    PubMed

    Sandhu, Sharron; Veinot, Paula; Embuldeniya, Gayathri; Brooks, Sydney; Sale, Joanna; Huang, Sicong; Zhao, Alex; Richards, Dawn; Bell, Mary J

    2013-03-01

    To examine the feasibility and potential benefits of early peer support to improve the health and quality of life of individuals with early inflammatory arthritis (EIA). Feasibility study using the 2008 Medical Research Council framework as a theoretical basis. A literature review, environmental scan, and interviews with patients, families and healthcare providers guided the development of peer mentor training sessions and a peer-to-peer mentoring programme. Peer mentors were trained and paired with a mentee to receive (face-to-face or telephone) support over 12 weeks. Two academic teaching hospitals in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Nine pairs consisting of one peer mentor and one mentee were matched based on factors such as age and work status. Mentee outcomes of disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs)/biological treatment use, self-efficacy, self-management, health-related quality of life, anxiety, coping efficacy, social support and disease activity were measured using validated tools. Descriptive statistics and effect sizes were calculated to determine clinically important (>0.3) changes. Peer mentor self-efficacy was assessed using a self-efficacy scale. Interviews conducted with participants examined acceptability and feasibility of procedures and outcome measures, as well as perspectives on the value of peer support for individuals with EIA. Themes were identified through constant comparison. Mentees experienced improvements in the overall arthritis impact on life, coping efficacy and social support (effect size >0.3). Mentees also perceived emotional, informational, appraisal and instrumental support. Mentors also reported benefits and learnt from mentees' fortitude and self-management skills. The training was well received by mentors. Their self-efficacy increased significantly after training completion. Participants' experience of peer support was informed by the unique relationship with their peer. All participants were unequivocal about the need for

  10. CC chemokine ligand 2 and CXC chemokine ligand 8 as neutrophil chemoattractant factors in canine idiopathic polyarthritis.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Kohei; Maeda, Shingo; Yonezawa, Tomohiro; Matsuki, Naoaki

    2016-12-01

    Canine idiopathic polyarthritis (IPA) is characterized by increased numbers of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) in the synovial fluid (SF). In humans, CC chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) and CXC chemokine ligand 8 (CXCL8) recruit monocytes and neutrophils, respectively, and are involved in various inflammatory disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the roles of these chemokines in driving PMNs infiltration into the joints of dogs with IPA. SF samples were collected from dogs with IPA (n=19) and healthy controls (n=8), and the concentrations of SF CCL2 and CXCL8 were determined by ELISA. Dogs with IPA had significantly higher concentrations of CCL2 (3316±2452pg/ml, mean±SD) and CXCL8 (3668±3879pg/ml) compared with the healthy controls (235±45pg/ml and <15.6pg/ml, respectively). Then, an in vitro chemotaxis assay was performed using a modified Boyden chamber (pore size: 3μm). SF from IPA dogs had a chemoattractant activity for PMNs that purified from the peripheral blood of a healthy dog. We subsequently found that combination treatment with MK-0812 (an antagonist of CCL2 receptor) and repertaxin (an antagonist of CXCL8 receptors) significantly inhibited the migration of PMNs to SF from IPA dogs. Thus, expression of the CCL2 receptor (chemokine (CC motif) receptor 2 (CCR2)) was examined using polymerase chain reaction and immunocytochemistry. Canine peripheral blood PMNs exhibited significantly higher CCR2 mRNA expression levels than those in monocytes. In addition, we observed strong CCR2 expression on PMNs obtained from healthy controls and IPA dogs, although mononuclear cells did not express CCR2. Taken together, the data suggest that CCL2 acts as a canine PMNs chemotactic factor as well as CXCL8 and both CCL2 and CXCL8 facilitate the infiltration of PMNs into the joints of dogs with IPA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Development of metabolic and inflammatory mediator biomarker phenotyping for early diagnosis and triage of pediatric sepsis.

    PubMed

    Mickiewicz, Beata; Thompson, Graham C; Blackwood, Jaime; Jenne, Craig N; Winston, Brent W; Vogel, Hans J; Joffe, Ari R

    2015-09-09

    The first steps in goal-directed therapy for sepsis are early diagnosis followed by appropriate triage. These steps are usually left to the physician's judgment, as there is no accepted biomarker available. We aimed to determine biomarker phenotypes that differentiate children with sepsis who require intensive care from those who do not. We conducted a prospective, observational nested cohort study at two pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) and one pediatric emergency department (ED). Children ages 2-17 years presenting to the PICU or ED with sepsis or presenting for procedural sedation to the ED were enrolled. We used the judgment of regional pediatric ED and PICU attending physicians as the standard to determine triage location (PICU or ED). We performed metabolic and inflammatory protein mediator profiling with serum and plasma samples, respectively, collected upon presentation, followed by multivariate statistical analysis. Ninety-four PICU sepsis, 81 ED sepsis, and 63 ED control patients were included. Metabolomic profiling revealed clear separation of groups, differentiating PICU sepsis from ED sepsis with accuracy of 0.89, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of 0.96 (standard deviation [SD] 0.01), and predictive ability (Q(2)) of 0.60. Protein mediator profiling also showed clear separation of the groups, differentiating PICU sepsis from ED sepsis with accuracy of 0.78 and AUROC of 0.88 (SD 0.03). Combining metabolomic and protein mediator profiling improved the model (Q(2) =0.62), differentiating PICU sepsis from ED sepsis with accuracy of 0.87 and AUROC of 0.95 (SD 0.01). Separation of PICU sepsis or ED sepsis from ED controls was even more accurate. Prespecified age subgroups (2-5 years old and 6-17 years old) improved model accuracy minimally. Seventeen metabolites or protein mediators accounted for separation of PICU sepsis and ED sepsis with 95% confidence. In children ages 2-17 years, combining metabolomic and

  12. T-regulatory cells-Triumph of perseverance: The Crafoord Prize for Polyarthritis in 2017.

    PubMed

    Wollheim, Frank A

    2018-02-01

    The Crafoord Prize in Polyarthritis ranks as one of the most prestigious prizes and can be awarded only if the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences decides the likelihood of prize worthy progress in the field, and at most every 4th year. This has happened only four times since 1982. This year the 5th Laureates were Shimon Sakaguchi, Fred Ramsdell, and Alexander Rudensky with the motivation "for their discoveries relating to regulatory T cells, which counteract harmful immune reactions in arthritis and other autoimmune diseases". Here I review the history of their contributions and its impact in rheumatology. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Adiposity moderates links from early adversity and depressive symptoms to inflammatory reactivity to acute stress during late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Jessica J; Bower, Julienne E; Irwin, Michael R; Taylor, Shelley E; Fuligni, Andrew J

    2017-11-01

    Both early adversity and depression are associated with heightened inflammation. However, few studies have focused on inflammatory reactivity to psychosocial stress and examined adiposity as a potential moderator. Yet, repeated heightened inflammatory reactivity over time is thought to contribute to low-grade chronic inflammation and adipose tissue is a key source of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The purpose of the present study was to examine whether early adversity and depressive symptoms were related to stress-induced inflammation and whether these associations varied by total body and abdominal adiposity as measured by body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in a sample of late adolescents. Participants reported on their early family environment and current depressive symptoms, had their height, weight, and WC assessed for adiposity markers, and provided blood samples for IL-6 assessment before and after a standardized laboratory stress task. No main effect of early adversity on IL-6 reactivity to acute stress was observed. However, significant interactions between early adversity and BMI and WC emerged. Greater exposure to early adversity was associated with greater IL-6 responses only among adolescents with higher BMI or WC. The same pattern of findings was observed for depressive symptoms. Additionally, moderated mediation analyses indicated that among adolescents with greater adiposity, early adversity indirectly influenced IL-6 reactivity via current depressive symptoms. These findings contribute to our understanding of vulnerability factors that may amplify the associations between early adversity and depressive symptoms and inflammation during relatively early stages of life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluation of Early Atherosclerosis Markers in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Üstün, Yusuf; Kilincalp, Serta; Çoban, Şahin; Coşkun, Yusuf; Yüksel, İlhami; Ongun, Aydan; Soykan, İrfan; Bektaş, Mehmet; Törüner, Murat; Çetinkaya, Hülya; Örmeci, Necati

    2016-10-24

    BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate relationships between early atherosclerosis and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) using laboratory, functional, and morphological markers of atherosclerosis. MATERIAL AND METHODS In the present prospective single-center study, 96 patients with IBD (58 patients with ulcerative colitis and 36 patients with Crohn's disease) and 65 healthy control subjects were included. The demographic data of each patient and control subject were recorded. The patients with IBD and healthy controls were compared in terms of the carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), the values of flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) and nitroglycerine-mediated dilatation (NMD), and the levels of von Willebrand factor antigen (VWF-Ag), D-dimer, and lipoprotein (a). RESULTS There were no significant differences between the IBD patients and controls in terms of age, sex, BMI, systolic and diastolic BPs, serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, or triglycerides. IBD patients had significantly higher levels of VWF-Ag (156.6±58.9 vs. 104.2±43.3, P<0.001) and D-dimer (337.2±710.8 vs. 175.9±110.9, P<0.001) as compared to the controls. No significant differences were determined between the 2 groups in terms of FMD and NMD values. Although statistically not significant, the CIMT values were higher in the IBD patients than in the controls (0.517±0.141 mm vs. 0.467±0.099 mm, P=0.073). In the correlation analysis, the CIMT was found to be correlated negatively with FMD and positively with high sensitive C-reactive protein, VWF-Ag, and D-dimer. CONCLUSIONS These findings suggest that VWF-Ag and D-dimer can be beneficial early atherosclerosis markers in IBD patients.

  15. (−)-Epigallocatechin Gallate Targets Notch to Attenuate the Inflammatory Response in the Immediate Early Stage in Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tengfei; Xiang, Zemin; Wang, Ya; Li, Xi; Fang, Chongye; Song, Shuang; Li, Chunlei; Yu, Haishuang; Wang, Han; Yan, Liang; Hao, Shumei; Wang, Xuanjun; Sheng, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Inflammation plays important roles at different stages of diabetes mellitus, tumorigenesis, and cardiovascular diseases. (−)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) can attenuate inflammatory responses effectively. However, the immediate early mechanism of EGCG in inflammation remains unclear. Here, we showed that EGCG attenuated the inflammatory response in the immediate early stage of EGCG treatment by shutting off Notch signaling and that the effect did not involve the 67-kDa laminin receptor, the common receptor for EGCG. EGCG eliminated mature Notch from the cell membrane and the nuclear Notch intercellular domain, the active form of Notch, within 2 min by rapid degradation via the proteasome pathway. Transcription of the Notch target gene was downregulated simultaneously. Knockdown of Notch 1/2 expression by RNA interference impaired the downregulation of the inflammatory response elicited by EGCG. Further study showed that EGCG inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation and turned off Notch signaling in human primary macrophages. Taken together, our results show that EGCG targets Notch to regulate the inflammatory response in the immediate early stage. PMID:28443100

  16. The role of monogenic disease in children with very early onset inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Kelsen, Judith R; Baldassano, Robert N

    2017-10-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a multifactorial disease caused by dysregulated immune responses to commensal or pathogenic intestinal microbes, resulting in chronic intestinal inflammation. Patients diagnosed with IBD occurring before the age of 5 are a unique population, known as very early onset (VEO)-IBD and can be phenotypically and genetically distinct from older-onset IBD. We aim to review the clinical presentation of children with VEO-IBD and recent discoveries that point to genomic drivers of disease that may impact our therapeutic decisions. VEO-IBD is increasing in incidence and is associated with more severe disease, aggressive progression and poor response to most conventional therapies. This article will review the advances in sequencing technology that have led to identification of novel gene variants associated with disease and potentially new targeted therapeutic options. Children with VEO-IBD may present with a different phenotype and more severe disease than older children and adults. Identification of the causal gene or pathways, these children may allow for true precision medicine with targeted therapy and improved disease course.

  17. Maintaining intestinal health: the genetics and immunology of very early onset inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Kelsen, Judith R; Baldassano, Robert N; Artis, David; Sonnenberg, Gregory F

    2015-09-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a multifactoral disease caused by dysregulated immune responses to commensal or pathogenic microbes in the intestine, resulting in chronic intestinal inflammation. An emerging population of patients with IBD occurring before the age of 5 represent a unique form of disease, termed Very Early Onset (VEO)-IBD, which is phenotypically- and genetically-distinct from older-onset IBD. VEO-IBD is associated with increased disease severity, aggressive progression and poor responsiveness to most conventional therapies. Further investigation into the causes and pathogenesis of VEO-IBD will help improve treatment strategies, and may lead to a better understanding of the mechanisms that are essential to maintain intestinal health or provoke the development of targeted therapeutic strategies to limit intestinal disease. Here we discuss the phenotypic nature of VEO-IBD, the recent identification of novel gene variants associated with disease, and functional immunologic studies interrogating the contribution of specific genetic variants to the development of chronic intestinal inflammation.

  18. Are we giving azathioprine too late? The case for early immunomodulation in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Etchevers, María Josefina; Aceituno, Montserrat; Sans, Miquel

    2008-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) includes two entities, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Both are chronic conditions with frequent complications and surgical procedures and a great impact on patient’s quality of life. The thiopurine antimetabolites azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine are widely used in IBD patients. Current indications include maintenance therapy, steroid-dependant disease, fistula closure, prevention of infliximab immunogenicity and prevention of Crohn’s disease recurrence. Surprisingly, the wide use of immunosuppressants in the last decades has not decreased the need of surgery, probably because these treatments are introduced at too late stages in disease course. An earlier use of immunossupressants is now advocated by some authors. The rational includes: (1) failure to modify IBD natural history of present therapeutic approach, (2) demonstration that azathioprine can induce mucosal healing, a relevant prognostic factor for Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, and (3) demonstration that early immunossupression has a very positive impact on pediatric, recently diagnosed Crohn’s disease patients. We are now awaiting the results of new studies, to clarify the contribution of azathioprine, as compared to infliximab (SONIC Study), and to demonstrate the usefulness of azathioprine in recently diagnosed adult Crohn’s disease patients (AZTEC study). PMID:18810768

  19. Early Cutaneous Leishmaniasis Patients Infected With Leishmania braziliensis Express Increased Inflammatory Responses After Antimony Therapy.

    PubMed

    Costa, Rúbia S; Carvalho, Lucas P; Campos, Taís M; Magalhães, Andréa S; Passos, Sara T; Schriefer, Albert; Silva, Juliana A; Lago, Ednaldo; Paixão, Camilla S; Machado, Paulo; Scott, Phillip; Carvalho, Edgar M

    2018-02-14

    Early cutaneous leishmaniasis (ECL) is characterized by a nonulcerated papular lesion and illness duration less than 30 days. Approximately 4 weeks later, the cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) ulcers appear. We were surprised to find that failure after antimony therapy (Sb5) is higher in ECL than CL. We hypothesize that the inflammatory response in ECL patients may increase during Sb5 therapy, which leads to treatment failure. A cohort of 44 ECL patients infected by Leishmania braziliensis was established to evaluate the response to Sb5 and to compare immunologic responses in ECL patients with CL and healthy subjects. A hierarchical clustering based on cytokine levels showed a weak positive correlation between proinflammatory cytokine levels and those patients that failed Sb5 treatment. Although Sb5 therapy decreased interferon-γ and tumor necrosis factor levels in CL patients, we were surprised to find that an increase in these cytokines was observed in ECL patients. Moreover, interleukin (IL)-10 was less able to down-modulate immune responses in ECL. The enhanced production of proinflammatory cytokines, due in part to the decreased ability of IL-10 to down-modulate immune response during therapy in ECL, promotes the development and persistence of leishmania ulcer despite antimony therapy. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Reversible ovulatory failure associated with the development of luteinized unruptured follicles in women with inflammatory arthritis taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    PubMed

    Smith, G; Roberts, R; Hall, C; Nuki, G

    1996-05-01

    The case histories of three young women with ankylosing spondylitis, rheumatoid arthritis and a seronegative inflammatory polyarthritis undergoing investigations for infertility are presented. In each, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) therapy was associated with the recurrent development of luteinized unruptured ovarian follicles and normal ovulation following drug withdrawal. It is suggested that NSAID therapy may be an important and frequently overlooked cause of anovulation and infertility.

  1. Peer-to-peer mentoring for individuals with early inflammatory arthritis: feasibility pilot

    PubMed Central

    Sandhu, Sharron; Veinot, Paula; Embuldeniya, Gayathri; Brooks, Sydney; Sale, Joanna; Huang, Sicong; Zhao, Alex; Richards, Dawn; Bell, Mary J

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine the feasibility and potential benefits of early peer support to improve the health and quality of life of individuals with early inflammatory arthritis (EIA). Design Feasibility study using the 2008 Medical Research Council framework as a theoretical basis. A literature review, environmental scan, and interviews with patients, families and healthcare providers guided the development of peer mentor training sessions and a peer-to-peer mentoring programme. Peer mentors were trained and paired with a mentee to receive (face-to-face or telephone) support over 12 weeks. Setting Two academic teaching hospitals in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Participants Nine pairs consisting of one peer mentor and one mentee were matched based on factors such as age and work status. Primary outcome measure Mentee outcomes of disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs)/biological treatment use, self-efficacy, self-management, health-related quality of life, anxiety, coping efficacy, social support and disease activity were measured using validated tools. Descriptive statistics and effect sizes were calculated to determine clinically important (>0.3) changes. Peer mentor self-efficacy was assessed using a self-efficacy scale. Interviews conducted with participants examined acceptability and feasibility of procedures and outcome measures, as well as perspectives on the value of peer support for individuals with EIA. Themes were identified through constant comparison. Results Mentees experienced improvements in the overall arthritis impact on life, coping efficacy and social support (effect size >0.3). Mentees also perceived emotional, informational, appraisal and instrumental support. Mentors also reported benefits and learnt from mentees’ fortitude and self-management skills. The training was well received by mentors. Their self-efficacy increased significantly after training completion. Participants’ experience of peer support was informed by the unique

  2. Salicylate-based anti-inflammatory drugs inhibit the early lesion of diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ling; Howell, Scott J; Hatala, Denise A; Huang, Kun; Kern, Timothy S

    2007-02-01

    It has been previously reported that aspirin inhibited the development of diabetic retinopathy in diabetic animals, raising the possibility that anti-inflammatory drugs may have beneficial effects on diabetic retinopathy. To further explore this, we compared effects of oral consumption of three different salicylate-based drugs (aspirin, sodium salicylate, and sulfasalazine) on the development of early stages of diabetic retinopathy in rats. These three drugs differ in their ability to inhibit cyclooxygenase but share an ability to inhibit nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB). Diabetes of 9-10 months duration significantly increased the number of TUNEL (transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling)-positive capillary cells and acellular (degenerate) capillaries in the retinal vasculature, and all three salicylate-based drugs inhibited this cell death and formation of acellular capillaries without altering the severity of hyperglycemia. In short-term diabetes (2-4 months), all three salicylates inhibited the diabetes-induced loss of neuronal cells from the ganglion cell layer. Oral aspirin (as a representative of the salicylate family) inhibited diabetes-induced increase in NF-kappaB DNA-binding affinity in electrophoretic mobility shift assay and transcription factor array in nuclear extract isolated from whole retina. All three salicylates inhibited the diabetes-induced translocation of p50 (a subunit of NF-kappaB) into nuclei of retinal vascular endothelial cells of the isolated retinal vasculature, as well as of p50 and p65 into nuclei of cells in the ganglion cell layer and inner nuclear layer on whole-retinal sections. Sulfasalazine (also as a representative of the salicylates) inhibited the diabetes-induced upregulation of several inflammatory gene products, which are regulated by NF-kappaB, including vascular cell adhesion molecule, intracellular adhesion molecule-1, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2 in whole-retinal lysate. Salicylates, in

  3. Contributions of early adversity to pro-inflammatory phenotype in infancy: the buffer provided by attachment security.

    PubMed

    Measelle, Jeffrey R; Ablow, Jennifer C

    2018-02-01

    Adversity early in life is associated with systemic inflammation by adolescence and beyond. At present, few studies have investigated the associations between different forms of adversity and inflammation during infancy, making it difficult to specify the origins of disease vulnerability. This study examined the association between multiple forms of early adversity - socioeconomic status disadvantage, familial stress, maternal depression, and security of attachment - and individual differences in a composite measure of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha) and the inflammatory protein C-reactive protein that were collected via saliva when (n = 49) children were 17 months old. In addition to gauging the direct effects of adversity, we also tested the hypothesis that infants' attachment relationship with their mother might buffer infants against the immunologic effects of early adversity. Results show that familial stress, maternal depression, and security of attachment were directly associated with infant salivary inflammation and that attachment status moderated the effect of maternal depression. The findings suggest that exposure to certain forms of adversity very early in life may engender a pro-inflammatory phenotype with possible life-long implications for health.

  4. Proteomic Analysis of Synovial Fluid Obtained From a Dog Diagnosed With Idiopathic Immune-Mediated Polyarthritis.

    PubMed

    Tan, Wei Miao; Lau, Seng Fong; Ajat, Mokrish; Mansor, Rozaihan; Abd Rani, Puteri Azaziah Megat; Rahmad, Norasfaliza Binti

    2017-03-01

    This case study is to report the proteins detected by proteomic analysis of synovial fluid from a dog diagnosed with idiopathic immune-mediated polyarthritis, and to compare it with healthy dogs. Synovial fluid was collected via arthrocentesis from a dog diagnosed with immune-mediated polyarthritis. Protein precipitation was performed on the synovial fluid, followed by isoelectric focusing and 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The spots on the 2-dimensional gels were analyzed using MALDI-TOF/MS. The results were then analyzed against the MASCOT database. The results from the proteomic analysis revealed an abundance of several types of immunoglobulins together with the presence of complement C4b-binding protein alpha chain. Actin and keratin were also among the proteins detected. Proteomic studies, facilitate a better understanding of the different levels of proteins expressed during disease activity. Potential disease biomarkers can aid in the diagnosis of disease, as well as help in monitoring treatment efficacy and providing prognosis for the patient. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Role of inflammatory proteins S100A8 and S100A9 in pathophysiology of recurrent early pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Nair, R R; Khanna, A; Singh, K

    2013-09-01

    Altered expression of inflammatory molecule at the maternal fetal interface is associated with early pregnancy loss. S100A8 and S100A9 are inflammatory proteins and they exhibit cytokine like function enhancing leukocyte recruitment to the inflammatory site. Reports from mouse model suggest the role of S100A8 with the vasculature of the decidual tissue and leukocyte recruitment during early pregnancy. Hence we hypothesized that maternal overexpression of S100A8 & S100A9 might increase the recruitment of inflammatory leukocytes in maternal-fetal interface resulting in uteroplacental perfusion deficiency, development of thrombotic events, and placental hypoxia, eventually embryo abortion. In the present study we investigated altered expression of S100A8 and S100A9 in 25 recurrent early pregnancy loss (REPL) patients compared to 40 induced abortion subjects as controls. S100A8 and S100A9 mRNA were evaluated using semi-quantitative RT-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR. To determine if differential expression pattern of these transcripts is translated to protein western blot analysis was performed.S100A8 and S100A9 mRNA and protein level were significantly increased in endometrial decidua tissue (p < 0.05) of REPL patients as compared to controls. This is the first report predicting the role of inflammatory molecules S100A8 & S100A9 in REPL. It opens a new perspective for understanding significance of S100A8 and S100A9 in pregnancy maintenance and outcome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Inhaled corticosteroids do not influence the early inflammatory response and clinical presentation of hospitalized subjects with COPD exacerbation.

    PubMed

    Crisafulli, Ernesto; Guerrero, Mónica; Menéndez, Rosario; Huerta, Arturo; Martinez, Raquel; Gimeno, Alexandra; Soler, Néstor; Torres, Antoni

    2014-10-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids are anti-inflammatory medications that can down-regulate the immunologic response in patients with COPD; however, their role at onset of COPD exacerbation is still not understood. The aim of this study was to assess the early inflammatory response and clinical presentation of patients with COPD exacerbation mediated by inhaled corticosteroids. Prospective data were collected on 123 hospitalized subjects with COPD exacerbation over a 30-month period at 2 Spanish university hospitals. Based on domiciliary use, comparative analyses were performed between subjects who did not use inhaled corticosteroids (n = 58) and subjects who did (n = 65). Measurements of serum biomarkers were recorded on admission to the hospital (day 1) and on day 3; clinical, physiological, microbiological, and severity data and mortality/readmission rates were also recorded. At days 1 and 3, both groups showed a similar inflammatory response; fluticasone produced lower levels of interleukin-8 compared with budesonide (P < .01). All clinical features considered were similar in the 2 groups; multivariate analysis predicting clinical complications on hospitalization showed air-flow obstruction severity as the only predictive factor (odds ratio 3.13, 95% CI 1.13-8.63, P = .02). Our study demonstrates a lack of inhaled corticosteroid influence in the early systemic inflammatory response to and clinical presentation of COPD exacerbation. Copyright © 2014 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  7. Prognosis of seronegative patients in a large prospective cohort of patients with early inflammatory arthritis.

    PubMed

    Barra, Lillian; Pope, Janet E; Orav, John E; Boire, Gilles; Haraoui, Boulos; Hitchon, Carol; Keystone, Edward C; Thorne, J Carter; Tin, Diane; Bykerk, Vivian P

    2014-12-01

    Rheumatoid factor (RF) and anticitrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) are believed to be associated with more severe rheumatoid arthritis; however, studies in early inflammatory arthritis (EIA) have yielded conflicting results. Our study determined the prognosis of baseline ACPA-negative and RF-negative patients. Patients enrolled in the Canadian Early Arthritis Cohort had IgM RF and IgG anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies 2 (anti-CCP2) measured at baseline. Remission was defined as a Disease Activity Score of 28 joints (DAS28) < 2.6 using logistic regression accounting for confounders at 12-month and 24-month followup. Of the 841 patients, 216 (26%) were negative for both RF and anti-CCP2. Compared to seropositive subjects, seronegative subjects were older (57 ± 15 vs 51 ± 14 yrs), more males proportionately (31% vs 23%), and had shorter length of symptoms (166 ± 87 vs 192 ± 98 days), and at baseline had higher mean swollen joint count (SJC; 8.8 ± 6.8 vs 6.5 ± 5.6), DAS28 (5.0 ± 1.6 vs 4.8 ± 1.5), and erosive disease (32% vs 24%, p < 0.05). Treatment was similar between the 2 groups. At 24-month followup, seronegative compared to seropositive subjects had greater mean change (Δ ± SD) in disease activity measures: ΔSJC counts (-6.9 ± 7.0 vs -5.1 ± 5.9), ΔDAS28 (-2.4 ± 2.0 vs -1.8 ± 1.8), and ΔC-reactive protein (-11.0 ± 17.9 vs -6.4 ± 17.5, p < 0.05). Accounting for confounders, antibody status was not significantly associated with remission. However, at 12-month followup, ACPA-positive subjects were independently more likely to have new erosive disease (OR 2.94, 95% CI 1.45-5.94). Although seronegative subjects with EIA have higher baseline DAS28 compared to seropositive subjects, they have a good response to treatment and are less likely to develop erosive disease during followup.

  8. Adiposity is associated with early reduction in bone mass in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Setty-Shah, Nithya; Maranda, Louise; Nwosu, Benjamin Udoka

    2016-01-01

    The effect of adiposity on bone mass in the early phases of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in children and adolescents is unclear. The aim of this study was to determine the role of adiposity on bone mass in the first 3 y of diagnosis of IBD. The expected result is that increased adiposity will be associated with increased bone mass in both the controls and IBD subjects. Height-adjusted bone mineral density (BMD) z-scores of 25 subjects, age 13.97 ± 2.70 y, diagnosed with IBD for <4 y were compared to 24 controls, age 13.65 ± 2.60 y. Overweight was defined as BMI of ≥85th but <95th percentile, and obesity as BMI ≥95th percentile. Severity of IBD was determined by the Pediatric Crohn's Disease Activity Index and Lichtiger Colitis Activity Index. Before stratification by BMI criterion, height-adjusted BMD z-scores were not significantly lower in IBD subjects versus controls for both the femoral neck (-0.8 ± 1.1 versus -0.06 ± 1.1, P = 0.070) and lumbar vertebrae (-0.4 ± 1.2 versus 0.2 ± 1.2, P = 0.086). Following stratification, height-adjusted BMD z-scores were significantly lower in the overweight/obese IBD subjects versus overweight/obese controls for femoral neck (-0.9 ± 0.9 versus 0.3 ± 1.3, P = 0.032); and non-significantly lower for the lumbar spine z-score (-0.4 ± 1.6 versus 0.5 ± 1.3, P = 0.197). BMD z-score had no relationship with the duration of disease, steroid therapy, and the severity of disease. Adiposity was associated with reduced bone mass in the early phases of IBD, but with increased bone mass in the controls. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Early vedolizumab trough levels predict mucosal healing in inflammatory bowel disease: a multicentre prospective observational study.

    PubMed

    Yacoub, W; Williet, N; Pouillon, L; Di-Bernado, T; De Carvalho Bittencourt, M; Nancey, S; Lopez, A; Paul, S; Zallot, C; Roblin, X; Peyrin-Biroulet, L

    2018-04-01

    The correlation between vedolizumab trough levels during induction therapy and mucosal healing remains unknown. To compare early vedolizumab trough levels in patients with and without mucosal healing within the first year after treatment initiation. We prospectively collected vedolizumab trough levels in all inflammatory bowel disease patients at weeks 2, 6 and 14 of vedolizumab treatment in three French referral centres between 1 June 2014 and 31 March 2017. Results of every patient that underwent mucosal assessment by magnetic resonance imaging and/or endoscopy in the first year after treatment initiation were analysed. Median vedolizumab trough levels in the overall population (n = 82) were 27 μg/mL (interquartile range, IQR 21.2-33.8 μg/mL) at week 2, 23 μg/mL (IQR 15-34.5 μg/mL) at week 6 and 10.7 μg/mL (IQR 4.6-20.4 μg/mL) at week 14. Only median vedolizumab trough levels at week 6 differed between patients with and without mucosal healing within the first year after treatment initiation (26.8 vs 15.1 μg/mL, P = 0.035). A cut-off trough level of 18 μg/mL at week 6 predicted mucosal healing within the first year after the start of vedolizumab with an area under the receiver operating curve of 0.735 (95% confidence interval 0.531-0.939). A vedolizumab trough level above 18 μg/mL at week 6 was the only independent variable associated with mucosal healing within the first year of treatment (odds ratio 15.7, 95% confidence interval 2.4-173.0, P = 0.01). Early therapeutic drug monitoring might improve timely detection of vedolizumab-treated patients in need for an intensified dosing regimen. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. A serial study of anticardiolipin antibody and antimitochondrial antibody type M5 in a patient with polyarthritis and polymyositis.

    PubMed

    Keane, A; Woods, R; Foley-Nolan, D; Roden, D; Coughlan, R; Barry, C

    1989-04-01

    A 22-year-old female presented with polyarthritis and subsequent polymyositis. Initially, she had moderately high levels of anticardiolipin (aCl) and antimitochondrial antibody (AMA) type M5. Following corticosteroid therapy, the anticardiolipin antibody rapidly fell to background levels but reappeared with the onset of two significant clinical events.

  11. Associations of prenatal and early life dietary inflammatory potential with childhood adiposity and cardiometabolic risk in Project Viva.

    PubMed

    Sen, S; Rifas-Shiman, S L; Shivappa, N; Wirth, M D; Hebert, J R; Gold, D R; Gillman, M W; Oken, E

    2018-05-01

    Limited information exists regarding the association between early-life diet and cardiometabolic risk. Examine associations of dietary inflammatory index (DII) in pregnancy and early childhood (3-5 years) with adiposity, blood pressure and metabolic markers in mid-childhood (6-10 years). Among 992 mother-child pairs from Project Viva, a pre-birth cohort, we examined associations of DII scores with outcomes using multivariable linear regression adjusted for child age and sex and maternal age, BMI, education, parity, smoking, race and income. Mean (SD) maternal DII in pregnancy was -2.6(1.4) units and in child DII in early childhood was 0.3(0.7). Mean mid-childhood BMI z-score was 0.40(0.98) units. In boys only, DII in early childhood was associated with higher BMIz (adjusted β = 0.16 units per unit DII, 95%CI 0.02, 0.29), waist circumference (0.93 cm; -0.07, 1.92) and skin fold thicknesses (1.12 mm; 0.01, 2.23). Dietary inflammatory index in the highest quartiles during both pregnancy and in early childhood, compared to the lowest quartiles, was associated with higher waist circumference (2.4 cm; 0.14, 4.6) in all children, and BMIz in boys (0.78 units; 0.34, 1.22). Associations with BP and metabolic markers were null. A pro-inflammatory diet in pregnancy and early childhood may promote the development of adiposity. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  12. Incidence, outcomes, and health services burden of very early onset inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Benchimol, Eric I; Mack, David R; Nguyen, Geoffrey C; Snapper, Scott B; Li, Wenbin; Mojaverian, Nassim; Quach, Pauline; Muise, Aleixo M

    2014-10-01

    The Paris pediatric modification of the Montreal classification defines very early onset inflammatory bowel disease (VEO-IBD) as a form of IBD distinct from that of older children. We compared the incidence and outcomes of VEO-IBD with those of IBD in older children. We performed a population-based retrospective cohort study of all children diagnosed with IBD in Ontario, Canada, from 1994 through 2009. Trends in standardized incidence were calculated using Poisson regression. We compared outpatient and emergency department visits, hospitalizations, and surgeries among children diagnosed with IBD when they were younger than age 6, ages 6-9.9, and older than age 10 years. Multivariable models were adjusted for income and stratified by sex. The incidence of IBD increased from 9.4 per 100,000 children (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.2-10.8/100,000 children) in 1994 to 13.2 per 100,000 children (95% CI, 11.9-14.6/100,000 children) in 2009 (P < .0001). The incidence increased by 7.4% per year among children younger than 6 years old and 6-9.9 years old, and by 2.2% per year among children ≥10 years old. IBD-related outpatient visits were less frequent among children <6 years old than ≥10 years old (odds ratio for female patients, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.58-0.78; odds ratio for male patients, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.75-0.98). Hazard ratios [HRs] for hospitalization were lower for children <6 years old (female HR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.56-0.87; male HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.94-1.33) than for older children. HRs for surgery among children <6 years old with Crohn's disease were 0.35 for female patients (95% CI, 0.16-0.78) and 0.59 for male patients (95% CI, 0.34-0.99). HRs for children <6 years old with ulcerative colitis were 0.88 for female patients (95% CI, 0.47-1.63) and 0.42 for male patients (95% CI, 0.21-0.85). There was no difference in hospitalization or surgery rates among children 6-9.9 years old vs those ≥10 years old. Based on a retrospective cohort study, the incidence of VEO

  13. Chronic polyarthritis as the first manifestation of childhood systemic polyarteritis nodosa.

    PubMed

    Novak, Glaucia Vanessa; Hayashi, Koken; Sampa, Kohei; Okumura, Yosuke; Ferreira, Gabriela Ribeiro Viola; Silva, Clovis Artur

    2017-01-01

    Arthritis has been reported as an acute pattern, generally evanescent with oligoarthritis, mostly affecting knees and ankles in childhood systemic polyarteritis nodosa. However, chronic polyarthritis with morning stiffness mimicking juvenile idiopathic arthritis has not been reported. We describe the case of a 4-year old girl who had additive and chronic polyarthritis with edema, tenderness, pain on motion and morning stiffness for 2 months. After 45 days, she also presented painful subcutaneous nodules and erythematous-violaceous lesions in the extensor region of upper and lower limbs. She was admitted to university hospital due to high fever, malaise, myalgia, anorexia, loss of weight (1kg), painful skin lesions and severe functional disability. She was bedridden by chronic polyarthritis with limitation on motion. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were greater than 95th percentile for height. Urine protein/creatinine ratio was 0.39g/day, and immunological tests were negative. Anti-streptolysin O was 1,687UI/mL. Skin biopsy revealed necrotizing vasculitis in medium- and small-sized vessels compatible with polyarteritis nodosa. Therefore, we had the diagnosis of systemic polyarteritis nodosa. Prednisone 2mg/kg/day was administered with complete resolution of skin lesions and arthritis, and improvement of proteinuria (0.26g/day) after 15 days. The diagnosis of childhood systemic polyarteritis nodosa should be considered for patients with chronic polyarthritis associated to cutaneous vasculitis triggered by streptococcal infection. RESUMO Na poliarterite nodosa sistêmica pediátrica, a artrite caracteriza-se pelo padrão agudo, geralmente evanescente, com oligoartrite, e afeta principalmente joelhos e tornozelos. No entanto, a poliartrite crônica com rigidez matinal e simulando artrite idiopática juvenil ainda não foi relatada. Descrevemos o caso de uma menina de 4 anos que apresentou poliartrite crônica aditiva com edema, dor à palpação e movimento, e

  14. Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis and polyarthritis associated with a novel CARD14 mutation.

    PubMed

    Podlipnik, Sebastian; Castellanos-Moreira, Raul; Florez-Enrich, Helena; Arostegui, Juan Ignacio; Mascaró, José Manuel

    2018-02-01

    Acute generalised exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is a rare toxicoderma characterised by an acute onset rash, with many sterile pustules on the surface, high fever and increased acute phase reactants. We report the case of a patient who presented to the dermatology department with an AGEP and polyarthritis, in which a novel CARD14 mutation was identified. The pathophysiological mechanism of AGEP remains unclear, although mutations in the IL36RN gene have been identified in a small subset of AGEP patients. Similarly, mutations in the CARD14 gene have been linked to pustular types of psoriasis and familiar cases of pityriasis rubra pilaris; however, there are no reports associating mutations in the CARD14 gene with AGEP. © 2017 The Australasian College of Dermatologists.

  15. Remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema (RS3PE): a form of paraneoplastic polyarthritis?

    PubMed

    Sibilia, J; Friess, S; Schaeverbeke, T; Maloisel, F; Bertin, P; Goichot, B; Kuntz, J L

    1999-01-01

    To describe the clinical and laboratory features and outcome of 6 patients presenting with remitting seronegative symmetrical synovitis with pitting edema (RS3PE) revealing a solid tumor. Patients with RS3PE who presented with a solid tumor and who had been seen between January 1, 1994, and December 31, 1996, were included in a retrospective multicenter analysis. These patients fulfilled McCarty's description of RS3PE and the following criteria: (1) bilateral pitting edema of both hands, (2) sudden onset of polyarthritis, (3) age >50 years, and (4) absence of rheumatoid factor (RF). Six male patients with RS3PE are described, of mean age 74 years (range 72-78), presenting prostatic (n = 4), gastric (n = 1), and colic (n = 1) adenocarcinomas. The clini cal picture was characterized by the classical form of RS3PE syndrome and by a deterioration in general condition, sometimes with fever. All patients were negative for RF and antinuclear antibodies. In 2 cases of prostatic adenocarcinoma serum levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6) were high, but decreased with treatment. In these 6 patients, the articular manifestations regressed totally or partially in response to corticosteroids, sometimes at low doses, associated in most cases with specific antitumoral therapy. None displayed erosion or distal bone destruction. The mean survival following discovery of RS3PE was 11 months (range 6-18), 5 patients dying of metastatic dissemination of their cancer and the 6th of myocardial infarction. RS3PE is a heterogeneous syndrome that can reveal a solid tumor, notably an adenocarcinoma. There exist no specific criteria to define its forms, but this syndrome should be kept in mind in the face of a deterioration in general health. Although the pathogenic mechanism is unknown, this could involve a type of paraneoplastic polyarthritis linked to the synthesis of a factor such as IL-6.

  16. Rationale for early versus late intervention with arthroscopy for treatment of inflammatory/degenerative temporomandibular joint disorders.

    PubMed

    Israel, Howard A; Behrman, David A; Friedman, Joel M; Silberstein, Jennifer

    2010-11-01

    The goal of this study was to determine if there were differences in outcomes of arthroscopic surgery in patients with inflammatory/degenerative temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disease who underwent early surgical intervention versus late surgical intervention. The study population included 44 consecutive patients who met the criteria for TMJ operative arthroscopy who were divided into early and late intervention groups. The time between the onset of symptoms and the performance of arthroscopy was used to determine entry into the early versus late intervention group. All groups were evaluated for changes in preoperative versus postoperative pain levels based on visual analog scale (VAS) scores and maximum interincisal opening distance. Statistical analyses included the Student t test to determine if there were significant differences between preoperative and postoperative assessments in the early and late intervention groups. The mean time between onset of symptoms in the early intervention group (21 patients) was 5.4 months compared with 33 months in the late intervention group (23 patients). All patient groups had statistically significant decreases in pain and improvement in maximum interincisal opening distance after arthroscopy. The early intervention group had a mean decrease in VAS pain scores of 5.14 compared with the late intervention group with a mean decrease in VAS pain scores of 2.84, and this difference was significant (P = .012). The early intervention group had a mean increase in maximum interincisal opening of 12.38 mm compared with the late intervention group with a mean increase of 7.70. Although statistical significance was not achieved for increases in maximum interincisal opening between the early and late intervention groups (P = .089), the difference between the 2 groups was suggestive of a trend. There were no surgical complications for either group; however, 2 patients in the late intervention group developed persistent chronic neuropathic

  17. Application of nanophotosensitizers (aluminum phthalocyanine nanoparticles) for early diagnosis and prevention of inflammatory diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsova, J. O.; Makarov, V. I.

    2016-08-01

    This paper deals with a possibility of new types of photosensitizers application - Aluminum Phthalocyanine nanoparticles (nAlPc) in clinical practice for diagnosis, prevention and therapy of inflammatory diseases in dentistry and traumatology. It was detected that the aluminum phthalocyanine (AlPc) fluoresces in the nanoparticle form in the presence of pathologic microflora or inflammation process. It will make possible to detect the local accumulation of pathological microflora on the enamel surface and also for diagnostics and treatment of inflammatory diseases. Experimental studies of interaction of NP-AlPc with tooth enamel and with biological joint tissue at arthrosis are presented.

  18. Relationship between inflammatory biomarkers and depressive symptoms during late pregnancy and the early postpartum period: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Simpson, William; Steiner, Meir; Coote, Marg; Frey, Benicio N

    2016-01-01

    Perinatal depressive symptoms often co-occur with other inflammatory morbidities of pregnancy. The goals of our study were 1) to examine whether changes in inflammatory markers from the third trimester of pregnancy to 12 weeks postpartum were associated with changes in depressive symptoms; 2) to examine whether third trimester inflammatory markers alone were predictive of postpartum depressive symptoms; and 3) to examine the relationship between inflammatory markers and depressive symptoms during the third trimester of pregnancy and at 12 weeks postpartum. Thirty-three healthy pregnant women were recruited from the Women's Health Concerns Clinic at St. Joseph's Healthcare in Hamilton, Canada. The impact of depressive symptoms on the levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP) at the third trimester of pregnancy, at 12 weeks postpartum, and across time was assessed using linear and mixed-model regression. Regression analysis revealed no significant association between depressive symptoms and any of the candidate biomarkers during pregnancy, at 12 weeks postpartum, or over time. Pregnancy depressive symptoms (p > 0.001), IL-6 (p = 0.025), and IL-10 (p = 0.006) were significant predictors of postpartum Edinburgh Perinatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score. Our study supports previous reports from the literature showing no relationship between inflammatory biomarkers and depressive symptoms during late pregnancy, early postpartum, or across time. Our study is the first to observe an association between late pregnancy levels of IL-6 and IL-10 and postpartum depressive symptoms. Further studies with larger samples are required to confirm these findings.

  19. A Pronounced Inflammatory Activity Characterizes the Early Fracture Healing Phase in Immunologically Restricted Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hoff, Paula; Gaber, Timo; Strehl, Cindy; Jakstadt, Manuela; Hoff, Holger; Schmidt-Bleek, Katharina; Lang, Annemarie; Röhner, Eric; Huscher, Dörte; Matziolis, Georg; Burmester, Gerd-Rüdiger; Schmidmaier, Gerhard; Perka, Carsten; Duda, Georg N.; Buttgereit, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Immunologically restricted patients such as those with autoimmune diseases or malignancies often suffer from delayed or insufficient fracture healing. In human fracture hematomas and the surrounding bone marrow obtained from immunologically restricted patients, we analyzed the initial inflammatory phase on cellular and humoral level via flow cytometry and multiplex suspension array. Compared with controls, we demonstrated higher numbers of immune cells like monocytes/macrophages, natural killer T (NKT) cells, and activated T helper cells within the fracture hematomas and/or the surrounding bone marrow. Also, several pro-inflammatory cytokines such as Interleukin (IL)-6 and Tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), chemokines (e.g., Eotaxin and RANTES), pro-angiogenic factors (e.g., IL-8 and Macrophage migration inhibitory factor: MIF), and regulatory cytokines (e.g., IL-10) were found at higher levels within the fracture hematomas and/or the surrounding bone marrow of immunologically restricted patients when compared to controls. We conclude here that the inflammatory activity on cellular and humoral levels at fracture sites of immunologically restricted patients considerably exceeds that of control patients. The initial inflammatory phase profoundly differs between these patient groups and is probably one of the reasons for prolonged or insufficient fracture healing often occurring within immunologically restricted patients. PMID:28282868

  20. Inflammatory Monocytes Mediate Early and Organ-Specific Innate Defense During Systemic Candidiasis

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Lisa Y.; Kasahara, Shinji; Kumasaka, Debra K.; Knoblaugh, Sue E.; Jhingran, Anupam; Hohl, Tobias M.

    2014-01-01

    Candida albicans is a commensal fungus that can cause systemic disease in patients with breaches in mucosal integrity, indwelling catheters, and defects in phagocyte function. Although circulating human and murine monocytes bind C. albicans and promote inflammation, it remains unclear whether C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2)– and Ly6C-expressing inflammatory monocytes exert a protective or a deleterious function during systemic infection. During murine systemic candidiasis, interruption of CCR2-dependent inflammatory monocyte trafficking into infected kidneys impaired fungal clearance and decreased murine survival. Depletion of CCR2-expressing cells led to uncontrolled fungal growth in the kidneys and brain and demonstrated an essential antifungal role for inflammatory monocytes and their tissue-resident derivatives in the first 48 hours postinfection. Adoptive transfer of purified inflammatory monocytes in depleted hosts reversed the defect in fungal clearance to a substantial extent, indicating a compartmentally and temporally restricted protective function that can be transferred to enhance systemic innate antifungal immunity. PMID:23922372

  1. Early Detection of Pressure Ulcer Development Following Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury Using Inflammatory Mediators.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Shilpa; Karg, Patricia E; Boninger, Michael L; Vodovotz, Yoram; Constantine, Greg; Sowa, Gwendolyn A; Brienza, David M

    2016-10-01

    To identify changes in concentrations of inflammatory mediators in plasma and urine after traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) and before the occurrence of a first pressure ulcer. Retrospective; secondary analysis of existing data. Acute hospitalization and inpatient rehabilitation sites at a university medical center. Individuals with a pressure ulcer and plasma samples (n=17) and individuals with a pressure ulcer and urine samples (n=15) were matched by age and plasma/urine sample days to individuals with SCI and no pressure ulcer (N=35). Not applicable. Plasma and urine samples were assayed in patients with SCI, capturing samples within 4 days after the SCI to a week before the formation of the first pressure ulcer. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was performed to identify changes in the inflammatory mediators between the 2 time points. An increase in concentration of the chemokine interferon-γ-induced protein of 10kd/CXCL10 in plasma (P<.01) and a decrease in concentration of the cytokine interferon-α in urine (P=.01) were observed before occurrence of a first pressure ulcer (∼4d) compared with matched controls. Altered levels of inflammatory mediators in plasma and urine may be associated with pressure ulcer development after traumatic SCI. These inflammatory mediators should be explored as possible biomarkers for identifying individuals at risk for pressure ulcer formation. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Determining early referral criteria for patients with suspected inflammatory arthritis presenting to primary care physicians: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Almoallim, Hani; Janoudi, Nahid; Attar, Suzan M; Garout, Mohammed; Algohary, Shereen; Siddiqui, Muhammad Irfanullah; Alosaimi, Hanan; Ibrahim, Ashraf; Badokhon, Amira; Algasemi, Zaki

    2017-01-01

    Early diagnosis and initiation of treatment for inflammatory arthritis can greatly improve patient outcome. We aimed to provide standardized and validated criteria for use by primary care physicians (PCPs) in the identification of individuals requiring referral to a rheumatologist. We analyzed the predictive value of a wide variety of demographic variables, patient-reported complaints, physical examination results, and biomarkers in order to identify the most useful factors for indicating a requirement for referral. Patients for this cross-sectional study were enrolled from various centers of the city of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, if they were ≥18 years of age and presented to a PCP with small joint pain that had been present for more than 6 weeks. A total of 203 patients were enrolled, as indicated by the sample size calculation. Each patient underwent a standardized physical examination, which was subsequently compared to ultrasound findings. Biomarker analysis and a patient interview were also carried out. Results were then correlated with the final diagnosis made by a rheumatologist. A total of 9 variables were identified as having high specificity and good predictive value: loss of appetite, swelling of metacarpophalangeal joint 2 or 5, swelling of proximal inter-phalangeal joint 2 or 3, wrist swelling, wrist tenderness, a positive test for rheumatoid factor, and a positive test for anti-citrullinated protein antibodies. Nine variables should be the basis of early referral criteria. It should aid PCPs in making appropriate early referrals of patients with suspected inflammatory arthritis, accelerating diagnosis and initiation of treatment.

  3. The Effect of PSD-93 Deficiency on the Expression of Early Inflammatory Cytokines Induced by Ischemic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qingxiu; Cheng, Hongyu; Rong, Rong; Yang, Hui; Ji, Qiuhong; Li, Qingjie; Rong, Liangqun; Hu, Gang; Xu, Yun

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the effect of PSD-93 deficiency on the expression of early inflammatory cytokines induced by cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Ten- to twelve-week-old male PSD-93 knockout (PSD-93 KO) mice (C57BL/6 genetic background) and wild-type (WT) littermates were randomly divided into sham and ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) group. The focal cerebral I/R model was established by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) suture method. RT-PCR was used to detect the mRNA expression of IL-6, IL-10, Cox-2, iNOS, and TNF-α4h following reperfusion. Infarct volume at different time points after I/R was analyzed using 2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium staining, and neurological damage score (neurological severity scores, NSS) was used to evaluate the effect of PSD-93 gene knockout on the MCAO-induced neurological injury. In WT mice, early I/R injury led to the increase in the mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6, Cox-2, iNOS, and TNF-α that coincided with the decrease in the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, as compared to the sham group (P < 0.05). This effect was markedly attenuated by depleting PSD-93 levels by gene knockout. As compared to sham group, in PSD-93 KO mice I/R4h led to downregulation of Cox-2 and iNOS expression, and increase in the mRNA levels of IL-10 (P < 0.05). In addition, following MCAO, PSD-93 KO mice exhibited improved NSS and reduced infarct volumes, as compared with WT animals. PSD-93 knockout may play a neuroprotective role by mediating the early release of inflammatory cytokines induced by cerebral ischemia.

  4. Lower Pre-Treatment T Cell Activation in Early- and Late-Onset Tuberculosis-Associated Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Goovaerts, Odin; Jennes, Wim; Massinga-Loembé, Marguerite; Ondoa, Pascale; Ceulemans, Ann; Vereecken, Chris; Worodria, William; Mayanja-Kizza, Harriet; Colebunders, Robert; Kestens, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) is an inflammatory complication in HIV-TB co-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). The role of disturbed T cell reconstitution in TB-IRIS is not well understood. We investigated T cell activation and maturation profiles in patients who developed TB-IRIS at different intervals during ART. Methods Twenty-two HIV-TB patients who developed early-onset TB-IRIS and 10 who developed late-onset TB-IRIS were matched for age, sex and CD4 count to equal numbers of HIV-TB patients who did not develop TB-IRIS. Flow cytometry analysis was performed on fresh blood, drawn before and after ART initiation and during TB-IRIS events. T cell activation and maturation was measured on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells using CD45RO, CD38, HLA-DR, CCR7 and CD27 antibodies. Results CD8+ T cell activation before ART was decreased in both early-onset (77% vs. 82%, p = 0.014) and late-onset (71% vs. 83%, p = 0.012) TB-IRIS patients compared to non-IRIS controls. After ART initiation, the observed differences in T cell activation disappeared. During late-onset, but not early-onset TB-IRIS, we observed a skewing from memory to terminal effector CD4+ and CD8+ T cell populations (p≤0.028). Conclusion Our data provide evidence of reduced CD8+ T cell activation before ART as a common predisposing factor of early- and late-onset TB-IRIS. The occurrence of TB-IRIS itself was not marked by an over-activated CD8+ T cell compartment. Late- but not early-onset TB-IRIS was characterized by a more terminally differentiated T cell phenotype. PMID:26208109

  5. Jumonji domain-containing protein 3 regulates the early inflammatory response epigenetically in human periodontal ligament cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Puyu; Yue, Junli; Xu, Weizhe; Chen, Xi; Yi, Xiaowei; Ye, Ling; Zhang, Lan; Huang, Dingming

    2018-05-30

    To investigate the role of the histone 3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) demethylase Jumonji domain-containing protein 3 (Jmjd3) in the epigenetic regulation of the inflammatory response in human periodontal ligament cells (HPDLs). HPDLs were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide from E. coli. The expression of Jmjd3 in HPDLs was examined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR), Western Blot and immunofluorescent staining. Potential target genes were selected by silencing Jmjd3 and were confirmed by Chromatin Immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Q-PCR, Western Blot and immunofluorescent staining revealed that the expression of Jmjd3 was increased in inflamed HPDLs. Knockdown of Jmjd3 led to the suppression of inflammation-induced up-regulation of interleukin-6 and interleukin-12. Moreover, ChIP assays demonstrated that Jmjd3 was recruited to the promoters of interleukin-6 and interleukin-12b and this recruitment was associated with decreased levels of trimethylated histone 3 lysine 27 (H3K27). It was concluded that Jmjd3 regulated the activation of interleukin-6 and interleukin-12b in the early inflammatory response of HPDLs via demethylation of H3K27me3 at promoters. This molecular event may play an important role in the regulation of the inflammatory response in HPDLs. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Characterization of the early pulmonary inflammatory response associated with PTFE fume exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, C. J.; Finkelstein, J. N.; Gelein, R.; Baggs, R.; Oberdorster, G.; Clarkson, T. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    Heating of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) has been described to release fumes containing ultrafine particles (approximately 18 nm diam). These fumes can be highly toxic in the respiratory tract inducing extensive pulmonary edema with hemorrhagic inflammation. Fischer-344 rats were exposed to PTFE fumes generated by temperatures ranging from 450 to 460 degrees C for 15 min at an exposure concentration of 5 x 10(5) particles/cm3, equivalent to approximately 50 micrograms/m3. Responses were examined 4 hr post-treatment when these rats demonstrated 60-85% neutrophils (PMNs) in their lung lavage. Increases in abundance for messages encoding the antioxidants manganese superoxide dismutase and metallothionein (MT) increased 15- and 40-fold, respectively. For messages encoding the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines: inducible nitric oxide synthase, interleukin 1 alpha, 1 beta, and 6 (IL-1 alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-6), macrophage inflammatory protein-2, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha) increases of 5-, 5-, 10-, 40-, 40-, and 15-fold were present. Vascular endothelial growth factor, which may play a role in the integrity of the endothelial barrier, was decreased to 20% of controls. In situ sections were hybridized with 33P cRNA probes encoding IL-6, MT, surfactant protein C, and TNF alpha. Increased mRNA abundance for MT and IL-6 was expressed around all airways and interstitial regions with MT and IL-6 demonstrating similar spatial distribution. Large numbers of activated PMNs expressed IL-6, MT, and TNF alpha. Additionally, pulmonary macrophages and epithelial cells were actively involved. These observations support the notion that PTFE fumes containing ultrafine particles initiate a severe inflammatory response at low inhaled particle mass concentrations, which is suggestive of an oxidative injury. Furthermore, PMNs may actively regulate the inflammatory process through cytokine and antioxidant expression.

  7. Interleukin-27 inhibits ectopic lymphoid-like structure development in early inflammatory arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Bombardieri, Michele; Greenhill, Claire J.; McLeod, Louise; Nerviani, Alessandra; Rocher-Ros, Vidalba; Cardus, Anna; Williams, Anwen S.; Pitzalis, Costantino; Jenkins, Brendan J.

    2015-01-01

    Ectopic lymphoid-like structures (ELSs) reminiscent of secondary lymphoid organs often develop at sites of chronic inflammation where they contribute to immune-mediated pathology. Through evaluation of synovial tissues from rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients, we now show that low interleukin-27 (IL-27) expression corresponds with an increased incidence of ELS and gene signatures associated with their development and activity. The presence of synovial ELS was also noted in mice deficient in the IL-27 receptor (IL-27R) after the onset of inflammatory arthritis. Here, pathology was associated with increased synovial expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, homeostatic chemokines, and transcriptional regulators linked with lymphoid neogenesis. In both clinical and experimental RA, synovial ELS coincided with the heightened local expression of cytokines and transcription factors of the Th17 and T follicular helper (Tfh) cell lineages, and included podoplanin-expressing T cells within lymphoid aggregates. IL-27 inhibited the differentiation of podoplanin-expressing Th17 cells, and an increased number of these cells were observed in IL-27R–deficient mice with inflammatory arthritis. Thus, IL-27 appears to negatively regulate ELS development in RA through control of effector T cells. These studies open new opportunities for patient stratification and treatment. PMID:26417004

  8. Depletion of Neutrophils Exacerbates the Early Inflammatory Immune Response in Lungs of Mice Infected with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Lopera, Damaris; Urán-Jiménez, Martha Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    Neutrophils predominate during the acute phase of the Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection. Herein, we determined the role of the neutrophil during the early stages of experimental pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis using a monoclonal antibody (mAb) specific for neutrophils. Male BALB/c mice were inoculated intranasally with 1.5 × 106 or 2 × 106 P. brasiliensis yeast cells. The mAb was administered 24 h before infection, followed by doses every 48 h until mice were sacrificed. Survival time was evaluated and mice were sacrificed at 48 h and 96 h after inoculation to assess cellularity, fungal load, cytokine/chemokine levels, and histopathological analysis. Neutrophils from mAb-treated mice were efficiently depleted (99.04%). Eighty percent of the mice treated with the mAb and infected with 1.5 × 106 yeast cells died during the first two weeks after infection. When mice were treated and infected with 2 × 106 yeast cells, 100% of them succumbed by the first week after infection. During the acute inflammatory response significant increases in numbers of eosinophils, fungal load and levels of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines were observed in the mAb-treated mice. We also confirmed that neutrophils are an important source of IFN-γ and IL-17. These results indicate that neutrophils are essential for protection as well as being important for regulating the early inflammatory immune response in experimental pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis. PMID:27642235

  9. [Role of the small intestinal decompression tube and Gastrografin in the treatment of early postoperative inflammatory small bowel obstruction].

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Li, Zhixia; An, Dali; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Xiaohu

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the role of the small intestinal decompression tube (SIDT) and Gastrografin in the treatment of early postoperative inflammatory small bowel obstruction (EPISBO). Twelve patients presented EPISBO after abdominal surgery in our department from April 2011 to July 2012. Initially, nasogastric tube decompression and other conventional conservative treatment were administrated. After 14 days, obstruction symptom improvement was not obvious, then the SIDT was used. At the same time, Gastrografin was injected into the small bowel through the SIDT in order to demonstrate the site of obstruction of small bowel and its efficacy. In 11 patients after this management, obstruction symptoms disappeared, bowel function recovered within 3 weeks, and oral feeding occurred gradually. Another patient did not pass flatus after 4 weeks and was reoperated. After postoperative follow-up of 6 months, no case relapsed with intestinal obstruction. For severe and long course of early postoperative inflammatory intestinal obstruction, intestinal decompression tube plus Gastrografin is safe and effective, and can avoid unnecessary reoperation.

  10. γδ T Cells Regulate the Early Inflammatory Response to Bordetella pertussis Infection in the Murine Respiratory Tract

    PubMed Central

    Zachariadis, O.; Cassidy, J. P.; Brady, J.; Mahon, B. P.

    2006-01-01

    The role of γδ T cells in the regulation of pulmonary inflammation following Bordetella pertussis infection was investigated. Using a well-characterized murine aerosol challenge model, inflammatory events in mice with targeted disruption of the T-cell receptor δ-chain gene (γδ TCR−/− mice) were compared with those in wild-type animals. Early following challenge with B. pertussis, γδ TCR−/− mice exhibited greater pulmonary inflammation, as measured by intra-alveolar albumin leakage and lesion histomorphometry, yet had lower contemporaneous bacterial lung loads. The larger numbers of neutrophils and macrophages and the greater concentration of the neutrophil marker myeloperoxidase in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid from γδ TCR−/− mice at this time suggested that differences in lung injury were mediated through increased leukocyte trafficking into infected alveoli. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis found the pattern of recruitment of natural killer (NK) and NK receptor+ T cells into airspaces differed between the two mouse types over the same time period. Taken together, these findings suggest a regulatory influence for γδ T cells over the early pulmonary inflammatory response to bacterial infection. The absence of γδ T cells also influenced the subsequent adaptive immune response to specific bacterial components, as evidenced by a shift from a Th1 to a Th2 type response against the B. pertussis virulence factor filamentous hemagglutinin in γδ TCR−/− mice. The findings are relevant to the study of conditions such as neonatal B. pertussis infection and acute respiratory distress syndrome where γδ T cell dysfunction has been implicated in the inflammatory process. PMID:16495558

  11. Patient- and clinician-reported outcomes for patients with new presentation of inflammatory arthritis: observations from the National Clinical Audit for Rheumatoid and Early Inflammatory Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Ledingham, Joanna M; Snowden, Neil; Rivett, Ali; Galloway, James; Ide, Zoe; Firth, Jill; MacPhie, Elizabeth; Kandala, Ngianga; Dennison, Elaine M; Rowe, Ian

    2017-02-01

    Our aim was to conduct a national audit assessing the impact and experience of early management of inflammatory arthritis by English and Welsh rheumatology units. The audit enables rheumatology services to measure for the first time their performance, patient outcomes and experience, benchmarked to regional and national comparators. All individuals >16 years of age presenting to English and Welsh rheumatology services with suspected new-onset inflammatory arthritis were included in the audit. Clinician- and patient-derived outcome and patient-reported experience measures were collected. Data are presented for the 6354 patients recruited from 1 February 2014 to 31 January 2015. Ninety-seven per cent of English and Welsh trusts participated. At the first specialist assessment, the 28-joint DAS (DAS28) was calculated for 2659 (91%) RA patients [mean DAS28 was 5.0 and mean Rheumatoid Arthritis Impact of Disease (RAID) score was 5.6]. After 3 months of specialist care, the mean DAS28 was 3.5 and slightly >60% achieved a meaningful DAS28 reduction. The average RAID score and reduction in RAID score were 3.6 and 2.4, respectively. Of the working patients ages 16-65 years providing data, 7, 5, 16 and 37% reported that they were unable to work, needed frequent time off work, occasionally and rarely needed time off work due to their arthritis, respectively; only 42% reported being asked about their work. Seventy-eight per cent of RA patients providing data agreed with the statement 'Overall in the last 3 months I have had a good experience of care for my arthritis'; <2% disagreed. This audit demonstrates that most RA patients have severe disease at the time of presentation to rheumatology services and that a significant number continue to have high disease activity after 3 months of specialist care. There is a clear need for the National Health Service to develop better systems for capturing, coding and integrating information from outpatient clinics, including measures of

  12. Patient and clinician reported outcomes for patients with new presentation of inflammatory arthritis: observations from the National Clinical Audit for Rheumatoid and Early Inflammatory Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Ledingham, JM; Snowden, N; Rivett, A; Galloway, J; Firth, J; Ide, Z; MacPhie, E; Kandala, N; Dennison, EM; Rowe, I

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Our aim was to conduct a national audit assessing the impact and experience of early management of inflammatory arthritis by English and Welsh rheumatology units. The audit enables rheumatology services to measure for the first time their performance, patient outcomes and experience, benchmarked to regional and national comparators. Methods All individuals >16 years of age presenting to English and Welsh rheumatology services with suspected new-onset inflammatory arthritis were included in the audit. Clinician- and patient-derived outcome and patient-reported experience measures were collected. Results Data are presented for the 6354 patients recruited from 1 February 2014 to 31 January 2015. Ninety-seven per cent of English and Welsh trusts participated. At the first specialist assessment, the 28-joint DAS (DAS28) was calculated for 2659 (91%) RA patients [mean DAS28 was 5.0 and mean Rheumatoid Arthritis Impact of Disease (RAID) score was 5.6]. After 3 months of specialist care, the mean DAS28 was 3.5 and slightly >60% achieved a meaningful DAS28 reduction. The average RAID score and reduction in RAID score were 3.6 and 2.4, respectively. Of the working patients ages 16–65 years providing data, 7, 5, 16 and 37% reported that they were unable to work, needed frequent time off work, occasionally and rarely needed time off work due to their arthritis, respectively; only 42% reported being asked about their work. Seventy-eight per cent of RA patients providing data agreed with the statement ‘Overall in the last 3 months I have had a good experience of care for my arthritis’; <2% disagreed. Conclusion This audit demonstrates that most RA patients have severe disease at the time of presentation to rheumatology services and that a significant number continue to have high disease activity after 3 months of specialist care. There is a clear need for the National Health Service to develop better systems for capturing, coding and integrating information from

  13. Contemporary treatment principles for early rheumatoid arthritis: a consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Kiely, Patrick D W; Brown, Andrew K; Edwards, Christopher J; O'Reilly, David T; Ostör, Andrew J K; Quinn, Mark; Taggart, Allister; Taylor, Peter C; Wakefield, Richard J; Conaghan, Philip G

    2009-07-01

    RA has a substantial impact on both patients and healthcare systems. Our objective is to advance the understanding of modern management principles in light of recent evidence concerning the condition's diagnosis and treatment. A group of practicing UK rheumatologists formulated contemporary management principles and clinical practice recommendations concerning both diagnosis and treatment. Areas of clinical uncertainty were documented, leading to research recommendations. A fundamental concept governing treatment of RA is minimization of cumulative inflammation, referred to as the inflammation-time area under the curve (AUC). To achieve this, four core principles of management were identified: (i) detect and refer patients early, even if the diagnosis is uncertain: patients should be referred at the first suspicion of persistent inflammatory polyarthritis and rheumatology departments should provide rapid access to a diagnostic and prognostic service; (ii) treat RA immediately: optimizing outcomes with conventional DMARDs and biologics requires that effective treatment be started early-ideally within 3 months of symptom onset; (iii) tight control of inflammation in RA improves outcome: frequent assessments and an objective protocol should be used to make treatment changes that maintain low-disease activity/remission at an agreed target; (iv) consider the risk-benefit ratio and tailor treatment to each patient: differing patient, disease and drug characteristics require long-term monitoring of risks and benefits with adaptations of treatments to suit individual circumstances. These principles focus on effective control of the inflammatory process in RA, but optimal uptake may require changes in service provision to accommodate appropriate care pathways.

  14. Inflammatory biomarker C-reactive protein and radiotherapy-induced early adverse skin reactions in patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L; Takita, Cristiane; Wright, Jean; Reis, Isildinha M; Zhao, Wei; Lally, Brian E; Hu, Jennifer J

    2014-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of cancer death in American women. Postsurgery adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) significantly reduced the local recurrence rate. However, many patients develop early adverse skin reactions (EASR) that impact quality of life and treatment outcomes. We evaluated an inflammatory biomarker, C-reactive protein (CRP), in predicting RT-induced EASRs in 159 patients with breast cancer undergoing RT. In each patient, we measured pre- and post-RT plasma CRP levels using a highly sensitive ELISA CRP assay. RT-induced EASRs were assessed at weeks 3 and 6 using the National Cancer Institute Common Toxicity Criteria (v3.0). Associations between EASRs and CRP levels were assessed using logistic regression models after adjusting for potential confounders. RT-induced grade 2+ EASRs were observed in 8 (5%) and 80 (50%) patients at weeks 3 and 6 (end of RT), respectively. At the end of RT, a significantly higher proportion of African Americans developed grade 3 EASRs (13.8% vs. 2.3% in others); grade 2+ EASRs were significantly associated with: change of CRP > 1 mg/L [odds ratio (OR), 2.51; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.06-5.95; P = 0.04], obesity (OR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.03-4.21; P = 0.04), or combined both factors (OR, 5.21; 95% CI, 1.77-15.38; P = 0.003). This is the first study to demonstrate that an inflammatory biomarker CRP is associated with RT-induced EASRs, particularly combined with obesity. Future larger studies are warranted to validate our findings and facilitate the discovery and development of anti-inflammatory agents to protect normal tissue from RT-induced adverse effects and improve quality of life in patients with breast cancer undergoing RT. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Profiling inflammatory biomarkers in cervico-vaginal mucus (CVM) postpartum: Potential early indicators of bovine clinical endometritis?

    PubMed

    Adnane, Mounir; Chapwanya, Aspinas; Kaidi, Rachid; Meade, Kieran G; O'Farrelly, Cliona

    2017-11-01

    Endometritis significantly impacts fertility and milk yield, thus reducing profitability of the dairy production. In cows that develop endometritis, normal postpartum endometrial inflammation is dysregulated. Here, we propose that endometrial inflammation is reflected in cervico-vaginal mucus (CVM) which could therefore be used as a prognostic tool. CVM was collected from 20 dairy cows (10 with clinical endometritis and 10 healthy) 7 and 21 days postpartum (DPP). Polymorphonuclear (PMN), mononuclear leukocyte and epithelial cells were counted, total protein levels were estimated and levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, serum amyloid A (SAA), haptoglobin (Hp) and C5b were analyzed by ELISA in CVM. PMN were consistently high in CVM from 7 to 21 DPP, but were higher in CVM from cows with clinical endometritis 21 DPP compared with healthy cows. In contrast, there were more epithelial cells in healthy cows 21 DPP than in clinical endometritis animals. Total protein levels decreased significantly in CVM from healthy cows between days 7 and 21 postpartum. All inflammatory biomarkers except C5b, remained high in cows with clinical endometritis from 7 to 21 DPP, indicating sustained and chronic endometrial inflammation. IL1, IL-6, IL-8 and Hp levels were higher in CVM from cows with clinical endometritis compared to healthy cows 21 DPP. Interestingly IL-1β levels were raised in CVM from clinical endometritis but not in healthy cows 7 DPP suggesting that early measurement of IL-1β levels might provide a useful predictive marker of clinical endometritis. In contrast, SAA and C5b levels were increased in healthy cows 21 DPP, compared to cows with clinical endometritis suggesting that these acute phase proteins might have an anti-inflammatory role. Our results show that CVM is convenient for profiling disease-associated changes in key inflammatory molecules postpartum and reaffirms that sustained inflammation is a key feature of clinical endometritis in the dairy cow. Copyright

  16. Transient early neurotrophin release and delayed inflammatory cytokine release by microglia in response to PAR-2 stimulation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Activated microglia exerts both beneficial and deleterious effects on neurons, but the signaling mechanism controlling these distinct responses remain unclear. We demonstrated that treatment of microglial cultures with the PAR-2 agonist, 2-Furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2, evoked early transient release of BDNF, while sustained PAR-2 stimulation evoked the delayed release of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) and nitric oxide. Culture medium harvested during the early phase (at 1 h) of microglial activation induced by 2-Furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2 (microglial conditioned medium, MCM) had no deleterious effects on cultured neurons, while MCM harvested during the late phase (at 72 h) promoted DNA fragmentation and apoptosis as indicated by TUNEL and annexin/PI staining. Blockade of PAR-1 during the early phase of PAR-2 stimulation enhanced BDNF release (by 11%, small but significant) while a PAR-1 agonist added during the late phase (24 h after 2-Furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2 addition) suppressed the release of cytokines and NO. The neuroprotective and neurotoxic effects of activated microglial exhibit distinct temporal profiles that are regulated by PAR-1 and PAR-2 stimulation. It may be possible to facilitate neuronal recovery and repair by appropriately timed stimulation and inhibition of microglial PAR-1 and PAR-2 receptors. PMID:22731117

  17. Transient early neurotrophin release and delayed inflammatory cytokine release by microglia in response to PAR-2 stimulation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chen-Wen; Chen, Qian-Bo; Ouyang, Qing; Sun, Ji-Hu; Liu, Fang-Ting; Song, Dian-Wen; Yuan, Hong-Bin

    2012-06-25

    Activated microglia exerts both beneficial and deleterious effects on neurons, but the signaling mechanism controlling these distinct responses remain unclear. We demonstrated that treatment of microglial cultures with the PAR-2 agonist, 2-Furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2, evoked early transient release of BDNF, while sustained PAR-2 stimulation evoked the delayed release of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1 β and TNF-α) and nitric oxide. Culture medium harvested during the early phase (at 1 h) of microglial activation induced by 2-Furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2 (microglial conditioned medium, MCM) had no deleterious effects on cultured neurons, while MCM harvested during the late phase (at 72 h) promoted DNA fragmentation and apoptosis as indicated by TUNEL and annexin/PI staining. Blockade of PAR-1 during the early phase of PAR-2 stimulation enhanced BDNF release (by 11%, small but significant) while a PAR-1 agonist added during the late phase (24 h after 2-Furoyl-LIGRLO-NH2 addition) suppressed the release of cytokines and NO. The neuroprotective and neurotoxic effects of activated microglial exhibit distinct temporal profiles that are regulated by PAR-1 and PAR-2 stimulation. It may be possible to facilitate neuronal recovery and repair by appropriately timed stimulation and inhibition of microglial PAR-1 and PAR-2 receptors.

  18. The decidua of preeclamptic-like BPH/5 mice exhibits an exaggerated inflammatory response during early pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Heyward, CY; Sones, JL; Lob, HE; Yuen, LC; Abbott, KE; Huang, W; Begun, ZR; Butler, SD; August, A; Leifer, CA; Davisson, RL

    2017-01-01

    Preeclampsia is a devastating complication of pregnancy characterized by late-gestation hypertension and proteinuria. Because the only definitive treatment is delivery of the fetus and placenta, preeclampsia contributes to increased morbidity and mortality of both mother and fetus. The BPH/5 mouse model, which spontaneously develops a syndrome strikingly similar to preeclampsia, displays excessive inflammation and suppression of inflammation improves pregnancy outcomes. During early pregnancy, decidual macrophages play an important role in promoting maternal tolerance to fetal antigens and regulating tissue remodeling, two functions that are critical for normal placental development. BPH/5 pregnancies are characterized by abnormal placentation; therefore, we hypothesized that macrophage localization and/or function is altered during early pregnancy at the site of placental formation (the decidua) compared to C57BL/6 controls. At early gestation time points, before the onset of maternal hypertension or proteinuria, there was a reduction in the number of macrophages in BPH/5 decidua and a concomitant increase in activated T cells compared to C57BL/6. BPH/5 decidua also exhibited decreased expression of the immunosuppressive cytokine, IL-10, and increased expression of pro-inflammatory, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Together, these data suggest that a reduction in decidual macrophages during pregnancy is associated with immune activation in BPH/5 mice, inadequate placental development and may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes in this model. PMID:28432903

  19. The decidua of preeclamptic-like BPH/5 mice exhibits an exaggerated inflammatory response during early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Heyward, C Y; Sones, J L; Lob, H E; Yuen, L C; Abbott, K E; Huang, W; Begun, Z R; Butler, S D; August, A; Leifer, C A; Davisson, R L

    2017-04-01

    Preeclampsia is a devastating complication of pregnancy characterized by late-gestation hypertension and proteinuria. Because the only definitive treatment is delivery of the fetus and placenta, preeclampsia contributes to increased morbidity and mortality of both mother and fetus. The BPH/5 mouse model, which spontaneously develops a syndrome strikingly similar to preeclampsia, displays excessive inflammation and suppression of inflammation improves pregnancy outcomes. During early pregnancy, decidual macrophages play an important role in promoting maternal tolerance to fetal antigens and regulating tissue remodeling, two functions that are critical for normal placental development. BPH/5 pregnancies are characterized by abnormal placentation; therefore, we hypothesized that macrophage localization and/or function is altered during early pregnancy at the site of placental formation (the decidua) compared to C57BL/6 controls. At early gestation time points, before the onset of maternal hypertension or proteinuria, there was a reduction in the number of macrophages in BPH/5 decidua and a concomitant increase in activated T cells compared with C57BL/6. BPH/5 decidua also exhibited decreased expression of the immunosuppressive cytokine, IL-10, and increased expression of pro-inflammatory, inducible nitric oxide synthase. Together, these data suggest that a reduction in decidual macrophages during pregnancy is associated with immune activation in BPH/5 mice, inadequate placental development and may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes in this model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced inflammatory response on early embryo survival in ewes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Early pregnant ewes were used to determine the effects of endogenous (through LPS activation) and exogenous TNF-alpha tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) on embryonic loss. Thirty-eight Dorset x Texel ewes were synchronized for estrus and bred to fertile rams (d0). On d5/6, ewes were assigned t...

  1. Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome After Major Abdominal Surgery Predicted by Early Upregulation of TLR4 and TLR5.

    PubMed

    Lahiri, Rajiv; Derwa, Yannick; Bashir, Zora; Giles, Edward; Torrance, Hew D T; Owen, Helen C; O'Dwyer, Michael J; O'Brien, Alastair; Stagg, Andrew J; Bhattacharya, Satyajit; Foster, Graham R; Alazawi, William

    2016-05-01

    To study innate immune pathways in patients undergoing hepatopancreaticobiliary surgery to understand mechanisms leading to enhanced inflammatory responses and identifying biomarkers of adverse clinical consequences. Patients undergoing major abdominal surgery are at risk of life-threatening systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis. Early identification of at-risk patients would allow tailored postoperative care and improve survival. Two separate cohorts of patients undergoing major hepatopancreaticobiliary surgery were studied (combined n = 69). Bloods were taken preoperatively, on day 1 and day 2 postoperatively. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells and serum were separated and immune phenotype and function assessed ex vivo. Early innate immune dysfunction was evident in 12 patients who subsequently developed SIRS (postoperative day 6) compared with 27 who did not, when no clinical evidence of SIRS was apparent (preoperatively or days 1 and 2). Serum interleukin (IL)-6 concentration and monocyte Toll-like receptor (TLR)/NF-κB/IL-6 functional pathways were significantly upregulated and overactive in patients who developed SIRS (P < 0.0001). Interferon α-mediated STAT1 phosphorylation was higher preoperatively in patients who developed SIRS. Increased TLR4 and TLR5 gene expression in whole blood was demonstrated in a separate validation cohort of 30 patients undergoing similar surgery. Expression of TLR4/5 on monocytes, particularly intermediate CD14CD16 monocytes, on day 1 or 2 predicted SIRS with accuracy 0.89 to 1.0 (areas under receiver operator curves). These data demonstrate the mechanism for IL-6 overproduction in patients who develop postoperative SIRS and identify markers that predict patients at risk of SIRS 5 days before the onset of clinical signs.

  2. Antileukotriene Reverts the Early Effects of Inflammatory Response of Distal Parenchyma in Experimental Chronic Allergic Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Gobbato, Nathália Brandão; de Souza, Flávia Castro Ribas; Fumagalli, Stella Bruna Napolitano; Lopes, Fernanda Degobbi Tenório Quirino dos Santos; Prado, Carla Máximo; Martins, Milton Arruda; Tibério, Iolanda de Fátima Lopes Calvo; Leick, Edna Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    Aims. Compare the effects of montelukast or dexamethasone in distal lung parenchyma and airway walls of guinea pigs (GP) with chronic allergic inflammation. Methods. GP have inhaled ovalbumin (OVA group-2x/week/4weeks). After the 4th inhalation, GP were treated with montelukast or dexamethasone. After 72 hours of the 7th inhalation, GP were anesthetised, and lungs were removed and submitted to histopathological evaluation. Results. Montelukast and dexamethasone treatments reduced the number of eosinophils in airway wall and distal lung parenchyma compared to OVA group (P < 0.05). On distal parenchyma, both treatments were effective in reducing RANTES, NF-κB, and fibronectin positive cells compared to OVA group (P < 0.001). Montelukast was more effective in reducing eotaxin positive cells on distal parenchyma compared to dexamethasone treatment (P < 0.001), while there was a more expressive reduction of IGF-I positive cells in OVA-D group (P < 0.001). On airway walls, montelukast and dexamethasone were effective in reducing IGF-I, RANTES, and fibronectin positive cells compared to OVA group (P < 0.05). Dexamethasone was more effective in reducing the number of eotaxin and NF-κB positive cells than Montelukast (P < 0.05). Conclusions. In this animal model, both treatments were effective in modulating allergic inflammation and remodeling distal lung parenchyma and airway wall, contributing to a better control of the inflammatory response. PMID:24151607

  3. Adiponectin modulates inflammatory reactions via calreticulin receptor–dependent clearance of early apoptotic bodies

    PubMed Central

    Takemura, Yukihiro; Ouchi, Noriyuki; Shibata, Rei; Aprahamian, Tamar; Kirber, Michael T.; Summer, Ross S.; Kihara, Shinji; Walsh, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with chronic inflammation. Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived hormone with antidiabetic and antiinflammatory actions. Here, we demonstrate what we believe to be a previously undocumented activity of adiponectin, facilitating the uptake of early apoptotic cells by macrophages, an essential feature of immune system function. Adiponectin-deficient (APN-KO) mice were impaired in their ability to clear apoptotic thymocytes in response to dexamethasone treatment, and these animals displayed a reduced ability to clear early apoptotic cells that were injected into their intraperitoneal cavities. Conversely, adiponectin administration promoted the clearance of apoptotic cells by macrophages in both APN-KO and wild-type mice. Adiponectin overexpression also promoted apoptotic cell clearance and reduced features of autoimmunity in lpr mice whereas adiponectin deficiency in lpr mice led to a further reduction in apoptotic cell clearance, which was accompanied by exacerbated systemic inflammation. Adiponectin was capable of opsonizing apoptotic cells, and phagocytosis of cell corpses was mediated by the binding of adiponectin to calreticulin on the macrophage cell surface. We propose that adiponectin protects the organism from systemic inflammation by promoting the clearance of early apoptotic cells by macrophages through a receptor-dependent pathway involving calreticulin. PMID:17256056

  4. TNFα depleting therapy improves fertility and animal welfare in TNFα-driven transgenic models of polyarthritis when administered in their routine breeding

    PubMed Central

    Naylor, Amy J.; Desanti, Guillaume; Saghir, Atif N.

    2017-01-01

    Transgenic tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)-driven models of polyarthritis such as the TNFΔARE mouse have proven to be invaluable in delineating aspects of inflammatory disease pathophysiology in humans. Unfortunately, the onset of joint destruction and inflammation in these models represents a significant detriment to breeding management. We examined whether TNFα depleting therapy ‘infliximab’ might represent a significant refinement in routine breeding. Clinical scores of joint inflammation were assessed in TNFΔARE males receiving either infliximab (10 mg/kg) or saline by twice-weekly intraperitoneal injection. Joint histology and bone morphology were assessed by histological analysis and micro-computed tomography (CT), respectively. Analysis of breeding was examined retrospectively in TNFΔARE males prior to, and following, regular introduction of infliximab. Clinical scores of inflammation were significantly reduced in TNFΔARE males receiving infliximab (control 6.6 arbitrary units [AU] ± 0.88 versus infliximab 4.4 AU ± 1.4; P < 0.05), while measures of pannus invasion and bone erosion by histology and micro-CT were markedly reduced. In the breeding groups, TNFΔARE males receiving infliximab injections sired more litters over their breeding lifespan (control 1.69 ± 0.22 versus infliximab 3.00 ± 0.19; P < 0.005). Furthermore, prior to infliximab, TNFΔARE males had a 26% risk of failing to sire any litters. This was reduced to 7% after the introduction of infliximab. This study is the first to report that regular administration of infliximab is effective at suppressing disease activity and improving animal welfare in TNFΔARE animals. In addition, we have shown that infliximab is highly efficacious in improving breeding behaviour and increasing the number of litters sired by TNFΔARE males. PMID:28480797

  5. TNFα depleting therapy improves fertility and animal welfare in TNFα-driven transgenic models of polyarthritis when administered in their routine breeding.

    PubMed

    Naylor, Amy J; Desanti, Guillaume; Saghir, Atif N; Hardy, Rowan S

    2018-02-01

    Transgenic tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNFα)-driven models of polyarthritis such as the TNF ΔARE mouse have proven to be invaluable in delineating aspects of inflammatory disease pathophysiology in humans. Unfortunately, the onset of joint destruction and inflammation in these models represents a significant detriment to breeding management. We examined whether TNFα depleting therapy 'infliximab' might represent a significant refinement in routine breeding. Clinical scores of joint inflammation were assessed in TNF ΔARE males receiving either infliximab (10 mg/kg) or saline by twice-weekly intraperitoneal injection. Joint histology and bone morphology were assessed by histological analysis and micro-computed tomography (CT), respectively. Analysis of breeding was examined retrospectively in TNF ΔARE males prior to, and following, regular introduction of infliximab. Clinical scores of inflammation were significantly reduced in TNF ΔARE males receiving infliximab (control 6.6 arbitrary units [AU] ± 0.88 versus infliximab 4.4 AU ± 1.4; P < 0.05), while measures of pannus invasion and bone erosion by histology and micro-CT were markedly reduced. In the breeding groups, TNF ΔARE males receiving infliximab injections sired more litters over their breeding lifespan (control 1.69 ± 0.22 versus infliximab 3.00 ± 0.19; P < 0.005). Furthermore, prior to infliximab, TNF ΔARE males had a 26% risk of failing to sire any litters. This was reduced to 7% after the introduction of infliximab. This study is the first to report that regular administration of infliximab is effective at suppressing disease activity and improving animal welfare in TNF ΔARE animals. In addition, we have shown that infliximab is highly efficacious in improving breeding behaviour and increasing the number of litters sired by TNF ΔARE males.

  6. Role of Oxytocin in deceleration of early atherosclerotic inflammatory processes in adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Marwa A; ELosaily, Gehan M

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The study aimed to examine the effect of exogenous OT administration on the inflammation and atherosclerosis in adult male rats and its possible mechanisms. Thirty adult male rats equally divided into three groups. Control group fed regular diet; group II fed control diet supplemented with L-methionine for 10 weeks. Group III received L-methionine and oxytocin treatment for 10 weeks. RT-PCR analysis showed that OT administration increased oxytocin receptor mRNA (2 fold, P, 0.05). Blood samples were evaluated for total homocysteine, interlukin-6 (IL-6), monocyte chemoatrratant protein-1 (MCP-1) and C-reactive protein (CRP) by ELIZA, lipid profile, nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were determined. Specimens from aorta were processed for immunohistochemical staining for Aorta nuclear factor _B (NF-κB) p65 protein. Result showed that OT administration to group III decreased the plasma levels IL-6, MCP-1 and CRP levels which were elevated in group II. Moreover, there was decrease of the oxidative stress of group III in terms of increased plasma levels of NO and GSH and decreased plasma levels of MDA in blood. In addition, rats of group II showed histological abnormalities manifested by thickening and ulceration of the aortic wall. Marked increased expression of NF-κB in aorta of in group II was detected. However, OT administration restores the histological structure of the aorta and decreased the expression of NF-κB in aorta of group III similar to the control group. Conclusion: OT has anti inflammatory pathway in atherosclerosis as it decelerates atherosclerosis by decreasing the proinflammatory responses through many mechanisms, mainly the up regulation of its receptors. PMID:21977229

  7. Targeted gene panel sequencing in children with very early onset inflammatory bowel disease--evaluation and prospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Kammermeier, Jochen; Drury, Suzanne; James, Chela T; Dziubak, Robert; Ocaka, Louise; Elawad, Mamoun; Beales, Philip; Lench, Nicholas; Uhlig, Holm H; Bacchelli, Chiara; Shah, Neil

    2014-11-01

    Multiple monogenetic conditions with partially overlapping phenotypes can present with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-like intestinal inflammation. With novel genotype-specific therapies emerging, establishing a molecular diagnosis is becoming increasingly important. We have introduced targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) technology as a prospective screening tool in children with very early onset IBD (VEOIBD). We evaluated the coverage of 40 VEOIBD genes in two separate cohorts undergoing targeted gene panel sequencing (TGPS) (n=25) and whole exome sequencing (WES) (n=20). TGPS revealed causative mutations in four genes (IL10RA, EPCAM, TTC37 and SKIV2L) discovered unexpected phenotypes and directly influenced clinical decision making by supporting as well as avoiding haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. TGPS resulted in significantly higher median coverage when compared with WES, fewer coverage deficiencies and improved variant detection across established VEOIBD genes. Excluding or confirming known VEOIBD genotypes should be considered early in the disease course in all cases of therapy-refractory VEOIBD, as it can have a direct impact on patient management. To combine both described NGS technologies would compensate for the limitations of WES for disease-specific application while offering the opportunity for novel gene discovery in the research setting. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. [Successful treatment of HIV-associated chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy by early initiation of highly active anti-retroviral therapy].

    PubMed

    Kume, Kodai; Ikeda, Kazuyo; Kamada, Masaki; Touge, Tetsuo; Deguchi, Kazushi; Masaki, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    A 47-year-old man with HIV infection presented with lower leg dominant dysesthesia, muscle weakness and sensory ataxia of 3 month's duration. Nerve conduction studies (NCS) showed demyelination change in the median and tibial nerves and sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) in the sural nerve was not evoked. Somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) showed the delayed N9 latency. Diagnose of HIV-associated chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) was made. Although the CD4 lymphocyte counts were relatively preserved (466/μl), highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) was started according to a new guideline for the use of antiretroviral agents in HIV-1-infected adults and adolescents recommending early initiation of treatment. After six months, HIV1-RNA was not detected and the CD4 lymphocyte counts showed a recovering trend (585/μl). His symptoms had disappeared, except for dysesthesia in the tip of a toe. Repeated NCS demonstrated full recovery from the demyelination and appearance of SNAP in the sural nerve. The improvement of his symptoms and NCS findings has been maintained for two years. Although effectiveness of immunotherapies such as oral prednisone, high-dose immunoglobulins and plasmapheresis have been reported in HIV-associated CIDP, early initiation of HAART may be also important for favorable prognosis in HIV-associated CIDP.

  9. An Overview of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: General Consideration and Genetic Screening Approach in Diagnosis of Early Onset Subsets

    PubMed Central

    Nemati, Shahram; Teimourian, Shahram

    2017-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is the consequence of an aberrant hemostasis of the immune cells at the gut mucosal border. Based on clinical manifestation, laboratory tests, radiological studies, endoscopic and histological features, this disease is divided into three main types including Crohn’s disease (CD), Ulcerative colitis (UC), and IBDunclassified (IBD-U). IBD is frequently presented in adults, but about 20% of IBD cases are diagnosed during childhood called pediatric IBD (PIBD). Some patients in the latter group emerge the first symptoms during infancy or under 5 years of age named infantile and very early onset IBD (VEO-IBD), respectively. These subtypes make a small fraction of PIBD, but they have exclusive phenotypic and genetic characteristics such that they are accompanied by severe disease course and resistance to conventional therapy. In this context, understanding the underlying molecular pathology opens a promising field for individualized and effective treatment. Here, we describe current hypotheses on IBD pathophysiology then explain the new idea about genetic screening technology as a good potential approach to identify the causal variants early in the disease manifestation, which is especially important for the fast and accurate treatment of VEO-IBD. PMID:28638582

  10. [Early inflammatory response following elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repair: a comparison between endovascular procedure and conventional, open surgery].

    PubMed

    Marjanović, Ivan; Jevtić, Miodrag; Misović, Sidor; Vojvodić, Danilo; Zoranović, Uros; Rusović, Sinisa; Sarac, Momir; Stanojević, Ivan

    2011-11-01

    Abdominal aorta aneurysm (AAA) represents a pathological enlargment of infrarenal portion of aorta for over 50% of its lumen. The only treatment of AAA is a surgical reconstruction of the affected segment. Until the late XX century, surgical reconstruction implied explicit, open repair (OR) of AAA, which was accompanied by a significant morbidity and mortality of the treated patients. Development of endovascular repair of (EVAR) AAA, especially in the last decade, offered another possibility of surgical reconstruction of AAA. The preliminary results of world studies show that complications of such a procedure, as well as morbidity and mortality of patients, are significantly lower than with OR of AAA. The aim of this paper was to present results of comparative clinical prospective study of early inflammatory response after reconstruction of AAA be tween endovascular and open, conventional surgical technique. A comparative clinical prospective study included 39 patients, electively operated on for AAA within the period of December 2008 - February 2010, divided into two groups. The group I counted 21 (54%) of the patients, 58-87 years old (mean 74.3 years), who had been submited to EVAR by the use of excluder stent graft. The group II consisted of 18 (46%) of the patients, 49-82 (mean 66.8) years, operated on using OR technique. All of the treated patients in both groups had AAA larger than 50 mm. The study did not include patients who have been treated as urgent cases, due to the rupture or with simptomatic AAA. Clinical, biochemical and inflamatory parameters in early postoperative period were analyzed, in direct postoperative course (number of leucocytes, thrombocytes, serum circulating levels of cytokine--interleukine (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6 and IL-10). Parameters were monitored on the zero, first, second, third and seventh postoperative days. The study was approved by the Ethics Commitee of the Military Medical Academy. The study showed a statistically significantly

  11. Transcriptome analysis of a tau overexpression model in rats implicates an early pro-inflammatory response

    PubMed Central

    Wang, David B.; Dayton, Robert D.; Zweig, Richard M.; Klein, Ronald L.

    2010-01-01

    Neurofibrillary tangles comprised of the microtubule-associated protein tau are pathological features of Alzheimer's disease and several other neurodegenerative diseases, such as progressive supranuclear palsy. We previously overexpressed tau in the substantia nigra of rats and mimicked some of the neurodegenerative sequelae that occur in humans such as tangle formation, loss of dopamine neurons, and microgliosis. To study molecular changes involved in the tau-induced disease state, we used DNA microarrays at an early stage of the disease process. A range of adeno-associated virus (AAV9) vector doses for tau were injected in groups of rats with a survival interval of two weeks. Specific decreases in messages for dopamine related genes validated the technique with respect to the dopaminergic cell loss observed. Of the mRNAs upregulated, there was a dose-dependent effect on multiple genes involved in immune response such as chemokines, interferon-inducible genes and leukocyte markers, only in the tau vector groups and not in dose-matched controls of either transgene-less empty vector or control green fluorescent protein vector. Histological staining for dopamine neurons and microglia matched the loss of dopaminergic markers and upregulation of immune response mRNAs in the microarray data, respectively. RT-PCR for selected markers confirmed the microarray results, with similar changes found by either technique. The mRNA data correlate well with previous findings, and underscore microgliosis and immune response in the degenerative process following tau overexpression. PMID:20346943

  12. Early prediction of thiopurine-induced hepatotoxicity in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Wong, D R; Coenen, M J H; Derijks, L J J; Vermeulen, S H; van Marrewijk, C J; Klungel, O H; Scheffer, H; Franke, B; Guchelaar, H-J; de Jong, D J; Engels, L G J B; Verbeek, A L M; Hooymans, P M

    2017-02-01

    Hepatotoxicity, gastrointestinal complaints and general malaise are common limiting adverse reactions of azathioprine and mercaptopurine in IBD patients, often related to high steady-state 6-methylmercaptopurine ribonucleotide (6-MMPR) metabolite concentrations. To determine the predictive value of 6-MMPR concentrations 1 week after treatment initiation (T1) for the development of these adverse reactions, especially hepatotoxicity, during the first 20 weeks of treatment. The cohort study consisted of the first 270 IBD patients starting thiopurine treatment as part of the Dutch randomised-controlled trial evaluating pre-treatment thiopurine S-methyltransferase genotype testing (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00521950). Blood samples for metabolite assessment were collected at T1. Hepatotoxicity was defined by alanine aminotransaminase elevations >2 times the upper normal limit or a ratio of alanine aminotransaminase/alkaline phosphatase ≥5. Forty-seven patients (17%) presented hepatotoxicity during the first 20 weeks of thiopurine treatment. A T1 6-MMPR threshold of 3615 pmol/8 × 10 8 erythrocytes was defined. Analysis of patients on stable thiopurine dose (n = 174) showed that those exceeding the 6-MMPR threshold were at increased risk of hepatotoxicity: OR = 3.8 (95% CI: 1.8-8.0). Age, male gender and BMI were significant determinants. A predictive algorithm was developed based on these determinants and the 6-MMPR threshold to assess hepatotoxicity risk [AUC = 0.83 (95% CI: 0.75-0.91)]. 6-MMPR concentrations above the threshold also correlated with gastrointestinal complaints: OR = 2.4 (95% CI: 1.4-4.3), and general malaise: OR = 2.0 (95% CI: 1.1-3.7). In more than 80% of patients, thiopurine-induced hepatotoxicity could be explained by elevated T1 6-MMPR concentrations and the independent risk factors age, gender and BMI, allowing personalised thiopurine treatment in IBD to prevent early failure. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Diagnostic Yield of Next-Generation Sequencing in Very Early-Onset Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: A Multicenter Study.

    PubMed

    Charbit-Henrion, Fabienne; Parlato, Marianna; Hanein, Sylvain; Duclaux-Loras, Rémi; Nowak, Jan; Begue, Bernadette; Rakotobe, Sabine; Bruneau, Julie; Fourrage, Cécile; Alibeu, Olivier; Rieux-Laucat, Frédéric; Lévy, Eva; Stolzenberg, Marie-Claude; Mazerolles, Fabienne; Latour, Sylvain; Lenoir, Christelle; Fischer, Alain; Picard, Capucine; Aloi, Marina; Amil Dias, Jorge; Ben Hariz, Mongi; Bourrier, Anne; Breuer, Christian; Breton, Anne; Bronski, Jiri; Buderus, Stephan; Cananzi, Mara; Coopman, Stéphanie; Crémilleux, Clara; Dabadie, Alain; Dumant-Forest, Clémentine; Egritas Gurkan, Odul; Fabre, Alexandre; Fischer, Aude; German Diaz, Marta; Gonzalez-Lama, Yago; Goulet, Olivier; Guariso, Graziella; Gurcan, Neslihan; Homan, Matjaz; Hugot, Jean-Pierre; Jeziorski, Eric; Karanika, Evi; Lachaux, Alain; Lewindon, Peter; Lima, Rosa; Magro, Fernando; Major, Janos; Malamut, Georgia; Mas, Emmanuel; Mattyus, Istvan; Mearin, Luisa M; Melek, Jan; Navas-Lopez, Victor Manuel; Paerregaard, Anders; Pelatan, Cecile; Pigneur, Bénédicte; Pinto Pais, Isabel; Rebeuh, Julie; Romano, Claudio; Siala, Nadia; Strisciuglio, Caterina; Tempia-Caliera, Michela; Tounian, Patrick; Turner, Dan; Urbonas, Vaidotas; Willot, Stéphanie; Ruemmele, Frank M; Cerf-Bensussan, Nadine

    2018-05-18

    An expanding number of monogenic defects have been identified as causative of severe forms of very early-onset inflammatory bowel diseases (VEO-IBD). The present study aimed at defining how next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods can be used to improve identification of known molecular diagnosis and adapt treatment. 207 children were recruited in 45 Paediatric centres through an international collaborative network (ESPGHAN GENIUS working group) with a clinical presentation of severe VEO-IBD (n=185) or an anamnesis suggestive of a monogenic disorder (n=22). Patients were divided at inclusion into three phenotypic subsets: predominantly small bowel inflammation, colitis with perianal lesions, and colitis only. Methods to obtain molecular diagnosis included functional tests followed by specific Sanger sequencing, custom-made targeted NGS, and in selected cases whole exome sequencing (WES) of parents-child trios. Genetic findings were validated clinically and/or functionally. Molecular diagnosis was achieved in 66/207 children (32%): 61% with small bowel inflammation, 39% with colitis and perianal lesions and 18% with colitis only. Targeted NGS pinpointed gene mutations causative of atypical presentations and identified large exonic copy number variations previously missed by WES. Our results lead us to propose an optimised diagnostic strategy to identify known monogenic causes of severe IBD.

  14. Low prevalence of work disability in early inflammatory arthritis (EIA) and early rheumatoid arthritis at enrollment into a multi-site registry: results from the catch cohort.

    PubMed

    Mussen, Lauren; Boyd, Tristan; Bykerk, Vivian; de Leon, Faye; Li, Lihua; Boire, Gilles; Hitchon, Carol; Haraoui, Boulos; Thorne, J Carter; Pope, Janet

    2013-02-01

    We determined the prevalence of work disability in early rheumatoid arthritis (ERA) and undifferentiated early inflammatory arthritis (EIA) patients at first enrollment into the Canadian Early Arthritis Cohort (CATCH) who met the 2010 ACR criteria versus those not meeting criteria, to determine the impact of meeting new criteria on work disability status. Data at first visit into the cohort were analyzed. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were performed to investigate the association of other variables in our database with work disability. 1,487 patients were enrolled in the CATCH study, a multi-site observational, prospective cohort of patients with EIA. 934 patients were excluded (505 based on missing criteria for ACR 2010 classification, as anti-CCP was absent, and 429 were not working for other reasons). Of the 553 patients included, 71 % were female with mean disease duration of 6.4 months. 524 (94.8 %) were employed while 29 (5.2 %) reported work disability at first visit. There were no differences between those meeting 2010 ACR criteria versus those who did not. Baseline characteristics associated with work disability were male gender, age, education, income, HAQ, and positive RF status. The mean HAQ score in work disabled patients was 1.4 versus 0.9 in those who were working (p < 0.001). Disease activity score (DAS28) was not associated with work disability (p = 0.069), nor was tender joint count, swollen joint count, anti-CCP, patient global assessment, or SF-12v2. In the regression model, work disability was associated with lower income levels (p = 0.01) and worse HAQ scores (OR 2.33; p = 0.001), but not significantly associated with male gender (p = 0.08), older age (>50 years; p = 0.3), lower education (p = 0.3) or RF positivity (p = 0.6). We found rates of work disability to be low at entry into this EIA cohort compared to previous studies. There may be potential for intervention in ERA to prevent the development of work

  15. Inflammatory and vascular placental lesions are associated with neonatal amplitude integrated EEG recording in early premature neonates

    PubMed Central

    Goshen, Sharon; Richardson, Justin; Drunov, VIadimir; Staretz Chacham, Orna; Shany, Eilon

    2017-01-01

    the first 3 days of life (P = 0.007). Conclusions Depressed neonatal aEEG patterns are associated with placental lesions consistent with maternal under perfusion, and amniotic fluid infection of fetal type, but not with fetal thrombo-oclusive vascular disease of inflammatory type. Our findings highlight the association between the intrauterine mechanisms leading to preterm parturition and subsequent depressed neonatal cerebral function early after birth, which eventually may put premature infants at risk for abnormal neurodevelopmental outcome. PMID:28644831

  16. Novel ZBTB24 Mutation Associated with Immunodeficiency, Centromere Instability, and Facial Anomalies Type-2 Syndrome Identified in a Patient with Very Early Onset Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Máire A; Dawany, Noor; Sullivan, Kathleen E; Devoto, Marcella; Kelsen, Judith R

    2017-12-01

    Very early onset inflammatory bowel disease, diagnosed in children ≤5 years old, can be the initial presentation of some primary immunodeficiencies. In this study, we describe a 17-month-old boy with recurrent infections, growth failure, facial anomalies, and inflammatory bowel disease. Immune evaluation, whole-exome sequencing, karyotyping, and methylation array were performed to evaluate the child's constellation of symptoms and examination findings. Whole-exome sequencing revealed that the child was homozygous for a novel variant in ZBTB24, the gene associated with immunodeficiency, centromere instability, and facial anomalies type-2 syndrome. This describes the first case of inflammatory bowel disease associated with immunodeficiency, centromere instability, and facial anomalies type-2 syndrome in a child with a novel disease-causing mutation in ZBTB24 found on whole-exome sequencing.

  17. Pro-inflammatory NF-κB and early growth response gene 1 regulate epithelial barrier disruption by food additive carrageenan in human intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hye Jin; Kim, Juil; Park, Seong-Hwan; Do, Kee Hun; Yang, Hyun; Moon, Yuseok

    2012-06-20

    The widely used food additive carrageenan (CGN) has been shown to induce intestinal inflammation, ulcerative colitis-like symptoms, or neoplasm in the gut epithelia in animal models, which are also clinical features of human inflammatory bowel disease. In this study, the effects of CGN on pro-inflammatory transcription factors NF-κB and early growth response gene 1 product (EGR-1) were evaluated in terms of human intestinal epithelial barrier integrity. Both pro-inflammatory transcription factors were elevated by CGN and only NF-κB activation was shown to be involved in the induction of pro-inflammatory cytokine interleukin-8. Moreover, the integrity of the in vitro epithelial monolayer under the CGN insult was maintained by both activated pro-inflammatory transcription factors NF-κB and EGR-1. Suppression of NF-κB or EGR-1 aggravated barrier disruption by CGN, which was associated with the reduced gene expression of tight junction component zonula occludens 1 and its irregular localization in the epithelial monolayer. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Incidence, disease phenotype at diagnosis, and early disease course in inflammatory bowel diseases in Western Hungary, 2002-2006.

    PubMed

    Lakatos, Laszlo; Kiss, Lajos S; David, Gyula; Pandur, Tunde; Erdelyi, Zsuzsanna; Mester, Gabor; Balogh, Mihaly; Szipocs, Istvan; Molnar, Csaba; Komaromi, Erzsebet; Lakatos, Peter Laszlo

    2011-12-01

    Recent trends indicate a change in the epidemiology of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), with previously low incidence areas now reporting a progressive rise in the incidence. Our aim was to analyze the incidence and disease phenotype at diagnosis in IBD in the population-based Veszprem Province database, which included incident patients diagnosed between January 1, 2002 and December 31, 2006. Data of 393 incident patients were analyzed (ulcerative colitis [UC]: 220, age-at-diagnosis: 40.5 years; Crohn's disease [CD]: 163, age-at-diagnosis: 32.5 years; and indeterminate colitis [IC]: 10). Both hospital and outpatient records were collected and comprehensively reviewed. Adjusted mean incidence rates were 8.9/10(5) person-years for CD and 11.9/10(5) person-years in UC. Peak onset age in both CD and UC patients was 21-30 years old. Location at diagnosis in UC was proctitis in 26.8%, left-sided colitis in 50.9%, and pancolitis in 22.3%. The probability of proximal extension and colectomy after 5 years was 12.7% and 2.8%. The disease location in CD was ileal in 20.2%, colonic in 35.6%, ileocolonic in 44.2%, and upper gastrointestinal in four patients. Behavior at diagnosis was stenosing/penetrating in 35.6% and perianal in 11.1%. Patients with colonic disease were older at diagnosis compared to patients with ileal or ileocolonic disease. In a Kaplan-Meier analysis, probability of surgical resection was 9.8%, 18.5%, and 21.3% after 1, 3, and 5 years of disease duration, respectively. The incidence of IBD in Veszprem Province in the last decade was high, equal to that in high-incidence areas in Western European countries. Early disease course is milder compared to data reported in the literature. Copyright © 2011 Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America, Inc.

  19. Effectiveness of physical exam signs for early detection of critical illness in pediatric systemic inflammatory response syndrome.

    PubMed

    Scott, Halden F; Donoghue, Aaron J; Gaieski, David F; Marchese, Ronald F; Mistry, Rakesh D

    2014-11-19

    Early detection of compensated pediatric septic shock requires diagnostic tests that are sensitive and specific. Four physical exam signs are recommended for detecting pediatric septic shock prior to hypotension (cold extremities, mental status, capillary refill, peripheral pulse quality); this study tested their ability to detect patients who develop organ dysfunction among a cohort of undifferentiated pediatric systemic inflammatory response syndrome patients. A prospective cohort of 239 pediatric emergency department patients <19 years with fever and tachycardia and undergoing phlebotomy were enrolled. Physicians recorded initial physical exams on a standardized form. Abstraction of the medical record determined outcomes including organ dysfunction, intensive care unit stay, serious bacterial infection, and therapies. Organ dysfunction occurred in 13/239 (5.4%) patients. Presence of at least one sign was significantly associated with organ dysfunction (Relative Risk: 2.71, 95% CI: 1.05-6.99), and presence of at least two signs had a Relative Risk = 4.98 (95% CI: 1.82-13.58). The sensitivity of exam findings ranged from 8-54%, specificity from 84-98%. Signs were associated with increased risk of intensive care and fluid bolus, but not with serious bacterial infection, intravenous antibiotics or admission. Altered mental status and peripheral pulse quality were significantly associated with organ dysfunction, while abnormal capillary refill time and presence of cold, mottled extremities were not. Certain recommended physical exam signs were associated with increased risk of organ dysfunction, a rare outcome in this undifferentiated pediatric population with fever and tachycardia. Sensitivity was low, while specificity was high. Additional research into optimally sensitive and specific diagnostic strategies is needed.

  20. Early Tuberculin Skin Test for the Diagnosis of Latent Tuberculosis Infection in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Taxonera, Carlos; Ponferrada, Ángel; Bermejo, Fernando; Riestra, Sabino; Saro, Cristina; Martín-Arranz, María Dolores; Cabriada, José Luis; Barreiro-de Acosta, Manuel; de Castro, María Luisa; López-Serrano, Pilar; Barrio, Jesús; Suarez, Cristina; Iglesias, Eva; Argüelles-Arias, Federico; Ferrer, Isabel; Marín-Jiménez, Ignacio; Hernández-Camba, Alejandro; Bastida, Guillermo; Van Domselaar, Manuel; Martínez-Montiel, Pilar; Olivares, David; Alba, Cristina; Gisbert, Javier P

    2017-07-01

    Sensitivity of tuberculin skin test [TST] during screening for latent tuberculosis infection [LTBI] is affected by steroid and/or immunosuppressant therapy. The aim of this study was to compare performance of the two-step TST in inflammatory bowel disease patients immediately before anti-tumour necrosis factor [TNF] therapy as part of routine screening for LTBI vs control patients when the TST was carried out at an early stage. In this multicentre prospective controlled study, we evaluated the performance of two-step TST with 5-mm threshold. Factors associated with TST results were determined by logistic regression. We evaluated 243 candidates for anti-TNF therapy and 337 control patients. Overall, 105 patients [18.1%] had an induration ≥ 5 mm in the first TST or in TST retest. LTBI was diagnosed in 25% of patients by TST retest. Twenty-eight [11.5%] anti-TNF group patients vs 77 [22.8%] control patients had a positive TST (odds ratio [OR] 0.44, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.28-0.70; P < 0.001]. In multivariate analysis, positive TST was associated with higher age [OR 2.63, 95% CI 1.21-5.72; P < 0.001] and 5-aminosalicylate therapy [OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.14-3.05; P = 0.013]. Negative TST was associated with steroid therapy [OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.16-0.83; P = 0.016], immunosuppressant therapy [OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.21-0.62; P < 0.001], or steroids + immunosuppressant therapy [OR 0.20, 95% CI 0.07-0.59; P = 0.004]. The sensitivity of routine TST performed just before starting anti-TNF therapy is low. TST performed at an early stage enables screening in the absence of immunosuppressive treatment and thus maximises the diagnostic yield of TST for detecting LTBI. Copyright © 2017 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  1. Factors associated with a bad functional prognosis in early inflammatory back pain: results from the DESIR cohort.

    PubMed

    Lukas, C; Dougados, M; Combe, B

    2016-01-01

    Spondyloarthritis (SpA) is a heterogeneous disease with hardly predictable potential courses. We aimed at determining prognostic factors of bad functional outcome at 2 years in patients with early inflammatory back pain (IBP). Data from patients included in the French multicentre devenir des spondylarthropathies indifférenciées récentes (DESIR) cohort, that is, suffering from IBP starting before 50 years of age and lasting for 3-36 months, were used. A bad functional outcome at 24 months was defined as an increase in bath ankylosing spondylitis functional index (BASFI), or BASFI at 2 years higher than the 75th centile in the cohort. Demographic, clinical, biological and radiological data collected at inclusion were compared in patients with bad functional outcome versus others, by χ(2) test, then by a multivariate logistic regression model with stepwise selection of relevant factors. 513 patients (54.4% females, 72.2% fulfilling ASAS criteria) were assessed. Of those, 130 (25.3%) fulfilled the aforementioned criteria of a bad functional outcome (BASFI increase ≥4 units or ≥36 at 2 years). Multivariate analysis revealed that not fulfilling ASAS criteria, female sex, age >33 years, lower educational level, active smoking status and high disease activity according to bath ankylosing spondylitis disease activity index (BASDAI) at baseline were independently associated with a bad functional outcome at 24 months. Sensitivity analyses restricted to patients fulfilling ASAS criteria for SpA resulted in similar results. We observed, in a large prospective cohort of patients with early IBP, formerly described bad prognostic factors, especially a low educational level, an older age and a high disease activity at onset, and revealed that active smoking status and female sex were also independently associated with a poor outcome. Fulfilment of ASAS criteria, on the other hand, was predictive of a better outcome, most likely due to the more consensual

  2. Pancreatitis, panniculitis, and polyarthritis (PPP) syndrome: MRI features of intraosseous fat necrosis involving the feet and knees.

    PubMed

    Kang, Dong Joo; Lee, Sun Joo; Choo, Hye Jung; Her, Minyoung; Yoon, Hye Kyoung

    2017-02-01

    Pancreatitis, panniculitis, and polyarthritis (PPP) syndrome is extremely rare and presents as a triad of the three diseases. The patient usually presents with mild or absent abdominal symptoms. Here, we report on a case of a 66-year-old male who presented with pain and swelling in both legs and mild abdominal pain. He was diagnosed with acute pancreatitis by pancreatic enzyme analysis and abdominal computed tomography (CT) and with skin lesions of panniculitis through a biopsy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed multifocal intraosseous fat necrosis and arthritis involving both the feet and the knees. Therefore, we report a case of PPP syndrome with intraosseous fat necrosis involving both the feet and the knees.

  3. [Diagnosis for human parvovirus B19-polyarthritis: usefulness of empty particle B19.ELISA and B19-DNA.PCR].

    PubMed

    Hatakeyama, Y; Ishii, K; Murai, C; Sugamura, K; Mitomo, N; Saitoh, T; Rikimaru, Y; Okazaki, T; Sasaki, T

    1998-10-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of new ELISA for human parvovirus B19 (B19) antibodies and PCR for the diagnosis of acute onset of B19 polyarthritis. We evaluated the reproducibility and sensitivity on the detection of anti-B19 antibody by ELISA using recombinant VP-1 and VP-2 (empty particle), and then studied for the prevalence of IgM and IgG B19 antibody in 125 samples for anti-B19 tests. The random study on anti-B19 antibody assay as well as PCR for B19-DNA was also performed in 130 cases with acute onset of arthritis excluding those with known origins, 224 with rheumatoid arthritis and 149 with other categories. The results by using B19-empty particle ELISA were reproducible and showed the assay was a sensitive way for clinical use. IgM anti-B19 antibodies were positive not only in all samples from erythema infectiosum, but also often in those from hemolytic anemia, pure red cell aplasia, fetal hydrops, hepatic injury, fever of unknown origin. Among 130 with acute onset of arthritis, 21 showed positive tests for IgM anti-B19 antibody and/or B19 DNA. On the other hand, 4 among 224 patients with rheumatoid arthritis were positive for IgM anti-B19 antibody, but all of 149 in control group were negative for IgM anti-B19 antibodies and for B19 DNA. Anti-B19 ELISA using B19-empty particle which has been introduced as a routine test system, is a useful tool for the diagnosis of acute onset of B19 arthritis. An additional examination using PCR for B19 DNA may contribute for understanding persistent B19 polyarthritis or reactivation of B19 infection.

  4. Rheumatological manifestations in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Voulgari, Paraskevi V.

    2011-01-01

    Rheumatological manifestations in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are frequent and include peripheral arthritis, axial involvement and peripheral enthesitis. Secondary osteoporosis and hypertrophic osteoarthropathy may also occur. Complications of IBD (e.g. septic arthritis) must be distinguished from sterile inflammation. Adverse effects of corticosteroid treatment, such as osteonecrosis, may also affect joints. Axial involvement ranges from low back pain to true ankylosing spondylitis. Human leukocyte antigen B27 is associated with axial involvement of IBD. Peripheral arthritis has been classified into two types. Type I is a pauciarticular, asymmetric usually non destructive arthritis affecting large joints and is usually associated with active bowel disease. Type II is a polyarthritis affecting small joints and tends to run a course independent of the bowel disease. Treatment of joint symptoms in IBD include sulphasalazine, azathioprine, methotrexate and glucocorticoids. Anti-tumor necrosis factor antibodies are effective in treating resistant or complicated Crohn’s disease as well as peripheral arthritis and axial involvement. PMID:24713717

  5. Gamma-tocopherol supplementation ameliorated hyper-inflammatory response during the early cutaneous wound healing in alloxan-induced diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jihyun; Yang, Soo Jin

    2016-01-01

    Delayed wound healing is one of the major diabetic complications. During wound healing process, the early inflammatory stage is important for better prognosis. One of antioxidant nutrient, gamma-tocopherol (GT) is considered to regulate inflammatory conditions. This study investigated the effect of GT supplementation on mechanism associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis during early cutaneous wound healing in diabetic mice. Diabetes was induced by alloxan injection in ICR mice. All mice were divided into three groups: non-diabetic control mice (CON), diabetic control mice (DMC), and diabetic mice supplemented with GT (GT). After two weeks of GT supplementation, excisional wounds were made by biopsy punches (4 mm). Diabetic mice showed increases in fasting blood glucose (FBG) level, hyper-inflammatory response, oxidative stress, and delayed wound closure rate compared to non-diabetic mice. However, GT supplementation reduced FBG level and accelerated wound closure rate by regulation of inflammatory response-related proteins such as nuclear factor kappa B, interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and c-reactive protein, and oxidative stress-related markers including nuclear factor (erythroid derived 2)-like 2, NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone1, heme oxygenase-1, manganese superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase and apoptosis-related markers such as sirtuin-1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-α, and p53 in diabetic mice. Taken together, GT would be a potential therapeutic to prevent diabetes-induced delayed wound healing by regulation of inflammatory response, apoptosis, and oxidative stress. Impact statement Gamma tocopherol has shown ameliorative effect on diabetic wound healing by regulation of inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis demonstrated by nuclear factor kappa B, nuclear factor (erythroid derived 2)-like 2, and sirtuin-1. PMID:28211759

  6. Gamma-tocopherol supplementation ameliorated hyper-inflammatory response during the early cutaneous wound healing in alloxan-induced diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jihyun; Yang, Soo Jin; Lim, Yunsook

    2017-03-01

    Delayed wound healing is one of the major diabetic complications. During wound healing process, the early inflammatory stage is important for better prognosis. One of antioxidant nutrient, gamma-tocopherol (GT) is considered to regulate inflammatory conditions. This study investigated the effect of GT supplementation on mechanism associated with inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis during early cutaneous wound healing in diabetic mice. Diabetes was induced by alloxan injection in ICR mice. All mice were divided into three groups: non-diabetic control mice (CON), diabetic control mice (DMC), and diabetic mice supplemented with GT (GT). After two weeks of GT supplementation, excisional wounds were made by biopsy punches (4 mm). Diabetic mice showed increases in fasting blood glucose (FBG) level, hyper-inflammatory response, oxidative stress, and delayed wound closure rate compared to non-diabetic mice. However, GT supplementation reduced FBG level and accelerated wound closure rate by regulation of inflammatory response-related proteins such as nuclear factor kappa B, interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and c-reactive protein, and oxidative stress-related markers including nuclear factor (erythroid derived 2)-like 2, NAD(P)H dehydrogenase quinone1, heme oxygenase-1, manganese superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase and apoptosis-related markers such as sirtuin-1, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1- α, and p53 in diabetic mice. Taken together, GT would be a potential therapeutic to prevent diabetes-induced delayed wound healing by regulation of inflammatory response, apoptosis, and oxidative stress. Impact statement Gamma tocopherol has shown ameliorative effect on diabetic wound healing by regulation of inflammation, oxidative stress, and apoptosis demonstrated by nuclear factor kappa B, nuclear factor (erythroid derived 2)-like 2, and sirtuin-1.

  7. Pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress/antioxidant parameters characterize the bio-humoral profile of early cachexia in lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Fortunati, Nicoletta; Manti, Roberta; Birocco, Nadia; Pugliese, Mariateresa; Brignardello, Enrico; Ciuffreda, Libero; Catalano, Maria G; Aragno, Manuela; Boccuzzi, Giuseppe

    2007-12-01

    Cancer-related cachexia, that is present in about 50% of cancer patients and accounts for 20% of all cancer deaths, is clinically characterized by progressive weight loss, anorexia, metabolic alterations, asthenia, depletion of lipid stores and severe loss of skeletal muscle proteins. The main biochemical and molecular alterations that are responsible for the syndrome are prematurely present in the progress of the disease and the identification of the early stages of cachexia can be useful in targetting patients who will benefit from early treatment. The aim of the present study was to delineate the bio-humoral profile of a group of lung cancer patients either non-cachectic or cachectic by evaluating serum pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress/antioxidant parameters (both recognized to be involved in cachexia pathogenesis) and pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression in PBMC (Peripheral blood mononuclear cells) of cancer patients. All serum pro-inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress/antioxidant parameters significantly increased in neoplastic patients, but only TNF-alpha, ROS, GSH and vitamin E showed a significantly greater increase in cachectic patients. Pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression mirrored serum level behaviour except for IL-6 that was increased in serum but not as gene expression, suggesting its provenience from tumour tissue. Our data support that the simultaneous determination of ROS, GSH, vitamin E, together with TNF-alpha allows the identification of a lung cancer patient developing cancer-related cachexia. This bio-humoral profile should be used for the early diagnosis and follow-up of the syndrome. Moreover, the evaluation of gene expression in patient PBMC was helpful in differentiating tumour vs host factors, therefore being useful in the study of pathogenetic mechanisms in neoplastic cachectic patients.

  8. Exome sequencing analysis reveals variants in primary immunodeficiency genes in patients with very early onset inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Kelsen, Judith R; Dawany, Noor; Moran, Christopher J; Petersen, Britt-Sabina; Sarmady, Mahdi; Sasson, Ariella; Pauly-Hubbard, Helen; Martinez, Alejandro; Maurer, Kelly; Soong, Joanne; Rappaport, Eric; Franke, Andre; Keller, Andreas; Winter, Harland S; Mamula, Petar; Piccoli, David; Artis, David; Sonnenberg, Gregory F; Daly, Mark; Sullivan, Kathleen E; Baldassano, Robert N; Devoto, Marcella

    2015-11-01

    Very early onset inflammatory bowel disease (VEO-IBD), IBD diagnosed at 5 years of age or younger, frequently presents with a different and more severe phenotype than older-onset IBD. We investigated whether patients with VEO-IBD carry rare or novel variants in genes associated with immunodeficiencies that might contribute to disease development. Patients with VEO-IBD and parents (when available) were recruited from the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia from March 2013 through July 2014. We analyzed DNA from 125 patients with VEO-IBD (age, 3 wk to 4 y) and 19 parents, 4 of whom also had IBD. Exome capture was performed by Agilent SureSelect V4, and sequencing was performed using the Illumina HiSeq platform. Alignment to human genome GRCh37 was achieved followed by postprocessing and variant calling. After functional annotation, candidate variants were analyzed for change in protein function, minor allele frequency less than 0.1%, and scaled combined annotation-dependent depletion scores of 10 or less. We focused on genes associated with primary immunodeficiencies and related pathways. An additional 210 exome samples from patients with pediatric IBD (n = 45) or adult-onset Crohn's disease (n = 20) and healthy individuals (controls, n = 145) were obtained from the University of Kiel, Germany, and used as control groups. Four hundred genes and regions associated with primary immunodeficiency, covering approximately 6500 coding exons totaling more than 1 Mbp of coding sequence, were selected from the whole-exome data. Our analysis showed novel and rare variants within these genes that could contribute to the development of VEO-IBD, including rare heterozygous missense variants in IL10RA and previously unidentified variants in MSH5 and CD19. In an exome sequence analysis of patients with VEO-IBD and their parents, we identified variants in genes that regulate B- and T-cell functions and could contribute to pathogenesis. Our analysis could lead to the

  9. Exome Sequencing Analysis Reveals Variants in Primary Immunodeficiency Genes in Patients With Very Early Onset Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kelsen, Judith R.; Dawany, Noor; Moran, Christopher J.; Petersen, Britt-Sabina; Sarmady, Mahdi; Sasson, Ariella; Pauly-Hubbard, Helen; Martinez, Alejandro; Maurer, Kelly; Soong, Joanne; Rappaport, Eric; Franke, Andre; Keller, Andreas; Winter, Harland S.; Mamula, Petar; Piccoli, David; Artis, David; Sonnenberg, Gregory F.; Daly, Mark; Sullivan, Kathleen E.; Baldassano, Robert N.; Devoto, Marcella

    2016-01-01

    Background & Aims Very early onset inflammatory bowel disease (VEO-IBD), IBD diagnosed ≤5 y of age, frequently presents with a different and more severe phenotype than older-onset IBD. We investigated whether patients with VEO-IBD carry rare or novel variants in genes associated with immunodeficiencies that might contribute to disease development. Methods Patients with VEO-IBD and parents (when available) were recruited from the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia from March 2013 through July 2014. We analyzed DNA from 125 patients with VEO-IBD (ages 3 weeks to 4 y) and 19 parents, 4 of whom also had IBD. Exome capture was performed by Agilent SureSelect V4, and sequencing was performed using the Illumina HiSeq platform. Alignment to human genome GRCh37 was achieved followed by post-processing and variant calling. Following functional annotation, candidate variants were analyzed for change in protein function, minor allele frequency <0.1%, and scaled combined annotation dependent depletion scores ≤10. We focused on genes associated with primary immunodeficiencies and related pathways. An additional 210 exome samples from patients with pediatric IBD (n=45) or adult-onset Crohn's disease (n=20) and healthy individuals (controls, n=145) were obtained from the University of Kiel, Germany and used as control groups. Results Four-hundred genes and regions associated with primary immunodeficiency, covering approximately 6500 coding exons totaling > 1 Mbp of coding sequence, were selected from the whole exome data. Our analysis revealed novel and rare variants within these genes that could contribute to the development of VEO-IBD, including rare heterozygous missense variants in IL10RA and previously unidentified variants in MSH5 and CD19. Conclusions In an exome sequence analysis of patients with VEO-IBD and their parents, we identified variants in genes that regulate B- and T-cell functions and could contribute to pathogenesis. Our analysis could lead to the

  10. Cytocompatibility and early inflammatory response of human endothelial cells in direct culture with Mg-Zn-Sr alloys

    PubMed Central

    Cipriano, Aaron F.; Sallee, Amy; Tayoba, Myla; Cortez Alcaraz, Mayra C.; Lin, Alan; Guan, Ren-Guo; Zhao, Zhan-Yong; Liu, Huinan

    2018-01-01

    Crystalline Mg-Zinc (Zn)-Strontium (Sr) ternary alloys consist of elements naturally present in the human body and provide attractive mechanical and biodegradable properties for a variety of biomedical applications. The first objective of this study was to investigate the degradation and cytocompatibility of four Mg-4Zn-xSr alloys (x = 0.15, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 wt%; designated as ZSr41A, B, C, and D respectively) in the direct culture with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in vitro. The second objective was to investigate, for the first time, the early-stage inflammatory response in cultured HUVECs as indicated by the induction of vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). The results showed that the 24-h in vitro degradation of the ZSr41 alloys containing a β-phase with a Zn/Sr at% ratio ~1.5 was significantly faster than the ZSr41 alloys with Zn/Sr at% ~1. Additionally, the adhesion density of HUVECs in the direct culture but not in direct contact with the ZSr41 alloys for up to 24 h was not adversely affected by the degradation of the alloys. Importantly, neither culture media supplemented with up to 27.6 mM Mg2+ ions nor media intentionally adjusted up to alkaline pH 9 induced any detectable adverse effects on HUVEC responses. In contrast, the significantly higher, yet non-cytotoxic, Zn2+ ion concentration from the degradation of ZSr41D alloy was likely the cause for the initially higher VCAM-1 expression on cultured HUVECs. Lastly, analysis of the HUVEC-ZSr41 interface showed near-complete absence of cell adhesion directly on the sample surface, most likely caused by either a high local alkalinity, change in surface topography, and/or surface composition. The direct culture method used in this study was proposed as a valuable tool for studying the design aspects of Zn-containing Mg-based biomaterials in vitro, in order to engineer solutions to address current shortcomings of Mg alloys for vascular device applications. PMID:27746360

  11. Insufficient Colostrum Ingestion is a Risk Factor for Polyarthritis and/or Phlegmon in Hand-Reared Reticulated Giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata): 7 Cases (2003–2012)

    PubMed Central

    KIDO, Nobuhide; NAGAKURA, Kasumi; ITABASHI, Masanori; ONO, Kaori; DAN, Mayuko; MATSUMOTO, Rei; OMIYA, Tomoko

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Seven reticulated giraffes were hand-reared at Nogeyama Zoological Gardens, because the dam had agalactia. Six of the 7 calves exhibited polyarthritis and/or phlegmon in the lower legs. However, the cause of the disorder was unclear. The present study reviewed the clinical records of the 7 giraffes, including the type and amount of colostrum ingested during the first 72 hr. The disorder involved the fetlocks and carpal and tarsal joints in 6 of the 7 calves within an average of 8 days of birth. The average amount of fed bovine or powdered colostrum was 0–2.4 l in the first 24 hr and 2.0–6.2 l during the first 72 hr. Insufficient colostrum quantity might be a factor in polyarthritis and/or phlegmon. PMID:24758869

  12. Insufficient colostrum ingestion is a risk factor for polyarthritis and/or phlegmon in hand-reared reticulated giraffes (Giraffa camelopardalis reticulata): 7 cases (2003-2012).

    PubMed

    Kido, Nobuhide; Nagakura, Kasumi; Itabashi, Masanori; Ono, Kaori; Dan, Mayuko; Matsumoto, Rei; Omiya, Tomoko

    2014-08-01

    Seven reticulated giraffes were hand-reared at Nogeyama Zoological Gardens, because the dam had agalactia. Six of the 7 calves exhibited polyarthritis and/or phlegmon in the lower legs. However, the cause of the disorder was unclear. The present study reviewed the clinical records of the 7 giraffes, including the type and amount of colostrum ingested during the first 72 hr. The disorder involved the fetlocks and carpal and tarsal joints in 6 of the 7 calves within an average of 8 days of birth. The average amount of fed bovine or powdered colostrum was 0-2.4 l in the first 24 hr and 2.0-6.2 l during the first 72 hr. Insufficient colostrum quantity might be a factor in polyarthritis and/or phlegmon.

  13. Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor ameliorates early renal injury through its anti-inflammatory action in a rat model of type 1 diabetes

    SciTech Connect

    Kodera, Ryo, E-mail: kodera@cc.okayama-u.ac.jp; Shikata, Kenichi; Department of Medicine and Clinical Science, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Kita-ku, Okayama 700-8558

    Highlights: •DPP-4 inhibitor decreased urinary albumin excretion in a rat of type 1 diabetes. •DPP-4 inhibitor ameliorated histlogical changes of diabetic nephropathy. •DPP-4 inhibitor has reno-protective effects through anti-inflammatory action. •DPP-4 inhibitor is beneficial on diabetic nephropathy besides lowering blood glucose. -- Abstract: Introduction: Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are incretin-based drugs in patients with type 2 diabetes. In our previous study, we showed that glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist has reno-protective effects through anti-inflammatory action. The mechanism of action of DPP-4 inhibitor is different from that of GLP-1 receptor agonists. It is not obvious whether DPP-4 inhibitor prevents the exacerbationmore » of diabetic nephropathy through anti-inflammatory effects besides lowering blood glucose or not. The purpose of this study is to clarify the reno-protective effects of DPP-4 inhibitor through anti-inflammatory actions in the early diabetic nephropathy. Materials and methods: Five-week-old male Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats were divided into three groups; non-diabetes, diabetes and diabetes treated with DPP-4 inhibitor (PKF275-055; 3 mg/kg/day). PKF275-055 was administered orally for 8 weeks. Results: PKF275-055 increased the serum active GLP-1 concentration and the production of urinary cyclic AMP. PKF275-055 decreased urinary albumin excretion and ameliorated histological change of diabetic nephropathy. Macrophage infiltration was inhibited, and inflammatory molecules were down-regulated by PKF275-055 in the glomeruli. In addition, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activity was suppressed in the kidney. Conclusions: These results indicate that DPP-4 inhibitor, PKF275-055, have reno-protective effects through anti-inflammatory action in the early stage of diabetic nephropathy. The endogenous biological active GLP-1 might be beneficial on diabetic nephropathy besides lowering blood glucose.« less

  14. [Possibilities of ultrasonic spectroscopy of the blood in the diagnosis of early postoperative inflammatory complications in patients with stomach cancer].

    PubMed

    Moskalenko, O V

    1998-01-01

    The indexes of ultrasound wave absorption in the blood serum of patients with gastric cancer were studied using ultrasound spectroscopy method. The coefficient of absorption (CA) changes were registered 1-2 days before the first clinical signs occurrence. While inflammatory complications presence CA had lowered, the daily gradient of lowering had raised.

  15. Pancreatitis, panniculitis and polyarthritis (PPP-) syndrome caused by post-pancreatitis pseudocyst with mesenteric fistula. Diagnosis and successful surgical treatment. Case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Dieker, Wulf; Derer, Johannes; Henzler, Thomas; Schneider, Alexander; Rückert, Felix; Wilhelm, Torsten J; Krüger, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatitis, panniculitis and polyarthritis syndrome is a very rare extra-pancreatic complication of pancreatic diseases. While in most cases this syndrome is caused by acute or chronic pancreatitis, we report a case of a 62-year-old man presenting with extensive intraosseous fat necrosis, polyarthritis and panniculitis caused by a post-pancreatitis pseudocyst with a fistula to the superior mesenteric vein and extremely high blood levels of lipase. This became symptomatic 2.5 years after an episode of acute pancreatitis and as in most cases abdominal symptoms were absent. Treatment by surgical resection of the pancreatic head with the pseudocyst and mesenteric fistula led to complete remission of all symptoms. A review of the literature revealed that all publications are limited to case reports. Most authors hypothesize that an unspecific damage can cause a secretion of pancreatic enzymes to the bloodstream leading to a systemic lipolysis and fat tissue necrosis, especially of subcutaneous tissue, bone marrow, inducing panniculitis, polyarthritis and osteonecrosis. Even if caused by an acute pancreatitis abdominal symptoms are often mild or absent in most cases leading to misdiagnosis and poor prognosis. While symptomatic treatment with NSAR and cortisone showed poor to moderate response, causal treatment can be successful depending on the underlying pancreatic disease. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. The effect of an educational programme consisting of group and individual arthritis education for patients with polyarthritis--a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Grønning, Kjersti; Skomsvoll, Johan F; Rannestad, Toril; Steinsbekk, Aslak

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of an educational programme for patients with polyarthritis compared to usual care. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and unspecified polyarthritis were randomised to the intervention (n=71) or usual care (n=70). The intervention consisted of three group educational sessions followed by one individual educational session. The primary outcomes were a patient's global well-being and arthritis self-efficacy. Secondary outcomes were patient activation, physical and psychological health status, educational needs and disease activity. After four months the intervention group had significantly better global well-being, 95% CI (2.3-14.1), p=0.01, and self-efficacy, 95% CI (0.2-8.1), p=0.04, than the control group. There were also trends for improved disease activity, and a statistically significant improvement in patient activation and pain in the intervention group. This patient educational programme consisting of group sessions and nurse-delivered individual education has statistically significant benefits for global well-being and maintaining a level of self-efficacy in managing other symptoms in patients with polyarthritis. This educational programme allows patients to learn from each other in addition to addressing individual educational needs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Umbilical Cord Blood Transplantation Corrects Very Early-Onset Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Chinese Patients With IL10RA-Associated Immune Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Peng, Kaiyue; Qian, Xiaowen; Huang, Zhiheng; Lu, Junping; Wang, Yuhuan; Zhou, Ying; Wang, Huijun; Wu, Bingbing; Wang, Ying; Chen, Lingli; Zhai, Xiaowen; Huang, Ying

    2018-05-18

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is considered the only curative therapy for very early-onset inflammatory bowel disease with specific immune defects, such as interleukin-10 receptor deficiency. We performed reduced-intensity conditioning before umbilical cord blood transplantation in patients with interleukin-10 receptor-A deficiency. We enrolled 9 very early-onset inflammatory bowel disease patients with typical manifestations. We diagnosed the patients with interleukin-10 receptor-A deficiency by whole-exome sequencing. Umbilical cord blood transplantation was performed in all 9 patients. Eight patients received the reduced-intensity conditioning regimen, and 1 patient received the myeloablative conditioning regimen. All 9 patients received transplantation between the ages of 6 months to 43 months (average, 16.8 months) with body weights ranging from 3 to 10.4 kg (average, 6.6 kg). The patients displayed complete chimerism at 2-8 weeks after transplantation; 6 patients achieved complete remission without evidence of graft-vs-host disease or infections; 1 patient died of chronic lung graft-vs-host disease at 6 months post-transplantation; and the other 2 patients died of sepsis post-transplantation because of unsuccessful engraftments. Severe malnutrition and growth retardation associated with interleukin-10 receptor-A deficiency were significantly improved post-transplantation. We recommend umbilical cord blood transplantation as a potential treatment for very early-onset inflammatory bowel disease with a defined monogenic immunodeficiency, and we suggest that reduced-intensity conditioning chemotherapy is more suitable than myeloablative conditioning for patients with severe malnutrition and bowel disease. We have demonstrated success with reduced-intensity conditioning for interleukin-10 receptor-A deficiency in pediatric patients with severe clinical conditions. 10.1093/ibd/izy028_video1izy028.video15786489183001.

  18. Muscle-specific deletion of SOCS3 increases the early inflammatory response but does not affect regeneration after myotoxic injury.

    PubMed

    Swiderski, Kristy; Thakur, Savant S; Naim, Timur; Trieu, Jennifer; Chee, Annabel; Stapleton, David I; Koopman, René; Lynch, Gordon S

    2016-01-01

    Muscles of old animals are injured more easily and regenerate poorly, attributed in part to increased levels of circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines. The Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling cascade is a key mediator of inflammatory cytokine action, and signaling via this pathway is increased in muscles with aging. As a negative regulator of JAK/STAT signaling, a key mediator of myogenic proliferation and differentiation, altered expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS3) is likely to have important consequences for muscle regeneration. To model this scenario, we investigated the effect of SOCS3 deletion within mature muscle fibers on injury and repair. We tested the hypothesis that reduced SOCS3 function would alter the inflammatory response and impair muscle regeneration after myotoxic injury. Mice with a specific deletion of SOCS3 within mature skeletal muscle fibers were used to assess the effect of SOCS3 deletion on muscle injury and repair. Twelve-week-old or 24-month-old SOCS3 muscle-specific knockout (SOCS3 MKO) mice and littermate controls were either left uninjured or injured with a single injection of notexin (10 μg/ml) into the right tibialis anterior (TA) muscle. At 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, or 14 days post-injury, the right TA muscle was excised and subjected to histological, western immunoblotting, and gene expression analyses. Force production and fatigue were assessed in uninjured muscles and at 7 days post-notexin injury. In uninjured muscles, SOCS3 deletion decreased force production during fatigue but had no effect on the gross or histological appearance of the TA muscles. After notexin injury, deletion of SOCS3 increased STAT3 phosphorylation at day 1 and increased the mRNA expression of the inflammatory cytokine TNF-α , and the inflammatory cell markers F4/80 and CD68 at day 2. Gene expression analysis of the regeneration markers Pax7 , MyoD , and Myogenin indicated SOCS3 deletion had no

  19. Low-Dose Epinephrine Plus Tranexamic Acid Reduces Early Postoperative Blood Loss and Inflammatory Response: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Wei-Nan; Liu, Jun-Li; Wang, Fu-You; Chen, Cheng; Zhou, Qiang; Yang, Liu

    2018-02-21

    The reductions of perioperative blood loss and inflammatory response are important in total knee arthroplasty. Tranexamic acid reduced blood loss and the inflammatory response in several studies. However, the effect of epinephrine administration plus tranexamic acid has not been intensively investigated, to our knowledge. In this study, we evaluated whether the combined administration of low-dose epinephrine plus tranexamic acid reduced perioperative blood loss or inflammatory response further compared with tranexamic acid alone. This randomized placebo-controlled trial consisted of 179 consecutive patients who underwent primary total knee arthroplasty. Patients were randomized into 3 interventions: Group IV received intravenous low-dose epinephrine plus tranexamic acid, Group TP received topical diluted epinephrine plus tranexamic acid, and Group CT received tranexamic acid alone. The primary outcome was perioperative blood loss on postoperative day 1. Secondary outcomes included perioperative blood loss on postoperative day 3, coagulation and fibrinolysis parameters (measured by thromboelastography), inflammatory cytokine levels, transfusion values (rate and volume), thromboembolic complications, length of hospital stay, wound score, range of motion, and Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) score. The mean calculated total blood loss (and standard deviation) in Group IV was 348.1 ± 158.2 mL on postoperative day 1 and 458.0 ± 183.4 mL on postoperative day 3, which were significantly reduced (p < 0.05) compared with Group TP at 420.5 ± 188.4 mL on postoperative day 1 and 531.1 ± 231.4 mL on postoperative day 3 and Group CT at 520.4 ± 228.4 mL on postoperative day 1 and 633.7 ± 237.3 mL on postoperative day 3. Intravenous low-dose epinephrine exhibited a net anti-inflammatory activity in total knee arthroplasty and did not induce an obvious hypercoagulable status. Transfusion values were significantly reduced (p < 0.05) in Group IV, but no significant

  20. Apigenin protects blood-brain barrier and ameliorates early brain injury by inhibiting TLR4-mediated inflammatory pathway in subarachnoid hemorrhage rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tingting; Su, Jingyuan; Guo, Bingyu; Wang, Kaiwen; Li, Xiaoming; Liang, Guobiao

    2015-09-01

    Early brain injury (EBI) following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Inflammation has been considered as the major contributor to brain damage after SAH. SAH induces a systemic increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB) facilitates the influx of inflammatory cells. It has been reported that the activation of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)/NF-κB signaling pathway plays a vital role in the central nervous system diseases. Apigenin, a common plant flavonoid, possesses anti-inflammation effect. In this study, we focused on the effects of apigenin on EBI following SAH and its anti-inflammation mechanism. Our results showed that apigenin (20mg/kg) administration significantly attenuated EBI (including brain edema, BBB disruption, neurological deficient, severity of SAH, and cell apoptosis) after SAH in rats by suppressing the expression of TLR4, NF-κB and their downstream pro-inflammatory cytokines in the cortex and by up-regulating the expression of tight junction proteins of BBB. Double immunofluorescence staining demonstrated that TLR4 was activated following SAH in neurons, microglia cells, and endothelial cells but not in astrocytes. Apigenin could suppress the activation of TLR4 induced by SAH and inhibit apoptosis of cells in the cortex. These results suggested that apigenin could attenuate EBI after SAH in rats by suppressing TLR4-mediated inflammation and protecting against BBB disruption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Fibronectin Matrix Remodeling in the Regulation of the Inflammatory Response within the Lung: An Early Step in Lung Cancer Progression

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    such as that which occurs in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and emphysema , is associated with increased risk of lung cancer. These...effect of the fibronectin III-1c peptide on the expression of inflammatory genes by human lung fibroblasts, lung cancer cells, and pulmonary ...CXCR2 in bleomycin-induced pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2009; 40:410-21. 7. Barnes PJ. New therapies for chronic

  2. Short term supplementation of dietary antioxidants selectively regulates the inflammatory responses during early cutaneous wound healing in diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Diabetic foot ulcers are serious complications for diabetic patients, yet the precise mechanism that underlines the treatment of these diabetic complications remains unclear. We hypothesized that dietary antioxidant supplementation with vitamin C, combined either with vitamin E or with vitamin E and NAC, improves delayed wound healing through modulation of blood glucose levels, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response. Methods Diabetes was induced by administration of alloxan monohydrate. Mice were divided into 4 groups; CON (non-diabetic control mice fed AIN 93 G purified rodent diet), DM (diabetic mice fed AIN 93 G purified rodent diet), VCE (diabetic mice fed 0.5% vitamin C and 0.5% vitamin E supplemented diet), and Comb (diabetic mice fed 0.5% vitamin C, 0.5% vitamin E, and 2.5% NAC supplemented diet). After 10 days of dietary antioxidant supplementation, cutaneous full-thickness excisional wounds were performed, and the rate of wound closure was examined. TBARS as lipid peroxidation products and vitamin E levels were measured in the liver. Expression levels of oxidative stress and inflammatory response related proteins were measured in the cutaneous wound site. Results Dietary antioxidant supplementation improved blood glucose levels and wound closure rate and increased liver vitamin E, but not liver TBARS levels in the diabetic mice as compared to those of the CON. In addition, dietary antioxidant supplementation modulated the expression levels of pIκBα, HO-1, CuZnSOD, iNOS and COX-2 proteins in the diabetic mice. Conclusions These findings demonstrated that delayed wound healing is associated with an inflammatory response induced by hyperglycaemia, and suggests that dietary antioxidant supplementation may have beneficial effects on wound healing through selective modulation of blood glucose levels, oxidative stress, and inflammatory response. PMID:22088091

  3. Early life exposure to environmental tobacco smoke alters immune response to asbestos via a shift in inflammatory phenotype resulting in increased disease development

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Traci A.; Holian, Andrij; Pinkerton, Kent E.; Lee, Joong Won; Cho, Yoon Hee

    2016-01-01

    Asbestos in combination with tobacco smoke exposure reportedly leads to more severe physiological consequences than asbestos alone; limited data also show an increased disease risk due to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure. Environmental influences during gestation and early lung development can result in physiological changes that alter risk for disease development throughout an individual’s lifetime. Therefore, maternal lifestyle may impact the ability of offspring to subsequently respond to environmental insults and alter overall disease susceptibility. In this study, we examined the effects of exposure to ETS in utero and during early postnatal development on asbestos-related inflammation and disease in adulthood. ETS exposure in utero appeared to shift inflammation towards a Th2 phenotype, via suppression of Th1 inflammatory cytokine production. This effect was further pronounced in mice exposed to ETS in utero and during early postnatal development. In utero ETS exposure led to increased collagen deposition, a marker of fibrotic disease, when the offspring was later exposed to asbestos, which was further increased with additional ETS exposure during early postnatal development. These data suggest that ETS exposure in utero alters the immune responses and leads to greater disease development after asbestos exposure, which is further exacerbated when exposure to ETS continues during early postnatal development. PMID:27138493

  4. Early life exposure to environmental tobacco smoke alters immune response to asbestos via a shift in inflammatory phenotype resulting in increased disease development.

    PubMed

    Brown, Traci Ann; Holian, Andrij; Pinkerton, Kent E; Lee, Joong Won; Cho, Yoon Hee

    2016-07-01

    Asbestos in combination with tobacco smoke exposure reportedly leads to more severe physiological consequences than asbestos alone; limited data also show an increased disease risk due to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure. Environmental influences during gestation and early lung development can result in physiological changes that alter risk for disease development throughout an individual's lifetime. Therefore, maternal lifestyle may impact the ability of offspring to subsequently respond to environmental insults and alter overall disease susceptibility. In this study, we examined the effects of exposure to ETS in utero and during early postnatal development on asbestos-related inflammation and disease in adulthood. ETS exposure in utero appeared to shift inflammation towards a Th2 phenotype, via suppression of Th1 inflammatory cytokine production. This effect was further pronounced in mice exposed to ETS in utero and during early postnatal development. In utero ETS exposure led to increased collagen deposition, a marker of fibrotic disease, when the offspring was later exposed to asbestos, which was further increased with additional ETS exposure during early postnatal development. These data suggest that ETS exposure in utero alters the immune responses and leads to greater disease development after asbestos exposure, which is further exacerbated when exposure to ETS continues during early postnatal development.

  5. Early electrophysiological findings in acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy variant of Guillain-Barre syndrome in the Pakistani population - a comparison with global data.

    PubMed

    Wali, Ahmad; Kanwar, Dureshahwar; Khan, Safoora A; Khan, Sara

    2017-12-01

    Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP) and acute motor axonal neuropathy are the most common variants of Guillian-Barre syndrome documented in the Asian population. However, the variability of early neurophysiologic findings in the Asian population compared to western data has not been documented. Eighty-seven cases of AIDP were retrospectively reviewed for their demographic, clinical, electrophysiological, and laboratory data. Mean age of subjects was 31 ± 8 years with males more commonly affected. Motor symptoms (97%) at presentation predominated. Common early nerve conduction findings included low motor amplitudes (85%), recordable sural sensory responses (85%), and absent H-reflex responses (65%). Prolonged F-latencies were found most commonly in posterior tibial nerves (23%) in the lower limbs and median and ulnar nerves (18%) in the upper limbs. Blink reflex (BR) studies were performed in 57 patients and were abnormal in 80% of those with clinical facial weakness and in 17 of 52 patients (33%) with no clinical cranial nerve signs, suggesting subclinical cranial nerve involvement. Abnormal motor and sensory amplitudes are seen early. Prolonged distal latencies, temporal dispersion/conduction blocks and sural sparing pattern are other common early nerve conduction study findings of AIDP seen in the Pakistani population. There are no significant differences in abnormalities of conduction velocities and delayed reflex responses compared to published data. The BR can help in the early diagnosis of AIDP. © 2017 Peripheral Nerve Society.

  6. The effect of rheumatoid arthritis-associated autoantibodies on the incidence of cardiovascular events in a large inception cohort of early inflammatory arthritis.

    PubMed

    Barra, Lillian J; Pope, Janet E; Hitchon, Carol; Boire, Gilles; Schieir, Orit; Lin, Daming; Thorne, Carter J; Tin, Diane; Keystone, Edward C; Haraoui, Boulos; Jamal, Shahin; Bykerk, Vivian P

    2017-05-01

    . RA is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events (CVEs). The objective was to estimate independent effects of RA autoantibodies on the incident CVEs in patients with early RA. Patients were enrolled in the Canadian Early Inflammatory Arthritis Cohort, a prospective multicentre inception cohort. Incident CVEs, including acute coronary syndromes and cerebrovascular events, were self-reported by the patient and partially validated by medical chart review. Seropositive status was defined as either RF or ACPA positive. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards survival analysis was used to estimate the effects of seropositive status on incident CVEs, controlling for RA clinical variables and traditional cardiovascular risk factors. . A total of 2626 patients were included: the mean symptom duration at diagnosis was 6.3 months ( s . d . 4.6), the mean age was 53 years ( s . d . 15), 72% were female and 86% met classification criteria for RA. Forty-six incident CVEs occurred over 6483 person-years [incidence rate 7.1/1000 person-years (95% confidence interval 5.3, 9.4)]. The CVE rate did not differ in seropositive vs seronegative subjects and seropositivity was not associated with incident CVEs in multivariable Cox regression models. Baseline covariates independently associated with incident CVEs were older age, a history of hypertension and a longer duration of RA symptoms prior to diagnosis. The rate of CVEs early in the course of inflammatory arthritis was low; however, delays in the diagnosis of arthritis increased the rate of CVEs. Hypertension was the strongest independent risk factor for CVEs. Results support early aggressive management of RA disease activity and co-morbidities to prevent severe complications. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  7. Early High-dosage Atorvastatin Treatment Improved Serum Immune-inflammatory Markers and Functional Outcome in Acute Ischemic Strokes Classified as Large Artery Atherosclerotic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Di Raimondo, Domenico; Pecoraro, Rosaria; Maida, Carlo; Arnao, Valentina; Corte, Vittoriano Della; Simonetta, Irene; Corpora, Francesca; Di Bona, Danilo; Maugeri, Rosario; Iacopino, Domenico Gerardo; Pinto, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Statins have beneficial effects on cerebral circulation and brain parenchyma during ischemic stroke and reperfusion. The primary hypothesis of this randomized parallel trial was that treatment with 80 mg/day of atorvastatin administered early at admission after acute atherosclerotic ischemic stroke could reduce serum levels of markers of immune-inflammatory activation of the acute phase and that this immune-inflammatory modulation could have a possible effect on prognosis of ischemic stroke evaluated by some outcome indicators. We enrolled 42 patients with acute ischemic stroke classified as large arteries atherosclerosis stroke (LAAS) randomly assigned in a randomized parallel trial to the following groups: Group A, 22 patients treated with atorvastatin 80 mg (once-daily) from admission day until discharge; Group B, 20 patients not treated with atorvastatin 80 mg until discharge, and after discharge, treatment with atorvastatin has been started. At 72 hours and at 7 days after acute ischemic stroke, subjects of group A showed significantly lower plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, whereas no significant difference with regard to plasma levels of IL-10, E-Selectin, and P-Selectin was observed between the 2 groups. At 72 hours and 7 days after admission, stroke patients treated with atorvastatin 80 mg in comparison with stroke subjects not treated with atorvastatin showed a significantly lower mean National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and modified Rankin scores. Our findings provide the first evidence that atorvastatin acutely administered immediately after an atherosclerotic ischemic stroke exerts a lowering effect on immune-inflammatory activation of the acute phase of stroke and that its early use is associated to a better functional and prognostic profile. PMID:27043681

  8. Early High-dosage Atorvastatin Treatment Improved Serum Immune-inflammatory Markers and Functional Outcome in Acute Ischemic Strokes Classified as Large Artery Atherosclerotic Stroke: A Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Di Raimondo, Domenico; Pecoraro, Rosaria; Maida, Carlo; Arnao, Valentina; Della Corte, Vittoriano; Simonetta, Irene; Corpora, Francesca; Di Bona, Danilo; Maugeri, Rosario; Iacopino, Domenico Gerardo; Pinto, Antonio

    2016-03-01

    Statins have beneficial effects on cerebral circulation and brain parenchyma during ischemic stroke and reperfusion. The primary hypothesis of this randomized parallel trial was that treatment with 80 mg/day of atorvastatin administered early at admission after acute atherosclerotic ischemic stroke could reduce serum levels of markers of immune-inflammatory activation of the acute phase and that this immune-inflammatory modulation could have a possible effect on prognosis of ischemic stroke evaluated by some outcome indicators. We enrolled 42 patients with acute ischemic stroke classified as large arteries atherosclerosis stroke (LAAS) randomly assigned in a randomized parallel trial to the following groups: Group A, 22 patients treated with atorvastatin 80 mg (once-daily) from admission day until discharge; Group B, 20 patients not treated with atorvastatin 80 mg until discharge, and after discharge, treatment with atorvastatin has been started. At 72 hours and at 7 days after acute ischemic stroke, subjects of group A showed significantly lower plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, whereas no significant difference with regard to plasma levels of IL-10, E-Selectin, and P-Selectin was observed between the 2 groups. At 72 hours and 7 days after admission, stroke patients treated with atorvastatin 80 mg in comparison with stroke subjects not treated with atorvastatin showed a significantly lower mean National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and modified Rankin scores. Our findings provide the first evidence that atorvastatin acutely administered immediately after an atherosclerotic ischemic stroke exerts a lowering effect on immune-inflammatory activation of the acute phase of stroke and that its early use is associated to a better functional and prognostic profile.

  9. Oral non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (single dose) for perineal pain in the early postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Wuytack, Francesca; Smith, Valerie; Cleary, Brian J

    2016-07-14

    Many women experience perineal pain after childbirth, especially after having sustained perineal trauma. Perineal pain-management strategies are thus an important part of postnatal care. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a commonly used type of medication in the management of postpartum pain and their effectiveness and safety should be assessed. To determine the effectiveness of a single dose of an oral NSAID for relief of acute perineal pain in the early postpartum period. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (31 March 2016), OpenSIGLE, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, the ISRCTN Registry and ClinicalTrials.gov (31 March 2016). We also reviewed reference lists of retrieved papers and contacted experts in the field. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing a single dose of a NSAID versus a single dose of placebo, paracetamol or another NSAID for women with perineal pain in the early postpartum period. Quasi-RCTs and cross-over trials were excluded. Two review authors (FW and VS) independently assessed all identified papers for inclusion and risk of bias. Any discrepancies were resolved through discussion and consensus. Data extraction, including calculations of pain relief scores, was also conducted independently by two review authors and checked for accuracy. We included 28 studies that examined 13 different NSAIDs and involved 4181 women (none of whom were breastfeeding). Studies were published between 1967 and 2013, with the majority published in the 1980s. Of the 4181 women involved in the studies, 2642 received a NSAID and 1539 received placebo or paracetamol. Risk of bias was generally unclear due to poor reporting, but in most studies the participants and personnel were blinded, outcome data were complete and the outcomes that were specified in the methods section were reported.None of the included studies reported on any of this review's secondary outcomes: prolonged hospitalisation or re

  10. Vaccination induced changes in pro-inflammatory cytokine levels as an early putative biomarker for cognitive improvement in a transgenic mouse model for Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaoyang; Bai, Ge; Lin, Linda; Wu, Hengyi; Cai, Jianfeng; Ugen, Kenneth E; Cao, Chuanhai

    2014-01-01

    Several pieces of experimental evidence suggest that administration of anti-β amyloid (Aβ) vaccines, passive anti-Aβ antibodies or anti-inflammatory drugs can reduce Aβ deposition as well as associated cognitive/behavioral deficits in an Alzheimer disease (AD) transgenic (Tg) mouse model and, as such, may have some efficacy in human AD patients as well. In the investigation reported here an Aβ 1-42 peptide vaccine was administered to 16-month old APP+PS1 transgenic (Tg) mice in which Aβ deposition, cognitive memory deficits as well as levels of several pro-inflammatory cytokines were measured in response to the vaccination regimen. After vaccination, the anti-Aβ 1-42 antibody-producing mice demonstrated a significant reduction in the sera levels of 4 pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1 α, and IL-12). Importantly, reductions in the cytokine levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were correlated with cognitive/behavioral improvement in the Tg mice. However, no differences in cerebral Aβ deposition in these mice were noted among the different control and experimental groups, i.e., Aβ 1-42 peptide vaccinated, control peptide vaccinated, or non-vaccinated mice. However, decreased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as improved cognitive performance were noted in mice vaccinated with the control peptide as well as those immunized with the Aβ 1-42 peptide. These findings suggest that reduction in pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in these mice may be utilized as an early biomarker for vaccination/treatment induced amelioration of cognitive deficits and are independent of Aβ deposition and, interestingly, antigen specific Aβ 1-42 vaccination. Since cytokine changes are typically related to T cell activation, the results imply that T cell regulation may have an important role in vaccination or other immunotherapeutic strategies in an AD mouse model and potentially in AD patients. Overall, these cytokine changes may serve as a predictive marker for AD

  11. Inflammatory and apoptotic alterations in serum and injured tissue after experimental polytrauma in mice: distinct early response compared with single trauma or "double-hit" injury.

    PubMed

    Weckbach, Sebastian; Hohmann, Christoph; Braumueller, Sonja; Denk, Stephanie; Klohs, Bettina; Stahel, Philip F; Gebhard, Florian; Huber-Lang, Markus S; Perl, Mario

    2013-02-01

    The exact alterations of the immune system after polytrauma leading to sepsis and multiple-organ failure are poorly understood. Thus, the early local and systemic inflammatory and apoptotic response was characterized in a new polytrauma model and compared with the alterations seen after single or combined injuries. Anesthetized C57BL/6 mice were subjected to either blunt bilateral chest trauma (Tx), closed head injury, right femur fracture including contralateral soft tissue injury, or a combination of injuries (PTx). After 2 hours or 6 hours, animals were sacrificed, and the systemic as well as the local pulmonary immune response (bronchoalveolar lavage [BAL]/plasma cytokines, lung myeloperoxidase [MPO] activity, and alveolocapillary barrier dysfunction) were evaluated along with lung/brain apoptosis (lung caspase 3 Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, and polymorphonuclear leukocytes [PMN] Annexin V). Hemoglobin, PO2 saturation, and pH did not differ between the experimental groups. Local BAL cytokines/chemokines were significantly increased in almost all groups, which included Tx. There was no further enhancement of this local inflammatory response in the lungs in case of PTx. At 2 hours, all groups except sham and closed head injury alone revealed an increased activity of lung MPO. However, 6 hours after injury, lung MPO remained increased only in the PTx group. Increased BAL protein levels were found, reflecting enhanced lung leakage in all groups with Tx 6 hours after trauma. Only after PTx was neutrophil apoptosis significantly decreased, whereas lung caspase 3 and plasma interleukin 6/keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC) were substantially increased. The combination of different injuries leads to an earlier systemic inflammatory response when compared with the single insults. Interestingly, only after PTx but not after single or double hits was lung apoptosis increased, and PMN apoptosis was decreased along with a prolonged presence of neutrophils in the

  12. Lycopene mitigates β-amyloid induced inflammatory response and inhibits NF-κB signaling at the choroid plexus in early stages of Alzheimer's disease rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chong-Bin; Wang, Rui; Yi, Yan-Feng; Gao, Zhen; Chen, Yi-Zhu

    2018-03-01

    The choroid plexus is able to modulate the cognitive function, through changes in the neuroinflammatory response and in brain immune surveillance. However, whether lycopene is involved in inflammatory responses at the choroid plexus in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease, and its molecular underpinnings are elusive. In this rat study, lycopene was used to investigate its protective effects on inflammation caused by β-amyloid. We characterized the learning and memory abilities, cytokine profiles of circulating TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6β in the serum and the expressions of Toll like receptor 4 and nuclear factor-κB p65 mRNA and protein at the choroid plexus. The results showed that functional deficits of learning and memory in lycopene treatment groups were significantly improved compared to the control group without lycopene treatment in water maze test. The levels of serum TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6β were significantly increased, and the expressions of TLR4 and NF-κB p65 mRNA and protein at the choroid plexus were up-regulated, indicating inflammation response was initiated following administration of Aβ 1-42 . After intragastric pretreatment with lycopene, inflammatory cytokines were significantly reduced and lycopene also reversed the Aβ 1-42 induced up-regulation of TLR4 and NF-κB p65 mRNA and protein expressions at the choroid plexus. These results provided a novel evidence that lycopene significantly improved cognitive deficits and were accompanied by the attenuation of inflammatory injury via blocking the activation of NF-κB p65 and TLR4 expressions and production of cytokines, thereby endorsing its usefulness for diminishing β-amyloid deposition in the hippocampus tissues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of the efficacy of prednisone and cyclosporine for treatment of dogs with primary immune-mediated polyarthritis.

    PubMed

    Rhoades, Amy C; Vernau, William; Kass, Philip H; Herrera, Melissa A; Sykes, Jane E

    2016-02-15

    To compare efficacy between cyclosporine and prednisone for treatment of primary immune-mediated polyarthritis (IMPA) in dogs. Randomized controlled clinical trial. 20 client-owned dogs with primary IMPA. Dogs were randomly assigned to receive prednisone (starting at 1 mg/kg [0.45 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h; n = 10) or cyclosporine (5 mg/kg [2.3 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h; 10) for 90 days. Cyclosporine-treated dogs also received carprofen, tramadol, or both for the first 7 days for analgesia. Data collection, physical examination, and cytologic analysis of synovial fluid samples were performed on days 0, 14, 45, and 90. Trough whole blood cyclosporine concentrations were determined on days 7 to 17 for cyclosporine-treated dogs. Treatment failure was defined as lack of clinical improvement by day 14, lack of cytologic improvement by day 45, or need to change treatment because of adverse effects. Treatment was successful for 7 prednisone-treated dogs and 7 cyclosporine-treated dogs. Absence of synovial fluid cytologic abnormalities on day 45 was identified for 5 prednisone-treated dogs and 8 cyclosporine-treated dogs. Prednisone-treated dogs were more likely to develop polyuria, polydipsia, and polyphagia than were cyclosporine-treated dogs. Opportunistic infections (ie, demodicosis or Erysipelothrix bacteremia) were identified in 2 cyclosporine-treated dogs and 0 prednisone-treated dogs, and diarrhea developed in 1 cyclosporine-treated dog, requiring treatment discontinuation. Although the number of dogs evaluated was small, limiting generalizability, results of this study suggested that cyclosporine offers promise as a suitable alternative to prednisone for treatment of IMPA in dogs.

  14. Clinical features and pathological joint changes in dogs with erosive immune-mediated polyarthritis: 13 cases (2004–2012)

    PubMed Central

    Shaughnessy, Magen L.; Sample, Susannah J.; Abicht, Carter; Heaton, Caitlin; Muir, Peter

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the clinical features and pathological joint changes in dogs with erosive immune-mediated polyarthritis (IMPA). DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 13 dogs with erosive IMPA and 66 dogs with nonerosive IMPA. PROCEDURES The medical record database of a veterinary teaching hospital was reviewed to identify dogs with IMPA that were examined between October 2004 and December 2012. For each IMPA-affected dog, information extracted from the medical record included signalment, diagnostic test results, radiographic findings, and treatments administered. Dogs were classified as having erosive IMPA if review of radiographs revealed the presence of bone lysis in multiple joints, and descriptive data were generated for those dogs. All available direct smears of synovial fluid samples underwent cytologic evaluation. The synovial fluid total nucleated cell count and WBC differential were estimated and compared between dogs with erosive IMPA and dogs with nonerosive IMPA. RESULTS 13 of 79 (16%) dogs had erosive IMPA. Dogs with erosive IMPA had a mean ± SD age of 7.1 ± 2.4 years and bodyweight of 8.3 ± 3.4 kg (18.3 ± 7.5 lb). All 13 dogs had erosive lesions in their carpal joints. The estimated median synovial fluid lymphocyte count for dogs with erosive IMPA was significantly greater than that for dogs with nonerosive IMPA. All dogs received immunosuppressive therapy with leflunomide (n = 9), prednisone (3), or prednisone-azathioprine (1). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated erosive IMPA most commonly affected the carpal joints of middle-aged small-breed dogs. Further genetic analyses and analysis of lymphocyte-subsets is warranted for dogs with erosive IMPA. Word count = 256 PMID:27823373

  15. Clinical features and pathological joint changes in dogs with erosive immune-mediated polyarthritis: 13 cases (2004-2012).

    PubMed

    Shaughnessy, Magen L; Sample, Susannah J; Abicht, Carter; Heaton, Caitlin; Muir, Peter

    2016-11-15

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the clinical features and pathological joint changes in dogs with erosive immune-mediated polyarthritis (IMPA). DESIGN Retrospective case series. ANIMALS 13 dogs with erosive IMPA and 66 dogs with nonerosive IMPA. PROCEDURES The medical record database of a veterinary teaching hospital was reviewed to identify dogs with IMPA that were examined between October 2004 and December 2012. For each IMPA-affected dog, information extracted from the medical record included signalment, diagnostic test results, radiographic findings, and treatments administered. Dogs were classified as having erosive IMPA if review of radiographs revealed the presence of bone lysis in multiple joints, and descriptive data were generated for those dogs. All available direct smears of synovial fluid samples underwent cytologic evaluation. The synovial fluid total nucleated cell count and WBC differential count were estimated and compared between dogs with erosive IMPA and dogs with nonerosive IMPA. RESULTS 13 of 79 (16%) dogs had erosive IMPA. Dogs with erosive IMPA had a mean ± SD age of 7.1 ± 2.4 years and body weight of 8.3 ± 3.4 kg (18.3 ± 7.5 lb). All 13 dogs had erosive lesions in their carpal joints. The estimated median synovial fluid lymphocyte count for dogs with erosive IMPA was significantly greater than that for dogs with nonerosive IMPA. All dogs received immunosuppressive therapy with leflunomide (n = 9), prednisone (3), or prednisone-azathioprine (1). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated erosive IMPA most commonly affected the carpal joints of middle-aged small-breed dogs. Further genetic analyses and analysis of lymphocyte-subsets are warranted for dogs with erosive IMPA.

  16. A goal management intervention for polyarthritis patients: rationale and design of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A health promotion intervention was developed for inflammatory arthritis patients, based on goal management. Elevated levels of depression and anxiety symptoms, which indicate maladjustment, are found in such patients. Other indicators of adaptation to chronic disease are positive affect, purpose in life and social participation. The new intervention focuses on to improving adaptation by increasing psychological and social well-being and decreasing symptoms of affective disorders. Content includes how patients can cope with activities and life goals that are threatened or have become impossible to attain due to arthritis. The four goal management strategies used are: goal maintenance, goal adjustment, goal disengagement and reengagement. Ability to use various goal management strategies, coping versatility and self-efficacy are hypothesized to mediate the intervention’s effect on primary and secondary outcomes. The primary outcome is depressive symptoms. Secondary outcomes are anxiety symptoms, positive affect, purpose in life, social participation, pain, fatigue and physical functioning. A cost-effectiveness analysis and stakeholders’ analysis are planned. Methods/design The protocol-based psycho-educational program consists of six group-based meetings and homework assignments, led by a trained nurse. Participants are introduced to goal management strategies and learn to use these strategies to cope with threatened personal goals. Four general hospitals participate in a randomized controlled trial with one intervention group and a waiting list control condition. Discussion The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a goal management intervention. The study has a holistic focus as both the absence of psychological distress and presence of well-being are assessed. In the intervention, applicable goal management competencies are learned that assist people in their choice of behaviors to sustain and enhance their quality of life

  17. A goal management intervention for polyarthritis patients: rationale and design of a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Arends, Roos Y; Bode, Christina; Taal, Erik; Van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2013-08-13

    A health promotion intervention was developed for inflammatory arthritis patients, based on goal management. Elevated levels of depression and anxiety symptoms, which indicate maladjustment, are found in such patients. Other indicators of adaptation to chronic disease are positive affect, purpose in life and social participation. The new intervention focuses on to improving adaptation by increasing psychological and social well-being and decreasing symptoms of affective disorders. Content includes how patients can cope with activities and life goals that are threatened or have become impossible to attain due to arthritis. The four goal management strategies used are: goal maintenance, goal adjustment, goal disengagement and reengagement. Ability to use various goal management strategies, coping versatility and self-efficacy are hypothesized to mediate the intervention's effect on primary and secondary outcomes. The primary outcome is depressive symptoms. Secondary outcomes are anxiety symptoms, positive affect, purpose in life, social participation, pain, fatigue and physical functioning. A cost-effectiveness analysis and stakeholders' analysis are planned. The protocol-based psycho-educational program consists of six group-based meetings and homework assignments, led by a trained nurse. Participants are introduced to goal management strategies and learn to use these strategies to cope with threatened personal goals. Four general hospitals participate in a randomized controlled trial with one intervention group and a waiting list control condition. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a goal management intervention. The study has a holistic focus as both the absence of psychological distress and presence of well-being are assessed. In the intervention, applicable goal management competencies are learned that assist people in their choice of behaviors to sustain and enhance their quality of life. Nederlands Trial Register = NTR3606

  18. A de novo whole gene deletion of XIAP detected by exome sequencing analysis in very early onset inflammatory bowel disease: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kelsen, Judith R; Dawany, Noor; Martinez, Alejandro; Martinez, Alejuandro; Grochowski, Christopher M; Maurer, Kelly; Rappaport, Eric; Piccoli, David A; Baldassano, Robert N; Mamula, Petar; Sullivan, Kathleen E; Devoto, Marcella

    2015-11-18

    Children with very early-onset inflammatory bowel disease (VEO-IBD), those diagnosed at less than 5 years of age, are a unique population. A subset of these patients present with a distinct phenotype and more severe disease than older children and adults. Host genetics is thought to play a more prominent role in this young population, and monogenic defects in genes related to primary immunodeficiencies are responsible for the disease in a small subset of patients with VEO-IBD. We report a child who presented at 3 weeks of life with very early-onset inflammatory bowel disease (VEO-IBD). He had a complicated disease course and remained unresponsive to medical and surgical therapy. The refractory nature of his disease, together with his young age of presentation, prompted utilization of whole exome sequencing (WES) to detect an underlying monogenic primary immunodeficiency and potentially target therapy to the identified defect. Copy number variation analysis (CNV) was performed using the eXome-Hidden Markov Model. Whole exome sequencing revealed 1,380 nonsense and missense variants in the patient. Plausible candidate variants were not detected following analysis of filtered variants, therefore, we performed CNV analysis of the WES data, which led us to identify a de novo whole gene deletion in XIAP. This is the first reported whole gene deletion in XIAP, the causal gene responsible for XLP2 (X-linked lymphoproliferative Disease 2). XLP2 is a syndrome resulting in VEO-IBD and can increase susceptibility to hemophagocytic lymphohistocytosis (HLH). This identification allowed the patient to be referred for bone marrow transplantation, potentially curative for his disease and critical to prevent the catastrophic sequela of HLH. This illustrates the unique etiology of VEO-IBD, and the subsequent effects on therapeutic options. This cohort requires careful and thorough evaluation for monogenic defects and primary immunodeficiencies.

  19. Early Life Stress and Inflammatory Mechanisms of Fatigue in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Hyong Jin; Bower, Julienne E.; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Seeman, Teresa E.; Irwin, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    Fatigue is highly prevalent and causes serious disruption in quality of life. Although cross-sectional studies suggest childhood adversity is associated with adulthood fatigue, longitudinal evidence of this relationship and its specific biological mechanisms have not been established. This longitudinal study examined the association between early life stress and adulthood fatigue and tested whether this association was mediated by low-grade systemic inflammation as indexed by circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). In the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, a population-based longitudinal study conducted in 4 US cities, early life stress was retrospectively assessed in 2716 African-American and white adults using the Risky Families Questionnaire at Year 15 examination (2000–2001, ages 33–45 years). Fatigue as indexed by a loss of subjective vitality using the Vitality Subscale of the 12-item Short Form Health Survey was assessed at both Years 15 and 20. While CRP was measured at both Years 15 and 20, IL-6 was measured only at Year 20. Early life stress assessed at Year 15 was associated with adulthood fatigue at Year 20 after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, body-mass index, medication use, medical comorbidity, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, current stress, pain, sleep disturbance as well as Year 15 fatigue (adjusted beta 0.047, P=0.007). However, neither CRP nor IL-6 was a significant mediator of this association. In summary, early life stress assessed in adulthood was associated with fatigue 5 years later, but this association was not mediated by low-grade systemic inflammation. PMID:22554493

  20. Early life stress and inflammatory mechanisms of fatigue in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyong Jin; Bower, Julienne E; Kiefe, Catarina I; Seeman, Teresa E; Irwin, Michael R

    2012-08-01

    Fatigue is highly prevalent and causes serious disruption in quality of life. Although cross-sectional studies suggest childhood adversity is associated with adulthood fatigue, longitudinal evidence of this relationship and its specific biological mechanisms have not been established. This longitudinal study examined the association between early life stress and adulthood fatigue and tested whether this association was mediated by low-grade systemic inflammation as indexed by circulating C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). In the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, a population-based longitudinal study conducted in 4 US cities, early life stress was retrospectively assessed in 2716 African-American and white adults using the Risky Families Questionnaire at Year 15 examination (2000-2001, ages 33-45 years). Fatigue as indexed by a loss of subjective vitality using the Vitality Subscale of the 12-item Short Form Health Survey was assessed at both Years 15 and 20. While CRP was measured at both Years 15 and 20, IL-6 was measured only at Year 20. Early life stress assessed at Year 15 was associated with adulthood fatigue at Year 20 after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, body-mass index, medication use, medical comorbidity, smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, current stress, pain, sleep disturbance as well as Year 15 fatigue (adjusted beta 0.047, P=0.007). However, neither CRP nor IL-6 was a significant mediator of this association. In summary, early life stress assessed in adulthood was associated with fatigue 5 years later, but this association was not mediated by low-grade systemic inflammation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Impact of Pre-Pregnancy BMI on B Vitamin and Inflammatory Status in Early Pregnancy: An Observational Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Bjørke-Monsen, Anne-Lise; Ulvik, Arve; Nilsen, Roy M.; Midttun, Øivind; Roth, Christine; Magnus, Per; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Vollset, Stein Emil; Reichborn-Kjennerud, Ted; Ueland, Per Magne

    2016-01-01

    Maternal nutrition and inflammation have been suggested as mediators in the development of various adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with maternal obesity. We have investigated the relation between pre-pregnancy BMI, B vitamin status, and inflammatory markers in a group of healthy pregnant women. Cobalamin, folate, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate, and riboflavin; and the metabolic markers homocysteine, methylmalonic acid, and 3-hydroxykynurenine/xanthurenic acid ratio (HK/XA); and markers of cellular inflammation, neopterin and kynurenine/tryptophan ratio (KTR) were determined in pregnancy week 18 and related to pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), in 2797 women from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa). Pre-pregnancy BMI was inversely related to folate, cobalamin, pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP), and riboflavin (p < 0.001), and associated with increased neopterin and KTR levels (p < 0.001). Inflammation seemed to be an independent predictor of low vitamin B6 status, as verified by low PLP and high HK/XA ratio. A high pre-pregnancy BMI is a risk factor for low B vitamin status and increased cellular inflammation. As an optimal micronutrient status is vital for normal fetal development, the observed lower B vitamin levels may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with maternal obesity and B vitamin status should be assessed in women with high BMI before they get pregnant. PMID:27916904

  2. Early Course of Inflammatory Bowel Disease in a Population-Based Inception Cohort Study From 8 Countries in Asia and Australia.

    PubMed

    Ng, Siew C; Zeng, Zhirong; Niewiadomski, Ola; Tang, Whitney; Bell, Sally; Kamm, Michael A; Hu, Pinjin; de Silva, H Janaka; Niriella, Madunil A; Udara, W S A A Yasith; Ong, David; Ling, Khoon Lin; Ooi, Choon Jin; Hilmi, Ida; Lee Goh, Khean; Ouyang, Qin; Wang, Yu Fang; Wu, Kaichun; Wang, Xin; Pisespongsa, Pises; Manatsathit, Sathaporn; Aniwan, Satimai; Limsrivilai, Julajak; Gunawan, Jeffri; Simadibrata, Marcellus; Abdullah, Murdani; Tsang, Steve W C; Lo, Fu Hang; Hui, Aric J; Chow, Chung Mo; Yu, Hon Ho; Li, Mo Fong; Ng, Ka Kei; Ching, Jessica Y L; Chan, Victor; Wu, Justin C Y; Chan, Francis K L; Chen, Minhu; Sung, Joseph J Y

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is increasing in Asia, but little is known about disease progression in this region. The Asia-Pacific Crohn's and Colitis Epidemiology Study was initiated in 2011, enrolling subjects from 8 countries in Asia (China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Macau, Malaysia, Singapore, and Thailand) and Australia. We present data from this ongoing study. We collected data on 413 patients diagnosed with IBD (222 with ulcerative colitis [UC], 181 with Crohn's disease [CD], 10 with IBD unclassified; median age, 37 y) from 2011 through 2013. We analyzed the disease course and severity and mortality. Risks for medical and surgical therapies were assessed using Kaplan-Meier analysis. The cumulative probability that CD would change from inflammatory to stricturing or penetrating disease was 19.6%. The cumulative probabilities for use of immunosuppressants or anti-tumor necrosis factor agents were 58.9% and 12.0% for patients with CD, and 12.7% and 0.9% for patients with UC, respectively. Perianal CD was associated with an increased risk of anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy within 1 year of its diagnosis (hazard ratio, 2.97; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-8.09). The cumulative probabilities for surgery 1 year after diagnosis were 9.1% for patients with CD and 0.9% for patients with UC. Patients with CD and penetrating disease had a 7-fold increase for risk of surgery, compared with patients with inflammatory disease (hazard ratio, 7.67; 95% confidence interval, 3.93-14.96). The overall mortality for patients with IBD was 0.7%. In a prospective population-based study, we found that the early course of disease in patients with IBD in Asia was comparable with that of the West. Patients with CD frequently progress to complicated disease and have accelerated use of immunosuppressants. Few patients with early stage UC undergo surgery in Asia. Increasing our understanding of IBD progression in different populations can help optimize therapy

  3. Utility of circulating serum miRNAs as biomarkers of early cartilage degeneration in animal models of post-traumatic osteoarthritis and inflammatory arthritis.

    PubMed

    Kung, L H W; Zaki, S; Ravi, V; Rowley, L; Smith, M M; Bell, K M; Bateman, J F; Little, C B

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if serum microRNA (miRNA) signatures were biomarkers of early cartilage degeneration in preclinical mouse models of post-traumatic osteoarthritis (OA) and inflammatory arthritis. Cartilage degeneration was induced in 10-12 week old male C57BL6 mice by destabilization of the medial meniscus (DMM) or intra-articular injection of methylated-bovine-serum-albumin (AIA), with sham-operated or saline-injected control animals (n = 6/treatment/time). Total serum RNA and knee joints were isolated at 1, 4 and 16 weeks post-induction. Cartilage degeneration was scored histologically. Serum miRNA expression profiling was performed using Agilent microarrays and validated by qPCR. DMM-operated and AIA mice had characteristic cartilage degeneration (proteoglycan loss, chondrocyte hypertrophy, structural damage), that increased significantly with time compared with controls, and with distinct temporal differences between arthritis models. However, expression profiling revealed no statistically significant dysregulation of serum miRNAs between AIA vs saline-injected or DMM vs sham-operated control mice at the critical early disease stages. The inability to detect DMM or AIA serum miRNA signatures compared with controls was not due to the insensitivity of the expression profiling approach since significant changes were observed in miRNA expression between the arthritis models and between time points. While distinct patterns of progressive cartilage degradation were induced in the arthritis models, we were unable to identify any serum miRNAs that were significantly dysregulated in early stages of disease compared with controls. This suggests circulating serum miRNAs may not be useful as cartilage biomarkers in distinguishing the early or progressive stages of arthritis cartilage degeneration. Copyright © 2016 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of N-acetylcysteine on the early expression of inflammatory markers in the retina and plasma of diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Gina Y; Cui, Jing Z; Syed, Husnain; Xia, Zhengyuan; Ozerdem, Ugur; McNeill, John H; Matsubara, Joanne A

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study is to investigate markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in an early model of diabetic retinopathy, correlate retinal and plasma results and evaluate the influence of treatment by N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a free radical scavenger. Methods Four groups were studied: control (C), streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats (D), STZ rats following 8 weeks of NAC (DT), and control rats following 8 weeks of NAC (CT). Plasma levels of free 15-F2t-isoprostane (15-F-2t-IsoP), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were obtained. Primary antibodies against macrophages (ED-1), microglia (Ox-42), pericytes (NG-2), endothelial and perivascular cells (IB-4), haem oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were used. Results Expression of NG-2 was robust in C, CT, DT, and mild in D. The intensity of IB-4 was higher in D and DT compared with the C and CT. Ox-42 and ED-1 expression was higher in the D than in the DT, C or CT. Expression of VEGF and HO-1 was non-specific across the four groups. Plasma levels of 15-F-2t-IsoP and TNF-α were higher in the D as compared with the C, CT and DT. SOD levels were lower in the D when compared with the C, CT and D. Conclusions Macrophage/microglia activation, pericyte loss and endothelial/perivascular cell changes occur early in the pathogenesis of DR. These changes are associated with an increase in plasma markers of oxidative stress and inflammation and are minimized by treatment with NAC. The results suggest that therapies that reduce free radicals will help minimize the early events in diabetic retinopathy in the STZ model. PMID:19723131

  5. Effect of N-acetylcysteine on the early expression of inflammatory markers in the retina and plasma of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Gina Y; Cui, Jing Z; Syed, Husnain; Xia, Zhengyuan; Ozerdem, Ugur; McNeill, John H; Matsubara, Joanne A

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate markers of inflammation and oxidative stress in an early model of diabetic retinopathy, correlate retinal and plasma results and evaluate the influence of treatment by N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a free radical scavenger. Four groups were studied: control (C), streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats (D), STZ rats following 8 weeks of NAC (DT), and control rats following 8 weeks of NAC (CT). Plasma levels of free 15-F2t-isoprostane (15-F-2t-IsoP), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) were obtained. Primary antibodies against macrophages (ED-1), microglia (Ox-42), pericytes (NG-2), endothelial and perivascular cells (IB-4), haem oxygenase 1 (HO-1) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were used. Expression of NG-2 was robust in C, CT, DT, and mild in D. The intensity of IB-4 was higher in D and DT compared with the C and CT. Ox-42 and ED-1 expression was higher in the D than in the DT, C or CT. Expression of VEGF and HO-1 was non-specific across the four groups. Plasma levels of 15-F-2t-IsoP and TNF-alpha were higher in the D as compared with the C, CT and DT. SOD levels were lower in the D when compared with the C, CT and D. Macrophage/microglia activation, pericyte loss and endothelial/perivascular cell changes occur early in the pathogenesis of DR. These changes are associated with an increase in plasma markers of oxidative stress and inflammation and are minimized by treatment with NAC. The results suggest that therapies that reduce free radicals will help minimize the early events in diabetic retinopathy in the STZ model.

  6. Procalcitonin, interleukin 6 and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS): early markers of postoperative sepsis after major surgery.

    PubMed

    Mokart, D; Merlin, M; Sannini, A; Brun, J P; Delpero, J R; Houvenaeghel, G; Moutardier, V; Blache, J L

    2005-06-01

    Patients who undergo major surgery for cancer are at high risk of postoperative sepsis. Early markers of septic complications would be useful for diagnosis and therapeutic management in patients with postoperative sepsis. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between early (first postoperative day) changes in interleukin 6 (IL-6), procalcitonin (PCT) and C-reactive protein (CRP) serum concentrations and the occurrence of subsequent septic complications after major surgery. Serial blood samples were collected from 50 consecutive patients for determination of IL-6, PCT and CRP serum levels. Blood samples were obtained on the morning of surgery and on the morning of the first postoperative day. Sixteen patients developed septic complications during the first five postoperative days (group 1), and 34 patients developed no septic complications (group 2). On day 1, PCT and IL-6 levels were significantly higher in group 1 (P-values of 0.003 and 0.006, respectively) but CRP levels were similar. An IL-6 cut-off point set at 310 pg ml(-1) yielded a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 58% to differentiate group 1 patients from group 2 patients. When associated with the occurrence of SIRS on day 1 these values reached 100% and 79%, respectively. A PCT cut-off point set at 1.1 ng ml(-1) yielded a sensitivity of 81% and a specificity of 72%. When associated with the occurrence of SIRS on day 1, these values reached 100% and 86%, respectively. PCT and IL-6 appear to be early markers of subsequent postoperative sepsis in patients undergoing major surgery for cancer. These findings could allow identification of postoperative septic complications.

  7. Early Anti-inflammatory and Pro-angiogenic Myocardial Effects of Intravenous Serelaxin Infusion for 72 H in an Experimental Rat Model of Acute Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Mas, Jesus; Lax, Antonio; Asensio-Lopez, Mari C; Lencina, Miriam; Fernandez-Del Palacio, Maria J; Soriano-Filiu, Angela; de Boer, Rudolf A; Pascual-Figal, Domingo A

    2017-12-01

    Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to acute myocardial infarction (AMI) by permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. At the time of AMI, a subcutaneous mini-osmotic pump was implanted and animals were randomized into three groups, according to the intravenous therapy received during the first 72 h: placebo-treated (saline), serelaxin10-treated (SRLX10 = 10 μg/kg/day), or serelaxin30-treated (SRLX30 = 30 μg/kg/day). Treatment with SRLX30 reduced the expression of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, as well as the infiltration of macrophages, and increased the expression of pro-angiogenic markers and vessel density in the infarcted myocardium after 7 days. SRLX30 did not reduce early myocardial fibrosis but reduced myocardial levels of sST2 and galectin-3. No significant effects were observed with SRLX10 treatment. A significant correlation was observed between plasma levels of serelaxin and effect measures. The results suggest serelaxin has a protective effect in early processes of cardiac remodeling after AMI.

  8. Early-life experience decreases drug-induced reinstatement of morphine CPP in adulthood via microglial-specific epigenetic programming of anti-inflammatory IL-10 expression.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Jaclyn M; Hutchinson, Mark R; Bilbo, Staci D

    2011-12-07

    A critical component of drug addiction research involves identifying novel biological mechanisms and environmental predictors of risk or resilience to drug addiction and associated relapse. Increasing evidence suggests microglia and astrocytes can profoundly affect the physiological and addictive properties of drugs of abuse, including morphine. We report that glia within the rat nucleus accumbens (NAcc) respond to morphine with an increase in cytokine/chemokine expression, which predicts future reinstatement of morphine conditioned place preference (CPP) following a priming dose of morphine. This glial response to morphine is influenced by early-life experience. A neonatal handling paradigm that increases the quantity and quality of maternal care significantly increases baseline expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 within the NAcc, attenuates morphine-induced glial activation, and prevents the subsequent reinstatement of morphine CPP in adulthood. IL-10 expression within the NAcc and reinstatement of CPP are negatively correlated, suggesting a protective role for this specific cytokine against morphine-induced glial reactivity and drug-induced reinstatement of morphine CPP. Neonatal handling programs the expression of IL-10 within the NAcc early in development, and this is maintained into adulthood via decreased methylation of the IL-10 gene specifically within microglia. The effect of neonatal handling is mimicked by pharmacological modulation of glia in adulthood with ibudilast, which increases IL-10 expression, inhibits morphine-induced glial activation within the NAcc, and prevents reinstatement of morphine CPP. Taken together, we have identified a novel gene × early-life environment interaction on morphine-induced glial activation and a specific role for glial activation in drug-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior.

  9. Early-Life Experience Decreases Drug-Induced Reinstatement of Morphine CPP in Adulthood via Microglial-Specific Epigenetic Programming of Anti-Inflammatory IL-10 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Jaclyn M.; Hutchinson, Mark R.; Bilbo, Staci D.

    2012-01-01

    A critical component of drug addiction research involves identifying novel biological mechanisms and environmental predictors of risk or resilience to drug addiction and associated relapse. Increasing evidence suggests microglia and astrocytes can profoundly affect the physiological and addictive properties of drugs of abuse, including morphine. We report that glia within the rat Nucleus Accumbens (NAcc) respond to morphine with an increase in cytokine/chemokine expression, which predicts future reinstatement of morphine conditioned place preference (CPP) following a priming dose of morphine. This glial response to morphine is influenced by early-life experience. A neonatal handling paradigm that increases the quantity and quality of maternal care significantly increases baseline expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 within the NAcc, attenuates morphine-induced glial activation, and prevents the subsequent reinstatement of morphine CPP in adulthood. IL-10 expression within the NAcc and reinstatement of CPP are negatively correlated, suggesting a protective role for this specific cytokine against morphine-induced glial reactivity and drug-induced reinstatement of morphine CPP. Neonatal handling programs the expression of IL-10 within the NAcc early in development, and this is maintained into adulthood via decreased methylation of the IL-10 gene specifically within microglia. The effect of neonatal handling is mimicked by pharmacological modulation of glia in adulthood with Ibudilast, which increases IL-10 expression, inhibits morphine-induced glial activation within the NAcc, and prevents reinstatement of morphine CPP. Taken together, we have identified a novel gene X early-life environment interaction on morphine-induced glial activation, and a specific role for glial activation in drug-induced reinstatement of drug-seeking behavior. PMID:22159099

  10. Analysis of the influence of respiratory disorders observed in preoperative spirometry on the dynamics of early inflammatory response in patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass grafting

    PubMed Central

    Szylińska, Aleksandra; Listewnik, Mariusz J; Rotter, Iwona; Rył, Aleksandra; Biskupski, Andrzej; Brykczyński, Mirosław

    2017-01-01

    Background Preoperative spirometry provides measurable information about the occurrence of respiratory disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the association between preoperative spirometry abnormalities and the intensification of early inflammatory responses in patients following coronary artery bypass graft in extracorporeal circulation. Material and methods The study involved 810 patients (625 men and 185 women) aged 65.4±7.9 years who were awaiting isolated coronary artery bypass surgery. On the basis of spirometry performed on the day of admittance to the hospital, the patients were divided into three groups. Patients without respiratory problems constituted 78.8% of the entire group. Restricted breathing was revealed by spirometry in 14.9% and obstructive breathing in 6.3% of patients. Results Inter-group analysis showed statistically significant differences in C-reactive protein (CRP) between patients with restrictive spirometry abnormalities and patients without any pulmonary dysfunction. CRP concentrations differed before surgery (P=0.006) and on the second (P<0.001), fourth (P=0.005) and sixth days after surgery (P=0.029). There was a negative correlation between CRP levels and FEV1. Conclusion In our study, the most common pulmonary disorders in the coronary artery bypass graft patients were restrictive. Patients with abnormal spirometry results from restrictive respiratory disorders have an elevated level of generalized inflammatory response both before and after the isolated coronary artery bypass surgery. Therefore, this group of patients should be given special postoperative monitoring and, in particular, intensive respiratory rehabilitation immediately after reconstitution. PMID:28769557

  11. Influence of G308A polymorphism of tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene on inflammatory markers in postsurgical head and neck cancer patients with early enteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    de Luis, Daniel Antonio; Sagrado, Manue Gonzalez; Vallejo, Luis Angel; Carcedo, Luis María Gil; Izaola, Olatz; Cuellar, Luis; Terroba, María Concepción; Aller, Rocío

    2007-01-01

    Although immune dysfunction in patients with cancer could be multifactorial, the immune system may be modulated by nutritional substrates and genetic background. Our study evaluated the effect of G308A polymorphism of the tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) gene on inflammatory markers in patients after surgery for head and neck cancer who received early enteral nutrition. A population of 60 patients with oral and laryngeal cancer was enrolled. At surgery patients were treated with a hyperproteic enteral diet. Perioperatively and on postoperative day 6 the following parameters were evaluated: serum values of prealbumin, transferrin, total number of lymphocytes, interleukin-6, TNF-alpha, and C-reactive protein. In addition, genotyping of G308A gene polymorphism was assessed. Patients' mean age was 61.1 +/- 14.6 y (four women, 56 men) with a body mass index of 25.4 +/- 5.2 kg/m(2) and a previous weight loss of 0.35 +/- 0.2 kg. Forty patients (37 men, 3 women; 66.6%) had the genotype G308/G308 (wild group) and 20 patients (19 men, 1 woman; 23.4%) had the genotype G308/A308 (mutant group). A significant increase in prealbumin and transferrin levels was detected in both groups. C-reactive protein decreased in both groups (wild group: 105.1 +/- 60 versus 53.8 +/- 62.3 mg/dL, P < 0.05; mutant group: 99.5 +/- 46 versus 43.9 +/- 51.9 mg/dL, P < 0.05). Interleukin-6 decreased in both groups (wild group: 20.1 +/- 22 versus 6.2 +/- 4.1 pg/mL, P < 0.05; mutant group: 22.3 +/- 38 versus 9.2 +/- 7.4 pg/mL, P = NS). Lymphocytes increased in both groups (wild group: 1102 +/- 468 versus 1600 +/- 537 10(3)/mL, P = NS; mutant group: 1441 +/- 739 10(3)/mL versus 1669 +/- 614 10(6)/mL, P = NS). TNF-alpha showed no changes. The G308A polymorphism of the TNF-alpha gene did not affect levels of inflammatory markers in patients after surgery for head and neck cancer who were treated with early enteral nutrition.

  12. Early Changes in Ocular Surface and Tear Inflammatory Mediators after Small-Incision Lenticule Extraction and Femtosecond Laser-Assisted Laser In Situ Keratomileusis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shaohui; Li, Saiqun; Liu, Liangping; Wang, Yong; Ding, Hui; Li, Lili; Zhong, Xingwu

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To characterize the early ocular-surface changes or tear inflammatory-mediators levels following small-incision lenticule extraction (ReLEx smile) and femtosecond laser-assisted laser in situ keratomileusis (FS-LASIK). Methods Forty-seven myopic subjects were recruited for this prospective study. Fifteen underwent ReLEx smile and thirty-two underwent FS-LASIK. Corneal fluorescein (FL) staining, tear break-up time (TBUT), Schirmer I test (SIT), ocular surface disease index (OSDI) and central corneal sensitivity were evaluated in all participants. Tears were collected and analyzed for interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nerve growth factor (NGF) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) levels using multiplex magnetic beads. All measurements were preformed preoperatively and 1 day, 1 week, 1 month and 3 months postoperatively. Results FL scores in ReLEx smile group were lower than those of FS-LASIK group 1 week postoperatively (P = 0.010). Compared to the FS-LASIK group, longer TBUT were observed in ReLEx smile group 1 month (P = 0.029) and 3 months (P = 0.045) postoperatively. No significant differences were found in tear secretion for the two groups (P>0.05). OSDI scores were higher in FS-LASIK group 1 month after surgery (P = 0.020). Higher central corneal sensitivity was observed in ReLEx smile group 1 week, 1 month and 3 months (P<0.05) postoperatively. Compared to FS-LASIK group, lower and faster recovery of IL-6 and NGF levels in tears was observed in ReLEx smile group postoperatively (P<0.05). Tears TNF-α and ICAM-1 concentrations were not significantly different between the two groups at any follow-up time (P>0.05). Moreover, IL-6 and NGF levels correlated with ocular surface changes after ReLEx smile or FS-LASIK. Conclusions In the early postoperative period, ReLEx smile results in milder ocular surface changes than FS-LASIK. Furthermore, the tear inflammatory mediators IL-6 and NGF may play a crucial role

  13. Early changes in ocular surface and tear inflammatory mediators after small-incision lenticule extraction and femtosecond laser-assisted laser in situ keratomileusis.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shaohui; Li, Saiqun; Liu, Liangping; Wang, Yong; Ding, Hui; Li, Lili; Zhong, Xingwu

    2014-01-01

    To characterize the early ocular-surface changes or tear inflammatory-mediators levels following small-incision lenticule extraction (ReLEx smile) and femtosecond laser-assisted laser in situ keratomileusis (FS-LASIK). Forty-seven myopic subjects were recruited for this prospective study. Fifteen underwent ReLEx smile and thirty-two underwent FS-LASIK. Corneal fluorescein (FL) staining, tear break-up time (TBUT), Schirmer I test (SIT), ocular surface disease index (OSDI) and central corneal sensitivity were evaluated in all participants. Tears were collected and analyzed for interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nerve growth factor (NGF) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) levels using multiplex magnetic beads. All measurements were preformed preoperatively and 1 day, 1 week, 1 month and 3 months postoperatively. FL scores in ReLEx smile group were lower than those of FS-LASIK group 1 week postoperatively (P = 0.010). Compared to the FS-LASIK group, longer TBUT were observed in ReLEx smile group 1 month (P = 0.029) and 3 months (P = 0.045) postoperatively. No significant differences were found in tear secretion for the two groups (P>0.05). OSDI scores were higher in FS-LASIK group 1 month after surgery (P = 0.020). Higher central corneal sensitivity was observed in ReLEx smile group 1 week, 1 month and 3 months (P<0.05) postoperatively. Compared to FS-LASIK group, lower and faster recovery of IL-6 and NGF levels in tears was observed in ReLEx smile group postoperatively (P<0.05). Tears TNF-α and ICAM-1 concentrations were not significantly different between the two groups at any follow-up time (P>0.05). Moreover, IL-6 and NGF levels correlated with ocular surface changes after ReLEx smile or FS-LASIK. In the early postoperative period, ReLEx smile results in milder ocular surface changes than FS-LASIK. Furthermore, the tear inflammatory mediators IL-6 and NGF may play a crucial role in the ocular surface healing process following Re

  14. Early changes in inflammatory and pro-thrombotic biomarkers in patients initiating antiretroviral therapy with abacavir or tenofovir

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Abacavir has been associated with an increased risk of acute myocardial infarction, but the pathogenic mechanisms remain unknown. We evaluated longitudinal changes in pro-atherosclerotic biomarkers in patients initiating abacavir or tenofovir. Methods Consecutive patients initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) with abacavir/lamivudine or tenofovir/emtricitabine were included. Plasma levels of high sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were measured at baseline and at different time points throughout 48 weeks. Comparisons were adjusted for age, sex, ART status at inclusion, viral load, lipodystrophy, Framingham score and hepatitis C virus co-infection status. Results 50 patients were analyzed, 28 initiating abacavir and 22 tenofovir. The endothelial biomarker sVCAM-1 declined significantly in both treatment groups. hsCRP tended to increase soon after starting therapy with abacavir, a trend that was not seen in those initiating tenofovir. IL-6 significantly increased only at week 24 from baseline in patients on abacavir (+225%, p < 0.01) although the differences were not significant between groups. The procoagulant biomarker PAI-1 plasma levels increased from baseline at week 12 (+57%; p = 0.017), week 24 (+72%; p = 0.008), and week 48 (+149%; p < 0.001) in patients on tenofovir, but differences between groups were not statistically significant. Conclusion Changes in biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation, and endothelial function are not different in viremic patients starting ART with abacavir/lamivudine or tenofovir/emtricitabine. These changes occur in the early phases of treatment and include anti- and pro-atherosclerotic effects with both drugs. PMID:21294867

  15. Early changes in inflammatory and pro-thrombotic biomarkers in patients initiating antiretroviral therapy with abacavir or tenofovir.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Sergio; Masiá, Mar; García, Natalia; Jarrin, Inmaculada; Tormo, Consuelo; Gutiérrez, Félix

    2011-02-04

    Abacavir has been associated with an increased risk of acute myocardial infarction, but the pathogenic mechanisms remain unknown. We evaluated longitudinal changes in pro-atherosclerotic biomarkers in patients initiating abacavir or tenofovir. Consecutive patients initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) with abacavir/lamivudine or tenofovir/emtricitabine were included. Plasma levels of high sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) were measured at baseline and at different time points throughout 48 weeks. Comparisons were adjusted for age, sex, ART status at inclusion, viral load, lipodystrophy, Framingham score and hepatitis C virus co-infection status. 50 patients were analyzed, 28 initiating abacavir and 22 tenofovir. The endothelial biomarker sVCAM-1 declined significantly in both treatment groups. hsCRP tended to increase soon after starting therapy with abacavir, a trend that was not seen in those initiating tenofovir. IL-6 significantly increased only at week 24 from baseline in patients on abacavir (+225%, p < 0.01) although the differences were not significant between groups. The procoagulant biomarker PAI-1 plasma levels increased from baseline at week 12 (+57%; p = 0.017), week 24 (+72%; p = 0.008), and week 48 (+149%; p < 0.001) in patients on tenofovir, but differences between groups were not statistically significant. Changes in biomarkers of inflammation, coagulation, and endothelial function are not different in viremic patients starting ART with abacavir/lamivudine or tenofovir/emtricitabine. These changes occur in the early phases of treatment and include anti- and pro-atherosclerotic effects with both drugs.

  16. Functional capacities of human IgM memory B cells in early inflammatory responses and secondary germinal center reactions.

    PubMed

    Seifert, Marc; Przekopowitz, Martina; Taudien, Sarah; Lollies, Anna; Ronge, Viola; Drees, Britta; Lindemann, Monika; Hillen, Uwe; Engler, Harald; Singer, Bernhard B; Küppers, Ralf

    2015-02-10

    The generation and functions of human peripheral blood (PB) IgM(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B lymphocytes with somatically mutated IgV genes are controversially discussed. We determined their differential gene expression to naive B cells and to IgM-only and IgG(+) memory B cells. This analysis revealed a high similarity of IgM(+)(IgD(+))CD27(+) and IgG(+) memory B cells but also pointed at distinct functional capacities of both subsets. In vitro analyses revealed a tendency of activated IgM(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B cells to migrate to B-cell follicles and undergo germinal center (GC) B-cell differentiation, whereas activated IgG(+) memory B cells preferentially showed a plasma cell (PC) fate. This observation was supported by reverse regulation of B-cell lymphoma 6 and PR domain containing 1 and differential BTB and CNC homology 1, basic leucine zipper transcription factor 2 expression. Moreover, IgM(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B lymphocytes preferentially responded to neutrophil-derived cytokines. Costimulation with catecholamines, carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule 8 (CEACAM8), and IFN-γ caused differentiation of IgM(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B cells into PCs, induced class switching to IgG2, and was reproducible in cocultures with neutrophils. In conclusion, this study substantiates memory B-cell characteristics of human IgM(+)IgD(+)CD27(+) B cells in that they share typical memory B-cell transcription patterns with IgG(+) post-GC B cells and show a faster and more vigorous restimulation potential, a hallmark of immune memory. Moreover, this work reveals a functional plasticity of human IgM memory B cells by showing their propensity to undergo secondary GC reactions upon reactivation, but also by their special role in early inflammation via interaction with immunomodulatory neutrophils.

  17. Modulation of the Early Inflammatory Microenvironment in the Alkali-Burned Eye by Systemically Administered Interferon-γ-Treated Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Javorkova, Eliska; Trosan, Peter; Zajicova, Alena; Krulova, Magdalena; Hajkova, Michaela

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of systemically administered bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) on the early acute phase of inflammation in the alkali-burned eye. Mice with damaged eyes were either untreated or treated 24 h after the injury with an intravenous administration of fluorescent-dye-labeled MSCs that were unstimulated or pretreated with interleukin-1α (IL-1α), transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β), or interferon-γ (IFN-γ). Analysis of cell suspensions prepared from the eyes of treated mice on day 3 after the alkali burn revealed that MSCs specifically migrated to the damaged eye and that the number of labeled MSCs was more than 30-times higher in damaged eyes compared with control eyes. The study of the composition of the leukocyte populations within the damaged eyes showed that all types of tested MSCs slightly decreased the number of infiltrating lymphoid and myeloid cells, but only MSCs pretreated with IFN-γ significantly decreased the percentage of eye-infiltrating cells with a more profound effect on myeloid cells. Determining cytokine and NO production in the damaged eyes confirmed that the most effective immunomodulation was achieved with MSCs pretreated with IFN-γ, which significantly decreased the levels of the proinflammatory molecules IL-1α, IL-6, and NO. Taken together, the results show that systemically administered MSCs specifically migrate to the damaged eye and that IFN-γ-pretreated MSCs are superior in inhibiting the acute phase of inflammation, decreasing leukocyte infiltration, and attenuating the early inflammatory environment. PMID:24849741

  18. [Nutrition and chronic polyarthritis].

    PubMed

    Diethelm, U

    1993-03-23

    Patients suffering from chronic and incurable diseases often try to influence their symptoms by dietary modification. The effect of complete fasting on pain in rheumatoid arthritis is remarkable, but not fully understood. Polyunsaturated fatty-acids, specially omega-3-fatty-acids from fish oil, are significant as precursors of mediators for inflammation. In rare instances food allergy may cause or aggravate arthritis. The actual knowledge is presented in a concentrated form and some practical advice is given.

  19. Place of upbringing in early childhood as related to inflammatory bowel diseases in adulthood: a population-based cohort study in Northern Europe.

    PubMed

    Timm, Signe; Svanes, Cecilie; Janson, Christer; Sigsgaard, Torben; Johannessen, Ane; Gislason, Thorarinn; Jogi, Rain; Omenaas, Ernst; Forsberg, Bertil; Torén, Kjell; Holm, Mathias; Bråbäck, Lennart; Schlünssen, Vivi

    2014-06-01

    The two inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, has increased rapidly during the twentieth century, but the aetiology is still poorly understood. Impaired immunological competence due to decreasing biodiversity and altered microbial stimulation is a suggested explanation. Place of upbringing was used as a proxy for the level and diversity of microbial stimulation to investigate the effects on the prevalence of IBD in adulthood. Respiratory Health in Northern Europe (RHINE) III is a postal follow-up questionnaire of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS) cohorts established in 1989-1992. The study population was 10,864 subjects born 1945-1971 in Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Iceland and Estonia, who responded to questionnaires in 2000-2002 and 2010-2012. Data were analysed in logistic and Cox regression models taking age, sex, smoking and body mass index into consideration. Being born and raised on a livestock farm the first 5 years of life was associated with a lower risk of IBD compared to city living in logistic (OR 0.54, 95 % CI 0.31; 0.94) and Cox regression models (HR 0.55, 95 % CI 0.31; 0.98). Random-effect meta-analysis did not identify geographical difference in this association. Furthermore, there was a significant trend comparing livestock farm living, village and city living (p < 0.01). Sub-analyses showed that the protective effect was only present among subjects born after 1952 (OR 0.25, 95 % CI 0.11; 0.61). This study suggests a protective effect from livestock farm living in early childhood on the occurrence of IBD in adulthood, however only among subjects born after 1952. We speculate that lower microbial diversity is an explanation for the findings.

  20. Neutrophil depletion in the early inflammatory phase delayed cutaneous wound healing in older rats: improvements due to the use of un-denatured camel whey protein

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background While it is known that advanced age alters the recruitment of neutrophils during wound healing, thereby delaying the wound healing process, little is known about prolonged wound healing in advanced ages. Thus, we investigated the correlation of neutrophil recruitment with healing events, and the impact of whey protein (WP) on neutrophil activation. Methods The animals were allocated into wounded young group, wounded older group and wounded older rats with daily treatment of WP at a dose of 100 mg/kg of body weight. Results Our results pointed to a marked deficiency in the number of neutrophils in the wounds of older rats, which was accompanied with impairment of the healing process. In the group of older rats, phagocytic activity, as tested by fluorescence microscopy, declined throughout the first 24 hours after wounding. Both the neutrophil number and the phagocytic activity recovered in older rats which received WP supplementation. Interestingly, WP was found to significantly up-regulate the MIP-1α and CINC-1 mRNA expression in old rats. On the other hand, the wound size in older rats was significantly higher than that in younger ones. Blood angiogenesis was also significantly delayed in the older group as opposed to the young rats. WP, however, was found to return these indices to normal levels in the older rats. Proliferation and epidermal migration of the keratinocytes and the collagen deposition were also returned to the normal rates. Conclusions This data confirms the critical role of neutrophil recruitment in the early inflammatory phase of wound healing in older rats. In addition, WP protein was used to improve neutrophil function in older rats, healing events returned to a more normal profile. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2100966986117779. PMID:24593823

  1. Diesel exhaust particles (DEP) induce an early redox imbalance followed by an IL-6 mediated inflammatory response on human conjunctival epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lasagni Vitar, Romina M; Tau, Julia; Janezic, Natasha S; Tesone, Agustina I; Hvozda Arana, Ailen G; Reides, Claudia G; Berra, Alejandro; Ferreira, Sandra M; Llesuy, Susana F

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the time course of oxidative stress markers and inflammatory mediators in human conjunctival epithelial cells (IOBA-NHC) exposed to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) for 1, 3, and 24 h. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, lipid and protein oxidation, Nrf2 pathway activation, enzymatic antioxidants, glutathione (GSH) levels and synthesis, as well as cytokine release and cell proliferation were analyzed. Cells exposed to DEP showed an increase in ROS at all time points. The induction of NADPH oxidase-4 appeared later than mitochondrial superoxide anion production, when the cell also underwent a proinflammatory response mediated by IL-6. DEP exposure triggered the activation of Nrf2 in IOBA-NHC, as a strategy for increasing cellular antioxidant capacity. Antioxidant enzyme activities were significantly increased at early stages except for glutathione reductase (GR) that showed a significant decrease after a 3-h-incubation. GSH levels were found increased after 1 and 3 h of incubation with DEP, despite the increase in its consumption by the antioxidant enzymes as it works as a cofactor. GSH recycling and the de novo synthesis were responsible for the maintenance of its content at these time points, respectively. After 24 h, the decrease in GR and glutamate cysteine ligase as wells as the enhanced activity of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione S-transferase produced a depletion in the GSH pool. Lipid-peroxidation was found increased in cells exposed to DEP after 1-h-incubation, whereas protein oxidation was found increased in cells exposed to DEP after a 3-h-incubation that persisted after a longer exposure. Furthermore, DEP lead IOBA-NHC cells to hyperplasia after 1 and 3 h of incubation, but a decrease in cell proliferation was found after longer exposure. ROS production seems to be an earlier event triggered by DEP on IOBA-NHC, comparing to the proinflammatory response mediated by IL-6. Despite the fact that under

  2. High serum macrophage inflammatory protein-3α is associated with the early recurrence or metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer following primary pulmonary resection

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, XIAOPENG; MENG, AIHONG; WANG, HUIEN; YAN, XIXIN

    2014-01-01

    The present study sought to characterize the role of macrophage inflammatory protein-3α (MIP-3α) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with early recurrence or metastasis after primary pulmonary resection. Follow-up examinations were conducted for 203 NSCLC patients with primary pulmonary resection for two years post-operatively, and data was also collected for 20 healthy subjects. Serum MIP-3α levels were determined prior to surgery and at post-operative days (PODs) 30, 90 and 180, and the relevant clinical and operative variables were collected. Serum MIP-3α was measured using a commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. There were no significant differences in age, gender and histological type among all groups (P>0.05). Serum MIP-3α levels on POD 180 were significantly higher in the recurrence group than in the non-recurrence group and healthy subjects (P=0.001). There was no significant difference in the serum MIP-3α level at PODs 90 and 180 in the patients with or without adjuvant chemotherapy (P>0.05). The recurrence rate in the high serum MIP-3α level group was 41.67%, much higher than the 23.53% observed in the low level group (P=0.006). The patients with high serum levels of MIP-3α had a significantly shorter overall recurrence-free time compared with those with low levels (P=0.004). Multivariate Cox’s regression analyses showed that only serum MIP-3α level was significant, with a hazard ratio of 1.061, a 95% confidence interval of 1.044–1.078 and a P-value of 0.001. The serum MIP-3α level in the patients with liver and bone metastases were remarkably higher than those with recurrence at other sites. The high post-operative serum MIP-3α levels were associated with an increased risk of post-operative early recurrence or metastasis in the lung cancer patients, specifically in those with bone or liver metastases. PMID:25013520

  3. Use of complementary and alternative medicines is associated with delay to initiation of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug therapy in early inflammatory arthritis.

    PubMed

    Lahiri, Manjari; Santosa, Amelia; Teoh, Lay Kheng; Clayton, Jane A; Lim, Sheen Yee; Teng, Gim Gee; Cheung, Peter P M

    2017-05-01

    To study the predictors of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use in patients with early inflammatory arthritis (EIA), and its impact on delay to initiation of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARD). Data were collected prospectively from EIA patients aged ≥ 21 years. Current or prior CAM use was ascertained by face-to-face interview. Predictors of CAM use and its effect on time to DMARD initiation were determined by multivariate logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards, respectively. One hundred and eighty patients (70.6% female, 58.3% Chinese), of median (interquartile range [IQR]) age 51.1 (40.9-59.8) years and symptom duration 16.6 (9.2-26.6) weeks were included: 83.9% had rheumatoid arthritis, 57% were seropositive. Median (IQR) Disease Activity Score in 28-joints (DAS28) was 4.3 (2.8-5.7), modified Health Assessment Questionnaire (mHAQ) was 0.38 (0.0-0.88) and 41.3% were CAM users. Chinese race (odds ratio [OR] 5.76 [95%CI 2.53-13.1]), being non-English speaking (OR 2.68 [95% CI 1.18-6.09]), smoking (OR 3.35 [95% CI 1.23-9.15] and high DAS28 (OR 2.73 [95% CI 1.05-7.09] were independent predictors of CAM use. CAM users initiated DMARD later (median [IQR] 21.5 [13.1-30.4] vs. 15.6 [9.4-22.7] weeks in non-users, P = 0.005). CAM use and higher DAS28 were associated with a longer delay to DMARD initiation (hazard ratio [HR] 0.69, 95% CI 0.50-0.95 and 0.63, 95% CI 0.43-0.91, respectively) while higher mHAQ was associated with a shorter delay (HR 1.59, 95% CI 1.08-2.34) and race, education level, being non-English speaking, smoking and seropositivity were not associated. Healthcare professionals should be aware of the unique challenges in treating patients with EIA in Asia. Healthcare beliefs regarding CAM may need to be addressed to reduce treatment delay. © 2017 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  4. Early screening for Chlamydia trachomatis in young women for primary prevention of pelvic inflammatory disease (i-Predict): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tamarelle, Jeanne; Thiébaut, Anne C M; Sabin, Bénédicte; Bébéar, Cécile; Judlin, Philippe; Fauconnier, Arnaud; Rahib, Delphine; Méaude-Roufai, Layidé; Ravel, Jacques; Morré, Servaas A; de Barbeyrac, Bertille; Delarocque-Astagneau, Elisabeth

    2017-11-13

    Genital infection with Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection, especially among young women. Mostly asymptomatic, it can lead, if untreated, to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), tubal factor infertility and ectopic pregnancy. Recent data suggest that Ct infections are not controlled in France and in Europe. The effectiveness of a systematic strategy for Ct screening in under-25 women remains controversial. The main objective of the i-Predict trial (Prevention of Diseases Induced by Chlamydia trachomatis) is to determine whether early screening and treatment of 18- to-24-year-old women for genital Ct infection reduces the incidence of PID over 24 months. This is a randomised prevention trial including 4000 eighteen- to twenty-four-year-old sexually active female students enrolled at five universities. The participants will provide a self-collected vaginal swab sample and fill in an electronic questionnaire at baseline and at 6, 12 and 18 months after recruitment. Vaginal swabs in the intervention arm will be analysed immediately for Ct positivity, and participants will be referred for treatment if they have a positive test result. Vaginal swabs from the control arm will be analysed at the end of the study. All visits to general practitioners, gynaecologists or gynaecology emergency departments for pelvic pain or other gynaecological symptoms will be recorded to evaluate the incidence of PID, and all participants will attend a final visit in a hospital gynaecology department. The primary endpoint measure will be the incidence of PID over 24 months. The outcome status (confirmed, probable or no PID) will be assessed by two independent experts blinded to group assignment and Ct status. This trial is expected to largely contribute to the development of recommendations for Ct screening in young women in France to prevent PID and related complications. It is part of a comprehensive approach to gathering data to

  5. Rural and Urban Residence During Early Life is Associated with Risk of Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Population-Based Inception and Birth Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Benchimol, Eric I; Kaplan, Gilaad G; Otley, Anthony R; Nguyen, Geoffrey C; Underwood, Fox E; Guttmann, Astrid; Jones, Jennifer L; Potter, Beth K; Catley, Christina A; Nugent, Zoann J; Cui, Yunsong; Tanyingoh, Divine; Mojaverian, Nassim; Bitton, Alain; Carroll, Matthew W; deBruyn, Jennifer; Dummer, Trevor J B; El-Matary, Wael; Griffiths, Anne M; Jacobson, Kevan; Kuenzig, M Ellen; Leddin, Desmond; Lix, Lisa M; Mack, David R; Murthy, Sanjay K; Sánchez, Juan Nicolás Peña; Singh, Harminder; Targownik, Laura E; Vutcovici, Maria; Bernstein, Charles N

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the association between inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and rural/urban household at the time of diagnosis, or within the first 5 years (y) of life. Methods: Population-based cohorts of residents of four Canadian provinces were created using health administrative data. Rural/urban status was derived from postal codes based on population density and distance to metropolitan areas. Validated algorithms identified all incident IBD cases from administrative data (Alberta: 1999–2008, Manitoba and Ontario: 1999–2010, and Nova Scotia: 2000–2008). We determined sex-standardized incidence (per 100,000 patient-years) and incident rate ratios (IRR) using Poisson regression. A birth cohort was created of children in whom full administrative data were available from birth (Alberta 1996–2010, Manitoba 1988–2010, and Ontario 1991–2010). IRR was calculated for residents who lived continuously in rural/urban households during each of the first 5 years of life. Results: There were 6,662 rural residents and 38,905 urban residents with IBD. Incidence of IBD per 100,000 was 33.16 (95% CI 27.24–39.08) in urban residents, and 30.72 (95% CI 23.81–37.64) in rural residents (IRR 0.90, 95% CI 0.81–0.99). The protective association was strongest in children <10 years (IRR 0.58, 95% CI 0.43–0.73) and 10–17.9 years (IRR 0.72, 95% CI 0.64–0.81). In the birth cohort, comprising 331 rural and 2,302 urban residents, rurality in the first 1–5 years of life was associated with lower risk of IBD (IRR 0.75–0.78). Conclusions: People living in rural households had lower risk of developing IBD. This association is strongest in young children and adolescents, and in children exposed to the rural environment early in life. PMID:28741616

  6. Activation of bradykinin B2 receptor induced the inflammatory responses of cytosolic phospholipase A2 after the early traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Chao, Honglu; Liu, Yinlong; Lin, Chao; Xu, Xiupeng; Li, Zheng; Bao, Zhongyuan; Fan, Liang; Tao, Chao; Zhao, Lin; Liu, Yan; Wang, Xiaoming; You, Yongping; Liu, Ning; Ji, Jing

    2018-06-09

    Phospholipase A 2 is a known aggravator of inflammation and deteriorates neurological outcomes after traumatic brain injury (TBI), however the exact inflammatory mechanisms remain unknown. This study investigated the role of bradykinin and its receptor, which are known initial mediators within inflammation activation, as well as the mechanisms of the cytosolic phospholipase A 2 (cPLA 2 )-related inflammatory responses after TBI. We found that cPLA 2 and bradykinin B2 receptor were upregulated after a TBI. Rats treated with the bradykinin B2 receptor inhibitor LF 16-0687 exhibited significantly less cPLA 2 expression and related inflammatory responses in the brain cortex after sustaining a controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury. Both the cPLA 2 inhibitor and the LF16-0687 improved CCI rat outcomes by decreasing neuron death and reducing brain edema. The following TBI model utilized both primary astrocytes and primary neurons in order to gain further understanding of the inflammation mechanisms of the B2 bradykinin receptor and the cPLA 2 in the central nervous system. There was a stronger reaction from the astrocytes as well as a protective effect of LF16-0687 after the stretch injury and bradykinin treatment. The protein kinase C pathway was thought to be involved in the B2 bradykinin receptor as well as the cPLA 2 -related inflammatory responses. Rottlerin, a Protein Kinase C (PKC) δ inhibitor, decreased the activity of the cPLA 2 activity post-injury, and LF16-0687 suppressed both the PKC pathway and the cPLA 2 activity within the astrocytes. These results indicated that the bradykinin B2 receptor-mediated pathway is involved in the cPLA 2 -related inflammatory response from the PKC pathway. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Successful treatment with adalimumab for severe multifocal choroiditis and panuveitis in presumed (early-onset) ocular sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Achille, Marino; Ilaria, Pagnini; Teresa, Giani; Roberto, Caputo; Ilir, Arapi; Piergiorgio, Neri; Rolando, Cimaz; Gabriele, Simonini

    2016-02-01

    Early-onset sarcoidosis (EOS) and Blau syndrome are rare auto-inflammatory diseases characterized by a triad of skin rash, granulomatous uveitis, and symmetrical polyarthritis occurring in early childhood. In this paper, we describe a case report very interesting for the multidisciplinary management (pediatric rheumatologist and ophthalmologist), the challenging diagnosis and the difficult choice of the best treatment. We describe a case report of an 8-year old with recurrent episodes of acute uveitis that developed bilateral granulomatous panuveitis initially treated with topical and systemic steroids. Genetic testing for NOD2/CARD15 revealed a heterozygous mutation on exon 4 in the NBD domain (P268S/SNP5). Therefore, an incomplete EOS was suspected. Because uveitis worsening with multifocal chorioretinitis aggravation, intravenous boluses of methylprednisolone were administered. During the steroids tapering, she flared again, and methotrexate was started along with corticosteroids pulse therapy. However, new ocular granuloma appeared, macular oedema with poor visual outcome occurred, and therefore, adalimumab was added to MTX and steroids. After 6 months since the new therapy started, she had a complete visual recovery, and she was able to stop steroid treatment. At 2 years of follow-up, she is still in remission on treatment, and her visual acuity is normal. No side effects were observed. In our patient, we found a heterozygous mutation on exon 4 in the NBD domain (P268S/SNP5) of NOD2/CARD15 gene and an incomplete EOS was hypothesized. The role of this variant is currently under study. Adalimumab use dramatically changed the course of eye disease, prompting to stop steroid treatment and preserving visual acuity.

  8. Dietary l-threonine supplementation attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses and intestinal barrier damage of broiler chickens at an early age.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yueping; Zhang, Hao; Cheng, Yefei; Li, Yue; Wen, Chao; Zhou, Yanmin

    2018-06-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the protective effects of l-threonine (l-Thr) supplementation on growth performance, inflammatory responses and intestinal barrier function of young broilers challenged with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). A total of 144 1-d-old male chicks were allocated to one of three treatments: non-challenged broilers fed a basal diet (control group), LPS-challenged broilers fed a basal diet without l-Thr supplementation and LPS-challenged broilers fed a basal diet supplemented with 3·0 g/kg l-Thr. LPS challenge was performed intraperitoneally at 17, 19 and 21 d of age, whereas the control group received physiological saline injection. Compared with the control group, LPS challenge impaired growth performance of broilers, and l-Thr administration reversed LPS-induced increase in feed/gain ratio. LPS challenge elevated blood cell counts related to inflammation, and pro-inflammatory cytokine concentrations in serum (IL-1β and TNF-α), spleen (IL-1β and TNF-α) and intestinal mucosa (jejunal interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and ileal IL-1β). The concentrations of intestinal cytokines in LPS-challenged broilers were reduced by l-Thr supplementation. LPS administration increased circulating d-lactic acid concentration, whereas it reduced villus height, the ratio between villus height and crypt depth and goblet density in both jejunum and ileum. LPS-induced decreases in jejunal villus height, intestinal villus height:crypt depth ratio and ileal goblet cell density were reversed with l-Thr supplementation. Similarly, LPS-induced alterations in the intestinal mRNA abundances of genes related to intestinal inflammation and barrier function (jejunal toll-like receptor 4, IFN- γ and claudin-3, and ileal IL-1 β and zonula occludens-1) were normalised with l-Thr administration. It can be concluded that l-Thr supplementation could attenuate LPS-induced inflammatory responses and intestinal barrier damage of young broilers.

  9. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS)

    PubMed Central

    Balk, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    The concept of a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) to describe the complex pathophysiologic response to an insult such as infection, trauma, burns, pancreatitis, or a variety of other injuries came from a 1991 consensus conference charged with the task of developing an easy-to-apply set of clinical parameters to aid in the early identification of potential candidates to enter into clinical trials to evaluate new treatments for sepsis. There was recognition that a diverse group of injuries produced a common inflammatory response in the host and provided attractive targets for new anti-inflammatory molecules designed to prevent further propagation and/or provide specific treatment. Effective application of these new anti-inflammatory strategies necessitated identification of early clinical markers that could be assessed in real-time and were likely to define a population of patients that would have a beneficial response to the targeted intervention. It was felt that early clinical manifestations might be more readily available to clinicians than more sophisticated and specific assays for inflammatory substances that were systemically released by the network of injurious inflammatory events. Therefore, the early definition of a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) was built upon a foundation of basic clinical and laboratory abnormalities that were readily available in almost all clinical settings. With further refinement, it was hoped, that this definition would have a high degree of sensitivity, coupled with a reasonable degree of specificity. This manuscript reviews the derivation, application, utilization, potential benefits, and speculation regarding the future of the SIRS definition. PMID:24280933

  10. The Impact of Low-Dose Disease-modifying Anti-rheumatics Drugs (DMARDs) on Bone Mineral Density of Premenopausal Women in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Rexhepi, Sylejman; Rexhepi, Mjellma; Sahatçiu-Meka, Vjollca; Mahmutaj, Vigan; Boshnjaku, Shkumbin

    2016-04-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by symmetrical polyarthritis and multisystemic involvement. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of low dose of methotrexate on bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This paper follows a retrospective study, which involves 60 female patients with early onset RA diagnosed according to the American Rheumatism Association Criteria (ACR/EULAR 2010). The patients were divided into two groups group I was composed of thirty patients treated with dose of 7.5 mg/weekly methotrexate (MTX), while group II included thirty patients treated with dose of 2 g/daily sulfasalazine (SSZ). The Disease Activity was measured by a combination of Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) and Disease Activity Score (DAS-28). Bone mineral density of the lumbar spine (L2-4), and femoral neck, was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) (Stratos 800). Laboratory findings included: In this study, we found no negative effect on BMD in RA patients treated with low dose MTX in comparison to patients treated with SSZ. There was not observed significant difference in BMD of the lumbar spine, femur neck or trochanter, of MTX and SSZ patients in the pretreatment phase, nor after 12 months of treatment. No significant change in the biochemical parameters of the both groups. Based on the results of our study, low dose of methotrexate has no negative effect on BMD in premenopausal RA patients. We believe that these results might provide new insights and that further longitudinal studies with larger groups of premenopausal RA patients are required.

  11. The Impact of Low-Dose Disease-modifying Anti-rheumatics Drugs (DMARDs) on Bone Mineral Density of Premenopausal Women in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Rexhepi, Sylejman; Rexhepi, Mjellma; Sahatçiu-Meka, Vjollca; Mahmutaj, Vigan; Boshnjaku, Shkumbin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by symmetrical polyarthritis and multisystemic involvement. Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of low dose of methotrexate on bone mineral density (BMD) in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Materials and methods: This paper follows a retrospective study, which involves 60 female patients with early onset RA diagnosed according to the American Rheumatism Association Criteria (ACR/EULAR 2010). The patients were divided into two groups group I was composed of thirty patients treated with dose of 7.5 mg/weekly methotrexate (MTX), while group II included thirty patients treated with dose of 2 g/daily sulfasalazine (SSZ). The Disease Activity was measured by a combination of Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate (ESR) and Disease Activity Score (DAS-28). Bone mineral density of the lumbar spine (L2–4), and femoral neck, was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) (Stratos 800). Laboratory findings included: In this study, we found no negative effect on BMD in RA patients treated with low dose MTX in comparison to patients treated with SSZ. There was not observed significant difference in BMD of the lumbar spine, femur neck or trochanter, of MTX and SSZ patients in the pretreatment phase, nor after 12 months of treatment. No significant change in the biochemical parameters of the both groups. Conclusion: Based on the results of our study, low dose of methotrexate has no negative effect on BMD in premenopausal RA patients. We believe that these results might provide new insights and that further longitudinal studies with larger groups of premenopausal RA patients are required. PMID:27147781

  12. Inflammatory Bowel Disease in Primary Immunodeficiencies.

    PubMed

    Kelsen, Judith R; Sullivan, Kathleen E

    2017-08-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is most often a polygenic disorder with contributions from the intestinal microbiome, defects in barrier function, and dysregulated host responses to microbial stimulation. There is, however, increasing recognition of single gene defects that underlie a subset of patients with inflammatory bowel disease, particularly those with early-onset disease, and this review focuses on the primary immunodeficiencies associated with early-onset inflammatory bowel disease. The advent of next-generation sequencing has led to an improved recognition of single gene defects underlying some cases of inflammatory bowel disease. Among single gene defects, immune response genes are the most frequent category identified. This is also true of common genetic variants associated with inflammatory bowel disease, supporting a pivotal role for host responses in the pathogenesis. This review focuses on practical aspects related to diagnosis and management of children with inflammatory bowel disease who have underlying primary immunodeficiencies.

  13. TNFα Altered Inflammatory Responses, Impaired Health and Productivity, but Did Not Affect Glucose or Lipid Metabolism in Early-Lactation Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Mamedova, Laman K.; Sordillo, Lorraine M.; Bradford, Barry J.

    2013-01-01

    Inflammation may be a major contributing factor to peripartum metabolic disorders in dairy cattle. We tested whether administering an inflammatory cytokine, recombinant bovine tumor necrosis factor-α (rbTNFα), affects milk production, metabolism, and health during this period. Thirty-three Holstein cows (9 primiparous and 24 multiparous) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatments at parturition. Treatments were 0 (Control), 1.5, or 3.0 µg/kg body weight rbTNFα, which were administered once daily by subcutaneous injection for the first 7 days of lactation. Statistical contrasts were used to evaluate the treatment and dose effects of rbTNFα administration. Plasma TNFα concentrations at 16 h post-administration tended to be increased (P<0.10) by rbTNFα administration, but no dose effect (P>0.10) was detected; rbTNFα treatments increased (P<0.01) concentrations of plasma haptoglobin. Most plasma eicosanoids were not affected (P>0.10) by rbTNFα administration, but 6 out of 16 measured eicosanoids changed (P<0.05) over the first week of lactation, reflecting elevated inflammatory mediators in the days immediately following parturition. Dry matter and water intake, milk yield, and milk fat and protein yields were all decreased (P<0.05) by rbTNFα treatments by 15 to 18%. Concentrations of plasma glucose, insulin, β-hydroxybutyrate, non-esterified fatty acids, triglyceride, 3-methylhistidine, and liver triglyceride were unaffected (P>0.10) by rbTNFα treatment. Glucose turnover rate was unaffected (P = 0.18) by rbTNFα administration. The higher dose of rbTNFα tended to increase the risk of cows developing one or more health disorders (P = 0.08). Taken together, these results indicate that administration of rbTNFα daily for the first 7 days of lactation altered inflammatory responses, impaired milk production and health, but did not significantly affect liver triglyceride accumulation or nutrient metabolism in dairy cows. PMID:24260367

  14. Anti-inflammatory response of dietary vitamin E and its effects on pain and joint structures during early stages of surgically induced osteoarthritis in dogs

    PubMed Central

    Rhouma, Mohamed; de Oliveira El Warrak, Alexander; Troncy, Eric; Beaudry, Francis; Chorfi, Younès

    2013-01-01

    There is evidence that vitamin E (VE) has anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties in human osteoarthritis (OA). This double-blinded and randomized pilot study used a broad spectrum of clinical and laboratory parameters to investigate whether such beneficial effects could be detected in a canine experimental OA model. Dogs were divided into 2 groups: control (n = 8), which received a placebo, and test group (n = 7), which received 400 IU/animal per day of VE for 55 d, starting the day after transection of the cranial cruciate ligament. Lameness and pain were assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS), numerical rating scale (NRS), and electrodermal activity (EDA) at day 0, day 28, and day 55. Cartilage and synovial inflammation lesions were assessed. One-side comparison was conducted at an alpha-threshold of 10%. At day 56, dogs were euthanized and concentrations of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) were measured in synovial fluid. Concentrations of NOx and PGE2 in synovial fluid were lower in the test group (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.03, respectively). Values of VAS, NRS, and EDA showed a consistent trend to be lower in the test group than in the control, while statistical significance was reached for VAS at day 55 and for EDA at day 28 (adjusted P = 0.07 in both cases). Histological analyses of cartilage showed a significant reduction in the scores of lesions in the test group. This is the first time that a study in dogs with OA using a supplement with a high dose of vitamin E showed a reduction in inflammation joint markers and histological expression, as well as a trend to improving signs of pain. PMID:24101795

  15. Anti-inflammatory response of dietary vitamin E and its effects on pain and joint structures during early stages of surgically induced osteoarthritis in dogs.

    PubMed

    Rhouma, Mohamed; de Oliveira El Warrak, Alexander; Troncy, Eric; Beaudry, Francis; Chorfi, Younès

    2013-07-01

    There is evidence that vitamin E (VE) has anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties in human osteoarthritis (OA). This double-blinded and randomized pilot study used a broad spectrum of clinical and laboratory parameters to investigate whether such beneficial effects could be detected in a canine experimental OA model. Dogs were divided into 2 groups: control (n = 8), which received a placebo, and test group (n = 7), which received 400 IU/animal per day of VE for 55 d, starting the day after transection of the cranial cruciate ligament. Lameness and pain were assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS), numerical rating scale (NRS), and electrodermal activity (EDA) at day 0, day 28, and day 55. Cartilage and synovial inflammation lesions were assessed. One-side comparison was conducted at an alpha-threshold of 10%. At day 56, dogs were euthanized and concentrations of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) were measured in synovial fluid. Concentrations of NOx and PGE2 in synovial fluid were lower in the test group (P < 0.0001 and P = 0.03, respectively). Values of VAS, NRS, and EDA showed a consistent trend to be lower in the test group than in the control, while statistical significance was reached for VAS at day 55 and for EDA at day 28 (adjusted P = 0.07 in both cases). Histological analyses of cartilage showed a significant reduction in the scores of lesions in the test group. This is the first time that a study in dogs with OA using a supplement with a high dose of vitamin E showed a reduction in inflammation joint markers and histological expression, as well as a trend to improving signs of pain.

  16. Inflammatory cytokine levels in synovial fluid 3, 4 days postoperatively and its correlation with early-phase functional recovery after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Makiko; Muneta, Takeshi; Ojima, Miyoko; Nakamura, Kaori; Koga, Hideyuki; Sekiya, Ichiro; Okazaki, Mutsumi; Tsuji, Kunikazu

    2016-12-01

    Synovial fluid was collected prior to and at 3 to 4 days after ACL reconstruction to investigate the correlation between inflammatory cytokine levels in the acute phase after surgery and physical functional recovery at 3 months postoperatively.  For this purpose, 79 patients with ACL reconstruction using semitendinosus tendons were included in the study. Median days from injury to surgery were 80 days (13-291 days). Synovial fluid was obtained just before surgery and at 3 to 4 days after surgery. Physical activity of each patient was evaluated at 3 months postoperatively, and scored from 0 (hard to walk) to 5 (run). Patients able to jog (score 4) or run (score 5) were considered as the "quick recovery" group and others (scores 1-3) as the "delayed recovery" group. Physical activity recovery scores in the early surgery group (preoperative period less than 60 days; Group I) were significantly better than those in the delayed surgery group (Group II). Among the cytokines tested, TNF-alpha and IL10 levels in synovial fluid were significantly higher in Group II at 3 to 4 days postoperatively, while levels of these cytokines were quite comparable preoperatively between the groups. Increased IL1-beta expression was noted in the delayed recovery group at 3 to 4 days postoperatively. In addition, levels of IL6, IL10 and IFN-gamma also tended to increase in patients with delayed recovery. Delayed ACL reconstruction increases levels of inflammatory cytokines in synovial fluid after surgery and correlates with a prolonged recovery of short-period physical activity of the patients.

  17. Clopidogrel-Induced Recurrent Polyarthritis.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Sahil; Harburger, Joseph; Stallings, Gary; Agrawal, Nikhil; Garg, Jalaj

    2013-01-01

    Clopidogrel is an oral thienopyridine and together with aspirin is a component of dual antiplatelet therapy for the prevention of stent thrombosis after intracoronary stent placement. The common adverse effects from its use are an increased risk of bleeding, neutropenia, and rash. Arthralgia and backache are also known to occur with its use. There have been case reports linking arthritis with the use of clopidogrel. We describe the case of a 64-year-old man who reported symptoms of fever and joint pains following initiation of therapy with clopidogrel. Acute-phase reactants were elevated. Laboratory and radiologic testing were unremarkable. Incidentally, he reported experiencing a similar arthritis after he received a loading dose of clopidogrel prior to a diagnostic coronary angiography in the past. The symptoms improved dramatically on discontinuation of clopidogrel. There was no recurrence of symptoms with prasugrel. This describes possibly the second incidence of recurrent arthritis with clopidogrel therapy.

  18. The Calcium-binding Proteins S100A8 and S100A9 Initiate the Early Inflammatory Program in Injured Peripheral Nerves*

    PubMed Central

    Chernov, Andrei V.; Dolkas, Jennifer; Hoang, Khang; Angert, Mila; Srikrishna, Geetha; Vogl, Thomas; Baranovskaya, Svetlana; Strongin, Alex Y.; Shubayev, Veronica I.

    2015-01-01

    To shed light on the early immune response processes in severed peripheral nerves, we performed genome-wide transcriptional profiling and bioinformatics analyses of the proximal (P, regenerating) and distal (D, degenerating) nerve stumps on day 1 in the sciatic nerve axotomy model in rats. Multiple cell death-related pathways were activated in the degenerating D stump, whereas activation of the cytoskeletal motility and gluconeogenesis/glycolysis pathways was most prominent in the P stump of the axotomized nerve. Our bioinformatics analyses also identified the specific immunomodulatory genes of the chemokine, IL, TNF, MHC, immunoglobulin-binding Fc receptor, calcium-binding S100, matrix metalloproteinase, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase, and ion channel families affected in both the P and D segments. S100a8 and S100a9 were the top up-regulated genes in both the P and D segments. Stimulation of cultured Schwann cells using the purified S100A8/A9 heterodimer recapitulated activation of the myeloid cell and phagocyte chemotactic genes and pathways, which we initially observed in injured nerves. S100A8/A9 heterodimer injection into the intact nerve stimulated macrophage infiltration. We conclude that, following peripheral nerve injury, an immediate acute immune response occurs both distal and proximal to the lesion site and that the rapid transcriptional activation of the S100a8 and S100a9 genes results in S100A8/A9 hetero- and homodimers, which stimulate the release of chemokines and cytokines by activated Schwann cells and generate the initial chemotactic gradient that guides the transmigration of hematogenous immune cells into the injured nerve. PMID:25792748

  19. Pelvic inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Hanna, L; Highleyman, L

    1996-03-01

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a generic term relating to a broad range of conditions. The term is used to describe infections of the fallopian tubes, uterus, ovaries, or peritoneum. PID is a potentially life-threatening condition in any woman, but HIV-positive women are at serious risk of severe complications or death. PID is caused when infection-producing organisms spread upwards from the vagina through the cervix to the upper reproductive organs. Untreated sexually transmitted diseases are a leading cause of PID. Consequences include chronic pelvic pain, abdominal abscesses, inflammation of the covering of the liver, sepsis, and death. Sterility may also result from PID. PID is generally treated with a combination of antibiotics, and it is crucial to treat other concurrent infections as well. Early treatment of PID in HIV-positive women is essential.

  20. The Relationship Between Function and Disease Activity as Measured by the HAQ and DAS28 Varies Over Time and by Rheumatoid Factor Status in Early Inflammatory Arthritis (EIA). Results from the CATCH Cohort.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Tristan A; Bonner, A; Thorne, C; Boire, G; Hitchon, C; Haraoui, B P; Keystone, E C; Bykerk, V P; Pope, J E

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between function and disease activity in early inflammatory arthritis (EIA). Canadian Early Arthritis Cohort (CATCH) (n=1143) is a multi-site EIA cohort. Correlations between the Health Assessment Questionnaire Disability Index (HAQ) and DAS28 were done at every 3 months for the first year and then at 18 and 24 months. We also investigated the relationship between HAQ and DAS28 by age (<65 versus ≥65) and RF (positive vs negative). Mean HAQ and DAS28 scores were highest at the initial visit with HAQ decreasing over 24 months from a baseline of 0.94 to 0.40 and DAS28 scores decreasing from 4.54 to 2.29. All correlations between HAQ and DAS28 were significant at all time points (p<0.01). The correlations between HAQ and DAS28 were variable over time. The strongest correlation between HAQ and DAS28 occurred at initial visit (most DMARD naive) (n=1,143) and 18 months (r=0.57, n=321) and 24 months (r=0.59, n=214). The baseline correlation between HAQ and DAS28 was significantly different than correlations obtained at 3, 6, and 12 months (p=0.02, 0.01, and 0.01, respectively). Age did not change the association between HAQ and DAS28 {<65 years old (r=0.50, n=868) versus ≥65 (r=0.48, n=254), p=0.49}. The correlation between HAQ and DAS28 was stronger with RF+ patients (r=0.63, n=636) vs RF negative (r=0.47, n=477), p=0.0043. Over 2 years in EIA, HAQ and DAS both improved; correlations at time points were different over 2 years and RF status affected the correlations.

  1. Accelerated hematopoietic syndrome after radiation doses bridging hematopoietic (H-ARS) and gastrointestinal (GI-ARS) acute radiation syndrome: early hematological changes and systemic inflammatory response syndrome in minipig.

    PubMed

    Moroni, Maria; Elliott, Thomas B; Deutz, Nicolaas E; Olsen, Cara H; Owens, Rossitsa; Christensen, Christine; Lombardini, Eric D; Whitnall, Mark H

    2014-05-01

    To characterize acute radiation syndrome (ARS) sequelae at doses intermediate between the bone marrow (H-ARS) and full gastrointestinal (GI-ARS) syndrome. Male minipigs, approximately 5 months old, 9-12 kg in weight, were irradiated with Cobalt-60 (total body, bilateral gamma irradiation, 0.6 Gy/min). Endpoints were 10-day survival, gastrointestinal histology, plasma citrulline, bacterial translocation, vomiting, diarrhea, vital signs, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), febrile neutropenia (FN). We exposed animals to doses (2.2-5.0 Gy) above those causing H-ARS (1.6-2.0 Gy), and evaluated development of ARS. Compared to what was observed during H-ARS (historical data: Moroni et al. 2011a , 2011c ), doses above 2 Gy produced signs of increasingly severe pulmonary damage, faster deterioration of clinical conditions, and faster increases in levels of C-reactive protein (CRP). In the range of 4.6-5.0 Gy, animals died by day 9-10; signs of the classic GI syndrome, as measured by diarrhea, vomiting and bacterial translocation, did not occur. At doses above 2 Gy we observed transient reduction in circulating citrulline levels, and animals exhibited earlier depletion of blood elements and faster onset of SIRS and FN. An accelerated hematopoietic subsyndrome (AH-ARS) is observed at radiation doses between those producing H-ARS and GI-ARS. It is characterized by early onset of SIRS and FN, and greater lung damage, compared to H-ARS.

  2. A low-glycemic index meal and bedtime snack prevents postprandial hyperglycemia and associated rises in inflammatory markers, providing protection from early but not late nocturnal hypoglycemia following evening exercise in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Matthew D; Walker, Mark; Trenell, Michael I; Stevenson, Emma J; Turner, Daniel; Bracken, Richard M; Shaw, James A; West, Daniel J

    2014-07-01

    To examine the influence of the glycemic index (GI) of foods consumed after evening exercise on postprandial glycemia, metabolic and inflammatory markers, and nocturnal glycemic control in type 1 diabetes. On two evenings (∼1700 h), 10 male patients (27 ± 5 years of age, HbA1c 6.7 ± 0.7% [49.9 ± 8.1 mmol/mol]) were administered a 25% rapid-acting insulin dose with a carbohydrate bolus 60 min before 45 min of treadmill running. At 60 min postexercise, patients were administered a 50% rapid-acting insulin dose with one of two isoenergetic meals (1.0 g carbohdyrate/kg body mass [BM]) matched for macronutrient content but of either low GI (LGI) or high GI (HGI). At 180 min postmeal, the LGI group ingested an LGI snack and the HGI group an HGI snack (0.4 g carbohdyrate/kg BM) before returning home (∼2300 h). Interval samples were analyzed for blood glucose and lactate; plasma glucagon, epinephrine, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α); and serum insulin, cortisol, nonesterified fatty acid, and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations. Interstitial glucose was recorded for 20 h postlaboratory attendance through continuous glucose monitoring. Following the postexercise meal, an HGI snack induced hyperglycemia in all patients (mean ± SD glucose 13.5 ± 3.3 mmol/L) and marked increases in TNF-α and IL-6, whereas relative euglycemia was maintained with an LGI snack (7.7 ± 2.5 mmol/L, P < 0.001) without inflammatory cytokine elevation. Both meal types protected all patients from early hypoglycemia. Overnight glycemia was comparable, with a similar incidence of nocturnal hypoglycemia (n = 5 for both HGI and LGI). Consuming LGI food with a reduced rapid-acting insulin dose following evening exercise prevents postprandial hyperglycemia and inflammation and provides hypoglycemia protection for ∼8 h postexercise; however, the risk of late nocturnal hypoglycemia remains. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association.

  3. Fine-mapping the MHC locus in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) reveals genetic heterogeneity corresponding to distinct adult inflammatory arthritic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hinks, A; Cobb, J; Ainsworth, H C; Marion, M C; Comeau, M E; Sudman, M; Han, B; Becker, M L; Bohnsack, J F; de Bakker, P I W; Haas, J P; Hazen, M; Lovell, D J; Nigrovic, P A; Nordal, E; Punnaro, M; Rosenberg, A M; Rygg, M; Wise, C A; Videm, V; Wedderburn, L R; Yarwood, A; Yeung, R S M; Prahalad, S; Langefeld, C D; Raychaudhuri, S; Thompson, S D; Thomson, W

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a heterogeneous group of diseases, comprising seven categories. Genetic data could potentially be used to help redefine JIA categories and improve the current classification system. The human leucocyte antigen (HLA) region is strongly associated with JIA. Fine-mapping of the region was performed to look for similarities and differences in HLA associations between the JIA categories and define correspondences with adult inflammatory arthritides. Methods Dense genotype data from the HLA region, from the Immunochip array for 5043 JIA cases and 14 390 controls, were used to impute single-nucleotide polymorphisms, HLA classical alleles and amino acids. Bivariate analysis was performed to investigate genetic correlation between the JIA categories. Conditional analysis was used to identify additional effects within the region. Comparison of the findings with those in adult inflammatory arthritic diseases was performed. Results We identified category-specific associations and have demonstrated for the first time that rheumatoid factor (RF)-negative polyarticular JIA and oligoarticular JIA are genetically similar in their HLA associations. We also observe that each JIA category potentially has an adult counterpart. The RF-positive polyarthritis association at HLA-DRB1 amino acid at position 13 mirrors the association in adult seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Interestingly, the combined oligoarthritis and RF-negative polyarthritis dataset shares the same association with adult seronegative RA. Conclusions The findings suggest the value of using genetic data in helping to classify the categories of this heterogeneous disease. Mapping JIA categories to adult counterparts could enable shared knowledge of disease pathogenesis and aetiology and facilitate transition from paediatric to adult services. PMID:27998952

  4. Fine-mapping the MHC locus in juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) reveals genetic heterogeneity corresponding to distinct adult inflammatory arthritic diseases.

    PubMed

    Hinks, A; Bowes, J; Cobb, J; Ainsworth, H C; Marion, M C; Comeau, M E; Sudman, M; Han, B; Becker, M L; Bohnsack, J F; de Bakker, P I W; Haas, J P; Hazen, M; Lovell, D J; Nigrovic, P A; Nordal, E; Punnaro, M; Rosenberg, A M; Rygg, M; Smith, S L; Wise, C A; Videm, V; Wedderburn, L R; Yarwood, A; Yeung, R S M; Prahalad, S; Langefeld, C D; Raychaudhuri, S; Thompson, S D; Thomson, W

    2017-04-01

    Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a heterogeneous group of diseases, comprising seven categories. Genetic data could potentially be used to help redefine JIA categories and improve the current classification system. The human leucocyte antigen (HLA) region is strongly associated with JIA. Fine-mapping of the region was performed to look for similarities and differences in HLA associations between the JIA categories and define correspondences with adult inflammatory arthritides. Dense genotype data from the HLA region, from the Immunochip array for 5043 JIA cases and 14 390 controls, were used to impute single-nucleotide polymorphisms, HLA classical alleles and amino acids. Bivariate analysis was performed to investigate genetic correlation between the JIA categories. Conditional analysis was used to identify additional effects within the region. Comparison of the findings with those in adult inflammatory arthritic diseases was performed. We identified category-specific associations and have demonstrated for the first time that rheumatoid factor (RF)-negative polyarticular JIA and oligoarticular JIA are genetically similar in their HLA associations. We also observe that each JIA category potentially has an adult counterpart. The RF-positive polyarthritis association at HLA-DRB1 amino acid at position 13 mirrors the association in adult seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Interestingly, the combined oligoarthritis and RF-negative polyarthritis dataset shares the same association with adult seronegative RA. The findings suggest the value of using genetic data in helping to classify the categories of this heterogeneous disease. Mapping JIA categories to adult counterparts could enable shared knowledge of disease pathogenesis and aetiology and facilitate transition from paediatric to adult services. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  5. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education FAQs Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) FAQ077, September 2015 ... on Patient Safety For Patients Patient FAQs Spanish Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & Governance ...

  6. Inflammatory Response in Islet Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Kanak, Mazhar A.; Kunnathodi, Faisal; Lawrence, Michael C.; Levy, Marlon F.

    2014-01-01

    Islet cell transplantation is a promising beta cell replacement therapy for patients with brittle type 1 diabetes as well as refractory chronic pancreatitis. Despite the vast advancements made in this field, challenges still remain in achieving high frequency and long-term successful transplant outcomes. Here we review recent advances in understanding the role of inflammation in islet transplantation and development of strategies to prevent damage to islets from inflammation. The inflammatory response associated with islets has been recognized as the primary cause of early damage to islets and graft loss after transplantation. Details on cell signaling pathways in islets triggered by cytokines and harmful inflammatory events during pancreas procurement, pancreas preservation, islet isolation, and islet infusion are presented. Robust control of pre- and peritransplant islet inflammation could improve posttransplant islet survival and in turn enhance the benefits of islet cell transplantation for patients who are insulin dependent. We discuss several potent anti-inflammatory strategies that show promise for improving islet engraftment. Further understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in the inflammatory response will provide the basis for developing potent therapeutic strategies for enhancing the quality and success of islet transplantation. PMID:24883060

  7. Silibinin induces apoptosis of HT29 colon carcinoma cells through early growth response-1 (EGR-1)-mediated non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene-1 (NAG-1) up-regulation.

    PubMed

    Woo, Seon Min; Min, Kyoung-Jin; Kim, Shin; Park, Jong-Wook; Kim, Dong Eun; Chun, Kyung-Soo; Kim, Young Ho; Lee, Tae-Jin; Kim, Sang Hyun; Choi, Yung Hyun; Chang, Jong-Soo; Kwon, Taeg Kyu

    2014-03-25

    Silibinin, an effective anti-cancer and chemopreventive agent, has been shown to exert multiple effects on cancer cells, including inhibition of both cell proliferation and migration. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for these effects are not fully understood. We observed that silibinin significantly induced the expression of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene-1 (NAG-1) in both p53 wild-type and p53-null cancer cell lines, suggesting that silibinin-induced NAG-1 up-regulation is p53-independent manner. Silibinin up-regulates early growth response-1 (EGR-1) expression. The ectopic expression of EGR-1 significantly increased NAG-1 promoter activity and NAG-1 protein expression in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, down-regulation of EGR-1 expression using siRNA markedly reduced silibinin-mediated NAG-1 expression, suggesting that the expression of EGR-1 is critical for silibinin-induced NAG-1 expression. We also observed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated by silibinin; however, ROS did not affect silibinin-induced NAG-1 expression and apoptosis. In addition, we demonstrated that the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) signal transduction pathway is involved in silibinin-induced NAG-1 expression. Inhibitors of p38 MAP kinase (SB203580) attenuated silibinin-induced NAG-1 expression. Furthermore, we found that siRNA-mediated knockdown of NAG-1 attenuated silibinin-induced apoptosis. Collectively, the results of this study demonstrate for the first time that up-regulation of NAG-1 contributes to silibinin-induced apoptosis in cancer cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The Inflammatory Microenvironment in Colorectal Neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Mairi H.; Murray, Graeme I.; Stewart, Keith N.; Norrie, Gillian; Mayer, Claus; Hold, Georgina L.; Thomson, John; Fyfe, Nicky; Hope, Mairi; Mowat, N. Ashley G.; Drew, Janice E.; El-Omar, Emad M.

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Inflammatory activity within the stroma of invasive colorectal tumours is known to be a key predictor of disease activity with type, density and location of immune cells impacting on patient prognosis. To date, there has been no report of inflammatory phenotype within pre-malignant human colonic adenomas. Assessing the stromal microenvironment and particularly, inflammatory activity within colorectal neoplastic lesions is central to understanding early colorectal carcinogenesis. Inflammatory cell infiltrate was assessed by immunohistochemistry in paired colonic adenoma and adjacent normal colonic mucosa samples, and adenomas exhibiting increasing degrees of epithelial cell dysplasia. Macrophage phenotype was assessed using double stain immunohistochemistry incorporating expression of an intracellular enzyme of function. A targeted array of inflammatory cytokine and receptor genes, validated by RT-PCR, was used to assess inflammatory gene expression. Inflammatory cell infiltrates are a key feature of sporadic adenomatous colonic polyps with increased macrophage, neutrophil and T cell (specifically helper and activated subsets) infiltration in adenomatous colonic polyps, that increases in association with characteristics of high malignant potential, namely, increasing degree of cell dysplasia and adenoma size. Macrophages within adenomas express iNOS, suggestive of a pro-inflammatory phenotype. Several inflammatory cytokine genes (CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3, CCL20, IL8, CCL23, CCL19, CCL21, CCL5) are dysregulated in adenomas. This study has provided evidence of increased inflammation within pre-malignant colonic adenomas. This may allow potential mechanistic pathways in the initiation and promotion of early colorectal carcinogenesis to be identified. PMID:21249124

  9. The inflammatory microenvironment in colorectal neoplasia.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mairi H; Murray, Graeme I; Stewart, Keith N; Norrie, Gillian; Mayer, Claus; Hold, Georgina L; Thomson, John; Fyfe, Nicky; Hope, Mairi; Mowat, N Ashley G; Drew, Janice E; El-Omar, Emad M

    2011-01-07

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Inflammatory activity within the stroma of invasive colorectal tumours is known to be a key predictor of disease activity with type, density and location of immune cells impacting on patient prognosis. To date, there has been no report of inflammatory phenotype within pre-malignant human colonic adenomas. Assessing the stromal microenvironment and particularly, inflammatory activity within colorectal neoplastic lesions is central to understanding early colorectal carcinogenesis. Inflammatory cell infiltrate was assessed by immunohistochemistry in paired colonic adenoma and adjacent normal colonic mucosa samples, and adenomas exhibiting increasing degrees of epithelial cell dysplasia. Macrophage phenotype was assessed using double stain immunohistochemistry incorporating expression of an intracellular enzyme of function. A targeted array of inflammatory cytokine and receptor genes, validated by RT-PCR, was used to assess inflammatory gene expression. Inflammatory cell infiltrates are a key feature of sporadic adenomatous colonic polyps with increased macrophage, neutrophil and T cell (specifically helper and activated subsets) infiltration in adenomatous colonic polyps, that increases in association with characteristics of high malignant potential, namely, increasing degree of cell dysplasia and adenoma size. Macrophages within adenomas express iNOS, suggestive of a pro-inflammatory phenotype. Several inflammatory cytokine genes (CXCL1, CXCL2, CXCL3, CCL20, IL8, CCL23, CCL19, CCL21, CCL5) are dysregulated in adenomas. This study has provided evidence of increased inflammation within pre-malignant colonic adenomas. This may allow potential mechanistic pathways in the initiation and promotion of early colorectal carcinogenesis to be identified.

  10. Chemokines involved in the early inflammatory response and in pro-tumoral activity in asbestos-exposed workers from an Italian coastal area with territorial clusters of pleural malignant mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Comar, M; Zanotta, N; Zanconati, F; Cortale, M; Bonotti, A; Cristaudo, A; Bovenzi, M

    2016-04-01

    Immune mediators are likely to be relevant for the biological response to asbestos exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between immune mediators involved in inflammation, cell survival and angiogenesis, and asbestos-related diseases in workers from a coastal area of North-East Italy with a high incidence of pleural malignant mesothelioma (PMM). A selected custom set of 12 soluble mediators was evaluated with a Luminex platform in sera, pleural fluid and mesothelioma biopsies from 123 asbestos-exposed workers (38 free from pleural-pulmonary disorders, 46 with non-malignant asbestos diseases, 39 with PMM) and in sera from 33 healthy controls from the same territorial area. Increased immune mediator concentrations were observed in the sera of the asbestos-exposed workers compared to controls for human fibroblast growth factor (FGF-b), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), CCL5 (RANTES), CXCL10 (IP-10), CLEC11A (SCGF-b), CCL27 (CTACK), CCL11 (EOTAXIN), IL-5 and IL-6 (p<0.001). The chemokines IP-10 and RANTES were associated with the severity of asbestos-related diseases. In the workers with PMM, the immune proteins secreted by mesothelioma biopsies showed detectable levels of RANTES, VEGF, and IP-10. In the same workers with PMM, a significant relationship between serum and pleural fluid concentrations was found for RANTES alone. Occupational exposure to asbestos seems to drive the production of specific growth factors dually involved in the early inflammatory response and in pro-tumoral activity before clinical evidence of related disorders, suggesting that their over-expression may precede the onset of asbestos-related diseases. These findings suggest that some chemokines may have a prognostic role in the progression of asbestos-related diseases and could be used for the health surveillance of either workers with an occupational history of asbestos exposure or patients affected by non-malignant asbestos-related diseases. Copyright

  11. Curcumin in inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Shehzad, Adeeb; Rehman, Gauhar; Lee, Young Sup

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a yellow coloring agent extracted from turmeric is also used as a remedy for the treatment and prevention of inflammatory diseases. Acute and chronic inflammation is a major factor in the progression of obesity, type II diabetes, arthritis, pancreatitis, cardiovascular, neurodegenerative and metabolic diseases, as well as certain types of cancer. Turmeric has a long history of use in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. Recent studies on the efficacy and therapeutic applicability of turmeric have suggested that the active ingredient of tumeric is curcumin. Further, compelling evidence has shown that curcumin has the ability to inhibit inflammatory cell proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis through multiple molecular targets and mechanisms of action. Curcumin is safe, non-toxic, and mediates its anti-inflammatory effects through the down-regulation of inflammatory transcription factors, cytokines, redox status, protein kinases, and enzymes that all promote inflammation. In addition, curcumin induces apoptosis through mitochondrial and receptor-mediated pathways, as well as activation of caspase cascades. In the current study, the anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin were evaluated relative to various chronic inflammatory diseases. Based on the available pharmacological data obtained from in vitro and in vivo research, as well as clinical trials, an opportunity exists to translate curcumin into clinics for the prevention of inflammatory diseases in the near future. Copyright © 2012 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Early growth response protein 1 (EGR1) regulates pro-inflammatory gene expression in response to palmitate and TNF alpha in human placenta cells and is induced in obese placenta

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Maternal obesity has been hypothesized to induce a pro-inflammatory response in the placenta. However, the specific factors contributing to this pro-infalmmatory response are yet to be determined. Our objective was to examine the effects of palmitic acid (PA), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alph...

  13. Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation response plays an important role in host survival, and it also leads to acute and chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, bowel diseases, allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis and various neurodegenerative diseases. During the course of inflammation, the ROS level increases. In addition to ROS, several inflammatory mediators produced at the site lead to numerous cell-mediated damages. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, is a chronic intestinal disorder resulting from a dysfunctional epithelial, innate and adaptive immune response to intestinal microorganisms. The methods involving indomethacin-induced enterocolitis in rats with macroscopic changes of IBD, myeloperoxidase assay, microscopic (histologic) characters and biochemical parameters are discussed.

  14. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection and inflammation of the uterus, ovaries, and other female reproductive organs. It causes scarring ... United States. Gonorrhea and chlamydia, two sexually transmitted diseases, are the most common causes of PID. Other ...

  15. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... ovary, and, occasionally, other adjacent pelvic organs. The microbiology of TOAs is similar to PID and the ... Viberga I, Odlind V, Lazdane G, et al. Microbiology profile in women with pelvic inflammatory disease in ...

  16. Anti-inflammatory Diets.

    PubMed

    Sears, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Chronic disease is driven by inflammation. This article will provide an overview on how the balance of macronutrients and omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids in the diet can alter the expression of inflammatory genes. In particular, how the balance of the protein to glycemic load of a meal can alter the generation of insulin and glucagon and the how the balance of omega-6 and omega-3 fatty acids can effect eicosanoid formation. Clinical results on the reduction of inflammation following anti-inflammatory diets are discussed as well as the molecular targets of anti-inflammatory nutrition. To overcome silent inflammation requires an anti-inflammatory diet (with omega-3s and polyphenols, in particular those of Maqui). The most important aspect of such an anti-inflammatory diet is the stabilization of insulin and reduced intake of omega-6 fatty acids. The ultimate treatment lies in reestablishing hormonal and genetic balance to generate satiety instead of constant hunger. Anti-inflammatory nutrition, balanced 40:30:30 with caloric restriction, should be considered as a form of gene silencing technology, in particular the silencing of the genes involved in the generation of silent inflammation. To this anti-inflammatory diet foundation supplemental omega-3 fatty acids at the level of 2-3 g of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) per day should be added. Finally, a diet rich in colorful, nonstarchy vegetables would contribute adequate amounts of polyphenols to help not only to inhibit nuclear factor (NF)-κB (primary molecular target of inflammation) but also activate AMP kinase. Understanding the impact of an anti-inflammatory diet on silent inflammation can elevate the diet from simply a source of calories to being on the cutting edge of gene-silencing technology.

  17. Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Akshay; Bhatia, Vidyut; Sibal, Anupam

    2016-11-15

    The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease is increasing in the pediatric population worldwide. There is paucity of high quality scientific data regarding pediatric inflammatory bowel disease. Most of the guidelines are offshoots of work done in adults, which have been adapted over time to diagnose and treat pediatric patients. This is in part related to the small numbers in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease and less extensive collaboration for multicentric trials both nationally and internationally. A literature search was performed using electronic databases i.e. Pubmed and OVID, using keywords: pediatric, inflammatory bowel disease, Crohns disease, Ulcerative colitis, epidemiology and guidelines. This article amalgamates the broad principles of diagnosing and managing a child with suspected inflammatory bowel disease. 25% of the patients with inflammatory bowel disease are children and and young adolescents. The primary concern is its impact on growth velocity, puberty and quality of life, including psychosocial issues. Treatment guidelines are being re-defined as the drug armamentarium is increasing. The emphasis will be to achieve mucosal healing and normal growth velocity with minimal drug toxicity.

  18. Changes in ion transport in inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Eisenhut, Michael

    2006-03-29

    Ion transport is essential for maintenance of transmembranous and transcellular electric potential, fluid transport and cellular volume. Disturbance of ion transport has been associated with cellular dysfunction, intra and extracellular edema and abnormalities of epithelial surface liquid volume. There is increasing evidence that conditions characterized by an intense local or systemic inflammatory response are associated with abnormal ion transport. This abnormal ion transport has been involved in the pathogenesis of conditions like hypovolemia due to fluid losses, hyponatremia and hypokalemia in diarrhoeal diseases, electrolyte abnormalities in pyelonephritis of early infancy, septicemia induced pulmonary edema, and in hypersecretion and edema induced by inflammatory reactions of the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract. Components of membranous ion transport systems, which have been shown to undergo a change in function during an inflammatory response include the sodium potassium ATPase, the epithelial sodium channel, the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator and calcium activated chloride channels and the sodium potassium chloride co-transporter. Inflammatory mediators, which influence ion transport are tumor necrosis factor, gamma interferon, interleukins, transforming growth factor, leukotrienes and bradykinin. They trigger the release of specific messengers like prostaglandins, nitric oxide and histamine which alter ion transport system function through specific receptors, intracellular second messengers and protein kinases. This review summarizes data on in vivo measurements of changes in ion transport in acute inflammatory conditions and in vitro studies, which have explored the underlying mechanisms. Potential interventions directed at a correction of the observed abnormalities are discussed.

  19. Changes in ion transport in inflammatory disease

    PubMed Central

    Eisenhut, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Ion transport is essential for maintenance of transmembranous and transcellular electric potential, fluid transport and cellular volume. Disturbance of ion transport has been associated with cellular dysfunction, intra and extracellular edema and abnormalities of epithelial surface liquid volume. There is increasing evidence that conditions characterized by an intense local or systemic inflammatory response are associated with abnormal ion transport. This abnormal ion transport has been involved in the pathogenesis of conditions like hypovolemia due to fluid losses, hyponatremia and hypokalemia in diarrhoeal diseases, electrolyte abnormalites in pyelonephritis of early infancy, septicemia induced pulmonary edema, and in hypersecretion and edema induced by inflammatory reactions of the mucosa of the upper respiratory tract. Components of membranous ion transport systems, which have been shown to undergo a change in function during an inflammatory response include the sodium potassium ATPase, the epithelial sodium channel, the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator and calcium activated chloride channels and the sodium potassium chloride co-transporter. Inflammatory mediators, which influence ion transport are tumor necrosis factor, gamma interferon, interleukins, transforming growth factor, leukotrienes and bradykinin. They trigger the release of specific messengers like prostaglandins, nitric oxide and histamine which alter ion transport system function through specific receptors, intracellular second messengers and protein kinases. This review summarizes data on in vivo measurements of changes in ion transport in acute inflammatory conditions and in vitro studies, which have explored the underlying mechanisms. Potential interventions directed at a correction of the observed abnormalities are discussed. PMID:16571116

  20. Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies

    PubMed Central

    Dimachkie, Mazen M.; Barohn, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies are a group of rare disorders including polymyositis (PM), dermatomyositis (DM), and autoimmune necrotizing myopathies (NMs). The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies share many similarities. They present acutely, subacutely, or chronically with marked proximal and symmetric muscle weakness, except for associated distal and asymmetric weakness in inclusion body myositis. The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies also share a variable degree of creatine kinase (CK) elevation and a nonspecifically abnormal electromyogram demonstrating an irritative myopathy. The muscle pathology demonstrates inflammatory exudates of variable distribution within the muscle fascicle. Despite these similarities, the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies are a heterogeneous group. The overlap syndrome (OS) refers to the association of PM, DM, or NM with connective tissue disease, such as scleroderma or systemic lupus erythematosus. In addition to elevated antinuclear antibodies (ANA), patients with OS may be weaker in the proximal arms than the legs mimicking the pattern seen in some muscular dystrophies. In this review, we focus on DM, PM, and NM and examine current and promising therapies. PMID:23117947

  1. Expression of the Inherently Autoreactive Idiotope 9G4 on Autoantibodies to Citrullinated Peptides and on Rheumatoid Factors in Patients with Early and Established Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Cambridge, Geraldine; Moura, Rita A.; Santos, Tania; Khawaja, Akif A.; Polido-Pereira, Joaquim; Canhão, Helena; Leandro, Maria J.; Fonseca, João E.

    2014-01-01

    Background The pre-symptomatic stage of Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with pro-inflammatory cytokines and autoantibodies. High levels and epitope spread by Rheumatoid factors (RhF) and autoantibodies to citrullinated proteins signify progression towards disease expression. In established RA, the persistence of high autoantibody levels reflects production by both long-lived plasma cells and short-lived plasmablasts. Neither the relative contributions to pathogenesis by autoantibodies from either source, nor the factors responsible for deciding the fate of autoantigen specific ‘parent’ B-cells, is understood. Phenotypic markers identifying subsets of autoreactive B-cells are therefore of interest in understanding the origin and perpetuation of the autoimmune response in RA. One such phenotypic marker is the rat monoclonal antibody, 9G4, which recognises an idiotope on immunoglobuins derived from the inherently autoreactive VH-gene, VH4-34. We therefore investigated whether the 9G4 idiotope was expressed on autoantibodies in patients with RA. Methodology/Principal Findings Sera from 19 patients with established RA and those with <1year history of untreated polyarthritis either resolving into RA (n = 42) or non-RA diagnosis (n = 31) were included. Autoantibodies to cyclic citrullinated peptides (CCP), RhF and co-expression of the 9G4 idiotope were measured by ELISA. 9G4 recognised a population of anti-CCP antibodies in the majority of sera from patients with established disease and also in samples from patients with early disaese. 9G4+RhF levels were generally lower and not associated with positivity for, or levels of 9G4+CCP. Conclusions/Significance The persistence of 9G4+ immunoglobulins, of any isotype, in serum is rare. We describe here the novel finding of 9G4 expression on anti-CCP antibodies in patients from the earliest symptoms of RA through to established disease. Our results suggest that 9G4 expression on anti-CCP autoantibodies was

  2. [Atherosclerosis in inflammatory diseases].

    PubMed

    Páramo, José A; Rodríguez, José A; Orbe, Josune

    2007-05-19

    The recognition that inflammation is a hallmark of atherosclerotic disease and its complications has led to a series of studies reporting high prevalence of atherosclerosis in chronic inflammatory diseases. Indeed, chronic immune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis, are associated with proinflammation, accelerated atherosclerosis and increased incidence of cardiovascular disease. Since the susceptibility towards cardiovascular events cannot be explained by classical risk factors, disease-specific pathways have been put forward as additional risk factors, potentially important for future prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis associated with chronic inflammatory diseases.

  3. Brief Report: Course of Active Inflammatory and Fatty Lesions in Patients With Early Axial Spondyloarthritis Treated With Infliximab Plus Naproxen as Compared to Naproxen Alone: Results From the Infliximab As First Line Therapy in Patients with Early Active Axial Spondyloarthritis Trial.

    PubMed

    Poddubnyy, Denis; Listing, Joachim; Sieper, Joachim

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the course of active inflammatory and fatty lesions seen on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with early axial spondyloarthritis (SpA) treated with the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor infliximab added to naproxen as compared to those treated with naproxen alone. A total of 158 patients with active axial SpA were randomized (2:1) to receive 28 weeks of treatment with either infliximab 5 mg/kg plus naproxen 1,000 mg/day or placebo plus naproxen 1,000 mg/day. MRI of the sacroiliac (SI) joints and of the spine was performed at baseline and week 28. Images were scored for active inflammation and for fatty lesions. After 28 weeks, there was a significant reduction of inflammation in the spine and in the SI joints in both treatment groups, which was, however, more prominent in the infliximab plus naproxen group (mean ± SD spine osteitis change score -2.9 ± 5.1, versus -2.0 ± 4.2 in the placebo plus naproxen group [P < 0.001]; SI joint osteitis change score -4.3 ± 5.2 in the infliximab plus naproxen group versus -3.9 ± 3.7 in the placebo plus naproxen group [P = 0.003]). Similarly, there was a significant increase in the fatty lesion score after 28 weeks in both groups; this change did not, however, differ significantly between groups (spine fatty lesion change score 0.8 ± 1.7 in the infliximab plus naproxen group versus 1.0 ± 1.8 in the placebo plus naproxen group [P = 0.72]; SI joint fatty lesion change score 1.7 ± 2.7 in the infliximab plus naproxen group versus 1.4 ± 2.6 in the placebo plus naproxen group [P = 0.86]). These findings indicate that effective antiinflammatory treatment of axial SpA is associated with an increase in fatty lesion scores, independent of concomitant treatment with or without anti-TNF. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  4. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a serious condition, in women. 1 in 8 women with a history of PID experience difficulties getting pregnant. You can prevent PID if you know how to protect yourself. What is PID? Pelvic inflammatory disease is an infection of a woman’s reproductive organs. It is a complication often caused ...

  5. High mortality of juvenile gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) from photobacteriosis is associated with alternative macrophage activation and anti-inflammatory response: results of gene expression profiling of early responses in the head kidney.

    PubMed

    Pellizzari, Caterina; Krasnov, Aleksei; Afanasyev, Sergey; Vitulo, Nicola; Franch, Rafaella; Pegolo, Sara; Patarnello, Tomaso; Bargelloni, Luca

    2013-05-01

    The halophilic bacterium Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida (Phdp) represents a substantial health problem for several fish species in aquaculture. Bacteria that reside free and inside phagocytes cause acute and chronic forms of photobacteriosis. Infections of juveniles rapidly kill up to 90-100% fish. Factors underlying failure of the immune protection against bacteria remain largely unknown. The reported study used a transcriptomic approach to address this issue. Juvenile sea breams (0.5 g) were challenged by immersion in salt water containing 2.89 × 10(8) CFU of a virulent Phdp and the head kidney was sampled after 24- and 48-h. Analyses were performed using the second version of a 44 k oligonucleotide DNA microarray that represents 19,734 sea bream unique transcripts and covers diverse immune pathways. Expression changes of selected immune genes were validated with qPCR. Results suggested rapid recognition of the pathogen, as testified by up-regulation of lectins and antibacterial proteins (bactericidal permeability-increasing protein lectins, lysozyme, intracellular and extracellular proteases), chemokines and chemokine receptors. Increased expression of proteins involved in iron and heme metabolism also could be a response against bacteria that are dependent on iron. However, negative regulators of immune/inflammatory response were preponderant among the up-regulated genes. A remarkable finding was the increased expression of IL-10 in concert with up-regulation of arginase I and II and proteins of the polyamine biosynthesis pathway that diverts the arginine flux from the production of reactive nitrogen species. Such expression changes are characteristic for alternatively activated macrophages that do not develop acute inflammatory responses. Immune suppression can be induced by the host to reduce tissue damages or by the pathogen to evade host response. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The systemic inflammatory response syndrome.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Charles M; Coopersmith, Craig M

    2006-04-01

    The systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is the body's response to an infectious or noninfectious insult. Although the definition of SIRS refers to it as an "inflammatory" response, it actually has pro- and anti-inflammatory components. This review outlines the pathophysiology of SIRS and highlights potential targets for future therapeutic intervention in patients with this complex entity.

  7. Inflammatory Markers and Preeclampsia: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Black, Kathleen Darrah; Horowitz, June Andrews

    Preeclampsia (PE), a serious and variable pregnancy complication affecting 5%-10% of the obstetric population, has an undetermined etiology, yet inflammation is concomitant with its development, particularly in relation to endothelial dysfunction. The purpose of this systematic review was to examine the published evidence concerning an association between PE and inflammatory markers for their usefulness in the prediction or early identification of women with PE in antepartum clinical settings. In this systematic review, we used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health and MEDLINE/OVID were the electronic databases used for identifying published articles. We placed no time limit on the publication year. The search generated 798 articles. After removing duplicates, screening abstracts, and conducting full-text reviews, we retained 73 articles and examined 57 unique markers. This review shows that C-reactive protein and the cytokines, specifically the proinflammatory markers IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor alpha, garner the most support as potential inflammatory markers for clinical surveillance of PE, particularly during the second and third trimesters. Based on this review, we cannot recommend any single inflammatory marker for routine clinical use to predict/identify PE onset or progression. Research is recommended to examine a combination panel of these four inflammatory markers both with and without clinical risk factors toward the goal of translation to practice.

  8. Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Dimachkie, Mazen M.; Barohn, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Opinion statement Chronic Inflammatory polyneuropathies are an important group of neuromuscular disorders that present chronically and progress over more than 8 weeks, being referred to as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Despite tremendous progress in elucidating disease pathogenesis, the exact triggering event remains unknown. Our knowledge regarding diagnosis and management of CIDP and its variants continues to expand, resulting in improved opportunities for identification and treatment. Most clinical neurologists will be involved in the management of patients with these disorders, and should be familiar with available therapies for CIDP. We review the distinctive clinical, laboratory, and electro-diagnostic features that aid in diagnosis. We emphasize the importance of clinical patterns that define treatment responsiveness and the most appropriate therapies in order to improve prognosis. PMID:23564314

  9. [Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy].

    PubMed

    Balke, M; Wunderlich, G; Brunn, A; Fink, G R; Lehmann, H C

    2016-12-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is a chronic progressive or relapsing autoimmune neuropathy with heterogeneous clinical presentation. Symptoms typically include symmetrical, proximal and/or distal paresis and sensory loss. Atypical CIDP variants are increasingly recognized, including subtypes with rapid onset as well as variants with pure sensory, focal or marked asymmetrical deficits. Diagnosis is established by compatible symptoms, characteristic electrophysiological features and cerebrospinal fluid analysis. In unequivocal cases, inflammatory infiltrates in sural nerve biopsy support the diagnosis. Recent studies suggest that diagnostic imaging techniques such as MRI and nerve ultrasound may become useful tools for establishing the diagnosis. First-line therapies include immunoglobulines, steroids, and plasmapheresis. Immunosuppressant agents and monoclonal antibodies are used in therapy-refractory cases or as cortison-saving agents. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Spine Conditions: Mechanical and Inflammatory Low Back Pain.

    PubMed

    Ledford, Christopher

    2017-10-01

    Mechanical low back pain (LBP) is an injury or derangement of an anatomic structure in the low back. When evaluating patients with LBP, clinicians should maintain clinical suspicion for vertebral fracture, cancer, and cauda equina syndrome. Management includes patient education focused on exercise, massage, and behavioral approaches such as cognitive behavioral therapy. Acupuncture can be an effective alternative and specific herbal supplements may provide short-term pain relief. The prognosis for patients with mechanical LBP is good. Inflammatory LBP is pain resulting from a systemic inflammatory condition, often referred to as axial spondyloarthritis. Ankylosing spondylitis is chronic inflammatory LBP characterized by early onset (mean age 24 years), with a higher prevalence in men. Five clinical parameters can help identify inflammatory LBP: improvement with exercise, pain at night, insidious onset, onset at younger than 40 years, and no improvement with rest. Management of inflammatory LBP typically includes nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and structured exercise programs, with emphasis on the involvement of a rheumatology subspecialist. Spondyloarthritis is associated with other rheumatic or autoimmune conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and psoriasis. These should be considered when evaluating patients with inflammatory LBP. Written permission from the American Academy of Family Physicians is required for reproduction of this material in whole or in part in any form or medium.

  11. Keratoconus: an inflammatory disorder?

    PubMed Central

    Galvis, V; Sherwin, T; Tello, A; Merayo, J; Barrera, R; Acera, A

    2015-01-01

    Keratoconus has been classically defined as a progressive, non-inflammatory condition, which produces a thinning and steepening of the cornea. Its pathophysiological mechanisms have been investigated for a long time. Both genetic and environmental factors have been associated with the disease. Recent studies have shown a significant role of proteolytic enzymes, cytokines, and free radicals; therefore, although keratoconus does not meet all the classic criteria for an inflammatory disease, the lack of inflammation has been questioned. The majority of studies in the tears of patients with keratoconus have found increased levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α), and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9. Eye rubbing, a proven risk factor for keratoconus, has been also shown recently to increase the tear levels of MMP-13, IL-6, and TNF-α. In the tear fluid of patients with ocular rosacea, IL-1α and MMP-9 have been reported to be significantly elevated, and cases of inferior corneal thinning, resembling keratoconus, have been reported. We performed a literature review of published biochemical changes in keratoconus that would support that this could be, at least in part, an inflammatory condition. PMID:25931166

  12. The significance and predictive value of free light chains in the urine of patients with chronic inflammatory rheumatic disease.

    PubMed

    Bramlage, Carsten Paul; Froelich, Britta; Wallbach, Manuel; Minguet, Joan; Grupp, Clemens; Deutsch, Cornelia; Bramlage, Peter; Koziolek, Michael; Müller, Gerhard Anton

    2016-12-01

    In patients with rheumatic diseases, reliable markers for determining disease activity are scarce. One potential parameter is the level of immunoglobulin free light chains (FLCs), which is known to be elevated in the blood of patients with certain rheumatic diseases. Few studies have quantified FLCs in urine, a convenient source of test sample, in patients with different rheumatic diseases. We carried out a retrospective analysis of patients with rheumatic disease attending the University hospital of Goettingen, Germany. Subjects were included if they had urine levels of both κ and λ FLCs available and did not have myeloma. Data regarding systemic inflammation and kidney function were recorded, and FLC levels were correlated with inflammatory markers. Of the 382 patients with rheumatic disease, 40.1 % had chronic polyarthritis, 21.2 % connective tissue disease, 18.6 % spondyloarthritis and 15.7 % vasculitis. Elevated levels of κ FLCs were found for 84 % of patients and elevated λ for 52.7 %. For the patients with rheumatoid arthritis, FLCs correlated with C-reactive protein (κ, r = 0.368, p < 0.001; λ, r = 0.398, p < 0.001) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (κ, r = 0.692, p < 0.001; λ, r = 0.612, p < 0.001). Patients being treated with rituximab displayed FLC levels similar to those of the reference group. There were clear elevations in both κ and λ FLCs in patients with rheumatic disease, but not in κ/λ ratio. The correlation between FLCs and inflammatory markers in patients with rheumatoid arthritis demonstrates their potential for predicting disease activity.

  13. Impact of early life exposures to geohelminth infections on the development of vaccine immunity, allergic sensitization, and allergic inflammatory diseases in children living in tropical Ecuador: the ECUAVIDA birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Geohelminth infections are highly prevalent infectious diseases of childhood in many regions of the Tropics, and are associated with significant morbidity especially among pre-school and school-age children. There is growing concern that geohelminth infections, particularly exposures occurring during early life in utero through maternal infections or during infancy, may affect vaccine immunogenicity in populations among whom these infections are endemic. Further, the low prevalence of allergic disease in the rural Tropics has been attributed to the immune modulatory effects of these infections and there is concern that widespread use of anthelmintic treatment in high-risk groups may be associated with an increase in the prevalence of allergic diseases. Because the most widely used vaccines are administered during the first year of life and the antecedents of allergic disease are considered to occur in early childhood, the present study has been designed to investigate the impact of early exposures to geohelminths on the development of protective immunity to vaccines, allergic sensitization, and allergic disease. Methods/Design A cohort of 2,403 neonates followed up to 8 years of age. Primary exposures are infections with geohelminth parasites during the last trimester of pregnancy and the first 2 years of life. Primary study outcomes are the development of protective immunity to common childhood vaccines (i.e. rotavirus, Haemophilus influenzae type B, Hepatitis B, tetanus toxoid, and oral poliovirus type 3) during the first 5 years of life, the development of eczema by 3 years of age, the development of allergen skin test reactivity at 5 years of age, and the development of asthma at 5 and 8 years of age. Potential immunological mechanisms by which geohelminth infections may affect the study outcomes will be investigated also. Discussion The study will provide information on the potential effects of early exposures to geohelminths (during pregnancy and

  14. Genetics of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases

    PubMed Central

    McGovern, Dermot; Kugathasan, Subra; Cho, Judy H.

    2015-01-01

    In this Review, we provide an update on genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In addition, we summarize progress in defining the functional consequences of associated alleles for coding and non-coding genetic variation. In the small minority of loci where major association signals correspond to non-synonymous variation, we summarize studies defining their functional effects and implications for therapeutic targeting. Importantly, the large majority of GWAS-associated loci involve non-coding variation, many of which modulate levels of gene expression. Recent expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) studies have established that expression of the large majority of human genes is regulated by non-coding genetic variation. Significant advances in defining the epigenetic landscape have demonstrated that IBD GWAS signals are highly enriched within cell-specific active enhancer marks. Studies in European ancestry populations have dominated the landscape of IBD genetics studies, but increasingly, studies in Asian and African-American populations are being reported. Common variation accounts for only a modest fraction of the predicted heritability and the role of rare genetic variation of higher effects (i.e. odds ratios markedly deviating from one) is increasingly being identified through sequencing efforts. These sequencing studies have been particularly productive in very-early onset, more severe cases. A major challenge in IBD genetics will be harnessing the vast array of genetic discovery for clinical utility, through emerging precision medicine initiatives. We discuss the rapidly evolving area of direct to consumer genetic testing, as well as the current utility of clinical exome sequencing, especially in very early onset, severe IBD cases. We summarize recent progress in the pharmacogenetics of IBD with respect of partitioning patient responses to anti-TNF and thiopurine therapies. Highly collaborative studies across research

  15. Pelvic inflammatory disease and sepsis.

    PubMed

    Dulin, Judy D; Akers, Mary C

    2003-03-01

    Pelvic inflammatory disease affects approximately 1 million women per year in the United States alone and has a variety of causative organisms. Because the diagnosis of PID is based on clinical judgment, health care providers need to be guided by the CDC recommendations for diagnosing and treating PID. Because presenting symptoms are often vague, the health care provider should assess female patients for risky behaviors that may lead to PID and should use screening data when making clinical judgments and differential diagnoses. Whenever possible, female patients with PID should be treated as outpatients. If diagnosis and treatment are not performed in a timely manner, PID may cause sepsis, septic shock, and even death. Even if they survive, as many as 15% to 20% of these women experience long-term sequelae of PID, such as ectopic pregnancy, tubo-ovarian abscess, infertility, dyspareunia, and chronic pelvic pain. The best treatments for PID are interventions that lead to prevention and early detection. The critical care nurse has an important role in recognizing the variables that may lead to PID-related sepsis and in encouraging health-seeking and health-maintenance behaviors among women with these diagnoses.

  16. Antibiotics and inflammatory bowel diseases.

    PubMed

    Scribano, Maria Lia; Prantera, Cosimo

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases are characterized by an altered composition of gut microbiota (dysbiosis) that may contribute to their development. Antibiotics can alter the bacterial flora, and a link between antibiotic use and onset of Crohn's disease (CD), but not ulcerative colitis, has been reported. The hypothesis that Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) could be an etiologic agent of CD has not been confirmed by a large study on patients treated by an association of antibiotics active against MAP. The observations supporting a role of intestinal microbiota in CD pathogenesis provide the rationale for a therapeutic manipulation of the intestinal flora through the employment of antibiotics. However, current data do not strongly support a therapeutic benefit from antibiotics, and there is still controversy regarding their use as primary therapy for treatment of acute flares of CD, and for postoperative recurrence prevention. Nevertheless, clinical practice and some studies suggest that a subgroup of patients with colonic involvement, early disease, and abnormal laboratory test of inflammation may respond better to antibiotic treatment. Since their long-term use is frequently complicated by a high rate of side effects, the use of antibiotics that work locally appears to be promising.

  17. Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies

    PubMed Central

    Barohn, Richard J.; Amato, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) consist of rare heterogenous autoimmune disorders that present with marked proximal and symmetric muscle weakness, except for distal and asymmetric weakness in inclusion body myositis (IBM). Besides frequent creatine kinase (CK) elevation, the electromyogram confirms the presence of an irritative myopathy. Extramuscular involvement affects a significant number of cases with interstitial lung disease (ILD), cutaneous in dermatomyositis (DM), systemic or joint manifestations and increased risk of malignancy especially in DM. Myositis specific autoantibodies influence phenotype of the IIM. Jo-1 antibodies are frequently associated with ILD and the newly described HMG-CoA reductase antibodies are characteristic of autoimmune necrotizing myopathy (NM). Muscle pathology ranges from inflammatory exudates of variable distribution, to intact muscle fiber invasion, necrosis, phagocytosis and in the case of IBM rimmed vacuoles and protein deposits. Despite many similarities, the IIM are a quite heterogeneous from the histopathological and pathogenetic standpoints in addition to some clinical and treatment-response difference. The field has witnessed significant advances in our understanding of pathophysiology and treatment of these rare disorders. In this review, we focus on DM, polymyositis (PM) and NM and examine current and promising therapies. The reader interested in more details on IBM is referred to the corresponding chapter in this issue. PMID:25037081

  18. The sterile inflammatory response

    PubMed Central

    Rock, Kenneth L.; Latz, Eicke; Ontiveros, Fernando; Kono, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    The acute inflammatory response is a double-edged sword. On the one hand it plays a key role in initial host defense particularly against many infections. On the other hand its aim is imprecise and as a consequence, when it is drawn into battle, it can cause collateral damage in tissues. In situations where the inciting stimulus is sterile, the cost-benefit ratio may be high; because of this, sterile inflammation underlies the pathogenesis of a number of diseases. While there have been major advances in our understanding of how microbes trigger inflammation, much less has been learned about this process in sterile situations. This review focuses on a subset of the many sterile stimuli that can induce inflammation – specifically dead cells and a variety of irritant particles, including crystals, minerals, and protein aggregates. Although this subset of stimuli is structurally very diverse and might appear to be unrelated, there is accumulating evidence that the innate immune system may recognize them in similar ways and stimulate the sterile inflammatory response via common pathways. Here we review established and emerging data about these responses. PMID:20307211

  19. Pelvic inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Soper, David E

    2010-08-01

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection-caused inflammatory continuum from the cervix to the peritoneal cavity. Most importantly, it is associated with fallopian tube inflammation, which can lead to infertility, ectopic pregnancy, and chronic pelvic pain. The microbial etiology is linked to sexually transmitted microorganisms, including Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrheae, Mycoplasma genitalium, and bacterial vaginosis-associated microorganisms, predominantly anaerobes. Pelvic pain and fever are commonly absent in women with confirmed PID. Clinicians should consider milder symptoms such as abnormal vaginal discharge, metrorrhagia, postcoital bleeding, and urinary frequency as potential symptoms associated with the disease, particularly in women at risk of sexually transmitted infection. The diagnosis of PID is based on the findings of lower genital tract inflammation associated with pelvic organ tenderness. The outpatient treatment of mild-to-moderate PID should include tolerated antibiotic regimens with activity against the commonly isolated microorganisms associated with PID and usually consists of an extended spectrum cephalosporin in conjunction with either doxycycline or azithromycin. Clinically severe PID should prompt hospitalization and imaging to rule out a tuboovarian abscess. Parenteral broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy with activity against a polymicrobial flora, particularly gram-negative aerobes and anaerobes, should be implemented. Screening for and treatment of Chlamydia infection can prevent PID.

  20. Baseline patient reported outcomes are more consistent predictors of long-term functional disability than laboratory, imaging or joint count data in patients with early inflammatory arthritis: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gwinnutt, James M; Sharp, Charlotte A; Symmons, Deborah P M; Lunt, Mark; Verstappen, Suzanne M M

    2018-03-15

    To assess baseline predictors of long-term functional disability in patients with inflammatory arthritis (IA). We conducted a systematic review of the literature from 1990 to 2017 using MEDLINE and EMBASE. Studies were included if (i) they were prospective observational studies, (ii) all patients had IA with symptom duration ≤2 years at baseline, (iii) follow-up was at least 5 years, and (iv) baseline predictors of HAQ score at long-term follow-up (i.e., ≥5 years following baseline) were assessed. Information on the included studies and estimates of the association between baseline variables and long-term HAQ scores were extracted from the full manuscripts. Of 1037 abstracts identified by the search strategy, 37 met the inclusion/exclusion criteria and were included in the review. Older age at baseline and female gender were reported to be associated with higher long-term HAQ scores in the majority of studies assessing these relationships, as were higher baseline HAQ and greater pain scores (total patients included in analyses reporting significant associations/total number of patients analysed: age 9.8k/10.7k (91.6%); gender 9.9k/11.3k (87.4%); HAQ 4.0k/4.0k (99.0%); pain 2.8k/2.9k (93.6%)). Tender joint count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and DAS28 were also reported to predict long-term HAQ score; other disease activity measures were less consistent (tender joints 2.1k/2.5k (84.5%); erythrocyte sedimentation rate 1.6k/2.2k (72.3%); DAS28 888/1.1k (79.2%); swollen joints 684/2.6k (26.6%); C-reactive protein 279/510 (54.7%)). Rheumatoid factor (RF) and erosions were not useful predictors (RF 546/4.6k (11.9%); erosions 191/2.7k (7.0%)), whereas the results for anti-citrullinated protein antibody positivity were equivocal (ACPA 2.0k/3.8k (52.9%)). Baseline age, gender, HAQ and pain scores are associated with long-term disability and knowledge of these may aid the assessment of prognosis. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  1. LDL Receptor-Related Protein 1 Prevents Early Atherosclerosis by Limiting Lesional Apoptosis and Inflammatory Ly-6Chigh Monocytosis: Evidence that the Effects Are Not ApoE-Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Yancey, Patricia G.; Ding, Yu; Fan, Daping; Blakemore, John L.; Zhang, Youmin; Ding, Lei; Zhang, Jiabao; Linton, MacRae F.; Fazio, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    Background We previously demonstrated that macrophage LRP1 deficiency increases atherosclerosis despite anti-atherogenic changes including decreased uptake of remnants and increased secretion of apoE. Thus, our objective was to determine whether the atheroprotective effects of LRP1 require interaction with apoE, one of its ligands with multiple beneficial effects. Methods and Results We examined atherosclerosis development in mice with specific deletion of macrophage LRP1 (apoE−/−MΦLRP1−/−) and in LDLR−/− mice reconstituted with apoE−/−MΦLRP1−/− bone marrow. The combined absence of apoE and LRP1 promoted atherogenesis more than did macrophage apoE deletion alone in both apoE-producing LDLR−/− (+88%) and apoE−/− mice (+163%). The lesions of both mouse models with apoE−/−LRP1−/− macrophages had increased macrophage content. In vitro, apoE and LRP1 additively inhibit macrophage apoptosis. Furthermore, there was excessive accumulation of apoptotic cells in lesions of both LDLR−/− (+110%) and apoE−/−MΦLRP1−/− mice (+252%). The apoptotic cell accumulation was partially due to decreased efferocytosis as the ratio of free to cell-associated apoptotic nuclei was 3.5-fold higher in lesions of apoE−/−MΦLRP1−/− versus apoE−/− mice. Lesion necrosis was also increased (6-fold) in apoE−/−MΦLRP1−/− versus apoE−/− mice. Compared to apoE−/− mice, the spleens of apoE−/−MΦLRP1−/− mice contained 1.6 – and 2.4 –fold more total and Ly6-Chigh monocytes. Finally, there were 3.6- and 2.4-fold increases in Ly6-Chigh and CCR2+ cells in lesions of apoE−/−MΦLRP1−/− versus apoE−/− mice, suggesting that accumulation of apoptotic cells enhances lesion development and macrophage content by promoting the recruitment of inflammatory monocytes. Conclusion LRP1 exerts anti-atherogenic effects via pathways independent of apoE involving macrophage apoptosis and monocyte recruitment. PMID:21730304

  2. Osteoporosis in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Tauseef; Lam, David; Bronze, Michael S.; Humphrey, Mary Beth

    2010-01-01

    Osteoporosis commonly afflicts patients with inflammatory bowel disease, and many factors link the 2 states together. A literature review was conducted about the pathophysiology of osteoporosis in relation to inflammatory bowel disease. Screening guidelines for osteoporosis in general as well as those directed at patients with inflammatory bowel disease are reviewed, as are currently available treatment options. The purpose of this article is to increase physician awareness about osteopenia and osteoporosis occurring in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and to provide basic, clinically relevant information about the pathophysiology and guidelines to help them treat these patients in a cost-effective manner. PMID:19559158

  3. Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is the term used for a group of diseases with yet unknown etiology, prevalence of which is increasing almost everywhere in the world. The disease was almost non-existent four decades ago in the east, including the middle-east, while now a days it is seen more and more. In addition to the increasing prevalence, our knowledge about its pathogenesis, clinical course, diagnosis, and treatment has changed dramatically over the past couple of decades. This has changed our concept of this group of diseases, their diagnosis, treatment, and treatment goals. Considering the vast literature on the subject, it is timely to review major topics in IBD with a look on the regional progress and knowledge as well. This essay is aimed to cover this task. PMID:24829639

  4. Analysis of inflammatory cytokines in human blood, breath condensate, and urine using a multiplex immunoassay platform

    EPA Science Inventory

    A change in the expression of cytokines in human biological media indicates an inflammatory response to external stressors and reflects an early step along the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) for various health endpoints. To characterize and interpret this inflammatory response, m...

  5. Decreased expression of CD69 in chronic fatigue syndrome in relation to inflammatory markers: evidence for a severe disorder in the early activation of T lymphocytes and natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Mihaylova, Ivana; DeRuyter, Marcel; Rummens, Jean-Luc; Bosmans, Eugene; Maes, Michael

    2007-08-01

    There is some evidence that patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) suffer from immune abnormalities, such as immune activation and decreased immune cell responsivity upon polyclonal stimili. This study was designed to evaluate lymphocyte activation in CFS by using a CD69 expression assay. CD69 acts as a costimulatory molecule for T- and natural killer (NK) cell activation. We collected whole blood from CFS patients, who met CDC criteria, and healthy volunteers. The blood samples were stimulated with mitogens during 18 h and the levels of activated T and NK cells expressing CD69 were measured on a Coulter Epics flow cytometer using a three color immunofluorescence staining protocol. The expression of the CD69 activation marker on T cells (CD3+, CD3+CD4+, and CD3+CD8+) and on NK cells (CD45+CD56+) was significantly lower in CFS patients than in healthy subjects. These differences were significant to the extent that a significant diagnostic performance was obtained, i.e. the area under the ROC curve was around 89%. No differences either in the number of leukocytes or in the number or percentage of lymphocytes, i.e. CD3, CD4, CD8 and CD19, could be found between CFS patients and the controls. Patients with CFS show defects in T- and NK cell activation. Since induction of CD69 surface expression is dependent on the activation of the protein kinase C (PKC) activation pathway, it is suggested that in CFS there is a disorder in the early activation of the immune system involving PKC.

  6. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Richard A

    2017-10-01

    As a syndrome with typical and atypical cases, chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) has been a difficult disorder to diagnose and treat. The pathophysiologic basis for CIDP has not been established, contributing to the challenges in dealing with these patients. However, as one of only a handful of treatable peripheral neuropathies, there has been a tendency to diagnose CIDP to attempt a therapeutic intervention. We are also aware that there has also been overtreatment of some patients. This combination of overdiagnosis and prolonged treatment has been a concern. This chapter will review these challenges and discuss recent findings that will lead to improved diagnosis and treatment. The factors leading to misdiagnosis of CIDP were explored in a cohort of patients referred to a neuromuscular center. On a more positive note, the identification of two disorders with antibodies directed at paranodal constituents has excited the field. Treatment options have increased and been clarified. Pulse corticosteroids have been compared with oral prednisone and with intravenous immunoglobulin. The clinical trial of subcutaneous immunoglobulin in CIDP has shown both efficacy and a very low side effect profile adding to our therapeutic options. The current review will identify recent developments that show both the challenges and the exciting growth in our ability to diagnose and treat CIDP.

  7. Inflammatory bowel disease: pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi-Zhen; Li, Yong-Yu

    2014-01-07

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, is characterized by chronic relapsing intestinal inflammation. It has been a worldwide health-care problem with a continually increasing incidence. It is thought that IBD results from an aberrant and continuing immune response to the microbes in the gut, catalyzed by the genetic susceptibility of the individual. Although the etiology of IBD remains largely unknown, it involves a complex interaction between the genetic, environmental or microbial factors and the immune responses. Of the four components of IBD pathogenesis, most rapid progress has been made in the genetic study of gut inflammation. The latest internationally collaborative studies have ascertained 163 susceptibility gene loci for IBD. The genes implicated in childhood-onset and adult-onset IBD overlap, suggesting similar genetic predispositions. However, the fact that genetic factors account for only a portion of overall disease variance indicates that microbial and environmental factors may interact with genetic elements in the pathogenesis of IBD. Meanwhile, the adaptive immune response has been classically considered to play a major role in the pathogenesis of IBD, as new studies in immunology and genetics have clarified that the innate immune response maintains the same importance in inducing gut inflammation. Recent progress in understanding IBD pathogenesis sheds lights on relevant disease mechanisms, including the innate and adaptive immunity, and the interactions between genetic factors and microbial and environmental cues. In this review, we provide an update on the major advances that have occurred in above areas.

  8. Idiopathic inflammatory myositis.

    PubMed

    Tieu, Joanna; Lundberg, Ingrid E; Limaye, Vidya

    2016-02-01

    Knowledge on idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM) has evolved with the identification of myositis-associated and myositis-specific antibodies, development of histopathological classification and the recognition of how these correlate with clinical phenotype and response to therapy. In this paper, we outline key advances in diagnosis and histopathology, including the more recent identification of antibodies associated with immune-mediated necrotising myopathy (IMNM) and inclusion body myositis (IBM). Ongoing longitudinal observational cohorts allow further classification of these patients with IIM, their predicted clinical course and response to specific therapies. Registries have been developed worldwide for this purpose. A challenging aspect in IIM, a multisystem disease with multiple clinical subtypes, has been defining disease status and clinically relevant improvement. Tools for assessing activity and damage are now recognised to be important in determining disease activity and guiding therapeutic decision-making. The International Myositis Assessment and Clinical Studies (IMACS) group has developed such tools for use in research and clinical settings. There is limited evidence for specific treatment strategies in IIM. With significant development in the understanding of IIM and improved classification, longitudinal observational cohorts and trials using validated outcome measures are necessary, to provide important information for evidence-based care in the clinical setting. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Childhood maltreatment and inflammatory markers: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Coelho, R; Viola, T W; Walss-Bass, C; Brietzke, E; Grassi-Oliveira, R

    2014-03-01

    Childhood maltreatment (CM) has been associated with several diseases in adult life, including diabetes, obesity and mental disorders. Inflammatory conditions have been postulated as possible mediators of this relationship. The aim was to conduct a systematic review regarding the association between CM and inflammatory markers in adulthood. A literature search of the PubMed, ISI, EMBASE and PsychINFO databases was conducted. The key terms used were as follows: 'Child Maltreatment', 'Childhood Trauma', 'Early Life Stress', 'Psychological Stress', 'Emotional Stress', 'Child Abuse' and 'Child Neglect'. They were cross-referenced separately with the terms: 'C-reactive Protein (CRP)', 'Tumor Necrosis Factor', 'Cytokine', 'Interleukin', 'Inflammatory' and 'Inflammation'. Twenty articles remained in the review after exclusion criteria were applied. Studies showed that a history of CM was associated with increased levels of CRP, fibrinogen and proinflammatory cytokines. Increased levels of circulating CRP in individuals with a history of CM were the most robust finding among the studies. Data about anti-inflammatory mediators are still few and inconsistent. Childhood maltreatment is associated with a chronic inflammatory state independent of clinical comorbidities. However, studies are heterogeneous regarding CM assessment and definition. Important methodological improvements are needed to better understand the potential impact of CM on inflammatory response. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Cefotaxime Treatment of Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

    PubMed Central

    Monson, Thomas P.; Miller, Timothy T.; Nolan, Charles M.

    1981-01-01

    We studied cefotaxime in the treatment of gonococcal and nongonococcal pelvic inflammatory disease. Cefotaxime was uniformly effective against gonococcal pelvic inflammatory disease. However, 4 of 11 patients with nongonococcal pelvic inflammatory disease had a suboptimal response. PMID:6275789

  11. Regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and its intersection with inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Cherry, Anne D; Piantadosi, Claude A

    2015-04-20

    Mitochondria play a vital role in cellular homeostasis and are susceptible to damage from inflammatory mediators released by the host defense. Cellular recovery depends, in part, on mitochondrial quality control programs, including mitochondrial biogenesis. Early-phase inflammatory mediator proteins interact with PRRs to activate NF-κB-, MAPK-, and PKB/Akt-dependent pathways, resulting in increased expression or activity of coactivators and transcription factors (e.g., PGC-1α, NRF-1, NRF-2, and Nfe2l2) that regulate mitochondrial biogenesis. Inflammatory upregulation of NOS2-induced NO causes mitochondrial dysfunction, but NO is also a signaling molecule upregulating mitochondrial biogenesis via PGC-1α, participating in Nfe2l2-mediated antioxidant gene expression and modulating inflammation. NO and reactive oxygen species generated by the host inflammatory response induce the redox-sensitive HO-1/CO system, causing simultaneous induction of mitochondrial biogenesis and antioxidant gene expression. Recent evidence suggests that mitochondrial biogenesis and mitophagy are coupled through redox pathways; for instance, parkin, which regulates mitophagy in chronic inflammation, may also modulate mitochondrial biogenesis and is upregulated through NF-κB. Further research on parkin in acute inflammation is ongoing. This highlights certain common features of the host response to acute and chronic inflammation, but caution is warranted in extrapolating findings across inflammatory conditions. Inflammatory mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress initiate further inflammatory responses through DAMP/PRR interactions and by inflammasome activation, stimulating mitophagy. A deeper understanding of mitochondrial quality control programs' impact on intracellular inflammatory signaling will improve our approach to the restoration of mitochondrial homeostasis in the resolution of acute inflammation.

  12. [Dermatological features of auto-inflammatory recurrent fevers].

    PubMed

    Escudier, A; Mauvais, F-X; Bastard, P; Boussard, C; Jaoui, A; Koskas, V; Lecoq, E; Michel, A; Orcel, M-C; Truelle, P-E; Wohrer, D; Piram, M

    2018-02-01

    Auto-inflammatory diseases are characterized by unexplained and recurrent attacks of systemic inflammation often involving the skin, joints, or serosal membranes. They are due to a dysfunction or dysregulation of the innate immunity, which is the first line of defense against pathogens. Early recognition of these diseases by the clinician, especially by pediatricians encountering such pathologies in pediatric patients, is primordial to avoid complications. Skin manifestations, common in most auto-inflammatory diseases, are helpful for prompt diagnosis. After a brief physiopathological review, we will describe auto-inflammatory recurrent fevers by their main dermatological presentations: urticarial lesions, neutrophilic dermatoses, panniculitis, other maculopapular eruptions, dyskeratosis, skin vasculitis, and oral aphthous. We finally suggest a decision tree to help clinicians better target genetic exams in patients with recurrent fevers and dermatological manifestations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Expression of allograft inflammatory factor-1 in inflammatory skin disorders.

    PubMed

    Orsmark, Christina; Skoog, Tiina; Jeskanen, Leila; Kere, Juha; Saarialho-Kere, Ulpu

    2007-01-01

    Allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) is an evolutionarily conserved, inflammatory protein produced by activated macrophages during chronic transplant rejection and in inflammatory brain lesions. Since T-cell-mediated inflammation is common to various dermatoses and nothing is known about AIF-1 in skin, we studied its protein expression at the tissue level and regulation in monocytic cell lines by various agents. Using immunohistochemistry, we found that AIF-1 is expressed at low levels in normal skin, but is highly upregulated in various inflammatory skin disorders, such as psoriasis, lichen planus, graft-versus-host disease and mycosis fungoides. The main cell types expressing AIF-1 in affected skin are macrophages and Langerhans' cells. We also show by real-time PCR that AIF-1 mRNA levels in monocytic THP-1 and U937 cell lines are significantly upregulated by retinoic acid as well as a number of cytokines. We conclude that AIF-1 may mediate survival and pro-inflammatory properties of macrophages in skin diseases.

  14. Inflammatory bowel disease: the role of inflammatory cytokine gene polymorphisms.

    PubMed Central

    Balding, Joanna; Livingstone, Wendy J; Conroy, Judith; Mynett-Johnson, Lesley; Weir, Donald G; Mahmud, Nasir; Smith, Owen P

    2004-01-01

    The mechanisms responsible for development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have not been fully elucidated, although the main cause of disease pathology is attributed to up-regulated inflammatory processes. The aim of this study was to investigate frequencies of polymorphisms in genes encoding pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory markers in IBD patients and controls. We determined genotypes of patients with IBD (n= 172) and healthy controls (n= 389) for polymorphisms in genes encoding various cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor (TNF), IL-10, IL-1 receptor antagonist). Association of these genotypes to disease incidence and pathophysiology was investigated. No strong association was found with occurrence of IBD. Variation was observed between the ulcerative colitis study group and the control population for the TNF-alpha-308 polymorphism (p= 0.0135). There was also variation in the frequency of IL-6-174 and TNF-alpha-308 genotypes in the ulcerative colitis group compared with the Crohn's disease group (p= 0.01). We concluded that polymorphisms in inflammatory genes are associated with variations in IBD phenotype and disease susceptibility. Whether the polymorphisms are directly involved in regulating cytokine production, and consequently pathophysiology of IBD, or serve merely as markers in linkage disequilibrium with susceptibility genes remains unclear. PMID:15223609

  15. Cardiovascular complications in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Schicho, Rudolf; Marsche, Gunther; Storr, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Over the past years, a growing number of studies have indicated that patients suffering from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have an increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Both are chronic inflammatory diseases and share certain pathophysiological mechanisms that may influence each other. High levels of cytokines, C-reactive protein (CRP), and homocysteine in IBD patients may lead to endothelial dysfunction, an early sign of atherosclerosis. IBD patients, in general, do not show the typical risk factors for cardiovascular disease but changes in lipid profiles similar to the ones seen in cardiovascular events have been reported recently. Higher levels of coagulation factors frequently occur in IBD which may predispose to arterial thromboembolic events. Finally, the gut itself may have an impact on atherogenesis during IBD through its microbiota. Microbial products are released from the inflamed mucosa into the circulation through a leaky barrier. The induced rise in proinflammatory cytokines could contribute to endothelial damage, artherosclerosis and cardiovascular events. Although large retrospective studies favor a link between IBD and cardiovascular diseases the mechanisms behind still remain to be determined. PMID:25642719

  16. Inflammatory bowel disease: towards a personalized medicine

    PubMed Central

    Flamant, Mathurin; Roblin, Xavier

    2018-01-01

    The management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been transformed over the last two decades by the arrival of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antagonist agents. Recently, alternative drugs have been approved, directed at leukocyte-trafficking molecules (vedolizumab) or other inflammatory cytokines (ustekinumab). New therapeutics are currently being developed in IBD and represent promising targets as they involve other mechanisms of action (JAK molecules, Smad 7 antisense oligonucleotide etc.). Beyond TNF antagonist agents, these alternative drugs are needed for early-stage treatment of patients with aggressive IBD or when the disease is resistant to conventional therapy. Personalized medicine involves the determination of patients with a high risk of progression and complications, and better characterization of patients who may respond preferentially to specific therapies. Indeed, more and more studies aim to identify factors predictive of drug response (corresponding to a specific signaling pathway) that could better manage treatment for patients with IBD. Once treatment has started, disease monitoring is essential and remote patient care could in some circumstances be an attractive option. Telemedicine improves medical adherence and quality of life, and has a positive impact on health outcomes of patients with IBD. This review discusses the current application of personalized medicine to the management of patients with IBD and the advantages and limits of telemedicine in IBD. PMID:29383027

  17. Inflammatory mediators as biomarkers in brain disorders.

    PubMed

    Nuzzo, Domenico; Picone, Pasquale; Caruana, Luca; Vasto, Sonya; Barera, Annalisa; Caruso, Calogero; Di Carlo, Marta

    2014-06-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer, Parkinson, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Huntington are incurable and debilitating conditions that result in progressive death of the neurons. The definite diagnosis of a neurodegenerative disorder is disadvantaged by the difficulty in obtaining biopsies and thereby to validate the clinical diagnosis with pathological results. Biomarkers are valuable indicators for detecting different phases of a disease such as prevention, early onset, treatment, progression, and monitoring the effect of pharmacological responses to a therapeutic intervention. Inflammation occurs in neurodegenerative diseases, and identification and validation of molecules involved in this process could be a strategy for finding new biomarkers. The ideal inflammatory biomarker needs to be easily measurable, must be reproducible, not subject to wide variation in the population, and unaffected by external factors. Our review summarizes the most important inflammation biomarkers currently available, whose specificity could be utilized for identifying and monitoring distinctive phases of different neurodegenerative diseases.

  18. Fibrin(ogen) mediates acute inflammatory responses to biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Although "biocompatible" polymeric elastomers are generally nontoxic, nonimmunogenic, and chemically inert, implants made of these materials may trigger acute and chronic inflammatory responses. Early interactions between implants and inflammatory cells are probably mediated by a layer of host proteins on the material surface. To evaluate the importance of this protein layer, we studied acute inflammatory responses of mice to samples of polyester terephthalate film (PET) that were implanted intraperitoneally for short periods. Material preincubated with albumin is "passivated," accumulating very few adherent neutrophils or macrophages, whereas uncoated or plasma- coated PET attracts large numbers of phagocytes. Neither IgG adsorption nor surface complement activation is necessary for this acute inflammation; phagocyte accumulation on uncoated implants is normal in hypogammaglobulinemic mice and in severely hypocomplementemic mice. Rather, spontaneous adsorption of fibrinogen appears to be critical: (a) PET coated with serum or hypofibrinogenemic plasma attracts as few phagocytes as does albumin-coated material; (b) in contrast, PET preincubated with serum or hypofibrinogenemic plasma containing physiologic amounts of fibrinogen elicits "normal" phagocyte recruitment; (c) most importantly, hypofibrinogenemic mice do not mount an inflammatory response to implanted PET unless the material is coated with fibrinogen or the animals are injected with fibrinogen before implantation. Thus, spontaneous adsorption of fibrinogen appears to initiate the acute inflammatory response to an implanted polymer, suggesting an interesting nexus between two major iatrogenic effects of biomaterials: clotting and inflammation. PMID:8245787

  19. Future directions in inflammatory bowel disease management.

    PubMed

    D'Haens, Geert R; Sartor, R Balfour; Silverberg, Mark S; Petersson, Joel; Rutgeerts, Paul

    2014-08-01

    Clinical management of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), new treatment modalities and the potential impact of personalised medicine remain topics of intense interest as our understanding of the pathophysiology of IBD expands. Potential future strategies for IBD management are discussed, based on recent preclinical and clinical research. A top-down approach to medical therapy is increasingly being adopted for patients with risk factors for severe inflammation or an unfavourable disease course in an attempt to halt the inflammatory process as early as possible, prevent complications and induce mucosal healing. In the future, biological therapies for IBD are likely to be used more selectively based on personalised benefit/risk assessment, determined through reliable biomarkers and tissue signatures, and will probably be optimised throughout the course of treatment. Biologics with different mechanisms of action will be available; when one drug fails, patients will be able to switch to another and even combination biologics may become a reality. The role of biotherapeutic products that are similar to currently licensed biologics in terms of quality, safety and efficacy - i.e. biosimilars - is at an early stage and requires further experience. Other therapeutic strategies may involve manipulation of the microbiome using antibiotics, probiotics, prebiotics, diet and combinations of all these approaches. Faecal microbiota transplantation is also a potential option in IBD although controlled data are lacking. The future of classifying, prognosticating and managing IBD involves an outcomes-based approach to identify biomarkers reflecting various biological processes that can be matched with clinically important endpoints. Copyright © 2014 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Inflammatory Diseases of the Gut.

    PubMed

    Rohr, Michael; Narasimhulu, Chandrakala Aluganti; Sharma, Dhara; Doomra, Mitsushita; Riad, Aladdin; Naser, Saleh; Parthasarathy, Sampath

    2018-02-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are chronic inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract whose prevalence has been dramatically increasing over the past decade. New studies have shown that IBD is the second most common chronic inflammatory disease worldwide after rheumatoid arthritis, affecting millions of people mainly in industrialized countries. Symptoms of IBD include frequent bloody diarrhea, abdominal cramping, anorexia, abdominal distension, and emesis. Although the exact etiology is unknown, it has been postulated that immunological, microbial, environmental, nutritional, and genetic factors contribute to the pathogenesis and severity of IBD. Today, no treatment has consistently been shown to be successful in treating IBD. This review summarizes current research on the epidemiology, etiology, pathophysiology, and existing treatment approaches, including pharmaceutical and nutritional options for IBD.

  1. Diet and Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Knight-Sepulveda, Karina; Kais, Susan; Santaolalla, Rebeca; Abreu, Maria T

    2015-08-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly becoming interested in nonpharmacologic approaches to managing their disease. One of the most frequently asked questions of IBD patients is what they should eat. The role of diet has become very important in the prevention and treatment of IBD. Although there is a general lack of rigorous scientific evidence that demonstrates which diet is best for certain patients, several diets-such as the low-fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide, and polyol diet; the specific carbohydrate diet; the anti-inflammatory diet; and the Paleolithic diet-have become popular. This article discusses the diets commonly recommended to IBD patients and reviews the supporting data.

  2. Prebiotics and Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Heather E; Hamaker, Bruce R

    2017-12-01

    Dietary fiber, specifically prebiotics, is the primary source of energy for the gut microbiota and thus has the potential to beneficially modify microbiota composition. Prebiotics have been used in both in vitro studies and with animal models of colitis with largely positive results. Human studies are few and have been conducted with only a few select prebiotics, primarily fructan-containing fibers. Although disease activity and inflammatory markers have improved, more needs to be learned about the specific prebiotic compounds and how they can be used to best improve the gut microbiota to counter changes induced by inflammatory bowel disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Time-dependent LXR/RXR pathway modulation characterizes capillary remodeling in inflammatory corneal neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Mukwaya, Anthony; Lennikov, Anton; Xeroudaki, Maria; Mirabelli, Pierfrancesco; Lachota, Mieszko; Jensen, Lasse; Peebo, Beatrice; Lagali, Neil

    2018-05-01

    Inflammation in the normally immune-privileged cornea can initiate a pathologic angiogenic response causing vision-threatening corneal neovascularization. Inflammatory pathways, however, are numerous, complex and are activated in a time-dependent manner. Effective resolution of inflammation and associated angiogenesis in the cornea requires knowledge of these pathways and their time dependence, which has, to date, remained largely unexplored. Here, using a model of endogenous resolution of inflammation-induced corneal angiogenesis, we investigate the time dependence of inflammatory genes in effecting capillary regression and the return of corneal transparency. Endogenous capillary regression was characterized by a progressive thinning and remodeling of angiogenic capillaries and inflammatory cell retreat in vivo in the rat cornea. By whole-genome longitudinal microarray analysis, early suppression of VEGF ligand-receptor signaling and inflammatory pathways preceded an unexpected later-phase preferential activation of LXR/RXR, PPARα/RXRα and STAT3 canonical pathways, with a concurrent attenuation of LPS/IL-1 inhibition of RXR function and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways. Potent downstream inflammatory cytokines such as Cxcl5, IL-1β, IL-6 and Ccl2 were concomitantly downregulated during the remodeling phase. Upstream regulators of the inflammatory pathways included Socs3, Sparc and ApoE. A complex and coordinated time-dependent interplay between pro- and anti-inflammatory signaling pathways highlights a potential anti-inflammatory role of LXR/RXR, PPARα/RXRα and STAT3 signaling pathways in resolving inflammatory corneal angiogenesis.

  4. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... sexually experienced women of reproductive age — United States, 2013–2014. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2017; 66(3):80–83. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease — Initial Visits to Physicians’ Offices Among Women Aged 15–44 Years, United States, ...

  5. MRI in patients with inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Gee, Michael S.; Harisinghani, Mukesh G.

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affects approximately 1.4 million people in North America and, because of its typical early age of onset and episodic disease course, IBD patients often undergo numerous imaging studies over the course of their lifetimes. CT has become the standard imaging modality for assessment of IBD patients because of its widespread availability, rapid image acquisition, and ability to evaluate intraluminal and extraluminal disease. However, repetitive CT imaging has been associated with a significant ionizing radiation risk to patients, making MRI an appealing alternative IBD imaging modality. Pelvic MRI is currently the imaging gold standard for detecting perianal disease, while recent studies indicate that MRI bowel-directed techniques (enteroclysis, enterography, colonography) can accurately evaluate bowel inflammation in IBD. With recent technical innovations leading to faster and higher resolution body MRI, the role of MRI in IBD evaluation is likely to continue to expand. Future applications include surveillance imaging, detection of mural fibrosis, and early assessment of therapy response. PMID:21512607

  6. Inflammatory pathways of importance for management of inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Jannie; Coskun, Mehmet; Soendergaard, Christoffer; Salem, Mohammad; Nielsen, Ole Haagen

    2014-01-07

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of chronic disorders of the gastrointestinal tract comprising Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). Their etiologies are unknown, but they are characterised by an imbalanced production of pro-inflammatory mediators, e.g., tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, as well as increased recruitment of leukocytes to the site of inflammation. Advantages in understanding the role of the inflammatory pathways in IBD and an inadequate response to conventional therapy in a large portion of patients, has over the last two decades lead to new therapies which includes the TNF inhibitors (TNFi), designed to target and neutralise the effect of TNF-α. TNFi have shown to be efficient in treating moderate to severe CD and UC. However, convenient alternative therapeutics targeting other immune pathways are needed for patients with IBD refractory to conventional therapy including TNFi. Indeed, several therapeutics are currently under development, and have shown success in clinical trials. These include antibodies targeting and neutralising interleukin-12/23, small pharmacologic Janus kinase inhibitors designed to block intracellular signaling of several pro-inflammatory cytokines, antibodies targeting integrins, and small anti-adhesion molecules that block adhesion between leukocytes and the intestinal vascular endothelium, reducing their infiltration into the inflamed mucosa. In this review we have elucidated the major signaling pathways of clinical importance for IBD therapy and highlighted the new promising therapies available. As stated in this paper several new treatment options are under development for the treatment of CD and UC, however, no drug fits all patients. Hence, optimisations of treatment regimens are warranted for the benefit of the patients either through biomarker establishment or other rationales to maximise the effect of the broad range of mode-of-actions of the present and future drugs in IBD.

  7. Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Genetics, Epigenetics, and Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Loddo, Italia; Romano, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are complex, multifactorial disorders characterized by chronic relapsing intestinal inflammation. Although etiology remains largely unknown, recent research has suggested that genetic factors, environment, microbiota, and immune response are involved in the pathogenesis. Epidemiological evidence for a genetic contribution is defined: 15% of patients with Crohn’s Disease (CD) have an affected family member with IBD, and twin studies for CD have shown 50% concordance in monozygotic twins compared to <10% in dizygotics. The most recent and largest genetic association studies, which employed genome-wide association data for over 75,000 patients and controls, identified 163 susceptibility loci for IBD. More recently, a trans-ethnic analysis, including over 20,000 individuals, identified an additional 38 new IBD loci. Although most cases are correlated with polygenic contribution toward genetic susceptibility, there is a spectrum of rare genetic disorders that can contribute to early-onset IBD (before 5 years) or very early onset IBD (before 2 years). Genetic variants that cause these disorders have a wide effect on gene function. These variants are so rare in allele frequency that the genetic signals are not detected in genome-wide association studies of patients with IBD. With recent advances in sequencing techniques, ~50 genetic disorders have been identified and associated with IBD-like immunopathology. Monogenic defects have been found to alter intestinal immune homeostasis through many mechanisms. Candidate gene resequencing should be carried out in early-onset patients in clinical practice. The evidence that genetic factors contribute in small part to disease pathogenesis confirms the important role of microbial and environmental factors. Epigenetic factors can mediate interactions between environment and genome. Epigenetic mechanisms could affect development and progression of IBD. Epigenomics is an emerging field, and

  8. Atrial Electromechanical Properties in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Efe, Tolga Han; Cimen, Tolga; Ertem, Ahmet Goktug; Coskun, Yusuf; Bilgin, Murat; Sahan, Haluk Furkan; Pamukcu, Hilal Erken; Yayla, Cagri; Sunman, Hamza; Yuksel, Ilhami; Yeter, Ekrem

    2016-09-01

    There is much evidence linking inflammation to the initiation and continuation of atrial fibrillation (AF). Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), are chronic systemic inflammatory disorders. Atrial electromechanical delay (EMD) has been known as an early marker of AF. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the atrial electromechanical properties in patients with IBD. Fifty-two patients with IBD and 26 healthy controls were recruited in the study. Twenty-five of patients with IBD were on active period, and the remaining 27 were on remission period. Atrial electromechanical properties were measured by using transthoracic echocardiography and tissue Doppler imaging and simultaneous surface ECG recording. Interatrial EMD, left intraatrial EMD, and right intraatrial EMD were calculated. Patients on activation with IBD had significantly prolonged left and right intraatrial EMDs and interatrial EMD compared to patients on remission (P = 0.048, P = 0.036, P < 0.001, respectively) and healthy controls (P < 0.001, for all comparisons). Left and right intraatrial EMDs and interatrial EMD were also found to be higher when patients on remission with IBD compared with healthy controls. No statistical difference was observed between UC and CD in terms of inter- and intraatrial EMDs. Atrial electromechanical conduction is prolonged in IBD, and exposure to chronic inflammation may lead to structural and electrophysiological changes in the atrial tissue that causes slow conduction. Measurement of atrial EMD parameters might be used to predict the risk for the development of AF in patients with IBD. © 2016, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Predictors of Aggressive Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yarur, Andres J.; Strobel, Sebastian G.; Deshpande, Amar R.

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease comprises a group of conditions characterized by idiopathic inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. The natural course of disease can range from an indolent course with prolonged periods of remission to aggressive, incapacitating disease. Predicting which patients are more susceptible to developing severe disease is important, especially when choosing therapeutic agents and treatment strategies. This paper reviews current evidence on the main demographic, clinical, endoscopic, histologic, serologic, and genetic markers that predict aggressive inflammatory bowel disease. In ulcerative colitis, we considered disease to be aggressive when patients had a high relapse rate, need for admission and/or surgery, development of colon cancer, or extraintestinal manifestations. We defined aggressive Crohn's disease as having a high relapse rate, development of penetrating disease, need for repeat surgery, or multiple admissions for flares. In Crohn's disease, involvement of the upper gastrointestinal tract and ileum, penetrating disease, early age at diagnosis, smoking, extensive ulceration of the mucosa, high titers of serum antibodies, and mutations of the NOD2 gene are markers of aggressive disease. In ulcerative colitis, patients with more extensive involvement of the colon (pancolitis) have more symptomatology and are at higher risk for needing a colectomy and developing colon cancer. Also, plasmocytic infiltration of the colonic mucosa and crypt atrophy predict treatment failure. As with diagnosis, no single method can predict disease aggressiveness. Multiple serologic and genetic tests are being developed to refine the accuracy of prediction. Endoscopic findings can also predict the future course of disease. At present, clinical manifestations are the most useful way to make therapeutic decisions. PMID:22298958

  10. Immunogenicity of biologics in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Vermeire, Séverine; Gils, Ann; Accossato, Paola; Lula, Sadiq; Marren, Amy

    2018-01-01

    Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Treatment options include biologic therapies; however, a proportion of patients lose response to biologics, partly due to the formation of anti-drug antibodies (ADAbs). Concomitant immunosuppressive agents reduce the development of ADAbs. This review article aims to assess the immunogenicity of biologic therapies and their clinical implications. A comprehensive literature search was conducted for articles published January 2009 to August 2015 reporting immunogenicity to adalimumab (ADM), certolizumab pegol (CZP), golimumab, infliximab (IFX), ustekinumab, and vedolizumab in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Eligible articles were reviewed and quality assessed by independent reviewers. Overall, 122 publications reporting 114 studies were assessed. ADAbs were reported for all agents, but the percentage of patients developing ADAbs was extremely variable, with the highest (65.3%) being for IFX administration to patients with IBD. ADAb presence was frequently associated with a reduction in primary efficacy and a loss of response, and, for IFX, an increase in adverse events (AEs). Lower serum levels of ADM, CZP and IFX were seen in ADAbs-positive rather than ADAbs-negative patients; pharmacokinetic data were unavailable for other therapies. Little information was available regarding the timing of ADAb development; studies reported their detection from as early as 10–14 days up to months after treatment initiation. Biologic therapies carry an intrinsic risk of immunogenicity, although reported rates of ADAbs vary considerably. The clinical implications of immunogenicity are a concern for effective treatment; further research, particularly into the more recently approved biologics, is required. PMID:29383030

  11. Clinical studies and anti-inflammatory mechanisms of treatments

    PubMed Central

    French, Jacqueline A.; Koepp, Matthias; Naegelin, Yvonne; Vigevano, Federico; Auvin, Stéphane; Rho, Jong M.; Rosenberg, Evan; Devinsky, Orrin; Olofsson, Peder S.; Dichter, Marc A.

    2017-01-01

    Summary In this exciting era, we are coming closer and closer to bringing an anti-inflammatory therapy to the clinic for the purpose of seizure prevention, modification, and/or suppression. At present, it is unclear what this approach might entail, and what form it will take. Irrespective of the therapy that ultimately reaches the clinic, there will be some commonalities with regard to clinical trials. A number of animal models have now been used to identify inflammation as a major underlying mechanism of both chronic seizures and the epileptogenic process. These models have demonstrated that specific anti-inflammatory treatments can be effective at both suppressing chronic seizures and interfering with the process of epileptogenesis. Some of these have already been evaluated in early phase clinical trials. It can be expected that there will soon be more clinical trials of both “conventional, broad spectrum” anti-inflammatory agents and novel new approaches to utilizing specific anti-inflammatory therapies with drugs or other therapeutic interventions. A summary of some of those approaches appears below, as well as a discussion of the issues facing clinical trials in this new domain. PMID:28675558

  12. Clinical studies and anti-inflammatory mechanisms of treatments.

    PubMed

    French, Jacqueline A; Koepp, Matthias; Naegelin, Yvonne; Vigevano, Federico; Auvin, Stéphane; Rho, Jong M; Rosenberg, Evan; Devinsky, Orrin; Olofsson, Peder S; Dichter, Marc A

    2017-07-01

    In this exciting era, we are coming closer and closer to bringing an anti-inflammatory therapy to the clinic for the purpose of seizure prevention, modification, and/or suppression. At present, it is unclear what this approach might entail, and what form it will take. Irrespective of the therapy that ultimately reaches the clinic, there will be some commonalities with regard to clinical trials. A number of animal models have now been used to identify inflammation as a major underlying mechanism of both chronic seizures and the epileptogenic process. These models have demonstrated that specific anti-inflammatory treatments can be effective at both suppressing chronic seizures and interfering with the process of epileptogenesis. Some of these have already been evaluated in early phase clinical trials. It can be expected that there will soon be more clinical trials of both "conventional, broad spectrum" anti-inflammatory agents and novel new approaches to utilizing specific anti-inflammatory therapies with drugs or other therapeutic interventions. A summary of some of those approaches appears below, as well as a discussion of the issues facing clinical trials in this new domain. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 International League Against Epilepsy.

  13. Inflammatory response and extracorporeal circulation.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Florian; Schmidt, Christoph; Van Aken, Hugo; Zarbock, Alexander

    2015-06-01

    Patients undergoing cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation (EC) frequently develop a systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Surgical trauma, ischaemia-reperfusion injury, endotoxaemia and blood contact to nonendothelial circuit compounds promote the activation of coagulation pathways, complement factors and a cellular immune response. This review discusses the multiple pathways leading to endothelial cell activation, neutrophil recruitment and production of reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide. All these factors may induce cellular damage and subsequent organ injury. Multiple organ dysfunction after cardiac surgery with EC is associated with an increased morbidity and mortality. In addition to the pathogenesis of organ dysfunction after EC, this review deals with different therapeutic interventions aiming to alleviate the inflammatory response and consequently multiple organ dysfunction after cardiac surgery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Diet and Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Knight-Sepulveda, Karina; Kais, Susan; Santaolalla, Rebeca

    2015-01-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are increasingly becoming interested in nonpharmacologic approaches to managing their disease. One of the most frequently asked questions of IBD patients is what they should eat. The role of diet has become very important in the prevention and treatment of IBD. Although there is a general lack of rigorous scientific evidence that demonstrates which diet is best for certain patients, several diets—such as the low-fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide, and polyol diet; the specific carbohydrate diet; the anti-inflammatory diet; and the Paleolithic diet—have become popular. This article discusses the diets commonly recommended to IBD patients and reviews the supporting data. PMID:27118948

  15. Inflammatory Responses in Brain Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Kawabori, Masahito; Yenari, Midori A.

    2017-01-01

    Brain infarction causes tissue death by ischemia due to occlusion of the cerebral vessels and recent work has shown that post stroke inflammation contributes significantly to the development of ischemic pathology. Because secondary damage by brain inflammation may have a longer therapeutic time window compared to the rescue of primary damage following arterial occlusion, controlling inflammation would be an obvious therapeutic target. A substantial amount of experimentall progress in this area has been made in recent years. However, it is difficult to elucidate the precise mechanisms of the inflammatory responses following ischemic stroke because inflammation is a complex series of interactions between inflammatory cells and molecules, all of which could be either detrimental or beneficial. We review recent advances in neuroinflammation and the modulation of inflammatory signaling pathways in brain ischemia. Potential targets for treatment of ischemic stroke will also be covered. The roles of the immune system and brain damage versus repair will help to clarify how immune modulation may treat stroke. PMID:25666795

  16. Photoacoustic evaluation of human inflammatory arthritis in human joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Janggun; Xu, Guan; Marquardt, April; Girish, Gandikota; Wang, Xueding

    2017-03-01

    Photoacoustic (PA) imaging combined with ultrasonography (US) holds promise to offer a novel and powerful tool for clinical management of inflammatory arthritis, including early detection and treatment monitoring. As a complement to US, PA imaging can assess additional hemodynamic changes in inflammatory synovium, including hyperemia and hypoxia, both important and early physiological biomarkers of synovitis reflecting the increased metabolic demand and the relatively inadequate oxygen delivery of the inflammatory synovial tissue. In this study on arthritis patients and normal volunteers, the targeted metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints were imaged using our real-time US-PA dual-modality imaging system. The blood volume and the blood oxygenation in the segmented synovium were quantified, and the results from the arthritis patients were compared to those from the normal volunteers. This initial study on human subjects demonstrated that PA imaging, by working at the optical wavelengths that are sensitive to oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin, is capable of identifying and characterizing inflammation in joints based on the detection of hemodynamic changes.

  17. Anti-Nociceptive Effect of Resveratrol During Inflammatory Hyperalgesia via Differential Regulation of pro-Inflammatory Mediators.

    PubMed

    Singh, Ajeet Kumar; Vinayak, Manjula

    2016-07-01

    Sensitization of nociceptive neurons by inflammatory mediators leads to hypersensitivity for normal painful stimuli which is termed hyperalgesia. Oxidative stress is an essential factor in pathological pain; therefore, antioxidants qualify as potential anti-hyperalgesic agents. The present study examines the efficacy of the natural antioxidant resveratrol in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) induced hyperalgesic rats. Thermal hyperalgesia was measured at different time points by paw withdrawal latency test and confirmed by c-Fos expression in spinal dorsal horn. The impact of resveratrol treatment on inflammatory mediators at peripheral (paw skin) and central (spinal cord) sites was determined during early (6 h) as well as late phase (48 h) of hyperalgesia. Intraplanter injection of CFA increased the level of cytokines IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6 as well as inflammatory enzymes COX-2 and iNOS in paw skin in both phases. In case of spinal cord, the level of COX-2 was found to be elevated in both phases, whereas iNOS could not be detected. The cytokines were found to be elevated only in late phase in spinal cord. Administration of resveratrol (20 mg/kg) shifted the level of all inflammatory mediators towards normal, except cytokines in paw skin. The present study suggests that the anti-nociceptive effect of resveratrol is implicated at both peripheral and central sites in a tissue specific manner. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Localized scleroderma and regional inflammatory myopathy.

    PubMed

    Zivković, Saša A; Freiberg, William; Lacomis, David; Domsic, Robyn T; Medsger, Thomas A

    2014-05-01

    Inflammatory myopathy is rare in localized scleroderma. We report 2 new cases of regional inflammatory myopathy associated with localized scleroderma and review 10 reported cases of localized scleroderma associated with an inflammatory myopathy with regional muscle involvement, more often in the upper extremities. Serum creatine kinase was mildly elevated or normal. Histopathology often showed perimysial inflammation and plasma cell infiltration. These cases demonstrate that inflammatory myopathy should be considered in patients with localized scleroderma and regional muscle weakness, pain or atrophy. Muscle biopsy can confirm the diagnosis of myositis, which if identified, will require anti-inflammatory and/or immunosuppressive therapy. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Endogenous anti-inflammatory neuropeptides and pro-resolving lipid mediators: a new therapeutic approach for immune disorders

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Per; Delgado, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Identification of the factors that regulate the immune tolerance and control the appearance of exacerbated inflammatory conditions is crucial for the development of new therapies of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Although much is known about the molecular basis of initiating signals and pro-inflammatory chemical mediators in inflammation, it has only recently become apparent that endogenous stop signals are critical at early checkpoints within the temporal events of inflammation. Some neuropeptides and lipid mediators that are produced during the ongoing inflammatory response have emerged as endogenous anti-inflammatory agents that participate in the regulation of the processes that ensure self-tolerance and/or inflammation resolution. Here we examine the latest research findings, which indicate that neuropeptides participate in maintaining immune tolerance in two distinct ways: by regulating the balance between pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory factors, and by inducing the emergence of regulatory T cells with suppressive activity against autoreactive T-cell effectors. On the other hand, we also focus on lipid mediators biosynthesized from ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty-acids in inflammatory exudates that promote the resolution phase of acute inflammation by regulating leucocyte influx to and efflux from local inflamed sites. Both anti-inflammatory neuropeptides and pro-resolving lipid mediators have shown therapeutic potential for a variety of inflammatory and autoimmune disorders and could be used as biotemplates for the development of novel pharmacologic agents. PMID:18554314

  20. Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Jeanne H., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on early intervention. The four articles presented on this theme are: (1) "Deaf Infants, Hearing Mothers: A Research Report" (Kathryn P. Meadow-Orlans, and others), reporting findings on effects of auditory loss on early development; (2) "Maintaining Involvement of Inner City Families in Early Intervention Programs through…

  1. The Future of Janus Kinase Inhibitors in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    De Vries, L.C.S.; Wildenberg, M.E.; De Jonge, W.J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Inflammatory bowel diseases, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease, are disabling conditions characterised by chronic, relapsing inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. Current treatments are not universally effective or, in the case of therapeutic antibodies, are hampered by immune responses. Janus kinase inhibitors are orally delivered small molecules that target cytokine signalling by preventing phosphorylation of Janus kinases associated with the cytokine receptor. Subsequently, phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription that relay Janus kinase signalling and transcription of cytokines in the nucleus will be diminished. Key cytokines in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases are targeted by Janus kinase inhibitors. Several Janus kinase inhibitors are in development for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. Tofacitinib, inhibiting signalling via all Janus kinase family members, was effective in phase 2 and 3 trials in moderate-severe ulcerative colitis. GSK2586184, a Janus kinase 1 selective inhibitor, induced clinical and endoscopic response in ulcerative colitis; however, the study was discontinued at an early stage due to liver toxicity observed in systemic lupus patients receiving the drug. Filgotinib, a Janus kinase 1 selective inhibitor investigated in treatment of Crohn’s disease, was superior to placebo. As adverse events associated with the broad immunological effect of these agents have been reported, the future application of these drugs is potentially limited. We will discuss the treatment efficacy of Janus kinase inhibition in inflammatory bowel diseases, how current Janus kinase inhibitors available target immune responses relevant in inflammatory bowel disease, and whether more specific kinase inhibition could be effective. PMID:28158411

  2. The Future of Janus Kinase Inhibitors in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    De Vries, L C S; Wildenberg, M E; De Jonge, W J; D'Haens, G R

    2017-07-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases, such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, are disabling conditions characterised by chronic, relapsing inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract. Current treatments are not universally effective or, in the case of therapeutic antibodies, are hampered by immune responses. Janus kinase inhibitors are orally delivered small molecules that target cytokine signalling by preventing phosphorylation of Janus kinases associated with the cytokine receptor. Subsequently, phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription that relay Janus kinase signalling and transcription of cytokines in the nucleus will be diminished. Key cytokines in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases are targeted by Janus kinase inhibitors. Several Janus kinase inhibitors are in development for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. Tofacitinib, inhibiting signalling via all Janus kinase family members, was effective in phase 2 and 3 trials in moderate-severe ulcerative colitis. GSK2586184, a Janus kinase 1 selective inhibitor, induced clinical and endoscopic response in ulcerative colitis; however, the study was discontinued at an early stage due to liver toxicity observed in systemic lupus patients receiving the drug. Filgotinib, a Janus kinase 1 selective inhibitor investigated in treatment of Crohn's disease, was superior to placebo. As adverse events associated with the broad immunological effect of these agents have been reported, the future application of these drugs is potentially limited. We will discuss the treatment efficacy of Janus kinase inhibition in inflammatory bowel diseases, how current Janus kinase inhibitors available target immune responses relevant in inflammatory bowel disease, and whether more specific kinase inhibition could be effective. © European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO) 2017.

  3. Quality Improvement Initiatives in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Berry, Sameer K; Siegel, Corey A; Melmed, Gil Y

    2017-08-01

    This article serves as an overview of several quality improvement initiatives in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). IBD is associated with significant variation in care, suggesting poor quality of care. There have been several efforts to improve the quality of care for patients with IBD. Quality improvement (QI) initiatives in IBD are intended to be patient-centric, improve outcomes for individuals and populations, and reduce costs-all consistent with "the triple aim" put forth by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI). Current QI initiatives include the development of quality measure sets to standardize processes and outcomes, learning health systems to foster collaborative improvement, and patient-centered medical homes specific to patients with IBD in shared risk models of care. Some of these programs have demonstrated early success in improving patient outcomes, reducing costs, improving patient satisfaction, and facilitating patient engagement. However, further studies are needed to evaluate and compare the effects of these programs over time on clinical outcomes in order to demonstrate long-term value and sustainability.

  4. Inflammatory Myofibroblastic Tumor Mimicking Apical Periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Makoto; Kiho, Kazuki; Sekine, Genta; Ohta, Takahisa; Matsubara, Makoto; Yoshida, Takakazu; Katsumata, Akitoshi; Tanuma, Jun-ichi; Sumitomo, Shinichiro

    2015-12-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumors (IMTs) are rare. IMTs of the head and neck occur in all age groups, from neonates to old age, with the highest incidence occurring in childhood and early adulthood. An IMT has been defined as a histologically distinctive lesion of uncertain behavior. This article describes an unusual case of IMT mimicking apical periodontitis in the mandible of a 42-year-old man. At first presentation, the patient showed spontaneous pain and percussion pain at teeth #28 to 30, which continued after initial endodontic treatment. Panoramic radiography revealed a radiolucent lesion at the site. Cone-beam computed tomographic imaging showed osteolytic lesions, suggesting an aggressive neoplasm requiring incisional biopsy. Histopathological examination indicated an IMT. The lesion was removed en bloc under general anesthesia, and the patient manifested no clinical evidence of recurrence for 24 months. Lesions of nonendodontic origin should be included in the differential diagnosis of apical periodontitis. Every available diagnostic tool should be used to confirm the diagnosis. Cone-beam computed tomographic imaging is very helpful for differential diagnosis in IMTs mimicking apical periodontitis. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Imaging inflammatory acne: lesion detection and tracking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cula, Gabriela O.; Bargo, Paulo R.; Kollias, Nikiforos

    2010-02-01

    It is known that effectiveness of acne treatment increases when the lesions are detected earlier, before they could progress into mature wound-like lesions, which lead to scarring and discoloration. However, little is known about the evolution of acne from early signs until after the lesion heals. In this work we computationally characterize the evolution of inflammatory acne lesions, based on analyzing cross-polarized images that document acne-prone facial skin over time. Taking skin images over time, and being able to follow skin features in these images present serious challenges, due to change in the appearance of skin, difficulty in repositioning the subject, involuntary movement such as breathing. A computational technique for automatic detection of lesions by separating the background normal skin from the acne lesions, based on fitting Gaussian distributions to the intensity histograms, is presented. In order to track and quantify the evolution of lesions, in terms of the degree of progress or regress, we designed a study to capture facial skin images from an acne-prone young individual, followed over the course of 3 different time points. Based on the behavior of the lesions between two consecutive time points, the automatically detected lesions are classified in four categories: new lesions, resolved lesions (i.e. lesions that disappear completely), lesions that are progressing, and lesions that are regressing (i.e. lesions in the process of healing). The classification our methods achieve correlates well with visual inspection of a trained human grader.

  6. Photoacoustic imaging of inflammatory arthritis in human joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Janggun; Xu, Guan; Marquardt, April; Francis, Sheeja; Yuan, Jie; Girish, Dhanuj; Girish, Gandikota; Wang, Xueding

    2016-02-01

    The ducal imaging with photoacoustic imaging (PAI) that is an emerging technology and clinical ultrasound imaging that is an established modality is developed for the imaging of early inflammatory arthritis. PAI is sensitive to blood volume, not limited by flow like ultrasound, holding great promise for the earliest detection of increase in blood volume and angiogenesis - a key early finding inflammation PAI has the capability of assessing inflammation in superficial human soft tissues, offering potential benefits in diagnosis, treatment and monitoring of inflammatory arthritis. PAI combined with ultrasonography (US), is a real time dual-modality system developed and tested to identify active synovitis in metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints of 10 arthritis patients and 10 normal volunteers. Photoacoustic images of the joints were acquired at 580-nm laser wavelength, which provided the desired balance between the optical contrast of hemoglobin over bone cortex and the imaging depth. Confirmed by US Doppler imaging, the results from ten patients and ten normal volunteers demonstrated satisfactory sensitivity of PAI in assessing enhanced blood flow due to active synovitis. This preliminary study suggests that photoacoustic imaging, by identifying early increase in blood volume, related to increased vascularity, a hallmark of joint inflammation, could be a valuable supplement to musculoskeletal US.

  7. Selenium and inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Kudva, Avinash K; Shay, Ashley E; Prabhu, K Sandeep

    2015-07-15

    Dietary intake of the micronutrient selenium is essential for normal immune functions. Selenium is cotranslationally incorporated as the 21st amino acid, selenocysteine, into selenoproteins that function to modulate pathways involved in inflammation. Epidemiological studies have suggested an inverse association between selenium levels and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis that can potentially progress to colon cancer. However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Here we summarize the current literature on the pathophysiology of IBD, which is multifactorial in origin with unknown etiology. We have focused on a few selenoproteins that mediate gastrointestinal inflammation and activate the host immune response, wherein macrophages play a pivotal role. Changes in cellular oxidative state coupled with altered expression of selenoproteins in macrophages drive the switch from a proinflammatory phenotype to an anti-inflammatory phenotype to efficiently resolve inflammation in the gut and restore epithelial barrier integrity. Such a phenotypic plasticity is accompanied by changes in cytokines, chemokines, and bioactive metabolites, including eicosanoids that not only mitigate inflammation but also partake in restoring gut homeostasis through diverse pathways involving differential regulation of transcription factors such as nuclear factor-κB and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ. The role of the intestinal microbiome in modulating inflammation and aiding in selenium-dependent resolution of gut injury is highlighted to provide novel insights into the beneficial effects of selenium in IBD. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Anti-inflammatory Agents: Present and Future

    PubMed Central

    Dinarello, Charles A.

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation involving the innate and adaptive immune systems is a normal response to infection. However, when allowed to continue unchecked, inflammation may result in autoimmune or autoinflammatory disorders, neurodegenerative disease, or cancer. A variety of safe and effective anti-inflammatory agents are available, including aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories, with many more drugs under development. In particular, the new era of anti-inflammatory agents includes “biologicals” such as anticytokine therapies and small molecules that block the activity of kinases. Other anti-inflammatories currently in use or under development include statins, histone deacetylase inhibitors, PPAR agonists, and small RNAs. This Review discusses the current status of anti-inflammatory drug research and the development of new anti-inflammatory therapeutics. PMID:20303881

  9. Novel Targeted Therapies for Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0461 TITLE: Novel Targeted Therapies for Inflammatory Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jose Silva CONTRACTING...CONTRACT NUMBER Novel Targeted Therapies for Inflammatory Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0461 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) l 5d...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC, ~5% of all breast cancers ) is the most lethal form of breast cancer , presenting a 5- year

  10. Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies overlapping with systemic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lepreux, Sébastien; Hainfellner, Johannes A.; Vital, Anne

    2018-01-01

    A muscle biopsy is currently requested to assess the diagnosis of an idiopathic inflammatory myopathy overlapping with a systemic disease. During the past few years, the classification of inflammatory myopathy subtypes has been revisited progressively on the basis of correlations between clinical phenotypes, autoantibodies and histological data. Several syndromic entities are now more clearly defined, and the aim of the present review is to clarify the contribution of muscle biopsy in a setting of idiopathic inflammatory myopathies overlapping with systemic diseases. PMID:29154752

  11. Chronic Inflammatory Disease, Lifestyle and Treatment Response

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-01-25

    Autoimmune Diseases; Inflammatory Bowel Diseases; Crohn Disease (CD); Colitis, Ulcerative (UC); Arthritis, Rheumatoid (RA); Spondylarthropathies; Arthritis, Psoriatic (PsA); Psoriasis; Hidradenitis Suppurativa (HS); Uveitis

  12. Skeletal muscle secretome in Duchenne muscular dystrophy: a pivotal anti-inflammatory role of adiponectin.

    PubMed

    Lecompte, S; Abou-Samra, M; Boursereau, R; Noel, L; Brichard, S M

    2017-07-01

    Persistent inflammation exacerbates the progression of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The hormone, adiponectin (ApN), which is decreased in the metabolic syndrome, exhibits anti-inflammatory properties on skeletal muscle and alleviates the dystrophic phenotype of mdx mice. Here, we investigate whether ApN retains its anti-inflammatory action in myotubes obtained from DMD patients. We unravel the underlying mechanisms by studying the secretome and the early events of ApN. Primary cultures of myotubes from DMD and control patients were treated or not by ApN after an inflammatory challenge. Myokines secreted in medium were identified by cytokine antibody-arrays and ELISAs. The early events of ApN signaling were assessed by abrogating selected genes. ApN retained its anti-inflammatory properties in both dystrophic and control myotubes. Profiling of secretory products revealed that ApN downregulated the secretion of two pro-inflammatory factors (TNFα and IL-17A), one soluble receptor (sTNFRII), and one chemokine (CCL28) in DMD myotubes, while upregulating IL-6 that exerts some anti-inflammatory effects. These changes were explained by pretranslational mechanisms. Earlier events of the ApN cascade involved AdipoR1, the main receptor for muscle, and the AMPK-SIRT1-PGC-1α axis leading, besides alteration of the myokine profile, to the upregulation of utrophin A (a dystrophin analog). ApN retains its beneficial properties in dystrophic muscles by activating the AdipoR1-AMPK-SIRT1-PGC-1α pathway, thereby inducing a shift in the secretion of downstream myokines toward a less inflammatory profile while upregulating utrophin. ApN, the early events of the cascade and downstream myokines may be therapeutic targets for the management of DMD.

  13. Methotrexate for Ocular Inflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gangaputra, Sapna; Newcomb, Craig W.; Liesegang, Teresa L.; COT; CRC; Kaçmaz, R. Oktay; Jabs, Douglas A.; Levy-Clarke, Grace A.; Nussenblatt, Robert B.; Rosenbaum, James T.; Suhler, Eric B.; Thorne, Jennifer E.; Foster, C. Stephen; Kempen, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the outcome of treatment with methotrexate for noninfectious ocular inflammation. Design Retrospective cohort study. Participants Patients with noninfectious ocular inflammation managed at 4 tertiary ocular inflammation clinics in the United States observed to add methotrexate as a single, noncorticosteroid immunosuppressive agent to their treatment regimen, between 1979 and 2007, inclusive. Methods Participants were identified from the Systemic Immunosuppressive Therapy for Eye Diseases Cohort Study. Demographic and clinical characteristics, including dosage, route of administration of methotrexate, and main outcome measures, were obtained for every eye of every patient at every visit via medical record review by trained expert reviewers. Main Outcome Measures Control of inflammation, corticosteroid-sparing effects, and incidence of and reason for discontinuation of therapy. Results Among 384 patients (639 eyes) observed from the point of addition of methotrexate to an anti-inflammatory regimen, 32.8%, 9.9%, 21.4%, 14.6%, 15.1%, and 6.3%, respectively, had anterior uveitis, intermediate uveitis, posterior or panuveitis, scleritis, ocular mucous membrane pemphigoid, and other forms of ocular inflammation. In these groups, complete suppression of inflammation sustained for ≥28 days was achieved within 6 months in 55.6%, 47.4%, 38.6%, 56.4%, 39.5%, and 76.7%, respectively. Corticosteroid-sparing success (sustained suppression of inflammation with prednisone ≤10 mg/d) was achieved within 6 months among 46.1%, 41.3%, 20.7%, 37.3%, 36.5%, and 50.9%, respectively. Overall, success within 12 months was 66% and 58.4% for sustained control and corticosteroid sparing ≤10 mg), respectively. Methotrexate was discontinued within 1 year by 42% of patients. It was discontinued owing to ineffectiveness in 50 patients (13%); 60 patients (16%) discontinued because of side effects, which typically were reversible with dose reduction or discontinuation

  14. Methotrexate for ocular inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Gangaputra, Sapna; Newcomb, Craig W; Liesegang, Teresa L; Kaçmaz, R Oktay; Jabs, Douglas A; Levy-Clarke, Grace A; Nussenblatt, Robert B; Rosenbaum, James T; Suhler, Eric B; Thorne, Jennifer E; Foster, C Stephen; Kempen, John H

    2009-11-01

    To evaluate the outcome of treatment with methotrexate for noninfectious ocular inflammation. Retrospective cohort study. Patients with noninfectious ocular inflammation managed at 4 tertiary ocular inflammation clinics in the United States observed to add methotrexate as a single, noncorticosteroid immunosuppressive agent to their treatment regimen, between 1979 and 2007, inclusive. Participants were identified from the Systemic Immunosuppressive Therapy for Eye Diseases Cohort Study. Demographic and clinical characteristics, including dosage, route of administration of methotrexate, and main outcome measures, were obtained for every eye of every patient at every visit via medical record review by trained expert reviewers. Control of inflammation, corticosteroid-sparing effects, and incidence of and reason for discontinuation of therapy. Among 384 patients (639 eyes) observed from the point of addition of methotrexate to an anti-inflammatory regimen, 32.8%, 9.9%, 21.4%, 14.6%, 15.1%, and 6.3%, respectively, had anterior uveitis, intermediate uveitis, posterior or panuveitis, scleritis, ocular mucous membrane pemphigoid, and other forms of ocular inflammation. In these groups, complete suppression of inflammation sustained for >or=28 days was achieved within 6 months in 55.6%, 47.4%, 38.6%, 56.4%, 39.5%, and 76.7%, respectively. Corticosteroid-sparing success (sustained suppression of inflammation with prednisone

  15. Desquamative inflammatory vaginitis. A review.

    PubMed Central

    Oates, J K; Rowen, D

    1990-01-01

    Desquamative inflammatory vaginitis is an uncommon cause of an intractable vaginitis often accompanied by serious dyspareunia, which can occur at any stage of reproductive life and after the menopause. The cytological changes are identical with those seen in atrophic vaginitis yet the disorder often occurs in the presence of apparently normal ovarian function. Vaginal synechiae and stenosis develop in an appreciable number of patients. Treatment is unsatisfactory though there is some response to either local or systemic steroid therapy. The literature is reviewed and the association of some cases with lichen planus of the mouth and genitals discussed. Its causation and natural history remain largely unknown and there is as yet, insufficient evidence to regard it as a single entity. It is likely that the incidence of the disorder is underestimated. PMID:2202657

  16. Inflammatory Mediators of Hepatic Steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Hijona, Elizabeth; Hijona, Lander; Arenas, Juan I.; Bujanda, Luis

    2010-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is rapidly becoming a world-wide public health problem. NAFLD represents a spectrum of disease ranging from “simple steatosis”, which is considered relatively benign, to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and to NAFLD-associated cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease. The etiology of NAFLD and its progression is complex and remains incompletely understood. The progression of the disease involves many factors. Apart from the two hits, the accumulation of TG and the development of fibrosis and necroinflammatory processes, exit numerous molecules associated with these two hits. Among them we can highlight the pro-inflammatory molecules and adiponectins. This review focuses on the growing evidence from both experimental and human studies suggesting a central role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of NAFLD. We review the role of cytokines as key regulators of insulin sensitivity and hepatic lipid overloading, liver injury and inflammation, and fibrosis with an emphasis on potential therapeutic implications. PMID:20300479

  17. Cannabis for inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Naftali, Timna; Mechulam, Raphael; Lev, Lihi Bar; Konikoff, Fred M

    2014-01-01

    The marijuana plant Cannabis sativa has been used for centuries as a treatment for a variety of ailments. It contains over 60 different cannabinoid compounds. Studies have revealed that the endocannabinoid system is involved in almost all major immune events. Cannabinoids may, therefore, be beneficial in inflammatory disorders. In murine colitis, cannabinoids decrease histologic and microscopic inflammation. In humans, cannabis has been used to treat a plethora of gastrointestinal problems, including anorexia, emesis, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and diabetic gastroparesis. Despite anecdotal reports on medical cannabis in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), there are few controlled studies. In an observational study in 30 patients with Crohn's disease (CD), we found that medical cannabis was associated with improvement in disease activity and reduction in the use of other medications. In a more recent placebo-controlled study in 21 chronic CD patients, we showed a decrease in the CD activity index >100 in 10 of 11 subjects on cannabis compared to 4 of 10 on placebo. Complete remission was achieved in 5 of 11 subjects in the cannabis group and 1 of 10 in the placebo group. Yet, in an additional study, low-dose cannabidiol did not have an effect on CD activity. In summary, evidence is gathering that manipulating the endocannabinoid system can have beneficial effects in IBD, but further research is required to declare cannabinoids a medicine. We need to establish the specific cannabinoids, as well as appropriate medical conditions, optimal dose, and mode of administration, to maximize the beneficial effects while avoiding any potential harmful effects of cannabinoid use. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Thalidomide for inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Bramuzzo, Matteo; Ventura, Alessandro; Martelossi, Stefano; Lazzerini, Marzia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Thalidomide is an immunomodulatory drug used in the experimental treatment of refractory Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis. We aimed to review the existing evidence on the efficacy and safety of thalidomide in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases. Methods: CENTRAL, MEDLINE, LILACS, POPLINE, CINHAL, and Web of Science were searched in March 2016. Manual search included conference and reference lists. All types of studies, except single case reports, were included. Outcomes evaluated were: induction of remission; maintenance of remission; steroid reduction; effect on penetrating Crohn disease; endoscopic remission; adverse events. Results: The research strategies retrieved 722 papers. Two randomized controlled trials and 29 uncontrolled studies for a total of 489 patients matched the inclusion criteria. Thalidomide induced a clinical response in 296/427 (69.3%) patients. Clinical remission was achieved in 220/427 (51.5%) cases. Maintenance of remission was reported in 128/160 (80.0%) patients at 6 months and in 96/133 (72.2%) at 12 months. Reduction in steroid dosage was reported in 109/152 (71.7%) patients. Fistulas improved in 49/81 (60.5%) cases and closed in 28/81 (34.6%). Endoscopic improvement was observed in 46/66 (69.7%) and complete mucosal healing in 35/66 (53.0%) patients. Cumulative incidence of total adverse events and of those leading to drug suspension was 75.6 and 19.7/1000 patient-months, respectively. Neurological disturbances accounted for 341/530 (64.3%) adverse events and were the most frequent cause of drug withdrawal. Conclusion: Existing evidence suggests that thalidomide may be a valid treatment option for patients with inflammatory bowel diseases refractory to other first- and second-line treatments. PMID:27472695

  19. MTOR Suppresses Environmental Particle-Induced Inflammatory Response in Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhouyang; Wu, Yinfang; Chen, Hai-Pin; Zhu, Chen; Dong, Lingling; Wang, Yong; Liu, Huiwen; Xu, Xuchen; Zhou, Jiesen; Wu, Yanping; Li, Wen; Ying, Songmin; Shen, Huahao; Chen, Zhi-Hua

    2018-04-15

    Increasing toxicological and epidemiological studies have demonstrated that ambient particulate matter (PM) could cause adverse health effects including inflammation in the lung. Alveolar macrophages represent a major type of innate immune responses to foreign substances. However, the detailed mechanisms of inflammatory responses induced by PM exposure in macrophages are still unclear. We observed that coarse PM treatment rapidly activated mechanistic target of rapamycin (MTOR) in mouse alveolar macrophages in vivo, and in cultured mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages, mouse peritoneal macrophages, and RAW264.7 cells. Pharmacological inhibition or genetic knockdown of MTOR in bone marrow-derived macrophages leads to an amplified cytokine production upon PM exposure, and mice with specific knockdown of MTOR or ras homolog enriched in brain in myeloid cells exhibit significantly aggregated airway inflammation. Mechanistically, PM activated MTOR through modulation of ERK, AKT serine/threonine kinase 1, and tuberous sclerosis complex signals, whereas MTOR deficiency further enhanced the PM-induced necroptosis and activation of subsequent NF κ light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFKB) signaling. Inhibition of necroptosis or NFKB pathways significantly ameliorated PM-induced inflammatory response in MTOR-deficient macrophages. The present study thus demonstrates that MTOR serves as an early adaptive signal that suppresses the PM-induced necroptosis, NFKB activation, and inflammatory response in lung macrophages, and suggests that activation of MTOR or inhibition of necroptosis in macrophages may represent novel therapeutic strategies for PM-related airway disorders. Copyright © 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  20. Immunosuppression in inflammatory bowel disease: traditional, biological or both?

    PubMed

    Van Assche, Gert; Vermeire, Séverine; Rutgeerts, Paul

    2009-07-01

    To focus on the emerging clinical evidence for the use of traditional immunosuppressives and biologicals in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease. Evidence published this year indicates that in Crohn's disease the early use of combined infliximab and purine analogues before the introduction of steroid therapy induces faster steroid-free remission and improves mucosal healing. We have also learned that, in patients with Crohn's disease who are naïve to traditional immunosuppressive therapy, combined infliximab and azathioprine improves clinical and mucosal healing outcomes at 6 months. On the contrary, in patients already exposed to traditional immunosuppressives prior to starting infliximab, withdrawal of azathioprine or methotrexate after 6 months of combined scheduled infliximab maintenance with these agents does not affect outcomes after 2 years of continued infliximab therapy. Finally, several important studies on the safety of immunosuppressives including anti-tumour necrosis factor agents have been published. The cumulative body of evidence suggests that combined immunosuppressive therapy in patients with inflammatory bowel disease increases toxicity. Treatment paradigms for traditional immunosuppressives and biologicals in inflammatory bowel disease are evolving, and the choice of therapy becomes highly dependent on the drugs previously used and disease severity.

  1. Penile Inflammatory Skin Disorders and the Preventive Role of Circumcision

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Brian J.; Krieger, John N.

    2017-01-01

    Penile inflammatory skin conditions such as balanitis and posthitis are common, especially in uncircumcised males, and feature prominently in medical consultations. We conducted a systematic review of the medical literature on PubMed, EMBASE, and Cohrane databases using keywords “balanitis,” “posthitis,” “balanoposthitis,” “lichen sclerosus,” “penile inflammation,” and “inflammation penis,” along with “circumcision,” “circumcised,” and “uncircumcised.” Balanitis is the most common inflammatory disease of the penis. The accumulation of yeasts and other microorganisms under the foreskin contributes to inflammation of the surrounding penile tissue. The clinical presentation of inflammatory penile conditions includes itching, tenderness, and pain. Penile inflammation is responsible for significant morbidity, including acquired phimosis, balanoposthitis, and lichen sclerosus. Medical treatment can be challenging and a cost burden to the health system. Reducing prevalence is therefore important. While topical antifungal creams can be used, usually accompanied by advice on hygiene, the definitive treatment is circumcision. Data from meta-analyses showed that circumcised males have a 68% lower prevalence of balanitis than uncircumcised males and that balanitis is accompanied by a 3.8-fold increase in risk of penile cancer. Because of the high prevalence and morbidity of penile inflammation, especially in immunocompromised and diabetic patients, circumcision should be more widely adopted globally and is best performed early in infancy. PMID:28567234

  2. In vivo anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of Cheilanthes farinosa.

    PubMed

    Yonathan, Mariamawit; Asres, Kaleab; Assefa, Ashenafi; Bucar, Franz

    2006-12-06

    In Ethiopia inflammatory skin diseases are among the most common health problems treated with traditional remedies which mainly comprise medicinal plants. In the present work, the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of Cheilanthes farinosa (Forsk.) Kaulf (Adianthaceae), a fern used in many parts of Ethiopia to treat inflammatory skin disorders, were studied using in vivo models of inflammation and pain. The results of the study showed that the fronds Cheilanthes farinosa possess strong anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive properties. It was further demonstrated that the active ingredients of the fern reside mainly in the methanol fraction from which three compounds viz. the flavonol glycoside rutin, and the natural cinnamic acids, caffeic acid and its quinic acid derivative chlorogenic acid have been isolated. The methanol extract was also shown to potentiate the anti-inflammatory activity of acetyl salicylic acid. At the tested concentrations, the methanol extract displayed a better anti-nociceptive activity than that of ASA in both the early and late phases of formalin induced nociception in mice. However, the activity of the extract was more pronounced in the late phase, which is commonly associated with inflammatory pain. Evaluation of the pharmacological properties of the compounds isolated from the active fractions pointed out that chlorogenic acid possesses strong anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities while caffeic acid and rutin were inactive. Moreover, on molar basis chlorogenic acid was proved to be superior in its anti-inflammatory action to acetyl salicylic acid. It was therefore concluded that chlorogenic acid contributes, in full or in part, to the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of Cheilanthes farinosa. Both the methanolic extract and pure chlorogenic acid failed to display anti-nociceptive activity when tested by the tail-flick test indicating that the plant is not a centrally acting analgesic but

  3. Microbiota biodiversity in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Gut microbiota plays a significant role in human health and energy balance, and provides protection against disease states. An altered balance between microbiota and its host (dysbiosis) would appear to contribute to the development of Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD), Crohn’s Disease (CD) and Ulcerative Colitis (UC). CD and UC are chronic inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tes. PMID:24684926

  4. An anti-inflammatory principle from cactus.

    PubMed

    Park, E H; Kahng, J H; Lee, S H; Shin, K H

    2001-03-01

    In previous studies, the ethanol extract of cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) showed potent anti-inflammatory action. In the present study, following fractionation of the methanol extract of cactus stems guided by adjuvant-induced chronic inflammation model in mice, an active anti-inflammatory principle has been isolated and identified as beta-sitosterol.

  5. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy in two siblings.

    PubMed Central

    Gabreëls-Festen, A A; Hageman, A T; Gabreëls, F J; Joosten, E M; Renier, W O; Weemaes, C M; ter Laak, H J

    1986-01-01

    A familial occurrence of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy is reported. The diagnostic problems in distinguishing the progressive form of this disease in childhood from hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy types I and III are discussed. Criteria for a definite diagnosis of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy are proposed. Images PMID:3456424

  6. [The temporomandibular joint and inflammatory rheumatic diseases].

    PubMed

    Marotte, H

    2016-09-01

    Some inflammatory rheumatic diseases can involve the temporomandibular joint, such as rheumatoid arthritis and spondylarthritis. The aim of our work was to evaluate the current prevalence of these inflammatory TMJ diseases, to indicate the new therapeutics and to describe the collaboration between rheumatologist and maxillofacial surgeon in these pathologies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. 9 CFR 381.86 - Inflammatory processes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inflammatory processes. 381.86 Section 381.86 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Carcasses and Parts § 381.86 Inflammatory processes. Any organ or other part of a carcass which is affected...

  8. MR Enterography of Inflammatory Bowel Disease with Endoscopic Correlation.

    PubMed

    Kaushal, Pankaj; Somwaru, Alexander S; Charabaty, Aline; Levy, Angela D

    2017-01-01

    Crohn disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) are the two main forms of idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). CD is a transmural chronic inflammatory disorder that can affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract in a discontinuous distribution. UC is a mucosal and submucosal chronic inflammatory disease that typically originates in the rectum and may extend proximally in a continuous manner. In treating patients with CD and UC, clinicians rely heavily on accurate diagnoses and disease staging. Magnetic resonance (MR) enterography used in conjunction with endoscopy and histopathologic analysis can help accurately diagnose and manage disease in the majority of patients. Endoscopy is more sensitive for detection of the early-manifesting mucosal abnormalities seen with IBD and enables histopathologic sampling. MR enterography yields more insightful information about the pathologic changes seen deep to the mucosal layer of the gastrointestinal tract wall and to those portions of the small bowel that are not accessible endoscopically. CD can be classified into active inflammatory, fistulizing and perforating, fibrostenotic, and reparative and regenerative phases of disease. Although CD has a progressive course, there is no stepwise progression between these disease phases, and various phases may exist at the same time. The endoscopic and MR enterographic features of UC can be broadly divided into two categories: acute phase and subacute-chronic phase. Understanding the endoscopic features of IBD and the pathologic processes that cause the MR enterographic findings of IBD can help improve the accuracy of disease characterization and thus optimize the medication and surgical therapies for these patients. © RSNA, 2016.

  9. Endotoxin Neutralization as a Biomonitor for Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Champion, Keith; Chiu, Laura; Ferbas, John; Pepe, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Gram-negative bacterial endotoxin is a potent immunostimulant implicated in the development and/or progression of a variety of diseases. The mammalian immune system has both innate and adaptive immune responses to neutralize endotoxin. In this study, a system was developed to monitor bacterial exposure by measuring the extent and nature of endotoxin neutralization in plasma. In control patients, females had higher levels of endotoxin neutralization than males, mirroring clinical outcomes from bacterial infection and sepsis. In addition to the total amount of neutralization, we used inactivation techniques to elucidate the nature of this activity and develop a system to compare early and late immune responses. Using this method to monitor patients with inflammatory bowel disease, we found a more robust total response that relies more on long-term, adaptive components of the immune system and less on early, innate components. Our results indicate that endotoxin neutralization is a valuable method to discern inflammatory bowel disease patients from a control population. Additionally, the nature of neutralization may be valuable in monitoring disease severity and/or the role of medication. PMID:23826338

  10. The formation of inflammatory demyelinated lesions in cerebral white matter.

    PubMed

    Maggi, Pietro; Macri, Sheila M Cummings; Gaitán, María I; Leibovitch, Emily; Wholer, Jillian E; Knight, Heather L; Ellis, Mary; Wu, Tianxia; Silva, Afonso C; Massacesi, Luca; Jacobson, Steven; Westmoreland, Susan; Reich, Daniel S

    2014-10-01

    Vascular permeability and inflammatory demyelination are intimately linked in the brain, but what is their temporal relationship? We aimed to determine the radiological correlates of the earliest tissue changes accompanying demyelination in a primate model of multiple sclerosis (MS), experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in the common marmoset. By 7T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), T1 maps, proton density, and T2-weighted images were acquired before and after EAE induction in 5 marmosets (every other week before lesions appeared, weekly thereafter). From scans before and after intravenous injection of contrast material, we measured the evolution of lesional blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, comparing in vivo MRI to postmortem tissue examination. On average, BBB permeability increased 3.5-fold (p < 0.0001) over the 4 weeks prior to lesion appearance. Permeability gradually decreased after lesion appearance, with attendant changes in the distribution of inflammatory cells (predominantly macrophages and microglia) and demyelination. On tissue analysis, we also identified small perivascular foci of microglia and T cells without blood-derived macrophages or demyelination. These foci had no visible MRI correlates, although permeability within the foci, but not outside, increased in the weeks before the animals died (p < 0.0001). This study provides compelling evidence that in marmoset EAE, which forms lesions strongly resembling those of MS, early changes in vascular permeability are associated with perivascular inflammatory cuffing and parenchymal microglial activation but precede the arrival of blood-derived monocytes that accompany demyelination. Prospective detection of transient permeability changes could afford an opportunity for early intervention to forestall tissue damage in newly forming lesions. © 2014 American Neurological Association.

  11. The formation of inflammatory demyelinated lesions in cerebral white matter

    PubMed Central

    Maggi, Pietro; Cummings Macri, Sheila M.; Gaitán, María I.; Leibovitch, Emily; Wholer, Jillian E; Knight, Heather L.; Ellis, Mary; Wu, Tianxia; Silva, Afonso C.; Massacesi, Luca; Jacobson, Steven; Westmoreland, Susan; Reich, Daniel S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Vascular permeability and inflammatory demyelination are intimately linked in the brain, but what is their temporal relationship? We aimed to determine the radiological correlates of the earliest tissue changes accompanying demyelination in a primate model of multiple sclerosis (MS), experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in the common marmoset. Methods At 7 tesla MRI, T1 maps, proton density and T2-weighted images were acquired before and after EAE induction in 5 marmosets (every other week before lesions appeared, weekly thereafter). From scans before and after intravenous injection of contrast material, we measured the evolution of lesional blood-brain-barrier (BBB) permeability, comparing in vivo MRI to postmortem tissue examination. Results On average, BBB permeability increased 3.5 fold (p<0.0001) over the 4 weeks prior to lesion appearance. Permeability gradually decreased after lesion appearance, with attendant changes in the distribution of inflammatory cells (predominantly macrophages and microglia) and demyelination. On tissue analysis, we also identified small perivascular foci of microglia and T cells without blood-derived macrophages or demyelination. These foci had no visible MRI correlates, though permeability within the foci, but not outside, increased in the weeks before the animals died (p<0.0001). Interpretation This study provides compelling evidence that in marmoset EAE, which forms lesions strongly resembling those of MS, early changes in vascular permeability are associated with perivascular inflammatory cuffing and parenchymal microglial activation but precede the arrival of blood-derived monocytes that accompany demyelination. Prospective detection of transient permeability changes could afford an opportunity for early intervention to forestall tissue damage in newly forming lesions. PMID:25088017

  12. Regulation of tissue factor and inflammatory mediators by Egr-1 in a mouse endotoxemia model.

    PubMed

    Pawlinski, Rafal; Pedersen, Brian; Kehrle, Bettina; Aird, William C; Frank, Rolf D; Guha, Mausumee; Mackman, Nigel

    2003-05-15

    In septic shock, tissue factor (TF) activates blood coagulation, and cytokines and chemokines orchestrate an inflammatory response. In this study, the role of Egr-1 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induction of TF and inflammatory mediators in vivo was evaluated using Egr-1(+/+) and Egr-1(-/-) mice. Administration of LPS transiently increased the steady-state levels of Egr-1 mRNA in the kidneys and lungs of Egr-1(+/+) mice with maximal induction at one hour. Egr-1 was expressed in epithelial cells in the kidneys and lungs in untreated and LPS-treated mice. LPS induction of monocyte chemoattractant protein mRNA in the kidneys and lungs of Egr-1(-/-) mice was not affected at 3 hours, but its expression was significantly reduced at 8 hours compared with the expression observed in Egr-1(+/+) mice. Similarly, LPS induction of TF mRNA expression in the kidneys and lungs at 8 hours was reduced in Egr-1(-/-) mice. However, Egr-1 deficiency did not affect plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha in endotoxemic mice. Moreover, Egr-1(+/+) and Egr-1(-/-) mice exhibited similar survival times in a model of acute endotoxemia. These data indicate that Egr-1 does not contribute to the early inflammatory response in the kidneys and lungs or the early systemic inflammatory response in endotoxemic mice. However, Egr-1 does contribute to the sustained expression of inflammatory mediators and to the maximal expression of TF at 8 hours in the kidneys and lungs.

  13. Steroid Exposure, Acute Coronary Syndrome, and Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Insights into the Inflammatory Milieu

    PubMed Central

    Deaño, Roderick C.; Basnet, Sandeep; Onandia, Zurine Galvan; Gandhi, Sachin; Tawakol, Ahmed; Min, James K.; Truong, Quynh A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Steroids are anti-inflammatory agents commonly used to treat inflammatory bowel disease. Inflammation plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of both inflammatory bowel disease and acute coronary syndrome. We examined the relationship between steroid use in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and acute coronary syndrome. Methods In 177 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (mean age 67, 75% male, 44% Crohn's disease, 56% ulcerative colitis), we performed a 1:2 case-control study matched for age, sex and inflammatory bowel disease type and compared 59 patients with inflammatory bowel disease with acute coronary syndrome to 118 patients with inflammatory bowel disease without acute coronary syndrome. Steroid use was defined as current or prior exposure. Acute coronary syndrome was defined as myocardial infarction or unstable angina, confirmed by cardiac biomarkers and coronary angiography. Results In patients with inflammatory bowel disease, 34% with acute coronary syndrome had exposure to steroids versus 58% without acute coronary syndrome (p<0.01). Steroid exposure reduced the adjusted odds of acute coronary syndrome by 82% (odds ratio [OR] 0.39, 95% CI 0.20-0.74; adjusted OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.06-0.51) in patients with inflammatory bowel disease, 77% in Crohn's disease (OR 0.36, 95% CI 0.14-0.92; adjusted OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.06-0.98), and 78% in ulcerative colitis (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.16-1.04; adjusted OR 0.22, 95% CI 0.06-0.90). There was no association between other inflammatory bowel disease medications and acute coronary syndrome. Conclusions In patients with inflammatory bowel disease, steroid use significantly reduces the odds of acute coronary syndrome. These findings provide further mechanistic insight into the inflammatory processes involved in inflammatory bowel disease and acute coronary syndrome. PMID:25446295

  14. Inflammatory bowel disease after 1932.

    PubMed

    Janowitz, H D

    2000-05-01

    The clinical diseases of ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) were defined by 1932-1933. After that, the major conceptual developments were the recognition that regional enteritis could clearly involve the colon, and that cancer and toxic megacolon could occur in both CD and UC. In the last half of the 20th century the main thrust of gastroenterology at The Mount Sinai Hospital has been in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), with contributions to extra-intestinal manifestations, measurement of clinical activity in CD, the natural history of the placebo arm of controlled trials, complications and therapy with corticosteroids, 5-ASA, 6-mercaptopurine, immunomodulators and cyclosporine. Actuarial life tables were introduced for postoperative recurrence and re-operation rates, as well as for quality of life analysis. Two forms of CD were defined, perforating and non-perforating, and the role of the fecal stream was explored in light of the higher risk of recurrence after operations with anastomosis as compared with ileocolostomy.

  15. Exercise and inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Narula, Neeraj; Fedorak, Richard N

    2008-05-01

    Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are both idiopathic inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) that affect 0.5% of Canadians. As yet, there is no known cure for either disease, and symptoms are treated with an array of medicines. The objective of the present review was to present the role of exercise and its impact on all facets of IBD. Exercise has been speculated to be protective against the onset of IBD, but the literature is inconsistent and weak. Preliminary studies reveal that exercise training may be beneficial to reduce stress and symptoms of IBD. Current research also recommends exercise to help counteract some IBD-specific complications by improving bone mineral density, immunological response, psychological health, weight loss and stress management ability. However, the literature advises that some patients with IBD may have limitations to the amount and intensity of exercise that they can perform. In summary, exercise may be beneficial to IBD patients, but further research is required to make a convincing conclusion regarding its role in the management of IBD and to help establish exercise regimens that can account for each IBD patient's unique presentation.

  16. Immunopathology of inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Wallace, Kori L; Zheng, Li-Bo; Kanazawa, Yoshitake; Shih, David Q

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) results from a complex series of interactions between susceptibility genes, the environment, and the immune system. The host microbiome, as well as viruses and fungi, play important roles in the development of IBD either by causing inflammation directly or indirectly through an altered immune system. New technologies have allowed researchers to be able to quantify the various components of the microbiome, which will allow for future developments in the etiology of IBD. Various components of the mucosal immune system are implicated in the pathogenesis of IBD and include intestinal epithelial cells, innate lymphoid cells, cells of the innate (macrophages/monocytes, neutrophils, and dendritic cells) and adaptive (T-cells and B-cells) immune system, and their secreted mediators (cytokines and chemokines). Either a mucosal susceptibility or defect in sampling of gut luminal antigen, possibly through the process of autophagy, leads to activation of innate immune response that may be mediated by enhanced toll-like receptor activity. The antigen presenting cells then mediate the differentiation of naïve T-cells into effector T helper (Th) cells, including Th1, Th2, and Th17, which alter gut homeostasis and lead to IBD. In this review, the effects of these components in the immunopathogenesis of IBD will be discussed. PMID:24415853

  17. Immunopathology of inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Kori L; Zheng, Li-Bo; Kanazawa, Yoshitake; Shih, David Q

    2014-01-07

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) results from a complex series of interactions between susceptibility genes, the environment, and the immune system. The host microbiome, as well as viruses and fungi, play important roles in the development of IBD either by causing inflammation directly or indirectly through an altered immune system. New technologies have allowed researchers to be able to quantify the various components of the microbiome, which will allow for future developments in the etiology of IBD. Various components of the mucosal immune system are implicated in the pathogenesis of IBD and include intestinal epithelial cells, innate lymphoid cells, cells of the innate (macrophages/monocytes, neutrophils, and dendritic cells) and adaptive (T-cells and B-cells) immune system, and their secreted mediators (cytokines and chemokines). Either a mucosal susceptibility or defect in sampling of gut luminal antigen, possibly through the process of autophagy, leads to activation of innate immune response that may be mediated by enhanced toll-like receptor activity. The antigen presenting cells then mediate the differentiation of naïve T-cells into effector T helper (Th) cells, including Th1, Th2, and Th17, which alter gut homeostasis and lead to IBD. In this review, the effects of these components in the immunopathogenesis of IBD will be discussed.

  18. [Nutrition in inflammatory bowel disease].

    PubMed

    Banai, János

    2009-05-03

    Aetiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is complex and probably multifactorial. Nutrition has been proposed to be an important aetiological factor for development of IBD. Several components of the diet (such as sugar, fat, fibre, fruit and vegetable, protein, fast food, preservatives etc.) were examined as possible causative agents for IBD. According to some researchers infant feeding (breast feeding) may also contribute to the development of IBD. Though the importance of environmental factors is evidenced by the increasing incidence in developed countries and in migrant population in recent decades, the aetiology of IBD remained unclear. There are many theories, but as yet no dietary approaches have been proved to reduce the risk of developing IBD. The role of nutrition in the management of IBD is better understood. The prevention and correction of malnutrition, the provision of macro- and micronutrients and vitamins and the promotion of optimal growth and development of children are key points of nutritional therapy. In active disease, the effective support of energy and nutrients is a very important part of the therapy. Natural and artificial nutrition or the combination of two can be chosen for supporting therapy of IBD. The author summarises the aetiological and therapeutic role of nutrition in IBD.

  19. Nutrition in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed

    Martínez Gómez, María Josefa; Melián Fernández, Cristóbal; Romeo Donlo, María

    2016-07-12

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic pathology that has an outbreaks course that in recent years have seen an increase in incidence, especially at younger ages. Malnutrition is frequently associated with this condition, therefore, it is very important to ensure a right nutritional intervention, especially in pediatric patients, to ensure an optimal growth and also an improvement in the clinic. Our goal will be updated the role of nutrition in this disease and in its treatment based on the published evidence. Malnutrition in these patients is frequent and is influenced by various factors such as, decreased food intake, increased nutrient requirements, increased protein loss and malabsorption of nutrients. Therefore there should be a nutritional monitoring of all of them, in which anthropometric measurements, laboratory tests and densitometry were made to establish the needs and sufficient caloric intake tailored to each patient. The use of enteral nutrition as a treatment in Crohn’s disease with mild to moderate outbreak in child population, is amply demonstrated, has even shown to be superior to the use of corticosteroids. Therefore we can conclude by stressing that nutritional intervention is a mainstay in the management of patients with IBD, which aims to prevent and / or control disease-related malnutrition to decrease morbidity and mortality and improve quality of life.

  20. Inflammatory bowel disease and thromboembolism

    PubMed Central

    Zezos, Petros; Kouklakis, Georgios; Saibil, Fred

    2014-01-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have an increased risk of vascular complications. Thromboembolic complications, both venous and arterial, are serious extraintestinal manifestations complicating the course of IBD and can lead to significant morbidity and mortality. Patients with IBD are more prone to thromboembolic complications and IBD per se is a risk factor for thromboembolic disease. Data suggest that thrombosis is a specific feature of IBD that can be involved in both the occurrence of thromboembolic events and the pathogenesis of the disease. The exact etiology for this special association between IBD and thromboembolism is as yet unknown, but it is thought that multiple acquired and inherited factors are interacting and producing the increased tendency for thrombosis in the local intestinal microvasculature, as well as in the systemic circulation. Clinicians’ awareness of the risks, and their ability to promptly diagnose and manage tromboembolic complications are of vital importance. In this review we discuss how thromboembolic disease is related to IBD, specifically focusing on: (1) the epidemiology and clinical features of thromboembolic complications in IBD; (2) the pathophysiology of thrombosis in IBD; and (3) strategies for the prevention and management of thromboembolic complications in IBD patients. PMID:25320522

  1. Early Rockets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    In addition to Dr. Robert Goddard's pioneering work, American experimentation in rocketry prior to World War II grew, primarily in technical societies. This is an early rocket motor designed and developed by the American Rocket Society in 1932.

  2. Supplemental oxygen therapy does not affect the systemic inflammatory response to acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, R; Tornvall, P; Witt, N; Alfredsson, J; Svensson, L; Jonasson, L; Nilsson, L

    2018-04-01

    Oxygen therapy has been used routinely in normoxemic patients with suspected acute myocardial infarction (AMI) despite limited evidence supporting a beneficial effect. AMI is associated with a systemic inflammation. Here, we hypothesized that the inflammatory response to AMI is potentiated by oxygen therapy. The DETermination of the role of Oxygen in suspected Acute Myocardial Infarction (DETO2X-AMI) multicentre trial randomized patients with suspected AMI to receive oxygen at 6 L min -1 for 6-12 h or ambient air. For this prespecified subgroup analysis, we recruited patients with confirmed AMI from two sites for evaluation of inflammatory biomarkers at randomization and 5-7 h later. Ninety-two inflammatory biomarkers were analysed using proximity extension assay technology, to evaluate the effect of oxygen on the systemic inflammatory response to AMI. Plasma from 144 AMI patients was analysed whereof 76 (53%) were randomized to oxygen and 68 (47%) to air. Eight biomarkers showed a significant increase, whereas 13 were decreased 5-7 h after randomization. The inflammatory response did not differ between the two treatment groups neither did plasma troponin T levels. After adjustment for increase in troponin T over time, age and sex, the release of inflammation-related biomarkers was still similar in the groups. In a randomized controlled setting of normoxemic patients with AMI, the use of supplemental oxygen did not have any significant impact on the early release of systemic inflammatory markers. © 2017 The Association for the Publication of the Journal of Internal Medicine.

  3. Middle Ear Fluid Cytokine and Inflammatory Cell Kinetics in the Chinchilla Otitis Media Model

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Katsuro; Liebeler, Carol L.; Quartey, Moses K.; Le, Chap T.; Giebink, G. Scott

    1999-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most frequent microbe causing middle ear infection. The pathophysiology of pneumococcal otitis media has been characterized by measurement of local inflammatory mediators such as inflammatory cells, lysozyme, oxidative metabolic products, and inflammatory cytokines. The role of cytokines in bacterial infection has been elucidated with animal models, and interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) are recognized as being important local mediators in acute inflammation. We characterized middle ear inflammatory responses in the chinchilla otitis media model after injecting a very small number of viable pneumococci into the middle ear, similar to the natural course of infection. Middle ear fluid (MEF) concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α were measured by using anti-human cytokine enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay reagents. IL-1β showed the earliest peak, at 6 h after inoculation, whereas IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α concentrations were increasing 72 h after pneumococcal inoculation. IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α but not IL-1β concentrations correlated significantly with total inflammatory cell numbers in MEF, and all four cytokines correlated significantly with MEF neutrophil concentration. Several intercytokine correlations were significant. Cytokines, therefore, participate in the early middle ear inflammatory response to S. pneumoniae. PMID:10085040

  4. Gender Disparities in Ocular Inflammatory Disorders*

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Hatice Nida; Davis, Janet; Ucar, Didar; Fox, Austin; Chan, Chi Chao; Goldstein, Debra A.

    2014-01-01

    Ocular inflammatory disorders disproportionately affect women, and the majority of affected women are of childbearing age. The role of sex or reproductive hormones has been proposed in many other inflammatory or autoimmune disorders, and findings from non-ocular autoimmune diseases suggest a complex interaction between sex hormones, genetic factors and the immune system. However, despite the age and sex bias, factors that influence this disparity are complicated and unclear. This review aims to evaluate the gender disparities in prevalence, incidence and severity of the most common infectious and non-infectious ocular inflammatory disorders. PMID:24987987

  5. Non-infectious inflammatory genital lesions.

    PubMed

    Andreassi, Lucio; Bilenchi, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    The genitalia may be the site of non-infectious inflammatory lesions that are generally manifested as balanoposthitis and vulvovaginitis. In men, these forms constitute 50% of all balanoposthitis forms, and in women, vulvovaginitis frequency is even higher. They consist of genital locations of general skin diseases, such as psoriasis, lichen planus, lichen sclerosus, and other clinical entities with their own physiognomy, such as Zoon's balanitis-vulvitis. Diagnosis of genital non-infectious inflammatory lesions is usually made on clinical criteria. A biopsy is only necessary for the identification of clinical conditions that may simulate inflammatory form but are actually premalignant processes. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Inflammatory profile in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy patients: Understanding disease progression.

    PubMed

    Marchetti, Desirèe Padilha; Donida, Bruna; Jacques, Carlos Eduardo; Deon, Marion; Hauschild, Tatiane Cristina; Koehler-Santos, Patricia; de Moura Coelho, Daniella; Coitinho, Adriana Simon; Jardim, Laura Bannach; Vargas, Carmen Regla

    2018-01-01

    X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) is an inherited disease characterized by progressive inflammatory demyelization in the brain, adrenal insufficiency, and an abnormal accumulation of very long chain fatty acids (VLCFA) in tissue and body fluids. Considering that inflammation might be involved in pathophysiology of X-ALD, we aimed to investigate pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in plasma from three different male phenotypes (CCER, AMN, and asymptomatic individuals). Our results showed that asymptomatic patients presented increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-2, IL-8, and TNF-α and the last one was also higher in AMN phenotype. Besides, asymptomatic patients presented higher levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10. AMN patients presented higher levels of IL-2, IL-5, and IL-4. We might hypothesize that inflammation in X-ALD is related to plasmatic VLCFA concentration, since there were positive correlations between C26:0 plasmatic levels and pro-inflammatory cytokines in asymptomatic and AMN patients and negative correlation between anti-inflammatory cytokine and C24:0/C22:0 ratio in AMN patients. The present work yields experimental evidence that there is an inflammatory imbalance associated Th1, (IL-2, IL-6, and IFN-γ), Th2 (IL-4 and IL-10), and macrophages response (TNF-α and IL-1β) in the periphery of asymptomatic and AMN patients, and there is correlation between VLCFA plasmatic levels and inflammatory mediators in X-ALD. Furthermore, we might also speculate that the increase of plasmatic cytokines in asymptomatic patients could be considered an early biomarker of brain damage and maybe also a predictor of disease progression. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Fractalkine in human inflammatory cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Escher, F; Vetter, R; Kühl, U; Westermann, D; Schultheiss, H-P; Tschöpe, C

    2011-05-01

    Cardiac inflammation is important for the prognosis of patients with inflammatory cardiomyopathy (CMi), but the mechanisms leading to it are not fully elucidated. To study the role of fractalkine (CX3CL1) in chemotactic and adhesive properties of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in patients with CMi. Patients with enterovirus (EV)-positive CMi, patients with virus-negative CMi, patients with parvovirus B19 (B19) genomes with low intramyocardial inflammation and patients without cardiac inflammation and viral infection in the endomyocardial biopsy (EMB) were enrolled (n=10/group). The expression of CX3CL1 and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1) in EMBs was significantly increased in EV-positive and virus-negative patients with CMi in contrast to controls and B19-positive patients (EV+ vs controls: CX3CL1-area fraction (AF) % 0.078±0.012 vs 0.009±0.003 p<0.05; MCP-1-AF % 0.093±0.023 vs 0.011±0.009). The receptor (CX3CR1)-mediated chemotaxis was increased twofold in PBMCs in comparison with those of controls. The MCP-1 secretion was 3.1-fold higher in PBMCs from EV-positive patients compared with controls, and this elevation was further increased by CX3CL1 in EV-positive patients. No significant CX3CL1-mediated MCP-1 increase was seen in PBMCs from healthy controls. Moreover, spontaneously beating neonatal rat cardiomyocytes exposed to CX3CL1 exhibited an attenuated positive chronotropic response to β-adrenergic stimulation with isoproterenol. The cardiac and plasma CX3CL1/CX3CR1 system is upregulated in CMi and this affects the functional potential of PBMCs. Moreover, a direct cardiodepressive effect of CX3CL1 in cardiac tissue was demonstrated since neonatal cardiomyocytes exhibited an attenuated positive chronotropic response to β-adrenergic stimulation.

  8. Inflammatory Bowel Disease During Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Rajapakse, Ramona; Korelitz, Burton I.

    2001-06-01

    The management of both male and female patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) who wish to have a baby is challenging. For women, the most important factor to bear in mind is that the outcome of pregnancy is largely influenced by disease activity at the time of conception. Women with quiescent disease are likely to have an uncomplicated pregnancy with the delivery of a healthy baby, whereas women with active disease are more likely to have complications such as spontaneous abortions, miscarriages, stillbirths, and exacerbation of the disease. This is more true of patients with Crohn's disease than of patients with ulcerative colitis. Although the safety of medications used during pregnancy is an important issue, the impact of the medications used to treat IBD is less important in comparison to disease activity itself. 5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) products appear to be safe during pregnancy; corticosteroids are probably safe; 6-mercaptopurine and azathioprine should be used with caution; and methotrexate is contraindicated. There are inadequate data on the use of infliximab during pregnancy. In regard to men with IBD, the disease itself does not seem to have any negative impact on fertility. However, there is controversy about the effects of using 6-mercaptopurine and azathioprine prior to and during fertilization. In view of possible adverse pregnancy outcomes, it would be prudent to withhold 6-mercaptopurine and azathioprine therapy in men with IBD for 3 months prior to conception, when feasible. Most IBD medications should be continued before, during, and after pregnancy, with careful attention to the known cautions and exceptions. If IBD in a pregnant patient is in remission, the prognosis for pregnancy is the same as if she did not have IBD. Active disease should therefore be treated aggressively and remission accomplished before pregnancy is attempted. Similarly, a woman who unexpectedly becomes pregnant while her IBD is active should be treated

  9. [Cardiovascular disease and systemic inflammatory diseases].

    PubMed

    Cuende, José I; Pérez de Diego, Ignacio J; Godoy, Diego

    2016-01-01

    More than a century of research has shown that atherosclerosis is an inflammatory process more than an infiltrative or thrombogenic process. It has been demonstrated epidemiologically and by imaging techniques, that systemic inflammatory diseases (in particular, but not exclusively, rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus) increase the atherosclerotic process, and has a demonstrated pathophysiological basis. Furthermore, treatments to control inflammatory diseases can modify the course of the atherosclerotic process. Although there are no specific scales for assessing cardiovascular risk in patients with these diseases, cardiovascular risk is high. A number of specific risk scales are being developed, that take into account specific factors such as the degree of inflammatory activity. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. Endothelial Response to Glucocorticoids in Inflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Zielińska, Karolina A.; Van Moortel, Laura; Opdenakker, Ghislain; De Bosscher, Karolien; Van den Steen, Philippe E.

    2016-01-01

    The endothelium plays a crucial role in inflammation. A balanced control of inflammation requires the action of glucocorticoids (GCs), steroidal hormones with potent cell-specific anti-inflammatory properties. Besides the classic anti-inflammatory effects of GCs on leukocytes, recent studies confirm that endothelial cells also represent an important target for GCs. GCs regulate different aspects of endothelial physiology including expression of adhesion molecules, production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and maintenance of endothelial barrier integrity. However, the regulation of endothelial GC sensitivity remains incompletely understood. In this review, we specifically examine the endothelial response to GCs in various inflammatory diseases ranging from multiple sclerosis, stroke, sepsis, and vasculitis to atherosclerosis. Shedding more light on the cross talk between GCs and endothelium will help to improve existing therapeutic strategies and develop new therapies better tailored to the needs of patients. PMID:28018358

  11. Inflammatory hyperplasia: From diagnosis to treatment

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Pradeep; Dahiya, Varun; Kataria, Prerna; Sabharwal, Shreya

    2014-01-01

    Gingival enlargement, the currently accepted terminology for an increase in the size of the gingiva, is a common feature of gingival disease. Local and systemic factors influence the gingival conditions of the patient. These factors results in a spectrum of diseases that can be developmental, reactive and inflammatory to neoplastic. In this article, the history, etiology, clinical and histopathological features, treatment strategies and preventive protocol of inflammatory hyperplasia are discussed. PMID:24744554

  12. Early Rockets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    During the 19th century, rocket enthusiasts and inventors began to appear in almost every country. Some people thought these early rocket pioneers were geniuses, and others thought they were crazy. Claude Ruggieri, an Italian living in Paris, apparently rocketed small animals into space as early as 1806. The payloads were recovered by parachute. As depicted here by artist Larry Toschik, French authorities were not always impressed with rocket research. They halted Ruggieri's plans to launch a small boy using a rocket cluster. (Reproduced from a drawing by Larry Toschik and presented here courtesy of the artist and Motorola Inc.)

  13. Cardiovascular disease management through restrained inflammatory responses.

    PubMed

    Jabir, Nasimudeen R; Tabrez, Shams

    2016-01-01

    Cardio vascular disease (CVD) is the end result of the accumulation of atheromatous plaques within the walls of the coronary arteries and remains the leading cause of death worldwide. Vascular inflammation and associated ongoing inflammatory responses have been considered as the critical culprits in the pathogenesis of CVD. Moreover, the activation of inflammatory pathways is not confined to coronary lesions only but involves the activation of neutrophils, monocytes and lymphocytes in peripheral blood. In view of high mortality rate associated with this devastated disease, it is essential that CVD and related complications should be taken care off at its earliest. To achieve that goal, some inflammatory mediators could be potentially targeted. In the current article, we will highlight targeting some inflammatory mediators viz. IL-1, IL-6, TNF-α etc for CVD management. As far as our knowledge goes, we are for the first time reporting the targeting inflammatory mediators especially IL-1, IL-6 and TNF-α together in a single article. Based on our review, we believe that scientific community will come up with certain anti-inflammatory agents against atherosclerosis in near future and hopefully that will be used for the successful management of CVD patients.

  14. Anti-Inflammatory Iridoids of Botanical Origin

    PubMed Central

    Viljoen, A; Mncwangi, N; Vermaak, I

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation is a manifestation of a wide range of disorders which include; arthritis, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, inflammatory bowel syndrome, physical injury and infection amongst many others. Common treatment modalities are usually non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin, paracetamol, indomethacin and ibuprofen as well as corticosteroids such as prednisone. These however, may be associated with a host of side effects due to non-selectivity for cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes involved in inflammation and those with selectivity may be highly priced. Thus, there is a continuing search for safe and effective anti-inflammatory molecules from natural sources. Research has confirmed that iridoids exhibit promising anti-inflammatory activity which may be beneficial in the treatment of inflammation. Iridoids are secondary metabolites present in various plants, especially in species belonging to the Apocynaceae, Lamiaceae, Loganiaceae, Rubiaceae, Scrophulariaceae and Verbenaceae families. Many of these ethnobotanicals have an illustrious history of traditional use alluding to their use to treat inflammation. Although iridoids exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities such as cardiovascular, hepatoprotection, hypoglycaemic, antimutagenic, antispasmodic, anti-tumour, antiviral, immunomodulation and purgative effects this review will acutely focus on their anti-inflammatory properties. The paper aims to present a summary for the most prominent iridoid-containing plants for which anti-inflammatory activity has been demonstrated in vitro and / or in vivo. PMID:22414102

  15. [Primary chronic polyarthritis with kidney involvement (mesangiocapillary glomerulonephritis)].

    PubMed

    Bürkle, P A

    1979-01-01

    A 34 year old white male patient suffering from seropositive "probable" rheumatoid arthritis developed a severe hypocomplementemic mesangiocapillary glomerulo-nephritis. Rheumatoid factors (Latex test, Waaler-Rose titer) and IgM were markedly elevated in the serum. The third component of complement (C3) was markedly depressed, while the fourth component (C4) was within normal range. The rapid progression of the disease forced us to start an immunosuppressive drug therapy using azathioprine and steroids. Despite marked clinical improvement, e.g. normalisation of complement components, renal function, the disappearance of rheumatoid factor and proteinuria, the second biopsy taken two years later showed unchanged histological and immuno-histological changes of the glomerula.

  16. Chlamydia-induced septic polyarthritis in a dog.

    PubMed

    Lambrechts, N; Picard, J; Tustin, R C

    1999-03-01

    A systemic disease associated with pyrexia, lymphadenopathy, and arthropathy of several joints of the appendicular skeleton in a dog is described. Chlamydia-like organisms were detected on light-microscopic examination of a smear made from joint fluid aspirated from one of the affected joints. A group-specific lipopolysaccharide antigen shared by all Chlamydia spp. was demonstrated by direct fluorescent antibody staining of joint fluid, which also proved positive for chlamydia by means of the relevant polymerase chain reaction test. An indirect fluorescent antibody test on serum was also positive, although the complement fixation test was negative. Attempts to grow the organism from joint aspirates in the yolk sac of embryonating hens' eggs and on appropriate tissue cultures, however, failed. Chlamydia spp. are considered to have played an aetiological role in this case, making it the first substantiated case of naturally-occurring arthropathy in a dog due to chlamydiosis. The origin of the infection could not be traced.

  17. Early Rockets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1950-01-01

    Test firing of a Redstone Missile at Redstone Test Stand in the early 1950's. The Redstone was a high-accuracy, liquid-propelled, surface-to-surface missile developed by the von Braun Team under the management of the U.S. Army. The Redstone was the first major rocket development program in the United States.

  18. Early Math.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Nuys, Ute Elisabeth

    1986-01-01

    Presents reviews of the following mathematics software designed to teach young children counting, number recognition, visual discrimination, matching, addition, and subtraction skills; Stickybear Numbers, Learning with Leeper, Getting Ready to Read and Add, Counting Parade, Early Games for Young Children, Charlie Brown's 1,2,3's, Let's Go Fishing,…

  19. Early Childhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Donald L.; Willis, Sherry L.

    This book summarizes theory and discusses major issues pertaining to child development in the early childhood years. Chapter I provides an introduction to the conceptual framework and major theories of child development. Chapter II deals with motor, sensory, and perceptual development. Chapter III focuses on the cognitive-developmental theory of…

  20. Early Rockets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    During the early introduction of rockets to Europe, they were used only as weapons. Enemy troops in India repulsed the British with rockets. Later, in Britain, Sir William Congreve developed a rocket that could fire to about 9,000 feet. The British fired Congreve rockets against the United States in the War of 1812.

  1. Early Rockets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    In the 19th Century, experiments in America, Europe, and elsewhere attempted to build postal rockets to deliver mail from one location to another. The idea was more novel than successful. Many stamps used in these early postal rockets have become collector's items.

  2. Management of inflammatory complications in third molar surgery: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Osunde, O D; Adebola, R A; Omeje, U K

    2011-09-01

    Pain, swelling and trismus are common complications associated with third molar surgery. These complications have been reported to have an adverse effect on the quality of life of patients undergoing third molar surgery. To review the different modalities of minimizing inflammatory complications in third molar surgery. A medline literature search was performed to identify articles on management of inflammatory complications in third molar surgery. Standard textbooks of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery were also consulted and some local scientific publications on the subject were reviewed. Methods ranges from surgical closure techniques, use of drains, physical therapy and pharmacological means. Studies reviewed have shown that no single modality effectively minimizes postoperative pain, swelling and trismus without undesirable effects. Inflammatory complications after third molar surgery still remains an important factor in quality of life of patients at the early postoperative periods. Oral surgeons should be aware of the different modalities of alleviation of these complications to make postoperative recovery more comfortable for patients.

  3. Developmental programming of brain and behavior by perinatal diet: focus on inflammatory mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, Jessica L.; Bilbo, Staci D.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is now epidemic worldwide. Beyond associated diseases such as diabetes, obesity is linked to neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression. Alarmingly maternal obesity and high-fat diet consumption during gestation/lactation may “program” offspring longterm for increased obesity themselves, along with increased vulnerability to mood disorders. We review the evidence that programming of brain and behavior by perinatal diet is propagated by inflammatory mechanisms, as obesity and high-fat diets are independently associated with exaggerated systemic levels of inflammatory mediators. Due to the recognized dual role of these immune molecules (eg, interleukin [IL]-6, 11-1β) in placental function and brain development, any disruption of their delicate balance with growth factors or neurotransmitters (eg, serotonin) by inflammation early in life can permanently alter the trajectory of fetal brain development. Finally, epigenetic regulation of inflammatory pathways is a likely candidate for persistent changes in metabolic and brain function as a consequence of the perinatal environment. PMID:25364282

  4. Health Assessment Questionnaire disability progression in early rheumatoid arthritis: Systematic review and analysis of two inception cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Sam; Fu, Bo; Scott, David L.; Deighton, Chris; Symmons, Deborah P.M.; Wailoo, Allan J.; Tosh, Jonathan; Lunt, Mark; Davies, Rebecca; Young, Adam; Verstappen, Suzanne M.M

    2014-01-01

    Objective The Health Assessment Questionnaire is widely used for patients with inflammatory polyarthritis (IP) and its subset, rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In this study, we evaluated the progression of HAQ scores in RA (i) by systematically reviewing the published literature on the methods used to assess changes in functional disability over time and (ii) to study in detail HAQ progression in two large prospective observational studies from the UK. Methods Data from two large inception cohorts, ERAS and NOAR, were studied to determine trajectories of HAQ progression over time by applying latent class growth models (LCGMs) to each dataset separately. Age, sex, baseline DAS28, symptom duration, rheumatoid factor, fulfilment of the 1987 ACR criteria and socio-economic status (SES) were included as potential predictors of HAQ trajectory subgroup membership. Results The literature search identified 49 studies showing that HAQ progression has mainly been based on average changes in the total study population. In the HAQ progression study, a LCGM with four HAQ trajectory subgroups was selected as providing the best fit in both cohorts. In both the cohorts, older age, female sex, longer symptom duration, fulfilment of the 1987 ACR criteria, higher DAS28 and lower SES were associated with increased likelihood of membership of subgroups with worse HAQ progression. Conclusion Four distinct HAQ trajectory subgroups were derived from the ERAS and NOAR cohorts. The fact that the subgroups identified were nearly identical supports their validity. Identifying distinct groups of patients who are at risk of poor functional outcome may help to target therapy to those who are most likely to benefit. PMID:24925692

  5. [Classical medications in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases].

    PubMed

    Duvnjak, Marko; Bilić, Ante; Barsić, Neven; Tomasić, Vedran; Stojsavljević, Sanja

    2013-04-01

    The treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases is complex and requires individual approach to every single patient. Traditionally, the approach is based on introduction of so called "classical" medication into the treatment regimen, from ones less potent and with fewer side effects to the ones more toxic but also therapeutically more effective. Aminosalicylates were the first choice of treatment for a long time. However, the role of aminosalicylates is becoming more and more diminished, although they are still the drug of choice in the treatment of mild to moderate ulcerative colitis. Corticosteroids are the therapy of choice in treatment of active IBD for achieving remission in moderate to severe disease. Azathioprine and 6- mercaptopurine belong to a group of thiopurines with an immunomodulatory effect which, in Crohn's disease as well as in ulcerative colitis, primarily have a role in a steroid dependant or steroid refractory type of disease and in maintenance of remission. Lately, early introduction of these medications is proposed to enhance the number of patients that remain in remission. Methotrexate is used for the therapy of active and relapsing Crohn's disease and represents an alternative in patients who do not tolerate or do not respond to azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine therapy. Cyclosporine is used in treating steroid refractory ulcerative colitis and in some patients can postpone the need for colectomy. Antibiotics do not have a proven effect on the course of inflammatory bowel diseases and their primary role is to treat septic complications. Classic medications today represent a standard in the management of inflammatory bowel diseases, and the combination of the previously mentioned drugs often has a more potent effect on the course of the disease than any medication on its own and their combination is still an object of investigations and clinical studies.

  6. Analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of honey: the involvement of autonomic receptors.

    PubMed

    Owoyele, Bamidele Victor; Oladejo, Rasheed Olajiire; Ajomale, Kayode; Ahmed, Rasheedat Omotayo; Mustapha, Abdulrasheed

    2014-03-01

    The use of honey for therapeutic purposes is on the increase and many studies have shown that honey has the ability to influence biological systems including pain transmission. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of honey and the effects of concurrent administration of autonomic nervous system blocking drugs. Studies on analgesic activities was carried out using hotplate and formalin-induced paw licking models while the anti-inflammatory activity was by the carrageenan paw oedema method. Animals were distributed into six groups consisting of five animals each. They were administered saline, honey (600 mg/kg), indomethacin (5 mg/kg), autonomic blockers (3 μg/kg of tamsulosin, 20 mg/kg (intraperitoneally) of propranolol, 2 ml/kg of atropine or 10 mg/kg (intra muscularly) of hexamethonium) or honey (200 and 600 mg/kg) with one of the blockers. The results showed that honey reduced pain perception especially inflammatory pain and the administration of tamsulosin and propranolol spared the effect of honey. Hexamethonium also spared the effects of honey at the early and late phases of the test while atropine only inhibited the early phase of the test. However, atropine and hexamethonium spared the anti-inflammatory effects of honey but tamsulosin abolished the effects while propranolol only abolished the anti-inflammatory effects at the peak of the inflammation. The results suggest the involvement of autonomic receptors in the anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of honey although the level of involvement depends on the different types of the receptors.

  7. Cross-talk between oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines in acute pancreatitis: a key role for protein phosphatases.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Javier; Pereda, Javier; Arduini, Alessandro; Sandoval, Juan; Sabater, Luis; Aparisi, Luis; López-Rodas, Gerardo; Sastre, Juan

    2009-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is an acute inflammatory process localized in the pancreatic gland that frequently involves peripancreatic tissues. It is still under investigation why an episode of acute pancreatitis remains mild affecting only the pancreas or progresses to a severe form leading to multiple organ failure and death. Proinflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress play a pivotal role in the early pathophysiological events of the disease. Cytokines such as interleukin 1beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha initiate and propagate almost all consequences of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome. On the other hand, depletion of pancreatic glutathione is an early hallmark of acute pancreatitis and reactive oxygen species are also associated with the inflammatory process. Changes in thiol homestasis and redox signaling decisively contribute to amplification of the inflammatory cascade through mitogen activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) pathways. This review focuses on the relationship between oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokines and MAP kinase/protein phosphatase pathways as major modulators of the inflammatory response in acute pancreatitis. Redox sensitive signal transduction mediated by inactivation of protein phosphatases, particularly protein tyrosin phosphatases, is highlighted.

  8. MPNs as Inflammatory Diseases: The Evidence, Consequences, and Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Hasselbalch, Hans Carl; Bjørn, Mads Emil

    2015-01-01

    In recent years the evidence is increasing that chronic inflammation may be an important driving force for clonal evolution and disease progression in the Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs), essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV), and myelofibrosis (MF). Abnormal expression and activity of a number of proinflammatory cytokines are associated with MPNs, in particular MF, in which immune dysregulation is pronounced as evidenced by dysregulation of several immune and inflammation genes. In addition, chronic inflammation has been suggested to contribute to the development of premature atherosclerosis and may drive the development of other cancers in MPNs, both nonhematologic and hematologic. The MPN population has a substantial inflammation-mediated comorbidity burden. This review describes the evidence for considering the MPNs as inflammatory diseases, A Human Inflammation Model of Cancer Development, and the role of cytokines in disease initiation and progression. The consequences of this model are discussed, including the increased risk of second cancers and other inflammation-mediated diseases, emphasizing the urgent need for rethinking our therapeutic approach. Early intervention with interferon-alpha2, which as monotherapy has been shown to be able to induce minimal residual disease, in combination with potent anti-inflammatory agents such as JAK-inhibitors is foreseen as the most promising new treatment modality in the years to come. PMID:26604428

  9. Buprenorphine Alters Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Molecular Markers in Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Hitchon, Carol

    2017-01-01

    Buprenorphine is recommended for use as an analgesic in animal models including in murine models of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). However, the effect of buprenorphine on the expression of disease-associated biomarkers is not well defined. We examined the effect of buprenorphine administration on disease progression and the expression of inflammatory and oxidative stress markers, in a murine model of CIA. Buprenorphine administration altered the expression of cytokines, IFN-γ, IL-6, and MMP-3, and oxidative markers, for example, iNOS, superoxide dismutase (SOD1), and catalase (CAT), in the CIA mice. As buprenorphine is an analgesic, we further monitored the association of expression of these biomarkers with pain scores in a human cohort of early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Serum MMP-3 levels and blood mRNA expression of antioxidants sod1 and cat correlated with pain scores in the RA cohort. We have demonstrated that administration of buprenorphine alters the expression of inflammatory and oxidative stress-related molecular markers in a murine model of CIA. This caveat needs to be considered in animal experiments using buprenorphine as an analgesic, as it can be a confounding factor in murine studies used for prediction of response to therapy. Furthermore, the antioxidant enzymes that showed an association with pain scores in the human cohort may be explored as biomarkers for pain in future studies. PMID:28572711

  10. Advances in nutritional therapy in inflammatory bowel diseases: Review

    PubMed Central

    Wędrychowicz, Andrzej; Zając, Andrzej; Tomasik, Przemysław

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease are chronic, life-long, and relapsing diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Currently, there are no complete cure possibilities, but combined pharmacological and nutritional therapy may induce remission of the disease. Malnutrition and specific nutritional deficiencies are frequent among IBD patients, so the majority of them need nutritional treatment, which not only improves the state of nutrition of the patients but has strong anti-inflammatory activity as well. Moreover, some nutrients, from early stages of life are suspected as triggering factors in the etiopathogenesis of IBD. Both parenteral and enteral nutrition is used in IBD therapy, but their practical utility in different populations and in different countries is not clearly established, and there are sometimes conflicting theories concerning the role of nutrition in IBD. This review presents the actual data from research studies on the influence of nutrition on the etiopathogenesis of IBD and the latest findings regarding its mechanisms of action. The use of both parenteral and enteral nutrition as therapeutic methods in induction and maintenance therapy in IBD treatment is also extensively discussed. Comparison of the latest research data, scientific theories concerning the role of nutrition in IBD, and different opinions about them are also presented and discussed. Additionally, some potential future perspectives for nutritional therapy are highlighted. PMID:26811646

  11. Fingolimod Phosphate Inhibits Astrocyte Inflammatory Activity in Mucolipidosis IV.

    PubMed

    Weinstock, Laura; Furness, Amanda M; Herron, Shawn; Smith, Sierra S; Sankar, Sitara; DeRosa, Samantha G; Gao, Dadi; Mepyans, Molly E; Scotto Rosato, Anna; Medina, Diego L; Vardi, Ayelet; Ferreira, Natalia S; Cho, Soo Min; Futerman, Anthony H; Slaugenhaupt, Susan A; Wood, Levi B; Grishchuk, Yulia

    2018-05-16

    Mucolipidosis IV (MLIV) is an orphan neurodevelopmental disease that causes severe neurologic dysfunction and loss of vision. Currently there is no therapy for MLIV. It is caused by loss of function of the lysosomal channel mucolipin-1, also known as TRPML1. Knockout of the Mcoln1 gene in a mouse model mirrors clinical and neuropathological signs in humans. Using this model, we previously observed robust activation of microglia and astrocytes in early symptomatic stages of disease. Here we investigate the consequence of mucolipin-1 loss on astrocyte inflammatory activation in vivo and in vitro and apply a pharmacological approach to restore Mcoln1-/- astrocyte homeostasis using a clinically approved immunomodulator, fingolimod. We found that Mcoln1-/- mice over-express numerous pro-inflammatory cytokines, some of which were also over-expressed in astrocyte cultures. Changes in the cytokine profile in Mcoln1-/- astrocytes are concomitant with changes in phospho-protein signaling, including activation of PI3K/Akt and MAPK pathways. Fingolimod promotes cytokine homeostasis, down-regulates signaling within the PI3K/Akt and MAPK pathways, and restores the lysosomal compartment in Mcoln1-/- astrocytes. These data suggest that fingolimod is a promising candidate for preclinical evaluation in our MLIV mouse model, which, in case of success, can be rapidly translated into clinical trial.

  12. Inflammatory markers in SIRS, sepsis and septic shock.

    PubMed

    Herzum, I; Renz, H

    2008-01-01

    Despite great advancement in the understanding of the pathophysiology and in the development of novel therapeutic approaches, mortality of sepsis still remains unacceptably high. Adequate laboratory diagnostics represents a major requirement for the improvement of this situation. For a better understanding of the immunological dysregulation in this disease, several markers are now available for routine diagnostics in the clinical laboratory. They include the cytokines interleukin (IL) -6, IL-8, procalcitonin and the LPS-binding protein (LBP). These novel markers will be compared to the conventional procedure of diagnosing inflammatory and infectious disease, such as measurements of C-reactive protein (CRP) as a major acute phase protein and differential blood counting. Important questions addressed in this review are the usefulness of these markers for early diagnosis, their role as prognostic markers and in the risk assessment of patients. Furthermore, we will discuss whether these parameters are to differentiate between systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and sepsis at its different degrees. In the case of an infectious nature of the disease, it is important to differentiate between viral or bacterial origin and to monitor the responsiveness of antibiotic therapies. The literature was analysed with focus on the evidence for diagnostic and analytical performance. For this purpose international definition and staging criteria were used in context of criteria for assay performance including sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values, ROC analysis and other analytical criteria.

  13. Future methods for the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Aggio, Raphael; Probert, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) remains a challenge for clinicians, and patients. Clinical suspicion of these disorders leads to a diagnostic pathway that may include stool testing, colonoscopy, radiological tests and capsule examinations. This workup is unpleasant, embarrassing, painful and occasionally dangerous. Alternative means of diagnosing IBD are being explored. Genetic testing and serology have not been found to be sufficiently specific or sensitive to be used for diagnosis. Faecal markers, however, have demonstrated some potential. Faecal lactoferrin and calprotectin may be used to differentiate IBD from non-inflammatory disorders and these tests are now commonly used, with support from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Recent research has focused upon volatile organic compounds emitted from bodily fluids, including faeces, urine and breath. Headspace gas from faeces or urine may be analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Models have been built based on these compounds to enable Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis to be distinguished from irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and from healthy controls. Similar work has found that headspace gases from urine may be used to diagnose IBS. Faecal samples are relatively easy to obtain, but patients dislike collecting samples, so a urinary test is an attractive alternative. Early data from breath samples also show potential and will be presented. Non-invasive diagnosis of IBD is becoming a reality that will save patients from discomfort, embarrassment and risk, and may mean significant savings for healthcare providers. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Caspase-12 and the inflammatory response to Yersinia pestis.

    PubMed

    Ferwerda, Bart; McCall, Matthew B B; de Vries, Maaike C; Hopman, Joost; Maiga, Boubacar; Dolo, Amagana; Doumbo, Ogobara; Daou, Modibo; de Jong, Dirk; Joosten, Leo A B; Tissingh, Rudi A; Reubsaet, Frans A G; Sauerwein, Robert; van der Meer, Jos W M; van der Ven, André J A M; Netea, Mihai G

    2009-09-01

    Caspase-12 functions as an antiinflammatory enzyme inhibiting caspase-1 and the NOD2/RIP2 pathways. Due to increased susceptibility to sepsis in individuals with functional caspase-12, an early-stop mutation leading to the loss of caspase-12 has replaced the ancient genotype in Eurasia and a significant proportion of individuals from African populations. In African-Americans, it has been shown that caspase-12 inhibits the pro-inflammatory cytokine production. We assessed whether similar mechanisms are present in African individuals, and whether evolutionary pressures due to plague may have led to the present caspase-12 genotype population frequencies. No difference in cytokine induction through the caspase-1 and/or NOD2/RIP2 pathways was observed in two independent African populations, among individuals with either an intact or absent caspase-12. In addition, stimulations with Yersinia pestis and two other species of Yersinia were preformed to investigate whether caspase-12 modulates the inflammatory reaction induced by Yersinia. We found that caspase-12 did not modulate cytokine production induced by Yersinia spp. Our experiments demonstrate for the first time the involvement of the NOD2/RIP2 pathway for recognition of Yersinia. However, caspase-12 does not modulate innate host defense against Y. pestis and alternative explanations for the geographical distribution of caspase-12 should be sought.

  15. Inflammatory Mediators in Xanthelasma Palpebrarum: Histopathologic and Immunohistochemical Study.

    PubMed

    Govorkova, Maria S; Milman, Tatyana; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Pan, Wei; Silkiss, Rona Z

    To evaluate the expression of inflammatory mediators in xanthelasma palpebrarum. In this retrospective histopathologic case-control study, xanthelasma specimens obtained from the private practice and pathology archives of 1 author (R.Z.S.) were analyzed and compared with the blepharoplasty tissues from age- and sex-matched controls. Paraffin-embedded tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and CD3, CD20, CD163, cyclooxygenase-1, inducible nitric oxide synthase, matrix metallopeptidase-9, and myeloperoxidase antibodies. Immunostaining was quantified by light microscopy and with a computerized image analysis system of scanned images. Hematoxylin-eosin-stained preparations of xanthelasma specimens demonstrated significantly more intense chronic lymphocytic infiltrate when compared with the control blepharoplasty tissues (p < 0.001). Immunohistochemical studies revealed more intense CD3+ T cell and CD163+ histiocytic infiltrate (11% vs. 5%; p = 0.02 and 28% vs. 5%; p = 0.003, respectively) and increased expression of cyclooxygenase-1 (44% vs. 20% expressing cells; p < 0.001 and 21% vs. 9% strongly expressing cells; p = 0.008) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (43% vs. 26% expressing cells; p = 0.03 and 42% vs. 25% strongly expressing cells; p = 0.02) in xanthelasma specimens compared with control tissues. The inflammatory milieu in xanthelasma appears to be analogous to descriptions of the early stages of cardiac atherosclerotic plaque formation. These findings may contribute to the understanding of xanthelasma pathogenesis and to the development of potential targeted therapies.

  16. Early Risers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asquith, Chistina

    2002-01-01

    In this article, the author features Bard High School Early College, the first public school in the country to offer a free, full-time college curriculum--and all the credits that go with it--to high schoolers. In Bard's four-year program, students race through high school requirements in 9th and 10th grades, then take college courses in 11th and…

  17. The role of dietary fibre in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Pituch-Zdanowska, Aleksandra; Banaszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Albrecht, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    The aetiology of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), which are primarily Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, still remains unclear, while the incidence of IBD is constantly increasing, especially in the industrialised countries. Among genetic, environmental, and immunological factors, changes in the composition of the intestinal microflora and diet are indicated as very important in initiating and sustaining inflammation in patients with IBD. Above all nutrients dietary fibre is an especially important component of diet in the context of IBD. A potentially protective effect of high-fibre diet on intestinal disorders was described as early as in 1973. Several trials performed in animal models of IBD and human studies have reported that supplementation of some types of dietary fibre can prolong remission and reduce lesions of the intestinal mucosa during the course of the disease. This paper presents the current state of knowledge on the effects of dietary fibre in IBD.

  18. DNA methylation in inflammatory bowel disease and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Low, Daren; Mizoguchi, Atsushi; Mizoguchi, Emiko

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a consequence of the complex, dysregulated interplay between genetic predisposition, environmental factors, and microbial composition in the intestine. Despite a great advancement in identifying host-susceptibility genes using genome-wide association studies (GWAS), the majority of IBD cases are still underrepresented. The immediate challenge in post-GWAS era is to identify other causative genetic factors of IBD. DNA methylation has received increasing attention for its mechanistical role in IBD pathogenesis. This stable, yet dynamic DNA modification, can directly affect gene expression that have important implications in IBD development. The alterations in DNA methylation associated with IBD are likely to outset as early as embryogenesis all the way until old-age. In this review, we will discuss the recent advancement in understanding how DNA methylation alterations can contribute to the development of IBD. PMID:23983426

  19. Translatability of helminth therapy in inflammatory bowel diseases

    PubMed Central

    Weinstock, Joel V; Elliott, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Modern hygienic lifestyles are associated with the emergence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) which now afflicts millions of people in highly-developed countries. Meticulous hygiene interrupts conduits of transmission required for ubiquitous exposure to parasitic worms (helminths). We proposed that loss of exposure to helminths permits development of IBD. Early clinical trials suggested that exposure to helminths such as Trichuris suis or Necator americanus can improve IBD. Over the last several years, processes to “medicinalize” T. suis have been developed and use of this helminth is now being studied in large multi-center clinical trials. Concurrently, we and others have identified some of the immune regulatory mechanisms elicited by helminth exposure that suppress inappropriate intestinal inflammation. These efforts could soon result in new therapies for patients with IBD. PMID:23178819

  20. Improving inflammatory arthritis management through tighter monitoring of patients and the use of innovative electronic tools

    PubMed Central

    van Riel, Piet; Combe, Bernard; Abdulganieva, Diana; Bousquet, Paola; Courtenay, Molly; Curiale, Cinzia; Gómez-Centeno, Antonio; Haugeberg, Glenn; Leeb, Burkhard; Puolakka, Kari; Ravelli, Angelo; Rintelen, Bernhard; Sarzi-Puttini, Piercarlo

    2016-01-01

    Treating to target by monitoring disease activity and adjusting therapy to attain remission or low disease activity has been shown to lead to improved outcomes in chronic rheumatic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and spondyloarthritis. Patient-reported outcomes, used in conjunction with clinical measures, add an important perspective of disease activity as perceived by the patient. Several validated PROs are available for inflammatory arthritis, and advances in electronic patient monitoring tools are helping patients with chronic diseases to self-monitor and assess their symptoms and health. Frequent patient monitoring could potentially lead to the early identification of disease flares or adverse events, early intervention for patients who may require treatment adaptation, and possibly reduced appointment frequency for those with stable disease. A literature search was conducted to evaluate the potential role of patient self-monitoring and innovative monitoring of tools in optimising disease control in inflammatory arthritis. Experience from the treatment of congestive heart failure, diabetes and hypertension shows improved outcomes with remote electronic self-monitoring by patients. In inflammatory arthritis, electronic self-monitoring has been shown to be feasible in patients despite manual disability and to be acceptable to older patients. Patients' self-assessment of disease activity using such methods correlates well with disease activity assessed by rheumatologists. This review also describes several remote monitoring tools that are being developed and used in inflammatory arthritis, offering the potential to improve disease management and reduce pressure on specialists. PMID:27933206

  1. Chronic Inflammatory Diseases and Green Tea Polyphenols

    PubMed Central

    Oz, Helieh S.

    2017-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory diseases affect millions of people globally and the incidence rate is on the rise. While inflammation contributes to the tissue healing process, chronic inflammation can lead to life-long debilitation and loss of tissue function and organ failure. Chronic inflammatory diseases include hepatic, gastrointestinal and neurodegenerative complications which can lead to malignancy. Despite the millennial advancements in diagnostic and therapeutic modalities, there remains no effective cure for patients who suffer from inflammatory diseases. Therefore, patients seek alternatives and complementary agents as adjunct therapies to relieve symptoms and possibly to prevent consequences of inflammation. It is well known that green tea polyphenols (GrTPs) are potent antioxidants with important roles in regulating vital signaling pathways. These comprise transcription nuclear factor-kappa B mediated I kappa B kinase complex pathways, programmed cell death pathways like caspases and B-cell lymphoma-2 and intervention with the surge of inflammatory markers like cytokines and production ofcyclooxygenase-2. This paper concisely reviews relevant investigations regarding protective effects of GrTPs and some reported adverse effects, as well as possible applications for GrTPs in the treatment of chronic and inflammatory complications. PMID:28587181

  2. Renal Involvement in Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

    PubMed

    Corica, Domenico; Romano, Claudio

    2016-02-01

    The prevalence of extraintestinal manifestations in inflammatory bowel diseases varies from 6% to 46%. The aetiology of extraintestinal manifestations remains unclear. There are theories based on an immunological response influenced by genetic factors. Extraintestinal manifestations can involve almost every organ system. They may originate from the same pathophysiological mechanism of intestinal disease, or as secondary complications of inflammatory bowel diseases, or autoimmune diseases susceptibility. The most frequently involved organs are the joints, skin, eyes, liver and biliary tract. Renal involvement has been considered as an extraintestinal manifestation and has been described in both Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. The most frequent renal involvements in patients with inflammatory bowel disease are nephrolithiasis, tubulointerstitial nephritis, glomerulonephritis and amyloidosis. The aim of this review is to evaluate and report the most important data in the literature on renal involvement in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Bibliographical searches were performed of the MEDLINE electronic database from January 1998 to January 2015 with the following key words (all fields): (inflammatory bowel disease OR Crohn's disease OR ulcerative colitis) AND (kidney OR renal OR nephrotoxicity OR renal function OR kidney disease OR renal disease OR glomerulonephritis OR interstitial nephritis OR amyloidosis OR kidney failure OR renal failure) AND (5-aminosalicylic acid OR aminosalicylate OR mesalazine OR TNF-α inhibitors OR cyclosporine OR azathioprine OR drugs OR pediatric). Copyright © 2015 European Crohn’s and Colitis Organisation (ECCO). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Anti-inflammatory effects of insulin.

    PubMed

    Dandona, Paresh; Chaudhuri, Ajay; Mohanty, Priya; Ghanim, Husam

    2007-07-01

    This review deals with the recent observations on the pro-inflammatory effects of glucose and the anti-inflammatory actions of insulin. Apart from being novel, they are central to our understanding of why hyperglycemia is a prognosticator of bad clinical outcomes including patients with acute coronary syndromes, stroke and in patients in the intensive care unit. The pro-inflammatory effect of glucose as well as that of other macronutrients including fast food meals provides the basis of chronic oxidative stress and inflammation in the obese and their propensity to atherosclerotic disease. The anti-inflammatory action of insulin provides a neutralizing effect to balance macronutrient induced inflammation on the one hand and the possibility of using insulin as an anti-inflammatory drug on the other. The actions of macronutrients and insulin described above explain why insulin resistant states like obesity and type 2 diabetes are associated with oxidative stress, inflammation and atherosclerosis. They also suggest that insulin may be antiatherogenic.

  4. [Clinical overview of auto-inflammatory diseases].

    PubMed

    Georgin-Lavialle, S; Rodrigues, F; Hentgen, V; Fayand, A; Quartier, P; Bader-Meunier, B; Bachmeyer, C; Savey, L; Louvrier, C; Sarrabay, G; Melki, I; Belot, A; Koné-Paut, I; Grateau, G

    2018-04-01

    Monogenic auto-inflammatory diseases are characterized by genetic abnormalities coding for proteins involved in innate immunity. They were initially described in mirror with auto-immune diseases because of the absence of circulating autoantibodies. Their main feature is the presence of peripheral blood inflammation in crisis without infection. The best-known auto-inflammatory diseases are mediated by interleukines that consisted in the 4 following diseases familial Mediterranean fever, cryopyrinopathies, TNFRSF1A-related intermittent fever, and mevalonate kinase deficiency. Since 10 years, many other diseases have been discovered, especially thanks to the progress in genetics. In this review, we propose the actual panorama of the main known auto-inflammatory diseases. Some of them are recurrent fevers with crisis and remission; some others evaluate more chronically; some are associated with immunodeficiency. From a physiopathological point of view, we can separate diseases mediated by interleukine-1 and diseases mediated by interferon. Then some polygenic inflammatory diseases will be shortly described: Still disease, Schnitzler syndrome, aseptic abscesses syndrome. The diagnosis of auto-inflammatory disease is largely based on anamnesis, the presence of peripheral inflammation during attacks and genetic analysis, which are more and more performant. Copyright © 2018 Société Nationale Française de Médecine Interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Inflammatory Macrophages Promotes Development of Diabetic Encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Beiyun; Miao, Ya; Zhao, Zhe; Zhong, Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes and Alzheimer's disease are often associated with each other, whereas the relationship between two diseases is ill-defined. Although hyperglycemia during diabetes is a major cause of encephalopathy, diabetes may also cause chronic inflammatory complications including peripheral neuropathy. Hence the role and the characteristics of inflammatory macrophages in the development of diabetic encephalopathy need to be clarified. Diabetes were induced in mice by i.p. injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Two weeks after STZ injection and confirmation of development of diabetes, inflammatory macrophages were eliminated by i.p. injection of 20µg saporin-conjugated antibody against a macrophage surface marker CD11b (saporin-CD11b) twice per week, while a STZ-treated group received injection of rat IgG of same frequency as a control. The effects of macrophage depletion on brain degradation markers, brain malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase, superoxidase anion-positive cells and nitric oxide (NO) were measured. Saporin-CD11b significantly reduced inflammatory macrophages in brain, without affecting mouse blood glucose, serum insulin, glucose responses and beta cell mass. However, reduced brain macrophages significantly inhibited the STZ-induced decreases in brain MDA, catalase and superoxidase anion-positive cells, and the STZ-induced decreases in brain NO. Inflammatory macrophages may promote development of diabetic encephalopathy. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Systemic inflammatory response following acute myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Lu; Moore, Xiao-Lei; Dart, Anthony M; Wang, Le-Min

    2015-01-01

    Acute cardiomyocyte necrosis in the infarcted heart generates damage-associated molecular patterns, activating complement and toll-like receptor/interleukin-1 signaling, and triggering an intense inflammatory response. Inflammasomes also recognize danger signals and mediate sterile inflammatory response following acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Inflammatory response serves to repair the heart, but excessive inflammation leads to adverse left ventricular remodeling and heart failure. In addition to local inflammation, profound systemic inflammation response has been documented in patients with AMI, which includes elevation of circulating inflammatory cytokines, chemokines and cell adhesion molecules, and activation of peripheral leukocytes and platelets. The excessive inflammatory response could be caused by a deregulated immune system. AMI is also associated with bone marrow activation and spleen monocytopoiesis, which sustains a continuous supply of monocytes at the site of inflammation. Accumulating evidence has shown that systemic inflammation aggravates atherosclerosis and markers for systemic inflammation are predictors of adverse clinical outcomes (such as death, recurrent myocardial infarction, and heart failure) in patients with AMI. PMID:26089856

  7. Inflammatory markers in a randomised soya intervention among men.

    PubMed

    Maskarinec, Gertraud; Oum, Robert; Chaptman, Ann K; Ognjanovic, Simona

    2009-06-01

    The present analysis investigated the effect of soya foods on serum levels of six inflammatory markers, leptin, adiponectin, monocyte attractant protein 1 (MCP-1), macrophage inflammatory protein-1b (MIP-1b), IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP), and their relationship with BMI and lifetime soya intake. We randomised twenty-four men to a high- (two daily servings with 30-35 mg isoflavones per serving) or a low-soya diet for 3 months. After a 1-month washout period, the men crossed over to the other treatment. We used a multiplex bead immunoassay to measure leptin, adiponectin, MCP-1 and MIP-1b and ELISA assays for IL-6 and CRP. The statistical analysis applied mixed models that incorporated the four repeated measurements. The men had a mean age of 58.7 (sd 7.2) years and a mean BMI of 28.4 (sd 4.9) kg/m2. We observed no significant intervention effect of the soya treatment on any of the six markers. After adjustment for age and ethnicity, highly significant associations of BMI and body weight with leptin and MCP-1 emerged. Men with high soya intake early in life also had higher levels of leptin and MCP-1, whereas no association was seen for soya intake during adulthood. MIP-1b, adiponectin, IL-6 and CRP were not related to BMI, body weight or soya intake at any time in life. No intervention effect of soya foods on markers of inflammation was observed in this small study, but adiposity and early-life soya intake were related to higher leptin and MCP-1 levels.

  8. Progress with anti-tumor necrosis factor therapeutics for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Carlos; Allocca, Mariangela; Danese, Silvio; Fiorino, Gionata

    2015-01-01

    Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) therapy is a valid, effective and increasingly used option in inflammatory bowel disease management. Nevertheless, further knowledge and therapeutic indications regarding these drugs are still evolving. Anti-TNF therapy may be essential to achieve recently proposed end points, namely mucosal healing, prevention of bowel damage and prevention of patient's disability. Anti-TNF drugs are also suggested to be more effective in early disease, particularly in early Crohn's disease. Moreover, its efficacy for prevention of postoperative recurrence in Crohn's disease is still debated. Costs and adverse effects, the relevance of drug monitoring and the possibility of anti-TNF therapy withdrawal in selected patients are still debated issues. This review aimed to describe and discuss the most relevant data about the progress with anti-TNF therapy for the management of inflammatory bowel disease.

  9. Dry eye disease as an inflammatory disorder.

    PubMed

    Calonge, Margarita; Enríquez-de-Salamanca, Amalia; Diebold, Yolanda; González-García, María J; Reinoso, Roberto; Herreras, José M; Corell, Alfredo

    2010-08-01

    Dry eye disease (DED) is a prevalent inflammatory disorder of the lacrimal functional unit of multifactorial origin leading to chronic ocular surface disease, impaired quality of vision, and a wide range of complications, eventually causing a reduction in quality of life. It still is a frustrating disease because of the present scarcity of therapies that can reverse, or at least stop, its progression. A comprehensive literature survey of English-written scientific publications on the role of inflammation in DED. New investigations have demonstrated that a chronic inflammatory response plays a key role in the pathogenesis of human DED. Additionally, correlations between inflammatory molecules and clinical data suggest that inflammation can be responsible for some of the clinical symptoms and signs. Research efforts to clarify its pathophysiology are leading to a better understanding of DED, demonstrating that inflammation, in addition to many other factors, plays a relevant role.

  10. Nutrigenetics, nutrigenomics and inflammatory bowel diseases.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2013-08-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease includes ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, which are both inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract. Both types of inflammatory bowel disease have a complex etiology, resulting from a genetically determined susceptibility interacting with environmental factors, including the diet and gut microbiota. Genome Wide Association Studies have implicated more than 160 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in disease susceptibility. Consideration of the different pathways suggested to be involved implies that specific dietary interventions are likely to be appropriate, dependent upon the nature of the genes involved. Epigenetics and the gut microbiota are also responsive to dietary interventions. Nutrigenetics may lead to personalized nutrition for disease prevention and treatment, while nutrigenomics may help to understand the nature of the disease and individual response to nutrients.

  11. Evaluation of inflammatory processes by FTIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Laís Morandini; Carvalho, Luís Felipe das Chagas E Silva; Bonnier, Franck; Anbinder, Ana Lia; Martinho, Herculano da Silva; Almeida, Janete Dias

    2018-04-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is a powerful diagnosis technique and has been used to identify patterns of molecular changes based on vibration modes. The objective of this study was to evaluate inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia (IFH) lesions and oral normal mucosa (NM) initially with histopathological exam and then using micro-FTIR spectroscopy to analyse the samples. Eleven IFH and 11 NM samples were analysed at five different points to cover the largest area possible by the micro-FTIR technique. Bands were observed between 970 and 1743 cm -1 which corresponded to different structural components like collagen, lipids, fatty acids, proteins and amino acids. Spectral bands were more intense mostly for IFH lesions, including collagen bands, which are an important component of inflammatory fibrous hyperplasia. This study demonstrated that differentiation in the inflammatory tissue was observed in FTIR spectral differences, in terms of biochemical composition.

  12. Epithelioid inflammatory myofibroblastic sarcoma: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Clevenger, Jessica A.; Masters, Gregory A.; Bauer, Thomas L.; Nam, Brian T.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) of the lung is a rare malignancy with few cases reported in the literature. Histologically, it is composed by spindle cells and an infiltrate of inflammatory cells. Children and young, non-smoking adults constitute the majority of cases, the clinical behavior ranges from a benign entity to a malignant process with rapid recurrence and metastatic progression. We present a case of epithelioid inflammatory myofibroblastic sarcoma (EIMS) of the pleura, a malignant variant of IMT, which was initially treated with debulking surgical resection followed by systemic chemotherapy. The tumor was found to have an anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangement. An ALK directed tyrosine kinase inhibitor was used with an impressive response, the patient remains in remission nearly 1 year after presentation. The pathogenesis, pathologic findings, clinical behavior and imaging of pulmonary EIMS are discussed. PMID:26623133

  13. Inflammatory and redox reactions in colorectal carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Guina, Tina; Biasi, Fiorella; Calfapietra, Simone; Nano, Mario; Poli, Giuseppe

    2015-03-01

    It has been established that there is a relationship between chronic inflammation and cancer development. The constant colonic inflammation typical of inflammatory bowel diseases is now considered a risk factor for colorectal carcinoma (CRC) development. The inflammatory network of signaling molecules is also required during the late phases of carcinogenesis, to enable cancer cells to survive and to metastasize. Oxidative reactions are an integral part of the inflammatory response, and are generally associated with CRC development. However, when the malignant phenotype is acquired, increased oxidative status induces antioxidant defenses in cancer cells, favoring their aggressiveness. This contradictory behavior of cancer cells toward redox status is of great significance for potential anticancer therapies. This paper summarizes the essential background information relating to the molecules involved in regulating oxidative stress and inflammation during carcinogenesis. Understanding more of their function in CRC stages might provide the foundation for future developments in CRC treatment. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  14. Thiopurines in inflammatory bowel disease revisited

    PubMed Central

    Bär, Florian; Sina, Christian; Fellermann, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    Although a great variety of new drugs have been introduced for the therapy of inflammatory bowel diseases so far, a definite cure of the disease is still out of scope. An anti-inflammatory approach to induce remission followed by maintenance therapy with immunosupressants is still the mainstay of therapy. Thiopurines comprising azathioprine and its active metabolite mercaptopurine as well as tioguanine, are widely used in the therapy of chronic active inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Their steroid sparing potential and efficacy in remission maintenance are out of doubt. Unfortunately, untoward adverse events are frequently observed and may preclude further administration or be life threatening. This review will focus on new aspects of thiopurine therapy in IBD, its efficacy and safety. PMID:23555158

  15. Sinonasal inflammatory myofibroblastic pseudotumor (plasma cell granuloma).

    PubMed

    Arpacı, Rabia Bozdoğan; Kara, Tuba; Özyedek, Esen; Serinsöz, Ebru; Vayısoğlu, Yusuf; Özgür, Anıl; Arpacı, Taner; Özcan, Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic pseudotumor (plasma cell granuloma) is a soft tissue lesion consisting of myofibroblasts, mature lymphocytes, histiocytes, plasma cells, eosinophils, and extracellular collagen. Various sites in the body may harbor these lesions. Lungs, omentum, intestines, mesentery, and urinary system are the most susceptible areas. It is usually seen in children and young adults. The lesion is rarely detected in the head and neck region. The orbit and the upper respiratory system are the most common localizations in the head and neck region. Sinonasal tract is a rare site of involvement. The differential diagnosis includes squamous cell carcinoma (spindle cell variant), inflammatory fibrosarcoma, leiomyosarcoma, schwannoma, and nonspecific inflammation. Our patient who had a sinonasal mass showed a benign tumor consisting of spindle tumor cells and inflammatory cells histopathologically. This case was presented due to its rare existence to this site.

  16. Targeting inflammatory pathways in myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Christia, Panagiota; Frangogiannis, Nikolaos G

    2013-01-01

    Acute cardiomyocyte necrosis in the infarcted heart generates Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs), activating complement and Toll-Like Receptor (TLR)/Interleukin (IL)-1 signaling, and triggering an intense inflammatory reaction. Infiltrating leukocytes clear the infarct from dead cells, while activating reparative pathways that lead to formation of a scar. As the infarct heals the ventricle remodels; the geometric, functional and molecular alterations associated with post-infarction remodeling are driven by the inflammatory cascade and are involved in the development of heart failure. Because unrestrained inflammation in the infarcted heart induces matrix degradation and cardiomyocyte apoptosis, timely suppression of the post-infarction inflammatory reaction may be crucial to protect the myocardium from dilative remodeling and progressive dysfunction. Inhibition and resolution of post-infarction inflammation involves mobilization of inhibitory mononuclear cell subsets and requires activation of endogenous STOP signals. Our manuscript discusses the basic cellular and molecular events involved in initiation, activation and resolution of the post-infarction inflammatory response, focusing on identification of therapeutic targets. The failure of anti-integrin approaches in patients with myocardial infarction and a growing body of experimental evidence suggest that inflammation may not increase ischemic cardiomyocyte death, but accentuates matrix degradation causing dilative remodeling. Given the pathophysiologic complexity of post-infarction remodeling, personalized biomarker-based approaches are needed to target patient subpopulations with dysregulated inflammatory and reparative responses. Inhibition of pro-inflammatory signals (such as IL-1 and Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1) may be effective in patients with defective resolution of post-infarction inflammation who exhibit progressive dilative remodeling. In contrast, patients with predominant

  17. Ethnic Variation in Inflammatory Profile in Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Coussens, Anna K.; Wilkinson, Robert J.; Nikolayevskyy, Vladyslav; Elkington, Paul T.; Hanifa, Yasmeen; Islam, Kamrul; Timms, Peter M.; Bothamley, Graham H.; Claxton, Alleyna P.; Packe, Geoffrey E.; Darmalingam, Mathina; Davidson, Robert N.; Milburn, Heather J.; Baker, Lucy V.; Barker, Richard D.; Drobniewski, Francis A.; Mein, Charles A.; Bhaw-Rosun, Leena; Nuamah, Rosamond A.; Griffiths, Christopher J.; Martineau, Adrian R.

    2013-01-01

    Distinct phylogenetic lineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) cause disease in patients of particular genetic ancestry, and elicit different patterns of cytokine and chemokine secretion when cultured with human macrophages in vitro. Circulating and antigen-stimulated concentrations of these inflammatory mediators might therefore be expected to vary significantly between tuberculosis patients of different ethnic origin. Studies to characterise such variation, and to determine whether it relates to host or bacillary factors, have not been conducted. We therefore compared circulating and antigen-stimulated concentrations of 43 inflammatory mediators and 14 haematological parameters (inflammatory profile) in 45 pulmonary tuberculosis patients of African ancestry vs. 83 patients of Eurasian ancestry in London, UK, and investigated the influence of bacillary and host genotype on these profiles. Despite having similar demographic and clinical characteristics, patients of differing ancestry exhibited distinct inflammatory profiles at presentation: those of African ancestry had lower neutrophil counts, lower serum concentrations of CCL2, CCL11 and vitamin D binding protein (DBP) but higher serum CCL5 concentrations and higher antigen-stimulated IL-1 receptor antagonist and IL-12 secretion. These differences associated with ethnic variation in host DBP genotype, but not with ethnic variation in MTB strain. Ethnic differences in inflammatory profile became more marked following initiation of antimicrobial therapy, and immunological correlates of speed of elimination of MTB from the sputum differed between patients of African vs. Eurasian ancestry. Our study demonstrates a hitherto unappreciated degree of ethnic heterogeneity in inflammatory profile in tuberculosis patients that associates primarily with ethnic variation in host, rather than bacillary, genotype. Candidate immunodiagnostics and immunological biomarkers of response to antimicrobial therapy should be derived

  18. Tretinoin: A Review of Its Anti-inflammatory Properties in the Treatment of Acne

    PubMed Central

    Gans, Eugene H.

    2011-01-01

    Tretinoin has been primarily used for the early stages of acne because of its proven comedolytic end benefits. This article reviews and updates the collective body of evidence of tretinoin in the treatment of acne, which suggests that this drug also possesses a broad range of acne-related immunomodulating properties that are capable of disrupting and hindering the various stages of the inflammatory cascade and the production of proinflammatory factors associated with it. PMID:22125655

  19. Compound 49b Reduces Inflammatory Markers and Apoptosis after Ocular Blast Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    drug, Compound 49b, have anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory properties in retinal endothelial cells and in a diabetic retinopathy model [7, 10...plays an important role in the development of early diabetic retinopathy and long-term histopathological alterations. Mol Vis, 2009; 15: 1418-28. 12...in other retinal damage models, specifically the streptozotocin- induced type 1 diabetic retinopathy model and retinal endothelial cells cultured in

  20. [Neurological complications of inflammatory bowel diseases].

    PubMed

    Cieplik, N; Stangel, M; Bachmann, O

    2013-02-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, autoantibody driven celiac disease and infectious Whipple's disease can all be associated with neurological symptoms. The neurological manifestation may occur even before the gastrointestinal symptoms or the enteropathic symptoms can even be absent as in celiac disease. These diseases can be caused by malresorption and lack of vitamins due to enteral inflammation as well as (auto-)immunological mechanisms and drug-associated side effects. Thus, inflammatory bowel diseases have to be considered in the differential diagnosis. In this review the most common neurological manifestations of these diseases will be described as well as the diagnostic approach.

  1. Tyrosine kinases in inflammatory dermatologic disease

    PubMed Central

    Paniagua, Ricardo T.; Fiorentino, David; Chung, Lorinda; Robinson, William H.

    2010-01-01

    Tyrosine kinases are enzymes that catalyze the phosphorylation of tyrosine residues on protein substrates. They are key components of signaling pathways that drive an array of cellular responses including proliferation, differentiation, migration, and survival. Specific tyrosine kinases have recently been identified as critical to the pathogenesis of several autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Small-molecule inhibitors of tyrosine kinases are emerging as a novel class of therapy that may provide benefit in certain patient subsets. In this review, we highlight tyrosine kinase signaling implicated in inflammatory dermatologic diseases, evaluate strategies aimed at inhibiting these aberrant signaling pathways, and discuss prospects for future drug development. PMID:20584561

  2. The molecular biology of inflammatory bowel diseases.

    PubMed

    Corfield, Anthony P; Wallace, Heather M; Probert, Chris S J

    2011-08-01

    IBDs (inflammatory bowel diseases) are a group of diseases affecting the gastrointestinal tract. The diseases are multifactorial and cover genetic aspects: susceptibility genes, innate and adaptive responses to inflammation, and structure and efficacy of the mucosal protective barrier. Animal models of IBD have been developed to gain further knowledge of the disease mechanisms. These topics form an overlapping background to enable an improved understanding of the molecular features of these diseases. A series of articles is presented based on the topics covered at the Biochemical Society Focused Meeting The Molecular Biology of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

  3. Antibiotics during childhood and inflammatory bowel disease?

    PubMed

    2014-10-01

    Four epidemiological studies, including two large cohort studies in children aged 17 years or under, have studied the link between antibiotic therapy and inflammatory bowel disease. The risk of inflammatory bowel disease appeared to be twice as high in children exposed to an antibiotic as in unexposed children. The risk appeared higher following exposure during the first year of life, with beta-lactam antibiotics, and with repeated antibiotic courses. One postulated mechanism is through destruction of the anaerobic intestinal flora by antibiotics. In practice, these data provide yet another reason to avoid unnecessarily exposing children to antibiotics.

  4. Dry Eye: an Inflammatory Ocular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hessen, Michelle; Akpek, Esen Karamursel

    2014-01-01

    Keratoconjunctivitis sicca, or dry eye, is a common ocular disease prompting millions of individuals to seek ophthalmological care. Regardless of the underlying etiology, dry eye has been shown to be associated with abnormalities in the pre-corneal tear film and subsequent inflammatory changes in the entire ocular surface including the adnexa, conjunctiva and cornea. Since the recognition of the role of inflammation in dry eye, a number of novel treatments have been investigated designed to inhibit various inflammatory pathways. Current medications that are used, including cyclosporine A, corticosteroids, tacrolimus, tetracycline derivatives and autologous serum, have been effective for management of dry eye and lead to measurable clinical improvement. PMID:25279127

  5. PKM2 released by neutrophils at wound site facilitates early wound healing by promoting angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yinwei; Li, Liangwei; Liu, Yuan; Liu, Zhi-Ren

    2016-03-01

    Neutrophils infiltration/activation following wound induction marks the early inflammatory response in wound repair. However, the role of the infiltrated/activated neutrophils in tissue regeneration/proliferation during wound repair is not well understood. Here, we report that infiltrated/activated neutrophils at wound site release pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) by its secretive mechanisms during early stages of wound repair. The released extracellular PKM2 facilitates early wound healing by promoting angiogenesis at wound site. Our studies reveal a new and important molecular linker between the early inflammatory response and proliferation phase in tissue repair process. © 2016 by the Wound Healing Society.

  6. Inflammatory cells implicated in neoplasia development in idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Hashash, Jana G; Hartman, Douglas J

    2017-11-10

    The inflammatory mechanisms that lead to the clinical symptoms that are grouped under the term inflammatory bowel disease have not been fully characterized. Although a specific mechanism has not been identified, inflammatory bowel disease is believed to be related to an inability by the immune system to shut active inflammation within the intestine. Many contributing factors have been implicated in the disease process. Based on population studies, patients with inflammatory bowel disease have an increased risk for neoplastic development. Although no specific immune cell has been implicated in neoplastic development within this patient population, several immune cells have been implicated as possible etiologies in inflammatory bowel disease. In this review, we will review the clinical evidence about the risk for neoplastic development in inflammatory bowel disease and the current clinical guidelines to survey this patient population. We will also review the pathologic assessment of inflammation within this patient population as well the underlying immune cells and cytokines that have been implicated in the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. The cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway revisited.

    PubMed

    Murray, K; Reardon, C

    2018-03-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease negatively affects the quality of life of millions of patients around the world. Although the precise etiology of the disease remains elusive, aberrant immune system activation is an underlying cause. As such, therapies that selectively inhibit immune cell activation without broad immunosuppression are desired. Inhibition of immune cell activation preventing pro-inflammatory cytokine production through neural stimulation has emerged as one such treatment. These therapeutics are based on the discovery of the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, a reflex arc that induces efferent vagal nerve signaling to reduce immune cell activation and consequently mortality during septic shock. Despite the success of preclinical and clinical trials, the neural circuitry and mechanisms of action of these immune-regulatory circuits are controversial. At the heart of this controversy is the protective effect of vagal nerve stimulation despite an apparent lack of neuroanatomical connections between the vagus and target organs. Additional studies have further emphasized the importance of sympathetic innervation of these organs, and that alternative neural circuits could be involved in neural regulation of the immune system. Such controversies also extend to the regulation of intestinal inflammation, with the importance of efferent vagus nerve signals in question. Experiments that better characterize these pathways have now been performed by Willemze et al. in this issue of Neurogastroenterology & Motility. These continued efforts will be critical to the development of better neurostimulator based therapeutics for inflammatory bowel disease. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Establishing an inflammatory bowel disease service.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Catherine

    Specialist nurses make a valuable contribution to the care of the individual with inflammatory bowel disease yet there are still relatively few of these nurses in post. This article discusses the development of the role within the Bolton Hospitals NHS Trust.

  9. Etiology and pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, C; Stallmach, A

    2005-06-01

    Despite of scientific efforts during the last decades, etiology and pathogenesis of the two major inflammatory bowel diseases, namely Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, remain rather unclear. According to the results of multiple studies it is accepted that the development of either disease is the result of an exaggerated or insufficiently suppressed immune response to a hitherto undefined luminal antigen, probably derived from the microbial flora. This inflammatory process leads to the well-known mucosal damage and therefore a further disturbance of the epithelial barrier function, resulting in an increased influx of bacteria into the intestinal wall, even further accelerating the inflammatory process. However, these immunological disturbances that have been investigated extensively during the past years have to be considered on the genetic background of the individual patient and the environmental factors the patient is exposed to. In this review we will attempt to summarize the current knowledge about risk factors for inflammatory bowel diseases, genetic and environmental factors of IBD and focus on the immunological alterations of innate and acquired immune system underlying Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.

  10. Gastrointestinal motility disorders in inflammatory bowel diseases.

    PubMed

    Bassotti, Gabrio; Antonelli, Elisabetta; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Salemme, Marianna; Coppola, Manuela; Annese, Vito

    2014-01-07

    The relationship between motility and inflammatory gastrointestinal disorders is at the same time complex and intriguing since these conditions might share some genetic, environmental, immunological and microbial predisposing factors. In addition, significant symptom overlapping may occur, muddling the waters within the clinical context. Although on one hand this represents a challenge for the clinician for a potential under- or over-treatment and diagnostic delay, on the other hand it possibly represents an opportunity for the researcher to better disclose the intimate relationship between chronic (often low-grade) inflammation, motor disorders and deranged sensory function. The best example is probably represented by Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. In fact, a number of gastrointestinal motor disorders have been described in association with these diseases, disorders which span from the esophagus to the anorectum, and which will be extensively covered in this review. It is conceivable that at least part of this derangement is strictly related to inflammatory cytokine trafficking and neuromuscular changes; however, given the high prevalence of functional gastrointestinal disorders in the general population, this overlap might also be serendipitous. However, it is worth noting that literature data on this topic are relatively scarce, sometimes quite outdated, and mostly focused on the interplay between irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. Nevertheless, both researchers and clinicians must be aware that symptoms related to gastrointestinal motility disorders may be highly prevalent in both active and inactive inflammatory bowel disease, correlate with greater psychological comorbidity and poorer quality of life, and may negatively influence the therapeutic approaches.

  11. Inflammatory Bowel Disease: School Nurse Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitto, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Initial symptoms and diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) usually occur between 10 and 20 years of age, although younger cases are reported. The complicated nature of IBD diagnosis and treatment can interfere with physical and emotional development that normally occurs in school-age children and adolescents. The school nurse should be…

  12. Pediatric inflammatory bowel disease in South India.

    PubMed

    Avinash, B; Dutta, A K; Chacko, A

    2009-07-01

    Among 34 children diagnosed to have inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) over past 8 years, 23 had Crohns disease and 11 had ulcerative colitis. Pediatric patients accounted for 7% of new cases of IBD seen annually. Median delay in diagnosis was 15 months. Nutritional impairment was significantly more common in Crohns disease.

  13. Sigma-1 receptor and inflammatory pain.

    PubMed

    Gris, Georgia; Cobos, Enrique José; Zamanillo, Daniel; Portillo-Salido, Enrique

    2015-06-01

    The sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) is a unique ligand-regulated molecular chaperone that interacts with several protein targets such as G protein-coupled receptors and ion channels to modulate their activity. Sig-1R is located in areas of the central and peripheral nervous system that are key to pain control. Previous preclinical studies have suggested a potential therapeutic use of Sig-1R antagonists for the management of neuropathic pain. Recent studies using pharmacological and genetic tools have explored the role of Sig-1R in inflammatory pain conditions. Mice lacking the Sig-1R have shown different patterns of phenotypic responses to inflammatory injury. Systemic or peripheral administration of several Sig-1R antagonists, including the selective Sig-1R antagonist S1RA, inhibited both mechanical and thermal hypersensitivity in several preclinical models of inflammatory pain. These recent studies are summarized in the present commentary. Central and peripheral pharmacological blockade of Sig-1R could be an effective option to treat inflammatory pain.

  14. Anti-inflammatory potential of silk sericin.

    PubMed

    Aramwit, Pornanong; Towiwat, Pasarapa; Srichana, Teerapol

    2013-04-01

    Silk sericin was found to suppress the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which are related to the inflammatory reaction. The objectives of this study were to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of sericin in vivo using the carrageenan-induced rat edema model and changes in the histology of tissues. The effects of sericin on the expression of COX-2 and iNOS were also evaluated. Sericin solutions at 0.004-0.080 mg/mL were applied topically to the top of the hind paw and carrageenan (1.0 mg) was injected subcutaneously to the plantar surface of the right hind paw. Our results indicated that sericin significantly reduced the inflammation in rats' paw compared with the negative control (water and acetone) and its effect at 0.080 mg/mL was only slightly lower than that of 1.0% w/v indomethacin. Similar numbers of polymorphonuclear and macrophage cells were found in rats' tissue treated with indomethacin and sericin solution, while the numbers were significantly higher in their absence. The gene expression results by RT-PCR showed that the COX-2 and iNOS genes were down-regulated in samples treated with sericin in a dose dependent manner. These data indicated that the anti-inflammatory properties of sericin may be partly attributable to the suppression of the COX-2 enzyme and nitric oxide production.

  15. Natural Products: Insights into Leishmaniasis Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Igor A.; Mazotto, Ana Maria; Cardoso, Verônica; Alves, Renan L.; Amaral, Ana Claudia F.; Silva, Jefferson Rocha de Andrade; Pinheiro, Anderson S.; Vermelho, Alane B.

    2015-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease that affects several populations worldwide, against which there are no vaccines available and the chemotherapy is highly toxic. Depending on the species causing the infection, the disease is characterized by commitment of tissues, including the skin, mucous membranes, and internal organs. Despite the relevance of host inflammatory mediators on parasite burden control, Leishmania and host immune cells interaction may generate an exacerbated proinflammatory response that plays an important role in the development of leishmaniasis clinical manifestations. Plant-derived natural products have been recognized as bioactive agents with several properties, including anti-protozoal and anti-inflammatory activities. The present review focuses on the antileishmanial activity of plant-derived natural products that are able to modulate the inflammatory response in vitro and in vivo. The capability of crude extracts and some isolated substances in promoting an anti-inflammatory response during Leishmania infection may be used as part of an effective strategy to fight the disease. PMID:26538837

  16. Contact lens wear is intrinsically inflammatory.

    PubMed

    Efron, Nathan

    2017-01-01

    Eye-care practitioners typically associate ocular inflammation during contact lens wear with serious complications such as microbial keratitis; however, more subtle mechanisms may be at play. This paper tests the notion that contact lens wear is intrinsically inflammatory by exploring whether uncomplicated contact lens wear meets the classical, clinical definition of inflammation - rubor (redness), calor (heat), tumor (swelling), dolor (pain) and functio laesa (loss of function) - as well as the contemporary, sub-clinical definition of inflammation (cellular and biochemical reactions). It is demonstrated that all of these clinical and sub-clinical criteria are met with hydrogel lens wear and most are met with silicone hydrogel lens wear, indicating that uncomplicated contact lens wear is intrinsically inflammatory. Consideration of both traditional and contemporary thinking about the role of inflammation in the human body leads to the perhaps surprising conclusion that the chronic, low grade, sub-clinical inflammatory status of the anterior eye during contact lens wear, which may be termed 'para-inflammation', is a positive, protective phenomenon, whereby up-regulation of the immune system, in a non-damaging way, maintains the eye in a state of 'heightened alert', ready to ward off any extrinsic noxious challenge. Characterisation of this inflammatory status may lead to the development of lens engineering or pharmacological strategies to modulate contact lens-induced inflammation, so as to render lens wear more safe and comfortable. © 2016 Optometry Australia.

  17. Inflammatory activity in Crohn disease: ultrasound findings.

    PubMed

    Migaleddu, Vincenzo; Quaia, Emilio; Scano, Domenico; Virgilio, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    Improvements in the ultrasound examination of bowel disease have registered in the last years the introduction of new technologies regarding high frequency probes (US), highly sensitive color or power Doppler units (CD-US), and the development of new non-linear technologies that optimize detection of contrast agents. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CE-US) most importantly increases the results in sonographic evaluation of Crohn disease inflammatory activity. CE-US has become an imaging modality routinely employed in the clinical practice for the evaluation of parenchymal organs due to the introduction of new generation microbubble contrast agents which persist in the bloodstream for several minutes after intravenous injection. The availability of high frequency dedicated contrast-specific US techniques provide accurate depiction of small bowel wall perfusion due to the extremely high sensitivity of non-linear signals produced by microbubble insonation. In Crohn's disease, CE-US may characterize the bowel wall thickness by differentiating fibrosis from edema and may grade the inflammatory disease activity by assessing the presence and distribution of vascularity within the layers of the bowel wall (submucosa alone or the entire bowel wall). Peri-intestinal inflammatory involvement can be also characterized. CE-US can provide prognostic data concerning clinical recurrence of the inflammatory disease and evaluate the efficacy of drugs treatments.

  18. Smoking, inflammatory patterns, and postprandial hypertriglyceridemia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Smoking is associated with increased postprandial hypertriglyceridemia (PPT). Inflammation and insulin resistance are potential "drivers" for this phenomenon. We tested whether inflammatory patterns and/or insulin resistance explain the effect of smoking on PPT. Methods: Men and women i...

  19. Early Rockets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    This photograph is of the engine for the Redstone rocket. The Redstone ballistic missile was a high-accuracy, liquid-propelled, surface-to-surface missile developed by the Army Ballistic Missile Agency, Redstone Arsenal, in Huntsville, Alabama, under the direction of Dr. von Braun. The Redstone engine was a modified and improved version of the Air Force's Navaho cruise missile engine of the late forties. The A-series, as this would be known, utilized a cylindrical combustion chamber as compared with the bulky, spherical V-2 chamber. By 1951, the Army was moving rapidly toward the design of the Redstone missile, and the production was begun in 1952. Redstone rockets became the "reliable workhorse" for America's early space program. As an example of its versatility, the Redstone was utilized in the booster for Explorer 1, the first American satellite, with no major changes to the engine or missile.

  20. Early Rockets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-04-15

    The image depicts Redstone missile being erected. The Redstone ballistic missile was a high-accuracy, liquid-propelled, surface-to-surface missile developed by Army Ballistic Missile Agency, Redstone Arsenal, in Huntsville, Alabama, under the direction of Dr. von Braun. The Redstone engine was a modified and improved version of the Air Force's Navaho cruise missile engine of the late forties. The A-series, as this would be known, utilized a cylindrical combustion chamber as compared with the bulky, spherical V-2 chamber. By 1951, the Army was moving rapidly toward the design of the Redstone missile, and the production was begun in 1952. Redstone rockets became the "reliable workhorse" for America's early space program. As an example of the versatility, Redstone was utilized in the booster for Explorer 1, the first American satellite, with no major changes to the engine or missile

  1. Early Rockets

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1958-05-15

    Redstone missile No. 1002 on the launch pad at Cape Canaveral, Florida, on May 16, 1958. The Redstone ballistic missile was a high-accuracy, liquid-propelled, surface-to-surface missile developed by the Army Ballistic Missile Agency, Redstone Arsenal, in Huntsville, Alabama, under the direction of Dr. von Braun. The Redstone engine was a modified and improved version of the Air Force's Navaho cruise missile engine of the late forties. The A-series, as this would be known, utilized a cylindrical combustion chamber as compared with the bulky, spherical V-2 chamber. By 1951, the Army was moving rapidly toward the design of the Redstone missile, and production was begun in 1952. Redstone rockets became the "reliable workhorse" for America's early space program. As an example of the versatility, Redstone was utilized in the booster for Explorer 1, the first American satellite, with no major changes to the engine or missile

  2. Challenges in pediatric chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Haliloğlu, Göknur; Yüksel, Deniz; Temoçin, Cağri Mesut; Topaloğlu, Haluk

    2016-12-01

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy, a treatable immune-mediated disease of the peripheral nervous system is less common in childhood compared to adults. Despite different sets of diagnostic criteria, lack of a reliable biologic marker leads to challenges in diagnosis, follow-up and treatment. Our first aim was to review clinical presentation, course, response to treatment, and prognosis in our childhood patients. We also aimed to document diagnostic and therapeutic pitfalls and challenges at the bedside. Our original cohort consisted of 23 pediatric patients who were referred to us with a clinical diagnosis of chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy. Seven patients reaching to an alternative diagnosis were excluded. In the remaining patients, diagnostic, treatment and follow-up data were compared in typical patients who satisfied both clinical and electrodiagnostic criteria and atypical patients who failed to meet minimal research chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy electrodiagnostic requirements. Eight of 16 patients (50%) met the minimal chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy research diagnostic requirements. There was only a statistically significant difference (p = 0.010) in terms of European Neuromuscular Centre childhood chronic inflammatory diagnostic mandatory clinical criteria between the two groups. Misdiagnosis due to errors in electrophysiological interpretation (100%, n = 8), cerebrospinal fluid cytoalbuminologic dissociation (100%, n = 4 and/or subjective improvement on any immunotherapy modality (80 ± 19.27%)) was frequent. Pediatric CIDP is challenging in terms of diagnostic and therapeutic pitfalls at the bedside. Diagnostic errors due to electrophysiological interpretation, cerebrospinal fluid cytoalbuminologic dissociation, and/or subjective improvement on immunotherapy should be considered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Differential and Dose-Dependent Inflammatory Responses in a Mouse Model of Respirable Instillation of Environmental Diesel, Emission-Source Diesel , Emmission-Source Diesel and Ambient Air Pollution Particles In Vivo.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Previously, we found that ambient particulate matter (APM) activates pulmonary dendritic cells in vitro. We hypothesized that single acute exposures to PM would promote inflammatory activation of the lung in vivo and provide information on early immunological events of...

  4. Current Landscape of Telemedicine Practice in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Patil, Seema A; Cross, Raymond K

    2018-04-28

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), comprised of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, affects 1.6 million people in the United States. Although effective medical treatments exist to treat the disease, outcomes are still suboptimal. The reasons for poor outcomes vary but include nonadherence to therapy, inadequate monitoring of patients, limited access to IBD specialty care, concurrent psychiatric disease, limited patient knowledge of the disease and treatments, and patient provider discordance. Telemedicine is a candidate intervention that can be used to improve patient outcomes through more frequent monitoring, patient self-management, delivery of education (patient and provider), and to increase access to multidisciplinary IBD care. Telemedicine includes remote monitoring, telehealth, teleconsultation, and teleconferencing.Telemedicine systems have been used in patients with IBD with widespread patient acceptance of the technology. However, early clinical trials demonstrated high attrition rates among intervention patients. In general, use of telemedicine systems have been associated with improved quality of life, improved patient knowledge, and decreased utilization of health care resources. Early studies evaluating telehealth visits report high patient satisfaction, decreased indirect costs to patients, and no decrease in quality of care delivered.Due to widespread access to computers and smart phones among patients, telemedicine will continue to expand in the care of patients with IBD. To optimize use and effectiveness of telemedicine, barriers for use including concerns over increased liability, need for informed consent, licensure restrictions to providing interstate telehealth visits, and cybersecurity need to be addressed.

  5. Diagnosis of inflammatory rheumatic diseases with photon density waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuthan, Juergen; Prapavat, Viravuth; Naber, Rolf-Dieter; Minet, Olaf; Mueller, Gerhard J.

    1996-04-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a common inflammatory disease of interphalangeal joints. The utilization of conventional imaging systems (e.g. x-rays) for non invasive diagnostics at an early stage of the disease is difficult, since pathologically induced changes do not occur at this stage in hard tissue. Use of MR and ultrasound methods are both methodically problematic and expensive. Therefore investigations for optical diagnostics using photon density waves (PDW) were carried out. The PDW was realized with an intensity modulated laser diode (825 nm, fmod: 110 MHz) and an ac- and phase detection in a 2D transillumination scanner. Measurements of optical properties of synovia and synovialis of healthy and early RA stages were performed and indicated a significant pathological increase of (mu) s. The detected PDW-pictures provided corresponding results. Further investigations regarding the object- variation of the modulation transfer function provide a sufficient spatial resolution in order to assign functional changes to anatomical structures. The results are presented using photos.

  6. Different activities of Schinus areira L.: anti-inflammatory or pro-inflammatory effect.

    PubMed

    Davicino, R; Mattar, A; Casali, Y; Anesini, C; Micalizzi, B

    2010-12-01

    The anti-inflammatory drugs possess many serious side effects at doses commonly prescribed. It is really important to discover novel regulators of inflammation from natural sources with minimal adverse effects. Schinus areira L. is a plant native from South America and is used in folk medicine as an anti-inflammatory herb. For this study, the activity of aqueous extracts on inflammation and the effect on superoxide anion production in mice macrophages were assayed. Aqueous extracts were prepared by soaking herbs in cold water (cold extract), boiling water (infusion), and simmering water (decoction). Cold extract possess an anti-inflammatory activity. Decoction and infusion showed pro-inflammatory activity. Cold extract increased the production of superoxide anion. It has been proposed to use diverse methods to obtain extracts of S. areira L. with different effects. Cold extract, decoction, and infusion could be utilized as extracts or as pharmacological preparations for topical application.

  7. Tight junctions in inflammatory bowel diseases and inflammatory bowel disease associated colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Landy, Jonathan; Ronde, Emma; English, Nick; Clark, Sue K; Hart, Ailsa L; Knight, Stella C; Ciclitira, Paul J; Al-Hassi, Hafid Omar

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases are characterised by inflammation that compromises the integrity of the epithelial barrier. The intestinal epithelium is not only a static barrier but has evolved complex mechanisms to control and regulate bacterial interactions with the mucosal surface. Apical tight junction proteins are critical in the maintenance of epithelial barrier function and control of paracellular permeability. The characterisation of alterations in tight junction proteins as key players in epithelial barrier function in inflammatory bowel diseases is rapidly enhancing our understanding of critical mechanisms in disease pathogenesis as well as novel therapeutic opportunities. Here we give an overview of recent literature focusing on the role of tight junction proteins, in particular claudins, in inflammatory bowel diseases and inflammatory bowel disease associated colorectal cancer. PMID:27003989

  8. Inflammatory licensed equine MSCs are chondroprotective and exhibit enhanced immunomodulation in an inflammatory environment.

    PubMed

    Cassano, Jennifer M; Schnabel, Lauren V; Goodale, Margaret B; Fortier, Lisa A

    2018-04-03

    Inflammatory licensed mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the ability to promote functional tissue repair. This study specifically sought to understand how the recipient tissue environment reciprocally affects MSC function. Inflammatory polarized macrophages, modeling an injured tissue environment, were exposed to licensed MSCs, and the resultant effects of MSC immunomodulation and functionality of the MSC secretome on chondrocyte homeostasis were studied. Inflammatory licensed MSCs were generated through priming with either IFN-γ or polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C). Macrophages were polarized to an inflammatory phenotype using IFN-γ. Licensed MSCs were co-cultured with inflammatory macrophages and immunomodulation of MSCs was assessed in a T-cell proliferation assay. MSC gene expression was analyzed for changes in immunogenicity (MHC-I, MHC-II), immunomodulation (IDO, PTGS2, NOS2, TGF-β1), cytokine (IL-6, IL-8), and chemokine (CCL2, CXCL10) expression. Macrophages were assessed for changes in cytokine (IL-6, IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ) and chemokine (CCL2, CXCL10) expression. Conditioned medium representing the secretome from IFN-γ or poly I:C-primed MSCs was applied to IL-1β-stimulated chondrocytes, which were analyzed for catabolic (IL-6, TNF-α, CCL2, CXCL10, MMP-13, PTGS2) and matrix synthesis (ACAN, COL2A1) genes. IFN-γ-primed MSCs had a superior ability to suppress T-cell proliferation compared to naïve MSCs, and this ability was maintained following exposure to proinflammatory macrophages. In naïve and licensed MSCs exposed to inflammatory macrophages, MHC-I and MHC-II gene expression was upregulated. The secretome from licensed MSCs was chondroprotective and downregulated inflammatory gene expression in IL-1β-stimulated chondrocytes. In-vitro inflammatory licensing agents enhanced the immunomodulatory ability of MSCs exposed to inflammatory macrophages, and the resultant secretome was biologically active, protecting chondrocytes from catabolic

  9. A life course approach to explore the biological embedding of socioeconomic position and social mobility through circulating inflammatory markers.

    PubMed

    Castagné, Raphaële; Delpierre, Cyrille; Kelly-Irving, Michelle; Campanella, Gianluca; Guida, Florence; Krogh, Vittorio; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Tumino, Rosario; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios; Hosnijeh, Fatemeh Saberi; Lang, Thierry; Vermeulen, Roel; Vineis, Paolo; Stringhini, Silvia; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc

    2016-04-27

    Lower socioeconomic position (SEP) has consistently been associated with poorer health. To explore potential biological embedding and the consequences of SEP experiences from early life to adulthood, we investigate how SEP indicators at different points across the life course may be related to a combination of 28 inflammation markers. Using blood-derived inflammation profiles measured by a multiplex array in 268 participants from the Italian component of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, we evaluate the association between early life, young adulthood and later adulthood SEP with each inflammatory markers separately, or by combining them into an inflammatory score. We identified an increased inflammatory burden in participants whose father had a manual occupation, through increased plasma levels of CSF3 (G-CSF; β = 0.29; P = 0.002), and an increased inflammatory score (β = 1.96; P = 0.029). Social mobility was subsequently modelled by the interaction between father's occupation and the highest household occupation, revealing a significant difference between "stable Non-manual" profiles over the life course versus "Manual to Non-manual" profiles (β = 2.38, P = 0.023). Low SEP in childhood is associated with modest increase in adult inflammatory burden; however, the analysis of social mobility suggests a stronger effect of an upward social mobility over the life course.

  10. A life course approach to explore the biological embedding of socioeconomic position and social mobility through circulating inflammatory markers

    PubMed Central

    Castagné, Raphaële; Delpierre, Cyrille; Kelly-Irving, Michelle; Campanella, Gianluca; Guida, Florence; Krogh, Vittorio; Palli, Domenico; Panico, Salvatore; Sacerdote, Carlotta; Tumino, Rosario; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios; Hosnijeh, Fatemeh Saberi; Lang, Thierry; Vermeulen, Roel; Vineis, Paolo; Stringhini, Silvia; Chadeau-Hyam, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Lower socioeconomic position (SEP) has consistently been associated with poorer health. To explore potential biological embedding and the consequences of SEP experiences from early life to adulthood, we investigate how SEP indicators at different points across the life course may be related to a combination of 28 inflammation markers. Using blood-derived inflammation profiles measured by a multiplex array in 268 participants from the Italian component of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, we evaluate the association between early life, young adulthood and later adulthood SEP with each inflammatory markers separately, or by combining them into an inflammatory score. We identified an increased inflammatory burden in participants whose father had a manual occupation, through increased plasma levels of CSF3 (G-CSF; β = 0.29; P = 0.002), and an increased inflammatory score (β = 1.96; P = 0.029). Social mobility was subsequently modelled by the interaction between father’s occupation and the highest household occupation, revealing a significant difference between “stable Non-manual” profiles over the life course versus “Manual to Non-manual” profiles (β = 2.38, P = 0.023). Low SEP in childhood is associated with modest increase in adult inflammatory burden; however, the analysis of social mobility suggests a stronger effect of an upward social mobility over the life course. PMID:27117519

  11. AGEs-Induced IL-6 Synthesis Precedes RAGE Up-Regulation in HEK 293 Cells: An Alternative Inflammatory Mechanism?

    PubMed Central

    Serban, Andreea Iren; Stanca, Loredana; Geicu, Ovidiu Ionut; Dinischiotu, Anca

    2015-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) can activate the inflammatory pathways involved in diabetic nephropathy. Understanding these molecular pathways could contribute to therapeutic strategies for diabetes complications. We evaluated the modulation of inflammatory and oxidative markers, as well as the protective mechanisms employed by human embryonic kidney cells (HEK 293) upon exposure to 200 μg/mL bovine serum albumine (BSA) or AGEs–BSA for 12, 24 and 48 h. The mRNA and protein expression levels of AGEs receptor (RAGE) and heat shock proteins (HSPs) 27, 60 and 70, the activity of antioxidant enzymes and the expression levels of eight cytokines were analysed. Cell damage via oxidative mechanisms was evaluated by glutathione and malondialdehyde levels. The data revealed two different time scale responses. First, the up-regulation of interleukin-6 (IL-6), HSP 27 and high catalase activity were detected as early as 12 h after exposure to AGEs–BSA, while the second response, after 24 h, consisted of NF-κB p65, RAGE, HSP 70 and inflammatory cytokine up-regulation, glutathione depletion, malondialdehyde increase and the activation of antioxidant enzymes. IL-6 might be important in the early ignition of inflammatory responses, while the cellular redox imbalance, RAGE activation and NF-κB p65 increased expression further enhance inflammatory signals in HEK 293 cells. PMID:26307981

  12. Inflammatory status in human hepatic cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Esparza, María; Tristán-Manzano, María; Ruiz-Alcaraz, Antonio J; García-Peñarrubia, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    This review focuses on new findings about the inflammatory status involved in the development of human liver cirrhosis induced by the two main causes, hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and chronic alcohol abuse, avoiding results obtained from animal models. When liver is faced to a persistent and/or intense local damage the maintained inflammatory response gives rise to a progressive replacement of normal hepatic tissue by non-functional fibrotic scar. The imbalance between tissue regeneration and fibrosis will determine the outcome toward health recovery or hepatic cirrhosis. In all cases progression toward liver cirrhosis is caused by a dysregulation of mechanisms that govern the balance between activation/homeostasis of the immune system. Detecting differences between the inflammatory status in HCV-induced vs alcohol-induced cirrhosis could be useful to identify specific targets for preventive and therapeutic intervention in each case. Thus, although survival of patients with alcoholic cirrhosis seems to be similar to that of patients with HCV-related cirrhosis (HCV-C), there are important differences in the altered cellular and molecular mechanisms implicated in the progression toward human liver cirrhosis. The predominant features of HCV-C are more related with those that allow viral evasion of the immune defenses, especially although not exclusively, inhibition of interferons secretion, natural killer cells activation and T cell-mediated cytotoxicity. On the contrary, the inflammatory status of alcohol-induced cirrhosis is determined by the combined effect of direct hepatotoxicity of ethanol metabolites and increases of the intestinal permeability, allowing bacteria and bacterial products translocation, into the portal circulation, mesenteric lymph nodes and peritoneal cavity. This phenomenon generates a stronger pro-inflammatory response compared with HCV-related cirrhosis. Hence, therapeutic intervention in HCV-related cirrhosis must be mainly focused to

  13. Immunohistochemical identification of Propionibacterium acnes in granuloma and inflammatory cells of myocardial tissues obtained from cardiac sarcoidosis patients.

    PubMed

    Asakawa, Naoya; Uchida, Keisuke; Sakakibara, Mamoru; Omote, Kazunori; Noguchi, Keiji; Tokuda, Yusuke; Kamiya, Kiwamu; Hatanaka, Kanako C; Matsuno, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Shiro; Asakawa, Kyoko; Fukasawa, Yuichiro; Nagai, Toshiyuki; Anzai, Toshihisa; Ikeda, Yoshihiko; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Hirota, Masanori; Orii, Makoto; Akasaka, Takashi; Uto, Kenta; Shingu, Yasushige; Matsui, Yoshiro; Morimoto, Shin-Ichiro; Tsutsui, Hiroyuki; Eishi, Yoshinobu

    2017-01-01

    Although rare, cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) is potentially fatal. Early diagnosis and intervention are essential, but histopathologic diagnosis is limited. We aimed to detect Propionibacterium acnes, a commonly implicated etiologic agent of sarcoidosis, in myocardial tissues obtained from CS patients. We examined formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded myocardial tissues obtained by surgery or autopsy and endomyocardial biopsy from patients with CS (n = 26; CS-group), myocarditis (n = 15; M-group), or other cardiomyopathies (n = 39; CM-group) using immunohistochemistry (IHC) with a P. acnes-specific monoclonal antibody. We found granulomas in 16 (62%) CS-group samples. Massive (≥14 inflammatory cells) and minimal (<14 inflammatory cells) inflammatory foci, respectively, were detected in 16 (62%) and 11 (42%) of the CS-group samples, 10 (67%) and 10 (67%) of the M-group samples, and 1 (3%) and 18 (46%) of the CM-group samples. P. acnes-positive reactivity in granulomas, massive inflammatory foci, and minimal inflammatory foci were detected in 10 (63%), 10 (63%), and 8 (73%) of the CS-group samples, respectively, and in none of the M-group and CM-group samples. Frequent identification of P. acnes in sarcoid granulomas of originally aseptic myocardial tissues suggests that this indigenous bacterium causes granuloma in many CS patients. IHC detection of P. acnes in massive or minimal inflammatory foci of myocardial biopsy samples without granulomas may be useful for differentiating sarcoidosis from myocarditis or other cardiomyopathies.

  14. Inflammatory bowel disease in India - Past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Gautam

    2016-01-01

    There is rising incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in India topping the Southeast Asian (SEA) countries. The common genes implicated in disease pathogenesis in the West are not causal in Indian patients and the role of “hygiene hypothesis” is unclear. There appears to be a North-South divide with more ulcerative colitis (UC) in north and Crohn’s disease (CD) in south India. IBD in second generation Indian migrants to the West takes the early onset and more severe form of the West whereas it retains the nature of its country of origin in migrants to SEA countries. The clinical presentation is much like other SEA countries (similar age and sex profile, low positive family history and effect of smoking, roughly similar disease location, use of aminosalicylates for CD, low use of biologics and similar surgical rates) with some differences (higher incidence of inflammatory CD, lower perianal disease, higher use of aminosalicylates and azathioprine and lower current use of corticosteroids). UC presents more with extensive disease not paralleled in severity clinically or histologically, follows benign course with easy medical control and low incidence of fulminant disease, cancer, complications, and surgery. UC related colorectal cancer develop in an unpredictable manner with respect to disease duration and site questioning the validity of strict screening protocol. About a third of CD patients get antituberculosis drugs and a significant number presents with small intestinal bleed which is predominantly afflicted by aggressive inflammation. Biomarkers have inadequate diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for both. Pediatric IBD tends to be more severe than adult. Population based studies are needed to address the lacunae in epidemiology and definition of etiological factors. Newer biomarkers and advanced diagnostic techniques (in the field of gastrointestinal endoscopy, molecular pathology and genetics) needs to be developed for proper

  15. Analysis of inflammatory cytokines in human blood, breath ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    A change in the expression of cytokines in human biological media indicates an inflammatory response to external stressors and reflects an early step along the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) for various health endpoints. To characterize and interpret this inflammatory response, methodology was developed for measuring a suite of 10 different cytokines in human blood, exhaled breath condensate (EBC), and urine using an electrochemiluminescent multiplex Th1/Th2 cytokine immunoassay platform. Measurement distributions and correlations for eight interleukins (IL) (1β, 2, 4, 5, 8, 10, 12p70 and 13), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were evaluated using 90 blood plasma, 77 EBC, and 400 urine samples collected from nominally healthy adults subjects in North Carolina in 2008-2012. The in vivo results show that there is sufficient sensitivity for characterizing all 10 cytokines at levels of 0.05-0.10 ρg/ml with a dynamic range up to 100 ng/ml across all three of these biological media. The measured in vivo results also show that the duplicate analysis of blood, EBC and urine samples have average estimated fold ranges of 2.21, 3.49, and 2.50, respectively, which are similar to the mean estimated fold range (2.88) for the lowest concentration (0.610ρg/ml) from a series of spiked control samples; the cytokine method can be used for all three biological media. Nine out of the 10 cytokines measured in EBC were highly correlated within one a

  16. Ocular inflammatory effects of intravitreally-injected tumor necrosis factor.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, J. T.; Howes, E. L.; Rubin, R. M.; Samples, J. R.

    1988-01-01

    Many of the pathophysiologic effects of bacterial endotoxin have recently been attributed to a monokine, tumor necrosis factor (TNF). The rabbit eye is extremely sensitive to locally injected endotoxin. The authors have investigated the possible contribution of TNF to ocular inflammation in a rabbit model. The intravitreal injection of 10(5) to 5 X 10(5) units of recombinant human TNF produced a sustained disruption of the blood-aqueous barrier as manifested by elevated aqueous humor protein levels. In addition, 83% of rabbits receiving this dose of TNF developed hyperemia of limbal vessels and early neovascularization of the cornea. Many developed posterior synechiae (fibrous adhesions between the iris and the lens). TNF induced only a slight cellular response in the anterior chamber. Histologic studies confirmed the presence of new vessels and demonstrated a marked mononuclear infiltrate within and beneath the epithelium of the iris and ciliary body. Lower doses of TNF produced inconsistent results. Heating TNF completely destroyed its inflammatory effects. The time course of the ocular response to TNF and the quantity of recombinant protein needed to produce consistent effects were vastly different from effects observed with interleukin-1. For example, 24 hours after an intravitreal injection, 2.2 X 10(4) ng of TNF (5 X 10(5) units) produced significantly less protein extravasation and polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration than 4 ng of recombinant interleukin-1. Similarly, 24 hours after intravitreal injection, 1 ng of Escherichia coli endotoxin tended to be a more potent inflammatory stimulus than this quantity of TNF. These observations indicate that the ocular pathophysiologic effects of TNF can be readily distinguished from changes induced by either endotoxin or another endotoxin induced monokine, interleukin-1. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:3263050

  17. A mathematical model of atherogenesis as an inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Ibragimov, A I; McNeal, C J; Ritter, L R; Walton, J R

    2005-12-01

    We construct a mathematical model of the early formation of an atherosclerotic lesion based on a simplification of Russell Ross' paradigm of atherosclerosis as a chronic inflammatory response. Atherosclerosis is a disease characterized by the accumulation of lipid-laden cells in the arterial wall. This disease results in lesions within the artery that may grow into the lumen restricting blood flow and, in critical cases, can rupture causing complete, sudden occlusion of the artery resulting in heart attack, stroke and possibly death. It is now understood that when chemically modified low-density lipoproteins (LDL cholesterol) enter into the wall of the human artery, they can trigger an immune response mediated by biochemical signals sent and received by immune and other cells indigenous to the vasculature. The presence of modified LDL can also corrupt the normal immune function triggering further immune response and ultimately chronic inflammation. In the construction of our mathematical model, we focus on the inflammatory component of the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Because this study centres on the interplay between chemical and cellular species in the human artery and bloodstream, we employ a model of chemotaxis first given by E. F. Keller and Lee Segel in 1970 and present our model as a coupled system of non-linear reaction diffusion equations describing the state of the various species involved in the disease process. We perform numerical simulations demonstrating that our model captures certain observed features of CVD such as the localization of immune cells, the build-up of lipids and debris and the isolation of a lesion by smooth muscle cells.

  18. Inflammatory bowel disease in India - Past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Ray, Gautam

    2016-09-28

    There is rising incidence and prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in India topping the Southeast Asian (SEA) countries. The common genes implicated in disease pathogenesis in the West are not causal in Indian patients and the role of "hygiene hypothesis" is unclear. There appears to be a North-South divide with more ulcerative colitis (UC) in north and Crohn's disease (CD) in south India. IBD in second generation Indian migrants to the West takes the early onset and more severe form of the West whereas it retains the nature of its country of origin in migrants to SEA countries. The clinical presentation is much like other SEA countries (similar age and sex profile, low positive family history and effect of smoking, roughly similar disease location, use of aminosalicylates for CD, low use of biologics and similar surgical rates) with some differences (higher incidence of inflammatory CD, lower perianal disease, higher use of aminosalicylates and azathioprine and lower current use of corticosteroids). UC presents more with extensive disease not paralleled in severity clinically or histologically, follows benign course with easy medical control and low incidence of fulminant disease, cancer, complications, and surgery. UC related colorectal cancer develop in an unpredictable manner with respect to disease duration and site questioning the validity of strict screening protocol. About a third of CD patients get antituberculosis drugs and a significant number presents with small intestinal bleed which is predominantly afflicted by aggressive inflammation. Biomarkers have inadequate diagnostic sensitivity and specificity for both. Pediatric IBD tends to be more severe than adult. Population based studies are needed to address the lacunae in epidemiology and definition of etiological factors. Newer biomarkers and advanced diagnostic techniques (in the field of gastrointestinal endoscopy, molecular pathology and genetics) needs to be developed for proper disease

  19. Sirt2 suppresses inflammatory responses in collagen-induced arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Jiangtao; Department of Orthopaedics, Yantaishan Hospital, 91 Jiefang Road, Yantai, Shandong 264001; Sun, Bing

    Highlights: •Sirt2 expression decreases in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). •Sirt2 knockout aggravates severity of arthritis in mice with CIA. •Sirt2 knockout increases levels of pro-inflammatory factors in the serum. •Sirt2 deacetylates p65 and inhibits pro-inflammatory factors expression. •Sirt2 rescue abates severity of arthritis in mice with CIA. -- Abstract: Arthritis is a common autoimmune disease that is associated with progressive disability, systemic complications and early death. However, the underling mechanisms of arthritis are still unclear. Sirtuins are a NAD{sup +}-dependent class III deacetylase family, and regulate cellular stress, inflammation, genomic stability, carcinogenesis, and energy metabolism. Among the sirtuin family members, Sirt1more » and Sirt6 are critically involved in the development of arthritis. It remains unknown whether other sirtuin family members participate in arthritis. Here in this study, we demonstrate that Sirt2 inhibits collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) using in vivo and in vitro evidence. The protein and mRNA levels of Sirt2 significantly decreased in joint tissues of mice with CIA. When immunized with collagen, Sirt2-KO mice showed aggravated severity of arthritis based on clinical scores, hind paw thickness, and radiological and molecular findings. Mechanically, Sirt2 deacetylated p65 subunit of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) at lysine 310, resulting in reduced expression of NF-κB-dependent genes, including interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1(MCP-1), RANTES, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) and MMP-13. Importantly, our rescue experiment showed that Sirt2 re-expression abated the severity of arthritis in Sirt2-KO mice. Those findings strongly indicate Sirt2 as a considerably inhibitor of the development of arthritis.« less

  20. The histopathological approach to inflammatory bowel disease: a practice guide.

    PubMed

    Langner, Cord; Magro, Fernando; Driessen, Ann; Ensari, Arzu; Mantzaris, Gerassimos J; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Becheanu, Gabriel; Borralho Nunes, Paula; Cathomas, Gieri; Fries, Walter; Jouret-Mourin, Anne; Mescoli, Claudia; de Petris, Giovanni; Rubio, Carlos A; Shepherd, Neil A; Vieth, Michael; Eliakim, Rami; Geboes, Karel

    2014-05-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are lifelong disorders predominantly present in developed countries. In their pathogenesis, an interaction between genetic and environmental factors is involved. This practice guide, prepared on behalf of the European Society of Pathology and the European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation, intends to provide a thorough basis for the histological evaluation of resection specimens and biopsy samples from patients with ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. Histopathologically, these diseases are characterised by the extent and the distribution of mucosal architectural abnormality, the cellularity of the lamina propria and the cell types present, but these features frequently overlap. If a definitive diagnosis is not possible, the term indeterminate colitis is used for resection specimens and the term inflammatory bowel disease unclassified for biopsies. Activity of disease is reflected by neutrophil granulocyte infiltration and epithelial damage. The evolution of the histological features that are useful for diagnosis is time- and disease-activity dependent: early disease and long-standing disease show different microscopic aspects. Likewise, the histopathology of childhood-onset IBD is distinctly different from adult-onset IBD. In the differential diagnosis of severe colitis refractory to immunosuppressive therapy, reactivation of latent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection should be considered and CMV should be tested for in all patients. Finally, patients with longstanding IBD have an increased risk for the development of adenocarcinoma. Dysplasia is the universally used marker of an increased cancer risk, but inter-observer agreement is poor for the categories low-grade dysplasia and indefinite for dysplasia. A diagnosis of dysplasia should not be made by a single pathologist but needs to be confirmed by a pathologist with expertise in gastrointestinal pathology.

  1. Early environments and the ecology of inflammation

    PubMed Central

    McDade, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has implicated inflammatory processes in the pathophysiology of a wide range of chronic degenerative diseases, although inflammation has long been recognized as a critical line of defense against infectious disease. However, current scientific understandings of the links between chronic low-grade inflammation and diseases of aging are based primarily on research in high-income nations with low levels of infectious disease and high levels of overweight/obesity. From a comparative and historical point of view, this epidemiological situation is relatively unique, and it may not capture the full range of ecological variation necessary to understand the processes that shape the development of inflammatory phenotypes. The human immune system is characterized by substantial developmental plasticity, and a comparative, developmental, ecological framework is proposed to cast light on the complex associations among early environments, regulation of inflammation, and disease. Recent studies in the Philippines and lowland Ecuador reveal low levels of chronic inflammation, despite higher burdens of infectious disease, and point to nutritional and microbial exposures in infancy as important determinants of inflammation in adulthood. By shaping the regulation of inflammation, early environments moderate responses to inflammatory stimuli later in life, with implications for the association between inflammation and chronic diseases. Attention to the eco-logics of inflammation may point to promising directions for future research, enriching our understanding of this important physiological system and informing approaches to the prevention and treatment of disease. PMID:23045646

  2. Management of Anemia in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD).

    PubMed

    Patel, Dhruvan; Trivedi, Chinmay; Khan, Nabeel

    2018-03-01

    Anemia is the most common complication as well as an extra intestinal manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It is associated with a significant impact on patient's quality of life (QoL); as well it represents a common cause of frequent hospitalization, delay of hospital inpatient discharge and overall increased healthcare burden. In spite of all these, anemia is still often underdiagnosed and undertreated. Our aim in this review is to provide a pathway for physicians to help them achieve early diagnosis as well as timely and appropriate treatment of anemia which in turn would hopefully reduce the prevalence and subsequent complications of this condition among IBD patients. The etiology of anemia among IBD patients is most commonly due to iron deficiency anemia (IDA) followed by anemia of chronic disease. Despite this, more than a third of anemic ulcerative colitis (UC) patients are not tested for IDA and among those tested and diagnosed with IDA, a quarter are not treated with iron replacement therapy. A new algorithm has been validated to predict who will develop moderate to severe anemia at the time of UC diagnosis. While oral iron is effective for the treatment of mild iron deficiency-related anemia, the absorption of iron is influenced by chronic inflammatory states as a consequence of the presence of elevated levels of hepcidin. Also, it is important to recognize that ferritin is elevated in chronic inflammatory states and among patients with active IBD, ferritin levels less than 100 are considered to be diagnostic of iron deficiency. Newer formulations of intra-venous (IV) iron have a good safety profile and can be used for replenishment of iron stores and prevention of iron deficiency in the future. Routine screening for anemia is important among patients with IBD. The cornerstone for the accurate management of anemia in IBD patients lies in accurately diagnosing the type of anemia. All IBD patients with IDA should be considered appropriate for

  3. Local and Systemic Inflammatory Biomarkers of Diabetic Retinopathy: An Integrative Approach.

    PubMed

    Vujosevic, Stela; Simó, Rafael

    2017-05-01

    To review the usefulness of local and systemic inflammatory biomarkers of diabetic retinopathy (DR) to implement a more personalized treatment. An integrated research (from ophthalmologist and diabetologist point of view) of most significant literature on serum, vitreous, and aqueous humor (AH) biochemical biomarkers related to inflammation at early and advanced stages of DR (including diabetic macular edema [DME] and proliferative DR) was performed. Moreover, novel imaging retinal biomarkers of local "inflammatory condition" were described. Multiple inflammatory cytokines and chemokines are increased in DR in both serum as well as in the eye (vitreous and AH). Nevertheless, local rather than systemic production of proinflammatory cytokines seems more relevant in the pathogenesis of both DR and DME. In the eye, retinal glia cells (macroglia and microglia) together with RPE are major sources of proinflammatory and angiogenic modulators. Retinal imaging allows for noninvasive clinical evaluation of retinal inflammatory response induced by diabetes mellitus. Proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines play an essential role in the pathogenesis of DR. Therefore, circulating biomarkers and retinal imaging aimed at assessing inflammation have emerged as useful tools for monitoring the onset and progression of DR. In addition, "liquid biopsy" of AH seems a good option in patients with advanced stages of DR requiring intravitreous injections. This strategy may permit us to implement a more personalized treatment with better visual function outcome. Further evaluation and validation of circulating and local biomarkers, as well as multimodal imaging is needed to gain new insights into this issue.

  4. Bone morphogenic protein 4 produced in endothelial cells by oscillatory shear stress stimulates an inflammatory response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorescu, George P.; Sykes, Michelle; Weiss, Daiana; Platt, Manu O.; Saha, Aniket; Hwang, Jinah; Boyd, Nolan; Boo, Yong C.; Vega, J. David; Taylor, W. Robert; hide

    2003-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is now viewed as an inflammatory disease occurring preferentially in arterial regions exposed to disturbed flow conditions, including oscillatory shear stress (OS), in branched arteries. In contrast, the arterial regions exposed to laminar shear (LS) are relatively lesion-free. The mechanisms underlying the opposite effects of OS and LS on the inflammatory and atherogenic processes are not clearly understood. Here, through DNA microarrays, protein expression, and functional studies, we identify bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4) as a mechanosensitive and pro-inflammatory gene product. Exposing endothelial cells to OS increased BMP4 protein expression, whereas LS decreased it. In addition, we found BMP4 expression only in the selective patches of endothelial cells overlying foam cell lesions in human coronary arteries. The same endothelial patches also expressed higher levels of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) protein compared with those of non-diseased areas. Functionally, we show that OS and BMP4 induced ICAM-1 expression and monocyte adhesion by a NFkappaB-dependent mechanism. We suggest that BMP4 is a mechanosensitive, inflammatory factor playing a critical role in early steps of atherogenesis in the lesion-prone areas.

  5. An unusual white blood cell scan in a child with inflammatory bowel disease: a case report.

    PubMed

    Porn, U; Howman-Giles, R; O'Loughlin, E; Uren, R; Chaitow, J

    2000-10-01

    Technetium-99m-labeled leukocyte (WBC) imaging is a valuable screening method for inflammatory bowel disease, especially in children, because of its high rate of sensitivity, low cost, and ease of preparation. A 14-year-old girl is described who had juvenile arthritis and iritis complicated by inflammatory bowel disease. She was examined for recurrent abdominal pain. A Tc-99m stannous colloid WBC scan was performed, and tracer accumulation was seen in the small bowel in the region of the distal ileum on the initial 1-hour image. Delayed imaging at 3 hours also revealed tracer accumulation in the cecum and ascending colon, which was not seen on the early image. A biopsy of the colon during endoscopy showed no evidence of active inflammation in the colon. The small bowel was not seen. Computed tomography revealed changes suggestive of inflammatory bowel disease in the distal ileum. The appearance on the WBC study was most likely a result of inflammatory bowel disease involving the distal ileum, with transit of luminal activity into the large bowel.

  6. Whey protein enhances normal inflammatory responses during cutaneous wound healing in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Prolonged wound healing is a complication of diabetes that contributes to mortality. Impaired wound healing occurs as a consequence of excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Whey protein (WP) is able to reduce the oxygen radicals and increase the levels of the antioxidant glutathione. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether dietary supplementation with WP could enhance normal inflammatory responses during wound healing in diabetic rats. Animals were assigned into a wounded control group (WN), a wounded diabetic group (WD) and a wounded diabetic group orally supplemented with whey protein (WDWP) at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight. Results Whey protein was found to significantly decrease the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO) and ROS. A significant restoration of the glutathione level was observed in WDWP rats. During the early wound healing stage, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-4 and neutrophil infiltration were significantly decreased in WD mice. WP supplementation was found to restore the levels of these inflammatory markers to the levels observed in control animals. In addition, the time required for wound healing was significantly prolonged in diabetic rats. WP was found to significantly decrease the time required for wound healing in WDWP rats. Conclusion In conclusion, dietary supplementation with WP enhances the normal inflammatory responses during wound healing in diabetic mice by restoring the levels of oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines. PMID:22168406

  7. Assaying macrophage activity in a murine model of inflammatory bowel disease using fluorine-19 MRI

    PubMed Central

    Kadayakkara, Deepak K; Ranganathan, Sarangarajan; Young, Won-Bin; Ahrens, Eric T

    2012-01-01

    Macrophages have an important role in the pathogenesis of most chronic inflammatory diseases. A means of non-invasively quantifying macrophage migration would contribute significantly towards our understanding of chronic inflammatory processes and aid the evaluation of novel therapeutic strategies. We describe the use of a perfluorocarbon tracer reagent and in vivo 19F magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to quantify macrophage burden longitudinally. We apply these methods to evaluate the severity and three-dimensional distribution of macrophages in a murine model of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). MRI results were validated by histological analysis, immunofluorescence and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Selective depletion of macrophages in vivo was also performed, further validating that macrophage accumulation of perfluorocarbon tracers was the basis of 19F MRI signals observed in the bowel. We tested the effects of two common clinical drugs, dexamethasone and cyclosporine A, on IBD progression. Whereas cyclosporine A provided mild therapeutic effect, unexpectedly dexamethasone enhanced colon inflammation, especially in the descending colon. Overall, 19F MRI can be used to evaluate early-stage inflammation in IBD and is suitable for evaluating putative therapeutics. Due to its high macrophage specificity and quantitative ability, we envisage 19F MRI having an important role in evaluating a wide range of chronic inflammatory conditions mediated by macrophages. PMID:22330343

  8. Astrocyte-derived VEGF-A drives blood-brain barrier disruption in CNS inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Argaw, Azeb Tadesse; Asp, Linnea; Zhang, Jingya; Navrazhina, Kristina; Pham, Trinh; Mariani, John N; Mahase, Sean; Dutta, Dipankar J; Seto, Jeremy; Kramer, Elisabeth G; Ferrara, Napoleone; Sofroniew, Michael V; John, Gareth R

    2012-07-01

    In inflammatory CNS conditions such as multiple sclerosis (MS), current options to treat clinical relapse are limited, and more selective agents are needed. Disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is an early feature of lesion formation that correlates with clinical exacerbation, leading to edema, excitotoxicity, and entry of serum proteins and inflammatory cells. Here, we identify astrocytic expression of VEGF-A as a key driver of BBB permeability in mice. Inactivation of astrocytic Vegfa expression reduced BBB breakdown, decreased lymphocyte infiltration and neuropathology in inflammatory and demyelinating lesions, and reduced paralysis in a mouse model of MS. Knockdown studies in CNS endothelium indicated activation of the downstream effector eNOS as the principal mechanism underlying the effects of VEGF-A on the BBB. Systemic administration of the selective eNOS inhibitor cavtratin in mice abrogated VEGF-A-induced BBB disruption and pathology and protected against neurologic deficit in the MS model system. Collectively, these data identify blockade of VEGF-A signaling as a protective strategy to treat inflammatory CNS disease.

  9. NETs are a source of citrullinated autoantigens and stimulate inflammatory responses in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Khandpur, Ritika; Carmona-Rivera, Carmelo; Vivekanandan-Giri, Anuradha; Gizinski, Alison; Yalavarthi, Srilakshmi; Knight, Jason S.; Friday, Sean; Li, Sam; Patel, Rajiv M.; Subramanian, Venkataraman; Thompson, Paul; Chen, Pojen; Fox, David A.; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Kaplan, Mariana J.

    2013-01-01

    The early events leading to the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) remain unclear but formation of autoantibodies to citrullinated antigens (ACPA) is considered a key pathogenic phenomenon. Neutrophils isolated from patients with various autoimmune diseases display enhanced extracellular trap formation (NETs), a phenomenon that externalizes autoantigens and immunostimulatory molecules. We investigated whether aberrant NETosis occurs in RA, determined its triggers and examined its deleterious inflammatory consequences. Enhanced NETosis was observed in circulating and synovial fluid RA neutrophils, compared to neutrophils from healthy controls and from patients with osteoarthritis. Further, netting neutrophils infiltrated RA synovial tissue, rheumatoid nodules and skin. NETosis correlated with ACPA presence and levels and with systemic inflammatory markers. RA sera and immunoglobulin fractions from RA patients with high levels of ACPA and/or rheumatoid factor significantly enhanced NETosis, and the NETs induced by these autoantibodies displayed distinct protein content. During NETosis, neutrophils externalized citrullinated autoantigens implicated in RA pathogenesis, whereas anti-citrullinated vimentin antibodies potently induced NET formation. The inflammatory cytokines IL-17A and TNF-α induced NETosis in RA neutrophils. In turn, NETs significantly augmented inflammatory responses in RA and OA synovial fibroblasts, including induction of IL-6, IL-8, chemokines and adhesion molecules. These observations implicate accelerated NETosis in RA pathogenesis, through externalization of citrullinated autoantigens and immunostimulatory molecules that may promote aberrant adaptive and innate immune responses in the joint and in the periphery, and perpetuate pathogenic mechanisms in this disease. PMID:23536012

  10. Outpatient management of pelvic inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    Price, B; Martens, M

    2001-08-01

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is a spectrum of inflammatory disorders of the female genital tract involving at least the endrometrium and may include the fallopian tubes, ovaries, and pelvic cavity. Over 1 million women each year are treated for PID in the United States, and it is one of the most serious infections diagnosed in women due to its sequelae. Women with PID acutely experience pain and are at risk for sepsis; however, the significant increases in ectopic pregnancy and infertility are the most disturbing long-term complications. It most often is initiated with an infection by a sexually transmitted disease, but can also involve a variety of pathogenic aerobes and anaerobes secondarily.

  11. Recurrent granulomatous mastitis mimicking inflammatory breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ergin, Ahmet Bahadir; Cristofanilli, Massimo; Daw, Hamed; Tahan, Gulgun; Gong, Yun

    2011-01-01

    Granulomatous mastitis (GM) is an uncommon benign breast lesion. Diagnosis is a matter of exclusion from other inflammatory, infectious and granulomatous aetiologies. Here, we presented an atypical GM case, which had clinical and radiologic features overlapping with inflammatory breast cancer (IBC). The disease had multiple recurrences. The patient is a 40-year-old Caucasian woman with a sudden onset of left breast swelling accompanied by diffuse skin redness, especially of the subareolar region and malodorous yellow nipple discharge from the left nipple. The disease progressed on antibiotic treatment and recurred after local resection. A similar lesion developed even after bilateral mastectomy. GM may show clinical/radiologic features suggestive of IBC. Multiple recurrences can be occasionally encountered. GM after recurrence could be much more alarming clinically. Pathology confirmation is the key for accurate diagnosis and a multidisciplinary approach is important to rule out IBC. PMID:22715267

  12. Collective cell migration during inflammatory response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Di; Stroka, Kimberly; Aranda-Espinoza, Helim

    2012-02-01

    Wound scratch healing assays of endothelial cell monolayers is a simple model to study collective cell migration as a function of biological signals. A signal of particular interest is the immune response, which after initial wounding in vivo causes the release of various inflammatory factors such as tumor necrosis alpha (TNF-α). TNF-α is an innate inflammatory cytokine that can induce cell growth, cell necrosis, and change cell morphology. We studied the effects of TNF-α on collective cell migration using the wound healing assays and measured several migration metrics, such as rate of scratch closure, velocities of leading edge and bulk cells, closure index, and velocity correlation functions between migrating cells. We observed that TNF-α alters all migratory metrics as a function of the size of the scratch and TNF-α content. The changes observed in migration correlate with actin reorganization upon TNF-α exposure.

  13. Imaging of inflammatory processes with labeled cells

    SciTech Connect

    Froelich, J.W.; Swanson, D.

    1984-04-01

    Radionuclide techniques for localizing inflammatory processes had relied heavily upon /sup 67/Ga-citrate until McAfee and Thakur described the technique for the radiolabeling of leukocytes with /sup 111/In-oxine. Since their initial description in 1976 there has been continued development of the radiopharmaceutical, as well as clinical efficacy. At present /sup 111/In-labeled leukocytes continue to be handled as an investigational new drug but this has not greatly limited its clinical availability. Indium-/sup 111/ leukocytes are the agent of choice for evaluation of patients with fever of unknown origin, osteomyelitis, and prosthetic graft infections; and preliminary data shows great promise in the areamore » of detecting reoccurrence of inflammatory bowel disease. This article attempts to review currently accepted uses of 111In leukocytes as well as potential areas of application.« less

  14. Chronic Inflammatory Gingival Overgrowths: Laser Gingivectomy & Gingivoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Shankar, B Shiva; T, Ramadevi; S, Neetha M; Reddy, P Sunil Kumar; Saritha, G; Reddy, J Muralinath

    2013-01-01

    It is quite common to note chronic inflammatory Gingival overgrowths during and/or post orthodontic treatment. Sometimes the overgrowths may even potentially complicate and/or interrupt orthodontic treatment. With the introduction of soft tissue lasers these problems can now be addressed more easily. Amongst many LASERS now available in Dentistry DIODE LASERS seem to be most ideal for orthodontic soft tissue applications. As newer treatments herald into minimally invasive techniques, DIODE LASERS are becoming more promising both in patient satisfaction and dentist satisfaction. How to cite this article: Shankar BS, Ramadevi T, Neetha M S, Reddy P S K, Saritha G, Reddy J M. Chronic Inflammatory Gingival Overgrowths: Laser Gingivectomy & Gingivoplasty. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(1):83-87. PMID:24155582

  15. Diabetic Retinopathy: Vascular and Inflammatory Disease

    PubMed Central

    Semeraro, F.; Cancarini, A.; dell'Omo, R.; Rezzola, S.; Romano, M. R.; Costagliola, C.

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of visual impairment in the working-age population of the Western world. The pathogenesis of DR is complex and several vascular, inflammatory, and neuronal mechanisms are involved. Inflammation mediates structural and molecular alterations associated with DR. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the inflammatory pathways associated with DR are not completely characterized. Previous studies indicate that tissue hypoxia and dysregulation of immune responses associated with diabetes mellitus can induce increased expression of numerous vitreous mediators responsible for DR development. Thus, analysis of vitreous humor obtained from diabetic patients has made it possible to identify some of the mediators (cytokines, chemokines, and other factors) responsible for DR pathogenesis. Further studies are needed to better understand the relationship between inflammation and DR. Herein the main vitreous-related factors triggering the occurrence of retinal complication in diabetes are highlighted. PMID:26137497

  16. Chronic inflammatory joint disease revealing borderline leprosy.

    PubMed

    Miladi, Mohamed Imed; Feki, Imed; Bahloul, Zouhir; Jlidi, Rachid; Mhiri, Chokri

    2006-05-01

    Musculoskeletal symptoms are not infrequent in leprosy and, when inaugural, may be difficult to differentiate from other conditions, most notably rheumatoid arthritis. We report the case of a 24 year-old man with a 5 year history of intermittent inflammatory arthritis and fever. Physical findings and radiographs were normal initially. Several years later, he had severe wasting of the hand muscles, stocking-glove sensory loss, burn scars on the hands, and plantar ulcers. Electrophysiological test results indicated sensory-motor neuropathy with predominant demyelination. Laboratory tests showed inflammation without immunological abnormalities. A prominent endoneurial inflammatory infiltrate composed of mononuclear cells was seen on a nerve biopsy specimen, suggesting leprosy. A family study then revealed that the patient's aunt had been diagnosed with leprosy. Dapsone, clofazimine, and rifampin were given. The joint manifestations and laboratory tests for inflammation improved. However, no changes were noted in the neurological symptoms.

  17. [Giant inflammatory pseudotumor of the cranial base].

    PubMed

    Carrasco-Moro, Rodrigo; Martínez-San Millán, Juan; Pian, Héctor

    The inflammatory pseudotumour (IPT) is a non-neoplastic entity of unknown origin, and is characterised by a proliferation of connective tissue and a polyclonal inflammatory infiltrate. Central nervous system involvement is uncommon, and usually represents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge even for the experienced clinician. This reports deals with the case of a 56year-old woman diagnosed with a giant, infiltrating mass centred in the left cavernous sinus, who had a rapid clinical and radiological response to steroid therapy. Biopsy specimens were diagnostic for IPT. The progression of a small orbital residual lesion was detected after steroid withdrawal. Treatment with cyclophosphamide induced a complete response that remains stable after six years of follow-up. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: the genetic revolution.

    PubMed

    Jung, C; Hugot, J-P

    2009-06-01

    The genetic component of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases is among the best known for complex genetic disorders. If the functional candidate gene approach was rarely fruitful in the past, genome-wide scans allowed finding several susceptibility genes for Crohn disease including NOD2, IL23R, ATG16L1, IRGM, TNFSF15, a region close to PTGER4, PTPN2, PTPN22, NKX2-3 and many others. Only one gene, ECM1, has been reported for ulcerative colitis alone. We now need to further explore these new genes before to understand their biological role. However they clearly demonstrate the importance of innate immunity and autophagy for Crohn's disease and of the TH-17 differentiation for ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease and other inflammatory disorders. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Anti-inflammatory compounds from Ampelopsis cantoniensis.

    PubMed

    Van Thu, Nguyen; Cuong, To Dao; Hung, Tran Manh; Van Luong, Hoang; Woo, Mi Hee; Choi, Jae Su; Lee, Jeong-Hyung; Kim, Jeong Ah; Min, Byung Sun

    2015-03-01

    Many natural products have been shown to have an inhibitory effect on nitric oxide (NO), and are used as chemotherapy agents for inflammation disease. The current study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of chemical components from the leaves of Ampelopsis cantoniensis. Sixteen compounds (1-16) were isolated and identified. Phloretin (5) and 5,7,3',5'-tetrahydroxyflavanone (16) inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production with IC50 values of 5.2, and 18.5 μM, respectively. The inhibitory effect of compounds 5 and 16 were accompanied by dose-dependent decreases in LPS-induced nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in RAW 264.7 cells, respectively. This study investigated the significant anti-inflammatory properties of isolated compounds from the leaves of A. cantoniensis for the first time. The findings demonstrate that A. cantoniensis could be used beneficially in the treatment of inflammation disease.

  20. Macrolides in Chronic Inflammatory Skin Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Alzolibani, Abdullateef A.; Zedan, Khaled

    2012-01-01

    Long-term therapy with the macrolide antibiotic erythromycin was shown to alter the clinical course of diffuse panbronchiolitis in the late 1980s. Since that time, macrolides have been found to have a large number of anti-inflammatory properties in addition to being antimicrobials. These observations provided the rationale for many studies performed to assess the usefulness of macrolides in other inflammatory diseases including skin and hair disorders, such as rosacea, psoriasis, pityriasis rosea, alopecia areata, bullous pemphigoid, and pityriasis lichenoides. This paper summarizes a collection of clinical studies and case reports dealing with the potential benefits of macrolides antibiotics in the treatment of selected dermatoses which have primarily been classified as noninfectious and demonstrating their potential for being disease-modifying agents. PMID:22685371

  1. Environment and the inflammatory bowel diseases

    PubMed Central

    Frolkis, Alexandra; Dieleman, Levinus A; Barkema, Herman W; Panaccione, Remo; Ghosh, Subrata; Fedorak, Richard N; Madsen, Karen; Kaplan, Gilaad G

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), which consists of Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis, are chronic inflammatory conditions of the gas-trointestinal tract. In genetically susceptible individuals, the interaction between environmental factors and normal intestinal commensal flora is believed to lead to an inappropriate immune response that results in chronic inflammation. The incidence of IBD have increased in the past century in developed and developing countries. The purpose of the present review is to summarize the current knowledge of the association between environmental risk factors and IBD. A number of environmental risk factors were investigated including smoking, hygiene, microorganisms, oral contraceptives, antibiotics, diet, breast-feeding, geographical factors, pollution and stress. Inconsistent findings among the studies highlight the complex pathogenesis of IBD. Additional studies are necessary to identify and elucidate the role of environmental factors in IBD etiology. PMID:23516681

  2. Inflammatory stress and sarcomagenesis: a vicious interplay.

    PubMed

    Radons, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Chronic inflammation represents one of the hallmarks of cancer, but its role in sarcomagenesis has long been overlooked. Sarcomas are a rare and heterogeneous group of tumors of mesenchymal origin accounting for less than 1 % of cancers in adults but 21 % of cancers in the pediatric population. Sarcomas are associated with bad prognosis, and their management requires a multidisciplinary team approach. Several lines of evidence indicate that inflammation has been implicated in sarcomagenesis leading to the activation of the key transcription factors HIF-1, NF- κB, and STAT-3 involved in a complex inflammatory network. In the past years, an increasing number of new targets have been identified in the treatment of sarcomas leading to the development of new drugs that aim to interrupt the vicious connection between inflammation and sarcomagenesis. This article makes a brief overview of preclinical and clinical evidence of the molecular pathways involved in the inflammatory stress response in sarcomagenesis and the most targeted therapies.

  3. Inflammatory Markers and Breast Cancer Risk

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    cancer [26, 27] or cytologic atypia [28], while another observed elevated IL-6 levels among breast cancer cases with insulin resistance [29]. Five...1 AD_________________ AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-06-1-0533 TITLE: Inflammatory markers and breast ...and breast cancer risk 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER W81XWH-06-1-0533 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Brenda

  4. ANTI INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF MORINGA OLIEFERA. LAM

    PubMed Central

    Rao, K.N. Venkataswera; Gopalakrishnan, V.; Loganathan, V.; Nathan, S. Shanmuganathan

    1999-01-01

    The aqueous and ethanolic (90%) extract of the leaves of M.Oliera Lam (Fam: Moringaceae) were studied for their anti inflammatory action in ale albino rats. Two extracts exhibited maximum action within two hours of challenge. The aqueous extract sowed significant (P<0.01) odema suppression similar to that of Ibuprofen at the first hour of carrageenan injection. The results confirms the folkers claim of the plant. PMID:22556890

  5. Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Reinisch, Walter

    2017-01-01

    The etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is unknown, but it is thought to arise from an aberrant immune response to a change in colonic environment in a genetically susceptible individual. The intestinal microbiota are located at the complex interface of the epithelial barrier and are sensitive to changes in environmental factors, such as diets, drugs or smoking and signals derived from the intestinal immune system and the gut-brain axis. In patients with IBD, an imbalance in the structural and/or functional configuration of the intestinal microbiota leading to the disruption of the host-microorganism homeostasis (dysbiosis) has been reproducibly reported. As animal models of IBD require gut bacteria to induce inflammation, it is hypothesized that the dysbiosis observed in patients is not only a surrogate of changes at the intestinal barrier but also a potential cause or at least enhancer of the mucosal inflammatory process. That burgeoning notion has stimulated thoughts to modify the intestinal microbiota and rekindled interest in previous work on the efficacy of antibiotics in patients with IBD. The feasibility and tremendous success of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) to treat antibiotic resistant Clostridium difficile has finally paved the way to embark into the unchartered territory of IBD using FMT. Different routes and number of administrations, choices of donors, disease status and permitted therapies might have contributed to mixed results, particularly from the so far published randomized controlled trials. However, microbiome analysis suggests that a durable transplantation of donor bacteria to the host appears feasible and might be associated with a higher likelihood of response. On the other hand, this raises the concern of transplanting not only anti-inflammatory active bacteria and their products, but also not-yet-known dispositions for other diseases including cancer. Attempts are being made to better characterize those components of

  6. Inflammatory mediators in mastitis and lactation insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Ingman, Wendy V; Glynn, Danielle J; Hutchinson, Mark R

    2014-07-01

    Mastitis is a common inflammatory disease during lactation that causes reduced milk supply. A growing body of evidence challenges the central role of pathogenic bacteria in mastitis, with disease severity associated with markers of inflammation rather than infection. Inflammation in the mammary gland may be triggered by microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) as well as danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) binding to pattern recognition receptors such as the toll-like receptors (TLRs) on the surface of mammary epithelial cells and local immune cell populations. Activation of the TLR4 signalling pathway and downstream nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) is critical to mediating local mammary gland inflammation and systemic immune responses in mouse models of mastitis. However, activation of NFkB also induces epithelial cell apoptosis and reduced milk protein synthesis, suggesting that inflammatory mediators activated during mastitis promote partial involution. Perturbed milk flow, maternal stress and genetic predisposition are significant risk factors for mastitis, and could lead to a heightened TLR4-mediated inflammatory response, resulting in increased susceptibility and severity of mastitis disease in the context of low MAMP abundance. Therefore, heightened host inflammatory signalling may act in concert with pathogenic or commensal bacterial species to cause both the inflammation associated with mastitis and lactation insufficiency. Here, we present an alternate paradigm to the widely held notion that breast inflammation is driven principally by infectious bacterial pathogens, and suggest there may be other therapeutic strategies, apart from the currently utilised antimicrobial agents, that could be employed to prevent and treat mastitis in women.

  7. Inflammatory papillary hyperplasia: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Gual-Vaqués, Patricia; Jané-Salas, Enric; Egido-Moreno, Sonia; Ayuso-Montero, Raúl; Marí-Roig, Antoni

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Inflammatory papillary hyperplasia (IPH) is a benign lesion of the palatal mucosa. It is usually found in denture-wearers but also has been reported in patients without a history of use of a maxillary prosthesis use. Objetives The aim of this study is to review the literature to assess the prevalence of denture stomatitis and inflammatory papillary hyperplasia and the etiological factors associated. Material and Methods A search was carried out in PubMed (January 2005 to October 2015) with the key words “inflammatory papillary hyperplasia”, “denture stomatitis”, “granular stomatitis” and “Newton’s type III” The inclusion criteria were studies including at least a sample of 50 apparently healthy patients, articles published from 2005 to 2015 written in English. The exclusion criteria were reviews and non-human studies. Results Out of the 190 studies obtained initially from the search 16 articles were selected to be included in our systematic review. The prevalence of denture stomatitis was 29.56% and 4.44% for IPH. We found 5 cases of denture stomatitis among non-denture-wearer individuals. All IPH cases were associated with the use of prosthesis. Smoking and continued use of ill-fitting dentures turned out to be the most frequent risk factors for developing IPH. Conclusions IPH is a rare oral lesion and its pathogenesis still remains unclear. Its presentation among non-denture-wearers is extremely unusual. Key words:Inflammatory papillary hyperplasia, denture stomatitis, prevalence, granular stomatitis, Newton’s type III stomatitis. PMID:27918740

  8. Inflammatory signaling in Alzheimer disease and depression.

    PubMed

    Barber, Robert

    2011-08-01

    To help define the relationships among inflammation, Alzheimer disease, and depression, the Texas Alzheimer's Research Consortium analyzed an array of inflammatory biomarkers in a cohort of patients with Alzheimer disease and in controls. Inflammation severity was highly correlated with earlier age at onset of Alzheimer disease and was also associated with cognitive decline. The relationship between inflammation and depression was not as clear, and it varied with aspects of depression, gender, and the presence of Alzheimer disease.

  9. Diagnosis and classification of Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies

    PubMed Central

    Lundberg, Ingrid E.; Miller, Frederick W.; Tjärnlund, Anna; Bottai, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) are a heterogeneous group of diseases, collectively named myositis, sharing symptoms of muscle weakness and muscle fatigue and inflammation in muscle tissue. Other organs are frequently involved supporting that these are systemic inflammatory diseases. The IIMs can be sub-grouped into dermatomyositis, polymyositis and inclusion body myositis. The myositis-specific autoantibodies (MSAs) identify other and often more distinct clinical phenotypes, such as the anti-synthetase syndrome with antisynthetase autoantibodies and frequent interstitial lung disease (ILD) and anti-SRP and anti-HMGCR autoantibodies that identify necrotizing myopathy. The MSAs are important both to support myositis diagnosis and to identify subgroups with different patterns of extramuscular organ involvement such as ILD. Another cornerstone in the diagnostic procedure is muscle biopsy to identify inflammation and to exclude non-inflammatory myopathies. Treatment effect and prognosis varies by subgroup. To develop new and better therapies, validated classification criteria that identify distinct subgroups of myositis are critical.. The lack of such criteria was the main rationale for the development of new classification criteria for inflammatory myopathies, which are summarized in this review, along with an historical background on previous diagnostic and classification criteria. As these are rare diseases with a prevalence of 10 in 100 000 individuals an international collaboration was essential, as was the interdisciplinary effort including adult and paediatric experts in rheumatology, neurology, dermatology and epidemiology. The new criteria have been developed based on data from more than 1 500 patients from 47 centers world-wide and are based on clinically easily available variables. PMID:27320359

  10. Developmental origins of inflammatory and immune diseases

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ting; Liu, Han-xiao; Yan, Hui-yi; Wu, Dong-mei; Ping, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental animal studies show that suboptimal environments in fetal and neonatal life exert a profound influence on physiological function and risk of diseases in adult life. The concepts of the ‘developmental programming’ and Developmental Origins of Health and Diseases (DOHaD) have become well accepted and have been applied across almost all fields of medicine. Adverse intrauterine environments may have programming effects on the crucial functions of the immune system during critical periods of fetal development, which can permanently alter the immune function of offspring. Immune dysfunction may in turn lead offspring to be susceptible to inflammatory and immune diseases in adulthood. These facts suggest that inflammatory and immune disorders might have developmental origins. In recent years, inflammatory and immune disorders have become a growing health problem worldwide. However, there is no systematic report in the literature on the developmental origins of inflammatory and immune diseases and the potential mechanisms involved. Here, we review the impacts of adverse intrauterine environments on the immune function in offspring. This review shows the results from human and different animal species and highlights the underlying mechanisms, including damaged development of cells in the thymus, helper T cell 1/helper T cell 2 balance disturbance, abnormal epigenetic modification, effects of maternal glucocorticoid overexposure on fetal lymphocytes and effects of the fetal hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis on the immune system. Although the phenomena have already been clearly implicated in epidemiologic and experimental studies, new studies investigating the mechanisms of these effects may provide new avenues for exploiting these pathways for disease prevention. PMID:27226490

  11. Developmental origins of inflammatory and immune diseases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ting; Liu, Han-Xiao; Yan, Hui-Yi; Wu, Dong-Mei; Ping, Jie

    2016-08-01

    Epidemiological and experimental animal studies show that suboptimal environments in fetal and neonatal life exert a profound influence on physiological function and risk of diseases in adult life. The concepts of the 'developmental programming' and Developmental Origins of Health and Diseases (DOHaD) have become well accepted and have been applied across almost all fields of medicine. Adverse intrauterine environments may have programming effects on the crucial functions of the immune system during critical periods of fetal development, which can permanently alter the immune function of offspring. Immune dysfunction may in turn lead offspring to be susceptible to inflammatory and immune diseases in adulthood. These facts suggest that inflammatory and immune disorders might have developmental origins. In recent years, inflammatory and immune disorders have become a growing health problem worldwide. However, there is no systematic report in the literature on the developmental origins of inflammatory and immune diseases and the potential mechanisms involved. Here, we review the impacts of adverse intrauterine environments on the immune function in offspring. This review shows the results from human and different animal species and highlights the underlying mechanisms, including damaged development of cells in the thymus, helper T cell 1/helper T cell 2 balance disturbance, abnormal epigenetic modification, effects of maternal glucocorticoid overexposure on fetal lymphocytes and effects of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis on the immune system. Although the phenomena have already been clearly implicated in epidemiologic and experimental studies, new studies investigating the mechanisms of these effects may provide new avenues for exploiting these pathways for disease prevention. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Human Reproduction and Embryology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email

  12. Incidence of inflammatory breast cancer in patients with clinical inflammatory breast symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Pons, Kelly; Mabille, Mylène; Abd alsamad, Issam; Mitri, Rana; Skalli, Dounia; Haddad, Bassam

    2017-01-01

    Background To describe a large cohort of women with non-puerperal inflammatory breast and to identify characteristics of inflammatory breast cancer. Methods All patients consulting for inflammatory breast syndrome in the breast unit of our tertiary University hospital between September 2013 and December 2015 were prospectively included. We excluded women who were pregnant or in the postpartum period. Patients underwent systematic clinical examination and imaging (breast ultrasonography and mammography). A biopsy was performed if the clinician suspected a malignant lesion of the breast. Clinicopathologic and radiologic data were registered. Statistics were performed using R (3.0.2 version) software. Results Among the 76 patients screened and included, 38 (50%) had a malignant lesion at final diagnosis, 21 (27.6%) were diagnosed with infectious disease and 17 (22.4%) with inflammatory disease of the breast. When compared to patients with benign disease, patients with a malignant lesion were significantly older (p = 0.022, CI95% 1.78–14.7), had a significantly bigger palpable mass (p<0.001, CI 95% 22.8–58.9), were more likely to have skin thickening (p = 0.05) and had more suspicious lymph nodes at clinical examination (p<0.001, CI 95% 2.72–65.3). Precise limits on ultrasonography were significantly associated with benign lesions. The presence of a mass (p = 0.04), micro calcifications (p = 0.04) or of focal asymmetry (p<0.001, CI95% 1.3–618) on mammography was significantly associated with malignant disease. Conclusion Inflammatory breast cancer was common in our cohort of women consulting for inflammatory breast syndrome. Identifying these patients with high-risk malignancy is crucial in the management of an inflammatory breast. PMID:29261724

  13. In vivo immune signatures of healthy human pregnancy: Inherently inflammatory or anti-inflammatory?

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Caroline; Chooniedass, Rishma; Stefura, William P.; Becker, Allan B.; Sears, Malcolm R.; Turvey, Stuart E.; Mandhane, Piush J.; Subbarao, Padmaja

    2017-01-01

    Changes in maternal innate immunity during healthy human pregnancy are not well understood. Whether basal immune status in vivo is largely unaffected by pregnancy, is constitutively biased towards an inflammatory phenotype (transiently enhancing host defense) or exhibits anti-inflammatory bias (reducing potential responsiveness to the fetus) is unclear. Here, in a longitudinal study of healthy women who gave birth to healthy infants following uncomplicated pregnancies within the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development (CHILD) cohort, we test the hypothesis that a progressively altered bias in resting innate immune status develops. Women were examined during pregnancy and again, one and/or three years postpartum. Most pro-inflammatory cytokine expression, including CCL2, CXCL10, IL-18 and TNFα, was reduced in vivo during pregnancy (20–57%, p<0.0001). Anti-infla