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Sample records for early institutional deprivation

  1. Early Adolescent Outcomes for Institutionally-Deprived and Non-Deprived Adoptees. I: Disinhibited Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael; Colvert, Emma; Kreppner, Jana; Beckett, Celia; Castle, Jenny; Groothues, Christine; Hawkins, Amanda; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Stevens, Suzanne E.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Disinhibited attachment is an important sequel of an institutional rearing, but questions remain regarding its measurement, its persistence, the specificity of the association with institutional rearing and on whether or not it constitutes a meaningful disorder. Method: Children initially reared in profoundly depriving institutions in…

  2. Early Adolescent Outcomes of Institutionally Deprived and Non-Deprived Adoptees. III. Quasi-Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael; Kreppner, Jana; Croft, Carla; Murin, Marianna; Colvert, Emma; Beckett, Celia; Castle, Jenny; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

    2007-01-01

    Background: Some young children reared in profoundly depriving institutions have been found to show autistic-like patterns, but the developmental significance of these features is unknown. Methods: A randomly selected, age-stratified, sample of 144 children who had experienced an institutional upbringing in Romania and who were adopted by UK…

  3. Is sub-nutrition necessary for a poor outcome following early institutional deprivation?

    PubMed

    Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S; Beckett, Celia; Kreppner, Jana; Castle, Jenny; Colvert, Emma; Stevens, Suzanne; Hawkins, Amanda; Rutter, Michael

    2008-09-01

    Institutional deprivation is multifaceted and includes adverse psychosocial and nutrition-related components. In this study we partitioned these risks in relation to cognitive impairment and mental ill health, and explored the mediating role of reduced head/brain size. There were 138 participants (61 males, 77 females) in the study. Participants were Romanian adoptees who had experienced at least 2 weeks of early institutional deprivation. The sample was stratified on the basis of duration of deprivation (high risk >6 mo in institutions) and sub-nutrition (i.e. 1.5 SD below UK age-related norms for weight at UK entry). UK children adopted before 6 months of age and a group of non-institutionally deprived Romanian children constituted the comparison groups. Duration of deprivation was associated with smaller head circumference, lowered IQ, and increased mental heath problems, independently of effects found for sub-nutrition on head circumference and IQ. The mediating role of head circumference was limited to either sub-nourished (IQ) or non-sub-nourished (inattention/overactivity and disinhibited attachment) subgroups. Many negative effects of early deprivation, including stunted brain growth, occur without sub-nutrition: psychosocial deprivation plays a major role in neurodevelopmental effects of deprivation. Further studies of functional and structural neuroanatomy following institutional deprivation are required to delineate the role of brain development in its effects.

  4. Scholastic Attainment Following Severe Early Institutional Deprivation: A Study of Children Adopted from Romania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckett, Celia; Maughan, Barbara; Rutter, Michael; Castle, Jenny; Colvert, Emma; Groothues, Christine; Hawkins, Amanda; Kreppner, Jana; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Stevens, Suzanne; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between severe early institutional deprivation and scholastic attainment at age 11 in 127 children (68 girls and 59 boys) adopted from institutions in Romania was compared to the attainment of 49 children (17 girls and 32 boys) adopted within the UK from a non-institutional background. Overall, children adopted from Romania had…

  5. Normality and Impairment following Profound Early Institutional Deprivation: A Longitudinal follow-up into Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreppner, Jana M.; Rutter, Michael; Beckett, Celia; Castle, Jenny; Colvert, Emma; Groothues, Christine; Hawkins, Amanda; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Stevens, Suzanne; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.

    2007-01-01

    Longitudinal analyses on normal versus impaired functioning across 7 domains were conducted in children who had experienced profound institutional deprivation up to the age of 42 months and were adopted from Romania into U.K. families. Comparisons were made with noninstitutionalized children adopted from Romania and with nondeprived within-U.K.…

  6. Hyporesponsive reward anticipation in the basal ganglia following severe institutional deprivation early in life.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Mitul A; Gore-Langton, Emma; Golembo, Nicole; Colvert, Emma; Williams, Steven C R; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

    2010-10-01

    Severe deprivation in the first few years of life is associated with multiple difficulties in cognition and behavior. However, the brain basis for these difficulties is poorly understood. Structural and functional neuroimaging studies have implicated limbic system structures as dysfunctional, and one functional imaging study in a heterogeneous group of maltreated individuals has confirmed the presence of abnormalities in the basal ganglia. Based on these studies and known dopaminergic abnormalities from studies in experimental animals using social isolation, we used a task of monetary reward anticipation to examine the functional integrity of brain regions previously shown to be implicated in reward processing. Our sample included a group of adolescents (n = 12) who had experienced global deprivation early in their lives in Romania prior to adoption into UK families. In contrast to a nonadopted comparison group (n = 11), the adoptees did not recruit the striatum during reward anticipation despite comparable performance accuracy and latency. These results show, for the first time, an association between early institutional deprivation and brain reward systems in humans and highlight potential neural vulnerabilities resulting from such exposures.

  7. Inattention/Overactivity Following Early Severe Institutional Deprivation: Presentation and Associations in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Suzanne E.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.; Kreppner, Jana M.; Beckett, Celia; Castle, Jenny; Colvert, Emma; Groothues, Christine; Hawkins, Amanda; Rutter, Michael

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined the persistence and phenotypic presentation of inattention/overactivity (I/O) into early adolescence, in a sample of institution reared (IR) children adopted from Romania before the age of 43 months. Total sample comprised 144 IR and 21 non-IR Romanian adoptees, and a comparison group of 52 within-UK adoptees, assessed…

  8. Amygdala, Hippocampal and Corpus Callosum Size Following Severe Early Institutional Deprivation: The English and Romanian Adoptees Study Pilot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehta, Mitul A.; Golembo, Nicole I.; Nosarti, Chiara; Colvert, Emma; Mota, Ashley; Williams, Steven C. R.; Rutter, Michael; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.

    2009-01-01

    The adoption into the UK of children who have been reared in severely deprived conditions provides an opportunity to study possible association between very early negative experiences and subsequent brain development. This cross-sectional study was a pilot for a planned larger study quantifying the effects of early deprivation on later brain…

  9. Hyporesponsive Reward Anticipation in the Basal Ganglia following Severe Institutional Deprivation Early in Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehta, Mitul A.; Gore-Langton, Emma; Golembo, Nicole; Colvert, Emma; Williams, Steven C. R.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

    2010-01-01

    Severe deprivation in the first few years of life is associated with multiple difficulties in cognition and behavior. However, the brain basis for these difficulties is poorly understood. Structural and functional neuroimaging studies have implicated limbic system structures as dysfunctional, and one functional imaging study in a heterogeneous…

  10. Early Adolescent Outcomes of Institutionally-Deprived and Non-Deprived Adoptees. II: Language as a Protective Factor and a Vulnerable Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Croft, Carla; Beckett, Celia; Rutter, Michael; Castle, Jenny; Colvert, Emma; Groothues, Christine; Hawkins, Amanda; Kreppner, Jana; Stevens, Suzanne E.; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.

    2007-01-01

    Background: There is uncertainty about the extent to which language skills are part of general intelligence and even more uncertainty on whether deprivation has differential effects on language and non-language skills. Methods: Language and cognitive outcomes at 6 and 11 years of age were compared between a sample of 132 institution-reared…

  11. 5HTT genotype moderates the influence of early institutional deprivation on emotional problems in adolescence: evidence from the English and Romanian Adoptee (ERA) study.

    PubMed

    Kumsta, Robert; Stevens, Suzanne; Brookes, Keeley; Schlotz, Wolff; Castle, Jenny; Beckett, Celia; Kreppner, Jana; Rutter, Michael; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund

    2010-07-01

    A common polymorphism in the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4, 5HTT) has been repeatedly shown to moderate the influence of childhood adversity and stressful life events on the development of psychopathology. Using data from the English and Romanian Adoptee Study, a prospective-longitudinal study of individuals (n = 125) exposed to severe early institutional deprivation (ID), we tested whether the effect of ID on adolescent emotional problems is moderated by 5HTT genotype and stressful life events in adolescence. Emotional problems were assessed using questionnaire data (age 11), and on the basis of the CAPA diagnostic interview (age 15). Additionally, the number of stressful life events was measured. There was a significant effect for genotype (p = .003) and a gene x environment interaction (p = .008) that was independent of age at testing. Carriers of the s/l and s/s genotype who experienced severe ID showed the highest emotional problem scores, while l/l homozygotes in the severe ID group showed the lowest overall levels. Furthermore, s/s carriers in the severe ID group who experienced a high number of stressful life events between 11 and 15 years had the largest increases in emotional problem scores, while a low number of stressful life events was associated with the largest decrease (4-way interaction: p = .05). The effects of severe early ID on emotional problems in adolescence are moderated by 5HTT genotype, and influenced by stressful life events in adolescence.

  12. Early severe institutional deprivation is associated with a persistent variant of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: clinical presentation, developmental continuities and life circumstances in the English and Romanian Adoptees study.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Mark; Kreppner, Jana; Knights, Nicky; Kumsta, Robert; Maughan, Barbara; Golm, Dennis; Rutter, Michael; Schlotz, Wolff; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S

    2016-10-01

    Early-life institutional deprivation is associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) later in childhood and adolescence. In this article, we examine, for the first time, the persistence of deprivation-related ADHD into young adulthood in a sample of individuals adopted as young children by UK families after periods in extremely depriving Romanian orphanages. We estimated rates of ADHD at age 15 years and in young adulthood (ages 22-25 years) in individuals at low (LoDep; nondeprived UK adoptees and Romanian adoptees with less than 6-month institutional exposure) and high deprivation-related risk (HiDep; Romanian adoptees with more than 6-month exposure). Estimates were based on parent report using DSM-5 childhood symptom and impairment criteria. At age 15, data were available for 108 LoDep and 86 HiDep cases, while in young adulthood, the numbers were 83 and 60, respectively. Data on education and employment status, IQ, co-occurring symptoms of young adult disinhibited social engagement (DSE), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), cognitive impairment, conduct disorder (CD), callous-unemotional (CU) traits, anxiety, depression and quality of life (QoL) were also collected. ADHD rates in the LoDep group were similar to the general population in adolescence (5.6%) and adulthood (3.8%). HiDep individuals were, respectively, nearly four (19%) and over seven (29.3%) times more likely to meet criteria, than LoDep. Nine 'onset' young adult cases emerged, but these had a prior childhood history of elevated ADHD behaviours at ages 6, 11 and 15 years. Young adult ADHD was equally common in males and females, was predominantly inattentive in presentation and co-occurred with high levels of ASD, DSE and CU features. ADHD was associated with high unemployment and low educational attainment. We provide the first evidence of a strong persistence into adulthood of a distinctively complex and impairing deprivation-related variant of ADHD. Our results confirm the

  13. Early childhood development in deprived urban settlements.

    PubMed

    Nair, M K C; Radhakrishnan, S Rekha

    2004-03-01

    Poverty, the root cause of the existence of slums or settlement colonies in urban areas has a great impact on almost all aspects of life of the urban poor, especially the all-round development of children. Examples from countries, across the globe provide evidence of improved early child development, made possible through integrated slum improvement programs, are few in numbers. The observed 2.5% prevalence of developmental delay in the less than 2 year olds of deprived urban settlements, the presence of risk factors for developmental delay like low birth weight, birth asphyxia, coupled with poor environment of home and alternate child care services, highlights the need for simple cost effective community model for promoting early child development. This review on early child development focuses on the developmental status of children in the deprived urban settlements, who are yet to be on the priority list of Governments and international agencies working for the welfare of children, the contributory nature-nurture factors and replicable working models like infant stimulation, early detection of developmental delay in infancy itself, developmental screening of toddlers, skill assessment for preschool children, school readiness programs, identification of mental sub-normality and primary education enhancement program for primary school children. Further, the review probes feasible intervention strategies through community owned early child care and development facilities, utilizing existing programs like ICDS, Urban Basic Services and by initiating services like Development Friendly Well Baby Clinics, Community Extension services, Child Development Referral Units at district hospitals and involving trained manpower like anganwadi/creche workers, public health nurses and developmental therapists. With the decentralization process the local self-government at municipalities and city corporations are financially equipped to be the prime movers to initiate, monitor and

  14. Electrophysiological Evidence of Altered Memory Processing in Children Experiencing Early Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guler, O. Evren; Hostinar, Camelia E.; Frenn, Kristin A.; Nelson, Charles A.; Gunnar, Megan R.; Thomas, Kathleen M.

    2012-01-01

    Associations between early deprivation and memory functioning were examined in 9- to 11-year-old children. Children who had experienced prolonged institutional care prior to adoption were compared to children who were adopted early from foster care and children reared in birth families. Measures included the Paired Associates Learning task from…

  15. Early deprivation disruption of associative learning is a developmental pathway to depression and social problems.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Margaret A; McLaughlin, Katie A; Winter, Warren; Fox, Nathan; Zeanah, Charles; Nelson, Charles A

    2018-06-07

    Exposure to psychosocial deprivation is associated with elevations in numerous forms of impairment throughout the life-course. Disruptions in associative learning may be a key mechanism through which adversity, particularly psychosocial deprivation, increases risk for impairment. Existing data consistent with this claim come entirely from correlational studies. Here, we present the first experimental evidence relating psychosocial deprivation and disruptions in multiple forms of associative learning. Using data from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project, we demonstrate that randomized placement into a family caregiving environment during the infant/toddler period as compared to prolonged institutional care normalizes two forms of associative learning in early adolescence: reward responsivity and implicit motor learning. These forms of associative learning significantly mediate the effect of institutional rearing on depressive symptoms and peer relationships. In sum, we provide evidence for a novel pathway linking early experience to psychopathology and peer relationships through basic associative learning mechanisms.

  16. Attention and Language as Mediators of Academic Outcomes Following Early Psychosocial Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merz, Emily C.; McCall, Robert B.; Wright, Amanda J.

    2013-01-01

    Children adopted from institutions at older ages are at increased risk of persistent attention problems, lower cognition, and academic difficulties. This study examined cognitive and behavior problems as mediators of the association between early psychosocial deprivation and academic functioning. Participants were 8-17-year-old children adopted…

  17. Auditory Deprivation and Early Conductive Hearing Loss from Otitis Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunnarson, Adele D.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This article reviews auditory deprivation effects on anatomy, physiology, and behavior in animals and discusses the sequelae of otitis media with effusion (OME) in children. Focused on are central auditory processing disorders associated with early fluctuating hearing loss from OME. (DB)

  18. Emotion recognition following early psychosocial deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Charles A.; Westerlund, Alissa; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; Zeanah, Charles H.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2014-01-01

    We examined the ability to discriminate facial expressions among 8-year-old children who had been abandoned and placed in institutions in infancy and children with no institutional rearing (Never Institutionalized Group; NIG). Following a baseline assessment (average age=22 months), half the institutionalized children were randomly assigned to a foster care intervention (foster care group; FCG) and half to remain in the institution (care as usual group; CAUG). All three groups had a more difficult time recognizing fearful as compared to neutral expressions. However, the NIG and FCG were both better at inhibiting responses to neutral and fearful faces than the CAUG. Regarding ERPs, the P1 was biggest to angry faces for the NIG, smallest among the CAUG and intermediate for the FCG. The N170 and the P300 were biggest to fear in all groups. Although the children in foster care showed improvements in their ability to recognize fear and neutral faces, and their P1 to angry was midway between the NIG and CAUG, we observed no timing of placement effects. These findings support the view that institutional rearing leads to deficits in the ability to process facial emotion, and placement in foster care partially, although incompletely, ameliorates these deficits. PMID:23627960

  19. Modification of Depression by COMT val[superscript 158]Met Polymorphism in Children Exposed to Early Severe Psychosocial Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drury, Stacy S.; Theall, Katherine P.; Smyke, Anna T.; Keats, Bronya J. B.; Egger, Helen L.; Nelson, Charles A.; Fox, Nathan A.; Marshall, Peter J.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine the impact of the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) val[superscript 158]met allele on depressive symptoms in young children exposed to early severe social deprivation as a result of being raised in institutions. Methods: One hundred thirty six children from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP) were randomized…

  20. Recovering from early deprivation: attachment mediates effects of caregiving on psychopathology.

    PubMed

    McGoron, Lucy; Gleason, Mary Margaret; Smyke, Anna T; Drury, Stacy S; Nelson, Charles A; Gregas, Matthew C; Fox, Nathan A; Zeanah, Charles H

    2012-07-01

    Children exposed to early institutional rearing are at risk for developing psychopathology. The present investigation examines caregiving quality and the role of attachment security as they relate to symptoms of psychopathology in young children exposed to early institutionalization. Participants were enrolled in the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP), a longitudinal intervention study of children abandoned and placed in institutions at or shortly after birth. Measures included observed caregiving when children were 30 months of age, observed attachment security at 42 months, and caregiver reports of children's psychopathology at 54 months. At 54 months, some children remained in institutions, others were in foster care, others had been adopted domestically, and still others had been returned to their biological families. Thus, the children had experienced varying amounts of institutional rearing. After controlling for gender, quality of caregiving when children were 30 months old was associated with symptoms of multiple domains of psychopathology at 54 months of age. Ratings of security of attachment at 42 months mediated the associations between quality caregiving at 30 months and fewer symptoms of psychopathology at 54 months. Among deprived young children, high-quality caregiving at 30 months predicted reduced psychopathology and functional impairment at 54 months. Security of attachment mediated this relationship. Interventions for young children who have experienced deprivation may benefit from explicitly targeting caregiver-child attachment relationships. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Recovering from Early Deprivation: Attachment Mediates Effects of Caregiving on Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    McGoron, Lucy; Gleason, Mary Margaret; Smyke, Anna T.; Drury, Stacy S.; Nelson, Charles A.; Gregas, Mathew C.; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Children exposed to early institutional rearing are at risk for developing psychopathology. The present investigation examines caregiving quality and the role of attachment security as they relate to symptoms of psychopathology in young children exposed to early institutionalization. Methods Participants were enrolled in the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP), a longitudinal intervention study of children abandoned and placed in institutions at or shortly after birth. Measures included observed caregiving when children were 30 months of age, observed attachment security at 42 months and caregiver reports of children’s psychopathology at 54 months. At 54 months, some children remained in institutions, others were in foster care, others had been adopted domestically, and still others had been returned to their biological families. Thus, the children had experienced varying amounts of institutional rearing. Results After controlling for gender, quality of caregiving when children were 30 months old was associated with symptoms of multiple domains of psychopathology at 54 months of age. Ratings of security of attachment at 42 months mediated the associations between quality caregiving at 30 months and fewer symptoms of psychopathology at 54 months. Conclusions Among deprived young children, high quality caregiving at 30 months predicted reduced psychopathology and functional impairment at 54 months. Security of attachment mediated this relationship. Interventions for young children who have experienced deprivation may benefit from explicitly targeting caregiver-child attachment relationships. PMID:22721591

  2. Inattentive/overactive children with histories of profound institutional deprivation compared with standard ADHD cases: a brief report.

    PubMed

    Sonuga-Barke, E J S; Rubia, K

    2008-09-01

    The Inattention/Overactivity/Impulsiveness (I/OA) behavioural cluster diagnostic of ADHD is recognized as a characteristic outcome of early institutional care. We compared the symptom and neuropsychological profiles of children with a history of I/OA and early severe deprivation (D-I/OA: n=13) with standard clinical ADHD cases (S-ADHD; N=20) and children who had experienced deprivation but were not pervasively I/OA (ERA-controls; n=22). The mean age of testing was around 13 years. D-I/OA and ERA-controls were selected from the English and Romanian Adoptees (ERA) study and had spent their early lives in the extremely depriving Romanian institutions of the Ceausescu regime and were later adopted into UK families. ADHD symptoms for male D-I/OA and S-ADHD cases showed marked similarities across symptom domains. In contrast, girls with D-I/OA were more similar to ERA controls than to ADHD cases. Longitudinal data suggested that this was due to a remission of symptoms in D-I/OA girls. Neuropsychological profiles of males and females with D-I/OA, however, were similar: both were more impaired than S-ADHD and ERA controls. Children with D-I/OA were more neuropsychologically impaired than S-ADHD despite the fact that only boys showed a persistent pattern of ADHD symptoms. These results need replication in a larger sample with groups matched for gender.

  3. Academic Difficulties and Early Literacy Deprivation: The Case of Ethiopians in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkon, Elisheva; Avinor, Eleanor

    1995-01-01

    Investigates a possible link between academic difficulties and early literacy deprivation among the immigrant Ethiopian population in Israel. Findings suggest that such deprivation can affect the person after he becomes literate and multilingual and that literacy exposure in early childhood and first-language maintenance is important. (11…

  4. Using cross-species comparisons and a neurobiological framework to understand early social deprivation effects on behavioral development.

    PubMed

    Brett, Zoë H; Humphreys, Kathryn L; Fleming, Alison S; Kraemer, Gary W; Drury, Stacy S

    2015-05-01

    Building upon the transactional model of brain development, we explore the impact of early maternal deprivation on neural development and plasticity in three neural systems: hyperactivity/impulsivity, executive function, and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis functioning across rodent, nonhuman primate, and human studies. Recognizing the complexity of early maternal-infant interactions, we limit our cross-species comparisons to data from rodent models of artificial rearing, nonhuman primate studies of peer rearing, and the relations between these two experimental approaches and human studies of children exposed to the early severe psychosocial deprivation associated with institutional care. In addition to discussing the strengths and limitations of these paradigms, we present the current state of research on the neurobiological impact of early maternal deprivation and the evidence of sensitive periods, noting methodological challenges. Integrating data across preclinical animal models and human studies, we speculate about the underlying biological mechanisms; the differential impact of deprivation due to temporal factors including onset, offset, and duration of the exposure; and the possibility and consequences of reopening of sensitive periods during adolescence.

  5. Using cross-species comparisons and a neurobiological framework to understand early social deprivation effects on behavioral development

    PubMed Central

    BRETT, ZOË H.; HUMPHREYS, KATHRYN L.; FLEMING, ALISON S.; KRAEMER, GARY W.; DRURY, STACY S.

    2017-01-01

    Building upon the transactional model of brain development, we explore the impact of early maternal deprivation on neural development and plasticity in three neural systems: hyperactivity/impulsivity, executive function, and hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis functioning across rodent, nonhuman primate, and human studies. Recognizing the complexity of early maternal–infant interactions, we limit our cross-species comparisons to data from rodent models of artificial rearing, nonhuman primate studies of peer rearing, and the relations between these two experimental approaches and human studies of children exposed to the early severe psychosocial deprivation associated with institutional care. In addition to discussing the strengths and limitations of these paradigms, we present the current state of research on the neurobiological impact of early maternal deprivation and the evidence of sensitive periods, noting methodological challenges. Integrating data across preclinical animal models and human studies, we speculate about the underlying biological mechanisms; the differential impact of deprivation due to temporal factors including onset, offset, and duration of the exposure; and the possibility and consequences of reopening of sensitive periods during adolescence. PMID:25997759

  6. Institutional Deprivation, Specific Cognitive Functions, and Scholastic Achievement: English and Romanian Adoptee (ERA) Study Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckett, Celia; Castle, Jennifer; Rutter, Michael; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.

    2010-01-01

    Whereas metaanalyses of cross-sectional adoption studies have indicated that there is an impact of early deprivation on adoptee's cognitive ability, these effects generally diminish markedly after upbringing in adoptive homes. Outcomes in terms of scholastic attainment were not quite so positive in a cross-sectional metaanalysis, but the Swedish…

  7. Social position, early deprivation and the development of attachment.

    PubMed

    Stansfeld, Stephen; Head, Jenny; Bartley, Mel; Fonagy, Peter

    2008-07-01

    The effects of childhood social adversity on developing parent/child attachments may partially explain the effects of less advantaged childhood social position on adulthood mental health. Associations between social position, retrospectively recalled parental style and childhood emotional and physical deprivation and attachment were examined in 7,276 civil servants from the Whitehall II Study. Depressive symptoms were associated with insecure attachment style. Social position was not associated with attachment styles. However, fathers' social class was strongly associated with material and emotional deprivation. In turn, deprivation was associated with lower parental warmth. High parental warmth was associated with decreased risk of insecure attachment styles. Despite the methodological shortcomings of retrospective childhood data the results suggest material and emotional adversity influence the development of attachment through parental style, notably parental warmth.

  8. High-Quality Foster Care Mitigates Callous-Unemotional Traits Following Early Deprivation in Boys: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, Kathryn L; McGoron, Lucy; Sheridan, Margaret A; McLaughlin, Katie A; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Charles A; Zeanah, Charles H

    2015-12-01

    Callous-unemotional (CU) traits in childhood are a developmental precursor to psychopathy, yet the origins and etiology of CU traits are not known. We examined CU traits among 12-year-old children exposed to severe early deprivation and evaluated whether a high-quality foster care intervention mitigated the development of high levels of CU traits. Participants were from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project, a randomized controlled trial of foster care for children in institutions. Children were recruited from institutions in Bucharest, Romania, along with age- and sex-matched children who were never institutionalized. Children raised in institutional settings were randomized (mean age = 22 months) to either a foster care group (n = 68) or a care-as-usual group (n = 68). CU traits were assessed at age 12.75 years in available participants from the randomized trial (n = 95) and children who were never institutionalized (n = 50). Children who experienced institutional rearing as young children had significantly higher levels of CU traits in early adolescence compared to children who were never institutionalized. Intent-to-treat analysis indicated that, among boys, CU traits were significantly lower among those who received the foster care intervention compared to those randomized to care as usual. Caregiver responsiveness to distress, but not caregiver warmth, mediated the intervention effect on CU traits in boys. These findings provide the first evidence to date that psychosocial intervention can prevent the onset of CU traits. Although severe early deprivation predicted higher levels of CU traits, high-quality foster care that emphasized responsive caregiving reduced the impact of deprivation on CU trait development for boys. The Bucharest Early Intervention Project; http://clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00747396. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Do Theory of Mind and Executive Function Deficits Underlie the Adverse Outcomes Associated with Profound Early Deprivation?: Findings from the English and Romanian Adoptees Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colvert, Emma; Rutter, Michael; Kreppner, Jana; Beckett, Celia; Castle, Jenny; Groothues, Christine; Hawkins, Amanda; Stevens, Suzanne; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J. S.

    2008-01-01

    Theory of Mind (ToM) and Executive Function (EF) have been associated with autism and with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and hence might play a role in similar syndromes found following profound early institutional deprivation. In order to examine this possibility the current study included a group of 165 Romanian adoptees, of…

  10. The Impact of Early Visual Deprivation on Spatial Hearing: A Comparison between Totally and Partially Visually Deprived Children

    PubMed Central

    Cappagli, Giulia; Finocchietti, Sara; Cocchi, Elena; Gori, Monica

    2017-01-01

    The specific role of early visual deprivation on spatial hearing is still unclear, mainly due to the difficulty of comparing similar spatial skills at different ages and to the difficulty in recruiting young blind children from birth. In this study, the effects of early visual deprivation on the development of auditory spatial localization have been assessed in a group of seven 3–5 years old children with congenital blindness (n = 2; light perception or no perception of light) or low vision (n = 5; visual acuity range 1.1–1.7 LogMAR), with the main aim to understand if visual experience is fundamental to the development of specific spatial skills. Our study led to three main findings: firstly, totally blind children performed overall more poorly compared sighted and low vision children in all the spatial tasks performed; secondly, low vision children performed equally or better than sighted children in the same auditory spatial tasks; thirdly, higher residual levels of visual acuity are positively correlated with better spatial performance in the dynamic condition of the auditory localization task indicating that the more residual vision the better spatial performance. These results suggest that early visual experience has an important role in the development of spatial cognition, even when the visual input during the critical period of visual calibration is partially degraded like in the case of low vision children. Overall these results shed light on the importance of early assessment of spatial impairments in visually impaired children and early intervention to prevent the risk of isolation and social exclusion. PMID:28443040

  11. Telomere length and early severe social deprivation: linking early adversity and cellular aging

    PubMed Central

    Drury, SS; Theall, K; Gleason, MM; Smyke, AT; De Vivo, I; Wong, JYY; Fox, NA; Zeanah, CH; Nelson, CA

    2012-01-01

    Accelerated telomere length attrition has been associated with psychological stress and early adversity in adults; however, no studies have examined whether telomere length in childhood is associated with early experiences. The Bucharest Early Intervention Project is a unique randomized controlled trial of foster care placement compared with continued care in institutions. As a result of the study design, participants were exposed to a quantified range of time in institutional care, and represented an ideal population in which to examine the association between a specific early adversity, institutional care and telomere length. We examined the association between average relative telomere length, telomere repeat copy number to single gene copy number (T/S) ratio and exposure to institutional care quantified as the percent of time at baseline (mean age 22 months) and at 54 months of age that each child lived in the institution. A significant negative correlation between T/S ratio and percentage of time was observed. Children with greater exposure to institutional care had significantly shorter relative telomere length in middle childhood. Gender modified this main effect. The percentage of time in institutional care at baseline significantly predicted telomere length in females, whereas the percentage of institutional care at 54 months was strongly predictive of telomere length in males. This is the first study to demonstrate an association between telomere length and institutionalization, the first study to find an association between adversity and telomere length in children, and contributes to the growing literature linking telomere length and early adversity. PMID:21577215

  12. Modification of depression by COMT val158met polymorphism in children exposed to early severe psychosocial deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Drury, Stacy S; Theall, Katherine P; Smyke, Anna T; Keats, Bronya JB; Egger, Helen L; Nelson, Charles A; Fox, Nathan A; Marshall, Peter J; Zeanah, Charles H

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine the impact of the Catechol-O-Methyltransferase (COMT) val158met allele on depressive symptoms in young children exposed to early severe social deprivation as a result of being raised in institutions. Methods 136 children from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP) were randomized before 31 months of age to either care as usual (CAU) in institutions or placement in newly created foster care (FCG). At 54 months of age, a psychiatric assessment using the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA) was completed. DNA was collected and genotyped for the COMT val158met polymorphism. Multivariate analysis examined the relationship between COMT alleles and depressive symptoms. Results Mean level of depressive symptoms was lower among participants with the met allele compared to those with two copies of the val allele (p <0.05). Controlling for group and gender, the rate of depressive symptoms was significantly lower among participants with the met/met or the met/val genotype (adjusted relative risk (aRR) = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.45, 0.99) compared to participants with the val/val genotype, indicating an intermediate impact for heterozygotes consistent with the biological impact of this polymorphism. The impact of genotype within groups differed significantly. There was a significant protective effect of the met allele on depressive symptoms within the CAU group, however there was no relationship seen within the FCG group. Conclusions This is the first study, to our knowledge, to find evidence of a gene × environment interaction in the setting of early social deprivation. These results support the hypothesis that individual genetic differences may explain some of the variability in recovery amongst children exposed to early severe social deprivation. PMID:20403637

  13. Age at adoption from institutional care as a window into the lasting effects of early experiences

    PubMed Central

    Julian, Megan M.

    2013-01-01

    One of the major questions of human development is how early experience impacts the course of development years later. Children adopted from institutional care experience varying levels of deprivation in their early life followed by qualitatively better care in an adoptive home, providing a unique opportunity to study the lasting effects of early deprivation and its timing. The effects of age at adoption from institutional care are discussed for multiple domains of social and behavioral development within the context of several prominent developmental hypotheses about the effects of early deprivation (cumulative effects, experience-expectant developmental programming, and experience-adaptive developmental programming). Age at adoption effects are detected in a majority of studies, particularly when children experienced global deprivation and were assessed in adolescence. For most outcomes, institutionalization beyond a certain age is associated with a step-like increase in risk for lasting social and behavioral problems, with the step occurring at an earlier age for children who experienced more severe levels of deprivation. Findings are discussed in terms of their concordance and discordance with our current hypotheses, and speculative explanations for the findings are offered. PMID:23576122

  14. The Effect of Early Deprivation on Executive Attention in Middle Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loman, Michelle M.; Johnson, Anna E.; Westerlund, Alissa; Pollak, Seth D.; Nelson, Charles A.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children reared in deprived environments, such as institutions for the care of orphaned or abandoned children, are at increased risk for attention and behavior regulation difficulties. This study examined the neurobehavioral correlates of executive attention in post institutionalized (PI) children. Methods: The performance and…

  15. Neighborhood Deprivation during Early Childhood and Conduct Problems in Middle Childhood: Mediation by Aggressive Response Generation

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Daniel S.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Wilson, Melvin N.

    2018-01-01

    The tremendous negative impact of conduct problems to the individual and society has provided the impetus for identifying risk factors, particularly in early childhood. Exposure to neighborhood deprivation in early childhood is a robust predictor of conduct problems in middle childhood. Efforts to identify and test mediating mechanisms by which neighborhood deprivation confers increased risk for behavioral problems have predominantly focused on peer relationships and community-level social processes. Less attention has been dedicated to potential cognitive mediators of this relationship, such as aggressive response generation, which refers to the tendency to generate aggressive solutions to ambiguous social stimuli with negative outcomes. In this study, we examined aggressive response generation, a salient component of social information processing, as a mediating process linking neighborhood deprivation to later conduct problems at age 10.5. Participants (N = 731; 50.5 % male) were drawn from a multisite randomized prevention trial that includes an ethnically diverse and low-income sample of male and female children and their primary caregivers followed prospectively from toddlerhood to middle childhood. Results indicated that aggressive response generation partially mediated the relationship between neighborhood deprivation and parent- and teacher-report of conduct problems, but not youth-report. Results suggest that the detrimental effects of neighborhood deprivation on youth adjustment may occur by altering the manner in which children process social information. PMID:27696324

  16. Neighborhood Deprivation during Early Childhood and Conduct Problems in Middle Childhood: Mediation by Aggressive Response Generation.

    PubMed

    Galán, Chardée A; Shaw, Daniel S; Dishion, Thomas J; Wilson, Melvin N

    2017-07-01

    The tremendous negative impact of conduct problems to the individual and society has provided the impetus for identifying risk factors, particularly in early childhood. Exposure to neighborhood deprivation in early childhood is a robust predictor of conduct problems in middle childhood. Efforts to identify and test mediating mechanisms by which neighborhood deprivation confers increased risk for behavioral problems have predominantly focused on peer relationships and community-level social processes. Less attention has been dedicated to potential cognitive mediators of this relationship, such as aggressive response generation, which refers to the tendency to generate aggressive solutions to ambiguous social stimuli with negative outcomes. In this study, we examined aggressive response generation, a salient component of social information processing, as a mediating process linking neighborhood deprivation to later conduct problems at age 10.5. Participants (N = 731; 50.5 % male) were drawn from a multisite randomized prevention trial that includes an ethnically diverse and low-income sample of male and female children and their primary caregivers followed prospectively from toddlerhood to middle childhood. Results indicated that aggressive response generation partially mediated the relationship between neighborhood deprivation and parent- and teacher-report of conduct problems, but not youth-report. Results suggest that the detrimental effects of neighborhood deprivation on youth adjustment may occur by altering the manner in which children process social information.

  17. Early Visual Deprivation Alters Multisensory Processing in Peripersonal Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collignon, Olivier; Charbonneau, Genevieve; Lassonde, Maryse; Lepore, Franco

    2009-01-01

    Multisensory peripersonal space develops in a maturational process that is thought to be influenced by early sensory experience. We investigated the role of vision in the effective development of audiotactile interactions in peripersonal space. Early blind (EB), late blind (LB) and sighted control (SC) participants were asked to lateralize…

  18. Effects of neonatal paternal deprivation or early deprivation on anxiety and social behaviors of the adults in mandarin voles.

    PubMed

    Jia, Rui; Tai, Fadao; An, Shucheng; Zhang, Xia; Broders, Hugh

    2009-11-01

    This study examined whether neonatal paternal deprivation (PD: father was removed and pups were raised just by mother) or early deprivation (ED: pups were raised by both parents except separated from not only the dam but also the peers for three hours a day from PND 0 to 13) has long-term effects on anxiety and social behaviors of adult mandarin voles. Newborn mandarin voles of F2 generation were randomly assigned to one of three groups: bi-parental care (PC: pups were raised by both parents), PD and ED. The parental care behaviors of F1 generation were observed at the age of 0, 13 and 21 days (PND 0, 13, 21) of F2 generation of PC and PD groups. Moreover, each mandarin vole of F2 generation received an open field test and a social interaction test on PND 70 and PND 75, respectively. No significant differences of parental behavior were observed between mothers and fathers from PC families, showing typical parental behavior of socially monogamous rodents. In addition, no significant differences of maternal behaviors were found between mothers from PC and PD families, indicating no maternal compensation towards pups for the absence of the paternal care. In the open field test, mandarin voles from both PD and ED families displayed higher levels of anxiety and lower locomotor activity, relative to offspring of PC family. In the social interaction test, both PD and ED mandarin voles also showed lower levels of social behavior and higher levels of anxiety. Thus, both PD and ED significantly increase anxiety and reduce social behavior of adult mandarin voles, suggesting that variation in parental investment may lead to variation in anxiety and social behaviors in rodents with different mating systems.

  19. The effect of early deprivation on executive attention in middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Loman, Michelle M; Johnson, Anna E; Westerlund, Alissa; Pollak, Seth D; Nelson, Charles A; Gunnar, Megan R

    2013-01-01

    Children reared in deprived environments, such as institutions for the care of orphaned or abandoned children, are at increased risk for attention and behavior regulation difficulties. This study examined the neurobehavioral correlates of executive attention in post institutionalized (PI) children. The performance and event-related potentials (ERPs) of 10- and 11-year-old internationally adopted PI children on two executive attention tasks, go/no-go and Flanker, were compared with two groups: children internationally adopted early from foster care (PF) and nonadopted children (NA). Behavioral measures suggested problems with sustained attention, with PIs performing more poorly on go trials and not on no-go trials of the go/no-go and made more errors on both congruent and incongruent trials on the Flanker. ERPs suggested differences in inhibitory control and error monitoring, as PIs had smaller N2 amplitude on go/no-go and smaller error-related negativity on Flanker. This pattern of results raises questions regarding the nature of attention difficulties for PI children. The behavioral errors are not specific to executive attention and instead likely reflect difficulties in overall sustained attention. The ERP results are consistent with neural activity related to deficits in inhibitory control (N2) and error monitoring (error-related negativity). Questions emerge regarding the similarity of attention regulatory difficulties in PIs to those experienced by non-PI children with ADHD. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2012 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  20. Patterns of early transmission of pandemic influenza in London – link with deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Balasegaram, Sooria; Ogilvie, Flora; Glasswell, Amy; Anderson, Charlotte; Cleary, Vivien; Turbitt, Deborah; McCloskey, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Balasegaram et al. (2012) Patterns of early transmission of pandemic influenza in London – link with deprivation. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 6(3), e35–e41. Background  During the early containment phase in England from April to June 2009, the national strategy for H1N1 pandemic influenza involved case investigation and treatment, and tracing and prophylaxis of contacts. Objective  To describe the relationship between early transmission of H1N1 pandemic influenza in London and age and socio‐economic status. Methods  Epidemiological data on cases of pandemic flu in London reported to the London Flu Response Centre were analysed to determine patterns of transmission. Results  There were 3487 reported cases (2202 confirmed, 1272 presumed and 14 probable) from 20 April to 28 June 2009, during the ‘containment’ period. The highest report rate of 206 per 100 000 (95% CI 195–218) was seen in primary school–age children (5−11 years) followed by 129 (95% CI 119–139) in secondary school–age children (12–18 years). Reports of cases were initially concentrated in affluent areas but overall showed a clear trend with deprivation and risk ratio of 2·32 (95% CI 1·94–2·78) between the most deprived and the least deprived. Conclusion  Early transmissions were highest amongst school‐aged children but linked with socio‐economic deprivation across all age groups. PMID:22236079

  1. Elevated Amygdala Response to Faces following Early Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tottenham, N.; Hare, T. A.; Millner, A.; Gilhooly, T.; Zevin, J. D.; Casey, B. J.

    2011-01-01

    A functional neuroimaging study examined the long-term neural correlates of early adverse rearing conditions in humans as they relate to socio-emotional development. Previously institutionalized (PI) children and a same-aged comparison group were scanned using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing an Emotional Face Go/Nogo…

  2. IQ at Age 12 Following a History of Institutional Care: Findings from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almas, Alisa N.; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Nelson, Charles A.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Young children removed from institutions and placed into foster care or adoptive homes have been shown to experience significant gains in IQ relative to children who remain in institutions. Less is known about the long-term impact of severe early deprivation on development in late childhood. Data are presented from a follow-up of children at 12…

  3. Social Skills in Children Adopted from Socially-Emotionally Depriving Institutions.

    PubMed

    Julian, Megan M; McCall, Robert B

    This study assessed social skills in post-institutionalized (PI) children with respect to age-at-adoption, age-at-assessment, and gender. Parent ratings of social skills (Social Skills Rating System) and behavior problems (Child Behavior Checklist) were obtained for 214 children and 127 adolescents who were adopted from socially-emotionally depriving Russian institutions. Results showed that children adopted before 18 months of age have better social skills than those adopted after this age; those assessed in childhood demonstrate better social skills than those assessed in adolescence. PI females, especially later-adopted adolescents, have particularly poor social skills. Children with poor social skills tend to have higher rates of behavior problems.

  4. Social Skills in Children Adopted from Socially-Emotionally Depriving Institutions

    PubMed Central

    Julian, Megan M.; McCall, Robert B.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed social skills in post-institutionalized (PI) children with respect to age-at-adoption, age-at-assessment, and gender. Parent ratings of social skills (Social Skills Rating System) and behavior problems (Child Behavior Checklist) were obtained for 214 children and 127 adolescents who were adopted from socially-emotionally depriving Russian institutions. Results showed that children adopted before 18 months of age have better social skills than those adopted after this age; those assessed in childhood demonstrate better social skills than those assessed in adolescence. PI females, especially later-adopted adolescents, have particularly poor social skills. Children with poor social skills tend to have higher rates of behavior problems. PMID:27087772

  5. Brain signatures of moral sensitivity in adolescents with early social deprivation.

    PubMed

    Escobar, María Josefina; Huepe, David; Decety, Jean; Sedeño, Lucas; Messow, Marie Kristin; Baez, Sandra; Rivera-Rei, Álvaro; Canales-Johnson, Andrés; Morales, Juan Pablo; Gómez, David Maximiliano; Schröeder, Johannes; Manes, Facundo; López, Vladimir; Ibánez, Agustín

    2014-06-19

    The present study examined neural responses associated with moral sensitivity in adolescents with a background of early social deprivation. Using high-density electroencephalography (hdEEG), brain activity was measured during an intentional inference task, which assesses rapid moral decision-making regarding intentional or unintentional harm to people and objects. We compared the responses to this task in a socially deprived group (DG) with that of a control group (CG). The event-related potentials (ERPs) results showed atypical early and late frontal cortical markers associated with attribution of intentionality during moral decision-making in DG (especially regarding intentional harm to people). The source space of the hdEEG showed reduced activity for DG compared with CG in the right prefrontal cortex, bilaterally in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), and right insula. Moreover, the reduced response in vmPFC for DG was predicted by higher rates of externalizing problems. These findings demonstrate the importance of the social environment in early moral development, supporting a prefrontal maturation model of social deprivation.

  6. Severe psychosocial deprivation in early childhood is associated with increased DNA methylation across a region spanning the transcription start site of CYP2E1

    PubMed Central

    Kumsta, R; Marzi, S J; Viana, J; Dempster, E L; Crawford, B; Rutter, M; Mill, J; Sonuga-Barke, E J S

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to adverse rearing environments including institutional deprivation and severe childhood abuse is associated with an increased risk for mental and physical health problems across the lifespan. Although the mechanisms mediating these effects are not known, recent work in rodent models suggests that epigenetic processes may be involved. We studied the impact of severe early-life adversity on epigenetic variation in a sample of adolescents adopted from the severely depriving orphanages of the Romanian communist era in the 1980s. We quantified buccal cell DNA methylation at ~400 000 sites across the genome in Romanian adoptees exposed to either extended (6–43 months; n=16) or limited duration (<6 months; n=17) of severe early-life deprivation, in addition to a matched sample of UK adoptees (n=16) not exposed to severe deprivation. Although no probe-wise differences remained significant after controlling for the number of probes tested, we identified an exposure-associated differentially methylated region (DMR) spanning nine sequential CpG sites in the promoter-regulatory region of the cytochrome P450 2E1 gene (CYP2E1) on chromosome 10 (corrected P=2.98 × 10−5). Elevated DNA methylation across this region was also associated with deprivation-related clinical markers of impaired social cognition. Our data suggest that environmental insults of sufficient biological impact during early development are associated with long-lasting epigenetic changes, potentially reflecting a biological mechanism linking the effects of early-life adversity to cognitive and neurobiological phenotypes. PMID:27271856

  7. Severe psychosocial deprivation in early childhood is associated with increased DNA methylation across a region spanning the transcription start site of CYP2E1.

    PubMed

    Kumsta, R; Marzi, S J; Viana, J; Dempster, E L; Crawford, B; Rutter, M; Mill, J; Sonuga-Barke, E J S

    2016-06-07

    Exposure to adverse rearing environments including institutional deprivation and severe childhood abuse is associated with an increased risk for mental and physical health problems across the lifespan. Although the mechanisms mediating these effects are not known, recent work in rodent models suggests that epigenetic processes may be involved. We studied the impact of severe early-life adversity on epigenetic variation in a sample of adolescents adopted from the severely depriving orphanages of the Romanian communist era in the 1980s. We quantified buccal cell DNA methylation at ~400 000 sites across the genome in Romanian adoptees exposed to either extended (6-43 months; n=16) or limited duration (<6 months; n=17) of severe early-life deprivation, in addition to a matched sample of UK adoptees (n=16) not exposed to severe deprivation. Although no probe-wise differences remained significant after controlling for the number of probes tested, we identified an exposure-associated differentially methylated region (DMR) spanning nine sequential CpG sites in the promoter-regulatory region of the cytochrome P450 2E1 gene (CYP2E1) on chromosome 10 (corrected P=2.98 × 10(-5)). Elevated DNA methylation across this region was also associated with deprivation-related clinical markers of impaired social cognition. Our data suggest that environmental insults of sufficient biological impact during early development are associated with long-lasting epigenetic changes, potentially reflecting a biological mechanism linking the effects of early-life adversity to cognitive and neurobiological phenotypes.

  8. Early testosterone replacement attenuates intracellular calcium dyshomeostasis in the heart of testosterone-deprived male rats.

    PubMed

    Weerateerangkul, Punate; Shinlapawittayatorn, Krekwit; Palee, Siripong; Apaijai, Nattayaporn; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C; Chattipakorn, Nipon

    2017-11-01

    Testosterone deficiency in elderly men increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. In bilateral orchiectomized (ORX) animals, impaired cardiac Ca 2+ regulation was observed, and this impairment could be improved by testosterone replacement, indicating the important role of testosterone in cardiac Ca 2+ regulation. However, the temporal changes of Ca 2+ dyshomeostasis in testosterone-deprived conditions are unclear. Moreover, the effects of early vs. late testosterone replacement are unknown. We hypothesized that the longer the deprivation of testosterone, the greater the impairment of cardiac Ca 2+ homeostasis, and that early testosterone replacement can effectively reduce this adverse effect. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided into twelve groups, four sets of three. The first set were ORX for 2, 4 and 8 weeks, the second set were sham-operated groups of the same periods, the third set were ORX for 8 weeks coupled with a subcutaneous injection of vehicle (control), testosterone during weeks 1-8 (early replacement) or testosterone during weeks 5-8 (late replacement), and finally the 12-week sham-operated, ORX and ORX treated with testosterone groups. Cardiac Ca 2+ transients (n=4-5/group), L-type calcium current (I Ca-L ) (n=4/group), Ca 2+ regulatory proteins (n=6/group) and cardiac function (n=5/group) were determined. In the ORX rats, impaired cardiac Ca 2+ transients and reduced I Ca-L were observed initially 4 weeks after ORX as shown by decreased Ca 2+ transient amplitude, rising rate and maximum and average decay rates. No alteration of Ca 2+ regulatory proteins such as the L-type Ca 2+ channels, ryanodine receptor type 2, Na + -Ca 2+ exchangers and SERCA2a were observed. Early testosterone replacement markedly improved cardiac Ca 2+ transients, whereas late testosterone replacement did not. The cardiac contractility was also improved after early testosterone replacement. Impaired cardiac Ca 2+ homeostasis is time-dependent after testosterone

  9. Blindness and social trust: The effect of early visual deprivation on judgments of trustworthiness.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, C; Vecchi, T; Merabet, L B; Cattaneo, Z

    2017-10-01

    Investigating the impact of early visual deprivation on evaluations related to social trust has received little attention to date. This is despite consistent evidence suggesting that early onset blindness may interfere with the normal development of social skills. In this study, we investigated whether early blindness affects judgments of trustworthiness regarding the actions of an agent, with trustworthiness representing the fundamental dimension in the social evaluation. Specifically, we compared performance between a group of early blind individuals with that of sighted controls in their evaluation of trustworthiness of an agent after hearing a pair of two positive or two negative social behaviors (impression formation). Participants then repeated the same evaluation following the presentation of a third (consistent or inconsistent) behavior regarding the same agent (impression updating). Overall, blind individuals tended to give similar evaluations compared to their sighted counterparts. However, they also valued positive behaviors significantly more than sighted controls when forming their impression of an agent's trustworthiness. Moreover, when inconsistent information was provided, blind individuals were more prone to revise their initial evaluation compared to controls. These results suggest that early visual deprivation may have a dramatic effect on the evaluation of social factors such as trustworthiness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Effect of Early Visual Deprivation on the Neural Bases of Auditory Processing.

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, Maria J S; Putzar, Lisa; Röder, Brigitte

    2016-02-03

    Transient congenital visual deprivation affects visual and multisensory processing. In contrast, the extent to which it affects auditory processing has not been investigated systematically. Research in permanently blind individuals has revealed brain reorganization during auditory processing, involving both intramodal and crossmodal plasticity. The present study investigated the effect of transient congenital visual deprivation on the neural bases of auditory processing in humans. Cataract-reversal individuals and normally sighted controls performed a speech-in-noise task while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging. Although there were no behavioral group differences, groups differed in auditory cortical responses: in the normally sighted group, auditory cortex activation increased with increasing noise level, whereas in the cataract-reversal group, no activation difference was observed across noise levels. An auditory activation of visual cortex was not observed at the group level in cataract-reversal individuals. The present data suggest prevailing auditory processing advantages after transient congenital visual deprivation, even many years after sight restoration. The present study demonstrates that people whose sight was restored after a transient period of congenital blindness show more efficient cortical processing of auditory stimuli (here speech), similarly to what has been observed in congenitally permanently blind individuals. These results underscore the importance of early sensory experience in permanently shaping brain function. Copyright © 2016 the authors 0270-6474/16/361620-11$15.00/0.

  11. Early light deprivation effects on human cone-driven retinal function.

    PubMed

    Esposito Veneruso, Paolo; Ziccardi, Lucia; Magli, Giulia; Parisi, Vincenzo; Falsini, Benedetto; Magli, Adriano

    2017-03-01

    To assess whether the early light deprivation induced by congenital cataract may influence the cone-driven retinal function in humans. Forty-one patients affected by congenital cataract (CC) who had undergone uncomplicated cataract extraction surgery and intraocular lens implant, and 14 healthy subjects (HS) were enrolled. All patients underwent complete ophthalmological and orthoptic evaluations and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) measurement; light-adapted full-field electroretinograms (ERG) and photopic negative responses (PhNR) were recorded to obtain a reliable measurement of the outer/inner retinal function and of the retinal ganglion cells' function respectively. Mean values of light-adapted ERG a- and b-wave and PhNR amplitude of CC eyes were significantly reduced and photopic ERG b-wave implicit time mean values were significantly delayed when compared to HS ones. When studying photopic ERG mean amplitudes at 5 ms, significant differences were found when comparing CC and control eyes. In CC eyes, statistically significant correlations were found between a- and b- wave amplitudes and PhNR amplitudes. No significant correlations were found between ERG parameters and BCVA, as well as between the age of CC patients at surgery and the time elapsed from lens extraction. No significant differences were found when functional parameters of bilateral and unilateral congenital cataract (uCC) eyes were compared, however uCC eyes showed significant differences when compared with contralateral healthy eyes. We found a significant impairment of cone-driven retinal responses in patients with a history of congenital cataract. These changes might result from the long-lasting effects of early light deprivation on the cone retinal pathways. Our findings support the relevance of retinal involvement in deficits induced by early light deprivation. © 2016 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Chains of risk for alcohol use disorder: Mediators of exposure to neighborhood deprivation in early and middle childhood.

    PubMed

    Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J; Lönn, Sara L; Cook, Won K; Kendler, Kenneth S; Sundquist, Kristina

    2018-03-01

    Our goal was to test a cascade model to identify developmental pathways, or chains of risk, from neighborhood deprivation in childhood to alcohol use disorder (AUD) in young adulthood. Using Swedish general population data, we examined whether exposure to neighborhood deprivation during early and middle childhood was associated with indicators of social functioning in adolescence and emerging adulthood, and whether these were predictive of AUD. Structural equation models showed exposure to neighborhood deprivation was associated with lower school achievement during adolescence, poor social functioning during emerging adulthood, and the development of AUD for both males and females. Understanding longitudinal pathways from early exposure to adverse environments to later AUD can inform prevention and intervention efforts. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Recovering from Early Deprivation: Attachment Mediates Effects of Caregiving on Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGoron, Lucy; Gleason, Mary Margaret; Smyke, Anna T.; Drury, Stacy S.; Nelson, Charles A., III; Gregas, Matthew C.; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Children exposed to early institutional rearing are at risk for developing psychopathology. The present investigation examines caregiving quality and the role of attachment security as they relate to symptoms of psychopathology in young children exposed to early institutionalization. Method: Participants were enrolled in the Bucharest…

  14. Early Social Deprivation and the Social Buffering of Cortisol Stress Responses in Late Childhood: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hostinar, Camelia E.; Johnson, Anna E.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate the role of early social deprivation in shaping the effectiveness of parent support to alleviate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis-stress responses of children (ages 8.9-11, M = 9.83 years, SD = 0.55). The sample was equally divided between children who had been adopted internationally from…

  15. Child-to-adult neurodevelopmental and mental health trajectories after early life deprivation: the young adult follow-up of the longitudinal English and Romanian Adoptees study.

    PubMed

    Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S; Kennedy, Mark; Kumsta, Robert; Knights, Nicky; Golm, Dennis; Rutter, Michael; Maughan, Barbara; Schlotz, Wolff; Kreppner, Jana

    2017-04-15

    Time-limited, early-life exposures to institutional deprivation are associated with disorders in childhood, but it is unknown whether effects persist into adulthood. We used data from the English and Romanian Adoptees study to assess whether deprivation-associated adverse neurodevelopmental and mental health outcomes persist into young adulthood. The English and Romanian Adoptees study is a longitudinal, natural experiment investigation into the long-term outcomes of individuals who spent from soon after birth to up to 43 months in severe deprivation in Romanian institutions before being adopted into the UK. We used developmentally appropriate standard questionnaires, interviews completed by parents and adoptees, and direct measures of IQ to measure symptoms of autism spectrum disorder, inattention and overactivity, disinhibited social engagement, conduct or emotional problems, and cognitive impairment (IQ score <80) during childhood (ages 6, 11, and 15 years) and in young adulthood (22-25 years). For analysis, Romanian adoptees were split into those who spent less than 6 months in an institution and those who spent more than 6 months in an institution. We used a comparison group of UK adoptees who did not experience deprivation. We used mixed-effects regression models for ordered-categorical outcome variables to compare symptom levels and trends between groups. Romanian adoptees who experienced less than 6 months in an institution (n=67 at ages 6 years; n=50 at young adulthood) and UK controls (n=52 at age 6 years; n=39 at young adulthood) had similarly low levels of symptoms across most ages and outcomes. By contrast, Romanian adoptees exposed to more than 6 months in an institution (n=98 at ages 6 years; n=72 at young adulthood) had persistently higher rates than UK controls of symptoms of autism spectrum disorder, disinhibited social engagement, and inattention and overactivity through to young adulthood (pooled p<0·0001 for all). Cognitive impairment in the

  16. Accelerated telomere shortening: Tracking the lasting impact of early institutional care at the cellular level.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, Kathryn L; Esteves, Kyle; Zeanah, Charles H; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Charles A; Drury, Stacy S

    2016-12-30

    Studies examining the association between early adversity and longitudinal changes in telomere length within the same individual are rare, yet are likely to provide novel insight into the subsequent lasting effects of negative early experiences. We sought to examine the association between institutional care history and telomere shortening longitudinally across middle childhood and into adolescence. Buccal DNA was collected 2-4 times, between the ages of 6 and 15 years, in 79 children enrolled in the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP), a longitudinal study exploring the impact of early institutional rearing on child health and development. Children with a history of early institutional care (n=50) demonstrated significantly greater telomere shortening across middle childhood and adolescence compared to never institutionalized children (n=29). Among children with a history of institutional care, randomization to high quality foster care was not associated with differential telomere attrition across development. Cross-sectional analysis of children randomized to the care as usual group indicated shorter telomere length was associated with greater percent of the child's life spent in institutional care up to age 8. These results suggest that early adverse care from severe psychosocial deprivation may be embedded at the molecular genetic level through accelerated telomere shortening. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Accelerated telomere shortening: Tracking the lasting impact of early institutional care at the cellular level

    PubMed Central

    Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Esteves, Kyle; Zeanah, Charles H; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Charles A.; Drury, Stacy S.

    2016-01-01

    Studies examining the association between early adversity and longitudinal changes in telomere length within the same individual are rare, yet are likely to provide novel insight into the subsequent lasting effects of negative early experiences. We sought to examine the association between institutional care history and telomere shortening longitudinally across middle childhood and into adolescence. Buccal DNA was collected 2 to 4 times, between the ages of 6 and 15 years, in 79 children enrolled in the Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP), a longitudinal study exploring the impact of early institutional rearing on child health and development. Children with a history of early institutional care (n=50) demonstrated significantly greater telomere shortening across middle childhood and adolescence compared to never institutionalized children (n=29). Among children with a history of institutional care, randomization to high quality foster care was not associated with differential telomere attrition across development. Cross-sectional analysis of children randomized to the care as usual group indicated shorter telomere length was associated with greater percent of the child’s life spent in institutional care up to age 8. These results suggest that early adverse care from severe psychosocial deprivation may be embedded at the molecular genetic level through accelerated telomere shortening. PMID:27677058

  18. Delayed Maturation in Brain Electrical Activity Partially Explains the Association Between Early Environmental Deprivation and Symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Sheridan, Margaret A.; Marshall, Peter; Nelson, Charles A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Children raised in institutional settings are exposed to social and environmental circumstances that may deprive them of expected environmental inputs during sensitive periods of brain development that are necessary to foster healthy development. This deprivation is thought to underlie the abnormalities in neurodevelopment that have been found in previously institutionalized children. It is unknown whether deviations in neurodevelopment explain the high rates of developmental problems evident in previously institutionalized children, including psychiatric disorders. Methods We present data from a sample of children raised in institutions in Bucharest, Romania (n = 117) and an age- and sex-matched sample of community control subjects (n = 49). Electroencephalogram data were acquired following entry into the study at age 6 to 30 months, and a structured diagnostic interview of psychiatric disorders was completed at age 54 months. Results Children reared in institutions evidenced greater symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, anxiety, depression, and disruptive behavior disorders than community controls. Electroencephalogram revealed significant reductions in alpha relative power and increases in theta relative power among children reared in institutions in frontal, temporal, and occipital regions, suggesting a delay in cortical maturation. This pattern of brain activity predicted symptoms of hyperactivity and impulsivity at age 54 months, and significantly mediated the association between institutionalization and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms. Electroencephalogram power was unrelated to depression, anxiety, or disruptive behaviors. Conclusions These findings document a potential neurodevelopmental mechanism underlying the association between institutionalization and psychiatric morbidity. Deprivation in social and environmental conditions may perturb early patterns of neurodevelopment and manifest as psychiatric problems

  19. Cognitive recovery in socially deprived young children: the Bucharest Early Intervention Project.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Charles A; Zeanah, Charles H; Fox, Nathan A; Marshall, Peter J; Smyke, Anna T; Guthrie, Donald

    2007-12-21

    In a randomized controlled trial, we compared abandoned children reared in institutions to abandoned children placed in institutions but then moved to foster care. Young children living in institutions were randomly assigned to continued institutional care or to placement in foster care, and their cognitive development was tracked through 54 months of age. The cognitive outcome of children who remained in the institution was markedly below that of never-institutionalized children and children taken out of the institution and placed into foster care. The improved cognitive outcomes we observed at 42 and 54 months were most marked for the youngest children placed in foster care. These results point to the negative sequelae of early institutionalization, suggest a possible sensitive period in cognitive development, and underscore the advantages of family placements for young abandoned children.

  20. Early postnatal maternal deprivation in rats induces memory deficits in adult life that can be reversed by donepezil and galantamine.

    PubMed

    Benetti, Fernando; Mello, Pâmela Billig; Bonini, Juliana Sartori; Monteiro, Siomara; Cammarota, Martín; Izquierdo, Iván

    2009-02-01

    Early postnatal maternal deprivation is known to cause long-lasting neurobiological effects. Here, we investigated whether some of the cognitive aspects of these deficits might be related to a disruption of the cholinergic system. Pregnant Wistar rats were individually housed and maintained on a 12:12h light/dark cycle with food and water freely available. The mothers were separated from their pups for 3h per day from postnatal day 1 (PND-1) to PND-10. To do that, the dams were moved to a different cage and the pups maintained in the original home cage, which was transferred to a different room kept at 32 degrees C. After they reached 120-150 days of age, maternal-deprived and non-deprived animals were either sacrificed for brain acetylcholinesterase measurement, or trained and tested in an object recognition task and in a social recognition task as described by Rossato et al. (2007) [Rossato, J.I., Bevilaqua, L. R.M., Myskiw, J.C., Medina, J.H., Izquierdo, I., Cammarota, M. 2007. On the role hippocampal synthesis in the consolidation and reconsolidation of object recognition memory. Learn. Mem. 14, 36-46] and Lévy et al. (2003) [Lévy, F., Melo. A.I., Galef. B.G. Jr., Madden, M., Fleming. A.S. 2003. Complete maternal deprivation affects social, but not spatial, learning in adult rats. Dev. Psychobiol. 43, 177-191], respectively. There was increased acetylcholinesterase activity in hippocampus and perirhinal cortex of the deprived animals. In addition, they showed a clear impairment in memory of the two recognition tasks measured 24h after training. Oral administration of the acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, donepezil or galantamine (1mg/kg) 30min before training reversed the memory impairments caused by maternal deprivation. The findings suggest that maternal deprivation affects memory processing at adulthood through a change in brain cholinergic systems.

  1. Long-Term Follow-up Study of Children Developmentally Retarded by Early Environmental Deprivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fujinaga, Tamotsu; And Others

    This paper reports on a 14-year follow-up study of two developmentally retarded Japanese children, a brother and sister, who had been kept shut up in a small shack before being rescued (at ages 5 and 6 respectively). Following birth they consistently suffered malnutrition, maternal deprivation, social isolation from adults, language deprivation,…

  2. Early deprivation, atypical brain development, and internalizing symptoms in late childhood

    PubMed Central

    Bick, Johanna; Fox, Nathan; Zeanah, Charles; Nelson, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    Children exposed to extreme early life neglect such as in institutional rearing are at heightened risk for developing depression and anxiety disorders, and internalizing problems more broadly. These outcomes are believed to be due to alterations in the development of neural circuitry that supports emotion regulation. The specific neurodevelopmental changes that contribute to these difficulties are largely unknown. This study examined whether microstructural alterations in white matter pathways predicted long term risk for internalizing problems in institutionally reared children. Data from 69 children were drawn from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project, a randomized clinical trial of foster care for institutionally reared children. White matter was assessed using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) when children were between 8 and 10 years of age. Internalizing symptoms were assessed at the time of the MRI scan, and once children reached 12 to 14 years of age. Results indicated that neglect-associated alterations in the external capsule and corpus callosum partially explained links between institutional rearing status and internalizing symptoms in middle childhood and early adolescence. Findings shed light on neural mechanisms contributing to increased risk for emotional difficulties among children reared in adverse conditions and have implications for prevention and intervention. PMID:26384960

  3. Sleep Deprivation During Early-Adult Development Results in Long-Lasting Learning Deficits in Adult Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Seugnet, Laurent; Suzuki, Yasuko; Donlea, Jeff M.; Gottschalk, Laura; Shaw, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: Multiple lines of evidence indicate that sleep is important for the developing brain, although little is known about which cellular and molecular pathways are affected. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine whether the early adult life of Drosophila, which is associated with high amounts of sleep and critical periods of brain plasticity, could be used as a model to identify developmental processes that require sleep. Subjects: Wild type Canton-S Drosophila melanogaster. Design; Intervention: Flies were sleep deprived on their first full day of adult life and allowed to recover undisturbed for at least 3 days. The animals were then tested for short-term memory and response-inhibition using aversive phototaxis suppression (APS). Components of dopamine signaling were further evaluated using mRNA profiling, immunohistochemistry, and pharmacological treatments. Measurements and Results: Flies exposed to acute sleep deprivation on their first day of life showed impairments in short-term memory and response inhibition that persisted for at least 6 days. These impairments in adult performance were reversed by dopamine agonists, suggesting that the deficits were a consequence of reduced dopamine signaling. However, sleep deprivation did not impact dopaminergic neurons as measured by their number or by the levels of dopamine, pale (tyrosine hydroxylase), dopadecarboxylase, and the Dopamine transporter. However, dopamine pathways were impacted as measured by increased transcript levels of the dopamine receptors D2R and dDA1. Importantly, blocking signaling through the dDA1 receptor in animals that were sleep deprived during their critical developmental window prevented subsequent adult learning impairments. Conclusions: These data indicate that sleep plays an important and phylogenetically conserved role in the developing brain. Citation: Seugnet L; Suzuki Y; Donlea JM; Gottschalk L; Shaw PJ. Sleep deprivation during early-adult development results in

  4. Effects of brief daily periods of unrestricted vision during early monocular form deprivation on development of visual area 2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Tao, Xiaofeng; Wensveen, Janice M; Harwerth, Ronald S; Smith, Earl L; Chino, Yuzo M

    2011-09-14

    Providing brief daily periods of unrestricted vision during early monocular form deprivation reduces the depth of amblyopia. To gain insights into the neural basis of the beneficial effects of this treatment, the binocular and monocular response properties of neurons were quantitatively analyzed in visual area 2 (V2) of form-deprived macaque monkeys. Beginning at 3 weeks of age, infant monkeys were deprived of clear vision in one eye for 12 hours every day until 21 weeks of age. They received daily periods of unrestricted vision for 0, 1, 2, or 4 hours during the form-deprivation period. After behavioral testing to measure the depth of the resulting amblyopia, microelectrode-recording experiments were conducted in V2. The ocular dominance imbalance away from the affected eye was reduced in the experimental monkeys and was generally proportional to the reduction in the depth of amblyopia in individual monkeys. There were no interocular differences in the spatial properties of V2 neurons in any subject group. However, the binocular disparity sensitivity of V2 neurons was significantly higher and binocular suppression was lower in monkeys that had unrestricted vision. The decrease in ocular dominance imbalance in V2 was the neuronal change most closely associated with the observed reduction in the depth of amblyopia. The results suggest that the degree to which extrastriate neurons can maintain functional connections with the deprived eye (i.e., reducing undersampling for the affected eye) is the most significant factor associated with the beneficial effects of brief periods of unrestricted vision.

  5. Effects of Brief Daily Periods of Unrestricted Vision during Early Monocular Form Deprivation on Development of Visual Area 2

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bin; Tao, Xiaofeng; Wensveen, Janice M.; Harwerth, Ronald S.; Smith, Earl L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Providing brief daily periods of unrestricted vision during early monocular form deprivation reduces the depth of amblyopia. To gain insights into the neural basis of the beneficial effects of this treatment, the binocular and monocular response properties of neurons were quantitatively analyzed in visual area 2 (V2) of form-deprived macaque monkeys. Methods. Beginning at 3 weeks of age, infant monkeys were deprived of clear vision in one eye for 12 hours every day until 21 weeks of age. They received daily periods of unrestricted vision for 0, 1, 2, or 4 hours during the form-deprivation period. After behavioral testing to measure the depth of the resulting amblyopia, microelectrode-recording experiments were conducted in V2. Results. The ocular dominance imbalance away from the affected eye was reduced in the experimental monkeys and was generally proportional to the reduction in the depth of amblyopia in individual monkeys. There were no interocular differences in the spatial properties of V2 neurons in any subject group. However, the binocular disparity sensitivity of V2 neurons was significantly higher and binocular suppression was lower in monkeys that had unrestricted vision. Conclusions. The decrease in ocular dominance imbalance in V2 was the neuronal change most closely associated with the observed reduction in the depth of amblyopia. The results suggest that the degree to which extrastriate neurons can maintain functional connections with the deprived eye (i.e., reducing undersampling for the affected eye) is the most significant factor associated with the beneficial effects of brief periods of unrestricted vision. PMID:21849427

  6. EEG quantification of alertness: methods for early identification of individuals most susceptible to sleep deprivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berka, Chris; Levendowski, Daniel J.; Westbrook, Philip; Davis, Gene; Lumicao, Michelle N.; Olmstead, Richard E.; Popovic, Miodrag; Zivkovic, Vladimir T.; Ramsey, Caitlin K.

    2005-05-01

    Electroencephalographic (EEG) and neurocognitive measures were simultaneously acquired to quantify alertness from 24 participants during 44-hours of sleep deprivation. Performance on a three-choice vigilance task (3C-VT), paired-associate learning/memory task (PAL) and modified Maintenance of Wakefulness Test (MWT), and sleep technician-observed drowsiness (eye-closures, head-nods, EEG slowing) were quantified. The B-Alert system automatically classifies each second of EEG on an alertness/drowsiness continuum. B-Alert classifications were significantly correlated with technician-observations, visually scored EEG and performance measures. B-Alert classifications during 3C-VT, and technician observations and performance during the 3C-VT and PAL evidenced progressively increasing drowsiness as a result of sleep deprivation with a stabilizing effect observed at the batteries occurring between 0600 and 1100 suggesting a possible circadian effect similar to those reported in previous sleep deprivation studies. Participants were given an opportunity to take a 40-minute nap approximately 24-hours into the sleep deprivation portion of the study (i.e., 7 PM on Saturday). The nap was followed by a transient period of increased alertness. Approximately 8 hours after the nap, behavioral and physiological measures of drowsiness returned to levels prior to the nap. Cluster analysis was used to stratify individuals into three groups based on their level of impairment as a result of sleep deprivation. The combination of B-Alert and neuro-behavioral measures may identify individuals whose performance is most susceptible to sleep deprivation. These objective measures could be applied in an operational setting to provide a "biobehavioral assay" to determine vulnerability to sleep deprivation.

  7. IQ at age 12 following a history of institutional care: Findings from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project

    PubMed Central

    Almas, Alisa N.; Degnan, Kathryn A.; Nelson, Charles A.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2016-01-01

    Young children removed from institutions and placed into foster care or adoptive homes have been shown to experience significant gains in IQ relative to children who remain in institutions. Less is known about the long-term impact of severe early deprivation on development in late childhood. Data are presented from a follow-up of children at 12 years of age in the Bucharest Early Intervention Project, a randomized clinical trial of foster care for institutionally reared children. One hundred and seven of the original 136 children in the study were tested with the WISC IV. Results revealed continued benefit from the intervention through age 12, with 12-year-old children placed in foster care scoring significantly higher on full scale IQ compared to their peers who received prolonged institutional care. Longitudinal IQ data revealed two IQ profiles from early to late childhood. Attachment security emerged as a significant predictor of a profile of stable, typical IQ scores over time. We demonstrate the continued importance of foster care intervention and the negative effects of severe, early psychosocial deprivation on IQ into late childhood. PMID:27709994

  8. IQ at age 12 following a history of institutional care: Findings from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project.

    PubMed

    Almas, Alisa N; Degnan, Kathryn A; Nelson, Charles A; Zeanah, Charles H; Fox, Nathan A

    2016-11-01

    Young children removed from institutions and placed into foster care or adoptive homes have been shown to experience significant gains in IQ relative to children who remain in institutions. Less is known about the long-term impact of severe early deprivation on development in late childhood. Data are presented from a follow-up of children at 12 years of age in the Bucharest Early Intervention Project, a randomized clinical trial of foster care for institutionally reared children. Of the original 136 children in the study, 107 were tested with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV. Results revealed continued benefit from the intervention through age 12, with 12-year-old children placed in foster care scoring significantly higher on full-scale IQ compared to their peers who received prolonged institutional care. Longitudinal IQ data revealed 2 IQ profiles from early to late childhood. Attachment security emerged as a significant predictor of a profile of stable, typical IQ scores over time. We demonstrate the continued importance of foster care intervention and the negative effects of severe, early psychosocial deprivation on IQ into late childhood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Sparing of Sensitivity to Biological Motion but Not of Global Motion after Early Visual Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadad, Bat-Sheva; Maurer, Daphne; Lewis, Terri L.

    2012-01-01

    Patients deprived of visual experience during infancy by dense bilateral congenital cataracts later show marked deficits in the perception of global motion (dorsal visual stream) and global form (ventral visual stream). We expected that they would also show marked deficits in sensitivity to biological motion, which is normally processed in the…

  10. Water deprivation-induced sodium appetite: humoral and cardiovascular mediators and immediate early genes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Luca, Laurival A Jr; Xu, Zhice; Schoorlemmer, Guus H M.; Thunhorst, Robert L.; Beltz, Terry G.; Menani, Jose V.; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2002-01-01

    Adult rats deprived of water for 24-30 h were allowed to rehydrate by ingesting only water for 1-2 h. Rats were then given access to both water and 1.8% NaCl. This procedure induced a sodium appetite defined by the operational criteria of a significant increase in 1.8% NaCl intake (3.8 +/- 0.8 ml/2 h; n = 6). Expression of Fos (as assessed by immunohistochemistry) was increased in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis (OVLT), median preoptic nucleus (MnPO), subfornical organ (SFO), and supraoptic nucleus (SON) after water deprivation. After rehydration with water but before consumption of 1.8% NaCl, Fos expression in the SON disappeared and was partially reduced in the OVLT and MnPO. However, Fos expression did not change in the SFO. Water deprivation also 1) increased plasma renin activity (PRA), osmolality, and plasma Na+; 2) decreased blood volume; and 3) reduced total body Na+; but 4) did not alter arterial blood pressure. Rehydration with water alone caused only plasma osmolality and plasma Na+ concentration to revert to euhydrated levels. The changes in Fos expression and PRA are consistent with a proposed role for ANG II in the control of the sodium appetite produced by water deprivation followed by rehydration with only water.

  11. The effect of early visual deprivation on the neural bases of multisensory processing.

    PubMed

    Guerreiro, Maria J S; Putzar, Lisa; Röder, Brigitte

    2015-06-01

    Developmental vision is deemed to be necessary for the maturation of multisensory cortical circuits. Thus far, this has only been investigated in animal studies, which have shown that congenital visual deprivation markedly reduces the capability of neurons to integrate cross-modal inputs. The present study investigated the effect of transient congenital visual deprivation on the neural mechanisms of multisensory processing in humans. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to compare responses of visual and auditory cortical areas to visual, auditory and audio-visual stimulation in cataract-reversal patients and normally sighted controls. The results showed that cataract-reversal patients, unlike normally sighted controls, did not exhibit multisensory integration in auditory areas. Furthermore, cataract-reversal patients, but not normally sighted controls, exhibited lower visual cortical processing within visual cortex during audio-visual stimulation than during visual stimulation. These results indicate that congenital visual deprivation affects the capability of cortical areas to integrate cross-modal inputs in humans, possibly because visual processing is suppressed during cross-modal stimulation. Arguably, the lack of vision in the first months after birth may result in a reorganization of visual cortex, including the suppression of noisy visual input from the deprived retina in order to reduce interference during auditory processing. © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Noise in early childhood education institutions.

    PubMed

    Bitar, Mariangela Lopes; Calaço, Luiz Ferreira; Simões-Zenari, Marcia

    2018-01-01

    High sound pressure levels have been observed in schools, and its interference in the health of children and teachers it was taken to analyze these levels in childhood education centers serving children aged zero to six years, investigate the staff's perceptions concerning noise exposure and identify the auditory conditions of these workers and the occurrence of diseases. The study was conducted in ten institutions employing 320 workers. Sound pressure levels were measured according to the technical norms; employees completed a questionnaire on the perception of noise and underwent auditory evaluation. There was high sound pressure level and differences between institutions, situations and places. Most employees are considered exposed to noise with attention and concentration difficulties, anxiety and headache. About 30% of employees had bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in specific frequency. The sound pressure levels found can affect children's learning and the health of all. The employees also perceived elevated levels of noise and indicated some possible negative aspects in their work routine. Actions to improve the acoustic comfort in these institutions will be discussed with the management teams.

  13. Discrimination of amygdala response predicts future separation anxiety in youth with early deprivation.

    PubMed

    Green, Shulamite A; Goff, Bonnie; Gee, Dylan G; Gabard-Durnam, Laurel; Flannery, Jessica; Telzer, Eva H; Humphreys, Kathryn L; Louie, Jennifer; Tottenham, Nim

    2016-10-01

    Significant disruption in caregiving is associated with increased internalizing symptoms, most notably heightened separation anxiety symptoms during childhood. It is also associated with altered functional development of the amygdala, a neurobiological correlate of anxious behavior. However, much less is known about how functional alterations of amygdala predict individual differences in anxiety. Here, we probed amygdala function following institutional caregiving using very subtle social-affective stimuli (trustworthy and untrustworthy faces), which typically result in large differences in amygdala signal, and change in separation anxiety behaviors over a 2-year period. We hypothesized that the degree of differentiation of amygdala signal to trustworthy versus untrustworthy face stimuli would predict separation anxiety symptoms. Seventy-four youths mean (SD) age = 9.7 years (2.64) with and without previous institutional care, who were all living in families at the time of testing, participated in an fMRI task designed to examine differential amygdala response to trustworthy versus untrustworthy faces. Parents reported on their children's separation anxiety symptoms at the time of scan and again 2 years later. Previous institutional care was associated with diminished amygdala signal differences and behavioral differences to the contrast of untrustworthy and trustworthy faces. Diminished differentiation of these stimuli types predicted more severe separation anxiety symptoms 2 years later. Older age at adoption was associated with diminished differentiation of amygdala responses. A history of institutional care is associated with reduced differential amygdala responses to social-affective cues of trustworthiness that are typically exhibited by comparison samples. Individual differences in the degree of amygdala differential responding to these cues predict the severity of separation anxiety symptoms over a 2-year period. These findings provide a biological

  14. The effects of early and late night partial sleep deprivation on automatic and selective attention: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Zerouali, Younes; Jemel, Boutheina; Godbout, Roger

    2010-01-13

    The link between decrease in levels of attention and total sleep deprivation is well known but the respective contributions of slow wave sleep (SWS) and rapid eye movement sleep (REM) is still largely unknown. The aim of this study was to characterize the effects of sleep deprivation during the SWS phase (i.e., early night sleep) and the REM phase (i.e., late night sleep) on tasks that tap automatic and selective attention; these two forms of attention were indexed respectively by "mismatch negativity" (MMN) and "negative difference" (Nd) event-related potential (ERP) difference waves. Ten young adult participants were subjected to a three-night sleep protocol. They were each received one night of full sleep (F), one night of sleep deprivation during the first half of the night (H1), and one night of sleep deprivation during the second half of the night (H2). MMN and Nd were recorded the following morning of each night during two auditory oddball tasks that tapped automatic and selective attention. The effect of sleep deprivation condition was assessed using ERP amplitude measures and standardized low-resolution electromagnetic tomography method (sLORETA). ERP results revealed significant MMN amplitude reduction over frontal and temporal recording areas following the H2 night compared to F and H1, indicating reductions in levels of automatic attention. In addition, Nd amplitude over the parietal recording area was significantly increased following the H2 night compared to F and H1. sLORETA findings show significant changes from F to H2 night in frontal cortex activity, decreasing during the automatic attention task but increasing during the selective attention task. No significant change in brain activity is observed after H1 night. The restoration of attention processes is mainly achieved during REM sleep, which confirms results from previous studies in rat models. The anterior cortex seems to be more sensitive to sleep loss, while the parietal cortex acts as a

  15. Kansas Early Childhood Research Institute on Transitions. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Mabel L.; O'Brien, Marion

    This final report describes research projects and other activities of the Kansas Early Childhood Research Institute (KECRI), a multi-investigator, cross-disciplinary Institute focusing on successful transitions for young (birth to age 8) children with disabilities or developmental delays. Interventions were developed, evaluated, and disseminated…

  16. Kansas Early Childhood Research Institute on Transitions: Executive Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Mabel L.; O'Brien, Marion

    This executive summary reviews activities over the past 5 years of the Kansas Early Childhood Research Institute (KECRI). The Institute has addressed transition issues faced by infants and young children (and their families) who have a disability or are at risk for developmental delay. KECRI goals are stated and the importance and impact of the…

  17. The science of early adversity: is there a role for large institutions in the care of vulnerable children?

    PubMed

    Berens, Anne E; Nelson, Charles A

    2015-07-25

    It has been more than 80 years since researchers in child psychiatry first documented developmental delays among children separated from family environments and placed in orphanages or other institutions. Informed by such findings, global conventions, including the 1989 UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, assert a child's right to care within a family-like environment that offers individualised support. Nevertheless, an estimated 8 million children are presently growing up in congregate care institutions. Common reasons for institutionalisation include orphaning, abandonment due to poverty, abuse in families of origin, disability, and mental illness. Although the practice remains widespread, a robust body of scientific work suggests that institutionalisation in early childhood can incur developmental damage across diverse domains. Specific deficits have been documented in areas including physical growth, cognitive function, neurodevelopment, and social-psychological health. Effects seem most pronounced when children have least access to individualised caregiving, and when deprivation coincides with early developmental sensitive periods. Offering hope, early interventions that place institutionalised children into families have afforded substantial recovery. The strength of scientific evidence imparts urgency to efforts to achieve deinstitutionalisation in global child protection sectors, and to intervene early for individual children experiencing deprivation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Early Social Deprivation and the Social Buffering of Cortisol Stress Responses in Late Childhood: An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Hostinar, Camelia E.; Johnson, Anna E.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the present study was to investigate the role of early social deprivation in shaping the effectiveness of parent support to alleviate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stress responses of children (ages 8.9–11, M = 9.83 years, SD = .55). The sample was equally divided between children who had been adopted internationally from orphanage care by age 5 (N = 40) and an age- and gender-matched group of non-adopted children (N = 40). On average, internationally adopted children were invited to the laboratory 7.6 years post-adoption (SD = 1.45). We experimentally manipulated the provision of parent support during the 5-minute speech preparation period before a modified Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) and examined its effect on levels of salivary cortisol secreted in response to this laboratory stressor. All participants were randomly assigned to receive support from their parent or a stranger. Analyses revealed a significant interaction of support condition and group such that parent support significantly dampened the cortisol stress response in non-adopted children compared to support from a stranger, whereas the cortisol response curves of post-institutionalized children did not differ between the parent and stranger support conditions. Cortisol reactivity for PI children in both conditions was lower than that of non-adopted children in the stranger support condition. Social deprivation during the first few years of life may shape neurobehavioral development in ways that reduce selective responses to caregivers versus strangers. PMID:26322485

  19. Early social deprivation impairs pair bonding and alters serum corticosterone and the NAcc dopamine system in mandarin voles.

    PubMed

    Yu, Peng; An, Shucheng; Tai, Fadao; Wang, Jianli; Wu, Ruiyong; Wang, Bo

    2013-12-01

    Early life stress has a long-term negative impact on emotion, learning, memory and adult sexual behavior, and these deficits most likely impair pair bonding. Here, we investigated whether early social deprivation (ED) affects the formation of pair bonds in socially monogamous mandarin voles (Microtus mandarinus). In a partner preference test (PPT), ED-reared adult females and males did not show a preference for their partner, spent more time exploring the cage of an unfamiliar animal and directed high levels of aggression toward unfamiliar animals. In social interaction test, ED increased exploring behavior only in females, but increased movement around the partner and reduced inactivity in both males and females. Three days of cohabitation did not alter serum corticosterone levels in ED-reared males, but increased corticosterone levels in males that received bi-parental care (PC). Interestingly, serum corticosterone levels in ED- and PC-reared females declined after cohabitation. ED significantly increased basal serum corticosterone levels in males, but had no effect on females. ED significantly up-regulated the levels of dopamine and the mRNA expression of dopamine 1-type receptor (D1R) in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) in females and males. ED suppressed dopamine 2-type receptor mRNA (D2R) expression in females, but increased this in males. After three days of cohabitation, levels of D1R mRNA and D2R mRNA expression changed in opposite directions in PC-reared voles, but in the same direction in ED-reared males, and only the expression of D2R mRNA increased in ED-reared females. Our results indicate that early social deprivation inhibits pair bonding at adulthood. This inhibition is possibly associated with sex-specific alterations in serum corticosterone, levels of dopamine and mRNA expression of two types of dopamine receptors in the NAcc. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of sulphur deprivation on osmotic potential components and nitrogen metabolism in oilseed rape leaves: identification of a new early indicator.

    PubMed

    Sorin, Elise; Etienne, Philippe; Maillard, Anne; Zamarreño, Angel-Mari; Garcia-Mina, José-Maria; Arkoun, Mustapha; Jamois, Frank; Cruz, Florence; Yvin, Jean-Claude; Ourry, Alain

    2015-10-01

    Identification of early sulphur (S) deficiency indicators is important for species such as Brassica napus, an S-demanding crop in which yield and the nutritional quality of seeds are negatively affected by S deficiency. Because S is mostly stored as SO4 (2-) in leaf cell vacuoles and can be mobilized during S deficiency, this study investigated the impact of S deprivation on leaf osmotic potential in order to identify compensation processes. Plants were exposed for 28 days to S or to chlorine deprivation in order to differentiate osmotic and metabolic responses. While chlorine deprivation had no significant effects on growth, osmotic potential and nitrogen metabolism, Brassica napus revealed two response periods to S deprivation. The first one occurred during the first 13 days during which plant growth was maintained as a result of vacuolar SO4 (2-) mobilization. In the meantime, leaf osmotic potential of S-deprived plants remained similar to control plants despite a reduction in the SO4 (2-) osmotic contribution, which was fully compensated by an increase in NO3 (-), PO4 (3-) and Cl(-) accumulation. The second response occurred after 13 days of S deprivation with a significant reduction in growth, leaf osmotic potential, NO3 (-) uptake and NO3 (-) reductase activity, whereas amino acids and NO3 (-) were accumulated. This kinetic analysis of S deprivation suggested that a ([Cl(-)]+[NO3 (-)]+[PO4 (3-)]):[SO4 (2-)] ratio could provide a relevant indicator of S deficiency, modified nearly as early as the over-expression of genes encoding SO4 (2-) tonoplastic or plasmalemmal transporters, with the added advantage that it can be easily quantified under field conditions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Improvement of Working Memory in Preschoolers and Its Impact on Early Literacy Skills: A Study in Deprived Communities of Rural and Urban Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rojas-Barahona, Cristian A.; Förster, Carla E.; Moreno-Ríos, Sergio; McClelland, Megan M.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The present study evaluated the impact of a working memory (WM) stimulation program on the development of WM and early literacy skills (ELS) in preschoolers from socioeconomically deprived rural and urban schools in Chile. The sample consisted of 268 children, 144 in the intervention group and 124 in the comparison group. The…

  2. Conceptualising Institutional Support for Early, Mid, and Later Career Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Kym; Greenfield, Rosie; Pancini, Geri

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we argue that institutions need to support early career teachers to learn to teach in much the same way that students who are new to higher education are supported: through integrated and intentionally designed transition strategies. We take a published student transition typology and adapt it to identify ways of supporting early…

  3. Early survival factor deprivation in the olfactory epithelium enhances activity-driven survival

    PubMed Central

    François, Adrien; Laziz, Iman; Rimbaud, Stéphanie; Grebert, Denise; Durieux, Didier; Pajot-Augy, Edith; Meunier, Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    The neuronal olfactory epithelium undergoes permanent renewal because of environmental aggression. This renewal is partly regulated by factors modulating the level of neuronal apoptosis. Among them, we had previously characterized endothelin as neuroprotective. In this study, we explored the effect of cell survival factor deprivation in the olfactory epithelium by intranasal delivery of endothelin receptors antagonists to rat pups. This treatment induced an overall increase of apoptosis in the olfactory epithelium. The responses to odorants recorded by electroolfactogram were decreased in treated animal, a result consistent with a loss of olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs). However, the treated animal performed better in an olfactory orientation test based on maternal odor compared to non-treated littermates. This improved performance could be due to activity-dependent neuronal survival of OSNs in the context of increased apoptosis level. In order to demonstrate it, we odorized pups with octanal, a known ligand for the rI7 olfactory receptor (Olr226). We quantified the number of OSN expressing rI7 by RT-qPCR and whole mount in situ hybridization. While this number was reduced by the survival factor removal treatment, this reduction was abolished by the presence of its ligand. This improved survival was optimal for low concentration of odorant and was specific for rI7-expressing OSNs. Meanwhile, the number of rI7-expressing OSNs was not affected by the odorization in non-treated littermates; showing that the activity-dependant survival of OSNs did not affect the OSN population during the 10 days of odorization in control conditions. Overall, our study shows that when apoptosis is promoted in the olfactory mucosa, the activity-dependent neuronal plasticity allows faster tuning of the olfactory sensory neuron population toward detection of environmental odorants. PMID:24399931

  4. On the early history of the Finnish Meteorological Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevanlinna, H.

    2014-03-01

    This article is a review of the foundation (in 1838) and later developments of the Helsinki (Finland) magnetic and meteorological observatory, today the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). The main focus of the study is in the early history of the FMI up to the beginning of the 20th century. The first director of the observatory was Physics Professor Johan Jakob Nervander (1805-1848). He was a famous person of the Finnish scientific, academic and cultural community in the early decades of the 19th century. Finland was an autonomously part of the Russian Empire from 1809 to 1917, but the observatory remained organizationally under the University of Helsinki, independent of Russian scientific institutions, and funded by the Finnish Government. Throughout the late-19th century the Meteorological Institute was responsible of nationwide meteorological, hydrological and marine observations and research. The observatory was transferred to the Finnish Society of Sciences and Letters under the name the Central Meteorological Institute in 1881. The focus of the work carried out in the Institute was changed gradually towards meteorology. Magnetic measurements were still continued but in a lower level of importance. The culmination of Finnish geophysical achievements in the 19th century was the participation to the International Polar Year programme in 1882-1883 by setting up a full-scale meteorological and magnetic observatory in Sodankylä, Lapland.

  5. Early deprivation increases high-leaning behavior, a novel anxiety-like behavior, in the open field test in rats.

    PubMed

    Kuniishi, Hiroshi; Ichisaka, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Miki; Ikubo, Natsuko; Matsuda, Sae; Futora, Eri; Harada, Riho; Ishihara, Kohei; Hata, Yoshio

    2017-10-01

    The open field test is one of the most popular ethological tests to assess anxiety-like behavior in rodents. In the present study, we examined the effect of early deprivation (ED), a model of early life stress, on anxiety-like behavior in rats. In ED animals, we failed to find significant changes in the time spent in the center or thigmotaxis area of the open field, the common indexes of anxiety-like behavior. However, we found a significant increase in high-leaning behavior in which animals lean against the wall standing on their hindlimbs while touching the wall with their forepaws at a high position. The high-leaning behavior was decreased by treatment with an anxiolytic, diazepam, and it was increased under intense illumination as observed in the center activity. In addition, we compared the high-leaning behavior and center activity under various illumination intensities and found that the high-leaning behavior is more sensitive to illumination intensity than the center activity in the particular illumination range. These results suggest that the high-leaning behavior is a novel anxiety-like behavior in the open field test that can complement the center activity to assess the anxiety state of rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Management of Men with Prostate-specific Antigen Failure After Prostate Radiotherapy: The Case Against Early Androgen Deprivation.

    PubMed

    Brand, Douglas; Parker, Chris

    2018-04-01

    In men with prostate-specific antigen failure after radical radiotherapy, androgen deprivation therapy should be delayed until the site of recurrence is known to allow consideration of curative treatment options, to delay androgen deprivation therapy-related morbidity, and to enable earlier access to abiraterone and docetaxel. Copyright © 2017 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Effect of Early Visual Deprivation on the Development of Face Detection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondloch, Catherine J.; Segalowitz, Sidney J.; Lewis, Terri L.; Dywan, Jane; Le Grand, Richard; Maurer, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    The expertise of adults in face perception is facilitated by their ability to rapidly detect that a stimulus is a face. In two experiments, we examined the role of early visual input in the development of face detection by testing patients who had been treated as infants for bilateral congenital cataract. Experiment 1 indicated that, at age 9 to…

  8. Reactive Attachment Disorder Following Early Maltreatment: Systematic Evidence beyond the Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Catherine; Green, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) remains one of the least evidence-based areas of DSM and ICD nosology. Recent evidence from severely deprived institutional samples has informed review of RAD criteria for DSM-V; however, this data is not necessarily generalizable to expectable child environments in the developed world. We provide the first…

  9. Reduced adaptability, but no fundamental disruption, of norm-based face coding following early visual deprivation from congenital cataracts.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Gillian; Nishimura, Mayu; de Heering, Adelaide; Jeffery, Linda; Maurer, Daphne

    2017-05-01

    Faces are adaptively coded relative to visual norms that are updated by experience, and this adaptive coding is linked to face recognition ability. Here we investigated whether adaptive coding of faces is disrupted in individuals (adolescents and adults) who experience face recognition difficulties following visual deprivation from congenital cataracts in infancy. We measured adaptive coding using face identity aftereffects, where smaller aftereffects indicate less adaptive updating of face-coding mechanisms by experience. We also examined whether the aftereffects increase with adaptor identity strength, consistent with norm-based coding of identity, as in typical populations, or whether they show a different pattern indicating some more fundamental disruption of face-coding mechanisms. Cataract-reversal patients showed significantly smaller face identity aftereffects than did controls (Experiments 1 and 2). However, their aftereffects increased significantly with adaptor strength, consistent with norm-based coding (Experiment 2). Thus we found reduced adaptability but no fundamental disruption of norm-based face-coding mechanisms in cataract-reversal patients. Our results suggest that early visual experience is important for the normal development of adaptive face-coding mechanisms. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. The Influence of Averageness on Adults' Perceptions of Attractiveness: The Effect of Early Visual Deprivation.

    PubMed

    Vingilis-Jaremko, Larissa; Maurer, Daphne; Rhodes, Gillian; Jeffery, Linda

    2016-08-03

    Adults who missed early visual input because of congenital cataracts later have deficits in many aspects of face processing. Here we investigated whether they make normal judgments of facial attractiveness. In particular, we studied whether their perceptions are affected normally by a face's proximity to the population mean, as is true of typically developing adults, who find average faces to be more attractive than most other faces. We compared the judgments of facial attractiveness of 12 cataract-reversal patients to norms established from 36 adults with normal vision. Participants viewed pairs of adult male and adult female faces that had been transformed 50% toward and 50% away from their respective group averages, and selected which face was more attractive. Averageness influenced patients' judgments of attractiveness, but to a lesser extent than controls. The results suggest that cataract-reversal patients are able to develop a system for representing faces with a privileged position for an average face, consistent with evidence from identity aftereffects. However, early visual experience is necessary to set up the neural architecture necessary for averageness to influence perceptions of attractiveness with its normal potency. © The Author(s) 2016.

  11. Phospho-Rb mediating cell cycle reentry induces early apoptosis following oxygen-glucose deprivation in rat cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ying; Ren, Qing-Guo; Zhang, Zhao-Hui; Zhou, Ke; Yu, Zhi-Yuan; Luo, Xiang; Wang, Wei

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between cell cycle reentry and apoptosis in cultured cortical neurons following oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD). We found that the percentage of neurons with BrdU uptake, TUNEL staining, and colocalized BrdU uptake and TUNEL staining was increased relative to control 6, 12 and 24 h after 1 h of OGD. The number of neurons with colocalized BrdU and TUNEL staining was decreased relative to the number of TUNEL-positive neurons at 24 h. The expression of phosphorylated retinoblastoma protein (phospho-Rb) was significantly increased 6, 12 and 24 h after OGD, parallel with the changes in BrdU uptake. Phospho-Rb and TUNEL staining were colocalized in neurons 6 and 12 h after OGD. This colocalization was strikingly decreased 24 h after OGD. Treatment with the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor roscovitine (100 μM) decreased the expression of phospho-Rb and reduced neuronal apoptosis in vitro. These results demonstrated that attempted cell cycle reentry with phosphorylation of Rb induce early apoptosis in neurons after OGD and there must be other mechanisms involved in the later stages of neuronal apoptosis besides cell cycle reentry. Phosphoralated Rb may be an important factor which closely associates aberrant cell cycle reentry with the early stages of neuronal apoptosis following ischemia/hypoxia in vitro, and pharmacological interventions for neuroprotection may be useful directed at this keypoint.

  12. Chinese and Korean immigrants’ early life deprivation: An important factor for child feeding practices and children’s body weight in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Cheah, Charissa S.L.; Van Hook, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the associations between Chinese and Korean immigrant parents’ early life material and food deprivation and their concern about their child’s diet or weight, preferences for heavier children, and weight-promoting diet and child weight, alongside the moderating role of parents’ acculturation toward American culture. In 2010, Chinese and Korean immigrant parents of children ages 3–8 years in the United States (N = 130) completed interviews which asked about their perceived early life material deprivation and food insecurity, acculturation, child feeding practices, and evaluations of whether their child weighed more or less than the ideal, and child consumption of soda and candy. Independent measures of child and parent BMI were also obtained. Regression analyses revealed that parents’ early life food insecurity was associated with the evaluation that their child should weigh more than they do and greater consumption of soda and sweets by their child, among the least acculturated parents. Parental material deprivation was associated with more laissez-faire child feeding practices: less monitoring, less concern about the child’s weight or diet, and less perceived responsibility for the child’s diet, but only among less acculturated parents. Overall, the results suggest that immigrant parents’ child feeding practices and body size evaluations are shaped by material hardship in childhood, but these influences may fade as acculturation occurs. PMID:22265872

  13. The Early Effects of Rapid Androgen Deprivation on Human Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Greg L; Whitaker, Hayley; Corcoran, Marie; Dunning, Mark J; Luxton, Hayley; Kay, Jonathan; Massie, Charlie E; Miller, Jodi L; Lamb, Alastair D; Ross-Adams, Helen; Russell, Roslin; Nelson, Adam W; Eldridge, Matthew D; Lynch, Andrew G; Ramos-Montoya, Antonio; Mills, Ian G; Taylor, Angela E; Arlt, Wiebke; Shah, Nimish; Warren, Anne Y; Neal, David E

    2016-08-01

    The androgen receptor (AR) is the dominant growth factor in prostate cancer (PCa). Therefore, understanding how ARs regulate the human transcriptome is of paramount importance. The early effects of castration on human PCa have not previously been studied 27 patients medically castrated with degarelix 7 d before radical prostatectomy. We used mass spectrometry, immunohistochemistry, and gene expression array (validated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction) to compare resected tumour with matched, controlled, untreated PCa tissue. All patients had levels of serum androgen, with reduced levels of intraprostatic androgen at prostatectomy. We observed differential expression of known androgen-regulated genes (TMPRSS2, KLK3, CAMKK2, FKBP5). We identified 749 genes downregulated and 908 genes upregulated following castration. AR regulation of α-methylacyl-CoA racemase expression and three other genes (FAM129A, RAB27A, and KIAA0101) was confirmed. Upregulation of oestrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) expression was observed in malignant epithelia and was associated with differential expression of ESR1-regulated genes and correlated with proliferation (Ki-67 expression). This first-in-man study defines the rapid gene expression changes taking place in prostate cancer (PCa) following castration. Expression levels of the genes that the androgen receptor regulates are predictive of treatment outcome. Upregulation of oestrogen receptor 1 is a mechanism by which PCa cells may survive despite castration. Copyright © 2015 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Sleep Deprivation.

    PubMed

    Abrams, Robert M

    2015-09-01

    Sleep deprivation occurs when inadequate sleep leads to decreased performance, inadequate alertness, and deterioration in health. It is incompletely understood why humans need sleep, although some theories include energy conservation, restoration, and information processing. Sleep deprivation has many deleterious health effects. Residency programs have enacted strict work restrictions because of medically related errors due to sleep deprivation. Because obstetrics is an unpredictable specialty with long irregular hours, enacting a hospitalist program enhances patient safety, decreases malpractice risk, and improves the physician's quality of life by allowing obstetricians to get sufficient rest. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Transactional effects among maternal depression, neighborhood deprivation, and child conduct problems from early childhood through adolescence: A tale of two low-income samples.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Daniel S; Sitnick, Stephanie L; Reuben, Julia; Dishion, Thomas J; Wilson, Melvin N

    2016-08-01

    The current study sought to advance our understanding of transactional processes among maternal depression, neighborhood deprivation, and child conduct problems (CP) using two samples of low-income families assessed repeatedly from early childhood to early adolescence. After accounting for initial levels of negative parenting, independent and reciprocal effects between maternal depressive symptoms and child CP were evident across both samples, beginning in early childhood and continuing through middle childhood and adolescence. In addition, neighborhood effects were consistently found in both samples after children reached age 5, with earlier neighborhood effects on child CP and maternal depression found in the one exclusively urban sample of families with male children. The results confirm prior research on the independent contribution of maternal depression and child CP to the maintenance of both problem behaviors. The findings also have implications for designing preventative and clinical interventions to address child CP for families living in high-risk neighborhoods.

  16. Rapid recovery from the effects of early monocular deprivation is enabled by temporary inactivation of the retinas.

    PubMed

    Fong, Ming-Fai; Mitchell, Donald E; Duffy, Kevin R; Bear, Mark F

    2016-12-06

    A half-century of research on the consequences of monocular deprivation (MD) in animals has revealed a great deal about the pathophysiology of amblyopia. MD initiates synaptic changes in the visual cortex that reduce acuity and binocular vision by causing neurons to lose responsiveness to the deprived eye. However, much less is known about how deprivation-induced synaptic modifications can be reversed to restore normal visual function. One theoretically motivated hypothesis is that a period of inactivity can reduce the threshold for synaptic potentiation such that subsequent visual experience promotes synaptic strengthening and increased responsiveness in the visual cortex. Here we have reduced this idea to practice in two species. In young mice, we show that the otherwise stable loss of cortical responsiveness caused by MD is reversed when binocular visual experience follows temporary anesthetic inactivation of the retinas. In 3-mo-old kittens, we show that a severe impairment of visual acuity is also fully reversed by binocular experience following treatment and, further, that prolonged retinal inactivation alone can erase anatomical consequences of MD. We conclude that temporary retinal inactivation represents a highly efficacious means to promote recovery of function.

  17. Increased behavioral output but intact goal-directed and habitual responding for food reward following early-life social deprivation in rats.

    PubMed

    Lomanowska, Anna M; Kraemer, Gary W

    2014-09-01

    Early-life social adversity, such as child neglect and institutionalized rearing, is associated with later-life difficulties of inhibitory control that may reflect altered attribution of salience to external stimuli. Studies in rats demonstrate that early-life social deprivation results in enhanced responsiveness to reward stimuli and conditioned reward cues. This study examined whether these effects are related to fundamental changes in appetitive conditioning processes involving instrumental goal-directed and habitual responding for food reward. Rats were reared either by the mother (maternal rearing; MR) or in complete isolation from the mother and litter (artificial rearing; AR) and tested as adults in two appetitive conditioning tasks. AR and MR rats did not differ in the amount of goal-directed effort they exerted to obtain food reward on progressive ratio schedules of reinforcement. AR and MR rats also did not differ in the shift from goal-directed to habitual responding on a random interval schedule and they were equally sensitive to changes in reward value. The major difference between AR and MR rats was that AR rats exhibited more non-instrumental responses (empty food magazine entries, ineffective lever presses). Thus, early-life social deprivation of rats through AR affects the expression of unreinforced extraneous behaviors when motivational requirements are high, but does not affect conditioned goal-directed and habitual responding to reward. The findings have implications for understanding what aspects of responsiveness to external stimuli may be selectively affected in disorders of inhibition associated with early-life social adversity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Gaze-stabilizing deficits and latent nystagmus in monkeys with brief, early-onset visual deprivation: eye movement recordings.

    PubMed

    Tusa, R J; Mustari, M J; Burrows, A F; Fuchs, A F

    2001-08-01

    The normal development and the capacity to calibrate gaze-stabilizing systems may depend on normal vision during infancy. At the end of 1 yr of dark rearing, cats have gaze-stabilizing deficits similar to that of the newborn human infant including decreased monocular optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) in the nasal to temporal (N-T) direction and decreased velocity storage in the vestibuloocular reflex (VOR). The purpose of this study is to determine to what extent restricted vision during the first 2 mo of life in monkeys affects the development of gaze-stabilizing systems. The eyelids of both eyes were sutured closed in three rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) at birth. Eyelids were opened at 25 days in one monkey and 40 and 55 days in the other two animals. Eye movements were recorded from each eye using scleral search coils. The VOR, OKN, and fixation were examined at 6 and 12 mo of age. We also examined ocular alignment, refraction, and visual acuity in these animals. At 1 yr of age, visual acuity ranged from 0.3 to 0.6 LogMAR (20/40-20/80). All animals showed a defect in monocular OKN in the N-T direction. The velocity-storage component of OKN (i.e., OKAN) was the most impaired. All animals had a mild reduction in VOR gain but had a normal time constant. The animals deprived for 40 and 55 days had a persistent strabismus. All animals showed a nystagmus similar to latent nystagmus (LN) in human subjects. The amount of LN and OKN defect correlated positively with the duration of deprivation. In addition, the animal deprived for 55 days demonstrated a pattern of nystagmus similar to congenital nystagmus in human subjects. We found that restricted visual input during the first 2 mo of life impairs certain gaze-stabilizing systems and causes LN in primates.

  19. Large institutional variations in use of androgen deprivation therapy with definitive radiotherapy in a population-based cohort of men with intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ong, Wee Loon; Foroudi, Farshad; Evans, Sue; Millar, Jeremy

    2017-11-01

    To evaluate the pattern of use of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) with definitive radiotherapy (RT) in men with prostate cancer (PCa) in a population-based study in Australia. This is a prospective cohort of men with intermediate- and high-risk PCa, captured in the population-based Prostate Cancer Outcome Registry Victoria, who were treated with definitive prostate RT between January 2010 and December 2015. The primary outcome of interest was ADT utilization. Chi-squared test for trend was used to evaluate the temporal trend in the use of ADT over the study period. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to evaluate the effects of patient-, tumour- and treatment-related factors, and treatment institutions (public/ private and metropolitan/ regional) on the likelihood of ADT utilization. A total of 1806 men were included in the study, 199 of whom (11%) had favourable National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) intermediate-risk disease (i.e. only one intermediate-risk feature, primary Gleason grade 3, and <50% biopsy core involved), 687 (38%) had unfavourable NCCN intermediate-risk disease, and 920 (51%) had high-risk disease. Of the 1806 men, 1155 (64%) received ADT with RT. Men with NCCN high-risk PCa (84%) were more likely to have ADT than men with favourable NCCN intermediate-risk (32%) and unfavourable NCCN intermediate-risk (46%) PCa (P < 0.001). Men treated in public institutions (66%, vs 47% in private institutions; P < 0.001) and regional centres (78%, vs 59% in metropolitan institutions; P < 0.001) were more likely to receive ADT. There was a trend towards an increase in ADT utilization from 50% in 2010 to 64% in 2015 (P < 0.001). In multivariate analyses (adjusting for age, tumour-related factors, year of treatment and use of brachytherapy boost), treatment institution (public and regional) remained independently associated with increased likelihood of ADT utilization. Men with intermediate-risk PCa treated in regional and public institutions were

  20. Quality of Institutional Care and Early Childhood Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliveira, Paula Salgado; Fearon, R. M. Pasco; Belsky, Jay; Fachada, Inês; Soares, Isabel

    2015-01-01

    Institutional rearing adversely affects children's development, but the extent to which specific characteristics of the institutional context and the quality of care provided contribute to problematic development remains unclear. In this study, 72 preschoolers institutionalised for at least 6 months were evaluated by their caregiver using the…

  1. The NASA Astrobiology Institute: early history and organization.

    PubMed

    Blumberg, Baruch S

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) was established as a means to advance the field of astrobiology by providing a multidisciplinary, multi-institution, science-directed program, executed by universities, research institutes, and NASA and other government laboratories. The scientific community and NASA defined the science content at several workshops as summarized in the NASA Astrobiology Roadmap. Teams were chosen nationwide, following the recommendations of external review groups, and the research program began in 1998. There are now 16 national Teams and five international affiliated and associated astrobiology institutions. The NAI has attracted an outstanding group of scientific groups and individuals. The Institute facilitates the involvement of the scientists in its scientific and management vision. Its goal is to support basic research and allow the scientists the freedom to select their projects and alter them as indicated by new research. Additional missions include the education of the public, the involvement of students who will be the astrobiologists of future generations, and the development of a culture of collaboration in NAI, a "virtual institute," spread across many sites nationally and internationally.

  2. The NASA Astrobiology Institute: early history and organization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumberg, Baruch S.

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Astrobiology Institute (NAI) was established as a means to advance the field of astrobiology by providing a multidisciplinary, multi-institution, science-directed program, executed by universities, research institutes, and NASA and other government laboratories. The scientific community and NASA defined the science content at several workshops as summarized in the NASA Astrobiology Roadmap. Teams were chosen nationwide, following the recommendations of external review groups, and the research program began in 1998. There are now 16 national Teams and five international affiliated and associated astrobiology institutions. The NAI has attracted an outstanding group of scientific groups and individuals. The Institute facilitates the involvement of the scientists in its scientific and management vision. Its goal is to support basic research and allow the scientists the freedom to select their projects and alter them as indicated by new research. Additional missions include the education of the public, the involvement of students who will be the astrobiologists of future generations, and the development of a culture of collaboration in NAI, a "virtual institute," spread across many sites nationally and internationally.

  3. Early Childhood Institutions as Loci of Ethical and Political Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The historical process of the institutionalisation of childhood is in a period of intensification, as children enter institutions at ever earlier ages and remain in them for longer periods. This intensification presents great opportunities but also involves many risks since everything is dangerous. A particular set of risks are produced from the…

  4. Institutional Influence on Behavioural Disorders in Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayalekshmi, N. B.; Raja, B. William Dharma

    2014-01-01

    Early adolescence a period of transition between childhood and late adolescence, is where one experiences dramatic changes physically, and psychologically. These transitions cause cognitive, emotional, and social changes. The developmental changes that occur during this period cause varying degrees of disturbance in them. The period of transition…

  5. Impact of Early and Late Visual Deprivation on the Structure of the Corpus Callosum: A Study Combining Thickness Profile with Surface Tensor-Based Morphometry.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jie; Collignon, Olivier; Xu, Liang; Wang, Gang; Kang, Yue; Leporé, Franco; Lao, Yi; Joshi, Anand A; Leporé, Natasha; Wang, Yalin

    2015-07-01

    Blindness represents a unique model to study how visual experience may shape the development of brain organization. Exploring how the structure of the corpus callosum (CC) reorganizes ensuing visual deprivation is of particular interest due to its important functional implication in vision (e.g., via the splenium of the CC). Moreover, comparing early versus late visually deprived individuals has the potential to unravel the existence of a sensitive period for reshaping the CC structure. Here, we develop a novel framework to capture a complete set of shape differences in the CC between congenitally blind (CB), late blind (LB) and sighted control (SC) groups. The CCs were manually segmented from T1-weighted brain MRI and modeled by 3D tetrahedral meshes. We statistically compared the combination of local area and thickness at each point between subject groups. Differences in area are found using surface tensor-based morphometry; thickness is estimated by tracing the streamlines in the volumetric harmonic field. Group differences were assessed on this combined measure using Hotelling's T(2) test. Interestingly, we observed that the total callosal volume did not differ between the groups. However, our fine-grained analysis reveals significant differences mostly localized around the splenium areas between both blind groups and the sighted group (general effects of blindness) and, importantly, specific dissimilarities between the LB and CB groups, illustrating the existence of a sensitive period for reorganization. The new multivariate statistics also gave better effect sizes for detecting morphometric differences, relative to other statistics. They may boost statistical power for CC morphometric analyses.

  6. IMPACT OF EARLY AND LATE VISUAL DEPRIVATION ON THE STRUCTURE OF THE CORPUS CALLOSUM: A STUDY COMBINING THICKNESS PROFILE WITH SURFACE TENSOR-BASED MORPHOMETRY

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Jie; Collignon, Olivier; Xu, Liang; Wang, Gang; Kang, Yue; Leporé, Franco; Lao, Yi; Joshi, Anand A.

    2015-01-01

    Blindness represents a unique model to study how visual experience may shape the development of brain organization. Exploring how the structure of the corpus callosum (CC) reorganizes ensuing visual deprivation is of particular interest due to its important functional implication in vision (e.g. via the splenium of the CC). Moreover, comparing early versus late visually deprived individuals has the potential to unravel the existence of a sensitive period for reshaping the CC structure. Here, we develop a novel framework to capture a complete set of shape differences in the CC between congenitally blind (CB), late blind (LB) and sighted control (SC) groups. The CCs were manually segmented from T1-weighted brain MRI and modeled by 3D tetrahedral meshes. We statistically compared the combination of local area and thickness at each point between subject groups. Differences in area are found using surface tensor-based morphometry; thickness is estimated by tracing the streamlines in the volumetric harmonic field. Group differences were assessed on this combined measure using Hotelling’s T2 test. Interestingly, we observed that the total callosal volume did not differ between the groups. However, our fine-grained analysis reveals significant differences mostly localized around the splenium areas between both blind groups and the sighted group (general effects of blindness) and, importantly, specific dissimilarities between the LB and CB groups, illustrating the existence of a sensitive period for reorganization. The new multivariate statistics also gave better effect sizes for detecting morphometric differences, relative to other statistics. They may boost statistical power for CC morphometric analyses. PMID:25649876

  7. The influence of language deprivation in early childhood on L2 processing: An ERP comparison of deaf native signers and deaf signers with a delayed language acquisition.

    PubMed

    Skotara, Nils; Salden, Uta; Kügow, Monique; Hänel-Faulhaber, Barbara; Röder, Brigitte

    2012-05-03

    To examine which language function depends on early experience, the present study compared deaf native signers, deaf non-native signers and hearing German native speakers while processing German sentences. The participants watched simple written sentences while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. At the end of each sentence they were asked to judge whether the sentence was correct or not. Two types of violations were introduced in the middle of the sentence: a semantically implausible noun or a violation of subject-verb number agreement. The results showed a similar ERP pattern after semantic violations (an N400 followed by a positivity) in all three groups. After syntactic violations, native German speakers and native signers of German sign language (DGS) with German as second language (L2) showed a left anterior negativity (LAN) followed by a P600, whereas no LAN but a negativity over the right hemisphere instead was found in deaf participants with a delayed onset of first language (L1) acquisition. The P600 of this group had a smaller amplitude and a different scalp distribution as compared to German native speakers. The results of the present study suggest that language deprivation in early childhood alters the cerebral organization of syntactic language processing mechanisms for L2. Semantic language processing instead was unaffected.

  8. Zif268 mRNA Expression Patterns Reveal a Distinct Impact of Early Pattern Vision Deprivation on the Development of Primary Visual Cortical Areas in the Cat.

    PubMed

    Laskowska-Macios, Karolina; Zapasnik, Monika; Hu, Tjing-Tjing; Kossut, Malgorzata; Arckens, Lutgarde; Burnat, Kalina

    2015-10-01

    Pattern vision deprivation (BD) can induce permanent deficits in global motion perception. The impact of timing and duration of BD on the maturation of the central and peripheral visual field representations in cat primary visual areas 17 and 18 remains unknown. We compared early BD, from eye opening for 2, 4, or 6 months, with late onset BD, after 2 months of normal vision, using the expression pattern of the visually driven activity reporter gene zif268 as readout. Decreasing zif268 mRNA levels between months 2 and 4 characterized the normal maturation of the (supra)granular layers of the central and peripheral visual field representations in areas 17 and 18. In general, all BD conditions had higher than normal zif268 levels. In area 17, early BD induced a delayed decrease, beginning later in peripheral than in central area 17. In contrast, the decrease occurred between months 2 and 4 throughout area 18. Lack of pattern vision stimulation during the first 4 months of life therefore has a different impact on the development of areas 17 and 18. A high zif268 expression level at a time when normal vision is restored seems to predict the capacity of a visual area to compensate for BD. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press.

  9. Gene–environment interplay in Drosophila melanogaster: Chronic food deprivation in early life affects adult exploratory and fitness traits

    PubMed Central

    Burns, James Geoffrey; Svetec, Nicolas; Rowe, Locke; Mery, Frederic; Dolan, Michael J.; Boyce, W. Thomas; Sokolowski, Marla B.

    2012-01-01

    Early life adversity has known impacts on adult health and behavior, yet little is known about the gene–environment interactions (GEIs) that underlie these consequences. We used the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster to show that chronic early nutritional adversity interacts with rover and sitter allelic variants of foraging (for) to affect adult exploratory behavior, a phenotype that is critical for foraging, and reproductive fitness. Chronic nutritional adversity during adulthood did not affect rover or sitter adult exploratory behavior; however, early nutritional adversity in the larval period increased sitter but not rover adult exploratory behavior. Increasing for gene expression in the mushroom bodies, an important center of integration in the fly brain, changed the amount of exploratory behavior exhibited by sitter adults when they did not experience early nutritional adversity but had no effect in sitters that experienced early nutritional adversity. Manipulation of the larval nutritional environment also affected adult reproductive output of sitters but not rovers, indicating GEIs on fitness itself. The natural for variants are an excellent model to examine how GEIs underlie the biological embedding of early experience. PMID:23045644

  10. Recognizing Politics in the Nursery: Early Childhood Education Institutions as Sites of Mundane Politics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millei, Zsuzsa; Kallio, Kirsi Pauliina

    2018-01-01

    In his inspirational article titled 'Bringing politics into the nursery', Peter Moss argues for early childhood institutions to "become" places of 'democratic political practice'. In this article, the authors add to Moss's call and argue that these institutions are sites of 'mundane political practice', containing various attitudinal…

  11. Creating Teacher Capacity in Early Childhood Education and Care Institutions Implementing an Authoritative Adult Style

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Omdal, Heidi

    2018-01-01

    The being together intervention intends to raise teacher capacity in Norwegian Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC) institutions and promote social and emotional development in preschoolers by implementing an authoritative (warm and predictable) adult style in the institution. An authoritative adult balances between building up high quality…

  12. Critical Interactions Shaping Early Academic Career Development in Two Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmings, Brian; Hill, Doug; Sharp, John G.

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed at identifying the critical interactions within work environments that support the development of early career academics as researchers in institutions with lower order research profiles, that is, environments that differ from research-intensive universities. Ten early career academics, five from Australia and five from the…

  13. Family Income and Material Deprivation: Do They Matter for Sleep Quality and Quantity in Early Life? Evidence From a Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Barazzetta, Marta; Ghislandi, Simone

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the determinants of sleeping patterns in children up to age 9 on a large and geographically homogeneous sample of British children and parents, focusing in particular on the role of economic and social factors, specifically on income. The data of this study come from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, a long-term health research project that recruited over 14000 pregnant women who were due to give birth between April 1991 and December 1992 in Bristol and its surrounding areas, including some of Somerset and Gloucestershire. Logistic regression models for the sleep problem dummies and log-linear models for the sleep quantity. One additional item in the material deprivation index is associated to an increase of around 10-20% in the odds of having at least 1 sleep problem. Similarly, children from the richest families are less likely to have any sleep problem up to 115 months (around 20% reduction in the odds). Mother's characteristics (i.e., education and mental health in the pregnancy period) are also significant predictors. Sleep quantity does not vary much and is not sensitive to socioeconomic factors. Exposure to income-related inequalities affects child sleep. Further research is needed to understand if sleep in early life influences future health and economic trajectories. © Sleep Research Society 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Heterochronic opsin expression due to early light deprivation results in drastically shifted visual sensitivity in a cichlid fish: Possible role of thyroid hormone signaling.

    PubMed

    Karagic, Nidal; Härer, Andreas; Meyer, Axel; Torres-Dowdall, Julián

    2018-06-14

    During early ontogeny, visual opsin gene expression in cichlids is influenced by prevailing light regimen. Red light, for example, leads to an early switch from the expression of short-wavelength sensitive to long-wavelength sensitive opsins. Here, we address the influence of light deprivation on opsin expression. Individuals reared in constant darkness during the first 14 days post-hatching (dph) showed a general developmental delay compared with fish reared under a 12:12 hr light-dark cycle (control group). Several characters including pigmentation patterns and eye development, appeared later in dark-reared individuals. Quantitative real-time PCR and fluorescent in situ hybridization at six time points during the 14 days period revealed that fish from the control group expressed opsin genes from 5 dph on and maintained a short-wavelength sensitive phenotype (sws1, rh2b, and rh2a). Onset of opsin expression in dark-reared Midas cichlids was delayed by 4 days and visual sensitivity rapidly progressed toward a long-wavelength sensitive phenotype (sws2b, rh2a, and lws). Shifts in visual sensitivities toward longer wavelengths are mediated by thyroid hormone (TH) in many vertebrates. Compared to control fish, dark-reared individuals showed elevated dio3 expression levels - a validated proxy for TH concentration - suggesting higher circulating TH levels. Despite decelerated overall development, ontogeny of opsin gene expression was accelerated, resulting in retinae with long-wavelength shifted predicted sensitivities compared to light-reared individuals. Indirect evidence suggests that this was due to altered TH metabolism. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A Neurogenetics Approach to Defining Differential Susceptibility to Institutional Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brett, Zoe H.; Sheridan, Margaret; Humphreys, Kate; Smyke, Anna; Gleason, Mary Margaret; Fox, Nathan; Zeanah, Charles; Nelson, Charles; Drury, Stacy

    2015-01-01

    An individual's neurodevelopmental and cognitive sequelae to negative early experiences may, in part, be explained by genetic susceptibility. We examined whether extreme differences in the early caregiving environment, defined as exposure to severe psychosocial deprivation associated with institutional care compared to normative rearing,…

  16. Sunitinib Plus Androgen Deprivation and Radiation Therapy for Patients With Localized High-Risk Prostate Cancer: Results From a Multi-institutional Phase 1 Study

    SciTech Connect

    Corn, Paul G., E-mail: pcorn@mdanderson.org; Song, Danny Y.; Heath, Elisabeth

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of administering sunitinib in combination with androgen deprivation therapy and external-beam intensity modulated radiation therapy (XRT) in patients with localized high-risk prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Seventeen men with localized adenocarcinoma of the prostate with cT2c-cT4 or Gleason 8-10 or prostate-specific antigen >20 ng/mL received initial androgen deprivation (leuprolide 22.5 mg every 12 weeks plus oral bicalutamide 50 mg daily) for 4-8 weeks before oral sunitinib 12.5, 25, or 37.5 mg daily for 4 weeks as lead-in, then concurrently with and 4 weeks after XRT (75.6 Gy in 42 fractions to prostate and seminal vesicles).more » A 3+3 sequential dose-escalation design was used to assess the frequency of dose-limiting toxicity (DLT) and establish a maximal tolerated dose of sunitinib. Results: Sunitinib at 12.5- and 25-mg dose levels was well tolerated. The first 4 patients enrolled at 37.5 mg experienced a DLT during lead-in, and a drug interaction between sunitinib and bicalutamide was suspected. The protocol was revised and concurrent bicalutamide omitted. Of the next 3 patients enrolled at 37.5 mg, 2 of 3 receiving concurrent therapy experienced DLTs during radiation: grade 3 diarrhea and grade 3 proctitis, respectively. Only 1 of 7 patients completed sunitinib at 37.5 mg daily, whereas 3 of 3 patients (25 mg as starting dose) and 3 of 4 patients (25 mg as reduced dose) completed therapy. Conclusions: The feasibility of combined vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)/platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) inhibitor therapy, androgen deprivation, and radiation therapy for prostate cancer was established. Using a daily dosing regimen with lead-in, concurrent, and post-XRT therapy, the recommended phase 2 dose of sunitinib is 25 mg daily.« less

  17. Sensory deprivation due to otitis media episodes in early childhood and its effect at later age: A psychoacoustic and speech perception measure.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Hemanth Narayan; Koonoor, Vishal

    2016-11-01

    Past research has reported that children with repeated occurrences of otitis media at an early age have a negative impact on speech perception at a later age. The present study necessitates documenting the temporal and spectral processing on speech perception in noise from normal and atypical groups. The present study evaluated the relation between speech perception in noise and temporal; and spectral processing abilities in children with normal and atypical groups. The study included two experiments. In the first experiment, temporal resolution and frequency discrimination of listeners with normal group and three subgroups of atypical groups (had a history of OM) a) less than four episodes b) four to nine episodes and c) More than nine episodes during their chronological age of 6 months to 2 years) were evaluated using measures of temporal modulation transfer function and frequency discrimination test. In the second experiment, SNR 50 was evaluated on each group of study participants. All participants had normal hearing and middle ear status during the course of testing. Demonstrated that children with atypical group had significantly poorer modulation detection threshold, peak sensitivity and bandwidth; and frequency discrimination to each F0 than normal hearing listeners. Furthermore, there was a significant correlation seen between measures of temporal resolution; frequency discrimination and speech perception in noise. It infers atypical groups have significant impairment in extracting envelope as well as fine structure cues from the signal. The results supported the idea that episodes of OM before 2 years of agecan produce periods of sensory deprivation that alters the temporal and spectral skills which in turn has negative consequences on speech perception in noise. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Early postnatal development of electrophysiological and histological properties of sensory sural nerves in male rats that were maternally deprived and artificially reared: Role of tactile stimulation.

    PubMed

    Zempoalteca, Rene; Porras, Mercedes G; Moreno-Pérez, Suelem; Ramirez-Funez, Gabriela; Aguirre-Benítez, Elsa L; González Del Pliego, Margarita; Mariscal-Tovar, Silvia; Mendoza-Garrido, Maria E; Hoffman, Kurt Leroy; Jiménez-Estrada, Ismael; Melo, Angel I

    2018-04-01

    Early adverse experiences disrupt brain development and behavior, but little is known about how such experiences impact on the development of the peripheral nervous system. Recently, we found alterations in the electrophysiological and histological characteristics of the sensory sural (SU) nerve in maternally deprived, artificially reared (AR) adult male rats, as compared with maternally reared (MR) control rats. In the present study, our aim was to characterize the ontogeny of these alterations. Thus, male pups of four postnatal days (PND) were (1) AR group, (2) AR and received daily tactile stimulation to the body and anogenital region (AR-Tactile group); or (3) reared by their mother (MR group). At PND 7, 14, or 21, electrophysiological properties and histological characteristics of the SU nerves were assessed. At PND 7, the electrophysiological properties and most histological parameters of the SU nerve did not differ among MR, AR, and AR-Tactile groups. By contrast, at PND 14 and/or 21, the SU nerve of AR rats showed a lower CAP amplitude and area, and a significant reduction in myelin area and myelin thickness, which were accompanied by a reduction in axon area (day 21 only) compared to the nerves of MR rats. Tactile stimulation (AR-Tactile group) partially prevented most of these alterations. These results suggest that sensory cues from the mother and/or littermates during the first 7-14 PND are relevant for the proper development and function of the adult SU nerve. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 78: 351-362, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Professional Development of Preschool Teachers and Changing the Culture of the Institution of Early Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vujicic, Lidija; Camber Tambolaš, Akvilina

    2017-01-01

    The culture of institutions of early education is a strong network of customs, rules, norms and behaviours that affect the daily life and work of all its individuals. Consequently, the professional development of preschool teachers is not only an individual process of professional advancement, but also a process that changes the culture of the…

  20. Early Onset Ageing and Service Preparation in People with Intellectual Disabilities: Institutional Managers' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Wu, Chia-Ling; Lin, Pei-Ying; Lin, Lan-Ping; Chu, Cordia M.

    2011-01-01

    Although longevity among older adults with intellectual disabilities is increasing, there is limited information on their premature aging related health characteristics and how it may change with increasing age. The present paper provides information of the institutional manager's perception on early onset aging and service preparation for this…

  1. Onboarding Experiences: An Examination of Early Institutional Advancement Professionals' Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radosh, Meghan E.

    2013-01-01

    Onboarding is a new employee orientation process that is designed to formalize and socialize new hires to an organization, or in this case higher education institutions. The onboarding experience that many new employees have can shape employee views and first impressions of their new employer, and shape their early career path to stay or leave…

  2. A National Study of Student Early Alert Models at Four-Year Institutions of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Jill M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the state of student early alert models at nonprofit, four-year institutions of higher education through both quantitative and qualitative lenses. The use of these retention initiatives has become a much heralded practice on college campuses (Kuh, 2007a; Kuh 2007b; Seidman, 2005; Tinto, 2008). However,…

  3. Reactive attachment disorder following early maltreatment: systematic evidence beyond the institution.

    PubMed

    Kay, Catherine; Green, Jonathan

    2013-05-01

    Reactive Attachment Disorder (RAD) remains one of the least evidence-based areas of DSM and ICD nosology. Recent evidence from severely deprived institutional samples has informed review of RAD criteria for DSM-V; however, this data is not necessarily generalizable to expectable child environments in the developed world. We provide the first systematic study of this important syndrome in maltreated non-institutionalized adolescents from a high-income country. 153 high-risk adolescents in English out-of-home Looked After Care (LAC: mean age 174 months, SD 23, 52 % male) and 42 low-risk (LR) community controls (mean age 168 months, SD 18, 38 % male) were assessed for RAD behaviors. Data on maltreatment and care history were collected from social work reports and concurrent psychopathology from caregiver report. Triangulated data sources informed independent researcher ratings of adaptive functioning. LAC adolescents showed high prevalence of RAD behaviors. Factor analysis showed four symptom groups; Disinhibited Indiscriminate, Attention Seeking, Superficial Relationships and Unpredictability. RAD was associated with multiple maltreatment experience, earlier entry to care and increased rates of psychopathology. Superficial Relationships and Attention Seeking factors showed strong independent association with particularly pervasive functional impairment. Disinhibited RAD behaviors are identifiable with high prevalence in non-institutionalized high-risk adolescents. They are strongly associated with psychopathology and functional impairment. Retention of this subtype in DSM-V is supported. Findings on the inhibited subtype in adolescence are less persuasive. RAD behavior is a relevant marker of developmental impairment, has significant clinical implications and is deserving of further study within non-institutionalized risk populations.

  4. Deprivation-Specific Psychological Patterns: Effects of Institutional Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.; Beckett, Celia; Castle, Jennifer; Kreppner, Jana; Kumsta, Robert; Schlotz, Wolff; Stevens, Suzanne; Bell, Christopher A.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2010-01-01

    This monograph is concerned with the mid adolescent follow-up of a group of adoptees from Romania and from within the United Kingdom who were first assessed at the age of 4 years (or 6 years in the case of the oldest children). Chapter I provides the background as it applied at the time that the study began, and then goes on to outline the overall…

  5. Environmentally Deprived Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nimnicht, Glen

    This paper discusses the meaning of environmental deprivation, specifically the effects of racial, ethnic, and cultural differences on education. Objectives are also given for a Head Start and Follow Through program. A child is environmentally deprived to the extent that he has not developed his intellectual ability and a positive self-image.…

  6. Visiting Old Libraries: Scientific Books in the Religious Institutions of Early Modem Portugal.

    PubMed

    Giurgevich, Luana

    2016-08-01

    Knowledge of libraries and book collecting is a preliminary task for the characterisation of scientific culture and practice. In the case of Iberia, and especially Portugal, this is still a desideratum. This paper provides a first global look at this issue. In early modem Portugal religious institutions organised impressive collections of books, by far the largest in the country These libraries not only served the religious institutions themselves, but also supplied books to lesser libraries, such as the University Library of Coimbra and the Royal Library. The Portuguese book market mirrored the purchase and selection of books made by religious congregations. This was also true for the circulation of scientific books, which depended above all on the interests, choices and cultural relations of these most peculiar book collectors.

  7. Violent Crime, Sociopathy and Love Deprivation among Adolescent Delinquents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Anthony; Beyer, J. Arthur

    1987-01-01

    Examined relationships between performance-verbal (P-V) discrepancy scores on Wechsler Intelligence Quotient Scales, love deprivation, and juvenile delinquency among 131 male juvenile probationers. P-V discrepancy scores were significantly related to love deprivation and violent crimes, supporting assertion that early emotional stresses affect…

  8. Deprivation amblyopia and congenital hereditary cataract.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Behzad; Stacy, Rebecca C; Kruger, Joshua; Cestari, Dean M

    2013-01-01

    Amblyopia is a neurodevelopmental disorder of vision associated with decreased visual acuity, poor or absent stereopsis, and suppression of information from one eye.(1,2) Amblyopia may be caused by strabismus (strabismic amblyopia), refractive error (anisometropic amblyopia), or deprivation from obstructed vision (deprivation amblyopia). 1 In the developed world, amblyopia is the most common cause of childhood visual impairment, 3 which reduces quality of life 4 and also almost doubles the lifetime risk of legal blindness.(5, 6) Successful treatment of amblyopia greatly depends on early detection and treatment of predisposing disorders such as congenital cataract, which is the most common cause of deprivational amblyopia. Understanding the genetic causes of congenital cataract leads to more effective screening tests, early detection and treatment of infants and children who are at high risk for hereditary congenital cataract.

  9. Early onset ageing and service preparation in people with intellectual disabilities: institutional managers' perspective.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jin-Ding; Wu, Chia-Ling; Lin, Pei-Ying; Lin, Lan-Ping; Chu, Cordia M

    2011-01-01

    Although longevity among older adults with intellectual disabilities is increasing, there is limited information on their premature aging related health characteristics and how it may change with increasing age. The present paper provides information of the institutional manager's perception on early onset aging and service preparation for this population. We used purposive sampling to recruit 54 institutional managers who care for people with intellectual disabilities in Taiwan. The present study employed a cross-sectional design using a self-administrative structured questionnaire that was completed by the respondents in November 2009. The results showed that more than 90% of the respondents agreed with earlier onset aging characteristics of people with ID. However, nearly all of the respondents expressed that the government policies were inadequate and the institution is not capable of caring for aging people with ID, and more than half of them did not satisfy to their provisional care for this group of people. With regard to the service priority of government aging policy for people with ID, the respondent expressed that medical care, financial support, daily living care were the main areas in the future policy development for them. The factors of institutional type, expressed adequacy of government's service, respondent's job position, age, and working years in disability service were variables that can significantly predict the positive perceptions toward future governmental aging services for people with ID (adjusted R(2) = 0.563). We suggest that the future study strategy should underpin the aging characteristics of people with intellectual disabilities and its differences with general population to provide the useful information for the institutional caregivers. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of strategic early-morning caffeine gum administration on association between salivary alpha-amylase and neurobehavioural performance during 50 h of sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Pajcin, Maja; White, Jason M; Banks, Siobhan; Dorrian, Jill; Paech, Gemma M; Grant, Crystal L; Johnson, Kayla; Tooley, Katie; Aidman, Eugene; Fidock, Justin; Kamimori, Gary H; Della Vedova, Chris B

    2018-02-02

    Self-assessment is the most common method for monitoring performance and safety in the workplace. However, discrepancies between subjective and objective measures have increased interest in physiological assessment of performance. In a double-blind placebo-controlled study, 23 healthy adults were randomly assigned to either a placebo (n = 11; 5 F, 6 M) or caffeine condition (n = 12; 4 F, 8 M) while undergoing 50 h (i.e. two days) of total sleep deprivation. In previous work, higher salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) levels were associated with improved psychomotor vigilance and simulated driving performance in the placebo condition. In this follow-up article, the effects of strategic caffeine administration on the previously reported diurnal profiles of sAA and performance, and the association between sAA and neurobehavioural performance were investigated. Participants were given a 10 h baseline sleep opportunity (monitored via standard polysomnography techniques) prior to undergoing sleep deprivation (total sleep time: placebo = 8.83 ± 0.48 h; caffeine = 9.01 ± 0.48 h). During sleep deprivation, caffeine gum (200 mg) was administered at 01:00 h, 03:00 h, 05:00 h, and 07:00 h to participants in the caffeine condition (n = 12). This strategic administration of caffeine gum (200 mg) has been shown to be effective at maintaining cognitive performance during extended wakefulness. Saliva samples were collected, and psychomotor vigilance and simulated driving performance assessed at three-hour intervals throughout wakefulness. Caffeine effects on diurnal variability were compared with previously reported findings in the placebo condition (n = 11). The impact of caffeine on the circadian profile of sAA coincided with changes in neurobehavioural performance. Higher sAA levels were associated with improved performance on the psychomotor vigilance test during the first 24 h of wakefulness in the caffeine condition

  11. Effects of Perinatal HIV Infection and Early Institutional Rearing on Physical and Cognitive Development of Children in Ukraine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobrova-Krol, Natasha A.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Juffer, Femmie

    2010-01-01

    To study the effects of perinatal HIV-1 infection and early institutional rearing on the physical and cognitive development of children, 64 Ukrainian uninfected and HIV-infected institutionalized and family-reared children were examined (mean age = 50.9 months). Both HIV infection and institutional care were related to delays in physical and…

  12. Infant Face Preferences after Binocular Visual Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondloch, Catherine J.; Lewis, Terri L.; Levin, Alex V.; Maurer, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    Early visual deprivation impairs some, but not all, aspects of face perception. We investigated the possible developmental roots of later abnormalities by using a face detection task to test infants treated for bilateral congenital cataract within 1 hour of their first focused visual input. The seven patients were between 5 and 12 weeks old…

  13. A New Model to Study Sleep Deprivation-Induced Seizure

    PubMed Central

    Lucey, Brendan P.; Leahy, Averi; Rosas, Regine; Shaw, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Study Objectives: A relationship between sleep and seizures is well-described in both humans and rodent animal models; however, the mechanism underlying this relationship is unknown. Using Drosophila melanogaster mutants with seizure phenotypes, we demonstrate that seizure activity can be modified by sleep deprivation. Design: Seizure activity was evaluated in an adult bang-sensitive seizure mutant, stress sensitive B (sesB9ed4), and in an adult temperature sensitive seizure mutant seizure (seits1) under baseline and following 12 h of sleep deprivation. The long-term effect of sleep deprivation on young, immature sesB9ed4 flies was also assessed. Setting: Laboratory. Participants: Drosophila melanogaster. Interventions: Sleep deprivation. Measurements and Results: Sleep deprivation increased seizure susceptibility in adult sesB9ed4/+ and seits1 mutant flies. Sleep deprivation also increased seizure susceptibility when sesB was disrupted using RNAi. The effect of sleep deprivation on seizure activity was reduced when sesB9ed4/+ flies were given the anti-seizure drug, valproic acid. In contrast to adult flies, sleep deprivation during early fly development resulted in chronic seizure susceptibility when sesB9ed4/+ became adults. Conclusions: These findings show that Drosophila is a model organism for investigating the relationship between sleep and seizure activity. Citation: Lucey BP, Leahy A, Rosas R, Shaw PJ. A new model to study sleep deprivation-induced seizure. SLEEP 2015;38(5):777–785. PMID:25515102

  14. Multi-institutional analysis of early squamous cell carcinoma of the hypopharynx treated with radical radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Katsumasa; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Kawashima, Mitsuhiko

    2006-07-15

    Purpose: To analyze the outcomes of patients with early hypopharyngeal cancer treated with radical radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Ten institutions combined the data from 115 patients with Stage I-II hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma treated with definitive RT between 1990 and 2001. The median patient age was 67 years; 99 patients were men and 16 were women. Of the 115 patients, 39 had Stage I and 76 had Stage II disease. Conventional fractionation was used in 98 patients and twice-daily RT in 17 patients; chemotherapy was combined with RT in 57 patients. The median follow-up period was 47 months. Results:more » The overall and disease-specific 5-year survival rate for 95 patients without synchronous malignancies was 66.0% and 77.4%, respectively. The 5-year disease-specific survival rate by T stage was 95.8% for patients with T1 disease and 70.1% for patients with T2 disease (p = 0.02). Of the 115 patients, local control with laryngeal voice preservation was achieved in 34 of 39 patients with T1 lesions, including 7 patients successfully salvaged, and in 56 of 76 patients with T2 lesions. Sixty-five patients (56.5%) had synchronous or metachronous cancers. Of the 115 patients, 19 died of hypopharyngeal cancer, 10 died of second primary cancers, and 14 died of other causes during the study and follow-up periods. Conclusions: Patients with early hypopharyngeal cancer tended to have a good prognosis after RT. However, second malignancies had an adverse effect on the overall outcomes of patients with early hypopharyngeal cancer.« less

  15. Interocular suppression in children with deprivation amblyopia.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Lisa; Chen, Zidong; Li, Jinrong; Black, Joanna; Dai, Shuan; Yuan, Junpeng; Yu, Minbin; Thompson, Benjamin

    2017-04-01

    In patients with anisometropic or strabismic amblyopia, interocular suppression can be minimized by presenting high contrast stimulus elements to the amblyopic eye and lower contrast elements to the fellow eye. This suggests a structurally intact binocular visual system that is functionally suppressed. We investigated whether suppression can also be overcome by contrast balancing in children with deprivation amblyopia due to childhood cataracts. To quantify interocular contrast balance, contrast interference thresholds were measured using an established dichoptic global motion technique for 21 children with deprivation amblyopia, 14 with anisometropic or mixed strabismic/anisometropic amblyopia and 10 visually normal children (mean age mean=9.9years, range 5-16years). We found that interocular suppression could be overcome by contrast balancing in most children with deprivation amblyopia, at least intermittently, and all children with anisometropic or mixed anisometropic/strabismic amblyopia. However, children with deprivation amblyopia due to early unilateral or bilateral cataracts could tolerate only very low contrast levels to the stronger eye indicating strong suppression. Our results suggest that treatment options reliant on contrast balanced dichoptic presentation could be attempted in a subset of children with deprivation amblyopia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical abnormalities, early intervention program of Down syndrome children: Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health experience.

    PubMed

    Fuengfoo, Adidsuda; Sakulnoom, Kim

    2014-06-01

    Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health is a tertiary institute of children in Thailand, where early intervention programs have been provided since 1990 by multidisciplinary approach especially in Down syndrome children. This aim of the present study is to follow the impact of early intervention on the outcome of Down syndrome children. The school attendance number of Down syndrome children was compared between regular early intervention and non-regular early intervention. The present study group consists of 210 Down syndrome children who attended early intervention programs at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health between June 2008 and January 2012. Data include clinical features, school attendance developmental quotient (DQ) at 3 years of age using Capute Scales Cognitive Adaptive Test/Scale (CAT/CLAMS). Developmental milestones have been recorded as to the time of appearance of gross motor, fine motor, language, personal-social development compared to those non-regular intervention patients. Of 210 Down syndrome children, 117 were boys and 93 were girls. About 87% received regular intervention, 68% attended speech training. Mean DQ at 3 years of age was 65. Of the 184 children who still did follow-up at developmental department, 124 children (59%) attended school: mainstream school children 78 (63%) and special school children 46 (37%). The mean age at entrance to school was 5.8 ± 1.4 years. The school attendance was correlated with maternal education and regular early intervention attendance. Regular early intervention starts have proven to have a positive effect on development. The school attendance number of Down syndrome children receiving regular early intervention was statistically and significantly higher than the number of Down syndrome children receiving non-regular early intervention was. School attendance correlated with maternal education and attended regularly early intervention. Regular early intervention together with maternal

  17. "Look, I Have My Ears Open": Resilience and Early School Experiences among Children in an Economically Deprived Suburban Area in Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tatlow-Golden, Mimi; O'Farrelly, Christine; Booth, Ailbhe; O'Rourke, Claire; Doyle, Orla

    2016-01-01

    Children from economically disadvantaged communities frequently lack the socio-emotional, cognitive and behavioural skills needed for successful early school adjustment. Assessments of early school experience often rely on parent and teacher perspectives, yet children's views are essential to design effective, resilience-promoting school…

  18. Are You Sleep Deprived?

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Sleep Disorders Are You Sleep Deprived? Past Issues / Summer 2015 Table of Contents ... even if you think you've had enough sleep? You might have a sleep disorder. There are ...

  19. A new model to study sleep deprivation-induced seizure.

    PubMed

    Lucey, Brendan P; Leahy, Averi; Rosas, Regine; Shaw, Paul J

    2015-05-01

    A relationship between sleep and seizures is well-described in both humans and rodent animal models; however, the mechanism underlying this relationship is unknown. Using Drosophila melanogaster mutants with seizure phenotypes, we demonstrate that seizure activity can be modified by sleep deprivation. Seizure activity was evaluated in an adult bang-sensitive seizure mutant, stress sensitive B (sesB(9ed4)), and in an adult temperature sensitive seizure mutant seizure (sei(ts1)) under baseline and following 12 h of sleep deprivation. The long-term effect of sleep deprivation on young, immature sesB(9ed4) flies was also assessed. Laboratory. Drosophila melanogaster. Sleep deprivation. Sleep deprivation increased seizure susceptibility in adult sesB(9ed4)/+ and sei(ts1) mutant flies. Sleep deprivation also increased seizure susceptibility when sesB was disrupted using RNAi. The effect of sleep deprivation on seizure activity was reduced when sesB(9ed4)/+ flies were given the anti-seizure drug, valproic acid. In contrast to adult flies, sleep deprivation during early fly development resulted in chronic seizure susceptibility when sesB(9ed4)/+ became adults. These findings show that Drosophila is a model organism for investigating the relationship between sleep and seizure activity. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  20. Colon preneoplasia after carcinogen exposure is enhanced and colonic serotonergic system is suppressed by food deprivation.

    PubMed

    Kannen, Vinicius; Fernandes, Cleverson R; Stopper, Helga; Zanette, Dalila L; Ferreira, Frederico R; Frajacomo, Fernando T; Carvalho, Milene C; Brandão, Marcus L; Elias Junior, Jorge; Jordão Junior, Alceu Afonso; Uyemura, Sérgio Akira; Waaga-Gasser, Ana Maria; Garcia, Sérgio B

    2013-10-04

    Calorie restriction regimens usually promote health and extend life-span in mammals. This is partially related to their preventive effects against malignancies. However, certain types of nutritional restriction failed to induce beneficial effects. The American Institute of Nutrition defines calorie restriction as diets which have only 40% fewer calories, but provide normal amounts of necessary food components such as protein, vitamins and minerals; whereas, food restriction means 40% less of all dietary ingredients plus 40% less calories. Our study aimed to test the hypothesis that the latter type of food deprivation (40% less food than consumed by standard fed rats) might increase cancer risk instead of reducing it, as is generally assumed for all dietary restrictive regimens. Since the endogenous modulation of the colon serotonergic system has been observed to play a role during the early steps of carcinogenesis we also investigated whether the serotoninergic system could be involved in the food intake modulation of cancer risk. For this, rats were exposed to a carcinogen and subjected to food deprivation for 56 days. Triglyceride levels and visceral adipose tissue were reduced while hepatic and colonic lipid peroxidation was increased. This dietary restriction also decreased serotonin levels in colon, and gene expression of its intestinal transporter and receptors. Finally, the numbers of preneoplastic lesions in the colon tissue of carcinogen-exposed rats were increased. Our data suggest that food deprivation enhances formation of early tumorigenic lesions by suppressing serotonergic activity in colon tissue. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. How Can We Retain Them? An Investigation into the Early Cancellation of Courses in a Distance Learning Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Schoor, W. A.; Potgieter, D.

    2011-01-01

    Throughput and retention are important issues in higher education in South Africa mainly due to the stronger emphasis on accountability from funding agencies like the Department of Education. This study, which is set in a distance education institution, was aimed at understanding why students cancel courses early on in the academic year. A…

  2. 77 FR 52704 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Institute of Education Sciences; Early Childhood...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Institute of Education Sciences... for Education Statistics (NCES) within the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) of the U.S... Statistics (NCES) within the Institute of Education Sciences (IES) of the U.S. Department of Education (ED...

  3. Contrast-balanced binocular treatment in children with deprivation amblyopia.

    PubMed

    Hamm, Lisa M; Chen, Zidong; Li, Jinrong; Dai, Shuan; Black, Joanna; Yuan, Junpeng; Yu, Minbin; Thompson, Benjamin

    2017-11-28

    Children with deprivation amblyopia due to childhood cataract have been excluded from much of the emerging research into amblyopia treatment. An investigation was conducted to determine whether contrast-balanced binocular treatment - a strategy currently being explored for children with anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia - may be effective in children with deprivation amblyopia. An unmasked, case-series design intended to assess proof of principle was employed. Eighteen children with deprivation amblyopia due to childhood cataracts (early bilateral n = 7, early unilateral n = 7, developmental n = 4), as well as 10 children with anisometropic (n = 8) or mixed anisometropic and strabismic amblyopia (n = 2) were prescribed one hour a day of treatment over a six-week period. Supervised treatment was available. Visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, global motion perception and interocular suppression were measured pre- and post-treatment. Visual acuity improvements occurred in the anisometropic/strabismic group (0.15 ± 0.05 logMAR, p = 0.014), but contrast sensitivity did not change. As a group, children with deprivation amblyopia had a smaller but statistically significant improvement in weaker eye visual acuity (0.09 ± 0.03 logMAR, p = 0.004), as well a significant improvement in weaker eye contrast sensitivity (p = 0.004). Subgroup analysis suggested that the children with early bilateral deprivation had the largest improvements, while children with early unilateral cataract did not improve. Interestingly, binocular contrast sensitivity also improved in children with early bilateral deprivation. Global motion perception improved for both subgroups with early visual deprivation, as well as children with anisometropic or mixed anisometropic/strabismic amblyopia. Interocular suppression improved for all subgroups except children with early unilateral deprivation. These data suggest that supervised contrast-balanced binocular

  4. Investigating the Impact of Early Institutional Deprivation on Development: Background and Research Strategy of the English and Romanian Adoptees (ERA) Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael; Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J.; Castle, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This monograph is concerned with the mid adolescent follow-up of a group of adoptees from Romania and from within the United Kingdom who were first assessed at the age of 4 years (or 6 years in the case of the oldest children). After describing the structure of this monograph, this chapter provides the background as it applied at the time that the…

  5. Molecular adaptations to phosphorus deprivation and comparison with nitrogen deprivation responses in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    PubMed

    Alipanah, Leila; Winge, Per; Rohloff, Jens; Najafi, Javad; Brembu, Tore; Bones, Atle M

    2018-01-01

    Phosphorus, an essential element for all living organisms, is a limiting nutrient in many regions of the ocean due to its fast recycling. Changes in phosphate (Pi) availability in aquatic systems affect diatom growth and productivity. We investigated the early adaptive mechanisms in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum to P deprivation using a combination of transcriptomics, metabolomics, physiological and biochemical experiments. Our analysis revealed strong induction of gene expression for proteins involved in phosphate acquisition and scavenging, and down-regulation of processes such as photosynthesis, nitrogen assimilation and nucleic acid and ribosome biosynthesis. P deprivation resulted in alterations of carbon allocation through the induction of the pentose phosphate pathway and cytosolic gluconeogenesis, along with repression of the Calvin cycle. Reorganization of cellular lipids was indicated by coordinated induced expression of phospholipases, sulfolipid biosynthesis enzymes and a putative betaine lipid biosynthesis enzyme. A comparative analysis of nitrogen- and phosphorus-deprived P. tricornutum revealed both common and distinct regulation patterns in response to phosphate and nitrate stress. Regulation of central carbon metabolism and amino acid metabolism was similar, whereas unique responses were found in nitrogen assimilation and phosphorus scavenging in nitrogen-deprived and phosphorus-deprived cells, respectively.

  6. Positive valence bias and parent-child relationship security moderate the association between early institutional caregiving and internalizing symptoms

    PubMed Central

    VanTieghem, Michelle R.; Gabard-Durnam, Laurel; Goff, Bonnie; Flannery, Jessica; Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Telzer, Eva H.; Caldera, Christina; Louie, Jennifer Y.; Shapiro, Mor; Bolger, Niall; Tottenham, Nim

    2018-01-01

    Institutional caregiving is associated with significant deviations from species-expected caregiving, altering the normative sequence of attachment formation and placing children at risk for long-term emotional difficulties. However, little is known about factors that can promote resilience following early institutional caregiving. In the current study, we investigated how adaptations in affective processing (i.e. positive valence bias) and family-level protective factors (i.e. secure parent-child relationships) moderate risk for internalizing symptoms in Previously Institutionalized (PI) youth. Children and adolescents with and without a history of institutional care performed a laboratory-based affective processing task and self-reported measures of parent-child relationship security. PI youth were more likely than comparison youth to show positive valence biases when interpreting ambiguous facial expressions. Both positive valence bias and parent-child relationship security moderated the association between institutional care and parent-reported internalizing symptoms, such that greater positive valence bias and more secure parent-child relationships predicted fewer symptoms in PI youth. However, when both factors were tested concurrently, parent-child relationship security more strongly moderated the link between PI status and internalizing symptoms. These findings suggest that both individual-level adaptations in affective processing and family-level factors of secure parent-child relationships may ameliorate risk for internalizing psychopathology following early institutional caregiving. PMID:28401841

  7. Positive valence bias and parent-child relationship security moderate the association between early institutional caregiving and internalizing symptoms.

    PubMed

    Vantieghem, Michelle R; Gabard-Durnam, Laurel; Goff, Bonnie; Flannery, Jessica; Humphreys, Kathryn L; Telzer, Eva H; Caldera, Christina; Louie, Jennifer Y; Shapiro, Mor; Bolger, Niall; Tottenham, Nim

    2017-05-01

    Institutional caregiving is associated with significant deviations from species-expected caregiving, altering the normative sequence of attachment formation and placing children at risk for long-term emotional difficulties. However, little is known about factors that can promote resilience following early institutional caregiving. In the current study, we investigated how adaptations in affective processing (i.e., positive valence bias) and family-level protective factors (i.e., secure parent-child relationships) moderate risk for internalizing symptoms in previously institutionalized (PI) youth. Children and adolescents with and without a history of institutional care performed a laboratory-based affective processing task and self-reported measures of parent-child relationship security. PI youth were more likely than comparison youth to show positive valence biases when interpreting ambiguous facial expressions. Both positive valence bias and parent-child relationship security moderated the association between institutional care and parent-reported internalizing symptoms, such that greater positive valence bias and more secure parent-child relationships predicted fewer symptoms in PI youth. However, when both factors were tested concurrently, parent-child relationship security more strongly moderated the link between PI status and internalizing symptoms. These findings suggest that both individual-level adaptations in affective processing and family-level factors of secure parent-child relationships may ameliorate risk for internalizing psychopathology following early institutional caregiving.

  8. Early maladaptive schemas of emotional deprivation, social isolation, shame and abandonment are related to a history of suicide attempts among patients with major depressive disorders.

    PubMed

    Ahmadpanah, Mohammad; Astinsadaf, Sommayyeh; Akhondi, Amineh; Haghighi, Mohammad; Sadeghi Bahmani, Dena; Nazaribadie, Marzieh; Jahangard, Leila; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Brand, Serge

    2017-08-01

    Patients with psychiatric disorders have an exceptionally high risk of completed or attempted suicide. This holds particularly true for patients with major depressive disorders. The aim of the present study was to explore whether patients with major depressive disorders (MDD) and a history of suicide attempts differed in their early maladaptive schemas from patients with MDD but without such a history or from healthy controls. Ninety participants took part in the study. Of these, 30 were patients with MDD who had made a recent suicide attempt; 30 were patients with MDD but no suicide attempts, and 30 were gender- and age-matched healthy controls. Participants completed questionnaires covering socio-demographic characteristics and the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ- RE2R) to assess early maladaptive schemas. Experts rated patients' MDD with the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale. Patients did not differ in experts' ratings of symptoms of depression. Compared to healthy controls, patients with MDD recorded higher scores on maladaptive schemas such as recognition seeking, negativity/pessimism, and insufficient self-control. Compared to patients without suicide attempts and healthy controls, those who had made a suicide attempt had higher scores on dimensions such as failure, mistrust, emotional inhibition, social isolation, and abandonment/instability. Compared to healthy controls, patients with MDD had more pronounced maladaptive schemas, but this was more marked in patients with a history of suicide attempts. The results suggest that suicide attempts and poorer psychological functioning are related. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The effects of sleep deprivation on dissociable prototype learning systems.

    PubMed

    Maddox, W Todd; Glass, Brian D; Zeithamova, Dagmar; Savarie, Zachary R; Bowen, Christopher; Matthews, Michael D; Schnyer, David M

    2011-03-01

    The cognitive neural underpinnings of prototype learning are becoming clear. Evidence points to 2 different neural systems, depending on the learning parameters. A/not-A (AN) prototype learning is mediated by posterior brain regions that are involved in early perceptual learning, whereas A/B (AB) is mediated by frontal and medial temporal lobe regions. To investigate the effects of sleep deprivation on AN and AB prototype learning and to use established prototype models to provide insights into the cognitive-processing locus of sleep-deprivation deficits. Participants performed an AN and an AB prototype learning task twice, separated by a 24-hour period, with or without sleep between testing sessions. Eighteen West Point cadets participated in the sleep-deprivation group, and 17 West Point cadets participated in a control group. Sleep deprivation led to an AN, but not an AB, performance deficit. Prototype model analyses indicated that the AN deficit was due to changes in attentional focus and a decrease in confidence that is reflected in an increased bias to respond non-A. The findings suggest that AN, but not AB, prototype learning is affected by sleep deprivation. Prototype model analyses support the notion that the effect of sleep deprivation on AN is consistent with lapses in attentional focus that are more detrimental to AN than to AB. This finding adds to a growing body of work that suggests that different performance changes associated with sleep deprivation can be attributed to a common mechanism of changes in simple attention and vigilance.

  10. Anatomy in Cologne--Institutional development and body supply from the Weimar Republic to the early post-war period.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Stephanie; Gross, Dominik

    2015-07-01

    The Anatomical Institute of the University of Cologne was founded in 1925. This paper highlights its institutional development and the sources from which it procured bodies for dissection. A comparison is drawn between the first years of the institute's existence during the Weimar Republic (1925-1932) and its rebuilding after war damage in the early post-war period (1947-1954). The institute and its procurement of bodies have not previously been investigated for these two time periods. The Third Reich, for which a detailed study already exists, will be mentioned as well to allow better evaluation of the periods before and after National Socialism. Based on newly evaluated archival material and body journals which will be examined both quantitatively and qualitatively, it becomes apparent that the Cologne institute experienced a chronic shortage of bodies both during the Weimar Republic and the first post-war decade (even though the delivery facilities were mostly the same). However, the situation of the institute in terms of structure, organization and personnel as well as body supply in the aftermath of World War II proved much more challenging than during the time of the Weimar Republic. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Loss of Neurofilament Labeling in the Primary Visual Cortex of Monocularly Deprived Monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, Kevin R.; Livingstone, Margaret S.

    2009-01-01

    Visual experience during early life is important for the development of neural organizations that support visual function. Closing one eye (monocular deprivation) during this sensitive period can cause a reorganization of neural connections within the visual system that leaves the deprived eye functionally disconnected. We have assessed the pattern of neurofilament labeling in monocularly deprived macaque monkeys to examine the possibility that a cytoskeleton change contributes to deprivation-induced reorganization of neural connections within the primary visual cortex (V-1). Monocular deprivation for three months starting around the time of birth caused a significant loss of neurofilament labeling within deprived-eye ocular dominance columns. Three months of monocular deprivation initiated in adulthood did not produce a loss of neurofilament labeling. The evidence that neurofilament loss was found only when deprivation occurred during the sensitive period supports the notion that the loss permits restructuring of deprived-eye neural connections within the visual system. These results provide evidence that, in addition to reorganization of LGN inputs, the intrinsic circuitry of V-1 neurons is altered when monocular deprivation occurs early in development. PMID:15563721

  12. Response deprivation, reinforcement, and economics

    PubMed Central

    Allison, James

    1993-01-01

    Reinforcement of an instrumental response results not from a special kind of response consequence known as a reinforcer, but from a special kind of schedule known as a response-deprivation schedule. Under the requirements of a response-deprivation schedule, the baseline rate of the instrumental response permits less than the baseline rate of the contingent response. Because reinforcement occurs only if the schedule deprives the organism of the contingent response, reinforcement cannot result from any intrinsic property of the contingent response or any property relative to the instrumental response. Two typical effects of response-deprivation schedules—facilitation of the instrumental response and suppression of the contingent response—are discussed in terms of economic concepts and models of instrumental performance. It is suggested that response deprivation makes the contingent response function as an economic good, the instrumental response as currency. PMID:16812695

  13. The Confluence of Adverse Early Experience and Puberty on the Cortisol Awakening Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quevedo, Karina; Johnson, Anna E.; Loman, Michelle L.; LaFavor, Theresa L.; Gunnar, Megan

    2012-01-01

    Associations between early deprivation/neglect in the form of institutional care with the cortisol awakening response (CAR) were examined as a function of pubertal status among 12- and 13-year-old postinstitutionalized youth. CARs indexed hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical reactivity. Postinstitutionalized youth were compared to youth adopted…

  14. Early Childhood Education Intervention Programs in the Netherlands: Still Searching for Empirical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driessen, Geert

    2018-01-01

    Early childhood education (ECE) intervention programs nowadays are the core of the educational disadvantage policy in the Netherlands. They offer institutional compensatory activities to young children who lack educational stimulation in the home environment. Target groups mainly comprise children from deprived socioeconomic backgrounds and of…

  15. Beyond Stimulus Deprivation: Iron Deficiency and Cognitive Deficits in Postinstitutionalized Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doom, Jenalee R.; Gunnar, Megan R.; Georgieff, Michael K.; Kroupina, Maria G.; Frenn, Kristin; Fuglestad, Anita J.; Carlson, Stephanie M.

    2014-01-01

    Children adopted from institutions have been studied as models of the impact of stimulus deprivation on cognitive development (Nelson, Bos, Gunnar, & Sonuga-Barke, 2011), but these children may also suffer from micronutrient deficiencies (Fuglestad et al., 2008). The contributions of iron deficiency (ID) and duration of deprivation on…

  16. 77 FR 52702 - Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Institute of Education Sciences; Early Childhood...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Notice of Submission for OMB Review; Institute of Education Sciences... Education Sciences (IES) of the U.S. Department of Education (ED), is a survey that focuses on children's... or mailed to U.S. Department of Education, 400 Maryland Avenue SW, LBJ, Washington, DC 20202-4537...

  17. Early Childhood Institute Proceedings (1st, Tifton, Georgia, September 18, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Cooperative Extension Service.

    Included in this proceedings is a schedule of activities and the text of addresses made at a one-day institute for educators. Dr. Asa Hilliard of Georgia State University delivered the keynote address, which focused on the power of teaching to make a difference. Ten additional topics were addressed in four subsequent sessions. Papers given in the…

  18. A National Study of Student Early Alert Programs at Two-Year Institutions of Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Darla Michelle Keel

    2012-01-01

    Approximately half of students at the community college level leave the institution before degree completion. Community college students are more likely than four-year students to be first-generation students, attend school part-time, be less prepared academically, work full-time, have family responsibilities, and have entered college later in…

  19. When Texts Become Action. The Institutional Circuit of Early Childhood Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsen, Ann Christin E.

    2017-01-01

    Building on ideals of social cohesion, equality of opportunities and socio-economic benefits, there has been an increasing awareness in Norway of kindergarten employees' responsibility to initiate early childhood intervention. The process of identifying children in need of intervention involves a complex chain of actions in which documentation is…

  20. Social Inequalities in Early School Leaving: The Role of Educational Institutions and the Socioeconomic Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavrijsen, Jeroen; Nicaise, Ides

    2015-01-01

    Reducing the number of early school leavers, those who quit education without at least a high school degree, is a key objective of educational policy throughout Europe. Previous research has shown that in particular youngsters from disadvantaged families face relatively high risks of school dropout. In this paper we use data from the 2009 ad hoc…

  1. Characteristics of Early Recipients of Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute Funding.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Stephany; Bazemore, Andrew; Merenstein, Daniel

    2016-04-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) is grounded in the goals of increasing access, improving quality, and reducing cost in the U.S. health care system. The ACA established the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute (PCORI) to help accomplish these goals through patient-focused research. PCORI has a different charge than its federally supported counterpart, the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-to fund research that ultimately helps patients make better-informed health care decisions. The authors examined characteristics of the recipients and settings of the first six rounds of PCORI funding and differentiated PCORI and NIH funding patterns to analyze the extent to which PCORI is accomplishing the goals set out by the ACA. The authors performed a retrospective review of publicly available datasets, supplemented by a short questionnaire to funded PCORI principal investigators (PIs). The authors analyzed PCORI's first six funding cycles (2011-2014) and data on NIH funding patterns (2000-2013) to determine whether PCORI and NIH funding patterns differed by investigator, department, and institution, and whether PCORI had funded research in primary care settings. The authors found that PCORI is funding a more diverse cadre of PIs and biomedical departments than is NIH, but not a greater diversity of institutions, and that less than one-third of PCORI studies involve or are relevant to primary care--the largest patient care platform in the United States. As PCORI looks to be refunded, it is important that research funding is further evaluated and publicly acknowledged to assess whether goals are being achieved.

  2. The varying influence of socioeconomic deprivation on breast cancer screening uptake in London.

    PubMed

    Jack, Ruth H; Robson, Tony; Davies, Elizabeth A

    2016-06-01

    We assessed the relationship between screening uptake and socioeconomic deprivation for London women aged 50-52 invited to their first routine screening appointment between 2006 and 2009. We examined uptake for London overall and within six screening areas, using deprivation quintile, based on post code of residence. After adjustment for age, area and ethnicity, overall uptake decreased with increasing deprivation (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.95, P < 0.001). However, in two screening areas with lower uptake, women living in deprived areas had higher uptake than women from affluent areas. These potential inequalities in early diagnosis across London require further investigation. © Crown copyright 2015.

  3. Adult Visual Experience Promotes Recovery of Primary Visual Cortex from Long-Term Monocular Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Quentin S.; Aleem, Salman; Zhou, Hongyi; Pham, Tony A.

    2007-01-01

    Prolonged visual deprivation from early childhood to maturity is believed to cause permanent visual impairment. However, there have been case reports of substantial improvement of binocular vision in human adults following lifelong visual impairment or deprivation. These observations, together with recent findings of adult ocular dominance…

  4. Social Competence of Adult Chimpanzees ("Pan troglodytes") with Severe Deprivation History: I. An Individual Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalcher-Sommersguter, Elfriede; Preuschoft, Signe; Crailsheim, Karl; Franz, Cornelia

    2011-01-01

    Early social deprivation in highly social mammals interferes with their varying needs for security and stimulation. Toleration of social stimulation was studied in 18 adult ex-laboratory chimpanzees, who had been deprived for 16 to 27 years, during their 1st year after resocialization into 1 of 3 social groups. For this, a model of social…

  5. The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Dissociable Prototype Learning Systems

    PubMed Central

    Maddox, W. Todd; Glass, Brian D.; Zeithamova, Dagmar; Savarie, Zachary R.; Bowen, Christopher; Matthews, Michael D.; Schnyer, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The cognitive neural underpinnings of prototype learning are becoming clear. Evidence points to 2 different neural systems, depending on the learning parameters. A/not-A (AN) prototype learning is mediated by posterior brain regions that are involved in early perceptual learning, whereas A/B (AB) is mediated by frontal and medial temporal lobe regions. Study Objectives: To investigate the effects of sleep deprivation on AN and AB prototype learning and to use established prototype models to provide insights into the cognitive-processing locus of sleep-deprivation deficits. Design: Participants performed an AN and an AB prototype learning task twice, separated by a 24-hour period, with or without sleep between testing sessions. Participants: Eighteen West Point cadets participated in the sleep-deprivation group, and 17 West Point cadets participated in a control group. Measurements and Results: Sleep deprivation led to an AN, but not an AB, performance deficit. Prototype model analyses indicated that the AN deficit was due to changes in attentional focus and a decrease in confidence that is reflected in an increased bias to respond non-A. Conclusions: The findings suggest that AN, but not AB, prototype learning is affected by sleep deprivation. Prototype model analyses support the notion that the effect of sleep deprivation on AN is consistent with lapses in attentional focus that are more detrimental to AN than to AB. This finding adds to a growing body of work that suggests that different performance changes associated with sleep deprivation can be attributed to a common mechanism of changes in simple attention and vigilance. Citation: Maddox WT; Glass BD; Zeithamova D; Savarie ZR; Bowen C; Matthews MD; Schnyer DM. The effects of sleep deprivation on dissociable prototype learning systems. SLEEP 2011;34(3):253-260. PMID:21358842

  6. Working for citizenship: the dangers of occupational deprivation.

    PubMed

    Hocking, Clare

    2012-01-01

    To examine published case examples of occupational deprivation in relation to Wilcock's 1989 theoretical proposal that it is caused by economic and political systems, institutional policies, or advances in technology that displace workers. Eleven accounts of occupational deprivation centering on access to or maintenance of a work role. A thematic review of articles reporting access to or maintenance of a worker role as a major concern were located in an electronic search of multiple databases using the keyword `occupational deprivation'. While no examples pertaining to technological change were located, legislation enacted to protect national security or redress the ongoing affects of colonisation, a philosophy of punishing prisoners, and healthcare and employment structures were identified as causes of occupational deprivation. Economic and political systems and institutional policies are confirmed to cause occupational deprivation of worker roles in prison and indigenous populations, migrant workers and older female immigrants, young women displaced by war, refugees and asylum seekers, and people with disabilities. The ongoing economic burden of wasting human potential and the loss of cultural practices that support productive occupations are two negative outcomes.

  7. Economic Deprivation and Early Childhood Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Greg J.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined the relationship between poverty and children's developmental outcomes, the effects of the timing and duration of poverty, and the effects of poverty at the family and neighborhood level, analyzing data from two longitudinal surveys. Found that poverty status was strongly related to low levels of cognitive development, even after…

  8. Effects of Prolonged Deprivation on Learned Helplessness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mal, Suraj; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigated influence of prolonged deprivation on responses to uncontrollable outcome among 104 Indian students in the tenth grade. Finds high-deprived and female students displayed greater helplessness than did their low-deprived and male counterparts. Females and high-deprives students attributed uncontrollable outcome more to internal, stable,…

  9. Prefrontal glucose deficits in murderers lacking psychosocial deprivation.

    PubMed

    Raine, A; Phil, D; Stoddard, J; Bihrle, S; Buchsbaum, M

    1998-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that links between autonomic nervous system functioning and violence are strongest in those who come from benign home backgrounds, but there appears to be no similar research using brain-imaging measures of central nervous system functioning. It was hypothesized that murderers who had no early psychosocial deprivation (e.g., no childhood abuse, family neglect) would demonstrate lower prefrontal glucose metabolism than murderers with early psychosocial deprivation and a group of normal controls. Murderers from a previous study, which showed prefrontal deficits in murderers, were assessed for psychosocial deprivation and divided into those with and without deprivation. Murderers without any clear psychosocial deficits were significantly lower on prefrontal glucose metabolism than murderers with psychosocial deficits and controls. These results suggest that murderers lacking psychosocial deficits are characterized by prefrontal deficits. It is argued that among violent offenders without deprived home backgrounds, the "social push" to violence is minimized, and consequently, brain abnormalities provide a relatively stronger predisposition to violence in this group.

  10. [LAPAROSCOPIC SURGERY FOR EARLY OVARIAN CANCER: EXPERIENCE AT THE P. A. HERZEN ONCOLOGY RESEARCH INSTITUTE].

    PubMed

    Shevchuk, A S; Novikova, E G; Utkina, A B

    2015-01-01

    For the period from 2003 to 2014 at the Oncogynecology Department laparoscopic surgery for ovarian cancer was performed in 49 patients aged 19 to 76 years. During the surgical interventions special attention was paid to the principles of oncological radicalism and ablastics, the volume of surgery depended on the extent of tumor process, morphological characteristics of tumor, a patient's age and the desire to preserve reproductive function. In 42 (85.7%) cases laparoscopic procedures were conducted to restaging (after non-radical operations in gynecological hospitals). In all 49 patients a histological form of ovarian tumor corresponded to adenocarcinoma. Mean operative time was 140 ± 10,5 minutes, the average blood loss--80,2 ± 14,3 ml. Postoperative complications (bleeding from the omentum) were recorded in 1 (2%) patient, the need for conversion was occurred in 4 (8.2%) cases due to the adhesive process or signs of dissemination. As a result of laparoscopic surgery an increase in staging of disease was fixed in 14 cases (28.6%). Follow-up median was 45 months, relapses occurred in 5 (10.2%) patients. Of 49 patients 2 (4.1%) died from disease progression. Disease-free and overall survival rates were 89.8% and 95.9%, respectively. Thus, data of world literature and our own experience indicate the potential equivalent of laparoscopic and laparotomy approaches in treatment for early ovarian cancer.

  11. Meteorological Research Institute multivariate ocean variational estimation (MOVE) system: Some early results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usui, Norihisa; Ishizaki, Shiro; Fujii, Yosuke; Tsujino, Hiroyuki; Yasuda, Tamaki; Kamachi, Masafumi

    The Meteorological Research Institute multivariate ocean variational estimation (MOVE) System has been developed as the next-generation ocean data assimilation system in Japan Meteorological Agency. A multivariate three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) analysis scheme with vertical coupled temperature salinity empirical orthogonal function modes is adopted. The MOVE system has two varieties, the global (MOVE-G) and North Pacific (MOVE-NP) systems. The equatorial Pacific and western North Pacific are analyzed with assimilation experiments using MOVE-G and -NP, respectively. In each system, the salinity and velocity fields are well reproduced, even in cases without salinity data. Changes in surface and subsurface zonal currents during the 1997/98 El Niño event are captured well, and their transports are reasonably consistent with in situ observations. For example, the eastward transport in the upper layer around the equator has 70 Sv in spring 1997 and weakens in spring 1998. With MOVE-NP, the Kuroshio transport has 25 Sv in the East China Sea, and 40 Sv crossing the ASUKA (Affiliated Surveys of the Kuroshio off Cape Ashizuri) line south of Japan. The variations in the Kuroshio transports crossing the ASUKA line agree well with observations. The Ryukyu Current System has a transport ranging from 6 Sv east of Taiwan to 17 Sv east of Amami. The Oyashio transport crossing the OICE (Oyashio Intensive observation line off Cape Erimo) line south of Hokkaido has 14 Sv southwestward (near shore) and 11 Sv northeastward (offshore). In the Kuroshio Oyashio transition area east of Japan, the eastward transport has 41 Sv (32 36°N) and 12 Sv (36 39°N) crossing the 145°E line.

  12. Early-Stage Investigators and Institutional Interface: Importance of Organization in the Mentoring Culture of Today’s Universities

    PubMed Central

    Manson, Spero M.

    2016-01-01

    Mentors have an active role in teaching mentees to scan their academic environments for the resources to advance their research careers, to assess the gaps between what’s available and needed to succeed, and to develop strategies to fill these gaps. Yet achieving instrumentality is a necessary, but insufficient condition by which to accomplish the desired endpoints. Mentors and mentees must recognize that the organizations to which they belong are cultural in nature: characterized by vision, values, norms, systems, symbols, language, assumptions, beliefs, and habits. Understanding the collective behaviors and assumptions of peers and leaders in terms of the shared perceptions, thoughts, and feelings of organizational membership is essential to success. Institutions, in turn, must examine the extent to which they offer action possibilities: opportunities that promote the developmental trajectories of early stage investigators-in-training. Lack of awareness of the possible dissonance of this reality adversely affects many young faculty members. PMID:27044483

  13. Early-Stage Investigators and Institutional Interface: Importance of Organization in the Mentoring Culture of Today's Universities.

    PubMed

    Manson, Spero M

    2016-09-01

    Mentors have an active role in teaching mentees to scan their academic environments for the resources to advance their research careers, to assess the gaps between what's available and needed to succeed, and to develop strategies to fill these gaps. Yet achieving instrumentality is a necessary, but insufficient condition by which to accomplish the desired endpoints. Mentors and mentees must recognize that the organizations to which they belong are cultural in nature: characterized by vision, values, norms, systems, symbols, language, assumptions, beliefs, and habits. Understanding the collective behaviors and assumptions of peers and leaders in terms of the shared perceptions, thoughts, and feelings of organizational membership is essential to success. Institutions, in turn, must examine the extent to which they offer action possibilities: opportunities that promote the developmental trajectories of early stage investigators-in-training. Lack of awareness of the possible dissonance of this reality adversely affects many young faculty members.

  14. Cellular consequences of sleep deprivation in the brain.

    PubMed

    Cirelli, Chiara

    2006-10-01

    Several recent studies have used transcriptomics approaches to characterize the molecular correlates of sleep, waking, and sleep deprivation. This analysis may help in understanding the benefits that sleep brings to the brain at the cellular level. The studies are still limited in number and focus on a few brain regions, but some consistent findings are emerging. Sleep, spontaneous wakefulness, short-term, and long-term sleep deprivation are each associated with the upregulation of hundreds of genes in the cerebral cortex and other brain areas. In fruit flies as well as in mammals, three categories of genes are consistently upregulated during waking and short-term sleep deprivation relative to sleep. They include genes involved in energy metabolism, synaptic potentiation, and the response to cellular stress. In the rat cerebral cortex, transcriptional changes associated with prolonged sleep loss differ significantly from those observed during short-term sleep deprivation. However, it is too early to draw firm conclusions relative to the molecular consequences of sleep deprivation, and more extensive studies using DNA and protein arrays are needed in different species and in different brain regions.

  15. Sleep Deprivation and Neurobehavioral Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Basner, Mathias; Rao, Hengyi; Goel, Namni; Dinges, David F.

    2013-01-01

    Lifestyles involving sleep deprivation are common, despite mounting evidence that both acute total sleep deprivation and chronically restricted sleep degrade neurobehavioral functions associated with arousal, attention, memory and state stability. Current research suggests dynamic differences in the way the central nervous system responds to acute versus chronic sleep restriction, which is reflected in new models of sleep-wake regulation. Chronic sleep restriction likely induces long-term neuromodulatory changes in brain physiology that could explain why recovery from it may require more time than from acute sleep loss. High intraclass correlations in neurobehavioral responses to sleep loss suggest that these trait-like differences are phenotypic and may include genetic components. Sleep deprivation induces changes in brain metabolism and neural activation that involve distributed networks and connectivity. PMID:23523374

  16. The deprivation argument against abortion.

    PubMed

    Stretton, Dean

    2004-04-01

    The most plausible pro-life argument claims that abortion is seriously wrong because it deprives the foetus of something valuable. This paper examines two recent versions of this argument. Don Marquis's version takes the valuable thing to be a 'future like ours', a future containing valuable experiences and activities. Jim Stone's version takes the valuable thing to be a future containing conscious goods, which it is the foetus's biological nature to make itself have. I give three grounds for rejecting these arguments. First, they lead to unacceptable inequalities in the wrongness of killing. Second, they lead to counterintuitive results in a range of imaginary cases. Third, they ignore the role of psychological connectedness in determining the magnitude or seriousness of deprivation-based harms: because the foetus is only weakly psychologically connected to its own future, it cannot be seriously harmed by being deprived of that future.

  17. Patterns of Subjective Deprivation in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bortner, Rayman, W.; Hultsch, David F.

    1974-01-01

    Investigated the number and characteristics of adults experiencing different types of subjective deprivation, and evaluated Cantril's assertion that some of these types of deprivation are ontogenetic in nature. (DP)

  18. SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC DOAMINS OF DEPRIVATION AND PRETERM BIRTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background. Neighborhood-level deprivation has long been associated with adverse outcomes, including preterm birth (PTB), as observed in the authors' previous work using a composite deprivation index. Area disadvantage is multifaceted comprising income, employment, education and...

  19. NOX4 regulates autophagy during energy deprivation.

    PubMed

    Sciarretta, Sebastiano; Volpe, Massimo; Sadoshima, Junichi

    2014-04-01

    NADPH oxidase is a cellular enzyme devoted to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). NOX4 and NOX2 are the main isoforms of NADPH oxidase in the cardiovascular system. In our recent study, we demonstrated that NOX4, but not NOX2, is a critical mediator of the cardiomyocyte adaptive response to energy stress. NOX4 activity and protein levels are increased in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) but not in mitochondria of cardiomyocytes during the early phase of energy deprivation. NOX4-derived production of ROS in the ER is a critical event that activates autophagy through stimulation of the EIF2AK3/PERK-EIF2S1/eIF-2α-ATF4 pathway. NOX4-dependent autophagy is an important mechanism to preserve cellular energy and limit cell death in energy-deprived cardiomyocytes. Aside from elucidating a crucial physiological function of NOX4 during cellular energy stress, our study dissects a novel signaling mechanism that regulates autophagy under this condition.

  20. NOX4 regulates autophagy during energy deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Sciarretta, Sebastiano; Volpe, Massimo; Sadoshima, Junichi

    2014-01-01

    NADPH oxidase is a cellular enzyme devoted to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). NOX4 and NOX2 are the main isoforms of NADPH oxidase in the cardiovascular system. In our recent study, we demonstrated that NOX4, but not NOX2, is a critical mediator of the cardiomyocyte adaptive response to energy stress. NOX4 activity and protein levels are increased in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) but not in mitochondria of cardiomyocytes during the early phase of energy deprivation. NOX4-derived production of ROS in the ER is a critical event that activates autophagy through stimulation of the EIF2AK3/PERK-EIF2S1/eIF-2α-ATF4 pathway. NOX4-dependent autophagy is an important mechanism to preserve cellular energy and limit cell death in energy-deprived cardiomyocytes. Aside from elucidating a crucial physiological function of NOX4 during cellular energy stress, our study dissects a novel signaling mechanism that regulates autophagy under this condition. PMID:24492492

  1. The effect of social deprivation on local authority sickness absence rates.

    PubMed

    Wynn, P; Low, A

    2008-06-01

    There is an extensive body of research relating to the association between ergonomic and psychosocial factors on sickness absence rates. The impact of deprivation on health indices has also been extensively investigated. However, published research has not investigated the extent of any association between standard measures of deprivation and sickness absence and ill-health retirement rates. To establish if a relationship exists between standard measures of deprivation, used by the UK central government to determine regional health and social welfare funding, and sickness absence and ill-health early retirement rates in English local government employers. Local authority sickness absence rates for 2001-02 were regressed against the 2004 Indices of Multiple Deprivation in a multiple regression model that also included size and type of organization as independent variables. A second model using ill-health retirement as the dependent variable was also estimated. In the full regression models, organization size was not significant and reduced models with deprivation and organization type (depending on whether teachers were employed by the organization or not) were estimated. For the sickness absence model, the adjusted R(2) was 0.20, with 17% of the variation in sickness absence rates being explained by deprivation rank. Ill-health retirement showed a similar relationship with deprivation. In both models, the deprivation coefficients were highly significant: for sickness absence [t = -7.85 (P = 0.00)] and for ill-health retirement [t = -4.79 (P = 0.00)]. A significant proportion of variation in sickness absence and ill-health retirement rates in local government in England are associated with local measures of deprivation. Recognition of the impact of deprivation on sickness absence has implications for a number of different areas of work. These include target setting for Local Government Best Value Performance Indicators, history taking in sickness absence

  2. Spray cryotherapy (SCT): institutional evolution of techniques and clinical practice from early experience in the treatment of malignant airway disease

    PubMed Central

    Turner, J. Francis; Parrish, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Background Spray cryotherapy (SCT) was initially developed for gastroenterology (GI) endoscopic use in the esophagus. In some institutions where a device has been utilized by GI, transition to use in the airways by pulmonologists and thoracic surgeons occurred. Significant differences exist, however, in the techniques for safely using SCT in the airways. Methods We describe the early experience at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center from 2011 to 2013 using SCT in patients with malignant airway disease and the evolution of our current techniques and clinical practice patterns for SCT use in patients. In November 2013 enrollment began in a multi-institutional prospective SCT registry in which we are still enrolling and will be reported on separately. Results Twenty-seven patients that underwent 80 procedures (2.96 procedures/patient). The average age was 63 years with a range of 20 to 87 years old. The average Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) status was 1.26. All malignancies were advanced stage disease. All procedures were performed in the central airways. Other modalities were used in combination with SCT in 31 (39%) of procedures. Additionally 45 of the 80 (56%) procedures were performed in proximity to a silicone, hybrid, or metal stent. Three complications occurred out of the 80 procedures. All three were transient hypoxia that limited continued SCT treatments. These patients were all discharged from the bronchoscopy recovery room to their pre-surgical state. Conclusions SCT can be safely used for treatment of malignant airway tumor (MAT) in the airways. Understanding passive venting of the nitrogen gas produced as the liquid nitrogen changes to gas is important for safe use of the device. Complications can be minimized by adopting strict protocols to maximize passive venting and to allow for adequate oxygenation in between sprays. PMID:26807288

  3. Health Effects of Sleep Deprivation,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-01

    of an inordinate sleep loss (as hunger and thirst prevent us from going too long without food and water). Because of this, it takes great personal...drug-refractory depression. Neuropsychology 13:111-116, 1985. 82. Dowd PJ: Sleep deprivation effects on the vestibular habituation process. J Apply

  4. Deprivation in Education. Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Rose; Rutt, Simon; Sims, David

    2014-01-01

    The interaction between deprivation and education is a critical relationship with profound implications for a country's economic prosperity and the social mobility of its citizens. This is highlighted by the Welsh Government which states that: "A good education is critical to better life chances and a commitment to achieving this has been an…

  5. Treatment of early-stage uterine papillary serous carcinoma at Roswell Park Cancer Institute, 1992-2006.

    PubMed

    Tchabo, Nana E; McCloskey, Susan; Mashtare, Terry L; Andrews, Christopher; Singh, Anurag K; Mhawech-Fauceglia, Paulette; Odunsi, Kunle; Lele, Shashikant; Jaggernauth, Wainwright

    2009-11-01

    Optimal management of early-stage uterine papillary serous carcinoma (UPSC) remains controversial. We reviewed our outcomes in this patient population. The Roswell Park Cancer Institute (RPCI) tumor registry identified all patients with Stages I and IIA UPSC treated between January 1992 and June 2006. The Fisher's exact test was used to compare recurrence rates by adjuvant therapy received. Overall survival (OS) estimates were made using the Kaplan-Meier method. Fifty-eight patients with Stage I or IIA UPSC underwent surgery. Thirty-four patients (59%) were surgically staged. Among 21 patients with Stage IA disease, 15 received adjuvant therapy. With a median follow-up of 44.7 months, only one recurrence was observed in a patient who received adjuvant brachytherapy. The 5-year OS was 66%. Among 37 patients with Stages IB-IIA, 30 patients received adjuvant therapy. With a median follow-up of 29 months, there were 7 recurrences. The 5-year OS was 60%. Although there were no significant differences in recurrence by adjuvant therapy received, a significant OS benefit was found in those who received radiation. There was no significant difference in OS distributions of those patients who received Carboplatin/Paclitaxel chemotherapy. Despite the limitations of our retrospective study, we have shown that even comprehensively staged early-stage UPSC patients are still at risk for recurrence despite adjuvant therapy received. Hence, all patients with this histologic diagnosis should be considered at high risk for recurrence and counseled appropriately regarding the risks and benefits of adjuvant therapy.

  6. Challenges Facing Early Phase Trials Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute: An Analysis of Corrective Action Plans to Improve Accrual

    PubMed Central

    Massett, Holly A.; Mishkin, Grace; Rubinstein, Larry; Ivy, S. Percy; Denicoff, Andrea; Godwin, Elizabeth; DiPiazza, Kate; Bolognese, Jennifer; Zwiebel, James A.; Abrams, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Accruing patients in a timely manner represents a significant challenge to early phase cancer clinical trials. The NCI Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program analyzed 19 months of corrective action plans (CAPs) received for slow-accruing Phase 1 and 2 trials to identify slow accrual reasons, evaluate whether proposed corrective actions matched these reasons, and assess the CAP impact on trial accrual, duration, and likelihood of meeting primary scientific objectives. Of the 135 CAPs analyzed, 69 were for Phase 1 trials and 66 for Phase 2 trials. Primary reasons cited for slow accrual were safety/toxicity (Phase 1: 48%), design/protocol concerns (Phase 1: 42%, Phase 2: 33%), and eligibility criteria (Phase 1: 41%, Phase 2: 35%). The most commonly proposed corrective actions were adding institutions (Phase 1: 43%, Phase 2: 85%) and amending the trial to change eligibility or design (Phase 1: 55%, Phase 2: 44%). Only 40% of CAPs provided proposed corrective actions that matched the reasons given for slow accrual. Seventy percent of trials were closed to accrual at time of analysis (Phase 1=48; Phase 2=46). Of these, 67% of Phase 1 and 70% of Phase 2 trials met their primary objectives, but they were active three times longer than projected. Among closed trials, 24% had an accrual rate increase associated with a greater likelihood of meeting their primary scientific objectives. Ultimately, trials receiving CAPs saw improved accrual rates. Future trials may benefit from implementing CAPs early in trial lifecycles, but it may be more beneficial to invest in earlier accrual planning. PMID:27401246

  7. Challenges Facing Early Phase Trials Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute: An Analysis of Corrective Action Plans to Improve Accrual.

    PubMed

    Massett, Holly A; Mishkin, Grace; Rubinstein, Larry; Ivy, S Percy; Denicoff, Andrea; Godwin, Elizabeth; DiPiazza, Kate; Bolognese, Jennifer; Zwiebel, James A; Abrams, Jeffrey S

    2016-11-15

    Accruing patients in a timely manner represents a significant challenge to early phase cancer clinical trials. The NCI Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program analyzed 19 months of corrective action plans (CAP) received for slow-accruing phase I and II trials to identify slow accrual reasons, evaluate whether proposed corrective actions matched these reasons, and assess the CAP impact on trial accrual, duration, and likelihood of meeting primary scientific objectives. Of the 135 CAPs analyzed, 69 were for phase I trials and 66 for phase II trials. Primary reasons cited for slow accrual were safety/toxicity (phase I: 48%), design/protocol concerns (phase I: 42%, phase II: 33%), and eligibility criteria (phase I: 41%, phase II: 35%). The most commonly proposed corrective actions were adding institutions (phase I: 43%, phase II: 85%) and amending the trial to change eligibility or design (phase I: 55%, phase II: 44%). Only 40% of CAPs provided proposed corrective actions that matched the reasons given for slow accrual. Seventy percent of trials were closed to accrual at time of analysis (phase I = 48; phase II = 46). Of these, 67% of phase I and 70% of phase II trials met their primary objectives, but they were active three times longer than projected. Among closed trials, 24% had an accrual rate increase associated with a greater likelihood of meeting their primary scientific objectives. Ultimately, trials receiving CAPs saw improved accrual rates. Future trials may benefit from implementing CAPs early in trial life cycles, but it may be more beneficial to invest in earlier accrual planning. Clin Cancer Res; 22(22); 5408-16. ©2016 AACRSee related commentary by Mileham and Kim, p. 5397. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  8. Identifying aspects of neighbourhood deprivation associated with increased incidence of schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Bhavsar, Vishal; Boydell, Jane; Murray, Robin; Power, Paddy

    2014-06-01

    Several studies have found an association between area deprivation and incidence of schizophrenia. However, not all studies have concurred and definitions of deprivation have varied between studies. Relative deprivation and inequality seem to be particularly important, but which aspects of deprivation or how this effect might operate is not known. The Lambeth Early Onset case register is a database of all cases of first episode psychosis aged 16 to 35years from the London Borough of Lambeth, a highly urban area. We identified 405 people with first onset schizophrenia who presented between 2000 and 2007. We calculated the overall incidence of first onset schizophrenia and tested for an association with area-level deprivation, using a multi-domain index of deprivation (IMD 2004). Specific analyses into associations with individual sub-domains of deprivation were then undertaken. Incidence rates, directly standardized for age and gender, were calculated for Lambeth at two geographical levels (small and large neighbourhood level). The Poisson regression model predicting incidence rate ratios for schizophrenia using overall deprivation score was statistically significant at both levels after adjusting for ethnicity, ethnic density, population density and population turnover. The incidence rate ratio for electoral ward deprivation was 1.03 (95% CI=1.004-1.04) and for the super output area deprivation was 1.04 (95% CI=1.02-1.06). The individual domains of crime, employment deprivation and educational deprivation were statistically significant predictors of incidence but, after adjusting for the other domains as well as age, gender, ethnicity and population density, only crime and educational deprivation, remained statistically significant. Low income, poor housing and deprived living environment did not predict incidence. In a highly urban area, an association was found between area-level deprivation and incidence of schizophrenia, after controlling for age, gender

  9. A Multi-Institutional Study of Feasibility, Implementation, and Early Clinical Results With Noninvasive Breast Brachytherapy for Tumor Bed Boost

    SciTech Connect

    Hamid, Subarna, E-mail: shamid@tuftsmedicalcenter.org; Department of Radiation Oncology, Rhode Island Hospital, Alpert Medical School of Brown University, Providence, RI; Rocchio, Kathy

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility, implementation, and early results of noninvasive breast brachytherapy (NIBB) for tumor bed boost with whole breast radiation therapy (WBRT). Methods and Materials: NIBB is a commercially available (AccuBoost, Billerica, MA) mammography-based, brachytherapy system in which the treatment applicators are centered on the planning target volume (PTV) to direct {sup 192}Ir emissions along orthogonal axes. A privacy-encrypted online data registry collected information from 8 independent academic and community-based institutions. Data were from 146 consecutive women with early-stage breast cancer after lumpectomy and WBRT receiving boost with NIBB between July 2007 and March 2010. Toxicity and cosmesismore » were graded according to the Common Toxicity Criteria (v. 3.0) and the Harvard scale. Median follow-up was 6 months (1-39 months). Results: Grade 1-2 skin toxicity was observed in 64%, 48%, and 21% during the acute (1-3 weeks), intermediate (4-26 weeks), and late-intermediate (>26 weeks) periods. There was no Grade 4 toxicity. At 6 months, for the entire cohort, cosmesis was excellent/good in 62%/38%. The subset receiving NIBB before WBRT had cosmetic scores of 32% and 63%, whereas during WBRT, 58% and 37% were rated as excellent and good, respectively. Breast compression was scored as 'uncomfortable' in 12%, 29%, and 59% when NIBB was delivered before, during, or after WBRT. For each patient, the fraction-to-fraction variability in PTV was low. Skin flash was associated with a higher proportion of excellent cosmesis (58% vs. 42%) relative to having the applicator all within breast tissue. Conclusions: These data indicate that NIBB is feasible and can be consistently implemented in a broad array of practice settings. Preliminary evaluation suggests that NIBB is associated with acceptably mild normal tissue toxicity and favorable early cosmesis. The application of NIBB before WBRT may be associated with better patient tolerance at

  10. Materialistic Cues Boosts Personal Relative Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Three studies investigated whether exposure to materialistic cues would increase perceptions of personal relative deprivation and related emotional reactions. In Study 1, individuals who were surveyed in front of a luxury store reported higher levels of personal relative deprivation than those surveyed in front of an ordinary building. In Study 2, participants who viewed pictures of luxurious goods experienced greater personal relative deprivation than those viewed pictures of neutral scenes. Study 3 replicated the results from Study 2, with a larger sample size and a more refined assessment of relative deprivation. Implications of these findings for future studies on relative deprivation and materialism are discussed. PMID:27574515

  11. Materialistic Cues Boosts Personal Relative Deprivation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Wen

    2016-01-01

    Three studies investigated whether exposure to materialistic cues would increase perceptions of personal relative deprivation and related emotional reactions. In Study 1, individuals who were surveyed in front of a luxury store reported higher levels of personal relative deprivation than those surveyed in front of an ordinary building. In Study 2, participants who viewed pictures of luxurious goods experienced greater personal relative deprivation than those viewed pictures of neutral scenes. Study 3 replicated the results from Study 2, with a larger sample size and a more refined assessment of relative deprivation. Implications of these findings for future studies on relative deprivation and materialism are discussed.

  12. Early Elementary Class-Size Reduction: A Neo-Institutional Analysis of the Social, Political, and Economic Influences on State-Level Policymaking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Ross E.

    This paper examines the social, political, and economic factors that influenced the adoption and diffusion of early-elementary school class-size-reduction policies at the state level. It applies a neo-institutional framework to explain the rapid spread of class-size reduction policies throughout many state legislatures and boards of education. It…

  13. Institutional, Material and Economic Constraints in Languages Education: Unequal Provision of Linguistic Resources in Early Childhood and Primary Settings in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones Díaz, Criss

    2014-01-01

    In Australia, languages education in early childhood and primary education includes three main approaches: transitional, enrichment and full bilingual programmes. This article proposes that transitional and enrichment programmes in Australia are constituted and shaped by competing and contested institutional, material, discursive and economic…

  14. Institute of Medicine Early Infant Feeding Recommendations for Childhood Obesity Prevention: Implementation by Immigrant Mothers From Central America.

    PubMed

    Gaffney, Kathleen F; Brito, Albert V; Kitsantas, Panagiota; Kermer, Deborah A; Pereddo, Graciela; Ramos, Katya M

    Describe implementation of Institute of Medicine (IOM) early infant feeding recommendations for child obesity prevention by immigrant mothers from Central America; examine potential relationships with food insecurity and postpartum depressive symptoms. Using a cross-sectional, descriptive design, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 318 mothers of 2month old infants at a large pediatric setting for low income families. Logistic regression models assessed feeding practices, food insecurity and postpartum depressive symptoms. Exclusive breastfeeding rates were low (9.4%); most mothers (62.7%) both breastfed and bottle fed their infants. Mothers who bottle fed at moderate and high intensity were twice as likely to affirm that if you give a baby a bottle, you should always make sure s/he finishes it (OR=2.30, 95% CI=1.13, 4.69; OR=2.29, 95% CI=1.26, 4.14). Food insecurity was experienced by 57% of mothers but postpartum depressive symptoms were low (Possible range=0-30; M=2.96, SD =3.6). However, for each increase in the postpartum depressive symptoms score, the likelihood of affirming a controlling feeding style increased by 11-13%. Immigrant mothers from Central America were more likely to both breastfeed and bottle feed (las dos cosas) than implement exclusive breastfeeding. Bottle feeding intensity was associated with a controlling feeding style. Infant well visits provide the ideal context for promoting IOM recommendations for the prevention of obesity among children of immigrant mothers from Central America. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Binocular visual training to promote recovery from monocular deprivation.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Kathryn M; Roumeliotis, Grayson; Williams, Kate; Beston, Brett R; Jones, David G

    2015-01-08

    Abnormal early visual experience often leads to poor vision, a condition called amblyopia. Two recent approaches to treating amblyopia include binocular therapies and intensive visual training. These reflect the emerging view that amblyopia is a binocular deficit caused by increased neural noise and poor signal-in-noise integration. Most perceptual learning studies have used monocular training; however, a recent study has shown that binocular training is effective for improving acuity in adult human amblyopes. We used an animal model of amblyopia, based on monocular deprivation, to compare the effect of binocular training either during or after the critical period for ocular dominance plasticity (early binocular training vs. late binocular training). We used a high-contrast, orientation-in-noise stimulus to drive the visual cortex because neurophysiological findings suggest that binocular training may allow the nondeprived eye to teach the deprived eye's circuits to function. We found that both early and late binocular training promoted good visual recovery. Surprisingly, we found that monocular deprivation caused a permanent deficit in the vision of both eyes, which became evident only as a sleeper effect following many weeks of visual training. © 2015 ARVO.

  16. The Effect of Acute Sleep Deprivation on Visual Evoked Potentials in Professional Drivers

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Melinda L.; Croft, Rodney J.; Owens, Katherine; Pierce, Robert J.; Kennedy, Gerard A.; Crewther, David; Howard, Mark E.

    2008-01-01

    Study Objectives: Previous studies have demonstrated that as little as 18 hours of sleep deprivation can cause deleterious effects on performance. It has also been suggested that sleep deprivation can cause a “tunnel-vision” effect, in which attention is restricted to the center of the visual field. The current study aimed to replicate these behavioral effects and to examine the electrophysiological underpinnings of these changes. Design: Repeated-measures experimental study. Setting: University laboratory. Patients or Participants: Nineteen professional drivers (1 woman; mean age = 45.3 ± 9.1 years). Interventions: Two experimental sessions were performed; one following 27 hours of sleep deprivation and the other following a normal night of sleep, with control for circadian effects. Measurements & Results: A tunnel-vision task (central versus peripheral visual discrimination) and a standard checkerboard-viewing task were performed while 32-channel EEG was recorded. For the tunnel-vision task, sleep deprivation resulted in an overall slowing of reaction times and increased errors of omission for both peripheral and foveal stimuli (P < 0.05). These changes were related to reduced P300 amplitude (indexing cognitive processing) but not measures of early visual processing. No evidence was found for an interaction effect between sleep deprivation and visual-field position, either in terms of behavior or electrophysiological responses. Slower processing of the sustained parvocellular visual pathway was demonstrated. Conclusions: These findings suggest that performance deficits on visual tasks during sleep deprivation are due to higher cognitive processes rather than early visual processing. Sleep deprivation may differentially impair processing of more-detailed visual information. Features of the study design (eg, visual angle, duration of sleep deprivation) may influence whether peripheral visual-field neglect occurs. Citation: Jackson ML; Croft RJ; Owens K; Pierce

  17. Course of Disinhibited Social Engagement Disorder From Early Childhood to Early Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Guyon-Harris, Katherine L; Humphreys, Kathryn L; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Charles A; Zeanah, Charles H

    2018-05-01

    Disinhibited social engagement disorder (DSED) is poorly understood beyond early childhood. The course of DSED signs in a sample of children who experienced severe, early deprivation from early childhood to early adolescence was examined using variable-centered (linear mixed modeling) and person-centered (growth mixture modeling) approaches. The study included 124 children with a history of institutional care from a randomized controlled trial of foster care as an alternative to institutional care and 69 community comparison children matched by age and sex. DSED signs were assessed at baseline (mean age 22 months), 30, 42, and 54 months of age, and 8 and 12 years of age using a validated caregiver report of disturbed attachment behavior. Variable-centered analyses based on intent-to-treat groups indicated that signs of DSED decreased sharply for children randomized to foster care and decreased slightly but remained high for children randomized to care as usual. Person-centered analyses showed 4 profiles (i.e., elevated, persistent modest, early decreasing, and minimal). Elevated and persistent modest courses were associated with greater placement disruptions (F 3,99  = 4.29, p = .007, partial eta-squared [η 2 ] = 0.12), older age at placement into foster care (F 3,56  = 3.41, p < .05, partial η 2  = 0.16), and more time in institutional care (F 3,115  = 11.91, p < .001, partial η 2  = 0.24) compared with decreasing and minimal courses. Early and sustained placement into families after deprivation is associated with minimal or decreasing signs of DSED across development. Shortening the amount of time children spend in institutions and preserving placements could help decrease signs of DSED into early adolescence in previously institutionalized children. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Testimony of Gina Adams, Senior Fellow, Urban Institute. Before the Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education Subcommittee Hearing on "Improving Early Childhood Development Policies and Practices"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Gina

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the testimony of Gina Adams before the Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education Subcommittee Hearing on "Improving Early Childhood Development Policies and Practices." This testimony was presented to the House Committee on Education and Labor, U.S. House of Representatives last March 19, 2009. She talks about how…

  19. Double trouble? The effects of sleep deprivation and chronotype on adolescent affect.

    PubMed

    Dagys, Natasha; McGlinchey, Eleanor L; Talbot, Lisa S; Kaplan, Katherine A; Dahl, Ronald E; Harvey, Allison G

    2012-06-01

      Two understudied risk factors that have been linked to emotional difficulties in adolescence are chronotype and sleep deprivation. This study extended past research by using an experimental design to investigate the role of sleep deprivation and chronotype on emotion in adolescents. It was hypothesized that sleep deprivation and an evening chronotype would be associated with decreased positive affect (PA), increased negative affect (NA), and lower positivity ratios.   Forty-seven healthy adolescents (aged 10-15 for girls, 11-16 for boys) participated in a sleep deprivation and a rested condition. A subsample of 24 adolescents was selected on the basis of extreme morningness or eveningness scores (based on outer quartiles of scores on the Children's Morningness-Eveningness Preferences Scale). PA and NA were measured using the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule for Children, and positivity ratios were calculated by dividing PA by NA.   Participants reported less positive affect and lower positivity ratios when sleep deprived, relative to when rested. Evening chronotypes reported less positive affect and lower positivity ratios than morning chronotypes in both rested and sleep deprivation conditions.   These findings extend previous research by suggesting that adolescents are adversely impacted by sleep deprivation, and that an evening chronotype might serve as a useful marker of emotional vulnerability. Early intervention and prevention strategies can focus on improving sleep and on using chronotherapy principles to reduce eveningness. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2011 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  20. Barriers to Early Initiation and Continuation of Breastfeeding in a Tertiary care Institute of Haryana: A Qualitative Study in Nursing Care Providers.

    PubMed

    Majra, Jai Pal; Silan, Vijay Kumar

    2016-09-01

    Ever increasing institutional deliveries in India has shifted the responsibility of timely initiation and continuation of breastfeeding from peripheral health workers and families to the nursing care providers of health facilities where the births take place. While institutional deliveries have increased to 72.6%, only 44.6% of the newborns enjoy early breastfeeding in India. To study the barriers to early initiation of breastfeeding in institutional delivery. A total 34 nursing care providers were selected randomly and five Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) were carried out. This Qualitative Study was conducted through FGDs among the nursing care providers of a tertiary care institute in the Indian State of Haryana, India. The analyses continued throughout the group discussions as the newly emerged themes were tested in the subsequent discussion. FGDs transcripts were analysed to enhance the robustness of the emerged domain. Major barriers to initiation of breast feeding identified included: lack of awareness regarding proper technique of breastfeeding and benefits of colostrum; breast abnormality like inverted/retracted nipples; obstetric/neonatal complications requiring specialised care; and cultural practices like giving pre-lacteals and gender discrimination. It was further reported that the manpower has not been rationalised with ever increasing number of institutional deliveries. The respondents though willing to promote early initiation and continuation of breastfeeding felt excessive workload as one of the major barriers due to multi-tasking nature of their job. The new challenges to the early initiation and continuation of breastfeeding are emerging due to change in the place of delivery which needs to be addressed at the policy level.

  1. Early Contributions to the Evolution of the Canadian Scientific Integrity System: Institutional and Governmental Interaction in the Policy Diffusion Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenherr, Jordan Richard; Williams-Jones, Bryn

    2016-01-01

    Academic institutions and research funders have in the last decade devoted considerable effort to developing policies to support academic integrity and prevent misconduct. In this study, we consider the extent to which various initiatives of Canadian federal and provincial (Québec) funders have affected the development of institutional research…

  2. Theory-Informed Research Training and Mentoring of Underrepresented Early-Career Faculty at Teaching-Intensive Institutions: The Obesity Health Disparities PRIDE Program.

    PubMed

    Beech, Bettina M; Bruce, Marino A; Thorpe, Roland J; Heitman, Elizabeth; Griffith, Derek M; Norris, Keith C

    2018-01-01

    Mentoring has been consistently identified as an important element for career advancement in many biomedical and health professional disciplines and has been found to be critical for success and promotion in academic settings. Early-career faculty from groups underrepresented in biomedical research, however, are less likely to have mentors, and in general, receive less mentoring than their majority-group peers, particularly among those employed in teaching-intensive institutions. This article describes Obesity Health Disparities (OHD) PRIDE, a theoretically and conceptually based research training and mentoring program designed for early-career faculty who trained or are employed at Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs).

  3. Acute Sleep Deprivation Enhances Post-Infection Sleep and Promotes Survival during Bacterial Infection in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Tzu-Hsing; Williams, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Sleep is known to increase as an acute response to infection. However, the function of this behavioral response in host defense is not well understood. To address this problem, we evaluated the effect of acute sleep deprivation on post-infection sleep and immune function in Drosophila. Setting: Laboratory. Participants: Drosophila melanogaster. Methods and Results: Flies were subjected to sleep deprivation before (early DEP) or after (late DEP) bacterial infection. Relative to a non-deprived control, flies subjected to early DEP had enhanced sleep after infection as well as increased bacterial clearance and survival outcome. Flies subjected to late DEP experienced enhanced sleep following the deprivation period, and showed a modest improvement in survival outcome. Continuous DEP (early and late DEP) throughout infection also enhanced sleep later during infection and improved survival. However, improved survival in flies subjected to late or continuous DEP did not occur until after flies had experienced sleep. During infection, both early and late DEP enhanced NFκB transcriptional activity as measured by a luciferase reporter (κB-luc) in living flies. Early DEP also increased NFκB activity prior to infection. Flies that were deficient in expression of either the Relish or Dif NFκB transcription factors showed normal responses to early DEP. However, the effect of early DEP on post-infection sleep and survival was abolished in double mutants, which indicates that Relish and Dif have redundant roles in this process. Conclusions: Acute sleep deprivation elevated NFκB-dependent activity, increased post-infection sleep, and improved survival during bacterial infection. Citation: Kuo TH, Williams JA. Acute sleep deprivation enhances post-infection sleep and promotes survival during bacterial infection in Drosophila. SLEEP 2014;37(5):859-869. PMID:24790264

  4. Early Intervention for the Disadvantaged: Does It Influence Reading Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grotberg, Edith H.

    Deprivation may take many forms: malnutrition, understimulation or overstimulation, limited language or social-emotional experiences, and others. The more extended the time of the deprivation, the greater the problem of amelioration. Research has shown that children who experienced deprivations do respond to early intervention and improve their…

  5. Effects of complete monocular deprivation in visuo-spatial memory.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Zaira; Merabet, Lotfi B; Bhatt, Ela; Vecchi, Tomaso

    2008-09-30

    Monocular deprivation has been associated with both specific deficits and enhancements in visual perception and processing. In this study, performance on a visuo-spatial memory task was compared in congenitally monocular individuals and sighted control individuals viewing monocularly (i.e., patched) and binocularly. The task required the individuals to view and memorize a series of target locations on two-dimensional matrices. Overall, congenitally monocular individuals performed worse than sighted individuals (with a specific deficit in simultaneously maintaining distinct spatial representations in memory), indicating that the lack of binocular visual experience affects the way visual information is represented in visuo-spatial memory. No difference was observed between the monocular and binocular viewing control groups, suggesting that early monocular deprivation affects the development of cortical mechanisms mediating visuo-spatial cognition.

  6. Early paternal deprivation alters levels of hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glucocorticoid receptor and serum corticosterone and adrenocorticotropin in a sex-specific way in socially monogamous mandarin voles.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ruiyong; Song, Zhenzhen; Wang, Siyang; Shui, Li; Tai, Fadao; Qiao, Xufeng; He, Fengqin

    2014-01-01

    In monogamous mammals, fathers play an important role in the development of the brain and typical behavior in offspring, but the exact nature of this process is not well understood. In particular, little research has addressed whether the presence or absence of paternal care alters levels of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and basal levels of serum corticosterone (CORT) and adrenocorticotropin (ACTH). Here, we explored this concept using socially monogamous mandarin voles (Microtus mandarinus), a species in which fathers display high levels of paternal care toward their pups. Our immunohistochemical study shows that paternal deprivation (PD) significantly decreased levels of GR and BDNF protein in the CA1 and CA2/3 of the hippocampus. In the dental gyrus, decreases in GR and BDNF induced by PD were evident in females but not in males. Additionally, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results show that PD significantly upregulated levels of serum CORT and ACTH in females, but not males. These findings demonstrate that PD alters HPA axis activity in a sex-specific way. The changes in stress hormones documented here may be associated with alteration in hippocampal BDNF and GR levels. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. How Policymakers Should Deal with the Delayed Benefits of Early Childhood Programs. Upjohn Institute Working Paper No. 09-150

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartik, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter is a draft of Chapter 7 of a planned book, "Preschool and Jobs: Human Development as Economic Development, and Vice Versa." This book analyzes early childhood programs' effects on regional economic development. Four early childhood programs are considered: (1) universally accessible preschool for four-year-olds of similar…

  8. The Impact of Institutional Context, Education and Labour Market Policies on Early School Leaving: A Comparative Analysis of EU Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Witte, Kristof; Nicaise, Ides; Lavrijsen, Jeroen; Van Landeghem, Georges; Lamote, Carl; Van Damme, Jan

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a comparative analysis of the determinants of early school leaving (ESL) at the country level. We decompose ESL rates into two components: a "primary" rate reflecting unqualified school leaving from initial education, and a second component accounting for early school leavers who participate in training programmes.…

  9. The effect of acute sleep deprivation on visual evoked potentials in professional drivers.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Melinda L; Croft, Rodney J; Owens, Katherine; Pierce, Robert J; Kennedy, Gerard A; Crewther, David; Howard, Mark E

    2008-09-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that as little as 18 hours of sleep deprivation can cause deleterious effects on performance. It has also been suggested that sleep deprivation can cause a "tunnel-vision" effect, in which attention is restricted to the center of the visual field. The current study aimed to replicate these behavioral effects and to examine the electrophysiological underpinnings of these changes. Repeated-measures experimental study. University laboratory. Nineteen professional drivers (1 woman; mean age = 45.3 +/- 9.1 years). Two experimental sessions were performed; one following 27 hours of sleep deprivation and the other following a normal night of sleep, with control for circadian effects. A tunnel-vision task (central versus peripheral visual discrimination) and a standard checkerboard-viewing task were performed while 32-channel EEG was recorded. For the tunnel-vision task, sleep deprivation resulted in an overall slowing of reaction times and increased errors of omission for both peripheral and foveal stimuli (P < 0.05). These changes were related to reduced P300 amplitude (indexing cognitive processing) but not measures of early visual processing. No evidence was found for an interaction effect between sleep deprivation and visual-field position, either in terms of behavior or electrophysiological responses. Slower processing of the sustained parvocellular visual pathway was demonstrated. These findings suggest that performance deficits on visual tasks during sleep deprivation are due to higher cognitive processes rather than early visual processing. Sleep deprivation may differentially impair processing of more-detailed visual information. Features of the study design (eg, visual angle, duration of sleep deprivation) may influence whether peripheral visual-field neglect occurs.

  10. Nanotechnology: Emerging Developments and Early Detection of Cancer. A Two-Day Workshop Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute and the National Institute of Standards and Technology, August 30–31 2001, on the National Institute of Standards and Technology Campus, Gaithersburg, MD, USA

    PubMed Central

    Zullo, Steven J.; Srivastava, Sudhir; Looney, J. Patrick; Barker, Peter E.

    2002-01-01

    A recent meeting jointly sponsored by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) and National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) brought together researchers active in nanotechnology and cancer molecular biology to discuss and evaluate the interface between disciplines. Emerging areas where nanotechnologies may impact cancer prevention and early cancer detection were elaborated by key researchers who catalyzed interdisciplinary dialogue aimed at fostering cross-discipline communications and future collaboration. PMID:12590168

  11. Auditory Deprivation Does Not Impair Executive Function, But Language Deprivation Might: Evidence From a Parent-Report Measure in Deaf Native Signing Children

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Matthew L.; Eigsti, Inge-Marie; Bortfeld, Heather; Lillo-Martin, Diane

    2017-01-01

    Deaf children are often described as having difficulty with executive function (EF), often manifesting in behavioral problems. Some researchers view these problems as a consequence of auditory deprivation; however, the behavioral problems observed in previous studies may not be due to deafness but to some other factor, such as lack of early language exposure. Here, we distinguish these accounts by using the BRIEF EF parent report questionnaire to test for behavioral problems in a group of Deaf children from Deaf families, who have a history of auditory but not language deprivation. For these children, the auditory deprivation hypothesis predicts behavioral impairments; the language deprivation hypothesis predicts no group differences in behavioral control. Results indicated that scores among the Deaf native signers (n = 42) were age-appropriate and similar to scores among the typically developing hearing sample (n = 45). These findings are most consistent with the language deprivation hypothesis, and provide a foundation for continued research on outcomes of children with early exposure to sign language. PMID:27624307

  12. Sleep Deprivation and the Epigenome.

    PubMed

    Gaine, Marie E; Chatterjee, Snehajyoti; Abel, Ted

    2018-01-01

    Sleep deprivation disrupts the lives of millions of people every day and has a profound impact on the molecular biology of the brain. These effects begin as changes within a neuron, at the DNA and RNA level, and result in alterations in neuronal plasticity and dysregulation of many cognitive functions including learning and memory. The epigenome plays a critical role in regulating gene expression in the context of memory storage. In this review article, we begin by describing the effects of epigenetic alterations on the regulation of gene expression, focusing on the most common epigenetic mechanisms: (i) DNA methylation; (ii) histone modifications; and (iii) non-coding RNAs. We then discuss evidence suggesting that sleep loss impacts the epigenome and that these epigenetic alterations might mediate the changes in cognition seen following disruption of sleep. The link between sleep and the epigenome is only beginning to be elucidated, but clear evidence exists that epigenetic alterations occur following sleep deprivation. In the future, these changes to the epigenome could be utilized as biomarkers of sleep loss or as therapeutic targets for sleep-related disorders.

  13. Uncoupling proteins and sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Cirelli, C; Tononi, G

    2004-07-01

    In both humans and animals sleep deprivation (SD) produces an increase in food intake and in energy expenditure (EE). The increase in EE is a core element of the SD syndrome and, in rats, is negatively correlated with survival rate. However, the mechanisms involved are not understood. A large component of resting EE is accounted for by the mitochondrial proton leak, which is mediated by uncoupling proteins (UCPs). We measured UCP2, UCP3, and UCP5 mRNA levels in rats during the spontaneous sleep/waking cycle and after short (8 hours) and long (7 days) SD. During spontaneous sleep and waking there was no change in the level of mitochondrial uncoupling as measured by UCPs expression, either in the brain or in peripheral tissues. During SD, by contrast, UCP3 expression in skeletal muscle was elevated, but the increase was similar, compared to sleep, after both short-term and long-term SD. UCP2 expression, on the other hand, was strongly increased in the liver and skeletal muscle of long-term sleep deprived animals and much less so, or not at all, in yoked controls or in rats that lost only 8 hours of sleep. Since the skeletal muscle is the largest tissue in the body, an elevated muscular expression of UCP2 is likely to affect the overall resting EE and may thus contribute to its increase after SD.

  14. Neurocognitive Consequences of Sleep Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Namni; Rao, Hengyi; Durmer, Jeffrey S.; Dinges, David F.

    2012-01-01

    Sleep deprivation is associated with considerable social, financial, and health-related costs, in large measure because it produces impaired cognitive performance due to increasing sleep propensity and instability of waking neurobehavioral functions. Cognitive functions particularly affected by sleep loss include psychomotor and cognitive speed, vigilant and executive attention, working memory, and higher cognitive abilities. Chronic sleep-restriction experiments—which model the kind of sleep loss experienced by many individuals with sleep fragmentation and premature sleep curtailment due to disorders and lifestyle—demonstrate that cognitive deficits accumulate to severe levels over time without full awareness by the affected individual. Functional neuroimaging has revealed that frequent and progressively longer cognitive lapses, which are a hallmark of sleep deprivation, involve distributed changes in brain regions including frontal and parietal control areas, secondary sensory processing areas, and thalamic areas. There are robust differences among individuals in the degree of their cognitive vulnerability to sleep loss that may involve differences in prefrontal and parietal cortices, and that may have a basis in genes regulating sleep homeostasis and circadian rhythms. Thus, cognitive deficits believed to be a function of the severity of clinical sleep disturbance may be a product of genetic alleles associated with differential cognitive vulnerability to sleep loss. PMID:19742409

  15. Deprivation Index for Small Areas in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez-Cantalejo, Carmen; Ocana-Riola, Ricardo; Fernandez-Ajuria, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    The term deprivation is often used to refer to economic or social shortages in a given geographical area. This concept of deprivation has been identified for years using simple indicators such as income level, education and social class. One of the advantages of using simple indicators is the availability of data, since they come directly from…

  16. Physiological responses of men during sleep deprivation.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1970-05-01

    The effects of 84 hours of sleep deprivation were examined in a group of six young men and compared with a group of six controls. Subjects were studied in pairs, one sleep-deprived and one control. Primary attention was given to the responses to acut...

  17. Resident Performance and Sleep Deprivation: A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Asken, Michael J.; Raham, David C.

    1983-01-01

    A review of the literature on resident performance and sleep deprivation suggests that current research is sparse and inconclusive, and existing research suggests potentially severe negative effects. It is proposed that justifications for sleep-depriving night call schedules remain untested, and their use as part of residency training should be…

  18. Does the early adopter catch the worm or choke on it? A reflective journey of the challenges of technology adoption in a health sciences education institution.

    PubMed

    Botha-Ravyse, Chrisna; Blignaut, Seugnet

    2017-01-01

    Early adoption of technology is a struggle well known to early adopters and now to me. Since the demand to use and implement technology in health professions' education has increased, I have been led to adopt various technologies, leading to many headaches. This paper addresses my experiences in developing and implementing technology in health science classrooms in a setting not adequately equipped to do so. After reflecting on my experiences, I conclude that it is crucial that systems help innovators and early adopters as they work to develop and implement teaching and learning technology. Technical decisions should address the needs of the higher education educator. In addition, once an institution chooses a specific technological approach, such as using e-guides, there should be resources in place to support the forerunners of these initiatives.

  19. Sleep deprivation suppresses aggression in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Kayser, Matthew S; Mainwaring, Benjamin; Yue, Zhifeng; Sehgal, Amita

    2015-01-01

    Sleep disturbances negatively impact numerous functions and have been linked to aggression and violence. However, a clear effect of sleep deprivation on aggressive behaviors remains unclear. We find that acute sleep deprivation profoundly suppresses aggressive behaviors in the fruit fly, while other social behaviors are unaffected. This suppression is recovered following post-deprivation sleep rebound, and occurs regardless of the approach to achieve sleep loss. Genetic and pharmacologic approaches suggest octopamine signaling transmits changes in aggression upon sleep deprivation, and reduced aggression places sleep-deprived flies at a competitive disadvantage for obtaining a reproductive partner. These findings demonstrate an interaction between two phylogenetically conserved behaviors, and suggest that previous sleep experiences strongly modulate aggression with consequences for reproductive fitness. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07643.001 PMID:26216041

  20. Shrinkage of X cells in the lateral geniculate nucleus after monocular deprivation revealed by FoxP2 labeling.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Kevin R; Holman, Kaitlyn D; Mitchell, Donald E

    2014-05-01

    The parallel processing of visual features by distinct neuron populations is a central characteristic of the mammalian visual system. In the A laminae of the cat dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN), parallel processing streams originate from two principal neuron types, called X and Y cells. Disruption of visual experience early in life by monocular deprivation has been shown to alter the structure and function of Y cells, but the extent to which deprivation influences X cells remains less clear. A transcription factor, FoxP2, has recently been shown to selectively label X cells in the ferret dLGN and thus provides an opportunity to examine whether monocular deprivation alters the soma size of X cells. In this study, FoxP2 labeling was examined in the dLGN of normal and monocularly deprived cats. The characteristics of neurons labeled for FoxP2 were consistent with FoxP2 being a marker for X cells in the cat dLGN. Monocular deprivation for either a short (7 days) or long (7 weeks) duration did not alter the density of FoxP2-positive neurons between nondeprived and deprived dLGN layers. However, for each deprived animal examined, measurement of the cross-sectional area of FoxP2-positive neurons (X cells) revealed that within deprived layers, X cells were smaller by approximately 20% after 7 days of deprivation, and by approximately 28% after 7 weeks of deprivation. The observed alteration to the cross-sectional area of X cells indicates that perturbation of this major pathway contributes to the functional impairments that develop from monocular deprivation.

  1. [Smoking cessation and social deprivation].

    PubMed

    Merson, F; Perriot, J; Underner, M; Peiffer, G; Fieulaine, N

    2014-12-01

    Smoking is a major of public health policy issue; one in two lifelong smokers will die from a disease related to tobacco use. In France, smoking is responsible for more than 70,000 deaths every year. The benefits linked to stopping smoking include reduced mortality and morbidity related to the use of tobacco. Recent data show an increase in the prevalence of smoking in the lowest socioeconomic population. Tobacco control needs a better understanding of the determinants of smoking in this population, which are also factors in the failure of cessation attempts. Based on international literature, this review specifies the educational and socioeconomic factors involved in tobacco smoking and in the result of an attempt to quit. Its aim is to propose ways to improve the management of smoking cessation in a socially deprived population. Copyright © 2014 SPLF. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Monocular Perceptual Deprivation from Interocular Suppression Temporarily Imbalances Ocular Dominance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Woong; Kim, Chai-Youn; Blake, Randolph

    2017-03-20

    Early visual experience sculpts neural mechanisms that regulate the balance of influence exerted by the two eyes on cortical mechanisms underlying binocular vision [1, 2], and experience's impact on this neural balancing act continues into adulthood [3-5]. One recently described, compelling example of adult neural plasticity is the effect of patching one eye for a relatively short period of time: contrary to intuition, monocular visual deprivation actually improves the deprived eye's competitive advantage during a subsequent period of binocular rivalry [6-8], the robust form of visual competition prompted by dissimilar stimulation of the two eyes [9, 10]. Neural concomitants of this improvement in monocular dominance are reflected in measurements of brain responsiveness following eye patching [11, 12]. Here we report that patching an eye is unnecessary for producing this paradoxical deprivation effect: interocular suppression of an ordinarily visible stimulus being viewed by one eye is sufficient to produce shifts in subsequent predominance of that eye to an extent comparable to that produced by patching the eye. Moreover, this imbalance in eye dominance can also be induced by prior, extended viewing of two monocular images differing only in contrast. Regardless of how shifts in eye dominance are induced, the effect decays once the two eyes view stimuli equal in strength. These novel findings implicate the operation of interocular neural gain control that dynamically adjusts the relative balance of activity between the two eyes [13, 14]. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The Impact of a Summer Institute on Inservice Early Childhood Teachers' Knowledge of Earth and Space Science Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sackes, Mesut; Trundle, Kathy Cabe; Krissek, Lawrence A.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated inservice PreK to Grade two teachers' knowledge of some earth and space science concepts before and after a short-term teacher institute. A one-group pre-test-post-test design was used in the current study. Earth science concepts targeted during the professional development included properties of rocks and soils, and the…

  4. Stories from early-career women physicians who have left academic medicine: a qualitative study at a single institution.

    PubMed

    Levine, Rachel B; Lin, Fenny; Kern, David E; Wright, Scott M; Carrese, Joseph

    2011-06-01

    The number of women in academic medicine has steadily increased, although gender parity still does not exist and women leave academics at somewhat higher rates than men. The authors investigated the reasons why women leave careers in academic medicine. Semistructured, one-on-one interviews were conducted in 2007-2008 with 20 women physicians who had left a single academic institution to explore their reasons for opting out of academic careers. Data analysis was iterative, and an editing analysis style was used to derive themes. A lack of role models for combining career and family responsibilities, frustrations with research (funding difficulties, poor mentorship, competition), work-life balance, and the institutional environment (described as noncollaborative and biased in favor of male faculty) emerged as key factors associated with a decision to leave academic medicine for respondents. Faced with these challenges, respondents reevaluated their priorities and concluded that a discrepancy existed between their own and institutional priorities. Many respondents expressed divergent views with the institutional norms on how to measure success and, as a consequence, felt that they were undervalued at work. Participants report a disconnection between their own priorities and those of the dominant culture in academic medicine. Efforts to retain women faculty in academic medicine may include exploring the aspects of an academic career that they value most and providing support and recognition accordingly.

  5. The impact of androgen deprivation on quality of life after radical prostatectomy for prostate carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Floyd J; McNaughton Collins, Mary; Walker Corkery, Elizabeth; Elliott, Diana B; Barry, Michael J

    2002-07-15

    Androgen deprivation is commonly prescribed for men with a rising prostate specific antigen level after radical prostatectomy, despite scant evidence regarding its efficacy and side effects. In the current study, the authors compared measures of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in men who were treated with androgen deprivation after radical prostatectomy with those for men who underwent surgery but were not treated with androgen deprivation. Medicare Provider and Analysis and Review (MedPAR) files were used to identify men who had undergone radical prostatectomies between 1991-1992. Medicare Part B data then were used to select two samples: men who subsequently were androgen deprived and those who were not. In 1999, a mail survey was administered that addressed a range of disease-related and treatment-related issues, including HRQOL. Age-adjusted comparisons of responses to seven multiitem measures of HRQOL were performed. The overall response rate was 82%. On all seven HRQOL measures (impact of cancer and treatment, concern regarding body image, mental health, general health, activity, worries about cancer and dying, and energy), there were statistically significant decrements associated with androgen deprivation. Patients and physicians must weigh the price patients pay with regard to HRQOL against the uncertain benefits of early androgen deprivation. Copyright 2002 American Cancer Society.DOI 10.1002/cncr.10656

  6. Decreased early mortality associated with the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia at National Cancer Institute-designated cancer centers in California.

    PubMed

    Ho, Gwendolyn; Wun, Ted; Muffly, Lori; Li, Qian; Brunson, Ann; Rosenberg, Aaron S; Jonas, Brian A; Keegan, Theresa H M

    2018-05-01

    To the authors' knowledge, few population-based studies to date have evaluated the association between location of care, complications with induction therapy, and early mortality in patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Using linked data from the California Cancer Registry and Patient Discharge Dataset (1999-2014), the authors identified adult (aged ≥18 years) patients with AML who received inpatient treatment within 30 days of diagnosis. A propensity score was created for treatment at a National Cancer Institute-designated cancer center (NCI-CC). Inverse probability-weighted, multivariable logistic regression models were used to determine associations between location of care, complications, and early mortality (death ≤60 days from diagnosis). Of the 7007 patients with AML, 1762 (25%) were treated at an NCI-CC. Patients with AML who were treated at NCI-CCs were more likely to be aged ≤65 years, live in higher socioeconomic status neighborhoods, have fewer comorbidities, and have public health insurance. Patients treated at NCI-CCs had higher rates of renal failure (23% vs 20%; P = .010) and lower rates of respiratory failure (11% vs 14%; P = .003) and cardiac arrest (1% vs 2%; P = .014). After adjustment for baseline characteristics, treatment at an NCI-CC was associated with lower early mortality (odds ratio, 0.46; 95% confidence interval, 0.38-0.57). The impact of complications on early mortality did not differ by location of care except for higher early mortality noted among patients with respiratory failure treated at non-NCI-CCs. The initial treatment of adult patients with AML at NCI-CCs is associated with a 53% reduction in the odds of early mortality compared with treatment at non-NCI-CCs. Lower early mortality may result from differences in hospital or provider experience and supportive care. Cancer 2018;124:1938-45. © 2018 American Cancer Society. © 2018 American Cancer Society.

  7. Melatonin and deprivation myopia in chickens.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, M; Schaeffel, F

    1996-01-01

    Chicken eyes elongate and become myopic if they are covered with translucent diffusors which degrade the retinal image ('deprivation myopia'). Since it has been shown that dopamine D2/D4 receptors (which mediate inhibition of melatonin synthesis) are also implicated in deprivation myopia, we have studied the role of melatonin in the visual control of eye growth. We have found that (1) diurnal melatonin rhythms and melatonin content in the retina are unchanged during deprivation myopia development despite the breakdown of both diurnal growth rhythms of the eye and diurnal rhythms in retinal dopamine metabolism, (2) diurnal melatonin rhythms and melatonin content in the retina remain unchanged after application of the neurotoxin 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) and presumably also after 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) application which both have a suppressive effect on deprivation myopia and (3) deprivation myopia was slightly reduced in both eyes after unilateral intravitreal injection of melatonin, despite that deprivation myopia is based on a mechanism intrinsic to the eye. We conclude that melatonin is not involved in the retinal signaling pathway translating visual experience to deprivation myopia.

  8. Early Childhood Studies--Students' Participation in the Development of a Learning Space in a Higher Education Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanyal, Mallika

    2014-01-01

    The article argues for the participation and involvement of students in developing learning spaces within higher education. In early childhood education there is a strong emphasis upon rights, democracy and planning learning through listening to young children. Taking inspiration from this, the study explores the use of participatory approaches in…

  9. Sustained Perceptual Deficits from Transient Sensory Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Sanes, Dan H.

    2015-01-01

    Sensory pathways display heightened plasticity during development, yet the perceptual consequences of early experience are generally assessed in adulthood. This approach does not allow one to identify transient perceptual changes that may be linked to the central plasticity observed in juvenile animals. Here, we determined whether a brief period of bilateral auditory deprivation affects sound perception in developing and adult gerbils. Animals were reared with bilateral earplugs, either from postnatal day 11 (P11) to postnatal day 23 (P23) (a manipulation previously found to disrupt gerbil cortical properties), or from P23-P35. Fifteen days after earplug removal and restoration of normal thresholds, animals were tested on their ability to detect the presence of amplitude modulation (AM), a temporal cue that supports vocal communication. Animals reared with earplugs from P11-P23 displayed elevated AM detection thresholds, compared with age-matched controls. In contrast, an identical period of earplug rearing at a later age (P23-P35) did not impair auditory perception. Although the AM thresholds of earplug-reared juveniles improved during a week of repeated testing, a subset of juveniles continued to display a perceptual deficit. Furthermore, although the perceptual deficits induced by transient earplug rearing had resolved for most animals by adulthood, a subset of adults displayed impaired performance. Control experiments indicated that earplugging did not disrupt the integrity of the auditory periphery. Together, our results suggest that P11-P23 encompasses a critical period during which sensory deprivation disrupts central mechanisms that support auditory perceptual skills. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Sensory systems are particularly malleable during development. This heightened degree of plasticity is beneficial because it enables the acquisition of complex skills, such as music or language. However, this plasticity comes with a cost: nervous system development

  10. Acute sleep deprivation enhances post-infection sleep and promotes survival during bacterial infection in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Tzu-Hsing; Williams, Julie A

    2014-05-01

    Sleep is known to increase as an acute response to infection. However, the function of this behavioral response in host defense is not well understood. To address this problem, we evaluated the effect of acute sleep deprivation on post-infection sleep and immune function in Drosophila. Laboratory. Drosophila melanogaster. Flies were subjected to sleep deprivation before (early DEP) or after (late DEP) bacterial infection. Relative to a non-deprived control, flies subjected to early DEP had enhanced sleep after infection as well as increased bacterial clearance and survival outcome. Flies subjected to late DEP experienced enhanced sleep following the deprivation period, and showed a modest improvement in survival outcome. Continuous DEP (early and late DEP) throughout infection also enhanced sleep later during infection and improved survival. However, improved survival in flies subjected to late or continuous DEP did not occur until after flies had experienced sleep. During infection, both early and late DEP enhanced NFκB transcriptional activity as measured by a luciferase reporter (κB-luc) in living flies. Early DEP also increased NFκB activity prior to infection. Flies that were deficient in expression of either the Relish or Dif NFκB transcription factors showed normal responses to early DEP. However, the effect of early DEP on post-infection sleep and survival was abolished in double mutants, which indicates that Relish and Dif have redundant roles in this process. Acute sleep deprivation elevated NFκB-dependent activity, increased post-infection sleep, and improved survival during bacterial infection.

  11. School Leadership Practices That Work in Areas of Multiple Deprivation in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chikoko, Vitallis; Naicker, Inbanathan; Mthiyane, Siphiwe

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on evidence from five school principals regarding leadership practices that work in multiple deprived contexts. The South African educational landscape is complex, often described as a cocktail of first and third world institutions. Looking at the schooling system on a continuum, on the one end there are first class schools…

  12. Executive Functions are not Affected by 24 Hours of Sleep Deprivation: A Color-Word Stroop Task Study.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Abhinav; Mittal, Tushar

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is an important factor affecting cognitive performance. Sleep deprivation results in fatigue, lack of concentration, confusion and sleepiness along with anxiety, depression and irritability. Sleep deprivation can have serious consequences in professions like armed forces and medicine where quick decisions and actions need to be taken. Color-Word Stroop task is one of the reliable tests to assess attention and it analyzes the processing of information in two dimensions i.e., reading of words and naming of colour. The evidence regarding the effect of sleep deprivation on Stroop interference is conflicting. The present study evaluated the effect of 24 hours of sleep deprivation on reaction time and interference in Stroop task. The present study was done on 30 healthy male medical student volunteers in the age group of 18-25 years after taking their consent and clearance from Institute Ethics Committee. Recordings of Stroop task were at three times: baseline (between 7-9 am), after 12 hours (7-9 pm) and after 24 hours (7-9 am, next day). The subjects were allowed to perform normal daily activities. The study revealed a significant increase in reaction time after 24 hours of sleep deprivation in comparison to baseline and after 12 hours of sleep deprivation. There was no significant change in interference and facilitation after sleep deprivation in comparison to baseline. The number of errors also did not show any significant change after sleep deprivation. The study indicated that there was slowing of responses without change in executive functions after 24 hours of sleep deprivation. It is probable that 24 hours of sleep deprivation does not bring about change in areas of brain affecting executive functions in healthy individuals who have normal sleep cycle. The present study indicated that in professions like armed forces and medicine working 24 hours at a stretch can lead to decrease in motor responses without affecting information processing and judgment

  13. "Deprivation" and "the Rural": An Investigation into Contradictory Discourses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, Rachel

    1996-01-01

    Rural respondents in the (English) Rural Lifestyles Project frequently denied rural "deprivation" through representations of rural areas as problem-free and idyllic, portrayals of deprivation as an individual fault, and constructions of deprivation as an urban feature. Argues that normative constructions of "deprivation"…

  14. N.G. Basov and early works on semiconductor lasers at P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Eliseev, P G

    2012-12-31

    A survey is presented of works on creation and investigation of semiconductor lasers during 1957 - 1977 at the P.N. Lebedev Physics Institute. Many of these works were initiated by N.G. Basov, starting from pre-laser time, when N.G. Basov and his coworkers formulated principal conditions of creation of lasers on interband transitions in semiconductors. Main directions of further works were diode lasers based on various materials and structures, their characteristics of output power, high-speed operation and reliability. (special issue devoted to the 90th anniversary of n.g. basov)

  15. Sleep deprivation affects reactivity to positive but not negative stimuli.

    PubMed

    Pilcher, June J; Callan, Christina; Posey, J Laura

    2015-12-01

    The current study examined the effects of partial and total sleep deprivation on emotional reactivity. Twenty-eight partially sleep-deprived participants and 31 totally sleep-deprived participants rated their valence and arousal responses to positive and negative pictures across four testing sessions during the day following partial sleep deprivation or during the night under total sleep deprivation. The results suggest that valence and arousal ratings decreased under both sleep deprivation conditions. In addition, partial and total sleep deprivation had a greater negative effect on positive events than negative events. These results suggest that sleep-deprived persons are more likely to respond less to positive events than negative events. One explanation for the current findings is that negative events could elicit more attentive behavior and thus stable responding under sleep deprivation conditions. As such, sleep deprivation could impact reactivity to emotional stimuli through automated attentional and self-regulatory processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Sleep deprivation treatment in depression: a review

    PubMed Central

    Roy, A.; Bhanji, S.

    1976-01-01

    Ten studies, including the authors' own, suggest that sleep deprivation may be a useful treatment in a third to a half of patients with endogenous depression. Caution and a controlled trial are suggested. PMID:1257175

  17. Relative Deprivation, Poor Health Habits and Mortality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eibner, Christine E.; Evans, William N.

    2005-01-01

    The results of the study conducted, using the data from National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) (BRFSS), to find the relationship between the relative deprivation and mortality, while controlling individual income and reference group fixed effects, are presented.

  18. Dream Deprivation and Facilitation with Hypnosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Ira B.; Boone, Donald

    1975-01-01

    The present study attempted to deprive human subjects of dreaming through the administration of a posthypnotic suggestion and to increase or facilitate dreaming through a second suggestion that was used with another group of subjects. (Author/RK)

  19. SOCIODEMOGRAPHIC DOMAINS OF DEPRIVATION AND PRETERM BIRTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Area-level deprivation is consistently associated with poor health outcomes. Using US census data (2000) and principal components analysis, a priori defined socio-demographic indices of poverty, housing, residential stability, occupation, employment and education were created fo...

  20. Toward Data-Driven Radiology Education-Early Experience Building Multi-Institutional Academic Trainee Interpretation Log Database (MATILDA).

    PubMed

    Chen, Po-Hao; Loehfelm, Thomas W; Kamer, Aaron P; Lemmon, Andrew B; Cook, Tessa S; Kohli, Marc D

    2016-12-01

    The residency review committee of the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) collects data on resident exam volume and sets minimum requirements. However, this data is not made readily available, and the ACGME does not share their tools or methodology. It is therefore difficult to assess the integrity of the data and determine if it truly reflects relevant aspects of the resident experience. This manuscript describes our experience creating a multi-institutional case log, incorporating data from three American diagnostic radiology residency programs. Each of the three sites independently established automated query pipelines from the various radiology information systems in their respective hospital groups, thereby creating a resident-specific database. Then, the three institutional resident case log databases were aggregated into a single centralized database schema. Three hundred thirty residents and 2,905,923 radiologic examinations over a 4-year span were catalogued using 11 ACGME categories. Our experience highlights big data challenges including internal data heterogeneity and external data discrepancies faced by informatics researchers.

  1. Relative deprivation and disordered gambling in youths.

    PubMed

    Elgar, Frank J; Canale, Natale; Wohl, Michael J A; Lenzi, Michela; Vieno, Alessio

    2018-03-07

    Previous research has found that area-level income inequality and individual-level relative deprivation both contribute to disordered gambling in adults. However, the socioeconomic factors that contribute to disordered gambling in youths and protective factors in their social environment have not been fully explored. This study examined the association between relative deprivation and youth disordered gambling and the potential moderating role of social support in this association. We used data on family material assets and self-reported symptoms of disordered gambling symptoms in 19 321 participants of the 2013/2014 Italian Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study. Relative deprivation was measured using the Yitzhaki index and classmates as a social reference group. Its association with disordered gambling was tested using multilevel negative binomial regression analyses. We also tested moderated effects of relative deprivation on disordered gambling by four sources of social support: families, peers, teachers and classmates. Relative deprivation related to a fourfold increase in the rate of disordered gambling symptoms (incidence rate ratio=4.18) after differences in absolute family wealth and other variables were statistically controlled. Symptoms were also more prevalent in males, first-generation immigrants and less supported youth. Peer support moderated the association between relative deprivation and symptoms, suggesting that high deprivation and low peer support have interactive links to disordered gambling. Relative deprivation among classmates relate to youth symptoms of disordered gambling. Youth who live in economically unequal settings and perceive a lack of social support may be at greatest risk. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Early institution of pre-cutting for difficult biliary cannulation: a prospective study comparing conventional vs. a modified technique.

    PubMed

    Kaffes, Arthur J; Sriram, Parupudi V J; Rao, Guduru V; Santosh, Darisetti; Reddy, D Nageshwar

    2005-11-01

    Pre-cutting techniques have been used to gain biliary access at the expense of an increased complication rate. This may be because of the multiple attempts to achieve cannulation by using standard methods before pre-cutting and causing excess edema and papillary trauma. There are limited data on the early use of pre-cutting techniques. We performed a prospective study of the early introduction of needle-knife techniques in patients with difficult biliary cannulation. Standard biliary cannulation was attempted with a sphincterotome and a guidewire. If this failed within 10 minutes or if there were more than 5 pancreatic cannulations, the needle-knife technique was used. Either a standard method of pre-cutting (below-upward) from the papillary orifice or the modified technique of pre-cutting (above-downward), stopping short of the papillary orifice, was adopted, as per the discretion of the endoscopist. If pre-cutting failed, the cannulation was reattempted 24 to 48 hours later. A total of 346 therapeutic biliary ERCP procedures were performed between April and August 2003. Of these, 70 patients (20%) (mean age, 54 years; 38 men) underwent needle-knife pre-cut sphincterotomy (16 with the standard technique). In 58 patients (83%), the procedure was successful with the initial pre-cutting, making the total success at initial ERCP 334/346 (96.5%). Nine patients in whom pre-cut failed, returned for a second-attempt ERCP, with 7 completed successfully. The total success rate of pre-cutting was 65/70 (93%). The overall success rate of biliary cannulation, after two ERCP attempts, was 341/346 (98.5%). Six patients had mild bleeding, and one had mild pancreatitis. There was no difference in these complications between the two types of pre-cut techniques. The early use of needle knife for difficult biliary cannulation is safe and effective, irrespective of the technique used.

  3. Neurobiological Correlates of Psychosocial Deprivation in Children: A Systematic Review of Neuroscientific Contributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perego, Gaia; Caputi, Marcella; Ogliari, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Background: Institutionalization from birth offers a unique opportunity to investigate the effects on brain and endocrine system of psychosocial deprivation in early infancy. Nonetheless, a systematic review about institutionalization and biological anomalies does not exist. Objective: The purpose of this paper was to systematize all the studies…

  4. Acuity-independent effects of visual deprivation on human visual cortex

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Chuan; Pettet, Mark W.; Norcia, Anthony M.

    2014-01-01

    Visual development depends on sensory input during an early developmental critical period. Deviation of the pointing direction of the two eyes (strabismus) or chronic optical blur (anisometropia) separately and together can disrupt the formation of normal binocular interactions and the development of spatial processing, leading to a loss of stereopsis and visual acuity known as amblyopia. To shed new light on how these two different forms of visual deprivation affect the development of visual cortex, we used event-related potentials (ERPs) to study the temporal evolution of visual responses in patients who had experienced either strabismus or anisometropia early in life. To make a specific statement about the locus of deprivation effects, we took advantage of a stimulation paradigm in which we could measure deprivation effects that arise either before or after a configuration-specific response to illusory contours (ICs). Extraction of ICs is known to first occur in extrastriate visual areas. Our ERP measurements indicate that deprivation via strabismus affects both the early part of the evoked response that occurs before ICs are formed as well as the later IC-selective response. Importantly, these effects are found in the normal-acuity nonamblyopic eyes of strabismic amblyopes and in both eyes of strabismic patients without amblyopia. The nonamblyopic eyes of anisometropic amblyopes, by contrast, are normal. Our results indicate that beyond the well-known effects of strabismus on the development of normal binocularity, it also affects the early stages of monocular feature processing in an acuity-independent fashion. PMID:25024230

  5. Sensory deprivation in Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Maite; García, Begoña; Valle, Jaione; Rapún, Beatriz; Ruiz de Los Mozos, Igor; Solano, Cristina; Martí, Miguel; Penadés, José R; Toledo-Arana, Alejandro; Lasa, Iñigo

    2018-02-06

    Bacteria use two-component systems (TCSs) to sense and respond to environmental changes. The core genome of the major human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus encodes 16 TCSs, one of which (WalRK) is essential. Here we show that S. aureus can be deprived of its complete sensorial TCS network and still survive under growth arrest conditions similarly to wild-type bacteria. Under replicating conditions, however, the WalRK system is necessary and sufficient to maintain bacterial growth, indicating that sensing through TCSs is mostly dispensable for living under constant environmental conditions. Characterization of S. aureus derivatives containing individual TCSs reveals that each TCS appears to be autonomous and self-sufficient to sense and respond to specific environmental cues, although some level of cross-regulation between non-cognate sensor-response regulator pairs occurs in vivo. This organization, if confirmed in other bacterial species, may provide a general evolutionarily mechanism for flexible bacterial adaptation to life in new niches.

  6. Toward Independence: Resubmission Rate of Unfunded National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute R01 Research Grant Applications Among Early Stage Investigators.

    PubMed

    Boyington, Josephine E A; Antman, Melissa D; Patel, Katherine C; Lauer, Michael S

    2016-04-01

    The current, budget-driven low rate of National Institutes of Health (NIH) funding for biomedical research has raised concerns about new investigators' ability to become independent scientists and their willingness to persist in efforts to secure funding. The authors sought to determine resubmission rates for unfunded National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) early stage investigator (ESI) independent research grant (R01) applications and to identify resubmission predictors. The authors used a retrospective cohort study design and retrieved applications submitted in fiscal years 2010-2012 from NIH electronic research administrative sources. They defined ESI applicants as those who have received no prior R01 (or equivalent) funding and are within 10 years of completion of their terminal research degree or medical residency training. ESI applications at the NHLBI were eligible for special funding consideration if they scored above, but within 10 points of, the payline. The primary outcome was application resubmission after failing to secure funding with the first R01 submission. Over half of the unfunded applications were resubmitted. Some of these were discussed and "percentiled." Among percentiled applications, the only significant predictor of resubmission was the percentile score. Over half (59%) of the ESI R01 grants funded by NHLBI in fiscal years 2010-2012 had percentile scores above but within 10 points of the NHLBI payline, and benefited from the special funding considerations. The only independent predictor of resubmission of NHLBI ESI R01 grant applications was percentile score; applicant demographics and institutional factors were not predictive of resubmission.

  7. Public sector employment, relative deprivation and happiness in adult urban Chinese employees.

    PubMed

    Hu, Anning

    2013-09-01

    The decline in perceived happiness within economic prosperity in Chinese society calls for further examination. In this research, we investigate the effect of employment in public sector work units on perceived happiness through the mediation of economic and social status relative deprivations. In the reform era of China, work unit is still an important mechanism maintaining social inequality, and those working in government/Communist Party agencies and public institutions have advantages of getting access to high wage, comprehensive welfare and the manipulation of administrative public power. Such economic and social status advantages are expected to reduce their relative deprivation and further promote their perceived happiness. Using a nationwide survey data conducted in 2006, we find working in public sector can significantly reduce the odds of experiencing economic relative deprivation, which is further contributive to the improvement of subjective wellbeing.

  8. The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines for early detection of ovarian cancer: the pivotal role of the clinical laboratory.

    PubMed

    Sturgeon, Catharine M; Duffy, Michael J; Walker, Graeme

    2011-07-01

    The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) has recently reviewed optimal means of early recognition and initial management of ovarian cancer, the leading cause of gynaecological death in the UK. The NICE guidelines state that general practitioners should measure serum CA125 in women presenting with persistent and continuous symptoms suggestive of ovarian cancer (e.g. abdominal distension, early satiety and loss of appetite or pelvic pain). If CA125 is ≥35 kU/L, the general practitioner should arrange an ultrasound scan of the abdomen and pelvis to enable calculation of the risk of malignancy score (RMI). Women with an RMI score of ≥250 should then be referred to a specialist multidisciplinary team. Successful implementation of these guidelines requires close liaison between primary care and laboratory medicine to ensure that CA125 is requested as a diagnostic aid only for women meeting the criteria stated in the guidelines. Preanalytical criteria must also be met and it is essential that both requestors and patients be aware of other possible causes of increases in CA125, as well as the fact that it is not raised in all patients with ovarian cancer. Guidance is being prepared to enable appropriate interpretation and implementation of the NICE guidelines. Continuous audit of the outcomes will also be essential to determine the effectiveness of this approach to early detection of ovarian cancer.

  9. Building human capacity through early childhood intervention: the Child Development Research Programme at the Tropical Medicine Research Institute, the University of the West Indies, Kingston, Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Walker, S P; Chang, S M; Powell, C A; Baker-Henningham, H

    2012-07-01

    Research conducted by the Child Development Research Group in the Tropical Medicine Research Institute has made significant contributions to the understanding of the importance of early nutrition and the home environment for children's development and the impact of psychosocial stimulation for disadvantaged and/or undernourished children. The work has provided critical evidence that has contributed to the increasing attention given to early childhood development in the work and policies of agencies such as the World Bank, World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Children Fund (UNICEF). This review concerns research which documented the impact of malnutrition on children's development and for the first time demonstrated the benefits and necessity of psychosocial stimulation for improvement in development. Subsequent research was critical in establishing the importance of linear growth retardation (stunting) as a risk factor for poor child development. A twenty-two-year study of stunted children has demonstrated benefits through to adulthood in areas such as educational attainment, mental health and reduced violent behaviour from an early childhood home visiting programme that works through mothers to promote their children's development. The group's research has also demonstrated that it is feasible and effective to integrate the stimulation intervention into primary care services with benefits to children's development and mothers'child rearing knowledge and practices. The group is currently conducting a study to provide information needed for scaling-up of parenting programmes through evaluation of a new approach to improving parenting through health centres and a modified home visit programme.

  10. Neighbourhood Deprivation, School Disorder and Academic Achievement in Primary Schools in Deprived Communities in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Jacqueline; Belsky, Jay; Broomfield, Kate A.; Melhuish, Edward

    2006-01-01

    There is growing concern about violent behaviour in schools, involving students, staff and/or parents. A survey of 1777 primary schools (for children aged 5 to 11) throughout England, most in areas of social and economic deprivation, found more disorder in neighbourhoods with greater deprivation. More disorder was also observed when there was more…

  11. Influence of sleep deprivation on learning among surgical house staff and medical students.

    PubMed

    Browne, B J; Van Susteren, T; Onsager, D R; Simpson, D; Salaymeh, B; Condon, R E

    1994-05-01

    Sleep deprivation as a result of in-house night call may alter capacity to learn. Surgical residents and medical students, in both sleep-deprived and rested states, read surgical journal articles and later answered questions regarding their content as a measure of ability to learn while participating in scheduled night call. Medical students (n = 35) and residents (n = 21) rotating on surgical services kept logs of hours slept during a 4-week study period. Subjects read six selected articles at separate early morning sittings during weeks 1 and 3. A multiple choice test was given 1 week after each session to assess short-term recall, and all tests were given again 3 months later to assess retention of information over the longer term. Scores were compared with the sleep data. Subjective measures of fatigue and motivation elicited from subjects also were evaluated. Sleep deprivation (4 hours or less uninterrupted sleep per night) resulted in increased fatigue and decreased motivation among medical students and residents (p < 0.05, t test). Objective scores on tests administered 1 week and 3 months after reading did not show an effect attributable to sleep deprivation (p > 0.05, t test). Sleep deprivation leads to subjective feelings of increased fatigue and decreased motivation. Residents and medical students, however, whether sleep deprived or not, obtain comparable scores on objective tests measuring both short-term and long-term retention of newly learned material. The ability to learn medically relevant information does not appear to be significantly altered by the degree of sleep deprivation associated with clinical rotations on surgical services.

  12. Ocular dominance in layer IV of the cat's visual cortex and the effects of monocular deprivation.

    PubMed Central

    Shatz, C J; Stryker, M P

    1978-01-01

    1. The relation between the physiological pattern of ocular dominance and the anatomical distribution of geniculocortical afferents serving each eye was studied in layer IV of the primary visual cortex of normal and monocularly deprived cats. 2. One eye was injected with radioactive label. After allowing sufficient time for transeuronal transport, micro-electrode recordings were made, and the geniculocoritcal afferents serving the injected eye were located autoradiographically. 3. In layer IV of normal cats, cell were clustered according to eye preference, and fewer cells were binocularly driven than in other layers. Points of transition between groups of cells dominated by one eye and those dominated by the other were marked with electrolytic lesions. A good correspondence was found between the location of cells dominated by the injected eye and the patches of radioactively labelled geniculocortical afferents. 4. Following prolonged early monocular deprivation, the patches of geniculocortical afferents in layer IV serving the deprived eye were smaller, and those serving the non-deprived eye larger, than normal. Again there was a coincidence between the patches of radioactively labelled afferents and the location of cells dominated by the injected eye. 5. The deprived eye was found to dominate a substantial fraction (22%) of cortical cells in the fourth layer. In other cortical layers, only 7% of the cells were dominated by the deprived eye. 6. These findings suggest that the thalamocortical projection is physically rearranged as a consequence of monocular deprivation, as has been demonstrated for layer IVc of the monkey's visual cortex (Hubel, Wiesel & Le Vay, 1977). Images Plate 1 Plate 2 Plate 3 Plate 4 Plate 5 Plate 6 PMID:702379

  13. Proton Beam Reirradiation for Recurrent Head and Neck Cancer: Multi-institutional Report on Feasibility and Early Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Romesser, Paul B.; Cahlon, Oren; ProCure Proton Therapy Center, Somerset, New Jersey

    Purpose: Reirradiation therapy (re-RT) is the only potentially curative treatment option for patients with locally recurrent head and neck cancer (HNC). Given the significant morbidity with head and neck re-RT, interest in proton beam radiation therapy (PBRT) has increased. We report the first multi-institutional clinical experience using curative-intent PBRT for re-RT in recurrent HNC. Methods and Materials: A retrospective analysis of ongoing prospective data registries from 2 hybrid community practice and academic proton centers was conducted. Patients with recurrent HNC who underwent at least 1 prior course of definitive-intent external beam radiation therapy (RT) were included. Acute and late toxicitiesmore » were assessed with the National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0 and the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group late radiation morbidity scoring system, respectively. The cumulative incidence of locoregional failure was calculated with death as a competing risk. The actuarial 12-month freedom–from–distant metastasis and overall survival rates were calculated with the Kaplan-Meier method. Results: Ninety-two consecutive patients were treated with curative-intent re-RT with PBRT between 2011 and 2014. Median follow-up among surviving patients was 13.3 months and among all patients was 10.4 months. The median time between last RT and PBRT was 34.4 months. There were 76 patients with 1 prior RT course and 16 with 2 or more courses. The median PBRT dose was 60.6 Gy (relative biological effectiveness, [RBE]). Eighty-five percent of patients underwent prior HNC RT for an oropharynx primary, and 39% underwent salvage surgery before re-RT. The cumulative incidence of locoregional failure at 12 months, with death as a competing risk, was 25.1%. The actuarial 12-month freedom–from–distant metastasis and overall survival rates were 84.0% and 65.2%, respectively. Acute toxicities of grade 3 or greater included

  14. Long-Lasting Crossmodal Cortical Reorganization Triggered by Brief Postnatal Visual Deprivation.

    PubMed

    Collignon, Olivier; Dormal, Giulia; de Heering, Adelaide; Lepore, Franco; Lewis, Terri L; Maurer, Daphne

    2015-09-21

    Animal and human studies have demonstrated that transient visual deprivation early in life, even for a very short period, permanently alters the response properties of neurons in the visual cortex and leads to corresponding behavioral visual deficits. While it is acknowledged that early-onset and longstanding blindness leads the occipital cortex to respond to non-visual stimulation, it remains unknown whether a short and transient period of postnatal visual deprivation is sufficient to trigger crossmodal reorganization that persists after years of visual experience. In the present study, we characterized brain responses to auditory stimuli in 11 adults who had been deprived of all patterned vision at birth by congenital cataracts in both eyes until they were treated at 9 to 238 days of age. When compared to controls with typical visual experience, the cataract-reversal group showed enhanced auditory-driven activity in focal visual regions. A combination of dynamic causal modeling with Bayesian model selection indicated that this auditory-driven activity in the occipital cortex was better explained by direct cortico-cortical connections with the primary auditory cortex than by subcortical connections. Thus, a short and transient period of visual deprivation early in life leads to enduring large-scale crossmodal reorganization of the brain circuitry typically dedicated to vision. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Calpain activation induced by glucose deprivation is mediated by oxidative stress and contributes to neuronal damage.

    PubMed

    Páramo, Blanca; Montiel, Teresa; Hernández-Espinosa, Diego R; Rivera-Martínez, Marlene; Morán, Julio; Massieu, Lourdes

    2013-11-01

    The mechanisms leading to neuronal death during glucose deprivation have not been fully elucidated, but a role of oxidative stress has been suggested. In the present study we have investigated whether the production of reactive oxygen species during glucose deprivation, contributes to the activation of calpain, a calcium-dependent protease involved in neuronal injury associated with brain ischemia and cerebral trauma. We have observed a rapid activation of calpain, as monitored by the cleavage of the cytoskeletal protein α-spectrin, after glucose withdrawal, which is reduced by inhibitors of xanthine oxidase, phospholipase A2 and NADPH oxidase. Results suggest that phospholipase A2 and NADPH oxidase contribute to the early activation of calpain after glucose deprivation. In particular NOX2, a member of the NADPH oxidase family is involved, since reduced stimulation of calpain activity is observed after glucose deprivation in hippocampal slices from transgenic mice lacking a functional NOX2. We observed an additive effect of the inhibitors of xanthine oxidase and phospholipase A2 on both ROS production and calpain activity, suggesting a synergistic action of these two enzymes. The present results provide new evidence showing that reactive oxygen species stimulate calpain activation during glucose deprivation and that this mechanism is involved in neuronal death. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Sympathetic network drive during water deprivation does not increase respiratory or cardiac rhythmic sympathetic nerve activity.

    PubMed

    Holbein, Walter W; Toney, Glenn M

    2013-06-15

    Effects of water deprivation on rhythmic bursting of sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) were investigated in anesthetized, bilaterally vagotomized, euhydrated (control) and 48-h water-deprived (WD) rats (n = 8/group). Control and WD rats had similar baseline values of mean arterial pressure, heart rate, end-tidal CO2, and central respiratory drive. Although integrated splanchnic SNA (sSNA) was greater in WD rats than controls (P < 0.01), analysis of respiratory rhythmic bursting of sSNA revealed that inspiratory rhythmic burst amplitude was actually smaller (P < 0.005) in WD rats (+68 ± 6%) than controls (+208 ± 20%), and amplitudes of the early expiratory (postinspiratory) trough and late expiratory burst of sSNA were not different between groups. Further analysis revealed that water deprivation had no effect on either the amplitude or periodicity of the cardiac rhythmic oscillation of sSNA. Collectively, these data indicate that the increase of sSNA produced by water deprivation is not attributable to either increased respiratory or cardiac rhythmic burst discharge. Thus the sympathetic network response to acute water deprivation appears to differ from that of chronic sympathoexcitation in neurogenic forms of arterial hypertension, where increased respiratory rhythmic bursting of SNA and baroreflex adaptations have been reported.

  17. Search for Integration of Theory and Practice: The Early History and Analysis of Three Innovative Graduate Institutions. ASHE 1986 Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betters-Reed, Bonita L.

    The origin and establishment of three innovative graduate institutions in the Boston, Massachusetts, area were assessed: The Arthur D. Little Management Education Institute, The Massachusetts General Hospital Institute of Health Professions, and the Wang Institute of Graduate Studies. These institutions started in non-educational institutions and…

  18. Material deprivation and health: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Tøge, Anne Grete; Bell, Ruth

    2016-08-08

    Does material deprivation affect the consequences of ill health? Answering this question requires that we move beyond the effects of income. Longitudinal data on material deprivation, longstanding illness and limiting longstanding illness enables investigations of the effects of material deprivation on risk of limiting longstanding illness. This study investigates whether a shift from affording to not affording a car predicts the probability of limiting longstanding ill (LLSI). The 2008-2011 longitudinal panel of Statistics on Income, Social Inclusion and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) is utilised. Longitudinal fixed effects logit models are applied, using LLSI as dependent variable. Transition from affording a car to not affording a car is used as a proxy for material deprivation. All models are controlled for whether the person becomes longstanding ill (LSI) as well as other time-variant covariates that could affect the results. The analysis shows a statistically significant increased odds ratio of LLSI when individuals no longer can afford a car, after controlling for confounders and LSI in the previous year (1.129, CI = 1.022-1.248). However, when restricting the sample to observations where respondents report longstanding illness the results are no longer significant (1.032, CI = 0.910-1.171). The results indicate an individual level effect of material deprivation on LLSI, suggesting that material resources can affect the consequences of ill health.

  19. The HIV and Drug Abuse Prevention Research Ethics Training Institute: Training Early-Career Scientists to Conduct Research on Research Ethics.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Celia B; Yuko, Elizabeth

    2015-12-01

    The responsible conduct of HIV/drug abuse prevention research requires investigators with both the knowledge of and ability to generate empirical data that can enhance global ethical practices and policies. This article describes a multidisciplinary program offering early-career professionals a 2-year intensive summer curriculum along with funding to conduct a mentored research study on a wide variety of HIV/drug abuse research ethics topics. Now in its fifth year, the program has admitted 29 trainees who have to date demonstrated increased knowledge of research ethics, produced 17 peer-reviewed publications, 46 professional presentations, and submitted or been awarded five related federal grants. The institute also hosts a global information platform providing general and HIV/drug abuse relevant research ethics educational and research resources that have had more than 38,800 unique visitors from more than 150 countries. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. The HIV and Drug Abuse Prevention Research Ethics Training Institute: Training Early-Career Scientists to Conduct Research on Research Ethics

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Celia B.; Yuko, Elizabeth

    2018-01-01

    The responsible conduct of HIV/drug abuse prevention research requires investigators with both the knowledge of and ability to generate empirical data that can enhance global ethical practices and policies. This article describes a multidisciplinary program offering early-career professionals a 2-year intensive summer curriculum along with funding to conduct a mentored research study on a wide variety of HIV/drug abuse research ethics topics. Now in its fifth year, the program has admitted 29 trainees who have to date demonstrated increased knowledge of research ethics, produced 17 peer-reviewed publications, 46 professional presentations, and submitted or been awarded five related federal grants. The institute also hosts a global information platform providing general and HIV/drug abuse relevant research ethics educational and research resources that have had more than 38,800 unique visitors from more than 150 countries. PMID:26564944

  1. Occlusion for stimulus deprivation amblyopia.

    PubMed

    Antonio-Santos, Aileen; Vedula, Satyanarayana S; Hatt, Sarah R; Powell, Christine

    2014-02-06

    Stimulus deprivation amblyopia (SDA) develops due to an obstruction to the passage of light secondary to a condition such as cataract. The obstruction prevents formation of a clear image on the retina. SDA can be resistant to treatment, leading to poor visual prognosis. SDA probably constitutes less than 3% of all amblyopia cases, although precise estimates of prevalence are unknown. In developed countries, most patients present under the age of one year; in less developed parts of the world patients are likely to be older at the time of presentation. The mainstay of treatment is removal of the cataract and then occlusion of the better-seeing eye, but regimens vary, can be difficult to execute, and traditionally are believed to lead to disappointing results. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of occlusion therapy for SDA in an attempt to establish realistic treatment outcomes. Where data were available, we also planned to examine evidence of any dose response effect and to assess the effect of the duration, severity, and causative factor on the size and direction of the treatment effect. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 9), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to October 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to October 2013), the Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to October 2013), PubMed (January 1946 to October 2013), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com ), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 28 October 2013. We planned to include randomized and quasi-randomized controlled

  2. Occlusion for stimulus deprivation amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Antonio-Santos, Aileen; Vedula, Satyanarayana S; Hatt, Sarah R; Powell, Christine

    2014-01-01

    Background Stimulus deprivation amblyopia (SDA) develops due to an obstruction to the passage of light secondary to a condition such as cataract. The obstruction prevents formation of a clear image on the retina. SDA can be resistant to treatment, leading to poor visual prognosis. SDA probably constitutes less than 3% of all amblyopia cases, although precise estimates of prevalence are unknown. In developed countries, most patients present under the age of one year; in less developed parts of the world patients are likely to be older at the time of presentation. The mainstay of treatment is removal of the cataract and then occlusion of the better-seeing eye, but regimens vary, can be difficult to execute, and traditionally are believed to lead to disappointing results. Objectives Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of occlusion therapy for SDA in an attempt to establish realistic treatment outcomes. Where data were available, we also planned to examine evidence of any dose response effect and to assess the effect of the duration, severity, and causative factor on the size and direction of the treatment effect. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 9), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to October 2013), EMBASE (January 1980 to October 2013), the Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to October 2013), PubMed (January 1946 to October 2013), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 28 October 2013. Selection criteria We planned

  3. 'Nobody really gets it': a qualitative exploration of youth mental health in deprived urban areas.

    PubMed

    Schaffalitzky, Elisabeth; Leahy, Dorothy; Armstrong, Claire; Gavin, Blanaid; Latham, Linda; McNicholas, Fiona; Meagher, David; O'Connor, Ray; O'Toole, Thomas; Smyth, Bobby P; Cullen, Walter

    2015-10-01

    To examine the experience of developing and living with mental health and substance use disorders among young people living in urban-deprived areas in Ireland to inform primary care interventions. Semi-structured qualitative interviews with 20 young adults attending health and social care agencies in two deprived urban areas, and analysed using thematic analysis. Five themes were identified: experiencing symptoms, symptom progression, delay accessing help, loss of control/crisis point, and consequences of mental health and substance use disorders. As young people delayed help, symptoms disrupted normal life progression and they found themselves unable to engage in everyday activities, and living with reduced potential. Living in deprived areas influenced the development of problems: many had added stressors, less familial support and early exposure to violence, addiction and bereavement. Young people in urban-deprived areas are especially vulnerable to mental health and substance use disorders. Early identification in primary care appears necessary in halting symptom and illness progression, improving young people's chances of achieving their potential. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  4. Control deprivation and styles of thinking.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xinyue; He, Lingnan; Yang, Qing; Lao, Junpeng; Baumeister, Roy F

    2012-03-01

    Westerners habitually think in analytical ways, whereas East Asians tend to favor holistic styles of thinking. We replicated this difference but showed that it disappeared after control deprivation (Experiment 1). Brief experiences of control deprivation, which stimulate increased desire for control, caused Chinese participants to shift toward Western-style analytical thinking in multiple ways (Experiments 2-5). Western Caucasian participants also increased their use of analytical thinking after control deprivation (Experiment 6). Manipulations that required Chinese participants to think in Western, analytical ways caused their sense of personal control to increase (Experiments 7-9). Prolonged experiences of control deprivation, which past work suggested foster an attitude more akin to learned helplessness than striving for control, had the opposite effect of causing Chinese participants to shift back toward a strongly holistic style of thinking (Experiments 10-12). Taken together, the results support the reality of cultural differences in cognition but also the cross-cultural similarity of using analytical thinking when seeking to enhance personal control.

  5. Relative Deprivation and the Gender Wage Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Linda A.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses how gender differences in the value of pay, based on relative deprivation theory, explain women's paradoxical contentment with lower wages. Presents a model of pay satisfaction to integrate value-based and comparative-referent explanations of the relationship between gender and pay satisfaction. Discusses economic approaches to the…

  6. The Cycle of Deprivation: Myths and Misconceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welshman, John

    2008-01-01

    The year 2006 marked the 30th anniversary of the publication of Michael Rutter and Nicola Madge's Cycles of Disadvantage (1976). As such, it provides an opportunity to take stock of debates over an alleged cycle of deprivation, both in the 1970s, and more recently. This article seeks to use historical methods in order to outline some areas in…

  7. Effects of sleep deprivation on cognition.

    PubMed

    Killgore, William D S

    2010-01-01

    Sleep deprivation is commonplace in modern society, but its far-reaching effects on cognitive performance are only beginning to be understood from a scientific perspective. While there is broad consensus that insufficient sleep leads to a general slowing of response speed and increased variability in performance, particularly for simple measures of alertness, attention and vigilance, there is much less agreement about the effects of sleep deprivation on many higher level cognitive capacities, including perception, memory and executive functions. Central to this debate has been the question of whether sleep deprivation affects nearly all cognitive capacities in a global manner through degraded alertness and attention, or whether sleep loss specifically impairs some aspects of cognition more than others. Neuroimaging evidence has implicated the prefrontal cortex as a brain region that may be particularly susceptible to the effects of sleep loss, but perplexingly, executive function tasks that putatively measure prefrontal functioning have yielded inconsistent findings within the context of sleep deprivation. Whereas many convergent and rule-based reasoning, decision making and planning tasks are relatively unaffected by sleep loss, more creative, divergent and innovative aspects of cognition do appear to be degraded by lack of sleep. Emerging evidence suggests that some aspects of higher level cognitive capacities remain degraded by sleep deprivation despite restoration of alertness and vigilance with stimulant countermeasures, suggesting that sleep loss may affect specific cognitive systems above and beyond the effects produced by global cognitive declines or impaired attentional processes. Finally, the role of emotion as a critical facet of cognition has received increasing attention in recent years and mounting evidence suggests that sleep deprivation may particularly affect cognitive systems that rely on emotional data. Thus, the extent to which sleep deprivation

  8. Effects of Partial and Acute Total Sleep Deprivation on Performance across Cognitive Domains, Individuals and Circadian Phase

    PubMed Central

    Lo, June C.; Groeger, John A.; Santhi, Nayantara; Arbon, Emma L.; Lazar, Alpar S.; Hasan, Sibah; von Schantz, Malcolm; Archer, Simon N.; Dijk, Derk-Jan

    2012-01-01

    Background Cognitive performance deteriorates during extended wakefulness and circadian phase misalignment, and some individuals are more affected than others. Whether performance is affected similarly across cognitive domains, or whether cognitive processes involving Executive Functions are more sensitive to sleep and circadian misalignment than Alertness and Sustained Attention, is a matter of debate. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a 2 × 12-day laboratory protocol to characterize the interaction of repeated partial and acute total sleep deprivation and circadian phase on performance across seven cognitive domains in 36 individuals (18 males; mean ± SD of age = 27.6±4.0 years). The sample was stratified for the rs57875989 polymorphism in PER3, which confers cognitive susceptibility to total sleep deprivation. We observed a deterioration of performance during both repeated partial and acute total sleep deprivation. Furthermore, prior partial sleep deprivation led to poorer cognitive performance in a subsequent total sleep deprivation period, but its effect was modulated by circadian phase such that it was virtually absent in the evening wake maintenance zone, and most prominent during early morning hours. A significant effect of PER3 genotype was observed for Subjective Alertness during partial sleep deprivation and on n-back tasks with a high executive load when assessed in the morning hours during total sleep deprivation after partial sleep loss. Overall, however, Subjective Alertness and Sustained Attention were more affected by both partial and total sleep deprivation than other cognitive domains and tasks including n-back tasks of Working Memory, even when implemented with a high executive load. Conclusions/Significance Sleep loss has a primary effect on Sleepiness and Sustained Attention with much smaller effects on challenging Working Memory tasks. These findings have implications for understanding how sleep debt and circadian rhythmicity

  9. Widening inequalities in self-rated health by material deprivation? A trend analysis between 2001 and 2011 in Germany.

    PubMed

    Pförtner, Timo-Kolja; Elgar, Frank J

    2016-01-01

    Research on inequalities in health has shown a strong association between the lack of standard of living (defined as material deprivation) and self-rated health (SRH). In this study, we sought to further examine this association in a trend analysis of relative and absolute inequalities in SRH as defined by material deprivation in Germany. Data were obtained from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) between 2001 and 2011. Material deprivation was measured on the basis of 11 living standard items missing due to financial reasons. We used the relative index of inequality (RII) and slope index of inequality (SII) to measure inequalities in SRH by material deprivation, calculating pooled interval logistic regression with robust SEs. Stepwise models were estimated, including demographic and socioeconomic variables, to assess their inter-relation with inequalities in SRH by material deprivation. The results showed a steady increase in poor SRH over the 10-year duration of the study. A quadratic (inverted U-shaped) trend was observed in material deprivation in the standards of living, which rose from 2001 to 2005, and then declined in 2011. A similar but non-significant trend was found in relative and absolute inequalities in SRH by material deprivation, which increased from 2001 to 2005 and then declined. Inequality in SRH by material deprivation was relatively stable; however, an observed quadratic trend coincided with active and passive labour market reforms in Germany in early 2005. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  10. Does neighborhood deprivation modify the effect of preterm birth on children's first grade academic performance?

    PubMed

    Richards, Jennifer L; Chapple-McGruder, Theresa; Williams, Bryan L; Kramer, Michael R

    2015-05-01

    Children's cognitive development and academic performance are linked to both fetal and early childhood factors, including preterm birth and family socioeconomic status. We evaluated whether the relationship between preterm birth (PTB) and first grade standardized test performance among Georgia public school students was modified by neighborhood deprivation in early childhood. The Georgia Birth to School cohort followed 327,698 children born in Georgia from 1998 to 2002 through to end-of-year first grade standardized tests. Binomial and log-binomial generalized estimating equations were used to estimate risk differences and risk ratios for the associations of both PTB and the Neighborhood Deprivation Index for the census tract in which each child's mother resided at the time of birth with test failure (versus passing). The presence of additive and multiplicative interaction was assessed. PTB was strongly associated with test failure, with increasing risk for earlier gestational ages. There was positive additive interaction between PTB and neighborhood deprivation. The main effect of PTB versus term birth increased risk of mathematics failure: 15.9% (95%CI: 13.3-18.5%) for early, 5.0% (95% CI: 4.1-5.9%) for moderate, and 1.3% (95%CI: 0.9-1.7%) for late preterm. Each 1 standard deviation increase in neighborhood deprivation was associated with 0.6% increased risk of mathematics failure. For children exposed to both PTB and higher neighborhood deprivation, test failure was 4.8%, 1.5%, and 0.8% greater than the sum of two main effects for early, moderate, and late PTB, respectively. Results were similar, but slightly attenuated, for reading and English/language arts. Our results suggest that PTB and neighborhood deprivation additively interact to produce greater risk among doubly exposed children than would be predicted from the sum of the effects of the two exposures. Understanding socioeconomic disparities in the effect of PTB on academic outcomes at school entry is

  11. Recovery from the anatomical effects of long-term monocular deprivation in cat lateral geniculate nucleus.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Kevin R; Fong, Ming-Fai; Mitchell, Donald E; Bear, Mark F

    2018-02-01

    Monocular deprivation (MD) imposed early in postnatal life elicits profound structural and functional abnormalities throughout the primary visual pathway. The ability of MD to modify neurons within the visual system is restricted to a so-called critical period that, for cats, peaks at about one postnatal month and declines thereafter so that by about 3 months of age MD has little effect. Recovery from the consequences of MD likewise adheres to a critical period that ends by about 3 months of age, after which the effects of deprivation are thought to be permanent and without capacity for reversal. The attenuation of plasticity beyond early development is a formidable obstacle for conventional therapies to stimulate recovery from protracted visual deprivation. In the current study we examined the efficacy of dark exposure and retinal inactivation with tetrodotoxin to promote anatomical recovery in the dorsal lateral geniculate nuclues (dLGN) from long-term MD started at the peak of the critical period. Whereas 10 days of dark exposure or binocular retinal inactivation were not better at promoting recovery than conventional treatment with reverse occlusion, inactivation of only the non-deprived (fellow) eye for 10 days produced a complete restoration of neuron soma size, and also reversed the significant loss of neurofilament protein within originally deprived dLGN layers. These results reveal a capacity for neural plasticity and recovery that is larger than anything previously observed following protracted MD in cat, and they highlight a possibility for alternative therapies applied at ages thought to be recalcitrant to recovery. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Long-term effects of neighbourhood deprivation on diabetes risk: quasi-experimental evidence from a refugee dispersal policy in Sweden.

    PubMed

    White, Justin S; Hamad, Rita; Li, Xinjun; Basu, Sanjay; Ohlsson, Henrik; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2016-06-01

    neighbourhoods was associated with a 9% increase in diabetes risk. This study makes use of a pre-existing governmental natural experiment to show that neighbourhood deprivation increased the risk of diabetes in refugees in Sweden. This finding has heightened importance in the context of the current refugee crisis in Europe. US National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, US National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, US National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities, Swedish Research Council. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Individual deprivation, regional deprivation, and risk for oral clefts in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Pawluk, Mariela Soledad; Campaña, Hebe; Rittler, Monica; Poletta, Fernando Adrián; Cosentino, Viviana R; Gili, Juan Antonio; Gimenez, Lucas Gabriel; López Camelo, Jorge Santiago

    2018-02-19

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of individual low socioeconomic status (SES) and deprived geographical area (GA) on the occurrence of isolated cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL±P) in Argentina. This case-control study included 577 newborns with isolated CL±P and 13 344 healthy controls, born between 1992 and 2001, from a total population of 546 129 births in 39 hospitals in Argentina. Census data on unsatisfied basic needs were used to establish the degree of geographical area deprivation. An SES index for each individual was established, using maternal age, gravidity, low paternal and maternal education, and low-level paternal occupation. Logistic regression was used to assess the effects of low SES and of deprived GA on CL±P. A slightly increased risk of CL±P was observed in mothers with a low SES, while a deprived GA showed no effect. Native ancestry, acute maternal illnesses, and poor prenatal care were significant risk factors for CL±P for the mothers with low SES, after using propensity scores to adjust for the demographic characteristics in cases and controls. Low individual SES slightly increased the risk for CL±P, but a deprived GA did not have that effect. There was no interaction between individual SES and deprived GA. Factors related to low individual SES-including poor prenatal care, low parental education, lack of information, and lifestyle factors-should be primarily targeted as risk factors for CL±P rather than factors related to a deprived place of residence.

  14. Neural preservation underlies speech improvement from auditory deprivation in young cochlear implant recipients.

    PubMed

    Feng, Gangyi; Ingvalson, Erin M; Grieco-Calub, Tina M; Roberts, Megan Y; Ryan, Maura E; Birmingham, Patrick; Burrowes, Delilah; Young, Nancy M; Wong, Patrick C M

    2018-01-30

    Although cochlear implantation enables some children to attain age-appropriate speech and language development, communicative delays persist in others, and outcomes are quite variable and difficult to predict, even for children implanted early in life. To understand the neurobiological basis of this variability, we used presurgical neural morphological data obtained from MRI of individual pediatric cochlear implant (CI) candidates implanted younger than 3.5 years to predict variability of their speech-perception improvement after surgery. We first compared neuroanatomical density and spatial pattern similarity of CI candidates to that of age-matched children with normal hearing, which allowed us to detail neuroanatomical networks that were either affected or unaffected by auditory deprivation. This information enables us to build machine-learning models to predict the individual children's speech development following CI. We found that regions of the brain that were unaffected by auditory deprivation, in particular the auditory association and cognitive brain regions, produced the highest accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity in patient classification and the most precise prediction results. These findings suggest that brain areas unaffected by auditory deprivation are critical to developing closer to typical speech outcomes. Moreover, the findings suggest that determination of the type of neural reorganization caused by auditory deprivation before implantation is valuable for predicting post-CI language outcomes for young children.

  15. Profiling the transcriptome of Gracilaria changii (Rhodophyta) in response to light deprivation.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chai-Ling; Teoh, Seddon; Teo, Swee-Sen; Rahim, Raha Abdul; Phang, Siew-Moi

    2009-01-01

    Light regulates photosynthesis, growth and reproduction, yield and properties of phycocolloids, and starch contents in seaweeds. Despite its importance as an environmental cue that regulates many developmental, physiological, and biochemical processes, the network of genes involved during light deprivation are obscure. In this study, we profiled the transcriptome of Gracilaria changii at two different irradiance levels using a cDNA microarray containing more than 3,000 cDNA probes. Microarray analysis revealed that 93 and 105 genes were up- and down-regulated more than 3-fold under light deprivation, respectively. However, only 50% of the transcripts have significant matches to the nonredundant peptide sequences in the database. The transcripts that accumulated under light deprivation include vanadium chloroperoxidase, thioredoxin, ferredoxin component, and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase. Among the genes that were down-regulated under light deprivation were genes encoding light harvesting protein, light harvesting complex I, phycobilisome 7.8 kDa linker polypeptide, low molecular weight early light-inducible protein, and vanadium bromoperoxidase. Our findings also provided important clues to the functions of many unknown sequences that could not be annotated using sequence comparison.

  16. Human reproductive cloning and reasons for deprivation.

    PubMed

    Jensen, D A

    2008-08-01

    Human reproductive cloning provides the possibility of genetically related children for persons for whom present technologies are ineffective. I argue that the desire for genetically related children is not, by itself, a sufficient reason to engage in human reproductive cloning. I show this by arguing that the value underlying the desire for genetically related children implies a tension between the parent and the future child. This tension stems from an instance of a deprivation and violates a general principle of reasons for deprivation. Alternative considerations, such as a right to procreative autonomy, do not appear helpful in making the case for human reproductive cloning merely on the basis of the desire for genetically related children.

  17. Sleep Deprivation and Caffeine Treatment Potentiate Photic Resetting of the Master Circadian Clock in a Diurnal Rodent.

    PubMed

    Jha, Pawan Kumar; Bouâouda, Hanan; Gourmelen, Sylviane; Dumont, Stephanie; Fuchs, Fanny; Goumon, Yannick; Bourgin, Patrice; Kalsbeek, Andries; Challet, Etienne

    2017-04-19

    Circadian rhythms in nocturnal and diurnal mammals are primarily synchronized to local time by the light/dark cycle. However, nonphotic factors, such as behavioral arousal and metabolic cues, can also phase shift the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCNs) and/or reduce the synchronizing effects of light in nocturnal rodents. In diurnal rodents, the role of arousal or insufficient sleep in these functions is still poorly understood. In the present study, diurnal Sudanian grass rats, Arvicanthis ansorgei , were aroused at night by sleep deprivation (gentle handling) or caffeine treatment that both prevented sleep. Phase shifts of locomotor activity were analyzed in grass rats transferred from a light/dark cycle to constant darkness and aroused in early night or late night. Early night, but not late night, sleep deprivation induced a significant phase shift. Caffeine on its own induced no phase shifts. Both sleep deprivation and caffeine treatment potentiated light-induced phase delays and phase advances in response to a 30 min light pulse, respectively. Sleep deprivation in early night, but not late night, potentiated light-induced c-Fos expression in the ventral SCN. Caffeine treatment in midnight triggered c-Fos expression in dorsal SCN. Both sleep deprivation and caffeine treatment potentiated light-induced c-Fos expression in calbindin-containing cells of the ventral SCN in early and late night. These findings indicate that, in contrast to nocturnal rodents, behavioral arousal induced either by sleep deprivation or caffeine during the sleeping period potentiates light resetting of the master circadian clock in diurnal rodents, and activation of calbindin-containing suprachiasmatic cells may be involved in this effect. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Arousing stimuli have the ability to regulate circadian rhythms in mammals. Behavioral arousal in the sleeping period phase shifts the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei and/or slows down the photic

  18. Androgen deprivation treatment of sexual behavior.

    PubMed

    Houts, Frederick W; Taller, Inna; Tucker, Douglas E; Berlin, Fred S

    2011-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists are underutilized in patients seeking diminution of problematic sexual drives. This chapter reviews the literature on surgical castration of sex offenders, anti-androgen use and the rationale for providing androgen deprivation therapy, rather than selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or more conservative interventions, for patients with paraphilias and excessive sexual drive. Discussions of informed consent, side effects, contraindications and case examples are provided. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Relative Deprivation and Sickness Absence in Sweden

    PubMed Central

    Helgertz, Jonas; Hess, Wolfgang; Scott, Kirk

    2013-01-01

    Background: A high prevalence of sickness absence in many countries, at a substantial societal cost, underlines the importance to understand its determining mechanisms. This study focuses on the link between relative deprivation and the probability of sickness absence. Methods: 184,000 men and women in Sweden were followed between 1982 and 2001. The sample consists of working individuals between the ages of 19 and 65. The outcome is defined as experiencing more than 14 days of sickness absence during a year. Based on the complete Swedish population, an individual’s degree of relative deprivation is measured through income compared to individuals of the same age, sex, educational level and type. In accounting for the possibility that sickness absence and socioeconomic status are determined by common factors, discrete-time duration models were estimated, accounting for unobserved heterogeneity through random effects. Results: The results confirm that the failure to account for the dynamics of the individual’s career biases the influence from socioeconomic characteristics. Results consistently suggest a major influence from relative deprivation, with a consistently lower risk of sickness absence among the highly educated. Conclusions: Altering individual’s health behavior through education appears more efficient in reducing the reliance on sickness absence, rather than redistributive policies. PMID:23996012

  20. Caffeine deprivation affects vigilance performance and mood.

    PubMed

    Lane, J D; Phillips-Bute, B G

    1998-08-01

    The effects of brief caffeine deprivation on vigilance performance, mood, and symptoms of caffeine withdrawal were studied in habitual coffee drinkers. Thirty male and female coffee drinkers were tested twice at midday (1130 to 1330 hours) after mornings in which they either consumed caffeinated beverages ad lib or abstained. Vigilance performance was tested with a 30-min computerized visual monitoring task. Mood and withdrawal symptom reports were collected by questionnaires. Caffeine deprivation was associated with impaired vigilance performance characterized by a reduction in the percentage of targets detected and an increase in response time, and by subjective reports of decreased vigor and increased fatigue and symptoms characterized by sleepiness, headache, and reduced ability to work. Even short periods of caffeine deprivation, equivalent in length to skipping regular morning coffee, can produce deficits in sustained attention and noticeable unpleasant caffeine-withdrawal symptoms in habitual coffee drinkers. Such symptoms may be a common side-effect of habitual caffeine consumption that contributes to the maintenance of this behavior.

  1. Sleep deprivation increases formation of false memory.

    PubMed

    Lo, June C; Chong, Pearlynne L H; Ganesan, Shankari; Leong, Ruth L F; Chee, Michael W L

    2016-12-01

    Retrieving false information can have serious consequences. Sleep is important for memory, but voluntary sleep curtailment is becoming more rampant. Here, the misinformation paradigm was used to investigate false memory formation after 1 night of total sleep deprivation in healthy young adults (N = 58, mean age ± SD = 22.10 ± 1.60 years; 29 males), and 7 nights of partial sleep deprivation (5 h sleep opportunity) in these young adults and healthy adolescents (N = 54, mean age ± SD = 16.67 ± 1.03 years; 25 males). In both age groups, sleep-deprived individuals were more likely than well-rested persons to incorporate misleading post-event information into their responses during memory retrieval (P < 0.050). These findings reiterate the importance of adequate sleep in optimal cognitive functioning, reveal the vulnerability of adolescents' memory during sleep curtailment, and suggest the need to assess eyewitnesses' sleep history after encountering misleading information. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Sleep Research published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of European Sleep Research Society.

  2. Relative deprivation and sickness absence in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Helgertz, Jonas; Hess, Wolfgang; Scott, Kirk

    2013-08-29

    A high prevalence of sickness absence in many countries, at a substantial societal cost, underlines the importance to understand its determining mechanisms. This study focuses on the link between relative deprivation and the probability of sickness absence. 184,000 men and women in Sweden were followed between 1982 and 2001. The sample consists of working individuals between the ages of 19 and 65. The outcome is defined as experiencing more than 14 days of sickness absence during a year. Based on the complete Swedish population, an individual's degree of relative deprivation is measured through income compared to individuals of the same age, sex, educational level and type. In accounting for the possibility that sickness absence and socioeconomic status are determined by common factors, discrete-time duration models were estimated, accounting for unobserved heterogeneity through random effects. The results confirm that the failure to account for the dynamics of the individual's career biases the influence from socioeconomic characteristics. Results consistently suggest a major influence from relative deprivation, with a consistently lower risk of sickness absence among the highly educated. Altering individual's health behavior through education appears more efficient in reducing the reliance on sickness absence, rather than redistributive policies.

  3. Nicotine and food deprivation decrease the ability to resist smoking.

    PubMed

    Leeman, Robert F; O'Malley, Stephanie S; White, Marney A; McKee, Sherry A

    2010-09-01

    Attempts to simultaneously control food intake and smoking may lead to smoking cessation failure. We sought to model this relationship using a human laboratory paradigm of smoking lapse behavior. We examined the combined effect of food and nicotine deprivation, compared to nicotine deprivation alone, on the ability to resist smoking and on subsequent ad libitum smoking. In a between-subjects design, daily smokers (N = 30) were all deprived of nicotine for 18 h and were either food-deprived (12 h) or not during a laboratory session. Following exposure to individualized food cues, participants had the option of initiating tobacco self-administration or delaying up to 50 min in exchange for monetary reinforcement. Subsequently, the tobacco self-administration period consisted of 1 h in which participants could choose to smoke or receive monetary reinforcement for cigarettes not smoked. Smokers who had been deprived of food and nicotine smoked their first cigarette sooner and were more likely to smoke at some point during the laboratory session, compared to those who were only nicotine-deprived. Those who were food- and nicotine-deprived smoked slightly more cigarettes than those who were nicotine-deprived only, although this difference was not statistically significant. There were no sex differences in outcomes. Hunger and food craving ratings while trying to resist smoking were greater in the food + nicotine-deprived group. Tobacco craving was predictive of outcome in both conditions. These findings support the hypothesis that food deprivation can undermine a smoker's ability to resist smoking.

  4. Association of early National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale improvement with vessel recanalization and functional outcome after intravenous thrombolysis in ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Kharitonova, Tatiana; Mikulik, Robert; Roine, Risto O; Soinne, Lauri; Ahmed, Niaz; Wahlgren, Nils

    2011-06-01

    Early neurological improvement (ENI) after thrombolytic therapy of acute stroke has been linked with recanalization and favorable outcome, although its definition shows considerable variation. We tested the ability of ENI, as defined in previous publications, to predict vessel recanalization and 3-month functional outcome after intravenous thrombolysis recorded in an extensive patient cohort in the Safe Implementation of Thrombolysis in Stroke-International Stroke Thrombolysis Register (SITS-ISTR). Of 21,534 patients registered between December 2002 and December 2008, 798 patients (3.7%) had CT- or MR angiography-documented baseline vessel occlusion and also angiography data at 22 to 36 hours post-treatment. ENI definitions assessed at 2 hours and 24 hours post-treatment were (1) National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score improvement ≥4 points from baseline; (2) NIHSS 0, 1, or improvement ≥8; (3) NIHSS ≤3 or improvement ≥10; (4) improvement by 20%; (5) 40% from baseline; or (6) NIHSS score 0 to 1. Receiver operating curve analysis and multiple logistic regression were performed to evaluate the association of ENI with vessel recanalization and favorable functional outcome (modified Rankin Scale score 0 to 2 at 3 months). ENI at 2 hours had fair accuracy to diagnose recanalization as derived from receiver operating curve analysis. Definitions of improvement based on percent of NIHSS score change from baseline demonstrate better accuracy to diagnose recanalization at 2 hours and 24 hours than the definitions based on NIHSS cutoffs (the best performance at 2 hours was area under the curve 0.633, sensitivity 58%, specificity 69%, positive predictive value 68%, and negative predictive value 59% for 20% improvement; and area under the curve 0.692, sensitivity 69%, specificity 70%, positive predictive value 70%, and negative predictive value 62% for 40% improvement at 24 hours). ENI-predicted functional outcome with OR 2.8 to 6.0 independently from

  5. The relationship of fall-related fractures to social deprivation.

    PubMed

    Court-Brown, C M; Aitken, S A; Ralston, S H; McQueen, M M

    2011-04-01

    The relationship between fall-related fractures and social deprivation was studied in 3,843 patients. The incidence of fractures correlated with deprivation in all age groups although the spectrum of fractures was not affected by deprivation. The average age and the prevalence of hip fractures decreased with increasing deprivation. This study examines the relationship between social deprivation and fall-related fractures. Social deprivation has been shown to be a predisposing factor in a number of diseases. There is evidence that it is implicated in fractures in children and young adults, but the evidence that it is associated with fragility fractures in older adults is weak. As fragility fractures are becoming progressively more common and increasingly expensive to treat, the association between social deprivation and fractures is important to define. All out-patient and in-patient fractures presenting to the Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh over a 1-year period were prospectively recorded. The fractures caused by falls from a standing height were analysed in all patients of at least 15 years of age. Social deprivation was assessed using the Carstairs score and social deprivation deciles, and the 2001 census was used to calculate fracture incidence. The data were used to analyse the relationship between social deprivation and fall-related fractures in all age groups. The incidence of fall-related fractures correlated with social deprivation in all age groups including fragility fractures in the elderly. The overall spectrum of fractures was not affected by social deprivation although the prevalence of proximal femoral fractures decreased with increasing deprivation. The average age of patients with fall-related fractures also decreased with increasing social deprivation as did the requirement for in-patient treatment. This is the first study to show the relationship between fall-related fractures and social deprivation in older patients. We believe that the decreased

  6. Caffeine withdrawal symptoms and self-administration following caffeine deprivation.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, S H; de Wit, H; Zacny, J P

    1995-08-01

    This study examined the effects of complete or partial caffeine deprivation on withdrawal symptomatology and self-administration of coffee in caffeine-dependent coffee drinkers. Nine habitual coffee drinkers abstained from dietary sources of caffeine for 33.5 h. Caffeine deprivation was manipulated by administering capsules containing 0%, 50%, or 100% of each subject's daily caffeine intake (complete, partial, and no deprivation conditions). Caffeine withdrawal symptomatology was measured using self-report questionnaires. Caffeine self-administration was measured using: i) the amount of coffee subjects earned on a series of concurrent random-ratio schedules that yielded coffee and money reinforcers; ii) the amount of earned coffee they consumed. Saliva samples revealed that subjects complied with the caffeine abstinence instructions. Caffeine withdrawal symptoms occurred reliably following complete caffeine deprivation, though not in the partial deprivation condition. Caffeine self-administration was not related to deprivation condition. We conclude that caffeine withdrawal symptomatology is not necessarily associated with increased caffeine consumption.

  7. Augmented Reality as a Countermeasure for Sleep Deprivation.

    PubMed

    Baumeister, James; Dorrlan, Jillian; Banks, Siobhan; Chatburn, Alex; Smith, Ross T; Carskadon, Mary A; Lushington, Kurt; Thomas, Bruce H

    2016-04-01

    Sleep deprivation is known to have serious deleterious effects on executive functioning and job performance. Augmented reality has an ability to place pertinent information at the fore, guiding visual focus and reducing instructional complexity. This paper presents a study to explore how spatial augmented reality instructions impact procedural task performance on sleep deprived users. The user study was conducted to examine performance on a procedural task at six time points over the course of a night of total sleep deprivation. Tasks were provided either by spatial augmented reality-based projections or on an adjacent monitor. The results indicate that participant errors significantly increased with the monitor condition when sleep deprived. The augmented reality condition exhibited a positive influence with participant errors and completion time having no significant increase when sleep deprived. The results of our study show that spatial augmented reality is an effective sleep deprivation countermeasure under laboratory conditions.

  8. Schizophrenia and subsequent neighborhood deprivation: revisiting the social drift hypothesis using population, twin and molecular genetic data.

    PubMed

    Sariaslan, A; Fazel, S; D'Onofrio, B M; Långström, N; Larsson, H; Bergen, S E; Kuja-Halkola, R; Lichtenstein, P

    2016-05-03

    Neighborhood influences in the etiology of schizophrenia have been emphasized in a number of systematic reviews, but causality remains uncertain. To test the social drift hypothesis, we used three complementary genetically informed Swedish cohorts. First, we used nationwide Swedish data on approximately 760 000 full- and half-sibling pairs born between 1951 and 1974 and quantitative genetic models to study genetic and environmental influences on the overlap between schizophrenia in young adulthood and subsequent residence in socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods. Schizophrenia diagnoses were ascertained using the National Patient Registry. Second, we tested the overlap between childhood psychotic experiences and neighborhood deprivation in early adulthood in the longitudinal Twin Study of Child and Adolescent Development (TCHAD; n=2960). Third, we investigated to what extent polygenic risk scores for schizophrenia predicted residence in deprived neighborhoods during late adulthood using the TwinGene sample (n=6796). Sibling data suggested that living in deprived neighborhoods was substantially heritable; 65% (95% confidence interval (95% CI): 60-71%) of the variance was attributed to genetic influences. Although the correlation between schizophrenia and neighborhood deprivation was moderate in magnitude (r=0.22; 95% CI: 0.20-0.24), it was entirely explained by genetic influences. We replicated these findings in the TCHAD sample. Moreover, the association between polygenic risk for schizophrenia and neighborhood deprivation was statistically significant (R(2)=0.15%, P=0.002). Our findings are primarily consistent with a genetic selection interpretation where genetic liability for schizophrenia also predicts subsequent residence in socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods. Previous studies may have overemphasized the relative importance of environmental influences in the social drift of schizophrenia patients. Clinical and policy interventions will therefore

  9. Implementing lung cancer screening: baseline results from a community-based 'Lung Health Check' pilot in deprived areas of Manchester.

    PubMed

    Crosbie, Phil A; Balata, Haval; Evison, Matthew; Atack, Melanie; Bayliss-Brideaux, Val; Colligan, Denis; Duerden, Rebecca; Eaglesfield, Josephine; Edwards, Timothy; Elton, Peter; Foster, Julie; Greaves, Melanie; Hayler, Graham; Higgins, Coral; Howells, John; Irion, Klaus; Karunaratne, Devinda; Kelly, Jodie; King, Zoe; Manson, Sarah; Mellor, Stuart; Miller, Donna; Myerscough, Amanda; Newton, Tom; O'Leary, Michelle; Pearson, Rachel; Pickford, Julie; Sawyer, Richard; Screaton, Nick J; Sharman, Anna; Simmons, Maggi; Smith, Elaine; Taylor, Ben; Taylor, Sarah; Walsham, Anna; Watts, Angela; Whittaker, James; Yarnell, Laura; Threlfall, Anthony; Barber, Phil V; Tonge, Janet; Booton, Richard

    2018-02-13

    We report baseline results of a community-based, targeted, low-dose CT (LDCT) lung cancer screening pilot in deprived areas of Manchester. Ever smokers, aged 55-74 years, were invited to 'lung health checks' (LHCs) next to local shopping centres, with immediate access to LDCT for those at high risk (6-year risk ≥1.51%, PLCO M2012 calculator). 75% of attendees (n=1893/2541) were ranked in the lowest deprivation quintile; 56% were high risk and of 1384 individuals screened, 3% (95% CI 2.3% to 4.1%) had lung cancer (80% early stage) of whom 65% had surgical resection. Taking lung cancer screening into communities, with an LHC approach, is effective and engages populations in deprived areas. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Nurses need a standard definition of a deprivation of liberty.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Richard

    The House of Commons health committee has called for an urgent review of the implementation of the deprivation of liberty safeguards. They are particularly concerned that nurses, as gatekeepers of the safeguards, often do not know when a deprivation of liberty occurs in practice. In this article the author argues that given the lack of a standard definition of what amounts to a deprivation of liberty and the introduction by the courts of often contradictory factors that nurses are required to consider when determining if a patient is being deprived of their liberty it is little wonder that confusion is common place.

  11. Total sleep deprivation does not significantly degrade semantic encoding.

    PubMed

    Honn, K A; Grant, D A; Hinson, J M; Whitney, P; Van Dongen, Hpa

    2018-01-17

    Sleep deprivation impairs performance on cognitive tasks, but it is unclear which cognitive processes it degrades. We administered a semantic matching task with variable stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) and both speeded and self-paced trial blocks. The task was administered at the baseline and 24 hours later after 30.8 hours of total sleep deprivation (TSD) or matching well-rested control. After sleep deprivation, the 20% slowest response times (RTs) were significantly increased. However, the semantic encoding time component of the RTs remained at baseline level. Thus, the performance impairment induced by sleep deprivation on this task occurred in cognitive processes downstream of semantic encoding.

  12. Maternal exercise decreases maternal deprivation induced anxiety of pups and correlates to increased prefrontal cortex BDNF and VEGF.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Nazan; Sisman, Ali Riza; Dayi, Ayfer; Aksu, Ilkay; Cetin, Ferihan; Gencoglu, Celal; Tas, Aysegul; Buyuk, Erkan

    2011-11-21

    Maternal deprivation (MD) may cause neuropsychiatric disorders such as anxiety disorder by negatively affecting the cognitive functions and behavior in pups. The aim of this study is to investigate whether maternal exercise during pregnancy has beneficial effects on anxiety that increases with MD, and on the levels of VEGF and BDNF which have anxiolytic effects on the prefrontal cortex, the anxiety-related region of the brain. The anxiety level in the deprivation group was greater than the control group and found more in male than female pups. The prefrontal cortex VEGF and BDNF levels were decreased in the deprivation group compared to control group while serum corticosterone levels were increased in the deprivation group. Anxiety and serum corticosterone levels were decreased in maternally exercised female and male pups, while the prefrontal cortex VEGF and BDNF levels were increased, compared to sedentary mother's pups. These results indicate that maternal exercise may attenuate the negative effect of stresses such as maternal deprivation that can be encountered early in life. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Deprivation of maternal care has long-lasting consequences for the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis of zebra finches

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Sunayana B.; Arterbery, Adam S.; Fergus, Daniel J.; Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Early-life stress caused by the deprivation of maternal care has been shown to have long-lasting effects on the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis in offspring of uniparental mammalian species. We asked if deprivation of maternal care in biparental species alters stress responsiveness of offspring, using a biparental avian species—the zebra finch, Taeniopygia guttata. In our experiment, one group of birds was raised by both male and female parents (control), and another was raised by males alone (maternally deprived). During adulthood, offspring of both groups were subjected to two stressors (restraint and isolation), and corticosterone concentrations were measured. Additionally, we measured baseline levels of the two corticosteroid receptors—glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR)—in the hippocampus, hypothalamus and cerebellum. Our results suggest that maternally deprived offspring are hyper-responsive to isolation in comparison with controls. Furthermore, mRNA levels of both GR and MR receptors are altered in maternally deprived offspring in comparison with controls. Thus, absence of maternal care has lasting consequences for HPA function in a biparental species where paternal care is available. PMID:21775332

  14. Crime: social disorganization and relative deprivation.

    PubMed

    Kawachi, I; Kennedy, B P; Wilkinson, R G

    1999-03-01

    Crime is seldom considered as an outcome in public health research. Yet major theoretical and empirical developments in the field of criminology during the past 50 years suggest that the same social environmental factors which predict geographic variation in crime rates may also be relevant for explaining community variations in health and wellbeing. Understanding the causes of variability in crime across countries and across regions within a country will help us to solve one of the enduring puzzles in public health, viz. why some communities are healthier than others. The purpose of this paper is to present a conceptual framework for investigating the influence of the social context on community health, using crime as the indicator of collective wellbeing. We argue that two sets of societal characteristics influence the level of crime: the degree of relative deprivation in society (for instance, measured by the extent of income inequality), and the degree of cohesiveness in social relations among citizens (measured, for instance, by indicators of 'social capital' and 'collective efficacy'). We provided a test of our conceptual framework using state-level ecologic data on violent crimes and property crimes within the USA. Violent crimes (homicide, assault, robbery) were consistently associated with relative deprivation (income inequality) and indicators of low social capital. Among property crimes, burglary was also associated with deprivation and low social capital. Areas with high crime rates tend also to exhibit higher mortality rates from all causes, suggesting that crime and population health share the same social origins. Crime is thus a mirror of the quality of the social environment.

  15. Embodied masculinity and androgen deprivation therapy.

    PubMed

    Oliffe, John

    2006-05-01

    This paper describes the findings from an ethnographic study of 16 Anglo-Australian men treated with androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for advanced prostate cancer. Utilising a social constructionist gendered analysis, participants' experiences, particularly in relation to embodied masculinity, are described in the context of reduced testosterone that accompany ADT. The findings indicated that participants reformulated many ideals of hegemonic masculinity in response to functional body changes. However, hegemonic masculinity strongly influenced participants' philosophical resolve to "fight" prostate cancer. The findings are considered in broader ongoing debates about essentialist sex and the social construction of gender.

  16. Water deprivation test in children with polyuria.

    PubMed

    Wong, Lap Ming; Man, Sze Shun

    2012-01-01

    Polyuria is an uncommon clinical presentation in paediatric practice. When diabetes mellitus has been excluded by history taking and preliminary investigations and impaired renal concentrating ability is confirmed, water deprivation test (WDT) is necessary to differentiate among central diabetes insipidus (CDI), nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, or primary polydipsia. Traditionally, responsiveness to desmopressin injection is defined as urine osmolality >750 mOsm/kg. However, that level could not be reached in the review of our patients. We discuss how to arrive at the diagnosis of CDI in WDT. An approach to polyuria and WDT will also be discussed.

  17. DNA methylation at stress-related genes is associated with exposure to early life institutionalization.

    PubMed

    Non, Amy L; Hollister, Brittany M; Humphreys, Kathryn L; Childebayeva, Ainash; Esteves, Kyle; Zeanah, Charles H; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Charles A; Drury, Stacy S

    2016-09-01

    Differences in DNA methylation have been associated with early life adversity, suggesting that alterations in methylation function as one pathway through which adverse early environments are biologically embedded. This study examined associations between exposure to institutional care, quantified as the proportion of time in institutional care at specified follow-up assessment ages, and DNA methylation status in two stress-related genes: FKBP5 and SLC6A4. We analyzed data from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project, which is a prospective study in which children reared in institutional settings were randomly assigned (mean age 22 months) to either newly created foster care or care as usual (to remain in their current placement) and prospectively followed. A group of children from the same geographic area, with no history of institutionalized caregiving, were also recruited. DNA methylation status was determined in DNA extracted from buccal epithelial cells of children at age 12. An inverse association was identified such that more time spent in institutional care was associated with lower DNA methylation at specific CpG sites within both genes. These results suggest a lasting impact of early severe social deprivation on methylation patterns in these genes, and contribute to a growing literature linking early adversity and epigenetic variation in children. Am J Phys Anthropol 161:84-93, 2016.. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. DNA methylation at stress-related genes is associated with exposure to early life institutionalization

    PubMed Central

    Non, Amy L.; Hollister, Brittany M.; Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Childebayeva, Ainash; Esteves, Kyle; Zeanah, Charles H.; Fox, Nathan A.; Nelson, Charles A.; Drury, Stacy S.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Differences in DNA methylation have been associated with early life adversity, suggesting that alterations in methylation function as one pathway through which adverse early environments are biologically embedded. This study examined associations between exposure to institutional care, quantified as the percent time in institutional care at specified follow-up assessment ages, and DNA methylation status in two stress-related genes: FKBP5 and SLC6A4. Materials and Methods We analyzed data from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project, which is a prospective study in which children reared in institutional settings were randomly assigned (mean age 22 months) to either newly created foster care or care as usual (to remain in their current placement) and prospectively followed. A group of children from the same geographic area, with no history of institutionalized caregiving, were also recruited. DNA methylation status was determined in DNA extracted from buccal epithelial cells of children at age 12. Results An inverse association was identified such that more time spent in institutional care was associated with lower DNA methylation at specific CpG sites within both genes. Discussion These results suggest a lasting impact of early severe social deprivation on methylation patterns in these genes, and contribute to a growing literature linking early adversity and epigenetic variation in children. PMID:27218411

  19. Individual Income, Area Deprivation, and Health: Do Income-Related Health Inequalities Vary by Small Area Deprivation?

    PubMed

    Siegel, Martin; Mielck, Andreas; Maier, Werner

    2015-11-01

    This paper aims to explore potential associations between health inequalities related to socioeconomic deprivation at the individual and the small area level. We use German cross-sectional survey data for the years 2002 and 2006, and measure small area deprivation via the German Index of Multiple Deprivation. We test the differences between concentration indices of income-related and small area deprivation related inequalities in obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. Our results suggest that small area deprivation and individual income both yield inequalities in health favoring the better-off, where individual income-related inequalities are significantly more pronounced than those related to small area deprivation. We then apply a semiparametric extension of Wagstaff's corrected concentration index to explore how individual-level health inequalities vary with the degree of regional deprivation. We find that the concentration of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes among lower income groups also exists at the small area level. The degree of deprivation-specific income-related inequalities in the three health outcomes exhibits only little variations across different levels of multiple deprivation for both sexes. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Cues of Fatigue: Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Facial Appearance

    PubMed Central

    Sundelin, Tina; Lekander, Mats; Kecklund, Göran; Van Someren, Eus J. W.; Olsson, Andreas; Axelsson, John

    2013-01-01

    Study Objective: To investigate the facial cues by which one recognizes that someone is sleep deprived versus not sleep deprived. Design: Experimental laboratory study. Setting: Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Participants: Forty observers (20 women, mean age 25 ± 5 y) rated 20 facial photographs with respect to fatigue, 10 facial cues, and sadness. The stimulus material consisted of 10 individuals (five women) photographed at 14:30 after normal sleep and after 31 h of sleep deprivation following a night with 5 h of sleep. Measurements: Ratings of fatigue, fatigue-related cues, and sadness in facial photographs. Results: The faces of sleep deprived individuals were perceived as having more hanging eyelids, redder eyes, more swollen eyes, darker circles under the eyes, paler skin, more wrinkles/fine lines, and more droopy corners of the mouth (effects ranging from b = +3 ± 1 to b = +15 ± 1 mm on 100-mm visual analog scales, P < 0.01). The ratings of fatigue were related to glazed eyes and to all the cues affected by sleep deprivation (P < 0.01). Ratings of rash/eczema or tense lips were not significantly affected by sleep deprivation, nor associated with judgements of fatigue. In addition, sleep-deprived individuals looked sadder than after normal sleep, and sadness was related to looking fatigued (P < 0.01). Conclusions: The results show that sleep deprivation affects features relating to the eyes, mouth, and skin, and that these features function as cues of sleep loss to other people. Because these facial regions are important in the communication between humans, facial cues of sleep deprivation and fatigue may carry social consequences for the sleep deprived individual in everyday life. Citation: Sundelin T; Lekander M; Kecklund G; Van Someren EJW; Olsson A; Axelsson J. Cues of fatigue: effects of sleep deprivation on facial appearance. SLEEP 2013;36(9):1355-1360. PMID:23997369

  1. The politics of relative deprivation: A transdisciplinary social justice perspective.

    PubMed

    Fu, Mengzhu; Exeter, Daniel J; Anderson, Anneka

    2015-05-01

    Relative deprivation was defined by Townsend (1987, p. 125) as "a state of observable and demonstrable disadvantage, relative to the local community or the wider society or nation to which an individual, family or group belongs". This definition is widely used within social and health sciences to identify, measure, and explain forms of inequality in human societies based on material and social conditions. From a multi-disciplinary social science perspective, we conducted a systematic literature review of published material in English through online database searches and books since 1966. We review the concept and measurement of relative 'deprivation' focussing on area-based deprivation in relation to inequities in health and social outcomes. This paper presents a perspective based in Aotearoa/New Zealand where colonisation has shaped the contours of racialised health inequities and current applications and understandings of 'deprivation'. We provide a critique of Townsend's concept of deprivation and area-based deprivation through a critical, structural analysis and suggest alternatives to give social justice a better chance. Deprivation measures used without critical reflection can lead to deficit framing of populations and maintain current inequities in health and social outcomes. We contend therefore that the lack of consideration of (bio)power, privilege, epistemology and (bio)politics is a central concern in studies of deprivation. Our review highlights the need for the academy to balance the asymmetry between qualitative and quantitative studies of deprivation through trans-disciplinary approaches to understanding deprivation, and subsequently, social and health inequities. We recommend that deprivation research needs be critically applied through a decolonising lens to avoid deficit framing and suggest that there is space for a tool that focuses on measuring the unequal distribution of power and privilege in populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All

  2. Very Early Salvage Radiotherapy Improves Distant Metastasis-Free Survival.

    PubMed

    Abugharib, Ahmed; Jackson, William C; Tumati, Vasu; Dess, Robert T; Lee, Jae Y; Zhao, Shuang G; Soliman, Moaaz; Zumsteg, Zachary S; Mehra, Rohit; Feng, Felix Y; Morgan, Todd M; Desai, Neil; Spratt, Daniel E

    2017-03-01

    Early salvage radiotherapy following radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer is commonly advocated in place of adjuvant radiotherapy. We aimed to determine the optimal definition of early salvage radiotherapy. We performed a multi-institutional retrospective study of 657 men who underwent salvage radiotherapy between 1986 and 2013. Two comparisons were made to determine the optimal definition of early salvage radiotherapy, including 1) the time from radical prostatectomy to salvage radiotherapy (less than 9, 9 to 21, 22 to 47 or greater than 48 months) and 2) the level of detectable pre-salvage radiotherapy prostate specific antigen (0.01 to 0.2, greater than 0.2 to 0.5 or greater than 0.5 ng/ml). Outcomes included freedom from salvage androgen deprivation therapy, and biochemical relapse-free, distant metastases-free and prostate cancer specific survival. Median followup was 9.8 years. Time from radical prostatectomy to salvage radiotherapy did not correlate with 10-year biochemical relapse-free survival rates (R 2 = 0.18). Increasing pre-salvage radiotherapy prostate specific antigen strongly correlated with biochemical relapse-free survival (R 2 = 0.91). Increasing detectable pre-salvage radiotherapy prostate specific antigen (0.01 to 0.2, greater than 0.2 to 0.5 and greater than 0.5 ng/ml) predicted worse 10-year biochemical relapse-free survival (62%, 44% and 27%), freedom from salvage androgen deprivation therapy (77%, 66% and 49%), distant metastases-free survival (86%, 79% and 66%, each p <0.001) and prostate cancer specific survival (93%, 89% and 80%, respectively, p = 0.001). On multivariable analysis early salvage radiotherapy (prostate specific antigen greater than 0.2 to 0.5 ng/ml) was associated with a twofold increase in biochemical failure, use of salvage androgen deprivation therapy and distant metastases compared to very early salvage radiotherapy (prostate specific antigen 0.01 to 0.2 ng/ml). The duration from radical prostatectomy to salvage

  3. BDNF in sleep, insomnia, and sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Karen; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Eckert, Anne

    2016-01-01

    The protein brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors involved in plasticity of neurons in several brain regions. There are numerous evidence that BDNF expression is decreased by experiencing psychological stress and that, accordingly, a lack of neurotrophic support causes major depression. Furthermore, disruption in sleep homeostatic processes results in higher stress vulnerability and is often associated with stress-related mental disorders. Recently, we reported, for the first time, a relationship between BDNF and insomnia and sleep deprivation (SD). Using a biphasic stress model as explanation approach, we discuss here the hypothesis that chronic stress might induce a deregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal system. In the long-term it leads to sleep disturbance and depression as well as decreased BDNF levels, whereas acute stress like SD can be used as therapeutic intervention in some insomniac or depressed patients as compensatory process to normalize BDNF levels. Indeed, partial SD (PSD) induced a fast increase in BDNF serum levels within hours after PSD which is similar to effects seen after ketamine infusion, another fast-acting antidepressant intervention, while traditional antidepressants are characterized by a major delay until treatment response as well as delayed BDNF level increase. Key messages Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays a key role in the pathophysiology of stress-related mood disorders. The interplay of stress and sleep impacts on BDNF level. Partial sleep deprivation (PSD) shows a fast action on BDNF level increase.

  4. Social comparison, personal relative deprivation, and materialism.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunji; Callan, Mitchell J; Gheorghiu, Ana I; Matthews, William J

    2017-06-01

    Across five studies, we found consistent evidence for the idea that personal relative deprivation (PRD), which refers to resentment stemming from the belief that one is deprived of deserved outcomes compared to others, uniquely contributes to materialism. In Study 1, self-reports of PRD positively predicted materialistic values over and above socioeconomic status, personal power, self-esteem, and emotional uncertainty. The experience of PRD starts with social comparison, and Studies 2 and 3 found that PRD mediated the positive relation between a tendency to make social comparisons of abilities and materialism. In Study 4, participants who learned that they had less (vs. similar) discretionary income than people like them reported a stronger desire for more money relative to donating more to charity. In Study 5, during a windfall-spending task, participants higher in PRD spent more on things they wanted relative to other spending categories (e.g., paying off debts). © 2016 The Authors. British Journal of Social Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Psychological Society.

  5. A neurogenetics approach to defining differential susceptibility to institutional care.

    PubMed

    Brett, Zoe H; Sheridan, Margaret; Humphreys, Kate; Smyke, Anna; Gleason, Mary Margaret; Fox, Nathan; Zeanah, Charles; Nelson, Charles; Drury, Stacy

    2015-03-01

    An individual's neurodevelopmental and cognitive sequelae to negative early experiences may, in part, be explained by genetic susceptibility. We examined whether extreme differences in the early caregiving environment, defined as exposure to severe psychosocial deprivation associated with institutional care compared to normative rearing, interacted with a biologically informed genoset comprising BDNF (rs6265), COMT (rs4680), and SIRT1 (rs3758391) to predict distinct outcomes of neurodevelopment at age 8 ( N = 193, 97 males and 96 females). Ethnicity was categorized as Romanian (71%), Roma (21%), unknown (7%), or other (1%). We identified a significant interaction between early caregiving environment (i.e., institutionalized versus never institutionalized children) and the a priori defined genoset for full-scale IQ, two spatial working memory tasks, and prefrontal cortex gray matter volume. Model validation was performed using a bootstrap resampling procedure. Although we hypothesized that the effect of this genoset would operate in a manner consistent with differential susceptibility, our results demonstrate a complex interaction where vantage susceptibility, diathesis stress, and differential susceptibility are implicated.

  6. A neurogenetics approach to defining differential susceptibility to institutional care

    PubMed Central

    Brett, Zoe H.; Sheridan, Margaret; Humphreys, Kate; Smyke, Anna; Gleason, Mary Margaret; Fox, Nathan; Zeanah, Charles; Nelson, Charles; Drury, Stacy

    2014-01-01

    An individual's neurodevelopmental and cognitive sequelae to negative early experiences may, in part, be explained by genetic susceptibility. We examined whether extreme differences in the early caregiving environment, defined as exposure to severe psychosocial deprivation associated with institutional care compared to normative rearing, interacted with a biologically informed genoset comprising BDNF (rs6265), COMT (rs4680), and SIRT1 (rs3758391) to predict distinct outcomes of neurodevelopment at age 8 (N = 193, 97 males and 96 females). Ethnicity was categorized as Romanian (71%), Roma (21%), unknown (7%), or other (1%). We identified a significant interaction between early caregiving environment (i.e., institutionalized versus never institutionalized children) and the a priori defined genoset for full-scale IQ, two spatial working memory tasks, and prefrontal cortex gray matter volume. Model validation was performed using a bootstrap resampling procedure. Although we hypothesized that the effect of this genoset would operate in a manner consistent with differential susceptibility, our results demonstrate a complex interaction where vantage susceptibility, diathesis stress, and differential susceptibility are implicated. PMID:25663728

  7. Distributional Effects of Early Childhood Programs and Business Incentives and Their Implications for Policy. Upjohn Institute Staff Working Paper No. 09-151

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartik, Timothy J.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is a draft of Chapter 8 of a planned book, "Preschool and Jobs: Human Development as Economic Development, and Vice Versa". This book analyzes early childhood programs' effects on regional economic development. Four early childhood programs are considered: (1) universally accessible preschool for four-year-olds of similar…

  8. Small Area Indices of Multiple Deprivation in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Michael; Barnes, Helen; Wright, Gemma; Roberts, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the Provincial Indices of Multiple Deprivation that were constructed by the authors at ward level using 2001 Census data for each of South Africa's nine provinces. The principles adopted in conceptualising the indices are described and multiple deprivation is defined as a weighted combination of discrete dimensions of…

  9. 42 CFR 35.3 - Noncompliance; deprivation of privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Noncompliance; deprivation of privileges. 35.3 Section 35.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT General § 35.3 Noncompliance; deprivation of privileges. Any...

  10. 42 CFR 35.3 - Noncompliance; deprivation of privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Noncompliance; deprivation of privileges. 35.3 Section 35.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT General § 35.3 Noncompliance; deprivation of privileges. Any...

  11. 42 CFR 35.3 - Noncompliance; deprivation of privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Noncompliance; deprivation of privileges. 35.3 Section 35.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT General § 35.3 Noncompliance; deprivation of privileges. Any...

  12. 42 CFR 35.3 - Noncompliance; deprivation of privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Noncompliance; deprivation of privileges. 35.3 Section 35.3 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT General § 35.3 Noncompliance; deprivation of privileges. Any...

  13. Relative Deprivation and Adolescent Outcomes in Iceland: A Multilevel Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernburg, Jon Gunnar; Thorlindsson, Thorolfur; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora

    2009-01-01

    The theory of relative deprivation emphasizes that social comparisons contextualize how people experience impoverishment. An important application of this theory argues that relative deprivation that stems from unfavorable social comparisons can result in anger, normlessness and an increased likelihood of deviant behavior. We test this theory in a…

  14. Effect of Monocular Deprivation on Rabbit Neural Retinal Cell Densities

    PubMed Central

    Mwachaka, Philip Maseghe; Saidi, Hassan; Odula, Paul Ochieng; Mandela, Pamela Idenya

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the effect of monocular deprivation on densities of neural retinal cells in rabbits. Methods: Thirty rabbits, comprised of 18 subject and 12 control animals, were included and monocular deprivation was achieved through unilateral lid suturing in all subject animals. The rabbits were observed for three weeks. At the end of each week, 6 experimental and 3 control animals were euthanized, their retinas was harvested and processed for light microscopy. Photomicrographs of the retina were taken and imported into FIJI software for analysis. Results: Neural retinal cell densities of deprived eyes were reduced along with increasing period of deprivation. The percentage of reductions were 60.9% (P < 0.001), 41.6% (P = 0.003), and 18.9% (P = 0.326) for ganglion, inner nuclear, and outer nuclear cells, respectively. In non-deprived eyes, cell densities in contrast were increased by 116% (P < 0.001), 52% (P < 0.001) and 59.6% (P < 0.001) in ganglion, inner nuclear, and outer nuclear cells, respectively. Conclusion: In this rabbit model, monocular deprivation resulted in activity-dependent changes in cell densities of the neural retina in favour of the non-deprived eye along with reduced cell densities in the deprived eye. PMID:26425316

  15. Effect of Monocular Deprivation on Rabbit Neural Retinal Cell Densities.

    PubMed

    Mwachaka, Philip Maseghe; Saidi, Hassan; Odula, Paul Ochieng; Mandela, Pamela Idenya

    2015-01-01

    To describe the effect of monocular deprivation on densities of neural retinal cells in rabbits. Thirty rabbits, comprised of 18 subject and 12 control animals, were included and monocular deprivation was achieved through unilateral lid suturing in all subject animals. The rabbits were observed for three weeks. At the end of each week, 6 experimental and 3 control animals were euthanized, their retinas was harvested and processed for light microscopy. Photomicrographs of the retina were taken and imported into FIJI software for analysis. Neural retinal cell densities of deprived eyes were reduced along with increasing period of deprivation. The percentage of reductions were 60.9% (P < 0.001), 41.6% (P = 0.003), and 18.9% (P = 0.326) for ganglion, inner nuclear, and outer nuclear cells, respectively. In non-deprived eyes, cell densities in contrast were increased by 116% (P < 0.001), 52% (P < 0.001) and 59.6% (P < 0.001) in ganglion, inner nuclear, and outer nuclear cells, respectively. In this rabbit model, monocular deprivation resulted in activity-dependent changes in cell densities of the neural retina in favour of the non-deprived eye along with reduced cell densities in the deprived eye.

  16. Contingent Employment in Academic Careers: Relative Deprivation among Adjunct Faculty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Daniel C.; Turnley, William H.

    2004-01-01

    This article utilizes relative deprivation theory to examine the careers of non-tenure-track instructors and research associates. Demographic status, motivations for accepting contingent employment, and standards of comparison used to assess the quality of the job were all related to the degree of relative deprivation experienced by adjunct…

  17. Sleep Deprivation, Allergy Symptoms, and Negatively Reinforced Problem Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Craig H.; Meyer, Kim A.

    1996-01-01

    A study of the relationship between presence or absence of sleep deprivation, allergy symptoms, and the rate and function of problem behavior in three adolescents with moderate to profound mental retardation found that problem behavior was negatively reinforced by escape from instruction, and both allergy symptoms and sleep deprivation influenced…

  18. Play Deprivation: Is It Happening In Your School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauer, Lisa M.

    2011-01-01

    High-stakes testing combined with the notion that indoor and outdoor spontaneous play are a "waste of time" have contributed to the condition known as "play deprivation". This paper defines the term play deprivation and explores its negative effects on children and adults. Negative effects resulting from play deprivation…

  19. Total sleep deprivation decreases flow experience and mood status

    PubMed Central

    Kaida, Kosuke; Niki, Kazuhisa

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of sleep deprivation on flow experience. Methods Sixteen healthy male volunteers of mean age 21.4±1.59 (21–24) years participated in two experimental conditions, ie, sleep-deprivation and normal sleep. In the sleep-deprived condition, participants stayed awake at home for 36 hours (from 8 am until 10 pm the next day) beginning on the day prior to an experimental day. In both conditions, participants carried out a simple reaction time (psychomotor vigilance) task and responded to a questionnaire measuring flow experience and mood status. Results Flow experience was reduced after one night of total sleep deprivation. Sleep loss also decreased positive mood, increased negative mood, and decreased psychomotor performance. Conclusion Sleep deprivation has a strong impact on mental and behavioral states associated with the maintenance of flow, namely subjective well-being. PMID:24376356

  20. The prospective association between sleep deprivation and depression among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Robert E; Duong, Hao T

    2014-02-01

    To examine the prospective, reciprocal association between sleep deprivation and depression among adolescents. A community-based two-wave cohort study. A metropolitan area with a population of over 4 million. 4,175 youths 11-17 at baseline, and 3,134 of these followed up a year later. Depression is measured using both symptoms of depression and DSM-IV major depression. Sleep deprivation is defined as ≤ 6 h of sleep per night. Sleep deprivation at baseline predicted both measures of depression at follow-up, controlling for depression at baseline. Examining the reciprocal association, major depression at baseline, but not symptoms predicted sleep deprivation at follow-up. These results are the first to document reciprocal effects for major depression and sleep deprivation among adolescents using prospective data. The data suggest reduced quantity of sleep increases risk for major depression, which in turn increases risk for decreased sleep.

  1. Primary care and youth mental health in Ireland: qualitative study in deprived urban areas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Mental disorders account for six of the 20 leading causes of disability worldwide with a very high prevalence of psychiatric morbidity in youth aged 15–24 years. However, healthcare professionals are faced with many challenges in the identification and treatment of mental and substance use disorders in young people (e.g. young people’s unwillingness to seek help from healthcare professionals, lack of training, limited resources etc.) The challenge of youth mental health for primary care is especially evident in urban deprived areas, where rates of and risk factors for mental health problems are especially common. There is an emerging consensus that primary care is well placed to address mental and substance use disorders in young people especially in deprived urban areas. This study aims to describe healthcare professionals’ experience and attitudes towards screening and early intervention for mental and substance use disorders among young people (16–25 years) in primary care in deprived urban settings in Ireland. Methods The chosen method for this qualitative study was inductive thematic analysis which involved semi-structured interviews with 37 healthcare professionals from primary care, secondary care and community agencies at two deprived urban centres. Results We identified three themes in respect of interventions to increase screening and treatment: (1) Identification is optimised by a range of strategies, including raising awareness, training, more systematic and formalised assessment, and youth-friendly practices (e.g. communication skills, ensuring confidentiality); (2) Treatment is enhanced by closer inter-agency collaboration and training for all healthcare professionals working in primary care; (3) Ongoing engagement is enhanced by motivational work with young people, setting achievable treatment goals, supporting transition between child and adult mental health services and recognising primary care’s longitudinal nature as a key

  2. Cues of fatigue: effects of sleep deprivation on facial appearance.

    PubMed

    Sundelin, Tina; Lekander, Mats; Kecklund, Göran; Van Someren, Eus J W; Olsson, Andreas; Axelsson, John

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the facial cues by which one recognizes that someone is sleep deprived versus not sleep deprived. Experimental laboratory study. Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. Forty observers (20 women, mean age 25 ± 5 y) rated 20 facial photographs with respect to fatigue, 10 facial cues, and sadness. The stimulus material consisted of 10 individuals (five women) photographed at 14:30 after normal sleep and after 31 h of sleep deprivation following a night with 5 h of sleep. Ratings of fatigue, fatigue-related cues, and sadness in facial photographs. The faces of sleep deprived individuals were perceived as having more hanging eyelids, redder eyes, more swollen eyes, darker circles under the eyes, paler skin, more wrinkles/fine lines, and more droopy corners of the mouth (effects ranging from b = +3 ± 1 to b = +15 ± 1 mm on 100-mm visual analog scales, P < 0.01). The ratings of fatigue were related to glazed eyes and to all the cues affected by sleep deprivation (P < 0.01). Ratings of rash/eczema or tense lips were not significantly affected by sleep deprivation, nor associated with judgements of fatigue. In addition, sleep-deprived individuals looked sadder than after normal sleep, and sadness was related to looking fatigued (P < 0.01). The results show that sleep deprivation affects features relating to the eyes, mouth, and skin, and that these features function as cues of sleep loss to other people. Because these facial regions are important in the communication between humans, facial cues of sleep deprivation and fatigue may carry social consequences for the sleep deprived individual in everyday life.

  3. Geographic variation in colorectal cancer survival and the role of small-area socioeconomic deprivation: a multilevel survival analysis of the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study Cohort.

    PubMed

    Lian, Min; Schootman, Mario; Doubeni, Chyke A; Park, Yikyung; Major, Jacqueline M; Stone, Rosalie A Torres; Laiyemo, Adeyinka O; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Graubard, Barry I; Schatzkin, Arthur

    2011-10-01

    Adverse socioeconomic conditions, at both the individual and the neighborhood level, increase the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) death, but little is known regarding whether CRC survival varies geographically and the extent to which area-level socioeconomic deprivation affects this geographic variation. Using data from the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-AARP Diet and Health Study, the authors examined geographic variation and the role of area-level socioeconomic deprivation in CRC survival. CRC cases (n = 7,024), identified during 1995-2003, were followed for their CRC-specific vital status through 2005 and overall vital status through 2006. Bayesian multilevel survival models showed that there was significant geographic variation in overall (variance = 0.2, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.1, 0.2) and CRC-specific (variance = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1, 0.4) risk of death. More socioeconomically deprived neighborhoods had a higher overall risk of death (most deprived quartile vs. least deprived: hazard ratio = 1.2, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.4) and a higher CRC-specific risk of death (most deprived quartile vs. least deprived: hazard ratio = 1.2, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.5). However, neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation did not account for the geographic variation in overall and CRC-specific risks of death. In future studies, investigators should evaluate other neighborhood characteristics to help explain geographic heterogeneity in CRC survival. Such research could facilitate interventions for reducing geographic disparity in CRC survival.

  4. Electrophysiological evidence of altered visual processing in adults who experienced visual deprivation during infancy.

    PubMed

    Segalowitz, Sidney J; Sternin, Avital; Lewis, Terri L; Dywan, Jane; Maurer, Daphne

    2017-04-01

    We examined the role of early visual input in visual system development by testing adults who had been born with dense bilateral cataracts that blocked all patterned visual input during infancy until the cataractous lenses were removed surgically and the eyes fitted with compensatory contact lenses. Patients viewed checkerboards and textures to explore early processing regions (V1, V2), Glass patterns to examine global form processing (V4), and moving stimuli to explore global motion processing (V5). Patients' ERPs differed from those of controls in that (1) the V1 component was much smaller for all but the simplest stimuli and (2) extrastriate components did not differentiate amongst texture stimuli, Glass patterns, or motion stimuli. The results indicate that early visual deprivation contributes to permanent abnormalities at early and mid levels of visual processing, consistent with enduring behavioral deficits in the ability to process complex textures, global form, and global motion. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The effects of deprivation and relative deprivation on self-reported morbidity in England: an area-level ecological study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Socioeconomic status gradients in health outcomes are well recognised and may operate in part through the psychological effect of observing disparities in affluence. At an area-level, we explored whether the deprivation differential between neighbouring areas influenced self-reported morbidity over and above the known effect of the deprivation of the area itself. Methods Deprivation differentials between small areas (population size approximately 1,500) and their immediate neighbours were derived (from the Index of Multiple Deprivation (IMD)) for Lower Super Output Area (LSOA) in the whole of England (n=32482). Outcome variables were self-reported from the 2001 UK Census: the proportion of the population suffering Limiting Long-Term Illness (LLTI) and ‘not good health’. Linear regression was used to identify the effect of the deprivation differential on morbidity in different segments of the population, controlling for the absolute deprivation. The population was segmented using IMD tertiles and P2 People and Places geodemographic classification. P2 is a commercial market segmentation tool, which classifies small areas according to the characteristics of the population. The classifications range in deprivation, with the most affluent type being ‘Mature Oaks’ and the least being ‘Urban Challenge’. Results Areas that were deprived compared to their immediate neighbours suffered higher rates of ‘not good health’ (β=0.312, p<0.001) and LLTI (β=0.278, p<0.001), after controlling for the deprivation of the area itself (‘not good health’—ß=0.655, p<0.001; LLTI—ß=0.548, p<0.001). The effect of the deprivation differential relative to the effect of deprivation was strongest in least deprived segments (e.g., for ‘not good health’, P2 segments ‘Mature Oaks’—β=0.638; ‘Rooted Households’—β=0.555). Conclusions Living in an area that is surrounded by areas of greater affluence has a negative impact on health in England. A

  6. Sleep deprived and sweating it out: the effects of total sleep deprivation on skin conductance reactivity to psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jean C J; Verhulst, Silvan; Massar, Stijn A A; Chee, Michael W L

    2015-01-01

    We examined how sleep deprivation alters physiological responses to psychosocial stress by evaluating changes in skin conductance. Between-subjects design with one group allocated to 24 h of total sleep deprivation and the other to rested wakefulness. The study took place in a research laboratory. Participants were 40 healthy young adults recruited from a university. Sleep deprivation and feedback. Electrodermal activity was monitored while participants completed a difficult perceptual task with false feedback. All participants showed increased skin conductance levels following stress. However, compared to well-rested participants, sleep deprived participants showed higher skin conductance reactivity with increasing stress levels. Our results suggest that sleep deprivation augments allostatic responses to increasing psychosocial stress. Consequentially, we propose sleep loss as a risk factor that can influence the pathogenic effects of stress. © 2014 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  7. Sleep deprivation: Impact on cognitive performance

    PubMed Central

    Alhola, Paula; Polo-Kantola, Päivi

    2007-01-01

    Today, prolonged wakefulness is a widespread phenomenon. Nevertheless, in the field of sleep and wakefulness, several unanswered questions remain. Prolonged wakefulness can be due to acute total sleep deprivation (SD) or to chronic partial sleep restriction. Although the latter is more common in everyday life, the effects of total SD have been examined more thoroughly. Both total and partial SD induce adverse changes in cognitive performance. First and foremost, total SD impairs attention and working memory, but it also affects other functions, such as long-term memory and decision-making. Partial SD is found to influence attention, especially vigilance. Studies on its effects on more demanding cognitive functions are lacking. Coping with SD depends on several factors, especially aging and gender. Also interindividual differences in responses are substantial. In addition to coping with SD, recovering from it also deserves attention. Cognitive recovery processes, although insufficiently studied, seem to be more demanding in partial sleep restriction than in total SD. PMID:19300585

  8. Oculomotor impairment during chronic partial sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Russo, M; Thomas, M; Thorne, D; Sing, H; Redmond, D; Rowland, L; Johnson, D; Hall, S; Krichmar, J; Balkin, T

    2003-04-01

    The effects of chronic partial sleep (sleep deprivation) and extended sleep (sleep augmentation) followed by recovery sleep on oculomotor function were evaluated in normal subjects to explore the usefulness of oculomotor assessment for alertness monitoring in fitness-for-duty testing. Sixty-six commercial drivers (24-62 years, 50m/16f) participated in a 15 day study composed of 3 training days with 8h time in bed per night, 7 experimental days with subjects randomly assigned to either 3, 5, 7, or 9h time in bed, and 3 recovery nights with 8h time in bed. Data from 57 subjects were used. Saccadic velocity (SV), initial pupil diameter (IPD), latency to pupil constriction (CL), and amplitude of pupil constriction (CA) were assessed and correlated with the sleep latency test (SLT), the Stanford sleepiness scale (SSS), and simulated driving performance. Regression analyses showed that SV slowed significantly in the 3 and 5h groups, IPD decreased significantly in the 9h group, and CL increased significantly in the 3h group. SLT and SSS significantly correlated with SV, IPD, CL, and driving accidents for the 3h group, and with CL for the 5h group. Analyses also showed a significant negative correlation between decreasing SV and increasing driving accidents in the 3h group and a significant negative correlation between IPD and driving accidents for the 7h group. The results demonstrate a sensitivity primarily of SV to sleepiness, and a correlation of SV and IPD to impaired simulated driving performance, providing evidence for the potential utility of oculomotor indicators in the detection of excessive sleepiness and deterioration of complex motor performance with chronic partial sleep restriction. This paper shows a relationship between sleep deprivation and oculomotor measures, and suggests a potential utility for oculometrics in assessing operational performance readiness under sleep restricted conditions.

  9. Countermeasures for sleep loss and deprivation.

    PubMed

    Kushida, Clete A

    2006-09-01

    Sleep deprivation is ubiquitous and carries profound consequences in terms of personal and public health and safety. There is no substitute for a good night's sleep. Sleep that is optimal in quality and quantity for individuals, factoring in their age and personal sleep requirements, will minimize sleep debt and maximize daytime performance. Therefore, setting aside an adequate amount of time for sleep should be a priority; sleep should not be sacrificed at the expense of other activities of daily living. Nevertheless, there are certain therapeutic countermeasures available for individuals who are unable to obtain adequate sleep because of medical or sleep-related conditions (eg, narcolepsy, obstructive sleep apnea) when excessive daytime sleepiness is the main feature of the condition, or residual sleepiness despite treatment for the main conditions is present. These therapeutic countermeasures may also be considered in situations in which occupational constraints (eg, rotating shift work, military duty) dictate that constant or heightened vigilance is important or critical to work performance, crucial decision making, and/or survival. Exploration of the causes of sleep loss or deprivation, whether it is voluntary, or work or family induced, and/or the effects of a medical or sleep disorder, is a necessary first step in the evaluation of a patient who has significant daytime fatigue or sleepiness. Wake-promoting substances and medications such as caffeine, modafinil, methylphenidate, and dextroamphetamine may be considered in situations in which sleep loss is unavoidable or persists despite treatment of an underlying disorder that is characterized by or associated with daytime fatigue or sleepiness.

  10. Androgen deprivation and stem cell markers in prostate cancers

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yao; Hamburger, Anne W; Wang, Linbo; Khan, Mohammad Afnan; Hussain, Arif

    2010-01-01

    In our previous studies using human LNCaP xenografts and TRAMP (transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate) mice, androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) resulted in a temporary cessation of prostate cancer (PCa) growth, but then tumors grew faster with more malignant behaviour. To understand whether cancer stem cells might play a role in PCa progression in these animal models, we investigated the expressions of stem cell-related markers in tumors at different time points after ADT. In both animal models, enhanced expressions of stem cell markers were observed in tumors of castrated mice, as compared to non-castrated controls. This increased cell population that expressed stem cell markers is designated as stem-like cells (SLC) in this article. We also observed that the SLC peaked at relatively early time points after ADT, before tumors resumed their growth. These results suggest that the SLC population may play a role in tumor re-growth and disease progression, and that targeting the SLC at their peak-expression time point may prevent tumor recurrence following ADT. PMID:20126580

  11. Chlamydomonas Flavodiiron Proteins Facilitate Acclimation to Anoxia During Sulfur Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Jokel, Martina; Kosourov, Sergey; Battchikova, Natalia; Tsygankov, Anatoly A.; Aro, Eva Mari; Allahverdiyeva, Yagut

    2015-01-01

    The flavodiiron proteins (FDPs) are involved in the detoxification of oxidative compounds, such as nitric oxide (NO) or O2 in Archaea and Bacteria. In cyanobacteria, the FDPs Flv1 and Flv3 are essential in the light-dependent reduction of O2 downstream of PSI. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that two genes (flvA and flvB) in the genome of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii show high homology to flv1 and flv3 genes of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. The physiological role of these FDPs in eukaryotic green algae is not known, but it is of a special interest since these phototrophic organisms perform oxygenic photosynthesis similar to higher plants, which do not possess FDP homologs. We have analyzed the levels of flvA and flvB transcripts in C. reinhardtii cells under various environmental conditions and showed that these genes are highly expressed under ambient CO2 levels and during the early phase of acclimation to sulfur deprivation, just before the onset of anaerobiosis and the induction of efficient H2 photoproduction. Importantly, the increase in transcript levels of the flvA and flvB genes was also corroborated by protein levels. These results strongly suggest the involvement of FLVA and FLVB proteins in alternative electron transport. PMID:26063391

  12. Perceived deprivation in active duty military nurse anesthetists.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Julie A; Fallacaro, Michael D; Pellegrini, Joseph E

    2009-02-01

    There is a shortage of military Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists (CRNAs). Relative deprivation is a perception of unfairness due to discrepancies between what one has and what one could or should have that is dependent on feelings (subjective data) and facts (objective data). Feelings of relative deprivation could contribute to the military CRNA shortage. The purposes of this study were to measure relative deprivation in active-duty military CRNAs and explore variables that correlate with relative deprivation. The descriptive, correlational study was conducted using a self-administered survey sent to 435 active-duty Army, Navy, and Air Force CRNAs. Surveys were distributed to subjects by mail and could be answered by mail or by secured website. Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Analysis of the data revealed a calculated response rate of 57.7%. There was no significant correlation (P < .05) between years as a CRNA, military pay, promotion opportunity, or scope of practice/autonomy and relative deprivation. Correlations of the psychological factors "wanting" and "deserving" with relative deprivation were significant (P < .001). Further research is indicated to identify definitive factors that can be modified to improve feelings of deprivation as they relate to retention and recruitment of military CRNAs.

  13. Effect of socioeconomic deprivation and the appointment of Welfare Attorneys.

    PubMed

    Booth, M G; O'Neil, E; Haddow, C; Cook, B; Kinsella, J

    2011-11-01

    Most patients in intensive care unit (ICU) lack decision-making ability. The Adults with Incapacity (Scotland) Act 2000 allows someone to appoint a Welfare Attorney (WA) to act on their behalf should they lose capacity. Scotland has areas of major socioeconomic deprivation associated with lower life-expectancy and with a lack of knowledge about and consequently difficulty accessing services. The effect of socioeconomic deprivation on WA registration was investigated. A complete list of registered WAs was categorized by deprivation. The Public Guardian, Scotland indicated whether patients admitted to ICU at Glasgow Royal (April 2006-May 2009) had a WA registered. All Scottish ICU admissions (2004-2008) were categorized by deprivation. Twelve of 1152 ICU patients at Glasgow Royal had a WA. Of 165,997 WAs registered, 5984 were in the most deprived and 27,970 in the most affluent areas. Overall, 3.9% of the Scottish population had a WA (1.4% in the most, 6.5% in the least deprived population decile). In conclusion, the uptake of WAs was low, especially in deprived areas. The reasons could include a lack of knowledge, not anticipating the need for a WA or not being confident in the process. Any educational package needs to target the most socioeconomically disadvantaged.

  14. Vascular compliance limits during sleep deprivation and recovery sleep.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Derrick J; Schei, Jennifer L; Rector, David M

    2013-10-01

    Our previous studies showed that evoked hemodynamic responses are smaller during wake compared to sleep; suggesting neural activity is associated with vascular expansion and decreased compliance. We explored whether prolonged activity during sleep deprivation may exacerbate vascular expansion and blunt hemodynamic responses. Evoked auditory responses were generated with periodic 65 dB speaker clicks over a 72-h period and measured with cortical electrodes. Evoked hemodynamic responses were measured simultaneously with optical techniques using three light-emitting diodes, and a photodiode. Animals were housed in separate 30×30×80 cm enclosures, tethered to a commutator system and maintained on a 12-h light/dark cycle. Food and water were available ad libitum. Seven adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. Following a 24-h baseline recording, sleep deprivation was initiated for 0 to 10 h by gentle handling, followed by a 24-h recovery sleep recording. Evoked electrical and hemodynamic responses were measured before, during, and after sleep deprivation. Following deprivation, evoked hemodynamic amplitudes were blunted. Steady-state oxyhemoglobin concentration increased during deprivation and remained high during the initial recovery period before returning to baseline levels after approximately 9-h. Sleep deprivation resulted in blood vessel expansion and decreased compliance while lower basal neural activity during recovery sleep may allow blood vessel compliance to recover. Chronic sleep restriction or sleep deprivation could push the vasculature to critical levels, limiting blood delivery, and leading to metabolic deficits with the potential for neural trauma.

  15. Western-style diet impairs stimulus control by food deprivation state cues. Implications for obesogenic environments☆

    PubMed Central

    Sample, Camille H.; Martin, Ashley A.; Jones, Sabrina; Hargrave, Sara L.; Davidson, Terry L.

    2015-01-01

    In western and westernized societies, large portions of the population live in what are considered to be “obesogenic” environments. Among other things, obesogenic environments are characterized by a high prevalence of external cues that are associated with highly palatable, energy-dense foods. One prominent hypothesis suggests that these external cues become such powerful conditioned elicitors of appetitive and eating behavior that they overwhelm the internal, physiological mechanisms that serve to maintain energy balance. The present research investigated a learning mechanism that may underlie this loss of internal relative to external control. In Experiment 1, rats were provided with both auditory cues (external stimuli) and varying levels of food deprivation (internal stimuli) that they could use to solve a simple discrimination task. Despite having access to clearly discriminable external cues, we found that the deprivation cues gained substantial discriminative control over conditioned responding. Experiment 2 found that, compared to standard chow, maintenance on a “western-style” diet high in saturated fat and sugar weakened discriminative control by food deprivation cues, but did not impair learning when external cues were also trained as relevant discriminative signals for sucrose. Thus, eating a western-style diet contributed to a loss of internal control over appetitive behavior relative to external cues. We discuss how this relative loss of control by food deprivation signals may result from interference with hippocampal-dependent learning and memory processes, forming the basis of a vicious-cycle of excessive intake, body weight gain, and progressive cognitive decline that may begin very early in life. PMID:26002280

  16. Cognitive Impacts of Estrogen Treatment in Androgen-Deprived Males: What Needs to be Resolved.

    PubMed

    Wibowo, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Many prostate cancer (PCa) patients are on androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) as part of their cancer treatments but ADT may lead to cognitive impairments. ADT depletes men of both androgen and estrogen. Whether estradiol supplementation can improve cognitive impairments in patients on ADT is understudied. To summarize data on the effects of estradiol treatment on cognitive function of androgen-deprived genetic male populations (PCa patients and male-to-female transsexuals) and castrated male animals. Publications were identified by a literature search on PubMed and Google Scholar. While some studies showed that estradiol improves cognitive function (most notably, spatial ability) for castrated rats, what remains uninvestigated are: 1) whether estradiol can improve cognition after long-term androgen deprivation, 2) how estradiol affects memory retention, and 3) how early vs. delayed estradiol treatment after castration influences cognition. For androgendeprived genetic males, estradiol treatment may improve some cognitive functions (e.g., verbal and visual memory), but the findings are not consistent due to large variability in the study design between studies. Future studies are required to determine the best estradiol treatment protocol to maximize cognitive benefits for androgen-deprived genetic males. Tests that assess comparable cognitive domains in human and rodents are needed. What particularly under-investigated is how the effects of estradiol on cognitive ability intersect with other parameters; sleep, depression and physical fatigue. Such studies have clinical implications to improve the quality of life for both PCa patients on ADT as well as for male-to-female transsexuals. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Stress-free automatic sleep deprivation using air puffs.

    PubMed

    Gross, Brooks A; Vanderheyden, William M; Urpa, Lea M; Davis, Devon E; Fitzpatrick, Christopher J; Prabhu, Kaustubh; Poe, Gina R

    2015-08-15

    Sleep deprivation via gentle handling is time-consuming and personnel-intensive. We present here an automated sleep deprivation system via air puffs. Implanted EMG and EEG electrodes were used to assess sleep/waking states in six male Sprague-Dawley rats. Blood samples were collected from an implanted intravenous catheter every 4h during the 12-h light cycle on baseline, 8h of sleep deprivation via air puffs, and 8h of sleep deprivation by gentle handling days. The automated system was capable of scoring sleep and waking states as accurately as our offline version (∼90% for sleep) and with sufficient speed to trigger a feedback response within an acceptable amount of time (1.76s). Manual state scoring confirmed normal sleep on the baseline day and sleep deprivation on the two manipulation days (68% decrease in non-REM, 63% decrease in REM, and 74% increase in waking). No significant differences in levels of ACTH and corticosterone (stress hormones indicative of HPA axis activity) were found at any time point between baseline sleep and sleep deprivation via air puffs. There were no significant differences in ACTH or corticosterone concentrations between sleep deprivation by air puffs and gentle handling over the 8-h period. Our system accurately detects sleep and delivers air puffs to acutely deprive rats of sleep with sufficient temporal resolution during the critical 4-5h post learning sleep-dependent memory consolidation period. The system is stress-free and a viable alternative to existing sleep deprivation techniques. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Stress-free automatic sleep deprivation using air puffs

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Brooks A.; Vanderheyden, William M.; Urpa, Lea M.; Davis, Devon E.; Fitzpatrick, Christopher J.; Prabhu, Kaustubh; Poe, Gina R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sleep deprivation via gentle handling is time-consuming and personnel-intensive. New Method We present here an automated sleep deprivation system via air puffs. Implanted EMG and EEG electrodes were used to assess sleep/waking states in six male Sprague-Dawley rats. Blood samples were collected from an implanted intravenous catheter every 4 hours during the 12-hour light cycle on baseline, 8 hours of sleep deprivation via air puffs, and 8 hours of sleep deprivation by gentle handling days. Results The automated system was capable of scoring sleep and waking states as accurately as our offline version (~90% for sleep) and with sufficient speed to trigger a feedback response within an acceptable amount of time (1.76 s). Manual state scoring confirmed normal sleep on the baseline day and sleep deprivation on the two manipulation days (68% decrease in non-REM, 63% decrease in REM, and 74% increase in waking). No significant differences in levels of ACTH and corticosterone (stress hormones indicative of HPA axis activity) were found at any time point between baseline sleep and sleep deprivation via air puffs. Comparison with Existing Method There were no significant differences in ACTH or corticosterone concentrations between sleep deprivation by air puffs and gentle handling over the 8-hour period. Conclusions Our system accurately detects sleep and delivers air puffs to acutely deprive rats of sleep with sufficient temporal resolution during the critical 4-5 h post learning sleep-dependent memory consolidation period. The system is stress-free and a viable alternative to existing sleep deprivation techniques. PMID:26014662

  19. Sleep Deprivation in Pigeons and Rats Using Motion Detection

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Sarah M.; Paletz, Elliott M.; Obermeyer, William H.; Benca, Ruth M.

    2009-01-01

    Study Objectives: Forced sleep deprivation results in substantial behavioral and physiologic effects in mammals. The disk-over-water (DOW) method produces a syndrome characterized by increased energy expenditure and a robust preferentially rapid-eye-movement sleep rebound upon recovery or eventual death after several weeks of sleep deprivation. The DOW has been used successfully only in rats. This paper presents a method to enforce long-term controlled sleep deprivation across species and to compare its effects in rats and pigeons. Design and Intervention: A conveyor was substituted for the DOW disk. Behavior rather than electroencephalography was used to trigger arousal stimuli, as in gentle-handling deprivation. Rats and pigeons were deprived using this apparatus, and the were compared with each other and with published reports. Measurements and Results: The physiologic consequences and recovery sleep in rats were like those published for DOW rats. Magnitude of sleep loss and recovery patterns in pigeons were similar to those seen in rats, but expected symptoms of the sleep deprivation syndrome were absent in pigeons. The use of a motion trigger allowed us to measure and, thus, to assess the quality and impact of the procedure. Conclusion: Prolonged and controlled sleep deprivation can be enforced using automated motion detection and a conveyor-over-water system. Pigeons and rats, deprived of sleep to the same extent, showed similar patterns of recovery sleep, but pigeons did not exhibit the hyperphagia, weight loss, and debilitation seen in rats. Citation: Newman SM; Paletz EM; Obermeyer WH; Benca RM. Sleep Deprivation In Pigeons And Rats Using Motion Detection. SLEEP 2009;32(10):1299-1312. PMID:19848359

  20. Sleep Deprivation Disrupts Recall of Conditioned Fear Extinction.

    PubMed

    Straus, Laura D; Acheson, Dean T; Risbrough, Victoria B; Drummond, Sean P A

    2017-03-01

    Learned fear is crucial in the development and maintenance of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other anxiety disorders, and extinction of learned fear is necessary for response to exposure-based treatments. In humans, research suggests disrupted sleep impairs consolidation of extinction, though no studies have examined this experimentally using total sleep deprivation. Seventy-one healthy controls underwent a paradigm to acquire conditioned fear to a visual cue. Twenty-four hours after fear conditioning, participants underwent extinction learning. Twenty-four hours after extinction learning, participants underwent extinction recall. Participants were randomized to three groups: 1) well-rested throughout testing ("normal sleep"; n = 21); 2) 36 hours total sleep deprivation before extinction learning ("pre-extinction deprivation"; n = 25); or 3) 36 hours total sleep deprivation after extinction learning and before extinction recall ("post-extinction deprivation"; n = 25). The groups were compared on blink EMG reactivity to the condition stimulus during extinction learning and recall. There were no differences among the three groups during extinction learning. During extinction recall, the pre-extinction deprivation group demonstrated significantly less extinction recall than the normal sleep group. There was no significant difference between the normal sleep and post-extinction deprivation group during extinction recall. Results indicated sleep deprivation prior to extinction training significantly disrupts extinction recall. These findings suggest that (1) sleep deprivation in the immediate aftermath of trauma could be a potential contributor to PTSD development and maintenance via interference with natural extinction processes and (2) management of sleep symptoms should be considered during extinction-based therapy.

  1. Standardizing Chaos: A Neo-Institutional Analysis of the INEE Minimum Standards for Education in Emergencies, Chronic Crises and Early Reconstruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bromley, Patricia; Andina, Marina

    2010-01-01

    Violent conflict and humanitarian disasters such as floods, famines, or tsunamis, have existed since the start of human history. However, it is only recently that education in these emergency situations has emerged as a visible organizational field. We aim to use a unique theoretical application of sociological neo-institutionalism to explain the…

  2. The KhoeSan Early Learning Center Pilot Project: Negotiating Power and Possibility in a South African Institute of Higher Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Wet, Priscilla

    2011-01-01

    As we search for a new paradigm in post-apartheid South Africa, the knowledge base and worldview of the KhoeSan first Indigenous peoples is largely missing. The South African government has established various mechanisms as agents for social change. Institutions of higher learning have implemented transformation programs. KhoeSan peoples, however,…

  3. NMDAR-1 staining in the lateral geniculate nucleus of normal and visually deprived cats.

    PubMed

    Ziburkus, J; Bickford, M E; Guido, W

    2000-01-01

    In normal adult cats, a monoclonal antibody directed toward the NR-1 subunit of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor (Pharmingen, clone 54.1) produced dense cellular and neuropil labeling throughout all layers of the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and adjacent thalamic nuclei, including the thalamic reticular, perigeniculate, medial intralaminar, and ventral lateral geniculate nuclei. Cellular staining revealed well-defined somata, and in some cases proximal dendrites. NMDAR-1 cell labeling was also evident in the LGN of early postnatal kittens, suggesting that developing LGN cells possess this receptor subunit at or before eye opening. Within the A-layers of the adult LGN, staining encompassed a wide range of soma sizes. Soma size comparisons of NMDAR-1 stained cells with those stained with an antibody directed toward a nonphosphorylated neurofilament protein (SMI-32), which selectively stains Y-relay cells (Bickford et al., 1998), or an antibody to glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), which stains for GABAergic interneurons, suggested that NMDA receptors are utilized by relay cells and interneurons. NMDAR-1 staining was also observed in the LGN of cats with early monocular lid suture. Although labeling was apparent in both deprived and nondeprived A-layers of LGN, the distribution of soma sizes was significantly different. In the deprived A-layers of LGN, staining was limited to small- and medium-sized cells. Cells with relatively large soma were lacking. However, cell density measurements as well as soma size comparisons with cells stained for Nissl substance suggested these differences were due to deprivation-induced cell shrinkage and not to a loss of NMDAR-1 staining in Y-cells. Taken together, these results suggest that NMDA receptors are utilized by both relay cells and interneurons in LGN and that alterations in early visual experience do not necessarily affect the expression of NMDA receptors in the LGN.

  4. Basic multisensory functions can be acquired after congenital visual pattern deprivation in humans.

    PubMed

    Putzar, Lisa; Gondan, Matthias; Röder, Brigitte

    2012-01-01

    People treated for bilateral congenital cataracts offer a model to study the influence of visual deprivation in early infancy on visual and multisensory development. We investigated cross-modal integration capabilities in cataract patients using a simple detection task that provided redundant information to two different senses. In both patients and controls, redundancy gains were consistent with coactivation models, indicating an integrated processing of modality-specific information. This finding is in contrast with recent studies showing impaired higher-level multisensory interactions in cataract patients. The present results suggest that basic cross-modal integrative processes for simple short stimuli do not depend on visual and/or crossmodal input since birth.

  5. Not Just Any Child Care Center? Social and Ethnic Disparities in the Use of Early Education Institutions with a Beneficial Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Birgit; Schober, Pia Sophia

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates social and ethnic differences in the use of early childhood education and care (ECEC) centers with different learning environments in an ECEC system with universal state-subsidized provision and low fees. Based on the German National Educational Panel Study-Kindergarten Cohort from 2011, we matched data on 587 groups in 253…

  6. Balancing Quality Early Education and Parents' Workforce Success: Insights from the Urban Institute's Assessment of the Massachusetts Subsidized Child Care System. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Gina; Katz, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This report examines the Massachusetts child care subsidy system's balance between providing quality early childhood education and providing workforce support for parents. It is based on qualitative and quantitative data and findings from several studies conducted as part of a legislatively mandated assessment of the Massachusetts subsidized child…

  7. A History of Medicine and the Establishment of Medical Institutions in Middlesex County, New Jersey that Transformed Doctor and Patient Relationships during the Early Twentieth Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitfield-Spinner, Linda

    2011-01-01

    The early twentieth century was a period of tremendous advancements in medicine and technology and as a result experienced a revolutionary change in the delivery of healthcare in America. Modern medicine which encompassed specialized knowledge, technical procedures, and rules of behavior, changed the way medical care was provided in the United…

  8. Identifying and Measuring Dimensions of Urban Deprivation in Montreal: An Analysis of the 1996 Census Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langlois, Andre; Kitchen, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Used 1996 Canadian census data to examine the spatial structure and intensity of urban deprivation in Montreal. Analysis of 20 indicators of urban deprivation identified 6 main types of deprivation in the city and found that they were most visible on the Island of Montreal. Urban deprivation was not confined to the inner city. (SM)

  9. The Long-Term Effectiveness of the Family Check-Up on School-Age Conduct Problems: Moderation by Neighborhood Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Daniel S.; Sitnick, Stephanie L.; Brennan, Lauretta M.; Choe, Daniel E.; Dishion, Thomas J.; Wilson, Melvin N.; Gardner, Frances

    2016-01-01

    Several studies suggest that neighborhood deprivation is a unique risk factor in child and adolescent development of problem behavior. We sought to examine whether previously established intervention effects of the Family Check-Up (FCU) on child conduct problems at age 7.5 would persist through age 9.5, and whether neighborhood deprivation would moderate these effects. In addition, we examined whether improvements in parent-child interaction during early childhood associated with the FCU would be related to later reductions in child aggression among families living in the highest-risk neighborhoods. Using a multisite cohort of at-risk children identified on the basis of family, child, and socioeconomic risk and randomly assigned to the FCU, intervention effects were found to be moderated by neighborhood deprivation, such that they were only directly present for those living at moderate versus extreme levels of neighborhood deprivation. Additionally, improvements in child aggression were evident for children living in extreme neighborhood deprivation when parents improved the quality of their parent-child interaction during the toddler period (i.e., moderated mediation). Implications of the findings are discussed in relation to the possibilities and possible limitations in prevention of early problem behavior for those children living in extreme and moderate levels of poverty. PMID:26646197

  10. Evolutionary institutionalism.

    PubMed

    Fürstenberg, Dr Kai

    Institutions are hard to define and hard to study. Long prominent in political science have been two theories: Rational Choice Institutionalism (RCI) and Historical Institutionalism (HI). Arising from the life sciences is now a third: Evolutionary Institutionalism (EI). Comparative strengths and weaknesses of these three theories warrant review, and the value-to-be-added by expanding the third beyond Darwinian evolutionary theory deserves consideration. Should evolutionary institutionalism expand to accommodate new understanding in ecology, such as might apply to the emergence of stability, and in genetics, such as might apply to political behavior? Core arguments are reviewed for each theory with more detailed exposition of the third, EI. Particular attention is paid to EI's gene-institution analogy; to variation, selection, and retention of institutional traits; to endogeneity and exogeneity; to agency and structure; and to ecosystem effects, institutional stability, and empirical limitations in behavioral genetics. RCI, HI, and EI are distinct but complementary. Institutional change, while amenable to rational-choice analysis and, retrospectively, to criticaljuncture and path-dependency analysis, is also, and importantly, ecological. Stability, like change, is an emergent property of institutions, which tend to stabilize after change in a manner analogous to allopatric speciation. EI is more than metaphorically biological in that institutional behaviors are driven by human behaviors whose evolution long preceded the appearance of institutions themselves.

  11. Institution Closures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Mary F., Ed.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue focuses on the need to accelerate the closing of institutions for people with mental retardation. Articles are by both current and former residents of institutions and by professionals, and include: "The Realities of Institutions" (Tia Nelis); "I Cry Out So That I Won't Go Insane" (Mary F. Hayden); "Trends in…

  12. Case study of early detection and intervention of infectious disease outbreaks in an institution using Nursery School Absenteeism Surveillance Systems (NSASSy) of the Public Health Center.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Kayo; Hirayama, Chifumi; Sakuma, Yoko; Itoi, Yoichi; Sunadori, Asami; Kitamura, Junko; Nakahashi, Takeshi; Sugawara, Tamie; Ohkusa, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Detecting outbreaks early and then activating countermeasures based on such information is extremely important for infection control at childcare facilities. The Sumida ward began operating the Nursery School Absenteeism Surveillance System (NSASSy) in August 2013, and has since conducted real-time monitoring at nursery schools. The Public Health Center can detect outbreaks early and support appropriate intervention. This paper describes the experiences of Sumida Public Health Center related to early detection and intervention since the initiation of the system.Methods In this study, we investigated infectious disease outbreaks detected at 62 nursery schools in the Sumida ward, which were equipped with NSASSy from early November 2013 through late March 2015. We classified the information sources of the detected outbreak and responses of the public health center. The sources were (1) direct contact from some nursery schools, (2) messages from public officers with jurisdiction over nursery schools, (3) automatic detection by NSASSy, and (4) manual detection by public health center officers using NSASSy. The responses made by the health center were described and classified into 11 categories including verification of outbreak and advice for caregivers.Results The number of outbreaks detected by the aforementioned four information sources was zero, 25, 15, and 7 events, respectively, during the first 5 months after beginning NSASSy. These numbers became 5, 7, 53, and 25 events, respectively, during the subsequent 12 months. The number of outbreaks detected increased by 47% during the first 5 months, and by 87% in the following 12 months. The responses were primarily confirming the situation and offering advice to caregivers.Conclusion The Sumida Public Health Center ward could achieve early detection with automatic or manual detection of NSASSy. This system recently has become an important detection resource, and has contributed greatly to early

  13. Changes in cerebral metabolic activity in men undergoing androgen deprivation therapy for non-metastatic prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Cherrier, M M; Cross, D J; Higano, C S; Minoshima, S

    2018-04-27

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is a common treatment option for men with biochemical relapse from prostate cancer. ADT is associated with changes in mood, cognition, and quality of life, and most recently with increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study examined changes in brain metabolism using positron emission tomography (PET) in men undergoing intermittent ADT. Nine men with prostate cancer and a rising PSA (biochemical recurrence) without evidence of metastases were treated with intermittent ADT consisting of 9 months of complete androgen blockade achieved with combined leuprolide acetate and flutamide. Patients underwent resting [Fuorine-18] fluorodeoxyglucose PET ( 18 F-FDGPET) at baseline (before treatment) and again after 9 months of ADT. Whole-brain mapping analysis after 9 months of androgen deprivation compared to pretreatment baseline revealed decreased regional cerebral glucose metabolism in the cerebellum, posterior cingulate, and medial thalamus bilaterally. Associations of brain metabolism with measurements of cognition and mood while on androgen deprivation revealed positive correlations between the posterior cingulate, left inferior parietal lobule (BA40), and left mid temporal gyrus (BA39) and spatial reasoning and a negative correlation between left inferior parietal lobule and verbal memory. Several mood indices were negatively correlated with hypothalamus and brainstem. These findings suggest that complete androgen deprivation may result in changes in regional brain metabolism associated with variation in mood, verbal memory, and spatial performance. Brain regions that were impacted from ADT are similar and overlap with brain regions with metabolic decline found in early AD and diabetes, suggesting possible common mechanisms.

  14. Effects of Nicotine Deprivation on Craving Response Covariation in Smokers

    PubMed Central

    Sayette, Michael A.; Martin, Christopher S.; Hull, Jay G.; Wertz, Joan M.; Perrott, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    Most models of craving propose that when cravings are strong, diverse responses—thought to index an underlying craving state— covary. Previous studies provided weak support for this hypothesis. The authors tested whether nicotine deprivation affects degree of covariation across multiple measures related to craving. Heavy and light smokers (N = 127) were exposed to smoking cues while either nicotine deprived or nondeprived. Measures included urge ratings, affective valence, a behavioral choice task assessing perceived reinforcement value of smoking, and smoking-related judgment tasks. Results indicated higher correlations in the nicotine-deprived than in nondeprived group. The measures principally responsible for this effect loaded onto a single common Craving factor for nicotine-deprived but not nondeprived smokers. These findings suggest that, under certain conditions, measures of craving-related processes covary. PMID:12653419

  15. 42 CFR 35.3 - Noncompliance; deprivation of privileges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT General § 35.3 Noncompliance; deprivation of privileges. Any... recreational or other privileges accorded patients. Any visitor who wilfully fails or refuses to comply with...

  16. The foundations of development and deprivation in the visual system.

    PubMed

    Daw, Nigel W

    2009-06-15

    The pioneering work of Torsten Wiesel and David Hubel on the development and deprivation of the visual system will be summarised, together with some comments on their influence, and some personal reminiscences by the author.

  17. The foundations of development and deprivation in the visual system

    PubMed Central

    Daw, Nigel W

    2009-01-01

    The pioneering work of Torsten Wiesel and David Hubel on the development and deprivation of the visual system will be summarised, together with some comments on their influence, and some personal reminiscences by the author. PMID:19221122

  18. Sleep and Nutritional Deprivation and Performance of House Officers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Michael R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A study to compare cognitive functioning in acutely and chronically sleep-deprived house officers is described. A multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant deficits in primary mental tasks involving basic rote memory, language, and numeric skills. (Author/MLW)

  19. Barriers and Facilitators of Mentoring for Trainees and Early Career Investigators in Rheumatology Research: Current State, Identification of Needs, and Road Map to an Inter-Institutional Adult Rheumatology Mentoring Program.

    PubMed

    Ogdie, Alexis; Sparks, Jeffrey A; Angeles-Han, Sheila T; Bush, Kathleen; Castelino, Flavia V; Golding, Amit; Jiang, Yihui; Kahlenberg, J Michelle; Kim, Alfred H J; Lee, Yvonne C; Machireddy, Kirthi; Ombrello, Michael J; Shah, Ami A; Wallace, Zachary S; Nigrovic, Peter A; Makris, Una E

    2018-03-01

    To determine perceived barriers and facilitators to effective mentoring for early career rheumatology investigators and to develop a framework for an inter-institutional mentoring program. Focus groups or interviews with rheumatology fellows, junior faculty, and mentors were conducted, audiorecorded, and transcribed. Content analysis was performed using NVivo software. Themes were grouped into categories (e.g., mentor-mentee relationship, barriers, and facilitators of a productive relationship). Rheumatology fellows and early career investigators were also surveyed nationwide to identify specific needs to be addressed through an inter-institutional mentoring program. Twenty-five individuals participated in focus groups or interviews. Attributes of the ideal mentee-mentor relationship included communication, accessibility, regular meetings, shared interests, aligned goals, and mutual respect. The mentee should be proactive, efficient, engaged, committed, focused, accountable, and respectful of the mentor's time. The mentor should support/promote the mentee, shape the mentee's goals and career plan, address day-to-day questions, provide critical feedback, be available, and have team leadership skills. Barriers included difficulty with career path navigation, gaining independence, internal competition, authorship, time demands, funding, and work-life balance. Facilitators of a successful relationship included having a diverse network of mentors filling different roles, mentor-mentee relationship management, and confidence. Among 187 survey respondents, the primary uses of an inter-institutional mentoring program were career development planning and oversight, goal-setting, and networking. In this mixed-methods study, tangible factors for optimizing the mentor-mentee relationship were identified and will inform the development of an adult rheumatology inter-institutional mentoring program. © 2017, American College of Rheumatology.

  20. Vascular Compliance Limits during Sleep Deprivation and Recovery Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Derrick J.; Schei, Jennifer L.; Rector, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objectives: Our previous studies showed that evoked hemodynamic responses are smaller during wake compared to sleep; suggesting neural activity is associated with vascular expansion and decreased compliance. We explored whether prolonged activity during sleep deprivation may exacerbate vascular expansion and blunt hemodynamic responses. Design: Evoked auditory responses were generated with periodic 65dB speaker clicks over a 72-h period and measured with cortical electrodes. Evoked hemodynamic responses were measured simultaneously with optical techniques using three light-emitting diodes, and a photodiode. Setting: Animals were housed in separate 30×30×80cm enclosures, tethered to a commutator system and maintained on a 12-h light/dark cycle. Food and water were available ad libitum. Patients or Participants: Seven adult female Sprague-Dawley rats. Interventions: Following a 24-h baseline recording, sleep deprivation was initiated for 0 to 10 h by gentle handling, followed by a 24-h recovery sleep recording. Evoked electrical and hemodynamic responses were measured before, during, and after sleep deprivation. Measurements and Results: Following deprivation, evoked hemodynamic amplitudes were blunted. Steady-state oxyhemoglobin concentration increased during deprivation and remained high during the initial recovery period before returning to baseline levels after approximately 9-h. Conclusions: Sleep deprivation resulted in blood vessel expansion and decreased compliance while lower basal neural activity during recovery sleep may allow blood vessel compliance to recover. Chronic sleep restriction or sleep deprivation could push the vasculature to critical levels, limiting blood delivery, and leading to metabolic deficits with the potential for neural trauma. Citation: Phillips DJ; Schei JL; Rector DM. Vascular compliance limits during sleep deprivation and recovery sleep. SLEEP 2013;36(10):1459-1470. PMID:24082305

  1. Trajectories of pure and co-occurring internalizing and externalizing problems from age 2 to age 12: findings from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care.

    PubMed

    Fanti, Kostas A; Henrich, Christopher C

    2010-09-01

    How and why do internalizing and externalizing problems, psychopathological problems from different diagnostic classes representing separate forms of psychopathology, co-occur in children? We investigated the development of pure and co-occurring internalizing and externalizing problems from ages 2 to 12 with the use of latent class growth analysis. Furthermore, we examined how early childhood factors (temperament, cognitive functioning, maternal depression, and home environment) and early adolescent social and behavioral adjustment variables were related to differential trajectories of pure and co-occurring internalizing and externalizing problems. The sample (National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care) consisted of 1,232 children (52% male). Mother reports on the Child Behavior Checklist (Achenbach, 1991, 1992) were used to construct the trajectories of externalizing and internalizing problems. Analyses identified groups of children exhibiting pure and co-occurring internalizing and externalizing problems. Children exhibiting continuous externalizing or continuous co-occurring internalizing and externalizing problems across the 10-year period under investigation were more likely to (a) engage in risky behaviors, (b) be associated with deviant peers, (c) be rejected by peers, and (d) be asocial with peers at early adolescence. However, children exhibiting pure internalizing problems over time were only at higher risk for being asocial with peers as early adolescents. Moreover, the additive effects of individual and environmental early childhood risk factors influenced the development of chronic externalizing problems, although pure internalizing problems were uniquely influenced by maternal depression. Results also provided evidence for the concepts of equifinality and multifinality.

  2. Orphan Children: Adjusting to Life after the Boarding Institution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prisiazhnaia, N. V.

    2008-01-01

    According to official statistics, in Russia there are over 800,000 orphans and children who are deprived of parental care; 260,000 are living and being taught in more than 4,000 state boarding institutions. The category "orphan child" consists of children up to the age of eighteen, one or both of whose parents have died. The term…

  3. Demonstrational Features of the Tuskegee Institute Retraining Project, Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tuskegee Inst., AL.

    This 52-week Tuskegee Institute project, undertaken in 1964 to train a sample of culturally deprived male heads of households in Alabama, included vocational skills (brickmasonry, carpentry, farm machinery, and meat processing), academic skills (mathematics, English, and remedial reading), group, individual, and family counseling, medical care,…

  4. Effects of paternal deprivation on cocaine-induced behavioral response and hypothalamic oxytocin immunoreactivity and serum oxytocin level in female mandarin voles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianli; Fang, Qianqian; Yang, Chenxi

    2017-09-15

    Early paternal behavior plays a critical role in behavioral development in monogamous species. The vast majority of laboratory studies investigating the influence of parental behavior on cocaine vulnerability focus on the effects of early maternal separation. However, comparable studies on whether early paternal deprivation influences cocaine-induced behavioral response are substantially lacking. Mandarin vole (Microtus mandarinus) is a monogamous rodent with high levels of paternal care. After mandarin vole pups were subjected to early paternal deprivation, acute cocaine- induced locomotion, anxiety- like behavior and social behavior were examined in 45day old female pups, while hypothalamic oxytocin immunoreactivity and serum oxytocin level were also assessed. We found that cocaine increased locomotion and decreased social investigation, contact behavior and serum oxytocin level regardless of paternal care. Cocaine increased anxiety levels and decreased oxytocin immunoreactive neurons of the paraventricular nuclei and supraoptic nuclei in the bi-parental care group, whilst there were no specific effects in the paternal deprivation group. These results indicate that paternal deprivation results in different behavioral response to acute cocaine exposure in adolescents, which may be in part associated with the alterations in oxytocin immunoreactivity and peripheral OT level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Circadian Rhythms, Sleep Deprivation, and Human Performance

    PubMed Central

    Goel, Namni; Basner, Mathias; Rao, Hengyi; Dinges, David F.

    2014-01-01

    Much of the current science on, and mathematical modeling of, dynamic changes in human performance within and between days is dominated by the two-process model of sleep–wake regulation, which posits a neurobiological drive for sleep that varies homeostatically (increasing as a saturating exponential during wakefulness and decreasing in a like manner during sleep), and a circadian process that neurobiologically modulates both the homeostatic drive for sleep and waking alertness and performance. Endogenous circadian rhythms in neurobehavioral functions, including physiological alertness and cognitive performance, have been demonstrated using special laboratory protocols that reveal the interaction of the biological clock with the sleep homeostatic drive. Individual differences in circadian rhythms and genetic and other components underlying such differences also influence waking neurobehavioral functions. Both acute total sleep deprivation and chronic sleep restriction increase homeostatic sleep drive and degrade waking neurobehavioral functions as reflected in sleepiness, attention, cognitive speed, and memory. Recent evidence indicating a high degree of stability in neurobehavioral responses to sleep loss suggests that these trait-like individual differences are phenotypic and likely involve genetic components, including circadian genes. Recent experiments have revealed both sleep homeostatic and circadian effects on brain metabolism and neural activation. Investigation of the neural and genetic mechanisms underlying the dynamically complex interaction between sleep homeostasis and circadian systems is beginning. A key goal of this work is to identify biomarkers that accurately predict human performance in situations in which the circadian and sleep homeostatic systems are perturbed. PMID:23899598

  6. Serine deprivation enhances antineoplastic activity of biguanides.

    PubMed

    Gravel, Simon-Pierre; Hulea, Laura; Toban, Nader; Birman, Elena; Blouin, Marie-José; Zakikhani, Mahvash; Zhao, Yunhua; Topisirovic, Ivan; St-Pierre, Julie; Pollak, Michael

    2014-12-15

    Metformin, a biguanide widely used in the treatment of type II diabetes, clearly exhibits antineoplastic activity in experimental models and has been reported to reduce cancer incidence in diabetics. There are ongoing clinical trials to evaluate its antitumor properties, which may relate to its fundamental activity as an inhibitor of oxidative phosphorylation. Here, we show that serine withdrawal increases the antineoplastic effects of phenformin (a potent biguanide structurally related to metformin). Serine synthesis was not inhibited by biguanides. Instead, metabolic studies indicated a requirement for serine to allow cells to compensate for biguanide-induced decrease in oxidative phosphorylation by upregulating glycolysis. Furthermore, serine deprivation modified the impact of metformin on the relative abundance of metabolites within the citric acid cycle. In mice, a serine-deficient diet reduced serine levels in tumors and significantly enhanced the tumor growth-inhibitory actions of biguanide treatment. Our results define a dietary manipulation that can enhance the efficacy of biguanides as antineoplastic agents that target cancer cell energy metabolism. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.

  7. Calcium deprivation increases the palatability of calcium solutions in rats.

    PubMed

    McCaughey, Stuart A; Forestell, Catherine A; Tordoff, Michael G

    2005-02-15

    Calcium-deprived rats have elevated intakes of CaCl2, other calcium salts, and some non-calcium compounds. We used taste reactivity to examine the effects of calcium deprivation on the palatability of CaCl2 and other solutions. Nine male Sprague-Dawley rats were calcium-deprived by maintenance on a low-calcium diet, and eight replete rats were used as controls. All rats were videotaped during intraoral infusion of the following solutions: 30 and 300 mM CaCl2, 30 mM calcium lactate, 100 and 600 mM NaCl, 30 mM MgCl2, 1 mM quinine.HCl, 2.5 mM sodium saccharin, and deionized water. We counted individual orofacial and somatic movements elicited by the infusions and used them to calculate total ingestive and aversive scores. Relative to controls, calcium-deprived rats gave a significantly larger number of tongue protrusions and had higher total ingestive scores for CaCl2, calcium lactate, NaCl, and MgCl2. Our results suggest that CaCl2, calcium lactate, NaCl, and MgCl2 taste more palatable to rats when they are calcium-deprived than replete, and this may be responsible for the increased intake of these solutions following calcium deprivation.

  8. Enhancement of vision by monocular deprivation in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Prusky, Glen T; Alam, Nazia M; Douglas, Robert M

    2006-11-08

    Plasticity of vision mediated through binocular interactions has been reported in mammals only during a "critical" period in juvenile life, wherein monocular deprivation (MD) causes an enduring loss of visual acuity (amblyopia) selectively through the deprived eye. Here, we report a different form of interocular plasticity of vision in adult mice in which MD leads to an enhancement of the optokinetic response (OKR) selectively through the nondeprived eye. Over 5 d of MD, the spatial frequency sensitivity of the OKR increased gradually, reaching a plateau of approximately 36% above pre-deprivation baseline. Eye opening initiated a gradual decline, but sensitivity was maintained above pre-deprivation baseline for 5-6 d. Enhanced function was restricted to the monocular visual field, notwithstanding the dependence of the plasticity on binocular interactions. Activity in visual cortex ipsilateral to the deprived eye was necessary for the characteristic induction of the enhancement, and activity in visual cortex contralateral to the deprived eye was necessary for its maintenance after MD. The plasticity also displayed distinct learning-like properties: Active testing experience was required to attain maximal enhancement and for enhancement to persist after MD, and the duration of enhanced sensitivity after MD was extended by increasing the length of MD, and by repeating MD. These data show that the adult mouse visual system maintains a form of experience-dependent plasticity in which the visual cortex can modulate the normal function of subcortical visual pathways.

  9. Sleep Deprivation Reveals Altered Brain Perfusion Patterns in Somnambulism.

    PubMed

    Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Zadra, Antonio; Labelle, Marc-Antoine; Petit, Dominique; Soucy, Jean-Paul; Montplaisir, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Despite its high prevalence, relatively little is known about the pathophysiology of somnambulism. Increasing evidence indicates that somnambulism is associated with functional abnormalities during wakefulness and that sleep deprivation constitutes an important drive that facilitates sleepwalking in predisposed patients. Here, we studied the neural mechanisms associated with somnambulism using Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) with 99mTc-Ethylene Cysteinate Dimer (ECD), during wakefulness and after sleep deprivation. Ten adult sleepwalkers and twelve controls with normal sleep were scanned using 99mTc-ECD SPECT in morning wakefulness after a full night of sleep. Eight of the sleepwalkers and nine of the controls were also scanned during wakefulness after a night of total sleep deprivation. Between-group comparisons of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were performed to characterize brain activity patterns during wakefulness in sleepwalkers. During wakefulness following a night of total sleep deprivation, rCBF was decreased bilaterally in the inferior temporal gyrus in sleepwalkers compared to controls. Functional neural abnormalities can be observed during wakefulness in somnambulism, particularly after sleep deprivation and in the inferior temporal cortex. Sleep deprivation thus not only facilitates the occurrence of sleepwalking episodes, but also uncovers patterns of neural dysfunction that characterize sleepwalkers during wakefulness.

  10. Sleep Deprivation Reveals Altered Brain Perfusion Patterns in Somnambulism

    PubMed Central

    Dang-Vu, Thien Thanh; Zadra, Antonio; Labelle, Marc-Antoine; Petit, Dominique; Soucy, Jean-Paul; Montplaisir, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite its high prevalence, relatively little is known about the pathophysiology of somnambulism. Increasing evidence indicates that somnambulism is associated with functional abnormalities during wakefulness and that sleep deprivation constitutes an important drive that facilitates sleepwalking in predisposed patients. Here, we studied the neural mechanisms associated with somnambulism using Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT) with 99mTc-Ethylene Cysteinate Dimer (ECD), during wakefulness and after sleep deprivation. Methods Ten adult sleepwalkers and twelve controls with normal sleep were scanned using 99mTc-ECD SPECT in morning wakefulness after a full night of sleep. Eight of the sleepwalkers and nine of the controls were also scanned during wakefulness after a night of total sleep deprivation. Between-group comparisons of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) were performed to characterize brain activity patterns during wakefulness in sleepwalkers. Results During wakefulness following a night of total sleep deprivation, rCBF was decreased bilaterally in the inferior temporal gyrus in sleepwalkers compared to controls. Conclusions Functional neural abnormalities can be observed during wakefulness in somnambulism, particularly after sleep deprivation and in the inferior temporal cortex. Sleep deprivation thus not only facilitates the occurrence of sleepwalking episodes, but also uncovers patterns of neural dysfunction that characterize sleepwalkers during wakefulness. PMID:26241047

  11. Polysomnographic diagnosis of sleepwalking: effects of sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Zadra, Antonio; Pilon, Mathieu; Montplaisir, Jacques

    2008-04-01

    Somnambulism affects up to 4% of adults and constitutes one of the leading causes of sleep-related violence and self-injury. Diagnosing somnambulism with objective instruments is often difficult because episodes rarely occur in the laboratory. Because sleep deprivation can precipitate sleepwalking, we aimed to determine the effects of 25 hours of sleep deprivation on the frequency and complexity of somnambulistic episodes recorded in the laboratory. Thirty consecutive sleepwalkers were evaluated prospectively by video-polysomnography for one baseline night and during recovery sleep after 25 hours of sleep deprivation. Ten sleepwalkers with a concomitant sleep disturbance were investigated with the same protocol. Sleepwalkers experienced a significant increase in the mean frequency of somnambulistic episodes during postdeprivation recovery sleep. Postsleep deprivation also resulted in a significantly greater proportion of patients experiencing more complex forms of somnambulism. Sleep deprivation was similarly effective in 9 of the 10 patients presenting with a comorbid sleep disturbance. Combining data from all 40 patients shows that whereas 32 episodes were recorded from 20 sleepwalkers (50%) at baseline, recovery sleep resulted in 92 episodes being recorded from 36 patients (90%). The findings support the view that sleepwalkers suffer from a dysfunction of the mechanisms responsible for sustaining stable slow-wave sleep and suggest that these patients are particularly vulnerable to increased homeostatic sleep pressure. Strong evidence is provided that 25 hours of sleep deprivation can be a valuable tool that facilitates the polysomnographically based diagnosis of somnambulism in predisposed patients.

  12. Predicting Psychotic-Like Experiences during Sensory Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Christina; Mason, Oliver J.

    2015-01-01

    Aims. This study aimed to establish the contribution of hallucination proneness, anxiety, suggestibility, and fantasy proneness to psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) reported during brief sensory deprivation. Method. Twenty-four high and 22 low hallucination-prone participants reported on PLEs occurring during brief sensory deprivation and at baseline. State/trait anxiety, suggestibility, and fantasy proneness were also measured. Results. Both groups experienced a significant increase in PLEs in sensory deprivation. The high hallucination prone group reported more PLEs both at baseline and in sensory deprivation. They also scored significantly higher on measures of state/trait anxiety, suggestibility, and fantasy proneness, though these did not explain the effects of group or condition. Regression analysis found hallucination proneness to be the best predictor of the increase in PLEs, with state anxiety also being a significant predictor. Fantasy proneness and suggestibility were not significant predictors. Conclusion. This study suggests the increase in PLEs reported during sensory deprivation reflects a genuine aberration in perceptual experience, as opposed to increased tendency to make false reports due to suggestibility of fantasy proneness. The study provides further support for the use of sensory deprivation as a safe and effective nonpharmacological model of psychosis. PMID:25811027

  13. AMPA receptors mediate passive avoidance deficits induced by sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Dubiela, Francisco Paulino; Queiroz, Claudio Marcos; Moreira, Karin Di Monteiro; Nobrega, Jose N; Sita, Luciane Valéria; Tufik, Sergio; Hipolide, Debora Cristina

    2013-11-15

    The present study addressed the effects of sleep deprivation (SD) on AMPA receptor (AMPAR) binding in brain regions associated with learning and memory, and investigated whether treatment with drugs acting on AMPAR could prevent passive avoidance deficits in sleep deprived animals. [(3)H]AMPA binding and GluR1 in situ hybridization signals were quantified in different brain regions of male Wistar rats either immediately after 96 h of sleep deprivation or after 24h of sleep recovery following 96 h of sleep deprivation. Another group of animals were sleep deprived and then treated with either the AMPAR potentiator, aniracetam (25, 50 and 100mg/kg, acute administration) or the AMPAR antagonist GYKI-52466 (5 and 10mg/kg, acute and chronic administration) before passive avoidance training. Task performance was evaluated 2h and 24h after training. A significant reduction in [(3)H]AMPA binding was found in the hippocampal formation of SD animals, while no alterations were observed in GluR1 mRNA levels. The highest dose of aniracetam (100mg/kg) reverted SD-induced impairment of passive avoidance performance in both retention tests, whereas GYKI-52466 treatment had no effect. Pharmacological enhancement of AMPAR function may revert hippocampal-dependent learning impairments produced after SD. We argue that such effects might be associated with reduced AMPAR binding in the hippocampus of sleep deprived animals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Selective REM Sleep Deprivation Improves Expectation-Related Placebo Analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Chouchou, Florian; Chauny, Jean-Marc; Rainville, Pierre; Lavigne, Gilles J.

    2015-01-01

    The placebo effect is a neurobiological and psychophysiological process known to influence perceived pain relief. Optimization of placebo analgesia may contribute to the clinical efficacy and effectiveness of medication for acute and chronic pain management. We know that the placebo effect operates through two main mechanisms, expectations and learning, which is also influenced by sleep. Moreover, a recent study suggested that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is associated with modulation of expectation-mediated placebo analgesia. We examined placebo analgesia following pharmacological REM sleep deprivation and we tested the hypothesis that relief expectations and placebo analgesia would be improved by experimental REM sleep deprivation in healthy volunteers. Following an adaptive night in a sleep laboratory, 26 healthy volunteers underwent classical experimental placebo analgesic conditioning in the evening combined with pharmacological REM sleep deprivation (clonidine: 13 volunteers or inert control pill: 13 volunteers). Medication was administered in a double-blind manner at bedtime, and placebo analgesia was tested in the morning. Results revealed that 1) placebo analgesia improved with REM sleep deprivation; 2) pain relief expectations did not differ between REM sleep deprivation and control groups; and 3) REM sleep moderated the relationship between pain relief expectations and placebo analgesia. These results support the putative role of REM sleep in modulating placebo analgesia. The mechanisms involved in these improvements in placebo analgesia and pain relief following selective REM sleep deprivation should be further investigated. PMID:26678391

  15. Depression, neighborhood deprivation and risk of type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Mezuk, Briana; Chaikiat, Åsa; Li, Xinjun; Sundquist, Jan; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Sundquist, Kristina

    2013-01-01

    Neighborhood characteristics have been associated with both depression and diabetes, but to date little attention has been paid to whether the association between depression and diabetes varies across different types of neighborhoods. This prospective study examined the relationship between depression, neighborhood deprivation, and risk of type 2 diabetes among 336,340 adults from a national-representative sample of primary care centers in Sweden (2001–2007). Multi-level logistic regression models were used to assess associations between depression and risk of type 2 diabetes across affluent and deprived neighborhoods. After accounting for demographic, individual-level socioeconomic, and health characteristics, depression was significantly associated with risk of diabetes (odds ratio (OR): 1.10, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06–1.14), as was neighborhood deprivation (OR for high vs. low deprivation: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.22–1.34). The interaction term between depression and neighborhood deprivation was non-significant, indicating that the relationship between depression and diabetes risk is similar across levels of neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation. PMID:23771166

  16. The Impact of Sleep Deprivation on the Brain

    PubMed

    Trošt Bobić, Tatjana; Šečić, Ana; Zavoreo, Iris; Matijević, Valentina; Filipović, Branimir; Kolak, Željka; Bašić Kes, Vanja; Ciliga, Dubravka; Sajković, Dubravka

    2016-09-01

    Each sleep phase is characterized by specific chemical, cellular and anatomic events of vital importance for normal neural functioning. Different forms of sleep deprivation may lead to a decline of cognitive functions in individuals. Studies in this field make a distinction between total sleep deprivation, chronic sleep restriction, and the situation of sleep disruption. Investigations covering the acute effects of sleep deprivation on the brain show that the discovered behavioral deficits in most cases regenerate after two nights of complete sleep. However, some studies done on mice emphasize the possible chronic effects of long-term sleep deprivation or chronic restriction on the occurrence of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and dementia. In order to better understand the acute and chronic effects of sleep loss, the mechanisms of neural adaptation in the situations of insufficient sleep need to be further investigated. Future integrative research on the impact of sleep deprivation on neural functioning measured through the macro level of cognitive functions and the micro molecular and cell level could contribute to more accurate conclusions about the basic cellular mechanisms responsible for the detected behavioral deficits occurring due to sleep deprivation.

  17. Selective REM Sleep Deprivation Improves Expectation-Related Placebo Analgesia.

    PubMed

    Chouchou, Florian; Chauny, Jean-Marc; Rainville, Pierre; Lavigne, Gilles J

    2015-01-01

    The placebo effect is a neurobiological and psychophysiological process known to influence perceived pain relief. Optimization of placebo analgesia may contribute to the clinical efficacy and effectiveness of medication for acute and chronic pain management. We know that the placebo effect operates through two main mechanisms, expectations and learning, which is also influenced by sleep. Moreover, a recent study suggested that rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is associated with modulation of expectation-mediated placebo analgesia. We examined placebo analgesia following pharmacological REM sleep deprivation and we tested the hypothesis that relief expectations and placebo analgesia would be improved by experimental REM sleep deprivation in healthy volunteers. Following an adaptive night in a sleep laboratory, 26 healthy volunteers underwent classical experimental placebo analgesic conditioning in the evening combined with pharmacological REM sleep deprivation (clonidine: 13 volunteers or inert control pill: 13 volunteers). Medication was administered in a double-blind manner at bedtime, and placebo analgesia was tested in the morning. Results revealed that 1) placebo analgesia improved with REM sleep deprivation; 2) pain relief expectations did not differ between REM sleep deprivation and control groups; and 3) REM sleep moderated the relationship between pain relief expectations and placebo analgesia. These results support the putative role of REM sleep in modulating placebo analgesia. The mechanisms involved in these improvements in placebo analgesia and pain relief following selective REM sleep deprivation should be further investigated.

  18. Introduction of laparoscopic low anterior resection for rectal cancer early during residency: a single institutional study on short-term outcomes.

    PubMed

    Ogiso, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Hata, Hiroaki; Kuroyanagi, Hiroya; Sakai, Yoshiharu

    2010-11-01

    Laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer is unpopular because it is technically challenging. Suitable training systems have not been widely studied or established despite the steep learning curve for this procedure. We developed a systematic training program that enables resident surgeons to perform laparoscopic low anterior resection (LLAR) for rectal cancer and evaluated the safety and feasibility of this training program. We analyzed prospectively gathered data on all LLARs for rectal cancer performed at a single center over a 7-year period. Patients were assessed for demographic characteristics, tumor characteristics, operative procedure, operative time, blood loss, conversion to open surgery, complications, time to bowel recovery, distal margin, and number of lymph nodes harvested. We compared the early surgical, oncological, and functional outcomes of LLARs performed by expert surgeons with those of LLARs performed by resident surgeons for both intraperitoneal and extraperitoneal rectal cancer. All analyses were performed on an intention-to-treat basis. A total of 137 patients met the inclusion criteria for this study. Of the 75 LLARs for intraperitoneal rectal cancer, 40 were performed by expert surgeons (I-E group) and 35 by resident surgeons (I-R group). Of the 62 LLARs for extraperitoneal rectal cancer, 51 were performed by expert surgeons (E-E group) and 11 by resident surgeons (E-R group). The operative time was longer in the E-R group than in the E-E group. The time to resumption of diet was longer in the I-E group than in the I-R group. The other early outcomes, including blood loss, anastomotic leakage, conversion to open surgery, and number of lymph nodes harvested, were similar in the I-E and I-R groups and in the E-E and E-R groups. Our systematic training program on LLAR for rectal cancer enables resident surgeons to perform this procedure safely early during residency, with acceptable short-term outcomes.

  19. 76 FR 11800 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute... Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Biosensors for Early Cancer Detection and Risk Assessment. Date... Logistics Branch, Division of Extramural Activities, National Cancer Institute, 6116 Executive Boulevard...

  20. Determinants of smoking-induced deprivation in China

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Tingting; Huang, Jidong; Sung, Hai-Yen; Ong, Michael K; Mao, Zhengzhong; Jiang, Yuan; Fong, Geoffrey T; Max, Wendy

    2015-01-01

    Objective Spending on cigarettes may deprive households of other items like food. The goal of this study was to examine the prevalence of and factors associated with this smoking-induced deprivation among adult smokers in China. Methods The data came from waves 1–3 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey, conducted from 2006 to 2009 among urban adults aged 18 years or older in China. We focus on the samples of current smokers from six cities (N=7981). Smoking-induced deprivation was measured with the survey question, “In the last six months, have you spent money on cigarettes that you knew would be better spent on household essentials like food?” We examined whether sociodemographic factors, smoking intensity and price paid per pack of cigarettes were associated with smoking-induced deprivation using generalised estimating equations modelling. Findings 7.3% of smokers reported smoking-induced deprivation due to purchasing cigarettes. Low-income and middle-income smokers were more likely to have smoking-induced deprivation compared with high-income smokers (adjusted OR (AOR)=2.06, 95% CI 1.32 to 2.31; AOR=1.44, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.69); smokers living in Shenyang (AOR=1.68, 95% CI 1.25 to 2.24) and Yinchuan (AOR=2.50, 95% CI 1.89 to 3.32) were more likely to have smoking-induced deprivation compared with smokers living in Beijing. Retired smokers were less likely to have smoking-induced deprivation compared with employed smokers (AOR=0.67, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.87). There was no statistically significant relationship between smoking intensity, price paid per pack of cigarettes and smoking-induced deprivation. Conclusions Our findings indicate that certain groups of smokers in China acknowledge spending money on cigarettes that could be better spent on household essentials. Tobacco control policies that reduce smoking in China may improve household living standards by reducing smoking-induced deprivation. PMID:24827978

  1. Determinants of smoking-induced deprivation in China.

    PubMed

    Yao, Tingting; Huang, Jidong; Sung, Hai-Yen; Ong, Michael K; Mao, Zhengzhong; Jiang, Yuan; Fong, Geoffrey T; Max, Wendy

    2015-11-01

    Spending on cigarettes may deprive households of other items like food. The goal of this study was to examine the prevalence of and factors associated with this smoking-induced deprivation among adult smokers in China. The data came from Waves 1-3 of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) China Survey, conducted from 2006 to 2009 among urban adults aged 18 years or older in China. We focus on the samples of current smokers from six cities (N=7981). Smoking-induced deprivation was measured with the survey question, "In the last six months, have you spent money on cigarettes that you knew would be better spent on household essentials like food?" We examined whether sociodemographic factors, smoking intensity and price paid per pack of cigarettes were associated with smoking-induced deprivation using generalised estimating equations modelling. 7.3% of smokers reported smoking-induced deprivation due to purchasing cigarettes. Low-income and middle-income smokers were more likely to have smoking-induced deprivation compared with high-income smokers (adjusted OR (AOR)=2.06, 95% CI 1.32 to 2.31; AOR=1.44, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.69); smokers living in Shenyang (AOR=1.68, 95% CI 1.25 to 2.24) and Yinchuan (AOR=2.50, 95% CI 1.89 to 3.32) were more likely to have smoking-induced deprivation compared with smokers living in Beijing. Retired smokers were less likely to have smoking-induced deprivation compared with employed smokers (AOR=0.67, 95% CI 0.52 to 0.87). There was no statistically significant relationship between smoking intensity, price paid per pack of cigarettes and smoking-induced deprivation. Our findings indicate that certain groups of smokers in China acknowledge spending money on cigarettes that could be better spent on household essentials. Tobacco control policies that reduce smoking in China may improve household living standards by reducing smoking-induced deprivation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already

  2. Walkability around primary schools and area deprivation across Scotland.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Laura; McCrorie, Paul; Nicholls, Natalie; Ellaway, Anne

    2016-04-14

    A number of studies based in the US, Canada, and Australia, have found evidence of associations between the built environment (BE) and mode of transport to school, and links between active travel and deprivation. Limited research in the UK compares potential BE supports for walking to school by area deprivation. Within this study, we gathered data on BE attributes previously linked to active travel, i.e., street/path connectivity, and dwelling density, created a composite 'walkability score' (WS) for areas around primary schools across urban Scotland, and explored whether poorer areas exhibit lower scores than more affluent areas, or vice versa. We consider this to be a novel approach as few studies have compared BE features by deprivation across a whole country. Address and road/path maps were obtained and primary schools (N = 937) across mainland Scotland were mapped. Schools were attributed income deprivation scores (scores divided into quintiles (Q1: least deprived, Q5: most deprived)). Catchment area (CA) boundaries, i.e., the geographic area representing eligibility for local school attendance, were drawn around schools, and WS calculated for each CA. We compared mean WS by income quintile (ANOVA), for all local authorities (LAs) combined (N = 29), and separately for the four LAs with the greatest number of schools included in the analysis. For all LAs combined, the least deprived quintile (Q1) showed a significantly lower WS (-0.61), than quintiles 3, 4 and 5 (Q2: -0.04 (non-sig), Q3: 0.38, Q4: 0.09, Q5: 0.18); while for Glasgow the second least deprived quintile (Q2) showed significantly higher WS (Q1: 1.35, Q2: 1.73), than middling (Q3: 0.18) and most deprived quintiles (Q4: 0.06, Q5: -0.10). WS differ by deprivation with patterns varying depending on the spatial scale of the analysis. It is essential that less walkable areas are provided with the resources to improve opportunities to engage in active travel.

  3. Summer Youth Forestry Institute

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roesch, Gabrielle E.; Neuffer, Tamara; Zobrist, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    The Summer Youth Forestry Institute (SYFI) was developed to inspire youth through experiential learning opportunities and early work experience in the field of natural resources. Declining enrollments in forestry and other natural resource careers has made it necessary to actively engage youth and provide them with exposure to careers in these…

  4. Sentinel Node Mapping Using a Fluorescent Dye and Visible Light During Laparoscopic Gastrectomy for Early Gastric Cancer: Result of a Prospective Study From a Single Institute.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang Min; Park, Sungsoo; Park, Seong-Heum; Jung, Sung Woo; Choe, Jung Wan; Sul, Ji-Young; Jang, You Jin; Mok, Young-Jae; Kim, Jong-Han

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of sentinel node mapping using a fluorescent dye and visible light in patients with gastric cancer. Recently, fluorescent imaging technology offers improved visibility with the possibility of better sensitivity or accuracy in sentinel node mapping. Twenty patients with early gastric cancer, for whom laparoscopic distal gastrectomy with standard lymphadenectomy had been planned, were enrolled in this study. Before lymphadenectomy, the patients received a gastrofiberoscopic peritumoral injection of fluorescein solution. The sentinel basin was investigated via laparoscopic fluorescent imaging under blue light (wavelength of 440-490 nm) emitted from an LED curing light. The detection rate and lymph node status were analyzed in the enrolled patients. In addition, short-term clinical outcomes were also investigated. No hypersensitivity to the dye was identified in any enrolled patients. Sentinel nodes were detected in 19 of 20 enrolled patients (95.0%), and metastatic lymph nodes were found in 2 patients. The latter lymph nodes belonged to the sentinel basin of each patient. Meanwhile, 1 patient (5.0%) experienced a postoperative complication that was unrelated to sentinel node mapping. No mortality was recorded among enrolled cases. Sentinel node mapping with visible light fluorescence was a feasible method for visualizing sentinel nodes in patients with early gastric cancer. In addition, this method is advantageous in terms of visualizing the concrete relationship between the sentinel nodes and surrounding structures.

  5. Recurrent 3-day cycles of water deprivation for over a month depress mating behaviour but not semen characteristics of adult rams.

    PubMed

    Khnissi, S; Lassoued, N; Rekik, M; Ben Salem, H

    2016-02-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of water deprivation (WD) on reproductive traits of rams. Ten mature rams were used and allocated to two groups balanced for body weight. Control (C) rams had free access to drinking water, while water-restricted rams (WD) were deprived from water for 3 consecutive days and early on the morning of day 4, they had ad libitum access to water for 24 h, similar to C animals. The experiment lasted 32 days, that is eight 4-day cycles of water deprivation and subsequent watering. Feed and water intake were significantly affected by water deprivation; in comparison with C rams, WD rams reduced their feed intake by 18%. During the watering day of the deprivation cycle, WD rams consumed more water than C rams on the same day (11.8 (SD = 3.37) and 8.4 (SD = 1.92) l respectively; p < 0.05). Glucose, total protein and creatinine were increased as a result of water deprivation. However, testosterone levels were lowered as a result of water deprivation and average values were 10.9 and 6.2 (SEM 1.23) ng/ml for C and WD rams respectively (p < 0.05). Semen traits were less affected by treatment; WD rams consistently had superior sperm concentrations than C animals; and statistical significances were reached in cycles 5 and 8 of water deprivation. Several mating behaviour traits were modified as a result of water deprivation. When compared to controls, WD rams had a more prolonged time to first mount attempt (p < 0.001), their frequency of mount attempts decreased [6.8 vs. 5.2 (SEM 0.1); p < 0.001] and their flehmen reaction intensity was negatively affected (p < 0.05). Water deprivation may have practical implications reducing the libido and therefore the serving capacity of rams under field conditions. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  6. The role of visual deprivation and experience on the performance of sensory substitution devices.

    PubMed

    Stronks, H Christiaan; Nau, Amy C; Ibbotson, Michael R; Barnes, Nick

    2015-10-22

    It is commonly accepted that the blind can partially compensate for their loss of vision by developing enhanced abilities with their remaining senses. This visual compensation may be related to the fact that blind people rely on their other senses in everyday life. Many studies have indeed shown that experience plays an important role in visual compensation. Numerous neuroimaging studies have shown that the visual cortices of the blind are recruited by other functional brain areas and can become responsive to tactile or auditory input instead. These cross-modal plastic changes are more pronounced in the early blind compared to late blind individuals. The functional consequences of cross-modal plasticity on visual compensation in the blind are debated, as are the influences of various etiologies of vision loss (i.e., blindness acquired early or late in life). Distinguishing between the influences of experience and visual deprivation on compensation is especially relevant for rehabilitation of the blind with sensory substitution devices. The BrainPort artificial vision device and The vOICe are assistive devices for the blind that redirect visual information to another intact sensory system. Establishing how experience and different etiologies of vision loss affect the performance of these devices may help to improve existing rehabilitation strategies, formulate effective selection criteria and develop prognostic measures. In this review we will discuss studies that investigated the influence of training and visual deprivation on the performance of various sensory substitution approaches. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Measuring Disease Progression in Early Parkinson Disease: the National Institutes of Health Exploratory Trials in Parkinson Disease (NET-PD) Experience

    PubMed Central

    Parashos, Sotirios A.; Luo, Sheng; Biglan, Kevin M.; -Wollner, Ivan Bodis; He, Bo; Liang, Grace S.; Ross, G. Webster; Tilley, Barbara C.; Shulman, Lisa M.

    2014-01-01

    Importance Optimizing assessments of rate of progression in Parkinson Disease (PD) is important in designing clinical trials, especially of potential disease-modifying agents. Objective To examine the value of measures of impairment, disability, and quality of life in assessing progression in early Parkinson disease. Design, Setting, and Participants Inception cohort analysis of data from 413 early, untreated PD patients, who were enrolled in two multicenter, randomized, double-blind clinical trials. Intervention Participants were randomized into five treatments: 67 received creatine, 66 minocycline, 71 Coenzyme Q10, 71 GPI-1485, and 138 placebo. We assessed the association between the rates of change in measures of impairment, disability, and quality of life and time to initiation of symptomatic treatment. Main Outcome Measure Time between baseline assessment and need for the initiation of symptomatic pharmaceutical treatment for PD was the primary indicator of disease progression. Results After adjusting for baseline confounding variables Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) II, UPDRS III, modified Rankin score (mRS), level of education, and treatment group, the rate of change of the following measurements was assessed: UPDRS II, UPDRS III, Schwab and England ADL (S&E), Total Functional Capacity (TFC), Parkinson’s Disease Quality of Life Questionnaire – 39 (PDQ39) ADL and Summary Index (SI), Short Form -12v2 Health Survey (SF12) Physical Summary (PS), and SF12 Mental Summary (MS). Variables reaching statistical threshold in univariate analysis were entered into a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model using time to symptomatic treatment as the dependent variable. More rapid worsening of UPDRS II (HR 1.15, 95% C.I. 1.08 – 1.22 for 1 scale unit change per 6 months), UPDRS III (HR 1.09; 95% C.I. 1.06 – 1.13 for 1 scale unit change per 6 months), and S&E (HR 1.29 95% C.I. 1.12 – 1.48 for 5 percentage point change per 6 months), was

  8. Measuring disease progression in early Parkinson disease: the National Institutes of Health Exploratory Trials in Parkinson Disease (NET-PD) experience.

    PubMed

    Parashos, Sotirios A; Luo, Sheng; Biglan, Kevin M; Bodis-Wollner, Ivan; He, Bo; Liang, Grace S; Ross, G Webster; Tilley, Barbara C; Shulman, Lisa M

    2014-06-01

    Optimizing assessments of rate of progression in Parkinson disease (PD) is important in designing clinical trials, especially of potential disease-modifying agents. To examine the value of measures of impairment, disability, and quality of life in assessing progression in early PD. Inception cohort analysis of data from 413 patients with early, untreated PD who were enrolled in 2 multicenter, randomized, double-blind clinical trials. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatments (67 received creatine, 66 received minocycline, 71 received coenzyme Q10, 71 received GPI-1485, and 138 received placebo). We assessed the association between the rates of change in measures of impairment, disability, and quality of life and time to initiation of symptomatic treatment. Time between baseline assessment and need for the initiation of symptomatic pharmaceutical treatment for PD was the primary indicator of disease progression. After adjusting for baseline confounding variables with regard to the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) Part II score, the UPDRS Part III score, the modified Rankin Scale score, level of education, and treatment group, we assessed the rate of change for the following measurements: the UPDRS Part II score; the UPDRS Part III score; the Schwab and England Independence Scale score (which measures activities of daily living); the Total Functional Capacity scale; the 39-item Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire, summary index, and activities of daily living subscale; and version 2 of the 12-item Short Form Health Survey Physical Summary and Mental Summary. Variables reaching the statistical threshold in univariate analysis were entered into a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model using time to symptomatic treatment as the dependent variable. More rapid change (ie, worsening) in the UPDRS Part II score (hazard ratio, 1.15 [95% CI, 1.08-1.22] for 1 scale unit change per 6 months), the UPDRS Part III score (hazard ratio, 1.09 [95

  9. Neighborhood Deprivation and Childhood Asthma Outcomes, Accounting for Insurance Coverage.

    PubMed

    Nkoy, Flory L; Stone, Bryan L; Knighton, Andrew J; Fassl, Bernhard A; Johnson, Joseph M; Maloney, Christopher G; Savitz, Lucy A

    2018-01-09

    Collecting social determinants data is challenging. We assigned patients a neighborhood-level social determinant measure, the area of deprivation index (ADI), by using census data. We then assessed the association between neighborhood deprivation and asthma hospitalization outcomes and tested the influence of insurance coverage. A retrospective cohort study of children 2 to 17 years old admitted for asthma at 8 hospitals. An administrative database was used to collect patient data, including hospitalization outcomes and neighborhood deprivation status (ADI scores), which were grouped into quintiles (ADI 1, the least deprived neighborhoods; ADI 5, the most deprived neighborhoods). We used multivariable models, adjusting for covariates, to assess the associations and added a neighborhood deprivation status and insurance coverage interaction term. A total of 2270 children (median age 5 years; 40.6% girls) were admitted for asthma. We noted that higher ADI quintiles were associated with greater length of stay, higher cost, and more asthma readmissions ( P < .05 for most quintiles). Having public insurance was independently associated with greater length of stay (β: 1.171; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.117-1.228; P < .001), higher cost (β: 1.147; 95% CI: 1.093-1.203; P < .001), and higher readmission odds (odds ratio: 1.81; 95% CI: 1.46-2.24; P < .001). There was a significant deprivation-insurance effect modification, with public insurance associated with worse outcomes and private insurance with better outcomes across ADI quintiles ( P < .05 for most combinations). Neighborhood-level ADI measure is associated with asthma hospitalization outcomes. However, insurance coverage modifies this relationship and needs to be considered when using the ADI to identify and address health care disparities. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  10. Impact of Acute Sleep Deprivation on Sarcasm Detection

    PubMed Central

    Mary, Alison; Slama, Hichem; Cleeremans, Axel; Peigneux, Philippe; Kissine, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that sleep plays a pivotal role on health, cognition and emotional regulation. However, the interplay between sleep and social cognition remains an uncharted research area. In particular, little is known about the impact of sleep deprivation on sarcasm detection, an ability which, once altered, may hamper everyday social interactions. The aim of this study is to determine whether sleep-deprived participants are as able as sleep-rested participants to adopt another perspective in gauging sarcastic statements. At 9am, after a whole night of sleep (n = 15) or a sleep deprivation night (n = 15), participants had to read the description of an event happening to a group of friends. An ambiguous voicemail message left by one of the friends on another's phone was then presented, and participants had to decide whether the recipient would perceive the message as sincere or as sarcastic. Messages were uttered with a neutral intonation and were either: (1) sarcastic from both the participant’s and the addressee’s perspectives (i.e. both had access to the relevant background knowledge to gauge the message as sarcastic), (2) sarcastic from the participant’s but not from the addressee’s perspective (i.e. the addressee lacked context knowledge to detect sarcasm) or (3) sincere. A fourth category consisted in messages sarcastic from both the participant’s and from the addressee’s perspective, uttered with a sarcastic tone. Although sleep-deprived participants were as accurate as sleep-rested participants in interpreting the voice message, they were also slower. Blunted reaction time was not fully explained by generalized cognitive slowing after sleep deprivation; rather, it could reflect a compensatory mechanism supporting normative accuracy level in sarcasm understanding. Introducing prosodic cues compensated for increased processing difficulties in sarcasm detection after sleep deprivation. Our findings support the hypothesis that sleep

  11. Diethylstilbesterol revisited: androgen deprivation, osteoporosis and prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Scherr, Douglas; Pitts, W Reid; Vaughn, E Darracott

    2002-02-01

    It is well described in the urological literature that androgen deprivation can result in accelerated bone breakdown and osteoporosis. Therefore, we evaluate the degree of bone breakdown in patients on conventional androgen deprivation with those on diethylstilbesterol alone or in conjunction with luteinizing hormone releasing hormone agonists or orchiectomy. During an 18-month period a total of 54 patients with clinically localized prostate cancer and 24 with benign prostatic hyperplasia were evaluated. All patients with prostate cancer were either treated with external beam radiotherapy without androgen deprivation or were started on androgen deprivation therapy. All patients were prospectively followed and evaluated for serum testosterone and estradiol along with urinary collagen type I cross-linked N-telopeptides. Three separate morning urine samples on 3 separate months were collected on each patient and analyzed for N-telopeptides. To correct for different levels of renal function, all N-telopeptides were measured as a ratio of urinary N-telopeptides/urine creatinine. All patients with any bone or skeletal abnormalities were excluded from study as were those with osseous metastatic disease. There was a statistically significant (p < 0.05) higher level of urinary N-telopeptides/creatinine in patients on androgen deprivation therapy who were not treated with diethylstilbesterol. The estrogenic effect of diethylstilbesterol protects one from bone resorption. Patients on diethylstilbesterol did not have any higher levels of bone breakdown than patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia or those who never received any androgen deprivation. Rapid bone turnover and resorption can be prevented with 1 mg. diethylstilbesterol alone or in conjunction with other modes of androgen deprivation. Therefore, diethylstilbesterol should be considered as monotherpy in men who require long-term antiandrogen therapy.

  12. Flurbiprofen in rapid eye movement sleep deprivation induced hyperalgesia.

    PubMed

    Gürel, Elif Ezgi; Ural, Keremcan; Öztürk, Gülnur; Öztürk, Levent

    2014-04-10

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation induces hyperalgesia in healthy rats. Here, we evaluated the effects of flurbiprofen, an anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective agent, on the increased thermal responses observed in REM sleep deprived rats. Forty female rats were divided into four groups following 96-hour REM sleep deprivation: intraperitoneal injections of placebo, and flurbiprofen 5 mg/kg, 15 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg were made in CONT (n=10), FBP5, FBP15 and FBP40 groups respectively. Pain threshold measurements were performed three times at baseline (0.hour), at the end of REM sleep deprivation (96.hour) and at 1 h after injections (97.hour) by hot plate and tail-flick tests. REM sleep deprivation induced a significant decrease in pain thresholds of all rats (hotplate: 0.hour vs 96.hour, 9.75±2.85 vs 5.10±2.02, p<0.001; tail flick: 0.hour vs 96.hour, 11.92±4.62 vs 7.92±5.15, p<0.001). Flurbiprofen in 15 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg doses significantly improved pain tolerance measured by tail flick test (tail flick in FBP15 and FBP40 groups: 96.hour vs 97.hour, 7.01±4.97 vs 8.34±3.61 and 5.06±1.57 vs 7.04±2.49, p<0.05 for both). 96 h of REM sleep deprivation resulted in reduced pain thresholds in both hot plate and tail flick tests. Flurbiprofen was used for the first time in a rat model of REM sleep deprivation, and it provided anti-nociceptive effects in 15 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg doses. Flurbiprofen may have the potential for treatment of painful syndromes accompanying insomnia or sleep loss. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Sleep Deprivation and Time-Based Prospective Memory.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Maria José; Occhionero, Miranda; Cicogna, PierCarla

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the effect of sleep deprivation on time-based prospective memory performance, that is, realizing delayed intentions at an appropriate time in the future (e.g., to take a medicine in 30 minutes). Between-subjects experimental design. The experimental group underwent 24 h of total sleep deprivation, and the control group had a regular sleep-wake cycle. Participants were tested at 08:00. Laboratory. Fifty healthy young adults (mean age 22 ± 2.1, 31 female). 24 h of total sleep deprivation. Participants were monitored by wrist actigraphy for 3 days before the experimental session. The following cognitive tasks were administered: one time-based prospective memory task and 3 reasoning tasks as ongoing activity. Objective and subjective vigilance was assessed by the psychomotor vigilance task and a visual analog scale, respectively. To measure the time-based prospective memory task we assessed compliance and clock checking behavior (time monitoring). Sleep deprivation negatively affected time-based prospective memory compliance (P < 0.001), objective vigilance (mean RT: P < 0.001; slowest 10% RT: P < 0.001; lapses: P < 0.005), and subjective vigilance (P < 0.0001). Performance on reasoning tasks and time monitoring behavior did not differ between groups. The results highlight the potential dangerous effects of total sleep deprivation on human behavior, particularly the ability to perform an intended action after a few minutes. Sleep deprivation strongly compromises time-based prospective memory compliance but does not affect time check frequency. Sleep deprivation may impair the mechanism that allows the integration of information related to time monitoring with the prospective intention. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  14. Impact of partial sleep deprivation on immune markers.

    PubMed

    Wilder-Smith, A; Mustafa, F B; Earnest, A; Gen, L; Macary, P A

    2013-10-01

    Sleep quality is considered to be an important predictor of immunity. Lack of sleep therefore may reduce immunity, thereby increasing the susceptibility to respiratory pathogens. A previous study showed that reduced sleep duration was associated with an increased likelihood of the common cold. It is important to understand the role of sleep in altering immune responses to understand how sleep deprivation leads to an increased susceptibility to the common cold or other respiratory infections. We sought to examine the impact of partial sleep deprivation on various immune markers. Fifty-two healthy volunteers were partially sleep deprived for one night. We took blood samples before the sleep deprivation, immediately after, and 4 and 7 days after sleep deprivation. We measured various immune markers and used a generalized estimating equation (GEE) to examine the differences in the repeated measures. CD4, CD8, CD14, and CD16 all showed significant time-dependent changes, but CD3 did not. The most striking time-dependent change was observed for the mitogen proliferation assay and for HLA-DR. There was a significant decrease in the mitogen proliferation values and HLA-DR immediately after the sleep deprivation experiment, which started to rise again on day 4 and normalized by day 7. The transiently impaired mitogen proliferation, the decreased HLA-DR, the upregulated CD14, and the variations in CD4 and CD8 that we observed in temporal relationship with partial sleep deprivation could be one possible explanation for the increased susceptibility to respiratory infections reported after reduced sleep duration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Impact of Acute Sleep Deprivation on Sarcasm Detection.

    PubMed

    Deliens, Gaétane; Stercq, Fanny; Mary, Alison; Slama, Hichem; Cleeremans, Axel; Peigneux, Philippe; Kissine, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that sleep plays a pivotal role on health, cognition and emotional regulation. However, the interplay between sleep and social cognition remains an uncharted research area. In particular, little is known about the impact of sleep deprivation on sarcasm detection, an ability which, once altered, may hamper everyday social interactions. The aim of this study is to determine whether sleep-deprived participants are as able as sleep-rested participants to adopt another perspective in gauging sarcastic statements. At 9am, after a whole night of sleep (n = 15) or a sleep deprivation night (n = 15), participants had to read the description of an event happening to a group of friends. An ambiguous voicemail message left by one of the friends on another's phone was then presented, and participants had to decide whether the recipient would perceive the message as sincere or as sarcastic. Messages were uttered with a neutral intonation and were either: (1) sarcastic from both the participant's and the addressee's perspectives (i.e. both had access to the relevant background knowledge to gauge the message as sarcastic), (2) sarcastic from the participant's but not from the addressee's perspective (i.e. the addressee lacked context knowledge to detect sarcasm) or (3) sincere. A fourth category consisted in messages sarcastic from both the participant's and from the addressee's perspective, uttered with a sarcastic tone. Although sleep-deprived participants were as accurate as sleep-rested participants in interpreting the voice message, they were also slower. Blunted reaction time was not fully explained by generalized cognitive slowing after sleep deprivation; rather, it could reflect a compensatory mechanism supporting normative accuracy level in sarcasm understanding. Introducing prosodic cues compensated for increased processing difficulties in sarcasm detection after sleep deprivation. Our findings support the hypothesis that sleep deprivation might

  16. [Effects of chronic partial sleep deprivation on growth and learning/memory in young rats].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Fan; Shen, Xiao-Ming; Li, Sheng-Hui; Cui, Mao-Long; Zhang, Yin; Wang, Cheng; Yu, Xiao-Gang; Yan, Chong-Huai

    2009-02-01

    The effects of sleep deprivation on the immature brain remain unknown. Based on a computer controlled chronic sleep deprivation animal model, the effects of chronic partial sleep deprivation on growth, learning and memory in young rats were explored. Twelve weaned male Spraque-Dawley rats (3-week-old) were randomly divided into sleep deprivation, test control and blank control groups. Sleep deprivation was performed using computer-controlled "disc-over-water" technique at 8-11 am daily, for 14 days. The temperature and weights were measured every 7 days. Morris water maze was used to test spatial learning and memory abilities before and 7 and 14 days after sleep deprivation. After 14 days of sleep deprivation, the rats were sacrificed for weighting their major organs. After 14 days of sleep deprivation, the rats' temperature increased significantly. During the sleep deprivation, the rate of weight gain in the sleep deprivation group was much slower than that in the test control and blank control groups. The thymus of the rats subjected to sleep deprivation was much lighter than that of the blank control group. After 7 days of sleep deprivation, the rats showed slower acquisition of reference memory, but were capable of successfully performing the task by repeated exposure to the test. Such impairment of reference memory was not seen 14 days after sleep deprivation. Chronic sleep deprivation can affect growth of immature rats, as well as their abilities to acquire spatial reference memory.

  17. Engineering Institute

    Science.gov Websites

    Search Site submit National Security Education Center Los Alamos National LaboratoryEngineering Institute Addressing national needs by fostering specialized recruiting and strategic partnerships Los Alamos National LaboratoryEngineering Institute Menu NSEC Educational Programs Los Alamos Dynamics Summer

  18. Paternal deprivation alters play-fighting, serum corticosterone and the expression of hypothalamic vasopressin and oxytocin in juvenile male mandarin voles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianli; Tai, Fadao; Yan, Xingfu; Yu, Peng

    2012-11-01

    Although early paternal deprivation significantly affects offspring behavioral and neuroendocrine development, the link between paternal deprivation and social play behavior remains unclear. Mandarin voles (Microtus mandarinus) are socially monogamous and display bi-paternal care. The present study examined the development of social play in juvenile male mandarin voles and the paternal influence on play-fighting, vasopressin- and oxytocin-immunoreactive neurons and serum corticosterone and testosterone levels. The results show that social play was more pronounced during postnatal days 28-35, differing from the ontogenetic pattern of other forms of social behavior. On postnatal day 35, the peak in play-fighting activity, paternal deprivation reduced boxing/wrestling levels and vasopressin-immunoreactive neurons in the anterior hypothalamus and oxytocin-immunoreactive neurons in the paraventricular nucleus, but increased vasopressin-immunoreactive neurons in the paraventricular nucleus and corticosterone levels. These results suggest that mandarin voles engage in social play according to an inverted U-shaped curve in ontogeny, and paternal deprivation influences the development of offspring play-fighting; hypothalamic vasopressin, oxytocin and serum corticosterone may play a modulatory role in the alteration of play-fighting elicited by paternal deprivation; decreased play-fighting may correlate with depressed vasopressin levels in the anterior hypothalamus.

  19. Association between socioeconomic deprivation and colorectal cancer screening outcomes: Low uptake rates among the most and least deprived people

    PubMed Central

    Auge, Josep M.; Sala, Maria; Román, Marta; Castells, Antoni; Macià, Francesc; Comas, Mercè; Guiriguet, Carolina; Bessa, Xavier; Castells, Xavier

    2017-01-01

    Background Screening with faecal occult blood tests reduces colorectal cancer-related mortality; however, age, sex and socioeconomic factors affect screening outcomes and could lead to unequal mortality benefits. The aim of this study was to describe the main outcomes of the population-based Barcelona colorectal cancer screening programme (BCRCSP) by deprivation. Methods Retrospective study of the eligible population of the first round of the BCRCSP. Participants’ postal addresses were linked with the MEDEA database to obtain the deprivation quintiles (Dq). Chi-squared tests were used to compare proportions across variables and logistic regression was used to estimate the adjusted effects of age, sex and deprivation on uptake, FIT positivity, colonoscopy adherence and advanced neoplasia detection rate. Results Overall uptake was 44.7%, higher in Dq2, 3 and 4 (OR 1.251, 1.250 and 1.276, respectively) than in the least deprived quintile (Dq 1), and lowest in Dq5 (OR 0.84). Faecal immunochemical test (FIT) positivity and the percentage of people with detectable faecal haemoglobin below the positivity threshold increased with deprivation. The advanced neoplasia detection rate was highest in Dq4. Conclusion Unlike most regions where inequalities are graded along the socioeconomic continuum, inequalities in the uptake of colorectal cancer screening in Spain seem to be concentrated first in the most disadvantaged group and second in the least deprived group. The correlation of deprivation with FIT-positivity and faecal haemoglobin below the positivity threshold is worrying due to its association with colorectal cancer and overall mortality. PMID:28622365

  20. Physiological responses of Yellowstone bison to winter nutritional deprivation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DelGiudice, Glenn D.; Singer, Francis J.; Seal, Ulysses S.; Bowser, Gillian

    1994-01-01

    Because nutrition is critically related to other aspects of bison (Bison bison) ecology, and the winter ranges inhabited by bison in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) are ecologically diverse, it was important to determine if nutritional deprivation differences occurred among winter ranges. We used chemistry profiles of urine suspended in snow to compare nutritional deprivation of bison from January to April 1988 on 4 sampling areas of 3 winter ranges in YNP. Declining (P < 0.001) trends of urinary potassium: creatinine ratios in bison on all 4 sampling areas indicated progressive nutritional deprivation through late March. Concurrent increases (P ≤ 0.001) in mean urea nitrogen: creatinine ratios from late February through late march in 3 of 4 areas suggested that increased net catabolism was occurring. Diminished creatinine ratios of sodium and phosphorus reflected low dietary intake of these minerals throughout winter. Mean values and trends of urinary characteristics indicated nutritional deprivation varied among 3 winter ranges in YNP. Continued physiological monitoring of nutritional deprivation, along with detailed examination of other aspects of the bison's ecology, will provide greater insight into the role of ungulate nutrition in the dynamics of such a complex system and improve management.

  1. Reconsidering the Relationship between Air Pollution and Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Nick; Dong, Guanpeng; Minton, Jon; Pryce, Gwilym

    2018-01-01

    This paper critically examines the relationship between air pollution and deprivation. We argue that focusing on a particular economic or social model of urban development might lead one to erroneously expect all cities to converge towards a particular universal norm. A naive market sorting model, for example, would predict that poor households will eventually be sorted into high pollution areas, leading to a positive relationship between air pollution and deprivation. If, however, one considers a wider set of theoretical perspectives, the anticipated relationship between air pollution and deprivation becomes more complex and idiosyncratic. Specifically, we argue the relationship between pollution and deprivation can only be made sense of by considering processes of risk perception, path dependency, gentrification and urbanization. Rather than expecting all areas to eventually converge to some universal norm, we should expect the differences in the relationship between air pollution and deprivation across localities to persist. Mindful of these insights, we propose an approach to modeling which does not impose a geographically fixed relationship. Results for Scotland reveal substantial variations in the observed relationships over space and time, supporting our argument. PMID:29596380

  2. Nutrient Deprivation Induces Property Variations in Spider Gluey Silk

    PubMed Central

    Blamires, Sean J.; Sahni, Vasav; Dhinojwala, Ali; Blackledge, Todd A.; Tso, I-Min

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms facilitating property variability in biological adhesives may promote biomimetic innovations. Spider gluey silks such as the spiral threads in orb webs and the gumfoot threads in cobwebs, both of which comprise of an axial thread coated by glue, are biological adhesives that have variable physical and chemical properties. Studies show that the physical and chemical properties of orb web gluey threads change when spiders are deprived of food. It is, however, unknown whether gumfoot threads undergo similar property variations when under nutritional stress. Here we tested whether protein deprivation induces similar variations in spiral and gumfoot thread morphology and stickiness. We manipulated protein intake for the orb web spider Nephila clavipes and the cobweb spider Latrodectus hesperus and measured the diameter, glue droplet volume, number of droplets per mm, axial thread width, thread stickiness and adhesive energy of their gluey silks. We found that the gluey silks of both species were stickier when the spiders were deprived of protein than when the spiders were fed protein. In N. clavipes a concomitant increase in glue droplet volume was found. Load-extension curves showed that protein deprivation induced glue property variations independent of the axial thread extensions in both species. We predicted that changes in salt composition of the glues were primarily responsible for the changes in stickiness of the silks, although changes in axial thread properties might also contribute. We, additionally, showed that N. clavipes' glue changes color under protein deprivation, probably as a consequence of changes to its biochemical composition. PMID:24523902

  3. Deconstructing and reconstructing cognitive performance in sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Melinda L; Gunzelmann, Glenn; Whitney, Paul; Hinson, John M; Belenky, Gregory; Rabat, Arnaud; Van Dongen, Hans P A

    2013-06-01

    Mitigation of cognitive impairment due to sleep deprivation in operational settings is critical for safety and productivity. Achievements in this area are hampered by limited knowledge about the effects of sleep loss on actual job tasks. Sleep deprivation has different effects on different cognitive performance tasks, but the mechanisms behind this task-specificity are poorly understood. In this context it is important to recognize that cognitive performance is not a unitary process, but involves a number of component processes. There is emerging evidence that these component processes are differentially affected by sleep loss. Experiments have been conducted to decompose sleep-deprived performance into underlying cognitive processes using cognitive-behavioral, neuroimaging and cognitive modeling techniques. Furthermore, computational modeling in cognitive architectures has been employed to simulate sleep-deprived cognitive performance on the basis of the constituent cognitive processes. These efforts are beginning to enable quantitative prediction of the effects of sleep deprivation across different task contexts. This paper reviews a rapidly evolving area of research, and outlines a theoretical framework in which the effects of sleep loss on cognition may be understood from the deficits in the underlying neurobiology to the applied consequences in real-world job tasks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Deconstructing and Reconstructing Cognitive Performance in Sleep Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, Melinda L.; Gunzelmann, Glenn; Whitney, Paul; Hinson, John M.; Belenky, Gregory; Rabat, Arnaud; Van Dongen, Hans P. A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Mitigation of cognitive impairment due to sleep deprivation in operational settings is critical for safety and productivity. Achievements in this area are hampered by limited knowledge about the effects of sleep loss on actual job tasks. Sleep deprivation has different effects on different cognitive performance tasks, but the mechanisms behind this task-specificity are poorly understood. In this context it is important to recognize that cognitive performance is not a unitary process, but involves a number of component processes. There is emerging evidence that these component processes are differentially affected by sleep loss. Experiments have been conducted to decompose sleep-deprived performance into underlying cognitive processes using cognitive-behavioral, neuroimaging and cognitive modeling techniques. Furthermore, computational modeling in cognitive architectures has been employed to simulate sleep-deprived cognitive performance on the basis of the constituent cognitive processes. These efforts are beginning to enable quantitative prediction of the effects of sleep deprivation across different task contexts. This paper reviews a rapidly evolving area of research, and outlines a theoretical framework in which the effects of sleep loss on cognition may be understood from the deficits in the underlying neurobiology to the applied consequences in real-world job tasks. PMID:22884948

  5. Empirical evidence of child poverty and deprivation in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogwumike, Fidelis O; Ozughalu, Uche M

    2018-03-01

    Development economists and policy makers have in recent times focused attention on child poverty as a crucial aspect of poverty. The importance of the analysis of child poverty partly lies in the fact that children are the most vulnerable group in every society. This study used two poverty lines and the Foster-Greer-Thorbecke index to analyze extreme and overall child poverty headcount, depth and severity in Nigeria. The study also used the headcount ratio to analyze the extent of child deprivation in education, health, nutrition, child protection, water and sanitation. The study was based on the 2010 Harmonized Nigeria Living Standard Survey (HNLSS) and the 2011 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), obtained from the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS), Abuja, Nigeria. The study revealed that 23.22% of children in Nigeria were in extreme child poverty while 70.31% of children in the country were in overall child poverty. The study further showed that there was pronounced child deprivation in education, health, nutrition, child protection, water and sanitation. Both child poverty and child deprivation were more pronounced in the rural sector than in the urban sector and in Northern Nigeria than in Southern Nigeria. Therefore, the Nigerian government should take adequate steps to eradicate child poverty and obliterate all forms of child deprivation in Nigeria - particularly deprivation in basic needs. In taking such steps, more attention should be focused on rural areas and Northern Nigeria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Sleep deprivation affects extinction but not acquisition memory in honeybees.

    PubMed

    Hussaini, Syed Abid; Bogusch, Lisa; Landgraf, Tim; Menzel, Randolf

    2009-11-01

    Sleep-like behavior has been studied in honeybees before, but the relationship between sleep and memory formation has not been explored. Here we describe a new approach to address the question if sleep in bees, like in other animals, improves memory consolidation. Restrained bees were observed by a web camera, and their antennal activities were used as indicators of sleep. We found that the bees sleep more during the dark phase of the day compared with the light phase. Sleep phases were characterized by two distinct patterns of antennal activities: symmetrical activity, more prominent during the dark phase; and asymmetrical activity, more common during the light phase. Sleep-deprived bees showed rebound the following day, confirming effective deprivation of sleep. After appetitive conditioning of the bees to various olfactory stimuli, we observed their sleep. Bees conditioned to odor with sugar reward showed lesser sleep compared with bees that were exposed to either reward alone or air alone. Next, we asked whether sleep deprivation affects memory consolidation. While sleep deprivation had no effect on retention scores after odor acquisition, retention for extinction learning was significantly reduced, indicating that consolidation of extinction memory but not acquisition memory was affected by sleep deprivation.

  7. Can sleep deprivation studies explain why human adults sleep?

    PubMed

    Brown, Lee K

    2012-11-01

    This review will concentrate on the consequences of sleep deprivation in adult humans. These findings form a paradigm that serves to demonstrate many of the critical functions of the sleep states. The drive to obtain food, water, and sleep constitutes important vegetative appetites throughout the animal kingdom. Unlike nutrition and hydration, the reasons for sleep have largely remained speculative. When adult humans are nonspecifically sleep-deprived, systemic effects may include defects in cognition, vigilance, emotional stability, risk-taking, and, possibly, moral reasoning. Appetite (for foodstuffs) increases and glucose intolerance may ensue. Procedural, declarative, and emotional memory are affected. Widespread alterations of immune function and inflammatory regulators can be observed, and functional MRI reveals profound changes in regional cerebral activity related to attention and memory. Selective deprivation of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, on the contrary, appears to be more activating and to have lesser effects on immunity and inflammation. The findings support a critical need for sleep due to the widespread effects on the adult human that result from nonselective sleep deprivation. The effects of selective REM deprivation appear to be different and possibly less profound, and the functions of this sleep state remain enigmatic.

  8. Sleep Deprivation Influences Circadian Gene Expression in the Lateral Habenula.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Beilin; Gao, Yanxia; Li, Yang; Yang, Jing; Zhao, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is governed by homeostasis and the circadian clock. Clock genes play an important role in the generation and maintenance of circadian rhythms but are also involved in regulating sleep homeostasis. The lateral habenular nucleus (LHb) has been implicated in sleep-wake regulation, since LHb gene expression demonstrates circadian oscillation characteristics. This study focuses on the participation of LHb clock genes in regulating sleep homeostasis, as the nature of their involvement is unclear. In this study, we observed changes in sleep pattern following sleep deprivation in LHb-lesioned rats using EEG recording techniques. And then the changes of clock gene expression (Per1, Per2, and Bmal1) in the LHb after 6 hours of sleep deprivation were detected by using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). We found that sleep deprivation increased the length of Non-Rapid Eye Movement Sleep (NREMS) and decreased wakefulness. LHb-lesioning decreased the amplitude of reduced wake time and increased NREMS following sleep deprivation in rats. qPCR results demonstrated that Per2 expression was elevated after sleep deprivation, while the other two genes were unaffected. Following sleep recovery, Per2 expression was comparable to the control group. This study provides the basis for further research on the role of LHb Per2 gene in the regulation of sleep homeostasis.

  9. Quantitative physiologically based modeling of subjective fatigue during sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Fulcher, B D; Phillips, A J K; Robinson, P A

    2010-05-21

    A quantitative physiologically based model of the sleep-wake switch is used to predict variations in subjective fatigue-related measures during total sleep deprivation. The model includes the mutual inhibition of the sleep-active neurons in the hypothalamic ventrolateral preoptic area (VLPO) and the wake-active monoaminergic brainstem populations (MA), as well as circadian and homeostatic drives. We simulate sleep deprivation by introducing a drive to the MA, which we call wake effort, to maintain the system in a wakeful state. Physiologically this drive is proposed to be afferent from the cortex or the orexin group of the lateral hypothalamus. It is hypothesized that the need to exert this effort to maintain wakefulness at high homeostatic sleep pressure correlates with subjective fatigue levels. The model's output indeed exhibits good agreement with existing clinical time series of subjective fatigue-related measures, supporting this hypothesis. Subjective fatigue, adrenaline, and body temperature variations during two 72h sleep deprivation protocols are reproduced by the model. By distinguishing a motivation-dependent orexinergic contribution to the wake-effort drive, the model can be extended to interpret variation in performance levels during sleep deprivation in a way that is qualitatively consistent with existing, clinically derived results. The example of sleep deprivation thus demonstrates the ability of physiologically based sleep modeling to predict psychological measures from the underlying physiological interactions that produce them. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of caffeine deprivation on taste and mood.

    PubMed

    Brauer, L.H.; Buican, B.; de Wit, H.

    1994-04-01

    Despite its ubiquitous consumption in the natural environment, caffeine has not been a reliable reinforcer in laboratory settings. The reinforcing effects of caffeine are greater in caffeine-dependent subjects relative to non-dependent subjects, but the mechanism underlying this difference remains unclear. We hypothesized that deprivation from caffeine would produce alterations in subjective ratings of stimuli commonly associated with caffeine consumption. Specifically, we hypothesized that hedonic ratings of the coffee taste would be selectively enhanced following caffeine deprivation. Twelve regular caffeine users received acute doses of caffeine (300mg) or placebo after 33h of caffeine deprivation or non-deprivation. They rated the taste of coffee and sucrose, saccharin, and quinine solutions on intensity, bitterness, sweetness, pleasantness, and unpleasantness. Contrary to our hypothesis, subjects' ratings of the pleasantness of the coffee taste were not significantly altered by caffeine deprivation. However, subjects' ratings of the bitterness and sweetness of the coffee taste and ratings of the sucrose solution were altered by caffeine. Implications of these data for caffeine self-administration are discussed.

  11. Reconsidering the Relationship between Air Pollution and Deprivation.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Nick; Dong, Guanpeng; Minton, Jon; Pryce, Gwilym

    2018-03-29

    This paper critically examines the relationship between air pollution and deprivation. We argue that focusing on a particular economic or social model of urban development might lead one to erroneously expect all cities to converge towards a particular universal norm. A naive market sorting model, for example, would predict that poor households will eventually be sorted into high pollution areas, leading to a positive relationship between air pollution and deprivation. If, however, one considers a wider set of theoretical perspectives, the anticipated relationship between air pollution and deprivation becomes more complex and idiosyncratic. Specifically, we argue the relationship between pollution and deprivation can only be made sense of by considering processes of risk perception, path dependency, gentrification and urbanization. Rather than expecting all areas to eventually converge to some universal norm, we should expect the differences in the relationship between air pollution and deprivation across localities to persist. Mindful of these insights, we propose an approach to modeling which does not impose a geographically fixed relationship. Results for Scotland reveal substantial variations in the observed relationships over space and time, supporting our argument.

  12. INTRA-INSTITUTIONAL ADMINISTRATIVE PROBLEMS--A PARADIGM FOR EMPLOYEE STIMULATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CLELAND, CHARLES C.; PECK, ROBERT F.

    TO DEVELOP A PROPOSAL FOR POSITIVE EMPLOYEE STIMULATION, A STUDY WAS MADE OF MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS AMONG ATTENDANTS AT INSTITUTIONS FOR MENTAL RETARDATES. ATTENDANTS AT SUCH INSTITUTIONS ARE SUBJECTED TO A GREATER AMOUNT OF CULTURE SHOCK AND SOCIAL DEPRIVATION THAN OTHER EMPLOYEES. OVER LONG PERIODS OF TIME THIS CAUSES A DETERIORATION OF…

  13. A prospective single-institute study of the impact of Daikenchuto on the early postoperative outcome after living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Takatsuki, Mitsuhisa; Hidaka, Masaaki; Soyama, Akihiko; Hara, Takanobu; Okada, Satomi; Ono, Shinichiro; Adachi, Tomohiko; Eguchi, Susumu

    2018-01-20

    The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of Daikenchuto (DKT) on early postoperative outcomes after living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), focusing on the prevention of abdominal distension and bacterial translocation. Adult LDLT recipients were prospectively divided into 2 groups, who were administered DKT (n = 20, group A) or not (n = 20, group B). The area of bowel gas defined as gas volume score (GVS) 7 days after LDLT was calculated. Postoperative liver function tests, the development of bacterial, viral, and fungal infections, and GVS after LDLT were reviewed. There were no significant differences in liver function tests and ammonia level after LDLT. Also, the rates of infection and the result of culture study were not different between groups. The median GVS 7 days after LDLT was not significantly different between groups A (0.26 (range, 0.12-0.58)) and B (0.23 (range, 0.15-0.42)). No positive impact was observed for 14-day DKT administration after LDLT, in terms of preventing infection or abdominal distension. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  14. The use of psychological supportive care services and psychotropic drugs in patients with early-stage breast cancer: a comparison between two institutions on two continents.

    PubMed

    Kaidar-Person, Orit; Meattini, Icro; Deal, Allison M; Francolini, Giulio; Carta, Giulio; Terzo, Lauren; Camporeale, Jayne; Muss, Hyman; Marks, Lawrence B; Livi, Lorenzo; Mayer, Deborah K; Zagar, Timothy M

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mental health consumption among patients with early-stage breast cancer in two radiation oncology departments in two countries (USA and Italy). Data were extracted from the medical records of consecutive patients treated between 2014 and 2015 in two centers. Extracted data included patient's demographics, treatment, referral to psychological supportive care programs, and prescribed psychotropic drugs. Data from the two centers were compared using Student's t, Wilcoxon, Fisher's exact, and Jonckheere-Terpstra tests. Adjusted relative risks (RR) were estimated using Poisson regression. A total of 231 (Italy = 110, USA = 121) patients were included, with a mean age of 60 years. The crude rate of psychological supportive care visits was similar in the US versus the Italian cohort (28.9 vs. 21.8%, p = 0.23). The crude rate of prescribed psychotropic drug was higher in the US cohort versus Italian cohort (43.8 vs. 18.2%, p < 0.0001). These differences remained significant after adjusting for breast cancer subtype, stage, and treatment (RR 1.8, 95 CI 1.17-2.76). Between 20 and 30% of patients receive psychological supportive care during treatment for breast cancer. The use of psychotropic medication was higher in the US cohort than the cohort from Italy. The reasons for these differences might be related to social and cultural differences and the method of prescribing medication.

  15. Health-Risk Behaviour in Deprived Neighbourhoods Compared with Non-Deprived Neighbourhoods: A Systematic Literature Review of Quantitative Observational Studies.

    PubMed

    Algren, Maria Holst; Bak, Carsten Kronborg; Berg-Beckhoff, Gabriele; Andersen, Pernille Tanggaard

    2015-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in neighbourhoods' influence on individuals' health-risk behaviours, such as smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity and diet. The aim of this review was to systematically review recent studies on health-risk behaviour among adults who live in deprived neighbourhoods compared with those who live in non-deprived neighbourhoods and to summarise what kind of operationalisations of neighbourhood deprivation that were used in the studies. PRISMA guidelines for systematic reviews were followed. Systematic searches were performed in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science and Sociological Abstracts using relevant search terms, Boolean operators, and truncation, and reference lists were scanned. Quantitative observational studies that examined health-risk behaviour in deprived neighbourhoods compared with non-deprived neighbourhoods were eligible for inclusion. The inclusion criteria were met by 22 studies. The available literature showed a positive association between smoking and physical inactivity and living in deprived neighbourhoods compared with non-deprived neighbourhoods. In regard to low fruit and vegetable consumption and alcohol consumption, the results were ambiguous, and no clear differences were found. Numerous different operationalisations of neighbourhood deprivation were used in the studies. Substantial evidence indicates that future health interventions in deprived neighbourhoods should focus on smoking and physical inactivity. We suggest that alcohol interventions should be population based rather than based on the specific needs of deprived neighbourhoods. More research is needed on fruit and vegetable consumption. In future studies, the lack of a uniform operationalisation of neighbourhood deprivation must be addressed.

  16. Vitamins for the soul: John Bowlby's thesis of maternal deprivation, biomedical metaphors and the deficiency model of disease.

    PubMed

    Duniec, Eduardo; Raz, Mical

    2011-03-01

    In 1951 John Bowlby, British psychoanalyst and child psychiatrist, published his now famous report, Maternal Care and Mental Health, commissioned by the World Health Organization. In this report, Bowlby coined the term 'maternal deprivation', which quickly permeated into Western psychiatry and psychology. The implications of Bowlby's writings, while widely criticized and contested, generated a considerable amount of research and brought about significant changes in perceptions of separation between children and their mothers. This article examines the origins of the 'maternal deprivation' hypothesis, focusing on how the deficiency theory of disease influenced psychiatric discourse, and framed Bowlby's theory of maternal care. We argue that developments in paediatric medicine, and particularly in the field of nutritional deficiencies, provided Bowlby a prototype for conceptualizing his early views on the psychological needs of children and the development of psychopathology.

  17. Robotic surgery, video-assisted thoracic surgery, and open surgery for early stage lung cancer: comparison of costs and outcomes at a single institute.

    PubMed

    Novellis, Pierluigi; Bottoni, Edoardo; Voulaz, Emanuele; Cariboni, Umberto; Testori, Alberto; Bertolaccini, Luca; Giordano, Laura; Dieci, Elisa; Granato, Lorenzo; Vanni, Elena; Montorsi, Marco; Alloisio, Marco; Veronesi, Giulia

    2018-02-01

    Robotic surgery is increasingly used to resect lung cancer. However costs are high. We compared costs and outcomes for robotic surgery, video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS), and open surgery, to treat non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We retrospectively assessed 103 consecutive patients given lobectomy or segmentectomy for clinical stage I or II NSCLC. Three surgeons could choose VATS or open, the fourth could choose between all three techniques. Between-group differences were assessed by Fisher's exact, two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. P values <0.05 were considered significant. Twenty-three patients were treated by robot, 41 by VATS, and 39 by open surgery. Age, physical status, pulmonary function, comorbidities, stage, and perioperative complications did not differ between the groups. Pathological tumor size was greater in the open than VATS and robotic groups (P=0.025). Duration of surgery was 150, 191 and 116 minutes, by robotic, VATS and open approaches, respectively (P<0.001). Significantly more lymph node stations were removed (P<0.001), and median length of stay was shorter (4, 5 and 6 days, respectively; P<0.001) in the robotic than VATS and open groups. Estimated costs were 82%, 68% and 69%, respectively, of the regional health service reimbursement for robotic, VATS and open approaches. Robotic surgery for early lung cancer was associated with shorter stay and more extensive lymph node dissection than VATS and open surgery. Duration of surgery was shorter for robotic than VATS. Although the cost of robotic thoracic surgery is high, the hospital makes a profit.

  18. Effects of Time of Day and Sleep Deprivation on Motorcycle-Driving Performance

    PubMed Central

    Bougard, Clément; Espié, Stéphane; Larnaudie, Bruno; Moussay, Sébastien; Davenne, Damien

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether motorcycle handling capabilities – measured by means of the efficiency of emergency manoeuvres – were dependent on prior sleep deprivation and time of day. Twelve male participants voluntarily took part in four test sessions, starting at 6 a.m., 10 a.m., 2 p.m., and 6 p.m., following a night either with or without sleep. Each test session comprised temperature and sleepiness measurements, before three different types of motorcycling tests were initiated: (1) stability in straight ahead riding at low speed (in “slow motion” mode and in “brakes and clutch” mode), (2) emergency braking and (3) crash avoidance tasks performed at 20 kph and 40 kph. The results indicate that motorcycle control at low speed depends on time of day, with an improvement in performance throughout the day. Emergency braking performance is affected at both speeds by time of day, with poorer performance (longer total stopping distance, reaction time and braking distance) in the morning, and also by sleep deprivation, from measurements obtained at 40 kph (incorrect initial speed). Except for a tendency observed after the sleepless night to deviate from the initial speed, it seems that crash avoidance capabilities are quite unaffected by the two disturbance factors. Consequently, some motorcycle handling capabilities (stability at low speed and emergency braking) change in the same way as the diurnal fluctuation observed in body temperature and sleepiness, whereas for others (crash avoidance) the participants were able to maintain their initial performance level despite the high levels of sleepiness recorded after a sleepless night. Motorcycle riders have to be aware that their handling capabilities are limited in the early morning and/or after sleep deprivation. Both these situations can increase the risk of falls and of being involved in a road accident. PMID:22761881

  19. Form-Deprivation Myopia in Chick Induces Limited Changes in Retinal Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    McGlinn, Alice M.; Baldwin, Donald A.; Tobias, John W.; Budak, Murat T.; Khurana, Tejvir S.; Stone, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose Evidence has implicated the retina as a principal controller of refractive development. In the present study, the retinal transcriptome was analyzed to identify alterations in gene expression and potential signaling pathways involved in form-deprivation myopia of the chick. Methods One-week-old white Leghorn chicks wore a unilateral image-degrading goggle for 6 hours or 3 days (n = 6 at each time). Total RNA from the retina/(retinal pigment epithelium) was used for expression profiling with chicken gene microarrays (Chicken GeneChips; Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA). To identify gene expression level differences between goggled and contralateral nongoggled eyes, normalized microarray signal intensities were analyzed by the significance analysis of microarrays (SAM) approach. Differentially expressed genes were validated by real-time quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in independent biological replicates. Results Small changes were detected in differentially expressed genes in form-deprived eyes. In chickens that had 6 hours of goggle wear, downregulation of bone morphogenetic protein 2 and connective tissue growth factor was validated. In those with 3 days of goggle wear, downregulation of bone morphogenetic protein 2, vasoactive intestinal peptide, preopro-urotensin II–related peptide and mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase 2 was validated, and upregulation of endothelin receptor type B and interleukin-18 was validated. Conclusions Form-deprivation myopia, in its early stages, is associated with only minimal changes in retinal gene expression at the level of the transcriptome. While the list of validated genes is short, each merits further study for potential involvement in the signaling cascade mediating myopia development. PMID:17652709

  20. Dental Care Utilization for Examination and Regional Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Cheol-Sin; Han, Sun-Young; Lee, Seung Eun; Kang, Jeong-Hee; Kim, Chul-Woung

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Receiving proper dental care plays a significant role in maintaining good oral health. We investigated the relationship between regional deprivation and dental care utilization. Methods: Multilevel logistic regression was used to identify the relationship between the regional deprivation level and dental care utilization purpose, adjusting for individual-level variables, in adults aged 19+ in the 2008 Korean Community Health Survey (n=220 258). Results: Among Korean adults, 12.8% used dental care to undergo examination and 21.0% visited a dentist for other reasons. In the final model, regional deprivation level was associated with significant variations in dental care utilization for examination (p<0.001). However, this relationship was not shown with dental care utilization for other reasons in the final model. Conclusions: This study’s findings suggest that policy interventions should be considered to reduce regional variations in rates of dental care utilization for examination. PMID:26265665

  1. The behavioral and health consequences of sleep deprivation among U.S. high school students: relative deprivation matters.

    PubMed

    Meldrum, Ryan Charles; Restivo, Emily

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate whether the strength of the association between sleep deprivation and negative behavioral and health outcomes varies according to the relative amount of sleep deprivation experienced by adolescents. 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey data of high school students (N=15,364) were analyzed. Associations were examined on weighted data using logistic regression. Twelve outcomes were examined, ranging from weapon carrying to obesity. The primary independent variable was a self-reported measure of average number of hours slept on school nights. Participants who reported deprivations in sleep were at an increased risk of a number of negative outcomes. However, this varied considerably across different degrees of sleep deprivation. For each of the outcomes considered, those who slept less than 5h were more likely to report negative outcomes (adjusted odds ratios ranging from 1.38 to 2.72; p<.05 across all models) relative to sleeping 8 or more hours. However, less extreme forms of sleep deprivation were, in many instances, unrelated to the outcomes considered. Among U.S. high school students, deficits in sleep are significantly and substantively associated with a variety of negative outcomes, and this association is particularly pronounced for students achieving fewer than 5h of sleep at night. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Feasibility of Real-Time Intraoperative Performance Assessment With SIMPL (System for Improving and Measuring Procedural Learning): Early Experience From a Multi-institutional Trial.

    PubMed

    Bohnen, Jordan D; George, Brian C; Williams, Reed G; Schuller, Mary C; DaRosa, Debra A; Torbeck, Laura; Mullen, John T; Meyerson, Shari L; Auyang, Edward D; Chipman, Jeffrey G; Choi, Jennifer N; Choti, Michael A; Endean, Eric D; Foley, Eugene F; Mandell, Samuel P; Meier, Andreas H; Smink, Douglas S; Terhune, Kyla P; Wise, Paul E; Soper, Nathaniel J; Zwischenberger, Joseph B; Lillemoe, Keith D; Dunnington, Gary L; Fryer, Jonathan P

    Intraoperative performance assessment of residents is of growing interest to trainees, faculty, and accreditors. Current approaches to collect such assessments are limited by low participation rates and long delays between procedure and evaluation. We deployed an innovative, smartphone-based tool, SIMPL (System for Improving and Measuring Procedural Learning), to make real-time intraoperative performance assessment feasible for every case in which surgical trainees participate, and hypothesized that SIMPL could be feasibly integrated into surgical training programs. Between September 1, 2015 and February 29, 2016, 15 U.S. general surgery residency programs were enrolled in an institutional review board-approved trial. SIMPL was made available after 70% of faculty and residents completed a 1-hour training session. Descriptive and univariate statistics analyzed multiple dimensions of feasibility, including training rates, volume of assessments, response rates/times, and dictation rates. The 20 most active residents and attendings were evaluated in greater detail. A total of 90% of eligible users (1267/1412) completed training. Further, 13/15 programs began using SIMPL. Totally, 6024 assessments were completed by 254 categorical general surgery residents (n = 3555 assessments) and 259 attendings (n = 2469 assessments), and 3762 unique operations were assessed. There was significant heterogeneity in participation within and between programs. Mean percentage (range) of users who completed ≥1, 5, and 20 assessments were 62% (21%-96%), 34% (5%-75%), and 10% (0%-32%) across all programs, and 96%, 75%, and 32% in the most active program. Overall, response rate was 70%, dictation rate was 24%, and mean response time was 12 hours. Assessments increased from 357 (September 2015) to 1146 (February 2016). The 20 most active residents each received mean 46 assessments by 10 attendings for 20 different procedures. SIMPL can be feasibly integrated into surgical training programs

  3. EARLY SCHOOL ADMISSIONS PROJECT, PROMISING PRACTICES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltimore City Public Schools, MD.

    THE EXPERIMENTAL PROJECT ATTEMPTS TO DETERMINE WHETHER EARLY ADMISSION TO SCHOOL CAN OVERCOME BARRIERS TO LEARNING WHICH ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS SEEM TO IMPOSE. A DEPRIVED CHILD OFTEN DOES NOT RECEIVE ATTENTION, AFFECTION, OR GUIDANCE WITHIN HIS HOME. THE YOUNG CHILD SHOULD BE HELPED TO DEVELOP A WHOLESOME SELF-CONCEPT, TO ACQUIRE THE DRIVE TO…

  4. Evoked Electrical and Cerebral Vascular Responses Following Sleep Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Schei, Jennifer L.; Rector, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Neuronal activity elicits vascular dilation, delivering additional blood and metabolites to the activated region. With increasing neural activity, vessels stretch and may become less compliant. Most functional imaging studies assume that limits to vascular expansion are not normally reached except under pathological conditions, with the possibility that metabolism could outpace supply. However, we previously demonstrated that evoked hemodynamic responses were larger during quiet sleep when compared to both waking and REM sleep, suggesting that high basal activity during wake may elicit blunted evoked hemodynamic responses due to vascular expansion limits. We hypothesized that extended brain activity through sleep deprivation will further dilate blood vessels, and exacerbate the blunted evoked hemodynamic responses observed during wake, and dampen responses in subsequent sleep. We measured evoked electrical and hemodynamic responses from rats using auditory clicks (0.5 s, 10 Hz, 2–13 s random ISIs) for one hour following 2, 4, or 6 hours of sleep deprivation. Time-of-day matched controls were recorded continuously for 7 hours. Within quiet sleep periods following deprivation, ERP amplitude did not differ; however, the evoked vascular response was smaller with longer sleep deprivation periods. These results suggest that prolonged neural activity periods through sleep deprivation may diminish vascular compliance as indicated by the blunted vascular response. Subsequent sleep may allow vessels to relax, restoring their ability to deliver blood. These results also suggest that severe sleep deprivation or chronic sleep disturbances could push the vasculature to critical limits, leading to metabolic deficit and the potential for tissue trauma. PMID:21854966

  5. Increased Automaticity and Altered Temporal Preparation Following Sleep Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Danyang; Asplund, Christopher L.; Ling, Aiqing; Chee, Michael W.L.

    2015-01-01

    Study Objectives: Temporal expectation enables us to focus limited processing resources, thereby optimizing perceptual and motor processing for critical upcoming events. We investigated the effects of total sleep deprivation (TSD) on temporal expectation by evaluating the foreperiod and sequential effects during a psychomotor vigilance task (PVT). We also examined how these two measures were modulated by vulnerability to TSD. Design: Three 10-min visual PVT sessions using uniformly distributed foreperiods were conducted in the wake-maintenance zone the evening before sleep deprivation (ESD) and three more in the morning following approximately 22 h of TSD. TSD vulnerable and nonvulnerable groups were determined by a tertile split of participants based on the change in the number of behavioral lapses recorded during ESD and TSD. A subset of participants performed six additional 10-min modified auditory PVTs with exponentially distributed foreperiods during rested wakefulness (RW) and TSD to test the effect of temporal distribution on foreperiod and sequential effects. Setting: Sleep laboratory. Participants: There were 172 young healthy participants (90 males) with regular sleep patterns. Nineteen of these participants performed the modified auditory PVT. Measurements and Results: Despite behavioral lapses and slower response times, sleep deprived participants could still perceive the conditional probability of temporal events and modify their level of preparation accordingly. Both foreperiod and sequential effects were magnified following sleep deprivation in vulnerable individuals. Only the foreperiod effect increased in nonvulnerable individuals. Conclusions: The preservation of foreperiod and sequential effects suggests that implicit time perception and temporal preparedness are intact during total sleep deprivation. Individuals appear to reallocate their depleted preparatory resources to more probable event timings in ongoing trials, whereas vulnerable

  6. [Validation of Hungarian Smartphone Deprivation Inventory (HSDI) with school children].

    PubMed

    Csibi, Sándor; Demetrovics, Zsolt; Szabo, Attila

    2017-01-01

    The widespread use of smartphones generates new habits and behaviors among the users, including schoolchildren. Advance technology-based applications, capturing interest and attention, influence cognitive focus and time spent with the device. Examination of these factors points toward the risk of addiction, as well as the deprivations sensations associated with the latter, that call for scholastic attention. The aim of this study was to validate a Hungarian Smartphone Deprivation Inventory (HSDI), to gauge the deprivation feelings and their severity in schoolchildren when they cannot access their device. A 9-item, 7-point, agree-disagree inventory was developed on the basis of an earlier exercise deprivation scale (Robbins and Joseph, 1985). The inventory was completed by 258 Hungarian schoolchildren (mean age=12.4 ± SD = 1.71 years). The participants also completed the Hungarian version of the Brief Addiction to Smartphone Scale (BASS). An exploratory factor analysis of the HSDI yielded a single factor that accounted for 55.84 % of the variance. The internal consistency of the inventory was excellent (Cronbach's α = 0.90). Content validity of the HSDI was checked by comparing the scores of those scoring above and below the median on the BASS that yielded statistically significant differences (p < .001). The HSDI correlated statistically significantly with the BASS (r = .62, p < .001) as well as with the deprivation subscale of the BASS (r = .63, p < .001), which demonstrated the inventory's congruent validity. These findings show that the HSDI is a sensitive tool for measuring deprivation feelings related prevented smartphone access in schoolchildren.

  7. Sleep deprivation impairs the accurate recognition of human emotions.

    PubMed

    van der Helm, Els; Gujar, Ninad; Walker, Matthew P

    2010-03-01

    Investigate the impact of sleep deprivation on the ability to recognize the intensity of human facial emotions. Randomized total sleep-deprivation or sleep-rested conditions, involving between-group and within-group repeated measures analysis. Experimental laboratory study. Thirty-seven healthy participants, (21 females) aged 18-25 y, were randomly assigned to the sleep control (SC: n = 17) or total sleep deprivation group (TSD: n = 20). Participants performed an emotional face recognition task, in which they evaluated 3 different affective face categories: Sad, Happy, and Angry, each ranging in a gradient from neutral to increasingly emotional. In the TSD group, the task was performed once under conditions of sleep deprivation, and twice under sleep-rested conditions following different durations of sleep recovery. In the SC group, the task was performed twice under sleep-rested conditions, controlling for repeatability. In the TSD group, when sleep-deprived, there was a marked and significant blunting in the recognition of Angry and Happy affective expressions in the moderate (but not extreme) emotional intensity range; differences that were most reliable and significant in female participants. No change in the recognition of Sad expressions was observed. These recognition deficits were, however, ameliorated following one night of recovery sleep. No changes in task performance were observed in the SC group. Sleep deprivation selectively impairs the accurate judgment of human facial emotions, especially threat relevant (Anger) and reward relevant (Happy) categories, an effect observed most significantly in females. Such findings suggest that sleep loss impairs discrete affective neural systems, disrupting the identification of salient affective social cues.

  8. Sustained attention performance during sleep deprivation: evidence of state instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doran, S. M.; Van Dongen, H. P.; Dinges, D. F.

    2001-01-01

    Nathaniel Kleitman was the first to observe that sleep deprivation in humans did not eliminate the ability to perform neurobehavioral functions, but it did make it difficult to maintain stable performance for more than a few minutes. To investigate variability in performance as a function of sleep deprivation, n = 13 subjects were tested every 2 hours on a 10-minute, sustained-attention, psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) throughout 88 hours of total sleep deprivation (TSD condition), and compared to a control group of n = 15 subjects who were permitted a 2-hour nap every 12 hours (NAP condition) throughout the 88-hour period. PVT reaction time means and standard deviations increased markedly among subjects and within each individual subject in the TSD condition relative to the NAP condition. TSD subjects also had increasingly greater performance variability as a function of time on task after 18 hours of wakefulness. During sleep deprivation, variability in PVT performance reflected a combination of normal timely responses, errors of omission (i.e., lapses), and errors of commission (i.e., responding when no stimulus was present). Errors of omission and errors of commission were highly intercorrelated across deprivation in the TSD condition (r = 0.85, p = 0.0001), suggesting that performance instability is more likely to include compensatory effort than a lack of motivation. The marked increases in PVT performance variability as sleep loss continued supports the "state instability" hypothesis, which posits that performance during sleep deprivation is increasingly variable due to the influence of sleep initiating mechanisms on the endogenous capacity to maintain attention and alertness, thereby creating an unstable state that fluctuates within seconds and that cannot be characterized as either fully awake or asleep.

  9. The influence of social deprivation on length of hospitalisation.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Engin; Raynaud, Denis

    2013-04-01

    The implementation of activity-based payment system named T2A-tarification à l'activité-in 2004 profoundly modified the financing of French hospitals. Presently applied to activities concerning medicine, surgery and obstetrics, the pricing for these activities was developed using the National Costs Study. The considerable differences observed between costs in the private sector and those in the public sector are in part justified, by the latter, by caring for patients with social deprivation. The goal of this study is to measure the influence of social deprivation on the length of hospitalisation. A survey on inpatient social deprivation was carried out from November to December 2008 by the French Ministry of Health (Department of Research, Study, Evaluation and Statistics-DREES, and technical agency of Hospital information-ATIH). Four dimensions of social deprivation were taken into consideration after a previous qualitative study: social isolation, quality of housing, level of income and access to rights. The sample is based on 27 hospitals, including public and private (for-profit and not-for-profit), representing 57,175 stays, 6,800 of which were patients with social deprivation. After multivariate analyses adjusted for age, severity of illness and DRG, we found that there was a longer length of stay for inpatients with social deprivation (+16%), and in particular for patients living in social isolation (+17%) and for patients with inadequate housing (+17%). The impact of low income on the length of stay is less important. However, low income associated with inadequate housing significantly increases lengths of stay (+24%).

  10. Associations between early life adversity and executive function in children adopted internationally from orphanages

    PubMed Central

    Hostinar, Camelia E.; Stellern, Sarah A.; Schaefer, Catherine; Carlson, Stephanie M.; Gunnar, Megan R.

    2012-01-01

    Executive function (EF) abilities are increasingly recognized as an important protective factor for children experiencing adversity, promoting better stress and emotion regulation as well as social and academic adjustment. We provide evidence that early life adversity is associated with significant reductions in EF performance on a developmentally sensitive battery of laboratory EF tasks that measured cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control. Animal models also suggest that early adversity has a negative impact on the development of prefrontal cortex-based cognitive functions. In this study, we report EF performance 1 y after adoption in 2.5- to 4-y-old children who had experienced institutional care in orphanages overseas compared with a group of age-matched nonadopted children. To our knowledge, this is the youngest age and the soonest after adoption that reduced EF performance has been shown using laboratory measures in this population. EF reductions in performance were significant above and beyond differences in intelligence quotient. Within the adopted sample, current EF was associated with measures of early deprivation after controlling for intelligence quotient, with less time spent in the birth family before placement in an institution and lower quality of physical/social care in institutions predicting poorer performance on the EF battery. PMID:23047689

  11. Associations between early life adversity and executive function in children adopted internationally from orphanages.

    PubMed

    Hostinar, Camelia E; Stellern, Sarah A; Schaefer, Catherine; Carlson, Stephanie M; Gunnar, Megan R

    2012-10-16

    Executive function (EF) abilities are increasingly recognized as an important protective factor for children experiencing adversity, promoting better stress and emotion regulation as well as social and academic adjustment. We provide evidence that early life adversity is associated with significant reductions in EF performance on a developmentally sensitive battery of laboratory EF tasks that measured cognitive flexibility, working memory, and inhibitory control. Animal models also suggest that early adversity has a negative impact on the development of prefrontal cortex-based cognitive functions. In this study, we report EF performance 1 y after adoption in 2.5- to 4-y-old children who had experienced institutional care in orphanages overseas compared with a group of age-matched nonadopted children. To our knowledge, this is the youngest age and the soonest after adoption that reduced EF performance has been shown using laboratory measures in this population. EF reductions in performance were significant above and beyond differences in intelligence quotient. Within the adopted sample, current EF was associated with measures of early deprivation after controlling for intelligence quotient, with less time spent in the birth family before placement in an institution and lower quality of physical/social care in institutions predicting poorer performance on the EF battery.

  12. Sleep and nutritional deprivation and performance of house officers.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, M R; Vichick, D A; Silsby, H D; Kruzich, D J; Butler, R

    1985-07-01

    A study was conducted by the authors to compare cognitive functioning in acutely and chronically sleep-deprived house officers. A multivariate analysis of variance revealed significant deficits in primary mental tasks involving basic rote memory, language, and numeric skills as well as in tasks requiring high-order cognitive functioning and traditional intellective abilities. These deficits existed only for the acutely sleep-deprived group. The finding of deficits in individuals who reported five hours or less of sleep in a 24-hour period suggests that the minimum standard of four hours that has been considered by some to be adequate for satisfactory performance may be insufficient for more complex cognitive functioning.

  13. Subjective relative deprivation is associated with poorer physical and mental health.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sandeep; Carleton, R Nicholas

    2015-12-01

    Substantial epidemiological evidence has shown that income inequality and objective measures of relative deprivation are associated with poorer health outcomes. However, surprisingly little research has examined whether subjective feelings of relative deprivation are similarly linked with poorer health outcomes. The relative deprivation hypothesis suggests that inequality affects health at the individual level through negative consequences of social comparison. We directly examined the relationship between subjective feelings of personal relative deprivation and self-reported physical and mental health in a diverse community sample (n = 328). Results demonstrated that subjective feelings of personal relative deprivation are associated with significantly poorer physical and mental health. These relationships held even when accounting for covariates that have been previously associated with both relative deprivation and health. These results further support the link between relative deprivation and health outcomes and suggest that addressing root causes of relative deprivation may lead to greater individual health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The relationship between social deprivation and the incidence of adult fractures.

    PubMed

    Court-Brown, Charles M; Aitken, Stuart A; Duckworth, Andrew D; Clement, Nicholas D; McQueen, Margaret M

    2013-03-20

    Social deprivation is associated with many diseases. To our knowledge, there has been no previous investigation of its role in the epidemiology and incidence of fractures in adults. We analyzed 6872 consecutive fractures in patients fifteen years of age or older over a one-year period. Social deprivation was analyzed using the Carstairs score, which is derived from patients' postal codes and accurately defines social deprivation in our population. Social deprivation is associated with an increasing fracture incidence. The effect is not linear, and the most deprived 10% of society are affected. The odds ratios of the most deprived 10% of society having an increased incidence of fractures are 3.7 in males and 3.1 in females. Social deprivation is associated with a significant increase in the incidence of fractures in the most deprived 10% of the population. Most fracture types are affected.

  15. The Francis Crick Institute.

    PubMed

    Peters, Keith; Smith, Jim

    2017-04-01

    The Francis Crick Institute Laboratory, opened in 2016, is supported by the Medical Research Council, Cancer Research UK, the Wellcome Trust, and University College London, King's College London and Imperial College London. The emphasis on research training and early independence of gifted scientists in a multidisciplinary environment provides unique opportunities for UK medical science, including clinical and translational research. © Royal College of Physicians 2017. All rights reserved.

  16. Using Indicators of Multiple Deprivation to Demonstrate the Spatial Legacy of Apartheid in South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Michael; Wright, Gemma

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a spatial analysis of multiple deprivation in South Africa and demonstrates that the most deprived areas in the country are located in the rural former homeland areas. The analysis is undertaken using the datazone level South African Index of Multiple Deprivation which was constructed from the 2001 Census. Datazones are a new…

  17. Current Issues in Maternal and Paternal Deprivation. Unit for Child Studies Selected Papers Number 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Shelley

    An overview of some major current issues in maternal and paternal deprivation is presented. Parts I and II focus on (1) single parents and issues in paternal deprivation and (2) sex stereotyping and issues in maternal deprivation, respectively. More particularly, Part I discusses the effects of divorce and death on children and the problem of…

  18. Food Deprivation and Exercise in the Heat: Thermoregulatory and Metabolic Effects,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-05

    deprivation. Food deprivation resulted in severe hypoglycemia following exercise (P .01), and these decrements were acccmpanied by marked (P .01...reductions in circula- ting insulin levels. Prolonged food deprivation (48 and 72h) resulted in significant (P .01) hypertriglyceridemia and...intervals. We have concluded frac these studies that while several thermoregulatory and metabolic responses to exercise in the heat can be significantly

  19. Tailoring Gut Microbiota for Enhanced Resilience and Performance Under Sleep-Deprived Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    psychological disorders, we have developed a hypothesis that sleep deprivation initially degrades the functional and structural integrity of the...obesity. Interestingly, perturbation of gut microbiota presents a pattern of metabolic abnormalities mirroring those induced by sleep deprivation. In...sleep deprivation initially causes degradation in the functional and structural integrity of the gastrointestinal tract. Data generated will be

  20. Household Poverty and Deprivation among Children: How Strong Are the Links?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grodem, Anne Skevik

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the links between family income, deprivation as reported by parents and deprivation as experienced by children. Data are drawn from a survey of Norwegian families, in which low-income families are oversampled. Three areas of deprivation are explored: housing, consumption and subjective experiences. In each area, indicators…

  1. Double Trouble? The Effects of Sleep Deprivation and Chronotype on Adolescent Affect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dagys, Natasha; McGlinchey, Eleanor L.; Talbot, Lisa S.; Kaplan, Katherine A.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Harvey, Allison G.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Two understudied risk factors that have been linked to emotional difficulties in adolescence are chronotype and sleep deprivation. This study extended past research by using an experimental design to investigate the role of sleep deprivation and chronotype on emotion in adolescents. It was hypothesized that sleep deprivation and an…

  2. Relevance of deprivation studies in understanding rapid eye movement sleep

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Rachna; Khan, Shafa; Mallick, Birendra N

    2018-01-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) is a unique phenomenon essential for maintaining normal physiological processes and is expressed at least in species higher in the evolution. The basic scaffold of the neuronal network responsible for REMS regulation is present in the brainstem, which may be directly or indirectly influenced by most other physiological processes. It is regulated by the neurons in the brainstem. Various manipulations including chemical, elec-trophysiological, lesion, stimulation, behavioral, ontogenic and deprivation studies have been designed to understand REMS genesis, maintenance, physiology and functional significance. Although each of these methods has its significance and limitations, deprivation studies have contributed significantly to the overall understanding of REMS. In this review, we discuss the advantages and limitations of various methods used for REMS deprivation (REMSD) to understand neural regulation and physiological significance of REMS. Among the deprivation strategies, the flowerpot method is by far the method of choice because it is simple and convenient, exploits physiological parameter (muscle atonia) for REMSD and allows conducting adequate controls to overcome experimental limitations as well as to rule out nonspecific effects. Notwithstanding, a major criticism that the flowerpot method faces is that of perceived stress experienced by the experimental animals. Nevertheless, we conclude that like most methods, particularly for in vivo behavioral studies, in spite of a few limitations, given the advantages described above, the flowerpot method is the best method of choice for REMSD studies. PMID:29881316

  3. Effects of total sleep deprivation on divided attention performance

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Dividing attention across two tasks performed simultaneously usually results in impaired performance on one or both tasks. Most studies have found no difference in the dual-task cost of dividing attention in rested and sleep-deprived states. We hypothesized that, for a divided attention task that is highly cognitively-demanding, performance would show greater impairment during exposure to sleep deprivation. A group of 30 healthy males aged 21–30 years was exposed to 40 h of continuous wakefulness in a laboratory setting. Every 2 h, subjects completed a divided attention task comprising 3 blocks in which an auditory Go/No-Go task was 1) performed alone (single task); 2) performed simultaneously with a visual Go/No-Go task (dual task); and 3) performed simultaneously with both a visual Go/No-Go task and a visually-guided motor tracking task (triple task). Performance on all tasks showed substantial deterioration during exposure to sleep deprivation. A significant interaction was observed between task load and time since wake on auditory Go/No-Go task performance, with greater impairment in response times and accuracy during extended wakefulness. Our results suggest that the ability to divide attention between multiple tasks is impaired during exposure to sleep deprivation. These findings have potential implications for occupations that require multi-tasking combined with long work hours and exposure to sleep loss. PMID:29166387

  4. Regional vulnerability of the hippocampus to repeated motor activity deprivation.

    PubMed

    Faraji, Jamshid; Soltanpour, Nabiollah; Moeeini, Reza; Hosseini, Seyed Abedin; Pakdel, Shiva; Moharrerie, Alireza; Arjang, Kaveh; Soltanpour, Nasrin; Metz, Gerlinde A S

    2016-03-15

    Spontaneous vertical and horizontal exploratory movements are integral components of rodent behavior. Little is known, however, about the structural and functional consequences of restricted spontaneous exploration. Here, we report two experiments to probe whether restriction in vertical activity (rearing) in rats could induce neuro-hormonal and behavioral disturbances. Rearing movements in rats were deprived for 3h/day for 30 consecutive days by placing the animal into a circular tunnel task. Rats temporarily deprived of rearing behavior showed elevated plasma corticosterone levels but no detectable psychological distress and/or anxiety-related behavior within an elevated plus maze. However, rats emitted a greater number of 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations and spent significantly more time vocalizing than controls when deprived of their rearing behavior. Despite intact spatial performance within wet- and dry-land spatial tasks, rearing-deprived rats also exhibited a significant alteration in search strategies within both spatial tasks along with reduced volume and neuron number in the hippocampal subregion CA2. These data suggest a new approach to test the importance of free exploratory behavior in endocrine and structural manifestations. The results support a central role of the CA2 in spontaneous exploratory behavior and vulnerability to psychological stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. EVALUATION OF EXPERIMENTAL PRESCHOOL PROGRAM FOR EDUCATIONALLY DEPRIVED CHILDREN (1964).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    STEWART, LUCILLE M.

    THE AIM OF AN EXPERIMENTAL PRESCHOOL PROGRAM FOR EDUCATIONALLY DEPRIVED CHILDREN WAS TO PREPARE THEM FOR REGULAR KINDERGARTEN CLASSES. ACTIVITIES AND EXPERIENCES WERE PROVIDED WHICH HELPED THE CHILDREN EXPRESS THEMSELVES VERBALLY AND BECOME AWARE OF THEIR ENVIRONMENT. THE BUDGET FOR A 6-WEEK PROGRAM, INCLUDING STAFF, PROGRAM SUPPLIES, AND…

  6. The Comprehensive Project for Deprived Communitites in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Joseph

    A large-scale educational program, involving 30 settlements and neighborhoods that had been defined as suffering from deprivation, this project included a variety of reinforcement and enrichment programs. Information for a case study of the program was collected through interviews. Findings indicated that the guiding principles of the program…

  7. Relevance of deprivation studies in understanding rapid eye movement sleep.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Rachna; Khan, Shafa; Mallick, Birendra N

    2018-01-01

    Rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) is a unique phenomenon essential for maintaining normal physiological processes and is expressed at least in species higher in the evolution. The basic scaffold of the neuronal network responsible for REMS regulation is present in the brainstem, which may be directly or indirectly influenced by most other physiological processes. It is regulated by the neurons in the brainstem. Various manipulations including chemical, elec-trophysiological, lesion, stimulation, behavioral, ontogenic and deprivation studies have been designed to understand REMS genesis, maintenance, physiology and functional significance. Although each of these methods has its significance and limitations, deprivation studies have contributed significantly to the overall understanding of REMS. In this review, we discuss the advantages and limitations of various methods used for REMS deprivation (REMSD) to understand neural regulation and physiological significance of REMS. Among the deprivation strategies, the flowerpot method is by far the method of choice because it is simple and convenient, exploits physiological parameter (muscle atonia) for REMSD and allows conducting adequate controls to overcome experimental limitations as well as to rule out nonspecific effects. Notwithstanding, a major criticism that the flowerpot method faces is that of perceived stress experienced by the experimental animals. Nevertheless, we conclude that like most methods, particularly for in vivo behavioral studies, in spite of a few limitations, given the advantages described above, the flowerpot method is the best method of choice for REMSD studies.

  8. Aging worsens the effects of sleep deprivation on postural control.

    PubMed

    Robillard, Rébecca; Prince, François; Filipini, Daniel; Carrier, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Falls increase with age and cause significant injuries in the elderly. This study aimed to determine whether age modulates the interactions between sleep deprivation and postural control and to evaluate how attention influences these interactions in the elderly. Fifteen young (24±2.7 y.o.) and 15 older adults (64±3.2 y.o.) stood still on a force plate after a night of sleep and after total sleep deprivation. Center of pressure range and velocity were measured with eyes open and with eyes closed while participants performed an interference task, a control task, and no cognitive task. Sleep deprivation increased the antero-posterior range of center of pressure in both age groups and center of pressure speed in older participants only. In elderly participants, the destabilizing effects of sleep deprivation were more pronounced with eyes closed. The interference task did not alter postural control beyond the destabilization induced by sleep loss in older subjects. It was concluded that sleep loss has greater destabilizing effects on postural control in older than in younger participants, and may therefore increase the risk of falls in the elderly.

  9. Aging Worsens the Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Postural Control

    PubMed Central

    Robillard, Rébecca; Prince, François; Filipini, Daniel; Carrier, Julie

    2011-01-01

    Falls increase with age and cause significant injuries in the elderly. This study aimed to determine whether age modulates the interactions between sleep deprivation and postural control and to evaluate how attention influences these interactions in the elderly. Fifteen young (24±2.7 y.o.) and 15 older adults (64±3.2 y.o.) stood still on a force plate after a night of sleep and after total sleep deprivation. Center of pressure range and velocity were measured with eyes open and with eyes closed while participants performed an interference task, a control task, and no cognitive task. Sleep deprivation increased the antero-posterior range of center of pressure in both age groups and center of pressure speed in older participants only. In elderly participants, the destabilizing effects of sleep deprivation were more pronounced with eyes closed. The interference task did not alter postural control beyond the destabilization induced by sleep loss in older subjects. It was concluded that sleep loss has greater destabilizing effects on postural control in older than in younger participants, and may therefore increase the risk of falls in the elderly. PMID:22163330

  10. Auditory, Tactile, and Audiotactile Information Processing Following Visual Deprivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Occelli, Valeria; Spence, Charles; Zampini, Massimiliano

    2013-01-01

    We highlight the results of those studies that have investigated the plastic reorganization processes that occur within the human brain as a consequence of visual deprivation, as well as how these processes give rise to behaviorally observable changes in the perceptual processing of auditory and tactile information. We review the evidence showing…

  11. Effects of total sleep deprivation on divided attention performance.

    PubMed

    Chua, Eric Chern-Pin; Fang, Eric; Gooley, Joshua J

    2017-01-01

    Dividing attention across two tasks performed simultaneously usually results in impaired performance on one or both tasks. Most studies have found no difference in the dual-task cost of dividing attention in rested and sleep-deprived states. We hypothesized that, for a divided attention task that is highly cognitively-demanding, performance would show greater impairment during exposure to sleep deprivation. A group of 30 healthy males aged 21-30 years was exposed to 40 h of continuous wakefulness in a laboratory setting. Every 2 h, subjects completed a divided attention task comprising 3 blocks in which an auditory Go/No-Go task was 1) performed alone (single task); 2) performed simultaneously with a visual Go/No-Go task (dual task); and 3) performed simultaneously with both a visual Go/No-Go task and a visually-guided motor tracking task (triple task). Performance on all tasks showed substantial deterioration during exposure to sleep deprivation. A significant interaction was observed between task load and time since wake on auditory Go/No-Go task performance, with greater impairment in response times and accuracy during extended wakefulness. Our results suggest that the ability to divide attention between multiple tasks is impaired during exposure to sleep deprivation. These findings have potential implications for occupations that require multi-tasking combined with long work hours and exposure to sleep loss.

  12. SCHOOL LIBRARY SERVICES FOR THE CULTURALLY DEPRIVED CHILD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DARLING, RICHARD L.

    MANY PROGRAMS FOR THE CULTURALLY DEPRIVED EMPHASIZE SPECIAL TECHNIQUES IN READING INSTRUCTION. AMONG THESE TECHNIQUES ARE SMALLER CLASSES, AUDIOVISUAL MATERIALS, AND LIBRARY BOOKS. THE CONTENT OF PRIMERS IS EVEN FURTHER FROM THE EXPERIENCE AND INTERESTS OF THE DISADVANTAGED CHILD THAN FOR THE AVERAGE CHILD. ALTHOUGH STUDIES INDICATE THE IMPORTANCE…

  13. The Effects of Sleep Deprivation on Soccer Skills.

    PubMed

    Pallesen, Ståle; Gundersen, Hilde Stokvold; Kristoffersen, Morten; Bjorvatn, Bjørn; Thun, Eirunn; Harris, Anette

    2017-08-01

    Many athletes sleep poorly due to stress, travel, and competition anxiety. In the present study, we investigated the effects of sleep deprivation on soccer skills (juggling, dribbling, ball control, continuous kicking, 20 and 40 m sprint, and 30 m sprint with changes of direction). In all, 19 male junior soccer players (14-19 years old) were recruited and participated in a cross-balanced experimental study comprising two conditions; habitual sleep and 24 hours sleep deprivation. In both conditions, testing took place between 8 a.m. and 10 a.m. Order of tests was counterbalanced. Each test was conducted once or twice in a sequence repeated three times. The results revealed a negative effect of sleep deprivation on the continuous kicking test. On one test, 30 meter sprint with directional changes, a significant condition × test repetition interaction was found, indicating a steeper learning curve in the sleep deprived condition from Test 1 to Test 2 and a steeper learning curve in the rested condition from Test 2 to Test 3. The results are discussed in terms of limitations and strengths, and recommendations for future studies are outlined.

  14. Deprivation in American Affluence: The Theory of Stimulus Addiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machell, David F.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses theory of stimulus addiction, a process of human accommodation to stimuli which fosters dependency and may foster addiction. Suggests that a society of affluence may be prone to addictiveness because the more continuous the stimuli the person experiences, the more tolerance is created, and with tolerance comes stimulus deprivation.…

  15. Clothing Deprivation Feelings of Three Adolescent Ethnic Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kness, Darlene

    1983-01-01

    Investigated clothing deprivation/satisfaction feelings of 301 Afro-, Anglo-, and Mexican-American adolescents and reported the development of a clothing satisfaction instrument. Clothing satisfaction was associated with social security and number of dresses for Anglo-Americans, with socioeconomic status and number of shoes for Mexican-Americans.…

  16. Sleep Deprivation: A Cause of High Blood Pressure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Is it true that sleep deprivation can cause high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Possibly. It's thought ... night may be at higher risk of developing high blood pressure or worsening already high blood pressure. There's also ...

  17. Glutamine deprivation induces interleukin-8 expression in ataxia telangiectasia fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Min-Hyun; Kim, Aryung; Yu, Ji Hoon; Lim, Joo Weon; Kim, Hyeyoung

    2014-05-01

    To investigate whether glutamine deprivation induces expression of inflammatory cytokine interleukin-8 (IL-8) by determining NF-κB activity and levels of oxidative indices (ROS, reactive oxygen species; hydrogen peroxide; GSH, glutathione) in fibroblasts isolated from patients with ataxia telangiectasia (A-T). We used A-T fibroblasts stably transfected with empty vector (Mock) or with human full-length ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) cDNA (YZ5) and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) transiently transfected with ATM small interfering RNA (siRNA) or with non-specific control siRNA. The cells were cultured with or without glutamine or GSH. ROS levels were determined using a fluorescence reader and confocal microscopy. IL-8 or murine IL-8 homolog, keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC), and hydrogen peroxide levels in the medium were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and colorimetric assay. GSH level was assessed by enzymatic assay, while IL-8 (KC) mRNA level was measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and/or quantitative real-time PCR. NF-κB DNA-binding activity was determined by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Catalase activity and ATM protein levels were determined by O2 generation and Western blotting. While glutamine deprivation induced IL-8 expression and increased NF-κB DNA-binding activity in Mock cells, both processes were decreased by treatment of cells with glutamine or GSH or both glutamine and GSH. Glutamine deprivation had no effect on IL-8 expression or NF-κB DNA-binding activity in YZ5 cells. Glutamine-deprived Mock cells had higher oxidative stress indices (increases in ROS and hydrogen peroxide, reduction in GSH) than glutamine-deprived YZ5 cells. In Mock cells, glutamine deprivation-induced oxidative stress indices were suppressed by treatment with glutamine or GSH or both glutamine and GSH. GSH levels and catalase activity were lower in Mock cells than YZ5 cells. MEFs transfected with ATM siRNA and

  18. Citicoline retards myopia progression following form deprivation in guinea pigs

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuangzhen; Fu, Chunyan

    2016-01-01

    The retinal dopaminergic system is involved in the myopic shift following form deprivation. Citicoline has been demonstrated to stimulate the dopaminergic system in the brain and retina. Furthermore, citicoline has been used in many neurogenic diseases, such as senile cognitive impairment, stroke and Parkinson's disease as well as in amblyopia and glaucoma. Our aim was to investigate the effect of citicoline on the refractive state and retinal dopamine level in form deprivation myopia of guinea pigs. Guinea pigs, at an age of four weeks, were randomly divided into normal control, deprivation, deprived + citicoline and deprived + vehicle groups. Form deprivation myopia was induced by a translucent eye shield covering the right eye. Citicoline was injected intraperitoneally twice a day (500 mg/kg, 9 am and 9 pm) for 10 days. In vitro, retinal explants were cultured with citicoline for 24 h, with a final citicoline concentration of 100 µmol/L. The ocular refractive parameters and retinal dopamine content were measured. After occlusion for 10 days, the form-deprived eyes became myopic with an increase in axial length and a decrease in retinal dopamine content. The intraperitoneal injection of citicoline reduced the myopic degree (from −3.25 ± 0.77D to −0.62 ± 0.47D, P < 0.001) and partially raised retinal dopamine levels (from 0.55 ± 0.21 ng to 0.81 ± 0.24 ng, P < 0.01) in the form-deprived eyes. After 24 h of culturing retinal explants with citicoline, retinal dopamine content increased significantly (from 0.42 ± 0.14 ng to 0.62 ± 0.21 ng, P < 0.05). These results demonstrated that an intraperitoneal injection of citicoline could retard the myopic shift induced by form deprivation in guinea pigs, which was mediated by an increase in the retinal dopamine levels. PMID:26979720

  19. Wnt Signaling in Form Deprivation Myopia of the Mice Retina

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Mingming; Zhang, Zhengwei; Du, Ergang; Zheng, Wenjing; Gu, Qing; Xu, Xun; Ke, Bilian

    2014-01-01

    Background The canonical Wnt signaling pathway plays important roles in cellular proliferation and differentiation, axonal outgrowth, cellular maintenance in retinas. Here we test the hypothesis that elements of the Wnt signaling pathway are involved in the regulation of eye growth and prevention of myopia, in the mouse form-deprivation myopia model. Methodology/Principal Findings (1) One hundred twenty-five C57BL/6 mice were randomly distributed into form-deprivation myopia and control groups. Form-deprivation myopia (FDM) was induced by suturing the right eyelid, while the control group received no treatment. After 1, 2, and 4 weeks of treatment, eyes were assessed in vivo by cycloplegic retinoscopic refraction and axial length measurement by photography or A-scan ultrasonography. Levels of retinal Wnt2b, Fzd5 and β-catenin mRNA and protein were evaluated using RT-PCR and western blotting, respectively. (2) Another 96 mice were divided into three groups: control, drugs-only, and drugs+FDM (by diffuser). Experimentally treated eyes in the last two groups received intravitreal injections of vehicle or the proteins, DKK-1 (Wnt-pathway antagonist) or Norrin (Wnt-pathway agonist), once every three days, for 4 injections total. Axial length and retinoscopic refraction were measured on the 14th day of form deprivation. Following form-deprivation for 1, 2, and 4 weeks, FDM eyes had a relatively myopic refractive error, compared with contralateral eyes. There were no significant differences in refractive error between right and left eye in control group. The amounts of Wnt2b, Fzd5 and β-catenin mRNA and protein were significantly greater in form-deprived myopia eyes than in control eyes.DKK-1 (antagonist) reduced the myopic shift in refractive error and increase in axial elongation, whereas Norrin had the opposite effect in FDM eyes. Conclusions/Significance Our studies provide the first evidence that the Wnt2b signaling pathway may play a role in the development and

  20. Wnt signaling in form deprivation myopia of the mice retina.

    PubMed

    Ma, Mingming; Zhang, Zhengwei; Du, Ergang; Zheng, Wenjing; Gu, Qing; Xu, Xun; Ke, Bilian

    2014-01-01

    The canonical Wnt signaling pathway plays important roles in cellular proliferation and differentiation, axonal outgrowth, cellular maintenance in retinas. Here we test the hypothesis that elements of the Wnt signaling pathway are involved in the regulation of eye growth and prevention of myopia, in the mouse form-deprivation myopia model. (1) One hundred twenty-five C57BL/6 mice were randomly distributed into form-deprivation myopia and control groups. Form-deprivation myopia (FDM) was induced by suturing the right eyelid, while the control group received no treatment. After 1, 2, and 4 weeks of treatment, eyes were assessed in vivo by cycloplegic retinoscopic refraction and axial length measurement by photography or A-scan ultrasonography. Levels of retinal Wnt2b, Fzd5 and β-catenin mRNA and protein were evaluated using RT-PCR and western blotting, respectively. (2) Another 96 mice were divided into three groups: control, drugs-only, and drugs+FDM (by diffuser). Experimentally treated eyes in the last two groups received intravitreal injections of vehicle or the proteins, DKK-1 (Wnt-pathway antagonist) or Norrin (Wnt-pathway agonist), once every three days, for 4 injections total. Axial length and retinoscopic refraction were measured on the 14th day of form deprivation. Following form-deprivation for 1, 2, and 4 weeks, FDM eyes had a relatively myopic refractive error, compared with contralateral eyes. There were no significant differences in refractive error between right and left eye in control group. The amounts of Wnt2b, Fzd5 and β-catenin mRNA and protein were significantly greater in form-deprived myopia eyes than in control eyes.DKK-1 (antagonist) reduced the myopic shift in refractive error and increase in axial elongation, whereas Norrin had the opposite effect in FDM eyes. Our studies provide the first evidence that the Wnt2b signaling pathway may play a role in the development and progression of form-deprivation myopia, in a mammalian model.

  1. Do poorer people have poorer access to local resources and facilities? The distribution of local resources by area deprivation in Glasgow, Scotland.

    PubMed

    Macintyre, Sally; Macdonald, Laura; Ellaway, Anne

    2008-09-01

    It has commonly been suggested that in modern cities individual or household deprivation (for example, low income or education) is amplified by area level deprivation (for example, lack of jobs or good schools), in ways which damage the health of the poorest and increase health inequalities. The aim of this study was to determine the location of a range of resources and exposures by deprivation in a UK city. We examined the location of 42 resources in Glasgow City, Scotland, in 2005-2006, by quintile of small area deprivation. Measures included number per 1000 population, network distance to nearest resource, and percentage of data zones containing at least one of each type of resource. Twelve resources had higher density in, and/or were closer to or more common in, more deprived neighbourhoods: public nurseries, public primary schools, police stations, pharmacies, credit unions, post offices, bus stops, bingo halls, public swimming pools, public sports centres, outdoor play areas, and vacant and derelict land/buildings. Sixteen had higher density in, and/or were closer to, or more common in, more affluent neighbourhoods: public secondary schools, private schools, banks, building societies, museums/art galleries, railway stations, subway stations, tennis courts, bowling greens, private health clubs, private swimming pools, colleges, A & E hospitals, parks, waste disposal sites, and tourist attractions. Private nurseries, Universities, fire stations, general, dental and ophthalmic practices, pawn brokers, ATMs, supermarkets, fast food chains, cafes, public libraries, golf courses, and cinemas showed no clear pattern by deprivation. Thus it appears that in the early 21st century access to resources does not always disadvantage poorer neighbourhoods in the UK. We conclude that we need to ensure that theories and policies are based on up-to-date and context-specific empirical evidence on the distribution of neighbourhood resources, and to engage in further research on

  2. Do poorer people have poorer access to local resources and facilities? The distribution of local resources by area deprivation in Glasgow, Scotland☆

    PubMed Central

    Macintyre, Sally; Macdonald, Laura; Ellaway, Anne

    2008-01-01

    It has commonly been suggested that in modern cities individual or household deprivation (for example, low income or education) is amplified by area level deprivation (for example, lack of jobs or good schools), in ways which damage the health of the poorest and increase health inequalities. The aim of this study was to determine the location of a range of resources and exposures by deprivation in a UK city. We examined the location of 42 resources in Glasgow City, Scotland, in 2005–2006, by quintile of small area deprivation. Measures included number per 1000 population, network distance to nearest resource, and percentage of data zones containing at least one of each type of resource. Twelve resources had higher density in, and/or were closer to or more common in, more deprived neighbourhoods: public nurseries, public primary schools, police stations, pharmacies, credit unions, post offices, bus stops, bingo halls, public swimming pools, public sports centres, outdoor play areas, and vacant and derelict land/buildings. Sixteen had higher density in, and/or were closer to, or more common in, more affluent neighbourhoods: public secondary schools, private schools, banks, building societies, museums/art galleries, railway stations, subway stations, tennis courts, bowling greens, private health clubs, private swimming pools, colleges, A & E hospitals, parks, waste disposal sites, and tourist attractions. Private nurseries, Universities, fire stations, general, dental and ophthalmic practices, pawn brokers, ATMs, supermarkets, fast food chains, cafes, public libraries, golf courses, and cinemas showed no clear pattern by deprivation. Thus it appears that in the early 21st century access to resources does not always disadvantage poorer neighbourhoods in the UK. We conclude that we need to ensure that theories and policies are based on up-to-date and context-specific empirical evidence on the distribution of neighbourhood resources, and to engage in further research

  3. Inequalities in health? An update on the effect of social deprivation for patients with breast cancer in South East Wales.

    PubMed

    Boyce, K; White, C; Hunt, P; Abel, N; James, Z; Micic, T; Gomez, K F

    2018-06-20

    Breast cancer, historically a disease of more affluent women, has increased in incidence for women from areas of greater social deprivation, yet prognosis is worse for these women. This study identifies differences in presentation, treatment and prognostic factors between the socioeconomic groups. Patient data obtained from the prospectively maintained Welsh national Cancer Network Information System Cymru, for an 11-year period, were categorised according to Welsh Index of Multiple Deprivation quintiles. Quintiles were compared for differences in variables relating to patient characteristics, detection of cancer, tumour biology and treatment. 1570 patients were included. Analysis showed that in the more socially deprived quintiles, there are proportionally fewer women being diagnosed through the NHS breast cancer screening programme and as a consequence greater numbers of women from poorer areas being diagnosed outwith the screening age parameters. Screen detection is strongly associated with better prognosis in terms of Nottingham Prognostic Index. Similarly, increasing levels of social deprivation are associated with higher incidence of oestrogen receptor negative and triple negative tumours, both features associated with a shorter disease free and overall survival. Other variables of tumour biology, rates and type of surgical and adjuvant treatment were similar across social deprivation quintiles. There is a trend of reduced early detection of breast cancer in South East Wales in those patients living in areas of higher social deprivation. Given that there is equity in access to treatment within NHS, which is free for patients at the point of care, further study is warranted to address this existing disparity. Population cancer surveillance will need to inform both public health and NHS service responses, to continue to achieve improvements. Health trends may yet alter depending on current and future shifts in governmental health policy. Crown Copyright

  4. Institution Morphisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goguen, Joseph; Rosu, Grigore; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Institutions formalize the intuitive notion of logical system, including both syntax and semantics. A surprising number of different notions of morphisim have been suggested for forming categories with institutions as objects, and a surprising variety of names have been proposed for them. One goal of this paper is to suggest a terminology that is both uniform and informative to replace the current rather chaotic nomenclature. Another goal is to investigate the properties and interrelations of these notions. Following brief expositions of indexed categories, twisted relations, and Kan extensions, we demonstrate and then exploit the duality between institution morphisms in the original sense of Goguen and Burstall, and the 'plain maps' of Meseguer, obtaining simple uniform proofs of completeness and cocompleteness for both resulting categories; because of this duality, we prefer the name 'comorphism' over 'plain map.' We next consider 'theoroidal' morphisms and comorphisims, which generalize signatures to theories, finding that the 'maps' of Meseguer are theoroidal comorphisms, while theoroidal morphisms are a new concept. We then introduce 'forward' and 'semi-natural' morphisms, and appendices discuss institutions for hidden algebra, universal algebra, partial equational logic, and a variant of order sorted algebra supporting partiality.

  5. Institutional Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olsen, Deborah

    2000-01-01

    Discusses institutional research (IR) in higher education, which is designed to generate information that serves planning, policy development, resource allocation, and management or evaluation decisions in all functional areas. Addresses its history, the skills and training needed by researchers, structure and staffing, and professional…

  6. Institutional Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Zelema M.

    Although incivility and conflict have long plagued community colleges and other educational institutions, recent budget declines have made this situation more critical. In the past, those who disagreed could be bought off and organizations tended to hire layers of people to perform tasks that one person with a personal computer can perform today.…

  7. Institutional Bonding.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allard, M. June

    Institutional bonding was examined at a public, urban commuter college with exceptionally high attrition and visibly low morale. Changes in bonding and attrition were measured 6 years after a 2-year effort to develop school identity and student feelings of membership. It was found that a simple index of campus morale is provided by level of…

  8. Institutional Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Hayden R., Ed.

    1978-01-01

    This publication's theme, "Institutional Change," is broadly examined in fourteen articles that range from research and opinion to allegory and satire. A student teacher, a dean, and a state education director are among the authors. Articles concern: 1) key elements of change; 2) relationships between local, county, state, and federal educational…

  9. Cardiovascular reactivity to acute psychological stress following sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Franzen, Peter L; Gianaros, Peter J; Marsland, Anna L; Hall, Martica H; Siegle, Greg J; Dahl, Ronald E; Buysse, Daniel J

    2011-10-01

    Psychological stress and sleep disturbances are highly prevalent and are both implicated in the etiology of cardiovascular diseases. Given the common co-occurrence of psychological distress and sleep disturbances including short sleep duration, this study examined the combined effects of these two factors on blood pressure reactivity to immediate mental challenge tasks after well-rested and sleep-deprived experimental conditions. Participants (n = 20) were healthy young adults free from current or past sleep, psychiatric, or major medical disorders. Using a within-subjects crossover design, we examined acute stress reactivity under two experimental conditions: after a night of normal sleep in the laboratory and after a night of total sleep deprivation. Two standardized psychological stress tasks were administered, a Stroop color-word naming interference task and a speech task, which were preceded by a prestress baseline period and followed by a poststress recovery period. Each period was 10 minutes in duration, and blood pressure recordings were collected every 2.5 minutes throughout each period. Mean blood pressure responses during stress and recovery periods were examined with a mixed-effects analysis of covariance, controlling for baseline blood pressure. There was a significant interaction between sleep deprivation and stress on systolic blood pressure (F(2,82.7) = 4.05, p = .02). Systolic blood pressure was higher in the sleep deprivation condition compared with the normal sleep condition during the speech task and during the two baseline periods. Sleep deprivation amplified systolic blood pressure increases to psychological stress. Sleep loss may increase cardiovascular risk by dysregulating stress physiology.

  10. Light responses in rods of vitamin A-deprived Xenopus.

    PubMed

    Solessio, Eduardo; Umino, Yumiko; Cameron, David A; Loew, Ellis; Engbretson, Gustav A; Knox, Barry E; Barlow, Robert B

    2009-09-01

    Accumulation of free opsin by mutations in rhodopsin or insufficiencies in the visual cycle can lead to retinal degeneration. Free opsin activates phototransduction; however, the link between constitutive activation and retinal degeneration is unclear. In this study, the photoresponses of Xenopus rods rendered constitutively active by vitamin A deprivation were examined. Unlike their mammalian counterparts, Xenopus rods do not degenerate. Contrasting phototransduction in vitamin A-deprived Xenopus rods with phototransduction in constitutively active mammalian rods may provide new understanding of the mechanisms that lead to retinal degeneration. The photocurrents of Xenopus tadpole rods were measured with suction electrode recordings, and guanylate cyclase activity was measured with the IBMX (3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine) jump technique. The amount of rhodopsin in rods was determined by microspectrophotometry. The vitamin A-deprived rod outer segments were 60% to 70% the length and diameter of the rods in age-matched animals. Approximately 90% of its opsin content was in the free or unbound form. Analogous to bleaching adaptation, the photoresponses were desensitized (10- to 20-fold) and faster. Unlike bleaching adaptation, the vitamin A-deprived rods maintained near normal saturating (dark) current densities by developing abnormally high rates of cGMP synthesis. Their rate of cGMP synthesis in the dark (15 seconds(-1)) was twofold greater than the maximum levels attainable by control rods ( approximately 7 seconds(-1)). Preserving circulating current density and response range appears to be an important goal for rod homeostasis. However, the compensatory changes associated with vitamin A deprivation in Xenopus rods come at the high metabolic cost of a 15-fold increase in basal ATP consumption.

  11. [Social deprivation and time perception, the impact on smoking cessation].

    PubMed

    Merson, Frédéric; Perriot, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Smoking addiction and smoking behaviour are closely related to social deprivation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of social deprivation and time perspective on smoking cessation in order to improve the support provided to socially deprived persons seeking to quit smoking. The study examined the impact of social disadvantages and time perspective on smoking cessation. 192 patients (including 45% of socially disadvantaged people) participated in the study. Social deprivation was measured using the EPICES scale, while time perspective was measured using the short version of the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory. Data relating to individuals' characteristics, smoking addiction, behaviour and smoking cessation were collected as part of this research. Compared to the rest of the population, socially disadvantaged people were found to be more likely to stop smoking for financial reasons (p < 0.0001). The study also found that their attempts to quit smoking are more likely to fail (p = 0,006). In addition, socially disadvantaged people suffer more frequently from anxio-depressive disorders (p < 0.0001) and are also prone to a higher level of nicotine dependence (p < 0.0001). The 'Past-Negative' and ?Present-Fatalistic' dimensions of time perspective, toward which socially disadvantaged people are more likely to lean (p < 0.0001), are associated with failed smoking cessation. The ?Future' dimension, in which socially disadvantaged people are less likely to project themselves (p < 0.0002), is a predictive factor of smoking cessation. The results highlight the importance of taking into account social deprivation and time perspective in helping socially disadvantaged patients to quit smoking.

  12. Increased Automaticity and Altered Temporal Preparation Following Sleep Deprivation.

    PubMed

    Kong, Danyang; Asplund, Christopher L; Ling, Aiqing; Chee, Michael W L

    2015-08-01

    Temporal expectation enables us to focus limited processing resources, thereby optimizing perceptual and motor processing for critical upcoming events. We investigated the effects of total sleep deprivation (TSD) on temporal expectation by evaluating the foreperiod and sequential effects during a psychomotor vigilance task (PVT). We also examined how these two measures were modulated by vulnerability to TSD. Three 10-min visual PVT sessions using uniformly distributed foreperiods were conducted in the wake-maintenance zone the evening before sleep deprivation (ESD) and three more in the morning following approximately 22 h of TSD. TSD vulnerable and nonvulnerable groups were determined by a tertile split of participants based on the change in the number of behavioral lapses recorded during ESD and TSD. A subset of participants performed six additional 10-min modified auditory PVTs with exponentially distributed foreperiods during rested wakefulness (RW) and TSD to test the effect of temporal distribution on foreperiod and sequential effects. Sleep laboratory. There were 172 young healthy participants (90 males) with regular sleep patterns. Nineteen of these participants performed the modified auditory PVT. Despite behavioral lapses and slower response times, sleep deprived participants could still perceive the conditional probability of temporal events and modify their level of preparation accordingly. Both foreperiod and sequential effects were magnified following sleep deprivation in vulnerable individuals. Only the foreperiod effect increased in nonvulnerable individuals. The preservation of foreperiod and sequential effects suggests that implicit time perception and temporal preparedness are intact during total sleep deprivation. Individuals appear to reallocate their depleted preparatory resources to more probable event timings in ongoing trials, whereas vulnerable participants also rely more on automatic processes. © 2015 Associated Professional Sleep

  13. Selective neuronal lapses precede human cognitive lapses following sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Nir, Yuval; Andrillon, Thomas; Marmelshtein, Amit; Suthana, Nanthia; Cirelli, Chiara; Tononi, Giulio; Fried, Itzhak

    2017-12-01

    Sleep deprivation is a major source of morbidity with widespread health effects, including increased risk of hypertension, diabetes, obesity, heart attack, and stroke. Moreover, sleep deprivation brings about vehicle accidents and medical errors and is therefore an urgent topic of investigation. During sleep deprivation, homeostatic and circadian processes interact to build up sleep pressure, which results in slow behavioral performance (cognitive lapses) typically attributed to attentional thalamic and frontoparietal circuits, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Recently, through study of electroencephalograms (EEGs) in humans and local field potentials (LFPs) in nonhuman primates and rodents it was found that, during sleep deprivation, regional 'sleep-like' slow and theta (slow/theta) waves co-occur with impaired behavioral performance during wakefulness. Here we used intracranial electrodes to record single-neuron activities and LFPs in human neurosurgical patients performing a face/nonface categorization psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) over multiple experimental sessions, including a session after full-night sleep deprivation. We find that, just before cognitive lapses, the selective spiking responses of individual neurons in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) are attenuated, delayed, and lengthened. These 'neuronal lapses' are evident on a trial-by-trial basis when comparing the slowest behavioral PVT reaction times to the fastest. Furthermore, during cognitive lapses, LFPs exhibit a relative local increase in slow/theta activity that is correlated with degraded single-neuron responses and with baseline theta activity. Our results show that cognitive lapses involve local state-dependent changes in neuronal activity already present in the MTL.

  14. Melatonin modulates adiponectin expression on murine colitis with sleep deprivation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Kyun; Park, Young Sook; Baik, Haing-Woon; Jun, Jin Hyun; Kim, Eun Kyung; Sull, Jae Woong; Sung, Ho Joong; Choi, Jin Woo; Chung, Sook Hee; Gye, Myung Chan; Lim, Ju Yeon; Kim, Jun Bong; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2016-09-07

    To determine adiponectin expression in colonic tissue of murine colitis and systemic cytokine expression after melatonin treatments and sleep deprivation. The following five groups of C57BL/6 mice were used in this study: (1) group I, control; (2) group II, 2% DSS induced colitis for 7 d; (3) group III, 2% DSS induced colitis and melatonin treatment; (4) group IV, 2% DSS induced colitis with sleep deprivation (SD) using specially designed and modified multiple platform water baths; and (5) group V, 2% DSS induced colitis with SD and melatonin treatment. Melatonin (10 mg/kg) or saline was intraperitoneally injected daily to mice for 4 d. The body weight was monitored daily. The degree of colitis was evaluated histologically after sacrificing the mice. Immunohistochemical staining and Western blot analysis was performed using anti-adiponectin antibody. After sampling by intracardiac punctures, levels of serum cytokines were measured by ELISA. Sleep deprivation in water bath exacerbated DSS induced colitis and worsened weight loss. Melatonin injection not only alleviated the severity of mucosal injury, but also helped survival during stressful condition. The expression level of adiponectin in mucosa was decreased in colitis, with the lowest level observed in colitis combined with sleep deprivation. Melatonin injection significantly (P < 0.05) recovered the expression of adiponectin. The expression levels of IL-6 and IL-17 were increased in the serum of mice with DSS colitis but decreased after melatonin injection. This study suggested that melatonin modulated adiponectin expression in colonic tissue and melatonin and adiponectin synergistically potentiated anti-inflammatory effects on colitis with sleep deprivation.

  15. Studies in Deprivation. Occasional Paper, Special. NDEA National Institute for Advanced Study in Teaching Disadvantaged Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haubrich, Vernon, Ed.

    This document contains four papers. "Some Effects of Social Class and Race on Children's Language and Intellectual Abilities" by Martin Whiteman, Bert R. Brown, and Martin Deutsch is a report of research investigating several different interactions between environmental factors, socioeconomic status, race, and the cognitive and verbal abilities of…

  16. Renal transplantation outcome and social deprivation in the French healthcare system: a cohort study using the European Deprivation Index.

    PubMed

    Châtelet, Valérie; Bayat-Makoei, Sahar; Vigneau, Cécile; Launoy, Guy; Lobbedez, Thierry

    2018-04-02

    The study objective was to estimate the effect of social deprivation estimated by the European Deprivation Index (EDI) on the risk of death and graft failure on renal transplantation in France. EDI was calculated for 8701 of 9205 patients receiving a first renal transplantation between 2010 and 2014. Patients were separated in EDI quintiles of the general population. A Cox model (cs-HR: cause-specific hazard ratio of death or graft failure) and a Fine and Gray model (sd-HR: subdistribution hazard ratio of death and graft failure) were used for the analysis. The 5th quintile group (most deprived) accounted for 32% of patients [2818 of 8701]. In the multivariate analysis, compared with quintile 1, the risk of death was higher for the 5 th quintile group in the complete cohort [cs-HR: 1.31, 95% CI: (1.01-1.70), sd-HR: 1.29, 95% CI: (1.00-1.68)], in the deceased donor group [cs-HR: 1.31, 95% CI: (1.00-1.71), sd-HR: 1.30, 95% CI: (1.00-1.70)] but not in living donor transplant patients. There was no association between the EDI groups and the risk of transplant failure. Social deprivation estimated by the EDI is associated with an increased risk of death in transplantation in France but not with the chance of allograft loss. © 2018 Steunstichting ESOT.

  17. Monocular deprivation of Fourier phase information boosts the deprived eye's dominance during interocular competition but not interocular phase combination.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jianying; Dong, Xue; He, Sheng; Bao, Min

    2017-06-03

    Ocular dominance has been extensively studied, often with the goal to understand neuroplasticity, which is a key characteristic within the critical period. Recent work on monocular deprivation, however, demonstrates residual neuroplasticity in the adult visual cortex. After deprivation of patterned inputs by monocular patching, the patched eye becomes more dominant. Since patching blocks both the Fourier amplitude and phase information of the input image, it remains unclear whether deprivation of the Fourier phase information alone is able to reshape eye dominance. Here, for the first time, we show that removing of the phase regularity without changing the amplitude spectra of the input image induced a shift of eye dominance toward the deprived eye, but only if the eye dominance was measured with a binocular rivalry task rather than an interocular phase combination task. These different results indicate that the two measurements are supported by different mechanisms. Phase integration requires the fusion of monocular images. The fused percept highly relies on the weights of the phase-sensitive monocular neurons that respond to the two monocular images. However, binocular rivalry reflects the result of direct interocular competition that strongly weights the contour information transmitted along each monocular pathway. Monocular phase deprivation may not change the weights in the integration (fusion) mechanism much, but alters the balance in the rivalry (competition) mechanism. Our work suggests that ocular dominance plasticity may occur at different stages of visual processing, and that homeostatic compensation also occurs for the lack of phase regularity in natural scenes. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Early Binocular Input Is Critical for Development of Audiovisual but Not Visuotactile Simultaneity Perception.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi-Chuan; Lewis, Terri L; Shore, David I; Maurer, Daphne

    2017-02-20

    Temporal simultaneity provides an essential cue for integrating multisensory signals into a unified perception. Early visual deprivation, in both animals and humans, leads to abnormal neural responses to audiovisual signals in subcortical and cortical areas [1-5]. Behavioral deficits in integrating complex audiovisual stimuli in humans are also observed [6, 7]. It remains unclear whether early visual deprivation affects visuotactile perception similarly to audiovisual perception and whether the consequences for either pairing differ after monocular versus binocular deprivation [8-11]. Here, we evaluated the impact of early visual deprivation on the perception of simultaneity for audiovisual and visuotactile stimuli in humans. We tested patients born with dense cataracts in one or both eyes that blocked all patterned visual input until the cataractous lenses were removed and the affected eyes fitted with compensatory contact lenses (mean duration of deprivation = 4.4 months; range = 0.3-28.8 months). Both monocularly and binocularly deprived patients demonstrated lower precision in judging audiovisual simultaneity. However, qualitatively different outcomes were observed for the two patient groups: the performance of monocularly deprived patients matched that of young children at immature stages, whereas that of binocularly deprived patients did not match any stage in typical development. Surprisingly, patients performed normally in judging visuotactile simultaneity after either monocular or binocular deprivation. Therefore, early binocular input is necessary to develop normal neural substrates for simultaneity perception of visual and auditory events but not visual and tactile events. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Melatonin attenuates dextran sodium sulfate induced colitis with sleep deprivation: possible mechanism by microarray analysis.

    PubMed

    Chung, Sook Hee; Park, Young Sook; Kim, Ok Soon; Kim, Ja Hyun; Baik, Haing Woon; Hong, Young Ok; Kim, Sang Su; Shin, Jae-Ho; Jun, Jin-Hyun; Jo, Yunju; Ahn, Sang Bong; Jo, Young Kwan; Son, Byoung Kwan; Kim, Seong Hwan

    2014-06-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract. It can be aggravated by stress, like sleep deprivation, and improved by anti-inflammatory agents, like melatonin. We aimed to investigate the effects of sleep deprivation and melatonin on inflammation. We also investigated genes regulated by sleep deprivation and melatonin. In the 2% DSS induced colitis mice model, sleep deprivation was induced using modified multiple platform water bath. Melatonin was injected after induction of colitis and colitis with sleep deprivation. Also mRNA was isolated from the colon of mice and analyzed via microarray and real-time PCR. Sleep deprivation induced reduction of body weight, and it was difficult for half of the mice to survive. Sleep deprivation aggravated, and melatonin attenuated the severity of colitis. In microarrays and real-time PCR of mice colon tissues, mRNA of adiponectin and aquaporin 8 were downregulated by sleep deprivation and upregulated by melatonin. However, mRNA of E2F transcription factor (E2F2) and histocompatibility class II antigen A, beta 1 (H2-Ab1) were upregulated by sleep deprivation and downregulated by melatonin. Melatonin improves and sleep deprivation aggravates inflammation of colitis in mice. Adiponectin, aquaporin 8, E2F2 and H2-Ab1 may be involved in the inflammatory change aggravated by sleep deprivation and attenuated by melatonin.

  20. Sex-dependent effects of sleep deprivation on myocardial sensitivity to ischemic injury.

    PubMed

    Zoladz, Phillip R; Krivenko, Anna; Eisenmann, Eric D; Bui, Albert D; Seeley, Sarah L; Fry, Megan E; Johnson, Brandon L; Rorabaugh, Boyd R

    2016-01-01

    Sleep deprivation is associated with increased risk of myocardial infarction. However, it is unknown whether the effects of sleep deprivation are limited to increasing the likelihood of experiencing a myocardial infarction or if sleep deprivation also increases the extent of myocardial injury. In this study, rats were deprived of paradoxical sleep for 96 h using the platform-over-water method. Control rats were subjected to the same condition except the control platform was large enough for the rats to sleep. Hearts from sleep deprived and control rats were subjected to 20 min ischemia on a Langendorff isolated heart system. Infarct size and post ischemic recovery of contractile function were unaffected by sleep deprivation in male hearts. In contrast, hearts from sleep-deprived females exhibited significantly larger infarcts than hearts from control females. Post ischemic recovery of rate pressure product and + dP/dT were significantly attenuated by sleep deprivation in female hearts, and post ischemic recovery of end diastolic pressure was significantly elevated in hearts from sleep deprived females compared to control females, indicating that post ischemic recovery of both systolic and diastolic function were worsened by sleep deprivation. These data provide evidence that sleep deprivation increases the extent of ischemia-induced injury in a sex-dependent manner.

  1. Sleep Duration and Area-Level Deprivation in Twins

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Nathaniel F.; Horn, Erin; Duncan, Glen E.; Buchwald, Dedra; Vitiello, Michael V.; Turkheimer, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: We used quantitative genetic models to assess whether area-level deprivation as indicated by the Singh Index predicts shorter sleep duration and modifies its underlying genetic and environmental contributions. Methods: Participants were 4,218 adult twin pairs (2,377 monozygotic and 1,841 dizygotic) from the University of Washington Twin Registry. Participants self-reported habitual sleep duration. The Singh Index was determined by linking geocoding addresses to 17 indicators at the census-tract level using data from Census of Washington State and Census Tract Cartographic Boundary Files from 2000 and 2010. Data were analyzed using univariate and bivariate genetic decomposition and quantitative genetic interaction models that assessed A (additive genetics), C (common environment), and E (unique environment) main effects of the Singh Index on sleep duration and allowed the magnitude of residual ACE variance components in sleep duration to vary with the Index. Results: The sample had a mean age of 38.2 y (standard deviation [SD] = 18), and was predominantly female (62%) and Caucasian (91%). Mean sleep duration was 7.38 h (SD = 1.20) and the mean Singh Index score was 0.00 (SD = 0.89). The heritability of sleep duration was 39% and the Singh Index was 12%. The uncontrolled phenotypic regression of sleep duration on the Singh Index showed a significant negative relationship between area-level deprivation and sleep length (b = −0.080, P < 0.001). Every 1 SD in Singh Index was associated with a ∼4.5 min change in sleep duration. For the quasi-causal bivariate model, there was a significant main effect of E (b0E = −0.063; standard error [SE] = 0.30; P < 0.05). Residual variance components unique to sleep duration were significant for both A (b0Au = 0.734; SE = 0.020; P < 0.001) and E (b0Eu = 0.934; SE = 0.013; P < 0.001). Conclusions: Area-level deprivation has a quasi-causal association with sleep duration, with greater deprivation being related to

  2. Neighborhood deprivation is strongly associated with participation in a population-based health check.

    PubMed

    Bender, Anne Mette; Kawachi, Ichiro; Jørgensen, Torben; Pisinger, Charlotta

    2015-01-01

    We sought to examine whether neighborhood deprivation is associated with participation in a large population-based health check. Such analyses will help answer the question whether health checks, which are designed to meet the needs of residents in deprived neighborhoods, may increase participation and prove to be more effective in preventing disease. In Europe, no study has previously looked at the association between neighborhood deprivation and participation in a population-based health check. The study population comprised 12,768 persons invited for a health check including screening for ischemic heart disease and lifestyle counseling. The study population was randomly drawn from a population of 179,097 persons living in 73 neighborhoods in Denmark. Data on neighborhood deprivation (percentage with basic education, with low income and not in work) and individual socioeconomic position were retrieved from national administrative registers. Multilevel regression analyses with log links and binary distributions were conducted to obtain relative risks, intraclass correlation coefficients and proportional change in variance. Large differences between neighborhoods existed in both deprivation levels and neighborhood health check participation rate (mean 53%; range 35-84%). In multilevel analyses adjusted for age and sex, higher levels of all three indicators of neighborhood deprivation and a deprivation score were associated with lower participation in a dose-response fashion. Persons living in the most deprived neighborhoods had up to 37% decreased probability of participating compared to those living in the least deprived neighborhoods. Inclusion of individual socioeconomic position in the model attenuated the neighborhood deprivation coefficients, but all except for income deprivation remained statistically significant. Neighborhood deprivation was associated with participation in a population-based health check in a dose-response manner, in which increasing

  3. Institutional care and iron deficiency increase ADHD symptomology and lower IQ 2.5-5 years post-adoption.

    PubMed

    Doom, Jenalee R; Georgieff, Michael K; Gunnar, Megan R

    2015-05-01

    Increased ADHD symptomology and lower IQ have been reported in internationally adopted (IA) children compared to non-adopted peers (Hostinar, Stellern, Schaefer, Carlson & Gunnar, 2012; Kreppner, O'Connor & Rutter, 2001). However, it is unclear whether these outcomes are due to institutional deprivation specifically or to co-occurring micronutrient deficiencies that disrupt brain development (Fuglestad, Rao & Georgieff, 2008b). In this study, IA children were compared to children raised in their biological families to examine differences in ADHD symptomology and IQ 2.5-5 years post-adoption and to assess the contributions of iron deficiency (ID) and duration of deprivation to these cognitive outcomes. ADHD symptoms (parent- and experimenter-reported) and IQ were evaluated in 88 IA (M = 62.1 months, SD = 2.4) and 35 non-adopted children (M = 61.4 months, SD = 1.6). IA children were assessed 29-64 months post-adoption (M = 41.9 months, SD = 10.2). ID was assessed during the initial post-adoption medical visit in 69 children, and children were classified into four groups by iron status, ranging from normal to ID anemia (most severe). IA children had greater ADHD symptomology, p < .01, and lower IQ, p = .001, than non-adopted children. Within the IA group, children with more severe ID at adoption had greater ADHD symptomology, r(69) = 0.40, p = .001, and lower IQ, r(68) = -0.28, p < .05. Duration of institutional care was positively correlated with ADHD symptoms, r(86) = .28, p < .01, but not IQ, r(85) = -.08, p = .52. Longitudinal results indicate improvement in IQ from 12 months post-adoption to age 5 for children with greater ID severity at adoption and longer duration of institutional care but no improvement in ADHD symptoms. These results signify continuing effects of early deprivation and ID on ADHD symptoms and IQ years after adoption. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vUFDAS3DD1c. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Sleep deprivation: a mind-body approach.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Claudia C

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize recent advances in our understanding of the impact sleep disturbances have on our health, with particular focus on the brain. The present review considers the influence of sleep disturbance on the neurovascular unit; the role of sleep disturbance in neurodegenerative diseases; and relevant strategies of neuro-immuno-endocrine interactions that likely contribute to the restorative power of sleep. Given the latest discoveries about the brain's waste clearance system and its relationship to neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease, this review gives a brief overview on the molecular mechanisms behind sleep loss-related impairments. Recent evidence indicates that sleep plays a vital role in neuro-immuno-endocrine homeostasis. Sleep loss has been linked to elevated risks for cognitive and mood disorders, underscored by impaired synaptic transmission. The glymphatic system has been shown to be modulated by sleep and implicated in neurodegenerative disorders. Interactions between sleep quality, the immune system, and neurodegenerative disease are complex and a challenge to distil. These interactions are frequently bidirectional, because of sleep's characterization as an early symptom and as a potential factor contributing to the development and progression of mood and cognitive disorders. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

  5. Boron Nutrition of Tobacco BY-2 Cells. V. Oxidative Damage is the Major Cause of Cell Death Induced by Boron Deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Koshiba, Taichi; Kobayashi, Masaru; Matoh, Toru

    2009-01-01

    Boron (B) is an essential micronutrient for vascular plants. However, it remains unclear how B deficiency leads to various metabolic disorders and cell death. To understand this mechanism, we analyzed the physiological changes in suspension-cultured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) BY-2 cells upon B deprivation. When 3-day-old cells were transferred to B-free medium, cell death was detectable as early as 12 h after treatment. The B-deprived cells accumulated more reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxides than control cells, and showed a slight but significant decrease in the cellular ascorbate pool. Supplementing the media with lipophilic antioxidants effectively suppressed the death of B-deprived cells, suggesting that the oxidative damage is the immediate and major cause of cell death under B deficiency. Dead cells in B-free culture exhibited a characteristic morphology with a shrunken cytoplasm, which is often seen in cells undergoing programmed cell death (PCD). However, they did not display other hallmarks of PCD such as internucleosomal DNA fragmentation, decreased ascorbate peroxidase expression and protection from death by cycloheximide. These results suggest that the death of tobacco cells induced by B deprivation is not likely to be a typical PCD. PMID:19054807

  6. Sleep deprivation during a specific 3-hour time window post-training impairs hippocampal synaptic plasticity and memory

    PubMed Central

    Prince, Toni-Moi; Wimmer, Mathieu; Choi, Jennifer; Havekes, Robbert; Aton, Sara; Abel, Ted

    2014-01-01

    Sleep deprivation disrupts hippocampal function and plasticity. In particular, long-term memory consolidation is impaired by sleep deprivation, suggesting that a specific critical period exists following learning during which sleep is necessary. To elucidate the impact of sleep deprivation on long-term memory consolidation and synaptic plasticity, long-term memory was assessed when mice were sleep deprived following training in the hippocampus-dependent object place recognition task. We found that 3 hours of sleep deprivation significantly impaired memory when deprivation began 1 hour after training. In contrast, 3 hours of deprivation beginning immediately post-training did not impair spatial memory. Furthermore, a 3-hour sleep deprivation beginning 1 hour after training impaired hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), whereas sleep deprivation immediately after training did not affect LTP. Together, our findings define a specific 3-hour critical period, extending from 1 to 4 hours after training, during which sleep deprivation impairs hippocampal function. PMID:24380868

  7. Deprivation selectively modulates brain potentials to food pictures.

    PubMed

    Stockburger, Jessica; Weike, Almut I; Hamm, Alfons O; Schupp, Harald T

    2008-08-01

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were used to examine whether the processing of food pictures is selectively modulated by changes in the motivational state of the observer. Sixteen healthy male volunteers were tested twice 1 week apart, either after 24 hr of food deprivation or after normal food intake. ERPs were measured while participants viewed appetitive food pictures as well as standard emotional and neutral control pictures. Results show that the ERPs to food pictures in a hungry, rather than satiated, state were associated with enlarged positive potentials over posterior sensor sites in a time window of 170-310 ms poststimulus. Minimum-norm analysis suggests the enhanced processing of food cues primarily in occipito-temporo-parietal regions. In contrast, processing of standard emotional and neutral pictures was not modulated by food deprivation. Considered from the perspective of motivated attention, the selective change of food cue processing may reflect a state-dependent change in stimulus salience.

  8. The impact of sleep deprivation on decision making: a review.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Y; Horne, J A

    2000-09-01

    Few sleep deprivation (SD) studies involve realism or high-level decision making, factors relevant to managers, military commanders, and so forth, who are undergoing prolonged work during crises. Instead, research has favored simple tasks sensitive to SD mostly because of their dull monotony. In contrast, complex rule-based, convergent, and logical tasks are unaffected by short-term SD, seemingly because of heightened participant interest and compensatory effort. However, recent findings show that despite this effort, SD still impairs decision making involving the unexpected, innovation, revising plans, competing distraction, and effective communication. Decision-making models developed outside SD provide useful perspectives on these latter effects, as does a neuropsychological explanation of sleep function. SD presents particular difficulties for sleep-deprived decision makers who require these latter skills during emergency situations.

  9. Octopamine connects nutrient cues to lipid metabolism upon nutrient deprivation.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jun; Ma, Yi-Cheng; Yang, Zhong-Shan; Zou, Cheng-Gang; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2016-05-01

    Starvation is probably the most common stressful situation in nature. In vertebrates, elevation of the biogenic amine norepinephrine levels is common during starvation. However, the precise role of norepinephrine in nutrient deprivation remains largely unknown. We report that in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, up-regulation of the biosynthesis of octopamine, the invertebrate counterpart of norepinephrine, serves as a mechanism to adapt to starvation. During nutrient deprivation, the nuclear receptor DAF-12, known to sense nutritional cues, up-regulates the expression of tbh-1 that encodes tyramine β-hydroxylase, a key enzyme for octopamine biosynthesis, in the RIC neurons. Octopamine induces the expression of the lipase gene lips-6 via its receptor SER-3 in the intestine. LIPS-6, in turn, elicits lipid mobilization. Our findings reveal that octopamine acts as an endocrine regulator linking nutrient cues to lipolysis to maintain energy homeostasis, and suggest that such a mechanism may be evolutionally conserved in diverse organisms.

  10. Octopamine connects nutrient cues to lipid metabolism upon nutrient deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Jun; Ma, Yi-Cheng; Yang, Zhong-Shan; Zou, Cheng-Gang; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2016-01-01

    Starvation is probably the most common stressful situation in nature. In vertebrates, elevation of the biogenic amine norepinephrine levels is common during starvation. However, the precise role of norepinephrine in nutrient deprivation remains largely unknown. We report that in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, up-regulation of the biosynthesis of octopamine, the invertebrate counterpart of norepinephrine, serves as a mechanism to adapt to starvation. During nutrient deprivation, the nuclear receptor DAF-12, known to sense nutritional cues, up-regulates the expression of tbh-1 that encodes tyramine β-hydroxylase, a key enzyme for octopamine biosynthesis, in the RIC neurons. Octopamine induces the expression of the lipase gene lips-6 via its receptor SER-3 in the intestine. LIPS-6, in turn, elicits lipid mobilization. Our findings reveal that octopamine acts as an endocrine regulator linking nutrient cues to lipolysis to maintain energy homeostasis, and suggest that such a mechanism may be evolutionally conserved in diverse organisms. PMID:27386520

  11. Tibolone protects T98G cells from glucose deprivation.

    PubMed

    Ávila Rodriguez, Marco; Garcia-Segura, Luis Miguel; Cabezas, Ricardo; Torrente, Daniel; Capani, Francisco; Gonzalez, Janneth; Barreto, George E

    2014-10-01

    The steroidal drug Tibolone is used for the treatment of climacteric symptoms and osteoporosis in post-menopausal women. Although Tibolone has been shown to exert neuroprotective actions after middle cerebral artery occlusion, its specific actions on glial cells have received very little attention. In the present study we have assessed whether Tibolone exerts protective actions in a human astrocyte cell model, the T98G cells, subjected to glucose deprivation. Our findings indicate that Tibolone decreases the effects of glucose deprivation on cell death, nuclear fragmentation, superoxide ion production, mitochondrial membrane potential, cytoplasmic calcium concentration and morphological parameters. These findings suggest that glial cells may participate in the neuroprotective actions of Tibolone in the brain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Sweat Chlorides in Salt-Deprived Cystic Fibrosis Heterozygotes

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Michael F.

    1965-01-01

    Sweat chlorides of 10 sets of parents of children with cystic fibrosis and 11 controls were studied in an attempt to develop a test for the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis heterozygotes by subjecting both the parents and controls to a low sodium diet and comparing sweat chloride values as the diet progressed. It was hoped that the sweat chloride levels of the parents, the heterozygotes, would remain stationary throughout the diet, since their children, the homozygotes, reveal this finding under similar conditions of salt deprivation. The sweat chloride levels of the controls, because of effects of aldosterone, were expected to decrease steadily from the commencement of the diet to its termination. A decrease in sweat chloride values of similar magnitude was found in both parents and controls as the diet continued. It is concluded that the study of sweat electrolyte levels in salt-deprived subjects is of no value in the diagnosis of cystic fibrosis heterozygotes. PMID:14289142

  13. The effects of sleep deprivation on emotional empathy.

    PubMed

    Guadagni, Veronica; Burles, Ford; Ferrara, Michele; Iaria, Giuseppe

    2014-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that sleep loss has a detrimental effect on the ability of the individuals to process emotional information. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that this negative effect extends to the ability of experiencing emotions while observing other individuals, i.e. emotional empathy. To test this hypothesis, we assessed emotional empathy in 37 healthy volunteers who were assigned randomly to one of three experimental groups: one group was tested before and after a night of total sleep deprivation (sleep deprivation group), a second group was tested before and after a usual night of sleep spent at home (sleep group) and the third group was tested twice during the same day (day group). Emotional empathy was assessed by using two parallel versions of a computerized test measuring direct (i.e. explicit evaluation of empathic concern) and indirect (i.e. the observer's reported physiological arousal) emotional empathy. The results revealed that the post measurements of both direct and indirect emotional empathy of participants in the sleep deprivation group were significantly lower than those of the sleep and day groups; post measurement scores of participants in the day and sleep groups did not differ significantly for either direct or indirect emotional empathy. These data are consistent with previous studies showing the negative effect of sleep deprivation on the processing of emotional information, and extend these effects to emotional empathy. The findings reported in our study are relevant to healthy individuals with poor sleep habits, as well as clinical populations suffering from sleep disturbances. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  14. State Dependent Valuation: The Effect of Deprivation on Risk Preferences

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Dino J.; Thavikulwat, Amalie C.; Glimcher, Paul W.

    2013-01-01

    The internal state of an organism affects its choices. Previous studies in various non-human animals have demonstrated a complex, and in some cases non-monotonic, interaction between internal state and risk preferences. Our aim was to examine the systematic effects of deprivation on human decision-making across various reward types. Using both a non-parametric approach and a classical economic analysis, we asked whether the risk attitudes of human subjects towards money, food and water rewards would change as a function of their internal metabolic state. Our findings replicate some previous work suggesting that, on average, humans become more risk tolerant in their monetary decisions, as they get hungry. However, our specific approach allowed us to make two novel observations about the complex interaction between internal state and risk preferences. First, we found that the change in risk attitude induced by food deprivation is a general phenomenon, affecting attitudes towards both monetary and consumable rewards. But much more importantly, our data indicate that rather than each subject becoming more risk tolerant as previously hypothesized based on averaging across subjects, we found that as a population of human subjects becomes food deprived the heterogeneity of their risk attitudes collapses towards a fixed point. Thus subjects who show high-risk aversion while satiated shift towards moderate risk aversion when deprived but subjects who are risk tolerant become more risk averse. These findings demonstrate a more complicated interaction between internal state and risk preferences and raise some interesting implications for both day-to-day decisions and financial market structures. PMID:23358126

  15. Sleep Deprivation in Humans, Immunodepression and Glutamine Supplementation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-15

    and lymphocytes, cell types which are known to be affected by sleep deprivation, changed in terms of intracellular cytokine production ? (2) What is...ability and enhanced cytokine production . Bassitt et al. attributed these findings to the maintenance of p[Gln] via BCAA precursors. Bacarau et...took BCAA for four weeks prior to a race (Hiscock et al., 2001). Leptin The ob gene product leptin is released from adipose tissue. Although

  16. Sleep deprivation leads to mood deficits in healthy adolescents.

    PubMed

    Short, Michelle A; Louca, Mia

    2015-08-01

    The objectives of the study were to investigate the effects of 36 h of sleep deprivation on the discrete mood states of anger, depression, anxiety, confusion, fatigue, and vigour in healthy adolescents. Twelve healthy adolescent good sleepers (six male), aged 14-18 years (M = 16.17, standard deviation (SD) = 0.83), spent three consecutive nights in the sleep laboratory of the Centre for Sleep Research: two baseline nights with 10-h sleep opportunities and one night of total sleep deprivation. Every 2 h during wakefulness, they completed the Profile of Mood States - Short Form. Mood across two baseline days was compared to mood at the same clock time (0900 h to 1900 h) following one night without sleep. The subscales of depression, anger, confusion, anxiety, vigour, and fatigue were compared across days. All mood states significantly worsened following one night without sleep. Females showed a greater vulnerability to mood deficits following sleep loss, with greater depressed mood and anxiety following sleep deprivation only witnessed among female participants. While both males and females reported more confusion following sleep deprivation, the magnitude of this effect was greater for females. This study provides empirical support for the notion that sleep loss can causally affect mood states in healthy adolescents, with females having heightened vulnerability. Understanding the detrimental effects of insufficient sleep during adolescence is important, as it is a stage where sleep loss and mood dysregulation are highly prevalent. These findings escalate the importance of promoting sleep for the well-being of adolescents at this critical life phase. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Residency Training: The King-Devick test and sleep deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Emma C.; Henderson, Sam; Galetta, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The current study investigates the effect of sleep deprivation on the speed and accuracy of eye movements as measured by the King-Devick (K-D) test, a <1-minute test that involves rapid number naming. Methods: In this cohort study, neurology residents and staff from the University of Pennsylvania Health System underwent baseline followed by postcall K-D testing (n = 25); those not taking call (n = 10) also completed baseline and follow-up K-D testing. Differences in the times and errors between baseline and follow-up K-D scores were compared between the 2 groups. Results: Residents taking call had less improvement from baseline K-D times when compared to participants not taking call (p < 0.0001, Wilcoxon rank sum test). For both groups, the change in K-D time fr