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Sample records for early intervention group

  1. A Small Group Model for Early Intervention in Literacy: Group Size and Program Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homan, Susan; King, James R.; Hogarty, Kris

    Over the last 2 years, Accelerated Literacy Learning (ALL) has experimented with the small group model in early literacy intervention, with success comparable to that in one-to-one intervention. There can be little doubt that intervention provided to struggling readers is most effectively initiated at an early stage. The ALL program was conceived…

  2. Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nathanson, Jeanne H., Ed.

    1992-01-01

    This theme issue focuses on early intervention. The four articles presented on this theme are: (1) "Deaf Infants, Hearing Mothers: A Research Report" (Kathryn P. Meadow-Orlans, and others), reporting findings on effects of auditory loss on early development; (2) "Maintaining Involvement of Inner City Families in Early Intervention Programs through…

  3. Couple-Focused Group Intervention for Women With Early Stage Breast Cancer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manne, Sharon L.; Ostroff, Jamie S.; Winkel, Gary; Fox, Kevin; Grana, Generosa; Miller, Eric; Ross, Stephanie; Frazier, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of a couple-focused group intervention on psychological adaptation of women with early stage breast cancer and evaluated whether perceived partner unsupportive behavior or patient functional impairment moderated intervention effects. Two hundred thirty-eight women were randomly assigned to receive either 6 sessions…

  4. Engaging Urban Parents of Early Adolescents in Parenting Interventions: Home Visits vs. Group Sessions.

    PubMed

    Finigan-Carr, Nadine M; Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Haynie, Denise L; Cheng, Tina L

    2014-01-01

    Interventions targeting parents of young children have shown effectiveness, but research is lacking about best practices for engaging parents of early adolescents. Low levels of enrollment and attendance in parenting interventions present major problems for researchers and clinicians. Effective and efficient ways to engage and collaborate with parents to strengthen parenting practices and to promote healthy development of early adolescents are needed. This exploratory mixed methods study examined the feasibility of three methods of engaging parents in positive parenting activities. Participants were parents of youth ages 11-13 enrolled in three urban, public middle schools in neighborhoods characterized by high rates of community violence. Families ( N = 144) were randomized into one of three interventions: six home sessions, two home sessions followed by four group sessions, or six group sessions. The majority of parents were single, non-Hispanic, African American mothers. Urban parents of middle school students were more likely to participate in home visits than in group sessions; offering a combination did not increase participation in the group sessions. As only 34% of those who consented participated in the intervention, qualitative data were examined to explain the reasons for non-participation.

  5. Engaging Urban Parents of Early Adolescents in Parenting Interventions: Home Visits vs. Group Sessions

    PubMed Central

    Finigan-Carr, Nadine M.; Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Haynie, Denise L.; Cheng, Tina L.

    2016-01-01

    Interventions targeting parents of young children have shown effectiveness, but research is lacking about best practices for engaging parents of early adolescents. Low levels of enrollment and attendance in parenting interventions present major problems for researchers and clinicians. Effective and efficient ways to engage and collaborate with parents to strengthen parenting practices and to promote healthy development of early adolescents are needed. This exploratory mixed methods study examined the feasibility of three methods of engaging parents in positive parenting activities. Participants were parents of youth ages 11–13 enrolled in three urban, public middle schools in neighborhoods characterized by high rates of community violence. Families (N = 144) were randomized into one of three interventions: six home sessions, two home sessions followed by four group sessions, or six group sessions. The majority of parents were single, non-Hispanic, African American mothers. Urban parents of middle school students were more likely to participate in home visits than in group sessions; offering a combination did not increase participation in the group sessions. As only 34% of those who consented participated in the intervention, qualitative data were examined to explain the reasons for non-participation. PMID:27122960

  6. Matched Comparison Group Design Standards in Systematic Reviews of Early Childhood Interventions.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jaime; Avellar, Sarah A; Deke, John; Gleason, Philip

    2017-06-01

    Systematic reviews assess the quality of research on program effectiveness to help decision makers faced with many intervention options. Study quality standards specify criteria that studies must meet, including accounting for baseline differences between intervention and comparison groups. We explore two issues related to systematic review standards: covariate choice and choice of estimation method. To help systematic reviews develop/refine quality standards and support researchers in using nonexperimental designs to estimate program effects, we address two questions: (1) How well do variables that systematic reviews typically require studies to account for explain variation in key child and family outcomes? (2) What methods should studies use to account for preexisting differences between intervention and comparison groups? We examined correlations between baseline characteristics and key outcomes using Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort data to address Question 1. For Question 2, we used simulations to compare two methods-matching and regression adjustment-to account for preexisting differences between intervention and comparison groups. A broad range of potential baseline variables explained relatively little of the variation in child and family outcomes. This suggests the potential for bias even after accounting for these variables, highlighting the need for systematic reviews to provide appropriate cautions about interpreting the results of moderately rated, nonexperimental studies. Our simulations showed that regression adjustment can yield unbiased estimates if all relevant covariates are used, even when the model is misspecified, and preexisting differences between the intervention and the comparison groups exist.

  7. Psychodynamic Group Psychoterapy in the Early Intervention Program for Patients with Psychosis (RIPEPP).

    PubMed

    Restek-Petrović, Branka; Mayer, Nina; Grah, Majda

    2018-06-01

    Psychiatric Hospital "Sveti Ivan" in Zagreb, Croatia, offers an outpatient Early intervention programme for patients with psychotic disorders (RIPEPP), consisting of psychoeducational workshops and group psychodynamic psychotherapy. Psychodynamic group psychotherapy presents a unique conceptual format not offered by other types of psychotherapy, and it is especially useful for population of patients with psychotic disorders. During group work, gradual establishment of communication and interactions, and creating a network of relations through experiences of corrective emotional symbiosis, affect the constellation of internal objects and relationships between members, and their restructuring. The function of group psychotherapy is not only to offer relief, support, and elements of education, but also to enable internal changes. Therapeutic factors contributing to the improvement of people with schizophrenia include supportive aspects such as universality, acceptance, cohesion, hope and altruism. This paper contains vignettes from inpatient and outpatient group dynamics.

  8. [Early interventional group therapy for patients with incipient Alzheimer disease and their relatives].

    PubMed

    Scheurich, Armin; Schanz, Benno; Müller, Matthias J; Fellgiebel, Andreas

    2008-06-01

    Pilot study on an early-interventional group therapy for patients with incipient Alzheimer disease and their relatives. The present study investigates whether scientific progress in terms of earlier time of diagnostic certainty can be used for psychoeducation, maintenance of positive activities and prevention of comorbid depressive episodes. 12 patients (66.8 +/- 5.8 years, MMSE 24.0 +/- 4.0) together with 12 relatives have been treated with a bi-weekly group therapy program. For the patients treatment resulted in reduced anxiety, anergia and withdrawal, for their relatives reduced sleep disturbances, irascibility, and aggressiveness have been found. Only one of the patients suffered from a depressive episode. All participants expressed positive feedback and a high level of quality of life. By the straightforward psychosocial intervention it seems possible to use the earlier time of diagnostic certainty for early diagnosed patients suffering from incipient Alzheimer disease. However, results have to be replicated by a controlled, prospective study with larger sample sizes.

  9. Engaging Urban Parents of Early Adolescents in Parenting Interventions: Home Visits vs. Group Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finigan-Carr, Nadine M.; Copeland-Linder, Nikeea; Haynie, Denise L.; Cheng, Tina L.

    2014-01-01

    Interventions targeting parents of young children have shown effectiveness, but research is lacking about best practices for engaging parents of early adolescents. Low levels of enrollment and attendance in parenting interventions present major problems for researchers and clinicians. Effective and efficient ways to engage and collaborate with…

  10. The Effects of Varying Group Size on the Reading Recovery Approach to Preventive Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iversen, Sandra; Tunmer, William E.; Chapman, James W.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether an early intervention program based on the Reading Recovery (RR) format could be developed for pairs of struggling readers that would allow them to make accelerated progress similar to that experienced in the 1-to-1 RR tutorial. A preliminary pilot study showed that the RR lesson format could be…

  11. The Effectiveness of Early Group Intervention for Military Reserves Soldiers: The Role of the Repressive Coping Style.

    PubMed

    Shoval-Zuckerman, Yael; Dekel, Rachel; Solomon, Zahava; Levi, Ofir

    2015-01-01

    This study had two aims: 1. To examine whether soldiers who participated in Early Group Intervention (EGI) would show less distress and better functioning and physical health than soldiers who did not participate in EGI, and 2. To examine the contribution of the intervention to participants with repressive coping style. The sample comprised 166 male reserve soldiers who fought in the Second Lebanon War. The intervention was conducted three months after the traumatic event, was based on military protocol, and took place over the course of one day. Data were collected at two points in time (four months apart). The findings indicated that after EGI, the intervention group experienced less post-traumatic distress than did the control group. In addition, four months after the intervention, the functioning and physical health of the intervention group was significantly better than that of the control group. Notably, the intensity of post-traumatic distress before the intervention was lower among repressors and low-anxious soldiers than among soldiers in the other two groups (high-anxious and defensive). No significant differences were found after the intervention with regard to the various styles of coping with post-traumatic distress. Future clinical implications of the findings are discussed.

  12. Effectiveness of a School-Based Early Intervention CBT Group Programme for Children with Anxiety Aged 5-7 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruocco, Sylvia; Gordon, Jocelynne; McLean, Louise A.

    2016-01-01

    Early manifestations of anxiety in childhood confer significant distress and life interference. This study reports on the first controlled trial of the "Get Lost Mr. Scary" programme, a Cognitive Behavioural Therapy group intervention for children with anxiety aged 5-7 years. Participants were 134 children (65 males and 69 females) drawn…

  13. Clinical outcomes of an early intervention program for preschool children with Autism Spectrum Disorder in a community group setting.

    PubMed

    Eapen, Valsamma; Crnčec, Rudi; Walter, Amelia

    2013-01-07

    Available evidence indicates that early intervention programs, such as the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM), can positively affect key outcomes for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). However, programs involving resource intensive one-to-one clinical intervention are not readily available or deliverable in the community, resulting in many children with ASD missing out on evidence-based intervention during their early and most critical preschool years. This study evaluated the effectiveness of the ESDM for preschool-aged children with ASD using a predominantly group-based intervention in a community child care setting. Participants were 26 children (21 male) with ASD with a mean age of 49.6 months. The ESDM, a comprehensive early intervention program that integrates applied behaviour analysis with developmental and relationship-based approaches, was delivered by trained therapists during the child's attendance at a child care centre for preschool-aged children with ASD. Children received 15-20 hours of group-based, and one hour of one-to-one, ESDM intervention per week. The average intervention period was ten months. Outcome measures were administered pre- and post-intervention, and comprised a developmental assessment - the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL); and two parent-report questionnaires - the Social Communication Questionnaire (SCQ) and Vineland Adaptive Behaviours Scales-Second Edition (VABS-II). Statistically significant post-intervention improvements were found in children's performance on the visual reception, receptive language and expressive language domains of the MSEL in addition to their overall intellectual functioning, as assessed by standardised developmental quotients. Parents reported significant increases in their child's receptive communication and motor skills on the VABS-II, and a significant decrease in autism-specific features on the SCQ. These effects were of around medium size, and appeared to be in excess of what may

  14. Memory Club: A Group Intervention for People with Early-Stage Dementia and Their Care Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarit, Steven H.; Femia, Elia E.; Watson, Jennifer; Rice-Oeschger, Laura; Kakos, Bernadette

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Diagnosis of dementia in its early stages presents a window of opportunity for examining the immediate and long-term consequences of the illness at a point when the individual with memory loss can still participate in decision making. Design and Methods: Memory Club is a l0-session group program designed to provide information about…

  15. Small groups, big gains: efficacy of a tier 2 phonological awareness intervention with preschoolers with early literacy deficits.

    PubMed

    Kruse, Lydia G; Spencer, Trina D; Olszewski, Arnold; Goldstein, Howard

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a phonological awareness (PA) intervention, designed for Tier 2 instruction in a Response to Intervention (RTI) model, delivered to small groups of preschoolers. A multiple-baseline design across participants was used to evaluate the efficacy of the intervention on low-income preschool children's PA skills. A trained interventionist delivered small group sessions 3 to 4 days a week and ensured children received frequent opportunities to respond and contingent feedback. Participants received 28 to 36 lessons that lasted about 10 min each and focused on PA and alphabet knowledge. Initiation of intervention was staggered across 3 triads, and 7 children completed the study. The intervention produced consistent gains on weekly progress monitoring assessments of the primary outcome measure for first sound identification (First Sound Fluency). Most children also demonstrated gains on other measures of PA and alphabet knowledge. Results provide support for the application of a small group intervention consistent with an RTI framework and document the potential benefits of the intervention to learners who need early literacy instruction beyond the core curriculum.

  16. Group based learning among caregivers: assessing mothers' knowledge before and after an early childhood intervention in rural Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Domek, Gretchen J; Macdonald, Brittney; Cooper, Catherine; Cunningham, Maureen; Abdel-Maksoud, Madiha; Berman, Stephen

    2017-08-01

    The first three years of a child's life are a critical period for brain growth and development. Caregiver interventions during this period that improve early childhood health and development have the potential to enhance a child's physical, mental, and social well-being. This was a pretest/posttest quasi experimental program evaluation. Early childhood education materials were adapted to create two separate interventions consisting of 30-page interactive flipchart talks to educate mothers on health and development topics relevant to 0-6 and 6-12 month old children. Three community health workers performed the talks with groups of 5-8 mothers. Short learning assessments were given individually to each mother pre-intervention (pretest), immediately post-intervention (posttest 1), and two weeks post-intervention (posttest 2). Demographic surveys and focus group discussions were conducted with all participants. Mothers ( n = 77) had an average age of 33.6 years and had an average of 3.6 living children. Most of the mothers (71%) had received some primary education, but 23% had received no formal schooling. For the 0-6 months flipchart learning assessment ( n = 38), the mean pretest score was 77% correct. The mean posttest 1 score improved to 87% ( p < 0.0001), and the mean posttest 2 score improved further from the mean posttest 1 score to 90% ( p = 0.01). For the 6-12 months flipchart learning assessment ( n = 39), the mean pretest score was 78%. The mean posttest 1 score improved to 89% ( p < 0.0001), and the mean posttest 2 score improved further from the mean posttest 1 score to 92% ( p = 0.03). Mothers in an impoverished region of southwestern Guatemala significantly increased their knowledge about child health topics following a short interactive group talk. Mothers further increased their knowledge two weeks after the intervention, without specific re-exposure to the intervention materials, suggesting assimilation and informal reinforcement through group based

  17. Early intervention for psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Max; Rathbone, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Proponents of early intervention have argued that outcomes might be improved if more therapeutic efforts were focused on the early stages of schizophrenia or on people with prodromal symptoms. Early intervention in schizophrenia has two elements that are distinct from standard care: early detection, and phase-specific treatment (phase-specific treatment is a psychological, social or physical treatment developed, or modified, specifically for use with people at an early stage of the illness). Early detection and phase-specific treatment may both be offered as supplements to standard care, or may be provided through a specialised early intervention team. Early intervention is now well established as a therapeutic approach in America, Europe and Australasia. Objectives To evaluate the effects of: (a) early detection; (b) phase-specific treatments; and (c) specialised early intervention teams in the treatment of people with prodromal symptoms or first-episode psychosis. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group Trials Register (March 2009), inspected reference lists of all identified trials and reviews and contacted experts in the field. Selection criteria We included all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) designed to prevent progression to psychosis in people showing prodromal symptoms, or to improve outcome for people with first-episode psychosis. Eligible interventions, alone and in combination, included: early detection, phase-specific treatments, and care from specialised early intervention teams. We accepted cluster-randomised trials but excluded non-randomised trials. Data collection and analysis We reliably selected studies, quality rated them and extracted data. For dichotomous data, we estimated relative risks (RR), with the 95% confidence intervals (CI). Where possible, we calculated the number needed to treat/harm statistic (NNT/H) and used intention-to-treat analysis (ITT). Main results Studies were diverse, mostly small

  18. Enhancing the early home learning environment through a brief group parenting intervention: study protocol for a cluster randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Jan M; Cann, Warren; Matthews, Jan; Berthelsen, Donna; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Trajanovska, Misel; Bennetts, Shannon K; Hillgrove, Tessa; Hamilton, Victoria; Westrupp, Elizabeth; Hackworth, Naomi J

    2016-06-02

    The quality of the home learning environment has a significant influence on children's language and communication skills during the early years with children from disadvantaged families disproportionately affected. This paper describes the protocol and participant baseline characteristics of a community-based effectiveness study. It evaluates the effects of 'smalltalk', a brief group parenting intervention (with or without home coaching) on the quality of the early childhood home learning environment. The study comprises two cluster randomised controlled superiority trials (one for infants and one for toddlers) designed and conducted in parallel. In 20 local government areas (LGAs) in Victoria, Australia, six locations (clusters) were randomised to one of three conditions: standard care (control); smalltalk group-only program; or smalltalk plus (group program plus home coaching). Programs were delivered to parents experiencing socioeconomic disadvantage through two existing age-based services, the maternal and child health service (infant program, ages 6-12 months), and facilitated playgroups (toddler program, ages 12-36 months). Outcomes were assessed by parent report and direct observation at baseline (0 weeks), post-intervention (12 weeks) and follow-up (32 weeks). Primary outcomes were parent verbal responsivity and home activities with child at 32 weeks. Secondary outcomes included parenting confidence, parent wellbeing and children's communication, socio-emotional and general development skills. Analyses will use intention-to-treat random effects ("multilevel") models to account for clustering. Across the 20 LGAs, 986 parents of infants and 1200 parents of toddlers enrolled and completed baseline measures. Eighty four percent of families demonstrated one or more of the targeted risk factors for poor child development (low income; receives government benefits; single, socially isolated or young parent; culturally or linguistically diverse background). This

  19. The Contribution of Group Work Programmes to Early Intervention and Improving Children's Emotional Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parton, Christine; Manby, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Recent government policy has emphasised links between the acquisition of social skills by children and young people and their educational attainment. This study aims to fill a gap in the literature about the contribution of school-based group work programmes to developing children's social skills. National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to…

  20. Small Groups, Big Gains: Efficacy of a Tier 2 Phonological Awareness Intervention with Preschoolers with Early Literacy Deficits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kruse, Lydia G.; Spencer, Trina D.; Olszewski, Arnold; Goldstein, Howard

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a phonological awareness (PA) intervention, designed for Tier 2 instruction in a Response to Intervention (RTI) model, delivered to small groups of preschoolers. Method: A multiple-baseline design across participants was used to evaluate the efficacy of the intervention on…

  1. Early Intervention in Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    McGorry, Patrick D.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Early intervention for potentially serious disorder is a fundamental feature of healthcare across the spectrum of physical illness. It has been a major factor in the reductions in morbidity and mortality that have been achieved in some of the non-communicable diseases, notably cancer and cardiovascular disease. Over the past two decades, an international collaborative effort has been mounted to build the evidence and the capacity for early intervention in the psychotic disorders, notably schizophrenia, where for so long deep pessimism had reigned. The origins and rapid development of early intervention in psychosis are described from a personal and Australian perspective. This uniquely evidence-informed, evidence-building and cost-effective reform provides a blueprint and launch pad to radically change the wider landscape of mental health care and dissolve many of the barriers that have constrained progress for so long. PMID:25919380

  2. Epidemiological evaluation quality of life in patients suffering from early rheumatoid arthritis: a pragmatic, prospective, randomized, blind allocation controlled of a modular program group intervention.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Hadi; Chopra, Arvind; Farrokhseresht, Reza; Sarmukaddam, Sanjeev; Noghabi, Fariba Asadi; Bedekar, Nilima; Madani, Abdolhosain

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiology has taken on new roles in the management of health care services. In this study, we developed a non-pharmacological self-management modular program group intervention and evaluated its efficacy as an adjunct therapy in patients suffering from early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Patients were randomized to either participate in a non-equivalent intervention group along with the standard of care or only receive standard-of-care treatment at a community rheumatology center. The outcomes measured were a pain visual analog scale (VAS), patient general health (GH) on a VAS, and the Short Form 36 Health Survey version 2 scale measuring quality of life. These parameters were evaluated in the first week to obtain baseline values, and at 20, 32, 48, and 60 weeks to evaluate the efficacy of the intervention group. The patients were randomized, with 100 patients in the intervention group and 106 in the control group. The intervention and control groups were similar with regard to the percentage of women (86% vs. 89.6%), tobacco usage (25% vs. 19.8%), mean age (42.6±13.2 years vs. 46.6±10.9 years), and disease duration (15.3±6.7 months vs. 14.5±6.6 months). The mean outcomes were significantly different between the two groups, and post-hoc pairwise analysis demonstrated significant deterioration in the control group in contrast to improvement in the intervention group at the second, third, fourth, and fifth evaluations. Improvements were often seen as early as the 12-week and 24-week follow-up visits. Epidemiology contributes to the evaluation of how well specific therapies or other health interventions prevent or control health problems. The modular program group intervention implemented in this study appears to be a suitable and feasible method to facilitate much more comprehensive management of early RA in socioeconomically challenged communities.

  3. Epidemiological evaluation quality of life in patients suffering from early rheumatoid arthritis: a pragmatic, prospective, randomized, blind allocation controlled of a modular program group intervention

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Epidemiology has taken on new roles in the management of health care services. In this study, we developed a non-pharmacological self-management modular program group intervention and evaluated its efficacy as an adjunct therapy in patients suffering from early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: Patients were randomized to either participate in a non-equivalent intervention group along with the standard of care or only receive standard-of-care treatment at a community rheumatology center. The outcomes measured were a pain visual analog scale (VAS), patient general health (GH) on a VAS, and the Short Form 36 Health Survey version 2 scale measuring quality of life. These parameters were evaluated in the first week to obtain baseline values, and at 20, 32, 48, and 60 weeks to evaluate the efficacy of the intervention group. RESULTS: The patients were randomized, with 100 patients in the intervention group and 106 in the control group. The intervention and control groups were similar with regard to the percentage of women (86% vs. 89.6%), tobacco usage (25% vs. 19.8%), mean age (42.6±13.2 years vs. 46.6±10.9 years), and disease duration (15.3±6.7 months vs. 14.5±6.6 months). The mean outcomes were significantly different between the two groups, and post-hoc pairwise analysis demonstrated significant deterioration in the control group in contrast to improvement in the intervention group at the second, third, fourth, and fifth evaluations. Improvements were often seen as early as the 12-week and 24-week follow-up visits. CONCLUSIONS: Epidemiology contributes to the evaluation of how well specific therapies or other health interventions prevent or control health problems. The modular program group intervention implemented in this study appears to be a suitable and feasible method to facilitate much more comprehensive management of early RA in socioeconomically challenged communities. PMID:26552423

  4. Guideline for Early Interventions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    desensitization and reprocessing ( EMDR ) as a early mental health intervention, following mass violence and disasters, is a treatment of choice over other...village. Military operations take place under the eye of the world and are surrounded by high political attention. International missions far exceed...consistently reduce risks of later post-traumatic stress disorder or related adjustment difficulties. • There is no evidence that eye movement

  5. The Effectiveness of Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guralnick, Michael J., Ed.

    This book reviews research on the effectiveness of early intervention for children with disabilities or who are at risk. Program factors for children at risk and with disabilities, the effects of early intervention on different types of disabilities, and the outcomes of early intervention are explored. Chapters include: "Second-Generation Research…

  6. A pilot randomized controlled trial of a self-management group intervention for people with early-stage dementia (The SMART study).

    PubMed

    Quinn, Catherine; Toms, Gill; Jones, Carys; Brand, Andrew; Edwards, Rhiannon Tudor; Sanders, Fiona; Clare, Linda

    2016-05-01

    Self-management equips people to manage the symptoms and lifestyle changes that occur in long-term health conditions; however, there is limited evidence about its effectiveness for people with early-stage dementia. This pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) explored the feasibility of a self-management intervention for people with early-stage dementia. The participants were people with early-stage dementia (n = 24) and for each participant a caregiver also took part. Participants were randomly allocated to either an eight-week self-management group intervention or treatment as usual (TAU). Assessments were conducted at baseline, three months and six months post-randomization by a researcher blind to group allocation. The primary outcome measure was self-efficacy score at three months. Thirteen people with dementia were randomized to the intervention and 11 to TAU. Two groups were run, the first consisting of six people with dementia and the second of seven people with dementia. There was a small positive effect on self-efficacy with the intervention group showing gains in self-efficacy compared to the TAU group at three months (d = 0.35), and this was maintained at six months (d = 0.23). In terms of intervention acceptability, attrition was minimal, adherence was good, and satisfaction ratings were high. Feedback from participants was analyzed with content analysis. The findings suggest the positive aspects of the intervention were that it fostered independence and reciprocity, promoted social support, offered information, and provided clinician support. This study has provided preliminary evidence that self-management may be beneficial for people with early-stage dementia.

  7. Family group interventions in an early psychosis program: A re-evaluation of practice after 10 years of service delivery.

    PubMed

    Day, Kate; Starbuck, Rachael; Petrakis, Melissa

    2017-08-01

    The role of family in supporting service users in coping with illness and engaging in relapse prevention in early psychosis is important. Taking on this caring though is stressful and challenging, and it has been found that support and information for carers assists in their coping and reduces isolation. To evaluate the current utility of a psychoeducation group program in a public adult mental health service, for the families of people experiencing early psychosis. A purpose-designed pre- and post-intervention questionnaire was administered to quantitatively measure group participants' changes in perceptions of their understanding of mental illness and its treatment through attending the group. Additional qualitative items were used to determine other knowledge, benefits and any critical feedback. The group program continues to result in highly significant improvements in family members' understanding of psychosis, recovery, medications, relapse prevention and substance co-morbidities. Additional feedback reaffirmed previous findings that family members find group peer support valuable and that this reduces isolation and the experience of stigma. The current evaluation, conducted following 10 years of early psychosis group work, found there to be efficacy in family peer support groups and that it is important to provide family interventions in public early psychosis mental health services.

  8. Overview of Early Intervention

    MedlinePlus

    ... intervention, however. If you’re concerned about your child’s development, you may contact your local program directly and ... learn, so it’s always of concern when a child’s development seems slow or more difficult than would normally ...

  9. Five years of specialised early intervention versus two years of specialised early intervention followed by three years of standard treatment for patients with a first episode psychosis: randomised, superiority, parallel group trial in Denmark (OPUS II).

    PubMed

    Albert, Nikolai; Melau, Marianne; Jensen, Heidi; Emborg, Charlotte; Jepsen, Jens Richardt Mollegaard; Fagerlund, Birgitte; Gluud, Christian; Mors, Ole; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Nordentoft, Merete

    2017-01-12

    To compare the effects of five years of specialised early intervention (SEI) treatment for first episode schizophrenia spectrum disorder with the standard two years of SEI plus three years of treatment as usual. Randomised, superiority, parallel group trial with blinded outcome assessment. Randomisation was centralised and computerised with concealed randomisation sequence carried out at an external site. Participants were recruited from six OPUS teams in Denmark between 2009 and 2012. OPUS teams provide SEI treatment to all patients diagnosed with a schizophrenia spectrum disorder in Denmark. 400 participants (51% women) with a mean age of 25.6 (standard deviation 4.3) were randomised to five years of SEI (experimental intervention; n=197) or to two years of SEI plus three years of treatment as usual (control; n=203). OPUS treatment consists of three core elements-modified assertive community treatment, family involvement, and social skill training-with a patient-case manager ratio of no more than 12:1. For participants randomised to five years of OPUS treatment, the treatment was largely unchanged. Participants randomised to the control group were mostly referred to community health centres after two years of SEI treatment. Follow-up assessments were conducted five years after start of OPUS treatment. Primary outcome was negative symptoms measured on the scale for assessment of negative symptoms (avolition-apathy, anhedonia, alogia, and affective blunting). Secondary outcomes were remission of both negative and psychotic symptoms, psychotic symptoms, suicidal ideation, substance abuse, compliance with medical treatment, adherence with treatment, client satisfaction, days in hospital care, and labour market affiliation. Levels of negative symptoms did not differ between the intervention group and control group (1.72 v 1.81 points; estimated mean difference -0.10 (95% confidence interval -0.33 to 0.13), P=0.39). Participants receiving five years of OPUS treatment

  10. Early childhood mathematics intervention.

    PubMed

    Clements, Douglas H; Sarama, Julie

    2011-08-19

    Preschool and primary grade children have the capacity to learn substantial mathematics, but many children lack opportunities to do so. Too many children not only start behind their more advantaged peers, but also begin a negative trajectory in mathematics. Interventions designed to facilitate their mathematical learning during ages 3 to 5 years have a strong positive effect on these children's lives for many years thereafter.

  11. Early Literacy Instruction and Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Foorman, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the efficacy of early literacy interventions and to discuss possible roles for volunteer tutors in helping prevent reading difficulties within the Response to Intervention process. First, we describe a landmark study that evaluated the impact of primary classroom instruction on reducing the proportion of students at risk for reading failure, and a more recent series of studies exploring the effects of individualizing classroom reading instruction based on students’ initial skills. Second, we review studies of more intensive early intervention to demonstrate how these interventions substantially reduce the proportion of students at risk. Third, we examine effective tutoring models that utilize volunteers. Finally, we discuss the potential role of community tutors in supporting primary classroom instruction and secondary interventions. PMID:25221452

  12. Comparison of usual podiatric care and early physical therapy intervention for plantar heel pain: study protocol for a parallel-group randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A significant number of individuals suffer from plantar heel pain (PHP) and many go on to have chronic symptoms and continued disability. Persistence of symptoms adds to the economic burden of PHP and cost-effective solutions are needed. Currently, there is a wide variation in treatment, cost, and outcomes of care for PHP with limited information on the cost-effectiveness and comparisons of common treatment approaches. Two practice guidelines and recent evidence of effective physical therapy intervention are available to direct treatment but the timing and influence of physical therapy intervention in the multidisciplinary management of PHP is unclear. The purpose of this investigation is to compare the outcomes and costs associated with early physical therapy intervention (ePT) following initial presentation to podiatry versus usual podiatric care (uPOD) in individuals with PHP. Methods A parallel-group, block-randomized clinical trial will compare ePT and uPOD. Both groups will be seen initially by a podiatrist before allocation to a group that will receive physical therapy intervention consisting primarily of manual therapy, exercise, and modalities, or podiatric care consisting primarily of a stretching handout, medication, injections, and orthotics. Treatment in each group will be directed by practice guidelines and a procedural manual, yet the specific intervention for each participant will be selected by the treating provider. Between-group differences in the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure 6 months following the initial visit will be the primary outcome collected by an independent investigator. In addition, differences in the European Quality of Life – Five Dimensions, Numeric Pain Rating Scale, Global Rating of Change (GROC), health-related costs, and cost-effectiveness at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year will be compared between groups. The association between successful outcomes based on GROC score and participant expectations of recovery

  13. Early Diagnosis and Early Intervention in Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the opportunities and challenges for early diagnosis and early intervention in cerebral palsy (CP). CP describes a group of disorders of the development of movement and posture, causing activity limitation that is attributed to disturbances that occurred in the fetal or infant brain. Therefore, the paper starts with a summary of relevant information from developmental neuroscience. Most lesions underlying CP occur in the second half of gestation, when developmental activity in the brain reaches its summit. Variations in timing of the damage not only result in different lesions but also in different neuroplastic reactions and different associated neuropathologies. This turns CP into a heterogeneous entity. This may mean that the best early diagnostics and the best intervention methods may differ for various subgroups of children with CP. Next, the paper addresses possibilities for early diagnosis. It discusses the predictive value of neuromotor and neurological exams, neuroimaging techniques, and neurophysiological assessments. Prediction is best when complementary techniques are used in longitudinal series. Possibilities for early prediction of CP differ for infants admitted to neonatal intensive care and other infants. In the former group, best prediction is achieved with the combination of neuroimaging and the assessment of general movements, in the latter group, best prediction is based on carefully documented milestones and neurological assessment. The last part reviews early intervention in infants developing CP. Most knowledge on early intervention is based on studies in high-risk infants without CP. In these infants, early intervention programs promote cognitive development until preschool age; motor development profits less. The few studies on early intervention in infants developing CP suggest that programs that stimulate all aspects of infant development by means of family coaching are most promising. More research is urgently needed

  14. Early Intervention in Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    Vieta, Eduard; Salagre, Estela; Grande, Iria; Carvalho, André F; Fernandes, Brisa S; Berk, Michael; Birmaher, Boris; Tohen, Mauricio; Suppes, Trisha

    2018-05-01

    Bipolar disorder is a recurrent disorder that affects more than 1% of the world population and usually has its onset during youth. Its chronic course is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, making bipolar disorder one of the main causes of disability among young and working-age people. The implementation of early intervention strategies may help to change the outcome of the illness and avert potentially irreversible harm to patients with bipolar disorder, as early phases may be more responsive to treatment and may need less aggressive therapies. Early intervention in bipolar disorder is gaining momentum. Current evidence emerging from longitudinal studies indicates that parental early-onset bipolar disorder is the most consistent risk factor for bipolar disorder. Longitudinal studies also indicate that a full-blown manic episode is often preceded by a variety of prodromal symptoms, particularly subsyndromal manic symptoms, therefore supporting the existence of an at-risk state in bipolar disorder that could be targeted through early intervention. There are also identifiable risk factors that influence the course of bipolar disorder, some of them potentially modifiable. Valid biomarkers or diagnosis tools to help clinicians identify individuals at high risk of conversion to bipolar disorder are still lacking, although there are some promising early results. Pending more solid evidence on the best treatment strategy in early phases of bipolar disorder, physicians should carefully weigh the risks and benefits of each intervention. Further studies will provide the evidence needed to finish shaping the concept of early intervention. AJP AT 175 Remembering Our Past As We Envision Our Future April 1925: Interpretations of Manic-Depressive Phases Earl Bond and G.E. Partridge reviewed a number of patients with manic-depressive illness in search of a unifying endo-psychic conflict. They concluded that understanding either phase of illness was "elusive" and

  15. Teaching Caregivers in Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sawyer, Brook E.; Campbell, Philippa H.

    2017-01-01

    The overarching research aim of this study was to examine learning opportunities available for caregivers during early intervention sessions. Of specific interest were providers' purposeful (i.e., explicit) teaching behaviors and opportunities from which caregivers might learn incidentally. Relations between teaching behaviors, caregiver…

  16. Early Childhood Intervention in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Yuzhu; Maude, Susan P.; Brotherson, Mary Jane

    2015-01-01

    With rapid economic development and increasing awareness of the importance of early childhood intervention (ECI), China is re-examining its social and educational practices for young children with disabilities. This re-examination may have a significant impact on young children with disabilities in China. It may also set an example for other…

  17. Communication outcomes for groups of children using cochlear implants enrolled in auditory-verbal, aural-oral, and bilingual-bicultural early intervention programs.

    PubMed

    Dettman, Shani; Wall, Elizabeth; Constantinescu, Gabriella; Dowell, Richard

    2013-04-01

    The relative impact of early intervention approach on speech perception and language skills was examined in these 3 well-matched groups of children using cochlear implants. Eight children from an auditory verbal intervention program were identified. From a pediatric database, researchers blind to the outcome data, identified 23 children from auditory oral programs and 8 children from bilingual-bicultural programs with the same inclusion criteria and equivalent demographic factors. All child participants were male, had congenital profound hearing loss (pure tone average >80 dBHL), no additional disabilities, were within the normal IQ range, were monolingual English speakers, had no unusual findings on computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging, and received hearing aids and cochlear implants at a similar age and before 4 years of age. Open-set speech perception (consonant-nucleus-consonant [CNC] words and Bamford-Kowal-Bench [BKB] sentences) and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) were administered. The mean age at cochlear implant was 1.7 years (range, 0.8-3.9; SD, 0.7), mean test age was 5.4 years (range, 2.5-10.1; SD, 1.7), and mean device experience was 3.7 years (range, 0.7-7.9; SD, 1.8). Results indicate mean CNC scores of 60%, 43%, and 24% and BKB scores of 77%, 77%, and 56% for the auditory-verbal (AV), aural-oral (AO), and bilingual-bicultural (BB) groups, respectively. The mean PPVT delay was 13, 19, and 26 months for AV, AO, and BB groups, respectively. Despite equivalent child demographic characteristics at the outset of this study, by 3 years postimplant, there were significant differences in AV, AO, and BB groups. Results support consistent emphasis on oral/aural input to achieve optimum spoken communication outcomes for children using cochlear implants.

  18. Early intervention for alcohol problems

    PubMed Central

    Skinner, Harvey A.; Holt, Stephen

    1983-01-01

    Despite awareness of the wide variety of clinical and laboratory abnormalities associated with alcohol abuse, drinking problems often remain undetected in clinical practice. There is increasing evidence that problem drinking can be successfully treated by brief intervention. The general practitioner is in a good position to identify patients who drink excessively, and to intervene with brief counselling at an early stage when prognosis is more favourable. A practical strategy is described for diagnosis and intervention that could be readily implemented in clinical practice. PMID:6361249

  19. The Early Intervention Family Alliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romanick, Roxane

    2008-01-01

    In late 2005, individuals from across the country traveled to attend the national Office of Special Education Conference on Early Childhood in Washington, DC. Connected by networking at the conference, a group of parents with children with special needs left committed to collaboratively formulate a plan to create a family-centered and…

  20. Challenges and Limitations in Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2011-01-01

    Research over the past three decades has shown that early intervention in infants biologically at risk of developmental disorders, irrespective of the presence of a brain lesion, is associated with improved cognitive development in early childhood without affecting motor development. However, at present it is unknown whether early intervention is…

  1. Early Interventions: Keys to Successful Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffreys, JoAnn; Spang, Joan

    This action research outlines an early reading intervention project for improving students' reading skills and promoting the implementation of early reading intervention programs. The targeted population includes first and second grade students in one school located in the suburbs of a major city in Illinois. The problem of early reading…

  2. Study protocol for a group randomized controlled trial of a classroom-based intervention aimed at preventing early risk factors for drug abuse: integrating effectiveness and implementation research.

    PubMed

    Poduska, Jeanne; Kellam, Sheppard; Brown, C Hendricks; Ford, Carla; Windham, Amy; Keegan, Natalie; Wang, Wei

    2009-09-02

    While a number of preventive interventions delivered within schools have shown both short-term and long-term impact in epidemiologically based randomized field trials, programs are not often sustained with high-quality implementation over time. This study was designed to support two purposes. The first purpose was to test the effectiveness of a universal classroom-based intervention, the Whole Day First Grade Program (WD), aimed at two early antecedents to drug abuse and other problem behaviors, namely, aggressive, disruptive behavior and poor academic achievement. The second purpose--the focus of this paper--was to examine the utility of a multilevel structure to support high levels of implementation during the effectiveness trial, to sustain WD practices across additional years, and to train additional teachers in WD practices. The WD intervention integrated three components, each previously tested separately: classroom behavior management; instruction, specifically reading; and family-classroom partnerships around behavior and learning. Teachers and students in 12 schools were randomly assigned to receive either the WD intervention or the standard first-grade program of the school system (SC). Three consecutive cohorts of first graders were randomized within schools to WD or SC classrooms and followed through the end of third grade to test the effectiveness of the WD intervention. Teacher practices were assessed over three years to examine the utility of the multilevel structure to support sustainability and scaling-up. The design employed in this trial appears to have considerable utility to provide data on WD effectiveness and to inform the field with regard to structures required to move evidence-based programs into practice. NCT00257088.

  3. Ethics and Early Intervention: Toward More Relationship-Focused Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Able-Boone, Harriet

    1996-01-01

    The ethical issues surrounding early intervention services to young children with disabilities are discussed. The conflict between parental autonomy and paternalistic interventions is evaluated. Value-based intervention decisions, such as parent choice of alternative therapies, refusal of services, and family-centered versus child-centered care,…

  4. Ethnic variations in pathways into early intervention services for psychosis.

    PubMed

    Ghali, Sharif; Fisher, Helen L; Joyce, John; Major, Barnaby; Hobbs, Lorna; Soni, Sujata; Chisholm, Brock; Rahaman, Nikola; Papada, Peggy; Lawrence, Jo; Bloy, Sally; Marlowe, Karl; Aitchison, Katherine J; Power, Paddy; Johnson, Sonia

    2013-04-01

    Ethnic variations have previously been identified in the duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) and pathways into psychiatric services. These have not been examined in the context of early intervention services, which may alter these trajectories. To explore ethnic differences in the nature and duration of pathways into early intervention services. In a naturalistic cohort study, data were collected for 1024 individuals with psychotic disorders accepted for case management by eight London early intervention services. Duration of untreated psychosis was prolonged in the White British group compared with most other ethnic groups. White British individuals were more likely to make contact with their general practitioner and less likely to be seen within emergency medical services. All Black patient groups were more likely than their White British counterparts to experience involvement of criminal justice agencies. Variations continue to exist in how and when individuals from different ethnic groups access early intervention services. These may account for disparities in DUP.

  5. The EHDI and Early Intervention Connection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Lauri; Bradham, Tamala S.; Houston, K. Todd

    2011-01-01

    State coordinators of early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs completed a strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats, or SWOT, analysis that examined 12 areas within state EHDI programs. For the early intervention focus question, 48 coordinators listed 273 items, and themes were identified within each SWOT category. A…

  6. "Dosage" Decisions for Early Intervention Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Miriam; Marvin, Christine A.

    2016-01-01

    Part C of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Improvement Act (IDEA) of 2004 requires early intervention teams craft individualized and effective plans to meet the needs of young children with special needs and their families (Küpper, 2012). Many early intervention teams, however, may struggle to follow a process that results in…

  7. A Literature Review of Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panitch, Melanie

    This review of the literature on early childhood intervention with special needs children provides a Canadian perspective on theory, models, program development, effects, and training. After an introductory chapter, the second chapter identifies theoretical influences on early childhood intervention, including the work of Piaget, Bronfenbrenner,…

  8. Discerning the Future of Early Childhood Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigler, Edward; Berman, Winnie

    1983-01-01

    Examines the recent history of early childhood intervention efforts; discusses principles that guided the formation of intervention programs in the 1960s and 1970s; describes the Head Start program and lessons learned from its development; considers issues in evaluating intervention programs; and presents suggestions for future directions in early…

  9. Infusing Early Childhood Mental Health into Early Intervention Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grabert, John C.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the process of enhancing early childhood mental health awareness and skills in non-mental health staff. The author describes a pilot training model, conducted the U.S. Army's Early Intervention Services, that involved: (a) increasing early childhood mental health knowledge through reflective readings, (b) enhancing…

  10. Velocardiofacial Syndrome and Early Intervention Providers: Recommendations for Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Valerie E.; Fullman, Leah I.; Bruns, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), the most common microdeletion syndrome, is increasingly diagnosed in young children because of advances in diagnostic testing. The result is an increase in the number of young children with VCFS referred for early intervention (EI) services. We describe early development of children with VCFS and strategies to…

  11. Benefits of Early Intervention for Special Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Pamela W.; Trohanis, Pascal L.

    The document contains summaries of over 50 publicly available publications which support the case for early intervention for handicapped children and their families. Section 1 contains studies pertaining to the effectiveness of any intervention. This section also describes projects approved by the United States Department of Education's Joint…

  12. Early Intervention, Maternal Development and Children's Play.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, Diana T.

    The purposes of this longitudinal study of early intervention with 83 black mother-child dyads were (a) to test the thesis that sociocultural transmission influences childhood development in educationally significant ways, and (b) to describe the process through which such transmission can occur. Two social intervention programs were contrasted;…

  13. News in early intervention in autism.

    PubMed

    Geoffray, Marie-Maude; Thevenet, Marion; Georgieff, Nicolas

    2016-09-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental trouble which prevents the child from socio-communicative interaction, and learning from his environment. Non-medical early intervention attempts to improve prognosis. We will review the main current hypothesis, intervention models and scientific supports about early intervention. We conducted a search of the literature published on Medline between 2010 and 2015 related to intervention models provided to children with ASD aged less than 3 years. Data were extracted from systematic reviews and recent randomized controlled trials with moderate to high GRADE quality of evidence. Early intervention refers to brain plasticity theory. With the epidemiological studies of infant "at risk" there is an attempt to intervene earlier before full syndrome is present. Interventions tend to follow more on a developmental hierarchy of socio-communicative skills and to focus on the dyadic relation between the child and the caregivers to improve the core autistic symptoms. Over the last 6 years, there's been news and fine-tuned ways about early intervention, and more and more systematic evaluation. However, there are only few interventions which were evaluated in trial with a strong GRADE recommendation and all of them have methodological concerns. It is important to be cautious in recommendations for mental health politic, even if it is important to improve access to services for all children and their families, hence finance and design rigorous project in research.

  14. Group Process in a Women's Career Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawson, Diana L.; Kahn, Sharon E.

    1993-01-01

    Explored women's experiences of group process in career planning interventions and relationship of those experiences to vocational maturity. Results from 99 career-undecided women revealed that female clients, similar to other counseling clients, highly valued both cognitive and affective components of group process in career counseling groups.…

  15. Early Risers. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    "Early Risers" is a multi-year prevention program for elementary school children demonstrating early aggressive and disruptive behavior. The intervention model includes two child-focused components and two parent/family components. The Child Skills component is designed to teach skills that enhance children's emotional and behavioral…

  16. Early Intervention: Key Issues from Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraser, Helen

    1998-01-01

    As the preschool and early years of schooling were becoming the focus of increasing attention, the Scottish Office Education and Industry Department commissioned a review of United Kingdom and international literature on the use of early intervention schemes for disadvantaged students. The resulting review presents evidence on the most appropriate…

  17. Defining Family-Friendly Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Donna E. Dugger; Wartelle, Noah L.

    Prior to the 1986 passage of PL 99-457, an extension of the special services coverage under the Education for All Handicapped Children Act, early intervention programs were primarily interventionist directed and child focused. The new legislation provided incentives for providing programs that were family-centered and family-driven. The goal of…

  18. Defining Parent Education in Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinnebeil, Laurie A.

    1999-01-01

    This response to Mahoney et al. (EC 623 392) offers a definition of parent education and discusses the importance of identifying intended outcomes and providing effective educational opportunities. Two models of parent education in early intervention are described: Parents Interacting with Infants and the Individualized Support Project. Some…

  19. Readability of Early Intervention Program Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pizur-Barnekow, Kris; Patrick, Timothy; Rhyner, Paula M.; Cashin, Susan; Rentmeester, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Accessibility of early intervention program literature was examined through readability analysis of documents given to families who have a child served by the Birth to 3 program. Nine agencies that serve families in Birth to 3 programs located in a county in the Midwest provided the (n = 94) documents. Documents were included in the analysis if…

  20. Early Intervention Services in Youth Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Darryl; Johnston, Amy; Campbell, Bronwyn; Littlefield, Lyn

    2007-01-01

    Mental and substance use disorders are leading contributors to the burden of disease among young people in Australia, but young people experience a range of barriers to accessing appropriate treatment for their mental health concerns. The development of early intervention services that provide accessible and effective mental health care has the…

  1. Early Childhood Gifted Assessment and Intervention Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Michelle; Fleischmann, Charles; Kenner, Emily; McCobin, Allison; McGoey, Kara

    2017-01-01

    In the area of early childhood gifted education and effective interventions for young children identified as intellectually gifted, there appears to be a persistent lack of research. There is also very little research on the characteristics and social-emotional development of young gifted children, particularly those of preschool age. The small…

  2. Mothers' Coping and Hope in Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einav, Michal; Levi, Uzi; Margalit, Malka

    2012-01-01

    The goals of the study were to examine the relations between maternal coping and hope among mothers who participated in early intervention program for their infants. Earlier studies focused attention on mothers' experiences of stress and their coping. Within the salutogenic construct, we aim at examining relations between mothers' coping and hope…

  3. Early Intervention: Expanding Access to Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Kevin, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    "The ERIC Review" announces research results, publications, and new programs relevant to each issue's theme topic. This issue focuses on early intervention and its role in making higher education accessible to all students, especially those who are traditionally underrepresented or at risk. An introductory section contains one article,…

  4. Early Intervention Methods for Child Abuse Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, David A.

    A longitudinal study was made of a prevention-oriented early intervention program intended to help parents who had insufficient and inappropriate childrearing abilities. The program was designed for young parents with fewer than 5 years of childrearing experience; participants were referred from a child protection agency following investigation of…

  5. Outcome Measures for Early Childhood Intervention Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Accreditation Council on Services for People with Disabilities, Landover, MD.

    This collection of 21 suggested outcome measures for early childhood intervention services is intended to apply to all types of service and support program models for children (birth to age 5) with various developmental delays and/or disabilities. The measures are appropriate for either home-based or center-based service delivery models. Section 1…

  6. American Sign Language and Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snoddon, Kristin

    2008-01-01

    Since the beginning of the twenty-first century, the introduction in several countries of universal neonatal hearing screening programs has changed the landscape of education for deaf children. Due to the increasing provision of early intervention services for children identified with hearing loss, public education for deaf children often starts…

  7. Phonics and Semiotics for Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Lucia Y.

    2010-01-01

    Clay's Reading Recovery has been one of the most effective one-to-one tutorial sessions. To make the daily lesson more interesting and fully engage the at-risk readers, the author modified Clay's Reading Recovery Program by conceptualizing phonics and semiotics into early intervention. In this case study, three at-risk first graders formed an…

  8. Mothers' Stress, Resilience and Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margalit, M.; Kleitman, T.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine factors that predict maternal stress, reported by mothers whose infants were diagnosed as having developmental disabilities at the beginning of participating in an early intervention programme "Me and My Mommy" and after one year. A second goal was to identify and to portray a subgroup of resilient…

  9. Gestalt Therapy Interventions for Group Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Passons, William R.

    1972-01-01

    The author offers a brief introduction to some of the basic tenets of Gestalt therapy, noting goals that are similar to those in counseling theories. He also suggests several interventions from Gestalt therapy to be considered for group counseling and discusses their applications. (Author)

  10. Nuffield Early Language Intervention: Evaluation Report and Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sibieta, Luke; Kotecha, Mehul; Skipp, Amy

    2016-01-01

    The Nuffield Early Language Intervention is designed to improve the spoken language ability of children during the transition from nursery to primary school. It is targeted at children with relatively poor spoken language skills. Three sessions per week are delivered to groups of two to four children starting in the final term of nursery and…

  11. Professional Training in Early Intervention: A European Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretis, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    Professional training in early childhood intervention (ECI), particularly additional certificates, degrees, or continuing education, is currently a major topic within European working groups. The complexity of ECI, including medical, pedagogical, psychological, and social involvement, the need for both family- and child-centered work, and the…

  12. Employment and educational outcomes in early intervention programmes for early psychosis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bond, G R; Drake, R E; Luciano, A

    2015-10-01

    Young adults with early psychosis want to pursue normal roles - education and employment. This paper summarises the empirical literature on the effectiveness of early intervention programmes for employment and education outcomes. We conducted a systematic review of employment/education outcomes for early intervention programmes, distinguishing three programme types: (1) those providing supported employment, (2) those providing unspecified vocational services and (3) those without vocational services. We summarised findings for 28 studies. Eleven studies evaluated early intervention programmes providing supported employment. In eight studies that reported employment outcomes separately from education outcomes, the employment rate during follow-up for supported employment patients was 49%, compared with 29% for patients receiving usual services. The two groups did not differ on enrolment in education. In four controlled studies, meta-analysis showed that the employment rate for supported employment participants was significantly higher than for control participants, odds ratio = 3.66 [1.93-6.93], p < 0.0001. Five studies (four descriptive and one quasi-experimental) of early intervention programmes evaluating unspecified vocational services were inconclusive. Twelve studies of early intervention programmes without vocational services were methodologically heterogeneous, using diverse methods for evaluating vocational/educational outcomes and precluding a satisfactory meta-analytic synthesis. Among studies with comparison groups, 7 of 11 (64%) reported significant vocational/education outcomes favouring early intervention over usual services. In early intervention programmes, supported employment moderately increases employment rates but not rates of enrolment in education. These improvements are in addition to the modest effects early programmes alone have on vocational/educational outcomes compared with usual services.

  13. EARLY INTERVENTIONS FOR PTSD: A REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Kearns, Megan C.; Ressler, Kerry J.; Zatzick, Doug; Rothbaum, Barbara Olasov

    2013-01-01

    The high prevalence of trauma exposure and subsequent negative consequences for both survivors and society as a whole emphasize the need for secondary prevention of posttraumatic stress disorder. However, clinicians and relief workers remain limited in their ability to intervene effectively in the aftermath of trauma and alleviate traumatic stress reactions that can lead to chronic PTSD. The scientific literature on early intervention for PTSD is reviewed, including early studies on psychological debriefing, pharmacological, and psychosocial interventions aimed at preventing chronic PTSD. Studies on fear extinction and memory consolidation are discussed in relation to PTSD prevention and the potential importance of immediate versus delayed intervention approaches and genetic predictors are briefly reviewed. Preliminary results from a modified prolonged exposure intervention applied within hours of trauma exposure in an emergency room setting are discussed, along with considerations related to intervention reach and overall population impact. Suggestions for future research are included. Prevention of PTSD, although currently not yet a reality, remains an exciting and hopeful possibility with current research approaches translating work from the laboratory to the clinic. PMID:22941845

  14. Transition to Kindergarten for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Focus Group Study With Ethnically Diverse Parents, Teachers, and Early Intervention Service Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Elizabeth M.; Martini, Tanya S.; Kuo, Ben C. H.

    2016-01-01

    Despite the stated importance of a successful kindergarten transition (TTK) for future school success, no research has addressed this transition for culturally/ethnically diverse families having children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). To address this gap, six focus groups (three with ethnically diverse parents, one with kindergarten…

  15. 34 CFR 303.11 - Early intervention program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Early intervention program. 303.11 Section 303.11... AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND... intervention program. As used in this part, early intervention program means the total effort in a State that...

  16. 34 CFR 303.11 - Early intervention program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Early intervention program. 303.11 Section 303.11... AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND... intervention program. As used in this part, early intervention program means the total effort in a State that...

  17. Embedded Professional Development and Classroom-Based Early Reading Intervention: Early Diagnostic Reading Intervention through Coaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amendum, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current mixed-methods study was to investigate a model of professional development and classroom-based early reading intervention implemented by the 1st-grade teaching team in a large urban/suburban school district in the southeastern United States. The intervention provided teachers with ongoing embedded professional…

  18. Intervention of Behavioural, Cognitive and Sex on Early Childhood's Aggressive Behaviour

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purwati; Japar, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to find out the effect of behavioural intervention, cognitive intervention, and sex intervention toward the aggressive behaviour of early childhood. The study is conducted at two non-formal institutions of Education on Early Childhood in Magelang. This study obtains the data from two experimental groups consisting of 14 early…

  19. Early Intervention in Reading[R]. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2008

    2008-01-01

    "Early Intervention in Reading"[R] is a program designed to provide extra instruction to groups of students at risk of failing to learn to read. The program uses picture books to stress instruction in phonemic awareness, phonics, and contextual analysis, along with repeated reading and writing. In grades K, 1, and 2, the program is based on…

  20. Early Interventions for At-Risk Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huxman, Frankie; Klassen, Eydie; Koontz, Barbara; Nottingham, Cheryl; Vierthaler, Charlene

    This is a report on a school-wide ethnographic study of intervention strategies for at-risk students in kindergarten through second grade. A group of 5 teachers from an elementary school of approximately 250 students in a Midwest community of about 18,000 people (2 first-grade teachers, 2 second-grade teachers, and 1 music teacher) comprised the…

  1. THINGS THAT CAN BE CHANGED IN EARLY INTERVENTION IN CHILDHOOD.

    PubMed

    Golubović, Špela; Marković, Jasminka; Perović, Lidija

    2015-01-01

    Early intervention implies a model of support focused on a child, family and a broader community from early childhood. The aim of this study was to analyze the elements of the successful early intervention in childhood, as well as to assess the role of a special educator and rehabilitator and level of their involvement in implementing the program on the territory of Novi Sad. The study sample included 100 parents of children with disabilities (aged 3-7), who completed the questionnaire designed for the purposes of this research, based on a similar questionnaire design. Speech delay is one of the most common reasons (over 50%) why parents seek professional help. By the end of the first year of life of their child, 43% of parents responded that they had noticed the first problems, that is, a problem was identified in 25% of children of this age group, and the same number was included in the treatment. About 55% of children were involved in organized treatment from 3 years of age onwards. Special educators and rehabilitators are usually involved in treatment when the team consists of three or more professionals. It is necessary to improve early intervention services, to educate staff, and provide conditions which would make it possible to overcome the existing disadvantages in treating children from an early age. In addition, the involvement of special education and rehabilitation professionals in treatment teams since children's early age is vital.

  2. 34 CFR 303.112 - Availability of early intervention services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Availability of early intervention services. 303.112... SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR... System Minimum Components of A Statewide System § 303.112 Availability of early intervention services...

  3. 34 CFR 303.12 - Early intervention service provider.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Early intervention service provider. 303.12 Section 303... EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.12 Early intervention service...

  4. 34 CFR 303.112 - Availability of early intervention services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Availability of early intervention services. 303.112... SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR... System Minimum Components of A Statewide System § 303.112 Availability of early intervention services...

  5. 34 CFR 303.11 - Early intervention service program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Early intervention service program. 303.11 Section 303... EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.11 Early intervention service...

  6. 34 CFR 303.12 - Early intervention service provider.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Early intervention service provider. 303.12 Section 303... EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.12 Early intervention service...

  7. 34 CFR 303.112 - Availability of early intervention services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Availability of early intervention services. 303.112... SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR... System Minimum Components of A Statewide System § 303.112 Availability of early intervention services...

  8. 34 CFR 303.11 - Early intervention service program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Early intervention service program. 303.11 Section 303... EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.11 Early intervention service...

  9. 34 CFR 303.11 - Early intervention service program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Early intervention service program. 303.11 Section 303... EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.11 Early intervention service...

  10. 34 CFR 303.12 - Early intervention service provider.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Early intervention service provider. 303.12 Section 303... EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 303.12 Early intervention service...

  11. Prevention of food allergy - Early dietary interventions.

    PubMed

    Du Toit, George; Foong, Ru-Xin M; Lack, Gideon

    2016-10-01

    The prevalence of food allergy has increased over the last 30 years and remains a disease, which significantly impacts on the quality of life of children and their families. Several hypotheses have been formulated to explain the increasing prevalence; this review will focus on the hypothesis that dietary factors may influence the development of food allergy. Historically, the prevention of food allergy has focused on allergen avoidance. However, recent findings from interventional studies have prompted a shift in the mind set from avoidance to early introduction of potentially allergenic foods. This review aims to facilitate a better understanding of contemporary research studies that make use of early introduction of common allergenic foods into infant diets as a preventative strategy against the development of food allergy. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Mediators and moderators in early intervention research

    PubMed Central

    Breitborde, Nicholas J. K.; Srihari, Vinod H.; Pollard, Jessica M.; Addington, Donald N.; Woods, Scott W.

    2015-01-01

    Aim The goal of this paper is to provide clarification with regard to the nature of mediator and moderator variables and the statistical methods used to test for the existence of these variables. Particular attention will be devoted to discussing the ways in which the identification of mediator and moderator variables may help to advance the field of early intervention in psychiatry. Methods We completed a literature review of the methodological strategies used to test for mediator and moderator variables. Results Although several tests for mediator variables are currently available, recent evaluations suggest that tests which directly evaluate the indirect effect are superior. With regard to moderator variables, two approaches (‘pick-a-point’ and regions of significance) are available, and we provide guidelines with regard to how researchers can determine which approach may be most appropriate to use for their specific study. Finally, we discuss how to evaluate the clinical importance of mediator and moderator relationships as well as the methodology to calculate statistical power for tests of mediation and moderation. Conclusion Further exploration of mediator and moderator variables may provide valuable information with regard to interventions provided early in the course of a psychiatric illness. PMID:20536970

  13. Mediators and moderators in early intervention research.

    PubMed

    Breitborde, Nicholas J K; Srihari, Vinod H; Pollard, Jessica M; Addington, Donald N; Woods, Scott W

    2010-05-01

    The goal of this paper is to provide clarification with regard to the nature of mediator and moderator variables and the statistical methods used to test for the existence of these variables. Particular attention will be devoted to discussing the ways in which the identification of mediator and moderator variables may help to advance the field of early intervention in psychiatry. We completed a literature review of the methodological strategies used to test for mediator and moderator variables. Although several tests for mediator variables are currently available, recent evaluations suggest that tests which directly evaluate the indirect effect are superior. With regard to moderator variables, two approaches ('pick-a-point' and regions of significance) are available, and we provide guidelines with regard to how researchers can determine which approach may be most appropriate to use for their specific study. Finally, we discuss how to evaluate the clinical importance of mediator and moderator relationships as well as the methodology to calculate statistical power for tests of mediation and moderation. Further exploration of mediator and moderator variables may provide valuable information with regard to interventions provided early in the course of a psychiatric illness.

  14. Early Nutrition and Physical Activity Interventions in Childhood Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fang Fang; Kelly, Michael J.; Must, Aviva

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of review Childhood cancer survivors experience excessive weight gain early in treatment. Lifestyle interventions need to be initiated early in cancer care to prevent the early onset of obesity and cardiovascular disease (CVD). We reviewed the existing literature on early lifestyle interventions in childhood cancer survivors and consider implications for clinical care. Recent findings Few lifestyle interventions focus on improving nutrition in childhood cancer survivors. A consistent effect on reducing obesity and CVD risk factors is not evident from the limited number of studies with heterogeneous intervention characteristics, although interventions with a longer duration and follow-up show more promising trends. Summary Future lifestyle interventions should be of a longer duration and include a nutrition component. Interventions with a longer duration and follow-up are needed to assess the timing and sustainability of the intervention effect. Lifestyle interventions introduced early in cancer care are both safe and feasible. PMID:28455678

  15. Perception of peer group rank of individuals with early psychosis.

    PubMed

    Allison, Gemma; Harrop, Chris; Ellett, Lyn

    2013-03-01

    Social rank theory has been applied to psychosis, in particular the relationship between an individual and their voices. However, perceived peer group rank has not been empirically tested in an early psychosis group. The purpose of the study was to test the prediction that individuals with early psychosis will have lower perceived social status, engage in submissive behaviours more frequently, and will feel more entrapped by external events compared to a healthy control group. The study employed a cross-sectional design, comparing individuals with early psychosis and healthy controls. A total of 24 participants with early psychosis and 24 matched controls completed self-report measures of social rank, including social comparison, submissive behaviours and entrapment, measures of depression, anxiety and psychotic symptoms, and measures of peer network size and peer relationship quality. Individuals with early psychosis viewed themselves as being of lower social rank and inferior in relation to matched controls, and also reported engaging in submissive behaviours more frequently and felt more entrapped by external events. Perception of lower social rank and inferiority amongst individuals with early psychosis may impact on engagement in peer relationships and impact on the social decline in early psychosis, which could have significant implications for interventions and recovery. ©2012 The British Psychological Society.

  16. "How Early Is Early?" or "How Late Is Late?": Thinking through Some Issues in Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercieca, Daniela; Mercieca, Duncan P.

    2014-01-01

    Early intervention comes in-between the lives of children, families and teachers. This article uses part of a report written by an educational psychologist about a little girl to question the nature of intervention through Rancière's writings. As children and parents are seen as put into the position of inadequacy, they require such…

  17. Early hearing detection and intervention: 2010 CODEPEH recommendation.

    PubMed

    Trinidad-Ramos, Germán; de Aguilar, Valentín Alzina; Jaudenes-Casaubón, Carmen; Núñez-Batalla, Faustino; Sequí-Canet, José Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Newborn hearing screening is currently performed routinely in many regional health-care systems in Spain. Despite the remarkable expansion in newborn hearing screening since 2000, its feasibility and the benefits of early identification and intervention, many major challenges still remain. In this article, the Committee for the Early Detection of Hearing Loss (Comisión para la Detección Precoz de la Hipoacusia, CODEPEH) updates the recommendations that are considered important for the future development of early hearing detection and intervention (EDHI) systems in the following points: 1. Screening protocols: Separate protocols are recommended for NICU (Neonatal Intensive Care Units) and well-infant nurseries. 2. Diagnostic audiology evaluation. Professionals with skills and expertise in evaluating newborn and young infants should provide diagnosis, selection and fitting of amplification devices. 3. Medical evaluation. Risk factors for congenital and acquired hearing loss have been combined in a single list rather than grouped by time of onset. A stepwise diagnostic paradigm is diagnostically more efficient and cost-effective than a simultaneous testing approach. 4. Early intervention and surveillance. All individuals providing services to infants with hearing loss should have specialized training and expertise in the development of audition, speech and language. Regular surveillance should be performed on developmental milestones, auditory skills, parental concerns, and middle ear status. 5. Quality control. Data management as part of an integrated system is important to monitor and improve the quality of EDHI services. 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  18. Early Intervention for Children with Disabilities: The Australian Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pieterse, Moira, Ed.; And Others

    A collection of papers on the Australian experience with early intervention for children with disabilities gives regional overviews, describes specific intervention programs, and discusses a variety of issues. Overviews are given of early intervention in Australia in general, New South Wales, Victoria, Queensland, South Australia, Western…

  19. Developments in early intervention for psychosis in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wong, G H Y; Hui, C L M; Wong, D Y; Tang, J Y M; Chang, W C; Chan, S K W; Lee, E H M; Xu, J Q; Lin, J J X; Lai, D C; Tam, W; Kok, J; Chung, D W S; Hung, S F; Chen, E Y H

    2012-09-01

    The year 2011 marked the 10-year milestone of early intervention for psychosis in Hong Kong. Since 2001, the landscape of early psychosis services has changed markedly in Hong Kong. Substantial progress has been made in the areas of early intervention service implementation, knowledge generation, and public awareness promotion. Favourable outcomes attributable to the early intervention service are supported by solid evidence from local clinical research studies; early intervention service users showed improved functioning, ameliorated symptoms, and decreased hospitalisation and suicide rates. Continued development of early intervention in Hong Kong over the decade includes the introduction and maturation of several key platforms, such as the Hospital Authority Early Assessment Service for Young People with Psychosis programme, the Psychosis Studies and Intervention Unit by the University of Hong Kong, the Hong Kong Early Psychosis Intervention Society, the Jockey Club Early Psychosis Project, and the postgraduate Psychological Medicine (Psychosis Studies) programme. In this paper, we reviewed some of the major milestones in local service development with reference to features of the Hong Kong mental health system. We describe chronologically the implementation and consolidation of public early intervention services as well as recent progresses in public awareness work that are tied in with knowledge generation and transfer, and outline the prospects for early intervention in the next decade and those that follow.

  20. Interventions for nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Anne; Dowswell, Therese; Haas, David M; Doyle, Mary; O’Mathúna, Dónal P

    2014-01-01

    were unable to pool findings from studies for most outcomes due to heterogeneity in study participants, interventions, comparison groups, and outcomes measured or reported. The methodological quality of the included studies was mixed. Authors’ conclusions Given the high prevalence of nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy, health professionals need to provide clear guidance to women, based on systematically reviewed evidence. There is a lack of high-quality evidence to support that advice. The difficulties in interpreting the results of the studies included in this review highlight the need for specific, consistent and clearly justified outcomes and approaches to measurement in research studies. PMID:20824863

  1. Predictors of Responsiveness to Early Literacy Intervention: A 10-Year Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Elizabeth A.; McMaster, Kristen L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to update previous reviews on factors related to students' responsiveness to early literacy intervention. The 14 studies in this synthesis used experimental designs, provided small-group or one-on-one reading interventions, and analyzed factors related to responsiveness to those interventions. Participants were…

  2. Teachers' Perceptions of Georgia's Early Reading Intervention Program: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobby, Patti Tennant

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study used an ethnographic method to investigate teachers' perceptions of reading interventions delivered in a state-funded early intervention program (EIP). Academically at-risk students struggle to meet grade-level standards year after year, even with interventions involving small group, targeted assistance. Teacher perceptions…

  3. Early Intervention and AAC: What a Difference 30 Years Makes.

    PubMed

    Romski, MaryAnn; Sevcik, Rose A; Barton-Hulsey, Andrea; Whitmore, Ani S

    2015-01-01

    This article provides an overview of early intervention and AAC over the 30-year period since the founding of the journal Augmentative and Alternative Communication in 1985. It discusses the global context for early intervention and addresses issues pertaining to young children from birth to 6 years of age. It provides a narrative review and synthesis of the evidence base in AAC and early intervention. Finally, it provides implications for practice and future research directions.

  4. VIA Family - Family Based Early Intervention Versus Treatment as Usual

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2018-04-12

    Early Intervention; Child of Impaired Parents; Child; Adolescent; Mental Disorders, Severe; Schizophrenia; Bipolar Disorder; Depressive Disorder, Recurrent; Psychotic Disorders; Parent-Child Relations

  5. Overview of Play: Its Uses and Importance in Early Intervention/Early Childhood Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lifter, Karin; Foster-Sanda, Suzanne; Arzamarski, Caley; Briesch, Jacquelyn; McClure, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Play is a natural activity of early childhood, which has great relevance to the fields of early intervention, early childhood special education, and early childhood education. Within these fields, ongoing tensions persist in how play is described and used. These tensions compromise activities of assessment, intervention, and curriculum development…

  6. Group Interactions Among the Elderly and Group Therapy Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakin, M.; And Others

    Methods developed for investigating group processes and contents among four Senior Citizens' discussion groups are described. The process dimensions are boundary behaviors, subgrouping, normative behaviors, organizing, establishing personal significance, group and leader interchanges, self disclosures, conflict, support, and emotional atmosphere.…

  7. Gender comparisons in children with ASD entering early intervention.

    PubMed

    Fulton, Alexandra M; Paynter, Jessica M; Trembath, David

    2017-09-01

    Males are diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) approximately four times as often as females. This has led to interest in recent years of potential under-diagnosis of females, as well as negative consequences for females with ASD due to under-identification. A number of potential explanations for gender bias in diagnosis are discussed including that females and males may present differently despite showing the same core symptoms. Previous research has shown inconsistent findings in comparisons between genders in young children with ASD for whom early intervention is vital. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the social, communication, and cognitive functioning, as well as level of ASD symptoms, in a cohort of children who presented for early intervention to inform understanding of gender differences in this population, as well as to inform understanding of the mechanisms by which gender bias may occur. Participants included 254 children (42 females) aged 29-74 months who completed measures of cognition, communication skills, adaptive behaviour, and ASD symptoms on entry to early intervention. Consistent with hypotheses, no significant gender differences were found both overall, and when split by functioning level. However, a similar ratio of males and females was found in both high- and low-functioning groups contrary to predictions. These results are consistent with some of the previous research that suggests gender differences may not be apparent in clinical samples at this young age. We highlight a need for further research that may use universal screening or longitudinal methods to understand the trajectory of development for females with ASD specifically. Such research could better inform timely and tailored intervention from the preschool years onwards. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Promotion, Prevention and Early Intervention for Mental Health: National Consultation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    This report provides a description of a national consultation that was undertaken in 2001-2002 to provide feedback on two companion national policy documents: "National Action Plan for Promotion, Prevention and Early Intervention for Mental Health 2000" and "Promotion, Prevention and Early Intervention for Mental Health: A…

  9. Effects of Critical Thinking Intervention for Early Childhood Teacher Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Heejeong Sophia; Brown, E. Todd

    2013-01-01

    This study is based on an intervention designed to enhance early childhood teacher candidates' critical thinking abilities. The concept, elements, standards, and traits of critical thinking were integrated into the main course contents, and the effects of the intervention were examined. The results indicated that early childhood teacher…

  10. Early Intervention Practices in China: Present Situation and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Xiaoyi; Yang, Xijie

    2013-01-01

    Early intervention services to young children with developmental delays in China have experienced significant growth since 1978, the beginning of the period of Reform and Opening. This article described the present situation of early intervention practices in mainland China, framed around the key components and guiding principles of Guralnick's…

  11. A National Look at Children and Families Entering Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarborough, Anita A.; Spiker, Donna; Mallik, Sangeeta; Hebbeler, Kathleen M.; Bailey Jr., Donald B.; Simeonsson, Rune J.

    2004-01-01

    The National Early Intervention Longitudinal Study (NEILS) is the first study of Part C of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) early intervention system with a nationally representative sample of infants and toddlers with disabilities. This article presents national estimates of characteristics of infants and toddlers and their…

  12. Mapping the Early Intervention System in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This study documents the wide range of early intervention services across the province of Ontario. The services are mapped across the province showing geographic information as well as the scope of services (clinical, family-based, resource support, etc.), the range of early intervention professionals, sources of funding and the populations served…

  13. Using and Providing Services: Case Studies in Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWilliam, Robin; Tocci, Lynn; Sideris, John; Harbin, Gloria

    A case study approach was used to examine the complexities of service utilization in early intervention with infants, toddlers, and young children with disabilities. Seventy-two families of children (ages birth to 4) participating in nine early intervention programs in three states (Colorado, North Carolina, and Pennsylvania) and their service…

  14. Parent Involvement in Early Intervention: What Role Does Setting Play?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellar-Guenther, Yvonne; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Block, Stephen R.; Robinson, Cordelia C.

    2014-01-01

    This study compared levels of parent involvement in early intervention services for children under three which were delivered in community settings (children's homes and child care programs) and specialized settings (early intervention centers and provider offices) in the USA. Respondents reported the highest levels of parental involvement in the…

  15. Early Intervention for Families and Children Experiencing Homelessness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurley, Jennifer J.; Looby, Winnie; Goodrum, Ashley R.; Campbell, Elizabeth M.; Bonti, Gregg K.; Raymon, Becca A.; Condon, Rebecca; Schwaeber, Sami E.; Mauceri, Melina E.; Bourne, Erin M.; Callahan, Elizabeth D.; Hardy, Danielle L.; Mathews, Pamela

    2018-01-01

    Early intervention (EI) services are provided for families and children at risk for or with developmental delays. Early intervention includes services that are provided in the natural environment as mandated by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA; 2004). The natural environment is where children and families would naturally spend…

  16. A Consumer's Guide To Outcomes in Early Childhood Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Accreditation Council on Services for People with Disabilities, Landover, MD.

    This collection of 21 suggested outcome measures for early childhood intervention services is designed to assist families in evaluating the quality of early intervention services they receive. The measures apply to all types of service and support program models for children with various developmental delays and/or disabilities and their families.…

  17. Mathematical Difficulty: Does Early Intervention Enhance Mathematical Performance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    The need to ask educators about their opinions on the subject to what extent early intervention methods enhance mathematical performance is long overdue. The purpose of this quantitative research is to examine the extent to which teachers agree that early intervention methods enhance the mathematical performance of students with mathematical…

  18. Student Preparation for Professional Practice in Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francois, Jennifer R.; Coufal, Kathy L.; Subramanian, Anu

    2015-01-01

    The preparation of students for professional practice in the field of early intervention has changed as a result of mandates through Part C, Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA). The purpose of this survey research was to describe the knowledge and skill areas, specific to early intervention, included in pre-professional curricula…

  19. Seven Elements Important to Successful Implementation of Early Literacy Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foorman, Barbara; Dombek, Jennifer; Smith, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this article is to describe seven elements important to successful implementation of early literacy intervention. The seven elements are drawn from research as well as from the authors' recent randomized controlled trial of effective early literacy interventions in kindergarten through second grade in 55 schools across Florida.…

  20. A Comparison of Responsive Interventions on Kindergarteners' Early Reading Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Little, Mary E.; Rawlinson, D'Ann; Simmons, Deborah C.; Kim, Minjung; Kwok, Oi-man; Hagan-Burke, Shanna; Simmons, Leslie E.; Fogarty, Melissa; Oslund, Eric; Coyne, Michael D.

    2012-01-01

    This study compared the effects of Tier 2 reading interventions that operated in response-to-intervention contexts. Kindergarten children (N = 90) who were identified as at risk for reading difficulties were stratified by school and randomly assigned to receive (a) Early Reading Intervention (ERI; Pearson/Scott Foresman, 2004) modified in response…

  1. Mode of entry to an early intervention service for psychotic disorders: determinants and impact on outcome.

    PubMed

    Pira, Shamira; Durr, Georges; Pawliuk, Nicole; Joober, Ridha; Malla, Ashok

    2013-11-01

    Specialized early intervention services for first-episode psychosis should treat a proportion of patients without using inpatient beds. This study compared such service users by their initial mode of treatment before entry-inpatient (N=157) or outpatient (N=102). On entry to a Montreal early intervention service, the groups were compared on baseline clinical and functional variables and on hospitalizations during two years of treatment. Initial presentation at an emergency service, shorter duration of untreated psychosis, lower functioning level, and aggressive and bizarre behavior were associated with the inpatient entry mode to early intervention services. During follow-up, individuals entering as inpatients spent more days hospitalized than those entering as outpatients, and their time to rehospitalization was shorter. Results suggest that entry into early intervention services via the hospital emergency department and presentation with behavioral and functional disturbances were more predictive than core psychotic symptoms of hospital inpatient status on referral to an early intervention service.

  2. Cerebral Palsy: A Lifelong Challenge Asks for Early Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Panteliadis, Christos P; Hagel, Christian; Karch, Dieter; Heinemann, Karl

    2015-01-01

    One of the oldest and probably well-known examples of cerebral palsy is the mummy of the Pharaoh Siptah about 1196–1190 B.C., and a letter from Hippocrates (460–390 B.C.). Cerebral palsy (CP) is one of the most common congenital or acquired neurological impairments in paediatric patients, and refers to a group of children with motor disability and related functional defects. The visible core of CP is characterized by abnormal coordination of movements and/or muscle tone which manifest very early in the development. Resulting from pre- or perinatal brain damage CP is not a progressive condition per se. However, without systematic medical and physiotherapeutic support the dystonia leads to muscle contractions and to deterioration of the handicap. Here we review the three general spastic manifestations of CP hemiplegia, diplegia and tetraplegia, describe the diagnostic procedures and delineate a time schedule for an early intervention. PMID:26191093

  3. Day hospital for early intervention for individuals with psychotic disorders.

    PubMed

    Šago, Daniela; Filipčić, Igor; Lovretić, Vanja; Mayer, Nina

    2018-06-01

    In long-term outcome studies on individuals with first-episode psychosis, improved remission and recovery rates perhaps reflect the improved treatment in dedicated early intervention program. The first episode is a critical period in which individuals with psychosis, as well as members of their families, are confronted with the illness for the first time. Until nowadays, treatment of first psychotic episodes in Croatia has usually been provided in hospital setting. The day hospital provides comprehensive therapeutic approach that refers to early systematic application of all available and effective therapeutic methods in the initial phases of psychotic disorders, and aims to attain and maintain remission and recovery, as well as insight and adherence to treatment. The day hospital is a time-limited structured program that comprises diagnostic procedures, treatment and rehabilitation based on various group psychotherapy and socio-therapy approaches. It is cheaper than hospital treatment and preferred by patients and their families. The importance of involving family members along with patients in the therapeutic process is recognized. The aim of this paper is to present the first day hospital for early intervention and treatment of individuals with psychotic disorder, established within Psychiatric hospital "Sveti Ivan", Zagreb, Croatia.

  4. Preventing Obesity Across Generations: Evidence for Early Life Intervention.

    PubMed

    Haire-Joshu, Debra; Tabak, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    To prevent the intergenerational transfer of obesity and end the current epidemic, interventions are needed across the early life stages, from preconception to prenatal to infancy through the age of 2 years. The foundation for obesity is laid in early life by actions and interactions passed from parent to child that have long-lasting biologic and behavioral consequences. The purpose of this paper is to examine the best evidence about (a) factors in parents and offspring that promote obesity during the early life stages, (b) the social determinants and dimensions of obesity in early life, (c) promising and effective interventions for preventing obesity in early life, and (d) opportunities for future research into strategies to disrupt the intergenerational cycle of obesity that begins early in life. The pathway for halting the intergenerational obesity epidemic requires the discovery and development of evidence-based interventions that can act across multiple dimensions of influence on early life.

  5. Preventing Obesity Across Generations: Evidence for Early Life Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Haire-Joshu, Debra; Tabak, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    To prevent the intergenerational transfer of obesity and end the current epidemic, interventions are needed across the early life stages, from preconception to prenatal to infancy through the age of 2 years. The foundation for obesity is laid in early life by actions and interactions passed from parent to child that have long-lasting biologic and behavioral consequences. The purpose of this paper is to examine the best evidence about (a) factors in parents and offspring that promote obesity during the early life stages, (b) the social determinants and dimensions of obesity in early life, (c) promising and effective interventions for preventing obesity in early life, and (d) opportunities for future research into strategies to disrupt the intergenerational cycle of obesity that begins early in life. The pathway for halting the intergenerational obesity epidemic requires the discovery and development of evidence-based interventions that can act across multiple dimensions of influence on early life. PMID:26989828

  6. Assessing Early Intervention Provider Needs: Insights from One State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Christine M.; Connor, Susan M.; Burke, Ted; Cheema, Jehanzeb R.; Ostrosky, Michaelene M.

    2018-01-01

    A statewide needs assessment was conducted with early interventionists to gather information on perceived professional development (PD) needs. Across 3 years, 4,455 early interventionists responded to an online survey. Data were analyzed for reported needs on PD topics in seven broad areas related to early intervention processes and content.…

  7. Early Intervention Paraprofessional Standards: Development and Field Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Rashida; Chopra, Ritu V.; DiPalma, Geraldine

    2017-01-01

    Personnel standards are the foundations for how states and nations approve a program, engage in systemic assessment, and provide effective professional development to its early childhood professionals. However, despite the extensive use of paraprofessionals in early intervention/early childhood special education programs, there is a lack of…

  8. "It's Just So Lovely to Hear Him Talking": Exploring the Early-Intervention Expectations and Experiences of Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Rena; O'Malley, Mary Pat; O'Connor, Patricia; Monaghan, Una

    2010-01-01

    Little research to date explores parental experiences of early intervention. This study uses action research over a six-month period to explore the expectations and experiences of parents whose children attended an early-intervention group for speech/language impairments. This intervention programme was facilitated by a speech and language…

  9. Early detection and intervention for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Sonuga-Barke, Edmund J S; Koerting, Johanna; Smith, Elizabeth; McCann, Donna C; Thompson, Margaret

    2011-04-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a high-cost/high-burden disorder. Early detection and intervention may prevent or ameliorate the development of the disorder and reduce its long-term impact. In this article, we set out a rationale for an early detection and intervention program. First, we highlight the costs of the condition and second, we discuss the limitations of the current treatments. We then outline the potential value of an early detection and intervention program. We review evidence on predictors of poor outcomes for early ADHD signs and discuss how these might allow us to target early intervention more cost-effectively. We then examine potential barriers to engagement with at-risk samples. This leads to a discussion of possible intervention approaches and how these could be improved. Finally, we describe the Program for Early Detection and Intervention for ADHD (PEDIA), a 5-year program of research supported by the UK National Institute for Health Research and conducted at the University of Southampton (Southampton, UK), which aims to develop and evaluate a strategy for early intervention.

  10. Interventions to promote cancer awareness and early presentation: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Austoker, J; Bankhead, C; Forbes, L J L; Atkins, L; Martin, F; Robb, K; Wardle, J; Ramirez, A J

    2009-01-01

    Background: Low cancer awareness contributes to delay in presentation for cancer symptoms and may lead to delay in cancer diagnosis. The aim of this study was to review the evidence for the effectiveness of interventions to raise cancer awareness and promote early presentation in cancer to inform policy and future research. Methods: We searched bibliographic databases and reference lists for randomised controlled trials of interventions delivered to individuals, and controlled or uncontrolled studies of interventions delivered to communities. Results: We found some evidence that interventions delivered to individuals modestly increase cancer awareness in the short term and insufficient evidence that they promote early presentation. We found limited evidence that public education campaigns reduce stage at presentation of breast cancer, malignant melanoma and retinoblastoma. Conclusions: Interventions delivered to individuals may increase cancer awareness. Interventions delivered to communities may promote cancer awareness and early presentation, although the evidence is limited. PMID:19956160

  11. Functional Behavioral Assessments and Intervention Plans in Early Intervention Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaRocque, Michelle; Brown, Sharan E.; Johnson, Kurt L.

    2001-01-01

    This article advocates the use of functional behavioral assessments (FBAs) and behavior intervention plans (BIPs) in the development of Individualized Family Service Plans for children with or at risk of developing behavioral disorders. It describes the FBA and BIP processes and proposes a parent collaborative model for assessment and…

  12. Effective Intervention in Primary Schools: Nurture Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennathan, Marion; Boxall, Marjorie

    This book summarizes the experiences of nurture groups (small special education classes started in 1970 in London schools), where young children from disadvantaged environments are prepared to access the full primary school curriculum. Chapter 1, "Children at Risk of Failure in Primary Schools" (Marion Bennathan), discusses the incidence…

  13. Rationale for early versus late intervention with arthroscopy for treatment of inflammatory/degenerative temporomandibular joint disorders.

    PubMed

    Israel, Howard A; Behrman, David A; Friedman, Joel M; Silberstein, Jennifer

    2010-11-01

    The goal of this study was to determine if there were differences in outcomes of arthroscopic surgery in patients with inflammatory/degenerative temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disease who underwent early surgical intervention versus late surgical intervention. The study population included 44 consecutive patients who met the criteria for TMJ operative arthroscopy who were divided into early and late intervention groups. The time between the onset of symptoms and the performance of arthroscopy was used to determine entry into the early versus late intervention group. All groups were evaluated for changes in preoperative versus postoperative pain levels based on visual analog scale (VAS) scores and maximum interincisal opening distance. Statistical analyses included the Student t test to determine if there were significant differences between preoperative and postoperative assessments in the early and late intervention groups. The mean time between onset of symptoms in the early intervention group (21 patients) was 5.4 months compared with 33 months in the late intervention group (23 patients). All patient groups had statistically significant decreases in pain and improvement in maximum interincisal opening distance after arthroscopy. The early intervention group had a mean decrease in VAS pain scores of 5.14 compared with the late intervention group with a mean decrease in VAS pain scores of 2.84, and this difference was significant (P = .012). The early intervention group had a mean increase in maximum interincisal opening of 12.38 mm compared with the late intervention group with a mean increase of 7.70. Although statistical significance was not achieved for increases in maximum interincisal opening between the early and late intervention groups (P = .089), the difference between the 2 groups was suggestive of a trend. There were no surgical complications for either group; however, 2 patients in the late intervention group developed persistent chronic neuropathic

  14. Positive Effects of Promoting Prosocial Behavior in Early Adolescence: Evidence from a School-Based Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Kanacri, Bernadette Paula Luengo; Gerbino, Maria; Zuffianò, Antonio; Alessandri, Guido; Vecchio, Giovanni; Caprara, Eva; Pastorelli, Concetta; Bridglall, Beatrice

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a pilot school-based intervention called CEPIDEA, designed to promote prosocial behavior in early adolescence. The study took place in a middle school located in a small city near Rome. The intervention group included 151 students (52.3% males; M[subscript age] = 12.4), and the control group…

  15. "Foundations for Literacy": An Early Literacy Intervention for Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lederberg, Amy R.; Miller, Elizabeth M.; Easterbrooks, Susan R.; Connor, Carol McDonald

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluated the efficacy of a new preschool early literacy intervention created specifically for deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children with functional hearing. Teachers implemented "Foundations for Literacy" with 25 DHH children in 2 schools (intervention group). One school used only spoken language, and the other used…

  16. Group crisis intervention for children during ongoing war conflict.

    PubMed

    Thabet, Abdel Aziz; Vostanis, Panos; Karim, Khalid

    2005-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term impact of a group crisis intervention for children aged 9-15 years from five refugee camps in the Gaza Strip during ongoing war conflict. Children were selected if they reported moderate to severe posttraumatic stress reactions, and were allocated to group intervention (N=47) encouraging expression of experiences and emotions through storytelling, drawing, free play and role-play; education about symptoms (N=22); or no intervention (N=42). Children completed the CPTSD-RI and the CDI pre- and post-intervention. No significant impact of the group intervention was established on children's posttraumatic or depressive symptoms. Possible explanations of the findings are discussed, including the continuing exposure to trauma and the non-active nature of the intervention.

  17. Promoting equity through integrated early child development and nutrition interventions.

    PubMed

    Black, Maureen M; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable development, a foundation of the post-2015 global agenda, depends on healthy and productive citizens. The origins of adult health begin early in life, stemming from genetic-environmental interactions that include adequate nutrition and opportunities for responsive learning. Inequities associated with inadequate nutrition and early learning opportunities can undermine children's health and development, thereby compromising their productivity and societal contributions. Transactional theory serves as a useful framework for examining the associations that link early child development and nutrition because it emphasizes the interplay that occurs between children and the environment, mediated through caregiver interactions. Although single interventions targeting early child development or nutrition can be effective, there is limited evidence on the development, implementation, evaluation, and scaling up of integrated interventions. This manuscript introduces a special edition of papers on six topics central to integrated child development/nutrition interventions: (1) review of integrated interventions; (2) methods and topics in designing integrated interventions; (3) economic considerations related to integrated interventions; (4) capacity-building considerations; (5) examples of integrated interventions; and (6) policy implications of integrated interventions. Ensuring the health and development of infants and young children through integrated child development/nutrition interventions promotes equity, a critical component of sustainable development. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  18. Intervention with African American Premature Infants: Four-Month Results of an Early Intervention Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teti, Douglas M.; Black, Maureen M.; Viscardi, Rose; Glass, Penny; O'Connell, Melissa A.; Baker, Linda; Cusson, Regina; Reiner Hess, Christine

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of an early intervention program targeting African American mothers and their premature, low birth weight infants at 3 to 4 months' corrected age from four neonatal intensive care units, 173 families are recruited (84 intervention, 89 control). The 8-session, 20-week intervention consists of a psychoeducational…

  19. Democratic Group Process in Early Childhood Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Lois C.

    This paper examines ways in which early childhood education can provide the vital foundation for lifelong attitudes and values toward the democratic process. One goal of early childhood education is to empower the social bonding which brings collaborative relationships to their full potential and gives the child a sense of connectedness to others.…

  20. The Marin City Early Intervention Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Far West Lab. for Educational Research and Development, Berkeley, CA.

    This report briefly describes the Marin City, California community and summarizes progress made by the Far West Laboratory's Western Regional Laboratory in the development of a long-range community intervention program. Marin City is a predominantly low-income, black community in which 30 percent of households, mainly those headed by single women,…

  1. [Parental self-efficacy in family-centered early intervention].

    PubMed

    Sarimski, Klaus; Hintermair, Manfred; Lang, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Parental self-efficacy is seen as an important concern in family-centered early intervention. This article reports the data from 125 parents of young children with intellectual disabilities, hearing impairment or visual impairment. The relationship between parental self-efficacy, parental stress and several parent and child variables is analyzed. The results support the relevance of parental self-efficacy for parental coping. Some recommendations for promoting their experience of participation and partnership in early intervention services are discussed.

  2. Early intervention for post-traumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Richard A

    2007-02-01

    The potentially debilitating effect of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has created much interest in early intervention strategies that can reduce PTSD. This review critiques the evidence for psychological debriefing approaches and alternate early intervention strategies. The review critiques the randomized controlled trials of psychological debriefing, and early provision of cognitive behavior therapy. The latter approach involves therapy attention on acutely traumatized individuals who are high risk for PTSD development, and particularly in people with acute stress disorder (ASD). Psychological debriefing does not prevent PTSD. Cognitive behaviour therapy strategies have proven efficacy in reducing subsequent PTSD in ASD populations. Despite the promising evidence for early provision of CBT, many people do not benefit from CBT. This review concludes with consideration of major challenges facing early intervention approaches in the context of terrorist attacks and mass disasters.

  3. The Neurobiology of Intervention and Prevention in Early Adversity.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Philip A; Beauchamp, Kate G; Roos, Leslie E; Noll, Laura K; Flannery, Jessica; Delker, Brianna C

    2016-01-01

    Early adverse experiences are well understood to affect development and well-being, placing individuals at risk for negative physical and mental health outcomes. A growing literature documents the effects of adversity on developing neurobiological systems. Fewer studies have examined stress neurobiology to understand how to mitigate the effects of early adversity. This review summarizes the research on three neurobiological systems relevant to interventions for populations experiencing high levels of early adversity: the hypothalamic-adrenal-pituitary axis, the prefrontal cortex regions involved in executive functioning, and the system involved in threat detection and response, particularly the amygdala. Also discussed is the emerging field of epigenetics and related interventions to mitigate early adversity. Further emphasized is the need for intervention research to integrate knowledge about the neurobiological effects of prenatal stressors (e.g., drug use, alcohol exposure) and early adversity. The review concludes with a discussion of the implications of this research topic for clinical psychology practice and public policy.

  4. Effect of a Targeted Early Literacy Intervention for English Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arellano, Elizabeth Michelle

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of a targeted early literacy intervention among Spanish-speaking kindergarten English Learners (ELs). Using a Response to Intervention (RtI) framework, participants were screened in English to ensure a need for additional literacy support. Selected students were then screened in Spanish, and students with…

  5. Early Numeracy Intervention: Does Quantity Discrimination Really Work?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansmann, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Scope and Method of Study: The current study demonstrates that a taped problem intervention is an effective tool for increasing the early numeracy skill of QD. A taped problems intervention was used with two variations of the quantity discrimination measure (triangle and traditional). A 3x2 doubly multivariate multivariate analysis of variance was…

  6. Coaching with Parents in Early Intervention: An Interdisciplinary Research Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Peggy; Turnbull, Ann P.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to synthesize intervention studies using coaching with parents in early intervention with a focus on (a) definitions and descriptions of coaching with parents; (b) characteristics of families and coaches; (c) parameters such as settings, contexts, dosage, and professional development related to coaching; and (d)…

  7. SKIPing with Teachers: An Early Years Motor Skill Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brian, Ali; Goodway, Jacqueline D.; Logan, Jessica A.; Sutherland, Sue

    2017-01-01

    Background: Fundamental motor skill (FMS) interventions when delivered by an expert can significantly improve the FMS of young children with and without developmental delays. However, there is a gap in the literature as few early childhood centers employ experts with the professional background to deliver FMS intervention. Purpose: The primary…

  8. Selective Prevention Approaches to Build Protective Factors in Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Cheri J.

    2014-01-01

    Young children with disabilities may be at elevated risk for behavior problems as well as maltreatment. preventive approaches that can be infused into early intervention services are needed to support parents, build competencies among young children, and enhance protective factors that may temper risk. Two interventions--Stepping Stones Triple P,…

  9. Family Perceptions of Transitions in Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lovett, David L.; Haring, Kathryn A.

    2003-01-01

    This article explores three broad themes about transitions that have emerged in a naturalistic study of experiences of families with young children with disabilities. Generalizations regarding early transitions include families going through a birth crisis have difficulty understanding all the information they are provided. Not only is their role…

  10. Early recognition of growth abnormalities permitting early intervention

    Normal growth is a sign of good health. Monitoring for growth disturbances is fundamental to children's health care. Early detection and diagnosis of the causes of short stature allows management of underlying medical conditions, optimizing attainment of good health and normal adult height. This rev...

  11. A psychological injury prevention group intervention in Swedish floorball.

    PubMed

    Tranaeus, Ulrika; Johnson, Urban; Engström, Björn; Skillgate, Eva; Werner, Suzanne

    2015-11-01

    The main purpose of the study was to evaluate a psychological skills training intervention at group level aiming to prevent injuries, separated in traumatic and overuse, in male and female elite floorball players. Twenty-three teams in the premiere leagues for males and females were volunteered, and the teams were allocated to an intervention group (n = 11, males n = 94, females n = 99) and a control group (n = 12, males n = 109, females n = 99). The teams in the intervention group participated in a psychological skills training programme consisting of six meetings with each team. The control group received no substitute. All injuries were registered and documented according to the time-loss definition and classified into either traumatic or overuse. In total, 142 players (35 %) out of the 401 players sustained 197 injuries, 0.49 injury/player: in the intervention group 0.45 injury/player and in the control group 0.53 injury/player. The analyses revealed no significant differences in injuries between intervention groups and control groups. The effect size of the influence of the psychological skills training in overuse injuries was considered to be small, Cohen's d 0.2. This study comprised the whole team for a group intervention and did not screen for at-risk athletes, e.g. scoring high in anxiety or low in coping skills, which might have influenced the result. A psychological injury prevention intervention forward to a whole team might not influence the injury occurrence significantly. Thus, this psychological intervention decreased the injury incidence which is of clinical interest. Level II.

  12. Early Literacy Intervention for Preschoolers Who Need Tier 3 Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaminski, Ruth A.; Powell-Smith, Kelly A.

    2017-01-01

    Phonemic awareness has been consistently identified as an essential skill for as well as an important predictor of later reading achievement. Children who lack these early literacy skills at kindergarten entry are more likely to demonstrate both short- and long-term reading difficulties. Despite the importance of providing intervention early,…

  13. Transdisciplinary Model and Early Intervention: Building Collaborative Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Valerie E.; Thompson, Stacy D.

    2014-01-01

    The National Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center (NECTAC) reported 348,604 children received services in the United States under Part C of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) in 2009, representing 2.7% of the population (NECTAC, 2012). Early Intervention (EI), or Part C, is designed to provide services to families of…

  14. Promoting Professional Development for Physical Therapists in Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catalino, Tricia; Chiarello, Lisa A.; Long, Toby; Weaver, Priscilla

    2015-01-01

    Early intervention service providers are expected to form cohesive teams to build the capacity of a family to promote their child's development. Given the differences in personnel preparation across disciplines of service providers, the Early Childhood Personnel Center is creating integrated and comprehensive professional development models for…

  15. Partnership Patterns: Addressing Emotional Needs in Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brotherson, Mary Jane; Summers, Jean Ann; Naig, Lisa A.; Kyzar, Kathleen; Friend, Anna; Epley, Pamela; Gotto, George S., IV; Turnbull, Ann P.

    2010-01-01

    Home visiting in early intervention is the primary model for delivering services and building partnerships with children and families. Using interviews with early interventionists and family members, this study investigated the extent to which families' and professionals' emotional needs were met during home visits and what factors contributed to…

  16. Early Communication Development and Intervention for Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landa, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder defined by impairments in social and communication development, accompanied by stereotyped patterns of behavior and interest. The focus of this paper is on the early development of communication in autism, and early intervention for impairments in communication associated with this disorder. An overview of…

  17. Are We Missing a Vulnerable Population in Early Intervention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blasco, Patricia M.; Guy, Sybille; Saxton, Sage N.; Duvall, Susanne W.

    2017-01-01

    Infants with low birth weight (LBW = 2,500 g) are at high risk for developmental delays, including cognitive impairments. Retrospective studies have shown that these children often have learning and/or behavioral difficulties at school age. Early evaluation and enrollment in early intervention (EI) programs may reduce the impact of these…

  18. Brief Report: Group Social-Multimodal Intervention for HFASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauminger, Nirit

    2007-01-01

    Current study is the second part of a 2-year cognitive-behavioral-ecological (CB-E) intervention for high-functioning (HF) children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We examined the utility of a group-centered intervention on children's ability to interact cooperatively with peers during structured and non-structured social situations. Direct…

  19. Parenting stress reduces the effectiveness of early teaching interventions for autistic spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Lisa A; McHugh, Louise; Saunders, Jo; Reed, Phil

    2008-07-01

    This community-based study examined the influence of early teaching interventions on children diagnosed with Autistic Spectrum Disorders, and the dynamics between the time intensity of the interventions and parenting stress, on child outcomes. Intellectual, educational, and adaptive behavior and social functioning were all measured. Sixty-five children were divided into four groups, based on the levels of time intensity of their intervention, and on their parents' stress levels. There were gains in intellectual, educational, and adaptive behavioral and social skills, and there was a positive relationship between the time intensity of the early teaching interventions and child outcome gains. More importantly, however, high levels of parenting stress counteracted the effectiveness of the early teaching interventions.

  20. [Basics of early intervention in children with autism spectrum disorders].

    PubMed

    Zalaquett, Daniela F; Schönstedt, Marianne G; Angeli, Milagros; Herrrera, Claudia C; Moyano, Andrea C

    2015-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are characterized by impairments in communication and social interaction, as well as restricted and repetitive patterns of behavior. They have a prevalence of 0.6% in the general population, although there are no national statistics. Even though their evolution is variable, it has been observed that early intervention is an important factor determining prognosis. The aim of this study is to update concepts regarding the current available evidence on the importance of early intervention. After analyzing the collected information, the importance of early intervention programs for children with ASD is confirmed, as well as the role of pediatricians and other health professionals in the early detection of these disorders. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  1. About the Early Detection Research Group | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Early Detection Research Group supports research that seeks to determine the effectiveness, operating characteristics and clinical impact (harms as well as benefits) of cancer early detection technologies and practices, such as imaging and molecular biomarker approaches.   The group ran two large-scale early detection trials for which data and biospecimens are available

  2. Systematic review of control groups in nutrition education intervention research.

    PubMed

    Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol; Wu, FanFan; Spaccarotella, Kim; Quick, Virginia; Martin-Biggers, Jennifer; Zhang, Yingting

    2017-07-11

    Well-designed research trials are critical for determining the efficacy and effectiveness of nutrition education interventions. To determine whether behavioral and/or cognition changes can be attributed to an intervention, the experimental design must include a control or comparison condition against which outcomes from the experimental group can be compared. Despite the impact different types of control groups can have on study outcomes, the treatment provided to participants in the control condition has received limited attention in the literature. A systematic review of control groups in nutrition education interventions was conducted to better understand how control conditions are described in peer-reviewed journal articles compared with experimental conditions. To be included in the systematic review, articles had to be indexed in CINAHL, PubMed, PsycINFO, WoS, and/or ERIC and report primary research findings of controlled nutrition education intervention trials conducted in the United States with free-living consumer populations and published in English between January 2005 and December 2015. Key elements extracted during data collection included treatment provided to the experimental and control groups (e.g., overall intervention content, tailoring methods, delivery mode, format, duration, setting, and session descriptions, and procedures for standardizing, fidelity of implementation, and blinding); rationale for control group type selected; sample size and attrition; and theoretical foundation. The search yielded 43 publications; about one-third of these had an inactive control condition, which is considered a weak study design. Nearly two-thirds of reviewed studies had an active control condition considered a stronger research design; however, many failed to report one or more key elements of the intervention, especially for the control condition. None of the experimental and control group treatments were sufficiently detailed to permit replication of the

  3. AIMS baby movement scale application in high-risk infants early intervention analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Shi, J-P; Li, Y-H; Yang, W-H; Tian, Y-J; Gao, J; Li, S-J

    2016-05-01

    We investigated the application of Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) in screening motor development delay in the follow-up of high-risk infants who were discharged from NICU, to explain the state of infants' motor development and propose early individualized intervention. The study design was a randomized, single-blind trial by selecting patients between April 2015 and November 2015 in our hospital, children nerve recovery branch clinics and 77 cases of high-risk infants. We randomly divided the patients into observation group (39 cases) and control group (38 cases). To evaluate the application with AIMS, observation group was based on evaluation results for the first time to give rehabilitation training plan making, early intervention, control group according to the growth and development milestone in order to guide parents to take family training interval of 3 months. While comparing the two groups of high-risk infants before the intervention, the months of age, gender, risk factors, it was found that the AIMS scores, each position AIMS scores did not show a significant difference in percentile (p>0.05). There was also no significant difference between two groups in the seat and stand AIMS scores before and after intervention (p>0.05). However, the comparison of two groups of high-risk infants after intervention in comparison showed that the observation group supine AIMS scores and AIMS scores were significantly higher than the control group (p<0.05). Prone position AIMS scores observation group was also significantly higher than that of the control group (p<0.01). The corresponding percentile for two groups after the intervention of AIMS scores was less than 10% of cases, which was significantly lower in the observation group (p<0.01). AIMS can predict the development delay in high-risk infants, for improving the early hypernymic diagnosis and intervention.

  4. Large Group Narrative Intervention in Head Start Preschools: Implications for Response to Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Trina D.; Petersen, Douglas B.; Slocum, Timothy A.; Allen, Melissa M.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of a large group narrative intervention on diverse preschoolers' narrative language skills with aims to explore questions of treatment efficacy and differential response to intervention. A quasi-experimental, pretest/posttest comparison group research design was employed with 71 preschool children. Classrooms…

  5. Early diagnosis and Early Start Denver Model intervention in autism spectrum disorders delivered in an Italian Public Health System service.

    PubMed

    Devescovi, Raffaella; Monasta, Lorenzo; Mancini, Alice; Bin, Maura; Vellante, Valerio; Carrozzi, Marco; Colombi, Costanza

    2016-01-01

    Early diagnosis combined with an early intervention program, such as the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM), can positively influence the early natural history of autism spectrum disorders. This study evaluated the effectiveness of an early ESDM-inspired intervention, in a small group of toddlers, delivered at low intensity by the Italian Public Health System. Twenty-one toddlers at risk for autism spectrum disorders, aged 20-36 months, received 3 hours/wk of one-to-one ESDM-inspired intervention by trained therapists, combined with parents' and teachers' active engagement in ecological implementation of treatment. The mean duration of treatment was 15 months. Cognitive and communication skills, as well as severity of autism symptoms, were assessed by using standardized measures at pre-intervention (Time 0 [T0]; mean age =27 months) and post-intervention (Time 1 [T1]; mean age =42 months). Children made statistically significant improvements in the language and cognitive domains, as demonstrated by a series of nonparametric Wilcoxon tests for paired data. Regarding severity of autism symptoms, younger age at diagnosis was positively associated with greater improvement at post-assessment. Our results are consistent with the literature that underlines the importance of early diagnosis and early intervention, since prompt diagnosis can reduce the severity of autism symptoms and improve cognitive and language skills in younger children. Particularly in toddlers, it seems that an intervention model based on the ESDM principles, involving the active engagement of parents and nursery school teachers, may be effective even when the individual treatment is delivered at low intensity. Furthermore, our study supports the adaptation and the positive impact of the ESDM entirely sustained by the Italian Public Health System.

  6. Group Play Therapy with Sexually Abused Preschool Children: Group Behaviors and Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Karyn Dayle

    2002-01-01

    Group play therapy is a common treatment modality for children who have been sexually abused. Sexually abused preschoolers exhibit different group play therapy behaviors than do nonabused children. Group workers need to be aware of these differences and know the appropriate group interventions. This article describes group play therapy with…

  7. Early Education for Spanish Speaking Mexican American Children--A Comparison of Three Intervention Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nedler, Shari

    Three programs of early intervention designed specifically for the Mexican American child are discussed. Three groups, each consisting of 16 three-year-old children, were involved in a nine month program. The first group of children, enrolled in a daily three hour bilingual preschool program, were exposed to sequenced instructional activities.…

  8. An Intervention Including an Online Game to Improve Grade 6 Students' Performance in Early Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolovou, Angeliki; van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja; Koller, Olaf

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated whether an intervention including an online game contributed to 236 Grade 6 students' performance in early algebra, that is, solving problems with covarying quantities. An exploratory quasi-experimental study was conducted with a pretest-posttest-control-group design. Students in the experimental group were asked to solve…

  9. Social network diagnostics: a tool for monitoring group interventions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many behavioral interventions designed to improve health outcomes are delivered in group settings. To date, however, group interventions have not been evaluated to determine if the groups generate interaction among members and how changes in group interaction may affect program outcomes at the individual or group level. Methods This article presents a model and practical tool for monitoring how social ties and social structure are changing within the group during program implementation. The approach is based on social network analysis and has two phases: collecting network measurements at strategic intervention points to determine if group dynamics are evolving in ways anticipated by the intervention, and providing the results back to the group leader to guide implementation next steps. This process aims to initially increase network connectivity and ultimately accelerate the diffusion of desirable behaviors through the new network. This article presents the Social Network Diagnostic Tool and, as proof of concept, pilot data collected during the formative phase of a childhood obesity intervention. Results The number of reported advice partners and discussion partners increased during program implementation. Density, the number of ties among people in the network expressed as a percentage of all possible ties, increased from 0.082 to 0.182 (p < 0.05) in the advice network, and from 0.027 to 0.055 (p > 0.05) in the discussion network. Conclusions The observed two-fold increase in network density represents a significant shift in advice partners over the intervention period. Using the Social Network Tool to empirically guide program activities of an obesity intervention was feasible. PMID:24083343

  10. Methamphetamine Exposure: A Rural Early Intervention Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Barry M.; Arria, Amelia M.; Derauf, Christian; Grant, Penny; LaGasse, Linda; Newman, Elana; Shah, Rizwan Z.; Stewart, Sara; Wouldes, Trecia

    2006-01-01

    In the Infant Development, Environment and Lifestyle (IDEAL) Study of methamphetamine (MA) effects on children, the authors screened approximately 27,000 newborn infants for MA exposure, and from that pool derived a sample of in utero MA-exposed children as well as a comparison group matched for other drug use and other factors. IDEAL measures…

  11. School Age Outcomes of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Who Received Community-Based Early Interventions.

    PubMed

    Vinen, Zoe; Clark, Megan; Paynter, Jessica; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2018-05-01

    This study followed children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) from early intervention into their early schooling years, when they were aged between 6 and 9 years, on autism symptom severity and cognitive functioning. The children, matched at pre-intervention, were compared on type of community provided service: 31 were in receipt of community-based group Early Start Denver Model and 28 had received other community provisions for ASD. Irrespective of groups, cognitive functioning was found to have significantly improved by school age compared to pre-intervention. Autism symptom severity increased during the same developmental period, seemingly driven by an increase in restricted and repetitive behaviours over time. In contrast, both groups displayed improved social affect by school age.

  12. [Study on early intervention of compound nutrition for cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease].

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Xie, Wei; Zhu, Jinfeng; Dang, Rui; Wang, Decai

    2014-01-01

    To observe the early prevention effect of the compound nutrients recipe for cognitive dysfunction of Alzheimer' s disease model-APP-PSN transgenic mouse. 36 APP-PSN transgenic mice aged two months randomly were divided into the intervention group supplied with compound recipe in the diet and the control group fed based feed, the former had high dose and low dose, 12 APP-PSN transgenic negative mice aged two months as the negative control were fed based feed. After 3 months' intervention, four groups' cognitive functions were evaluated using the Morris water maze, active avoidance experiment and jumping stair experiment. There was not statistically different between all the four groups for the weight and food intake. Compared with the control group, Morris water maze's incubation period of the intervention group was lower obviously, and jumping stair experiment's incubation period of the intervention group was higher obviously. In the active avoidance experiment, the high and low dose intervention group' s conditioned response accounted about 46.67% and 45.00% respectively, and the control group's conditioned response accounted about 20.83%. The differences of the three behavioral experiments between control group and intervention group had the statistical significance (P < 0.05), so the same as between control group and negative control group (P < 0.05). And there was no difference between intervention group and negative control group for the three behavioral experiments. The early supplementation with compound nutrition could postpone the occurrence and development of Alzheimer' s disease mice model's cognitive dysfunction.

  13. Leadership Qualities Emerging in an Online Social Support Group Intervention.

    PubMed

    Kodatt, Stephanie A; Shenk, Jared E; Williams, Mark L; Horvath, Keith J

    2014-11-01

    Technology-delivered interventions addressing a broad range of problems for which clients present for therapy are proliferating. However, little is known of leadership dynamics that emerge in online group interventions. The purpose of this study was to assess the types of leadership qualities that would emerge in an online social support group intervention to improve medication adherence for men with HIV, and to characterize the demographic and psychosocial profiles of leaders. Written posts ( n =616) from 66 men were coded using an adapted version of the Full Range Model of Leadership. Results showed that 10% ( n =64) of posts reflected one of five leadership types, the most common of which was mentoring/providing feedback (40% of leadership posts). The next most common leadership style were instances in which encouragement was offered (30% of leadership posts). Leaders appeared to have lived with HIV longer and have higher Internet knowledge scores than non-leaders. Results indicate that online group interventions potentially may be useful to supplement traditional face-to-face treatment by providing an additional venue for group members to mentor and provide emotional support to each other. However, additional research is needed to more fully understand leadership qualities and group dynamics in other online group intervention settings.

  14. Partnership in Psycho-Social Group Intervention for Cancer Patients: Factors to Creating Group Dynamics.

    PubMed

    Chujo, Masami; Okamura, Hitoshi

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct a psycho-social group intervention consisting of 3 parts, educate patients on methods to cope with stress and solve problems, hold group discussions and practice progressive muscle relaxation (PMR) for cancer patients, and investigate the way that group dynamics work in psycho-social group interventions in Japan. Three facilitators and 2 sub-facilitators who conducted the group intervention for breast cancer patients were qualitatively and inductively analyzed using a phenomenological approach. As a result, "hard effort," "harmony of the whole group" and "collaboration between therapists" were extracted as the partnership functions of participants that work on the creation of group dynamics in psycho-social group interventions. There was a structure in which "harmony of the whole group" and "collaboration between therapists" coexisted based on the basic attitude of "hard effort." It was considered that these 3 intervention forms are involved in group dynamics in which participants can easily hold discussions, and are techniques necessary for group intervention contributing to changes in the psychological distress and the coping of participants.

  15. Effects of early support intervention on workplace ergonomics--a two-year followup study.

    PubMed

    Turja, Johanna; Kaleva, Simo; Kivistö, Marketta; Seitsamo, Jorma

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the controlled longitudinal study was to determine the effect of a tailored early support intervention method on workers' workplace ergonomics. The main areas of the early support intervention were training, guidance and support for supervisors in finding weak signals of impaired ergonomics. Supervisors were also trained to bring up these weak signals in discussion with employees and to make necessary changes at the workplace. The data consisted of 301 intervention subjects and 235 control subjects working in the field of commerce. The questionnaires were carried out in 2008 and in 2010, and the response rates among both groups were 45%. We used multivariate repeated measures analysis of variance (MANOVA) to test the difference in the groups at two points of time. The main result was that in the areas of work environment, the interaction between group and time was statistically significant (p=0.0004). The work environment improved in the intervention group, but deteriorated in the control. Working methods improved due to the interventions, but physical load factors increased over time in both groups. According to the study, tailored early support intervention has a generally beneficial impact on workers' workplace ergonomics in the areas of work methods, work environment and accident factors.

  16. Community Post-Tornado Support Groups: Intervention and Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCammon, Susan; And Others

    Post-tornado support groups were organized by the Greene County, North Carolina disaster coordinators and the Pitt County outreach workers from the Community Mental Health Center sponsored tornado follow-up project. The most significant intervention used was the emphasis on creating a climate of group support by establishing a forum for…

  17. Finding Hope in Bosnia: Fostering Resilience through Group Process Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shakoor, Muhyiddin; Fister, Deborah L.

    2000-01-01

    Presents a group process approach for intervening with adults coping with the impact of extraordinary and ongoing cumulative traumatic stress. Expands on historical frameworks for presenting a process-oriented and affective perspective. Article shows how group process intervention can be used to foster resilience in adults who experience…

  18. Early Childhood Special Education and Early Intervention Personnel Preparation Standards of the Division for Early Childhood: Field Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Deborah C.; Gallagher, Peggy A.; Stayton, Vicki D.; Dinnebeil, Laurie A.; Lifter, Karin; Chandler, Lynette K.; Christensen, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    Results of the field validation survey of the revised initial and new advanced Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) Division for Early Childhood (DEC) early childhood special education (ECSE)/early intervention (EI) personnel standards are presented. Personnel standards are used as part of educational accountability systems and in teacher…

  19. Penile fracture: outcomes of early surgical intervention.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Daniel E W; Polackwich, A Scott; Helfand, Brian T; Masson, Puneet; Hwong, James; Dugi, Daniel D; Martinez Acevedo, Ann C; Hedges, Jason C; McVary, Kevin T

    2014-11-01

    To report a series of penile fractures, describing preoperative evaluation, surgical repair, and long-term outcomes. Medical records from Northwestern Memorial Hospital and Oregon Health & Science University from 2002 to 2011 were reviewed. Clinical presentation, preoperative evaluation, time from injury, mechanism and site of injury, and presence of urethral injury were assessed. Outcomes including erectile dysfunction, penile curvature, and voiding symptoms were evaluated using International Prostate Symptom Score and International Index of Erectile Function scores. Twenty-nine patients with 30 separate episodes of penile fractures presenting to the emergency room were identified. Mean patient age was 43 ± 9.6 years. The time from presentation to the initiation of surgery was 5.5 ± 4.4 hours. Mechanism of injury was intercourse in 26 of 30 fractures with the remaining attributed to masturbation or "rolling over." Immediate surgical repair was offered to all patients. Twenty-seven patients underwent surgery. Urethral injury was noted in 5 of the 27. The site of fracture was at the proximal shaft in 11, mid shaft in 12, and distal shaft in 4 patients. The mean follow-up period was 14.3 ± 15.8 weeks. Nine patients reported new mild erectile dysfunction or penile curvature. One patient reported new irritative voiding symptoms. The most common mechanism of penile fracture was from sexual intercourse, and frequent concomitant urethral injuries were observed. The frequency of concomitant urethral injury was higher than in previous studies. Although we observed high incidence of erectile dysfunction or penile curvature with early surgical repair, we retain it as the favored approach. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Promoting language and social communication development in babies through an early storybook reading intervention.

    PubMed

    Brown, Michelle I; Westerveld, Marleen F; Trembath, David; Gillon, Gail T

    2017-12-15

    This study examined the effectiveness of low- and high-intensity early storybook reading (ESR) intervention workshops delivered to parents for promoting their babies language and social communication development. These workshops educated parents on how to provide a stimulating home reading environment and engage in parent-child interactions during ESR. Parent-child dyads (n = 32); child age: 3-12 months, were assigned into two intervention conditions: low and high intensity (LI versus HI) groups. Both groups received the same ESR strategies; however, the HI group received additional intervention time, demonstrations and support. Outcome measures were assessed pre-intervention, one and three months post-intervention and when the child turned 2 years of age. A significant time-group interaction with increased performance in the HI group was observed for language scores immediately post-intervention (p = 0.007) and at 2-years-of-age (p = 0.022). Significantly higher broader social communication scores were associated with the HI group at each of the time points (p = 0.018, p = 0.001 and p = 0.021, respectively). Simple main effect revealed that both groups demonstrated a significant improvement in language, broader social communication and home reading practices scores. ESR intervention workshops may promote language and broader social communication skills. The HI ESR intervention workshop was associated with significantly higher language and broader social communication scores.

  1. Integrating a Social Behavior Intervention during Small Group Academic Instruction Using a Total Group Criterion Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Billie Jo; Anderson, Cynthia M.

    2014-01-01

    Total group contingencies, a variation of interdependent group contingencies, provide educators with an efficient and effective mechanism to improve social behavior and increase academic skills. Their utility has not been examined in small educational groups. This is unfortunate as supplemental instruction frequently is delivered in small group…

  2. Long-Term Maternal Effects of Early Childhood Intervention: Findings from the Infant Health and Development Program (IHDP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Klebanov, Pamela; Buka, Stephen L.; McCormick, Marie C.

    2008-01-01

    The Infant Health and Development Program (IHDP) was a randomized clinical trial of early intervention services for low birth weight, premature infants. Mothers and infants received services for 3 years beginning at neonatal discharge. At the intervention's conclusion, mothers in the intervention group who had lighter (less than 2001 g) birth…

  3. Early Educational Intervention, Early Cumulative Risk, and the Early Home Environment as Predictors of Young Adult Outcomes Within a High-Risk Sample

    PubMed Central

    Pungello, Elizabeth P.; Kainz, Kirsten; Burchinal, Margaret; Wasik, Barbara H.; Sparling, Joseph J.; Ramey, Craig T.; Campbell, Frances A.

    2009-01-01

    The extent to which early educational intervention, early cumulative risk, and the early home environment were associated with young adult outcomes was investigated in a sample of 139 young adults (age 21) from high-risk families enrolled in randomized trials of early intervention. Positive effects of treatment were found for education attainment, attending college, and skilled employment; negative effects of risk were found for education attainment, graduating high school, being employed and avoiding teen parenthood. The home mediated the effects of risk for graduating high school, but not being employed or teen parenthood. Evidence for moderated mediation was found for educational attainment; the home mediated the association between risk and educational attainment for the control group, but not the treated group. PMID:20331676

  4. A WIC-based intervention to prevent early childhood overweight.

    PubMed

    Whaley, Shannon E; McGregor, Samar; Jiang, Lu; Gomez, Judy; Harrison, Gail; Jenks, Eloise

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of a Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)-based intervention on the food and beverage intake, physical activity, and television watching of children ages 1-5. Longitudinal surveys of intervention and control participants at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Analysis of variance tests showed that the intervention had a small but significant impact on TV watching and fruit intake. The intervention was most protective for children younger than 2 years of age. Although the impact of the intervention was relatively small and limited to the youngest children served by WIC, findings suggest that the WIC setting is appropriate for improving healthful behaviors that are linked to reducing the rates of early childhood overweight. Copyright 2010 Society for Nutrition Education. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. [The community-oriented experience of early intervention services in Taipei City].

    PubMed

    Chu, Feng-Ying

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to emphasize the importance of early intervention. The purpose of early intervention in Taipei City is to help child development, promote parenting skills, and reduce educational and social costs. In order to meet these goals, parenting groups and Taipei City Council have made great efforts to make early intervention work in Taipei City. In April 1995, Taipei City Government started planning and setting up the service network. To date, Taipei City has set up one reporting and referral center?, ?six community resources centers, 22 medical assessment and intervention clinics, 12 child development centers, one early intervention training center, three non-profit foundations and more than 300 inclusion schools, such as kindergartens and day care centers. With parent participation, professional devotion and Taipei City Government's commitment, the number of assisted children has increased from 98 to 2,523 /year. By the end of 2006, Taipei had already funded 25,277 children. We estimate Taipei City early intervention services to have affected at least 75,000 persons, including development-delayed and disabled children, their parents?, ?grandparents and siblings. We found that early intervention services help the children to build up self esteem, grow their potential, learn how to socialize, and receive an education, while the most important aim is to help them to reduce their level of disability or to prevent them from getting worse. At the same time, their families get support and a diverse range of services. An integrated early intervention program should include children, families, and multidisciplinary professionals. The system should therefore be more "family-centered" and "community-oriented" to provide appropriate services to children and families through a positive and aggressive attitude.

  6. Clinical abnormalities, early intervention program of Down syndrome children: Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health experience.

    PubMed

    Fuengfoo, Adidsuda; Sakulnoom, Kim

    2014-06-01

    Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health is a tertiary institute of children in Thailand, where early intervention programs have been provided since 1990 by multidisciplinary approach especially in Down syndrome children. This aim of the present study is to follow the impact of early intervention on the outcome of Down syndrome children. The school attendance number of Down syndrome children was compared between regular early intervention and non-regular early intervention. The present study group consists of 210 Down syndrome children who attended early intervention programs at Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health between June 2008 and January 2012. Data include clinical features, school attendance developmental quotient (DQ) at 3 years of age using Capute Scales Cognitive Adaptive Test/Scale (CAT/CLAMS). Developmental milestones have been recorded as to the time of appearance of gross motor, fine motor, language, personal-social development compared to those non-regular intervention patients. Of 210 Down syndrome children, 117 were boys and 93 were girls. About 87% received regular intervention, 68% attended speech training. Mean DQ at 3 years of age was 65. Of the 184 children who still did follow-up at developmental department, 124 children (59%) attended school: mainstream school children 78 (63%) and special school children 46 (37%). The mean age at entrance to school was 5.8 ± 1.4 years. The school attendance was correlated with maternal education and regular early intervention attendance. Regular early intervention starts have proven to have a positive effect on development. The school attendance number of Down syndrome children receiving regular early intervention was statistically and significantly higher than the number of Down syndrome children receiving non-regular early intervention was. School attendance correlated with maternal education and attended regularly early intervention. Regular early intervention together with maternal

  7. Success in Early Intervention: The Chicago Child-Parent Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Arthur J.

    Although early intervention programs have enjoyed popular and legislative support, little hard data exist on the long-term consequences of these efforts. This study examined the long-term effects of the Child-Parent Center (CPC) program in Chicago. Begun in 1967, the program operates out of 24 centers, located in proximity to the elementary…

  8. A Four Stage Approach to Early Childhood Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haber, Julian S.

    This paper describes a model for the involvement of primary health care personnel in the identification and treatment of developmental disabilities as a part of early childhood intervention programs. The integrated multidisciplinary model is divided into four stages. During the first stage an assignment of prenatal, perinatal, and postnatal risk…

  9. Early Identification and Interventions for Dyslexia: A Contemporary View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snowling, Margaret J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews current proposals concerning the definition of dyslexia and contrasts it with reading comprehension impairment. We then discuss methods for early identification and review evidence that teacher assessments and ratings may be valid screening tools. Finally, we argue that interventions should be theoretically motivated and…

  10. Participation Patterns among Families Receiving Part C Early Intervention Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khetani, Mary Alunkal

    2010-01-01

    Participation in the natural settings of home and community is one of four major goals for families receiving Part C early intervention services. While participation has been formally recognized as an important service-related outcome, there is a need to build knowledge about its key features to adequately apply the concept in practice. The need…

  11. Early Intervention and Prevention--Issues and Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopfstein, Rosalind

    This paper reviews the American Association on Mental Retardation's (AAMR's) presentation of issues surrounding the field of early intervention. AAMR's publications are the primary sources of information in the paper. Specific sections address: (1) the impact of public laws on the rights of children and families to a free and appropriate public…

  12. Materials and Equipment: ECI-4. Early Childhood Intervention Catalog Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Joyce; Bricker, Donna

    The fourth of seven modules for professionals working with young (birth to age 3) handicapped children provides information on equipment, materials, and activities in early intervention. Background information discusses ways to catalog materials and equipment and describes teaching approaches using toys and manipulatives. A variety of teaching…

  13. Early Intervention: Using Assessment to Reduce Student Attrition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vander Schee, Brian A.

    2011-01-01

    The number of studies conducted on college-student attrition is overwhelming. But few examine the impact of adding an early-intervention assessment tool to existing retention programs. Too often, colleges and universities conduct initiatives with similar purposes as disconnected efforts; retention programs in particular can benefit from a more…

  14. The Application of a Transdisciplinary Model for Early Intervention Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Gillian; Strachan, Deborah; Tucker, Michelle; Duwyn, Betty; Desserud, Sharon; Shillington, Monique

    2009-01-01

    This article reviews the literature on the transdisciplinary approach to early intervention services and identifies the essential elements of this approach. A practice model describing the implementation of the approach is then presented, based on the experiences of staff members in a home visiting program for infants that has been in existence…

  15. Early Intervention for the Disadvantaged: Does It Influence Reading Achievement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grotberg, Edith H.

    Deprivation may take many forms: malnutrition, understimulation or overstimulation, limited language or social-emotional experiences, and others. The more extended the time of the deprivation, the greater the problem of amelioration. Research has shown that children who experienced deprivations do respond to early intervention and improve their…

  16. Traumatic Brain Injury in Early Childhood: Developmental Effects and Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenthal, Barbara; Lowenthal, Barbara

    1998-01-01

    Describes the unique effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) on development in early childhood and offers suggestions for interventions in the cognitive, language, social-emotional, motor, and adaptive domains. Urges more intensive, long-term studies on the immediate and long-term effects of TBI. (Author/DB)

  17. Early Intervention in Portugal: Family Support and Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Correia Leite, Carina Sofia; Da Silva Pereira, Ana Paula

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the support and benefits of early intervention (EI) in families with children with special needs. Data were gathered through a written questionnaire, "Family Benefits Inventory," completed by 126 families with children with special needs supported by EI teams, with ages from six months to six years in Portugal.…

  18. Early Intervention Service Coordination Policies: National Policy Infrastructure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harbin, Gloria L.; Bruder, Mary Beth; Adams, Candace; Mazzarella, Cynthia; Whitbread, Kathy; Gabbard, Glenn; Staff, Ilene

    2004-01-01

    Effective implementation of service coordination in early intervention, as mandated by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, remains a challenge for most states. The present study provides a better understanding of the various aspects of the policy infrastructure that undergird service coordination across the United States. Data from a…

  19. Processes of Early Childhood Interventions to Adult Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Arthur J.; Ou, Suh-Ruu; Mondi, Christina F.; Hayakawa, Momoko

    2017-01-01

    This article describes the contributions of cognitive-scholastic advantage, family support behavior, and school quality and support as processes through which early childhood interventions promote well-being. Evidence in support of these processes is from longitudinal cohort studies of the Child-Parent Centers and other preventive interventions…

  20. Early Intervention and Its Effects on Maternal and Child Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, Diana T.

    1983-01-01

    The longitudinal study reported used an intervention strategy to test the thesis that sociocultural background, mediated by maternal attitudes and behaviors, influences Black children's early development in educationally significant ways. Two models of parent education were contrasted: the Levenstein toy demonstration program and the…

  1. Mystery in Milwaukee: Early Intervention, IQ, and Psychology Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sommer, Robert; Sommer, Barbara A.

    1983-01-01

    Textbooks in developmental and abnormal psychology were examined for references to the Milwaukee study of the effects of early intervention on intelligence. The absence of citations to articles in refereed journals shows how research data of questionable validity can seep into the research literature without going through the journal review…

  2. A Description of the Hawthorn Center Early Intervention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glovinsky, Ira; Keller, Jackie

    An early intervention project for preschool handicapped children is described. Specific program goals (including improved functioning in social, emotional, communication, and preacademic areas) are listed, and roles of the interdisciplinary staff members are considered. Among evaluation approaches discussed are psychological measures, family…

  3. Taiwanese Model of Early Intervention Needs Assessment System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho, Hua-Kuo

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was intended to investigate the current system of early intervention needs assessment in Taiwan in order to understand the problems encountered and provide the coping strategies for improving the system. Documentary analysis, phone interview and participant observation were employed in the study to collect the research…

  4. Early Intervention Provider Use of Child Caregiver-Teaching Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Philippa H.; Coletti, Catherine Ehret

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the extent to which multidiscipline early intervention providers identified and demonstrated caregiver-teaching strategies. A total of 78 providers submitted 205 videotaped segments to illustrate 1 of 5 caregiver-teaching strategies (i.e., demonstration; caregiver practice with feedback; guided practice;…

  5. Substance Abuse and Addiction: Implications for Early Relationships and Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suchman, Nancy E.; DeCoste, Cindy L.

    2018-01-01

    New developments in the treatment of mothers and infants affected by opioid addiction point to the promising effects of interventions that adopt a developmental perspective, occur concurrently with addiction treatment, and target the parent-infant relationship as early as possible. In this article, the authors provide general guidelines for…

  6. Early Childhood Intervention in China from the Families' Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zheng, Yuzhu; Maude, Susan P.; Brotherson, Mary Jane; Merritts, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Research highlights the importance of early childhood intervention (ECI) for children with disabilities, and there is an increasing interest in China with respect to research on ECI. However, little research exists exploring the experience of families of young children with disabilities receiving ECI services and supports in China. The purpose of…

  7. Parent Educators in Early Intervention: Insights from Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Nicole Megan; Gallagher, Peggy A.

    2014-01-01

    In 1 state's Part C early intervention (EI) program, families are afforded a unique opportunity to connect with parent educators (PEs), parents of children who have received EI services, and who are trained to support EI families and staff with a range of tailored duties. In an effort to continually reflect and improve upon the role of PEs, the…

  8. Beyond Early Intervention: Providing Support to Public School Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kathryn

    2006-01-01

    At age 3, children with hearing loss transition from Part C early intervention to Part B public school services. These children represent a heterogeneous population when considering factors such as communication approaches; speech, language, auditory and cognitive skills; social-emotional and motor development; parental involvement; hearing…

  9. Long-Term Outcomes of Early Reading Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurry, Jane; Sylva, Kathy

    2007-01-01

    This study explores the long-term effectiveness of two differing models of early intervention for children with reading difficulties: Reading Recovery and a specific phonological training. Approximately 400 children were pre-tested, 95 were assigned to Reading Recovery, 97 to Phonological Training and the remainder acted as controls. In the short…

  10. Early Childhood Education as a Resilience Intervention for Maltreated Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellenbogen, Stephen; Klein, Benjamin; Wekerle, Christine

    2014-01-01

    The profound injuries caused by child maltreatment are well documented in the neurological, attachment, cognitive, and developmental literature. In this review paper, we explore the potential of early childhood education (ECE) as a community-based resilience intervention for mitigating the impacts of child abuse and neglect and supporting families…

  11. Outcomes Reported by Spanish-Speaking Families in Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmsted, Murrey G.; Bailey, Donald B., Jr.; Raspa, Melissa; Nelson, Robin E.; Robinson, Nyle D.; Simpson, Mary Ellen; Guillen, Chelsea

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the authors use data from two states to compare how families participating in early intervention who completed a Spanish version of the Family Outcomes Survey (FOS) (n = 291) compared with Hispanic (n = 486) and non-Hispanic (n = 2,363) families who completed the English version. In general, most families reported positive outcomes,…

  12. Project BLEND: An Inclusive Model of Early Intervention Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, William; Horn, Eva M.; Heiser, JoAnn G.; Odom, Samuel L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper describes a model demonstration project to provide inclusive early intervention services to young children with developmental delays and their families. It notes the importance of collaborative partnerships among the significant adults in a child's life as a basis for effective program implementation. The project has three major…

  13. Collaboration in Early Childhood Intervention Services in Gauteng: Caregiver Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyarkanaye, Thilendree; Dada, Shakila; Samuels, Alecia E.

    2017-01-01

    A central tenant of early childhood intervention (ECI) is collaboration between professionals and the caregivers of children receiving these services. There are limited studies on caregiver perceptions of collaboration in ECI teams particularly in resource-limited countries. Sixty-four caregivers participated in this study by completing a…

  14. Early Intervention for Reading Difficulties: The Interactive Strategies Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scanlon, Donna M.; Anderson, Kimberly L.; Sweeney, Joan M.

    2010-01-01

    This book presents a research-supported framework for early literacy instruction that aligns with multi-tiered response-to-intervention (RTI) models. The book focuses on giving teachers a better understanding of literacy development and how to effectively support children as they begin to read and write. The authors' interactive strategies…

  15. Culture and Early Language Development: Implications for Assessment and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parada, Patricia M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study--"Culture and Early Language Development: Implications for Assessment and Intervention"--was to explore and describe the perceptions and beliefs of Salvadoran mothers of low socioeconomic status regarding the language development of their young children in order to identify cultural variations in…

  16. HIV Infection: Transmission, Effects on Early Development, and Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenthal, Barbara

    1997-01-01

    Describes the modes of transmission of HIV and the course of the disease in infants and toddlers. Information is provided on its effects on early development, medical screening and treatments, therapies, psychosocial assistance, and interventions, including nutritional therapy, occupational and physical therapies, and speech and language therapy.…

  17. The Underutilization of Occupational Therapy in Transdisciplinary Early Intervention Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minard, Carey

    2018-01-01

    Early intervention (EI) services are mandated by Part C of The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA, 2004). The EI team, a multidisciplinary team overseen by individual states, is charged with providing family-centered services to support child development in the natural environment. This article examines the use of occupational…

  18. A Framework for Providing Culturally Responsive Early Intervention Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Wendy

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a framework that offers a way for early intervention (EI) service providers to better meet the needs of the culturally diverse children and families they serve. This framework was created to organize existing research and literature on cultural responsiveness in a way that fit the unique context of EI. The…

  19. Getting Ready Right from the Start. Effective Early Literacy Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hiebert, Elfrieda H., Ed.; Taylor, Barbara M., Ed.

    Presenting descriptions of seven successful emergent literacy programs, this book demonstrates that early literacy intervention programs with a focus on accelerated learning and on authentic reading and writing tasks can prevent many first-grade children from failing to learn to read. Programs described in the book focus on story book reading and…

  20. Developing Integrated Programs: A Transdisciplinary Approach for Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coling, Marcia Cain

    This book presents an amalgam of early intervention ideas from the fields of education, occupational therapy, and physical therapy for children with developmental delays. An introductory chapter describes the approach's three theoretical bases: neurodevelopmental treatment (NDT), sensory integration, and Piagetian theory. Chapter 1 considers…

  1. The At Risk Child: Early Identification, Intervention, and Evaluation of Early Childhood Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lennon, Joan M.

    A review of literature was conducted in order to: (1) determine whether factors placing the young child at risk for school failure can be identified; (2) determine whether early family interventions and early childhood programs are effective; and (3) identify policy implications. Findings are summarized, and recommendations are offered. Research…

  2. Evaluation of Young Children for Early Intervention and Early Childhood Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Diana

    This technical assistance document provides guidelines for child assessment and eligibility determination for early intervention and early childhood special education programs in Oregon. An overview of the assessment process explains screening, eligibility evaluation, and assessment for the Individual Family Service Plan (IFSP). Legal requirements…

  3. Early Intervention Services for Early-Phase Psychosis - Centre for integrative psychiatry in Psychiatric Hospital "Sveti Ivan", Croatia.

    PubMed

    Matić, Katarina; Gereš, Natko; Gerlach, Josefina; Prskalo-Čule, Diana; Zadravec Vrbanc, Tihana; Lovretić, Vanja; Librenjak, Dina; Vuk Pisk, Sandra; Ivezić, Ena; Šimunović Filipčić, Ivona; Jeleč, Vjekoslav; Filipčić, Igor

    2018-06-01

    There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that early and effective management in the critical early years of schizophrenia can improve long-term outcomes. The objective of this study was to evaluate time to relapse of the patients with early-phase psychosis treated in the Centre for integrative psychiatry (CIP). We performed a retrospective cohort study on the sample of 373 early-phase psychosis patients admitted to Psychiatric Hospital "Sveti Ivan", Zagreb Croatia: from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2017. The primary outcome was time to relapse. Patients who were admitted to group psychotherapeutic program after the end of acute treatment had 70% lower hazard for relapse (HR=0.30; 95% CI 0.16-0.58). Patients who were included first in the psychotherapeutic program and then treated and controlled in the daily hospital had 74% lower hazard for relapse (HR=0.26; 95% CI 0.10-0.67). In early-phase psychosis, integrative early intervention service has relevant beneficial effects compare to treatment as usual. These results justified the implementation of multimodal early intervention services in treatment of patients with early-phase psychosis.

  4. Early Detection and Intervention of ASD: A European Overview

    PubMed Central

    Narzisi, Antonio; García-Primo, Patricia; Kawa, Rafal

    2017-01-01

    Over the last several years there has been an increasing focus on early detection of Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), not only from the scientific field but also from professional associations and public health systems all across Europe. Not surprisingly, in order to offer better services and quality of life for both children with ASD and their families, different screening procedures and tools have been developed for early assessment and intervention. However, current evidence is needed for healthcare providers and policy makers to be able to implement specific measures and increase autism awareness in European communities. The general aim of this review is to address the latest and most relevant issues related to early detection and treatments. The specific objectives are (1) analyse the impact, describing advantages and drawbacks, of screening procedures based on standardized tests, surveillance programmes, or other observational measures; and (2) provide a European framework of early intervention programmes and practices and what has been learnt from implementing them in public or private settings. This analysis is then discussed and best practices are suggested to help professionals, health systems and policy makers to improve their local procedures or to develop new proposals for early detection and intervention programmes. PMID:29194420

  5. Integrating Early Intervention for Borderline Personality Disorder and Mood Disorders.

    PubMed

    Chanen, Andrew M; Berk, Michael; Thompson, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) has been demonstrated to be a reliable and valid construct in young people (adolescents and young adults). Both borderline- and mood-related psychopathology become clinically apparent from puberty through to young adulthood, frequently co-occur, can reinforce one another, and can be difficult to differentiate clinically. This Gordian knot of overlapping clinical features, common risk factors, and precursors to both BPD and mood disorders complicates clinical assessment, prevention, and treatment. Regardless of whether an individual crosses an arbitrary diagnostic threshold, a considerable proportion of young people with borderline- and mood-related psychopathology will develop significant and persistent functional, vocational, and interpersonal impairment and disability during this critical risk and developmental period. There is a clear need for early intervention, but spurious diagnostic certainty risks stigma, misapplication of diagnostic labels, inappropriate treatment, and unfavorable outcomes. This article aims to integrate early intervention for BPD and mood disorders in the clinical context of developmental and phenomenological change and evolution. "Clinical staging," similar to disease staging in general medicine, is presented as a pragmatic, heuristic, and trans-diagnostic framework to guide prevention and intervention. It acknowledges that the early stages of these disorders cannot be disentangled sufficiently to allow for disorder-specific preventive measures and early interventions. Clinical staging defines an individual's location along the continuum of the evolving temporal course of a disorder. Such staging aids differentiation of early or milder clinical phenomena from those that accompany illness progression and chronicity, and suggests the application of appropriate and proportionate intervention strategies.

  6. Early identification and interventions for students with mathematics difficulties.

    PubMed

    Gersten, Russell; Jordan, Nancy C; Flojo, Jonathan R

    2005-01-01

    This article highlights key findings from the small body of research on mathematics difficulties (MD) relevant to early identification and early intervention. The research demonstrates that (a) for many children, mathematics difficulties are not stable over time; (b) the presence of reading difficulties seems related to slower progress in many aspects of mathematics; (c) almost all students with MD demonstrate problems with accurate and automatic retrieval of basic arithmetic combinations, such as 6 + 3. The following measures appear to be valid and reliable indicators of potential MD in kindergartners: (a) magnitude comparison (i.e., knowing which digit in a pair is larger), (b) sophistication of counting strategies, (c) fluent identification of numbers, and (d) working memory (as evidenced by reverse digit span). These are discussed in terms of the components of number sense. Implications for early intervention strategies are explored.

  7. Fadeout in an Early Mathematics Intervention: Constraining Content or Pre-existing Differences?

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Drew H.; Nguyen, Tutrang; Jenkins, Jade Marcus; Domina, Thurston; Clements, Douglas H.; Sarama, Julie S.

    2016-01-01

    A robust finding across research on early childhood educational interventions is that the treatment effect diminishes over time, with children not receiving the intervention eventually catching up to children who did. One popular explanation for fadeout of early mathematics interventions is that elementary school teachers may not teach the kind of advanced content that children are prepared for after receiving the intervention, so lower-achieving children in the control groups of early mathematics interventions catch up to the higher-achieving children in the treatment groups. An alternative explanation is that persistent individual differences in children’s long-term mathematical development result more from relatively stable pre-existing differences in their skills and environments than from the direct effects of previous knowledge on later knowledge. We tested these two hypotheses using data from an effective preschool mathematics intervention previously known to show a diminishing treatment effect over time. We compared the intervention group to a matched subset of the control group with a similar mean and variance of scores at the end of treatment. We then tested the relative contributions of factors that similarly constrain learning in children from treatment and control groups with the same level of post-treatment achievement and pre-existing differences between these two groups to the fadeout of the treatment effect over time. We found approximately 72% of the fadeout effect to be attributable to pre-existing differences between children in treatment and control groups with the same level of achievement at post-test. These differences were fully statistically attenuated by children’s prior academic achievement. PMID:27505700

  8. Fadeout in an early mathematics intervention: Constraining content or preexisting differences?

    PubMed

    Bailey, Drew H; Nguyen, Tutrang; Jenkins, Jade Marcus; Domina, Thurston; Clements, Douglas H; Sarama, Julie S

    2016-09-01

    A robust finding across research on early childhood educational interventions is that the treatment effect diminishes over time, with children not receiving the intervention eventually catching up to children who did. One popular explanation for fadeout of early mathematics interventions is that elementary school teachers may not teach the kind of advanced content that children are prepared for after receiving the intervention, so lower-achieving children in the control groups of early mathematics interventions catch up to the higher-achieving children in the treatment groups. An alternative explanation is that persistent individual differences in children's long-term mathematical development result more from relatively stable preexisting differences in their skills and environments than from the direct effects of previous knowledge on later knowledge. We tested these 2 hypotheses using data from an effective preschool mathematics intervention previously known to show a diminishing treatment effect over time. We compared the intervention group to a matched subset of the control group with a similar mean and variance of scores at the end of treatment. We then tested the relative contributions of factors that similarly constrain learning in children from treatment and control groups with the same level of posttreatment achievement and preexisting differences between these 2 groups to the fadeout of the treatment effect over time. We found approximately 72% of the fadeout effect to be attributable to preexisting differences between children in treatment and control groups with the same level of achievement at posttest. These differences were fully statistically attenuated by children's prior academic achievement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. The early history of ideas on brief interventions for alcohol.

    PubMed

    McCambridge, Jim; Cunningham, John A

    2014-04-01

    This study explores the early development of brief interventions for alcohol using a history of ideas approach with a particular focus on intervention content. The source publications of the key primary studies published from approximately 1962 to 1992 were examined, followed by a brief review of the earliest reviews in this field. These studies were placed in the context of developments in alcohol research and in public health. After early pioneering work on brief interventions, further advances were not made until thinking about alcohol problems and their treatment, most notably on controlled drinking, along with wider changes in public health, created new conditions for progress. There was then a golden era of rapid advance in the late 1980s and early 1990s, when preventing the development of problem drinking became important for public health reasons, in addition to helping already problematic drinkers. Many research challenges identified at that time remain to be met. The content of brief interventions changed over the period of study, although not in ways well informed by research advances, and there were also obvious continuities, with a renewed emphasis on the facilitation of self-change being one important consequence of the development of internet applications. Ideas about brief interventions have changed in important ways. Brief interventions have been studied with different populations of drinkers, with aims embracing both individual and population-level perspectives, and without well-specified contents. The brief intervention field is an appropriate target for further historical investigations, which may help thinking about addressing alcohol and other problems. © 2013 The Authors. Addiction published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society for the Study of Addiction.

  10. The early history of ideas on brief interventions for alcohol

    PubMed Central

    McCambridge, Jim; Cunningham, John A

    2014-01-01

    Aims This study explores the early development of brief interventions for alcohol using a history of ideas approach with a particular focus on intervention content. Methods The source publications of the key primary studies published from approximately 1962 to 1992 were examined, followed by a brief review of the earliest reviews in this field. These studies were placed in the context of developments in alcohol research and in public health. Results After early pioneering work on brief interventions, further advances were not made until thinking about alcohol problems and their treatment, most notably on controlled drinking, along with wider changes in public health, created new conditions for progress. There was then a golden era of rapid advance in the late 1980s and early 1990s, when preventing the development of problem drinking became important for public health reasons, in addition to helping already problematic drinkers. Many research challenges identified at that time remain to be met. The content of brief interventions changed over the period of study, although not in ways well informed by research advances, and there were also obvious continuities, with a renewed emphasis on the facilitation of self-change being one important consequence of the development of internet applications. Conclusions Ideas about brief interventions have changed in important ways. Brief interventions have been studied with different populations of drinkers, with aims embracing both individual and population-level perspectives, and without well-specified contents. The brief intervention field is an appropriate target for further historical investigations, which may help thinking about addressing alcohol and other problems. PMID:24354855

  11. Group Play Interventions for Children: Strategies for Teaching Prosocial Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Linda A.

    2011-01-01

    Group play interventions are used to meet a broad range of developmental needs in children from various backgrounds. This book is for mental health practitioners working with children aged 5 through 12 to help them learn important social skills and self-control strategies such as making friends, asking for and offering help, controlling hands and…

  12. Special Issue: Troubled Family Interactions and Group Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, John D.; Kirby, Jonell, Eds.

    1981-01-01

    Examines the view that individual pathologies and problems are manifestations of family dysfunctions. The interdependence of family members is the critical element in the family group therapy process. Intervention involves the disruption of the dynamic balance maintained by the family system. (RC)

  13. Stepfamily Education: Benefits of a Group-Formatted Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skogrand, Linda; Torres, Eliza; Higginbotham, Brian J.

    2010-01-01

    This program evaluation was conducted by interviewing 40 low-income participants in a relationship education (RE) program for stepfamilies to determine specific benefits of a group-formatted intervention. The benefits that were most often identified were learning from others and having personal stepfamily challenges normalized. Participants also…

  14. Student Success Skills: A Structured Group Intervention for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webb, Linda; Brigman, Greg A.

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the Student Success Skills (SSS) small group intervention developed for school counselors targeting academic outcomes. The SSS program is based on extensive reviews of research about the skills students need to be successful. Studies supporting program effectiveness are briefly reviewed and show consistent patterns of…

  15. Learning from parents' stories about what works in early intervention.

    PubMed

    Pighini, Maria J; Goelman, Hillel; Buchanan, Marla; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly; Brynelsen, Dana

    2014-08-01

    Using a multiple case study approach, this ethnography examined the experiences of parents of children deemed at risk for developmental delays or disabilities who had received early intervention (EI) services (birth to age 3 years) in a large urban location in Western Canada. Participants (11 adult parents and 7 children) were drawn from six families. Methods of data collection included focus groups (FG), face-to-face interviews and file reviews. Member check and expert reviews were conducted throughout data collection and data analyses as part of the validation process in this ethnography. Qualitative content analyses followed by thematic analyses highlighted the implementation of family-centred practices (FCP) as a main theme. Parents identified how EI professionals using FCP embraced collaborative practices. FCP resulted in parents leading the EI process for their children. More specifically, EI professionals shared strategies and information to support parents in gaining a deeper understanding of their children's individual developmental characteristics. Parents expressed how empowering this level of understanding was for them as they learned to articulate what were their children's needs for developmental, health and educational services. Recommendations for future research include inquiring about parents' experiences for families of diverse constellations and/or residing in smaller urban or rural communities. © 2013 International Union of Psychological Science.

  16. Long-Term Outcome of the Early Identification and Intervention of Reading Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partanen, Marita; Siegel, Linda S.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal effects of an early literacy intervention in Kindergarten. A group of children completed reading and cognitive measures between Kindergarten (5-6 years old) and Grade 7 (12-13 years old). Our results showed that 22% of children were identified as at-risk for reading deficits in Kindergarten, but only 6% of…

  17. Controversial Practices: The Need for a Reacculturation of Early Intervention Fields.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWilliam, R. A.

    1999-01-01

    Identifies characteristics (such as cure claims, practitioner specialization, and questionable research) of controversial practices in early intervention. Evaluates 13 such practices grouped into medical, educational, and therapeutic categories and suggests reasons that professionals and parents adopt such practices. Suggestions for the field…

  18. The Effect of the Early Intervention Program (EIP) on 4th Grade Mathematic Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Tiffany H.

    2014-01-01

    Some schools have adopted homogenous grouping of students for academic instruction in response to the No Child Left Behind Act, which requires school districts to ensure academic achievement for all students. The early intervention program (EIP) in mathematics is provided for below-grade level students, yet many of them continue to perform poorly…

  19. Child Factors Associated with Enrollment in Part C Early Intervention among Children Adopted from China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruder, Mary Beth; Dunst, Carl J.; Mogro-Wilson, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    The provision of services under Part C of the Individuals With Disabilities Education Act is built on a premise that children benefit from early intervention. This article presents findings from a study of children adopted from China. Given information obtained from a survey, the researchers grouped children as (a) those who received early…

  20. Omid Early Intervention Resource Kit for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders and Their Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samadi, Sayyed Ali; Mahmoodizadeh, Ameneh

    2014-01-01

    Omid early intervention resource kit containing information booklets on autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and related issues, five packs of tangible selected playthings and communication facilitating aids was developed and evaluated with 65 Iranian parents. Beside a pretest before the resource kit deliverance, parents in the control group took part…

  1. Parenting the Young Handicapped Child: ECI-6. Early Childhood Intervention Catalog Module.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Joyce; Bricker, Donna

    The sixth of seven monographs on early intervention for young (birth to age 3) handicapped children is intended for parents and other family members. Materials which focus on five topics appropriate for parent groups (overcoming communication barriers, legal rights and responsibility, self concept and their children, toy construction for learning,…

  2. Effectiveness of Multipurpose Unit Early Classroom Intervention Program for 4-5-Year-Old Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Celebioglu Morkoc, Ozlem; Aktan Acar, Ebru

    2014-01-01

    This research examined the effectiveness of Multipurpose Unit Early Classroom Intervention Program (MUECIP) prepared for 4-5-year-old (48-60 months) children whose development is at risk because of their families' socioeconomic conditions. The research adopted a preliminary test-final test control group trial model. The research participants were…

  3. Perspectives of Therapist's Role in Care Coordination between Medical and Early Intervention Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ideishi, Roger I.; O'Neil, Margaret E.; Chiarello, Lisa A.; Nixon-Cave, Kim

    2010-01-01

    This study explored perspectives of therapist's role in care coordination between early intervention (EI) and medical services, and identified strategies for improving service delivery. Fifty adults participated in one of six focus groups. Participants included parents, pediatricians, and therapists working in hospital and EI programs. Structured…

  4. Early Numeracy Intervention Program for First-Grade Students with Mathematics Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Diane Pedrotty; Bryant, Brian R.; Roberts, Greg; Vaughn, Sharon; Pfannenstiel, Kathleen Hughes; Porterfield, Jennifer; Gersten, Russell

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an early numeracy preventative Tier 2 intervention on the mathematics performance of first-grade students with mathematics difficulties. Researchers used a pretest-posttest control group design with randomized assignment of 139 students to the Tier 2 treatment condition and 65 students to…

  5. Early Childhood Education Intervention Programs in the Netherlands: Still Searching for Empirical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driessen, Geert

    2018-01-01

    Early childhood education (ECE) intervention programs nowadays are the core of the educational disadvantage policy in the Netherlands. They offer institutional compensatory activities to young children who lack educational stimulation in the home environment. Target groups mainly comprise children from deprived socioeconomic backgrounds and of…

  6. Foundations for Literacy: An Early Literacy Intervention for Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children

    PubMed Central

    Lederberg, Amy R.; Miller, Elizabeth M.; Easterbrooks, Susan R.; Connor, Carol McDonald

    2014-01-01

    The present study evaluated the efficacy of a new preschool early literacy intervention created specifically for deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children with functional hearing. Teachers implemented Foundations for Literacy with 25 DHH children in 2 schools (intervention group). One school used only spoken language, and the other used sign with and without spoken language. A “business as usual” comparison group included 33 DHH children who were matched on key characteristics with the intervention children but attended schools that did not implement Foundations for Literacy. Children’s hearing losses ranged from moderate to profound. Approximately half of the children had cochlear implants. All children had sufficient speech perception skills to identify referents of spoken words from closed sets of items. Teachers taught small groups of intervention children an hour a day, 4 days a week for the school year. From fall to spring, intervention children made significantly greater gains on tests of phonological awareness, letter–sound knowledge, and expressive vocabulary than did comparison children. In addition, intervention children showed significant increases in standard scores (based on hearing norms) on phonological awareness and vocabulary tests. This quasi-experimental study suggests that the intervention shows promise for improving early literacy skills of DHH children with functional hearing. PMID:25125456

  7. Early intervention in South Africa: moving beyond hearing screening.

    PubMed

    Storbeck, Claudine; Pittman, Paula

    2008-01-01

    Since little information is available on the outcome of early hearing intervention programs in South Africa, this article examines data on infants and families registered with a family-centred, home-based intervention program (HI HOPES) over a 12-month period in order to track the effectiveness of the holistic unbiased support to families of infants and toddlers with a hearing-loss. The aim of HI HOPES, which is based on the SKI-HI model of early intervention in the USA, is to ensure that families are enabled to make informed choices for their unique infant. Data were gathered on 32 infants ages birth to three years and their families using both qualitative and quantitative measures which included analysis of demographic data, quarterly language assessments, and parent satisfaction surveys. The report on the pilot year of this early intervention program shows that, though the sample is small, there is significant improvement in infant receptive and expressive language for infants identified before seven months of age, as well as a high level of satisfaction from families who have received services.

  8. Early behavioral intervention is associated with normalized brain activity in young children with autism.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Geraldine; Jones, Emily J H; Merkle, Kristen; Venema, Kaitlin; Lowy, Rachel; Faja, Susan; Kamara, Dana; Murias, Michael; Greenson, Jessica; Winter, Jamie; Smith, Milani; Rogers, Sally J; Webb, Sara J

    2012-11-01

    A previously published randomized clinical trial indicated that a developmental behavioral intervention, the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM), resulted in gains in IQ, language, and adaptive behavior of children with autism spectrum disorder. This report describes a secondary outcome measurement from this trial, EEG activity. Forty-eight 18- to 30-month-old children with autism spectrum disorder were randomized to receive the ESDM or referral to community intervention for 2 years. After the intervention (age 48 to 77 months), EEG activity (event-related potentials and spectral power) was measured during the presentation of faces versus objects. Age-matched typical children were also assessed. The ESDM group exhibited greater improvements in autism symptoms, IQ, language, and adaptive and social behaviors than the community intervention group. The ESDM group and typical children showed a shorter Nc latency and increased cortical activation (decreased α power and increased θ power) when viewing faces, whereas the community intervention group showed the opposite pattern (shorter latency event-related potential [ERP] and greater cortical activation when viewing objects). Greater cortical activation while viewing faces was associated with improved social behavior. This was the first trial to demonstrate that early behavioral intervention is associated with normalized patterns of brain activity, which is associated with improvements in social behavior, in young children with autism spectrum disorder. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Early Behavioral Intervention Is Associated With Normalized Brain Activity in Young Children With Autism

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Geraldine; Jones, Emily J.H.; Merkle, Kristen; Venema, Kaitlin; Lowy, Rachel; Faja, Susan; Kamara, Dana; Murias, Michael; Greenson, Jessica; Winter, Jamie; Smith, Milani; Rogers, Sally J.; Webb, Sara J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective A previously published randomized clinical trial indicated that a developmental behavioral intervention, the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM), resulted in gains in IQ, language, and adaptive behavior of children with autism spectrum disorder. This report describes a secondary outcome measurement from this trial, EEG activity. Method Forty-eight 18- to 30-month-old children with autism spectrum disorder were randomized to receive the ESDM or referral to community intervention for 2 years. After the intervention (age 48 to 77 months), EEG activity (event-related potentials and spectral power) was measured during the presentation of faces versus objects. Age-matched typical children were also assessed. Results The ESDM group exhibited greater improvements in autism symptoms, IQ, language, and adaptive and social behaviors than the community intervention group. The ESDM group and typical children showed a shorter Nc latency and increased cortical activation (decreased α power and increased θ power) when viewing faces, whereas the community intervention group showed the opposite pattern (shorter latency event-related potential [ERP] and greater cortical activation when viewing objects). Greater cortical activation while viewing faces was associated with improved social behavior. Conclusions This was the first trial to demonstrate that early behavioral intervention is associated with normalized patterns of brain activity, which is associated with improvements in social behavior, in young children with autism spectrum disorder. PMID:23101741

  10. Computer-mediated support group intervention for parents.

    PubMed

    Bragadóttir, Helga

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a computer-mediated support group (CMSG) intervention for parents whose children had been diagnosed with cancer. An evaluative one-group, before-and-after research design. A CMSG, an unstructured listserve group where participants used their E-mail for communication, was conducted over a 4-month period. Participation in the CMSG was offered to parents in Iceland whose children had completed cancer treatment in the past 5 years. Outcome measures were done: before the intervention (Time 1), after 2 months of intervention (Time 2) and after 4 months of intervention (Time 3) when the project ended. Measures included: demographic and background variables; health related vulnerability factors of parents: anxiety, depression, somatization, and stress; perceived mutual support; and use of the CMSG. Data were collected from November 2002 to June 2003. Twenty-one of 58 eligible parents participated in the study, with 71% retention rate for both post-tests. Mothers' depression decreased significantly from Time 2 to Time 3 (p<.03). Fathers' anxiety decreased significantly from Time 1 to Time 3 (p<.01). Fathers' stress decreased significantly from Time 2 to Time 3 (p<.02). To some extent, mothers and fathers perceived mutual support from participating in the CMSG. Both mothers and fathers used the CMSG by reading messages. Messages were primarily written by mothers. Study findings support further development of CMSGs for parents whose children have been diagnosed with cancer. Using computer technology for support is particularly useful for dispersed populations and groups that have restrictions on their time. Computer-mediated support groups have been shown to be a valuable addition to, or substitute for, a traditional face-to-face mutual support group and might suit both genders equally.

  11. Equitable service provision for inclusive education and effective early intervention.

    PubMed

    Wicks, K M

    1998-01-01

    This paper illustrates one model of providing an integrated paediatric speech and language therapy service which attempts to meet the demands of both inclusive education and effective early intervention. A move has been made from location-oriented therapy provision to offering children and their families equal opportunities to have appropriate intervention according to need. The model incorporates the philosophy of inclusive education and supports the development of current specialist educational establishments into resource bases of expertise for children with special needs in mainstream schools.

  12. Long-Term Outcomes of Early Intervention in 6-Year-Old Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Estes, Annette; Munson, Jeffrey; Rogers, Sally J.; Greenson, Jessica; Winter, Jamie; Dawson, Geraldine

    2015-01-01

    Objective We prospectively examine evidence for the sustained effects of early intervention based on a follow-up study of 39 children with ASD who began participation in a randomized clinical trial testing the effectiveness of the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) at age 18–30 months. The intervention, conducted at a high level of intensity in-home for 2 years, showed evidence of efficacy immediately posttreatment. Method This group of children was assessed at age 6, two years after the intervention ended, across multiple domains of functioning by clinicians naïve to previous intervention group status. Results The ESDM group, on average, maintained gains made in early intervention during the 2-year follow-up period in overall intellectual ability, adaptive behavior, symptom severity, and challenging behavior. No group differences in core autism symptoms were found immediately posttreatment; however, two years later, the ESDM group demonstrated improved core autism symptoms and adaptive behavior as compared with the community-intervention-as-usual (COM) group. The two groups were not significantly different in terms of intellectual functioning at age 6. The two groups received equivalent intervention hours during the original study, but the ESDM group received fewer hours during the follow-up period. Conclusion These results provide evidence that gains from early intensive intervention are maintained 2 years later. Notably, core autism symptoms improved in the ESDM group over the follow-up period relative to the COM group. This improvement occurred at the same time the ESDM group received significantly fewer services. This is the first study to examine the role of early ESDM behavioral intervention initiated below 30 months of age in altering the longer term developmental course of autism. PMID:26088663

  13. Long-Term Outcomes of Early Intervention in 6-Year-Old Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Estes, Annette; Munson, Jeffrey; Rogers, Sally J; Greenson, Jessica; Winter, Jamie; Dawson, Geraldine

    2015-07-01

    We prospectively examined evidence for the sustained effects of early intervention based on a follow-up study of 39 children with ASD who began participation in a randomized clinical trial testing the effectiveness of the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM) at age 18 to 30 months. The intervention, conducted at a high level of intensity in-home for 2 years, showed evidence of efficacy immediately posttreatment. This group of children was assessed at age 6 years, 2 years after the intervention ended, across multiple domains of functioning by clinicians naive to previous intervention group status. The ESDM group, on average, maintained gains made in early intervention during the 2-year follow-up period in overall intellectual ability, adaptive behavior, symptom severity, and challenging behavior. No group differences in core autism symptoms were found immediately posttreatment; however, 2 years later, the ESDM group demonstrated improved core autism symptoms and adaptive behavior as compared with the community-intervention-as-usual (COM) group. The 2 groups were not significantly different in terms of intellectual functioning at age 6 years. Both groups received equivalent intervention hours during the original study, but the ESDM group received fewer hours during the follow-up period. These results provide evidence that gains from early intensive intervention are maintained 2 years later. Notably, core autism symptoms improved in the ESDM group over the follow-up period relative to the COM group. This improvement occurred at the same time that the ESDM group received significantly fewer services. This is the first study to examine the role of early ESDM behavioral intervention initiated at less than 30 months of age in altering the longer-term developmental course of autism. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Brief Report: Predictors of Outcomes in the Early Start Denver Model Delivered in a Group Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vivanti, Giacomo; Dissanayake, Cheryl; Zierhut, Cynthia; Rogers, Sally J.

    2013-01-01

    There is a paucity of studies that have looked at factors associated with responsiveness to interventions in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We investigated learning profiles associated with response to the Early Start Denver Model delivered in a group setting. Our preliminary results from 21 preschool children with an ASD aged…

  15. Effectiveness of a clinical practice intervention in early rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Descalzo, Miguel Ángel; Carbonell, Jordi; González-Álvaro, Isidoro; Sanmartí, Raimon; Balsa, Alejandro; Hernandez-Barrera, Valentín; Román-Ivorra, José Andrés; Ivorra-Cortés, José; Lisbona, Pilar; Alperi, Mercedes; Jiménez-Garcia, Rodrigo; Carmona, Loreto

    2012-03-01

    To compare the outcome of early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in a country where early clinics were established versus the outcome of patients in nonprotocolized clinics. We compared 2 multicenter cohorts: an RA cohort derived from an early arthritis registry set in 36 reference hospitals in which a specific intervention was established (Evaluation of a Model for Arthritis Care in Spain [SERAP]), and a historical control cohort of patients with early RA attending 34 rheumatology departments (Prognosis in Rheumatoid Arthritis [PROAR] cohort). Effectiveness was tested by comparing the change in the Disease Activity Score in 28 joints (DAS28), the change in the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), and the change in the Sharp/van der Heijde radiologic score using marginal structural models. A total of 161 early RA patients were recruited in the PROAR cohort and 447 in the SERAP cohort. Being a SERAP patient was inversely correlated with activity, resulting in a decrease of -0.24 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] -0.39, -0.08) units in the population average of the DAS28 after adjustment was made. Moreover, intervention may be seen as a protective factor of radiologic damage, with a decrease of -0.05 (95% CI -0.09, -0.01) units in the logarithm of the total Sharp/van der Heijde score. On the other hand, a decrease in functional impairment was detected, but intervention was not statistically associated with HAQ changes. Preventing major radiographic progression in a 2-year term inside structured and organized special programs for the management of disease, such as early arthritis clinics, are effective compared to nonprotocolized referrals, treatment, and followup. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  16. The Effect of Early Intervention and Rehabilitation in the Expression of Aquaporin-4; and Ultrastructure Changes on Rat's Offspring's Damaged Brain Caused by Intrauterine Infection

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, Kumar; Xiangying, Kong

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of early intervention and rehabilitation in the expression of aquaporin-4 and ultrastructure changes on cerebral palsy pups model induced by intrauterine infection. Methods 20 pregnant Wistar rats were consecutively injected with lipopolysaccharide intraperitoneally. 60 Pups born from lipopolysaccharide group were randomly divided into intervention group (n=30) and non-intervention group (n=30); intervention group further divided into early intervention and rehabilitation group (n=10), acupuncture group (n=10) and consolidate group (n=10). Another 5 pregnant rats were injected with normal saline intraperitoneally; 30 pups born from the normal saline group were taken as control group. The intervention group received early intervention, rehabilitation and acupuncture treatment. The motor functions of all pups were assessed via suspension test and modified BBB locomotor score. Aquaporin-4 expression in brain tissue was studied through immunohistochemical and western-blot analysis. Ultrastructure changes in damaged brain and control group were studied electron-microscopically. Results The scores of suspension test and modified BBB locomotor test were significantly higher in the control group than the intervention and non intervention group (p<0.01); higher in the intervention group than the non-intervention group (p<0.01). The expression of Aquaporin-4 was lower in intervention and non intervention group than in the control group (p<0.01); also lower in non-intervention group than the intervention group (p<0.01). Marked changes were observed in ultrastructure of cortex and hippocampus CAI in brain damaged group. Conclusion Early intervention and rehabilitation training can improve the motor function in offspring with brain injury and reduce the expression of aquaporin-4 in damaged brain. PMID:26279808

  17. Behavioural and skill-based early interventions in children with autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Weinmann, Stefan; Schwarzbach, Christoph; Begemann, Matthias; Roll, Stephanie; Vauth, Christoph; Willich, Stefan N; Greiner, Wolfgang

    2009-07-29

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) comprise typical or infantile autism (Kanner syndrome), Asperger's disorder and atypical autism or pervasive developmental disorder - not otherwise specified. The syndrome is characterized by deficits in (1) verbal and nonverbal communication, (2) reciprocal social interaction and (3) repetitive patterns of behaviour, interests and activities. Early behavioural interventions are based on learning theory and behaviour therapy. They take into account specific deficits in perception, emotional reactions, social interaction and communication. In Germany, these comprehensive models are not widely evaluated and implemented. What are the clinical effectiveness and safety of early behavioural or skills-based early interventions in autism compared to other interventions or to treatment as usual?What are specific factors responsible for the effectiveness?What are the cost-effectiveness and cost consequences of different early interventions in autism?Which legal, social and ethical aspects are relevant with regard to the implementation of the respective interventions in persons with autism? Following a systematic review of the literature, controlled studies on early behavioural or skills-based interventions published since 2000 in English or German with children until the age of twelve are included and critically appraised. Studies must have at least ten participants per intervention group. In total, 15 publications based on 14 studies, eight systematic reviews and one health economic study are included. Most studies evaluate early interventions based upon the Lovaas model (Early intensive behavioural treatment (EIBT), Applied behavioural analysis (ABA)). Other evaluate pragmatic interventions or interventions based on other theoretical models like specific parent interventions, responsive education and prelinguistic milieu teaching, joint attention, symbolic play, and picture exchange communication system. Behaviour analytic interventions

  18. Behavioural and skill-based early interventions in children with autism spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Weinmann, Stefan; Schwarzbach, Christoph; Begemann, Matthias; Roll, Stephanie; Vauth, Christoph; Willich, Stefan N.; Greiner, Wolfgang

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) comprise typical or infantile autism (Kanner syndrome), Asperger’s disorder and atypical autism or pervasive developmental disorder - not otherwise specified. The syndrome is characterized by deficits in (1) verbal and nonverbal communication, (2) reciprocal social interaction and (3) repetitive patterns of behaviour, interests and activities. Early behavioural interventions are based on learning theory and behaviour therapy. They take into account specific deficits in perception, emotional reactions, social interaction and communication. In Germany, these comprehensive models are not widely evaluated and implemented. Research questions What are the clinical effectiveness and safety of early behavioural or skills-based early interventions in autism compared to other interventions or to treatment as usual? What are specific factors responsible for the effectiveness? What are the cost-effectiveness and cost consequences of different early interventions in autism? Which legal, social and ethical aspects are relevant with regard to the implementation of the respective interventions in persons with autism? Methods Following a systematic review of the literature, controlled studies on early behavioural or skills-based interventions published since 2000 in English or German with children until the age of twelve are included and critically appraised. Studies must have at least ten participants per intervention group. Results In total, 15 publications based on 14 studies, eight systematic reviews and one health economic study are included. Most studies evaluate early interventions based upon the Lovaas model (Early intensive behavioural treatment (EIBT), Applied behavioural analysis (ABA)). Other evaluate pragmatic interventions or interventions based on other theoretical models like specific parent interventions, responsive education and prelinguistic milieu teaching, joint attention, symbolic play, and picture exchange

  19. Comparison of Triadic and Provider-Led Intervention Practices in Early Intervention Home Visits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salisbury, Christine L.; Cushing, Lisa S.

    2013-01-01

    Despite calls for adoption and use of triadic early intervention practices, remarkably little research has prospectively compared this approach with traditional, provider-led service delivery. The aim of this study was to compare the actions of providers and caregivers within triadic and provider-led interactions with regard to the following: (1)…

  20. Knowledge and Use of Intervention Practices by Community-Based Early Intervention Service Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paynter, Jessica M.; Keen, Deb

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated staff attitudes, knowledge and use of evidence-based practices (EBP) and links to organisational culture in a community-based autism early intervention service. An EBP questionnaire was completed by 99 metropolitan and regionally-based professional and paraprofessional staff. Participants reported greater knowledge and use…

  1. Development of early mathematical skills with a tablet intervention: a randomized control trial in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Pitchford, Nicola J

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of educational interventions is necessary prior to wide-scale rollout. Yet very few rigorous studies have been conducted on the effectiveness of tablet-based interventions, especially in the early years and in developing countries. This study reports a randomized control trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a tablet intervention for supporting the development of early mathematical skills in primary school children in Malawi. A total sample of 318 children, spanning Standards 1-3, attending a medium-sized urban primary school, were randomized to one of three groups: maths tablet intervention, non-maths tablet control, and standard face-to-face practice. Children were pre-tested using tablets at the start of the school year on two tests of mathematical knowledge and a range of basic skills related to scholastic progression. Class teachers then delivered the intervention over an 8-weeks period, for the equivalent of 30-min per day. Technical support was provided from the local Voluntary Service Overseas (VSO). Children were then post-tested on the same assessments as given at pre-test. A final sample of 283 children, from Standards 1-3, present at both pre- and post-test, was analyzed to investigate the effectiveness of the maths tablet intervention. Significant effects of the maths tablet intervention over and above standard face-to-face practice or using tablets without the maths software were found in Standards 2 and 3. In Standard 3 the greater learning gains shown by the maths tablet intervention group compared to both of the control groups on the tablet-based assessments transferred to paper and pencil format, illustrating generalization of knowledge gained. Thus, tablet technology can effectively support early years mathematical skills in developing countries if the software is carefully designed to engage the child in the learning process and the content is grounded in a solid well-constructed curriculum appropriate for the child's developmental

  2. Development of early mathematical skills with a tablet intervention: a randomized control trial in Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Pitchford, Nicola J.

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of educational interventions is necessary prior to wide-scale rollout. Yet very few rigorous studies have been conducted on the effectiveness of tablet-based interventions, especially in the early years and in developing countries. This study reports a randomized control trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a tablet intervention for supporting the development of early mathematical skills in primary school children in Malawi. A total sample of 318 children, spanning Standards 1–3, attending a medium-sized urban primary school, were randomized to one of three groups: maths tablet intervention, non-maths tablet control, and standard face-to-face practice. Children were pre-tested using tablets at the start of the school year on two tests of mathematical knowledge and a range of basic skills related to scholastic progression. Class teachers then delivered the intervention over an 8-weeks period, for the equivalent of 30-min per day. Technical support was provided from the local Voluntary Service Overseas (VSO). Children were then post-tested on the same assessments as given at pre-test. A final sample of 283 children, from Standards 1–3, present at both pre- and post-test, was analyzed to investigate the effectiveness of the maths tablet intervention. Significant effects of the maths tablet intervention over and above standard face-to-face practice or using tablets without the maths software were found in Standards 2 and 3. In Standard 3 the greater learning gains shown by the maths tablet intervention group compared to both of the control groups on the tablet-based assessments transferred to paper and pencil format, illustrating generalization of knowledge gained. Thus, tablet technology can effectively support early years mathematical skills in developing countries if the software is carefully designed to engage the child in the learning process and the content is grounded in a solid well-constructed curriculum appropriate for the child

  3. Beyond Developmentalism? Early Childhood Teachers' Understandings of Multiage Grouping in Early Childhood Education and Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Susan; Blaise, Mindy; Hammer, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Postdevelopmental perspectives in early childhood education and care increasingly reference alternative ways of understanding learning, growth and development in early learning. Drawing on these ideas, this paper examines research findings which focused on early childhood teachers' understandings of multiage grouping. The findings suggested that…

  4. Early intervention and recovery among children with failure to thrive: follow-up at age 8.

    PubMed

    Black, Maureen M; Dubowitz, Howard; Krishnakumar, Ambika; Starr, Raymond H

    2007-07-01

    problems. Children in the clinical-intervention-plus-home-intervention group had fewer teacher-reported internalizing problems and better work habits than the clinical-intervention-only group. Early failure to thrive increased children's vulnerability to short stature, poor arithmetic performance, and poor work habits. Home visiting attenuated some of the negative effects of early failure to thrive, possibly by promoting maternal sensitivity and helping children build strong work habits that enabled them to benefit from school. Findings provide evidence for early intervention programs for vulnerable infants.

  5. Does Early Mathematics Intervention Change the Processes Underlying Children’s Learning?

    PubMed Central

    Watts, Tyler W.; Clements, Douglas H.; Sarama, Julie; Wolfe, Christopher B.; Spitler, Mary Elaine; Bailey, Drew H.

    2017-01-01

    Early educational intervention effects typically fade in the years following treatment, and few studies have investigated why achievement impacts diminish over time. The current study tested the effects of a preschool mathematics intervention on two aspects of children’s mathematical development. We tested for separate effects of the intervention on “state” (occasion-specific) and “trait” (relatively stable) variability in mathematics achievement. Results indicated that, although the treatment had a large impact on state mathematics, the treatment had no effect on trait mathematics, or the aspect of mathematics achievement that influences stable individual differences in mathematics achievement over time. Results did suggest, however, that the intervention could affect the underlying processes in children’s mathematical development by inducing more transfer of knowledge immediately following the intervention for students in the treated group. PMID:29399243

  6. Interventions in Early Mathematics: Avoiding Pollution and Dilution.

    PubMed

    Sarama, Julie; Clements, Douglas H

    2017-01-01

    Although specific interventions in early mathematics have been successful, few have been brought to scale successfully, especially across the challenging diversity of populations and contexts in the early childhood system in the United States. In this chapter, we analyze a theoretically based scale-up model for early mathematics that was designed to avoid the pollution and dilution that often plagues efforts to achieve broad success. We elaborate the theoretical framework by noting the junctures that are susceptible to dilution or pollution. Then we expatiate the model's guidelines to describe specifically how they were designed and implemented to mitigate pollution and dilution. Finally, we provide evidence regarding the success of these efforts. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Therapeutic singing as an early intervention for swallowing in persons with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Stegemöller, E L; Hibbing, P; Radig, H; Wingate, J

    2017-04-01

    For persons with Parkinson's disease (PD), secondary motor symptoms such as swallow impairment impact the quality of life and are major contributors to mortality. There is a present need for therapeutic interventions aimed at improving swallow function during the early stages of PD. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine the effects of a group therapeutic singing intervention on swallowing in persons with PD with no significant dysphagia symptoms. Cohort study. University in the United States. Twenty-four participants with PD. Eight weeks of group therapeutic singing. Electromyography (EMG) was used to assess muscle activity associated with swallow pre and post the group singing intervention. Swallow quality of life (SWAL-QOL) and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) were also obtained pre- and post-intervention. Participants reported minimal difficulty with swallowing, yet results revealed a significant increase in EMG outcome measures, as well as significant improvement in UPDRS total and UPDRS motor scores. No significant differences were revealed for SWAL-QOL. Increases in EMG timing measures may suggest that group singing results in the prolongation of laryngeal elevation, protecting the airway from foreign material for longer periods of time during swallow. Combined with the improvement in UPDRS clinical measures, therapeutic singing may be an engaging early intervention strategy to address oropharyngeal dysphagia while also benefiting additional clinical symptoms of PD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Randomized, controlled trial of an intervention for toddlers with autism: the Early Start Denver Model.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Geraldine; Rogers, Sally; Munson, Jeffrey; Smith, Milani; Winter, Jamie; Greenson, Jessica; Donaldson, Amy; Varley, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    To conduct a randomized, controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of the Early Start Denver Model (ESDM), a comprehensive developmental behavioral intervention, for improving outcomes of toddlers diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Forty-eight children diagnosed with ASD between 18 and 30 months of age were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups: (1) ESDM intervention, which is based on developmental and applied behavioral analytic principles and delivered by trained therapists and parents for 2 years; or (2) referral to community providers for intervention commonly available in the community. Compared with children who received community-intervention, children who received ESDM showed significant improvements in IQ, adaptive behavior, and autism diagnosis. Two years after entering intervention, the ESDM group on average improved 17.6 standard score points (1 SD: 15 points) compared with 7.0 points in the comparison group relative to baseline scores. The ESDM group maintained its rate of growth in adaptive behavior compared with a normative sample of typically developing children. In contrast, over the 2-year span, the comparison group showed greater delays in adaptive behavior. Children who received ESDM also were more likely to experience a change in diagnosis from autism to pervasive developmental disorder, not otherwise specified, than the comparison group. This is the first randomized, controlled trial to demonstrate the efficacy of a comprehensive developmental behavioral intervention for toddlers with ASD for improving cognitive and adaptive behavior and reducing severity of ASD diagnosis. Results of this study underscore the importance of early detection of and intervention in autism.

  9. Wyoming's Early Settlement and Ethnic Groups, Unit IV.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Terry

    This unit on Wyoming's early settlement and ethnic groups provides concepts, activities, stories, charts, and graphs for elementary school students. Concepts include the attraction Wyoming held for trappers; the major social, economic, and religious event called "The Rendezvous"; the different ethnic and religious groups that presently…

  10. Technology User Groups and Early Childhood Education: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parette, Howard P.; Hourcade, Jack J.; Blum, Craig; Watts, Emily H.; Stoner, Julia B.; Wojcik, Brian W.; Chrismore, Shannon B.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a preliminary examination of the potential of Technology User Groups as a professional development venue for early childhood education professionals in developing operational and functional competence in using hardware and software components of a Technology toolkit. Technology user groups are composed of varying numbers of…

  11. Group Time in Early Childhood Centers: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAfee, Oralie

    To investigate the current status of group time in early childhood centers, a small-scale exploratory study was designed and executed. Results of interviews with 35 teachers and observations in five classrooms serving children ages 2 1/2 through kindergarten revealed that all classrooms had at least one group time or circle time, usually in the…

  12. "Teacher, I Can Read!" The Marvels of Early Intervention Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Jean C.; Hernandez, Leonor

    2011-01-01

    "Teacher, I can read!" exclaimed Saree, a fourth-quarter second grader who was placed in the lowest of reading groups at a southwest side elementary school in Chicago. This was her proud announcement after three weeks of intensive intervention with Ms. Gomez, a student teacher in her final semester at Chicago State University. "Ms.…

  13. Counselling in infertility: individual, couple and group interventions.

    PubMed

    Van den Broeck, Uschi; Emery, Marysa; Wischmann, Tewes; Thorn, Petra

    2010-12-01

    Infertility is considered a biopsychosocial crisis and infertility counselling is recommended as an integral part of a multidisciplinary approach. This article will outline the theoretical background and describe common interventions used in infertility counselling for individuals, couples and in a group setting. This article summarizes the proceedings of the first campus workshop of the Special interest group of Psychology and Counselling of the European Society for Human Reproduction and Embryology (ESHRE). Infertility counselling offers the opportunity to explore, discover and clarify ways of living more satisfyingly and resourcefully when fertility impairments have been diagnosed. The Heidelberg Fertility Consultation Service is presented as a framework for individual and couples counselling and highlights important issues in counselling patients. For group work a number of steps to set up a group within an infertility framework are discussed. In recent years, infertility counselling has become a specialist form of counselling requiring professional expertise and qualification. Key issues and common interventions are presented to raise awareness for the specific counselling needs of individuals and couples experiencing infertility and undergoing medical treatment. Mental health professionals new to the field of reproductive technologies as well as those in other areas of mental health counselling clients with fertility disorders can benefit from the topics addressed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Resource Guide: Selected Early Childhood/Early Intervention Training Materials. 8th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catlett, Camille, Comp.; Winton, Pamela J., Comp.

    This resource guide is intended to identify both primary and supplementary resources for designing preservice and inservice training on early intervention programs for children with disabilities. The instructional materials are described and listed in three sections. The first section provides annotated descriptions of instructional materials in…

  15. Sleep Problems and Early Developmental Delay: Implications for Early Intervention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonuck, Karen; Grant, Roy

    2012-01-01

    Sleep disorders negatively impact behavior, cognition, and growth--the same areas targeted by early intervention. Conversely, developmental delays and disabilities may themselves precipitate sleep disorders. Young children with developmental delays experience sleep disorders at a higher rate than do typically developing children; the most common…

  16. A cross-national trial of brief interventions with heavy drinkers. WHO Brief Intervention Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The relative effects of simple advice and brief counseling were evaluated with heavy drinkers identified in primary care and other health settings in eight countries. METHODS. Subjects (1260 men, 299 women) with no prior history of alcohol dependence were selected if they consumed alcohol with sufficient frequency or intensity to be considered at risk of alcohol-related problems. Subjects were randomly assigned to a control group, a simple advice group, or a group receiving brief counseling. Seventy-five percent of subjects were evaluated 9 months later. RESULTS. Male patients exposed to the interventions reported approximately 17% lower average daily alcohol consumption than those in the control group. Reductions in the intensity of drinking were approximately 10%. For women, significant reductions were observed in both the control and the intervention groups. Five minutes of simple advice were as effective as 20 minutes of brief counseling. CONCLUSIONS. Brief interventions are consistently robust across health care settings and sociocultural groups and can make a significant contribution to the secondary prevention of alcohol-related problems if they are widely used in primary care. PMID:8669518

  17. Randomized Controlled Trial for Early Intervention for Autism: A Pilot Study of the Autism 1-2-3 Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Virginia C. N.; Kwan, Queenie K.

    2010-01-01

    We piloted a 2-week "Autism-1-2-3" early intervention for children with autism and their parents immediately after diagnosis that targeted at (1) eye contact, (2) gesture and (3) vocalization/words. Seventeen children were randomized into the Intervention (n = 9) and Control (n = 8) groups. Outcome measures included the Autism Diagnostic…

  18. The Positive Impact of Early Intervention for Children with Developmental Delays, Gestational Cocaine Exposure, and Co-Occurring Risk Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ullery, Mary Anne; Katz, Lynne

    2017-01-01

    This article examined transition rates of young children (n = 102) from an early intervention program at the Linda Ray Intervention Program (LRIP) who had documented developmental delays and co-occurring prenatal drug exposure often coupled with verified child maltreatment. Findings indicated that there was significant group improvement from…

  19. Internet-based early intervention to prevent posttraumatic stress disorder in injury patients: randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mouthaan, Joanne; Sijbrandij, Marit; de Vries, Giel-Jan; Reitsma, Johannes B; van de Schoot, Rens; Goslings, J Carel; Luitse, Jan S K; Bakker, Fred C; Gersons, Berthold P R; Olff, Miranda

    2013-08-13

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) develops in 10-20% of injury patients. We developed a novel, self-guided Internet-based intervention (called Trauma TIPS) based on techniques from cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to prevent the onset of PTSD symptoms. To determine whether Trauma TIPS is effective in preventing the onset of PTSD symptoms in injury patients. Adult, level 1 trauma center patients were randomly assigned to receive the fully automated Trauma TIPS Internet intervention (n=151) or to receive no early intervention (n=149). Trauma TIPS consisted of psychoeducation, in vivo exposure, and stress management techniques. Both groups were free to use care as usual (nonprotocolized talks with hospital staff). PTSD symptom severity was assessed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months post injury with a clinical interview (Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale) by blinded trained interviewers and self-report instrument (Impact of Event Scale-Revised). Secondary outcomes were acute anxiety and arousal (assessed online), self-reported depressive and anxiety symptoms (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), and mental health care utilization. Intervention usage was documented. The mean number of intervention logins was 1.7, SD 2.5, median 1, interquartile range (IQR) 1-2. Thirty-four patients in the intervention group did not log in (22.5%), 63 (41.7%) logged in once, and 54 (35.8%) logged in multiple times (mean 3.6, SD 3.5, median 3, IQR 2-4). On clinician-assessed and self-reported PTSD symptoms, both the intervention and control group showed a significant decrease over time (P<.001) without significant differences in trend. PTSD at 12 months was diagnosed in 4.7% of controls and 4.4% of intervention group patients. There were no group differences on anxiety or depressive symptoms over time. Post hoc analyses using latent growth mixture modeling showed a significant decrease in PTSD symptoms in a subgroup of patients with severe initial symptoms (n=20) (P<.001). Our results do

  20. Parent-only Group Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Children with Anxiety Disorders: A Control Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Salari, Elham; Mahmoudi-Gharaei, Javad; Shirazi, Elham; Sepasi, Mitra

    2018-01-01

    Objective Parents play an important role in development and continuation of anxiety disorders in children. Yet the evidence on parent contribution in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for childhood anxiety is limited. This open randomized trial examined the effectiveness of a parent-directed group CBT to manage children with anxiety disorders. Method Parents of 42 children aged 6–12 with primary anxiety disorders were allocated to a six, two-hour weekly intervention and a wait-list (WL) control. The Revised Children’s Manifest Anxiety, Children’s Depression Inventory, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire-Home Version, Depression-Anxiety-Stress Scale, Children Global Assessment Scale, and Global Relational Assessment of Functioning were used to assess children’s and parents’ functioning and emotional symptoms. Parents completed consumer satisfaction questionnaire. Results Parents in the CBT group reported significant improvement in their depressive symptoms (p=0.006) and the family functioning (p=0.04), as well as reduction in children’s emotional symptoms (p=0.007). Clinician rating of children’s functioning showed significant improvement in the CBT group(p=0.001). There was no significant difference in children rating of their anxiety within groups from pre- to post-intervention. Parents were satisfied mostly with the intervention. Conclusion A brief parent-only CBT based intervention can be effective in the management of childhood anxiety. PMID:29662524

  1. Parent-only Group Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Children with Anxiety Disorders: A Control Group Study.

    PubMed

    Salari, Elham; Shahrivar, Zahra; Mahmoudi-Gharaei, Javad; Shirazi, Elham; Sepasi, Mitra

    2018-04-01

    Parents play an important role in development and continuation of anxiety disorders in children. Yet the evidence on parent contribution in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for childhood anxiety is limited. This open randomized trial examined the effectiveness of a parent-directed group CBT to manage children with anxiety disorders. Parents of 42 children aged 6-12 with primary anxiety disorders were allocated to a six, two-hour weekly intervention and a wait-list (WL) control. The Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety, Children's Depression Inventory, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire-Home Version, Depression-Anxiety-Stress Scale, Children Global Assessment Scale, and Global Relational Assessment of Functioning were used to assess children's and parents' functioning and emotional symptoms. Parents completed consumer satisfaction questionnaire. Parents in the CBT group reported significant improvement in their depressive symptoms (p=0.006) and the family functioning (p=0.04), as well as reduction in children's emotional symptoms (p=0.007). Clinician rating of children's functioning showed significant improvement in the CBT group(p=0.001). There was no significant difference in children rating of their anxiety within groups from pre- to post-intervention. Parents were satisfied mostly with the intervention. A brief parent-only CBT based intervention can be effective in the management of childhood anxiety.

  2. Early Educational Intervention, Early Cumulative Risk, and the Early Home Environment as Predictors of Young Adult Outcomes within a High-Risk Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pungello, Elizabeth P.; Kainz, Kirsten; Burchinal, Margaret; Wasik, Barbara H.; Sparling, Joseph J.; Ramey, Craig T.; Campbell, Frances A.

    2010-01-01

    The extent to which early educational intervention, early cumulative risk, and the early home environment were associated with young adult outcomes was investigated in a sample of 139 young adults (age 21) from high-risk families enrolled in randomized trials of early intervention. Positive effects of treatment were found for education attainment,…

  3. [Healthy Aging at Work - Group Intervention in Middle Aged Nurses].

    PubMed

    Maatouk, Imad; Helaß, Madeleine

    2018-05-30

    Demographic change leads to shifting demands in patient care, not only due to older and sicker patients, but also due to ageing and potentially strained nursing staff. High job strain is known to be associated with an intention to leave the job. At the same time prevalence of mental distress is already high. The aim of our work was to develop a small group intervention to prevent mental strain and to enhance healthy ageing at work. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Generative Mechanisms of Early Childhood Interventions to Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Arthur J.; Mondi, Christina F.; Ou, Suh-Ruu; Hayakawa, Momo

    2016-01-01

    We describe the contributions of cognitive-scholastic advantage, family support behavior, and school quality and support as processes through which early childhood interventions promote the well-being of vulnerable children and families. Evidence in support of these processes is from longitudinal cohort studies of the Child-Parent Centers and other preventive interventions beginning in the first few years of life. Relatively large effects of program participation have been documented for school readiness skills, parent involvement, K-12 achievement, reduced need for remedial education, educational attainment, and crime prevention. The three processes account for up to half of the program impact on well-being. They also help to explain the positive economic returns of many effective programs. The generalizability of these processes is supported by a sizable knowledge base, including a scale-up of the Child-Parent Centers in two states. PMID:28195326

  5. Processes of Early Childhood Interventions to Adult Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Arthur J; Ou, Suh-Ruu; Mondi, Christina F; Hayakawa, Momoko

    2017-03-01

    This article describes the contributions of cognitive-scholastic advantage, family support behavior, and school quality and support as processes through which early childhood interventions promote well-being. Evidence in support of these processes is from longitudinal cohort studies of the Child-Parent Centers and other preventive interventions beginning by age 4. Relatively large effects of participation have been documented for school readiness skills at age 5, parent involvement, K-12 achievement, remedial education, educational attainment, and crime prevention. The three processes account for up to half of the program impacts on well-being. They also help to explain the positive economic returns of many effective programs. The generalizability of these processes is supported by a sizable knowledge base, including a scale up of the Child-Parent Centers. © 2017 The Authors. Child Development © 2017 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  6. Family Involvement in Early Intervention Service Planning: Links to Parental Satisfaction and Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popp, Tierney K.; You, Hyun-Kyung

    2016-01-01

    The mediating role of parental satisfaction in the relation between family involvement in early intervention service planning and parental self-efficacy was explored. Participants included families of children with disability or delay involved in early intervention (n = 2586). Data were examined upon entry into early intervention (T1) and at…

  7. 34 CFR 303.126 - Early intervention services in natural environments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Early intervention services in natural environments...) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION... Statewide System Minimum Components of A Statewide System § 303.126 Early intervention services in natural...

  8. 12 CFR 1024.39 - Early intervention requirements for certain borrowers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Early intervention requirements for certain... SETTLEMENT PROCEDURES ACT (REGULATION X) Mortgage Servicing § 1024.39 Early intervention requirements for... of the user, the revised text is set forth as follows: § 1024.39 Early intervention requirements for...

  9. 34 CFR 303.126 - Early intervention services in natural environments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Early intervention services in natural environments. 303...) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION... Statewide System Minimum Components of A Statewide System § 303.126 Early intervention services in natural...

  10. 34 CFR 303.126 - Early intervention services in natural environments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Early intervention services in natural environments...) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND REHABILITATIVE SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION... Statewide System Minimum Components of A Statewide System § 303.126 Early intervention services in natural...

  11. Participatory design in the development of an early therapy intervention for perinatal stroke.

    PubMed

    Basu, Anna Purna; Pearse, Janice Elizabeth; Baggaley, Jessica; Watson, Rose Mary; Rapley, Tim

    2017-01-23

    Perinatal stroke is the leading cause of unilateral (hemiparetic) cerebral palsy, with life-long personal, social and financial consequences. Translational research findings indicate that early therapy intervention has the potential for significant improvements in long-term outcome in terms of motor function. By involving families and health professionals in the development and design stage, we aimed to produce a therapy intervention which they would engage with. Nine parents of children with hemiparesis and fourteen health professionals involved in the care of infants with perinatal stroke took part in peer review and focus groups to discuss evolving therapy materials, with revisions made iteratively. The materials and approach were also discussed at a meeting of the London Child Stroke Research Reference Group. Focus group data were coded using Normalisation Process Theory constructs to explore potential barriers and facilitators to routine uptake of the intervention. We developed the Early Therapy in Perinatal Stroke (eTIPS) program - a parent-delivered, home-based complex intervention addressing a current gap in practice for infants in the first 6 months of life after unilateral perinatal stroke and with the aim of improving motor outcome. Parents and health professionals saw the intervention as different from usual practice, and valuable (high coherence). They were keen to engage (high cognitive participation). They considered the tasks for parents to be achievable (high collective action). They demonstrated trust in the approach and felt that parents would undertake the recommended activities (high collective action). They saw the approach as flexible and adaptable (high reflexive monitoring). Following suggestions made, we added a section on involving the extended family, and obtained funding for a website and videos to supplement written materials. Focus groups with parents and health professionals provided meaningful feedback to iteratively improve the

  12. Combining child social skills training with a parent early intervention program for inhibited preschool children.

    PubMed

    Lau, Elizabeth X; Rapee, Ronald M; Coplan, Robert J

    2017-10-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of early intervention for anxiety in preschoolers through parent-education. The current study evaluated a six-session early intervention program for preschoolers at high risk of anxiety disorders in which a standard educational program for parents was supplemented by direct training of social skills to the children. Seventy-two children aged 3-5 years were selected based on high behavioural inhibition levels and concurrently having a parent with high emotional distress. Families were randomly assigned to either the intervention group, which consisted of six parent-education group sessions and six child social skills training sessions, or waitlist. After six months, families on waitlist were offered treatment consisting of parent-education only. Relative to waitlist, children in the combined condition showed significantly fewer clinician-rated anxiety disorders and diagnostic severity and maternal (but not paternal) reported anxiety symptoms and life interference at six months. Mothers also reported less overprotection. These gains were maintained at 12-month follow-up. Parent only education following waitlist produced similar improvements among children. Quasi-experimental comparison between combined and parent-only interventions indicated greater reductions from combined intervention according to clinician reports, but no significant differences on maternal reports. Results suggest that this brief early intervention program for preschoolers with both parent and child components significantly reduces risk and disorder in vulnerable children. The inclusion of a child component might have the potential to increase effects over parent-only intervention. However, future support for this conclusion through long-term, randomised controlled trials is needed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The importance of context in early autism intervention: A qualitative South African study.

    PubMed

    Guler, Jessy; de Vries, Petrus J; Seris, Noleen; Shabalala, Nokuthula; Franz, Lauren

    2017-09-01

    The majority of individuals with autism spectrum disorder live in low- and middle-income countries and receive little or no services from health or social care systems. The development and validation of autism spectrum disorder interventions has almost exclusively occurred in high-income countries, leaving many unanswered questions regarding what contextual factors would need to be considered to ensure the effectiveness of interventions in low- and middle-income countries. This study qualitatively explored contextual factors relevant to the adaptation of a caregiver-mediated early autism spectrum disorder intervention in a low-resource South African setting. We conducted four focus groups and four in-depth interviews with 28 caregivers of young children with autism spectrum disorder and used thematic analysis to identify key themes. Eight contextual factors including culture, language, location of treatment, cost of treatment, type of service provider, support, parenting practices, and stigma emerged as important. Caregivers reported a preference for an affordable, in-home, individualized early autism spectrum disorder intervention, where they have an active voice in shaping treatment goals. Distrust of community-based health workers and challenges associated with autism spectrum disorder-related stigma were identified. Recommendations that integrate caregiver preferences with the development of a low-cost and scalable caregiver-mediated early autism spectrum disorder intervention are included.

  14. Using Digital Media Advertising in Early Psychosis Intervention.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Michael L; Garrett, Chantel; Baumel, Amit; Scovel, Maria; Rizvi, Asra F; Muscat, Whitney; Kane, John M

    2017-11-01

    Identifying and engaging youth with early-stage psychotic disorders in order to facilitate timely treatment initiation remains a major public health challenge. Although advertisers routinely use the Internet to directly target consumers, limited efforts have focused on applying available technology to proactively encourage help-seeking in the mental health community. This study explores how one might take advantage of Google AdWords in order to reach prospective patients with early psychosis. A landing page was developed with the primary goal of encouraging help-seeking individuals in New York City to contact their local early psychosis intervention clinic. In order to provide the best opportunity to reach the intended audience, Google AdWords was utilized to link more than 2,000 selected search terms to strategically placed landing page advertisements. The campaign ran for 14 weeks between April 11 and July 18, 2016 and had a total budget of $1,427. The ads appeared 191,313 times and were clicked on 4,350 times, at a per-click cost of $.33. Many users took additional help-seeking steps, including obtaining psychosis-specific information/education (44%), completing a psychosis self-screener (15%), and contacting the local early treatment program (1%). Digital ads appear to be a reasonable and cost-effective method to reach individuals who are searching for behavioral health information online. More research is needed to better understand the many complex steps between online search inquiries and making first clinical contact.

  15. An Early Feeding Practices Intervention for Obesity Prevention.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Lynne Allison; Mallan, Kimberley Margaret; Nicholson, Jan Maree; Thorpe, Karen; Nambiar, Smita; Mauch, Chelsea Emma; Magarey, Anthea

    2015-07-01

    Report long-term outcomes of the NOURISH randomized controlled trial (RCT), which evaluated a universal intervention commencing in infancy to provide anticipatory guidance to first-time mothers on "protective" complementary feeding practices that were hypothesized to reduce childhood obesity risk. The NOURISH RCT enrolled 698 mothers (mean age 30.1 years, SD = 5.3) with healthy term infants (51% female). Mothers were randomly allocated to usual care or to attend two 6-session, 12-week group education modules. Outcomes were assessed 5 times: baseline (infants 4.3 months); 6 months after module 1 (infants 14 months); 6 months after module 2 (infants 2 years) and at 3.5 and 5 years of age. Maternal feeding practices were self-reported using validated questionnaires. BMI Z-score was calculated from measured child height and weight. Linear mixed models evaluated intervention (group) effect across time. Retention at age 5 years was 61%. Across ages 2 to 5 years, intervention mothers reported less frequent use of nonresponsive feeding practices on 6 of 9 scales. At 5 years, they also reported more appropriate responses to food refusal on 7 of 12 items (Ps ≤ .05). No statistically significant group effect was noted for anthropometric outcomes (BMI Z-score: P = .06) or the prevalence of overweight/obesity (control 13.3% vs intervention 11.4%, P = .66). Anticipatory guidance on complementary feeding resulted in first-time mothers reporting increased use of protective feeding practices. These intervention effects were sustained up to 5 years of age and were paralleled by a nonsignificant trend for lower child BMI Z-scores at all postintervention assessment points. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  16. [Effects of an early psychological intervention on parents of children with cleft lip/palate].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yangyang; Xin, Yanhua; Ma, Jian; Xin, Xiuhong; Shi, Bing; Huang, Yongqing

    2013-08-01

    To provide basis for effects of an early psychological intervention on parents of children with cleft lip/palate, and investigate the effects of an early psychological intervention to them. One self-administered questionnaire (SCL-90) was applied in 102 parents of children with cleft lip/palate, compared to 126 parents of healthy individuals on the day of admission. They were given the psychological intervention during hospitalization and 3 months after discharge. The questionnaire (SCL-90) was again applied to them on the day of discharge and 3 months after discharge. Using the questionnaire (SCL-90), the answer scores of somatization, obsessive-compulsive, depression and anxiety etc. were significantly higher than those of the control group (P < 0.05). There were no statistical differences during 3 subgroups in the case group (P > 0.05). There were no statistical differences on the day of admission and on the day of discharge (P > 0.05), but there were statistical difference on the day of admission and 3 months after discharge (P < 0.05). In this study, the psychosomatic states of parents of children with cleft lip/palate is poor. It's important and greatly significant that we conduct early psychological intervention to parents of children with cleft lip/palate and to the children's psychosomatic health.

  17. Impact of Intensive Summer Reading Intervention for Children With Reading Disabilities and Difficulties in Early Elementary School.

    PubMed

    Christodoulou, Joanna A; Cyr, Abigail; Murtagh, Jack; Chang, Patricia; Lin, Jiayi; Guarino, Anthony J; Hook, Pamela; Gabrieli, John D E

    Efficacy of an intensive reading intervention implemented during the nonacademic summer was evaluated in children with reading disabilities or difficulties (RD). Students (ages 6-9) were randomly assigned to receive Lindamood-Bell's Seeing Stars program ( n = 23) as an intervention or to a waiting-list control group ( n = 24). Analysis of pre- and posttesting revealed significant interactions in favor of the intervention group for untimed word and pseudoword reading, timed pseudoword reading, oral reading fluency, and symbol imagery. The interactions mostly reflected (a) significant declines in the nonintervention group from pre- to posttesting, and (2) no decline in the intervention group. The current study offers direct evidence for widening differences in reading abilities between students with RD who do and do not receive intensive summer reading instruction. Intervention implications for RD children are discussed, especially in relation to the relevance of summer intervention to prevent further decline in struggling early readers.

  18. Labor market returns to an early childhood stimulation intervention in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Gertler, Paul; Heckman, James; Pinto, Rodrigo; Zanolini, Arianna; Vermeersch, Christel; Walker, Susan; Chang, Susan M; Grantham-McGregor, Sally

    2014-05-30

    A substantial literature shows that U.S. early childhood interventions have important long-term economic benefits. However, there is little evidence on this question for developing countries. We report substantial effects on the earnings of participants in a randomized intervention conducted in 1986-1987 that gave psychosocial stimulation to growth-stunted Jamaican toddlers. The intervention consisted of weekly visits from community health workers over a 2-year period that taught parenting skills and encouraged mothers and children to interact in ways that develop cognitive and socioemotional skills. The authors reinterviewed 105 out of 129 study participants 20 years later and found that the intervention increased earnings by 25%, enough for them to catch up to the earnings of a nonstunted comparison group identified at baseline (65 out of 84 participants). Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. Associations among self-concept, verbal behaviors, and group climate early in the group counseling process.

    PubMed

    Jen Der Pan, Peter; Fan, Ai Chun; Bhat, Christine Suniti; Chang, Shona Shih Hua

    2012-12-01

    In this study, relations among group members' self-concept, verbal behaviors, and group climate early in the group counseling process were assessed for college students who were randomly assigned to four counseling groups. Based on measures from the hill interaction matrix, it was observed that family, social, and action self-concepts, as well as engagement, avoidance, and conflict group climate, were correlated with several verbal behaviors. Silence and quadrant 4 (Q4), which consists of speculative and confrontative verbal behaviors at personal and relationship levels, significantly predicted and explained 43% of the variance in engagement group climate. Silence and Q3, comprised of conventional and assertive verbal behaviors at personal and relationship levels, and Q1, conventional and assertive verbal behaviors at topic and group levels, explained 66% of variance in avoidance climate. Q4 and Silence explained 33% of conflict climate variance early in the group sessions. Implications for research and counseling practice are suggested.

  20. Early intervention for vulnerable infants and their families: an emerging agenda.

    PubMed

    Kruskal, M O; Thomasgard, M C; Shonkoff, J P

    1989-12-01

    Early childhood development is a complex dynamic process that begins at birth and unfolds in a transactional manner as infants interact with their environment. Children are highly adaptive organisms with powerful homeostatic mechanisms; consequently, most high-risk infants do well. Environmental factors are powerful mediators in this process, and a supportive and responsive environment may alleviate many early developmental insults, while a deficient environment can exacerbate developmental weaknesses. Available data suggest that appropriately designed early intervention services can be effective in facilitating both child and family adaptation for a variety of target groups. However, many important questions remain unanswered. For example, although interventions have been shown to improve cognitive function, effects in other important areas such as social and emotional functioning and family coping have not been well studied. Information about the impact of family variables is also incomplete as is our knowledge about which services work best for which children and families. Finally, the influence of protective factors in the child and in the environment requires further exploration. The perinatologist can make several critical contributions to the comprehensive care of high risk infants beyond their medical management. He or she can play a pivotal role in identifying those neonates who need early intervention on the basis of their biologic vulnerability, their environmental risk factors, or both. Perinatologists are also in the best position to facilitate early entry into an appropriate service system and can be important collaborators in providing comprehensive services and long-term follow-up.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. The DREME Network: Research and Interventions in Early Childhood Mathematics.

    PubMed

    Day-Hess, Crystal; Clements, Douglas H

    2017-01-01

    The DREME Network was created to advance the field of early mathematics research and improves the opportunities to develop math competencies offered to children birth through age 8 years, with an emphasis on the preschool years. All four main Network projects will have implications for interventions. Section 1 introduces the Network and its four projects. The remainder of the chapter focuses on one of these four projects, Making More of Math (MMM), in depth. MMM is directly developing an intervention for children, based on selecting high-quality instructional activities culled from the burgeoning curriculum resources. We first report a review of 457 activities from 6 research-based curricula, which describes the number of activities by content focus, type (nature), and setting of each activity. Given the interest in higher-order thinking skills and self-regulation, we then identified activities that had the potential to, develop both mathematics and executive function (EF) proficiencies. We rated these, selecting the top 10 for extensive coding by mathematics content and EF processes addressed. We find a wide divergence across curricula in all these categories and provide comprehensive reports for those interested in selecting, using, or developing early mathematics curricula. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Early Intervention for Borderline Personality Disorder: Psychodynamic Therapy in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Salzer, Simone; Cropp, Carola; Streeck-Fischer, Annette

    2014-01-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) should be understood as a disorder of development (Streeck-Fischer 2008, 2013) that has its first manifestation in late childhood and adolescence. There are only few treatment studies of adolescents meeting the diagnostic criteria of borderline personality disorder, although early interventions for these patients are urgently needed (see Chanen & McCutcheon 2013). We examined the effectiveness of an inpatient psychodynamic therapy (PDT). Twenty-eight adolescents fulfilling the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria of borderline personality disorder were treated with psychodynamic therapy. The mean duration of treatment was 29.87 weeks (SD = 15.88). Outcomes were remission rates, GAF, GSI, SDQ, IIP and BPI scores. Assessments were made at admission and after treatment. Pre-post comparisons and comparisons with normative data were conducted. At the end of treatment 39.29% of the patients were remitted. We found significant improvements for the GAF, GSI, SDQ, IIP (all p0.001) and the BPI (p = 0.006). These clinically relevant improvements demonstrate the effectiveness of psychodynamic therapy in adolescents with borderline personality disorder and stress the usefulness of an early intervention for these patients.

  3. Three year outcomes in an early intervention service for psychosis in a multicultural and multiethnic population.

    PubMed

    Agius, Mark; Shah, Samir; Ramkisson, Roshelle; Persaud, Albert; Murphy, Suzanne; Zaman, Rashid

    2008-12-01

    Concern has been expressed that it may be difficult to provide certain interventions to some ethnic groups in an Early Intervention Service for Psychosis, and that as a consequence, three-year outcomes for the different Ethnic Groups may be different in different groups. To test whether there are differences between the three year outcomes of different ethnic groups represented in the patient population of an Early Intervention service for Psychosis. The three-year outcomes for the first group of 62 Patients to receive three years treatment in the Early Intervention Service in Luton, Bedfordshire were examined. This group well represented the ethnic mix of the population of Luton. It does not appear that there are major differences between the three-year outcomes of any one of the three groups studied. However the South Asian Patients appear to present earlier, with shorter DUPs, seemed more likely to marry, live with their families, and seem more likely to return to higher education after a first psychotic episode of psychosis compared to the Caucasians. Afro-Carribeans and South Asians were more likely to be unemployed, but many South Asians were employed, as were Caucasians. The fewest persons employed were in the Afro-Caribbean group. While slightly more South Asians and Afro-Carribeans were admitted compulsorily under the mental health act over the three years, 60% of each of the two non-white groups were never admitted compulsorily. This is different from the reported national trends of the Mental Health act being used excessively with the Afro-Caribbean population. No previous study has looked at the outcomes of Early Intervention Services for First Psychotic Episodes according to the Ethnic Origin of the Clients. The better outcomes seen with South Asians are probably due to cultural factors among the South Asians born in this country, rather than to issues related to the Psychotic Illness itself. These findings are important in planning services in areas

  4. T42. WHEN SHOULD EARLY INTERVENTION START, AND FOR HOW LONG SHOULD IT LAST?

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Nikolai; Melau, Marianne; Jensen, Heidi; Hastrup, Lene Halling; Hjorthøj, Carsten; Nordentoft, Merete

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Early intervention in psychosis facilities have often failed to integrate the two main elements of early intervention. While some facilities have focused on early, and have had Duration of Untreated Psychosis (DUP) as their main target, others have focused on the intervention and the treatment provided when patients were diagnosed. As both DUP reduction and specialized early intervention (SEI) has proved to have an effect on the treatment of patients with first-episode psychosis one could hope of a synergetic effect if the two strategies were integrated. In this study, we use data from a randomized clinical trial testing the effect of prolonged early intervention (5 years) compared to standard specialized early intervention (2 years). Overall the study found that both treatment groups remained stable or improved in psychopathology, functioning and cognition and that there was no further beneficial effect of the prolonged the treatment. Participants had a long DUP (median 52 weeks). For this specific sub-study we hypothesized that patients who were treated early in their course of illness would have a beneficial effect of the prolonged treatment compared to those who only received 2 years of specialized treatment. Methods 296 participants with a psychotic diagnosis within the schizophrenia spectrum (ICD 10 – F2x, excluding F21) were included. DUP start was assessed from first psychotic symptom equivalent to 3 or above on a global SAPS item. DUP stop was when patients started antipsychotic treatment or specialized early intervention treatment. To assess if there were a delay within the mental health referral system we used the national register to identify when participants first were diagnosed with a schizophrenia spectrum diagnosis and calculated the time until they started SEI treatment. Finally, we added the DUP and the treatment delay together to assess the time from first psychotic symptom until the start of adequate treatment (both

  5. The Effectiveness of an Intervention to Promote Awareness and Reduce Online Risk Behavior in Early Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Schilder, Janneke D; Brusselaers, Marjolein B J; Bogaerts, Stefan

    2016-02-01

    The current study explored the effect of a school-based intervention on online risk awareness and behavior in order to shed light on a relatively unexplored field with high practical relevance. More than 800 Belgium primary school children (grade 4 and 6) were assessed at two measurements (n T1 = 812, 51.2 % female; n T2 = 819, 51.3 % female) before and after the intervention. Half of them received a 10 min classroom intervention indicating online risks. Children in the control group received a 10 min presentation concerning online applications without any emphasis on risks. Children in the intervention group were more likely to be aware of online risks directly after the intervention; this effect was still noticeable 4 months after. Reporting of online risk behavior in the intervention group was also higher compared to the control group who did not receive the intervention. Overall online risk awareness and online risk behavior were negatively associated and the awareness did not modulate the association between the intervention and online risk behavior. Furthermore, individual differences were assessed. Girls were more likely to be aware of online risks and asserted less online risk behavior than boys were. In line with the imperative in adolescence to become more risk taking, children in a higher grade were more likely to behave in a risky manner when online. The current study provides a valuable starting point for further research on how to decrease online risk behavior in early adolescence.

  6. Leadership Competencies in U.S. Early Intervention/Early Childhood Special Education Service Systems: A National Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruns, Deborah A.; LaRocco, Diana J.; Sharp, Olga L.; Sopko, Kim Moherek

    2017-01-01

    In 2015, the Division for Early Childhood of the Council for Exceptional Children released a position statement on leadership in early intervention and early childhood special education (EI/ECSE). Division for Early Childhood emphasized the importance of developing and supporting high-quality leadership within and across all levels of EI/ECSE…

  7. Become Related: FIAS, an Intensive Early Intervention for Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders.

    PubMed

    Herbrecht, Evelyn; Kievit, Esther; Spiegel, René; Dima, Diana; Goth, Kirstin; Schmeck, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    In autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), impairments in fundamental social abilities and a lack of interest in social stimuli become apparent early in life. These impairments are thought to negatively affect further brain and behavioural development. Early intensive interventions can help to attenuate social-development and other risk factors and, thus, to ameliorate the deficits associated with ASDs. We present FIAS, an intensive early intervention approach for young children with ASD, which aims at developing children's social motivation. During 18 days, therapists work continuously for 6 h a day with the affected child, involving the whole family in a day care setting. Follow-up care at home over 1 year as well as fresh-up interventions and inclusion in kindergarten or a play group should stabilise the effects and help to respond to further challenges. Here, we present observations from the first 12 patients (25-48 months of age) treated according to the FIAS approach. We evaluated changes in core autistic symptoms and level of functioning after the 18 days of intensive intervention. Beyond standardised assessment, two innovative video-based instruments (Autism Behaviour Coding System and Evaluationsfragebogen) have been developed to assess autistic symptoms and interaction parameters during intervention. Improvements were noted in most core autistic symptom domains, with the highest effect sizes in domains like eye contact, communication, repetitive behaviour, imitation, motivation and reciprocity. In addition, the level of functioning significantly improved. The first evaluation of the FIAS approach shows promising results, as the FIAS intervention appears to improve core autistic symptom domains as well as the level of everyday functioning. Limitations of this study are the small sample size and the lack of a control group. A more comprehensive and longitudinal evaluation is in progress; this will focus on the stability of the observed effects and will attempt to

  8. Community-based interventions to optimize early childhood development in low resource settings.

    PubMed

    Maulik, P K; Darmstadt, G L

    2009-08-01

    Interventions targeting the early childhood period (0 to 3 years) help to improve neuro-cognitive functioning throughout life. Some of the more low cost, low resource-intensive community practices for this age-group are play, reading, music and tactile stimulation. This research was conducted to summarize the evidence regarding the effectiveness of such strategies on child development, with particular focus on techniques that may be transferable to developing countries and to children at risk of developing secondary impairments. PubMed, PsycInfo, Embase, ERIC, CINAHL and Cochrane were searched for studies involving the above strategies for early intervention. Reference lists of these studies were scanned and other studies were incorporated based on snow-balling. Overall, 76 articles corresponding to 53 studies, 24 of which were randomized controlled trials, were identified. Sixteen of those studies were from low- and middle-income countries. Play and reading were the two commonest interventions and showed positive impact on intellectual development of the child. Music was evaluated primarily in intensive care settings. Kangaroo Mother Care, and to a lesser extent massage, also showed beneficial effects. Improvement in parent-child interaction was common to all the interventions. Play and reading were effective interventions for early childhood interventions in low- and middle-income countries. More research is needed to judge the effectiveness of music. Kangaroo Mother Care is effective for low birth weight babies in resource poor settings, but further research is needed in community settings. Massage is useful, but needs more rigorous research prior to being advocated for community-level interventions.

  9. The effects of an early intervention music curriculum on prereading/writing.

    PubMed

    Register, D

    2001-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of music sessions using a curriculum designed to enhance the prereading and writing skills of 25 children aged 4 to 5 years who were enrolled in Early Intervention and Exceptional Student Education programs. This study was a replication of the work of Standley and Hughes (1997) and utilized a larger sample size (n = 50) in order to evaluate the efficacy of a music curriculum designed specifically to teach prereading and writing skills versus one that focuses on all developmental areas. Both the experimental (n = 25) and control (n = 25) groups received two 30-minute sessions each week for an entire school year for a minimum of 60 sessions per group. The differentiating factors between the two groups were the structure and components of the musical activities. The fall sessions for the experimental group were focused primarily on writing skills while the spring sessions taught reading/book concepts. Music sessions for the control group were based purely on the thematic material, as determined by the classroom teacher with purposeful exclusion of all preliteracy concepts. All participants were pretested at the beginning of the school year and posttested before the school year ended. Overall, results demonstrated that music sessions significantly enhanced both groups' abilities to learn prewriting and print concepts. However, the experimental group showed significantly higher results on the logo identification posttest and the word recognition test. Implications for curriculum design and academic and social applications of music in Early Intervention programs are discussed.

  10. An Effective Psychoeducational Intervention for Early Childhood Caries Prevention: Part I

    PubMed Central

    Weber-Gasparoni, Karin; Reeve, Johnmarshall; Ghosheh, Natalie; Warren, Joh J.; Drake, David R.; Kramer, Katherine W.O.; Dawson, Deborah V.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose was to compare whether mothers exposed to an autonomy-supportive psychoeducational videotaped message, informed by the self-determination theory (SDT), demonstrated greater changes in oral health knowledge and behavioral intentions as a preventive means for early childhood caries (ECC) than mothers exposed to a neutral message delivered by brochure. Methods Data were collected at baseline, one-, and six-month follow-ups from 415 12- to 49-month-old WIC-enrolled children and their mothers: 283 in the video intervention group and 132 in the brochure control group. Mothers completed questionnaires on maternal knowledge and behavioral intentions for oral health care. Chi-square, Wilcoxon rank-sum, and Mann-Whitney tests were used to analyze data (P<.05). Results Relative to their baseline scores, the intervention group showed a greater increase in knowledge than the control group, both at one-month (P=.002) and six-month follow-ups (P<.001). The video group also demonstrated a greater increase in behavioral intentions than controls, both at one-month (P<.05) and six-month follow-ups (P<.001). Knowledge and behavioral intention levels at six-month follow-up did not differ significantly from those at one-month follow-up, indicating that intervention-based increases in these measures were maintained over time. Conclusions Data provided evidence of the effectiveness of the autonomy-supportive psychoeducational intervention for ECC prevention relative to a neutral brochure. PMID:23756308

  11. The role of early surgical intervention in civilian gunshot wounds to the head.

    PubMed

    Helling, T S; McNabney, W K; Whittaker, C K; Schultz, C C; Watkins, M

    1992-03-01

    Surgical management of gunshot wounds of the head has remained a controversial issue in the care of civilian patients. In an attempt to determine who might benefit from aggressive surgical intervention, we examined 89 patients over a 3-year period who had suffered cranial gunshot wounds and had at least one computed tomographic scan of the head after admission. Patients were divided into those receiving early (less than 24 hours) surgical intervention (ES, n = 27), late (greater than 24 hours) surgical intervention (LS, n = 6) or no surgical intervention (NS, n = 56). Overall mortality was 63%. Ten of 27 patients (37%) in the ES group died compared with 46 of 56 patients (82%) in the NS group (p less than 0.0001). Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) scores in the ES group averaged 7.86 +/- 4.72 and in the NS group 5.59 +/- 4.42 (p less than 0.05). The GCS scores in the LS group (all of whom survived) were significantly higher than those of the other two groups, 12.17 +/- 4.10. The number of patients with GCS scores of 3 or 4 on admission was significantly less in the ES (41%) than in the NS group (66%, p = 0.035) and survival was better with surgery (36%) than without (3%, p = 0.007). Patients with mass lesions (clot, ventricular blood) were more often found in the ES group (17/27) than in the NS group (18/56) (p = 0.008). Patients with bihemispheric injuries fared better with surgery (7 of 14 survivors) than without (2 of 33 survivors, p = 0.0003). Only one infectious complication (brain abscess) was encountered in the LS group. No delayed intracranial complications in survivors in the NS group were seen.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Moderators of intervention effects on parenting practices in a randomized controlled trial in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Theise, Rachelle; Huang, Keng-Yen; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Doctoroff, Greta L; Dawson-McClure, Spring; Palamar, Joseph J; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined whether parent psychological resources (parenting stress, depression, and social support from friends and family) moderated the effects of early family preventive intervention on parenting among high-risk families. Ninety-two preschool-age children (M age = 3.94 years) at familial risk for conduct problems participated in a randomized controlled trial of a family intervention to prevent conduct problems. The majority of families were African American or Latino and experienced multiple stressors associated with poverty and familial antisocial behavior. Families were randomized to a 22-session group-based intervention or to a no-intervention, assessment-only control condition. Parents reported on their psychological resources (parenting stress, depression and social support from friends and family) at baseline. Parenting (responsive, harsh, stimulation for learning) was assessed through self-report and observational measures four times over 24 months. Previously-reported intervention effects on responsive parenting and stimulation for learning were moderated by depression and social support from friends, respectively, such that benefits were concentrated among those at greatest risk (i.e., depressed, limited support from friends). The intervention effect on harsh parenting was not moderated by any of the parent psychological resources examined, such that parents with high and low resources benefited comparably. Consideration of moderators of preventive intervention effects on parenting provides important information about intervention impact among families experiencing multiple barriers to engagement and effective parenting. Findings suggest that parents with diminished psychological resources are just as likely to benefit. Family-focused, group-based intervention is promising for strengthening parenting among the highest risk families.

  13. Moderators of Intervention Effects on Parenting Practices in a Randomized Controlled Trial in Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Theise, Rachelle; Huang, Keng-Yen; Kamboukos, Dimitra; Doctoroff, Greta L.; Dawson-McClure, Spring; Palamar, Joseph J.; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2013-01-01

    Objective The current study examined whether parent psychological resources (parenting stress, depression, and social support from friends and family), moderated the effects of early family preventive intervention on parenting among high-risk families. Method Ninety-two preschool-age children (Mean age = 3.94 years) at familial risk for conduct problems participated in a randomized controlled trial of a family intervention to prevent conduct problems. The majority of families were African American or Latino and experienced multiple stressors associated with poverty and familial antisocial behavior. Families were randomized to a 22-session group-based intervention or to a no-intervention, assessment-only control condition. Parents reported on their psychological resources (parenting stress, depression and social support from friends and family) at baseline. Parenting (responsive, harsh, stimulation for learning) was assessed through self-report and observational measures four times over 24 months. Results Previously-reported intervention effects on responsive parenting and stimulation for learning were moderated by depression and social support from friends, respectively, such that benefits were concentrated among those at greatest risk (i.e., depressed, limited support from friends). The intervention effect on harsh parenting was not moderated by any of the parent psychological resources examined, such that parents with high and low resources benefited comparably. Conclusions Consideration of moderators of preventive intervention effects on parenting provides important information about intervention impact in families experiencing multiple barriers to engagement and effective parenting. Findings suggest that parents with diminished psychological resources are just as likely to benefit. Family-centered, group-based intervention is promising for strengthening parenting among the highest risk families. PMID:24063291

  14. Surgical interventions for the early management of Bell's palsy.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Kerrie; Walker, David; Donnan, Peter T; Swan, Iain

    2013-10-16

    Bell's palsy is an acute paralysis of one side of the face of unknown aetiology. Bell's palsy should only be used as a diagnosis in the absence of all other pathology. As the proposed pathophysiology is swelling and entrapment of the nerve, some surgeons suggest surgical decompression of the nerve as a possible management option. This is an update of a review first published in 2011. To assess the effects of surgery in the management of Bell's palsy. On 29 October 2012, we searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Disease Group Specialized Register, CENTRAL (2012, Issue 10), MEDLINE (January 1966 to October 2012) and EMBASE (January 1980 to October 2012). We also handsearched selected conference abstracts for the original version of the review. We included all randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials involving any surgical intervention for Bell's palsy. We compared surgical interventions to no treatment, sham treatment, other surgical treatments or medical treatment. Two review authors independently assessed whether trials identified from the searches were eligible for inclusion. Two review authors independently assessed the risk of bias and extracted data. Two trials with a total of 69 participants met the inclusion criteria. The first study considered the treatment of 403 people but only included 44 participants in the surgical trial, who were randomised into surgical and non-surgical groups. However, the report did not provide information on the method of randomisation. The second study randomly allocated 25 participants into surgical or control groups using statistical charts. There was no attempt in either study to conceal allocation. Neither participants nor outcome assessors were blind to the interventions, in either study. The first study lost seven participants to follow-up and there were no losses to follow-up in the second study.Surgeons in both studies decompressed the nerves of all the surgical group participants using a retroauricular approach. The

  15. Integrating nutrition and early child-development interventions among infants and preschoolers in rural India.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Rao, Sylvia; Hurley, Kristen M; Nair, Krishnapillai Madhavan; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Radhakrishna, Kankipati V; Ravinder, Punjal; Tilton, Nicholas; Harding, Kimberly B; Reinhart, Greg A; Black, Maureen M

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the development, design, and implementation of an integrated randomized double-masked placebo-controlled trial (Project Grow Smart) that examines how home/preschool fortification with multiple micronutrient powder (MNP) combined with an early child-development intervention affects child development, growth, and micronutrient status among infants and preschoolers in rural India. The 1-year trial has an infant phase (enrollment age: 6-12 months) and a preschool phase (enrollment age: 36-48 months). Infants are individually randomized into one of four groups: placebo, placebo plus early learning, MNP alone, and MNP plus early learning (integrated intervention), conducted through home visits. The preschool phase is a cluster-randomized trial conducted in Anganwadi centers (AWCs), government-run preschools sponsored by the Integrated Child Development System of India. AWCs are randomized into MNP or placebo, with the MNP or placebo mixed into the children's food. The evaluation examines whether the effects of the MNP intervention vary by the quality of the early learning opportunities and communication within the AWCs. Study outcomes include child development, growth, and micronutrient status. Lessons learned during the development, design, and implementation of the integrated trial can be used to guide large-scale policy and programs designed to promote the developmental, educational, and economic potential of children in developing countries. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  16. The Early Impact Program: An Early Intervention and Prevention Program for Children and Families At-Risk of Conduct Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larmar, Stephen; Gatfield, Terry

    2007-01-01

    The Early Impact (EI) program is an early intervention and prevention program for reducing the incidence of conduct problems in pre-school aged children. The EI intervention framework is ecological in design and includes universal and indicated components. This paper delineates key principles and associated strategies that underpin the EI program.…

  17. The efficacy of early language intervention in mainstream school settings: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Silke; Burgoyne, Kelly; Bowyer-Crane, Claudine; Kyriacou, Maria; Zosimidou, Alexandra; Maxwell, Liam; Lervåg, Arne; Snowling, Margaret J; Hulme, Charles

    2017-10-01

    Oral language skills are a critical foundation for literacy and more generally for educational success. The current study shows that oral language skills can be improved by providing suitable additional help to children with language difficulties in the early stages of formal education. We conducted a randomized controlled trial with 394 children in England, comparing a 30-week oral language intervention programme starting in nursery (N = 132) with a 20-week version of the same programme starting in Reception (N = 133). The intervention groups were compared to an untreated waiting control group (N = 129). The programmes were delivered by trained teaching assistants (TAs) working in the children's schools/nurseries. All testers were blind to group allocation. Both the 20- and 30-week programmes produced improvements on primary outcome measures of oral language skill compared to the untreated control group. Effect sizes were small to moderate (20-week programme: d = .21; 30-week programme: d = .30) immediately following the intervention and were maintained at follow-up 6 months later. The difference in improvement between the 20-week and 30-week programmes was not statistically significant. Neither programme produced statistically significant improvements in children's early word reading or reading comprehension skills (secondary outcome measures). This study provides further evidence that oral language interventions can be delivered successfully by trained TAs to children with oral language difficulties in nursery and Reception classes. The methods evaluated have potentially important policy implications for early education. © 2017 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  18. The impact of early psychosocial intervention on self-efficacy of care recipient/carer dyads living with early stage dementia - A mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Stockwell-Smith, G; Moyle, W; Kellett, U

    2018-05-13

    To evaluate the effect of a targeted community-based psychosocial intervention on self-efficacy outcomes for care recipient/carer dyads living with early-stage dementia. There is increasing interest in the role of self-efficacy and self-management structures in determining positive outcomes for people with dementia. The assumption is that care recipient/carer dyads who receive early support to identify and adjust to dementia related changes will cope better in the long-term. An explanatory sequential mixed-method design was employed. Primarily quantitative with qualitative data providing a supportive secondary role to expand on and illuminate the quantitative findings. 88 dyads were recruited and allocated on a regional basis to an intervention or control group. Intervention group dyads received the Early Diagnosis Dyadic Intervention. Control group dyads received two information manuals. Quantitative data were collected at three time-points. Qualitative data were collected via evaluation questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. Intervention structure, content and delivery were acceptable to the dyads but few quantitative self-efficacy findings reached statistical significance. Improvements in self-efficacy were evident in the post-intervention evaluation qualitative responses where dyads expressed greater confidence in identifying and accessing community support. There is an urgent need for effective psychosocial interventions to help reduce the impact of dementia symptoms on patients, carers and society. This study makes an important contribution to our understanding of the capacity of psychosocial interventions to improve self-efficacy outcomes for care recipient/carer dyads with early-stage dementia while also illustrating the challenges associated with measuring self-efficacy in the early stages of the condition. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Focus groups: examining a community-based group intervention for depressed Puerto Rican women.

    PubMed

    Stacciarini, Jeanne-Marie R

    2008-07-01

    Puerto Ricans manifest high rates of depression but avoid seeking treatment. The purpose of this pilot was to learn directly from Puerto Rican women how culturally appropriate they would consider a proposed community-based intervention for treating depression. Interactive activities were reviewed by two focus groups of women (N = 16), all working in community-based health programs. All activities (e.g., writing, role playing, and music) except individual drawing were deemed appropriate. Categories that emerged were family/community values, mainland/non-mainland cultural variances, communication style, religion, education/occupational variances, health beliefs, Puerto Rican traditions/customs, emotions, and coping skills. Categories provided guidance for refining a community-based intervention for treating depression in Puerto Rican women.

  20. Early interventions and lessons from Harvard Business Review.

    PubMed

    Chong, Siow-Ann

    2007-11-01

    To describe the establishment and development of an Early Psychosis Intervention Programme in Singapore that is based on a business model and with concepts drawn from the corporate world. The author who directed this programme describes the circumstances that led to this initiative, the ideas borrowed and adapted from the corporate world, and the lessons learnt in setting up this intervention programme. The modus operandi of the programme is based on the Balanced Scorecard - a model which stresses four equally important components: customers, internal processes, financial health and learning and innovation. Other complementary actions like creating a sense of urgency, forging a vision with a core ideology, empowerment of team members, creating short-term wins, anchoring the changes and finding meaning in the work are vital for the programme to thrive. This model also emphasizes the importance of accountability through the measurability of indicators. These indicators included a significant reduction in the duration of untreated psychosis, a positive change in the referral patterns with better engagement of the primary health-care sector and an improvement in the quality of care for the patients. Much can be learnt from the business world in building and maintaining a public mental health programme. Effective change also requires effective leadership, and the successful implementation of certain strategic steps.

  1. The Early Risers Preventive Intervention: Testing for Six-year Outcomes and Mediational Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernat, Debra H.; August, Gerald J.; Hektner, Joel M.; Bloomquist, Michael L.

    2007-01-01

    We examined effects of the Early Risers "Skills for Success" early-age-targeted prevention program on serious conduct problems following 5 years of continuous intervention and one year of follow-up. We also examined if intervention effects on proximally-targeted variables found after 3 years mediated intervention effects on conduct…

  2. Responses to Struggling, K-2 Readers and Writers: Early Literacy Intervention in Three Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooney, Kathleen C.

    2009-01-01

    An abundance of research on early literacy intervention indicates that struggling, K-2 readers and writers can be effectively supported through the receipt of intervention services in school; however, research in the area has not yet addressed study of the unique, contextualized design and implementation of early literacy intervention in different…

  3. Fadeout in an Early Mathematics Intervention: Constraining Content or Preexisting Differences?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Drew H.; Nguyen, Tutrang; Jenkins, Jade Marcus; Domina, Thurston; Clements, Douglas H.; Sarama, Julie S.

    2016-01-01

    A robust finding across research on early childhood educational interventions is that the treatment effect diminishes over time, with children not receiving the intervention eventually catching up to children who did. One popular explanation for fadeout of early mathematics interventions is that elementary school teachers may not teach the kind of…

  4. A Community-Based Early Intervention Program for Toddlers with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rollins, Pamela Rosenthal; Campbell, Michelle; Hoffman, Renee Thibodeau; Self, Kayli

    2016-01-01

    This study examined Pathways Early Autism Intervention, a community-based, parent-mediated, intensive behavioral and developmental intervention program for children with autism spectrum disorders that could be used as a model for state-funded early intervention programs. A single-subject, multiple-baseline, across-participants design was used.…

  5. Comparison of a Stratified Group Intervention (STarT Back) With Usual Group Care in Patients With Low Back Pain: A Nonrandomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Susan E; Blake, Catherine; Power, Camillus K; Fullen, Brona M

    2016-04-01

    A nonrandomized controlled trial. This study aims to explore the effectiveness of group-based stratified care in primary care. Stratified care based on psychosocial screening (STarT Back) has demonstrated greater clinical and cost-effectiveness in patients with low back pain. However, low back pain interventions are often delivered in groups and evaluating this system of care in a group setting is important. Patients were recruited from 60 general practices and linked physiotherapy services. A new group stratified intervention was compared with a historical nonstratified control group. Patients stratified as low, medium and high risk were offered risk-matched group care. Consenting participants completed self-report measures of functional disability (primary outcome measure), pain, psychological distress, and beliefs. The historical control received a generic group intervention. Analysis was by intention to treat. In total, 251 patients in the new stratified intervention and 332 in the historical control were included in the primary analysis at 12 weeks. The mean age of patients was 43 ± 10.98 years. Overall adjusted mean changes in the RMDQ scores were higher in the stratified intervention than in the control arm at 12-week follow-up (P = 0.028). Exploring the risk groups, individually the high-risk stratified group, demonstrated better outcome over the controls (P = 0.031). The medium-risk stratified intervention demonstrated equally good outcomes (P = 0.125), and low-risk stratified patients, despite less intervention, did as well as the historical controls (P = 0.993). Stratified care delivered in a group setting demonstrated superior outcomes in the high-risk patients, and equally good outcomes for the medium and low-risk groups. This model, embedded in primary care, provides an early and effective model of chronic disease management and adds another dimension to the utility of the STarT Back system of care. 2.

  6. Obesity-programmed mice are rescued by early genetic intervention

    PubMed Central

    Bumaschny, Viviana F.; Yamashita, Miho; Casas-Cordero, Rodrigo; Otero-Corchón, Verónica; de Souza, Flávio S.J.; Rubinstein, Marcelo; Low, Malcolm J.

    2012-01-01

    Obesity is a chronic metabolic disorder affecting half a billion people worldwide. Major difficulties in managing obesity are the cessation of continued weight loss in patients after an initial period of responsiveness and rebound to pretreatment weight. It is conceivable that chronic weight gain unrelated to physiological needs induces an allostatic regulatory state that defends a supranormal adipose mass despite its maladaptive consequences. To challenge this hypothesis, we generated a reversible genetic mouse model of early-onset hyperphagia and severe obesity by selectively blocking the expression of the proopiomelanocortin gene (Pomc) in hypothalamic neurons. Eutopic reactivation of central POMC transmission at different stages of overweight progression normalized or greatly reduced food intake in these obesity-programmed mice. Hypothalamic Pomc rescue also attenuated comorbidities such as hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and hepatic steatosis and normalized locomotor activity. However, effectiveness of treatment to normalize body weight and adiposity declined progressively as the level of obesity at the time of Pomc induction increased. Thus, our study using a novel reversible monogenic obesity model reveals the critical importance of early intervention for the prevention of subsequent allostatic overload that auto-perpetuates obesity. PMID:23093774

  7. Addressing group dynamics in a brief motivational intervention for college student drinkers.

    PubMed

    Faris, Alexander S; Brown, Janice M

    2003-01-01

    Previous research indicates that brief motivational interventions for college student drinkers may be less effective in group settings than individual settings. Social psychological theories about counterproductive group dynamics may partially explain this finding. The present study examined potential problems with group motivational interventions by comparing outcomes from a standard group motivational intervention (SGMI; n = 25), an enhanced group motivational intervention (EGMI; n = 27) designed to suppress counterproductive processes, and a no intervention control (n = 23). SGMI and EGMI participants reported disruptive group dynamics as evidenced by low elaboration likelihood, production blocking, and social loafing, though the level of disturbance was significantly lower for EGMI individuals (p = .001). Despite counteracting group dynamics in the EGMI condition, participants in the two interventions were statistically similar in post-intervention problem recognition and future drinking intentions. The results raise concerns over implementing individually-based interventions in group settings without making necessary adjustments.

  8. Early intervention (mobilization or active exercise) for critically ill adults in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Doiron, Katherine A; Hoffmann, Tammy C; Beller, Elaine M

    2018-03-27

    general, medical or surgical ICU, with mean or median age in the studies ranging from 56 to 62 years. Admitting diagnoses in three of the four studies were indicative of critical illness, while participants in the fourth study had undergone cardiac surgery. Three studies included range-of-motion exercises, bed mobility activities, transfers and ambulation. The fourth study involved only upper limb exercises. Included studies were at high risk of performance bias, as they were not blinded to participants and personnel, and two of four did not blind outcome assessors. Three of four studies reported only on those participants who completed the study, with high rates of dropout. The description of intervention type, dose, intensity and frequency in the standard care control group was poor in two of four studies.Three studies (a total of 454 participants) reported at least one measure of physical function. One study (104 participants) reported low-quality evidence of beneficial effects in the intervention group on return to independent functional status at hospital discharge (59% versus 35%, risk ratio (RR) 1.71, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.11 to 2.64); the absolute effect is that 246 more people (95% CI 38 to 567) per 1000 would attain independent functional status when provided with early mobilization. The effects on physical functioning are uncertain for a range measures: Barthel Index scores (early mobilization: median 75 control: versus 55, low quality evidence), number of ADLs achieved at ICU (median of 3 versus 0, low quality evidence) or at hospital discharge (median of 6 versus 4, low quality evidence). The effects of early mobilization on physical function measured at ICU discharge are uncertain, as measured by the Acute Care Index of Function (ACIF) (early mobilization mean: 61.1 versus control: 55, mean difference (MD) 6.10, 95% CI -11.85 to 24.05, low quality evidence) and the Physical Function ICU Test (PFIT) score (5.6 versus 5.4, MD 0.20, 95% CI -0.98 to 1

  9. Treatment Interventions for Early Childhood Obesity: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Foster, Byron A; Farragher, Jill; Parker, Paige; Sosa, Erica T

    2015-01-01

    With 25% of preschool-age children in the United States being overweight or obese, effective interventions for these children would have significant public health implications. Randomized trials targeting this age group have been performed since the last systematic review. To systematically review the literature on treatment interventions for overweight or obesity in preschool-age children. Medline (1948-July 2014), the Cochrane Central Registry (1991-July 2014), CINAHL (1990-July2014), and PAS abstracts (2000-2014). Inclusion criteria were children aged 0 to 6 in the study and adiposity as an outcome. Exclusions were having normal-weight children in the trial and not having a comparison group. Data were extracted independently by 2 authors using a template. The initial search yielded 1981 results, narrowed to 289 abstracts after initial review. Further analysis and cross-referencing led to the selection of 6 randomized controlled trials representing 1222 children. Two studies used systems changes and motivational interviewing and showed no significant effect on adiposity. Two studies used an intensive, multidisciplinary approach over 6 months and demonstrated significant decreases in adiposity. One study tested parental coaching and showed a significant reduction in adiposity at 6 months. One study used education on a dairy-rich diet and showed a possible effect on adiposity. The study designs were too heterogeneous for meta-analysis; few ethnic minority subjects were included. Multidisciplinary, intensive interventions have some evidence of efficacy in reducing adiposity in preschool children. Copyright © 2015 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Further Evidence for the Efficacy of an Evidence-Based, Small Group, Literacy Intervention Program for Young Struggling Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheldall, Kevin; Wheldall, Robyn; Madelaine, Alison; Reynolds, Meree; Arakelian, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    An earlier series of pilot studies and small-scale experimental studies had previously provided some evidence for the efficacy of a small group early literacy intervention program for young struggling readers. The present paper provides further evidence for efficacy based on a much larger sample of young, socially disadvantaged, at-risk readers.…

  11. Parenting Predictors of Early-Adolescents' Health Behaviors: Simultaneous Group Comparisons across Sex and Ethnic Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Windle, Michael; Brener, Nancy; Cuccaro, Paula; Dittus, Patricia; Kanouse, David E.; Murray, Nancy; Wallander, Jan; Schuster, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the invariance of predictive relations across early-adolescent sex and ethnic groups regarding parenting factors and externalizing and internalizing problems and victimization. Data (n = 598; 54% female) from a triethnic (Hispanic, non-Hispanic white, and non-Hispanic black) probability sample of fifth…

  12. Early Childhood Intervention and Early Childhood Special Education in Turkey within the Scope of the Developmental System Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diken, Ibrahim H.; Bayhan, Pinar; Turan, Figen; Sipal, R. Firat; Sucuoglu, Bulbin; Ceber-Bakkaloglu, Hatice; Gunel, Mintaze Kerem; Kara, Ozgun Kaya

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to provide an overview of early childhood intervention and early childhood special education (ECI/ECSE) services and practices in Turkey by using the Developmental System Approach (M. J. Guralnick, 2001). After pointing out the history of early childhood and ECI/ECSE services and current legislations with regard to…

  13. Race to the Top--Early Learning Challenge: An Analysis of Impact on IDEIA, Part C Early Intervention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohjanen, Sharon L.

    2016-01-01

    Infants and toddlers who live in poverty are more likely to experience developmental delays or disabilities and less likely to access early intervention (EI) services. The federal initiative Race to the Top--Early Learning Challenge (RTT-ELC) was designed to increase access to high quality early learning programs for children at risk for…

  14. Effects of early comprehensive interventions on child neurodevelopment in poor rural areas of China: a moderated mediation analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, S; Wang, Z; Zhao, C; Huang, X; Liang, X; Wang, X; Lu, S; Scherpbier, R W

    2018-06-01

    To examine the effects of early comprehensive interventions on home environment and child neurodevelopment among children younger than 3 years in poor rural areas of China, as well as the underlying mediating and moderating mechanisms. Non-randomized intervention study was conducted among 216 children aged 0-3 years in Shanxi province of China. Based on a 2 × 2 factor design, children in Lin and Fenxi County were assigned to an intervention group with duration less than 1 year (n = 26) or an intervention group with duration longer than 1 year (n = 82), while children in Fangshan County served as a control group with duration less than 1 year (n = 30) or a control group with duration longer than 1 year (n = 78). The control group received national public health services (NPHS), while the intervention group received NPHS plus comprehensive interventions covering health, nutrition, early psychosocial stimulation, and child protection. Home environment (Infant-Toddler Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment [HOME]) and child neurodevelopment (Ages and Stages Questionnaire [ASQ]) were measured by observation and interview with mothers after the intervention program. The intervention group showed significantly higher overall HOME, organization, learning materials, and involvement than the control group, only for a duration longer than 1 year. Children in the intervention group performed better in overall ASQ, fine motor, problem-solving, and personal-social than children in the control group. Moderated mediation analyses indicated that there were significantly indirect effects of treatment on overall ASQ through overall HOME, organization, and involvement only when the duration was longer than 1 year. Early comprehensive interventions longer than 1 year improve home environment and promote child neurodevelopment among children younger than 3 years in poor rural areas. What is more, effects of early comprehensive interventions longer than 1 year on

  15. The impact of caregivers on the effectiveness of an early community mental health detection and intervention programme in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jia-Yan; Ng, Yat-Nam Petrus; Young, Kim-Wan Daniel

    2016-12-01

    The prevalence rate of mental illness in Chinese communities is high, but Chinese clients tend to underutilize mental health services. Caregivers may play an important role in mental health early detection and intervention, but few studies have investigated their roles in community mental health services. This study compared the effectiveness of an early detection and intervention programme, the Community Mental Health Intervention Project, for two groups in the context of Hong Kong - clients with and without caregivers. A comparison group pre-post-test design was adopted. A total of 170 service users joined this study, including 100 with caregivers and 70 without caregivers. Both groups showed a significant decrease in psychiatric symptoms and increase in community living skills; the group without caregivers indicated a greater reduction in psychiatric symptoms. Different social work intervention components had different predictive effects on these changes. The Community Mental Health Intervention Project is an effective early detection and intervention programme in working with Hong Kong Chinese people who are suspected of having mental health problems, especially for those without caregivers. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  16. [Early Intervention and Cognitive Development: A Longitudinal Study with Psychologically Stressed Mother-Child-Dyad during Early Childhood].

    PubMed

    Zwönitzer, Annabel; Ziegenhain, Ute; Bovenschen, Ina; Pillhofer, Melanie; Spangler, Gottfried; Gerlach, Jennifer; Gabler, Sandra; Kindler, Heinz; Fegert, Jörg M; Künster, Anne Katrin

    2016-01-01

    Early intervention programs aiming at developing parents’ relationship and parenting skills and supporting young families have become increasingly established in Germany throughout the last decade. The present longitudinal study analyzed 53 children and their mothers receiving early intervention due to their psychosocially highly challenging life situations and personal circumstances. The children were examined at birth and at an age of twelve months as well as between ages two and four. The results revealed that the child’s cognitive development could be predicted by both maternal sensitivity and mother’s psychosocial stress. However, the amount, type, and intensity of early intervention did not have any effect on the child’s development. In terms of the effectiveness of early interventions the results implicate that interventions seems to be offered in an unspecific manner and does not contribute to an improvement of the child’s developmental status.

  17. Gender differences in response to a school-based mindfulness training intervention for early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yoona; Rahrig, Hadley; Eichel, Kristina; Niles, Halsey F; Rocha, Tomas; Lepp, Nathaniel E; Gold, Jonathan; Britton, Willoughby B

    2018-06-01

    Mindfulness training has been used to improve emotional wellbeing in early adolescents. However, little is known about treatment outcome moderators, or individual differences that may differentially impact responses to treatment. The current study focused on gender as a potential moderator for affective outcomes in response to school-based mindfulness training. Sixth grade students (N = 100) were randomly assigned to either the six weeks of mindfulness meditation or the active control group as part of a history class curriculum. Participants in the mindfulness meditation group completed short mindfulness meditation sessions four to five times per week, in addition to didactic instruction (Asian history). The control group received matched experiential activity in addition to didactic instruction (African history) from the same teacher with no meditation component. Self-reported measures of emotional wellbeing/affect, mindfulness, and self-compassion were obtained at pre and post intervention. Meditators reported greater improvement in emotional wellbeing compared to those in the control group. Importantly, gender differences were detected, such that female meditators reported greater increases in positive affect compared to females in the control group, whereas male meditators and control males displayed equivalent gains. Uniquely among females but not males, increases in self-reported self-compassion were associated with improvements in affect. These findings support the efficacy of school-based mindfulness interventions, and interventions tailored to accommodate distinct developmental needs of female and male adolescents. Copyright © 2018 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Alzheimer's disease prevention: from risk factors to early intervention.

    PubMed

    Crous-Bou, Marta; Minguillón, Carolina; Gramunt, Nina; Molinuevo, José Luis

    2017-09-12

    Due to the progressive aging of the population, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is becoming a healthcare burden of epidemic proportions for which there is currently no cure. Disappointing results from clinical trials performed in mild-moderate AD dementia combined with clear epidemiological evidence on AD risk factors are contributing to the development of primary prevention initiatives. In addition, the characterization of the long asymptomatic stage of AD is allowing the development of intervention studies and secondary prevention programmes on asymptomatic at-risk individuals, before substantial irreversible neuronal dysfunction and loss have occurred, an approach that emerges as highly relevant.In this manuscript, we review current strategies for AD prevention, from primary prevention strategies based on identifying risk factors and risk reduction, to secondary prevention initiatives based on the early detection of the pathophysiological hallmarks and intervention at the preclinical stage of the disease. Firstly, we summarize the evidence on several AD risk factors, which are the rationale for the establishment of primary prevention programmes as well as revising current primary prevention strategies. Secondly, we review the development of public-private partnerships for disease prevention that aim to characterize the AD continuum as well as serving as platforms for secondary prevention trials. Finally, we summarize currently ongoing clinical trials recruiting participants with preclinical AD or a higher risk for the onset of AD-related cognitive impairment.The growing body of research on the risk factors for AD and its preclinical stage is favouring the development of AD prevention programmes that, by delaying the onset of Alzheimer's dementia for only a few years, would have a huge impact on public health.

  19. Early group bias in the Faroe Islands: Cultural variation in children's group-based reasoning.

    PubMed

    Schug, Mariah G; Shusterman, Anna; Barth, Hilary; Patalano, Andrea L

    2016-01-01

    Recent developmental research demonstrates that group bias emerges early in childhood. However, little is known about the extent to which bias in minimal (i.e., arbitrarily assigned) groups varies with children's environment and experience, and whether such bias is universal across cultures. In this study, the development of group bias was investigated using a minimal groups paradigm with 46 four- to six-year-olds from the Faroe Islands. Children observed in-group and out-group members exhibiting varying degrees of prosocial behaviour (egalitarian or stingy sharing). Children did not prefer their in-group in the pretest, but a pro-in-group and anti-out-group sentiment emerged in both conditions in the posttest. Faroese children's response patterns differ from those of American children [Schug, M. G., Shusterman, A., Barth, H., & Patalano, A. L. (2013). Minimal-group membership influences children's responses to novel experience with group members. Developmental Science, 16(1), 47-55], suggesting that intergroup bias shows cultural variation even in a minimal groups context.

  20. Creating psychological connections between intervention recipients: development and focus group evaluation of a group singing session for people with aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Tarrant, Mark; Warmoth, Krystal; Code, Chris; Dean, Sarah; Goodwin, Victoria A; Stein, Ken; Sugavanam, Thavapriya

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The study sought to identify key design features that could be used to create a new framework for group-based health interventions. We designed and tested the first session of a group intervention for stroke survivors with aphasia which was aimed at nurturing new psychological connections between group members. Setting The intervention session, a participant focus group and interviews with intervention facilitators were held in a local community music centre in the South West of England. Participants A convenience sample of 10 community-dwelling people with poststroke aphasia participated in the session. Severity of aphasia was not considered for inclusion. Intervention Participants took part in a 90-min group singing session which involved singing songs from a specially prepared song book. Musical accompaniment was provided by the facilitators. Primary and secondary outcome measures Participants and group facilitators reported their experiences of participating in the session, with a focus on activities within the session related to the intervention aims. Researcher observations of the session were also made. Results Two themes emerged from the analysis, concerning experiences of the session (‘developing a sense of group belonging’) and perceptions of its design and delivery (‘creating the conditions for engagement’). Participants described an emerging sense of shared social identity as a member of the intervention group and identified fixed (eg, group size, session breaks) and flexible (eg, facilitator responsiveness) features of the session which contributed to this emergence. Facilitator interviews and researcher observations corroborated and expanded participant reports. Conclusions Engagement with health intervention content may be enhanced in group settings when intervention participants begin to establish positive and meaningful psychological connections with other group members. Understanding and actively nurturing these connections

  1. The influence of newborn early literacy intervention programs in three canadian provinces.

    PubMed

    Letourneau, Nicole; Whitty, Pam; Watson, Barry; Phillips, Jennifer; Joschko, Justin; Gillis, Doris

    2015-01-01

    Low levels of literacy in early childhood can have lasting effects on children's educational and intellectual development. Many countries have implemented newborn literacy programs designed to teach parents pre-literacy promoting activities to share with their children. We conducted 2 quasi-experimental studies using 1) a pre-test/post-test design and 2) a non-equivalent control group design to examine the effect of newborn literacy programs on parents' self-reported literacy intentions/behaviors, values toward literacy, and parent-child interactions. Parents were recruited from 3 provinces, 2 with newborn literacy programs (intervention) and 1 without (control). Parents in the intervention group completed prenatal and postnatal (after participation in program) questionnaires. Parents in the control group completed 1 questionnaire. Questionnaires were designed to capture parents' literacy intentions (prenatal), behaviors (postnatal), values, and parent-child interactions (postnatal). A total of 98 parents were included in study one and 174 were included in study two. Parents' self-reported prenatal intentions and values were higher than their postnatal behaviors and values. Parents in the intervention group exhibited higher literacy behaviors and values and greater enjoyment reading to their children than parents in the control group, though they also reported reading to their children less frequently. Parents in the intervention group had significantly higher Positive Interactive scores than controls. Overall, we found participation in newborn literacy programs positively impacted parenting behaviors and attitudes. Lower postnatal within-group scores (intentions and values versus behaviors and values) may have been the result of participants' high expectations. Given our findings, we recommend that these programs continue.

  2. Effects of resource-building group intervention on career management and mental health in work organizations: randomized controlled field trial.

    PubMed

    Vuori, Jukka; Toppinen-Tanner, Salla; Mutanen, Pertti

    2012-03-01

    A resource-building group intervention was developed to enhance career management, mental health, and job retention in work organizations. The in-company training program provided employees with better preparedness to manage their own careers. The program activities were universally implemented using an organization-level, 2-trainer model with trainers from the human resources management and occupational health services. The study was a within-organizations, randomly assigned field experimental study; it investigated the impacts of the intervention on immediate career management preparedness and later mental health and intentions to retire early. A total of 718 eligible individuals returned a questionnaire in 17 organizations and became voluntary participants. The respondents were randomly assigned to either an intervention (N = 369) or a comparison group (N = 349). Those in the intervention group were invited to group intervention workshops, whereas those in the comparison group received printed information about career and health-related issues. The 7-month follow-up results showed that the program significantly decreased depressive symptoms and intentions to retire early and increased mental resources among the group participants compared to the others. The mediation analyses demonstrated that the increase in career management preparedness as a proximal impact of the intervention mediated the longer term mental health effects. Those who benefited most from the intervention as regards their mental health were employees with elevated levels of depression or exhaustion and younger employees, implying additional benefits of a more targeted use of the intervention. The results demonstrated the benefits of the enhancement of individual-level career management and resilience resources as career and health promotion practice in work organizations.

  3. Improving socio-emotional health for pupils in early secondary education with Pyramid: A school-based, early intervention model.

    PubMed

    Jayman, Michelle; Ohl, Maddie; Hughes, Bronach; Fox, Pauline

    2018-05-01

    Policymakers are focusing increased attention on the role of schools to promote and support children's mental health, and evidence-based models of good practice are in demand. Pyramid Club is a school-based, socio-emotional intervention, demonstrably effective with primary-aged pupils. This study extends previous Pyramid Club evaluations by examining effectiveness with pupils in early secondary education; service users' perceptions and experiences were investigated to increase understanding of Pyramid's impact, thus supporting enhanced practice. Participants (n = 126) comprised selected pupils, aged 11-14 (52 males; 74 females), who completed the 10 week programme (Pyramid group) and a non-intervention comparison group. Club leaders (n = 23) were trained, Pyramid volunteers. A mixed-methods design was implemented. The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ), informant-rated version (Goodman, 1997, J Child Psychol Psychiat, 38, 581) and self-report version (Goodman, Meltzer, & Bailey, 1998, Europ Child Adolesc Psychiatry, 7, 125), was used to measure socio-emotional well-being: pre-club (baseline assessment), post-test (within 2 weeks of programme completion), and at 12-month follow-up (informant-rated version only). Focus groups were conducted separately with Pyramid pupils and Club leaders. Findings from informants and self-reports identified significant improvements for the Pyramid group in total difficulties and on pertinent SDQ subscales (e.g., emotional symptoms and peer relationship problems) at post-test. Improvements were sustained at 12-month follow-up. Comparison pupils demonstrated minimal change over time. Thematic analysis of qualitative data supported the quantitative findings and provided valuable insights into the Pyramid Club experience. Findings contribute to evidence-based, preventative models for the early adolescent population and support the social validity of Pyramid Club. © 2018 The Authors. British Journal of Education

  4. [A survey of Local Physicians and Psychotherapists on Cooperation in Regional Networks for Early Child Interventions in Saxony-Anhalt].

    PubMed

    Clauß, D; Fleischer, S; Mattern, E; Ayerle, G

    2016-07-01

    Early childhood interventions positively contribute to health related child development. For these interventions, networks are a necessary prerequisite as they promote interdisciplinary and interprofessional cooperation. This holds especially true for the integration of health system protagonists. In a cross-sectional survey local paediatrists, gynaecologists, general practitioners, and psychotherapists were asked about their knowledge, experiences, desires, and reservations regarding cooperation in early childhood intervention networks. 64 out of 1747 (3.7%) eligible clinicians answered the survey. On average they estimated that 10.1% of the families they are treating would benefit from early childhood interventions. Participants rated themselves as competent to offer appropriate early childhood interventions. The youth welfare service was judged as the most important institution for their own professional practice by 84.4%. Additionally to an applicable agenda, a fair group moderation of network meetings was seen as a substantial requirement in order to take part in network meetings. Health professionals are important protagonists in early childhood interventions. Clinicians should assess relevant problems in families and offer appropriate support on a regular basis. Alongside clearly defined regional contacts, interprofessional continuing education seems mandatory. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Early, Accurate Diagnosis and Early Intervention in Cerebral Palsy: Advances in Diagnosis and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Novak, Iona; Morgan, Cathy; Adde, Lars; Blackman, James; Boyd, Roslyn N; Brunstrom-Hernandez, Janice; Cioni, Giovanni; Damiano, Diane; Darrah, Johanna; Eliasson, Ann-Christin; de Vries, Linda S; Einspieler, Christa; Fahey, Michael; Fehlings, Darcy; Ferriero, Donna M; Fetters, Linda; Fiori, Simona; Forssberg, Hans; Gordon, Andrew M; Greaves, Susan; Guzzetta, Andrea; Hadders-Algra, Mijna; Harbourne, Regina; Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina; Karlsson, Petra; Krumlinde-Sundholm, Lena; Latal, Beatrice; Loughran-Fowlds, Alison; Maitre, Nathalie; McIntyre, Sarah; Noritz, Garey; Pennington, Lindsay; Romeo, Domenico M; Shepherd, Roberta; Spittle, Alicia J; Thornton, Marelle; Valentine, Jane; Walker, Karen; White, Robert; Badawi, Nadia

    2017-09-01

    Cerebral palsy describes the most common physical disability in childhood and occurs in 1 in 500 live births. Historically, the diagnosis has been made between age 12 and 24 months but now can be made before 6 months' corrected age. To systematically review best available evidence for early, accurate diagnosis of cerebral palsy and to summarize best available evidence about cerebral palsy-specific early intervention that should follow early diagnosis to optimize neuroplasticity and function. This study systematically searched the literature about early diagnosis of cerebral palsy in MEDLINE (1956-2016), EMBASE (1980-2016), CINAHL (1983-2016), and the Cochrane Library (1988-2016) and by hand searching. Search terms included cerebral palsy, diagnosis, detection, prediction, identification, predictive validity, accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity. The study included systematic reviews with or without meta-analyses, criteria of diagnostic accuracy, and evidence-based clinical guidelines. Findings are reported according to the PRISMA statement, and recommendations are reported according to the Appraisal of Guidelines, Research and Evaluation (AGREE) II instrument. Six systematic reviews and 2 evidence-based clinical guidelines met inclusion criteria. All included articles had high methodological Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS) ratings. In infants, clinical signs and symptoms of cerebral palsy emerge and evolve before age 2 years; therefore, a combination of standardized tools should be used to predict risk in conjunction with clinical history. Before 5 months' corrected age, the most predictive tools for detecting risk are term-age magnetic resonance imaging (86%-89% sensitivity), the Prechtl Qualitative Assessment of General Movements (98% sensitivity), and the Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination (90% sensitivity). After 5 months' corrected age, the most predictive tools for detecting risk are magnetic resonance imaging (86

  6. Creating psychological connections between intervention recipients: development and focus group evaluation of a group singing session for people with aphasia.

    PubMed

    Tarrant, Mark; Warmoth, Krystal; Code, Chris; Dean, Sarah; Goodwin, Victoria A; Stein, Ken; Sugavanam, Thavapriya

    2016-02-23

    The study sought to identify key design features that could be used to create a new framework for group-based health interventions. We designed and tested the first session of a group intervention for stroke survivors with aphasia which was aimed at nurturing new psychological connections between group members. The intervention session, a participant focus group and interviews with intervention facilitators were held in a local community music centre in the South West of England. A convenience sample of 10 community-dwelling people with poststroke aphasia participated in the session. Severity of aphasia was not considered for inclusion. Participants took part in a 90-min group singing session which involved singing songs from a specially prepared song book. Musical accompaniment was provided by the facilitators. Participants and group facilitators reported their experiences of participating in the session, with a focus on activities within the session related to the intervention aims. Researcher observations of the session were also made. Two themes emerged from the analysis, concerning experiences of the session ('developing a sense of group belonging') and perceptions of its design and delivery ('creating the conditions for engagement'). Participants described an emerging sense of shared social identity as a member of the intervention group and identified fixed (eg, group size, session breaks) and flexible (eg, facilitator responsiveness) features of the session which contributed to this emergence. Facilitator interviews and researcher observations corroborated and expanded participant reports. Engagement with health intervention content may be enhanced in group settings when intervention participants begin to establish positive and meaningful psychological connections with other group members. Understanding and actively nurturing these connections should be a core feature of a general framework for the design and delivery of group interventions. Published by the

  7. Early Intervention for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder, Depression, and Quality of Life in Mortuary Affairs Soldiers Postdeployment.

    PubMed

    Biggs, Quinn M; Fullerton, Carol S; McCarroll, James E; Liu, Xian; Wang, Leming; Dacuyan, Nicole M; Zatzick, Douglas F; Ursano, Robert J

    2016-11-01

    U.S. Army mortuary affairs (MA) soldiers experience stressors of deployment and exposure to the dead, increasing risk for post-traumatic stress and depression. This study examines Troop Education for Army Morale, a postdeployment early intervention based on Psychological First Aid. MA soldiers (N = 126) were randomized to intervention or comparison groups 1-month postdeployment. Intervention sessions were held at 2, 3, 4, and 7 months. Assessments of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and quality of life (QOL) were conducted at 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, and 10 months for both groups. At baseline, 25.0% of the total sample had probable PTSD (17-item PTSD Checklist M = 35.4, SD = 16.9) and 23.6% had probable depression (9-item Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Scale M = 7.8, SD = 6.9). Over 10 months, PTSD and depression symptoms decreased and QOL improved for the total sample. At study conclusion, intervention and comparison groups were not different. Intervention group males showed a transient symptom increase at 2 to 3 months. Males attended fewer intervention sessions than females. Lower attendance was associated with more symptoms and lower QOL. Higher attendance was associated with greater intervention benefits. Findings highlight the need for better understanding postdeployment interventions and facilitating attendance. Further intervention for MA soldiers is indicated. Reprint & Copyright © 2016 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  8. Verna Wright Lecture: Psoriatic Arthritis: The Need for Early Intervention.

    PubMed

    McHugh, Neil J

    2015-11-01

    About 30% of individuals with skin psoriasis will develop an inflammatory disease of the peripheral or axial skeleton involving synovial and/or entheseal tissue termed psoriatic arthritis (PsA). In most cases psoriasis will precede PsA by several years. Hence skin psoriasis provides an opportune model to investigate genetic and environmental factors that interact and contribute to the development of a common form of inflammatory arthritis. Further, the preexisting presence of psoriasis represents a unique opportunity for the early detection of arthritis and the potential for more effective intervention. However, despite the presence of psoriasis, there may be delay in the diagnosis of PsA that is associated with adverse longterm outcome. Undiagnosed disease is not uncommon, as demonstrated by studies applying screening questionnaires to primary care and dermatology clinic populations. Other potential risk factors, such as obesity and smoking, the presence of certain genetic and biomarker profiles, combined with accurate imaging modalities, offer the potential for more targeted screening. So in future it should be possible to detect PsA at a much earlier stage and prevent significant joint damage and associated disability before it happens.

  9. Implementing and evaluating early intervention for children with autism: Where are the gaps and what should we do?

    PubMed

    Vivanti, Giacomo; Kasari, Connie; Green, Jonathan; Mandell, David; Maye, Melissa; Hudry, Kristelle

    2018-01-01

    Despite recent advances, the evidence base supporting early intervention for young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) remains relatively sparse. The International Society for Autism Research (INSAR) recently sponsored a Special Interest Group (SIG) on Implementing and Evaluating Community-Based Early Intervention. Across three meetings, in 2015, 2016, and 2017, conveners of this SIG engaged >200 members to identify knowledge gaps and research priorities for moving the field forward. Here, we summarize the perspectives that emerged from group discussion at the SIG meetings as represented by scholars working actively in the field. Despite encouraging progress, critical gaps and research priorities were identified across all the stages of intervention development and testing from conceptualization to community implementation. Key issues include the need for (a) formal theories to guide early intervention development, evaluation, and implementation; and alignment of intervention goals with scientific knowledge and societal changes that have occurred in the decades since interventions were originally developed; (b) increased focus on feasibility of treatment procedures and alignment with stakeholder values during pilot evaluations; (c) use of research designs that allow for comparisons of different interventions and formats, analyses of active ingredients of treatment, and identification of moderators and mediators of outcome; (d) use of community-partnered participatory research to guide adaptation of intervention models to community settings; (e) inclusion of constructs related to implementation processes and outcomes in treatment trials and; (f) an iterative approach to the progression of knowledge from intervention development to implementation. Autism Res 2018, 11: 16-23. © 2017 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. In this article, we summarize the themes discussed at the INSAR Special Interest Group (SIG) on Implementing

  10. Using e-Coaching to Support an Early Intervention Provider's Implementation of a Functional Assessment-Based Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fettig, Angel; Barton, Erin E.; Carter, Alice S.; Eisenhower, Abbey S.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of e-coaching on the implementation of a functional assessment-based intervention delivered by an early intervention provider in reducing challenging behaviors during home visits. A multiple baseline design across behavior support plan components was used with a provider-child dyad. The e-coaching intervention…

  11. Effects of In-Service Training on Early Intervention Practitioners' Use of Family-Systems Intervention Practices in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunst, Carl J.; Trivette, Carol M.; Deal, Angela G.

    2011-01-01

    The effectiveness of three types of in-service training designed to improve early intervention practitioners' abilities to use family-systems intervention practices was evaluated in the study of 473 participants. Participants attended either conference presentations or one of two types of workshops (half day/full day or multi-day), or received one…

  12. Early Dysphagia Screening by Trained Nurses Reduces Pneumonia Rate in Stroke Patients: A Clinical Intervention Study.

    PubMed

    Palli, Christoph; Fandler, Simon; Doppelhofer, Kathrin; Niederkorn, Kurt; Enzinger, Christian; Vetta, Christian; Trampusch, Esther; Schmidt, Reinhold; Fazekas, Franz; Gattringer, Thomas

    2017-09-01

    Dysphagia is a common stroke symptom and leads to serious complications such as aspiration and pneumonia. Early dysphagia screening can reduce these complications. In many hospitals, dysphagia screening is performed by speech-language therapists who are often not available on weekends/holidays, which results in delayed dysphagia assessment. We trained the nurses of our neurological department to perform formal dysphagia screening in every acute stroke patient by using the Gugging Swallowing Screen. The impact of a 24/7 dysphagia screening (intervention) over swallowing assessment by speech-language therapists during regular working hours only was compared in two 5-month periods with time to dysphagia screening, pneumonia rate, and length of hospitalization as outcome variables. Overall, 384 patients (mean age, 72.3±13.7 years; median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score of 3) were included in the study. Both groups (pre-intervention, n=198 versus post-intervention, n=186) were comparable regarding age, sex, and stroke severity. Time to dysphagia screening was significantly reduced in the intervention group (median, 7 hours; range, 1-69 hours) compared with the control group (median, 20 hours; range, 1-183; P =0.001). Patients in the intervention group had a lower rate of pneumonia (3.8% versus 11.6%; P =0.004) and also a reduced length of hospital stay (median, 8 days; range, 2-40 versus median, 9 days; range, 1-61 days; P =0.033). 24/7 dysphagia screening can be effectively performed by nurses and leads to reduced pneumonia rates. Therefore, empowering nurses to do a formal bedside screening for swallowing dysfunction in stroke patients timely after admission is warranted whenever speech-language therapists are not available. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Early intervention for psychotic disorders: Real-life implementation in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Wong, Gloria H Y; Hui, Christy L M; Tang, Jennifer Y M; Chang, Wing-Chung; Chan, Sherry K W; Xu, Jia-Qi; Lin, Jessie J X; Lai, Dik-Chee; Tam, Wendy; Kok, Joy; Chung, Dicky; Hung, S F; Chen, Eric Y H

    2012-03-01

    Hong Kong is among the first few cities in Asia to have implemented early intervention for psychosis in 2001. Substantial changes in psychosis service have since taken place. We reviewed available outcome data in Hong Kong, with reference to the philosophy of early intervention in psychosis, discussing experience and lessons learned from the implementation process, and future opportunities and challenges. Data accumulated in the past decade provided evidence for the benefits and significance of early intervention programmes: patients under the care of early intervention service showed improved functioning, milder symptoms, and fewer hospitalizations and suicides. Early intervention is more cost-effective compared with standard care. Stigma and misconception remains an issue, and public awareness campaigns are underway. In recent years, a critical mass is being formed, and Hong Kong has witnessed the unfolding of public service extension, new projects and organizations, and increasing interest from the community. Several major platforms are in place for coherent efforts, including the public Early Assessment Service for Young people with psychosis (EASY) programme, the Psychosis Studies and Intervention (PSI) research unit, the independent Hong Kong Early Psychosis Intervention Society (EPISO), the Jockey Club Early Psychosis (JCEP) project, and the postgraduate Psychological Medicine (Psychosis Studies) programme. The first decade of early intervention work has been promising; consolidation and further development is needed on many fronts of research, service and education. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Testosterone reactivity to provocation mediates the effect of early intervention on aggressive behavior.

    PubMed

    Carré, Justin M; Iselin, Anne-Marie R; Welker, Keith M; Hariri, Ahmad R; Dodge, Kenneth A

    2014-05-01

    We tested the hypotheses that the Fast Track intervention program for high-risk children would reduce adult aggressive behavior and that this effect would be mediated by decreased testosterone responses to social provocation. Participants were a subsample of males from the full trial sample, who during kindergarten had been randomly assigned to the 10-year Fast Track intervention or to a control group. The Fast Track program attempted to develop children's social competencies through child social-cognitive and emotional-coping skills training, peer-relations coaching, academic tutoring, and classroom management, as well as training for parents to manage their child's behavior. At a mean age of 26 years, participants responded to laboratory provocations. Results indicated that, relative to control participants, men assigned to the intervention demonstrated reduced aggression and testosterone reactivity to social provocations. Moreover, reduced testosterone reactivity mediated the effect of intervention on aggressive behavior, which provides evidence for an enduring biological mechanism underlying the effect of early psychosocial intervention on aggressive behavior in adulthood.

  15. Well Baby Group Care: Evaluation of a Promising Intervention for Primary Obesity Prevention in Toddlers.

    PubMed

    Machuca, Hildred; Arevalo, Sandra; Hackley, Barbara; Applebaum, Jo; Mishkin, Arielle; Heo, Moonseong; Shapiro, Alan

    2016-06-01

    Nationally, approximately 24% of preschool children are overweight or obese, with low-income communities disproportionately affected. Few interventions to prevent obesity in children at greatest risk have demonstrated positive results. Therefore, we evaluated the effectiveness of a novel group well-child care intervention for primary obesity prevention at age 2 years. Well Baby Group (WBG) is an alternative to traditional well-child care offered at a federally qualified health center in the South Bronx. Facilitated by a pediatrician and nutritionist, WBG fosters positive dietary behaviors, responsive parenting and feeding practices, and peer support during the first 18 months of life. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to test the effect of WBG on rates of overweight/obesity at 2 years (BMI-for-age ≥85th percentile) using a nonrandomized comparison group of children receiving traditional care at our center over the same period. Characteristics of mothers and infants were comparable between intervention (n = 47) and comparison (n = 140) groups. Children enrolled in WBG were significantly less likely to be overweight/obese at 2 years than children receiving traditional well-child care (2.1% vs. 15.0%; OR 0.12; 95% CI 0.02-0.94; p = 0.02). In multivariable regression analysis, WBG remained a significant independent protective factor (OR 0.12; 95% CI 0.02-0.93; p = 0.04), adjusting for birthweight and parity. WBG, a replicable model integrated into primary care visits, affords a unique opportunity to intervene consistently and early, providing families in at-risk communities with increased provider time, intensive education, and ongoing support. Further study of group well-child care for primary obesity prevention is warranted to confirm the effectiveness of the model.

  16. Can Targeted Intervention Mitigate Early Emotional and Behavioral Problems?: Generating Robust Evidence within Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Orla; McGlanaghy, Edel; O’Farrelly, Christine; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the impact of a targeted Irish early intervention program on children’s emotional and behavioral development using multiple methods to test the robustness of the results. Data on 164 Preparing for Life participants who were randomly assigned into an intervention group, involving home visits from pregnancy onwards, or a control group, was used to test the impact of the intervention on Child Behavior Checklist scores at 24-months. Using inverse probability weighting to account for differential attrition, permutation testing to address small sample size, and quantile regression to characterize the distributional impact of the intervention, we found that the few treatment effects were largely concentrated among boys most at risk of developing emotional and behavioral problems. The average treatment effect identified a 13% reduction in the likelihood of falling into the borderline clinical threshold for Total Problems. The interaction and subgroup analysis found that this main effect was driven by boys. The distributional analysis identified a 10-point reduction in the Externalizing Problems score for boys at the 90th percentile. No effects were observed for girls or for the continuous measures of Total, Internalizing, and Externalizing problems. These findings suggest that the impact of this prenatally commencing home visiting program may be limited to boys experiencing the most difficulties. Further adoption of the statistical methods applied here may help to improve the internal validity of randomized controlled trials and contribute to the field of evaluation science more generally. Trial Registration: ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN04631728 PMID:27253184

  17. Cultural and Linguistic Alchemy: Mining the Resources of Spanish-Speaking Children and Families Receiving Early Intervention Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puig, Victoria I.

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to gain insight into how early intervention (EI) services incorporate the cultural and linguistic resources of families and how EI professionals and families build partnerships with each other. Through observation and interview, the author looked deeply at the experiences of a small group of culturally and linguistically…

  18. Early Intervention Programs. Opening the Door to Higher Education. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report Vol. 25, No. 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenske, Robert H.; Geranios, Christine A.; Keller, Jonathan E.; Moore, David E.

    This report addresses issues related to the increasing growth of early intervention programs to encourage high school graduation and college attendance among students from low-income and minority groups. It first presents a brief review of the societal goals of equality for the nation's education system. It then defines the programs "early…

  19. Providing Effective Early Intervention Vocational Rehabilitation at the Community Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allaire, Saralynn J.; Niu, Jingbo; Zhu, Yanyan; Brett, Belle

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the translation of positive research findings about a job retention intervention for persons with chronic illnesses to rehabilitation practice. A program to provide the intervention was developed and marketed in the community. Fifty-seven consumers with chronic illnesses received the intervention provided…

  20. Interrater reliability of early intervention providers scoring the alberta infant motor scale.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, Y; Neilan, E; Busanich, J; Garavuso, L; Klimas, D

    2004-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the interrater reliability of early intervention providers scoring of the Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) and to examine whether training on the AIMS would improve their interrater reliability. Eight early intervention providers were randomly assigned to two groups. Participants in Group 1 scored the AIMS on seven videotapes of infants prior to receiving training and after training on another set of seven videotapes of infants. Participants in Group 2 scored the AIMS on all 14 videotapes of the infants after receiving training. Overall interrater reliability before and after training was high with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from 0.98 to 0.99. Detailed examination of the results showed that training improved the reliability of the supine subscale in a subgroup of infants between the ages of five and seven months. Training also had an effect on the classification of infants as normal or abnormal in their motor development based on their percentile rankings. The AIMS manual provides sufficient information to attain high interrater reliability without training, but revisions regarding scoring are strongly recommended.

  1. Design and feasibility testing of a novel group intervention for young women who binge drink in groups

    PubMed Central

    Crombie, Iain K.; Swanson, Vivien; Dimova, Elena D.; Melson, Ambrose J.; Fraser, Tracey M.; Barbour, Rosaline; Rice, Peter M.; Allan, Sheila

    2018-01-01

    Background Young women frequently drink alcohol in groups and binge drinking within these natural drinking groups is common. This study describes the design of a theoretically and empirically based group intervention to reduce binge drinking among young women. It also evaluates their engagement with the intervention and the acceptability of the study methods. Methods Friendship groups of women aged 18–35 years, who had two or more episodes of binge drinking (>6 UK units on one occasion; 48g of alcohol) in the previous 30 days, were recruited from the community. A face-to-face group intervention, based on the Health Action Process Approach, was delivered over three sessions. Components of the intervention were woven around fun activities, such as making alcohol free cocktails. Women were followed up four months after the intervention was delivered. Results The target of 24 groups (comprising 97 women) was recruited. The common pattern of drinking was infrequent, heavy drinking (mean consumption on the heaviest drinking day was UK 18.1 units). Process evaluation revealed that the intervention was delivered with high fidelity and acceptability of the study methods was high. The women engaged positively with intervention components and made group decisions about cutting down. Twenty two groups set goals to reduce their drinking, and these were translated into action plans. Retention of individuals at follow up was 87%. Conclusions This study successfully recruited groups of young women whose patterns of drinking place them at high risk of acute harm. This novel approach to delivering an alcohol intervention has potential to reduce binge drinking among young women. The high levels of engagement with key steps in the behavior change process suggests that the group intervention should be tested in a full randomised controlled trial. PMID:29494683

  2. Design and feasibility testing of a novel group intervention for young women who binge drink in groups.

    PubMed

    Irvine, Linda; Crombie, Iain K; Swanson, Vivien; Dimova, Elena D; Melson, Ambrose J; Fraser, Tracey M; Barbour, Rosaline; Rice, Peter M; Allan, Sheila

    2018-01-01

    Young women frequently drink alcohol in groups and binge drinking within these natural drinking groups is common. This study describes the design of a theoretically and empirically based group intervention to reduce binge drinking among young women. It also evaluates their engagement with the intervention and the acceptability of the study methods. Friendship groups of women aged 18-35 years, who had two or more episodes of binge drinking (>6 UK units on one occasion; 48g of alcohol) in the previous 30 days, were recruited from the community. A face-to-face group intervention, based on the Health Action Process Approach, was delivered over three sessions. Components of the intervention were woven around fun activities, such as making alcohol free cocktails. Women were followed up four months after the intervention was delivered. The target of 24 groups (comprising 97 women) was recruited. The common pattern of drinking was infrequent, heavy drinking (mean consumption on the heaviest drinking day was UK 18.1 units). Process evaluation revealed that the intervention was delivered with high fidelity and acceptability of the study methods was high. The women engaged positively with intervention components and made group decisions about cutting down. Twenty two groups set goals to reduce their drinking, and these were translated into action plans. Retention of individuals at follow up was 87%. This study successfully recruited groups of young women whose patterns of drinking place them at high risk of acute harm. This novel approach to delivering an alcohol intervention has potential to reduce binge drinking among young women. The high levels of engagement with key steps in the behavior change process suggests that the group intervention should be tested in a full randomised controlled trial.

  3. A novel early intervention for preschool depression: findings from a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Luby, Joan; Lenze, Shannon; Tillman, Rebecca

    2012-03-01

    Validation for depression in preschool children has been established; however, to date no empirical investigations of interventions for the early onset disorder have been conducted. Based on this and the modest efficacy of available treatments for childhood depression, the need for novel early interventions has been emphasized. Large effect sizes (ES) for preschool psychotherapies for several Axis I disorders suggest that earlier intervention in depression may also be promising. Therefore, a novel form of treatment for preschool depression, Parent-Child Interaction Therapy Emotion Development (PCIT-ED) was developed and tested. A preliminary randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted comparing PCIT-ED to psycho-education in depressed 3- to 7-year-olds and their caregivers. A total of 54 patients met symptom criteria for DSM-IV major depressive disorder and were randomized, 19 patients completed the active treatment (n = 8 dropouts) and 10 completed psycho-education (n = 17 dropouts). Both groups showed significant improvement in several domains, with PCIT-ED showing significance in a greater number of domains. An intent-to-treat analysis suggested that PCIT-ED was significantly more effective than psycho-education on executive functioning (p = .011, ES = 0.12) and emotion recognition skills (p = .002, ES = 0.83). The RCT proved feasible and suggests an individual control condition should be used in future trials to minimize differential dropout. These pilot data, although limited by power, suggest that PCIT-ED may be a promising early intervention for depression. Larger scale randomized controlled trials of PCIT-ED for depressed preschoolers are now warranted. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2011 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  4. Maternal sensitivity and mental health: does an early childhood intervention programme have an impact?

    PubMed

    Brahm, Paulina; Cortázar, Alejandra; Fillol, María Paz; Mingo, María Verónica; Vielma, Constanza; Aránguiz, María Consuelo

    2016-06-01

    Maternal sensitivity (MS) and mental health influence mother-child attachment and the child's mental health. Early interventions may promote resilience and facilitate healthy development of the children through an impact on mothers' outcomes such as their sensitivity and mental health. Play with Our Children (POC) is an early intervention programme aiming to promote a positive mother-child interaction for children who attend three family health centres of deprived areas of Santiago de Chile. To estimate the effect of the programme POC on MS and mental health. A quasi-experimental design with propensity score matching estimations was employed. MS was measured with the Q-Sort of Maternal Sensitivity, and maternal mental health was assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire and the Parenting Stress Index. Mean-difference comparison and difference-in-difference method were used as statistical strategies. The sample included 102 children from 2 to 23 months of age, 54 of them participated in the intervention and 48 children were the comparison group. Estimates showed that participation in POC was positively associated with less stress in mothers of children younger than 12 months (P < 0.05) and positively associated with MS for mothers of children from 12 to 23 months (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences in maternal depression scores. The dyadic early intervention POC may influence mother's mental health and indirectly impact children's well-being during critical stages of their development by strengthening their mother's sensitivity towards them. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. A Study of Family Centered Help Giving Practices in Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coogle, Christan Grygas

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study is to investigate the early intervention experiences of mothers who have a young child at risk for an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). More specifically, the goal was to explore the family centered help giving practices mothers identify and how these practices affect their early intervention experiences. Five…

  6. Tier 1 and Tier 2 Early Intervention for Handwriting and Composing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berninger, Virginia W.; Rutberg, Judith E.; Abbott, Robert D.; Garcia, Noelia; Anderson-Youngstrom, Marci; Brooks, Allison; Fulton, Cynthia

    2006-01-01

    Three studies evaluated Tier 1 early intervention for handwriting at a critical period for literacy development in first grade and one study evaluated Tier 2 early intervention in the critical period between third and fourth grades for composing on high stakes tests. The results contribute to knowledge of research-supported handwriting and…

  7. The Top 10 Mistakes in Early Intervention in Natural Environments--And the Solutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McWilliam, R. A.

    2011-01-01

    Early intervention for infants and toddlers with disabilities and their families has strayed from its conceptual roots and the intent of the original legislation. The author describes the top 10 mistakes commonly made in early intervention, including what happens at intake, assessment, plan development, and delivery of services. He proposes five…

  8. Influence of Clinical and Sociodemographic Characteristics on Early Intervention Enrollment after NICU Discharge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Perrin, James M.

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to characterize participation of neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) graduates in early intervention (EI). We used data from the National Early Intervention Longitudinal Study. We fit models of days from referral to Individualized Family Service Plan creation (plan time), days from referral to initiation of services (service time),…

  9. School Age Outcomes of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder Who Received Community-Based Early Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinen, Zoe; Clark, Megan; Paynter, Jessica; Dissanayake, Cheryl

    2018-01-01

    This study followed children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) from early intervention into their early schooling years, when they were aged between 6 and 9 years, on autism symptom severity and cognitive functioning. The children, matched at pre-intervention, were compared on type of community provided service: 31 were in receipt of…

  10. Implementing an Early Intervention Program for Residential Students Who Present with Suicide Risk: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivero, Estela M.; Cimini, M. Dolores; Bernier, Joseph E.; Stanley, Judith A.; Murray, Andrea D.; Anderson, Drew A.; Wright, Heidi R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This case study examined the effects of an early intervention program designed to respond to residential college students demonstrating risk for suicide. Participants: Participants were 108 undergraduates at a large northeastern public university referred to an early intervention program subsequent to presenting with risk factors for…

  11. SIFT-OUT: Training for Systems Change in Early Intervention. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winton, Pamela J.; Catlett, Camille

    This report summarizes the activities of the SIFT-OUT program, a federally funded project designed to prepare teams of university faculty, family members, practitioners, and agency representatives from six states, to serve as leaders in providing early intervention training in their states. A total of 166 state-level early intervention leaders…

  12. Improving the Use of Data in Early Reading Intervention Programs in Northwest Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Carla J.

    2012-01-01

    Improving student performance for high-need student populations by improving the use of data in decision-making for early reading intervention programs in northwest Florida is the focus of this research to practice effort. The study is conceptually based on using a relational-feedback intervention (RFI) database model in early learning…

  13. Effective Partnering of State Agencies to Achieve Early Hearing Detection and Intervention Benchmarks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corwin, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Relative to Early Hearing Detection and Intervention (EHDI), New Mexico struggles with multiple points of referral into early intervention in the same way most states do. Referrals are not systematized through a single point of entry. The Step*Hi (statewide Parent-Infant) Program of the New Mexico School for the Deaf (NMSD) receives referrals from…

  14. Mothers' Satisfaction with a Home Based Early Intervention Programme for Children with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodger, Sylvia; Keen, Deb; Braithwaite, Michelle; Cook, Shannon

    2008-01-01

    Background: Early intervention services adopting a family-centred approach are considered important for ensuring parent satisfaction. This study investigated the satisfaction of two mothers with an early intervention programme for young children with autistic spectrum disorder. Materials and Methods: While 16 mother-child dyads participated in a…

  15. Perspectives of Occupational Therapists on the Challenges of Early Intervention Practice: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowyer, Patricia; Moore, Cary C.; Tiongco, Cynthia G.; Tkach, Melanie M.; Thom, Carly

    2017-01-01

    Occupational therapists in the field of early intervention (EI) are challenged with limited opportunities for communication and collaboration with colleagues and other EI team members. One hundred and two occupational therapists and occupational therapy assistants with early intervention experience completed a descriptive survey. Questions on the…

  16. Early Intervention: Parental Involvement, Child Agency and Participation in Creative Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Alice; Rix, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Early intervention activities for very young disabled children are frequently linked to developmental targets and goals. A key challenge for parents and practitioners involved in early intervention programmes is to encourage their child to play and develop creatively through enjoyable, everyday childhood experiences. This paper reports on a…

  17. Developing a Home-Based Early Intervention Personnel Training Program in Southeast China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xie, Huichao; Chen, Ching-I; Chen, Chieh-Yu; Squires, Jane; Li, Wenge; Liu, Tian

    2017-01-01

    China is expected to have a rapid growth in specialized early intervention (EI) services for young children ages birth to 6 and their families. A major barrier in the provision of EI services in China is the shortage of well-trained EI personnel. In 2013, a Home-Based Early Intervention Program (HBEIP) was started at South China Normal University…

  18. The Role of Maternal Depression in Accessing Early Intervention Services for Children with Developmental Delay

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colgan, Siobhan Eileen

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between maternal depression and children's access to early intervention services among a sample of children with developmental delay at age two who were determined to be eligible for early intervention services, were full term and of normal birth weight, and were not previously identified with any special…

  19. Family-Centered Early Intervention Visual Impairment Services through Matrix Session Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ely, Mindy S.; Gullifor, Kateri; Hollinshead, Tara

    2017-01-01

    Early intervention visual impairment services are built on a model that values family. Matrix session planning pulls together parent priorities, family routines, and identified strategies in a way that helps families and early intervention professionals outline a plan that can both highlight long-term goals and focus on what can be done today.…

  20. Current Trends in Early Hearing Diagnosis and Intervention in North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretto, Aneesha Patrice

    2010-01-01

    In North Carolina, the eligibility criteria for enrollment in Part C early intervention services do not exclude infants and toddlers based on the severity or laterality of hearing loss. As such, the state's early intervention population represents a widely diverse array of children ranging from those with minimal to profound hearing losses. While…

  1. Early Intervention Practices for Children with Hearing Loss: Impact of Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Prudent, Angi; Lartz, Maribeth; Borders, Christina; Meehan, Tracy

    2016-01-01

    Early identification and appropriate intervention services for children who are deaf or hard of hearing significantly increase the likelihood of better language, speech, and social-emotional development. However, current research suggests that there is a critical shortage of professionals trained to provide early intervention services to deaf and…

  2. Closing the Gap Early: Implementing a Literacy Intervention for At-Risk Kindergartners in Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Colleen; Figueredo, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    A history of poverty and low academic achievement in four urban schools pointed to the need to implement an early intervention focused on oral language and emergent literacy. The Kindergarten Early Literacy Tutoring (KELT) Program was designed to target senior (5 year old) kindergarten students most at-risk. The intervention consisted of an extra…

  3. A Novel Early Intervention for Preschool Depression: Findings from a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luby, Joan; Lenze, Shannon; Tillman, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Background: Validation for depression in preschool children has been established; however, to date no empirical investigations of interventions for the early onset disorder have been conducted. Based on this and the modest efficacy of available treatments for childhood depression, the need for novel early interventions has been emphasized. Large…

  4. The Feasibility of Virtual Home Visits to Provide Early Intervention: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelso, Ginger L.; Fiechtl, Barbara J.; Olsen, Susan T.; Rule, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Although videoconferencing has been used to deliver distance education, tutoring for children, and telemedicine observations, there is limited information on the efficacy of its use in delivering part C early intervention services. Four families receiving early intervention services in a rural program participated in a pilot study to test the…

  5. Brief Report: An Evaluation of an Australian Autism-Specific, Early Intervention Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paynter, Jessica M.; Riley, Emma P.; Beamish, Wendi; Scott, James G.; Heussler, Helen S.

    2015-01-01

    There is a relative paucity of evidence examining the effectiveness of early intervention for young children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, in particular those delivered through educationally-based programmes. This study aimed to evaluate the real world effectiveness of a community-based autism-specific early learning and intervention programme in…

  6. Early Child Disaster Mental Health Interventions: A Review of the Empirical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Nitiéma, Pascal; Tucker, Phebe; Newman, Elana

    2017-01-01

    Background: The need to establish an evidence base for early child disaster interventions has been long recognized. Objective: This paper presents a descriptive analysis of the empirical research on early disaster mental health interventions delivered to children within the first 3 months post event. Methods: Characteristics and findings of the…

  7. 12 CFR Appendix Ms - 4-Model Clauses for the Written Early Intervention Notice

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false 4-Model Clauses for the Written Early Intervention Notice MS Appendix MS Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION REAL ESTATE...-4 Appendix MS-4—Model Clauses for the Written Early Intervention Notice MS-4(A)—Statement...

  8. Comparing Brief Experimental Analysis and Teacher Judgment for Selecting Early Reading Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Dana L.; Coolong-Chaffin, Melissa; Deris, Aaron R.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the use of brief experimental analysis (BEA) to identify early reading interventions for students in the primary grades and to compare teachers' judgments about their students' early reading intervention needs to BEA results. In addition, the research was conducted to explore how teachers make decisions…

  9. 75 FR 3746 - Ryan White HIV/AIDS Part C Early Intervention Services (EIS) Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ... HIV/AIDS Part C Early Intervention Services (EIS) Program AGENCY: Health Resources and Services... Department, Orlando, Florida, that will ensure continuity of Part C, Early Intervention Services (EIS), HIV...: Critical funding for HIV/AIDS care and treatment to the target populations in Orange County, Orlando...

  10. Young Children with Disabilities in Israel: System of Early Intervention Service Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shulman, Cory; Meadan, Hedda; Sandhaus, Yoram

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to analyze early intervention programs in Israel according to the Developmental Systems Model (Guralnick, 2001), in an attempt to identify strengths and areas for further development for service delivery for young children with disabilities in Israel. Early intervention in Israel is part of a comprehensive healthcare model…

  11. Fighting Fires in Early Intervention Supervision: Trading the Axe for Mr. Rogers's Slippers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Laura; Gallen, Robert T.; Salazar, Ruby; Shahmoon-Shanok, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    When Pennsylvania's Early Intervention system implemented an early intervention-reflective supervision project, modest expectations for change were anticipated, given the limited amount of time and funding for the project. In this article, one participant tells the story of her professional development, which enabled her to augment her skills as…

  12. Modeling the Effects of Early Childhood Intervention Variables on Parent and Family Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunst, Carl J.; Hamby, Deborah W.; Brookfield, Jeffri

    2007-01-01

    Structural equation modeling was used to evaluate the effects of family, child, and both early childhood intervention process and structural variables on parent and family well-being in a sample of 250 parents involved in birth to age three early childhood intervention programs. Family SES and income had direct positive effects, family-centered…

  13. Entitled to What? Public Policy and the Responsibilities of Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Wesley; Conroy, Maureen

    1999-01-01

    Examines early-intervention entitlements currently extended by all states. Perspectives from the legislative process, federal and state implementation, judicial interpretation, and professional views are included. Distinctions among the key provisions for differing early intervention service systems are presented, legal cases are reviewed, and…

  14. [Clinical significance of early percutaneous coronary intervention in patients with Braunwald III-B type unstable angina pectoris].

    PubMed

    Nozaki, Katsuhiro; Nakao, Koichi; Horiuchi, Kenji; Kasanuki, Hiroshi; Honda, Takashi

    2003-06-01

    To assess the efficacy of early invasive strategy for the treatment of Braunwald III-B type unstable angina pectoris. This study included 573 consecutive patients of whom 267 underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) (312 lesions). The patients were divided into two groups, 95 treated with the early invasive strategy of coronary angiography within 24 hr of admission (Group PCI-I) and the remaining 172 treated with the early conservative strategy of coronary angiography 24 hr after admission (Group PCI-C). No significant differences were noted in the baseline characteristics of the two groups except for ST segment elevation on electrocardiography at presentation, which occurred significantly less frequently in Group PCI-C (36.8% vs 8.1%, p < 0.0001). The initial success rate of percutaneous coronary intervention was sufficiently high in both groups (Group PCI-I: 96.9% vs Group PCI-C: 97.7%, NS). Acute myocardial infarction occurred in six patients of Group PCI-C (3.5%) because of the side branch occlusion. There was no in-hospital death or emergent coronary artery bypass grafting. During the 6-month follow-up, there were no significant differences in the death rates (2.1% vs 1.7%), the death or myocardial infarction rates (5.3% vs 5.8%) and the target lesion revascularization ratio (26.0% vs 25.7%) between Group PCI-I and Group PCI-C. The clinical outcomes of the early invasive strategy for unstable angina pectoris were almost equivalent to those of the early conservative strategy, despite more frequent ST segmental elevation at admission in Group PCI-I. These findings suggest that the early invasive strategy for unstable angina pectoris may be acceptable even in the current Japanese clinical setting without the use of GP IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist, low molecular weight heparin or clopidogrel.

  15. Early Intervention of Didang Decoction on MLCK Signaling Pathways in Vascular Endothelial Cells of Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Song, Zhenqiang; Li, Jing; Li, Chunshen

    2016-01-01

    In the study, type 2 diabetic rat model was established using streptozotocin (STZ) combined with a high-fat diet, and the rats were divided into control and diabetic groups. Diabetic groups were further divided into nonintervening, simvastatin, Didang Decoction (DDD) early-phase intervening, DDD mid-phase intervening, and DDD late-phase intervening groups. The expression level of MLCK was detected using Western Blot analysis, and the levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), protein kinase C (PKC), and protein kinase A (PKA) were examined using Real Time PCR. Under the electron microscope, the cells in the early-DDD-intervention group and the simvastatin group were significantly more continuous and compact than those in the diabetic group. Compared with the control group, the expression of cAMP-1 and PKA was decreased in all diabetic groups, whereas the expression of MLCK and PKC was increased in early- and mid-phase DDD-intervening groups (P < 0.05); compared with the late-phase DDD-intervening group, the expression of cAMP-1 and PKA was higher, but the level of MLCK and PKC was lower in early-phase DDD-intervening group (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the early use of DDD improves the permeability of vascular endothelial cells by regulating the MLCK signaling pathway. PMID:27703477

  16. Women's experiences as members of attention control and experimental intervention groups in a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Beal, Claudia C; Stuifbergen, Alexa; Volker, Deborah; Becker, Heather

    2009-12-01

    Attention control groups are often used in research testing the efficacy of psychosocial and behavioural interventions in order to control for placebo effects. The authors conducted a descriptive qualitative study to investigate how participants viewed their experiences in attention control and experimental intervention groups following a randomized controlled trial for women with fibromyalgia syndrome. Moderately structured interviews were conducted with 18 women (12 from the experimental intervention group and 6 from the attention control group). Members of the control group reported some benefits but few behavioural changes as a result of participating in the RCT, and some participants expressed disappointment at not receiving the intervention. Perceptions of changes in attitudes towards fibromyalgia syndrome and behaviours reported by the intervention group appear to be consistent with the theory underlying the intervention. Possible placebo effects identified in both groups include negative and positive social interactions with other participants.

  17. Brief oral health promotion intervention among parents of young children to reduce early childhood dental decay

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Severe untreated dental decay affects a child’s growth, body weight, quality of life as well as cognitive development, and the effects extend beyond the child to the family, the community and the health care system. Early health behavioural factors, including dietary practices and eating patterns, can play a major role in the initiation and development of oral diseases, particularly dental caries. The parent/caregiver, usually the mother, has a critical role in the adoption of protective health care behaviours and parental feeding practices strongly influence children’s eating behaviours. This study will test if an early oral health promotion intervention through the use of brief motivational interviewing (MI) and anticipatory guidance (AG) approaches can reduce the incidence of early childhood dental decay and obesity. Methods The study will be a randomised controlled study with parents and their new-born child/ren who are seen at 6–12 weeks of age by a child/community health nurse. Consenting parents will complete a questionnaire on oral health knowledge, behaviours, self-efficacy, oral health fatalism, parenting stress, prenatal and peri-natal health and socio-demographic factors at study commencement and at 12 and 36 months. Each child–parent pair will be allocated to an intervention or a standard care group, using a computer-generated random blocks. The standard group will be managed through the standard early oral health screening program; “lift the lip”. The intervention group will be provided with tailored oral health counselling by oral health consultants trained in MI and AG. Participating children will be examined at 24, and 36 months for the occurrence of dental decay and have their height and weight recorded. Dietary information obtained from a food frequency chart will be used to determine food and dietary patterns. Data analysis will use intention to treat and per protocol analysis and will use tests of independent

  18. Brief oral health promotion intervention among parents of young children to reduce early childhood dental decay.

    PubMed

    Arrow, Peter; Raheb, Joseph; Miller, Margaret

    2013-03-20

    Severe untreated dental decay affects a child's growth, body weight, quality of life as well as cognitive development, and the effects extend beyond the child to the family, the community and the health care system. Early health behavioural factors, including dietary practices and eating patterns, can play a major role in the initiation and development of oral diseases, particularly dental caries. The parent/caregiver, usually the mother, has a critical role in the adoption of protective health care behaviours and parental feeding practices strongly influence children's eating behaviours. This study will test if an early oral health promotion intervention through the use of brief motivational interviewing (MI) and anticipatory guidance (AG) approaches can reduce the incidence of early childhood dental decay and obesity. The study will be a randomised controlled study with parents and their new-born child/ren who are seen at 6-12 weeks of age by a child/community health nurse. Consenting parents will complete a questionnaire on oral health knowledge, behaviours, self-efficacy, oral health fatalism, parenting stress, prenatal and peri-natal health and socio-demographic factors at study commencement and at 12 and 36 months. Each child-parent pair will be allocated to an intervention or a standard care group, using a computer-generated random blocks. The standard group will be managed through the standard early oral health screening program; "lift the lip". The intervention group will be provided with tailored oral health counselling by oral health consultants trained in MI and AG.Participating children will be examined at 24, and 36 months for the occurrence of dental decay and have their height and weight recorded. Dietary information obtained from a food frequency chart will be used to determine food and dietary patterns. Data analysis will use intention to treat and per protocol analysis and will use tests of independent proportions and means. Multivariate

  19. Brief report: Predictors of outcomes in the Early Start Denver Model delivered in a group setting.

    PubMed

    Vivanti, Giacomo; Dissanayake, Cheryl; Zierhut, Cynthia; Rogers, Sally J

    2013-07-01

    There is a paucity of studies that have looked at factors associated with responsiveness to interventions in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We investigated learning profiles associated with response to the early start Denver model delivered in a group setting. Our preliminary results from 21 preschool children with an ASD aged 2- to 5-years suggest that the children with more advanced skills in functional use of objects, goal understanding and imitation made the best developmental gains after 1 year of treatment. Cognitive abilities, social attention, intensity of the treatment and chronological age were not associated with treatment gains.

  20. Preventive intervention for anxious preschoolers and their parents: strengthening early emotional development.

    PubMed

    Fox, Jeremy K; Masia Warner, Carrie; Lerner, Amy B; Ludwig, Kristy; Ryan, Julie L; Colognori, Daniela; Lucas, Christopher P; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2012-08-01

    The high prevalence and early onset of anxiety disorders have inspired innovative prevention efforts targeting young at-risk children. With parent-child prevention models showing success for older children and adolescents, the goal of this study was to evaluate a parent-child indicated preventive intervention for preschoolers with mild to moderate anxiety symptoms. Sixteen children (ages 3-5) and at least one of their parents participated in Strengthening Early Emotional Development (SEED), a new 10-week intervention with concurrent groups for parents and children. Outcome measures included clinician-rated and parent-rated assessments of anxiety symptoms, as well as measures of emotion knowledge, parent anxiety, and parental attitudes about children's anxiety. Participation in SEED was associated with reduced child anxiety symptoms and improved emotion understanding skills. Parents reported decreases in their own anxiety, along with attitudes reflecting enhanced confidence in their children's ability to cope with anxiety. Reductions in child and parent anxiety were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Findings suggest that a parent-child cognitive-behavioral preventive intervention may hold promise for young children with mild to moderate anxiety. Improvements in parent anxiety and parental attitudes may support the utility of intervening with parents. Fostering increased willingness to encourage their children to engage in new and anxiety-provoking situations may help promote continued mastery of new skills and successful coping with anxiety.

  1. Preventive Intervention for Anxious Preschoolers and Their Parents: Strengthening Early Emotional Development

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Jeremy K.; Lerner, Amy B.; Ludwig, Kristy; Ryan, Julie L.; Colognori, Daniela; Lucas, Christopher P.; Brotman, Laurie Miller

    2013-01-01

    The high prevalence and early onset of anxiety disorders have inspired innovative prevention efforts targeting young at-risk children. With parent–child prevention models showing success for older children and adolescents, the goal of this study was to evaluate a parent–child indicated preventive intervention for preschoolers with mild to moderate anxiety symptoms. Sixteen children (ages 3–5) and at least one of their parents participated in Strengthening Early Emotional Development (SEED), a new 10-week intervention with concurrent groups for parents and children. Outcome measures included clinician-rated and parent-rated assessments of anxiety symptoms, as well as measures of emotion knowledge, parent anxiety, and parental attitudes about children’s anxiety. Participation in SEED was associated with reduced child anxiety symptoms and improved emotion understanding skills. Parents reported decreases in their own anxiety, along with attitudes reflecting enhanced confidence in their children’s ability to cope with anxiety. Reductions in child and parent anxiety were maintained at 3-month follow-up. Findings suggest that a parent–child cognitive-behavioral preventive intervention may hold promise for young children with mild to moderate anxiety. Improvements in parent anxiety and parental attitudes may support the utility of intervening with parents. Fostering increased willingness to encourage their children to engage in new and anxiety-provoking situations may help promote continued mastery of new skills and successful coping with anxiety. PMID:22331442

  2. Early Intervention: A Multicultural Perspective on d/Deaf and Hard of Hearing Multilingual Learners.

    PubMed

    Sandy, K Bowen

    2016-01-01

    Today's pluralistic society is characterized by families from many linguistic and cultural backgrounds, including families with infants and toddlers who are deaf or hard of hearing (d/Dhh). Taking a multicultural perspective, the author examines family-centered early intervention (FCEI) and the transition to school services for children who are d/Dhh. Working with d/Dhh Multilingual Learners (DMLs) and their families presents a unique challenge to early intervention professionals: ensuring that families have adequate information and resources to make informed choices, particularly regarding communication. The author presents information and research related to (a) family and professional partnerships, (b) cultural contexts for early intervention, (c) family communication decisions and linguistic diversity, (d) emerging research on DMLs, (e) considerations for early intervention providers and interpreters who work with culturally and linguistically diverse d/Dhh infants and toddlers, and (f) cultural reflections on ensuring smooth transitions from early intervention into preschool programs.

  3. [Effectiveness of integrated early childhood development intervention on nurturing care for children aged 0-35 months in rural China].

    PubMed

    Shi, H F; Zhang, J X; Wang, X L; Xu, Y Y; Dong, S L; Zhao, C X; Huang, X N; Zhao, Q; Chen, X F; Zhou, Y; O'Sullivan, Margo; Pouwels, Ron; Scherpbier, Robert W

    2018-02-02

    Objective: To explore whether Integrated Early Childhood Development (IECD) program has effectively improved the nurturing care for children aged 0-35 months in rural China. Methods: IECD has been implemented by the government of China with support from the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) in four poverty-stricken rural counties since 2014. The interventions targeting the five key components of nurturing care (i.e. child and caregiver health, child nutrition, early learning support, child protection and social security) were delivered through the IECD program to children aged 0 to 35 months and their caregivers. A population-based intervention trial was designed to evaluate intervention effectiveness with data collected in 2013 (baseline) and 2016 (mid-term). The changes of nurturing care in the intervention and control group were analyzed by using a difference-in-differences (DID) model. This approach provided adjustment for sociodemographic and other confounding factors. Results: The baseline and mid-term survey enrolled 1 468 and 1 384 children in the intervention group, and 1 485 and 1 361 in the control group. After two years of implementation, the prevalence of caregiver's depression in the intervention group showed a decrease of 9.1% (mid-term 34.8% (479/1 377) vs. baseline 43.9% (621/1 414)), whereas that in control group showed a decrease of 1.6% (mid-term 34.3% (464/1 353) vs. baseline 35.9% (509/1 419)). With the confounding adjusted in the difference-in-differences model, the decrease of the caregiver's depression prevalence in the intervention group was 7.0% greater than that in the control group ( P= 0.008). The qualified rate of minimum meal frequency in the intervention group showed an increase of 10.4% (mid-term 69.0% (532/771) vs. baseline 58.6% (481/821)), whereas the qualified rate in the intervention group showed an increase of 2.9% (mid-term 66.4% (469/706) vs. baseline 63.5% (508/800)). With the confounding adjusted in the difference

  4. Positive psychology group intervention for breast cancer patients: a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    Victoria Cerezo, M; Ortiz-Tallo, Margarita; Cardenal, Violeta; De La Torre-Luque, Alejandro

    2014-08-01

    This study assessed the effects of a psychological group intervention based on positive psychology in women with breast cancer. 175 women were randomly assigned either to an experimental group, receiving the 14-session intervention (n = 87), or to a wait list group (n = 88) that did not receive any type of intervention. For treatment, a group intervention was applied, based on improving psychological strengths and enhancing positive psychology-based styles of coping. Strength-related outcomes, self-esteem, well-being, and happiness were assessed before and after the intervention. The experimental group showed higher scores on all of the study variables after the intervention. Participants reported improved self-esteem, emotional intelligence-related abilities, resilience, and optimism, as well as positive affectivity, well-being, and happiness. The results show a beneficial effect of this psychological intervention based on positive psychology on female breast cancer patients' psychological health.

  5. Quantifying parental preferences for interventions designed to improve home food preparation and home food environments during early childhood.

    PubMed

    Virudachalam, Senbagam; Chung, Paul J; Faerber, Jennifer A; Pian, Timothy M; Thomas, Karen; Feudtner, Chris

    2016-03-01

    Though preparing healthy food at home is a critical health promotion habit, few interventions have aimed to improve parental cooking skills and behaviors. We sought to understand parents' preferences and priorities regarding interventions to improve home food preparation practices and home food environments during early childhood. We administered a discrete choice experiment using maximum difference scaling. Eighty English-speaking parents of healthy 1-4 year-old children rated the relative importance of potential attributes of interventions to improve home food preparation practices and home food environments. We performed latent class analysis to identify subgroups of parents with similar preferences and tested for differences between the subgroups. Participants were mostly white or black 21-45 year-old women whose prevalence of overweight/obesity mirrored the general population. Latent class analysis revealed three distinct groups of parental preferences for intervention content: a healthy cooking group, focused on nutrition and cooking healthier food; a child persuasion group, focused on convincing toddlers to eat home-cooked food; and a creative cooking group, focused on cooking without recipes, meal planning, and time-saving strategies. Younger, lower income, 1-parent households comprised the healthy cooking group, while older, higher income, 2-parent households comprised the creative cooking group (p < 0.05). The child persuasion group was more varied with regard to age, income, and household structure but cooked dinner regularly, unlike the other two groups (p < 0.05). Discrete choice experiments using maximum difference scaling can be employed to design and tailor interventions to change health behaviors. Segmenting a diverse target population by needs and preferences enables the tailoring and optimization of future interventions to improve parental home food preparation practices. Such interventions are important for creating healthier home food

  6. An Early Intervention Supporting the Literacy Learning of Children Experiencing Substantial Difficulty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Jane B.; Paratore, Jeanne R.; Chard, David J.; Garnick, Sheila

    1999-01-01

    A study examined the degree to which eight teachers would faithfully implement an early literacy intervention plan. Teachers implemented the intervention with a high degree of fidelity and benefited from the community approach to intervention for struggling readers. Most children made substantial gains in phonemic blending and segmenting…

  7. Benefits of Early Childhood Interventions across the World: (Under) Investing in the Very Young

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nores, Milagros; Barnett, W. Steven

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the international (non-U.S.) evidence on the benefits of early childhood interventions. A total of 38 contrasts of 30 interventions in 23 countries were analyzed. It focuses on studies applying a quasi-experimental or random assignment. Studies were coded according to: the type of intervention (cash transfer, nutritional,…

  8. Promoting Early Intervention Referral through a Randomized Controlled Home-Visiting Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarz, Donald F.; O'Sullivan, Ann L.; Guinn, Judith; Mautone, Jennifer A.; Carlson, Elyse C.; Zhao, Huaqing; Zhang, Xuemei; Esposito, Tara L.; Askew, Megan; Radcliffe, Jerilynn

    2012-01-01

    The MOM Program is a randomized, controlled trial of an intervention to promote mothers' care for the health and development of their children, including accessing early intervention (EI) services. Study aims were to determine whether, relative to controls, this intervention increased receipt of and referral to EI services. Mothers (N = 302)…

  9. Moderation and Mediation in Structural Equation Modeling: Applications for Early Intervention Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopwood, Christopher J.

    2007-01-01

    Second-generation early intervention research typically involves the specification of multivariate relations between interventions, outcomes, and other variables. Moderation and mediation involve variables or sets of variables that influence relations between interventions and outcomes. Following the framework of Baron and Kenny's (1986) seminal…

  10. Utilisation of Evidence-Based Practices by ASD Early Intervention Service Providers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paynter, Jessica M.; Ferguson, Sarah; Fordyce, Kathryn; Joosten, Annette; Paku, Sofia; Stephens, Miranda; Trembath, David; Keen, Deb

    2017-01-01

    A number of autism intervention practices have been demonstrated to be effective. However, the use of unsupported practices persists in community early intervention settings. Recent research has suggested that personal, professional and workplace factors may influence intervention choices. The aim of this research was to investigate knowledge and…

  11. Cell-based interventions for neurologic conditions: ethical challenges for early human trials.

    PubMed

    Mathews, D J H; Sugarman, J; Bok, H; Blass, D M; Coyle, J T; Duggan, P; Finkel, J; Greely, H T; Hillis, A; Hoke, A; Johnson, R; Johnston, M; Kahn, J; Kerr, D; Kurtzberg, J; Liao, S M; McDonald, J W; McKhann, G; Nelson, K B; Rao, M; Regenberg, A; Siegel, A W; Smith, K; Solter, D; Song, H; Vescovi, A; Young, W; Gearhart, J D; Faden, R

    2008-07-22

    Attempts to translate basic stem cell research into treatments for neurologic diseases and injury are well under way. With a clinical trial for one such treatment approved and in progress in the United States, and additional proposals under review, we must begin to address the ethical issues raised by such early forays into human clinical trials for cell-based interventions for neurologic conditions. An interdisciplinary working group composed of experts in neuroscience, cell biology, bioethics, law, and transplantation, along with leading disease researchers, was convened twice over 2 years to identify and deliberate on the scientific and ethical issues raised by the transition from preclinical to clinical research of cell-based interventions for neurologic conditions. While the relevant ethical issues are in many respects standard challenges of human subjects research, they are heightened in complexity by the novelty of the science, the focus on the CNS, and the political climate in which the science is proceeding. Distinctive challenges confronting US scientists, administrators, institutional review boards, stem cell research oversight committees, and others who will need to make decisions about work involving stem cells and their derivatives and evaluate the ethics of early human trials include evaluating the risks, safety, and benefits of these trials, determining and evaluating cell line provenance, and determining inclusion criteria, informed consent, and the ethics of conducting early human trials in the public spotlight. Further study and deliberation by stakeholders is required to move toward professional and institutional policies and practices governing this research.

  12. Measuring Satisfaction with Family-Professional Partnership in Early Intervention and Early Childhood Special Education Programs in Qatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al-Hadad, Nawal Khalil

    2010-01-01

    Family-professional partnership has been considered a recommended practice in Early Intervention/Early Childhood Special Education (EI/ECSE) programs for young children with disabilities and their families for the past two decades. The importance of establishing successful partnerships between families and professionals in educational planning has…

  13. Preterm birth-associated cost of early intervention services: an analysis by gestational age.

    PubMed

    Clements, Karen M; Barfield, Wanda D; Ayadi, M Femi; Wilber, Nancy

    2007-04-01

    Characterizing the cost of preterm birth is important in assessing the impact of increasing prematurity rates and evaluating the cost-effectiveness of therapies to prevent preterm delivery. To assess early intervention costs that are associated with preterm births, we estimated the program cost of early intervention services for children who were born in Massachusetts, by gestational age at birth. Using the Pregnancy to Early Life Longitudinal Data Set, birth certificates for infants who were born in Massachusetts between July 1999 and June 2000 were linked to early intervention claims through 2003. We determined total program costs, in 2003 dollars, of early intervention and mean cost per surviving infant by gestational age. Costs by plurality, eligibility criteria, provider discipline, and annual costs for children's first 3 years also were examined. Overall, 14,033 of 76,901 surviving infants received early intervention services. Program costs totaled almost $66 million, with mean cost per surviving infant of $857. Mean cost per infant was highest for children who were 24 to 31 weeks' gestational age ($5393) and higher for infants who were 32 to 36 weeks' gestational age ($1578) compared with those who were born at term ($725). Cost per surviving infant generally decreased with increasing gestational age. Among children in early intervention, mean cost per child was higher for preterm infants than for term infants. At each gestational age, mean cost per surviving infant was higher for multiples than for singletons, and annual early intervention costs were higher for toddlers than for infants. Compared with their term counterparts, preterm infants incurred higher early intervention costs. This information along with data on birth trends will inform budget forecasting for early intervention programs. Costs that are associated with early childhood developmental services must be included when considering the long-term costs of prematurity.

  14. Managing Repetitive Behaviours in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): Pilot Randomised Controlled Trial of a New Parent Group Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grahame, Victoria; Brett, Denise; Dixon, Linda; McConachie, Helen; Lowry, Jessica; Rodgers, Jacqui; Steen, Nick; Le Couteur, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Early intervention for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) tends to focus on enhancing social-communication skills. We report the acceptability, feasibility and impact on child functioning of a new 8 weeks parent-group intervention to manage restricted and repetitive behaviours (RRB) in young children with ASD aged 3-7 years. Forty-five families took…

  15. Can a Targeted, Group-Based CBT Intervention Reduce Depression and Anxiety and Improve Self-Concept in Primary-Age Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Callaghan, Paul; Cunningham, Enda

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study examined the impact of a 10 session, group-based, early-intervention cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) programme (Cool Connections) on anxiety, depression and self-concept in nine 8-11 year old pupils in Northern Ireland. The intervention was facilitated by a teacher, education welfare officer and two classroom assistants, with…

  16. Children of mentally ill parents-a pilot study of a group intervention program.

    PubMed

    Christiansen, Hanna; Anding, Jana; Schrott, Bastian; Röhrle, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    The transgenerational transmission of mental disorders is one of the most prominent risk factors for the development of psychological disorders. Children of mentally ill parents are a vulnerable high risk group with overall impaired development and high rates of psychological disorders. To date there are only a few evidence based intervention programs for this group overall and hardly any in Germany. We translated the evidence based Family Talk Intervention by Beardslee (2009) and adapted it for groups. First results of this pilot study are presented. This investigation evaluates a preventive group intervention for children of mentally ill parents. In a quasi-experimental design three groups are compared: an intervention group (Family Talk Intervention group: n = 28), a Wait Control group (n = 9), and a control group of healthy children (n = 40). Mean age of children was 10.41 years and parental disorders were mostly depressive/affective disorders (n = 30), but a small number also presented with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (n = 7). Children of mentally ill parents showed higher rates of internalizing/externalizing disorders before and after the intervention compared to children of parents with no disorders. Post intervention children's knowledge on mental disorders was significantly enhanced in the Family Talk Intervention group compared to the Wait Control group and the healthy control group. Parental ratings of externalizing symptoms in the children were reduced to normal levels after the intervention in the Family Talk Intervention group, but not in the Wait Control group. This pilot study of a group intervention for children of mentally ill parents highlights the importance of psycho-education on parental mental disorders for children. Long-term effects of children's enhanced knowledge about parental psychopathology need to be explored in future studies.

  17. Children of mentally ill parents—a pilot study of a group intervention program

    PubMed Central

    Christiansen, Hanna; Anding, Jana; Schrott, Bastian; Röhrle, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The transgenerational transmission of mental disorders is one of the most prominent risk factors for the development of psychological disorders. Children of mentally ill parents are a vulnerable high risk group with overall impaired development and high rates of psychological disorders. To date there are only a few evidence based intervention programs for this group overall and hardly any in Germany. We translated the evidence based Family Talk Intervention by Beardslee (2009) and adapted it for groups. First results of this pilot study are presented. Method: This investigation evaluates a preventive group intervention for children of mentally ill parents. In a quasi-experimental design three groups are compared: an intervention group (Family Talk Intervention group: n = 28), a Wait Control group (n = 9), and a control group of healthy children (n = 40). Mean age of children was 10.41 years and parental disorders were mostly depressive/affective disorders (n = 30), but a small number also presented with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (n = 7). Results: Children of mentally ill parents showed higher rates of internalizing/externalizing disorders before and after the intervention compared to children of parents with no disorders. Post intervention children's knowledge on mental disorders was significantly enhanced in the Family Talk Intervention group compared to the Wait Control group and the healthy control group. Parental ratings of externalizing symptoms in the children were reduced to normal levels after the intervention in the Family Talk Intervention group, but not in the Wait Control group. Discussion: This pilot study of a group intervention for children of mentally ill parents highlights the importance of psycho-education on parental mental disorders for children. Long-term effects of children's enhanced knowledge about parental psychopathology need to be explored in future studies. PMID:26539129

  18. Focus Groups to Explore the Perceptions of Older Adults on a Pedometer-Based Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, David B.; Richeson, Nancy E.; Croteau, Karen A.; Farmer, Bonnie Cashin

    2009-01-01

    Focus group methodology was used to explore in depth the perceptions of older adults who had participated in a 12-week pedometer-based intervention. Nineteen women and 8 men, ages 55-86 years, volunteered to take part in the focus groups following participation in the intervention. Four focus groups of six to eight participants were scheduled at…

  19. Efficacy of a Group Intervention for Adult Women Survivors of Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebert, Martine; Bergeron, Manon

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of a group intervention for women sexually abused in childhood or adulthood. The sample consisted of 41 women involved in a group intervention based on a feminist approach offered by help centers for sexual assault victims in Quebec and 11 women in a wait-list comparison group. Results reveal that the group…

  20. Scale Development of a Measure to Assess Community-Based and Clinical Intervention Group Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Patrick A.; Hansen, Nathan B.; Tarakeshwar, Nalini; Neufeld, Sharon; Kochman, Arlene; Sikkema, Kathleen J.

    2008-01-01

    Though group interventions are widely used in community-based and clinical settings, there are few brief instruments for assessing the group environment. Two studies on the development of a brief measure to assess intervention group environments are described, and psychometric properties of the new scale are presented. The new measure is based on…

  1. Case management in early psychosis intervention programme: Perspectives of clients and caregivers.

    PubMed

    Wong, Horng Hien; Yong, Yee Huei; Shahwan, Shazana; Cetty, Laxman; Vaingankar, Janhavi; Hon, Charlene; Lee, Helen; Loh, Christopher; Abdin, Edimansyah; Subramaniam, Mythily

    2017-12-14

    This qualitative study explored the perspectives of clients and caregivers on case management provided by the Singapore Early Psychosis Intervention Programme (EPIP), with the intent to understand the salient aspects of case management from their perspective. Clients and their caregivers were recruited from the EPIP outpatient clinics. Focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted at a community centre outside the hospital with 47 clients and 19 caregivers. Facilitators were experienced researchers who were not involved in the care of the clients and trained in qualitative research methodologies. All FGDs were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim with all participants' identifiers omitted to protect confidentiality. Qualitative data analysis was conducted using thematic analysis. There were 11 themes that emerged from the FGDs: therapeutic alliance, holistic monitoring, collaborative role with other care providers, counselling and guidance, crisis management, bridging role, client-centred care, client empowerment and strength building, psychoeducation/education on illness, support and problem solving. "Problem solving" surfaced only from the client FGDs; the remaining themes were common to both groups. The voices of clients and caregivers are important to EPIP case management service. This study has provided insights into their perspectives, understandings and lived experiences of case management and its impact on clients and caregivers. © 2017 The Authors Early Intervention in Psychiatry Published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  2. Moving beyond policy rhetoric: building a moral community for early psychosis intervention.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J Hamilton

    2009-09-01

    Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world. Indeed, it is the only thing that ever has. Margaret Mead It has been my privilege to work in partnership with hundreds of patients experiencing emergent psychosis, in Hamilton, Ontario during the course of my lengthy nursing career. Indeed, the knowledge I have gleaned from both the courageous individuals who have experienced serious mental illness and their resilient families has been monumental. When I first began my career, I was utterly naïve and most certainly held the misguided assumption that to be a mental health nurse required an adherence to a strict set of nursing principles and that the nurse-patient relationship was approached from an objective and 'safe' distance. Reflecting on this now, many years later I understand that the therapeutic relationship between nurses and those they serve is foundational to the delivery of safe and ethical mental health care. Although increasingly clinical practice guidelines and evidence-based interventions serve to inform nursing practice, in my mind it is the embodied experience of relationship that is the real instrument of healing and transformation. Recognizing that early intervention provides an unprecedented opportunity to begin anew with young patients who have no prior experiences with the mental health care system, the purpose of this paper is to serve as a vehicle for discussion and potentially inspire a group of thoughtful, committed nurses to change the world of mental health services by creating a respectful moral community. I propose that relational ethics form the values and ideals of a fully humane early psychosis intervention community in Ontario. Using the foundational tenets of the nurse-patient relationship illustrated through the use of a clinical narrative, I will suggest ways that nurses can proactively take up the early intervention challenge and contribute to an overall culture of optimism and hope

  3. A WIC-Based Intervention to Prevent Early Childhood Overweight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whaley, Shannon E.; McGregor, Samar; Jiang, Lu; Gomez, Judy; Harrison, Gail; Jenks, Eloise

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of a Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)-based intervention on the food and beverage intake, physical activity, and television watching of children ages 1-5. Design: Longitudinal surveys of intervention and control participants at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months.…

  4. Change in Autism Classification with Early Intervention: Predictors and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben Itzchak, Esther; Zachor, Ditza A.

    2009-01-01

    The current study characterized stability and changes of autism diagnostic classification with intervention in very young children and examined pre-treatment predictors and post-intervention outcome. Sixty-eight children diagnosed with autism, aged 18-35 months (M = 25.4, SD = 4.0) participated in the study. Children underwent comprehensive…

  5. Do Family Interventions Improve Outcomes in Early Psychosis? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Claxton, Melanie; Onwumere, Juliana; Fornells-Ambrojo, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Family interventions for psychosis (FIp) are effective in reducing service user relapse and carer distress in people with schizophrenia-spectrum conditions. Several treatment and best practice guidelines recommend FIp for all people with schizophrenia. However, outcome findings in relation to early psychosis groups have been inconsistent. The current paper reports a systematic review and meta-analyses of articles that evaluated FIp in early psychosis with a clearly defined comparison group. A combination of electronic database searches (using PsychINFO, Medline, and CENTRAL), citation searches and hand searches of key journals and reviews was conducted. Peer-reviewed articles published in English from database inception to June 2016 were included. Methodological quality was assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool (EPHPP). Seventeen papers from 14 studies met inclusion criteria for review, the overall quality of which was moderate. Meta-analytic synthesis showed that FIp improved service user functioning and reduced the likelihood of relapse by the end of treatment. Psychotic symptoms were significantly reduced in the FIp group at follow up, but this was not evident at end of treatment. In terms of FIp target mechanisms, carers receiving FIp were more likely to shift from high to low expressed emotion and less likely to report patient focused criticism or engage in conflict communication than carers randomized to standard care. Carer burden and well-being were improved by the end of treatment but gains were not sustained at follow up. FIp had no impact on carer emotional over-involvement. The findings indicate that FIp is an effective intervention for early psychosis service users and their relatives. However, further research is required to establish which key therapeutic components of FIp are most effective for whom, in addition to understanding the mechanisms by which FIp might affect positive change. PMID:28396643

  6. SPIRIT advance care planning intervention in early stage dementias: An NIH stage I behavioral intervention development trial.

    PubMed

    Song, Mi-Kyung; Ward, Sandra E; Hepburn, Kenneth; Paul, Sudeshna; Shah, Raj C; Morhardt, Darby J

    2018-06-02

    People in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease and related dementias (ADRD) are encouraged to engage in advance care planning (ACP) while they are still competent to appoint a surrogate decision maker and meaningfully participate in ACP discussions with the surrogate. In this NIH Stage I behavioral intervention development trial, we will adapt and test an efficacious ACP intervention, SPIRIT (Sharing Patient's Illness Representation to Increase Trust), with people with mild dementia and their surrogates to promote open, honest discussions while such discussions about end-of-life care are possible. We will first adapt SPIRIT (in person) to target people with mild dementia and their surrogates through a process of modification-pretesting-refinement using stakeholders (persons with mild dementia, family caregivers, and clinicians) and experts, including adapting the delivery mode to interactive web-based videoconference format (SPIRIT-remote). Then in a 3-group RCT with 120 patient-surrogate dyads, we will evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of SPIRIT in-person and SPIRIT remote, and preliminary efficacy of SPIRIT compared to usual care on preparedness outcomes for end-of-life decision making (dyad congruence on goals of care, patient decisional conflict, and surrogate decision-making confidence) shortly after the intervention. This Stage I research of SPIRIT will generate valuable insights regarding how to improve ACP for people with mild dementia who will progress to an advanced stage of the disease in the foreseeable future. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03311711, Registered 10/12/2017. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Face-to-face interventions for informing or educating parents about early childhood vaccination.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Jessica; Ryan, Rebecca; Walsh, Louisa; Horey, Dell; Leask, Julie; Robinson, Priscilla; Hill, Sophie

    2018-05-08

    Early childhood vaccination is an essential global public health practice that saves two to three million lives each year, but many children do not receive all the recommended vaccines. To achieve and maintain appropriate coverage rates, vaccination programmes rely on people having sufficient awareness and acceptance of vaccines.Face-to-face information or educational interventions are widely used to help parents understand why vaccines are important; explain where, how and when to access services; and address hesitancy and concerns about vaccine safety or efficacy. Such interventions are interactive, and can be adapted to target particular populations or identified barriers.This is an update of a review originally published in 2013. To assess the effects of face-to-face interventions for informing or educating parents about early childhood vaccination on vaccination status and parental knowledge, attitudes and intention to vaccinate. We searched the CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, five other databases, and two trial registries (July and August 2017). We screened reference lists of relevant articles, and contacted authors of included studies and experts in the field. We had no language or date restrictions. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster-RCTs evaluating the effects of face-to-face interventions delivered to parents or expectant parents to inform or educate them about early childhood vaccination, compared with control or with another face-to-face intervention. The World Health Organization recommends that children receive all early childhood vaccines, with the exception of human papillomavirus vaccine (HPV), which is delivered to adolescents. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Two authors independently reviewed all search results, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. In this update, we found four new studies, for a total of ten studies. We included seven RCTs and three cluster

  8. Feasibility of an Online Professional Development Program for Early Intervention Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyzar, Kathleen B.; Chiu, Caya; Kemp, Peggy; Aldersey, Heather Michelle; Turnbull, Ann P.; Lindeman, David P.

    2014-01-01

    This article reports findings from 2 studies situated within a larger scope of design research on a professional development program, "Early Years," for Part C early intervention practitioners, working with families in home and community settings. Early Years includes online modules and onsite mentor coaching, and its development has…

  9. Making the Case for Early Identification and Intervention for Young Children at Risk for Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Marcee M.

    2004-01-01

    The early identification of children with learning disabilities (LD) is difficult but can be accomplished. Observation of key behaviors which are indicators of LD by preschool and kindergarten teachers can assist in this process. This early identification facilitates the use of intervention strategies to provide a positive early experience for…

  10. Helping Her Heal-Group: a pilot study to evaluate a group delivered educational intervention for male spouses of women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jennifer M; Lewis, Frances Marcus; Griffith, Kristin; Cheng, Terry; Secord, Scott; Walton, Tara; Bernstein, Lori J; Maheu, Christine; Catton, Pamela

    2013-09-01

    Distress in husbands of women with early-stage breast cancer may be equivalent to or even higher than their wives. Husbands often struggle to help and support their wives cope with the illness and its treatment. In response, we developed a five-session group educational counselling intervention (Helping Her Heal-Group (HHH-G)) for husbands of women with early-stage breast cancer. The primary aim of the current pilot study was to determine the acceptability and feasibility of HHH-G and to obtain a preliminary estimate of its impact on participating men's skills, self-confidence and self care. Secondary aims were to assess the impact of the intervention on both the participating spouses' and wives' ratings of marital quality and depressed mood. The study employed a one-arm, pre-post-intervention design whereby participating men (n=54) and their wives (n=54) independently completed measures at baseline (T0), immediately following the last session (T1) and 3 months after the last session (T2). Overall, there was very high study retention (87%). On the basis of the questionnaire data, we found significant improvements in spouses' self-efficacy (p<0.001) and self-reported skills including wife support (p=0.003) and self-care (p<0.001). In addition, there was a significant improvement in wives' mood scores (p=0.003). Post-intervention interviews support acceptability and impact of the HHH-G intervention, and provide support for the group format of the program. The feasibility and acceptability of HHH-G was supported, and treatment outcomes suggest the potential benefits of the intervention. Phase III evaluation of HHH-G program is warranted. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Strains, Strengths, and Intervention Outcomes: A Critical Examination of Intervention Efficacy for Underrepresented Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Krystal L.

    2014-01-01

    This chapter offers a critical lens for examining intervention efficacy. It highlights a conceptual framework particularly relevant for understanding the experiences of underrepresented students and illustrates how such framing can explicate the mechanisms that impede or enhance successful intervention outcomes in STEM fields.

  12. Cancer Ward Staff Group: An Intervention Designed to Prevent Disaster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, William H.

    1985-01-01

    Describes a case study illustrating organizational and system contingencies for introducing and maintaining a support group for oncology nursing staff in a large general hospital culture. Criteria for long-run survivability of innovation in a work system are applied to a group structured like that described by Balint for training physicians in…

  13. Inpatient Group Therapeutic Interventions for Patients with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Vilash

    2015-01-01

    Group therapy can be an effective mode of therapy, used on an inpatient unit, as it can allow patients to become allies in their journey to understand and overcome their mental health needs. The therapeutic principles discussed by Dr Irvin Yalom illustrate the significance and importance of group therapy, which was strongly incorporated into…

  14. Merging Micro and Macro Intervention: Social Work Practice with Groups in the Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Carolyn; Gitterman, Alex

    2018-01-01

    Clinical or micro intervention predominates in social work education and practice. The prevailing assumption in social work practice and education is that one engages in either micro or macro intervention. In this article, we describe how these interventions may be merged into an integrated whole through social work practice with groups. The…

  15. Qualitative evaluation of a self-management intervention for people in the early stage of dementia.

    PubMed

    Martin, Faith; Turner, Andrew; Wallace, Louise M; Stanley, Damian; Jesuthasan, Jana; Bradbury, Nicola

    2015-07-01

    Self-management programs are effective for people living with chronic illnesses. However, there has been little research addressing self-management for people with dementia in the early stages. This study presents a qualitative evaluation of the experiences of attending a novel self-management program and initial process evaluation. The program was designed with and for people with dementia. It addresses: (a) relationship with family, (b) maintenance of an active lifestyle, (c) psychological well-being, (d) techniques to cope with memory changes and (e) information about dementia. Six participants with early stage dementia completed the intervention that was co-delivered by lay and clinical professional tutors. Participants and tutors attended focus group and interviews at the end of the program to explore their perceptions of the intervention. These were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically. Participants reported enjoyment and benefits from the intervention. This was despite some reporting concerns relating to their memory difficulties. The program's flexible nature, focus on strengths and the opportunity to spend time with other people living with dementia were particularly well received. Participants and tutors outlined areas for further improvement. The program was feasible and its flexible delivery appeared to facilitate participant benefit. Emphasis should be placed on maintaining activity and relationships, improving positive well-being and social interaction during the program. Memory of the pleasant experience and strengths focus was evidenced, which may impact positively on quality of life. The results highlight the usefulness and acceptability of self-management for people with early stage dementia and provide initial support for the program's structure and content. © The Author(s) 2013.

  16. Investigating service features to sustain engagement in early intervention mental health services.

    PubMed

    Becker, Mackenzie; Cunningham, Charles E; Christensen, Bruce K; Furimsky, Ivana; Rimas, Heather; Wilson, Fiona; Jeffs, Lisa; Madsen, Victoria; Bieling, Peter; Chen, Yvonne; Mielko, Stephanie; Zipursky, Robert B

    2017-08-23

    To understand what service features would sustain patient engagement in early intervention mental health treatment. Mental health patients, family members of individuals with mental illness and mental health professionals completed a survey consisting of 18 choice tasks that involved 14 different service attributes. Preferences were ascertained using importance and utility scores. Latent class analysis revealed segments characterized by distinct preferences. Simulations were carried out to estimate utilization of hypothetical clinical services. Overall, 333 patients and family members and 183 professionals (N = 516) participated. Respondents were distributed between a Professional segment (53%) and a Patient segment (47%) that differed in a number of their preferences including for appointment times, individual vs group sessions and mode of after-hours support. Members of both segments shared preferences for many of the service attributes including having crisis support available 24 h per day, having a choice of different treatment modalities, being offered help for substance use problems and having a focus on improving symptoms rather than functioning. Simulations predicted that 60% of the Patient segment thought patients would remain engaged with a Hospital service, while 69% of the Professional segment thought patients would be most likely to remain engaged with an E-Health service. Patients, family members and professionals shared a number of preferences about what service characteristics will optimize patient engagement in early intervention services but diverged on others. Providing effective crisis support as well as a range of treatment options should be prioritized in the future design of early intervention services. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. The Impact of Health Education Intervention for Prevention and Early Detection of Type 2 Diabetes in Women with Gestational Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Tawfik, Mirella Youssef

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to investigate the impact of a health belief model (HBM)-based educational intervention on knowledge, beliefs, self-reported practices, gestational and postpartum weight in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). A cluster randomized controlled trial was performed, with randomization at the level of Primary Health Care centers in three Egyptian cities. Eligible women with GDM were enrolled at 24 weeks pregnancy. The intervention group (n = 103) received health education intervention based on the HBM construct. Control subjects (n = 98) received the usual care. The outcomes measured were: women's knowledge, beliefs, self-reported practices, gestational weight gain (GWG), and postpartum weight retention. Patients were investigated at baseline, at end of pregnancy, and at 6 weeks postpartum. After the intervention, percentages of women who had high knowledge and beliefs scores had significantly increased from less than 50 % to more than 70 % in the intervention group (p < 0.001). More women in the intervention group reported practicing exclusive breast feeding (85.4 %) and screening for T2DM (43.7 %) at 6 weeks postpartum compared to the control group (63.3 and 19.4 % respectively) (p < 0.001). More women with excessive body mass index in the intervention group (65 %) compared to the control group (11.6 %) were meeting recommended GWG (p < 0.001), and postpartum weight (37.7, and 20.3 % respectively) (p < 0.01). This intervention significantly improved knowledge, beliefs, self-reported practices, and gestational and postpartum weight in patients with GDM. Further research is needed for investigating the effectiveness of applying early, multi-phase, and longer intervention.

  18. Can Early Intervention Improve Maternal Well-Being? Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Orla; Delaney, Liam; O’Farrelly, Christine; Fitzpatrick, Nick; Daly, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Objective This study estimates the effect of a targeted early childhood intervention program on global and experienced measures of maternal well-being utilizing a randomized controlled trial design. The primary aim of the intervention is to improve children’s school readiness skills by working directly with parents to improve their knowledge of child development and parenting behavior. One potential externality of the program is well-being benefits for parents given its direct focus on improving parental coping, self-efficacy, and problem solving skills, as well as generating an indirect effect on parental well-being by targeting child developmental problems. Methods Participants from a socio-economically disadvantaged community are randomly assigned during pregnancy to an intensive 5-year home visiting parenting program or a control group. We estimate and compare treatment effects on multiple measures of global and experienced well-being using permutation testing to account for small sample size and a stepdown procedure to account for multiple testing. Results The intervention has no impact on global well-being as measured by life satisfaction and parenting stress or experienced negative affect using episodic reports derived from the Day Reconstruction Method (DRM). Treatment effects are observed on measures of experienced positive affect derived from the DRM and a measure of mood yesterday. Conclusion The limited treatment effects suggest that early intervention programs may produce some improvements in experienced positive well-being, but no effects on negative aspects of well-being. Different findings across measures may result as experienced measures of well-being avoid the cognitive biases that impinge upon global assessments. PMID:28095505

  19. WHO Global Consultation on Public Health Intervention against Early Childhood Caries.

    PubMed

    Phantumvanit, Prathip; Makino, Yuka; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Rugg-Gunn, Andrew; Moynihan, Paula; Petersen, Poul Erik; Evans, Wendell; Feldens, Carlos Alberto; Lo, Edward; Khoshnevisan, Mohammad H; Baez, Ramon; Varenne, Benoit; Vichayanrat, Tippanart; Songpaisan, Yupin; Woodward, Margaret; Nakornchai, Siriruk; Ungchusak, Chantana

    2018-06-01

    Early Childhood Caries (ECC) is prevalent around the world, but in particular the disease is growing rapidly in low- and middle-income countries in parallel with changing diet and lifestyles. In many countries, ECC is often left untreated, a condition which leads to pain and adversely affects general health, growth and development, and quality of life of children, their families and their communities. Importantly, ECC is also a global public health burden, medically, socially and economically. In many countries, a substantial number of children require general anaesthesia for the treatment of caries in their primary teeth (usually extractions), and this has considerable cost and social implications. A WHO Global Consultation with oral health experts on "Public Health Intervention against Early Childhood Caries" was held on 26-28 January 2016 in Bangkok (Thailand) to identify public health solutions and to highlight their applicability to low- and middle-income countries. After a 3-day consultation, participants agreed on specific recommendations for further action. National health authorities should develop strategies and implement interventions aimed at preventing and controlling ECC. These should align with existing international initiatives such as the Sixtieth World Health Assembly Resolution WHA 60.17 Oral health: action plan for promotion and integrated disease prevention, WHO Guideline on Sugars and WHO breastfeeding recommendation. ECC prevention and control interventions should be integrated into existing primary healthcare systems. WHO public health principles must be considered when tackling the effect of social determinants in ECC. Initiatives aimed at modifying behaviour should focus on families and communities. The involvement of communities in health promotion, and population-directed and individual fluoride administration for the prevention and control of ECC is essential. Surveillance and research, including cost-effectiveness studies, should be

  20. [Impulsivity-focused Group Intervention to reduce Binge Eating Episodes in Patients with Binge Eating Disorder - A Group Training Program].

    PubMed

    Schag, Kathrin; Leehr, Elisabeth J; Skoda, Eva-Maria; Becker, Sandra; Zipfel, Stephan; Giel, Katrin E

    2016-11-01

    Binge Eating Disorder (BED) is an eating disorder where cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) could already show reliable efficacy. Relying on basic research, CBT interventions which especially focus on impulsivity could be effective, because binge eating episodes represent highly impulsive eating behaviour. For this reason, we developed a treatment concept about an impulsivity-focused behavioural group intervention for patients with BED, called IMPULS. The efficacy of IMPULS is currently investigated in a randomised controlled trial 1. IMPULS is drafted as a weekly group training programme with 5-6 participants per group. The essential interventions are food-related cue exposure with response prevention and the development of self-control strategies. These interventions are adapted onto the impulsivity concept from conventional treatment of addictive disorders and BED. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. The Case against Intelligence Testing in Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neisworth, John T.; Bagnato, Stephen J.

    1992-01-01

    Major presumptions that underlie the use of early intelligence tests are presented and disputed, centering on the construct of early intelligence, reliability, prediction, standardized administration, professional acceptability, utility for decision making, and congruence with Public Law 99-457. Professional solidarity is urged in opposing the…

  2. Reducing the volume of antibiotic prescriptions: a peer group intervention among physicians serving a community with special ethnic characteristics.

    PubMed

    Wilf-Miron, Rachel; Ron, Naama; Ishai, Shlomit; Chory, Hana; Abboud, Louis; Peled, Ronit

    2012-05-01

    Antibiotics are a front-line weapon against many infectious diseases. However, antibiotic overuse is the key driver of drug resistance. Previously published studies have suggested benefits of using peer-to-peer education, working with group leaders to build trust and maintain confidentiality within a quality initiative. We hypothesized that working with physicians as a peer group might be beneficial in influencing antibiotic prescribing patterns. To describe and evaluate a peer group model for an intervention to reduce the volume of antibiotic prescriptions among physicians with above average prescribing rates serving an Arab community in northern Israel. Primary care physicians in a defined geographic area who served Arab communities and had high antibiotic prescribing rates--defined as above average number of antibiotic prescriptions per office visit compared with regional and organizational averages--were recruited for the intervention. All other physicians from the same region served as a comparison group. The intervention was administered during 2007 and was completed in early 2008. Four structured meetings scheduled 2 months apart, in which the group explored the issues related to antibiotic overuse, included the following topics: adherence to clinical guidelines; the special position physicians serving Arab communities hold and the influence it has on their practices; pressure due to consumer demands; and suggestions for possible strategies to face ethnic sensitivity, mainly because of the special ties the physicians have with their communities. T-tests for independent samples were used to perform between-group comparisons for each quarter and year of observation from 2006 through 2010, and t-tests for paired samples were used to compare pre-intervention with post-intervention antibiotic prescribing rates. In the 2006 pre-intervention period, the antibiotic prescribing rates were 0.17 for the peer group (n = 11 physicians) and 0.15 for the comparison group

  3. Listen and learn: engaging young people, their families and schools in early intervention research.

    PubMed

    Connor, Charlotte

    2017-06-01

    Recent policy guidelines highlight the importance of increasing the identification of young people at risk of developing mental health problems in order to prevent their transition to long-term problems, avoid crisis and remove the need for care through specialist mental health services or hospitalisation. Early awareness of the often insidious behavioural and cognitive changes associated with deteriorating mental well-being, however, is difficult, but it is vital if young people, their families and those who work with them are to be fully equipped with the skills to aid early help-seeking. Our early intervention research continues to highlight the necessity of engaging with and listening to the voices of young people, families and those who work with children and young people, in developing greater understanding of why some young people may be more at risk in terms of their mental health, and to provide children and young people with the best mental health support we can. Collaborative working with young people, their families and those who work with them has been an essential dimension of our youth mental health research in Birmingham, UK, enabling us to listen to the personal narratives of those with lived experience and to work alongside them. This paper highlights some of our key studies and how we have endeavoured to make intra-agency working successful at each stage of the research process through increasing use of digital and youth-informed resources to engage young people: a methodology which continues to inform, guide and develop our early intervention research and implementation. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. Manipulating rumen microbiome and fermentation through interventions during early life: a review

    PubMed Central

    Yáñez-Ruiz, David R.; Abecia, Leticia; Newbold, Charles J.

    2015-01-01

    The nutritional manipulations of the rumen microbiome to enhance productivity and health are rather limited by the resilience of the ecosystem once established in the mature rumen. Based on recent studies, it has been suggested that the microbial colonization that occurs soon after birth opens a possibility of manipulation with potential to produce lasting effects into adult life. This paper presents the state-of-the-art in relation to early life nutritional interventions by addressing three areas: the development of the rumen as an organ in regards to the nutrition of the new-born, the main factors that determine the microbial population that first colonizes and establishes in the rumen, and the key immunity players that contribute to shaping the commensal microbiota in the early stage of life to understand host-microbiome specificity. The development of the rumen epithelium and muscularization are differently affected by the nature of the diet and special care should be taken with regards to transition from liquid (milk) to solid feed. The rumen is quickly colonized by all type of microorganisms straight after birth and the colonization pattern may be influenced by several factors such as presence/absence of adult animals, the first solid diet provided, and the inclusion of compounds that prevent/facilitate the establishment of some microorganisms or the direct inoculation of specific strains. The results presented show how early life events may be related to the microbial community structure and/or the rumen activity in the animals post-weaning. This would create differences in adaptive capacity due to different early life experiences and leads to the idea of microbial programming. However, many elements need to be further studied such as: the most sensitive window of time for interventions, the best means to test long term effectiveness, the role of key microbial groups and host-immune regulations. PMID:26528276

  5. Effects of friendship closeness in an adolescent group HIV prevention intervention.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Diane M; Casey, Erin A; Beadnell, Blair A; Hoppe, Marilyn J; Gillmore, Mary Rogers; Wilsdon, Anthony; Higa, Darrel; Carlisle, Shauna; Wells, Elizabeth A

    2007-12-01

    Although many interventions for youth rely, explicitly or implicitly, on group effects, sparse theoretical or empirical attention has been paid to the rationale for choosing a small-group design. The present study assesses the role of friendship closeness among youth in prevention intervention groups in shaping their HIV risk-related attitudes, intentions, perceived self-efficacy and perceived norms. Data from an experimental test of a group HIV prevention intervention are used to assess the relationship of friendship on cognitive outcomes at posttest and 6-month follow-up, in a multilevel regression design. Friendship among group members was assessed at baseline and post-intervention, for youth in the experimental intervention and in a control, career exploration, condition. Level of friendship within the group was positively related to attendance and enjoyment of the intervention in the control group only. Most cognitive outcomes were unaffected by individual or group levels of friendship closeness, but those effects observed were opposite to those desired. Friendly groups were no more likely to converge in their cognitions over time than were less-friendly groups. The need for more research on the effects of friendship on intervention outcomes, and for multilevel analyses of group effects, are discussed.

  6. Prevention and early intervention for behaviour problems in children with developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Einfeld, Stewart L; Tonge, Bruce J; Clarke, Kristina S

    2013-05-01

    To review the recent evidence regarding early intervention and prevention studies for children with developmental disabilities and behaviour problems from 2011 to 2013. Recent advances in the field are discussed and important areas for future research are highlighted. Recent reviews and studies highlight the utility of antecedent interventions and skills training interventions for reducing behaviour problems. There is preliminary evidence for the effectiveness of parent training interventions when delivered in minimally sufficient formats or in clinical settings. Two recent studies have demonstrated the utility of behavioural interventions for children with genetic causes of disability. Various forms of behavioural and parent training interventions are effective at reducing the behaviour problems in children with developmental disabilities. However, research on prevention and early intervention continues to be relatively scarce. Further large-scale dissemination studies and effectiveness studies in clinical or applied settings are needed.

  7. Interventions aimed at communities to inform and/or educate about early childhood vaccination.

    PubMed

    Saeterdal, Ingvil; Lewin, Simon; Austvoll-Dahlgren, Astrid; Glenton, Claire; Munabi-Babigumira, Susan

    2014-11-19

    -making regarding childhood vaccination (adjusted mean difference 0.043, 95% CI -0.009 to 0.097).The studies did not assess knowledge among participants of vaccine service delivery; participant confidence in the vaccination decision; intervention costs; or any unintended harms as a consequence of the intervention. We did not identify any studies that compared interventions aimed at communities to inform and/or educate with interventions directed to individual parents or caregivers, or studies that compared two interventions aimed at communities to inform and/or educate about childhood vaccination. This review provides limited evidence that interventions aimed at communities to inform and educate about early childhood vaccination may improve attitudes towards vaccination and probably increase vaccination uptake under some circumstances. However, some of these interventions may be resource intensive when implemented on a large scale and further rigorous evaluations are needed. These interventions may achieve most benefit when targeted to areas or groups that have low childhood vaccination rates.'

  8. Inpatient group therapeutic interventions for patients with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Vilash

    2015-03-01

    Group therapy can be an effective mode of therapy, used on an inpatient unit, as it can allow patients to become allies in their journey to understand and overcome their mental health needs. The therapeutic principles discussed by Dr Irvin Yalom illustrate the significance and importance of group therapy, which was strongly incorporated into interactive behavior therapy (IBT) developed by Dr Daniel J Tomasulo. IBT is a type of group therapy, more action oriented, created to allow patients with intellectual disabilities (IDs) to better comprehend discussed topics, by designing and tailoring activities to meet their cognitive and linguistic capabilities. Additional details found in this article will illustrate the methods by which IBT is capable of meeting the needs of patients with ID. Such adjustments include shorter duration of activities to maximize concentration, proactive role-playing involving the synergistic effort of all members of the group, and limiting the authoritative role of the therapist in a group environment. © The Author(s) 2014.

  9. Family-centered early intervention: an opportunity for creative practice in speech-language pathology.

    PubMed

    Gillette, Y

    1992-01-01

    Services for developmentally delayed children from birth to age three consider the family first. Eligibility for services is determined through a multidisciplinary assessment. Once a child qualifies for service, a multidisciplinary team that includes the family develops an IFSP. The SLP may serve as the service coordinator for the plan or as a team member. The plans must contain specific information that includes documentation of current status and major outcomes for the coming year. An SLP may find that contributing effectively to an IFSP requires new competencies. First, the SLP will need to learn to function in the family-centered, multidisciplinary process of early intervention. Second, the SLP may need to develop creative models to deliver effective service. SLPs can contribute valuable information to the IFSP by finding ways to activate daily life routines to promote a child's communication skills. SLPs can explore the child's life-space, including routines and partners, as a source of contexts for treatment. SLPs also can explore partner communication strategies, note their effects on the child's communication experiences, and recommend additional strategies for treatment. The case study illustrated an individual, home-based intervention program (Gillette, 1989; Lombardino and Magnan, 1983). Other service delivery models can include classroom-based approaches (Wilcox, Kouri, and Caswell, 1991); group parent training approaches (Weistuch, Lewis, and Sullivan, 1991; Cheseldine and McConkey, 1979); and video-assisted approaches (McConkey, 1988; Johnson and Harrison, 1990; Gillette, in press). Many SLPs may find that the process of early intervention with the birth-to-three population offers unique opportunities for practice in their profession. To function effectively in this process, the SLP needs communication-based information to promote the child's communication skills within his or her daily life and sensitivity with which to design a plan that considers

  10. Using Intervention Mapping for child development and wellbeing programs in early childhood education and care settings.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Amanda; Blewitt, Claire; Nolan, Andrea; Skouteris, Helen

    2018-06-01

    Supporting children's social and emotional learning benefits all elements of children's development and has been associated with positive mental health and wellbeing, development of values and life skills. However, literature relating to the creation of interventions designed for use within the early childhood education and care settings to support children's social and emotional skills and learning is lacking. Intervention Mapping (IM) is a systematic intervention development framework, utilising principles centred on participatory co-design methods, multiple theoretical approaches and existing literature to enable effective decision-making during the development process. Early childhood pedagogical programs are also shaped by these principles; however, educators tend to draw on implicit knowledge when working with families. IM offers this sector the opportunity to formally incorporate theoretical, evidence-based research into the development of early childhood education and care social and emotional interventions. Emerging literature indicates IM is useful for designing health and wellbeing interventions for children within early childhood education and care settings. Considering the similar underlying principles of IM, existing applications within early childhood education and care and development of interventions beyond health behaviour change, it is recommended IM be utilised to design early childhood education and care interventions focusing on supporting children's social and emotional development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Early interventional treatment with intranasal corticosteroids compared with postonset treatment in pollinosis.

    PubMed

    Higaki, Takaya; Okano, Mitsuhiro; Makihara, Seiichiro; Fujiwara, Tazuko; Haruna, Takenori; Noda, Yohei; Kariya, Shin; Nishizaki, Kazunori

    2012-12-01

    The usefulness of early interventional treatment (EIT) with intranasal corticosteroids (INSs) compared with postonset treatment (POT) has not been clarified. To study the efficacy and safety of EIT with INSs compared with POT and placebo in Japanese cedar/cypress pollinosis. We designed a 3-armed, double-blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Patients received mometasone furoate nasal spray (EIT group: n = 25), placebo (n = 25), or 4 weeks of placebo followed by 8 weeks of mometasone (POT group: n = 25) for a 12-week period starting on February 1, 2011. The primary end point was the comparison of the total nasal symptom score (TNSS) among the 3 groups. Total ocular symptom score (TOSS), total naso-ocular symptom score (TSS), Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact (ARIA) on Asthma classification, and safety were the main secondary end points. The placebo and POT groups, but not the EIT group, had a significant exacerbation of TNSS and TOSS soon after the start of pollen counts being high on consecutive days. The 12-week mean TSS in the EIT group (score, 2.3) was significantly lower than in the placebo (5.0; P < .01) and POT (3.9; P = .03) groups. All patients in the placebo and POT groups were classified as having persistent rhinitis, whereas 80% of the EIT group met the ARIA classification criteria (P = .03). The quality-of-life score and nasal eosinophil cationic protein levels were lower in the EIT and POT groups compared with the placebo group. Daytime sleepiness, smell disturbance, and the mean dose of loratadine taken as the rescue medication were similar. Treatment with mometasone was well tolerated. EIT with INSs is superior to POT in controlling pollinosis. Copyright © 2012 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Gangs: Groups of Young People and Deviant Behavior--The Psychosocial Perspective in Analysis and Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scandroglio, Barbara; Lopez-Martinez, Jorge; San Jose, M. Carmen

    2008-01-01

    This work presents different lines of intervention in the local, group, family and educational contexts aimed at prevention of some deviant behaviors--such as violence, theft and certain patterns of trafficking and use of legal and illegal substances--as practiced by a minority of young people and youth sub-culture groups. These interventions are…

  13. Group Intervention: Improving Social Skills of Adolescents with Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Court, Deborah; Givon, Sarah

    2003-01-01

    This article describes the Life Skills program used to improve the social skills of 12 students with learning disabilities in an Israeli middle school. Each of two groups (girls or boys) met weekly for 5 months to address social skills topics. The article notes gender differences in reactions and participation, and outcomes in such areas as…

  14. Emotional Regulation: Considerations for School-Based Group Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustyniak, Kristine M.; Brooks, Morgan; Rinaldo, Vincent J.; Bogner, Roselind; Hodges, Shannon

    2009-01-01

    School-based professionals have entered the 21st century with a heightened call to address the emotional and behavioral concerns of youth. While cognitive-behavioral therapies and psychoeducational groups have demonstrated moderate effects with children and adolescents, there is little available research to assist clinicians in refining treatments…

  15. Integrating Academic Interventions into Small Group Counseling in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steen, Sam; Kaffenberger, Carol J.

    2007-01-01

    Professional school counselors face the challenge of delivering guidance and counseling services to students while connecting to the educational mission of schools. This article is a summary and evaluation of a small group counseling program that targets academic issues while addressing personal/social issues with elementary-aged children. Results…

  16. Treatment Compliance in Group Therapy: Issues and Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunnicutt Hollenbaugh, Karen Michelle

    2011-01-01

    In this manuscript, research on treatment compliance and dropout in group therapy is reviewed. A number of variables found to be related to the compliance and dropout are identified including client characteristics, treatment characteristics, and therapist perceptions and behavior. Implications of these results for increasing treatment compliance…

  17. Prevention and early intervention to improve mental health in higher education students: a review.

    PubMed

    Reavley, Nicola; Jorm, Anthony F

    2010-05-01

    The age at which most young people are in higher education is also the age of peak onset for mental and substance use disorders, with these having their first onset before age 24 in 75% of cases. In most developed countries, over 50% of young people are in higher education. To review the evidence for prevention and early intervention in mental health problems in higher education students. The review was limited to interventions targeted to anxiety, depression and alcohol misuse. Interventions to review were identified by searching PubMed, PsycINFO and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Interventions were included if they were designed to specifically prevent or intervene early in the general (non-health professional) higher education student population, in one or more of the following areas: anxiety, depression or alcohol misuse symptoms, mental health literacy, stigma and one or more behavioural outcomes. For interventions to prevent or intervene early for alcohol misuse, evidence of effectiveness is strongest for brief motivational interventions and for personalized normative interventions delivered using computers or in individual face-to-face sessions. Few interventions to prevent or intervene early with depression or anxiety were identified. These were mostly face-to-face, cognitive-behavioural/skill-based interventions. One social marketing intervention to raise awareness of depression and treatments showed some evidence of effectiveness. There is very limited evidence that interventions are effective in preventing or intervening early with depression and anxiety disorders in higher education students. Further studies, possibly involving interventions that have shown promise in other populations, are needed.

  18. A Randomised Controlled Trial of Two Early Intervention Programs for Young Children with Autism: Centre-Based with Parent Program and Home-Based

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Jacqueline; Williams, Katrina; Carter, Mark; Evans, David; Parmenter, Trevor; Silove, Natalie; Clark, Trevor; Warren, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    This study compares outcomes of early intervention programs for young children with autism; an individualised home-based program (HB), a small group centre-based program for children combined with a parent training and support group (CB) and a non-treatment comparison group (WL). Outcome measures of interest include social and communication skill…

  19. Using focus groups to develop a culturally sensitive videotape intervention for HIV-positive women.

    PubMed

    Murdaugh, C; Russell, R B; Sowell, R

    2000-12-01

    Research-based interventions for women with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are usually developed without input from the women who receive the intervention. An exploratory study was performed using focus group methodology to develop a culturally sensitive videotape intervention for educating HIV-positive women about pregnancy and antiretroviral use. Women who met the study criteria were HIV-positive and of childbearing age. These women volunteered to participate in the focus groups to provide information on decisions concerning pregnancy and antiretroviral use during pregnancy to decrease perinatal transmission. A total of five focus groups were conducted in 1998. Responses to three questions that were relevant to the video are presented in this article. Information gained from the focus groups was used successfully to develop a videotape currently being used in a multisite intervention study. Focus group methodology is a useful strategy to develop culturally and content relevant educational interventions for research and practice.

  20. Issues regarding the delivery of early intervention psychiatric services to the South Asian population in England.

    PubMed

    Agius, Mark; Talwar, A; Murphy, S; Zaman, Rashid

    2010-06-01

    Little research has been done to ascertain how patients and families of South Asian origin access and use early intervention mental health services today. The aim of this retrospective study is to gain a better understanding of how well South Asian patients engage with standard psycho-social interventions. In June 2003 an audit was conducted amongst 75 patients from different ethnic groups in Luton. Measures of engagement with mental health services included; number of missed outpatient appointments over one year and compliance with medication regimes. The results of this audit showed that South Asian patients are more likely to miss appointments and refuse to take medication in comparison to their Caucasian or Afro- Caribbean counter-parts. Further analysis revealed that the Bangladeshi subgroup had missed more appointments and had a greater proportion of medication refusal in comparison to the other Asian subgroups. These results support the pioneering work by Dr Robin Pinto in the 1970s he observed that Asian patients perceive and utilise mental health services in a different way compared to the Caucasian population. The observations from our study depict the difficulties in engaging ethnic minority patients into existing services. Hence we argue that future interventions should be adapted and tailored to overcome cultural and language barriers with patients and their families.

  1. Community-based early intervention for language delay: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Ciccone, Natalie; Hennessey, Neville; Stokes, Stephanie F

    2012-01-01

    A trial parent-focused early intervention (PFEI) programme for children with delayed language development is reported in which current research evidence was translated and applied within the constraints of available of clinical resources. The programme, based at a primary school, was run by a speech-language pathologist with speech-language pathology students. To investigate the changes in child language development and parent and child interactions following attendance at the PFEI. Eighteen parents and their children attended six, weekly group sessions in which parents were provided with strategies to maximize language learning in everyday contexts. Pre- and post-programme assessments of vocabulary size and measures of parent-child interaction were collected. Parents and children significantly increased their communicative interactions from pre- to post-treatment. Children's expressive vocabulary size and language skills increased significantly. Large-effect sizes were observed. The positive outcomes of the intervention programme contribute to the evidence base of intervention strategies and forms of service delivery for children at risk of language delay. © 2012 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.

  2. The Race Relations Advisory Group: An Intergroup Intervention.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    Washington, DC 20548 National Institute of Education EOLC/SMO 1200 19th Street, N.W. Washington, DC 20208 National Inntitute of Mental Health Division...of Extramural Research Programs 5600 Fishers Lane Rockville, HD 20852 National Institute of Mental Health Minority Group Mental Health Programs Room 7...organization members, balances membership by nender within race, and reflects a repre- sentative cross-section of hierarchical levels and functional

  3. Promoting Good Mental Health from Primary to Early Secondary Grades--Preventive Interventions in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jason, Leonard A.; Ferone, Louise

    1980-01-01

    The paper describes a four-year research effort aimed at developing preventive educational interventions for children with behavior problems in inner city schools. The implications of switching the emphasis from early secondary to primary preventive programs are discussed. (Author)

  4. Generative Mechanisms in Early Childhood Interventions: A Confirmatory Research Framework for Prevention.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Arthur J; Ou, Suh-Ruu

    2016-10-01

    This article reviews methodological and analytic approaches and impact evidence for understanding the mechanisms of effects of early childhood interventions, including delinquency and violence prevention. Illustrations from longitudinal studies of preschool preventive interventions are provided. We restrict our attention to preventive interventions for children from birth to age 5, including evidence from the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS), which investigates the impact of an established school-based early childhood intervention. Frameworks and evidence will be organized according to the Five-Hypothesis Model (5HM), which postulates that a variety of early childhood interventions impact later well-being through the promotion of cognitive and scholastic advantages, motivational advantages, social adjustment, family support behaviors, and school supports. Recommendations are made for advancing confirmatory approaches for identifying the most effective prevention programs using identification of generative mechanisms as a major methodological criterion.

  5. Generative Mechanisms in Early Childhood Interventions: A Confirmatory Research Framework for Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Arthur J.; Ou, Suh-Ruu

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews methodological and analytic approaches, and impact evidence for understanding the mechanisms of effects of early childhood interventions, including delinquency and violence prevention. Illustrations from longitudinal studies of preschool preventive interventions are provided. We restrict our attention to preventive interventions for children from birth to age 5, including evidence from the Chicago Longitudinal Study (CLS), which investigates the impact of an established school-based early childhood intervention. Frameworks and evidence will be organized according to the 5-Hypothesis Model (5HM), which postulates that a variety of early childhood interventions impact later well-being through the promotion of cognitive and scholastic advantages, motivational advantages, social adjustment, family support behaviors, and school supports. Recommendations are made for advancing confirmatory approaches for identifying the most effective prevention programs using identification of generative mechanisms as a major methodological criterion. PMID:26497315

  6. AAC and Early Intervention for Children with Cerebral Palsy: Parent Perceptions and Child Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ashlyn L.; Hustad, Katherine C.

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined parent perceptions of communication, the focus of early intervention goals and strategies, and factors predicting the implementation of augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) for 26, 2-year-old children with cerebral palsy. Parents completed a communication questionnaire and provided early intervention plans detailing child speech and language goals. Results indicated that receptive language had the strongest association with parent perceptions of communication. Children who were not talking received a greater number of intervention goals, had a greater variety of goals, and had more AAC goals than children who were emerging and established talkers. Finally, expressive language had the strongest influence on AAC decisions. Results are discussed in terms of the relationship between parent perceptions and language skills, communication as an emphasis in early intervention, AAC intervention decisions, and the importance of receptive language. PMID:26401966

  7. 34 CFR 303.1 - Purpose of the early intervention program for infants and toddlers with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Purpose of the early intervention program for infants... EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Purpose and Applicable Regulations § 303.1 Purpose of the early intervention program for infants and toddlers with...

  8. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 57 - DoD-CC on Early Intervention, Special Education, and Related Services

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false DoD-CC on Early Intervention, Special Education... SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN PROVISION OF EARLY INTERVENTION AND SPECIAL EDUCATION SERVICES TO ELIGIBLE DOD DEPENDENTS Pt. 57, App. E Appendix E to Part 57—DoD-CC on Early Intervention...

  9. 34 CFR 303.1 - Purpose of the early intervention program for infants and toddlers with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Purpose of the early intervention program for infants... EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Purpose, Eligibility, and Other General Provisions § 303.1 Purpose of the early intervention program for infants and...

  10. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 57 - DoD-CC on Early Intervention, Special Education, and Related Services

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false DoD-CC on Early Intervention, Special Education... SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN PROVISION OF EARLY INTERVENTION AND SPECIAL EDUCATION SERVICES TO ELIGIBLE DOD DEPENDENTS Pt. 57, App. E Appendix E to Part 57—DoD-CC on Early Intervention...

  11. 32 CFR Appendix E to Part 57 - DoD-CC on Early Intervention, Special Education, and Related Services

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false DoD-CC on Early Intervention, Special Education... SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN PROVISION OF EARLY INTERVENTION AND SPECIAL EDUCATION SERVICES TO ELIGIBLE DOD DEPENDENTS Pt. 57, App. E Appendix E to Part 57—DoD-CC on Early Intervention...

  12. 34 CFR 303.1 - Purpose of the early intervention program for infants and toddlers with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Purpose of the early intervention program for infants... EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Purpose and Applicable Regulations § 303.1 Purpose of the early intervention program for infants and toddlers with...

  13. 34 CFR 303.1 - Purpose of the early intervention program for infants and toddlers with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Purpose of the early intervention program for infants... EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Purpose, Eligibility, and Other General Provisions § 303.1 Purpose of the early intervention program for infants and...

  14. 34 CFR 303.1 - Purpose of the early intervention program for infants and toddlers with disabilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Purpose of the early intervention program for infants... EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Purpose and Applicable Regulations § 303.1 Purpose of the early intervention program for infants and toddlers with...

  15. Early Reading Intervention by Means of a Multicomponent Reading Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Ven, M.; de Leeuw, L.; van Weerdenburg, M.; Steenbeek-Planting, E. G.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the effects of an intervention with a multicomponent reading game on the development of reading skills in 60 Dutch primary school children with special educational needs. The game contains evidence-based reading exercises and is based on principles of applied gaming. Using a multiple baseline approach, we tested children's…

  16. The Role of Parents in Early Motor Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Gerald; Perales, Frida

    2006-01-01

    In this article we discuss the results of a motor intervention study that we conducted with young children with Down syndrome and other disabilities (Mahoney, Robinson & Fewell, 2001). Results from this study indicated that neither of the two major treatment models that are commonly used with young children with motor impairments was effective at…

  17. Who Benefits from Early Intervention in Autism Spectrum Disorders?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Itzchak, Esther Ben; Zachor, Ditza A.

    2011-01-01

    Research in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) described individual differences in response to intervention. This study explored child and parental characteristics at baseline that predict outcomes in adaptive skills and acquisition of cognitive gains. Seventy-eight children aged 15-35 months diagnosed with ASD by standardized diagnostic tools were…

  18. Mothers' Reports of Their Involvement in Early Intensive Behavioral Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granger, Stephanie; des Rivieres-Pigeon, Catherine; Sabourin, Gabrielle; Forget, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Although numerous studies examine the effectiveness of intensive behavioral intervention programs (EIBI) for young children with autism, few focus on the family aspect of the program. In particular, involvement of mothers in the program, which is strongly recommended, is the subject of only a small number of studies. The goal of this research is…

  19. Learning Instructor Intervention from MOOC Forums: Early Results and Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumar, Muthu; Kan, Min-Yen; Tan, Bernard C. Y.; Ragupathi, Kiruthika

    2015-01-01

    With large student enrollment, MOOC instructors face the unique challenge in deciding when to intervene in forum discussions with their limited bandwidth. We study this problem of "instructor intervention." Using a large sample of forum data culled from 61 courses, we design a binary classifier to predict whether an instructor should…

  20. IMPACT: An Early Intervention Demonstration Project. Abbreviated Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungerleider, Steven; Caudill, Barry D.

    Project IMPACT is based on an innovative prevention/community intervention model designed to stem the use of drugs and alcohol in an Oregon school district. A total of 74 teachers, administrators, and community leaders participated in a training session which included didactic and experiential sessions informing participants about the nature and…

  1. Early Diagnosis and Intervention Strategies for Post-Traumatic Heterotopic Ossification in Severely Injured Extremities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    1 Award Number: W81XWH-12-2-0118 TITLE: Early Diagnosis and Intervention Strategies for Post -Traumatic Heterotopic Ossification in Severely...December 2016 TYPE OF REPORT: Final PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command Fort Detrick, Maryland 21702-5012 DISTRIBUTION...COVERED 30Sep2012 - 29Sep2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Early Diagnosis and Intervention Strategies for Post -Traumatic Heterotopic

  2. A 3-arm randomized controlled trial on the effects of dance movement intervention and exercises on elderly with early dementia.

    PubMed

    Ho, Rainbow Tin Hung; Cheung, Jacob Kai Ki; Chan, Wai Chi; Cheung, Irene Kit Man; Lam, Linda Chiu Wah

    2015-10-19

    Dementia is characterized by a progressive decline and deterioration of brain regions such as memory, spatial navigation and language, along with disturbances in daily functioning. Non-pharmacological interventions that offer a holistic approach by targeting cognitive functioning, prognosis and the psychological and social effects of dementia require rigorous investigation. The well-established benefits of physical activity for cognitive functioning and psychological support in dementia have been observed with dance-movement intervention. There is substantial evidence that dance-movement interventions provide emotional and social advantages. Thus, a randomized controlled trial (RCT) is planned to investigate the positive effects of a dance movement intervention, compared with mild physical exercise, on the physical and psychological well-being of elderly Chinese individuals with early dementia. A 3-arm RCT with waitlist control design will be used in this study. Two hundred and one elderly participants with very mild to mild dementia will be screened and randomized into the following groups: (i) dance movement based intervention, (ii) stretching and exercise intervention and (iii) no intervention waitlist-control group. The two intervention groups will receive a 1-h intervention, twice a week, for 12 weeks. The participants will be assessed four times over the course of 12 months: baseline before randomization, post-intervention (3 months), 6 months from baseline and 12 months from baseline. The primary outcomes will be compared between assessment points and between groups on neuropsychiatric symptoms, psychosocial well-being and cognitive and daily functioning. Secondary outcomes will assess the changes in salivary cortisol levels and their relationships with the primary outcome measures. This study will provide substantial evidence of the efficacy of a dance-movement-based intervention in slowing down dementia progression, due to its ability to act as a

  3. Gestalt Intervention Groups for Anxious Parents in Hong Kong: A Quasi-Experimental Design.

    PubMed

    Leung, Grace Suk Man; Khor, Su Hean

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the impact of gestalt intervention groups for anxious Chinese parents in Hong Kong. A non-randomized control group pre-test/post-test design was adopted. A total of 156 parents participated in the project. After 4 weeks of treatment, the intervention group participants had lower anxiety levels, less avoidance of inner experiences, and more kindness towards oneself and mindfulness when compared to control group participants. However, the dimension of self-judgment remained unchanged. The adaptation of gestalt intervention to suit the Chinese culture was discussed.

  4. Effectiveness of very early workplace interventions to reduce sickness absence: a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Prada, Sergio; Demou, Evangelia; Lalloo, Drushca; Avila-Palencia, Ione; Sanati, Kaveh A; Sampere, Maite; Freer, Kerry; Serra, Consol; Macdonald, Ewan B

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this review was to investigate the effectiveness of workplace return-to-work (RTW) interventions delivered at very early stages (<15 days) of sickness absence (SA). A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, Health Management Information Consortium (HMIC), Cochrane library database, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsychInfo and Embase. Using pre-established criteria, independent pairs of researchers carried out the study selection, quality appraisal and data extraction. Workplace interventions before day 15 of SA, were included. Primary outcome measures included rates of and time until RTW, productivity loss, and recurrences of SA. We found limited available evidence on the benefits of "very early" workplace interventions in terms of RTW after a SA episode compared to usual care. Only three randomized controlled trials classed as high or intermediate quality were identified. Early part-time sick leave together with appropriate job modifications led to a reduction in the duration and recurrence of SA. There is evidence of benefit of intervening during the first two weeks of SA for musculoskeletal disorders. Our review has identified a lack of evidence from the literature at this time point to support "very early" intervention compared to usual care. The methodological design of the studies, notably the extent and timing of usual care provided and variable compliance/crossover between groups could however explain the lack of demonstrated benefit. Consensus is required on the definition of "early" and "very early" interventions, and further research is recommended to improve understanding of the factors influencing when and how best to intervene for maximum gain.

  5. [Impacts of early metoprolol intervention on connexin 43 and phosphorylated connexin 43 expression in rabbits with experimental myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Zhou, M; Lu, Q; Jiang, J Q; Chen, Z N; Gong, Z G; Li, Z G; Fu, W W; Ding, S F

    2017-04-24

    Objective: To investigate the early intervention effects of metoprolol on connexin 43(Cx43) and phosphorylated Cx43 (p-Cx43) expression in rabbits with post myocardial infarction. Methods: A total of 24 adult male New Zealand white rabbits were divided into sham group ( n =6), early treatment group( n =6), routine treatment group( n =6), and myocardial infarction group( n =6) with a randomized block design blocked by weight. Myocardial infarction was induced by left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) ligation. Rabbits in sham group received similar surgical procedure without LAD ligation. Metoprolol (12.5 mg/kg dissolved in 2 ml distilled water) was applied to rabbits in early treatment group and routine treatment group per gavage immediately after recovery from anesthesia and at 24 hours after myocardial infarction, respectively, then treated daily for 40 days. Rabbits in sham group and myocardial infarction group received 2 ml distilled water per gavage daily for 40 days. Plasma lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase (CK) level were detected by automatic biochemistry analyzer after 6 hours in all rabbits. Ventricular fibrillation threshold (VFT) was measured in vivo by bipolar pacing electrodes at 40 days. Cx43 and p-Cx43 distribution in ventricular tissue was detected by immunofluorescence analyses. Cx43 and p-Cx43 protein level in ventricular tissue was determined by Western blot. Results: (1) Plasma LDH ((851.7±85.9)U/L vs. (332.3±39.6)U/L, P <0.01) and CK ((1 192.7±105.3)U/L vs. (462.3±65.6)U/L, P <0.01) were significantly higher in myocardial infarction group than in sham group (both P <0.01). (2) VFT was significantly lower in myocardial infarction group than that in sham group ((470.0±91.0) beats per minute vs. (683.3±60.9) beats per minute, P <0.05), and VFT was significantly higher in early treatment group ((633.3±43.2) beats per minute) and routine treatment group ((645.0±30.8) beats per minute) than in the myocardial infarction

  6. Early intervention for adolescents with Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome - a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Self-reported knee pain is highly prevalent among adolescents. As much as 50% of the non-specific knee pain may be attributed to Patellofemoral Pain Syndrome (PFPS). In the short term, exercise therapy appears to have a better effect than patient education consisting of written information and general advice on exercise or compared with placebo treatment. But the long-term effect of exercise therapy compared with patient education is conflicting. The purpose of this study is to examine the short- and long-term effectiveness of patient education compared with patient education and multimodal physiotherapy applied at a very early stage of the condition among adolescents. Methods/Design This study is a single blind pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial. Four upper secondary schools have been invited to participate in the study (approximately 2500 students, aged 15-19 years). Students are asked to answer an online questionnaire regarding musculoskeletal pain. The students who report knee pain are contacted by telephone and offered a clinical examination by a rheumatologist. Subjects who fit the inclusion criteria and are diagnosed with PFPS are invited to participate in the study. A minimum of 102 students with PFPS are then cluster-randomised into two intervention groups based on which school they attend. Both intervention groups receive written information and education. In addition to patient education, one group receives multimodal physiotherapy consisting primarily of neuromuscular training of the muscles around the foot, knee and hip and home exercises. The students with PFPS fill out self-reported questionnaires at baseline, 3, 6, 12 and 24 months after inclusion in the study. The primary outcome measure is perception of recovery measured on a 7-point Likert scale ranging from "completely recovered" to "worse than ever" at 12 months. Discussion This study is designed to investigate the effectiveness of patient education compared with patient

  7. A randomised controlled trial of an iPad-based application to complement early behavioural intervention in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Whitehouse, Andrew J O; Granich, Joanna; Alvares, Gail; Busacca, Margherita; Cooper, Matthew N; Dass, Alena; Duong, Thi; Harper, Rajes; Marshall, Wendy; Richdale, Amanda; Rodwell, Tania; Trembath, David; Vellanki, Pratibha; Moore, Dennis W; Anderson, Angelika

    2017-09-01

    Technology-based interventions for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have proliferated, but few have been evaluated within the context of a randomised controlled trial (RCT). This RCT evaluated the efficacy of one technology-based early intervention programme (Therapy Outcomes By You; TOBY) in young children with ASD. TOBY is an app-based learning curriculum designed for children and parents as a complement to early behavioural intervention. Eighty children (16 female) were recruited to this RCT within 12 months of receiving a diagnosis of ASD (M age = 3.38; SD = 0.69) and randomised to receive either treatment-as-usual (community-based intervention, n = 39) or the TOBY therapy (at least 20 min/day) plus treatment-as-usual (n = 41) for a period of 6 months. Outcomes were assessed at 3 and 6 months postbaseline. (Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry: ACTRN12614000738628; www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=365463). Children in the TOBY intervention group averaged 19 min/day engaging with the app in the first 3 months, but only 2 min/day during the second 3 months. There was no group difference in scores on the primary outcome, the Autism Treatment Evaluation Checklist, at either the 3- or 6-month follow-up. However, significant improvements at the 6-month follow-up were observed in the TOBY intervention group relative to the treatment-as-usual group on three secondary outcomes: the Fine Motor and Visual Reception subscales of the Mullen Scale of Early Learning and the Total Words Understood scale of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Index. Statistical trends towards improvement in the TOBY intervention group were observed on measures of adaptive function, although these decreased in magnitude from the 3- to 6-month follow-up. This study provides evidence that technology-based interventions may provide a relatively low-cost addition to existing therapist-delivered interventions for children with ASD. However

  8. Effects of Three Levels of Early Intervention Services on Children Prenatally Exposed to Cocaine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Claussen, Angelika H.; Scott, Keith G.; Mundy, Peter C.; Katz, Lynne F.

    2004-01-01

    Cocaine use during pregnancy is a high-risk indicator for adverse developmental outcomes. Three levels of intervention (center, home, and primary care) were compared in a full service, birth to age 3, early intervention program serving children exposed to cocaine prenatally. Data were collected on 130 children from urban, predominantly poor,…

  9. When Texts Become Action. The Institutional Circuit of Early Childhood Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilsen, Ann Christin E.

    2017-01-01

    Building on ideals of social cohesion, equality of opportunities and socio-economic benefits, there has been an increasing awareness in Norway of kindergarten employees' responsibility to initiate early childhood intervention. The process of identifying children in need of intervention involves a complex chain of actions in which documentation is…

  10. The Effectiveness of an Early-Grade Literacy Intervention on the Cognitive Achievement of Brazilian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costa, Leandro Oliveira; Carnoy, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Beginning in 2007, the Literacy Program at the Right Age (Pacto pela Alfabetização na Idade Certa [PAIC]) in Brazil's Ceará state required municipal schools to implement a tiered, whole-school early-grade literacy intervention. This intervention was complemented by other policies to help municipalities improve student achievement. The present…

  11. Program Monitoring Practices for Teachers of the Deaf and Hard of Hearing in Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Anne E.; Marvin, Christine A.

    2016-01-01

    Program monitoring is an important and necessary assessment practice within the field of early childhood deaf education. Effective program monitoring requires a focus on both the consistent implementation of intervention strategies (fidelity) and the assessment of children's ongoing progress in response to interventions (progress monitoring).…

  12. Early Intervention with Young Hearing-Impaired Children. Occasional Paper Number Three.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, D. J., Ed.; And Others

    Five papers focus on issues of early intervention with young hearing impaired children. The papers were presented at a seminar in 1981 in Queensland, Australia. A. Hayes begins with "The Emergence of Interest in Social Interaction in Infancy," in which he considers the role of metaphors in influencing intervention research. D. Power and G. Elias…

  13. An Early Natural Auditory-Oral Intervention Approach for Children with Hearing Loss: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turan, Zerrin

    2010-01-01

    This study aims to examine the session goals and their realization during the session flow for a child with a hearing loss and his mother in an early intervention program. The study was designed as a case study. Video recordings of the intervention sessions, reflective journals, session plans, and the plan evaluations were used to collect and…

  14. Literacy Learning of At-Risk First-Grade Students in the Reading Recovery Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Robert M.

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness and efficiency of the Reading Recovery early intervention. At-risk 1st-grade students were randomly assigned to receive the intervention during the 1st or 2nd half of the school year. High-average and low-average students from the same classrooms provided additional comparisons. Thirty-seven teachers from…

  15. Improving the Design and Implementation of In-Service Professional Development in Early Childhood Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunst, Carl J.

    2015-01-01

    A model for designing and implementing evidence-­based in­-service professional development in early childhood intervention as well as the key features of the model are described. The key features include professional development specialist (PDS) description and demonstration of an intervention practice, active and authentic job-­embedded…

  16. An Intervention for Relational and Physical Aggression in Early Childhood: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostrov, Jamie M.; Massetti, Greta M.; Stauffacher, Kirstin; Godleski, Stephanie A.; Hart, Katie C.; Karch, Kathryn M.; Mullins, Adam D.; Ries, Emily E.

    2009-01-01

    A preventive intervention for reducing physical and relational aggression, peer victimization, and increasing prosocial behavior was developed for use in early childhood classrooms. Nine classrooms were randomly assigned to be intervention rooms (N = 202 children) and nine classrooms were control rooms (N = 201 children). Classroom was the unit of…

  17. Trends and Topics in Early Intensive Behavioral Interventions for Toddlers with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Tureck, Kimberly; Turygin, Nicole; Beighley, Jennifer; Rieske, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The use of applied behavior analysis (ABA) to treat persons with autism goes back several decades. Many specific target behaviors and intervention strategies have been developed. In the last two decades the most heavily studied of these methods has been Early Intensive Behavioral Interventions (EIBI). This package of ABA methods is unique in two…

  18. Effectiveness of a Novel Community-Based Early Intervention Model for Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Isabel M.; Koegel, Robert L.; Koegel, Lynn K.; Openden, Daniel A.; Fossum, Kristin L.; Bryson, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    The Nova Scotia early intensive behavior intervention model--NS EIBI (Bryson et al., 2007) for children with autistic spectrum disorders was designed to be feasible and sustainable in community settings. It combines parent training and naturalistic one-to-one behavior intervention employing Pivotal Response Treatment--PRT (R. Koegel & Koegel,…

  19. What Specialized Knowledge Is Needed to Provide Early Intervention Services in Children's Hospitals?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weitzner-Lin, Barbara; And Others

    1994-01-01

    A survey of 175 speech-language pathologists was conducted to determine the preparation they received to comply with Public Law 99-457's mandated services to infants and toddlers. Respondents reported that important content areas in provision of early intervention services included oral-motor/feeding issues, family assessment and intervention, and…

  20. It's Hard to Get from Here to There: Early Intervention for Rural Young Children in Arkansas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Carolyn; Casey, Patrick H.

    2006-01-01

    The Kids First program at the University of Arkansas Medical School (UAMS) is an outgrowth of the Infant Health and Development Program, a randomized trial of an early intervention approach for premature, low birth weight children, which showed that intensive intervention had significant initial benefits in the cognitive development and behavior…