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Sample records for early kidney damage

  1. Early superoxide scavenging accelerates renal microvascular rarefaction and damage in the stenotic kidney.

    PubMed

    Kelsen, Silvia; He, Xiaochen; Chade, Alejandro R

    2012-08-15

    Renal artery stenosis (RAS), the main cause of chronic renovascular disease (RVD), is associated with significant oxidative stress. Chronic RVD induces renal injury partly by promoting renal microvascular (MV) damage and blunting MV repair in the stenotic kidney. We tested the hypothesis that superoxide anion plays a pivotal role in MV dysfunction, reduction of MV density, and progression of renal injury in the stenotic kidney. RAS was induced in 14 domestic pigs and observed for 6 wk. Seven RAS pigs were chronically treated with the superoxide dismutase mimetic tempol (RAS+T) to reduce oxidative stress. Single-kidney hemodynamics and function were quantified in vivo using multidetector computer tomography (CT) and renal MV density was quantified ex vivo using micro-CT. Expression of angiogenic, inflammatory, and apoptotic factors was measured in renal tissue, and renal apoptosis and fibrosis were quantified in tissue sections. The degree of RAS and blood pressure were similarly increased in RAS and RAS+T. Renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were reduced in the stenotic kidney (280.1 ± 36.8 and 34.2 ± 3.1 ml/min, P < 0.05 vs. control). RAS+T kidneys showed preserved GFR (58.5 ± 6.3 ml/min, P = not significant vs. control) but a similar decreases in RBF (293.6 ± 85.2 ml/min) and further decreases in MV density compared with RAS. These changes were accompanied by blunted angiogenic signaling and increased apoptosis and fibrosis in the stenotic kidney of RAS+T compared with RAS. The current study shows that tempol administration provided limited protection to the stenotic kidney. Despite preserved GFR, renal perfusion was not improved by tempol, and MV density was further reduced compared with untreated RAS, associated with increased renal apoptosis and fibrosis. These results suggest that a tight balance of the renal redox status is necessary for a normal MV repair response to injury, at least at the early stage of RVD, and raise caution

  2. Early superoxide scavenging accelerates renal microvascular rarefaction and damage in the stenotic kidney

    PubMed Central

    Kelsen, Silvia; He, Xiaochen

    2012-01-01

    Renal artery stenosis (RAS), the main cause of chronic renovascular disease (RVD), is associated with significant oxidative stress. Chronic RVD induces renal injury partly by promoting renal microvascular (MV) damage and blunting MV repair in the stenotic kidney. We tested the hypothesis that superoxide anion plays a pivotal role in MV dysfunction, reduction of MV density, and progression of renal injury in the stenotic kidney. RAS was induced in 14 domestic pigs and observed for 6 wk. Seven RAS pigs were chronically treated with the superoxide dismutase mimetic tempol (RAS+T) to reduce oxidative stress. Single-kidney hemodynamics and function were quantified in vivo using multidetector computer tomography (CT) and renal MV density was quantified ex vivo using micro-CT. Expression of angiogenic, inflammatory, and apoptotic factors was measured in renal tissue, and renal apoptosis and fibrosis were quantified in tissue sections. The degree of RAS and blood pressure were similarly increased in RAS and RAS+T. Renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were reduced in the stenotic kidney (280.1 ± 36.8 and 34.2 ± 3.1 ml/min, P < 0.05 vs. control). RAS+T kidneys showed preserved GFR (58.5 ± 6.3 ml/min, P = not significant vs. control) but a similar decreases in RBF (293.6 ± 85.2 ml/min) and further decreases in MV density compared with RAS. These changes were accompanied by blunted angiogenic signaling and increased apoptosis and fibrosis in the stenotic kidney of RAS+T compared with RAS. The current study shows that tempol administration provided limited protection to the stenotic kidney. Despite preserved GFR, renal perfusion was not improved by tempol, and MV density was further reduced compared with untreated RAS, associated with increased renal apoptosis and fibrosis. These results suggest that a tight balance of the renal redox status is necessary for a normal MV repair response to injury, at least at the early stage of RVD, and raise caution

  3. Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Special Section Kidney Disease: Early Detection and Treatment Past Issues / Winter ... called a "urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio." Treating Kidney Disease Kidney disease is usually a progressive disease, ...

  4. Estrogens and progression of diabetic kidney damage.

    PubMed

    Doublier, Sophie; Lupia, Enrico; Catanuto, Paola; Elliot, Sharon J

    2011-01-01

    It is generally accepted that estrogens affect and modulate the development and progression of chronic kidney diseases (CKD) not related to diabetes. Clinical studies have indeed demonstrated that the severity and rate of progression of renal damage tends to be greater among men, compared with women. Experimental studies also support the notion that female sex is protective and male sex permissive, for the development of CKD in non-diabetics, through the opposing actions of estrogens and testosterone. However, when we consider diabetes-induced kidney damage, in the setting of either type 1 or type 2 diabetes, the contribution of gender to the progression of renal disease is somewhat uncertain. Previous studies on the effects of estrogens in the pathogenesis of progressive kidney damage have primarily focused on mesangial cells. More recently, data on the effects of estrogens on podocytes, the cell type whose role may include initiation of progressive diabetic renal disease, became available. The aim of this review will be to summarize the main clinical and experimental data on the effects of estrogens on the progression of diabetes-induced kidney injury. In particular, we will highlight the possible biological effects of estrogens on podocytes, especially considering those critical for the pathogenesis of diabetic kidney damage.

  5. Spectroscopic photoacoustics for assessing ischemic kidney damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berndl, Elizabeth S. L.; He, Xiaolin; Yuen, Darren A.; Kolios, Michael C.

    2018-02-01

    Ischemic reperfusion injuries (IRIs) are caused by return of blood to a tissue or organ after a period without oxygen or nutrients. Damage in the microvasculature causes an inflammatory response and heterogeneous scarring, which is associated with an increase in collagen in the extracellular matrix. Although most often associated with heart attacks and strokes, IRI also occurs when blood reperfuses a transplanted organ. Currently, monitoring for IRI is limited to biopsies, which are invasive and sample a limited area. In this work, we explored photoacoustic (PA) biomarkers of scarring. IRI events were induced in mice (n=2) by clamping the left renal artery, then re-establishing flow. At 53 days post-surgery, kidneys were saline perfused and cut in half laterally. One half was immediately imaged with a VevoX system (Fujifilm-VisualSonics, Toronto) in two near infrared ranges - 680 to 970 nm (NIR), and 1200 to 1350 nm (NIR II). The other half was decellularized and then imaged at NIR and NIR II. Regions of interest were manually identified and analyzed for each kidney. For both cellularized and decellularized samples, the PA signal ratio based on irradiation wavelengths of 715:930 nm was higher in damaged kidneys than for undamaged kidneys (p < 0.0001 for both). Damaged kidneys had ROIs with spectra indicating the presence of collagen in the NIR II range, while healthy kidneys did not. Collagen rich spectra were more apparent in decellularized kidneys, suggesting that in the cellularized samples, other components may be contributing to the signal. PA imaging using spectral ratios associated with collagen signatures may provide a non-invasive tool to determine areas of tissue damage due to IRIs.

  6. Early renal damage among children living in the region of highest burden of chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology (CKDu) in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Agampodi, S B; Amarasinghe, G S; Naotunna, P G C R; Jayasumana, C S; Siribaddana, S H

    2018-05-16

    Chronic kidney disease of unknown origin (CKDu) in Sri Lanka is grouped with several other epidemics of similar nature across the world as Chronic Interstitial Nephritis in Agricultural Communities (CINAC). In CKDu endemic countries, the focus has mainly been on adults. We hypothesized that studying distribution and factors associated with elevated urine albumin to creatinine ratio (UACR), an early marker of kidney injury, among children living in a CKDu endemic area may provide important clues about the onset and progression of the disease. This cross sectional study was performed in rural primary schools in North Central Province of Sri Lnaka, a CKDu high endemic region. Total of 2880 students aging 5 to 11 years from 67 schools were enrolled for urinalysis in a random spot urine sample. Bedside Schwartz formula was used to measure estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) on all children with UACR > 30 mg/g in Polonnaruwa district and a group of age matched controls. A standard multiple linear regression using log transformed UACR as the dependent variable was performed. Mean eGFR were compared between UACR elevated group and controls using independent sample t test. Median UACR was 10.3 mg/g. Sex, ethnicity, history of having a chronic disease and age uniquely contributed to the multiple regression model which only explained 2.8% of the variance in the log of the UACR (p < 0.001). Only 15 (0.5%) had UACR> 300 mg/g while 8.2% (n = 236) had UACR between 30 to 300 mg/g and 89.8% (n = 203) of them did not have a chronic disease (Chi square 2.21, p = 0.091). Mean eGFR was significantly lower in the group with elevated UACR (88.9 mg/dl/1.73 m2, 95% CI for mean 86.4- 91.3) compared to group with normal UACR (93.7 mg/dl/1.73 m2,95% CI 91.1- 96.3) (t 2.7, p 0.007). Three out of the four students with eGFR less than 60 mg/dl/1.73 m2 had moderately elevated UACR. This study provides evidence to suggest that children in CKDu endemic regions are

  7. Detecting early kidney damage in horses with colic by measuring matrix metalloproteinase -9 and -2, other enzymes, urinary glucose and total proteins

    PubMed Central

    Arosalo, Bela M; Raekallio, Marja; Rajamäki, Minna; Holopainen, Elina; Kastevaara, Tuulia; Salonen, Hanna; Sankari, Satu

    2007-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to investigate urine matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 and -9) activity, alkaline phosphatase/creatinine (U-AP/Cr) and gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase/creatinine (U-GGT/Cr) ratios, glucose concentration, and urine protein/creatinine (U-Prot/Cr) ratio and to compare data with plasma MMP-2 and -9 activity, cystatin-C and creatinine concentrations in colic horses and healthy controls. Horses with surgical colic (n = 5) were compared to healthy stallions (n = 7) that came for castration. Blood and urine samples were collected. MMP gelatinolytic activity was measured by zymography. Results We found out that horses with colic had significantly higher urinary MMP-9 complex and proMMP-9 activities than horses in the control group. Colic horses also had higher plasma MMP-2 activity than the control horses. Serum creatinine, although within reference range, was significantly higher in the colic horses than in the control group. There was no significant increase in urinary alkaline phosphatase, gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase or total proteins in the colic horses compared to the control group. A human cystatin-C test (Dako Cytomation latex immunoassay® based on turbidimetry) did not cross react with equine cystatin-C. Conclusion The results indicate that plasma MMP-2 may play a role in the pathogenesis of equine colic and urinary MMP-9 in equine kidney damage. PMID:17244354

  8. Perioperative Acute Kidney Injury: Prevention, Early Recognition, and Supportive Measures.

    PubMed

    Romagnoli, Stefano; Ricci, Zaccaria; Ronco, Claudio

    2018-06-26

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication of both cardiac and major non-cardiac surgery. AKI is independently associated with morbidity, mortality, and long-term adverse events including chronic kidney disease in postsurgical patients. Since specific treatment options for kidney failure are very limited, early identification, diagnosis, and renal support strategies are key steps to improve patients' outcome. According to current Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guidelines, AKI diagnosis is based on 2 functional markers, serum creatinine increase and urine output decrease, that are not renal-specific and have important limitations. However, preoperative risk stratification for postoperative AKI and/or early diagnosis after surgery could be the best way to apply preventive or timely supportive therapeutic measures. Clinical prediction scores, renal functional reserve assessment, and new biomarkers of kidney stress (suppression of tumorigenicity-2, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-7, tissue inhibitor metalloproteinase-2) may help the clinicians to identify patients at risk of AKI and that could benefit from the application of nephroprotective bundles suggested by the KDIGO guidelines. In severe AKI patients with oligoanuria and fluid accumulation, renal replacement therapy is the only supportive measure even if mode and timing remain open to investigation. Key messages: Perioperative AKI is an important and underdiagnosed complication. Identifying patients at high risk of AKI and diagnosing AKI early are major goals. Preventive interventions are mainly based on the KDIGO guidelines and bundles. Furthermore, a personalized multidisciplinary approach should always be considered to minimize the progression of disease and the complications related to kidney damage. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Hypertension in kidney transplantation is associated with an early renal nerve sprouting

    PubMed Central

    Rovella, Valentina; Borri, Filippo; Anemona, Lucia; Giannini, Elena; Giacobbi, Erica; Saggini, Andrea; Palmieri, Giampiero; Anselmo, Alessandro; Bove, Pierluigi; Melino, Gerry; Valentina, Guardini; Tesauro, Manfredi; Gabriele, D’Urso; Di Daniele, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background. Normalization of arterial pressure occurs in just a few patients with hypertensive chronic kidney disease undergoing kidney transplantation. Hypertension in kidney transplant recipients may be related to multiple factors. We aimed to assess whether hypertension in kidney-transplanted patients may be linked to reinnervation of renal arteries of the transplanted kidney. Methods. We investigated renal arteries innervation from native and transplanted kidneys in three patients 5 months, 2 years and 11 years after transplantation, respectively. Four transplanted kidneys from non-hypertensive patients on immunosuppressive treatment without evidence of hypertensive arteriolar damage were used as controls. Results. Evidence of nerve sprouting was observed as early as 5 months following transplantation, probably originated from ganglions of recipient patient located near the arterial anastomosis and was associated with mild hypertensive arteriolar damage. Regeneration of periadventitial nerves was already complete 2 years after transplantation. Nerve density tended to reach values observed in native kidney arteries and was associated with hypertension-related arteriolar lesions in transplanted kidneys. Control kidneys, albeit on an immunosuppressive regimen, presented only a modest regeneration of sympathetic nerves. Conclusions. Our results suggest that the considerable increase in sympathetic nerves, as found in patients with severe arterial damage, may be correlated to hypertension rather than to immunosuppressive therapy, thus providing a morphological basis for hypertension recurrence despite renal denervation. PMID:28498963

  10. DNA damage response in nephrotoxic and ischemic kidney injury

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, Mingjuan; Tang, Chengyuan

    DNA damage activates specific cell signaling cascades for DNA repair, cell cycle arrest, senescence, and/or cell death. Recent studies have demonstrated DNA damage response (DDR) in experimental models of acute kidney injury (AKI). In cisplatin-induced AKI or nephrotoxicity, the DDR pathway of ATR/Chk2/p53 is activated and contributes to renal tubular cell apoptosis. In ischemic AKI, DDR seems more complex and involves at least the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), a member of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinase (PIKK) family, and p53; however, while ATM may promote DNA repair, p53 may trigger cell death. Targeting DDR for kidney protection in AKI therefore reliesmore » on a thorough elucidation of the DDR pathways in various forms of AKI.« less

  11. Keep Your Kidneys Healthy: Catch Kidney Disease Early

    MedlinePlus

    ... of your back. Their main job is to filter your blood. Each kidney contains about a million tiny filters that can process around 40 gallons of fluid ... heater. When blood passes through the kidney, the filters sift and hold onto the substances your body ...

  12. Quantification of vascular damage in acute kidney injury with fluorine magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Moore, Jeremy K; Chen, Junjie; Pan, Hua; Gaut, Joseph P; Jain, Sanjay; Wickline, Samuel A

    2018-06-01

    To design a fluorine MRI/MR spectroscopy approach to quantify renal vascular damage after ischemia-reperfusion injury, and the therapeutic response to antithrombin nanoparticles (NPs) to protect kidney function. A total of 53 rats underwent 45 min of bilateral renal artery occlusion and were treated at reperfusion with either plain perfluorocarbon NPs or NPs functionalized with a direct thrombin inhibitor (PPACK:phenyalanine-proline-arginine-chloromethylketone). Three hours after reperfusion, kidneys underwent ex vivo fluorine MRI/MR spectroscopy at 4.7 T to quantify the extent and volume of trapped NPs, as an index of vascular damage and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Microscopic evaluation of structural damage and NP trapping in non-reperfused renal segments was performed. Serum creatinine was quantified serially over 7 days. The damaged renal cortico-medullary junction trapped a significant volume of NPs (P = 0.04), which correlated linearly (r = 0.64) with the severity of kidney injury 3 h after reperfusion. Despite global large vessel reperfusion, non-reperfusion in medullary peritubular capillaries was confirmed by MRI and microscopy, indicative of continuing hypoxia due to vascular compromise. Treatment of animals with PPACK NPs after acute kidney injury did not accelerate kidney functional recovery. Quantification of ischemia-reperfusion injury after acute kidney injury with fluorine MRI/MR spectroscopy of perfluorocarbon NPs objectively depicts the extent and severity of vascular injury and its linear relationship to renal dysfunction. The lack of kidney function improvement after early posttreatment thrombin inhibition confirms the rapid onset of ischemia-reperfusion injury as a consequence of vascular damage and non-reperfusion. The prolongation of medullary ischemia renders cortico-medullary tubular structures susceptible to continued necrosis despite restoration of large vessel flow, which suggests limitations to acute interventions after

  13. Photoacoustic imaging for assessing ischemic kidney damage in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berndl, Elizabeth S. L.; He, Xiaolin; Yuen, Darren A.; Kolios, Michael C.

    2018-02-01

    Ischemic reperfusion injuries (IRIs) occur after blood returns to a tissue or organ after a period without oxygen or nutrients, which causes an inflammatory response leading to heterogeneous scarring of the nearby tissue and vasculature. This is associated with long-term decreases blood flow, and necrosis. Although most commonly associated with heart attacks and strokes, IRIs are also a side effect of organ transplants, when the organ is reperfused in the recipient's body after being transported from the donor to the transplant hospital. Currently, the optimal method of monitoring for IRI is limited to biopsies, which are invasive and poorly monitor the spatial heterogeneity of the damage. To non-invasively identify changes in kidneys, the left renal artery in mice (n=3) was clamped for 45 minutes to create an IRI event. Both kidneys of each animal were monitored using photoacoustics (PA) with the VevoLAZR system (Fujifilm-VisualSonics, Toronto) three, four and eight weeks after surgery. IRI-treated kidneys show increased picosirius red staining, indicative of collagen (0.601 vs 0.042, p < 0.0001), decreased size as assessed by cross-sectional area (7.8 mm2 vs 35.9 mm2 , p < 0.0001), and decreased oxygen saturation (sO2; 62% vs 77%, p = 0.02). Analysis of the photoacoustic data shows that a two-point metric, the 715:930 nm ratio of the whole kidney (1.05 vs 0.57, p = 0.049) and the optical spectral slope (OSS) (0.8 * 10-3 vs 3.0 * 10-3, p = 0.013) are both able to differentiate between IRI-treated and healthy kidneys. These data suggest that photoacoustics can be used as a non-invasive method to observe in vivo changes in the kidney due to IRI.

  14. [The diagnostic importance of the new marker KIM-1 in kidney damage].

    PubMed

    Marchewka, Zofia; Płonka, Joanna

    2013-07-24

    In recent years, the rapid development of scientific research led to the introduction of strategies based on new markers that allow for estimation of the latent disease period before the clinical symptoms of actual kidney failure are revealed. The experimental tests carried out on animals and cell lines derived from the proximal tubule have made possible the detection of genes that are induced early after hypoxia. The protein products of these genes can be considered as useful markers for the diagnosis of renal failure. The induction of gene KIM-1 (called Kidney Injury Molecule-1) results in the formation of protein that can be considered as a diagnostic marker. This work describes the data on the structure, biological function and importance of determining the concentrations of KIM-1 in the diagnosis of drug-induced toxicity and kidney damage.

  15. Reduced Renal Methylarginine Metabolism Protects against Progressive Kidney Damage

    PubMed Central

    Caplin, Ben; Boruc, Olga; Bruce-Cobbold, Claire; Cutillas, Pedro; Dormann, Dirk; Faull, Peter; Grossman, Rebecca C.; Khadayate, Sanjay; Mas, Valeria R.; Nitsch, Dorothea D.; Wang, Zhen; Norman, Jill T.; Wilcox, Christopher S.; Wheeler, David C.; Leiper, James

    2015-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) production is diminished in many patients with cardiovascular and renal disease. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an endogenous inhibitor of NO synthesis, and elevated plasma levels of ADMA are associated with poor outcomes. Dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase-1 (DDAH1) is a methylarginine-metabolizing enzyme that reduces ADMA levels. We reported previously that a DDAH1 gene variant associated with increased renal DDAH1 mRNA transcription and lower plasma ADMA levels, but counterintuitively, a steeper rate of renal function decline. Here, we test the hypothesis that reduced renal-specific ADMA metabolism protects against progressive renal damage. Renal DDAH1 is expressed predominately within the proximal tubule. A novel proximal tubule–specific Ddah1 knockout (Ddah1PT−/−) mouse demonstrated tubular cell accumulation of ADMA and lower NO concentrations, but unaltered plasma ADMA concentrations. Ddah1PT−/− mice were protected from reduced kidney tissue mass, collagen deposition, and profibrotic cytokine expression in two independent renal injury models: folate nephropathy and unilateral ureteric obstruction. Furthermore, a study of two independent kidney transplant cohorts revealed higher levels of human renal allograft methylarginine-metabolizing enzyme gene expression associated with steeper function decline. We also report an association among DDAH1 expression, NO activity, and uromodulin expression supported by data from both animal and human studies, raising the possibility that kidney DDAH1 expression exacerbates renal injury through uromodulin-related mechanisms. Together, these data demonstrate that reduced renal tubular ADMA metabolism protects against progressive kidney function decline. Thus, circulating ADMA may be an imprecise marker of renal methylarginine metabolism, and therapeutic ADMA reduction may even be deleterious to kidney function. PMID:25855779

  16. Reduced Renal Methylarginine Metabolism Protects against Progressive Kidney Damage.

    PubMed

    Tomlinson, James A P; Caplin, Ben; Boruc, Olga; Bruce-Cobbold, Claire; Cutillas, Pedro; Dormann, Dirk; Faull, Peter; Grossman, Rebecca C; Khadayate, Sanjay; Mas, Valeria R; Nitsch, Dorothea D; Wang, Zhen; Norman, Jill T; Wilcox, Christopher S; Wheeler, David C; Leiper, James

    2015-12-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) production is diminished in many patients with cardiovascular and renal disease. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an endogenous inhibitor of NO synthesis, and elevated plasma levels of ADMA are associated with poor outcomes. Dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase-1 (DDAH1) is a methylarginine-metabolizing enzyme that reduces ADMA levels. We reported previously that a DDAH1 gene variant associated with increased renal DDAH1 mRNA transcription and lower plasma ADMA levels, but counterintuitively, a steeper rate of renal function decline. Here, we test the hypothesis that reduced renal-specific ADMA metabolism protects against progressive renal damage. Renal DDAH1 is expressed predominately within the proximal tubule. A novel proximal tubule-specific Ddah1 knockout (Ddah1(PT-/-)) mouse demonstrated tubular cell accumulation of ADMA and lower NO concentrations, but unaltered plasma ADMA concentrations. Ddah1(PT-/-) mice were protected from reduced kidney tissue mass, collagen deposition, and profibrotic cytokine expression in two independent renal injury models: folate nephropathy and unilateral ureteric obstruction. Furthermore, a study of two independent kidney transplant cohorts revealed higher levels of human renal allograft methylarginine-metabolizing enzyme gene expression associated with steeper function decline. We also report an association among DDAH1 expression, NO activity, and uromodulin expression supported by data from both animal and human studies, raising the possibility that kidney DDAH1 expression exacerbates renal injury through uromodulin-related mechanisms. Together, these data demonstrate that reduced renal tubular ADMA metabolism protects against progressive kidney function decline. Thus, circulating ADMA may be an imprecise marker of renal methylarginine metabolism, and therapeutic ADMA reduction may even be deleterious to kidney function. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  17. Increased risk of kidney damage among Chinese adults with simple renal cyst.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xianglei; Ma, Xiaojing; Zhang, Chengyin; Su, Hong; Gong, Xiaojie; Xu, Dongmei

    2018-05-04

    The presence of simple renal cyst (SRC) has been related to hypertension, the early and long-term allograft function, and aortic disease, but the relationship with kidney damage was still controversial. Accordingly, we conducted a large sample cross-sectional study to explore the association of SRC with indicators of kidney damage among Chinese adults. A total of 42,369 adults (aged 45.8 ± 13.67 years, 70.6% males) who visited the Health Checkup Clinic were consecutively enrolled. SRC was assessed by ultrasonography according to Bosniak category. Multiple regression models were applied to explore the relationships between SRC and indicators of kidney damage [proteinuria (dipstick urine protein ≥ 1+) and decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (DeGFR) < 60 ml/min/1.73 m 2 ]. Among all participants in the study, the prevalence of SRC was 10.5%. As a categorical outcome, participants with more 1 cyst and with 1 cyst had higher percentage of proteinuria [53 (5.3%) and 93 (2.7%) vs. 596 (1.6%), p < 0.001] and DeGFR [57 (5.7%) and 85 (2.5%) vs. 278 (0.7%), p < 0.001] compared with participants with no cyst. SRC significantly correlated with proteinuria [OR 1.59 (95% CI 1.30-1.95)] and DeGFR [OR 1.97 (95% CI 1.56-2.47)] after adjusting for potential confounders. Furthermore, the results also demonstrated that maximum diameter (per 1 cm increase), bilateral location, and multiple cysts significantly correlated with DeGFR in the multiple logistic regression analysis. The study revealed that SRC significantly correlated with kidney damage and special attention should be paid among Chinese adults with SRC.

  18. Pre-Treatment with Curcumin Ameliorates Cisplatin-Induced Kidney Damage by Suppressing Kidney Inflammation and Apoptosis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Soetikno, Vivian; Sari, Shinta Dewi Permata; Ul Maknun, Lulu; Sumbung, Nielda Kezia; Rahmi, Deliana Nur Ihsani; Pandhita, Bashar Adi Wahyu; Louisa, Melva; Estuningtyas, Ari

    2018-06-26

    In addition to oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis have an important role in the pathogenesis of cisplatin-induced kidney damage. This study aimed to investigate the molecular mechanisms of protective effects of curcumin against cisplatin-induced kidney inflammation and apoptosis in rats. Eighteen rats were equally divided into three groups; normal (0.5% CMC-Na), cisplatin (CDPP) (7 mg/kg i.p.), and cisplatin+curcumin (CMN100) groups. Curcumin was given at a dose of 100 mg/kg orally for nine days, starts one week before giving a single dose of cisplatin. Kidney and plasma were taken for analysis. Cisplatin challenged rats demonstrated kidney injury as shown by reduced creatinine clearance, increased of plasma BUN, plasma creatinine, and kidney MDA, decreased of kidney GSH levels, and kidney histopathology alterations. Also, cisplatin increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation and NF-κB expression, which subsequently increased mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-6, KIM-1, NGAL, and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio as well as decreased mRNA expression of IL-10 in kidney tissues. Pre-treatment with curcumin significantly ameliorated inflammation and apoptosis induced by cisplatin. In addition, curcumin downregulated Ctr1 and OCT2 drug transporters as compared to cisplatin group. Histopathological examination furthers confirmed the kidney damage protection effect of curcumin. These data indicate that curcumin has nephroprotective properties against cisplatin-induced kidney damage in rats and this effect is associated with its anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptosis profiles, in addition to its antioxidant. Hence, curcumin may be useful for preventing kidney damage against cisplatin administration. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Developmental Outcomes after Early Prefrontal Cortex Damage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eslinger, Paul J.; Flaherty-Craig, Claire V.; Benton, Arthur L.

    2004-01-01

    The neuropsychological bases of cognitive, social, and moral development are minimally understood, with a seemingly wide chasm between developmental theories and brain maturation models. As one approach to bridging ideas in these areas, we review 10 cases of early prefrontal cortex damage from the clinical literature, highlighting overall clinical…

  20. Diffuse vascular damage in a transplanted kidney: an indication for nuclear magnetic resonance?

    PubMed

    Burdese, M; Consiglio, V; Mezza, E; Savio, D; Guarena, C; Rossetti, M; Messina, M; Soragna, G; Suriani, C; Rabbia, C; Segoloni, G P; Piccoli, G B

    2005-06-01

    Vascular lesions are an increasing challenge after renal transplantation due to the wider indications for recipients and acceptance criteria for donors. Diagnostic approach and prognostic interpretation are still matter of controversy. The case reported herein may summarize some of the issues in this regard. A 54-year-old woman, on renal replacement therapy since 1974, and a kidney graft recipient from 1975 to 1999, received a second graft in 2001. The donor age was 65 years (cold ischemia 22 hours; two mismatches). The early posttransplant follow-up was characterized by delayed graft function, hypertension, and diabetes. During the initial hypertension workup, renal graft ultrasound (US) Doppler demonstrated increased vascular resistances, stable over time (resistance index 0.74 to 0.77); renal scintiscan displayed homogeneously parenchymoa and angio-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), an homogeneous parenchymal vascularization. Initial immunosuppression with tacrolimus and steroids was modulated by adding mycophenolate mofetil to taper tacrolimus (to reduce nephrotoxicity and hypertension). Despite this, kidney function slowly deteriorated; serum creatinine reached 3 to 3.5 mg/dL by the second year. After a severe hypertensive crisis with unchanged scintiscan and US doppler examinations, angio-MRI revealed the almost complete disappearance of parenchymal enhancement beyond the lobar arteries. A renal biopsy confirmed the severe vascular damage. The patient was switched to rapamycine and a low-dose of an angiotension converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. She did relatively well (serum creatinine 2.2 to 3 mg/dL) for 6 months, when rapid functional impairment forced her to restart hemodialysis. This case, almost paradigmatic of the problems occurring when the rigid vasculature of long-term dialysis patients is matched with "marginal kidneys," suggests that MRI may be a sensible good to define vascular damage in the grafted kidney.

  1. A Short-Term Biological Indicator for Long-Term Kidney Damage after Radionuclide Therapy in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrini, Giovanni; Siwowska, Klaudia; Haller, Stephanie; Antoine, Daniel J.; Schibli, Roger; Kipar, Anja; Müller, Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Folate receptor (FR)-targeted radionuclide therapy using folate radioconjugates is of interest due to the expression of the FR in a variety of tumor types. The high renal accumulation of radiofolates presents, however, a risk of radionephropathy. A potential option to address this challenge would be to use radioprotectants, such as amifostine. Methods for early detection of kidney damage that—in this case—cannot be predicted based on dose estimations, would facilitate the development of novel therapies. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess potentially changing levels of plasma and urine biomarkers and to determine DNA damage at an early stage after radiofolate application. The identification of an early indicator for renal damage in mice would be useful since histological changes become apparent only several months after treatment. Mice were injected with different quantities of 177Lu-folate (10 MBq, 20 MBq and 30 MBq), resulting in mean absorbed kidney doses of ~23 Gy, ~46 Gy and ~69 Gy, respectively, followed by euthanasia two weeks (>85% of the mean renal radiation dose absorbed) or three months later. Whereas all investigated biomarkers remained unchanged, the number of γ-H2AX-positive nuclei in the renal cortex showed an evident dose-dependent increase as compared to control values two weeks after treatment. Comparison with the extent of kidney injury determined by histological changes five to eight months after administration of the same 177Lu-folate activities suggested that the quantitative assessment of double-strand breaks can be used as a biological indicator for long-term radiation effects in the kidneys. This method may, thus, enable faster assessment of radiopharmaceuticals and protective measures by preventing logistically challenging long-term investigations to detect kidney damage. PMID:28635637

  2. Associations among environmental exposure to manganese, neuropsychological performance, oxidative damage and kidney biomarkers in children.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Sabrina; Baierle, Marília; Göethel, Gabriela; Barth, Anelise; Brucker, Natália; Charão, Mariele; Sauer, Elisa; Gauer, Bruna; Arbo, Marcelo Dutra; Altknecht, Louise; Jager, Márcia; Dias, Ana Cristina Garcia; de Salles, Jerusa Fumagalli; Saint' Pierre, Tatiana; Gioda, Adriana; Moresco, Rafael; Garcia, Solange Cristina

    2016-05-01

    Environmental exposure to manganese (Mn) results in several toxic effects, mainly neurotoxicity. This study investigated associations among Mn exposure, neuropsychological performance, biomarkers of oxidative damage and early kidney dysfunction in children aged 6-12 years old. Sixty-three children were enrolled in this study, being 43 from a rural area and 20 from an urban area. Manganese was quantified in blood (B-Mn), hair (H-Mn) and drinking water using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The neuropsychological functions assessed were attention, perception, working memory, phonological awareness and executive functions - inhibition. The Intelligence quotient (IQ) was also evaluated. The biomarkers malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyls (PCO), δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D), reactivation indexes with dithiothreitol (ALA-RE/DTT) and ZnCl2 (ALA-RE/ZnCl2), non-protein thiol groups, as well as microalbuminuria (mALB) level and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) activity were assessed. The results demonstrated that Mn levels in blood, hair and drinking water were higher in rural children than in urban children (p<0.01). Adjusted for potential confounding factors, IQ, age, gender and parents' education, significant associations were observed mainly between B-Mn and visual attention (β=0.649; p<0.001). Moreover, B-Mn was negatively associated with visual perception and phonological awareness. H-Mn was inversely associated with working memory, and Mn levels from drinking water with written language and executive functions - inhibition. Rural children showed a significant increase in oxidative damage to proteins and lipids, as well as alteration in kidney function biomarkers (p<0.05). Moreover, significant associations were found between B-Mn, H-Mn and Mn levels in drinking water and biomarkers of oxidative damage and kidney function, besides between some oxidative stress biomarkers and neuropsychological tasks (p<0.05). The findings of this

  3. Developmental outcomes after early prefrontal cortex damage.

    PubMed

    Eslinger, Paul J; Flaherty-Craig, Claire V; Benton, Arthur L

    2004-06-01

    The neuropsychological bases of cognitive, social, and moral development are minimally understood, with a seemingly wide chasm between developmental theories and brain maturation models. As one approach to bridging ideas in these areas, we review 10 cases of early prefrontal cortex damage from the clinical literature, highlighting overall clinical profiles and real life developmental outcomes. Based on these cases, there is preliminary evidence to support distinctive developmental differences after: (1) dorsolateral, (2) mesial, and (3) orbital-polar prefrontal lesions, for more profound impairments after bilateral damage, and possibly for recovery differences after very early vs. later childhood lesion onset. Further case and group studies are needed to confirm reliable effects of specific lesion locations, the influence of age of lesion onset, and related experiential and treatment variables in determining adult outcomes. Rather than a single underlying deficit associated with early prefrontal cortex damage, we interpret the findings to suggest that it is the altered integration and interplay of cognitive, emotional, self-regulatory, and executive/metacognitive deficits that contribute to diverse developmental frontal lobe syndromes. The findings support the fundamental importance of prefrontal cortex maturation in protracted cognitive, social-emotional, and moral development.

  4. Biomarker for early renal microvascular and diabetic kidney diseases.

    PubMed

    Futrakul, Narisa; Futrakul, Prasit

    2017-11-01

    Recognition of early stage of diabetic kidney disease, under common practice using biomarkers, namely microalbuminuria, serum creatinine level above 1 mg/dL and accepted definition of diabetic kidney disease associated with creatinine clearance value below 60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 , is unlikely. This would lead to delay treatment associated with therapeutic resistance to vasodilator due to a defective vascular homoeostasis. Other alternative biomarkers related to the state of microalbuminuria is not sensitive to screen for early diabetic kidney disease (stages I, II). In this regard, a better diagnostic markers to serve for this purpose are creatinine clearance, fractional excretion of magnesium (FE Mg), cystatin C. Recently, renal microvascular disease and renal ischemia have been demonstrated to correlate indirectly with the development of diabetic kidney disease and its function. Among these are angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factors, namely VEGF, VEGF receptors, angiopoietins and endostatin. With respect to therapeutic prevention, implementation of treatment at early stage of diabetic and nondiabetic kidney disease is able to restore renal perfusion and function.

  5. Kidney damage in extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy: a numerical approach for different shock profiles.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Kerstin; Ortiz, Michael

    2009-08-01

    In shock-wave lithotripsy--a medical procedure to fragment kidney stones--the patient is subjected to hypersonic waves focused at the kidney stone. Although this procedure is widely applied, the physics behind this medical treatment, in particular the question of how the injuries to the surrounding kidney tissue arise, is still under investigation. To contribute to the solution of this problem, two- and three-dimensional numerical simulations of a human kidney under shock-wave loading are presented. For this purpose a constitutive model of the bio-mechanical system kidney is introduced, which is able to map large visco-elastic deformations and, in particular, material damage. The specific phenomena of cavitation induced oscillating bubbles is modeled here as an evolution of spherical pores within the soft kidney tissue. By means of large scale finite element simulations, we study the shock-wave propagation into the kidney tissue, adapt unknown material parameters and analyze the resulting stress states. The simulations predict localized damage in the human kidney in the same regions as observed in animal experiments. Furthermore, the numerical results suggest that in first instance the pressure amplitude of the shock wave impulse (and not so much its exact time-pressure profile) is responsible for damaging the kidney tissue.

  6. Sulphonylurea drugs reduce hypoxic damage in the isolated perfused rat kidney

    PubMed Central

    Engbersen, Richard; Moons, Miek M; Wouterse, Alfons C; Dijkman, Henry B; Kramers, Cees; Smits, Paul; Russel, Frans G M

    2000-01-01

    Sulphonylurea drugs have been shown to protect against hypoxic damage in isolated proximal tubules of the kidney. In the present study we investigated whether these drugs can protect against hypoxic damage in a whole kidney preparation. Tolbutamide (200 μM) and glibenclamide (10 μM) were applied to the isolated perfused rat kidney prior to changing the gassing from oxygen to nitrogen for 30 min. Hypoxic perfusions resulted in an increased fractional excretion of glucose (FE % glucose 14.3±1.5 for hypoxic perfusions vs 4.9±1.6 for normoxic perfusions, mean±s.e.mean, P<0.05), which could be completely restored by 200 μM tolbutamide (5.7±0.4 for tolbutamide vs 14.3±1.5 for untreated hypoxic kidneys, P<0.01). Furthermore, tolbutamide reduced the total amount of LDH excreted in the urine (220±100 mU for tolbutamide vs 1220±160 mU for untreated hypoxic kidneys, P<0.01). Comparable results were obtained with glibenclamide (10 μM). In agreement with the effect on functional parameters, ultrastructural analysis of proximal tubules showed increased brush border preservation in tolbutamide treated kidneys compared to untreated hypoxic kidneys. We conclude that glibenclamide and tolbutamide are both able to reduce hypoxic damage to proximal tubules in the isolated perfused rat kidney when applied in the appropriate concentrations. PMID:10928974

  7. Sulphonylurea drugs reduce hypoxic damage in the isolated perfused rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Engbersen, R; Moons, M M; Wouterse, A C; Dijkman, H B; Kramers, C; Smits, P; Russel, F G

    2000-08-01

    Sulphonylurea drugs have been shown to protect against hypoxic damage in isolated proximal tubules of the kidney. In the present study we investigated whether these drugs can protect against hypoxic damage in a whole kidney preparation. Tolbutamide (200 microM) and glibenclamide (10 microM) were applied to the isolated perfused rat kidney prior to changing the gassing from oxygen to nitrogen for 30 min. Hypoxic perfusions resulted in an increased fractional excretion of glucose (FE % glucose 14.3+/-1.5 for hypoxic perfusions vs 4.9+/-1.6 for normoxic perfusions, mean +/- s.e. mean, P<0.05), which could be completely restored by 200 microM tolbutamide (5.7+/-0.4 for tolbutamide vs 14.3+/-1.5 for untreated hypoxic kidneys, P<0.01). Furthermore, tolbutamide reduced the total amount of LDH excreted in the urine (220+/-100 mU for tolbutamide vs. 1220+/-160 mU for untreated hypoxic kidneys, P<0.01). Comparable results were obtained with glibenclamide (10 microM). In agreement with the effect on functional parameters, ultrastructural analysis of proximal tubules showed increased brush border preservation in tolbutamide treated kidneys compared to untreated hypoxic kidneys. We conclude that glibenclamide and tolbutamide are both able to reduce hypoxic damage to proximal tubules in the isolated perfused rat kidney when applied in the appropriate concentrations.

  8. Kidney Disease and the Nexus of Chronic Kidney Disease and Acute Kidney Injury: The Role of Novel Biomarkers as Early and Accurate Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Yerramilli, Murthy; Farace, Giosi; Quinn, John; Yerramilli, Maha

    2016-11-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and acute kidney injury (AKI) are interconnected and the presence of one is a risk for the other. CKD is an important predictor of AKI after exposure to nephrotoxic drugs or major surgery, whereas persistent or repetitive injury could result in the progression of CKD. This brings new perspectives to the diagnosis and monitoring of kidney diseases highlighting the need for a panel of kidney-specific biomarkers that reflect functional as well as structural damage and recovery, predict potential risk and provide prognosis. This article discusses the kidney-specific biomarkers, symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), clusterin, cystatin B, and inosine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Thalidomide Ameliorates Inflammation and Vascular Injury but Aggravates Tubular Damage in the Irradiated Mouse Kidney

    SciTech Connect

    Scharpfenecker, Marion, E-mail: m.scharpfenecker@nki.nl; Floot, Ben; Russell, Nicola S.

    Purpose: The late side effects of kidney irradiation include vascular damage and fibrosis, which are promoted by an irradiation-induced inflammatory response. We therefore treated kidney-irradiated mice with the anti-inflammatory and angiogenesis-modulating drug thalidomide in an attempt to prevent the development of late normal tissue damage and radiation nephropathy in the mouse kidney. Methods and Materials: Kidneys of C57Bl/6 mice were irradiated with a single dose of 14 Gy. Starting from week 16 after irradiation, the mice were fed with thalidomide-containing chow (100 mg/kg body weight/day). Gene expression and kidney histology were analyzed at 40 weeks and blood samples at 10, 20, 30, andmore » 40 weeks after irradiation. Results: Thalidomide improved the vascular structure and vessel perfusion after irradiation, associated with a normalization of pericyte coverage. The drug also reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells but could not suppress the development of fibrosis. Irradiation-induced changes in hematocrit and blood urea nitrogen levels were not rescued by thalidomide. Moreover, thalidomide worsened tubular damage after irradiation and also negatively affected basal tubular function. Conclusions: Thalidomide improved the inflammatory and vascular side effects of kidney irradiation but could not reverse tubular toxicity, which probably prevented preservation of kidney function.« less

  10. Damages Learning and Memory in Alzheimer's Disease Rats with Kidney-Yang Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Dongmei; Qiao, Yongfa; Zhang, Xin; Yu, Huijuan; Cheng, Bin; Qiao, Haifa

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that Alzheimer's disease was considered as the consequence produced by deficiency of Kidney essence. However, the mechanism underlying the symptoms also remains elusive. Here we report that spatial learning and memory, escape, and swimming capacities were damaged significantly in Kidney-yang deficiency rats. Indeed, both hippocampal Aβ 40 and 42 increases in Kidney-yang deficiency contribute to the learning and memory impairments. Specifically, damage of synaptic plasticity is involved in the learning and memory impairment of Kidney-yang deficiency rats. We determined that the learning and memory damage in Kidney-yang deficiency due to synaptic plasticity impairment and increases of Aβ 40 and 42 was not caused via NMDA receptor internalization induced by Aβ increase. β-Adrenergic receptor agonist can rescue the impaired long-term potential (LTP) in Kidney-yang rats. Taken together, our results suggest that spatial learning and memory inhibited in Kidney-yang deficiency might be induced by Aβ increase and the decrease of β 2 receptor function in glia. PMID:22645624

  11. A Novel Therapy to Attenuate Acute Kidney Injury and Ischemic Allograft Damage after Allogenic Kidney Transplantation in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gueler, Faikah; Shushakova, Nelli; Mengel, Michael; Hueper, Katja; Chen, Rongjun; Liu, Xiaokun; Park, Joon-Keun; Haller, Hermann

    2015-01-01

    Ischemia followed by reperfusion contributes to the initial damage to allografts after kidney transplantation (ktx). In this study we tested the hypothesis that a tetrapeptide EA-230 (AQGV), might improve survival and attenuate loss of kidney function in a mouse model of renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) and ischemia-induced delayed graft function after allogenic kidney transplantation. IRI was induced in male C57Bl/6N mice by transient bilateral renal pedicle clamping for 35 min. Treatment with EA-230 (20–50mg/kg twice daily i.p. for four consecutive days) was initiated 24 hours after IRI when acute kidney injury (AKI) was already established. The treatment resulted in markedly improved survival in a dose dependent manner. Acute tubular injury two days after IRI was diminished and tubular epithelial cell proliferation was significantly enhanced by EA-230 treatment. Furthermore, CTGF up-regulation, a marker of post-ischemic fibrosis, at four weeks after IRI was significantly less in EA-230 treated renal tissue. To learn more about these effects, we measured renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) at 28 hours after IRI. EA-230 improved both GFR and RBF significantly. Next, EA-230 treatment was tested in a model of ischemia-induced delayed graft function after allogenic kidney transplantation. The recipients were treated with EA-230 (50 mg/kg) twice daily i.p. which improved renal function and allograft survival by attenuating ischemic allograft damage. In conclusion, EA-230 is a novel and promising therapeutic agent for treating acute kidney injury and preventing IRI-induced post-transplant ischemic allograft injury. Its beneficial effect is associated with improved renal perfusion after IRI and enhanced regeneration of tubular epithelial cells. PMID:25617900

  12. A novel therapy to attenuate acute kidney injury and ischemic allograft damage after allogenic kidney transplantation in mice.

    PubMed

    Gueler, Faikah; Shushakova, Nelli; Mengel, Michael; Hueper, Katja; Chen, Rongjun; Liu, Xiaokun; Park, Joon-Keun; Haller, Hermann; Wensvoort, Gert; Rong, Song

    2015-01-01

    Ischemia followed by reperfusion contributes to the initial damage to allografts after kidney transplantation (ktx). In this study we tested the hypothesis that a tetrapeptide EA-230 (AQGV), might improve survival and attenuate loss of kidney function in a mouse model of renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) and ischemia-induced delayed graft function after allogenic kidney transplantation. IRI was induced in male C57Bl/6N mice by transient bilateral renal pedicle clamping for 35 min. Treatment with EA-230 (20-50mg/kg twice daily i.p. for four consecutive days) was initiated 24 hours after IRI when acute kidney injury (AKI) was already established. The treatment resulted in markedly improved survival in a dose dependent manner. Acute tubular injury two days after IRI was diminished and tubular epithelial cell proliferation was significantly enhanced by EA-230 treatment. Furthermore, CTGF up-regulation, a marker of post-ischemic fibrosis, at four weeks after IRI was significantly less in EA-230 treated renal tissue. To learn more about these effects, we measured renal blood flow (RBF) and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) at 28 hours after IRI. EA-230 improved both GFR and RBF significantly. Next, EA-230 treatment was tested in a model of ischemia-induced delayed graft function after allogenic kidney transplantation. The recipients were treated with EA-230 (50 mg/kg) twice daily i.p. which improved renal function and allograft survival by attenuating ischemic allograft damage. In conclusion, EA-230 is a novel and promising therapeutic agent for treating acute kidney injury and preventing IRI-induced post-transplant ischemic allograft injury. Its beneficial effect is associated with improved renal perfusion after IRI and enhanced regeneration of tubular epithelial cells.

  13. ASSOCIATION OF KIDNEY FUNCTION AND EARLY KIDNEY INJURY WITH INCIDENT HYPERTENSION IN HIV-INFECTED WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Ascher, Simon B.; Scherzer, Rebecca; Peralta, Carmen A.; Tien, Phyllis C.; Grunfeld, Carl; Estrella, Michelle M.; Abraham, Alison; Gustafson, Deborah R.; Nowicki, Marek; Sharma, Anjali; Cohen, Mardge H.; Butch, Anthony W.; Young, Mary A.; Bennett, Michael R.; Shlipak, Michael G.

    2016-01-01

    Subclinical kidney disease is associated with developing hypertension in the general population, but data are lacking among HIV-infected persons. We examined associations of kidney function and injury with incident hypertension in 823 HIV-infected and 267 HIV-uninfected women in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study, a multicenter, prospective cohort of HIV-infected and uninfected women in the United States. Baseline kidney biomarkers included estimated glomerular filtration rate using cystatin C (eGFR), urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR), and seven urine biomarkers of tubular injury: alpha-1-microglobulin, interleukin-18 (IL-18), kidney injury molecule-1, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, liver fatty acid binding protein, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (NAG), and alpha1-acid-glycoprotein (AAG). We used multivariable Poisson regression to evaluate associations of kidney biomarkers with incident hypertension, defined as two consecutive visits of anti-hypertensive medication use. Over a median follow-up of 9.6 years, 288 HIV-infected women (35%) developed hypertension. Among the HIV-infected women, higher ACR was independently associated with incident hypertension (RR=1.13 per ACR doubling, 95%CI: 1.07, 1.20), as was lower eGFR (RR=1.10 per 10 ml/min/1.73m2 lower eGFR, CI: 1.04, 1.17). No tubular injury and dysfunction biomarkers were independently associated with incident hypertension in HIV-infected women. In contrast, among the HIV-uninfected women, ACR was not associated with incident hypertension, whereas higher IL-18, AAG and NAG were significantly associated with incident hypertension. These findings suggest that early glomerular injury and kidney dysfunction may be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension in HIV-infected persons. The associations of the tubular markers with hypertension in HIV-uninfected women should be validated in other studies. PMID:27993956

  14. MitoQ blunts mitochondrial and renal damage during cold preservation of porcine kidneys.

    PubMed

    Parajuli, Nirmala; Campbell, Lia H; Marine, Akira; Brockbank, Kelvin G M; Macmillan-Crow, Lee Ann

    2012-01-01

    Cold preservation has greatly facilitated the use of cadaveric kidneys for transplantation but damage occurs during the preservation episode. It is well established that oxidant production increases during cold renal preservation and mitochondria are a key target for injury. Our laboratory has demonstrated that cold storage of renal cells and rat kidneys leads to increased mitochondrial superoxide levels and mitochondrial electron transport chain damage, and that addition of Mitoquinone (MitoQ) to the preservation solutions blunted this injury. In order to better translate animal studies, the inclusion of large animal models is necessary to develop safe preclinical protocols. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that addition of MitoQ to cold storage solution preserves mitochondrial function by decreasing oxidative stress, leading to less renal tubular damage during cold preservation of porcine kidneys employing a standard criteria donor model. Results showed that cold storage significantly induced oxidative stress (nitrotyrosine), renal tubular damage, and cell death. Using High Resolution Respirometry and fresh porcine kidney biopsies to assess mitochondrial function we showed that MitoQ significantly improved complex II/III respiration of the electron transport chain following 24 hours of cold storage. In addition, MitoQ blunted oxidative stress, renal tubular damage, and cell death after 48 hours. These results suggested that MitoQ decreased oxidative stress, tubular damage and cell death by improving mitochondrial function during cold storage. Therefore this compound should be considered as an integral part of organ preservation solution prior to transplantation.

  15. MitoQ Blunts Mitochondrial and Renal Damage during Cold Preservation of Porcine Kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Parajuli, Nirmala; Campbell, Lia H.; Marine, Akira; Brockbank, Kelvin G. M.; MacMillan-Crow, Lee Ann

    2012-01-01

    Cold preservation has greatly facilitated the use of cadaveric kidneys for transplantation but damage occurs during the preservation episode. It is well established that oxidant production increases during cold renal preservation and mitochondria are a key target for injury. Our laboratory has demonstrated that cold storage of renal cells and rat kidneys leads to increased mitochondrial superoxide levels and mitochondrial electron transport chain damage, and that addition of Mitoquinone (MitoQ) to the preservation solutions blunted this injury. In order to better translate animal studies, the inclusion of large animal models is necessary to develop safe preclinical protocols. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that addition of MitoQ to cold storage solution preserves mitochondrial function by decreasing oxidative stress, leading to less renal tubular damage during cold preservation of porcine kidneys employing a standard criteria donor model. Results showed that cold storage significantly induced oxidative stress (nitrotyrosine), renal tubular damage, and cell death. Using High Resolution Respirometry and fresh porcine kidney biopsies to assess mitochondrial function we showed that MitoQ significantly improved complex II/III respiration of the electron transport chain following 24 hours of cold storage. In addition, MitoQ blunted oxidative stress, renal tubular damage, and cell death after 48 hours. These results suggested that MitoQ decreased oxidative stress, tubular damage and cell death by improving mitochondrial function during cold storage. Therefore this compound should be considered as an integral part of organ preservation solution prior to transplantation. PMID:23139796

  16. Basal damage and oxidative DNA damage in children with chronic kidney disease measured by use of the comet assay.

    PubMed

    Aykanat, Banu; Demircigil, Gonca Cakmak; Fidan, Kibriya; Buyan, Necla; Gulleroglu, Kaan; Baskin, Esra; Bayrakci, Umut Selda; Sepici, Aylin; Buyukkaragoz, Bahar; Karakayali, Hamdi; Haberal, Mehmet; Burgaz, Sema

    2011-10-09

    One consequence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an elevated risk for cancer. There is sufficient evidence to conclude that there is an increased incidence of at least some cancers in kidney-dialysis patients. Cancer risk after kidney transplantation has mainly been attributed to immunosuppressive therapy. There are no data evaluating DNA damage in children with CKD, in dialysis patients, or following kidney transplantation. In this study, the comet assay and the enzyme-modified comet assay - with the use of endonuclease III (Endo III) and formamidopyrimidine glycosylase (FPG) enzymes - were conducted to investigate the basal damage and the oxidative DNA damage as a result of treatment in peripheral blood lymphocytes of children. Children at various stages of treatment for kidney disease, including pre-dialysis patients (PreD) (n=17), regular hemodialysis patients (HD) (n=15), and those that received kidney transplants (Tx) (n=17), comprised the study group. They were compared with age- and gender-matched healthy children (n=20) as a control group. Our results show that the %DNA intensity, a measure of basal damage, was significantly increased in children with CKD (mean ± SD) (5.22 ± 1.57) and also in each of the PreD, HD, and Tx groups [(4.92 ± 1.23), (4.91 ± 1.35), and (5.79 ± 1.94), respectively, vs the healthy children (2.74 ± 2.91) (p<0.001). Significant increases in oxidative DNA damage were only found in the FPG-sensitive sites for the PreD and Tx groups, compared with control and HD groups (p<0.05), suggesting that basal DNA damage was more evident for the PreD, HD, and Tx groups. The findings of the present study indicate a critical need for further research on genomic damage with different endpoints and also for preventive measures and improvements in treatment of pediatric patients, in order to improve their life expectancy. 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Clusterin deficiency induces lipid accumulation and tissue damage in kidney.

    PubMed

    Heo, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Ji-Eun; Dan, Yongwook; Kim, Yong-Woon; Kim, Jong-Yeon; Cho, Kyu Hyang; Bae, Young Kyung; Im, Seung-Soon; Liu, Kwang-Hyeon; Song, In-Hwan; Kim, Jae-Ryong; Lee, In-Kyu; Park, So-Young

    2018-05-01

    Clusterin is a secretory glycoprotein that is involved in multiple physiopathological processes, including lipid metabolism. Previous studies have shown that clusterin prevents hepatic lipid accumulation via suppression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) 1. In this study, we examined the role of clusterin in renal lipid accumulation in clusterin-knockout mice and NRK52e tubular epithelial cells. Clusterin deficiency increased the expression of SREBP1 and its target genes and decreased malonyl-CoA decarboxylase protein levels in the kidney. Expression of the endocytic receptor, megalin, and scavenger receptor class A was increased in clusterin-deficient mice. Functional analysis of lipid metabolism also revealed that lipid uptake and triglyceride synthesis were increased and fatty acid oxidation was reduced, leading to increased lipid accumulation in clusterin-deficient mice. These phenomena were accompanied by mesangial expansion, fibrosis and increased urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio. High-fat feeding aggravated these clusterin deficiency-induced pathological changes. Clusterin knockdown in NRK52e cells increased lipogenic gene expression and lipid levels, whereas overexpression of clusterin by treatment with adenovirus or recombinant clusterin protein suppressed lipogenic gene expression and lipid levels. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGFB1) expression increased in the kidney of clusterin-deficient mice and suppression of TGFB1 in NRK52e cells suppressed lipid accumulation. These results suggest that clusterin deficiency induces renal lipid accumulation by dysregulating the expression of lipid metabolism-related factors and TGFB1, thereby leading to chronic kidney disease. Hence, clusterin may serve as a therapeutic target for lipid-induced chronic kidney disease. © 2018 Society for Endocrinology.

  18. Blood pressure in early autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Schrier, Robert W; Abebe, Kaleab Z; Perrone, Ronald D; Torres, Vicente E; Braun, William E; Steinman, Theodore I; Winklhofer, Franz T; Brosnahan, Godela; Czarnecki, Peter G; Hogan, Marie C; Miskulin, Dana C; Rahbari-Oskoui, Frederic F; Grantham, Jared J; Harris, Peter C; Flessner, Michael F; Bae, Kyongtae T; Moore, Charity G; Chapman, Arlene B

    2014-12-11

    Hypertension is common in autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) and is associated with increased total kidney volume, activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and progression of kidney disease. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly assigned 558 hypertensive participants with ADPKD (15 to 49 years of age, with an estimated glomerular filtration rate [GFR] >60 ml per minute per 1.73 m(2) of body-surface area) to either a standard blood-pressure target (120/70 to 130/80 mm Hg) or a low blood-pressure target (95/60 to 110/75 mm Hg) and to either an angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor (lisinopril) plus an angiotensin-receptor blocker (telmisartan) or lisinopril plus placebo. The primary outcome was the annual percentage change in the total kidney volume. The annual percentage increase in total kidney volume was significantly lower in the low-blood-pressure group than in the standard-blood-pressure group (5.6% vs. 6.6%, P=0.006), without significant differences between the lisinopril-telmisartan group and the lisinopril-placebo group. The rate of change in estimated GFR was similar in the two medication groups, with a negative slope difference in the short term in the low-blood-pressure group as compared with the standard-blood-pressure group (P<0.001) and a marginally positive slope difference in the long term (P=0.05). The left-ventricular-mass index decreased more in the low-blood-pressure group than in the standard-blood-pressure group (-1.17 vs. -0.57 g per square meter per year, P<0.001); urinary albumin excretion was reduced by 3.77% with the low-pressure target and increased by 2.43% with the standard target (P<0.001). Dizziness and light-headedness were more common in the low-blood-pressure group than in the standard-blood-pressure group (80.7% vs. 69.4%, P=0.002). In early ADPKD, the combination of lisinopril and telmisartan did not significantly alter the rate of increase in total kidney volume. As

  19. Methimazole-induced hypothyroidism causes cellular damage in the spleen, heart, liver, lung and kidney.

    PubMed

    Cano-Europa, Edgar; Blas-Valdivia, Vanessa; Franco-Colin, Margarita; Gallardo-Casas, Carlos Angel; Ortiz-Butrón, Rocio

    2011-01-01

    It is known that a hypothyroidism-induced hypometabolic state protects against oxidative damage caused by toxins. However, some workers demonstrated that antithyroid drug-induced hypothyroidism can cause cellular damage. Our objective was to determine if methimazole (an antithyroid drug) or hypothyroidism causes cellular damage in the liver, kidney, lung, spleen and heart. Twenty-five male Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: euthyroid, false thyroidectomy, thyroidectomy-induced hypothyroidism, methimazole-induced hypothyroidism (60 mg/kg), and treatment with methimazole (60 mg/kg) and a T₄ injection (20 μg/kg/d sc). At the end of the treatments (4 weeks for the pharmacological groups and 8 weeks for the surgical groups), the animals were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital and they were transcardially perfused with 10% formaldehyde. The spleen, heart, liver, lung and kidney were removed and were processed for embedding in paraffin wax. Coronal sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin. At the end of treatment, animals with both the methimazole- and thyroidectomy-induced hypothyroidism had a significant reduction of serum concentration of thyroid hormones. Only methimazole-induced hypothyroidism causes cellular damage in the kidney, lung, liver, heart, kidney and spleen. In addition, animals treated with methimazole and T₄ showed cellular damage in the lung, spleen and renal medulla with lesser damage in the liver, renal cortex and heart. The thyroidectomy only altered the lung structure. The alterations were prevented by T₄ completely in the heart and partially in the kidney cortex. These results indicate that tissue damage found in hypothyroidism is caused by methimazole. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Ift25 is not a cystic kidney disease gene but is required for early steps of kidney development.

    PubMed

    Desai, Paurav B; San Agustin, Jovenal T; Stuck, Michael W; Jonassen, Julie A; Bates, Carlton M; Pazour, Gregory J

    2018-06-01

    Eukaryotic cilia are assembled by intraflagellar transport (IFT) where large protein complexes called IFT particles move ciliary components from the cell body to the cilium. Defects in most IFT particle proteins disrupt ciliary assembly and cause mid gestational lethality in the mouse. IFT25 and IFT27 are unusual components of IFT-B in that they are not required for ciliary assembly and mutant mice survive to term. The mutants die shortly after birth with numerous organ defects including duplex kidneys. Completely duplex kidneys result from defects in ureteric bud formation at the earliest steps of metanephric kidney development. Ureteric bud initiation is a highly regulated process involving reciprocal signaling between the ureteric epithelium and the overlying metanephric mesenchyme with regulation by the peri-Wolffian duct stroma. The finding of duplex kidney in Ift25 and Ift27 mutants suggests functions for these genes in regulation of ureteric bud initiation. Typically the deletion of IFT genes in the kidney causes rapid cyst growth in the early postnatal period. In contrast, the loss of Ift25 results in smaller kidneys, which show only mild tubule dilations that become apparent in adulthood. The smaller kidneys appear to result from reduced branching in the developing metanephric kidney. This work indicates that IFT25 and IFT27 are important players in the early development of the kidney and suggest that duplex kidney is part of the ciliopathy spectrum. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The mitochondria-targeted antioxidants and remote kidney preconditioning ameliorate brain damage through kidney-to-brain cross-talk.

    PubMed

    Silachev, Denis N; Isaev, Nikolay K; Pevzner, Irina B; Zorova, Ljubava D; Stelmashook, Elena V; Novikova, Svetlana V; Plotnikov, Egor Y; Skulachev, Vladimir P; Zorov, Dmitry B

    2012-01-01

    Many ischemia-induced neurological pathologies including stroke are associated with high oxidative stress. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidants could rescue the ischemic organ by providing specific delivery of antioxidant molecules to the mitochondrion, which potentially suffers from oxidative stress more than non-mitochondrial cellular compartments. Besides direct antioxidative activity, these compounds are believed to activate numerous protective pathways. Endogenous anti-ischemic defense may involve the very powerful neuroprotective agent erythropoietin, which is mainly produced by the kidney in a redox-dependent manner, indicating an important role of the kidney in regulation of brain ischemic damage. The goal of this study is to track the relations between the kidney and the brain in terms of the amplification of defense mechanisms during SkQR1 treatment and remote renal preconditioning and provide evidence that the kidney can generate signals inducing a tolerance to oxidative stress-associated brain pathologies. We used the cationic plastoquinone derivative, SkQR1, as a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant to alleviate the deleterious consequences of stroke. A single injection of SkQR1 before cerebral ischemia in a dose-dependent manner reduces infarction and improves functional recovery. Concomitantly, an increase in the levels of erythropoietin in urine and phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) in the brain was detected 24 h after SkQR1 injection. However, protective effects of SkQR1 were not observed in rats with bilateral nephrectomy and in those treated with the nephrotoxic antibiotic gentamicin, indicating the protective role of humoral factor(s) which are released from functional kidneys. Renal preconditioning also induced brain protection in rats accompanied by an increased erythropoietin level in urine and kidney tissue and P-GSK-3β in brain. Co-cultivation of SkQR1-treated kidney cells with cortical neurons resulted in enchanced

  2. Effects of Zinc Supplementation on DNA Damage in Rats with Experimental Kidney Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Yegin, Sevim Çiftçi; Dede, Semiha; Mis, Leyla; Yur, Fatmagül

    2017-04-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effect of zinc on oxidative DNA damage in rats with experimental acute and chronic kidney deficiency. Six groups of five Wistar-Albino rats each were assigned as controls (C), acute kidney deficiency (AKD), zinc-supplemented (+Zn), acute kidney deficiency, zinc-supplemented (AKD + Zn), chronic kidney deficiency (CKD) and zinc-supplemented chronic kidney deficiency (CKD + Zn). The levels of 8-Oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were determined, being the lowest in the CKD group (p < 0.05), higher in the C group than those of rats with CKD but lower than that of all the other groups (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the controls and the CKD + Zn group, or between the AKD and the +Zn groups. Among all groups, the highest 8-OHdG level was found in the AKD + Zn group (p < 0.05). DNA damage was greater in acute renal failure than in rats with chronic renal failure. The DNA damage in the zinc group was significantly higher than in the controls.

  3. Association of Kidney Function and Early Kidney Injury With Incident Hypertension in HIV-Infected Women.

    PubMed

    Ascher, Simon B; Scherzer, Rebecca; Peralta, Carmen A; Tien, Phyllis C; Grunfeld, Carl; Estrella, Michelle M; Abraham, Alison; Gustafson, Deborah R; Nowicki, Marek; Sharma, Anjali; Cohen, Mardge H; Butch, Anthony W; Young, Mary A; Bennett, Michael R; Shlipak, Michael G

    2017-02-01

    Subclinical kidney disease is associated with developing hypertension in the general population, but data are lacking among HIV-infected people. We examined associations of kidney function and injury with incident hypertension in 823 HIV-infected and 267 HIV-uninfected women in the Women's Interagency HIV Study, a multicenter, prospective cohort of HIV-infected and uninfected women in the United States. Baseline kidney biomarkers included estimated glomerular filtration rate using cystatin C, urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio, and 7 urine biomarkers of tubular injury: α-1-microglobulin, interleukin-18, kidney injury molecule-1, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, liver fatty acid-binding protein, N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase, and α1-acid-glycoprotein. We used multivariable Poisson regression to evaluate associations of kidney biomarkers with incident hypertension, defined as 2 consecutive visits of antihypertensive medication use. During a median follow-up of 9.6 years, 288 HIV-infected women (35%) developed hypertension. Among the HIV-infected women, higher urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio was independently associated with incident hypertension (relative risk =1.13 per urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio doubling, 95% confidence interval, 1.07-1.20), as was lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (relative risk =1.10 per 10 mL/min/1.73 m 2 lower estimated glomerular filtration rate; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.17). No tubular injury and dysfunction biomarkers were independently associated with incident hypertension in HIV-infected women. In contrast, among the HIV-uninfected women, urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio was not associated with incident hypertension, whereas higher urine interleukin-18, α1-acid-glycoprotein, and N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase levels were significantly associated with incident hypertension. These findings suggest that early glomerular injury and kidney dysfunction may be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension in

  4. Early detection of acute kidney injury after pediatric cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Jefferies, John Lynn; Devarajan, Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is increasingly recognized as a common problem in children undergoing cardiac surgery, with well documented increases in morbidity and mortality in both the short and the long term. Traditional approaches to the identification of AKI such as changes in serum creatinine have revealed a large incidence in this population with significant negative impact on clinical outcomes. However, the traditional diagnostic approaches to AKI diagnosis have inherent limitations that may lead to under-diagnosis of this pathologic process. There is a dearth of randomized controlled trials for the prevention and treatment of AKI associated with cardiac surgery, at least in part due to the paucity of early predictive biomarkers. Novel non-invasive biomarkers have ushered in a new era that allows for earlier detection of AKI. With these new diagnostic tools, a more consistent approach can be employed across centers that may facilitate a more accurate representation of the actual prevalence of AKI and more importantly, clinical investigation that may minimize the occurrence of AKI following pediatric cardiac surgery. A thoughtful management approach is necessary to mitigate the effects of AKI after cardiac surgery, which is best accomplished in close collaboration with pediatric nephrologists. Long-term surveillance for improvement in kidney function and potential development of chronic kidney disease should also be a part of the comprehensive management strategy. PMID:27429538

  5. Azilsartan improves glycemic status and reduces kidney damage in zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    PubMed

    Hye Khan, Md Abdul; Neckář, Jan; Haines, Jasmine; Imig, John D

    2014-08-01

    Azilsartan medoxomil (AZL-M), an angiotensin II receptor blocker, demonstrates antihypertensive and organ protective effects in hypertension. We investigated the efficacy of AZL-M to ameliorate metabolic syndrome and kidney damage associated with type 2 diabetes using Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats. ZDF rats were treated with vehicle or AZL-M for 8 weeks. Zucker diabetic lean (ZDL) rats were used as controls. Urine and plasma samples were collected for biochemical analysis, and kidney tissues were used for histopathological and immunohistopathological examination at the end of the 8-week protocol. ZDF rats were diabetic with hyperglycemia and impaired glucose tolerance, and AZL-M ameliorated the diabetic phenotype. ZDF rats were hypertensive compared with ZDL rats (181±6 vs. 129±7mm Hg), and AZL-M decreased blood pressure in ZDF rats (116±7mm Hg). In ZDF rats, there was marked renal damage with elevated proteinuria, albuminuria, nephrinuria, 2-4-fold higher tubular cast formation, and glomerular injury compared with ZDL rats. AZL-M treatment reduced renal damage in ZDF rats. ZDF rats demonstrated renal inflammation and oxidative stress with elevated urinary monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 excretion, renal infiltration of macrophages, and elevated kidney malondialdehyde levels. AZL-M reduced oxidative stress and inflammation in ZDF rats. Overall, we demonstrate that AZL-M attenuates kidney damage in type 2 diabetes. We further demonstrate that anti-inflammatory and antioxidative activities of AZL-M contribute to its kidney protective action. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Plasma Biomarkers and Kidney Function Decline in Early and Established Diabetic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Coca, Steven G; Nadkarni, Girish N; Huang, Yuan; Moledina, Dennis G; Rao, Veena; Zhang, Jane; Ferket, Bart; Crowley, Susan T; Fried, Linda F; Parikh, Chirag R

    2017-09-01

    Biomarkers of diverse pathophysiologic mechanisms may improve risk stratification for incident or progressive diabetic kidney disease (DKD) in persons with type 2 diabetes. To evaluate such biomarkers, we performed a nested case-control study ( n =190 cases of incident DKD and 190 matched controls) and a prospective cohort study ( n =1156) using banked baseline plasma samples from participants of randomized, controlled trials of early (ACCORD) and advanced (VA NEPHRON-D) DKD. We assessed the association and discrimination obtained with baseline levels of plasma TNF receptor-1 (TNFR-1), TNFR-2, and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) for the outcomes of incident DKD (ACCORD) and progressive DKD (VA-NEPHRON-D). At baseline, median concentrations of TNFR-1, TNFR-2, and KIM-1 were roughly two-fold higher in the advanced DKD population (NEPHRON-D) than in the early DKD population (ACCORD). In both cohorts, patients who reached the renal outcome had higher baseline levels than those who did not reach the outcome. Associations between doubling in TNFR-1, TNFR-2, and KIM-1 levels and risk of the renal outcomes were significant for both cohorts. Inclusion of these biomarkers in clinical models increased the area under the curve (SEM) for predicting the renal outcome from 0.68 (0.02) to 0.75 (0.02) in NEPHRON-D. Systematic review of the literature illustrated high consistency in the association between these biomarkers of inflammation and renal outcomes in DKD. In conclusion, TNFR-1, TNFR-2, and KIM-1 independently associated with higher risk of eGFR decline in persons with early or advanced DKD. Moreover, addition of these biomarkers to clinical prognostic models significantly improved discrimination for the renal outcome. Copyright © 2017 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  7. Autophagy sequesters damaged lysosomes to control lysosomal biogenesis and kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Maejima, Ikuko; Takahashi, Atsushi; Omori, Hiroko; Kimura, Tomonori; Takabatake, Yoshitsugu; Saitoh, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; Hamasaki, Maho; Noda, Takeshi; Isaka, Yoshitaka; Yoshimori, Tamotsu

    2013-01-01

    Diverse causes, including pathogenic invasion or the uptake of mineral crystals such as silica and monosodium urate (MSU), threaten cells with lysosomal rupture, which can lead to oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis or necrosis. Here, we demonstrate that lysosomes are selectively sequestered by autophagy, when damaged by MSU, silica, or the lysosomotropic reagent L-Leucyl-L-leucine methyl ester (LLOMe). Autophagic machinery is recruited only on damaged lysosomes, which are then engulfed by autophagosomes. In an autophagy-dependent manner, low pH and degradation capacity of damaged lysosomes are recovered. Under conditions of lysosomal damage, loss of autophagy causes inhibition of lysosomal biogenesis in vitro and deterioration of acute kidney injury in vivo. Thus, we propose that sequestration of damaged lysosomes by autophagy is indispensable for cellular and tissue homeostasis. PMID:23921551

  8. Autophagy sequesters damaged lysosomes to control lysosomal biogenesis and kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Maejima, Ikuko; Takahashi, Atsushi; Omori, Hiroko; Kimura, Tomonori; Takabatake, Yoshitsugu; Saitoh, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; Hamasaki, Maho; Noda, Takeshi; Isaka, Yoshitaka; Yoshimori, Tamotsu

    2013-08-28

    Diverse causes, including pathogenic invasion or the uptake of mineral crystals such as silica and monosodium urate (MSU), threaten cells with lysosomal rupture, which can lead to oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis or necrosis. Here, we demonstrate that lysosomes are selectively sequestered by autophagy, when damaged by MSU, silica, or the lysosomotropic reagent L-Leucyl-L-leucine methyl ester (LLOMe). Autophagic machinery is recruited only on damaged lysosomes, which are then engulfed by autophagosomes. In an autophagy-dependent manner, low pH and degradation capacity of damaged lysosomes are recovered. Under conditions of lysosomal damage, loss of autophagy causes inhibition of lysosomal biogenesis in vitro and deterioration of acute kidney injury in vivo. Thus, we propose that sequestration of damaged lysosomes by autophagy is indispensable for cellular and tissue homeostasis.

  9. Incidence, etiology, and significance of acute kidney injury in the early post-kidney transplant period.

    PubMed

    Panek, Romuald; Tennankore, Karthik K; Kiberd, Bryce A

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the incidence, causes, and significance of acute kidney injury (AKI) in the early transplant period. This study used a definition as >26 μmol/L increase in creatinine within 48 h or >50% increase over a period >48 h. In 326 adult consecutive recipients of a solitary kidney transplant from 2006 to 2014 followed at this center, 21% developed AKI within the first six months. Most etiologies were CNI toxicity (33%) or unknown (26%), whereas acute rejection accounted for 17% and urinary tract obstruction for 10%. Those with AKI had a significantly lower glomerular filtration rate (GFR) at one-yr post-transplant (adjusted beta coefficient -5.5 mL/min/1.73 m(2) , 95% CI: -10.4, -0.7, p = 0.025) in a multivariable linear regression model. However, the AKI definition missed 6 of 19 episodes of acute rejection and 4 of 10 episodes of urinary tract obstruction. When acute rejection (including those that did not satisfy AKI criteria) was included in the model, other causes of AKI were not significantly associated with GFR at year 1. Although AKI, using current criteria, is likely to be a significant predictor of later outcomes, important causes are missed and the criteria are not sensitive for clinical decision-making. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Kidney in diabetes: from organ damage target to therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Salvatore, Teresa; Carbonara, Ornella; Cozzolino, Domenico; Torella, Roberto; Nasti, Rodolfo; Lascar, Nadia; Sasso, Ferdinando Carlo

    2011-09-01

    Despite the growing of pharmacological options for the treatment of diabetes, epidemiological studies suggest that a substantial proportion of patients does not achieve glycemic goals and so suffers from the risk of chronic complications. This review explores the inhibition of renal glucose reabsorption as a novel approach to treat hyperglycemia. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2), a low-affinity high-capacity transporter located in the brush-border membrane of the early segment (S1) of the proximal renal tubule, accounts for about 90% of the reabsorption of glucose from tubular fluid. Competitive inhibitors of SGLT2 that are responsible for renal excretion of glucose provide a unique mechanism to potentially lower the elevated blood glucose levels in patients with diabetes. They act independently of insulin secretion, thereby minimizing the risk of hypoglycemia and weight gain, to control energy balance in a negative direction, a distinctive advantage of this class of drugs over existing oral hypoglycemic agents. Although this group of medications is still under investigation, it appears to be safe and generally well tolerated and it would be expected to improve the treatment of type 2 diabetes as monotherapy or in combination with other oral or parenteral agents. Dapagliflozin is the first agent within this class, which induces clinically meaningful reductions in FPG, PPG, HbA1c, and body weight in type 2 diabetes.

  11. Microbiota metabolites: Pivotal players of cardiovascular damage in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Cosola, Carmela; Rocchetti, Maria Teresa; Cupisti, Adamasco; Gesualdo, Loreto

    2018-04-01

    In chronic kidney disease (CKD), cardiovascular (CV) damage is present in parallel which leads to an increased risk of CV disease. Both traditional and non-traditional risk factors contribute to CV damage in CKD. The systemic role of the microbiota as a central player in the pathophysiology of many organs is progressively emerging in the literature: the microbiota is indeed involved in a complex, bi-directional network between many organs, including the kidney and heart connection, although many of these relationships still need to be elucidated through in-depth mechanistic studies. The aim of this review is to provide evidence that microbiota metabolites influence non-traditional risk factors, such as inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in CKD-associated CV damage. Here, we report our current understanding and hypotheses on the gut-kidney and gut-heart axes and provide details on the potential mechanisms mediated by microbial metabolites. More specifically, we summarize some novel hypotheses linking the microbiota to blood pressure regulation and hypertension. We also emphasise the idea that the nutritional management of CKD should be redesigned and include the new findings from research on the intrinsic plasticity of the microbiota and its metabolites in response to food intake. The need is felt to integrate the classical salt and protein restriction approach for CKD patients with foods that enhance intestinal wellness. Finally, we discuss the new perspectives, especially the importance of taking care of the microbiota in order to prevent the risk of developing CKD and hypertension, as well as the still not tested but very promising CKD innovative treatments, such as postbiotic supplementation and bacteriotherapy. This interesting area of research offers potential complementary approaches to the management of CKD and CV damage assuming that the causal mechanisms underlying the gut-kidney and gut-heart axes are clarified. This will pave the way to the design

  12. Multidisciplinary strategies in the management of early chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Ramírez, Héctor R; Cortés-Sanabria, Laura; Rojas-Campos, Enrique; Hernández-Herrera, Aurora; Cueto-Manzano, Alfonso M

    2013-11-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide epidemic especially in developing countries, with clear deficiencies in identification and treatment. Better care of CKD requires more than only economic resources, utilization of health research in policy-making and health systems changes that produce better outcomes. A multidisciplinary approach may facilitate and improve management of patients from early CKD in the primary health-care setting. This approach is a strategy for improving comprehensive care, initiating and maintaining healthy behaviors, promoting teamwork, eliminating barriers to achieve goals and improving the processes of care. A multidisciplinary intervention may include educational processes guided by health professional, use of self-help groups and the development of a CKD management plan. The complex and fragmented care management of patients with CKD, associated with poor outcome, enhances the importance of implementing a multidisciplinary approach in the management of this disease from the early stages. Multidisciplinary strategies should focus on the needs of patients (to increase their empowerment) and should be adapted to the resources and health systems prevailing in each country; its systematic implementation can help to improve patient care and slow the progression of CKD. Copyright © 2013 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. [Changes in body composition according to kidney damage in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Medina-Escobedo, Martha; Romero-Campos, Sandra; Sansores-España, Delia; Viveros-Cortés, Angel; Villanueva-Jorge, Salha

    2013-01-01

    To know the relationship between total body composition and the stage of kidney damage, according to the K/DOQI classification, in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Under a correlation design, adults with T2DM were studied. Age, evolution time, fat and lean mass, fat percentage, total water, body index mass (BMI), creatinine clearance by Cockroft-Gault (CrCCG), glucose, HbA1c, proteinuria and microalbuminuria were determined. T test to compare independent means and Spearman correlation were used. The study included 60 men (23.4%) and 196 women (76.6%). There were no differences by gender when comparing age, BMI, duration of T2DM, blood glucose and HbA1c. The analysis showed a direct relationship between BMI (r = 0.281), the amount of fat mass (r = 0.360), lean tissue (r = 0.158), and water (r = 0.176) with the CrCCG (p < 0.0001). The biggest change in body composition, due to fat mass, was observed in chronic kidney disease stages 1-3, in which BMI had a good correlation with fat mass (r = 0.80, p < 0.001). Fat mass is inversely related to the stage of kidney damage in patients with T2DM.

  14. Ginger extract protects rat's kidneys against oxidative damage after chronic ethanol administration.

    PubMed

    Shirpoor, Aireza; Rezaei, Farzaneh; Fard, Amin Abdollahzade; Afshari, Ali Taghizadeh; Gharalari, Farzaneh Hosseini; Rasmi, Yousef

    2016-12-01

    Chronic alcohol ingestion is associated with pronounced detrimental effects on the renal system. In the current study, the protective effect of ginger extract on ethanol-induced damage was evaluated through determining 8-OHdG, cystatin C, glomerular filtration rate, and pathological changes such as cell proliferation and fibrosis in rats' kidneys. Male wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups and were treated as follows: (1) control, (2) ethanol and (3) ginger extract treated ethanolic (GETE) groups. After a six weeks period of treatment, the results revealed proliferation of glomerular and tubular cells, fibrosis in glomerular and peritubular and a significant rise in the level of 8-OHdG, cystatin C, plasma urea and creatinine. Moreover, compared to the control group, the ethanol group showed a significant decrease in the urine creatinine and creatinine clearance. In addition, significant amelioration of changes in the structure of kidneys, along with restoration of the biochemical alterations were found in the ginger extract treated ethanolic group, compared to the ethanol group. These findings indicate that ethanol induces kidneys abnormality by oxidative DNA damage and oxidative stress, and that these effects can be alleviated using ginger as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. NGAL (Lcn2) monomer is associated with tubulointerstitial damage in chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Nickolas, Thomas L; Forster, Catherine S; Sise, Meghan E; Barasch, Nicholas; Solá-Del Valle, David; Viltard, Melanie; Buchen, Charles; Kupferman, Shlomo; Carnevali, Maria Luisa; Bennett, Michael; Mattei, Silvia; Bovino, Achiropita; Argentiero, Lucia; Magnano, Andrea; Devarajan, Prasad; Mori, Kiyoshi; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye; Tempst, Paul; Allegri, Landino; Barasch, Jonathan

    2012-09-01

    The type and the extent of tissue damage inform the prognosis of chronic kidney disease (CKD), but kidney biopsy is not a routine test. Urinary tests that correlate with specific histological findings might serve as surrogates for the kidney biopsy. We used immunoblots and ARCHITECT-NGAL assays to define the immunoreactivity of urinary neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in CKD, and we used mass spectroscopy to identify associated proteins. We analyzed kidney biopsies to determine whether specific pathological characteristics associated with the monomeric NGAL species. Advanced CKD urine contained the NGAL monomer as well as novel complexes of NGAL. When these species were separated, we found a significant correlation between the NGAL monomer and glomerular filtration rate (r=-0.53, P<0.001), interstitial fibrosis (mild vs. severe disease; mean 54 vs. 167 μg uNGAL/g Cr, P<0.01), and tubular atrophy (mild vs. severe disease; mean 54 vs. 164 μg uNGAL/g Cr, P<0.01). Monospecific assays of the NGAL monomer demonstrated a correlation with histology that typifies progressive, severe CKD.

  16. Efficacy of vitamin C against liver and kidney damage induced by paraquat toxicity.

    PubMed

    Awadalla, Eatemad A

    2012-07-01

    Paraquat has been demonstrated to be a highly toxic compound for humans and animals and many cases of acute poisoning and death have been reported over the past few decades. The current experiment aimed to examine if vitamin C (ascorbic acid) alleviates the morphological changes induced by paraquat (PQ) administration in the liver and kidney of male albino rats. Male adult rats received paraquat (PQ) (1.5 mg/kg body weight) daily for three weeks. Vitamin C (VC) at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight was given concomitantly with PQ to rats. Animals were divided into three groups in this experiment (control, PQ and PQ+VC). The morphopathological manifestations were investigated in tissues from liver and kidney. As expected, PQ administration induced marked changes in the morphological structure of the liver and kidney in PQ demonstrated animals. Importantly, vitamin C administration restored PQ-induced changes in the studied organs. Vitamin C administration attenuated the morphological damages induced by PQ in the liver and kidney of experimental animals. Our results suggest an antitoxic effect of vitamin C against paraquat. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Recent early clinical drug development for acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, Kevin M; O'neill, Stephen; Harrison, Ewen M; Ross, James A; Wigmore, Stephen J; Hughes, Jeremy

    2017-02-01

    Despite significant need and historical trials, there are no effective drugs in use for the prevention or treatment of acute kidney injury (AKI). There are several promising agents in early clinical development for AKI and two trials have recently been terminated. There are also exciting new findings in pre-clinical AKI research. There is a need to take stock of current progress in the field to guide future drug development for AKI. Areas covered: The main clinical trial registries, PubMed and pharmaceutical company website searches were used to extract the most recent clinical trials for sterile, transplant and sepsis-associated AKI. We summarise the development of the agents recently in clinical trial, update on their trial progress, consider reasons for failed efficacy of two agents, and discuss new paradigms in pre-clinical targets for AKI. Agents covered include- QPI-1002, THR-184, BB-3, heme arginate, human recombinant alkaline phosphatase (recAP), ciclosporin A, AB103, levosimendan, AC607 and ABT-719. Expert opinion: Due to the heterogenous nature of AKI, agents with the widest pleiotropic effects on multiple pathophysiological pathways are likely to be most effective. Linking preclinical models to clinical indication and improving AKI definition and diagnosis are key areas for improvement in future clinical trials.

  18. Network for Early Onset Cystic Kidney Diseases—A Comprehensive Multidisciplinary Approach to Hereditary Cystic Kidney Diseases in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    König, Jens Christian; Titieni, Andrea; Konrad, Martin; Bergmann, C.

    2018-01-01

    Hereditary cystic kidney diseases comprise a complex group of genetic disorders representing one of the most common causes of end-stage renal failure in childhood. The main representatives are autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease, nephronophthisis, Bardet–Biedl syndrome, and hepatocyte nuclear factor-1beta nephropathy. Within the last years, genetic efforts have brought tremendous progress for the molecular understanding of hereditary cystic kidney diseases identifying more than 70 genes. Yet, genetic heterogeneity, phenotypic variability, a lack of reliable genotype–phenotype correlations and the absence of disease-specific biomarkers remain major challenges for physicians treating children with cystic kidney diseases. To tackle these challenges comprehensive scientific approaches are urgently needed that match the ongoing “revolution” in genetics and molecular biology with an improved efficacy of clinical data collection. Network for early onset cystic kidney diseases (NEOCYST) is a multidisciplinary, multicenter collaborative combining a detailed collection of clinical data with translational scientific approaches addressing the genetic, molecular, and functional background of hereditary cystic kidney diseases. Consisting of seven work packages, including an international registry as well as a biobank, NEOCYST is not only dedicated to current scientific questions, but also provides a platform for longitudinal clinical surveillance and provides precious sources for high-quality research projects and future clinical trials. Funded by the German Federal Government, the NEOCYST collaborative started in February 2016. Here, we would like to introduce the rationale, design, and objectives of the network followed by a short overview on the current state of progress. PMID:29497606

  19. Network for Early Onset Cystic Kidney Diseases-A Comprehensive Multidisciplinary Approach to Hereditary Cystic Kidney Diseases in Childhood.

    PubMed

    König, Jens Christian; Titieni, Andrea; Konrad, Martin

    2018-01-01

    Hereditary cystic kidney diseases comprise a complex group of genetic disorders representing one of the most common causes of end-stage renal failure in childhood. The main representatives are autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease, nephronophthisis, Bardet-Biedl syndrome, and hepatocyte nuclear factor-1beta nephropathy. Within the last years, genetic efforts have brought tremendous progress for the molecular understanding of hereditary cystic kidney diseases identifying more than 70 genes. Yet, genetic heterogeneity, phenotypic variability, a lack of reliable genotype-phenotype correlations and the absence of disease-specific biomarkers remain major challenges for physicians treating children with cystic kidney diseases. To tackle these challenges comprehensive scientific approaches are urgently needed that match the ongoing "revolution" in genetics and molecular biology with an improved efficacy of clinical data collection. Network for early onset cystic kidney diseases (NEOCYST) is a multidisciplinary, multicenter collaborative combining a detailed collection of clinical data with translational scientific approaches addressing the genetic, molecular, and functional background of hereditary cystic kidney diseases. Consisting of seven work packages, including an international registry as well as a biobank, NEOCYST is not only dedicated to current scientific questions, but also provides a platform for longitudinal clinical surveillance and provides precious sources for high-quality research projects and future clinical trials. Funded by the German Federal Government, the NEOCYST collaborative started in February 2016. Here, we would like to introduce the rationale, design, and objectives of the network followed by a short overview on the current state of progress.

  20. Salt sensitivity of tubuloglomerular feedback in the early remnant kidney

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Prabhleen

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported internephron heterogeneity in the tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) response 1 wk after subtotal nephrectomy (STN), with 50% of STN nephrons exhibiting anomalous TGF (Singh P, Deng A, Blantz RC, Thomson SC. Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 296: F1158–F1165, 2009). Presently, we tested the theory that anomalous TGF is an adaptation of the STN kidney to facilitate increased distal delivery when NaCl balance forces the per-nephron NaCl excretion to high levels. To this end, the effect of dietary NaCl on the TGF response was tested by micropuncture in STN and sham-operated Wistar rats. An NaCl-deficient (LS) or high-salt NaCl diet (HS; 1% NaCl in drinking water) was started on day 0 after STN or sham surgery. Micropuncture followed 8 days later with measurements of single-nephron GFR (SNGFR), proximal reabsorption, and tubular stop-flow pressure (PSF) obtained at both extremes of TGF activation, while TGF was manipulated by microperfusing Henle's loop (LOH) from the late proximal tubule. Activating TGF caused SNGFR to decline by similar amounts in Sham-LS, Sham-HS and STN-LS [ΔSNGFR (nl/min) = −16 ± 2, −11 ± 3, −11 ± 2; P = not significant by Tukey]. Activating TGF in STN-HS actually increased SNGFR by 5 ± 2 nl/min (P < 0.0005 vs. each other group by Tukey). HS had no effect on the PSF response to LOH perfusion in sham [ΔPSF (mmHg) = −9.6 ± 1.1 vs. −9.8 ± 1.0] but eliminated the PSF response in STN (+0.3 ± 0.9 vs. −5.7 ± 1.0, P = 0.0002). An HS diet leads to anomalous TGF in the early remnant kidney, which facilitates NaCl and fluid delivery to the distal nephron. PMID:24259514

  1. Cutaneous exposure to lewisite causes acute kidney injury by invoking DNA damage and autophagic response.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Ritesh K; Traylor, Amie M; Li, Changzhao; Feng, Wenguang; Guo, Lingling; Antony, Veena B; Schoeb, Trenton R; Agarwal, Anupam; Athar, Mohammad

    2018-06-01

    Lewisite (2-chlorovinyldichloroarsine) is an organic arsenical chemical warfare agent that was developed and weaponized during World Wars I/II. Stockpiles of lewisite still exist in many parts of the world and pose potential environmental and human health threat. Exposure to lewisite and similar chemicals causes intense cutaneous inflammatory response. However, morbidity and mortality in the exposed population is not only the result of cutaneous damage but is also a result of systemic injury. Here, we provide data delineating the pathogenesis of acute kidney injury (AKI) following cutaneous exposure to lewisite and its analog phenylarsine oxide (PAO) in a murine model. Both agents caused renal tubular injury, characterized by loss of brush border in proximal tubules and tubular cell apoptosis accompanied by increases in serum creatinine, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, and kidney injury molecule-1. Interestingly, lewisite exposure enhanced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the kidney and resulted in the activation of autophagic and DNA damage response (DDR) signaling pathways with increased expression of beclin-1, autophagy-related gene 7, and LC-3A/B-II and increased phosphorylation of γ-H 2 A.X and checkpoint kinase 1/2, respectively. Terminal deoxyribonucleotide-transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling-positive cells were detected in renal tubules along with enhanced proapoptotic BAX/cleaved caspase-3 and reduced antiapoptotic BCL 2 . Scavenging ROS by cutaneous postexposure application of the antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine reduced lewisite-induced autophagy and DNA damage. In summary, we provide evidence that topical exposure to lewisite causes AKI. The molecular mechanism underlying these changes involves ROS-dependent activation of autophagy and DDR pathway associated with the induction of apoptosis.

  2. Nurses' knowledge to identify early acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Roseli Aparecida Matheus do; Assunção, Murillo Santucci Cesar; Silva, João Manoel; Amendola, Cristina Prata; Carvalho, Taysa Martindo de; Lima, Emerson Quintino; Lobo, Suzana Margareth Ajeje

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the knowledgeof nurses on early identification of acute kidney injury (AKI) in intensive care, emergency and hospitalization units. A prospective multi-center study was conducted with 216 nurses, using a questionnaire with 10 questions related to AKI prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. 57.2% of nurses were unable to identify AKI clinical manifestations, 54.6% did not have knowledge of AKI incidence in patients admitted to the ICU, 87.0% of the nurses did not know how to answer as regards the AKI mortality rate in patients admitted to the ICU, 67.1% answered incorrectly that slight increases in serum creatinine do not have an impact on mortality, 66.8% answered incorrectly to the question on AKI prevention measures, 60.4% answered correctly that loop diuretics for preventing AKI is not recommended, 77.6% answered correctly that AKI does not characterize the need for hemodialysis, and 92.5% said they had no knowledge of the Acute Kidney Injury Networkclassification. Nurses do not have enough knowledge to identify early AKI, demonstrating the importance of qualification programs in this field of knowledge. Avaliar o conhecimento do enfermeiro na identificação precoce da Injúria Renal Aguda (IRA) em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva, Unidade de Internação e Emergência. Estudo multicêntrico, prospectivo.Participaram do estudo 216 enfermeiros,por meio de questionário com 10 questões relacionadas à prevenção, ao diagnóstico e ao tratamento da IRA. 57,2% não souberam identificar as manifestações clínicas da IRA, 54,6% não têm conhecimento da incidência de IRA em pacientes internados na UTI, 87,0% dos enfermeiros não souberam responder ao índice de mortalidade de IRA em pacientes internados na UTI, 67,1% responderam incorretamente que aumentos discretos da creatinina sérica não têm impacto na mortalidade, 66,8% responderam incorretamente à questão sobre as medidas de prevenção da IRA, 60,4% acertaram quando responderam que não

  3. TECHNIQUES FOR COMBINED PROCUREMENT OF HEARTS AND KIDNEYS WITH SATISFACTORY EARLY FUNCTION OF RENAL ALLOGRAFTS

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Byers W.; Rosenthal, J. Thomas; Griffith, Bartley F.; Haresty, Robert L.; Broznik, Brian; Hakala, Thomas; Bahnson, Henry T.; Starzl, Thomas E.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Methods for combination of donor nephrectomy with donor cardiectomy are outlined. The satisfactory early function of 29 of 34 transplanted kidneys harvested with these techniques supports their wider application and should encourage their wider acceptance. PMID:6351307

  4. Kidney Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... until you go to the bathroom. Most kidney diseases attack the nephrons. This damage may leave kidneys ... medicines. You have a higher risk of kidney disease if you have diabetes, high blood pressure, or ...

  5. Modulatory effect of Mangifera indica against carbon tetrachloride induced kidney damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Awodele, Olufunsho; Adeneye, Adejuwon Adewale; Aiyeola, Sheriff Aboyade; Benebo, Adokiye Senibo

    2015-12-01

    There is little scientific evidence on the local use of Mangifera indica in kidney diseases. This study investigated the reno-modulatory roles of the aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica (MIASE) against CCl4-induced renal damage. Rats were treated intragastrically with 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day MIASE for 7 days before and after the administration of CCl4 (3 ml/kg of 30% CCl4, i.p.). Serum levels of electrolytes (Na+, K+, Cl(-), HCO3(-)), urea and creatinine were determined. Renal tissue reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), superoxide (SOD) activities were also assessed. The histopathological changes in kidneys were determined using standard methods. In CCl4 treated rats the results showed significant (p<0.05) increases in serum Na+, K+, Cl(-), urea and creatinine. CCl4 also caused significant (p<0.05) decreases in renal tissue SOD, CAT and GSH and significant (p<0.05) increases in MDA. The oral MIASE treatment (125-500 mg/kg) was found to significantly (p<0.05) attenuate the increase in serum electrolytes, urea and creatinine. Similarly, MIASE significantly (p<0.05) attenuated the decrease in SOD, CAT and GSH levels and correspondingly attenuated increases in MDA. Mangifera indica may present a great prospect for drug development in the management of kidney disease with lipid peroxidation as its etiology.

  6. Modulatory effect of Mangifera indica against carbon tetrachloride induced kidney damage in rats

    PubMed Central

    Adeneye, Adejuwon Adewale; Aiyeola, Sheriff Aboyade; Benebo, Adokiye Senibo

    2015-01-01

    There is little scientific evidence on the local use of Mangifera indica in kidney diseases. This study investigated the reno-modulatory roles of the aqueous stem bark extract of Mangifera indica (MIASE) against CCl4-induced renal damage. Rats were treated intragastrically with 125, 250 and 500 mg/kg/day MIASE for 7 days before and after the administration of CCl4 (3 ml/kg of 30% CCl4, i.p.). Serum levels of electrolytes (Na+, K+, Cl−, HCO3−), urea and creatinine were determined. Renal tissue reduced glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT), superoxide (SOD) activities were also assessed. The histopathological changes in kidneys were determined using standard methods. In CCl4 treated rats the results showed significant (p<0.05) increases in serum Na+, K+, Cl−, urea and creatinine. CCl4 also caused significant (p<0.05) decreases in renal tissue SOD, CAT and GSH and significant (p<0.05) increases in MDA. The oral MIASE treatment (125-500 mg/kg) was found to significantly (p<0.05) attenuate the increase in serum electrolytes, urea and creatinine. Similarly, MIASE significantly (p<0.05) attenuated the decrease in SOD, CAT and GSH levels and correspondingly attenuated increases in MDA. Mangifera indica may present a great prospect for drug development in the management of kidney disease with lipid peroxidation as its etiology. PMID:27486379

  7. The role of fetal-maternal microchimerism as a natural-born healer in integrity improvement of maternal damaged kidney.

    PubMed

    Kajbafzadeh, Abdol-Mohammad; Sabetkish, Shabnam; Sabetkish, Nastaran

    2018-01-01

    To identify the fetal stem cell (FSC) response to maternal renal injury with emphasis on renal integrity improvement and Y chromosome detection in damaged maternal kidney. Eight non-green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic Sprague- Dawley rats were mated with GFP-positive transgenic male rats. Renal damage was induced on the right kidney at gestational day 11. The same procedure was performed in eight non-pregnant rats as control group. Three months after delivery, right nephrectomy was performed in order to evaluate the injured kidney. The fresh perfused kidneys were stained with anti-GFP antibody. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was also performed for the Y chromosome detection. Cell culture was performed to detect the GFP-positive cells. Technetium-99m-DMSA renal scan and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were performed after renal damage induction and 3 months later to evaluate the improvement of renal integrity. The presence of FSCs was confirmed by immune histochemical staining as well as immunofluorescent imaging of the damaged part. Gradient PCR of female rat purified DNA demonstrated the presence of Y-chromosome in the damaged maternal kidney. Moreover, the culture of kidney cells showed GPF- positive cells by immunofluorescence microscopy. The acute renal scar was repaired and the integrity of damaged kidney reached to near normal levels in experimental group as shown in DMSA scan. However, no significant improvement was observed in control group. FSC seems to be the main mechanism in repairing of the maternal renal injury during pregnancy as indicated by Y chromosome and GFP-positive cells in the sub-cultured medium. Copyright® by the International Brazilian Journal of Urology.

  8. The biospeckle method for early damage detection of fruits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Lei; Liu, Jiaxin; Men, Sen

    2017-07-01

    In the field of fruits damage assessment, biospeckle activity is considered relevant to quality properties of plants, such us damage, aging, or diseases. In this paper, biospeckle technique was applied to identify the early bruising of apples. Then a total of 50 undamaged apples were determined to be artificially bruised as samples. Three methods (Fujii, GD, and LSTCA) were used to extract effective information from these speckle images for measuring the intensity of biospeckle activity. The results showed that for all of three methods, the biospeckle activities of the undamaged areas in apple were similar; after the hit, the damaged area showed a lower biospeckle activity. It can be concluded that early bruising can be identified by biospeckle technique.

  9. Bile duct ligation in developing rats: temporal progression of liver, kidney, and brain damage.

    PubMed

    Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Huang, Li-Tung; Hsieh, Chih-Sung; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Wang, Jia-Yi; Tain, You-Lin

    2010-08-01

    Cholestatic liver disease may result in progressive end-stage liver disease and other extrahepatic complications. We explored the temporal progression of bile duct ligation (BDL)-induced cholestasis in developing rats, focusing on brain cognition and liver and kidney pathology, to elucidate whether these findings were associated with asymmetric dimethylarginine and oxidative stress alterations. Three groups of young male Sprague-Dawley rats were studied: one group underwent laparotomy (sham), another group underwent laparotomy and BDL for 2 weeks (BDL2), and a third group underwent laparotomy and BDL for 4 weeks (BDL4). The effect of BDL on liver was represented by transforming growth factor beta1 levels and histology activity index scores, which were worse in the BDL4 rats than in the BDL2 rats. BDL4 rats also exhibited more severe spatial memory deficits than BDL2 rats. In addition, renal injury was more progressive in BDL4 rats than in BDL2 rats because BDL4 rats displayed higher Cr levels, elevated tubulointerstitial injury scores, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, and symmetric dimethylarginine levels. Our findings highlight the fact that young BDL rats exhibit similar trends of progression of liver, kidney, and brain damage. Further studies are needed to better delineate the nature of progression of organ damage in young cholestatic rats. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of molybdenum and cadmium on the oxidative damage and kidney apoptosis in Duck.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lele; Cao, Huabin; Luo, Junrong; Liu, Ping; Wang, Tiancheng; Hu, Guoliang; Zhang, Caiying

    2017-11-01

    Molybdenum (Mo) is an essential element for human beings and animals; however, high dietary intake of Mo can lead to adverse reactions. Cadmium (Cd) is one of the major transitional metals which has toxic effects in animals. To investigate the co-induced toxic effects of Mo and Cd on oxidative damage and kidney apoptosis in duck, 120 ducks were randomly divided into control group and 5 treatment groups which were treated with a commercial diet containing different dosages of Mo and Cd. Kidney samples were collected on the 60th and 120th days to determine the mRNA expression levels of ceruloplasmin (CP), metallothionein (MT), Bak-1, and Caspase-3 by quantitative RT-PCR. Additionally, we also determined the antioxidant activity indexes and contents of Mo, Cd, copper (Cu), iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), and selenium (Se) in serum. Meanwhile, ultrastructural changes of the kidney were observed. The results showed that glutathione reductase (GR) activity and CP level in serum were decreased in combination groups. In addition, the antioxidant indexes were decreased in co-treated groups compared with single treated groups. The mRNA expression levels of Bak-1 and Caspase-3 increased in co-treated groups. The mRNA expression level of CP in high-dose combination group was downregulated, while the mRNA expression of MT was upregulated except for low-dose Mo group. Additionally, in the later period the content of Cu in serum decreased in joint groups while the contents of Mo and Cd increased. In addition, ultrastructural changes showed mitochondrial crest fracture, swelling, deformed nuclei, and karyopyknosis in co-treated groups. Taken together, it was suggested that dietary Mo and Cd might lead to oxidative stress, kidney apoptosis and disturb homeostasis of trace elements in duck, and it showed a possible synergistic relationship between the two elements. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of hypericum perforatum on kidney ischemia/reperfusion damage.

    PubMed

    Cakir, Murat; Duzova, Halil; Baysal, Işil; Gül, Cemile Ceren; Kuşcu, Gülbahar; Kutluk, Fatma; Çakin, Hilal; Şeker, Şifanur; İlbeği, Esranur; Uslu, Seda; Avci, Umut; Demir, Samet; Akinci, Cihan; Atli, Sercan

    2017-11-01

    It has been revealed in recent studies that Hypericum Perforatum (HP) is influential on cancer, inflammatory diseases, bacterial and viral diseases, and has neuroprotective and antioxidant properties. In this study, we investigated the effect of HP, which is known to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, on kidney I/R damage. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups, and each of the groups had eight rats: The Control Group; the Ischemia/Reperfusion (I/R) Group; and the IR + HP Group which was treated with 50 mg/kg of HP. The right kidneys of the rats were removed, and the left kidney developed ischemia during the 45th min, and reperfusion occurred in the following 3rd h. The histopathological findings and also the level of Malondialdehyde (MDA), Glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) enzyme activations in the renal tissues were measured. Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN), Creatinin (Cre) from serum samples were determined. The levels of BUN, Cre, and kidney tissue MDA increased at a significant level, and the SOD, CAT, and GSH-PX enzyme activity decreased at a significant level in the I/R group, compared with the Control Group (p < 0.05). In the I/R + HP group, the levels of MDA decreased at a significant level compared to the I/R group, while the SOD, CAT, and GSH-PX activity increased (p < 0.05). In histopathological examinations, it was observed that the tubular dilatation and epithelial desquamation regressed in the IR + HP Group when compared with the I/R Group. It has been shown with the histological and biochemical results in this study that HP is protective against acute renal I/R.

  12. Eucalyptus globulus extract protects upon acetaminophen-induced kidney damages in male rat

    PubMed Central

    Dhibi, Sabah; Mbarki, Sakhria; Elfeki, Abdelfettah; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2014-01-01

    Plants have historically been used in treating many diseases. Eucalyptus globules, a rich source of bioactive compounds, and have been shown to possess antioxidative properties. The purpose of this study, carried out on male Wistar rats, was to evaluate the beneficial effects of Eucalyptus globulus extract upon acetaminophen-induced damages in kidney. Our study is realized in the Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences of Sfax (Tunisia). 32 Wistar male rats; were divided into 4 batches: a control group (n=8), a group of rats treated with acetaminophen (goomg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection during 4 days (n=8), a group receiving Eucalyptus globulus extract (130 mg of dry leaves/kg/day) in drinking water during 42 days after 2 hours of acetaminophen administration (during 4 days) (n=8) and group received only Eucalyptus (n=8) during 42 days. After 6 weeks, animals from each group were rapidly sacrificed by decapitation. Blood serum was obtained by centrifugation. Under our experimental conditions, acetaminophen poisoning resulted in an oxidative stress evidenced by statistically significant losses in the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide-dismutase (SOD), glutathione-peroxidase (GPX) activities and an increase in lipids peroxidation level in renal tissue of acetaminophen-treated group compared with the control group. Acetaminophen also caused kidney damage as evident by statistically significant (p<0.05) increase in levels of creatinine and urea and decreased levels of uric acid and proteins in blood. Histological analysis demonstrated alteration of proximal tubules, atrophy of the glomerule and dilatation of urinary space. Previous administration of plant extract is found to alleviate this acetaminophen-induced damage. PMID:24856382

  13. Varied dose exposures to ultrafine particles in the motorcycle smoke cause kidney cell damages in male mice.

    PubMed

    Wardoyo, Arinto Y P; Juswono, Unggul P; Noor, Johan A E

    2018-01-01

    Ultrafine particles (UFPs) are one of motorcycle exhaust emissions which can penetrate the lung alveoli and deposit in the kidney. This study was aimed to investigate mice kidney cell physical damage (deformation) due to motorcycle exhaust emission exposures. The motorcycle exhaust emissions were sucked from the muffler with the rate of 33 cm 3 /s and passed through an ultrafine particle filter system before introduced into the mice exposure chamber. The dose concentration of the exhaust emissions was varied by setting the injected time of the 20s, 40s, 60s, 80s, and 100s. The mice were exposed to the smoke in the chamber for 100 s twice a day. The impact of the ultrafine particles on the kidney was observed by identifying the histological image of the kidney cell deformation using a microscope. The exposure was conducted for 10 days. The kidney observations were carried out on day 11. The results showed that there was a significant linear correlation between the total concentration of ultrafine particles deposited in the kidneys and the physical damage percentages. The increased concentrations of ultrafine particles caused larger cell deformation to the kidneys.

  14. A Microstructurally Inspired Damage Model for Early Venous Thrombus

    PubMed Central

    Rausch, Manuel K.; Humphrey, Jay D.

    2015-01-01

    Accumulative damage may be an important contributor to many cases of thrombotic disease progression. Thus, a complete understanding of the pathological role of thrombus requires an understanding of its mechanics and in particular mechanical consequences of damage. In the current study, we introduce a novel microstructurally inspired constitutive model for thrombus that considers a non-uniform distribution of microstructural fibers at various crimp levels and employs one of the distribution parameters to incorporate stretch-driven damage on the microscopic level. To demonstrate its ability to represent the mechanical behavior of thrombus, including a recently reported Mullins type damage phenomenon, we fit our model to uniaxial tensile test data of early venous thrombus. Our model shows an agreement with these data comparable to previous models for damage in elastomers with the added advantages of a microstructural basis and fewer model parameters. We submit that our novel approach marks another important step toward modeling the evolving mechanics of intraluminal thrombus, specifically its damage, and hope it will aid in the study of physiological and pathological thrombotic events. PMID:26523784

  15. Increased plasma Kidney Injury Molecule-1 suggests early progressive renal decline in non-proteinuric patients with Type 1 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Natalia; Skupien, Jan; Niewczas, Monika A.; Yamanouchi, Masayuki; Major, Melissa; Croall, Stephanie; Smiles, Adam; Warram, James H.; Bonventre, Joseph V.; Krolewski, Andrzej S.

    2015-01-01

    Progressively decreasing glomerular filtration rate (GFR), or renal decline, is seen in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and normoalbuminuria or microalbuminuria. Here we examined the associations of kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) in plasma and urine with the risk of renal decline and determine whether those associations are independent of markers of glomerular damage. The study group comprised patients with T1D from the 2nd Joslin Kidney Study of which 259 had normoalbuminuria and 203 had microalbuminuria. Serial measurements over 4 to 10 years of follow-up (median 8 years) of serum creatinine and cystatin C were used jointly to estimate eGFRcr-cys slopes and time of onset of CKD stage 3 or higher. Baseline urinary excretion of IgG2 and albumin were used as markers of glomerular damage, and urinary excretion of KIM-1 and its plasma concentration were used as markers of proximal tubular damage. All patients had normal renal function at baseline. During follow-up, renal decline (eGFRcr-cys loss 3.3% or more per year) developed in 96 patients and 62 progressed to CKD stage 3. For both outcomes, the risk rose with increasing baseline levels of plasma KIM-1. In multivariable models, elevated baseline plasma KIM-1 was strongly associated with risk of early progressive renal decline, regardless of baseline clinical characteristics, serum TNFR1 or markers of glomerular damage. Thus, damage to proximal tubules may play an independent role in the development of early progressive renal decline in non-proteinuric patients with T1D. PMID:26509588

  16. Diabetic Kidney Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... too high. Over time, this can damage your kidneys. Your kidneys clean your blood. If they are damaged, waste ... in your blood instead of leaving your body. Kidney damage from diabetes is called diabetic nephropathy. It ...

  17. Development of Mechanochemically Active Polymers for Early Damage Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Jin

    Identification of early damage in polymer composite materials is of significant importance so that preventative measures can be taken before the materials reach catastrophic failure. Scientists have been developing damage detection technologies over many years and recently, mechanophore-based polymers, in which mechanical energy is translated to activate a chemical transformation, have received increasing attention. More specifically, the damage can be made detectable by mechanochromic polymers, which provide a visible color change upon the scission of covalent bonds under stress. This dissertation focuses on the study of a novel self-sensing framework for identifying early and in-situ damage by employing unique stress-sensing mechanophores. Two types of mechanophores, cyclobutane and cyclooctane, were utilized, and the former formed from cinnamoyl moeities and the latter formed from anthracene upon photodimerization. The effects on the thermal and mechanical properties with the addition of the cyclobutane-based polymers into epoxy matrices were investigated. The emergence of cracks was detected by fluorescent signals at a strain level right after the yield point of the polymer blends, and the fluorescence intensified with the accumulation of strain. Similar to the mechanism of fluorescence emission from the cleavage of cyclobutane, the cyclooctane moiety generated fluorescent emission with a higher quantum yield upon cleavage. The experimental results also demonstrated the success of employing the cyclooctane type mechanophore as a potential force sensor, as the fluorescence intensification was correlated with the strain increase.

  18. The protective effect of Malva sylvestris on rat kidney damaged by vanadium

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The protective effect of the common mallow (Malva sylvestris) decoction on renal damages in rats induced by ammonium metavanadate poisoning was evaluated. On the one hand, vanadium toxicity is associated to the production of reactive oxygen species, causing a lipid peroxidation and an alteration in the enzymatic antioxidant defence. On the other hand, many medicinal plants are known to possess antioxidant and radical scavenging properties, thanks to the presence of flavonoids. These properties were confirmed in Malva sylvestris by two separate methods; namely, the Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay and the Nitroblue Tetrazolium reduction assay. Results In 80 rats exposed to ammonium metavanadate (0.24 mmol/kg body weight in drinking water) for 90 days, lipid peroxidation levels and superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were measured in kidney. A significant increase in the formation of free radicals and antioxidant enzyme activities was noticed. In addition, a histological examination of kidney revealed a structural deterioration of the renal cortical capsules and a shrinking of the Bowman space. In animals intoxicated by metavanadate but also given a Malva sylvestris decoction (0.2 g dry mallow/kg body weight), no such pathologic features were observed: lipid peroxidation levels, antioxidant enzyme activities and histological features appeared normal as compared to control rats. Conclusion Malva sylvestris is proved to have a high antioxidative potential thanks to its richness in phenolic compounds. PMID:21513564

  19. Vascular Damage and Kidney Transplant Outcomes: An Unfriendly and Harmful Link.

    PubMed

    Hernández, Domingo; Triñanes, Javier; Armas, Ana María; Ruiz-Esteban, Pedro; Alonso-Titos, Juana; Duarte, Ana; González-Molina, Miguel; Palma, Eulalia; Salido, Eduardo; Torres, Armando

    2017-07-01

    Kidney transplant (KT) is the treatment of choice for most patients with chronic kidney disease, but this has a high cardiovascular mortality due to traditional and nontraditional risk factors, including vascular calcification. Inflammation could precede the appearance of artery wall lesions, leading to arteriosclerosis and clinical and subclinical atherosclerosis in these patients. Additionally, mineral metabolism disorders and activation of the renin-angiotensin system could contribute to this vascular damage. Thus, understanding the vascular lesions that occur in KT recipients and the pathogenic mechanisms involved in their development could be crucial to optimize the therapeutic management and outcomes in survival of this population. This review focuses on the following issues: (1) epidemiological data framing the problem; (2) atheromatosis in KT patients: subclinical and clinical atheromatosis, involving ischemic heart disease, congestive heart failure, stroke and peripheral vascular disease; (3) arteriosclerosis and vascular calcifications; and (4) potential pathogenic mechanisms and their therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Developmental Origins of Chronic Kidney Disease: Should We Focus on Early Life?

    PubMed Central

    Tain, You-Lin; Hsu, Chien-Ning

    2017-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is becoming a global burden, despite recent advances in management. CKD can begin in early life by so-called “developmental programming” or “developmental origins of health and disease” (DOHaD). Early-life insults cause structural and functional changes in the developing kidney, which is called renal programming. Epidemiological and experimental evidence supports the proposition that early-life adverse events lead to renal programming and make subjects vulnerable to developing CKD and its comorbidities in later life. In addition to low nephron endowment, several mechanisms have been proposed for renal programming. The DOHaD concept opens a new window to offset the programming process in early life to prevent the development of adult kidney disease, namely reprogramming. Here, we review the key themes on the developmental origins of CKD. We have particularly focused on the following areas: evidence from human studies support fetal programming of kidney disease; insight from animal models of renal programming; hypothetical mechanisms of renal programming; alterations of renal transcriptome in response to early-life insults; and the application of reprogramming interventions to prevent the programming of kidney disease. PMID:28208659

  1. Racial differences in kidney function among individuals with obesity and metabolic syndrome: results from the Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP).

    PubMed

    Bomback, Andrew S; Kshirsagar, Abhijit V; Whaley-Connell, Adam T; Chen, Shu-Cheng; Li, Suying; Klemmer, Philip J; McCullough, Peter A; Bakris, George L

    2010-03-01

    Obesity and metabolic syndrome may differ by race. For participants in the National Kidney Foundation's Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP), we examined whether African American and white participants with obesity and metabolic syndrome differ regarding albuminuria, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), anemia, and bone/mineral metabolism derangements in chronic kidney disease (CKD). 3 study cohorts were assembled: (1) eligible African American and white KEEP participants with body mass index > or = 30 kg/m(2), (2) a subgroup meeting criteria for metabolic syndrome, and (3) a subgroup with eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) and laboratory measurements for hemoglobin, parathyroid hormone, calcium, and phosphorus. Patient characteristics and kidney function assessments were compared and tested using chi(2) (categorical variables) and t test (continuous variables). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate associations of race with kidney disease measures. Of 37,107 obese participants, 48% were African American and 52% were white. Whites were more likely to have metabolic syndrome components (hypertension, 87.1% vs 84.8%; dyslipidemia, 81.6% vs 66.7%; diabetes, 42.7% vs 34.9%) and more profoundly decreased eGFR than African Americans (CKD stages 3-5 prevalence, 23.6% vs 13.0%; P < 0.001). African Americans were more likely to have abnormal urinary albumin excretion (microalbuminuria, 12.5% vs 10.2%; OR, 1.60 [95% CI, 1.45-1.76]; macroalbuminuria, 1.3% vs 1.2%; OR, 1.61 [95% CI, 1.23-2.12]) and CKD stages 1-2 (10.3% vs 7.1%; OR, 1.54 [95% CI, 1.38-1.72]). For participants with CKD stages 3-5, anemia prevalence was 32.4% in African Americans and 14.1% in whites; corresponding values for secondary hyperparathyroidism were 66.2% and 46.6%, respectively. Obesity and metabolic syndrome may be heterogeneous disease states in African Americans and whites, possibly explaining differences in long-term kidney and cardiovascular

  2. Cadmium, type 2 diabetes, and kidney damage in a cohort of middle-aged women

    SciTech Connect

    Barregard, Lars, E-mail: lars.barregard@amm.gu.se; Bergström, Göran, E-mail: goran.bergstrom@wlab.gu.se; Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, University of Gothenburg, SE-405 30 Gothenburg

    Background: It has been proposed that diabetic patients are more sensitive to the nephrotoxicity of cadmium (Cd) compared to non-diabetics, but few studies have examined this in humans, and results are inconsistent. Aim: To test the hypothesis that women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) have higher risk of kidney damage from cadmium compared to women with normal glucose tolerance (NGT). Methods: All 64-year-old women in Gothenburg, Sweden, were invited to a screening examination including repeated oral glucose tolerance tests. Random samples of women with DM, IGT, and NGT were recruited for further clinical examinations.more » Serum creatinine was measured and used to calculate estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Albumin (Alb) and retinol-binding protein (RBP) were analyzed in a 12 h urine sample. Cadmium in blood (B-Cd) and urine (U-Cd) was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Associations between markers of kidney function (eGFR, Alb, and RBP) and quartiles of B-Cd and U-Cd were evaluated in models, including also blood pressure and smoking habits. Results: The mean B-Cd (n=590) was 0.53 µg/L (median 0.34 µg/L). In multivariable models, a significant interaction was seen between high B-Cd (upper quartile, >0.56 µg/L) and DM (point estimate +0.40 mg Alb/12 h, P=0.04). In stratified analyzes, the effect of high B-Cd on Alb excretion was significant in women with DM (53% higher Alb/12 h, P=0.03), but not in women with IGT or NGT. Models with urinary albumin adjusted for creatinine showed similar results. In women with DM, the multivariable odds ratio (OR) for microalbuminuria (>15 mg/12 h) was increased in the highest quartile of B-Cd vs. B-Cd quartiles 1–3 in women with DM (OR 4.2, 95% confidence interval 1.1–12). No such effect was found in women with IGT or NGT. There were no associations between B-Cd and eGFR or excretion of RBP, and no differences between women with DM, IGT, or

  3. Kidney Tests

    MedlinePlus

    ... taking out waste products and making urine. Kidney tests check to see how well your kidneys are working. They include blood, urine, and imaging tests. Early kidney disease usually does not have signs ...

  4. Combining functional and tubular damage biomarkers improves diagnostic precision for acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Basu, Rajit K; Wong, Hector R; Krawczeski, Catherine D; Wheeler, Derek S; Manning, Peter B; Chawla, Lakhmir S; Devarajan, Prasad; Goldstein, Stuart L

    2014-12-30

    Increases in serum creatinine (ΔSCr) from baseline signify acute kidney injury (AKI) but offer little granular information regarding its characteristics. The 10th Consensus Conference of the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI) suggested that combining AKI biomarkers would provide better precision for AKI course prognostication. This study investigated the value of combining a functional damage biomarker (plasma cystatin C [pCysC]) with a tubular damage biomarker (urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [uNGAL]), forming a composite biomarker for prediction of discrete characteristics of AKI. Data from 345 children after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were analyzed. Severe AKI was defined as Kidney Disease Global Outcomes Initiative stages 2 to 3 (≥100% ΔSCr) within 7 days of CPB. Persistent AKI lasted >2 days. SCr in reversible AKI returned to baseline ≤48 h after CPB. The composite of uNGAL (>200 ng/mg urine Cr = positive [+]) and pCysC (>0.8 mg/l = positive [+]), uNGAL+/pCysC+, measured 2 h after CPB initiation, was compared to ΔSCr increases of ≥50% for correlation with AKI characteristics by using predictive probabilities, likelihood ratios (LR), and area under the curve receiver operating curve (AUC-ROC) values [Corrected]. Severe AKI occurred in 18% of patients. The composite uNGAL+/pCysC+ demonstrated a greater likelihood than ΔSCr for severe AKI (+LR: 34.2 [13.0:94.0] vs. 3.8 [1.9:7.2]) and persistent AKI (+LR: 15.6 [8.8:27.5] versus 4.5 [2.3:8.8]). In AKI patients, the uNGAL-/pCysC+ composite was superior to ΔSCr for prediction of transient AKI. Biomarker composites carried greater probability for specific outcomes than ΔSCr strata. Composites of functional and tubular damage biomarkers are superior to ΔSCr for predicting discrete characteristics of AKI. Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Combining Functional and Tubular Damage Biomarkers Improves Diagnostic Precision for Acute Kidney Injury After Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Rajit K.; Wong, Hector R.; Krawczeski, Catherine D.; Wheeler, Derek S.; Manning, Peter B.; Chawla, Lakhmir S.; Devarajan, Prasad; Goldstein, Stuart L.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Increases in serum creatinine (ΔSCr) from baseline signify acute kidney injury (AKI) but offer little granular information regarding its characteristics. The 10th Consensus Conference of the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI) suggested that combining AKI biomarkers would provide better precision for AKI course prognostication. OBJECTIVES This study investigated the value of combining a functional damage biomarker (plasma cystatin C [pCysC]) with a tubular damage biomarker (urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin [uNGAL]), forming a composite biomarker for prediction of discrete characteristics of AKI. METHODS Data from 345 children after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) were analyzed. Severe AKI was defined as Kidney Disease Global Outcomes Initiative stages 2 to 3 (>100% ΔSCr) within 7 days of CPB. Persistent AKI lasted >2 days. SCr in reversible AKI returned to baseline ≤48 h after CPB. The composite of uNGAL (>200 ng/mg urine Cr = positive [+]) and pCysC (>0.8 mg/l = positive [+]), uNGAL+/pCysC+, measured 2 h after CPB initiation, was compared to ΔSCr increases of ≤50% for correlation with AKI characteristics by using predictive probabilities, likelihood ratios (LR), and area under the curve receiver operating curve (AUC-ROC) values. RESULTS Severe AKI occurred in 18% of patients. The composite uNGAL+/pCysC+ demonstrated a greater likelihood than ΔSCr for severe AKI (+LR: 34.2 [13.0:94.0] vs. 3.8 [1.9:7.2]) and persistent AKI (+LR: 15.6 [8.8:27.5] versus 4.5 [2.3:8.8]). In AKI patients, the uNGAL−/pCysC+ composite was superior to ΔSCr for prediction of transient AKI. Biomarker composites carried greater probability for specific outcomes than ΔSCr strata. CONCLUSIONS Composites of functional and tubular damage biomarkers are superior to ΔSCr for predicting discrete characteristics of AKI. PMID:25541128

  6. Corneal Confocal Microscopy Detects Early Nerve Regeneration in Diabetic Neuropathy After Simultaneous Pancreas and Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Tavakoli, Mitra; Mitu-Pretorian, Maria; Petropoulos, Ioannis N.; Fadavi, Hassan; Asghar, Omar; Alam, Uazman; Ponirakis, Georgios; Jeziorska, Maria; Marshall, Andy; Efron, Nathan; Boulton, Andrew J.; Augustine, Titus; Malik, Rayaz A.

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic neuropathy is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. To date, limited data in subjects with impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes demonstrate nerve fiber repair after intervention. This may reflect a lack of efficacy of the interventions but may also reflect difficulty of the tests currently deployed to adequately assess nerve fiber repair, particularly in short-term studies. Corneal confocal microscopy (CCM) represents a novel noninvasive means to quantify nerve fiber damage and repair. Fifteen type 1 diabetic patients undergoing simultaneous pancreas–kidney transplantation (SPK) underwent detailed assessment of neurologic deficits, quantitative sensory testing (QST), electrophysiology, skin biopsy, corneal sensitivity, and CCM at baseline and at 6 and 12 months after successful SPK. At baseline, diabetic patients had a significant neuropathy compared with control subjects. After successful SPK there was no significant change in neurologic impairment, neurophysiology, QST, corneal sensitivity, and intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD). However, CCM demonstrated significant improvements in corneal nerve fiber density, branch density, and length at 12 months. Normalization of glycemia after SPK shows no significant improvement in neuropathy assessed by the neurologic deficits, QST, electrophysiology, and IENFD. However, CCM shows a significant improvement in nerve morphology, providing a novel noninvasive means to establish early nerve repair that is missed by currently advocated assessment techniques. PMID:23002037

  7. Dynamic MRI-based computer aided diagnostic systems for early detection of kidney transplant rejection: A survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostapha, Mahmoud; Khalifa, Fahmi; Alansary, Amir; Soliman, Ahmed; Gimel'farb, Georgy; El-Baz, Ayman

    2013-10-01

    Early detection of renal transplant rejection is important to implement appropriate medical and immune therapy in patients with transplanted kidneys. In literature, a large number of computer-aided diagnostic (CAD) systems using different image modalities, such as ultrasound (US), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), computed tomography (CT), and radionuclide imaging, have been proposed for early detection of kidney diseases. A typical CAD system for kidney diagnosis consists of a set of processing steps including: motion correction, segmentation of the kidney and/or its internal structures (e.g., cortex, medulla), construction of agent kinetic curves, functional parameter estimation, diagnosis, and assessment of the kidney status. In this paper, we survey the current state-of-the-art CAD systems that have been developed for kidney disease diagnosis using dynamic MRI. In addition, the paper addresses several challenges that researchers face in developing efficient, fast and reliable CAD systems for the early detection of kidney diseases.

  8. Comparison of Aerobic Preservation by Venous Systemic Oxygen Persufflation or Oxygenated Machine Perfusion of Warm-Ischemia-Damaged Porcine Kidneys.

    PubMed

    Kalenski, Julia; Mancina, Elina; Paschenda, Pascal; Beckers, Christian; Bleilevens, Christian; Tóthová, Ľubomíra; Boor, Peter; Gross, Dominik; Tolba, René H; Doorschodt, Benedict M

    2016-01-01

    The global shortage of donor organs for transplantation has necessitated the expansion of the organ pool through increased use of organs from less ideal donors. Venous systemic oxygen persufflation (VSOP) and oxygenated machine perfusion (OMP) have previously demonstrated beneficial results compared to cold storage (CS) in the preservation of warm-ischemia-damaged kidney grafts. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of VSOP and OMP for the preservation of warm-ischemia-damaged porcine kidneys using the recently introduced Ecosol preservation solution compared to CS using Ecosol or histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate solution (HTK). Kidneys from German Landrace pigs (n = 5/group) were retrieved and washed out with either Ecosol or HTK after 45 min of clamping of the renal pedicle. As controls, kidneys without warm ischemia, cold stored for 24 h in HTK, were employed. Following 24 h of preservation by VSOP, OMP, CS-Ecosol, or CS-HTK, renal function and damage were assessed during 1 h using the isolated perfused porcine kidney model. During reperfusion, urine production was significantly higher in the VSOP and OMP groups than in the CS-HTK group; however, only VSOP could demonstrate lower urine protein concentrations and fractional excretion of sodium, which did not differ from the non-warm-ischemia-damaged control group. VSOP, CS-Ecosol, and controls showed better maintenance of the acid-base balance than CS-HTK. Reduced lipid peroxidation, as reflected in postreperfusion tissue thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance levels, was observed in the VSOP group compared to the OMP group, and the VSOP and CS-Ecosol groups had concentrations similar to the controls. The ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione was higher in the VSOP, OMP, and CS-Ecosol groups than in the CS-HTK group and controls, with a higher ratio in the VSOP than in the OMP group. VSOP was associated with mitigation of oxidative stress in comparison to OMP and CS. Preservation of warm-ischemia-damaged

  9. L-FABP and IL-6 as markers of chronic kidney damage in children after hemolytic uremic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lipiec, Katarzyna; Adamczyk, Piotr; Świętochowska, Elżbieta; Ziora, Katarzyna; Szczepańska, Maria

    2018-06-13

    Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS) is a form of thrombotic microangiopathy, in the course of which some patients may develop chronic kidney disease (CKD). From a clinical point of view, it is important to search for markers that allow for early identification of patients at risk of a poor prognosis. The study evaluated the serum and urine levels of liver-type fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) and interleukin 6 (IL-6). The study was conducted in 29 children with a history of HUS. The relationship between L-FABP and IL-6 and anthropometric measurements, the value of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria were additionally evaluated. In children after HUS, L-FABP and IL-6 concentration in both serum and urine was significantly higher in comparison to the control group. No differences in L-FABP and IL-6 concentration in serum and urine depending on the type of HUS and gender were noted. Correlation between L-FABP and IL-6 in serum and urine with eGFR and urine albumin-creatinine ratio (ACR) in the total group of patients after HUS was not detected. In the group of children after 6 month observation after HUS, a negative correlation of L-FABP concentration with eGFR was found. The results indicate that the higher concentration of L-FABP in serum and urine of children with a history of HUS can be the result of protracted injury initiated during the acute phase of the disease. Lack of correlation of L-FABP concentration with the ACR may be associated with a short (less than 6 months) observation after acute renal failure or merely temporary renal tubular damage in the acute phase of the disease. In contrast, higher levels of IL-6 in serum and urine in children after HUS compared to healthy children and the negative correlation of L-FABP concentration and eGFR in children after 6 month observation after HUS may confirm their participation in CKD. Thus, L-FABP and IL-6 seem to be good biomarkers of chronic kidney damage in survivors of the acute phase of

  10. Boldine Improves Kidney Damage in the Goldblatt 2K1C Model Avoiding the Increase in TGF-β.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Gonzalo I; Velarde, Victoria

    2018-06-25

    Boldine, a major aporphine alkaloid found in the Chilean boldo tree, is a potent antioxidant. Oxidative stress plays a detrimental role in the pathogenesis of kidney damage in renovascular hypertension (RVH). The activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is crucial to the development and progression of hypertensive renal damage and TGF-β is closely associated with the activation of RAS. In the present study, we assessed the effect of boldine on the progression of kidney disease using the 2K1C hypertension model and identifying mediators in the RAS, such as TGF-β, that could be modulated by this alkaloid. Toward this hypothesis, rats ( n = 5/group) were treated with boldine (50 mg/kg/day, gavage) for six weeks after 2K1C surgery (pressure ≥ 180 mmHg). Kidney function was evaluated by measuring of proteinuria/creatininuria ratio (U prot/U Crea), oxidative stress (OS) by measuring thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). The evolution of systolic blood pressure (SBP) was followed weekly. Alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and Col III were used as markers of kidney damage; ED-1 and osteopontin (OPN) were used as markers of inflammation. We also explored the effect in RAS mediators, such as ACE-1 and TGF-β. Boldine treatment reduced the UProt/UCrea ratio, plasma TBARS, and slightly reduced SBP in 2K1C hypertensive rats, producing no effect in control animals. In 2K1C rats treated with boldine the levels of α-SMA, Col III, ED-1, and OPN were lower when compared to 2K1C rats. Boldine prevented the increase in ACE-1 and TGF-β in 2K1C rats, suggesting that boldine reduces kidney damage. These results suggest that boldine could potentially be used as a nutraceutic.

  11. [Developmental amnesia and early brain damage: neuropsychology and neuroimaging].

    PubMed

    Crespo-Eguilaz, N; Dominguez, P D; Vaquero, M; Narbona, J

    2018-03-01

    To contribute to neuropsychological profiling of developmental amnesia subsequent to bilateral damage to both hippocampi in early age. The total sample of 24 schoolchildren from both sexes is distributed in three groups: perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy and everyday complaints of memory in school age (n = 8); perinatal hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy without memory complaints (n = 7); and a group of typically developing (n = 9). All participants in every groups did have normal general intelligence and attention. Both clinical groups had, as another clinical consequence, spastic cerebral palsy (diplegia). Neuropsychological exam consisted on tests of general intelligence, attentional abilities, declarative memory and semantic knowledge. All participants had a brain magnetic resonance image and spectroscopy of hippocampi. Scheltens criteria were used for visual estimation of hippocampal atrophy. Parametric and non-parametric statistical contrasts were made. Despite preservation of semantic and procedural learning, declarative-episodic memory is impaired in the first group versus the other two groups. A significant proportion of bilateral hippocampal atrophy is only present in the first group versus the other two non-amnesic groups using Scheltens estimation on MRI. Two cases without evident atrophy did have diminished NAA/(Cho + Cr) index in both hippocampi. Taken together, these results contribute to delineate developmental amnesia as an specific impairment due to early partial bihippocampal damage, in agreement with previous studies. After diagnosis of developmental amnesia, a specific psychoeducational intervention must be made; also this impairment could be candidate for pharmacological trials in the future.

  12. Acute Kidney Injury Facilitates Hypocalcemia by Exacerbating the Hyperphosphatemic Effect of Muscle Damage in Rhabdomyolysis.

    PubMed

    Higaki, Masato; Tanemoto, Masayuki; Shiraishi, Takeshi; Taniguchi, Kei; Fujigaki, Yoshihide; Uchida, Shunya

    2015-01-01

    Hypocalcemia is an important complication of rhabdomyolysis for which several pathogenic factors, including acute kidney injury (AKI), have been proposed. To gain insight regarding the hypocalcemic roles of AKI in rhabdomyolysis, we retrospectively examined patients with rhabdomyolysis. Of 28,387 patients admitted to the Department of Internal Medicine, 51 patients met the inclusion criteria for the study. Serum calcium was analyzed based on laboratory data including indicators of AKI, serum creatine kinase (CK) and serum inorganic phosphate (iP). Twenty-two patients (43%) had hypocalcemia. Compared with patients without hypocalcemia, they had a higher prevalence of AKI (82 vs. 55%; p = 0.046), higher levels of peak CK (39,100 ± 50,600 vs. 9,800 ± 11,900 IU/l; p = 0.003) and higher levels of peak iP (1.77 ± 1.10 vs. 1.10 ± 0.35 mmol/l; p = 0.007). Indicators of AKI were correlated with peak CK and peak iP and were not significant variables in the regression analysis for hypocalcemia. Peak CK and peak iP were not correlated with each other. Impaired phosphate use by muscle contributed to the increased iP. These findings indicate that muscle damage is the primary hypocalcemic factor in rhabdomyolysis. AKI facilitated hypocalcemia by exacerbating the hyperphosphatemic effects of muscle damage. Aggressive hydration, which could increase oxygen supply and subsequently repair phosphate use in muscle, might reduce the incidence of hypocalcemia in rhabdomyolysis. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Sodium fluoride induces apoptosis in the kidney of rats through caspase-mediated pathways and DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Song, Guo Hua; Gao, Ji Ping; Wang, Chun Fang; Chen, Chao Yang; Yan, Xiao Yan; Guo, Min; Wang, Yu; Huang, Fu Bing

    2014-09-01

    Long-term excessive sodium fluoride (NaF) intake can cause many bone diseases and nonskeletal fluorosis. The kidneys are the primary organs involved in the excretion and retention of NaF. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of NaF treatment on renal cell apoptosis, DNA damage, and the protein expression levels of cytosolic cytochrome C (Cyt C) and cleaved caspases 9, 8, and 3 in vivo. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into four groups (control, low fluoride, medium fluoride, and high fluoride) and administered 0, 50, 100, and 200 mg/L of NaF, respectively, via drinking water for 120 days. Histopathological changes in the kidneys were visualized using hematoxylin and eosin staining. Renal cell apoptosis was examined using flow cytometry, and renal cell DNA damage was detected using the comet assay. Cytosolic Cyt C and cleaved caspases 9, 8, and 3 protein expression levels were visualized using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. The results showed that NaF treatment increased apoptosis and DNA damage. In addition, NaF treatment increased the protein expression levels of cytosolic Cyt C and cleaved caspases 9, 8, and 3. These results indicated that NaF induces apoptosis in the kidney of rats through caspase-mediated pathway, and DNA damage may be involved in this process.

  14. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging findings of kidneys in patients with early phase of obstruction.

    PubMed

    Bozgeyik, Zulkif; Kocakoc, Ercan; Sonmezgoz, Fitnet

    2009-04-01

    Diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is an MR technique used to show molecular diffusion. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), as a quantitative parameter calculated from the DW MR images. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ability of DW MR imaging in early phase of obstruction due to urolithiasis. Twenty-six patients with acute dilatation of the pelvicalyceal system detected by intravenous urography were included in this study. MR imaging was performed using a 1.5 T whole-body superconducting MR scanner. DW imaging can be performed using single-shot spin-echo, echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequences with the following diffusion gradient b values: 100, 600, 1000 s/mm(2). Circular region of interest (ROI) was placed in the renal parenchyma for the measurement of ADC values in the normal and obstructed kidney. For statistical analyses, Paired t test were used. In spite of obstructed kidneys had the lower ADC values compared to normal kidneys, these alterations were statistically insignificant. We did not observe significantly different ADC values of early phase of obstructed kidneys compared to normal kidneys.

  15. Early urinary biomarkers of acute kidney injury in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Mina; Brophy, Patrick D; Giannone, Peter J; Joshi, Mandar S; Bauer, John A; RamachandraRao, Satish

    2016-08-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) in the neonatal intensive care setting is multifactorial and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. This study evaluates the utility of novel urinary biomarkers to predict the development and/or severity AKI in preterm infants. We performed a case-control study on a prospective cohort of preterm infants (<32 wk), to compare seven urine biomarkers between 25 infants with AKI and 20 infants without AKI. Infants with AKI had significantly higher neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) (median, control (CTRL) vs. AKI; 0.598 vs. 4.24 µg/ml; P < 0.0001). In contrast, urinary epidermal growth factor (EGF) levels were significantly lower in infants who developed AKI compared to controls (median, CTRL vs. AKI; 0.016 vs. 0.006 µg/ml; P < 0.001). The area under the curve (AUC) for NGAL for prediction of stage I AKI on the day prior to AKI diagnosis (day-1) was 0.91, and for the prediction of stage II/III, AKI was 0.92. Similarly, urine EGF was a predictor of renal injury on day -1 (AUC: 0.97 for stage I and 0.86 for stage II/III AKI). Urinary biomarkers may be useful to predict AKI development prior to changes in serum creatinine (SCr) in preterm infants.

  16. Kidney Failure

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy kidneys clean your blood by removing excess fluid, minerals, and wastes. They also make hormones that keep your ... strong and your blood healthy. But if the kidneys are damaged, they don't work properly. Harmful ...

  17. Proteomic and phosphoproteomic analysis of renal cortex in a salt-load rat model of advanced kidney damage

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shaoling; He, Hanchang; Tan, Lishan; Wang, Liangliang; Su, Zhengxiu; Liu, Yufeng; Zhu, Hongguo; Zhang, Menghuan; Hou, Fan Fan; Li, Aiqing

    2016-01-01

    Salt plays an essential role in the progression of chronic kidney disease and hypertension. However, the mechanisms underlying pathogenesis of salt-induced kidney damage remain largely unknown. Here, Sprague-Dawley rats, that underwent 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6Nx, a model of advanced kidney damage) or sham operation, were treated for 2 weeks with a normal or high-salt diet. We employed aTiO2 enrichment, iTRAQ labeling and liquid-chromatography tandem mass spectrometry strategy for proteomic and phosphoproteomic profiling of the renal cortex. We found 318 proteins differentially expressed in 5/6Nx group relative to sham group, and 310 proteins significantly changed in response to salt load in 5/6Nx animals. Totally, 1810 unique phosphopeptides corresponding to 550 phosphoproteins were identified. We identified 113 upregulated and 84 downregulated phosphopeptides in 5/6Nx animals relative to sham animals. Salt load induced 78 upregulated and 91 downregulated phosphopeptides in 5/6Nx rats. The differentially expressed phospholproteins are important transporters, structural molecules, and receptors. Protein-protein interaction analysis revealed that the differentially phosphorylated proteins in 5/6Nx group, Polr2a, Srrm1, Gsta2 and Pxn were the most linked. Salt-induced differential phosphoproteins, Myh6, Lmna and Des were the most linked. Altered phosphorylation levels of lamin A and phospholamban were validated. This study will provide new insight into pathogenetic mechanisms of chronic kidney disease and salt sensitivity. PMID:27775022

  18. Use of intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted imaging to detect early changes in diabetic kidneys.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yi; Yang, Biran; Peng, Yan; Liu, Zhiqiang; Luo, Jinwen; Du, Guoxin

    2018-03-14

    The purpose of the study was to examine differences in kidney intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted imaging (IVIM-DWI) parameters in early-stage diabetic patients versus healthy controls. Nineteen type 2 diabetic patients (group A) with a urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) < 30 mg/g and an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) of 80-120 mL/(min 1.73 m 2 ) and twelve healthy volunteers (group B) were recruited. Kidneys were scanned with 1.5-Tesla IVIM-DWI. Nine b values (0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 300, 400, 600, and 800 s/mm 2 ) were used. The parameters derived from IVIM-DWI were calculated for each kidney by two radiologists and included the perfusion fraction (f), diffusion coefficient (D), and pseudo-diffusion coefficient (D*). The mean values of f, D, and D* were calculated by selecting multiple regions of interest in the kidney. The diagnostic performance of the f, D, and D* values for the diagnosis of early diabetic kidney changes was determined by receiver operating characteristic analysis. Three radiologists independently measured the parameters derived from IVIM-DWI in the two groups by free-hand placing regions of interest, and the interclass coefficients (ICCs) were analyzed by SPSS.16.0 software. The f values of the kidneys were significantly higher in diabetic patients than in healthy volunteers. The D value of the kidneys was significantly lower in diabetic patients than in healthy volunteers. No significant differences in the D* values of the kidneys were observed between diabetic patients and healthy volunteers. The D values of the right kidneys were significantly higher than those of the left kidneys in both groups. The results of the receiver operating characteristic analysis were as follows: left kidney-f value AUC = 0.650 (cutoff point ≥ 27.49%) and D value AUC = 0.752 (cutoff point ≤ 1.68 × 10 -3  mm 2 /s); and right kidney-f value AUC = 0.650 (cutoff point ≥ 28.24%) and D value AUC = 0

  19. Early and Late Acute Kidney Injury in Severely Burned Patients

    PubMed Central

    Witkowski, Wojciech; Kawecki, Marek; Surowiecka-Pastewka, Agnieszka; Klimm, Wojciech; Szamotulska, Katarzyna; Niemczyk, Stanisław

    2016-01-01

    Background This study evaluated factors influencing early and late occurrence of AKI in severely burned patients and assessed the relationship between time of occurrence of AKI and mortality of AKI patients. Material/Methods Renal function was evaluated at 3 time points: at admission, at the critical point or middle point of hospitalization, and at the endpoint for which death or a discharge from the center was considered. AKI criteria were: decrease in GFR of less than 60 ml/min at admission, decrease in GFR of more than 75% compared to baseline, and decrease in the daily diuresis of less than 500 ml/24 h. Results At admission, 15.1% of the patients had eGFR <60 ml/min. AKI occurred in 38.5% of cases. The occurrence of AKI was associated with: elderly age (p<0.001), female sex (p=0.017), overweight and obesity (p=0.055); extent and depth of burns, respiratory failure, low protein concentration (for all p<0.001), low blood pressure (p=0.014), and high WBC (p=0.010). Early AKI was detected in 28% of patients. Mortality was 100% with the initial GFR ≥60, 100% with the initial GFR <60 and early deterioration of renal function, 80% with the initial GFR <60 and late worsening, and 60% with the initial GFR <60 and no worsening. Late AKI was observed in 10% of patients and mortality in this group was 79.2%. Mortality in the entire group with AKI was 88.0% versus 24.5%. Conclusions The frequent occurrence of AKI, especially early, worsens the prognosis for survival. Assessment of renal function should be included in the prognostic scales for burned patients. PMID:27746455

  20. Protective effect of an intrinsic antioxidant, HMH (5-hydroxy-1-methylhydantoin; NZ-419), against cellular damage of kidney tubules.

    PubMed

    Ienaga, Kazuharu; Park, Chan Hum; Yokozawa, Takako

    2013-07-01

    HMH (5-hydroxy-1-methylhydantoin; NZ-419) is a mammalian creatinine metabolite and an intrinsic antioxidant. HMH prevents the progression of chronic kidney disease in rats when a sufficient amount is taken orally. We assessed whether intrinsic and higher levels of HMH could protect tubular epithelial cells, LLC-PK(1) cells, against known cellular damage caused by xenobiotics, such as cisplatin and cephaloridine, or by hypoxia/reoxygenation treatment. Both cell damage and peroxidation, monitored as the leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and malondialdehyde (MDA), respectively, from cells into the media, were inhibited by HMH in a concentration-dependent manner. The minimum effective concentration of HMH (2.5 μM) seemed to be too low for HMH to only be a direct hydroxyl radical scavenger. Additional antioxidant effect(s) inhibiting reactive oxygen species generation and/or modulating signal transduction pathways were suggested. The possibility that intrinsic HMH could be a protectant for the kidney was indicated. At the same time, for sufficient inhibition, higher concentrations than intrinsic HMH concentrations may be necessary. Patterns of efficacies of HMH on LDH and MDA against different kinds of cellular damage were compared with our reported data on those of corresponding, naturally occurring antioxidants. A common and specific inhibitory mechanism as well as common target(s) in kidney injuries were indicated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. The use of cell cycle arrest biomarkers in the early detection of acute kidney injury. Is this the new renal troponin?

    PubMed

    Ortega, Luis M; Heung, Michael

    2018-04-05

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) has a high prevalence in critical care patients. Early detection might prevent patients from developing chronic kidney disease and requirement for renal replacement therapy. If we compare AKI with acute coronary syndrome, in which an increase in cardiac troponin may trigger early diagnosis and therapeutic intervention, we could extrapolate a similar technique in patients with early AKI without changes in urinary frequency or serum creatinine. The objective is to identify biomarker-positive, creatinine-negative patients that would allow therapeutic interventions to be initiated before finding changes in serum creatinine, preventing kidney damage. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 7 are cell cycle arrest biomarkers that have demonstrated, in recent clinical trials, to have good sensitivity and specificity for early detection of AKI. Other recent studies have shown that the joint use of these biomarkers with serum creatinine and urine production could improve the prognosis of AKI in critical patients. The application of these biomarkers in clinical practice would enable the early identification of patients at risk of AKI, establishing interventions that would improve the survival of renal function. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of TORC1 Inhibition during the Early and Established Phases of Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ta, Michelle H. T.; Schwensen, Kristina G.; Foster, Sheryl; Korgaonkar, Mayuresh; Ozimek-Kulik, Justyna E.; Phillips, Jacqueline K.; Peduto, Anthony; Rangan, Gopala K.

    2016-01-01

    The disease-modifying effects of target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) inhibitors during different stages of polycystic kidney disease (PKD) are not well defined. In this study, male Lewis Polycystic Kidney Disease (LPK) rats (a genetic ortholog of human NPHP9, phenotypically characterised by diffuse distal nephron cystic growth) and Lewis controls received either vehicle (V) or sirolimus (S, 0.2 mg/kg by intraperitoneal injection 5 days per week) during the early (postnatal weeks 3 to 10) or late stages of disease (weeks 10 to 20). In early-stage disease, sirolimus reduced kidney enlargement (by 63%), slowed the rate of increase in total kidney volume (TKV) in serial MRI by 78.2% (LPK+V: 132.3±59.7 vs. LPK+S: 28.8±12.0% per week) but only partly reduced the percentage renal cyst area (by 19%) and did not affect the decline in endogenous creatinine clearance (CrCl) in LPK rats. In late-stage disease, sirolimus reduced kidney enlargement (by 22%) and the rate of increase in TKV by 71.8% (LPK+V: 13.1±6.6 vs. LPK+S: 3.7±3.7% per week) but the percentage renal cyst area was unaltered, and the CrCl only marginally better. Sirolimus reduced renal TORC1 activation but not TORC2, NF-κB DNA binding activity, CCL2 or TNFα expression, and abnormalities in cilia ultrastructure, hypertension and cardiac disease were also not improved. Thus, the relative treatment efficacy of TORC1 inhibition on kidney enlargement was consistent at all disease stages, but the absolute effect was determined by the timing of drug initiation. Furthermore, cystic microarchitecture, renal function and cardiac disease remain abnormal with TORC1 inhibition, indicating that additional approaches to normalise cellular dedifferentiation, inflammation and hypertension are required to completely arrest the progression of PKDs. PMID:27723777

  3. N-acetyl-cysteine increases cellular dysfunction in progressive chronic kidney damage after acute kidney injury by dampening endogenous antioxidant responses.

    PubMed

    Small, David M; Sanchez, Washington Y; Roy, Sandrine F; Morais, Christudas; Brooks, Heddwen L; Coombes, Jeff S; Johnson, David W; Gobe, Glenda C

    2018-05-01

    Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction exacerbate acute kidney injury (AKI), but their role in any associated progress to chronic kidney disease (CKD) remains unclear. Antioxidant therapies often benefit AKI, but their benefits in CKD are controversial since clinical and preclinical investigations often conflict. Here we examined the influence of the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) on oxidative stress and mitochondrial function during AKI (20-min bilateral renal ischemia plus reperfusion/IR) and progression to chronic kidney pathologies in mice. NAC (5% in diet) was given to mice 7 days prior and up to 21 days post-IR (21d-IR). NAC treatment resulted in the following: prevented proximal tubular epithelial cell apoptosis at early IR (40-min postischemia), yet enhanced interstitial cell proliferation at 21d-IR; increased transforming growth factor-β1 expression independent of IR time; and significantly dampened nuclear factor-like 2-initiated cytoprotective signaling at early IR. In the long term, NAC enhanced cellular metabolic impairment demonstrated by increased peroxisome proliferator activator-γ serine-112 phosphorylation at 21d-IR. Intravital multiphoton microscopy revealed increased endogenous fluorescence of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) in cortical tubular epithelial cells during ischemia, and at 21d-IR that was not attenuated with NAC. Fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy demonstrated persistent metabolic impairment by increased free/bound NADH in the cortex at 21d-IR that was enhanced by NAC. Increased mitochondrial dysfunction in remnant tubular cells was demonstrated at 21d-IR by tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester fluorimetry. In summary, NAC enhanced progression to CKD following AKI not only by dampening endogenous cellular antioxidant responses at time of injury but also by enhancing persistent kidney mitochondrial and metabolic dysfunction.

  4. Nebivolol ameliorated kidney damage in Zucker diabetic fatty rats by regulation of oxidative stress/NO pathway: comparison with captopril.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; An, Wenjing; Zhang, Fei; Niu, Mengzhen; Liu, Yu; Shi, Ruizan

    2018-06-23

    The aim was to evaluate the effects and mechanisms of nebivolol on renal damage in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, in comparison with those of atenolol and captopril. Animals were divided into: control lean Zucker rats, ZDF rats, ZDF rats orally treated with nebivolol (10 mg/kg), atenolol (100 mg/kg) or captopril (40 mg/kg) for 6 months. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), blood glucose, kidney structure and function, plasma and kidney levels of nitric oxide (NO) and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), and oxidant status were evaluated. Kidney expressions of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), NADPH oxidase (NOX) isoforms 2 and 4 and subunit p22 phox , nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoforms, eNOS uncoupling, protein arginine N-methyltransferase (PRMT) 1, and dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) 1 and 2 were tested. All drugs induced a similar control of SBP. Nebivolol did not affect the increased plasma glucose. Unlike atenolol, nebivolol prevented the decrease in plasma insulin, and, like captopril, it reduced plasma lipid contents. Nebivolol ameliorated, to a greater extent than captopril, damages to renal structure and function, which were associated with an improvement in interlobular artery dysfunction. Nebivolol elevated kidney phosphorylation of AMPK, attenuated NOX4 and p22 phox expression and oxidative stress marker levels. Nebivolol increased plasma and renal NO, enhanced expressions of eNOS, p-eNOS and nNOS, and suppressed eNOS uncoupling and iNOS expression. High ADMA in plasma and kidney were decreased by nebivolol through increasing DDAH2 and decreasing PRMT1. Long-term treatment of nebivolol ameliorated diabetic nephropathy, at least in part, via regulation of renal oxidative stress/NO pathway. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Oxidative Stress as a Mechanism Involved in Kidney Damage After Subchronic Exposure to Vanadium Inhalation and Oral Sweetened Beverages in a Mouse Model.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-Zurutuza, Maribel; González-Villalva, Adriana; Albarrán-Alonso, Juan Carlos; Colín-Barenque, Laura; Bizarro-Nevares, Patricia; Rojas-Lemus, Marcela; López-Valdéz, Nelly; Fortoul, Teresa I

    Kidney diseases have notably increased in the last few years. This is partially explained by the increase in metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and systemic blood hypertension. However, there is a segment of the population that has neither of the previous risk factors, yet suffers kidney damage. Exposure to atmospheric pollutants has been suggested as a possible risk factor. Air-suspended particles carry on their surface a variety of fuel combustion-related residues such as metals, and vanadium is one of these. Vanadium might produce oxidative stress resulting in the damage of some organs such as the kidney. Additionally, in countries like Mexico, the ingestion of sweetened beverages is a major issue; whether these beverages alone are responsible for direct kidney damage or whether their ingestion promotes the progression of an existing renal damage generates controversy. In this study, we report the combined effect of vanadium inhalation and sweetened beverages ingestion in a mouse model. Forty CD-1 male mice were distributed in 4 groups: control, vanadium inhalation, 30% sucrose in drinking water, and vanadium inhalation plus sucrose 30% in drinking water. Our results support that vanadium inhalation and the ingestion of 30% sucrose induce functional and histological kidney damage and an increase in oxidative stress biomarkers, which were higher in the combined effect of vanadium plus 30% sucrose. The results also support that the ingestion of 30% sucrose alone without hyperglycemia also produces kidney damage.

  6. The construction of a panel of serum amino acids for the identification of early chronic kidney disease patients.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Dai, Jinna; Kang, Hui

    2018-03-01

    Serum creatinine, urea, and cystatin-c are standardly used for the evaluation of renal function in the clinic. However, some patients have chronic kidney disease but still retain kidney function; a conventional serum index in these patients can be completely normal. Serum amino acid levels can reflect subtle changes in metabolism and are closely related to renal function. Here, we investigated how amino acids change as renal impairment increases. Subjects were divided into three groups by renal function glomerular filtration rate: healthy controls, patients with chronic kidney disease with normal kidney function, and patients with chronic kidney disease with decreased kidney function group. We identified 11 amino acids of interest using LC-MS/MS on MRM (+) mode. Statistical analysis indicated that alanine (ALA), valine (VAL), and tyrosine (TYR) decrease with renal function impairment, whereas phenylalanine (PHE) and citrulline (CIT) increase. We tried to construct a diagnostic model utilizing a combination of amino acids capable of identifying early chronic kidney disease patients. The accuracy, specificity, and sensitivity of the combining predictors were 86.9%, 84.6%, and 90.9%, respectively, which is superior to the reported values for serum creatinine, urea, and cystatin-c. Our data suggest that serum amino acid levels may supply important information for the early detection of chronic kidney disease. We are the first to establish a diagnostic model utilizing serum levels of multiple amino acids for the diagnosis of patients with early-stage chronic kidney disease. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Transcriptome profile analysis reflects rat liver and kidney damage following chronic ultra-low dose Roundup exposure.

    PubMed

    Mesnage, Robin; Arno, Matthew; Costanzo, Manuela; Malatesta, Manuela; Séralini, Gilles-Eric; Antoniou, Michael N

    2015-08-25

    Glyphosate-based herbicides (GBH) are the major pesticides used worldwide. Converging evidence suggests that GBH, such as Roundup, pose a particular health risk to liver and kidneys although low environmentally relevant doses have not been examined. To address this issue, a 2-year study in rats administering 0.1 ppb Roundup (50 ng/L glyphosate equivalent) via drinking water (giving a daily intake of 4 ng/kg bw/day of glyphosate) was conducted. A marked increased incidence of anatomorphological and blood/urine biochemical changes was indicative of liver and kidney structure and functional pathology. In order to confirm these findings we have conducted a transcriptome microarray analysis of the liver and kidneys from these same animals. The expression of 4224 and 4447 transcript clusters (a group of probes corresponding to a known or putative gene) were found to be altered respectively in liver and kidney (p < 0.01, q < 0.08). Changes in gene expression varied from -3.5 to 3.7 fold in liver and from -4.3 to 5.3 in kidneys. Among the 1319 transcript clusters whose expression was altered in both tissues, ontological enrichment in 3 functional categories among 868 genes were found. First, genes involved in mRNA splicing and small nucleolar RNA were mostly upregulated, suggesting disruption of normal spliceosome activity. Electron microscopic analysis of hepatocytes confirmed nucleolar structural disruption. Second, genes controlling chromatin structure (especially histone-lysine N-methyltransferases) were mostly upregulated. Third, genes related to respiratory chain complex I and the tricarboxylic acid cycle were mostly downregulated. Pathway analysis suggests a modulation of the mTOR and phosphatidylinositol signalling pathways. Gene disturbances associated with the chronic administration of ultra-low dose Roundup reflect a liver and kidney lipotoxic condition and increased cellular growth that may be linked with regeneration in response to toxic effects causing damage

  8. Oxygen free radical induced damage in kidneys subjected to warm ischemia and reperfusion. Protective effect of superoxide dismutase.

    PubMed Central

    Baker, G L; Corry, R J; Autor, A P

    1985-01-01

    Superoxide anion free radical (O2-.) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of tissue injury consequent to ischemia/reperfusion in several different organs, including heart and bowel. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), an enzyme free radical scavenger specific for O2-., has been used successfully to protect these organs from structural damage during reoxygenation of ischemic tissue. It has been suggested that the catalytic action of xanthine oxidase in injured tissue is an important source of O2-. during reoxygenation. In order to evaluate the potential of SOD to protect against kidney damage resulting from transient ischemia followed by reperfusion with oxygenated blood, a model of warm renal ischemia was studied. LBNF1 rats underwent right nephrectomy and occlusion of the left renal artery for 45 minutes. Survival in the group of ischemic untreated rats (N = 30) was 56% at 7 days and serum creatinine was greatly elevated (p less than 0.01) in rats remaining alive over the full 7-day period. In strong contrast to these results, all of the animals treated with SOD before reperfusion (N = 18) were alive after 7 days similar to sham operated control rats (N = 8). Serum creatinine in the SOD treated rats was significantly elevated only to postoperative day 3 and thereafter returned to normal. Rats treated with inactive SOD (N = 4) or SOD before ischemia (N = 4) had decreased survival rates compared to ischemic untreated animals and prolonged elevation of serum creatinine. When the ischemia time was extended to 60 minutes, only 19% of the untreated animals (N = 16) survived at 7 days whereas nearly 60% of the SOD-treated animals survived (N = 19). Serum creatinine was greatly elevated during the full 7-day observation period in all surviving rats in the untreated ischemic group, whereas serum creatinine returned to normal (p less than 0.05) after 4 days in the surviving rats treated with SOD. To test whether the action of xanthine oxidase contributed to the kidney damage

  9. Lipoxins Regulate the Early Growth Response-1 Network and Reverse Diabetic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Brennan, Eoin P; Mohan, Muthukumar; McClelland, Aaron; Tikellis, Christos; Ziemann, Mark; Kaspi, Antony; Gray, Stephen P; Pickering, Raelene; Tan, Sih Min; Ali-Shah, Syed Tasadaque; Guiry, Patrick J; El-Osta, Assam; Jandeleit-Dahm, Karin; Cooper, Mark E; Godson, Catherine; Kantharidis, Phillip

    2018-05-01

    Background The failure of spontaneous resolution underlies chronic inflammatory conditions, including microvascular complications of diabetes such as diabetic kidney disease. The identification of endogenously generated molecules that promote the physiologic resolution of inflammation suggests that these bioactions may have therapeutic potential in the context of chronic inflammation. Lipoxins (LXs) are lipid mediators that promote the resolution of inflammation. Methods We investigated the potential of LXA 4 and a synthetic LX analog (Benzo-LXA 4 ) as therapeutics in a murine model of diabetic kidney disease, ApoE -/- mice treated with streptozotocin. Results Intraperitoneal injection of LXs attenuated the development of diabetes-induced albuminuria, mesangial expansion, and collagen deposition. Notably, LXs administered 10 weeks after disease onset also attenuated established kidney disease, with evidence of preserved kidney function. Kidney transcriptome profiling defined a diabetic signature (725 genes; false discovery rate P ≤0.05). Comparison of this murine gene signature with that of human diabetic kidney disease identified shared renal proinflammatory/profibrotic signals (TNF- α , IL-1 β , NF- κ B). In diabetic mice, we identified 20 and 51 transcripts regulated by LXA 4 and Benzo-LXA 4 , respectively, and pathway analysis identified established (TGF- β 1, PDGF, TNF- α , NF- κ B) and novel (early growth response-1 [EGR-1]) networks activated in diabetes and regulated by LXs. In cultured human renal epithelial cells, treatment with LXs attenuated TNF- α -driven Egr-1 activation, and Egr-1 depletion prevented cellular responses to TGF- β 1 and TNF- α Conclusions These data demonstrate that LXs can reverse established diabetic complications and support a therapeutic paradigm to promote the resolution of inflammation. Copyright © 2018 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  10. Understanding the management of early-stage chronic kidney disease in primary care: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Blakeman, Tom; Protheroe, Joanne; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Rogers, Anne; Kennedy, Anne

    2012-04-01

    Primary care is recognised to have an important role in the delivery of care for people with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, there is evidence that CKD management is currently suboptimal, with a range of practitioner concerns about its management. To explore processes underpinning the implementation of CKD management in primary care. Qualitative study in general practices participating in a chronic kidney disease collaborative undertaken as part of the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC) for Greater Manchester. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with GPs and practice nurses (n = 21). Normalisation Process Theory provided a framework for generation and analysis of the data. A predominant theme was anxiety about the disclosure of early-stage CKD with patients. The tensions experienced related to identifying and discussing CKD in older people and patients with stage 3A, embedding early-stage CKD within vascular care, and the distribution of work within the practice team. Participants provided accounts of work undertaken to resolve the difficulties encountered, with efforts having tended to focus on reassuring patients. Analysis also highlighted how anxiety surrounding disclosure influenced, and was shaped by, the organisation of care for people with CKD and associated long-term conditions. Offering reassurance alone may be of limited benefit, and current management of early-stage CKD in primary care may miss opportunities to address susceptibility to kidney injury, improve self-management of vascular conditions, and improve the management of multimorbidity.

  11. Early activation of deleterious molecular pathways in the kidney in experimental heart failure with atrial remodeling.

    PubMed

    Ichiki, Tomoko; Huntley, Brenda K; Harty, Gail J; Sangaralingham, S Jeson; Burnett, John C

    2017-05-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a major health problem with worsening outcomes when renal impairment is present. Therapeutics for early phase HF may be effective for cardiorenal protection, however the detailed characteristics of the kidney in early-stage HF (ES-HF), and therefore treatment for potential renal protection, are poorly defined. We sought to determine the gene and protein expression profiles of specific maladaptive pathways of ES-HF in the kidney and heart. Experimental canine ES-HF, characterized by de-novo HF with atrial remodeling but not ventricular fibrosis, was induced by right ventricular pacing for 10 days. Kidney cortex (KC), medulla (KM), left ventricle (LV), and left atrial (LA) tissues from ES-HF versus normal canines ( n  = 4 of each) were analyzed using RT-PCR microarrays and protein assays to assess genes and proteins related to inflammation, renal injury, apoptosis, and fibrosis. ES-HF was characterized by increased circulating natriuretic peptides and components of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and decreased sodium and water excretion with mild renal injury and up-regulation of CNP and renin genes in the kidney. Compared to normals, widespread genes, especially genes of the inflammatory pathways, were up-regulated in KC similar to increases seen in LA Protein expressions related to inflammatory cytokines were also augmented in the KC Gene and protein changes were less prominent in the LV and KM The ES-HF displayed mild renal injury with widespread gene changes and increased inflammatory cytokines. These changes may provide important clues into the pathophysiology of ES-HF and for therapeutic molecular targets in the kidney of ES-HF. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  12. Early Wheel Train Damage Detection Using Wireless Sensor Network Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazilah, A. F. M.; Azemi, S. N.; Azremi, A. A. H.; Soh, P. J.; Kamarudin, L. M.

    2018-03-01

    Antenna for a wireless sensor network for early wheel trains damage detection has successfully developed and fabricated with the aim to minimize the risk and increase the safety guaranty for train. Current antenna design is suffered in gain and big in size. For the sensor, current existing sensor only detect when the wheel malfunction. Thus, a compact microstrip patch antenna with operating frequency at 2.45GHz is design with high gain of 4.95dB will attach to the wireless sensor device. Simulation result shows that the antenna is working at frequency 2.45GHz and the return loss at -34.46dB are in a good agreement. The result also shows the good radiation pattern and almost ideal VSWR which is 1.04. The Arduino Nano, LM35DZ and ESP8266-07 Wi-Fi module is applied to the core system with capability to sense the temperature and send the data wirelessly to the cloud. An android application has been created to monitor the temperature reading based on the real time basis. The mainly focuses for the future improvement is by minimize the size of the antenna in order to make in more compact. In addition, upgrade an android application that can collect the raw data from cloud and make an alarm system to alert the loco pilot.

  13. Association of educational attainment with chronic disease and mortality: the Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP).

    PubMed

    Choi, Andy I; Weekley, Cristin C; Chen, Shu-Cheng; Li, Suying; Tamura, Manjula Kurella; Norris, Keith C; Shlipak, Michael G

    2011-08-01

    Recent reports have suggested a close relationship between education and health, including mortality, in the United States. Observational cohort. We studied 61,457 participants enrolled in a national health screening initiative, the National Kidney Foundation's Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP). Self-reported educational attainment. Chronic diseases (hypertension, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, reduced kidney function, and albuminuria) and mortality. We evaluated cross-sectional associations between self-reported educational attainment with the chronic diseases listed using logistic regression models adjusted for demographics, access to care, behaviors, and comorbid conditions. The association of educational attainment with survival was determined using multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression. Higher educational attainment was associated with a lower prevalence of each of the chronic conditions listed. In multivariable models, compared with persons not completing high school, college graduates had a lower risk of each chronic condition, ranging from 11% lower odds of decreased kidney function to 37% lower odds of cardiovascular disease. During a mean follow-up of 3.9 (median, 3.7) years, 2,384 (4%) deaths occurred. In the fully adjusted Cox model, those who had completed college had 24% lower mortality compared with participants who had completed at least some high school. Lack of income data does not allow us to disentangle the independent effects of education from income. In this diverse contemporary cohort, higher educational attainment was associated independently with a lower prevalence of chronic diseases and short-term mortality in all age and race/ethnicity groups. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. An overview of experimental and early investigational therapies for the treatment of polycystic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Domenico; Pellicanò, Vincenzo; Visconti, Luca; Trifirò, Gianluca; Buemi, Michele; Cernaro, Valeria

    2015-01-01

    At present, treatment of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is essentially supportive as there is still no specific therapy. However, recent advances with ADPKD pathophysiology have stimulated research for new therapeutic strategies. The aim of this systematic review is to analyze the experimental and early investigational therapies currently under evaluation in this field. Data from completed clinical trials were retrieved from the currently available scientific literature and from the ClinicalTrials.gov website. Among the drugs currently being explored, mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors reduce kidney volume enlargement but their role remains uncertain. The most promising drug is the V2 receptor antagonist tolvaptan, which reduces the increased rate of total kidney volume and slows down glomerular filtration rate decline. The main candidates for the treatment of cysts growth, both in the kidney and in the liver whenever present, are the somatostatin analogues, such as lanreotide and octreotide and more recently pasireotide. As for other therapies, some favorable results have been achieved but data are still not sufficient to establish if these approaches may be beneficial in slowing ADPKD progression in the future.

  15. Hyperhomocysteinemia and protein damage in chronic renal failure and kidney transplant pediatric patients--Italian initiative on uremic hyperhomocysteinemia (IIUH).

    PubMed

    Perna, Alessandra F; Ingrosso, Diego; Molino, Daniela; Galletti, Patrizia; Montini, Giovanni; Zacchello, Graziella; Bellantuono, Rosa; Caringella, Angela; Fede, Carmelo; Chimenz, Roberto; De Santo, Natale G

    2003-01-01

    Plasma homocysteine, a new cardiovascular risk factor in both children and adults, is higher in chronic renal failure or kidney transplant patients. This alteration has been linked, in chronic renal failure, to plasma protein damage, represented by increased L-isoaspartyl residues. We measured plasma homocysteine levels and plasma protein damage in pediatric patients from four different Italian regions with conservatively treated renal failure; hemodialysis, continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD), or transplants, to establish the presence of protein damage and the relative role of hyperhomocysteinemia. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation measured total plasma homocysteine levels, using precolumn derivatization with ammonium 7-fluorobenzo-2-oxa-1, 3-diazole-4-sulphonate (SBD-F). Plasma protein L-isoaspartyl residues were quantitated using human recombinant protein carboxyl methyl transferase (PCMT). In all patient groups, homocysteine levels were significantly higher with respect to the control (Control: 6.87 +/- 0.73 microM) conservatively treated, 14.19 +/- 1.73 microM; hemodialysis, 27.03 +/- 4.32 microM; CAPD, 22.38 +/- 3.73 microM; transplanted, 20.22 +/- 2.27 microM, p < 0.001 vs. control]. Plasma protein damage was significantly higher in conservatively treated, hemodialysis (HD) and CAPD patients, while in transplant patients it was no different from the control. We concluded that in pediatric patients of different Italian geographical origin, plasma homocysteine levels were significantly higher in all groups with respect to healthy children; therefore contributing to the elevated cardiovascular risk present in these patients. Plasma protein L-isoaspartyl content was higher in renal failure patients, but kidney transplant patients had normal levels, indicating that this kind of protein damage relates more to the toxic action of uremic retention solutes, than to plasma homocysteine levels.

  16. Methanol exposure does not produce oxidatively damaged DNA in lung, liver or kidney of adult mice, rabbits or primates

    SciTech Connect

    McCallum, Gordon P.; Siu, Michelle; Sweeting, J. Nicole

    2011-01-15

    In vitro and in vivo genotoxicity tests indicate methanol (MeOH) is not mutagenic, but carcinogenic potential has been claimed in one controversial long-term rodent cancer bioassay that has not been replicated. To determine whether MeOH could indirectly damage DNA via reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated mechanisms, we treated male CD-1 mice, New Zealand white rabbits and cynomolgus monkeys with MeOH (2.0 g/kg ip) and 6 h later assessed oxidative damage to DNA, measured as 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) by HPLC with electrochemical detection. We found no MeOH-dependent increases in 8-oxodG in lung, liver or kidney of any species. Chronic treatment of CD-1 micemore » with MeOH (2.0 g/kg ip) daily for 15 days also did not increase 8-oxodG levels in these organs. These results were corroborated in DNA repair-deficient oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (Ogg1) knockout (KO) mice, which accumulated 8-oxodG in lung, kidney and liver with age, but exhibited no increase following MeOH, despite a 2-fold increase in renal 8-oxodG in Ogg1 KO mice following treatment with a ROS-initiating positive control, the renal carcinogen potassium bromate (KBrO{sub 3}; 100 mg/kg ip). These observations suggest that MeOH exposure does not promote the accumulation of oxidatively damaged DNA in lung, kidney or liver, and that environmental exposure to MeOH is unlikely to initiate carcinogenesis in these organs by DNA oxidation.« less

  17. Dose-effect relationship between drinking water fluoride levels and damage to liver and kidney functions in children.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Xianzhi; Liu, Junling; He, Weihong; Xia, Tao; He, Ping; Chen, Xuemin; Yang, Kedi; Wang, Aiguo

    2007-01-01

    Although a dose-effect relationship between water fluoride levels and damage to liver and kidney functions in animals has been reported, it was not demonstrated in humans. To evaluate the effects of drinking water fluoride levels on the liver and kidney functions in children with and without dental fluorosis, we identified 210 children who were divided into seven groups with 30 each based on different drinking water fluoride levels in the same residential area. We found that the fluoride levels in serum and urine of these children increased as the levels of drinking water fluoride increased. There were no significant differences in the levels of total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), aspartate transamine (AST), and alanine transamine (ALT) in serum among these groups. However, the activities of serum lactic dehydrogenase (LDH), urine N-acetyl-beta-glucosaminidase (NAG), and urine gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT) in children with dental fluorosis and having water fluoride of 2.15-2.96 mg/L and in children having water fluoride of 3.15-5.69 mg/L regardless of dental fluorosis were significantly higher than children exposed to water fluoride of 0.61-0.87 mg/L in a dose-response manner. In contrast to children with dental fluorosis and having water fluoride of 2.15-2.96 and 3.10-5.69 mg/L, serum LDH activity of children without dental fluorosis but exposed to the same levels of water fluoride as those with dental fluorosis were also markedly lower, but the activities of NAG and gamma-GT in their urine were not. Therefore, our results suggest that drinking water fluoride levels over 2.0mg/L can cause damage to liver and kidney functions in children and that the dental fluorosis was independent of damage to the liver but not the kidney. Further studies on the mechanisms and significance underlying damage to the liver without dental fluorosis in the exposed children are warranted.

  18. Early Diagnosis of Clear Cell Kidney Cancer via VHL/HIF Pathway Regulated-Circulating microRNA

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-11-1-0715 TITLE: Early Diagnosis of Clear Cell Kidney Cancer via VHL/HIF Pathway-Regulated Circulating microRNA PRINCIPAL...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Sa. CONTRACT NUMBER Early Diagnosis of Clear Cell Kidney Cancer via VHL/HIF Pathway- Regulated Circulating microRNA Sb. GRANT NUMBER...panel of diagnostic miRNAs that are measurable in serum and will be able to identify kidney cancer in its earliest stages. We hypothesized that serum

  19. Serum Uromodulin Levels in Prediction of Acute Kidney Injury in the Early Phase of Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Kuśnierz-Cabala, Beata; Gala-Błądzińska, Agnieszka; Mazur-Laskowska, Małgorzata; Dumnicka, Paulina; Sporek, Mateusz; Matuszyk, Aleksandra; Gil, Krzysztof; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Walocha, Jerzy; Kucharz, Jakub; Pędziwiatr, Michał; Bartuś, Krzysztof; Trąbka, Rafał; Kuźniewski, Marek

    2017-06-14

    In health, uromodulin is the main protein of urine. Serum uromodulin concentrations (sUMOD) have been shown to correlate with kidney function. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is among the main complications of severe acute pancreatitis (AP). No reports exist on sUMOD in patients with AP, including the diagnostic usefulness for early prediction of AP severity. We measured sUMOD during first 72 h of AP. Sixty-six adult patients with AP were recruited at the surgical ward of the District Hospital in Sucha Beskidzka, Poland. AP was diagnosed according to the Revised Atlanta Classification. Blood samples were collected at 24, 48 and 72 h of AP, and sUMOD concentrations were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent test. sUMOD decreased non-significantly during the study. Patients with severe AP had non-significantly lower sUMOD concentrations than those with mild disease. Significant positive correlation was observed between sUMOD and estimated glomerular filtration rate on each day of the study and negative correlations were shown between sUMOD and age, serum creatinine, cystatin C and urea. Patients with AKI tended to have lower sUMOD. Although sUMOD correlated significantly with kidney function in the early phase of AP, measuring sUMOD did not allow to reliably predict AP severity or development of AKI.

  20. Hyperactivation of Akt/mTOR and deficiency in tuberin increased the oxidative DNA damage in kidney cancer patients with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Habib, Samy L.; Liang, Sitai

    2014-01-01

    Recent study from our laboratory showed that patients with diabetes are at a higher risk of developing kidney cancer. In the current study, we have explored one of the mechanisms by which diabetes accelerates tumorigenesis in the kidney. Kidney cancer tissue from patients with diabetes showed a higher activity of Akt and decreased in total protein of tuberin compared to kidney cancer patient without diabetes or diabetes alone. In addition, a significant increase in phospho-Akt/tuberin expression was associated with an increase in Ki67 expression and activation of mTOR in kidney tumor with or without diabetes compared to diabetes alone. In addition, decrease in tuberin expression resulted in a significant decrease in protein expression of OGG1 and increased in oxidative DNA damage, 8-oxodG in kidney tissues from patients with cancer or cancer+diabetes. Importantly, these data showed that the majority of the staining of Akt/tuberin/p70S6K phosphorylation was more prominently in the tubular cells. In addition, accumulation of oxidative DNA damage is localized only in the nucleus of tubular cells within the cortex region. These data suggest that Akt/tuberin/mTOR pathway plays an important role in the regulation DNA damage and repair pathways that may predispose diabetic kidneys to pathogenesis of renal cell carcinoma. PMID:24797175

  1. Bone metabolism dynamics in the early post-transplant period following kidney and liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Peter W; Bischoff-Ferrari, Heike A; Boggian, Katia; Bonani, Marco; van Delden, Christian; Enriquez, Natalia; Fehr, Thomas; Garzoni, Christian; Hirsch, Hans H; Hirzel, Cédric; Manuel, Oriol; Meylan, Pascal; Saleh, Lanja; Weisser, Maja; Mueller, Nicolas J

    2018-01-01

    Bone disease contributes to relevant morbidity after solid organ transplantation. Vitamin D has a crucial role for bone metabolism. Activation of vitamin D depends on the endocrine function of both, liver and kidney. Our study assessed key markers of bone metabolism at time of transplantation and 6 months after transplantation among 70 kidney and 70 liver recipients. In 70 kidney recipients 25-OH vitamin D levels did not differ significantly between peri-transplant (median 32.5nmol/l) and 6 months post-transplant (median 41.9nmol/l; P = 0.272). Six months post-transplant median 1, 25-(OH)2 vitamin D levels increased by >300% (from 9.1 to 36.5ng/l; P<0.001) and median intact parathyroid hormone levels decreased by 68.4% (from 208.7 to 66.0 ng/l; P<0.001). Median β-Crosslaps (CTx) and total procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP) decreased by 65.1% (from 1.32 to 0.46ng/ml; P<0.001) and 60.6% (from 158.2 to 62.3ng/ml; P<0.001), respectively. Kidney recipients with incident fractures had significantly lower levels of 1, 25-(OH)2 vitamin D at time of transplantation and of intact parathyroid hormone 6 months post-transplant. Among 70 liver recipients, 25-OH vitamin D, 1, 25-(OH)2 vitamin D and intact parathyroid hormone levels were not significantly altered between peri-transplant and 6 months post-transplant. Contrary to kidney recipients, median CTx increased by 60.0% (from 0.45 to 0.72 ng/ml; P = 0.002) and P1NP by 49.3% (from 84.0 to 125.4ng/ml; P = 0.001) in the longitudinal course. Assessed biomarkers didn't differ between liver recipients with and without fractures. To conclude, the assessed panel of biomarkers proved highly dynamic after liver as well as kidney transplantation in the early post-transplant period. After kidney transplantation a significant gain in 1, 25-(OH)2 vitamin D combined with a decline in iPTH, CTx and P1NP, whereas after liver transplantation an increase in CTx and P1NP were characteristic.

  2. Bone metabolism dynamics in the early post-transplant period following kidney and liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Peter W.; Bischoff-Ferrari, Heike A.; Boggian, Katia; Bonani, Marco; van Delden, Christian; Enriquez, Natalia; Fehr, Thomas; Garzoni, Christian; Hirsch, Hans H.; Hirzel, Cédric; Manuel, Oriol; Meylan, Pascal; Saleh, Lanja; Weisser, Maja

    2018-01-01

    Bone disease contributes to relevant morbidity after solid organ transplantation. Vitamin D has a crucial role for bone metabolism. Activation of vitamin D depends on the endocrine function of both, liver and kidney. Our study assessed key markers of bone metabolism at time of transplantation and 6 months after transplantation among 70 kidney and 70 liver recipients. In 70 kidney recipients 25-OH vitamin D levels did not differ significantly between peri-transplant (median 32.5nmol/l) and 6 months post-transplant (median 41.9nmol/l; P = 0.272). Six months post-transplant median 1, 25-(OH)2 vitamin D levels increased by >300% (from 9.1 to 36.5ng/l; P<0.001) and median intact parathyroid hormone levels decreased by 68.4% (from 208.7 to 66.0 ng/l; P<0.001). Median β-Crosslaps (CTx) and total procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP) decreased by 65.1% (from 1.32 to 0.46ng/ml; P<0.001) and 60.6% (from 158.2 to 62.3ng/ml; P<0.001), respectively. Kidney recipients with incident fractures had significantly lower levels of 1, 25-(OH)2 vitamin D at time of transplantation and of intact parathyroid hormone 6 months post-transplant. Among 70 liver recipients, 25-OH vitamin D, 1, 25-(OH)2 vitamin D and intact parathyroid hormone levels were not significantly altered between peri-transplant and 6 months post-transplant. Contrary to kidney recipients, median CTx increased by 60.0% (from 0.45 to 0.72 ng/ml; P = 0.002) and P1NP by 49.3% (from 84.0 to 125.4ng/ml; P = 0.001) in the longitudinal course. Assessed biomarkers didn’t differ between liver recipients with and without fractures. To conclude, the assessed panel of biomarkers proved highly dynamic after liver as well as kidney transplantation in the early post-transplant period. After kidney transplantation a significant gain in 1, 25-(OH)2 vitamin D combined with a decline in iPTH, CTx and P1NP, whereas after liver transplantation an increase in CTx and P1NP were characteristic. PMID:29338022

  3. Branched-chain amino acids attenuate early kidney injury in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Mi, Na; Zhang, Xiu Juan; Ding, Yan; Li, Guo Hua; Wang, Wei Dong; Xian, Hui Xia; Xu, Jin

    2015-10-16

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the most severe diabetic microvascular complication. The pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy is complex, and oxidative stress plays an important role in the development of diabetic nephropathy. Elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels activate various signaling pathways and influence the activities of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), which contributes to glomerular hypertrophy. Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) are widely used in clinical treatment, and BCAAs can reduce the oxidative stress associated with the diabetic pancreas and some liver diseases. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine whether BCAAs could attenuate oxidative stress in the kidneys of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats to prevent early diabetic kidney injury. Male Wistar rats were fed for two weeks with a normal chow diet or a high-fat diet in which 40% of calories were derived from fat. After this two-week period, the mice fed normal chow were injected with vehicle, while the high-fat diet group was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 40 mg/kg STZ. The STZ-treated group was randomly divided into four subgroups that were treated with different doses of BCAAs or vehicle for two months by oral gavage. Plasma glucose, plasma creatinine, urinary protein and JNK, TGF-β, and MMP-9 mRNA and protein expression levels were measured in the rats. The ROS levels and proteinuria in the STZ-induced diabetic rats were significantly higher than those in the control groups. Moreover, early kidney injury occurred in the STZ-induced diabetic rats. However, BCAAs treatment decreased ROS levels, proteinuria and kidney injury. Moreover, JNK, TGF-β and MMP-9 mRNA and protein levels were significantly increased in the diabetic rats when compared with the control rats, and BCAAs treatment reversed these changes. Our results suggest that BCAAs counter oxidative stress in the kidneys of diabetic rats and alleviate

  4. Sleep Characteristics in Early Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease in the HypnoLaus Cohort.

    PubMed

    Ogna, Adam; Forni Ogna, Valentina; Haba Rubio, José; Tobback, Nadia; Andries, Dana; Preisig, Martin; Tafti, Mehdi; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Heinzer, Raphaël

    2016-04-01

    To evaluate the association between early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and sleep disordered breathing (SDB), restless legs syndrome (RLS), and subjective and objective sleep quality (SQ). Cross-sectional analysis of a general population-based cohort (HypnoLaus). 1,760 adults (862 men, 898 women; age 59.3 (± 11.4) y) underwent complete polysomnography at home. 8.2% of participants had mild CKD (stage 1-2, estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m(2) with albuminuria) and 7.8% moderate CKD (stage 3, eGFR 30-60 mL/min/1.73 m(2)). 37.3% of our sample had moderate-to-severe SDB (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 15/h) and 15.3% had severe SDB (AHI ≥ 30/h). SDB prevalence was positively associated with CKD stages and negatively with eGFR. In multivariate analysis, age, male sex, and body mass index were independently associated with SDB (all P < 0.001), but kidney function was not. The prevalence of RLS was 17.5%, without difference between CKD stages. Periodic leg movements index (PLMI) was independently associated with CKD stages. Subjective and objective SQ decreased and the use of sleep medication was more frequent with declining kidney function. Older age, female sex, and the severity of SDB were the strongest predictors of poor SQ in multivariate regression analysis but CKD stage was also independently associated with reduced objective SQ. Patients with early stages of CKD have impaired SQ, use more hypnotic drugs, and have an increased prevalence of SDB and PLM. After controlling for confounders, objective SQ and PLMI were still independently associated with declining kidney function. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  5. Monomeric neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin is associated with tubulointerstitial damage in chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Nickolas, Thomas L.; Forster, Catherine; Sise, Meghan E.; Barasch, Nicholas; Valle, David Solá-Del; Viltard, Melanie; Buchen, Charles; Kupferman, Shlomo; Carnevali, Maria Luisa; Bennett, Michael; Mattei, Silvia; Bovino, Achiropita; Argentiero, Lucia; Magnano, Andrea; Devarajan, Prasad; Mori, Kiyoshi; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye; Tempst, Paul; Allegri, Landino; Barasch, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    The rate of progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is difficult to predict using single measurements of serum creatinine or proteinuria. On the other hand, documented tubulointerstitial disease presages worsening CKD, but kidney biopsy is not practical for routine use and generally does not sample the tubulointerstitial compartment of the medulla. Perhaps a urine test that correlates with specific histological findings may serve as a surrogate for the kidney biopsy. Here we compared both immunoblot analysis (under non-reducing conditions) and a commercially available monomer immunoassays of Neutrophil Gelatinase Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) with pathological changes found in kidney biopsies, to determine whether specific histological characteristics associated with a specific NGAL species. We found that the urine of patients with advanced CKD contained NGAL monomers as well as higher molecular weight complexes containing NGAL, identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectroscopy. The NGAL monomer significantly correlated with glomerular filtration rate, interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy. Hence, specific assays of the NGAL monomer implicate histology associated with progressive, severe CKD. PMID:22695331

  6. Sleep Characteristics in Early Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease in the HypnoLaus Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Ogna, Adam; Forni Ogna, Valentina; Haba Rubio, José; Tobback, Nadia; Andries, Dana; Preisig, Martin; Tafti, Mehdi; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Heinzer, Raphaël

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the association between early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and sleep disordered breathing (SDB), restless legs syndrome (RLS), and subjective and objective sleep quality (SQ). Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of a general population-based cohort (HypnoLaus). 1,760 adults (862 men, 898 women; age 59.3 (± 11.4) y) underwent complete polysomnography at home. Results: 8.2% of participants had mild CKD (stage 1–2, estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 with albuminuria) and 7.8% moderate CKD (stage 3, eGFR 30–60 mL/min/1.73 m2). 37.3% of our sample had moderate-to-severe SDB (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 15/h) and 15.3% had severe SDB (AHI ≥ 30/h). SDB prevalence was positively associated with CKD stages and negatively with eGFR. In multivariate analysis, age, male sex, and body mass index were independently associated with SDB (all P < 0.001), but kidney function was not. The prevalence of RLS was 17.5%, without difference between CKD stages. Periodic leg movements index (PLMI) was independently associated with CKD stages. Subjective and objective SQ decreased and the use of sleep medication was more frequent with declining kidney function. Older age, female sex, and the severity of SDB were the strongest predictors of poor SQ in multivariate regression analysis but CKD stage was also independently associated with reduced objective SQ. Conclusions: Patients with early stages of CKD have impaired SQ, use more hypnotic drugs, and have an increased prevalence of SDB and PLM. After controlling for confounders, objective SQ and PLMI were still independently associated with declining kidney function. Citation: Ogna A, Forni Ogna V, Haba Rubio J, Tobback N, Andries D, Preisig M, Tafti M, Vollenweider P, Waeber G, Marques-Vidal P, Heinzer R. Sleep characteristics in early stages of chronic kidney disease in the HypnoLaus cohort. SLEEP 2016;39(4):945–953. PMID:26715230

  7. The cost-effectiveness of using chronic kidney disease risk scores to screen for early-stage chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Yarnoff, Benjamin O; Hoerger, Thomas J; Simpson, Siobhan K; Leib, Alyssa; Burrows, Nilka R; Shrestha, Sundar S; Pavkov, Meda E

    2017-03-13

    Better treatment during early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD) may slow progression to end-stage renal disease and decrease associated complications and medical costs. Achieving early treatment of CKD is challenging, however, because a large fraction of persons with CKD are unaware of having this disease. Screening for CKD is one important method for increasing awareness. We examined the cost-effectiveness of identifying persons for early-stage CKD screening (i.e., screening for moderate albuminuria) using published CKD risk scores. We used the CKD Health Policy Model, a micro-simulation model, to simulate the cost-effectiveness of using CKD two published risk scores by Bang et al. and Kshirsagar et al. to identify persons in the US for CKD screening with testing for albuminuria. Alternative risk score thresholds were tested (0.20, 0.15, 0.10, 0.05, and 0.02) above which persons were assigned to receive screening at alternative intervals (1-, 2-, and 5-year) for follow-up screening if the first screening was negative. We examined incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs), incremental lifetime costs divided by incremental lifetime QALYs, relative to the next higher screening threshold to assess cost-effectiveness. Cost-effective scenarios were determined as those with ICERs less than $50,000 per QALY. Among the cost-effective scenarios, the optimal scenario was determined as the one that resulted in the highest lifetime QALYs. ICERs ranged from $8,823 per QALY to $124,626 per QALY for the Bang et al. risk score and $6,342 per QALY to $405,861 per QALY for the Kshirsagar et al. risk score. The Bang et al. risk score with a threshold of 0.02 and 2-year follow-up screening was found to be optimal because it had an ICER less than $50,000 per QALY and resulted in the highest lifetime QALYs. This study indicates that using these CKD risk scores may allow clinicians to cost-effectively identify a broader population for CKD screening with testing for albuminuria

  8. Psychometric evaluation of a new instrument to measure disease self-management of the early stage chronic kidney disease patients.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chiu-Chu; Wu, Chia-Chen; Wu, Li-Min; Chen, Hsing-Mei; Chang, Shu-Chen

    2013-04-01

    This study aims to develop a valid and reliable chronic kidney disease self-management instrument (CKD-SM) for assessing early stage chronic kidney disease patients' self-management behaviours. Enhancing early stage chronic kidney disease patients' self-management plays a key role in delaying the progression of chronic kidney disease. Healthcare provider understanding of early stage chronic kidney disease patients' self-management behaviours can help develop effective interventions. A valid and reliable instrument for measuring chronic kidney disease patients' self-management behaviours is needed. A cross-sectional descriptive study collected data for principal components analysis with oblique rotation. Mandarin- or Taiwanese-speaking adults with chronic kidney disease (n=252) from two medical centres and one regional hospital in Southern Taiwan completed the CKD-SM. Construct validity was evaluated by exploratory factor analysis. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were estimated by Cronbach's alpha and Pearson correlation coefficients. Four factors were extracted and labelled self-integration, problem-solving, seeking social support and adherence to recommended regimen. The four factors accounted for 60.51% of the total variance. Each factor showed acceptable internal reliability with Cronbach's alpha from 0.77-0.92. The test-retest correlations for the CKD-SM was 0.72. The psychometric quality of the CKD-SM instrument was satisfactory. Research to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis to further validate this new instrument's construct validity is recommended. The CKD-SM instrument is useful for clinicians who wish to identify the problems with self-management among chronic kidney disease patients early. Self-management assessment will be helpful to develop intervention tailored to the needs of the chronic kidney disease population. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. Exome Sequencing Frequently Reveals the Cause of Early-Onset Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Vivante, Asaf; Hildebrandt, Friedhelm

    2016-01-01

    The primary causes of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in children differ from those of adult onset CKD. In the United States the most common diagnostic groups of CKD that manifests before 25 years of age are: i) congenital anomalies of the kidneys and urinary tract (CAKUT) (49.1%), ii) steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome (SRNS) (10.4%), iii) chronic glomerulonephritis (8.1%), and iv) renal cystic ciliopathies (5.3 %), encompassing >70% of CKD together. Recent findings suggest that early-onset CKD is caused by mutations in any one of over 200 different monogenic genes. High-throughput sequencing has very recently rendered identification of causative mutations in this high number of genes feasible. Molecular genetic diagnostics in early onset-CKD (before the age of 25 years) will, i) provide patients and families with a molecular genetic diagnosis, ii) generate new insights into diseases mechanisms, iii) allow etiology-based classification of patient cohorts for clinical studies and, iv) may have consequences for personalized treatment and prevention of CKD. In this review, we will discuss the implications of next-generation sequencing for clinical genetic diagnostics and discovery of novel genes in early-onset CKD. We also delineate the resulting opportunities for deciphering disease mechanisms and therapeutic implications. PMID:26750453

  10. Understanding the management of early-stage chronic kidney disease in primary care: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Blakeman, Tom; Protheroe, Joanne; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Rogers, Anne; Kennedy, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Background Primary care is recognised to have an important role in the delivery of care for people with chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, there is evidence that CKD management is currently suboptimal, with a range of practitioner concerns about its management. Aim To explore processes underpinning the implementation of CKD management in primary care. Design and setting Qualitative study in general practices participating in a chronic kidney disease collaborative undertaken as part of the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC) for Greater Manchester. Method Semi-structured interviews were conducted with GPs and practice nurses (n = 21). Normalisation Process Theory provided a framework for generation and analysis of the data. Results A predominant theme was anxiety about the disclosure of early-stage CKD with patients. The tensions experienced related to identifying and discussing CKD in older people and patients with stage 3A, embedding early-stage CKD within vascular care, and the distribution of work within the practice team. Participants provided accounts of work undertaken to resolve the difficulties encountered, with efforts having tended to focus on reassuring patients. Analysis also highlighted how anxiety surrounding disclosure influenced, and was shaped by, the organisation of care for people with CKD and associated long-term conditions. Conclusion Offering reassurance alone may be of limited benefit, and current management of early-stage CKD in primary care may miss opportunities to address susceptibility to kidney injury, improve self-management of vascular conditions, and improve the management of multimorbidity. PMID:22520910

  11. Acute kidney failure

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure; Renal failure; Renal failure - acute; ARF; Kidney injury - acute ... There are many possible causes of kidney damage. They include: ... cholesterol (cholesterol emboli) Decreased blood flow due to very ...

  12. Chronic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    You have two kidneys, each about the size of your fist. Their main job is to filter your blood. They remove wastes and ... help control blood pressure, and make hormones. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) means that your kidneys are damaged ...

  13. The early modern kidney--nephrology in and about the nineteenth century. Part 1.

    PubMed

    Eknoyan, Garabed

    2013-01-01

    The 19th century was a period of momentous scientific discoveries, technological achievements, and societal changes. A beneficiary of these revolutionary upheavals was medical empiricism that supplanted the rationalism of the past giving rise to early modern scientific medicine. Continued reliance on sensory data now magnified by technical advances generated new medical information that could be quantified with increasing precision, verified by repeated experimentation, and validated by statistical analysis. The institutionalization and integration of these methodologies into medical education were a defining step that assured their progress and perpetuation. Major advances were made in the nosography of diseases of the kidney, notably that of the diagnosis of progressive kidney disease from the presence of albuminuria by Richard Bright (1789-1858); and of renal structure and function, notably the demonstration of the continuity of the glomerular capsule with the tubular basement membrane by William Bowman (1816-1892), and the arguments for hemodynamic physical forces mediated glomerular filtration by Carl Ludwig (1816-1895) and for active tubular transport by Rudolf Heidenhain (1834-1897). Improvements in microscopy and tissue processing were instrumental in describing the cellular ultrastructure of the glomerulus and tubular segments, but their integrated function remained to be elucidated. The kidney continued to be considered a tubular secretory organ and its pathology attributed to injury of the interstitium (interstitial nephritis) or tubules (parenchymatous nephritis). © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Ultrasensitive sensor for detection of early stage chronic kidney disease in human.

    PubMed

    Desai, Dignya; Kumar, Ashok; Bose, Debajyoti; Datta, Manali

    2018-05-15

    A facile label free, ultrasensitive platform for a rapid detection of chronic kidney disease has been fabricated. Early intervention in patients with chronic kidney disease has the potential to delay, or even prevent, the development of end stage renal disease and complications, leading to a marked impact on life expectancy and quality of life. Thus, a potable electrochemical diagnostic biosensor has become an attractive option as electrochemical analysis is feasible to use for on-site detection of samples. In human, Cystatin C present in human body fluids is freely filtered by the glomerulus, but reabsorbed and catabolised by the renal tubules. Trace detectable amount is eliminated in urine, giving this molecular marker an edge over serum creatinine's disadvantages. A carboxyl functionalized multiwalled carbon nanotubes screen printed electrode was immobilized with papain (cysteine protease) where amino group of papain covalently bound carboxyl group on electrode surface by EDC (1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide) and NHS (N-hydroxysuccinimide) chemistry. The modifications on sensor surface were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Interaction between papain and chronic kidney disease specific biomarker, Cystatin C was detected by cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry within 10min. The sensor is highly specific to Cystatin C and showed negligible response to non-specific macromolecules present in urine. The sensitivity of the sensor was 1583.49µAcm -2 µg -1 and lower limit of detection of Cystatin C was found 0.58ngL -1 which presents as a promising platform for designing potable kidney disease detector. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Early rise in postoperative creatinine for identification of acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Karkouti, Keyvan; Rao, Vivek; Chan, Christopher T; Wijeysundera, Duminda N

    2017-08-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a potentially serious complication of cardiac surgery. Treatment strategies are unlikely to prove efficacious unless patients are identified and treated soon after the onset of injury. In this observational study, we determined and validated the ability of an early rise in postoperative serum creatinine to identify patients who suffer AKI during cardiac surgery. The relationship between an early rise in creatinine (immediate postoperative / preoperative creatinine) and AKI (> 50% increase in creatinine by postoperative calendar days 1or 2) was determined by logistic regression modelling. Existing databases were used for model development (n = 4,820; one institution) and validation (n = 6,553; 12 institutions). Acute kidney injury occurred in 9.1% (n = 437) and 9.8% (n = 645) of patients in the development and validation sets, respectively. An early rise in creatinine was related to AKI (P < 0.001), with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.78 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75 to 0.80) in the development set and 0.77 (95% CI, 0.75 to 0.79) in the validation set. Using a threshold ratio of > 1.30 (n = 127), the sensitivity, specificity, positive, and negative predictive values for AKI in the development set were 20% (95% CI, 16 to 24), 99% (95% CI, 99 to 99), 68% (95% CI, 59 to 76), and 93% (95% CI, 92 to 93), respectively. In patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass, an early rise in postoperative creatinine is a useful marker for the early identification of AKI patients. This could allow inclusion of such patients in clinical trials of promising therapeutic strategies that need to be initiated soon after the onset of injury.

  16. Acute Kidney Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... through your urine Impaired blood flow to the kidneys Diseases and conditions that may slow blood flow ... anaphylaxis) Severe burns Severe dehydration Damage to the kidneys These diseases, conditions and agents may damage the ...

  17. Effect of Long-Term Systolic Blood Pressure Trajectory on Kidney Damage in the Diabetic Population: A Prospective Study in a Community-Based Chinese Cohort.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Chao; Tian, Jun; Wu, Shou-Ling; Wang, Zhi-Jun; Zhang, Xiao-Fei; Jia, Dao; Ding, Rong-Jing; Xiao, Xiong-Fu; Fan, Yu-Bo; Hu, Da-Yi

    2018-05-20

    Previous studies have shown that hypertension is an important factor contributing to the occurrence and progression of diabetic kidney damage. However, the relationship between the patterns of blood pressure (BP) trajectory and kidney damage in the diabetic population remains unclear. This prospective study investigated the effect of long-term systolic BP (SBP) trajectory on kidney damage in the diabetic population based on an 8-year follow-up community-based cohort. This study included 4556 diabetic participants among 101,510 participants. BP, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), and urinary protein were measured every 2 years from 2006 to 2014. SBP trajectory was identified by the censored normal modeling. Five discrete SBP trajectories were identified according to SBP range and the changing pattern over time. Kidney damage was evaluated through eGFR and urinary protein value. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to analyze the influence of different SBP trajectory groups on kidney damage. We identified five discrete SBP trajectories: low-stable group (n = 864), moderate-stable group (n = 1980), moderate increasing group (n = 609), elevated decreasing group, (n = 679), and elevated stable group (n = 424). The detection rate of kidney damage in the low-stable group (SBP: 118-124 mmHg) was the lowest among the five groups. The detection rate of each kidney damage index was higher in the elevated stable group (SBP: 159-172 mmHg) compared with the low-stable group. For details, the gap was 4.14 (11.6% vs. 2.8%) in eGFR <60 ml·min -1 ·1.73 m -2 and 3.66 (17.2% vs. 4.7%), 3.38 (25.0% vs. 7.4%), and 1.8 (10.6% vs. 5.9%) times in positive urinary protein, eGFR <60 ml·min -1 ·1.73 m -2 and/or positive urinary protein, and eGFR decline ≥30%, respectively (P < 0.01). An elevated stable SBP trajectory is an independent risk factor for kidney damage in the diabetic population.

  18. Copulation, genital damage and early death in Callosobruchus maculatus

    PubMed Central

    Eady, Paul E; Hamilton, Leticia; Lyons, Ruth E

    2006-01-01

    Antagonistic sexual coevolution stems from the notion that male and female interests over reproduction are in conflict. Such conflicts appear to be particularly obvious when male genital armature inflicts damage to the female reproductive tract resulting in reduced female longevity. However, studies of mating frequency, genital damage and female longevity are difficult to interpret because females not only sustain more genital damage, but also receive more seminal fluid when they engage in multiple copulations. Here, we attempt to disentangle the effects of genital damage and seminal fluid transfer on female longevity in the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Males copulating for the sixth time in succession inflicted greater levels of genital damage, but transferred smaller ejaculates in comparison with virgin males. The number of copulations performed by males was negatively related to female fecundity and positively related to female longevity, suggesting a trade-off between fecundity and longevity. However, inclusion of fecundity as a covariate revealed sperm and/or seminal fluid transfer to have a negative impact on female longevity above that caused by the fecundity–longevity trade-off. The consequences of multiple copulations on female longevity were examined. Females that mated twice laid more eggs and died sooner than those that mated once. However, incorporation of fecundity as a covariate into our statistical model removed the effect of female mating frequency on female longevity, indicating that double-mated females suffer greater mortality owing to the trade-off between fecundity and longevity. Males of this species are known to transfer very large ejaculates (up to 8% of their body weight), which may represent a significant nutritional benefit to females. However, the receipt of large ejaculates appears to carry costs. Thus, the interpretation of multiple mating experiments on female longevity and associated functional

  19. Copulation, genital damage and early death in Callosobruchus maculatus.

    PubMed

    Eady, Paul E; Hamilton, Leticia; Lyons, Ruth E

    2007-01-22

    Antagonistic sexual coevolution stems from the notion that male and female interests over reproduction are in conflict. Such conflicts appear to be particularly obvious when male genital armature inflicts damage to the female reproductive tract resulting in reduced female longevity. However, studies of mating frequency, genital damage and female longevity are difficult to interpret because females not only sustain more genital damage, but also receive more seminal fluid when they engage in multiple copulations. Here, we attempt to disentangle the effects of genital damage and seminal fluid transfer on female longevity in the beetle Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Bruchidae). Males copulating for the sixth time in succession inflicted greater levels of genital damage, but transferred smaller ejaculates in comparison with virgin males. The number of copulations performed by males was negatively related to female fecundity and positively related to female longevity, suggesting a trade-off between fecundity and longevity. However, inclusion of fecundity as a covariate revealed sperm and/or seminal fluid transfer to have a negative impact on female longevity above that caused by the fecundity-longevity trade-off. The consequences of multiple copulations on female longevity were examined. Females that mated twice laid more eggs and died sooner than those that mated once. However, incorporation of fecundity as a covariate into our statistical model removed the effect of female mating frequency on female longevity, indicating that double-mated females suffer greater mortality owing to the trade-off between fecundity and longevity. Males of this species are known to transfer very large ejaculates (up to 8% of their body weight), which may represent a significant nutritional benefit to females. However, the receipt of large ejaculates appears to carry costs. Thus, the interpretation of multiple mating experiments on female longevity and associated functional

  20. Transcription factor Nrf2 hyperactivation in early-phase renal ischemia-reperfusion injury prevents tubular damage progression.

    PubMed

    Nezu, Masahiro; Souma, Tomokazu; Yu, Lei; Suzuki, Takafumi; Saigusa, Daisuke; Ito, Sadayoshi; Suzuki, Norio; Yamamoto, Masayuki

    2017-02-01

    Acute kidney injury is a devastating disease with high morbidity in hospitalized patients and contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic kidney disease. An underlying mechanism of acute kidney injury involves ischemia-reperfusion injury which, in turn, induces oxidative stress and provokes organ damage. Nrf2 is a master transcription factor that regulates the cellular response to oxidative stress. Here, we examined the role of Nrf2 in the progression of ischemia-reperfusion injury-induced kidney damage in mice using genetic and pharmacological approaches. Both global and tubular-specific Nrf2 activation enhanced gene expression of antioxidant and NADPH synthesis enzymes, including glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and ameliorated both the initiation of injury in the outer medulla and the progression of tubular damage in the cortex. Myeloid-specific Nrf2 activation was ineffective. Short-term administration of the Nrf2 inducer CDDO during the initial phase of injury ameliorated the late phase of tubular damage. This inducer effectively protected the human proximal tubular cell line HK-2 from oxidative stress-mediated cell death while glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase knockdown increased intracellular reactive oxygen species. These findings demonstrate that tubular hyperactivation of Nrf2 in the initial phase of injury prevents the progression of reactive oxygen species-mediated tubular damage by inducing antioxidant enzymes and NADPH synthesis. Thus, Nrf2 may be a promising therapeutic target for preventing acute kidney injury to chronic kidney disease transition. Copyright © 2016 International Society of Nephrology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Protective effects of rosuvastatin and vitamin E against fipronil-mediated oxidative damage and apoptosis in rat liver and kidney.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Daim, Mohamed M; Abdeen, Ahmed

    2018-04-01

    Fipronil (FPN) is a phenylpyrazole insecticide that is extensively used in agriculture and veterinary applications. However, FPN is also a potent environmental toxicant to animals and humans. Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate the protective role of rosuvastatin (ROSU) and vitamin E (Vit E) against FPN-induced hepatorenal toxicity in albino rats. Seven groups with eight rats each were used for this purpose; these groups included the control vehicle group that received corn oil, the Vit E group (1000 mg/kg, orally), the ROSU group (10 mg/kg, orally), the FPN group (20 mg/kg, orally), the FPN-ROSU group, the FPN-Vit E group, and the FPN-Vit E-ROSU group. The results revealed that FPN significantly increased serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, cholesterol, urea, and creatinine. In addition, there were substantial increases in the liver and kidney contents of malondialdehyde and nitric oxide, along with significant decreases in glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. FPN also caused histological changes and increased the expression of caspase-3 in the liver and kidney tissues. However, administration of ROSU and Vit E alone or in combination ameliorated the FPN-induced oxidative damage and apoptosis, possibly through their antioxidant properties. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Subclinical Kidney Damage in Hypertensive Patients: A Renal Window Opened on the Cardiovascular System. Focus on Microalbuminuria.

    PubMed

    Mulè, Giuseppe; Castiglia, Antonella; Cusumano, Claudia; Scaduto, Emilia; Geraci, Giulio; Altieri, Dario; Di Natale, Epifanio; Cacciatore, Onofrio; Cerasola, Giovanni; Cottone, Santina

    2017-01-01

    The kidney is one of the major target organs of hypertension.Kidney damage represents a frequent event in the course of hypertension and arterial hypertension is one of the leading causes of end-stage renal disease (ESRD).ESRD has long been recognized as a strong predictor of cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality. However, over the past 20 years a large and consistent body of evidence has been produced suggesting that CV risk progressively increases as the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) declines and is already significantly elevated even in the earliest stages of renal damage. Data was supported by the very large collaborative meta-analysis of the Chronic Kidney Disease Prognosis Consortium, which provided undisputable evidence that there is an inverse association between eGFR and CV risk. It is important to remember that in evaluating CV disease using renal parameters, GFR should be assessed simultaneously with albuminuria.Indeed, data from the same meta-analysis indicate that also increased urinary albumin levels or proteinuria carry an increased risk of all-cause and CV mortality. Thus, lower eGFR and higher urinary albumin values are not only predictors of progressive kidney failure, but also of all-cause and CV mortality, independent of each other and of traditional CV risk factors.Although subjects with ESRD are at the highest risk of CV diseases, there will likely be more events in subjects with mil-to-moderate renal dysfunction, because of its much higher prevalence.These findings are even more noteworthy when one considers that a mild reduction in renal function is very common in hypertensive patients.The current European Society of Hypertension (ESH)/European Society of Cardiology (ESC) guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension recommend to sought in every patient signs of subclinical (or asymptomatic) renal damage. This was defined by the detection of eGFR between 30 mL/min/1.73 m 2 and 60 mL/min/1.73 m 2 or the

  3. The beneficial effects of zinc on diabetes-induced kidney damage in murine rodent model of type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Li, Bing; Dong, Xiaoming; Cui, Wenpeng; Luo, Ping

    2017-07-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic multi-factorial metabolic disorder resulting from impaired glucose homeostasis. Zinc is a key co-factor for the correct functioning of anti-oxidant enzymes. Zinc deficiency therefore, impairs their synthesis, leading to increased oxidative stress within cells. Zinc deficiency occurs commonly in diabetic patients. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of varying concentrations of zinc on diabetic nephropathy (DN) and the underlying mechanisms involved. FVB male mice aged 8 weeks were injected intraperitoneally with multiple low-dose streptozotocin at a concentration of 50mg/kg body weight daily for 5 days. Diabetic and age-matched control mice were treated with special diets supplemented with zinc at varying concentrations (0.85mg/kg, 30mg/kg, 150mg/kg) for 3 months. The mice were fed with zinc diets to mimic the process of oral administration of zinc in human. Zinc deficiency to some extent aggravated the damage of diabetic kidney. Feeding with normal (30mg/kg zinc/kg diet) and especially high (150mg/kg zinc/kg diet) concentration zinc could protect the kidney against diabetes-induced damage. The beneficial effects of zinc on DN are achieved most likely due to the upregulation of Nrf2 and its downstream factors NQO1, SOD1, SOD2. Zinc upregulated the expression of Akt phosphorylation and GSK-3β phosphorylation, resulting in a reduction in Fyn nuclear translocation and export of Nrf2 to the cytosol. Thus, regular monitoring and maintaining of adequate levels of zinc are recommended in diabetic individuals in order to delay the development of DN. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. New Markers of Inflammation and Tubular Damage in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Musiał, Kinga; Bargenda, Agnieszka; Drożdż, Dorota; Zwolińska, Danuta

    2017-01-01

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein- (MCP-) 1, macrophage colony-stimulating factor (MCSF), and neopterin are connected with monocyte migration and transition into macrophages, leading to fibrosis and tubular damage in the course of CKD. The aim of the study was to analyze the applicability of urinary fractional excretion (FE) of MCP1, MCSF, and neopterin, as markers of inflammation and tubular damage, in children with CKD. The study group consisted of 61 children with CKD stages 1-5 and 23 age-matched controls. The serum and urine concentrations of MCP1, MCSF, and neopterin were assessed by ELISA and then the fractional excretion (FE) was calculated. FE MCSF and neopterin values exceeded 1% already in controls. FE MCSF rose significantly since CKD stages 1-2, FE neopterin since CKD stages 3-5. FE MCP1 was below 1% in healthy controls and in CKD stages 1-2, then increased significantly in CKD stages 3-5. The FE MCP-1 values show that inflammation precedes the tubular dysfunction. FE MCSF and FE neopterin may be considered new markers of the renal parenchyma progressive damage. Fractional excretion may become a useful tool in the assessment of inflammation and tubular damage in children with CKD.

  5. Intermittent hypoxia causes histological kidney damage and increases growth factor expression in a mouse model of obstructive sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Ayas, Najib T.

    2018-01-01

    Epidemiological studies demonstrate an association between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and accelerated loss of kidney function. It is unclear whether the decline in function is due to OSA per se or to other confounding factors such as obesity. In addition, the structural kidney abnormalities associated with OSA are unclear. The objective of this study was to determine whether intermittent hypoxia (IH), a key pathological feature of OSA, induces renal histopathological damage using a mouse model. Ten 8-week old wild-type male CB57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to receive either IH or intermittent air (IA) for 60 days. After euthanasia, one kidney per animal was paraformaldehyde-fixed and then sectioned for histopathological and immunohistochemical analysis. Measurements of glomerular hypertrophy and mesangial matrix expansion were made in periodic acid–Schiff stained kidney sections, while glomerular transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) proteins were semi-quantified by immunohistochemistry. The antigen-antibody reaction was detected by 3,3′-diaminobenzidine chromogen where the color intensity semi-quantified glomerular protein expression. To enhance the accuracy of protein semi-quantification, the percentage of only highly-positive staining was used for analysis. Levels of TGF-β, CTGF and VEGF-A proteins in the kidney cortex were further quantified by western blotting. Cellular apoptosis was also investigated by measuring cortical antiapoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and apoptotic Bcl-2-associated X (Bax) proteins by western blotting. Further investigation of cellular apoptosis was carried out by fluorometric terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) dUTP Nick-End Labeling (TUNEL) staining. Finally, the levels of serum creatinine and 24-hour urinary albumin were measured as a general index of renal function. Our results indicate that mice exposed to IH have an

  6. Validating Early Post–Transplant Outcomes Reported for Recipients of Deceased Donor Kidney Transplants

    PubMed Central

    Potluri, Vishnu S.; Hall, Isaac E.; Ficek, Joseph; Doshi, Mona D.; Butrymowicz, Isabel; Weng, Francis L.; Schröppel, Bernd; Thiessen-Philbrook, Heather; Reese, Peter P.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Data reported to the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network (OPTN) are used in kidney transplant research, policy development, and assessment of center quality, but the accuracy of early post–transplant outcome measures is unknown. Design, setting, participants, & measurements The Deceased Donor Study (DDS) is a prospective cohort study at five transplant centers. Research coordinators manually abstracted data from electronic records for 557 adults who underwent deceased donor kidney transplantation between April of 2010 and November of 2013. We compared the post-transplant outcomes of delayed graft function (DGF; defined as dialysis in the first post–transplant week), acute rejection, and post–transplant serum creatinine reported to the OPTN with data collected for the DDS. Results Median kidney donor risk index was 1.22 (interquartile range [IQR], 0.97–1.53). Median recipient age was 55 (IQR, 46–63) years old, 63% were men, and 47% were black; 93% had received dialysis before transplant. Using DDS data as the gold standard, we found that pretransplant dialysis was not reported to the OPTN in only 11 (2%) instances. DGF in OPTN data had a sensitivity of 89% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 84% to 93%) and specificity of 98% (95% CI, 96% to 99%). Surprisingly, the OPTN data accurately identified acute allograft rejection in only 20 of 47 instances (n=488; sensitivity of 43%; 95% CI, 17% to 73%). Across participating centers, sensitivity of acute rejection varied widely from 23% to 100%, whereas specificity was uniformly high (92%–100%). Six-month serum creatinine values in DDS and OPTN data had high concordance (n=490; Lin concordance correlation =0.90; 95% CI, 0.88 to 0.92). Conclusions OPTN outcomes for recipients of deceased donor kidney transplants have high validity for DGF and 6-month allograft function but lack sensitivity in detecting rejection. Future studies using OPTN data may consider focusing on allograft

  7. Early Damage Detection in Composites during Fabrication and Mechanical Testing

    PubMed Central

    Chandarana, Neha; Sanchez, Daniel Martinez; Soutis, Constantinos; Gresil, Matthieu

    2017-01-01

    Fully integrated monitoring systems have shown promise in improving confidence in composite materials while reducing lifecycle costs. A distributed optical fibre sensor is embedded in a fibre reinforced composite laminate, to give three sensing regions at different levels through-the-thickness of the plate. This study follows the resin infusion process during fabrication of the composite, monitoring the development of strain in-situ and in real time, and to gain better understanding of the resin rheology during curing. Piezoelectric wafer active sensors and electrical strain gauges are bonded to the plate after fabrication. This is followed by progressive loading/unloading cycles of mechanical four point bending. The strain values obtained from the optical fibre are in good agreement with strain data collected by surface mounted strain gauges, while the sensing regions clearly indicate the development of compressive, neutral, and tensile strain. Acoustic emission event detection suggests the formation of matrix (resin) cracks, with measured damage event amplitudes in agreement with values reported in published literature on the subject. The Felicity ratio for each subsequent loading cycle is calculated to track the progression of damage in the material. The methodology developed here can be used to follow the full life cycle of a composite structure, from manufacture to end-of-life. PMID:28773048

  8. Early Damage Detection in Composites during Fabrication and Mechanical Testing.

    PubMed

    Chandarana, Neha; Sanchez, Daniel Martinez; Soutis, Constantinos; Gresil, Matthieu

    2017-06-22

    Fully integrated monitoring systems have shown promise in improving confidence in composite materials while reducing lifecycle costs. A distributed optical fibre sensor is embedded in a fibre reinforced composite laminate, to give three sensing regions at different levels through-the-thickness of the plate. This study follows the resin infusion process during fabrication of the composite, monitoring the development of strain in-situ and in real time, and to gain better understanding of the resin rheology during curing. Piezoelectric wafer active sensors and electrical strain gauges are bonded to the plate after fabrication. This is followed by progressive loading/unloading cycles of mechanical four point bending. The strain values obtained from the optical fibre are in good agreement with strain data collected by surface mounted strain gauges, while the sensing regions clearly indicate the development of compressive, neutral, and tensile strain. Acoustic emission event detection suggests the formation of matrix (resin) cracks, with measured damage event amplitudes in agreement with values reported in published literature on the subject. The Felicity ratio for each subsequent loading cycle is calculated to track the progression of damage in the material. The methodology developed here can be used to follow the full life cycle of a composite structure, from manufacture to end-of-life.

  9. Tenofovir-induced kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Gitman, Michael D; Hirschwerk, David; Baskin, Cindy H; Singhal, Pravin C

    2007-03-01

    Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate is a nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor with activity against both HIV and the hepatitis B virus. It has had minimal nephrotoxic effects in early clinical trials, but as clinical use has widened, case reports describing tenofovir-induced renal tubular damage, Fanconi's syndrome and diabetes insipidus have been described. The authors review the pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action and clinical uses of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. The large clinical trials, as well as the case reports of tenofovir-induced kidney injury, are also reviewed. The potential mechanism of renal damage is discussed and recommendations for evaluation and treatment of tenofovir-induced kidney injury are given.

  10. [Early human transplants: 60th anniversary of the first successful kidney transplants].

    PubMed

    Gentili, Marc E

    2015-11-01

    First kidney transplant attempts begin with the 20th century: improving vascular sutures, understanding the phenomena of rejection or tolerance, then progress in HLA groups enable early success in the second half of the century. Definition of brain death, use of corticosteroids, radiotherapy and prime immunosuppressors promote the development of transplants. Discover of cyclosporine in the 1980s, and legislative developments augur a new era. Many advances are arising: use of stem cells from the donor, enhancement of Maastricht 3 donor or living donation. Finally organ transplantation remains an immense human adventure, but also scientific and ethic. Copyright © 2015 Association Société de néphrologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. l-Citrulline Protects from Kidney Damage in Type 1 Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Maritza J.; Yao, Lin; Sridhar, Supriya; Bhatta, Anil; Dou, Huijuan; Ramesh, Ganesan; Brands, Michael W.; Pollock, David M.; Caldwell, Ruth B.; Cederbaum, Stephen D.; Head, C. Alvin; Bagi, Zsolt; Lucas, Rudolf; Caldwell, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is a major cause of end-stage renal disease, associated with endothelial dysfunction. Chronic supplementation of l-arginine (l-arg), the substrate for endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), failed to improve vascular function. l-Citrulline (l-cit) supplementation not only increases l-arg synthesis, but also inhibits cytosolic arginase I, a competitor of eNOS for the use of l-arg, in the vasculature. Aims: To investigate whether l-cit treatment reduces DN in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetes (T1D) in mice and rats and to study its effects on arginase II (ArgII) function, the main renal isoform. Methods: STZ-C57BL6 mice received l-cit or vehicle supplemented in the drinking water. For comparative analysis, diabetic ArgII knock out mice and l-cit-treated STZ-rats were evaluated. Results: l-Citrulline exerted protective effects in kidneys of STZ-rats, and markedly reduced urinary albumin excretion, tubulo-interstitial fibrosis, and kidney hypertrophy, observed in untreated diabetic mice. Intriguingly, l-cit treatment was accompanied by a sustained elevation of tubular ArgII at 16 weeks and significantly enhanced plasma levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Diabetic ArgII knock out mice showed greater blood urea nitrogen levels, hypertrophy, and dilated tubules than diabetic wild type (WT) mice. Despite a marked reduction in collagen deposition in ArgII knock out mice, their albuminuria was not significantly different from diabetic WT animals. l-Cit also restored nitric oxide/reactive oxygen species balance and barrier function in high glucose-treated monolayers of human glomerular endothelial cells. Moreover, l-cit also has the ability to establish an anti-inflammatory profile, characterized by increased IL-10 and reduced IL-1β and IL-12(p70) generation in the human proximal tubular cells. Conclusion: l-Citrulline supplementation established an anti-inflammatory profile and significantly preserved the

  12. Haloperidol-loaded lipid-core polymeric nanocapsules reduce DNA damage in blood and oxidative stress in liver and kidneys of rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roversi, Katiane; Benvegnú, Dalila M.; Roversi, Karine; Trevizol, Fabíola; Vey, Luciana T.; Elias, Fabiana; Fracasso, Rafael; Motta, Mariana H.; Ribeiro, Roseane F.; dos S. Hausen, Bruna; Moresco, Rafael N.; Garcia, Solange C.; da Silva, Cristiane B.; Burger, Marilise E.

    2015-04-01

    Haloperidol (HP) nanoencapsulation improves therapeutic efficacy, prolongs the drug action time, and reduces its motor side effects. However, in a view of HP toxicity in organs like liver and kidneys in addition to the lack of knowledge regarding the toxicity of polymeric nanocapsules, our aim was to verify the influence of HP-nanoformulation on toxicity and oxidative stress markers in the liver and kidneys of rats, also observing the damage caused in the blood. For such, 28 adult male Wistar rats were designated in four experimental groups ( n = 7) and treated with vehicle (C group), free haloperidol suspension (FH group), blank nanocapsules suspension (B-Nc group), and haloperidol-loaded lipid-core nanocapsules suspension (H-Nc group). The nanocapsules formulation presented the size of approximately 250 nm. All suspensions were administered to the animals (0.5 mg/kg/day-i.p.) for a period of 28 days. Our results showed that FH caused damage in the liver, evidenced by increased lipid peroxidation, plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase, as well as decreased cellular integrity and vitamin C levels. In kidneys, FH treatment caused damage to a lesser extent, observed by decreased activity of δ-aminolevulinate dehydratase (ALA-D) and levels of VIT C. In addition, FH treatment was also related to a higher DNA damage index in blood. On the other hand, animals treated with H-Nc and B-Nc did not show damage in liver, kidneys, and DNA. Our study indicates that the nanoencapsulation of haloperidol was able to prevent the sub-chronic toxicity commonly observed in liver, kidneys, and DNA, thus reflecting a pharmacological superiority in relation to free drug.

  13. Early detection of fungi damage in citrus using NIR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blasco, Jose; Ortiz, Coral; Sabater, Maria D.; Molto, Enrique

    2000-12-01

    Early detection of defects and diseases in fruit helps to correctly classify them and make more adequate decisions about the destination of the product: internal market, export or industry. An early fungi infection detection is especially important because a few infected fruits can disseminate the infection to a whole batch, causing great economic losses and affecting to further exports. Ensure products with excellent quality and absolute absence of fungi infections is particularly important in those batches for long conservation or to be exported. The main objective of this work is to detect the fungi infections before they can be visible. Near Infrared spectroscopy has been employed in this work, because it is a non-destructive technique and can be easily implemented on line due to the high speed and simplicity of the process.

  14. Impairment of social and moral behavior related to early damage in human prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Anderson, S W; Bechara, A; Damasio, H; Tranel, D; Damasio, A R

    1999-11-01

    The long-term consequences of early prefrontal cortex lesions occurring before 16 months were investigated in two adults. As is the case when such damage occurs in adulthood, the two early-onset patients had severely impaired social behavior despite normal basic cognitive abilities, and showed insensitivity to future consequences of decisions, defective autonomic responses to punishment contingencies and failure to respond to behavioral interventions. Unlike adult-onset patients, however, the two patients had defective social and moral reasoning, suggesting that the acquisition of complex social conventions and moral rules had been impaired. Thus early-onset prefrontal damage resulted in a syndrome resembling psychopathy.

  15. Decrease in Urinary Creatinine Excretion in Early Stage Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tynkevich, Elena; Flamant, Martin; Haymann, Jean-Philippe; Metzger, Marie; Thervet, Eric; Boffa, Jean-Jacques; Vrtovsnik, François; Houillier, Pascal; Froissart, Marc; Stengel, Bénédicte

    2014-01-01

    Background Little is known about muscle mass loss in early stage chronic kidney disease (CKD). We used 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion rate to assess determinants of muscle mass and its evolution with kidney function decline. We also described the range of urinary creatinine concentration in this population. Methods We included 1072 men and 537 women with non-dialysis CKD stages 1 to 5, all of them with repeated measurements of glomerular filtration rate (mGFR) by 51Cr-EDTA renal clearance and several nutritional markers. In those with stage 1 to 4 at baseline, we used a mixed model to study factors associated with urinary creatinine excretion rate and its change over time. Results Baseline mean urinary creatinine excretion decreased from 15.3±3.1 to 12.1±3.3 mmol/24 h (0.20±0.03 to 0.15±0.04 mmol/kg/24 h) in men, with mGFR falling from ≥60 to <15 mL/min/1.73 m2, and from 9.6±1.9 to 7.6±2.5 (0.16±0.03 to 0.12±0.03) in women. In addition to mGFR, an older age, diabetes, and lower levels of body mass index, proteinuria, and protein intake assessed by urinary urea were associated with lower mean urinary creatinine excretion at baseline. Mean annual decline in mGFR was 1.53±0.12 mL/min/1.73 m2 per year and that of urinary creatinine excretion rate, 0.28±0.02 mmol/24 h per year. Patients with fast annual decline in mGFR of 5 mL/min/1.73 m2 had a decrease in urinary creatinine excretion more than twice as big as in those with stable mGFR, independent of changes in urinary urea as well as of other determinants of low muscle mass. Conclusions Decrease in 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion rate may appear early in CKD patients, and is greater the more mGFR declines independent of lowering protein intake assessed by 24-hour urinary urea. Normalizing urine analytes for creatininuria may overestimate their concentration in patients with reduced kidney function and low muscle mass. PMID:25401694

  16. The Effects of Early Postnatal Diuretics Treatment on Kidney Development and Long-Term Kidney Function in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Bueters, Ruud R G; Jeronimus-Klaasen, Annelies; Maicas, Nuria; Florquin, Sandrine; van den Heuvel, Lambertus P; Schreuder, Michiel F

    2016-01-01

    Diuretics are administered to neonates to control fluid balance. We studied whether clinical doses affected kidney development and function and whether extrauterine growth retardation (EUGR) could be a modulator. Wistar rats were cross-fostered in normal food or food restricted litters at postnatal day (PND) 2 and treated daily with 0.9% NaCl, 5 mg/kg furosemide or 5 mg/kg hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) up to PND 8. Kidneys were evaluated on proliferation, apoptosis and a set of mRNA target genes at PND 8, glomerular- and glomerular generation count at PND 35, clinical pathology parameters at 3- and 9 months, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin at PND 8, 3 and 6 months, monthly blood pressure from 3 months onward and histopathology at study end. Treatment with furosemide or HCTZ did not have relevant effects on measured parameters. EUGR resulted in lower body weight from day 3 onwards (-29% at weaning; p < 0.001, -10% at necropsy; p < 0.001), less glomerular generations (4.4 ± 0.32 vs. 5.0 ± 0.423; p = 0.025, males only), decreased glomerular numbers (27,861 ± 3,468 vs. 30,527 ± 4,096; p = 0.026), higher creatinine clearance (0.84 ± 0.1 vs. 0.77 ± 0.09 ml/min/kg; p = 0.047) at 3 months and lower plasma creatinine (25.7 ± 1.8 vs. 27.5 ± 2.8 µmol/l; p = 0.043) at 9 months. Furosemide and HCTZ did not influence kidney development or function when administered in a clinically relevant dose to rat pups at a stage of ongoing nephrogenesis. EUGR led to impaired kidney development but did not modify furosemide or HCTZ findings. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Proximal fiber tip damage during Holmium:YAG and thulium fiber laser ablation of kidney stones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Christopher R.; Hardy, Luke A.; Irby, Pierce B.; Fried, Nathaniel M.

    2016-02-01

    The Thulium fiber laser (TFL) is being studied as an alternative to Holmium:YAG laser for lithotripsy. TFL beam originates within an 18-μm-core thulium doped silica fiber, and its near single mode, Gaussian beam profile enables transmission of higher laser power through smaller fibers than possible during Holmium laser lithotripsy. This study examines whether TFL beam profile also reduces proximal fiber tip damage compared to Holmium laser multimodal beam. TFL beam at wavelength of 1908 nm was coupled into 105-μm-core silica fibers, with 35-mJ energy, 500-μs pulse duration, and pulse rates of 50-500 Hz. For each pulse rate, 500,000 pulses were delivered. Magnified images of proximal fiber surfaces were taken before and after each trial. For comparison, 20 single-use, 270-μm-core fibers were collected after clinical Holmium laser lithotripsy procedures using standard settings (600 mJ, 350 μs, 6 Hz). Total laser energy, number of laser pulses, and laser irradiation time were recorded, and fibers were rated for damage. For TFL studies, output power was stable, and no proximal fiber damage was observed after delivery of 500,000 pulses at settings up to 35 mJ, 500 Hz, and 17.5 W average power. In contrast, confocal microscopy images of fiber tips after Holmium lithotripsy showed proximal fiber tip degradation in all 20 fibers. The proximal fiber tip of a 105-μm-core fiber transmitted 17.5 W of TFL power without degradation, compared to degradation of 270-μm-core fibers after transmission of 3.6 W of Holmium laser power. The smaller and more uniform TFL beam profile may improve fiber lifetime, and potentially reduce costs for the surgical disposables as well.

  18. Printed strain sensors for early damage detection in engineering structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zymelka, Daniel; Yamashita, Takahiro; Takamatsu, Seiichi; Itoh, Toshihiro; Kobayashi, Takeshi

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the analysis of strain measurements recorded using a screen-printed sensors array bonded to a metal plate and subjected to high strains. The analysis was intended to evaluate the capabilities of the printed strain sensors to detect abnormal strain distribution before actual defects (cracks) in the analyzed structures appear. The results demonstrate that the developed device can accurately localize the enhanced strains at the very early stage of crack formation. The promising performance and low fabrication cost confirm the potential suitability of the printed strain sensors for applications within the framework of structural health monitoring (SHM).

  19. Selenium deficiency induced damages and altered expressions of metalloproteinases and their inhibitors (MMP1/3, TIMP1/3) in the kidneys of growing rats.

    PubMed

    Han, Jing; Liang, Hua; Yi, Jianhua; Tan, Wuhong; He, Shulan; Wu, Xiaofang; Shi, Xiaowei; Ma, Jing; Guo, Xiong

    2016-03-01

    Selenium is an essential trace element for the maintenance of structures and functions of kidney. To evaluate the effects of low selenium on the kidneys of growing rats, newborn rats were fed with selenium deficient and normal diets respectively for 109 days. As a result, rats fed with low selenium diets resulted in a decline in the body weight and the concentration of selenium in the kidney, especially the male rats from the low selenium groups. Moreover, the ultrastructure of glomerulus and tubules were damaged in low selenium group: the glomeruli were observed with hyperplasia of mesangial cells, fusion of podocyte foot processes and thickening of basement membrane; and the tubules were observed with vacuolar degenerated epithelial cells, increased edema fluid or protein solution between cells, microvilli edema, increased cell gaps and decreased cell links. Furthermore, the pathological changes in selenium deficient group included the increase of fibers around renal hilum aorta and in the renal collecting duct, and shed of cells in the proximal convoluted tubules. In addition, up-regulated expressions of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP1/3) and down-regulated expressions of their inhibitors (TIMP1/3) at the mRNA and protein levels were also appeared to be relevant to low selenium. The results suggested that low selenium in diet may cause low selenium concentration in the kidney of growing rat and lead to damages of the ultrastructure and extracellular matrix (ECM) of kidney. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Early-state damage detection, characterization, and evolution using high-resolution computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grandin, Robert John

    Safely using materials in high performance applications requires adequately understanding the mechanisms which control the nucleation and evolution of damage. Most of a material's operational life is spent in a state with noncritical damage, and, for example in metals only a small portion of its life falls within the classical Paris Law regime of crack growth. Developing proper structural health and prognosis models requires understanding the behavior of damage in these early stages within the material's life, and this early-stage damage occurs on length scales at which the material may be considered "granular'' in the sense that the discrete regions which comprise the whole are large enough to require special consideration. Material performance depends upon the characteristics of the granules themselves as well as the interfaces between granules. As a result, properly studying early-stage damage in complex, granular materials requires a means to characterize changes in the granules and interfaces. The granular-scale can range from tenths of microns in ceramics, to single microns in fiber-reinforced composites, to tens of millimeters in concrete. The difficulty of direct-study is often overcome by exhaustive testing of macro-scale damage caused by gross material loads and abuse. Such testing, for example optical or electron microscopy, destructive and further, is costly when used to study the evolution of damage within a material and often limits the study to a few snapshots. New developments in high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) provide the necessary spatial resolution to directly image the granule length-scale of many materials. Successful application of HRCT with fiber-reinforced composites, however, requires extending the HRCT performance beyond current limits. This dissertation will discuss improvements made in the field of CT reconstruction which enable resolutions to be pushed to the point of being able to image the fiber-scale damage structures and

  1. Clinical Significance of Persistent Global and Focal Computed Tomography Nephrograms After Cardiac Catheterization and Their Relationships to Urinary Biomarkers of Kidney Damage and Procedural Factors: Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Chu, Lisa L; Katzberg, Richard W; Solomon, Richard; Southard, Jeffrey; Evans, Scott J; Li, Chin-Shang; McDonald, Jennifer S; Payne, Catherine; Boone, John M; RamachandraRao, Satish P

    2016-12-01

    We evaluate the relationships between persistent computed tomography (CT) nephrograms and acute kidney injury after cardiac catheterization (CC). We compare changes in urinary biomarkers kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1), cystatin C, and serum creatinine to procedural factors. From 159 eligible patients without renal insufficiency (estimated glomerular filtration rate >60 mL/min), 40 random patients (age range, 42-81 years; mean age, 64 years; 25 men, 15 women) gave written informed consent to undergo unenhanced CT limited to their kidneys 24 hours after CC. Semiquantitative assessment for global nephrograms and quantitative assessment of focal nephrograms in each kidney was performed. Computed tomography attenuation (Hounsfield units) of the renal cortex was measured. Serum creatinine, KIM-1, and cystatin C were measured before and 24 hours after CC. Robust linear regression showed that both relative changes in KIM-1 and cystatin C had positive relationships with kidney CT attenuation (P = 0.012 and 0.002, respectively). Spearman rank correlation coefficient showed that both absolute changes and relative changes in KIM-1 and cystatin C had positive correlations with global nephrogram grades (P = 0.025 and 0.040, respectively, for KIM-1; P = 0.013 and 0.019, respectively, for cystatin C). Global nephrograms on unenhanced CT in patients who have undergone CC are significantly correlated with changes in urinary biomarkers for kidney damage.

  2. Kidney Dysplasia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Disease Ectopic Kidney Medullary Sponge Kidney Kidney Dysplasia Kidney Dysplasia What is kidney dysplasia? Kidney dysplasia is a condition in which ... Kidney dysplasia in one kidney What are the kidneys and what do they do? The kidneys are ...

  3. Early versus delayed erythropoietin for the anaemia of end-stage kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Coronado Daza, Jorge; Martí-Carvajal, Arturo J; Ariza García, Amaury; Rodelo Ceballos, Joaquín; Yomayusa González, Nancy; Páez-Canro, Carol; Loza Munárriz, César; Urrútia, Gerard

    2015-12-16

    Anaemia is a common complication in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and mainly develops as a consequence of relative erythropoietin (EPO) deficiency. Anaemia develops early in the course of disease and peaks among people with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Many types of EPO - also called erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) - are used to treat anaemia in people with ESKD.ESAs have changed treatment of severe anaemia among people with CKD by relieving symptoms and avoiding complications associated with blood transfusion. However, no benefits have been found in relation to mortality rates and non-cardiac fatal events, except quality of life. Moreover, a relationship between ESA use and increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with CKD has been reported in studies with fully correcting anaemia comparing with partial anaemia correction. Until 2012, guidelines recommended commencing ESA treatment when haemoglobin was less than 11 g/dL; the current recommendation is EPO commencement when haemoglobin is between 9 and 10 g/dL. However, advantages in commencing therapy when haemoglobin levels are greater than 10 g/dL but less than 11 g/dL remain unknown, especially among older people whose life expectancy is limited, but in whom EPO therapy may improve quality of life. To assess the clinical benefits and harms of early versus delayed EPO for anaemia in patients with ESKD undergoing haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis We searched the Cochrane Kidney and Transplant Specialised Register to 8 July 2015 through contact with the Trials' Search Co-ordinator using search terms relevant to this review. We planned to include randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs evaluating at the clinical benefits and harms of early versus delayed EPO for anaemia in patients with ESKD undergoing haemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. Studies comparing EPO with another EPO, placebo or no treatment were eligible for inclusion. It was planned that two

  4. Iron Status and Inflammation in Early Stages of Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Łukaszyk, Ewelina; Łukaszyk, Mateusz; Koc-Żórawska, Ewa; Tobolczyk, Jolanta; Bodzenta-Łukaszyk, Anna; Małyszko, Jolanta

    2015-01-01

    One of the most common causes of anemia of chronic disease (ACD) is chronic kidney disease. The main pathomechanism responsible for ACD is subclinical inflammation. The key element involved in iron metabolism is hepcidin, however, studies on new indices of iron status are in progress.The aim of the study was to assess the iron status in patients in early stages of chronic kidney disease, iron correlation with inflammation parameters and novel biomarkers of iron metabolism. The study included 69 patients. Standard laboratory measurements were used to measure the iron status, complete blood count, fibrinogen, prothrombin index, C-reactive protein concentration (CRP), creatinine, urea, uric acid. Commercially available kits were used to measure high-sensitivity CRP, interleukin 6 (IL-6), hepcidin-25, hemojuvelin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) and zonulin. Absolute iron deficiency was present in 17% of the patients, functional iron deficiency was present in 12% of the patients. Functional iron deficiency was associated with significantly higher serum levels of fibrinogen, ferritin, transferrin saturation, total iron binding capacity, hepcidin and older age relative to patients with absolute iron deficiency. In comparison with patients without iron deficiency, patients with functional iron deficiency were older, with lower prothrombin index, higher fibrinogen, CRP, hsCRP, sTfR, GDF-15, urea and lower eGFR. Hepcidin was predicted by markers of inflammation:ferritin, fibrinogen and IL-6. Inflammation is correlated with iron status. Novel biomarkers of iron metabolism might be useful to distinguish iron deficiency anemia connected with inflammation and absolute iron deficiency. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Long-term predictive models of risk factors for early chronic kidney disease: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wen-Chih; Hsieh, Po-Chien; Hu, Fu-Kang; Kuan, Jen-Chun; Chu, Chi-Ming; Sun, Chien-An; Yang, Tsan; Su, Sui-Lung; Chou, Yu-Ching

    2018-04-13

    The high incidence and prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in Taiwan have produced tremendous burdens on health care resources. The work environment of air force special operations personnel engenders high psychological stress, and the resulting increased blood pressure can lead to glomerular hypertension and accelerated glomerular injury in the long term. The aim of the study was to establish the predictive models to define the predictors of CKD. The results indicated that the prevalence of CKD over 4 consecutive years was 3.8%, 9.4%, 9.0%, and 9.4%. The capability of using occult blood in urine to predict the risk of CKD after 1, 2, and 3 years was statistically significant. The age-adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were 7.94 (95% CI: 2.61-24.14), 12.35 (95% CI: 4.02-37.94) and 4.25 (95% CI: 1.32-13.70), respectively. The predictive power of occult blood in urine for the risk of CKD in each model was statistically significant. Future investigations can explore the feasibility of implementing simple and accurate urine dipsticks for preliminary testing besides annual aircrew physical examinations to facilitate early detection and treatment. This study was a longitudinal study, in which air force special operations personnel who received physical examinations at military hospitals between 2004 and 2010 were selected. CKD was determined based on the definition provided by the US National Kidney Foundation. Overall, 212 participants that could be followed continuously for 4 years were analyzed.

  6. Improved prediction of tacrolimus concentrations early after kidney transplantation using theory-based pharmacokinetic modelling.

    PubMed

    Størset, Elisabet; Holford, Nick; Hennig, Stefanie; Bergmann, Troels K; Bergan, Stein; Bremer, Sara; Åsberg, Anders; Midtvedt, Karsten; Staatz, Christine E

    2014-09-01

    The aim was to develop a theory-based population pharmacokinetic model of tacrolimus in adult kidney transplant recipients and to externally evaluate this model and two previous empirical models. Data were obtained from 242 patients with 3100 tacrolimus whole blood concentrations. External evaluation was performed by examining model predictive performance using Bayesian forecasting. Pharmacokinetic disposition parameters were estimated based on tacrolimus plasma concentrations, predicted from whole blood concentrations, haematocrit and literature values for tacrolimus binding to red blood cells. Disposition parameters were allometrically scaled to fat free mass. Tacrolimus whole blood clearance/bioavailability standardized to haematocrit of 45% and fat free mass of 60 kg was estimated to be 16.1 l h−1 [95% CI 12.6, 18.0 l h−1]. Tacrolimus clearance was 30% higher (95% CI 13, 46%) and bioavailability 18% lower (95% CI 2, 29%) in CYP3A5 expressers compared with non-expressers. An Emax model described decreasing tacrolimus bioavailability with increasing prednisolone dose. The theory-based model was superior to the empirical models during external evaluation displaying a median prediction error of −1.2% (95% CI −3.0, 0.1%). Based on simulation, Bayesian forecasting led to 65% (95% CI 62, 68%) of patients achieving a tacrolimus average steady-state concentration within a suggested acceptable range. A theory-based population pharmacokinetic model was superior to two empirical models for prediction of tacrolimus concentrations and seemed suitable for Bayesian prediction of tacrolimus doses early after kidney transplantation.

  7. General practitioners' perspectives on management of early-stage chronic kidney disease: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    van Dipten, Carola; van Berkel, Saskia; de Grauw, Wim J C; Scherpbier-de Haan, Nynke D; Brongers, Bouke; van Spaendonck, Karel; Wetzels, Jack F M; Assendelft, Willem J J; Dees, Marianne K

    2018-06-06

    Guideline adherence in chronic kidney disease management is low, despite guideline implementation initiatives. Knowing general practitioners' (GPs') perspectives of management of early-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD) and the applicability of the national interdisciplinary guideline could support strategies to improve quality of care. Qualitative focus group study with 27 GPs in the Netherlands. Three analysts open-coded and comparatively analysed the data. Mind-mapping sessions were performed after data-saturation. Five themes emerged: defining CKD, knowledge and awareness, patient-physician interaction, organisation of CKD care and value of the guideline. A key finding was the abstractness of the CKD concept. The GPs expressed various perspectives about defining CKD and interpreting estimated glomerular filtration rates. Views about clinical relevance influenced the decision-making, although factual knowledge seems lacking. Striving to inform well enough without creating anxiety and to explain suitably for the intellectual ability of the patient caused tension in the patient-physician interaction. Integration with cardiovascular disease-management programmes was mentioned as a way of implementing CKD care in the future. The guideline was perceived as a rough guide rather than a leading document. CKD is perceived as an abstract rather than a clinical concept. Abstractness plays a role in all formulated themes. Management of CKD patients in primary care is complex and is influenced by physician-bound considerations related to individual knowledge and perception of the importance of CKD. Strategies are needed to improve GPs' understanding of the concept of CKD by education, a holistic approach to guidelines, and integration of CKD care into cardiovascular programmes. Not applicable.

  8. Early Outcomes of the New UK Deceased Donor Kidney Fast-Track Offering Scheme.

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Chris J; Mumford, Lisa; Pankhurst, Laura; Baker, Richard J; Bradley, J Andrew; Watson, Christopher J E

    2017-12-01

    The UK Kidney Fast-Track Scheme (KFTS) was introduced in 2012 to identify kidneys at high risk of discard and to rapidly facilitate transplantation. A retrospective analysis of kidneys transplanted through the KFTS was undertaken. UK Transplant Registry data were collected on deceased donor kidneys implanted between November 1, 2012, and April 30, 2015, (donation after brain death [DBD] donors) and March 1, 2013, and April 30, 2015 (donation after circulatory death [DCD] donors). Posttransplant outcomes included 1-year estimated glomerular filtration rate and death-censored graft survival (DCGS). Over the study period, 523 deceased donor kidneys were transplanted through the KFTS and 4174 via the standard National Kidney Allocation Scheme (NKAS). Kidneys in the KFTS were more likely to be from older diabetic donors, had a higher frequency of poor ex vivo perfusion, had longer cold ischemic times, and were transplanted into older recipients. One-year DCGS of KFTS and NKAS DBD donor kidneys was similar (94% vs 95%; P = 0.70), but for DCD donor kidneys, DCGS was lower in those allocated via the KFTS (91% versus 95%; P = 0.04). Median 1-year estimated glomerular filtration rate for DBD donor kidneys was lower in those allocated via the KFTS (49 vs 52 mL/min per 1.73 m; P = 0.01), but for DCD kidneys, there was no difference (45 vs 48 mL/min per 1.73 m; P = 0.10). Although KFTS kidneys have less favorable donor, graft, and recipient risk factors than NKAS kidneys, short-term graft and patient outcomes are acceptable. National schemes that identify and rapidly offer kidneys at high risk of discard may contribute to minimizing the unnecessary discard of organs.

  9. Kidney injury molecule-1 and microalbuminuria levels in Zambian population: biomarkers of kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Zulu, Mildred; Kaile, Trevor; Kantenga, Timothy; Chileshe, Chisanga; Nkhoma, Panji; Sinkala, Musalula

    2016-01-01

    Kidney injury affects renal excretion of plasma analytes and metabolic waste products with grave pathologic consequences. Early detection, thus of kidney injury is essential for injury specific intervention that may avert permanent renal damage and delay progression of kidney injury. We aimed to evaluate Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (KIM-1) and Microalbuminuria (MAU), as biomarkers of kidney injury, in comparison with creatinine. We compared the levels of urine MAU, urine KIM-1 and other plasma biochemical tests in specimens from 80 individuals with and without kidney disease. We found no difference in KIM-1 levels between the kidney disease group (2.82± 1.36ng/mL) and controls (3.29 ± 1.14ng/mL), p = 0.122. MAU was higher in participants with kidney disease (130.809± 84.744 µg/mL) than the controls (15.983± 20.442µg/mL), p ?0.001. KIM-1 showed a weak negative correlation with creatinine (r = -0.279, p = 0.09), whereas MAU was positively correlated with creatinine in participants with kidney disease with statistical significance (r = 0.556, p = 0.001). The study demonstrated that in Zambian setting MAU and creatinine are sensitive biomarkers in the diagnosis of kidney damage. We moreover propose further evaluation of KIM-1 as a biomarker of kidney injury.

  10. Kidney injury molecule-1 and microalbuminuria levels in Zambian population: biomarkers of kidney injury

    PubMed Central

    Zulu, Mildred; Kaile, Trevor; Kantenga, Timothy; Chileshe, Chisanga; Nkhoma, Panji; Sinkala, Musalula

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Kidney injury affects renal excretion of plasma analytes and metabolic waste products with grave pathologic consequences. Early detection, thus of kidney injury is essential for injury specific intervention that may avert permanent renal damage and delay progression of kidney injury. We aimed to evaluate Kidney Injury Molecule-1 (KIM-1) and Microalbuminuria (MAU), as biomarkers of kidney injury, in comparison with creatinine. Methods We compared the levels of urine MAU, urine KIM-1 and other plasma biochemical tests in specimens from 80 individuals with and without kidney disease. Results We found no difference in KIM-1 levels between the kidney disease group (2.82± 1.36ng/mL) and controls (3.29 ± 1.14ng/mL), p = 0.122. MAU was higher in participants with kidney disease (130.809± 84.744 µg/mL) than the controls (15.983± 20.442µg/mL), p ?0.001. KIM-1 showed a weak negative correlation with creatinine (r = -0.279, p = 0.09), whereas MAU was positively correlated with creatinine in participants with kidney disease with statistical significance (r = 0.556, p = 0.001). Conclusion The study demonstrated that in Zambian setting MAU and creatinine are sensitive biomarkers in the diagnosis of kidney damage. We moreover propose further evaluation of KIM-1 as a biomarker of kidney injury. PMID:27642395

  11. Association Between Early Postoperative Acetaminophen Exposure and Acute Kidney Injury in Pediatric Patients Undergoing Cardiac Surgery.

    PubMed

    Van Driest, Sara L; Jooste, Edmund H; Shi, Yaping; Choi, Leena; Darghosian, Leon; Hill, Kevin D; Smith, Andrew H; Kannankeril, Prince J; Roden, Dan M; Ware, Lorraine B

    2018-05-14

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common and serious complication for pediatric cardiac surgery patients associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and length of stay. Current strategies focus on risk reduction and early identification because there are no known preventive or therapeutic agents. Cardiac surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass lyse erythrocytes, releasing free hemoglobin and contributing to oxidative injury. Acetaminophen may prevent AKI by reducing the oxidation state of free hemoglobin. To test the hypothesis that early postoperative acetaminophen exposure is associated with reduced risk of AKI in pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery. In this retrospective cohort study, the setting was 2 tertiary referral children's hospitals. The primary and validation cohorts included children older than 28 days admitted for cardiac surgery between July 1, 2008, and June 1, 2016. Exclusion criteria were postoperative extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and inadequate serum creatinine measurements to determine AKI status. Acetaminophen exposure in the first 48 postoperative hours. Acute kidney injury based on Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes serum creatinine criteria (increase by ≥0.3 mg/dL from baseline or at least 1.5-fold more than the baseline [to convert to micromoles per liter, multiply by 88.4]) in the first postoperative week. The primary cohort (n = 666) had a median age of 6.5 (interquartile range [IQR], 3.9-44.7) months, and 341 (51.2%) had AKI. In unadjusted analyses, those with AKI had lower median acetaminophen doses than those without AKI (47 [IQR, 16-88] vs 78 [IQR, 43-104] mg/kg, P < .001). In logistic regression analysis adjusting for age, cardiopulmonary bypass time, red blood cell distribution width, postoperative hypotension, nephrotoxin exposure, and Risk Adjustment for Congenital Heart Surgery score, acetaminophen exposure was protective against postoperative AKI (odds ratio, 0.86 [95% CI, 0.82-0.90] per each

  12. EVALUATION OF SYMMETRIC DIMETHYLARGININE AS AN EARLY BIOMARKER OF CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE IN CAPTIVE CHEETAHS (ACINONYX JUBATUS).

    PubMed

    Lamglait, Benjamin; Vandenbunder-Beltrame, Marielle

    2017-09-01

    Symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) has been shown to be a valuable biomarker for early detection of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in canine and feline patients. Recognition of early (subclinical) kidney disease would be of value in cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) as prevalence of CKD is relatively high in this species in captivity. Fifty-eight banked serum and plasma samples from seven adult cheetahs that died of CKD were analyzed for creatinine, urea, and SDMA. A marked increase in SDMA was noted on five of the tested cheetahs earlier than the rise of serum creatinine and urea (estimated 8-35 mo; mean 21.4 mo; median 22 mo). SDMA appears as an early biomarker to evaluate renal function for the diagnosis of CKD in cheetahs regardless of the cause of this disease.

  13. Effects of Phosphate Binder Therapy on Vascular Stiffness in Early Stage Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Seifert, Michael E.; de las Fuentes, Lisa; Rothstein, Marcos; Dietzen, Dennis J.; Bierhals, Andrew J.; Cheng, Steven C.; Ross, Will; Windus, David; Dávila-Román, Víctor G.; Hruska, Keith A.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Aims Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is increased in chronic kidney disease (CKD), and contributed to by the CKD-mineral bone disorder (CKD-MBD). The CKD-MBD begins in early CKD and its vascular manifestations begin with vascular stiffness proceeding to increased carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT) and vascular calcification (VC). Phosphorus is associated with this progression and is considered a CVD risk factor in CKD. We hypothesized that modifying phosphorus balance with lanthanum carbonate (LaCO3) in early CKD would not produce hypophosphatemia and may affect vascular manifestations of the CKD-MBD. Methods We randomized 38 subjects with normophosphatemic stage 3 CKD to a fixed dose of LaCO3 or matching placebo without adjusting dietary phosphorus in a 12-month randomized, double-blind, pilot and feasibility study. The primary outcome was the change in serum phosphorus. Secondary outcomes were changes in measures of phosphate homeostasis and vascular stiffness assessed by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), cIMT and VC over 12 months. Results There were no statistically significant differences between LaCO3 and placebo with respect to the change in serum phosphorus, urinary phosphorus, tubular reabsorption of phosphorus, PWV, cIMT, or VC. Biomarkers of the early CKD-MBD such as plasma fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF23), Dickkopf-related protein 1 (DKK1), and sclerostin were increased 2–3-fold at baseline but were not affected by LaCO3. Conclusion 12 months of LaCO3 had no effect on serum phosphorus and did not alter phosphate homeostasis, PWV, cIMT, VC, or biomarkers of the CKD-MBD. PMID:23941761

  14. Uric acid lowering to prevent kidney function loss in diabetes: the preventing early renal function loss (PERL) allopurinol study.

    PubMed

    Maahs, David M; Caramori, Luiza; Cherney, David Z I; Galecki, Andrzej T; Gao, Chuanyun; Jalal, Diana; Perkins, Bruce A; Pop-Busui, Rodica; Rossing, Peter; Mauer, Michael; Doria, Alessandro

    2013-08-01

    Diabetic kidney disease causes significant morbidity and mortality among people with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Intensive glucose and blood pressure control have thus far failed to adequately curb this problem and therefore a major need for novel treatment approaches exists. Multiple observations link serum uric acid levels to kidney disease development and progression in diabetes and strongly argue that uric acid lowering should be tested as one such novel intervention. A pilot of such a trial, using allopurinol, is currently being conducted by the Preventing Early Renal Function Loss (PERL) Consortium. Although the PERL trial targets T1D individuals at highest risk of kidney function decline, the use of allopurinol as a renoprotective agent may also be relevant to a larger segment of the population with diabetes. As allopurinol is inexpensive and safe, it could be cost-effective even for relatively low-risk patients, pending the completion of appropriate trials at earlier stages.

  15. Periconceptional undernutrition and being a twin each alter kidney development in the sheep fetus during early gestation.

    PubMed

    MacLaughlin, Severence M; Walker, Simon K; Kleemann, David O; Tosh, Darran N; McMillen, I Caroline

    2010-03-01

    Adaptive growth responses of the embryo and fetus to nutritional restraint are important in ensuring early survival, but they are implicated in the programming of hypertension. It has been demonstrated that kidney growth and nephrogenesis are each regulated by intrarenal factors, including the insulin-like growth factors, glucocorticoids, and the renin-angiotensin system. Therefore, we have investigated the impact of periconceptional undernutrition (PCUN; from approximately 6 wk before to 7 days after conception) in singleton (control, n = 18; PCUN, n = 16) and twin pregnancies (control, n = 6; PCUN, n = 5) on the renal mRNA expression of 11beta- hydroxysteroid dehydrogensase type 1 and type 2 (11beta-HSD-1 and -2), the glucocorticoid (GR), and mineralocorticoid receptors, angiotensinogen, angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1R) and 2 (AT2R), IGF-1 and IGF-2, and IGF1R and IGF2R at approximately 55 days gestation. There was no effect of PCUN or fetal number on fetal weight on relative kidney weight at approximately day 55 of gestation. There was an inverse relationship between the relative weight of the fetal kidney at approximately day 55 and maternal weight loss during the periconceptional period in fetuses exposed to PCUN. Exposure to PCUN resulted in a higher expression of IGF1 in the fetal kidney in singleton and twin pregnancies. Being a twin resulted in higher intrarenal expression of IGF-1 and IGF-2, GR, angiotensinogen, AT1R, and AT2R mRNA at 55 days gestation. Renal 11beta-HSD-2 mRNA expression was higher in PCUN singletons, but not PCUN twins, compared with controls. Thus, there may be an adaptive response in the kidney to the early environment of a twin pregnancy, which precedes the fetal growth restriction that occurs later in pregnancy. The kidney of the twin fetus exposed to periconceptional undernutrition may also be less protected from the consequences of glucocorticoid exposure.

  16. Contemporary, age-based trends in the incidence and management of patients with early-stage kidney cancer.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hung-Jui; Filson, Christopher P; Litwin, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    Although kidney cancer incidence and nephrectomy rates have risen in tandem, clinical advances have generated new uncertainty regarding the optimal management of patients with small renal tumors, especially the elderly. To clarify existing practice patterns, we assessed contemporary trends in the incidence and management of patients with early-stage kidney cancer. Using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results data, we identified adult patients diagnosed with T1aN0M0 kidney cancer from 2000 to 2010. We determined age-adjusted and age-specific incidence and management rates (i.e., nonoperative, ablation, partial nephrectomy [PN], and radical nephrectomy) per 100,000 adults and determined the average annual percent change (AAPC). Finally, we compared management groups using multinomial logistic regression accounting for patient characteristics, cancer information, and county-level measures for health. From 2000 to 2010, we identified 41,645 adults diagnosed with T1aN0M0 kidney cancer. Overall incidence increased from 3.7 to 7.0 per 100,000 adults (AAPC = 7.0%, P<0.001). Over the study interval, rates of PN (AAPC = 13.1%, P<0.001) increased substantially, becoming the most used treatment by 2010. Among the elderly, rates of nonoperative management and ablation approached nephrectomy rates for those aged 75 to 84 years and became the predominant strategy for patients older than 84 years. Adjusting for clinical, oncological, and environmental factors, older patients less frequently underwent PN and more often received ablative or nonoperative management (P<0.001). As the incidence of early-stage kidney cancer rises, patients are increasingly treated with nonoperative and nephron-sparing strategies, especially among the most elderly. The broader array of treatment options suggests opportunities to better personalize kidney cancer care for seniors. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Novel urinary biomarkers and the early detection of acute kidney injury after open cardiac surgeries.

    PubMed

    Elmedany, Said M; Naga, Salah S; Elsharkawy, Rania; Mahrous, Rabab S; Elnaggar, Ahmed I

    2017-08-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication after cardiac surgery, recently, several biomarkers have been used to facilitate early detection of AKI, including Neutrophil-gelatinase-associated-lipocalin (NGAL) and Kidney-injury-molecule-1 (KIM-1).This study was carried out to study the efficacy of urinary KIM-1 and NGAL separately and in combination in relation to early detection and assessment of severity of AKI after cardiac surgeries. This prospective study was carried out on 45 adult patients, of both sexes, Cleveland score(CCS) (0-5) and scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery in Alexandria Main University Hospital, after approval of the ethical committee and having an informed written consent from every patient. Patients were screened for renal function tests before surgery and every day for 3 day after surgery. Freshly urine samples were taken from all patients and centrifuged for microscopic examination of the sediment: preoperative, 2, 12, 24, and 48 hr after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and for measurement of NGAL and KIM-1; after induction, 2, 6, 12, and 24 hr after CPB. The primary end point was the incidence of AKI defined by the AKIN criteria of serum creatinine. 11 patients developed AKI. Patients with AKI had a higher AKIN stages and CCS. CPB time and cross clamp time were significantly higher in the AKI group with a mean of (90.5±16.2) and (60.9±8.1) minutes respectively. Serum creatinine started to be significantly higher in AKI group from the second postoperative day with a mean value of 1.56±0.28 mg/dl compared to a mean value of 0.85±0.14 mg/dl in non-AKI group. Urine sediment score(USS) 1 and 2 were higher in the AKI group than in the non-AKI group 2 hrs after CPB and till the end of the 2nd day with area under the curve (AUC) average of (0.865). Urinary NGAL significantly rise in AKI patients 2 and 6 hr after CPB with corresponding AUC of (0.710 and 0.700) but uKIM-1 was higher in the AKI group 12 and 24

  18. Early renal function recovery and long-term graft survival in kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Wan, Susan S; Cantarovich, Marcelo; Mucsi, Istvan; Baran, Dana; Paraskevas, Steven; Tchervenkov, Jean

    2016-05-01

    Following kidney transplantation (KTx), renal function improves gradually until a baseline eGFR is achieved. Whether or not a recipient achieves the best-predicted eGFR after KTx may have important implications for immediate patient management, as well as for long-term graft survival. The aim of this cohort study was to calculate the renal function recovery (RFR) based on recipient and donor eGFR and to evaluate the association between RFR and long-term death-censored graft failure (DCGF). We studied 790 KTx recipients between January 1990 and August 2014. The last donor SCr prior to organ procurement was used to estimate donor GFR. Recipient eGFR was calculated using the average of the best three SCr values observed during the first 3 months post-KTx. RFR was defined as the ratio of recipient eGFR to half the donor eGFR. 53% of recipients had an RFR ≥1. There were 127 death-censored graft failures (16%). Recipients with an RFR ≥1 had less DCGF compared with those with an RFR <1 (HR 0.56; 95% CI 0.37-0.85; P = 0.006). Transplant era, acute rejection, ECD and DGF were also significant determinants of graft failure. Early recovery of predicted eGFR based on donor eGFR is associated with less DCGF after KTx. © 2016 Steunstichting ESOT.

  19. Ectopic Kidney

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ectopic Kidney Medullary Sponge Kidney Kidney Dysplasia Ectopic Kidney What is an ectopic kidney? An ectopic kidney is a birth defect in ... has an ectopic kidney. 1 What are the kidneys and what do they do? The kidneys are ...

  20. Early increase of peripheral B cell levels in kidney transplant recipients with CMV infection or reactivation.

    PubMed

    Besançon-Watelet, C; De March, A K; Renoult, E; Kessler, M; Béné, M C; Faure, G C; Sarda, M N

    2000-02-15

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection or reactivation is a frequent complication of renal transplantation. Diagnosis of these conditions relies on the detection of circulating antigen, or of specific IgM and/or IgG, which develop over several weeks. Evocative clinical features may be detected earlier, but lack specificity. Rapid and early changes in the partition of lymphocyte subsets could be an additional indication of pending CMV infection. A systematic follow-up of peripheral B lymphocytes identified immunophenotypically by the determination of surface immunoglobulins (sIg), performed in 97 kidney transplant recipients, allowed to identify transient increases apparently predictive of CMV primo-infection or reactivation over the next 3 months. To better define the nature of these B cells, an extended investigation was performed for 14 prospective patients. In addition to surface Ig, membrane CD19, HLA-DR, and CD80 expression were explored. The cytoplasmic presence of mu, kappa, and lambda chains was also examined. B cell function was investigated using the ELISPOT technique, which allows an enumeration of the populations of IgG, IgA, and IgM secreting B cells. Retrospective analysis of the clinical outcome of the cohort of 97 patients evidenced that early transient increases in B cell levels were significantly (P<0.0001) associated with CMV infection. The same trend was noted in the smaller series of patients who benefited from a more extensive investigation of B cells, 10 of whom presented clinical or biological signs of CMV infection. Mature B cells, expressing surface Ig, CD19, DR, and CD80 are those presenting transient increases. No significant variation of preB (cmu+/kappalambda-) or activated (spot-forming) cells was evidenced in these patients. Individual examination of each patient's immune reconstitution profile allows to detect transient peaks of mature B cell during the initial immunosuppressive therapy, that appear to be predictive of oncoming CMV

  1. Incidence and perioperative risk factors for early acute kidney injury after radical cystectomy and urinary diversion.

    PubMed

    Furrer, Marc A; Schneider, Marc P; Burkhard, Fiona C; Wuethrich, Patrick Y

    2018-06-01

    Early postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality following major surgery. Only few reports exist on postoperative AKI and specifically its risk factors after radical cystectomy (RC) and urinary diversion (UD). We aimed to identify risk factors for AKI in patients undergoing RC and UD. In an observational single-center cohort study, 912 consecutive bladder cancer patients undergoing RC and UD from 2000 to 2016 were evaluated for risk factors for AKI. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to model the association between variables and AKI. Early postoperative AKI occurred in 100/912 patients (11%). An increased risk was seen in patients with surgery lasting>400minutes, male and obese patients (>25kg/m²). Independent predictors were duration of surgery (P = 0.020), intraoperative blood loss (P = 0.049), preoperative serum creatinine values (P = 0.004), intraoperative administration of crystalloids (P = 0.032), body mass index (P = 0.031), and fluid balance (P = 0.006). Patients with AKI had a longer hospitalization time (18d vs 17d, P = 0.040). Limitations include the potential bias due to the design as a case series with prospectively collected data with some missing values. An increased risk for AKI was seen in patients with an operative time>400 minutes. Hence, in this group of patients the role of postoperative fluid management for preserving renal function should be considered. Further independent predictors of postoperative AKI were male sex, obesity, intraoperative blood loss, and a low preoperative plasma creatinine. So specially in male and obese patients, optimized perioperative nephroprotective strategies are of importance. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Early age exposure to moisture damage and systemic inflammation at the age of 6 years.

    PubMed

    Karvonen, A M; Tischer, C; Kirjavainen, P V; Roponen, M; Hyvärinen, A; Illi, S; Mustonen, K; Pfefferle, P I; Renz, H; Remes, S; Schaub, B; von Mutius, E; Pekkanen, J

    2018-05-01

    Cross-sectional studies have shown that exposure to indoor moisture damage and mold may be associated with subclinical inflammation. Our aim was to determine whether early age exposure to moisture damage or mold is prospectively associated with subclinical systemic inflammation or with immune responsiveness in later childhood. Home inspections were performed in children's homes in the first year of life. At age 6 years, subclinical systemic inflammation was measured by serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and blood leukocytes and immune responsiveness by ex vivo production of interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) in whole blood cultures without stimulation or after 24 hours stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and ionomycin (PI), lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or peptidoglycan (PPG) in 251-270 children. Moisture damage in child's main living areas in infancy was not significantly associated with elevated levels of CRP or leukocytes at 6 years. In contrast, there was some suggestion for an effect on immune responsiveness, as moisture damage with visible mold was positively associated with LPS-stimulated production of TNF-α and minor moisture damage was inversely associated with PI-stimulated IL-1β. While early life exposure to mold damage may have some influence on later immune responsiveness, it does not seem to increase subclinical systemic inflammation in later life. © 2018 National Institute for Health and Welfare, Finland Indoor Air published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Cumulative herbivory outpaces compensation for early floral damage on a monocarpic perennial thistle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Floral herbivory presents a threat to plant reproductive success. Monocarpic plants should tolerate early apical damage with compensatory reproductive effort by subsequent flower heads during their single flowering season. However, the actual contribution of this tolerance response to net fitness is...

  4. Fiber optic probe enabled by surface-enhanced Raman scattering for early diagnosis of potential acute rejection of kidney transplant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Jingmao; Chen, Hui; Tolias, Peter; Du, Henry

    2014-06-01

    We have explored the use of a fiber-optic probe with surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) sensing modality for early, noninvasive and, rapid diagnosis of potential renal acute rejection (AR) and other renal graft dysfunction of kidney transplant patients. Multimode silica optical fiber immobilized with colloidal Ag nanoparticles at the distal end was used for SERS measurements of as-collected urine samples at 632.8 nm excitation wavelength. All patients with abnormal renal graft function (3 AR episodes and 2 graft failure episodes) who were clinically diagnosed independently show common unique SERS spectral features in the urines collected just one day after transplant. SERS-based fiber-optic probe has excellent potential to be a bedside tool for early diagnosis of kidney transplant patients for timely medical intervention of patients at high risk of transplant dysfunction.

  5. Long-term survival following partial vs radical nephrectomy among older patients with early-stage kidney cancer.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hung-Jui; Norton, Edward C; Ye, Zaojun; Hafez, Khaled S; Gore, John L; Miller, David C

    2012-04-18

    Although partial nephrectomy is the preferred treatment for many patients with early-stage kidney cancer, recent clinical trial data, which demonstrate better survival for patients treated with radical nephrectomy, have generated new uncertainty regarding the comparative effectiveness of these treatment options. To compare long-term survival after partial vs radical nephrectomy among a population-based patient cohort whose treatment reflects contemporary surgical practice. We performed a retrospective cohort study of Medicare beneficiaries with clinical stage T1a kidney cancer treated with partial or radical nephrectomy from 1992 through 2007. Using an instrumental variable approach to account for measured and unmeasured differences between treatment groups, we fit a 2-stage residual inclusion model to estimate the treatment effect of partial nephrectomy on long-term survival. Overall and kidney cancer-specific survival. Among 7138 Medicare beneficiaries with early-stage kidney cancer, we identified 1925 patients (27.0%) treated with partial nephrectomy and 5213 patients (73.0%) treated with radical nephrectomy. During a median follow-up of 62 months, 487 (25.3%) and 2164 (41.5%) patients died following partial or radical nephrectomy, respectively. Kidney cancer was the cause of death for 37 patients (1.9%) treated with partial nephrectomy, and 222 patients (4.3%) treated with radical nephrectomy. Patients treated with partial nephrectomy had a significantly lower risk of death (hazard ratio [HR], 0.54; 95% CI, 0.34-0.85). This corresponded with a predicted survival increase with partial nephrectomy of 5.6 (95% CI, 1.9-9.3), 11.8 (95% CI, 3.9-19.7), and 15.5 (95% CI, 5.0-26.0) percentage points at 2, 5, and 8 years posttreatment (P < .001). No difference was noted in kidney cancer-specific survival (HR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.19-3.49). Among Medicare beneficiaries with early-stage kidney cancer who were candidates for either surgery, treatment with partial rather than

  6. Long-term survival following partial versus radical nephrectomy among older patients with early-stage kidney cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Hung-Jui; Norton, Edward C.; Ye, Zaojun; Hafez, Khaled S.; Gore, John L.; Miller, David C.

    2013-01-01

    Context Although partial nephrectomy is the preferred treatment for many patients with early-stage kidney cancer, recent clinical trial data demonstrating better survival for patients treated with radical nephrectomy has generated new uncertainty regarding the comparative effectiveness of these treatment options. Objective We sought to clarify this issue by performing an instrumental variable analysis comparing long-term survival after partial versus radical nephrectomy among a population-based patient cohort whose treatment reflects contemporary surgical practice. Design, Setting, and Patients We performed a retrospective cohort study of Medicare beneficiaries with clinical stage T1a kidney cancer treated from 1992 through 2007 with partial or radical nephrectomy. Using an instrumental variable approach to account for measured and unmeasured differences between treatment groups, we fit a two-stage residual inclusion model to estimate the treatment effect of partial nephrectomy on long-term survival. Main outcome measures Overall and kidney cancer-specific survival. Results Among 7,138 Medicare beneficiaries with early-stage kidney cancer, we identified 1,925 (27.0%) patients treated with partial nephrectomy, and 5,213 (73.0%) patients treated with radical nephrectomy. During a median follow-up of 62 months, 487 (25.3%) and 2,164 (41.5%) patients died following partial or radical nephrectomy, respectively. Kidney cancer was the cause of death for 37 (1.9%) patients treated with partial nephrectomy, and 222 (4.3%) patients treated with radical nephrectomy. Patients treated with partial nephrectomy had a significantly lower risk of death (HR 0.54, 95% CI 0.34-0.85). This corresponded to a predicted survival increase with partial nephrectomy of 5.6 (95% CI 1.9-9.3), 11.8 (95% CI 3.9-19.7), and 15.5 (95% CI 5.0-26.0) percentage points at 2-, 5-, and 8-years post-treatment (p<0.001). No difference was noted in kidney cancer-specific survival (HR 0.82, 95% CI 0

  7. Comparison of myocardial damage among dogs at different stages of clinical leishmaniasis and dogs with idiopathic chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Hernández, L; Casamian-Sorrosal, D; Barrera-Chacón, R; Cuesta-Gerveno, J M; Belinchón-Lorenzo, S; Gómez Nieto, L C; Duque-Carrasco, F J

    2017-03-01

    Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) is a systemic disease caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania infantum. Myocarditis in CanL has been described previously in CanL by histopathological analysis of post-mortem specimens and by evaluation of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) levels. However, the degree of myocardial damage at different stages of CanL and the role that concurrent azotaemia plays in this myocardial injury are unknown. The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate and compare the presence of myocardial injury in dogs at different stages of clinical CanL and in dogs with severe idiopathic chronic kidney disease (CKD) by measuring cTnI. Forty-eight dogs were included in the study, divided into four groups: (1) group A (10 healthy dogs); (2) group B (17 dogs with CanL without renal azotaemia, classified as mild to severe in the LeishVet scheme); (3) group C (11 dogs with CanL and renal azotaemia, classified as very severe in the LeishVet scheme); and (4) group D (10 dogs with idiopathic CKD). Dogs in group C had significantly higher cTnI than dogs in groups B and D, although cTnI was also elevated in these groups. Dogs in group A had normal cTnI values. Dogs in groups D and C had similar renal IRIS classification scorers. Severe lymphoplasmocytic myocarditis and a positive real time PCR of L. infantum DNA were observed in all dogs in group C. Dogs with very severe CanL exhibit more myocardial injury than dogs with milder CanL or dogs with idiopathic CKD. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Early reversible acute kidney injury is associated with improved survival in septic shock.

    PubMed

    Sood, Manish M; Shafer, Leigh Anne; Ho, Julie; Reslerova, Martina; Martinka, Greg; Keenan, Sean; Dial, Sandra; Wood, Gordon; Rigatto, Claudio; Kumar, Anand

    2014-10-01

    The fact that acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with worse clinical outcomes forms the basis of most AKI prognostic scoring systems. However, early reversibility of renal dysfunction in acute illness is not considered in such systems. We sought to determine whether early (≤24 hours after shock documentation) reversibility of AKI was independently associated with in-hospital mortality in septic shock. Patient information was derived from an international database of septic shock cases from 28 different institutions in Canada, the United States and Saudi Arabia. Data from a final cohort of 5443 patients admitted with septic shock between Jan 1996 and Dec 2009 was analyzed. The following 4 definitions were used in regards to AKI status: (1) reversible AKI = AKI of any RIFLE severity prevalent at shock diagnosis or incident at 6 hours post-diagnosis that reverses by 24 hours, (2) persistent AKI = AKI prevalent at shock diagnosis and persisting during the entire 24 hours post-shock diagnosis, (3) new AKI = AKI incident between 6 and 24 hours post-shock diagnosis, and (4) improved AKI = AKI prevalent at shock diagnosis or incident at 6 hours post followed by improvement of AKI severity across at least one RIFLE category over the first 24 hours. Cox proportional hazards were used to determine the association between AKI status and in-hospital mortality. During the first 24 hours, reversible AKI occurred in 13.0%, persistent AKI in 54.9%, new AKI in 11.7%, and no AKI in 22.4%. In adjusted analyses, reversible AKI was associated with improved survival (HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.53-0.77) compared to no AKI (referent), persistent AKI (HR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.88-1.11), and new AKI (HR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.22-1.62). Improved AKI occurred in 19.1% with improvement across any RIFLE category associated with a significant decrease in mortality (HR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.45-0.63). More rapid antimicrobial administration, lower Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score, lower age

  9. Non-invasive detection of the early phase of kidney injury by photoacoustic/computed tomography imaging.

    PubMed

    Pan, Wanma; Peng, Wen; Ning, Fengling; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Yunfei; Wang, Yinhang; Xie, Weiyi; Zhang, Jing; Xin, Hong; Li, Cong; Zhang, Xuemei

    2018-06-29

    The early diagnosis of kidney diseases, which can remarkably impair the quality of life and are costly, has encountered great difficulties. Therefore, the development of methods for early diagnosis has great clinical significance. In this study, we used an emerging technique of photoacoustic (PA) imaging, which has relatively high spatial resolution and good imaging depth. Two kinds of PA gold nanoparticle (GNP)-based bioprobes were developed based on their superior photo detectability, size controllability and biocompatibility. The kidney injury mouse model was developed by unilateral ureteral obstruction for 96 h and the release of obstruction model). Giving 3.5 and 5.5 nm bioprobes by tail vein injection, we found that the 5.5 nm probe could be detected in the bladder in the model group, but not in the control group. These results were confirmed by computed tomography imaging. Furthermore, the model group did not show changes in the blood biochemical indices (BUN and Scr) and histologic examination. The 5.5 nm GNPs were found to be the critical point for early diagnosis of kidney injury. This new method was faster and more sensitive and accurate for the detection of renal injury, compared with conventional methods, and can be used for the development of a PA GNP-based bioprobe for diagnosing renal injury.

  10. Non-invasive detection of the early phase of kidney injury by photoacoustic/computed tomography imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Wanma; Peng, Wen; Ning, Fengling; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Yunfei; Wang, Yinhang; Xie, Weiyi; Zhang, Jing; Xin, Hong; Li, Cong; Zhang, Xuemei

    2018-06-01

    The early diagnosis of kidney diseases, which can remarkably impair the quality of life and are costly, has encountered great difficulties. Therefore, the development of methods for early diagnosis has great clinical significance. In this study, we used an emerging technique of photoacoustic (PA) imaging, which has relatively high spatial resolution and good imaging depth. Two kinds of PA gold nanoparticle (GNP)-based bioprobes were developed based on their superior photo detectability, size controllability and biocompatibility. The kidney injury mouse model was developed by unilateral ureteral obstruction for 96 h and the release of obstruction model). Giving 3.5 and 5.5 nm bioprobes by tail vein injection, we found that the 5.5 nm probe could be detected in the bladder in the model group, but not in the control group. These results were confirmed by computed tomography imaging. Furthermore, the model group did not show changes in the blood biochemical indices (BUN and Scr) and histologic examination. The 5.5 nm GNPs were found to be the critical point for early diagnosis of kidney injury. This new method was faster and more sensitive and accurate for the detection of renal injury, compared with conventional methods, and can be used for the development of a PA GNP-based bioprobe for diagnosing renal injury.

  11. Impact of the Di(2-Ethylhexyl) Phthalate Administration on Trace Element and Mineral Levels in Relation of Kidney and Liver Damage in Rats.

    PubMed

    Aydemir, Duygu; Karabulut, Gözde; Şimşek, Gülsu; Gok, Muslum; Barlas, Nurhayat; Ulusu, Nuriye Nuray

    2018-04-13

    Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) is a widely used synthetic polymer in the industry. DEHP may induce reproductive and developmental toxicity, obesity, carcinogenesis and cause abnormal endocrine function in both human and wildlife. The aim of this study was to investigate trace element and mineral levels in relation of kidney and liver damage in DEHP-administered rats. Therefore, prepubertal male rats were dosed with 0, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg/day of DEHP. At the end of the experiment, trace element and mineral levels, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGD), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) enzyme activities were evaluated in the serum, liver, and kidney samples of rats. Furthermore, serum clinical biochemistry parameters, organ/body weight ratios and histological changes were investigated to evaluate impact of DEHP more detailed. Our data indicated that sodium (Na), calcium (Ca), potassium (K), lithium (Li), rubidium (Rb) and cesium (Cs) levels significantly decreased, however iron (Fe) and selenium (Se) concentrations significantly increased in DEHP-administered groups compared to the control in the serum samples. On the other hand, upon DEHP administration, selenium concentration, G6PD and GR activities were significantly elevated, however 6-PGD activity significantly decreased compared to the control group in the kidney samples. Decreased G6PD activity was the only significant change between anti-oxidant enzyme activities in the liver samples. Upon DEHP administration, aberrant serum biochemical parameters have arisen and abnormal histological changes were observed in the kidney and liver tissue. In conclusion, DEHP may induce liver and kidney damage, also result abnormalities in the trace element and mineral levels.

  12. Protective Effects of Pinus halepensis L. Essential Oil on Aspirin-induced Acute Liver and Kidney Damage in Female Wistar Albino Rats.

    PubMed

    Bouzenna, Hafsia; Samout, Noura; Amani, Etaya; Mbarki, Sakhria; Tlili, Zied; Rjeibi, Ilhem; Elfeki, Abdelfattah; Talarmin, Hélène; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2016-08-01

    Aromatic and medicinal plants are sources of natural antioxidants thanks to their secondary metabolites. Administration of Pinus halepensis L. (Pinaceae family) in previous studies was found to alleviate deleterious effects of aspirin-induced damage on liver and kidney. The present study, carried out on female rats, evaluates the effects of P. halepensis L. essential oil (EOP) on aspirin (A)-induced damage to liver and kidney. The animals used in this study were rats (n=28) divided into 4 groups of 7 each: (1) a control group (C); (2) a group given NaCl for 56 days then treated with (A) (600 mg/kg) for 4 days (A); (3) a group fed with (EOP) for 56 days then (A) for 4 days; and a group fed with only (EOP) for 56 days and given NaCl for 4 days. Estimations of biochemical parameters in blood were determined using kit methods (Spinreact). Lipid peroxidation levels (TBARS), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were determined. Histopathological study was done by immersing pieces of both organs in a fixative solution followed by paraffin embeddeding and hematoxylin-eosin staining. Under our experimental conditions, Aspirin at dose 600 mg/kg body weight induced an increase of serum biochemical parameters as well as an oxidative stress in both organs. An increase occurred in TBARS by 108% and 55%, a decrease in SOD by 78% and 53%, CAT by 53% and 78%, and GPx by 78% and 51% in liver and kidney, respectively, compared to control. Administration of EOP given to rats enabled correction in these parameters. It could be concluded that the treatment with P. halepensis L. essential oil inhibited aspirin-induced liver and kidney damage.

  13. 6-Gingerol-Rich Fraction from Zingiber officinale Prevents Hematotoxicity and Oxidative Damage in Kidney and Liver of Rats Exposed to Carbendazim.

    PubMed

    Salihu, Mariama; Ajayi, Babajide O; Adedara, Isaac A; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2016-01-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a globally marketed flavoring agent and cooking spice with a long history of human health benefits. The fungicide carbendazim (CBZ) is often detected in fruits and vegetables for human nutrition and has been reported to elicit toxic effects in different experimental animal models. The present study investigated the protective effects of 6-Gingerol-rich fraction (6-GRF) from ginger on hematotoxicity and hepatorenal damage in rats exposed to CBZ. CBZ was administered at a dose of 50 mg/kg alone or simultaneously administered with 6-GRF at 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, whereas control rats received corn oil alone at 2 mL/kg for 14 days. Hematological examination showed that CBZ-mediated toxicity to the total white blood cell (WBC), neutrophils, lymphocytes, and platelets counts were normalized to the control values in rats cotreated with 6-GRF. Moreover, administration of CBZ significantly decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase as well as glutathione level in the livers and kidneys of rats compared with control. However, the levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde were markedly elevated in kidneys and livers of CBZ-treated rats compared with control. The significant elevation in the plasma indices of renal and hepatic dysfunction in CBZ-treated rats was confirmed by light microscopy. Coadministration of 6-GRF exhibited chemoprotection against CBZ-mediated hematotoxicity, augmented antioxidant status, and prevented oxidative damage in the kidney and liver of rats.

  14. Skin autofluorescence as a novel marker of vascular damage in children and adolescents with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Makulska, Irena; Szczepańska, Maria; Drożdż, Dorota; Polak-Jonkisz, Dorota; Zwolińska, Danuta

    2015-05-01

    Skin autofluorescence (sAF) was examined as a marker of the accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in tissues of children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) in relation to renal function, dialysis modality and markers of endothelial inflammation and dysfunction. A total of 76 children with CKD were enrolled in the study, of whom 20 children were on hemodialysis (HD), 20 were on peritoneal dialysis (PD) and 36 were treated conservatively. A control group of 26 healthy subjects was also included in the study. In all children, sAF intensity, carotid intima-media (cIMT) thickness and plasma concentrations of sE-selectin, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1), asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1) were measured. Compared to the controls, children with CKD had significantly elevated sAF levels. sAF in the children with CKD was positively correlated with sE-selectin, MMP-9, TIMP-1, ADMA, SDMA and PAI-1 levels. In the predialysis group (conservative treatment) sAF levels were positively correlated with sE-selectin and ADMA levels and negatively correlated with glomerular filtration rate. Multiple regression analysis showed a significant association of sAF with sE-selectin and MMP-9 in CKD children. The results reveal that AGEs were accumulated in the children with CKD. This accumulation was related to early vascular changes and a number of biochemical vascular risk markers. sAF measurement, as a noninvasive method, may be useful for identification of clinical risk factors of vascular disease in CKD children.

  15. [Identification of early irreversible damage area in a rat model of cerebral ischemia and reperfusion].

    PubMed

    Liu, S; Guo, Y

    2000-02-01

    To observe the early neuron ischemic damage in focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion with histostaining methods of argyrophil III (AG III), Toludine blue(TB), and H&E, and to make out the 'separating line' between the areas of reversible and irreversible early ischemic damage. Forty-two male Wistar rats were randomly divided into the following groups: pseudo-surgical, blank-control, O2R0(occluded for 2 hours and reperfused for 0 hour), O2R0.5, O2R2, O2R4, O2R24. There were 6 rats in each group. Rats in experimental groups were suffered focal cerebral ischemia/reperfusion through a nylon suture method. After a special processor for tissue manage, the brain were coronal sectioned and stained with H&E, TB, and AG III. The area where dark neurons dwell in (ischemic core) were calculated with image analysis system. The success rate of ischemic model for this experiment is 90%. After being stained with argyrophil III method, normal neurons appear yellow or pale brown, which is hardly distinguished from the pale brown background. The ischemic neuron stained black, and has collapsed body and "corkscrew-like" axon or dentries, which were broken to some extent. The neuropil in the dark neurons dwelt area appears gray or pale black, which is apparently different from the pale brown neighborhood area. The distribution of dark neurons in cortex varies according to different layers, and has a character of columnar form. The dark neurons present as early as 2 hours ischemia without reperfusion with AG III method. AG III stain could selectively display early ischemic neurons, the area dwelt by dark neurons represent early ischemic core. Dark neuron is possibly the irreversibly damaged neuron. Identification of dark neurons could be helpful in the discrimination between early ischemic center and penumbra.

  16. Effect of Early Vasopressin vs Norepinephrine on Kidney Failure in Patients With Septic Shock: The VANISH Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Anthony C; Mason, Alexina J; Thirunavukkarasu, Neeraja; Perkins, Gavin D; Cecconi, Maurizio; Cepkova, Magda; Pogson, David G; Aya, Hollmann D; Anjum, Aisha; Frazier, Gregory J; Santhakumaran, Shalini; Ashby, Deborah; Brett, Stephen J

    2016-08-02

    Norepinephrine is currently recommended as the first-line vasopressor in septic shock; however, early vasopressin use has been proposed as an alternative. To compare the effect of early vasopressin vs norepinephrine on kidney failure in patients with septic shock. A factorial (2×2), double-blind, randomized clinical trial conducted in 18 general adult intensive care units in the United Kingdom between February 2013 and May 2015, enrolling adult patients who had septic shock requiring vasopressors despite fluid resuscitation within a maximum of 6 hours after the onset of shock. Patients were randomly allocated to vasopressin (titrated up to 0.06 U/min) and hydrocortisone (n = 101), vasopressin and placebo (n = 104), norepinephrine and hydrocortisone (n = 101), or norepinephrine and placebo (n = 103). The primary outcome was kidney failure-free days during the 28-day period after randomization, measured as (1) the proportion of patients who never developed kidney failure and (2) median number of days alive and free of kidney failure for patients who did not survive, who experienced kidney failure, or both. Rates of renal replacement therapy, mortality, and serious adverse events were secondary outcomes. A total of 409 patients (median age, 66 years; men, 58.2%) were included in the study, with a median time to study drug administration of 3.5 hours after diagnosis of shock. The number of survivors who never developed kidney failure was 94 of 165 patients (57.0%) in the vasopressin group and 93 of 157 patients (59.2%) in the norepinephrine group (difference, -2.3% [95% CI, -13.0% to 8.5%]). The median number of kidney failure-free days for patients who did not survive, who experienced kidney failure, or both was 9 days (interquartile range [IQR], 1 to -24) in the vasopressin group and 13 days (IQR, 1 to -25) in the norepinephrine group (difference, -4 days [95% CI, -11 to 5]). There was less use of renal replacement therapy in the vasopressin group

  17. [Operative treatment strategies for multiple trauma patients : early total care versus damage control].

    PubMed

    Klüter, T; Lippross, S; Oestern, S; Weuster, M; Seekamp, A

    2013-09-01

    The treatment of multiple trauma patients is a great challenge for an interdisciplinary team. After preclinical care and subsequent treatment in the emergency room the order of the interventions is prioritized depending of the individual risk stratification. For planning the surgery management it is essential to distinguish between absolutely essential operations to prevent life-threatening situations for the patient and interventions with shiftable indications, depending on the general condition of the patient. All interventions need to be done without causing significant secondary damage to prohibit hyperinflammation and systemic inflammatory response syndrome. The challenge consists in determination of the appropriate treatment at the right point in time. In general the early primary intervention, early total care, is differentiated from the damage control concept.

  18. Dietary sodium and potassium intake were associated with hypertension, kidney damage and adverse perinatal outcome in pregnant women with preeclampsia.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Zehra Vural; Akkaş, Elif; Türkmen, Gülenay Gençosmanoğlu; Kara, Özgür; Yücel, Aykan; Uygur, Dilek

    2017-02-01

    In this study, we hypothesized that dietary salt and potassium intake may be related with blood pressure, kidney damage and perinatal outcome in pregnants with preeclampsia (PE). In total, 200 women (50 control women with healthy pregnancy, 150 women with PE) were recruited for the study. Daily salt and potassium intake was estimated based on calculation of 24-hour urinary sodium U[Na+] and potassium U[K+] excretion. U[Na+]/[K+] was calculated by dividing U[Na+] by U[K+]. At the end of the measurements, the pregnant women with PE (n=150) were divided into tertiles according to U[Na+]/[K+]: low Na/K group (n=50, mean U[Na+]/[K+]: 1,04±0,32), medium Na/K group (n=50, mean U[Na+]/[K+]: 2,49± 0,54), high Na/K group (n=50, mean U[Na+]/[K+]: 6,62±3,41). The mean SBP and DBP levels were significantly lower in low Na/K group compared with medium or high Na/K groups (p=0.024, p=0.0002; respectively). Serum creatinine was significantly lower in low Na/K group than high Na/K group (p=0.025). Frequency of severe preeclampsia is lower in low Na/K group than medium or high Na/K groups (p=0.002, p=0.0001; respectively). Birth weight and gestational age at birth were higher in low Na/K group compared with high Na/K group (p=0.045, p=0.0002; respectively). After adjusting for covariates, SBP and DBP and creatinine levels were independently associated with 24 hours urinary [Na+]/[K+] Conclusion: These findings suggest that pregnant with PE with high dietary salt and low potassium intake may have greater maternal and neonatal morbidity risk than pregnant with PE under low dietary salt and high potassium intake.

  19. Localized grey matter damage in early primary progressive multiple sclerosis contributes to disability.

    PubMed

    Khaleeli, Z; Cercignani, M; Audoin, B; Ciccarelli, O; Miller, D H; Thompson, A J

    2007-08-01

    Disability in primary progressive multiple sclerosis (PPMS) has been correlated with damage to the normal appearing brain tissues. Magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) and volume changes indicate that much of this damage occurs in the normal appearing grey matter, but the clinical significance of this remains uncertain. We aimed to localize these changes to distinct grey matter regions, and investigate the clinical impact of the MTR changes. 46 patients with early PPMS and 23 controls underwent MT and high-resolution T1-weighted imaging. Patients were scored on the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite and subtests (Nine-Hole Peg Test, Timed Walk Test, Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test [PASAT]). Grey matter volume and MTR were compared between patients and controls, adjusting for age. Mean MTR for significant regions within the motor network and in areas relevant to PASAT performance were correlated with appropriate clinical scores, adjusting for grey matter volume. Patients showed reduced MTR and atrophy in the right pre- and left post-central gyri, right middle frontal gyrus, left insula, and thalamus bilaterally. Reduced MTR without significant atrophy occurred in the left pre-central gyrus, left superior frontal gyri, bilateral superior temporal gyri, right insula and visual cortex. Higher EDSS correlated with lower MTR in the right primary motor cortex (BA 4). In conclusion, localized grey matter damage occurs in early PPMS, and MTR change is more widespread than atrophy. Damage demonstrated by reduced MTR is clinically eloquent.

  20. Autophagy and kidney inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Tomonori; Isaka, Yoshitaka; Yoshimori, Tamotsu

    2017-06-03

    Inflammation plays a pivotal role in pathophysiological processes of kidney diseases. Macroautophagy/autophagy plays multiple roles in inflammatory responses, and the regulation of inflammation by autophagy has great potential as a treatment for damaged kidneys. A growing body of evidence suggests autophagy protects kidney from versatile kidney inflammatory insults, including those that are acute, chronic, metabolic, and aging-related. It is noteworthy that, in kidney, mitophagy is active, and damaged lysosomes are removed by autophagy. In this mode, autophagy suppresses inflammation to protect the kidney. Systemic inflammation also affects the kidney via pro-inflammatory cytokines and infiltration of inflammatory cells, and autophagy also has a regulatory role in systemic inflammation. This review focuses on the roles of autophagy in kidney diseases and aging through inflammation, and discusses the potential usage of autophagy as an inflammatory modulator for the treatment of kidney diseases.

  1. Autophagy and kidney inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Tomonori; Isaka, Yoshitaka; Yoshimori, Tamotsu

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Inflammation plays a pivotal role in pathophysiological processes of kidney diseases. Macroautophagy/autophagy plays multiple roles in inflammatory responses, and the regulation of inflammation by autophagy has great potential as a treatment for damaged kidneys. A growing body of evidence suggests autophagy protects kidney from versatile kidney inflammatory insults, including those that are acute, chronic, metabolic, and aging-related. It is noteworthy that, in kidney, mitophagy is active, and damaged lysosomes are removed by autophagy. In this mode, autophagy suppresses inflammation to protect the kidney. Systemic inflammation also affects the kidney via pro-inflammatory cytokines and infiltration of inflammatory cells, and autophagy also has a regulatory role in systemic inflammation. This review focuses on the roles of autophagy in kidney diseases and aging through inflammation, and discusses the potential usage of autophagy as an inflammatory modulator for the treatment of kidney diseases. PMID:28441075

  2. Fibroblast growth factor 23, iron and inflammation - are they related in early stages of chronic kidney disease?

    PubMed

    Lukaszyk, Ewelina; Lukaszyk, Mateusz; Koc-Zorawska, Ewa; Bodzenta-Lukaszyk, Anna; Malyszko, Jolanta

    2017-06-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) levels are elevated in impaired renal function. Inflammation and iron are potential regulators of FGF-23. The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between FGF-23 concentration, novel iron status biomarkers and inflammatory parameters among patients with early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The study population included 84 patients with CKD in the early stage. Serum hemoglobin, fibrinogen, creatinine, iron, transferrin saturation and ferritin levels were measured using standard laboratory methods. Commercially available kits were used to measure: intact FGF-23, hepcidin, soluble transferrin receptor (sTfR), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP). In patients with CKD no differences in FGF-23 concentration according to iron status were observed. Lower iron concentration was associated with higher concentrations of hsCRP, IL-6 and fibrinogen. In univariate and multivariate analysis FGF-23 correlated with fibrinogen ( r = -0.23, p < 0.05) and eGFR ( r = -0.36, p < 0.05). FGF-23 is affected by kidney function and fibrinogen but not iron status parameters in the early stages of CKD. Our data are paving the way for further studies on the role of FGF-23 in iron metabolism, especially in early stages of CKD.

  3. Maize Purple Plant Pigment Protects Against Fluoride-Induced Oxidative Damage of Liver and Kidney in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhuo; Zhou, Bo; Wang, Hiaohong; Wang, Fei; Song, Yingli; Liu, Shengnan; Xi, Shuhua

    2014-01-01

    Anthocyanins are polyphenols and well known for their biological antioxidative benefits. Maize purple plant pigment (MPPP) extracted and separated from maize purple plant is rich in anthocyanins. In the present study, MPPP was used to alleviate the adverse effects generated by fluoride on liver and kidney in rats. The results showed that the ultrastructure of the liver and kidney in fluoride treated rats displayed shrinkage of nuclear and cell volume, swollen mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum and vacuols formation in the liver and kidney cells. MPPP significantly attenuated these fluoride-induced pathological changes. The MDA levels in serum and liver tissue of fluoride alone treated group were significantly higher than those of the control group (p < 0.05). The presence of 5 g/kg MPPP in the diet reduced the elevation of MDA levels in blood and liver, and increased the SOD and GSH-Px activities in kidney and GSH level in liver and kidney compared with the fluoride alone treated group (p < 0.05). In addition, MPPP alleviated the decrease of Bcl-2 protein expression and the increase of Bax protein expression induced by fluoride. This study demonstrated the protective role of MPPP against fluoride-induced oxidative stress in liver and kidney of rats. PMID:24419046

  4. Early and Late Damages in Chromosome 3 of Human Lymphocytes After Radiation Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunagawa, Mayumi; Mangala, Lingegowda; Zhang, Ye; Kahdim, Munira; Wilson, Bobby; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wu, Honglu

    2011-01-01

    Tumor formation in humans or animals is a multi-step process. An early stage of cancer development is believed to be genomic instability (GI) which accelerates the mutation rate in the descendants of the cells surviving radiation exposure. GI is defined as elevated or persistent genetic damages occurring many generations after the cells are exposed. While early studies have demonstrated radiation-induced GI in several cell types as detected in endpoints such as mutation, apoptosis and damages in chromosomes, the dependence of GI on the quality of radiation remains uncertain. To investigate GI in human lymphocytes induced by both low- and high-LET radiation, we initially exposed white blood cells collected from healthy subjects to gamma rays in vitro, and cultured the cells for multiple generations. Chromosome aberrations were analyzed in cells collected at first mitosis post irradiation and at several intervals during the culture period. Among a number of biological endpoints planned for the project, the multi-color banding fluorescent in situ hybridization (mBAND) allows identification of inversions that were expected to be stable. We present here early and late chromosome aberrations detected with mBAND in chromosome 3 after gamma exposure. Comparison of chromosome damages in between human lymphocytes and human epithelial cells is also discussed

  5. Skeletal accumulation of fluorescently tagged zoledronate is higher in animals with early stage chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Swallow, E A; Aref, M W; Chen, N; Byiringiro, I; Hammond, M A; McCarthy, B P; Territo, P R; Kamocka, M M; Winfree, S; Dunn, K W; Moe, S M; Allen, M R

    2018-06-11

    This work examines the skeletal accumulation of fluorescently tagged zoledronate in an animal model of chronic kidney disease. The results show higher accumulation in 24-h post-dose animals with lower kidney function due to greater amounts of binding at individual surfaces. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients suffer from increased rates of skeletal-related mortality from changes driven by biochemical abnormalities. Bisphosphonates are commonly used in reducing fracture risk in a variety of diseases, yet their use is not recommended in advanced stages of CKD. This study aimed to characterize the accumulation of a single dose of fluorescently tagged zoledronate (FAM-ZOL) in the setting of reduced kidney function. At 25 weeks of age, FAM-ZOL was administered to normal and CKD rats. Twenty-four hours later, multiple bones were collected and assessed using bulk fluorescence imaging, two-photon imaging, and dynamic histomorphometry. CKD animals had significantly higher levels of FAM-ZOL accumulation in the proximal tibia, radius, and ulna, but not in lumbar vertebral body or mandible, based on multiple measurement modalities. Although a majority of trabecular bone surfaces were covered with FAM-ZOL in both normal and CKD animals, the latter had significantly higher levels of fluorescence per unit bone surface in the proximal tibia. These results provide new data regarding how reduced kidney function affects drug accumulation in rat bone.

  6. The Antagonistic Effect of Selenium on Cadmium-Induced Damage and mRNA Levels of Selenoprotein Genes and Inflammatory Factors in Chicken Kidney Tissue.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinyue; Bao, Rongkun; Fu, Jing

    2018-02-01

    Selenium (Se) is a necessary trace mineral in the diet of humans and animals. Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic heavy metal that can damage animal organs, especially the kidneys. Antagonistic interactions between Se and Cd have been reported in previous studies. However, little is known about the effects of Se against Cd toxicity and on the mRNA levels of 25 selenoprotein genes and inflammatory factors in chicken kidneys. In the current study, we fed chickens with a Se-treated, Cd-treated, or Se/Cd treated diet for 90 days. We then analyzed the mRNA expression of inflammatory factors (including prostaglandin E synthase (PTGES), nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)) and 25 selenoprotein genes (Gpx1, Gpx2, Gpx3, Gpx4, Txnrd1, Txnrd2, Txnrd3, Dio1, Dio2, Dio3, SPS2, Sepp1, SelPb, Sep15, Selh, Seli, Selm, Selo, Sels, Sepx1, Selu, Selk, Selw, Seln, Selt). The results demonstrated that Cd exposure increased the Cd content in the chicken kidneys, renal tubular epithelial cells underwent denaturation and necrosis, and the tubules became narrow or disappeared. However, Se supplementation reduced the Cd content in chicken kidneys and induced normal development of renal tubular epithelial cells. In addition, we also observed that Se alleviated the Cd-induced increase in the mRNA levels of inflammatory factors and ameliorated the Cd-induced downtrend in the mRNA levels of 25 selenoprotein genes in chicken kidneys.

  7. Protective Effects of Crocus Sativus L. Extract and Crocin against Chronic-Stress Induced Oxidative Damage of Brain, Liver and Kidneys in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bandegi, Ahmad Reza; Rashidy-Pour, Ali; Vafaei, Abbas Ali; Ghadrdoost, Behshid

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Chronic stress has been reported to induce oxidative damage of the brain. A few studies have shown that Crocus Sativus L., commonly known as saffron and its active constituent crocin may have a protective effect against oxidative stress. The present work was designed to study the protective effects of saffron extract and crocin on chronic – stress induced oxidative stress damage of the brain, liver and kidneys. Methods: Rats were injected with a daily dose of saffron extract (30 mg/kg, IP) or crocin (30 mg/kg, IP) during a period of 21 days following chronic restraint stress (6 h/day). In order to determine the changes of the oxidative stress parameters following chronic stress, the levels of the lipid peroxidation product, malondialdehyde (MDA), the total antioxidant reactivity (TAR), as well as antioxidant enzyme activities glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured in the brain, liver and kidneys tissues after the end of chronic stress. Results: In the stressed animals that receiving of saline, levels of MDA, and the activities of GPx, GR, and SOD were significantly higher (P<0.0001) and the TAR capacity were significantly lower than those of the non-stressed animals (P<0.0001). Both saffron extract and crocin were able to reverse these changes in the stressed animals as compared with the control groups (P<0.05). Conclusion: These observations indicate that saffron and its active constituent crocin can prevent chronic stress–induced oxidative stress damage of the brain, liver and kidneys and suggest that these substances may be useful against oxidative stress. PMID:25671180

  8. Age-dependent systemic DNA damage in early Type 2 Diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Rogulj, Dinko; El Aklouk, Ismail; Konjevoda, Paško; Ljubić, Spomenka; Pibernik Okanović, Mirjana; Barbir, Ante; Luburić, Marijana; Radman, Maja; Budinski, Ninoslav; Vučić Lovrenčić, Marijana

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress, capable of eliciting damage to various biomolecules including DNA, is a recognized component of diabetes mellitus and its complications. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), as well as other unfavorable outcomes. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of oxidative stress in the development of T2DM, by investigating association of oxidative DNA damage with metabolic parameters in subjects with MetS and early T2DM. Selected anthropometric and biochemical parameters of MetS, inflammation and oxidative DNA damage: body mass index (BMI), fatty liver index (FLI), waist circumference (WC), total cholesterol, HDL and LDL-cholesterol, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT), uric acid, C-reactive protein (CRP), total leukocyte/neutrophil count, and urinary 8-hidroxy-deoxyguanosine (u-8-OHdG) were assessed in male subjects with MetS and both younger (≤55 years) and older (>55 years) subjects with T2DM of short duration without complications. BMI, FLI, WC, total and LDL-cholesterol and uric acid were higher, while the u-8-OHdG was lower in MetS group, when compared to older T2DM subjects. None of these parameters were different neither between MetS and younger T2DM, nor between two sub-groups of subjects with T2DM. Values of CRP, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, GGT, leukocytes and neutrophils were not different between all examined groups of subjects. Higher 8-OHdG in older subjects with T2DM suggests that both aging process and diabetes could contribute to the development of DNA damage. Oxidative DNA damage cannot serve as an universal early marker of T2DM.

  9. Astaxanthin attenuates early acute kidney injury following severe burns in rats by ameliorating oxidative stress and mitochondrial-related apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Song-Xue; Zhou, Han-Lei; Huang, Chun-Lan; You, Chuan-Gang; Fang, Quan; Wu, Pan; Wang, Xin-Gang; Han, Chun-Mao

    2015-04-13

    Early acute kidney injury (AKI) is a devastating complication in critical burn patients, and it is associated with severe morbidity and mortality. The mechanism of AKI is multifactorial. Astaxanthin (ATX) is a natural compound that is widely distributed in marine organisms; it is a strong antioxidant and exhibits other biological effects that have been well studied in various traumatic injuries and diseases. Hence, we attempted to explore the potential protection of ATX against early post burn AKI and its possible mechanisms of action. The classic severe burn rat model was utilized for the histological and biochemical assessments of the therapeutic value and mechanisms of action of ATX. Upon ATX treatment, renal tubular injury and the levels of serum creatinine and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin were improved. Furthermore, relief of oxidative stress and tubular apoptosis in rat kidneys post burn was also observed. Additionally, ATX administration increased Akt and Bad phosphorylation and further down-regulated the expression of other downstream pro-apoptotic proteins (cytochrome c and caspase-3/9); these effects were reversed by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Moreover, the protective effect of ATX presents a dose-dependent enhancement. The data above suggested that ATX protects against early AKI following severe burns in rats, which was attributed to its ability to ameliorate oxidative stress and inhibit apoptosis by modulating the mitochondrial-apoptotic pathway, regarded as the Akt/Bad/Caspases signalling cascade.

  10. Astaxanthin Attenuates Early Acute Kidney Injury Following Severe Burns in Rats by Ameliorating Oxidative Stress and Mitochondrial-Related Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Song-Xue; Zhou, Han-Lei; Huang, Chun-Lan; You, Chuan-Gang; Fang, Quan; Wu, Pan; Wang, Xin-Gang; Han, Chun-Mao

    2015-01-01

    Early acute kidney injury (AKI) is a devastating complication in critical burn patients, and it is associated with severe morbidity and mortality. The mechanism of AKI is multifactorial. Astaxanthin (ATX) is a natural compound that is widely distributed in marine organisms; it is a strong antioxidant and exhibits other biological effects that have been well studied in various traumatic injuries and diseases. Hence, we attempted to explore the potential protection of ATX against early post burn AKI and its possible mechanisms of action. The classic severe burn rat model was utilized for the histological and biochemical assessments of the therapeutic value and mechanisms of action of ATX. Upon ATX treatment, renal tubular injury and the levels of serum creatinine and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin were improved. Furthermore, relief of oxidative stress and tubular apoptosis in rat kidneys post burn was also observed. Additionally, ATX administration increased Akt and Bad phosphorylation and further down-regulated the expression of other downstream pro-apoptotic proteins (cytochrome c and caspase-3/9); these effects were reversed by the PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Moreover, the protective effect of ATX presents a dose-dependent enhancement. The data above suggested that ATX protects against early AKI following severe burns in rats, which was attributed to its ability to ameliorate oxidative stress and inhibit apoptosis by modulating the mitochondrial-apoptotic pathway, regarded as the Akt/Bad/Caspases signalling cascade. PMID:25871290

  11. Plasma NGAL predicts early acute kidney injury no earlier than s-creatinine or cystatin C in severely burned patients.

    PubMed

    Rakkolainen, Ilmari; Vuola, Jyrki

    2016-03-01

    Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is a novel biomarker used in acute kidney injury (AKI) diagnostics. Studies on burn patients have highlighted it as a promising biomarker for early detection of AKI. This study was designed to discover whether plasma NGAL is as a biomarker superior to serum creatinine and cystatin C in detecting AKI in severely burned patients. Nineteen subjects were enrolled from March 2013 to September 2014 in the Helsinki Burn Centre. Serum creatinine, cystatin C, and plasma NGAL were collected from the patients at admission and every 12h during the first 48h and thereafter daily until seven days following admission. AKI was defined by acute kidney injury network criteria. Nine (47%) developed AKI during their intensive care unit stay and two (11%) underwent renal replacement therapy. All biomarkers were significantly higher in the AKI group but serum creatinine- and cystatin C values reacted more rapidly to changes in kidney function than did plasma NGAL. Plasma NGAL tended to rise on average 72h±29h (95% CI) later in patients with early AKI than did serum creatinine. Area-under-the-curve values calculated for each biomarker were 0.92 for serum creatinine, 0.87 for cystatin C, and 0.62 for plasma NGAL predicting AKI by the receiver-operating-characteristic method. This study demonstrated serum creatinine and cystatin C as faster and more reliable biomarkers than plasma NGAL in detecting early AKI within one week of injury in patients with severe burns. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  12. Kidney Facts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Page Transplant Living > Kidney KIDNEY TRANSPLANT LEARNING CENTER Kidney The kidneys are a vital organ in the ... your body. Location of the kidneys How the kidney works Your kidneys play a vital role in ...

  13. Solitary Kidney

    MedlinePlus

    ... Solitary Kidney Your Kidneys & How They Work Solitary Kidney What is a solitary kidney? When a person has only one kidney or ... ureter are removed (bottom right). What are the kidneys and what do they do? The kidneys are ...

  14. Pretransplant Tacrolimus Dose Requirements Predict Early Posttransplant Dose Requirements in Blood Group AB0-Incompatible Kidney Transplant Recipients.

    PubMed

    Shuker, Nauras; de Man, Femke M; de Weerd, Annelies E; van Agteren, Madelon; Weimar, Willem; Betjes, Michiel G H; van Gelder, Teun; Hesselink, Dennis A

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether pretransplant tacrolimus (Tac) dose requirements of patients scheduled to undergo living donor kidney transplantation correlate with posttransplantation dose requirements. The predictive value of Tac dose requirements (defined as the ratio of the Tac predose concentration, C0, divided by the total daily Tac dose, D) pretransplantation on this same parameter posttransplantation was assessed retrospectively in a cohort of 57 AB0-incompatible kidney transplant recipients. These patients started immunosuppressive therapy 14 days before transplant surgery. All patients were using a stable dose of glucocorticoids and were at steady-state Tac exposure before transplantation. Tac dose requirements immediately before transplantation (C0/Dbefore) explained 63% of the Tac dose requirements on day 3 after transplantation: r = 0.633 [F (1, 44) = 75.97, P < 0.01]. No other clinical and demographic variables predicted Tac dose requirements early after transplantation. Steady-state Tac dose requirement before transplantation largely predicted posttransplantation Tac dose requirements in AB0-incompatible kidney transplant recipients. The importance of this finding is that the posttransplantation Tac dose can be individualized based on a patient's pretransplantation Tac concentration/dose ratio. Pretransplant Tac phenotyping therefore has the potential to improve transplantation outcomes.

  15. Recruitment of DNA polymerase eta by FANCD2 in the early response to DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Fu, Dechen; Dudimah, Fred Duafalia; Zhang, Jun; Pickering, Anna; Paneerselvam, Jayabal; Palrasu, Manikandan; Wang, Hong; Fei, Peiwen

    2013-03-01

    How Fanconi anemia (FA) protein D2 (FANCD2) performs DNA damage repair remains largely elusive. We report here that translesion synthesis DNA polymerase (pol) eta is a novel mediator of FANCD2 function. We found that wild type (wt) FANCD2, not K561R (mt) FANCD2, can interact with pol eta. Upon DNA damage, the interaction of pol eta with FANCD2 occurs earlier than that with PCNA, which is in concert with our finding that FANCD2 monoubiquitination peaks at an earlier time point than that of PCNA monoubiquitination. FANCD2-null FA patient cells (PD20) carrying histone H2B-fused pol eta and wtFANCD2, respectively, show a similar tendency of low Mitomycin C (MMC) sensitivity, while cells transfected with empty vector control or pol eta alone demonstrate a similar high level of MMC sensitivity. It therefore appears that FANCD2 monoubiquitination plays a similar anchor role as histone to bind DNA in regulating pol eta. Collectively, our study indicates that, in the early phase of DNA damage response, FANCD2 plays crucial roles in recruiting pol eta to the sites of DNA damage for repair.

  16. Recruitment of DNA polymerase eta by FANCD2 in the early response to DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Dechen; Dudimah, Fred Duafalia; Zhang, Jun; Pickering, Anna; Paneerselvam, Jayabal; Palrasu, Manikandan; Wang, Hong; Fei, Peiwen

    2013-01-01

    How Fanconi anemia (FA) protein D2 (FANCD2) performs DNA damage repair remains largely elusive. We report here that translesion synthesis DNA polymerase (pol) eta is a novel mediator of FANCD2 function. We found that wild type (wt) FANCD2, not K561R (mt) FANCD2, can interact with pol eta. Upon DNA damage, the interaction of pol eta with FANCD2 occurs earlier than that with PCNA, which is in concert with our finding that FANCD2 monoubiquitination peaks at an earlier time point than that of PCNA monoubiquitination. FANCD2-null FA patient cells (PD20) carrying histone H2B-fused pol eta and wtFANCD2, respectively, show a similar tendency of low Mitomycin C (MMC) sensitivity, while cells transfected with empty vector control or pol eta alone demonstrate a similar high level of MMC sensitivity. It therefore appears that FANCD2 monoubiquitination plays a similar anchor role as histone to bind DNA in regulating pol eta. Collectively, our study indicates that, in the early phase of DNA damage response, FANCD2 plays crucial roles in recruiting pol eta to the sites of DNA damage for repair. PMID:23388460

  17. Loss of CD28 on Peripheral T Cells Decreases the Risk for Early Acute Rejection after Kidney Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Dedeoglu, Burç; Meijers, Ruud W. J.; Klepper, Mariska; Hesselink, Dennis A.; Baan, Carla C.; Litjens, Nicolle H. R.; Betjes, Michiel G. H.

    2016-01-01

    Background End-stage renal disease patients have a dysfunctional, prematurely aged peripheral T-cell system. Here we hypothesized that the degree of premature T-cell ageing before kidney transplantation predicts the risk for early acute allograft rejection (EAR). Methods 222 living donor kidney transplant recipients were prospectively analyzed. EAR was defined as biopsy proven acute allograft rejection within 3 months after kidney transplantation. The differentiation status of circulating T cells, the relative telomere length and the number of CD31+ naive T cells were determined as T-cell ageing parameters. Results Of the 222 patients analyzed, 30 (14%) developed an EAR. The donor age and the historical panel reactive antibody score were significantly higher (p = 0.024 and p = 0.039 respectively) and the number of related donor kidney transplantation was significantly lower (p = 0.018) in the EAR group. EAR-patients showed lower CD4+CD28null T-cell numbers (p<0.01) and the same trend was observed for CD8+CD28null T-cell numbers (p = 0.08). No differences regarding the other ageing parameters were found. A multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that higher CD4+CD28null T-cell numbers was associated with a lower risk for EAR (HR: 0.65, p = 0.028). In vitro, a significant lower percentage of alloreactive T cells was observed within CD28null T cells (p<0.001). Conclusion Immunological ageing-related expansion of highly differentiated CD28null T cells is associated with a lower risk for EAR. PMID:26950734

  18. Propagation of damage in the rat brain following sarin exposure: Differential progression of early processes

    SciTech Connect

    Lazar, Shlomi; Egoz, Inbal; Brandeis, Rachel

    Sarin is an irreversible organophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor and a highly toxic warfare agent. Following the overt, dose-dependent signs (e.g. tremor, hyper secretion, seizures, respiratory depression and eventually death), brain damage is often reported. The goal of the present study was to characterize the early histopathological and biochemical events leading to this damage. Rats were exposed to 1LD50 of sarin (80 μg/kg, i.m.). Brains were removed at 1, 2, 6, 24 and 48 h and processed for analysis. Results showed that TSPO (translocator protein) mRNA increased at 6 h post exposure while TSPO receptor density increased only at 24 h. Inmore » all brain regions tested, bax mRNA decreased 1 h post exposure followed by an increase 24 h later, with only minor increase in bcl2 mRNA. At this time point a decrease was seen in both anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2 and pro-apoptotic Bax, followed by a time and region specific increase in Bax. An immediate elevation in ERK1/2 activity with no change in JNK may indicate an endogenous “first response” mechanism used to attenuate the forthcoming apoptosis. The time dependent increase in the severity of brain damage included an early bi-phasic activation of astrocytes, a sharp decrease in intact neuronal cells, a time dependent reduction in MAP2 and up to 15% of apoptosis. Thus, neuronal death is mostly due to necrosis and severe astrocytosis. The data suggests that timing of possible treatments should be determined by early events following exposure. For example, the biphasic changes in astrocytes activity indicate a possible beneficial effects of delayed anti-inflammatory intervention. - Highlights: • The severity of brain damage post 1LD50 sarin exposure is time dependent. • Sarin induce differential progression of early processes in the rat brain. • Potential treatments should be timed according to early events following exposure. • The biphasic astrocytes activity suggests a delay in anti

  19. Purple sweet potato color ameliorates kidney damage via inhibiting oxidative stress mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation in high fat diet mice.

    PubMed

    Shan, Qun; Zheng, Yuanlin; Lu, Jun; Zhang, Zifeng; Wu, Dongmei; Fan, Shaohua; Hu, Bin; Cai, Xiangjun; Cai, Hao; Liu, Peilong; Liu, Fan

    2014-07-01

    Inflammation plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of obesity. Purple sweet potato color (PSPC) has potential anti-inflammation efficacy. We evaluated the effect of PSPC on kidney injury induced by high fat diet (HFD) and explored the mechanism underlying these effects. The results showed that PSPC (700 mg/kg per day) reduced body weight, ratio of urine albumin to creatinine, inflammatory cell infiltration, and Collagen IV accumulation in mice fed an HFD (60% fat food) for 20 weeks. PSPC significantly reduced the expression level of kidney NLRP3 inflammasome including NLRP3 and ASC and Caspase-1, and resulted in decline of IL-1β. Moreover, PSPC inhibited the activation of I kappa B kinase β (IKKβ) and the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-κB). Additionally, PSPC decreased the expression level of oxidative stress-associated AGE receptor (RAGE) and thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP) in the upstream of NLRP3 inflammasome. These data imply that the beneficial effects of PSPC on HFD-induced kidney dysfunction and damage are mediated through NLRP3 signaling pathways, suggesting a potential target for the prevention of obesity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Altered paracellular cation permeability due to a rare CLDN10B variant causes anhidrosis and kidney damage.

    PubMed

    Klar, Joakim; Piontek, Jörg; Milatz, Susanne; Tariq, Muhammad; Jameel, Muhammad; Breiderhoff, Tilman; Schuster, Jens; Fatima, Ambrin; Asif, Maria; Sher, Muhammad; Mäbert, Katrin; Fromm, Anja; Baig, Shahid M; Günzel, Dorothee; Dahl, Niklas

    2017-07-01

    Claudins constitute the major component of tight junctions and regulate paracellular permeability of epithelia. Claudin-10 occurs in two major isoforms that form paracellular channels with ion selectivity. We report on two families segregating an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by generalized anhidrosis, severe heat intolerance and mild kidney failure. All affected individuals carry a rare homozygous missense mutation c.144C>G, p.(N48K) specific for the claudin-10b isoform. Immunostaining of sweat glands from patients suggested that the disease is associated with reduced levels of claudin-10b in the plasma membranes and in canaliculi of the secretory portion. Expression of claudin-10b N48K in a 3D cell model of sweat secretion indicated perturbed paracellular Na+ transport. Analysis of paracellular permeability revealed that claudin-10b N48K maintained cation over anion selectivity but with a reduced general ion conductance. Furthermore, freeze fracture electron microscopy showed that claudin-10b N48K was associated with impaired tight junction strand formation and altered cis-oligomer formation. These data suggest that claudin-10b N48K causes anhidrosis and our findings are consistent with a combined effect from perturbed TJ function and increased degradation of claudin-10b N48K in the sweat glands. Furthermore, affected individuals present with Mg2+ retention, secondary hyperparathyroidism and mild kidney failure that suggest a disturbed reabsorption of cations in the kidneys. These renal-derived features recapitulate several phenotypic aspects detected in mice with kidney specific loss of both claudin-10 isoforms. Our study adds to the spectrum of phenotypes caused by tight junction proteins and demonstrates a pivotal role for claudin-10b in maintaining paracellular Na+ permeability for sweat production and kidney function.

  1. Damaging Effects of Bisphenol A on the Kidney and the Protection by Melatonin: Emerging Evidences from In Vivo and In Vitro Studies

    PubMed Central

    Peerapanyasut, Wachirasek

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of bisphenol A (BPA) contamination on the kidney and the possible protection by melatonin in experimental rats and isolated mitochondrial models. Rats exposed to BPA (50, 100, and 150 mg/kg, i.p.) for 5 weeks demonstrated renal damages as evident by increased serum urea and creatinine and decreased creatinine clearance, together with the presence of proteinuria and glomerular injuries in a dose-dependent manner. These changes were associated with increased lipid peroxidation and decreased antioxidant glutathione and superoxide dismutase. Mitochondrial dysfunction was also evident as indicated by increased reactive oxygen species production, decreased membrane potential change, and mitochondrial swelling. Coadministration of melatonin resulted in the reversal of all the changes caused by BPA. Studies using isolated mitochondria showed that BPA incubation produced dose-dependent impairment in mitochondrial function. Preincubation with melatonin was able to sustain mitochondrial function and architecture and decreases oxidative stress upon exposure to BPA. The findings indicated that BPA is capable of acting directly on the kidney mitochondria, causing mitochondrial oxidative stress, dysfunction, and subsequently, leading to whole organ damage. Emerging evidence further suggests the protective benefits of melatonin against BPA nephrotoxicity, which may be mediated, in part, by its ability to diminish oxidative stress and maintain redox equilibrium within the mitochondria. PMID:29670679

  2. [A Comparison Study on Early Damage Detection of Left Ventricular Function Based on Doppler Imaging Method for Children with Tumor].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Zhang, Haowei; Zhang, Hang

    2015-12-01

    The early damage detection and evaluation are of great significance in treatment and prognosis to the left ventricular function for children with tumor. In this paper, it is reported that the early damage of the left ventricular function was observed by pulsed wave Doppler (PWD) and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) in our laboratory. Eighty children half a year to fourteen years old were included in this study. The cardiac function indices in chemotherapy group and control group were measured and compared. The results showed that there was significant difference in mitral and tricuspid annulus flow spectrum between the two groups. Compared with PWD,TDI is more prompt, objective and accurate in detecting early damage of left ventricular function in children with tumor. And TDI is a good method for early identification of ventricular function damage in children with tumor.

  3. Curcumin reduces the risk of chronic kidney damage in mice with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis by modulating endoplasmic reticulum stress and MAPK signaling.

    PubMed

    Afrin, Mst Rejina; Arumugam, Somasundaram; Rahman, Md Azizur; Karuppagounder, Vengadeshprabhu; Harima, Meilei; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Miyashita, Shizuka; Suzuki, Kenji; Ueno, Kazuyuki; Yoneyama, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Kenichi

    2017-08-01

    Developing confirmation recommends that in patients with dynamic type of NAFLD, particularly nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) may have the pathogenic parts in the advancement of kidney damage. In this study we have examined the impact of curcumin on NASH instigated chronic kidney damage (CKD) and the putative mechanisms. To prepare this NASH model, neonatal C57BL/6J male mice were exposed to low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) and were fed high-fat diet (HFD) at the age of 4weeks and continued up to 14weeks, curcumin was given at 100mg/kg dose by oral gavage daily after 10weeks of STZ injection and continued for 4weeks along with HFD feeding. NASH incited mice demonstrated nephrotoxicity as proved by declining renal capacity, which was evaluated by measuring blood urea nitrogen and creatinine in serum and histopathological variations from the norm. These progressions were switched by curcumin treatment, which brought about huge change in renal capacity. Furthermore, curcumin markedly decreased NAD(P)H oxidase subunits (p67phox, p47phox, p22phox), nitrotyrosine and CYP2E1 renal protein expression as well as reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression (TNFα, IL-1β, IFNγ). Renal protein expression of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) (p-JNK, p-ERK1/2) and glucose regulated protein 78, CHOP were increased in NASH induced mice and curcumin treatment attenuated these increased expressions. In addition, curcumin treatment also decreased the apoptosis signaling proteins (cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-12) in the NASH kidney. Taken together, our results suggest that curcumin preserves the renal function, probably by attenuating the ER stress mediated MAPK signaling. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The phytochemical, EGCG, extends lifespan by reducing liver and kidney function damage and improving age-associated inflammation and oxidative stress in healthy rats.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yucun; Na, Lixin; Feng, Rennan; Gong, Liya; Zhao, Yue; Li, Qiang; Li, Ying; Sun, Changhao

    2013-12-01

    It is known that phytochemicals have many potential health benefits in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of long-term consumption of the phytochemical, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), on body growth, disease protection, and lifespan in healthy rats. 68 male weaning Wistar rats were randomly divided into the control and EGCG groups. Variables influencing lifespan such as blood pressure, serum glucose and lipids, inflammation, and oxidative stress were dynamically determined from weaning to death. The median lifespan of controls was 92.5 weeks. EGCG increased median lifespan to 105.0 weeks and delayed death by approximately 8-12 weeks. Blood pressure and serum glucose and lipids significantly increased with age in both groups compared with the levels at 0 week. However, there were no differences in these variables between the two groups during the whole lifespan. Inflammation and oxidative stress significantly increased with age in both groups compared with 0 week and were significantly lower in serum and liver and kidney tissues in the EGCG group. Damage to liver and kidney function was significantly alleviated in the EGCG group. In addition, EGCG decreased the mRNA and protein expressions of transcription factor NF-κB and increased the upstream protein expressions of silent mating type information regulation two homolog one (SIRT1) and forkhead box class O 3a (FOXO3a). In conclusion, EGCG extends lifespan in healthy rats by reducing liver and kidney damage and improving age-associated inflammation and oxidative stress through the inhibition of NF-κB signaling by activating the longevity factors FoxO3a and SIRT1. © 2013 the Anatomical Society and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Diffusion tensor imaging can detect the early stages of cartilage damage: a comparison study.

    PubMed

    Ukai, Taku; Sato, Masato; Yamashita, Tomohiro; Imai, Yutaka; Mitani, Genya; Takagaki, Tomonori; Serigano, Kenji; Mochida, Joji

    2015-02-21

    In the present study, we measured damaged areas of cartilage with diffusion tensor (DT) imaging and T2 mapping, and investigated the extent to which cartilage damage could be determined using these techniques. Forty-one patients underwent arthroscopic knee surgery for osteoarthritis of the knee, a meniscus injury, or an anterior cruciate ligament injury. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging of the knee was performed, including T2 mapping and diffusion tensor imaging. The presence of cartilage injury involving the medial and lateral femoral condyles and tibia plateau was assessed during surgery using the Outerbridge scale. The ADC, T2 values and fractional anisotropy of areas of cartilage injury were then retrospectively analysed. The ADC results identified significant differences between Outerbridge grades 0 and 2 (P = 0.041); 0 and 3 (P < 0.001); 1 and 2 (P = 0.045); 1 and 3 (P < 0.001); and 2 and 3 (P = 0.028). The FA results identified significant differences between grades 0 and 1 (P < 0.001); 0 and 2 (P < 0.001); and 0 and 3 (P < 0.001). T2 mapping identified significant differences between Outerbridge grades 0 and 2 (P = 0.032); 0 and 3 (P < 0.001); 1 and 3 (P < 0.001); and 2 and 3 (P < 0.001). Both the T2 mapping (R(2) = 0.7883) and the ADC (R(2) = 0.9184) correlated significantly with the Outerbridge grade. The FA (R(2) = 0.6616) correlated slightly with the Outerbridge grade. T2 mapping can be useful for detecting moderate or severe cartilage damage, and the ADC can be used to detect early stage cartilage damage. The FA can also distinguish normal from damaged cartilage.

  6. Relative biological effectiveness (RBE) and distal edge effects of proton radiation on early damage in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sørensen, Brita Singers; Bassler, Niels; Nielsen, Steffen; Horsman, Michael R; Grzanka, Leszek; Spejlborg, Harald; Swakoń, Jan; Olko, Paweł; Overgaard, Jens

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the RBE for early damage in an in vivo mouse model, and the effect of the increased linear energy transfer (LET) towards the distal edge of the spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP). The lower part of the right hind limb of CDF1 mice was irradiated with single fractions of either 6 MV photons, 240 kV photons or scanning beam protons and graded doses were applied. For the proton irradiation, the leg was either placed in the middle of a 30-mm SOBP, or to assess the effect in different positions, irradiated in 4 mm intervals from the middle of the SOBP to behind the distal dose fall-off. Irradiations were performed with the same dose plan at all positions, corresponding to a dose of 31.25 Gy in the middle of the SOBP. Endpoint of the study was early skin damage of the foot, assessed by a mouse foot skin scoring system. The MDD 50 values with 95% confidence intervals were 36.1 (34.2-38.1) Gy for protons in the middle of the SOBP for score 3.5. For 6 MV photons, it was 35.9 (34.5-37.5) Gy and 32.6 (30.7-34.7) Gy for 240 kV photons for score 3.5. The corresponding RBE was 1.00 (0.94-1.05), relative to 6 MV photons and 0.9 (0.85-0.97) relative to 240 kV photons. In the mice group positioned at the SOBP distal dose fall-off, 25% of the mice developed early skin damage compared with 0-8% in other groups. LET d,z = 1 was 8.4 keV/μm at the distal dose fall-off and the physical dose delivered was 7% lower than in the central SOBP position, where LET d,z =1 was 3.3 keV/μm. Although there is a need to expand the current study to be able to calculate an exact enhancement ratio, an enhanced biological effect in vivo for early skin damage in the distal edge was demonstrated.

  7. Cystatin C as an early marker of acute kidney injury in septic shock.

    PubMed

    Ortuño-Andériz, F; Cabello-Clotet, N; Vidart-Simón, N; Postigo-Hernández, C; Domingo-Marín, S; Sánchez-García, M

    2015-03-01

    To describe the utility of determining plasma cystatinC concentrations in the diagnosis of acute incident kidney injury in septic shock. Prospective series of 50 patients with septic shock and plasma creatinine levels <2mg/dL hospitalized in an intensive care unit. Clinical and laboratory follow-ups were conducted, with measurements of cystatinC, urea and plasma creatinine levels from the diagnosis of septic shock to 5days later. The severity of the septic shock was assessed with the RIFLE scale. Twenty patients (40%) developed acute kidney injury: 8 (16%) were categorized as RIFLE-R, 5 (10%) as RIFLE-I and 7 (14%) as RIFLE-F. All patients categorized as RIFLE-F required extracorporeal renal clearance. Eighteen (36%) patients died, 8 (20%) of whom had developed acute kidney injury in their evolution. There was poor correlation between plasma creatinine and cystatin C levels (r=.501; P=.001), which disappeared upon reaching any degree of renal impairment on the RIFLE scale. CystatinC levels increased earlier and were better able to identify patients who would develop serious renal function impairment (RIFLE-F) than creatinine and urea levels. The initial cystatinC levels were related to mortality at 30days (OR=1.16; 95%CI: 03-.85). For patients who developed acute septic kidney injury, the plasma cystatinC levels increased before the classical markers of renal function. CystatinC also constitutes a severity biomarker that correlates with progression to RIFLE-F, the need for extrarenal clearance and, ultimately, mortality. This precocity could be useful for starting measures that prevent the progression of renal dysfunction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Association Between Early Caffeine Citrate Administration and Risk of Acute Kidney Injury in Preterm Neonates: Results From the AWAKEN Study.

    PubMed

    Harer, Matthew W; Askenazi, David J; Boohaker, Louis J; Carmody, J Bryan; Griffin, Russell L; Guillet, Ronnie; Selewski, David T; Swanson, Jonathan R; Charlton, Jennifer R

    2018-06-04

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs commonly in preterm neonates and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. To examine the association between caffeine citrate administration and AKI in preterm neonates in the first 7 days after birth and to test the hypothesis that caffeine administration would be associated with reduced incidence and severity of AKI. This study was a secondary analysis of the Assessment of Worldwide Acute Kidney Injury Epidemiology in Neonates (AWAKEN) study, a retrospective observational cohort that enrolled neonates born from January 1 to March 31, 2014. The dates of analysis were October 2016 to December 2017. The setting was an international, multicenter cohort study of neonates admitted to 24 participating level III or IV neonatal intensive care units. Participants met the original inclusion and exclusion criteria of the AWAKEN study. Additional exclusion criteria for this study included participants greater than or equal to 33 weeks' gestation at birth, admission after age 7 days, use of theophylline in the neonatal intensive care unit, or lack of data to define AKI. There were 675 preterm neonates available for analysis. Administration of caffeine in the first 7 days after birth. The primary outcome was the incidence of AKI (based on the modified neonatal Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes [KDIGO] definition) in the first 7 days after birth. The hypothesis that caffeine administration would be associated with reduced AKI incidence was formulated before data analysis. The study cohort (n = 675) was 55.4% (n = 374) male, with a mean (SD) gestational age of 28.9 (2.8) weeks and a mean (SD) birth weight of 1285 (477) g. Acute kidney injury occurred in 122 neonates (18.1%) in the first 7 days after birth. Acute kidney injury occurred less frequently among neonates who received caffeine than among those who did not (50 of 447 [11.2%] vs 72 of 228 [31.6%], P < .01). After multivariable adjustment, administration of

  9. The cortical damage, early relapses, and onset of the progressive phase in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Scalfari, Antonio; Romualdi, Chiara; Nicholas, Richard S; Mattoscio, Miriam; Magliozzi, Roberta; Morra, Aldo; Monaco, Salvatore; Muraro, Paolo A; Calabrese, Massimiliano

    2018-05-16

    To investigate the relationship among cortical radiologic changes, the number of early relapses (ERs), and the long-term course of multiple sclerosis (MS). In this cohort study, we assessed the number of cortical lesions (CLs) and white matter (WM) lesions and the cortical thickness (Cth) at clinical onset and after 7.9 mean years among 219 patients with relapsing remitting (RR) MS with 1 (Low-ER), 2 (Mid-ER), and ≥3 (High-ER) ERs during the first 2 years. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses investigated early factors influencing the risk of secondary progressive (SP) MS. Fifty-nine patients (27%) converted to SPMS in 6.1 mean years. A larger number of CLs at onset predicted a higher risk of SPMS (hazard ratio [HR] 2.16, 4.79, and 12.3 for 2, 5, and 7 CLs, respectively, p < 0.001) and shorter latency to progression. The High-ER compared to the Low-ER and Mid-ER groups had a larger volume of WM lesions and CLs at onset, accrued more CLs, experienced more severe cortical atrophy over time, and entered the SP phase more rapidly. In the multivariate model, older age at onset (HR 1.97, p < 0.001), a larger baseline CL (HR 2.21, p = 0.005) and WM lesion (HR 1.32, p = 0.03) volume, early changes of global Cth (HR 1.36, p = 0.03), and ≥3 ERs (HR 6.08, p < 0.001) independently predicted a higher probability of SP. Extensive cortical damage at onset is associated with florid inflammatory clinical activity and predisposes to a rapid occurrence of the progressive phase. Age at onset, the number of early attacks, and the extent of baseline focal cortical damage can identify groups at high risk of progression who may benefit from more active therapy. © 2018 American Academy of Neurology.

  10. Increased urine semaphorin-3A is associated with renal damage in hypertensive patients with chronic kidney disease: a nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    Viazzi, Francesca; Ramesh, Ganesan; Jayakumar, Calpurnia; Leoncini, Giovanna; Garneri, Debora; Pontremoli, Roberto

    2015-06-01

    Semaphorins are guidance proteins implicated in several processes such as angiogenesis, organogenesis, cell migration, and cytokine release. Experimental studies showed that semaphorin-3a (SEMA3A) administration induces transient massive proteinuria, podocyte foot process effacement and endothelial cell damage in healthy animals. While SEMA3A signaling has been demonstrated to be mechanistically involved in experimental diabetic glomerulopathy and in acute kidney injury, to date its role in human chronic kidney disease (CKD) has not been investigated. To test the hypothesis that SEMA3A may play a role in human CKD, we performed a cross-sectional, nested, case-control study on 151 matched hypertensive patients with and without CKD. SEMA3A was quantified in the urine (USEMA) by ELISA. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated (eGFR) by the CKD-EPI formula and albuminuria was measured as albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR). USEMA levels were positively correlated with urine ACR (p = 0.001) and serum creatinine (p < 0.001). USEMA was higher in patients with both components of renal damage as compared to those with only one and those with normal renal function (p < 0.007 and <0.001, respectively). The presence of increased USEMA levels (i.e. top quartile) entailed a fourfold higher risk of combined renal damage (p < 0.001) and an almost twofold higher risk of macroalbuminuria (p = 0.005) or of reduced eGFR, even adjusting for confounding factors (p = 0.002). USEMA is independently associated with CKD in both diabetic and non diabetic hypertensive patients. Further studies may help clarify the mechanisms underlying this association and possibly the pathogenic changes leading to the development of CKD.

  11. Carbon nanotube-embedded advanced aerospace composites for early-stage damage sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nataraj, Latha; Coatney, Michael; Cain, Jason; Hall, Asha

    2018-03-01

    Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites featuring outstanding fatigue performance, high specific stiffness and strength, and low density have evolved as critical structural materials in aerospace applications. Microscale damage such as fiber breakage, matrix cracking, and delamination could occur in layered composites compromising structural integrity, emphasizing the critical need to monitor structural health. Early damage detection would lead to enhanced reliability, lifetime, and performance while minimizing maintenance time, leading to enormous scientific and technical interest in realizing physically stable, quick responding, and cost effective strain sensing materials, devices, and techniques with high sensitivity over a broad range of the practical strain spectrum. Today's most commonly used strain sensing techniques are metal foil strain gauges and optical fiber sensors. Metal foil gauges offer high stability and cost-effectiveness but can only be surface-mounted and have a low gauge factor. Optical fibers require expensive instrumentation, are mostly insensitive to cracks parallel to the fiber orientation and may lead to crack initiation as the diameter is larger than that of the reinforcement fibers. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted much attention due to high aspect ratio and superior electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties. CNTs embedded in layered composites have improved performance. A variety of CNT architectures and configurations have shown improved piezoresistive behavior and stability for sensing applications. However, scaling up and commercialization remain serious challenges. The current study investigates a simple, cost effective and repeatable technique for highly sensitive, stable, linear and repeatable strain sensing for damage detection by integrating CNT laminates into composites.

  12. Impact of early screening for reflux in siblings on the detection of renal damage.

    PubMed

    Houle, Anne-Marie; Cheikhelard, Alaa; Barrieras, Diego; Rivest, Marie-Christine; Gaudreault, Valérie

    2004-07-01

    To assess the impact of screening siblings after detecting significant vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR) and renal scarring, as such screening might identify patients with VUR before urinary tract infections develop, but might also detect clinically insignificant VUR. We used a previously reported screening protocol to assess the clinical characteristics of patients, including the incidence of renal scarring, and their siblings, and compared the results. In all, 123 children were screened and 44 (36%) had VUR on voiding cystography. The median (range) age at screening was 9 (1-90) months. The grades of VUR detected were < III in 61% and > or = III in 39%; VUR was bilateral in 48%. In all, 37 siblings with VUR were assessed by ultrasonography; 70% were normal, including 12 (32%) children with VUR of grade > or = III. When used, renal scintigraphy was normal in 74% of siblings, vs 18% of index patients. However, when screened after 2 years old, siblings had twice the risk of already having renal damage on renal scintigraphy (P = 0.04). Early screening (< or = 2 years) appears to be more protective for avoiding renal damage than screening older patients. Thus we propose early screening in asymptomatic siblings to detect VUR before it becomes clinically significant.

  13. Maternal endothelial damage as a disorder shared by early preeclampsia, late preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Kwiatkowski, Sebastian; Dołegowska, Barbara; Kwiatkowska, Ewa; Rzepka, Rafał; Marczuk, Natalia; Loj, Beata; Torbè, Andrzej

    2017-10-26

    Preeclampsia (PE) and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) are separate disease entities that have frequently been reported as sharing the same pathogenesis. In both of them, angiogenesis disorders and generalized endothelial damage with an accompanying inflammation are the dominant symptoms. In this study, we attempted to prove that both these processes demonstrate the same profile in early PE, late PE and IUGR patients, while the only difference is in the degree of exacerbation of the lesions. In 167 patients divided into four groups, three of those with early PE, late PE and IUGR and one control group, fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), placental growth factor (PlGF), high sensitive c-reactive protein (hsCRP) and fibronectin were determined. The behavior of these parameters in each of the groups was studied, and correlations between them were sought for. Higher concentrations of sFlt-1, hsCRP and fibronectin and a lower concentration of PlGF were found in the study groups compared to the control group. Significant correlations were observed between the factors concerned. The higher values of disordered angiogenesis markers, endothelial damage markers and inflammatory markers both in the PE and the intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) groups suggest the existence of shared disorders in the development of these pathologies. The correlations between disordered angiogenesis markers and endothelial damage markers argue in favor of a mutual relationship between these two processes in the development of pathologies evolving as secondary to placental ischemia. The results obtained confirm that the lesion profiles are the same in both PE and IUGR patients, which can be utilized in developing common diagnostic criteria.

  14. Crataegus songarica methanolic extract accelerates enzymatic status in kidney and heart tissue damage in albino rats and its in vitro cytotoxic activity.

    PubMed

    Ganie, Showkat Ahmad; Ali Dar, Tanveer; Zargar, Sabuhi; Bhat, Aashiq Hussain; Dar, Khalid Bashir; Masood, Akbar; Zargar, Mohammad Afzal

    2016-07-01

    Crataegus songarica K. Koch (Rosaceae) has been used in folk medicine to treat various diseases. This study evaluates the effect of C. songarica methanol extract on the kidney and heart tissue damage of albino rats, and to determine cytotoxic activity of various extracts of songarica on various human cancer cell lines. Rats were divided into six groups, Group I received water only; Group II received CCl4 (1 mL/kg b wt) intraperitoneal; C. songarica extract (at doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg b wt) orally for 15 days. Cytotoxic activity was determined by SRB method using MCF-7, HeLa, HepG2, SF-295, SW480 and IMR-32 cell lines. Compared with CCl4 group, administration of C. songarica extract at the dose of 300 mg/kg b wt, significantly decreases serum creatinine (59.74%), urea (40.23%) and cholesterol (54 mg/dL), MDA (0.007 nmol/mg protein) in kidney and (0.025 nmol/mg protein) in heart tissue, along with evaluation of GSH (209.79 ± 54.6), GR (111.45 ± 2.84), GPx (94.01 ± 14.80), GST (201.71) in kidney tissue and GSH (51.47 ± 1.47), GR (45.42 ± 6.69), GPx (77.19 ± 10.94), GST (49.89) in heart tissue. In addition, methanol, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts exhibited potent anticancer activity on six cancer cell lines with IC50 values ranging from 28.57 to 85.106 µg/mL. Crataegus songarica methanol extract has a potential antioxidant effect as it protects the kidney and heart tissue against CCl4-induced toxicity, prevents DNA damage and showed strong anticancer activity.

  15. Estimated glomerular filtration rate is an early biomarker of cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Candela-Toha, Ángel; Pardo, María Carmen; Pérez, Teresa; Muriel, Alfonso; Zamora, Javier

    2018-04-20

    and objective Acute kidney injury (AKI) diagnosis is still based on serum creatinine and diuresis. However, increases in creatinine are typically delayed 48h or longer after injury. Our aim was to determine the utility of routine postoperative renal function blood tests, to predict AKI one or 2days in advance in a cohort of cardiac surgery patients. Using a prospective database, we selected a sample of patients who had undergone major cardiac surgery between January 2002 and December 2013. The ability of the parameters to predict AKI was based on Acute Kidney Injury Network serum creatinine criteria. A cohort of 3,962 cases was divided into 2groups of similar size, one being exploratory and the other a validation sample. The exploratory group was used to show primary objectives and the validation group to confirm results. The ability to predict AKI of several kidney function parameters measured in routine postoperative blood tests, was measured with time-dependent ROC curves. The primary endpoint was time from measurement to AKI diagnosis. AKI developed in 610 (30.8%) and 623 (31.4%) patients in the exploratory and validation samples, respectively. Estimated glomerular filtration rate using the MDRD-4 equation showed the best AKI prediction capacity, with values for the AUC ROC curves between 0.700 and 0.946. We obtained different cut-off values for estimated glomerular filtration rate depending on the degree of AKI severity and on the time elapsed between surgery and parameter measurement. Results were confirmed in the validation sample. Postoperative estimated glomerular filtration rate using the MDRD-4 equation showed good ability to predict AKI following cardiac surgery one or 2days in advance. Copyright © 2018 Sociedad Española de Nefrología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Gene Expression Profiling of Peripheral Blood From Kidney Transplant Recipients for the Early Detection of Digestive System Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kusaka, M; Okamoto, M; Takenaka, M; Sasaki, H; Fukami, N; Kataoka, K; Ito, T; Kenmochi, T; Hoshinaga, K; Shiroki, R

    2017-06-01

    Kidney transplant recipients are at increased risk of developing cancer in comparison with the general population. To effectively manage post-transplantation malignancies, it is essential to proactively monitor patients. A long-term intensive screening program was associated with a reduced incidence of cancer after transplantation. This study evaluated the usefulness of the gene expression profiling of peripheral blood samples obtained from kidney transplant patients and adopted a screening test for detecting cancer of the digestive system (gastric, colon, pancreas, and biliary tract). Nineteen patients were included in this study and a total of 53 gene expression screening tests were performed. The gene expression profiles of blood-delivered total RNA and whole genome human gene expression profiles were obtained. We investigated the expression levels of 2665 genes associated with digestive cancers and counted the number of genes in which expression was altered. A hierarchical clustering analysis was also performed. The final prediction of the cancer possibility was determined according to an algorithm. The number of genes in which expression was altered was significantly increased in the kidney transplant recipients in comparison with the general population (1091 ± 63 vs 823 ± 94; P = .0024). The number of genes with altered expression decreased after the induction of mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor (1484 ± 227 vs 883 ± 154; P = .0439). No cases of possible digestive cancer were detected in this study period. The gene expression profiling of peripheral blood samples may be a useful and noninvasive diagnostic tool that allows for the early detection of cancer of the digestive system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Provider-based research networks and diffusion of surgical technologies among patients with early-stage kidney cancer.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hung-Jui; Meyer, Anne-Marie; Kuo, Tzy-Mey; Smith, Angela B; Wheeler, Stephanie B; Carpenter, William R; Nielsen, Matthew E

    2015-03-15

    Provider-based research networks such as the National Cancer Institute's Community Clinical Oncology Program (CCOP) have been shown to facilitate the translation of evidence-based cancer care into clinical practice. This study compared the utilization of laparoscopy and partial nephrectomy among patients with early-stage kidney cancer according to their exposure to CCOP-affiliated providers. With linked Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare data, patients with T1aN0M0 kidney cancer who had been treated with nephrectomy from 2000 to 2007 were identified. For each patient, the receipt of care from a CCOP physician or hospital and treatment with laparoscopy or partial nephrectomy were determined. Adjusted for patient characteristics (eg, age, sex, and marital status) and other organizational features (eg, community hospital and National Cancer Institute-designated cancer center), multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the association between each surgical innovation and CCOP affiliation. During the study interval, 1578 patients (26.8%) were treated by a provider with a CCOP affiliation. Trends in the utilization of laparoscopy and partial nephrectomy remained similar between affiliated and nonaffiliated providers (P ≥ .05). With adjustments for patient characteristics, organizational features, and clustering, no association was noted between CCOP affiliation and the use of laparoscopy (odds ratio [OR], 1.11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.81-1.53) or partial nephrectomy (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.82-1.32) despite the more frequent receipt of these treatments in academic settings (P < .05). At a population level, patients treated by providers affiliated with CCOP were no more likely to receive at least 1 of 2 surgical innovations for treatment of their kidney cancer, indicating perhaps a more limited scope to provider-based research networks as they pertain to translational efforts in cancer care. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  18. Post-transplant soluble CD30 levels are associated with early subclinical rejection in kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Grenzi, Patricia C; Campos, Érika F; Silva, Hélio T; Felipe, Claudia R; Franco, Marcelo F; Soares, Maria F; Medina-Pestana, José O; Gerbase-DeLima, Maria

    2015-03-01

    Several studies have shown association of high pre- or post-transplant levels of soluble CD30 (sCD30) with acute rejection and poor late kidney transplant outcome. Our goal was to investigate whether sCD30 levels at month-3 post-transplant are associated with subclinical rejection, presence of CD30(+) cells within the graft, and expression of immune response genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. The study comprised 118 adult first kidney graft recipients, transplanted at a single center, receiving tacrolimus in low concentration. All were submitted to a protocol biopsy at month-3. Subclinical rejection was identified in 10 biopsies and sCD30 levels ≥ 61.88 ng/mL (P = 0.004), younger recipient age (P = 0.030) and non-Caucasian ethnicity (P = 0.011) were independently associated with this outcome. Rare CD30(+) cells were present in only two biopsies. There was a correlation between sCD30 levels and CD30 gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (r = 0.385, P = 0.043). These results show that high sCD30 levels are independent predictors of graft dysfunction and may contribute to patient selection protocols by indicating those who could benefit from a more thorough evaluation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Webster, Angela C; Nagler, Evi V; Morton, Rachael L; Masson, Philip

    2017-03-25

    The definition and classification of chronic kidney disease (CKD) have evolved over time, but current international guidelines define this condition as decreased kidney function shown by glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of less than 60 mL/min per 1·73 m 2 , or markers of kidney damage, or both, of at least 3 months duration, regardless of the underlying cause. Diabetes and hypertension are the main causes of CKD in all high-income and middle-income countries, and also in many low-income countries. Incidence, prevalence, and progression of CKD also vary within countries by ethnicity and social determinants of health, possibly through epigenetic influence. Many people are asymptomatic or have non-specific symptoms such as lethargy, itch, or loss of appetite. Diagnosis is commonly made after chance findings from screening tests (urinary dipstick or blood tests), or when symptoms become severe. The best available indicator of overall kidney function is GFR, which is measured either via exogenous markers (eg, DTPA, iohexol), or estimated using equations. Presence of proteinuria is associated with increased risk of progression of CKD and death. Kidney biopsy samples can show definitive evidence of CKD, through common changes such as glomerular sclerosis, tubular atrophy, and interstitial fibrosis. Complications include anaemia due to reduced production of erythropoietin by the kidney; reduced red blood cell survival and iron deficiency; and mineral bone disease caused by disturbed vitamin D, calcium, and phosphate metabolism. People with CKD are five to ten times more likely to die prematurely than they are to progress to end stage kidney disease. This increased risk of death rises exponentially as kidney function worsens and is largely attributable to death from cardiovascular disease, although cancer incidence and mortality are also increased. Health-related quality of life is substantially lower for people with CKD than for the general population, and falls as GFR

  20. DNA damage in hemodialysis patients with chronic kidney disease; a test of the role of diabetes mellitus; a comet assay investigation.

    PubMed

    Mamur, Sevcan; Unal, Fatma; Altok, Kadriye; Deger, Serpil Muge; Yuzbasioglu, Deniz

    2016-04-01

    The incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing rapidly. Diabetes mellitus (DM) is the most important cause of CKD. We studied the possible role of DM in CKD patients with respect to DNA damage, as assessed by the comet assay in 60 CKD patients (with or without DM) undergoing hemodialysis and in 26 controls. Effects of other factors, such as age, sex, hypertension, duration of hemodialysis, body mass index (BMI), and levels of hemoglobin (HB), intact parathormone (iPTH), and ferritin (FER), were also examined. Primary DNA damage measured by the comet assay was significantly higher in CKD patients than in controls. Among CKD patients, the following correlations were observed. (1) There was no difference in comet tail length or tail intensity between diabetic and non-diabetic individuals. (2) Age, sex, hemoglobin, hypertension, duration of hemodialysis, and ferritin levels affected neither tail length nor intensity. (3) BMI values above 25kg/m(2) and iPTH levels above 300pg/ml were associated with significantly greater comet tail length. Our results indicate that primary DNA damage is increased in CKD patients undergoing hemodialysis, compared to controls; however, DM had no additional effect. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Differential Simultaneous Liver and Kidney Transplant Benefit Based on Severity of Liver Damage at the Time of Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Habib, Shahid; Khan, Khalid; Hsu, Chiu-Hsieh; Meister, Edward; Rana, Abbas; Boyer, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Background We evaluated the concept of whether liver failure patients with a superimposed kidney injury receiving a simultaneous liver and kidney transplant (SLKT) have similar outcomes compared to patients with liver failure without a kidney injury receiving a liver transplantation (LT) alone. Methods Using data from the United Network of Organ Sharing (UNOS) database, patients were divided into five groups based on pre-transplant model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) scores and categorized as not having (serum creatinine (sCr) ≤ 1.5 mg/dL) or having (sCr > 1.5 mg/dL) renal dysfunction. Of 30,958 patients undergoing LT, 14,679 (47.5%) had renal dysfunction, and of those, 5,084 (16.4%) had dialysis. Results Survival in those (liver failure with renal dysfunction) receiving SLKT was significantly worse (P < 0.001) as compared to those with sCr < 1.5 mg/dL (liver failure only). The highest mortality rate observed was 21% in the 36+ MELD group with renal dysfunction with or without SLKT. In high MELD recipients (MELD > 30) with renal dysfunction, presence of renal dysfunction affects the outcome and SLKT does not improve survival. In low MELD recipients (16 - 20), presence of renal dysfunction at the time of transplantation does affect post-transplant survival, but survival is improved with SLKT. Conclusions SLKT improved 1-year survival only in low MELD (16 - 20) recipients but not in other groups. Performance of SLKT should be limited to patients where a benefit in survival and post-transplant outcomes can be demonstrated. PMID:28496531

  2. Serum Cystatin C as an Early Diagnostic Biomarker of Diabetic Kidney Disease in Type 2 Diabetic Patients.

    PubMed

    Qamar, Ayesha; Hayat, Asma; Ahmad, Tariq Mahmood; Khan, Alamgir; Hasnat, Mohammad Najam Ul; Tahir, Sufyan

    2018-04-01

    To determine the diagnostic accuracy and cut-off values of serum cystatin C as early diagnostic biomarker of diabetic kidney disease. Cross-sectional analytical study. Department of Pathology, Army Medical College, Rawalpindi in collaboration with Endocrinology Department, Military Hospital (MH), Rawalpindi from November 2015 to November 2016. One hundred and nineteen diagnosed patients of type 2 diabetes mellitus were enrolled in the study from the outpatient Endocrinology Department of the MH Rawalpindi. Fifty disease-free controls were also included. Fasting blood samples of the patients and controls were analysed for creatinine by Jaffé's kinetic method and estimated GFR was calculated using MDRD-based equation for GFR. Serum cystatin C was estimated by quantitative turbidimetric method. Serum cystatin C was higher in the diabetic group (mean = 1.022 ±0.33 mg/dl) as compared to the control group (mean = 0.63 ±0.14 mg/dl). ROC curve analysis, keeping less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 GFR (CKD-MDRD based) as reference value of the stat variable/gold standard; revealed an area under the curve of 0.914 (95% CI 0.85-0.98) and at optimal sensitivity of 88.2% and specificity of 84.8% the established cut-off of serum cystatin C was 1.26 mg/L. Cystatin C is an accurate biomarker of diabetic kidney disease with good sensitivity and specificity.

  3. Early postoperative statin therapy is associated with a lower incidence of acute kidney injury following cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Billings, Frederic T.; Pretorius, Mias; Siew, Edward D.; Yu, Chang; Brown, Nancy J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that perioperative statin use reduces acute kidney injury (AKI) following cardiac surgery Design Retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data from an ongoing clinical trial Setting Quaternary-care university hospital Participants Three hundred twenty-four elective adult cardiac surgery patients Interventions None Measurements and Main Results We assessed the association of preoperative statin use, early postoperative statin use, and acute statin withdrawal with the incidence of AKI. Early postoperative statin use was defined as statin treatment within the first postoperative day. Statin withdrawal was defined as discontinuation of preoperative statin treatment prior to surgery until at least postoperative day 2. Logistic regression and propensity score modeling were used to control for AKI risk factors. Sixty-eight of 324 patients (21.0%) developed AKI. AKI patients stayed in the hospital longer (P=0.03) and were more likely to develop pneumonia (P=0.002) or die (P=0.001). Higher body mass index (P=0.003), higher central venous pressure (P=0.03), and statin withdrawal (27.4 vs. 14.7%, P=0.046) were associated with a higher incidence of AKI, while early postoperative statin use was protective (12.5 vs. 23.8%, P=0.03). Preoperative statin use did not affect risk of AKI. In multivariate logistic regression, age (P=0.03), male gender (P=0.02), body mass index (P<0.001), and early postoperative statin use (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.14–0.72, P=0.006) independently predicted AKI. Propensity score-adjusted risk assessment confirmed the association between early postoperative statin use and reduced AKI (OR 0.30, 95% CI 0.13–0.70, P=0.005). Conclusions Early postoperative statin use is associated with a lower incidence of AKI among both chronic statin users and statin-naïve cardiac surgery patients. PMID:20599398

  4. Diagnostic value of cystatin C for diagnosis of early renal damages in type 2 diabetic mellitus patients: The first experience in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Javanmardi, Mitra; Azadi, Namam-Ali; Amini, Sabrieh; Abdi, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is one of the most important complications of diabetes mellitus. Now-a-days, cystatin C (CysC) is introduced as a new marker for diagnosis of renal damages; however, use of this marker in clinical laboratories is still controversial. The present study was aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of serum CysC for early detection or monitoring treatment of kidney damages in the Kurdish people with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was estimated by Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula. Serum CysC and urine microalbumin were also measured in 126 diabetic and healthy subjects. Blood glycated hemoglobin (Hb) also measured in all healthy and diabetic patients. Two independent samples t-test, Mann-Whitney U-test, one-way ANOVA, and Kruskal-Wallis test, as well as Pearson/Spearman correlation coefficient statistical tests were used as appropriate. Results: Serum CysC was higher (1312.41 ng/ml) in diabetic patients with GFR <60 ml/min than other subjects (993.25 ng/ml) (patients with normal kidney function and healthy subjects). A borderline significant correlation between CysC and estimating GFR (rs = −0.16, P = 0.05) but highly significant with microalbumin (rs = 0.22, P = 0.014) was observed. Serum CysC sensitivity, negative and positive predictive values were 100 and 4%. Conclusion: CysC cover variation of GFR and urine microalbumin, but it cannot be used as a surrogating marker of glycated Hb. According to our results, it seems that serum CysC is a useful marker for screening of DN; but it cannot be used for monitoring of treatment in diabetic patients. PMID:26600832

  5. Angiotensinogen and interleukin-18 as markers of chronic kidney damage in children with a history of hemolytic uremic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lipiec, K; Adamczyk, P; Świętochowska, E; Ziora, K; Szczepańska, M

    2017-05-04

    Hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) is a type of thrombotic microangiopathy, in the course of which some patients may develop chronic kidney disease (CKD). It is clinically important to investigate the markers of a poor prognosis. The levels of angiotensinogen (AGT) and interleukin-18 (IL-18) in serum and urine were evaluated. Study was conducted in 29 children with a history of HUS. Serum and urine AGT concentration was significantly higher in children after HUS as compared to the control group. No differences depending on the type of HUS and gender were noted. The serum concentration of IL-18 in children after HUS was significantly lower, whereas in urine did not differ significantly between the sick and healthy children. A negative correlation between the concentration of AGT in serum and albuminuria in patients after HUS was detected. The results indicate that the concentration of AGT in serum and urine in children after HUS increases, which may indicate the activation of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. The statement, that AGT may be a good biomarker of CKD after acute kidney injury due to HUS requires prospective studies with follow-up from the acute phase of the disease on a larger group of patients. Reduced IL-18 serum concentration in children after HUS with no difference in its urine concentration may indicate a loss of the protective effects of this cytokine on renal function due to previously occurred HUS.

  6. Carotid Catheterization and Automated Blood Sampling Induce Systemic IL-6 Secretion and Local Tissue Damage and Inflammation in the Heart, Kidneys, Liver and Salivary Glands in NMRI Mice.

    PubMed

    Teilmann, Anne Charlotte; Rozell, Björn; Kalliokoski, Otto; Hau, Jann; Abelson, Klas S P

    2016-01-01

    Automated blood sampling through a vascular catheter is a frequently utilized technique in laboratory mice. The potential immunological and physiological implications associated with this technique have, however, not been investigated in detail. The present study compared plasma levels of the cytokines IL-1β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A, GM-CSF, IFN-γ and TNF-α in male NMRI mice that had been subjected to carotid artery catheterization and subsequent automated blood sampling with age-matched control mice. Body weight and histopathological changes in the surgical area, including the salivary glands, the heart, brain, spleen, liver, kidneys and lungs were compared. Catheterized mice had higher levels of IL-6 than did control mice, but other cytokine levels did not differ between the groups. No significant difference in body weight was found. The histology revealed inflammatory and regenerative (healing) changes at surgical sites of all catheterized mice, with mild inflammatory changes extending into the salivary glands. Several catheterized mice had multifocal degenerative to necrotic changes with inflammation in the heart, kidneys and livers, suggesting that thrombi had detached from the catheter tip and embolized to distant sites. Thus, catheterization and subsequent automated blood sampling may have physiological impact. Possible confounding effects of visceral damage should be assessed and considered, when using catheterized mouse models.

  7. Childhood chronic-kidney-disease: a longitudinal-qualitative study of families learning to share management early in the trajectory.

    PubMed

    Swallow, Veronica; Lambert, Heather; Clarke, Charlotte; Campbell, Steve; Jacoby, Ann

    2008-11-01

    To explore the ways families learn to share management during the early stages of childhood chronic-kidney-disease. This longitudinal, descriptive study based on the tenets of grounded theory, aimed to derive meaning about family-professional interactions during shared management. Data were obtained from six newly referred families, four renal nurses, four paediatric nephrologists and one dietician through: 36 semi-structured interviews, 21 case-note reviews and four child/parent learning diaries. Three learning stages were identified: dependent (families' understanding was superficial, they lacked underlying knowledge and were totally reliant on professional guidance); co-dependent (families engaged competently in management but still required extensive guidance); independent (families communicated effectively with staff and competently adjusted management within professionally defined parameters). Five families actively shared management from early in the trajectory and progressed to independent learning when, by mutual agreement, professional input to management gradually decreased. The remaining family adopted a passive approach to management, did not progress to independent learning and remained reliant on professional input. Families in this study demonstrated three learning stages in becoming competent at management. Future research is needed to investigate the ways professionals promote family competence early in the trajectory and the factors that can facilitate or hinder families' progression to independent learning.

  8. The protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) against iron-induced functional and histological damages in rat liver and kidney

    PubMed Central

    Gholampour, Firouzeh; Behzadi Ghiasabadi, Fatemeh; Owji, Seyed Mohammad; Vatanparast, Jaafar

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Iron overload in the body is related with toxic effects and threatens the health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective role of hydroalcoholic extract of ginger (Zingiber officinale) against ferrous sulfate-induced hepatic and renal functional disorders and histological damages in rats. Materials and Methods: The rats were divided into four groups (n=7): Sham, Sham + G.E (ginger extract, 400 mg/kg/day for 14 days), FS (ferrous sulfate, 30 mg/kg/day for 14 days), FS+G.E (ferrous sulfate, 30 mg/kg/day for 14 days; ginger extract, 400 mg/kg/day for 11 days from the fourth day of ferrous sulfate injection). After 24 hr, blood, urine and tissue samples were collected. Results: Compared with Sham and Sham + G.E groups, administration of ferrous sulfate resulted in liver and kidney dysfunction as evidenced by significantly higher levels of serum hepatic markers and bilirubin, and lower levels of serum albumin, total protein, triglyceride, cholesterol and glucose, as well as lower creatinine clearance and higher fractional excretion of sodium (p<0.001). This was accompanied by increased malondialdehyde levels and histological damages (p<0.001). In the FS + G.E, ginger extract significantly (p<0.01) reversed the levels of serum hepatic markers, renal functional markers and lipid peroxidation marker. Furthermore, it restored the levels of serum total protein, albumin, glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol and decreased bilirubin concentration in the blood. All these changes were corroborated by histological observations of liver and kidney. Conclusion: In conclusion, ginger extract appears to exert protective effects against ferrous sulfate-induced hepatic and renal toxicity by reducing lipid peroxidation and chelating iron. PMID:29299437

  9. The protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Ginger (Zingiber officinale Rosc.) against iron-induced functional and histological damages in rat liver and kidney.

    PubMed

    Gholampour, Firouzeh; Behzadi Ghiasabadi, Fatemeh; Owji, Seyed Mohammad; Vatanparast, Jaafar

    2017-01-01

    Iron overload in the body is related with toxic effects and threatens the health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective role of hydroalcoholic extract of ginger ( Zingiber officinale ) against ferrous sulfate-induced hepatic and renal functional disorders and histological damages in rats. The rats were divided into four groups (n=7): Sham, Sham + G.E (ginger extract, 400 mg/kg/day for 14 days), FS (ferrous sulfate, 30 mg/kg/day for 14 days), FS+G.E (ferrous sulfate, 30 mg/kg/day for 14 days; ginger extract, 400 mg/kg/day for 11 days from the fourth day of ferrous sulfate injection). After 24 hr, blood, urine and tissue samples were collected. Compared with Sham and Sham + G.E groups, administration of ferrous sulfate resulted in liver and kidney dysfunction as evidenced by significantly higher levels of serum hepatic markers and bilirubin, and lower levels of serum albumin, total protein, triglyceride, cholesterol and glucose, as well as lower creatinine clearance and higher fractional excretion of sodium (p<0.001). This was accompanied by increased malondialdehyde levels and histological damages (p<0.001). In the FS + G.E, ginger extract significantly (p<0.01) reversed the levels of serum hepatic markers, renal functional markers and lipid peroxidation marker. Furthermore, it restored the levels of serum total protein, albumin, glucose, triglycerides and cholesterol and decreased bilirubin concentration in the blood. All these changes were corroborated by histological observations of liver and kidney. In conclusion, ginger extract appears to exert protective effects against ferrous sulfate-induced hepatic and renal toxicity by reducing lipid peroxidation and chelating iron.

  10. Pregnancy as an early stress test for cardiovascular and kidney disease diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Facca, Thaís Alquezar; Mastroianni-Kirsztajn, Gianna; Sabino, Amélia Rodrigues Pereira; Passos, Michelle Tiveron; Dos Santos, Larissa Fátima; Famá, Eduardo Augusto Brosco; Nishida, Sonia Kiyomi; Sass, Nelson

    2017-11-23

    Pregnancy is a cardiometabolic and renal stress test for women, primarily when associated with hypertension syndrome, which can have deleterious effects in the long term. We undertook this study to make a long-term evaluation on these women. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to investigate voluntary women who had pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome versus normal pregnancy. We evaluated a total of 85 women, divided in case (n = 25) and control (n = 60) groups, by clinical, anthropometric and epidemiological profiles, general, metabolic and renal tests, and risk stratification for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD). The case group showed a higher incidence of hypertension (P = .003), shorter period between its diagnosis and end of pregnancy (P < .001) and lower age at diagnosis (P = .033); higher weight (P < .001), body mass index (BMI) (P < .001), waist-to-height ratio (p = .001) and abdominal circumference (P < .001); higher fat percentage (P = .004) and weight to lose (P < .001) as measured by bioimpedance; lower estimate glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) by the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation (P = .021), greater difference between estimated vascular age and real age (P = .008) according to Framingham Risk Score (2008) and higher frequency of metabolic syndrome (P < .001). Women who had pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome were found with a higher incidence of obesity, metabolic syndrome and hypertension, earlier onset of hypertension, higher estimated vascular age and lower eGFR. These findings reinforce the importance of investigating the history of hypertension syndrome in pregnancy, which should be considered an indicator to be followed long term after childbirth. Copyright © 2017 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Ricin crosses polarized human intestinal cells and intestines of ricin-gavaged mice without evident damage and then disseminates to mouse kidneys.

    PubMed

    Flora, Alyssa D; Teel, Louise D; Smith, Mark A; Sinclair, James F; Melton-Celsa, Angela R; O'Brien, Alison D

    2013-01-01

    Ricin is a potent toxin found in the beans of Ricinus communis and is often lethal for animals and humans when aerosolized or injected and causes significant morbidity and occasional death when ingested. Ricin has been proposed as a bioweapon because of its lethal properties, environmental stability, and accessibility. In oral intoxication, the process by which the toxin transits across intestinal mucosa is not completely understood. To address this question, we assessed the impact of ricin on the gastrointestinal tract and organs of mice after dissemination of toxin from the gut. We first showed that ricin adhered in a specific pattern to human small bowel intestinal sections, the site within the mouse gut in which a variable degree of damage has been reported by others. We then monitored the movement of ricin across polarized human HCT-8 intestinal monolayers grown in transwell inserts and in HCT-8 cell organoids. We observed that, in both systems, ricin trafficked through the cells without apparent damage until 24 hours post intoxication. We delivered a lethal dose of purified fluorescently-labeled ricin to mice by oral gavage and followed transit of the toxin from the gastrointestinal tracts to the internal organs by in vivo imaging of whole animals over time and ex vivo imaging of organs at various time points. In addition, we harvested organs from unlabeled ricin-gavaged mice and assessed them for the presence of ricin and for histological damage. Finally, we compared serum chemistry values from buffer-treated versus ricin-intoxicated animals. We conclude that ricin transverses human intestinal cells and mouse intestinal cells in situ prior to any indication of enterocyte damage and that ricin rapidly reaches the kidneys of intoxicated mice. We also propose that mice intoxicated orally with ricin likely die from distributive shock.

  12. Ricin Crosses Polarized Human Intestinal Cells and Intestines of Ricin-Gavaged Mice without Evident Damage and Then Disseminates to Mouse Kidneys

    PubMed Central

    Flora, Alyssa D.; Teel, Louise D.; Smith, Mark A.; Sinclair, James F.; Melton-Celsa, Angela R.; O’Brien, Alison D.

    2013-01-01

    Ricin is a potent toxin found in the beans of Ricinus communis and is often lethal for animals and humans when aerosolized or injected and causes significant morbidity and occasional death when ingested. Ricin has been proposed as a bioweapon because of its lethal properties, environmental stability, and accessibility. In oral intoxication, the process by which the toxin transits across intestinal mucosa is not completely understood. To address this question, we assessed the impact of ricin on the gastrointestinal tract and organs of mice after dissemination of toxin from the gut. We first showed that ricin adhered in a specific pattern to human small bowel intestinal sections, the site within the mouse gut in which a variable degree of damage has been reported by others. We then monitored the movement of ricin across polarized human HCT-8 intestinal monolayers grown in transwell inserts and in HCT-8 cell organoids. We observed that, in both systems, ricin trafficked through the cells without apparent damage until 24 hours post intoxication. We delivered a lethal dose of purified fluorescently-labeled ricin to mice by oral gavage and followed transit of the toxin from the gastrointestinal tracts to the internal organs by in vivo imaging of whole animals over time and ex vivo imaging of organs at various time points. In addition, we harvested organs from unlabeled ricin-gavaged mice and assessed them for the presence of ricin and for histological damage. Finally, we compared serum chemistry values from buffer-treated versus ricin-intoxicated animals. We conclude that ricin transverses human intestinal cells and mouse intestinal cells in situ prior to any indication of enterocyte damage and that ricin rapidly reaches the kidneys of intoxicated mice. We also propose that mice intoxicated orally with ricin likely die from distributive shock. PMID:23874986

  13. Effects of chronic fructose overload on renal dopaminergic system: alteration of urinary L-dopa/dopamine index correlates to hypertension and precedes kidney structural damage.

    PubMed

    Rukavina Mikusic, Natalia L; Kouyoumdzian, Nicolás M; Del Mauro, Julieta S; Cao, Gabriel; Trida, Verónica; Gironacci, Mariela M; Puyó, Ana M; Toblli, Jorge E; Fernández, Belisario E; Choi, Marcelo R

    2018-01-01

    Insulin resistance induced by a high-fructose diet has been associated to hypertension and renal damage. The aim of this work was to assess alterations in the urinary L-dopa/dopamine ratio over three time periods in rats with insulin resistance induced by fructose overload and its correlation with blood pressure levels and the presence of microalbuminuria and reduced nephrin expression as markers of renal structural damage. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups: control (C) (C4, C8 and C12) with tap water to drink and fructose-overloaded (FO) rats (FO4, FO8 and FO12) with a fructose solution (10% w/v) to drink for 4, 8 and 12 weeks. A significant increase of the urinary L-dopa/dopamine ratio was found in FO rats since week 4, which positively correlated to the development of hypertension and preceded in time the onset of microalbuminuria and reduced nephrin expression observed on week 12 of treatment. The alteration of this ratio was associated to an impairment of the renal dopaminergic system, evidenced by a reduction in renal dopamine transporters and dopamine D1 receptor expression, leading to an overexpression and overactivation of the enzyme Na + , K + -ATPase with sodium retention. In conclusion, urinary L-dopa/dopamine ratio alteration in rats with fructose overload positively correlated to the development of hypertension and preceded in time the onset of renal structural damage. This is the first study to propose the use of the urinary L-dopa/dopamine index as marker of renal dysfunction that temporarily precedes kidney structural damage induced by fructose overload. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Impaired endogenous nighttime melatonin secretion relates to intrarenal renin-angiotensin system activation and renal damage in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Ishigaki, Sayaka; Ohashi, Naro; Isobe, Shinsuke; Tsuji, Naoko; Iwakura, Takamasa; Ono, Masafumi; Sakao, Yukitoshi; Tsuji, Takayuki; Kato, Akihiko; Miyajima, Hiroaki; Yasuda, Hideo

    2016-12-01

    Activation of the intrarenal renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hypertension. The circadian rhythm of intrarenal RAS activation leads to renal damage and hypertension, which are associated with diurnal blood pressure (BP) variation. The activation of intrarenal RAS following reactive oxygen species (ROS) activation, sympathetic hyperactivity and nitric oxide (NO) inhibition leads to the development of renal damage. Melatonin is a hormone regulating the circadian rhythm, and has multiple functions such as anti-oxidant and anti-adrenergic effects and enhancement of NO bioavailability. Nocturnal melatonin concentrations are lower in CKD patients. However, it is not known if impaired endogenous melatonin secretion is related to BP, intrarenal RAS, or renal damage in CKD patients. We recruited 53 CKD patients and conducted 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring. urine was collected during the daytime and nighttime. We investigated the relationship among the melatonin metabolite urinary 6-sulphatoxymelatonin (U-aMT6s), BP, renal function, urinary angiotensinogen (U-AGT), and urinary albumin (U-Alb). Patients' U-aMT6s levels were significantly and negatively correlated with clinical parameters such as renal function, systolic BP, U-AGT, and U-Alb, during both day and night. Multiple regression analyses for U-aMT6s levels were performed using age, gender, renal function, and each parameter (BPs, U-AGT or U-Alb), at daytime and nighttime. U-aMT6s levels were significantly associated with U-AGT (β = -0.31, p = 0.044) and U-Alb (β = -0.25, p = 0.025) only at night. Impaired nighttime melatonin secretion may be associated with nighttime intrarenal RAS activation and renal damage in CKD patients.

  15. Application of τc*Pd for identifying damaging earthquakes for earthquake early warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, P. L.; Lin, T. L.; Wu, Y. M.

    2014-12-01

    Earthquake Early Warning System (EEWS) is an effective approach to mitigate earthquake damage. In this study, we used the seismic record by the Kiban Kyoshin network (KiK-net), because it has dense station coverage and co-located borehole strong-motion seismometers along with the free-surface strong-motion seismometers. We used inland earthquakes with moment magnitude (Mw) from 5.0 to 7.3 between 1998 and 2012. We choose 135 events and 10950 strong ground accelerograms recorded by the 696 strong ground accelerographs. Both the free-surface and the borehole data are used to calculate τc and Pd, respectively. The results show that τc*Pd has a good correlation with PGV and is a robust parameter for assessing the potential of damaging earthquake. We propose the value of τc*Pd determined from seconds after the arrival of P wave could be a threshold for the on-site type of EEW.

  16. γδ T cells as early sensors of tissue damage and mediators of secondary neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Gelderblom, Mathias; Arunachalam, Priyadharshini; Magnus, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Spontaneous or medically induced reperfusion occurs in up to 70% of patients within 24 h after cerebral ischemia. Reperfusion of ischemic brain tissue can augment the inflammatory response that causes additional injury. Recently, T cells have been shown to be an essential part of the post-ischemic tissue damage, and especially IL-17 secreting T cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of inflammatory reactions in the brain. After stroke, it seems that the innate γδ T cells are the main IL-17 producing cells and that the γδ T cell activation constitutes an early and mainly damaging immune response in stroke. Effector mechanism of γδ T cell derived IL-17 in the ischemic brain include the induction of metalloproteinases, proinflammatory cytokines and neutrophil attracting chemokines, leading to a further amplification of the detrimental inflammatory response. In this review, we will give an overview on the concepts of γδ T cells and IL-17 in stroke pathophysiology and on their potential importance for human disease conditions. PMID:25414640

  17. Early Detection of Salt Stress Damage by Biophotons in Red Bean Seedling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohya, Tomoyuki; Kurashige, Hideaki; Okabe, Hirotaka; Kai, Shoichi

    2000-06-01

    The optical detection of the stress damage to plants by NaCl solutions was attempted during germination of a seed and growth of a root. We compared the photon intensity of red beans before and after NaCl treatment and found that the photon intensity after NaCl treatment decreased as the NaCl concentration increased. For the saturated NaCl concentration (4.5 M), however, the observed photon intensity drastically increased, and the simultaneous destruction of cell membranes was observed. The intensity of biophoton emission from red beans showed characteristic change with salt concentrations. When the salt stress was applied to the red beans at an early growth stage, their root elongations were suppressed and photon intensity from the root decreased. This was not the case for the root at the late stage. This shows that biophoton intensity due to salt stress depends on not only NaCl concentration but also the growth stage of the plant. We may conclude that the extent of damage to roots by salt stress can be evaluated from biophoton response.

  18. Erectile dysfunction and target organ damage in the early stages of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kakkavas, Apostolos; Tsioufis, Costas; Tsiachris, Dimitris; Thomopoulos, Costas; Dimitriadis, Kyriakos; Milkas, Anastasios; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios; Kallikazaros, Ioannis; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2013-09-01

    The authors investigated whether erectile dysfunction (ED) in the early stages of hypertension is associated with heightened end-organ damage. A total of 174 consecutive men with untreated, newly diagnosed essential hypertension (aged 50.3 years, office blood pressure [BP] 150/98 mm Hg) were studied. All participants underwent 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring, blood examination, albumin-creatinine ratio, carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity assessment, and echocardiography for estimation of left ventricular mass index and diastolic function. Hypertensive men with ED (n=43, 24.7%) compared with those without ED were older (by 6.4 years, P<.05), had greater 24-hour pulse pressure (by 4.3 mm Hg, P=.011) and a greater prevalence of nondipping status (72.2% vs 46.7%, P=.008), while the two groups did not differ in plasma glucose, lipid, creatinine, and albumin/creatinine ratio levels. Regarding cardiac adaptations, hypertensive men with ED exhibited only significantly lower tissue Doppler imaging-derived Em (by 1.6 cm/s, adjusted P=.035), while no difference in left ventricular mass index or pulse wave velocity were detected. ED in the setting of untreated newly diagnosed essential hypertension does not have an unfavorable impact on traditional markers of target organ damage. This finding suggests that ED assessment might not refine the traditional risk stratification procedure at least in the early stages of hypertensive disease. ©2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Assessment of Plasma and NGAL for the Early Prediction of Acute Kidney Injury After Cardiac Surgery in Adults Study

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-04-24

    Acute Kidney Injury (AKI); Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD); End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD); Estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR); Neutrophil Gelatinase-associated Lipocalin (NGAL); Serum Creatinine (SCr); Urine Creatinine (UCr); Urine Albumin (UAlb)

  20. Effects of Single and Combined Losartan and Tempol Treatments on Oxidative Stress, Kidney Structure and Function in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats with Early Course of Proteinuric Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Grujic-Milanovic, Jelica; Miloradovic, Zoran; Ivanov, Milan; Jovovic, Djurdjica; Vajic, Una-Jovana; Zivotic, Maja; Markovic-Lipkovski, Jasmina; Mihailovic-Stanojevic, Nevena

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been widely implicated in both hypertension and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Hypertension is a major risk factor for CKD progression. In the present study we have investigated the effects of chronic single tempol (membrane-permeable radical scavenger) or losartan (angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker) treatment, and their combination on systemic oxidative status (plasma thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (pTBARS) production, plasma antioxidant capacity (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid, pABTS), erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes activities) and kidney oxidative stress (kTBARS, kABTS, kidney antioxidant enzymes activities), kidney function and structure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) with the early course of adriamycin-induced nephropathy. Adult SHR were divided into five groups. The control group received vehicle, while the other groups received adriamycin (2 mg/kg, i.v.) twice in a 21-day interval, followed by vehicle, losartan (L,10 mg/kg/day), tempol (T,100 mg/kg/day) or combined T+L treatment (by gavage) during a six-week period. Adriamycin significantly increased proteinuria, plasma lipid peroxidation, kidney protein oxidation, nitrite excretion, matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) protein expression and nestin immunostaining in the kidney. Also, it decreased kidney antioxidant defense, kidney NADPH oxidase 4 (kNox4) protein expression and abolished anti-inflammatory response due to significant reduction of kidney NADPH oxidase 2 (kNox2) protein expression in SHR. All treatments reduced protein-to-creatinine ratio (marker of proteinuria), pTBARS production, kidney protein carbonylation, nitrite excretion, increased antioxidant capacity and restored kidney nestin expression similar to control. Both single treatments significantly improved systemic and kidney antioxidant defense, bioavailability of renal nitric oxide, reduced kMMP-1 protein expression and renal injury, thus retarded CKD progression

  1. Effects of Single and Combined Losartan and Tempol Treatments on Oxidative Stress, Kidney Structure and Function in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats with Early Course of Proteinuric Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Karanovic, Danijela; Grujic-Milanovic, Jelica; Miloradovic, Zoran; Ivanov, Milan; Jovovic, Djurdjica; Vajic, Una-Jovana; Zivotic, Maja; Markovic-Lipkovski, Jasmina; Mihailovic-Stanojevic, Nevena

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been widely implicated in both hypertension and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Hypertension is a major risk factor for CKD progression. In the present study we have investigated the effects of chronic single tempol (membrane-permeable radical scavenger) or losartan (angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker) treatment, and their combination on systemic oxidative status (plasma thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (pTBARS) production, plasma antioxidant capacity (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid, pABTS), erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes activities) and kidney oxidative stress (kTBARS, kABTS, kidney antioxidant enzymes activities), kidney function and structure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) with the early course of adriamycin-induced nephropathy. Adult SHR were divided into five groups. The control group received vehicle, while the other groups received adriamycin (2 mg/kg, i.v.) twice in a 21-day interval, followed by vehicle, losartan (L,10 mg/kg/day), tempol (T,100 mg/kg/day) or combined T+L treatment (by gavage) during a six-week period. Adriamycin significantly increased proteinuria, plasma lipid peroxidation, kidney protein oxidation, nitrite excretion, matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) protein expression and nestin immunostaining in the kidney. Also, it decreased kidney antioxidant defense, kidney NADPH oxidase 4 (kNox4) protein expression and abolished anti-inflammatory response due to significant reduction of kidney NADPH oxidase 2 (kNox2) protein expression in SHR. All treatments reduced protein-to-creatinine ratio (marker of proteinuria), pTBARS production, kidney protein carbonylation, nitrite excretion, increased antioxidant capacity and restored kidney nestin expression similar to control. Both single treatments significantly improved systemic and kidney antioxidant defense, bioavailability of renal nitric oxide, reduced kMMP-1 protein expression and renal injury, thus retarded CKD progression

  2. Urinary Netrin-1: A New Biomarker for the Early Diagnosis of Renal Damage in Obese Children.

    PubMed

    Övünç Hacıhamdioğlu, Duygu; Hacıhamdioğlu, Bülent; Altun, Demet; Müftüoğlu, Tuba; Karademir, Ferhan; Süleymanoğlu, Selami

    2016-09-01

    Urinary netrin-1 is a new marker to demonstrate early tubular damage. The aim of this study was to determine whether urinary netrin-1 is increased in obese children. A total of 68 normoalbuminuric and normotensive obese patients and 65 controls were included in the study. Urine samples were collected for assessment of urinary phosphorus, sodium, potassium, creatinine, albumin, and netrin-1. Blood samples were collected for measurements of fasting glucose, insulin, lipid, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, and creatinine levels. Homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance index was calculated. Gender and age were similar between obese and control groups (12.01±3.03 vs. 11.7±3.2 years, p=0.568 and 33 vs. 35 girls, p=0.543, respectively). Obese patients had significantly higher netrin-1 excretion than the controls (841.68±673.17 vs. 228.94±137.25 pg/mg creatinine, p=0.000). Urinary netrin-1 level was significantly higher in obese subjects with insulin resistance compared to those without insulin resistance (1142±1181 vs. 604.9±589.91 pg/mg creatinine, p=0.001). In normotensive and normoalbuminuric obese children, urinary netrin-1 level can increase before onset of albuminuria. Urinary netrin-1 excretion appears to be affected predominantly by insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. Urinary netrin-1 may be a new biomarker for determining early tubular injury in obese children.

  3. Biophysical modelling of early and delayed radiation damage at chromosome level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, S.; Eidelman, Y.

    Exposure by ionising radiation increases cancer risk in human population Cancer is thought to originate from an altered expression of certain number of specific genes It is now widely recognised that chromosome aberrations CA are involved in stable change in expression of genes by gain or loss of their functions Thus CA can contribute to initiation or progression of cancer Therefore understanding mechanisms of CA formation in the course of cancer development might be valuable tool for quantification and prognosis of different stages of radiation carcinogenesis Early CA are defined as aberrations induced in first post-irradiation mitotic cycle The present work describes the original biophysical technique for early CA modelling It includes the following simulation steps the ionising particle track structure the structural organisation of all chromosomes in G 0 G 1 cell nucleus spatial distribution of radiation induced DNA double-strand breaks dsb within chromosomes dsb rejoining and misrejoining modelling cell cycle taking into account mitotic delay which results in complex time dependence of aberrant cells in first mitosis The results on prediction of dose-response curves for simple and complex CA measured in cells undergoing first division cycle are presented in comparison with recent experimental data There is increasing evidence that CA are also observed in descendents of irradiated cells many generations after direct DNA damage These delayed CA or chromosome instability CI are thought to be a manifestation of genome

  4. Tubulointerstitial damage as the major pathological lesion in endemic chronic kidney disease among farmers in North Central Province of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Nanayakkara, Shanika; Komiya, Toshiyuki; Ratnatunga, Neelakanthi; Senevirathna, S T M L D; Harada, Kouji H; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Gobe, Glenda; Muso, Eri; Abeysekera, Tilak; Koizumi, Akio

    2012-05-01

    Chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology (CKDu) in North Central Province of Sri Lanka has become a key public health concern in the agricultural sector due to the dramatic rise in its prevalence and mortality among young farmers. Although cadmium has been suspected as a causative pathogen, there have been controversies. To date, the pathological characteristics of the disease have not been reported. Histopathological observations of 64 renal biopsies obtained at Anuradhapura General Hospital from October 2008 to July 2009 were scored according to Banff 97 Working Classification of Renal Allograft pathology. The correlations between the histological observations and clinical parameters were statistically analyzed. Interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy with or without nonspecific interstitial mononuclear cell infiltration was the dominant histopathological observation. Glomerular sclerosis, glomerular collapse, and features of vascular pathology such as fibrous intimal thickening and arteriolar hyalinosis were also common. Although hypertension was identified as one of the common clinical features among the cases, it did not influence the histopathological lesions in all the cases. This study concludes that tubulointerstitial damage is the major pathological lesion in CKDu. Exposure(s) to an environmental pathogen(s) should be systematically investigated to elucidate such tubulointerstitial damage in CKDu.

  5. Diagnostic value of quantitative contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) for early detection of renal hyperperfusion in diabetic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Wu, Jian; Cheng, Jia-Fen; Liu, Xin-Ying; Ma, Fang; Guo, Le-Hang; Xu, Jun-Mei; Wu, Tianfu; Mohan, Chandra; Peng, Ai; Xu, Hui-Xiong; Song, Ya-Xiang

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the diagnostic value of quantitative contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) for early detection of renal hyperperfusion in diabetic kidney disease (DKD). 55 DKD patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >30 ml/min/1.73 m(2) and 26 normal controls (NCs) were enrolled. Clinical data was well documented. Blood samples were drawn for evaluation of renal function including blood urea nitrogen (BUN), serum creatinine (SCr) and serum uric acid (SUA), and urine samples were assayed for total protein quantification, and various microprotein markers. According to eGFR level, DKD patients were divided into early-stage DKD (eGFR ≥90 ml/min/1.73 m(2), n = 18) and middle-stage DKD (eGFR 30-90 ml/min/1.73 m(2), n = 37). Based on urinary microalbumin/creatinine ratio (MALB/UCR), early-stage DKD patients were further classified into two groups: MALB/UCR <10 g/mol (n = 11) and MALB/UCR ≥10 g/mol (n = 7). Then, CEUS was performed to observe the real-time renal perfusion, and low acoustic power contrast-specific imaging was used for quantitative analysis. The renal perfusion images of CEUS were well developed successively. The corresponding perfusion curves based on echo-power signals in time series were constructed. Quantitative analysis showed that area under the descending curve (AUC2) was significantly increased in early-stage DKD compared to middle-stage DKD (p < 0.05), but AUC showed no significant difference. Further comparison between different MALB/UCR levels of early-stage DKD showed that patients with MALB/UCR ≥10 g/mol had significantly increased levels of AUC, AUC2 and proteinuria than patients with low MALB/UCR (p < 0.05). Also, high MALB/UCR DKD patients had increased proteinuria but similar eGFR compared to low MALB/UCR patients. Renal microvascular hyperperfusion may be responsible for overt proteinuria until decline of renal filtration in DKD. AUC2 could be an early and sensitive marker for early renal injury and renal microvascular

  6. FGF8 coordinates tissue elongation and cell epithelialization during early kidney tubulogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Atsuta, Yuji; Takahashi, Yoshiko

    2015-01-01

    When a tubular structure forms during early embryogenesis, tubular elongation and lumen formation (epithelialization) proceed simultaneously in a spatiotemporally coordinated manner. We here demonstrate, using the Wolffian duct (WD) of early chicken embryos, that this coordination is regulated by the expression of FGF8, which shifts posteriorly during body axis elongation. FGF8 acts as a chemoattractant on the leader cells of the elongating WD and prevents them from epithelialization, whereas static (‘rear’) cells that receive progressively less FGF8 undergo epithelialization to form a lumen. Thus, FGF8 acts as a binary switch that distinguishes tubular elongation from lumen formation. The posteriorly shifting FGF8 is also known to regulate somite segmentation, suggesting that multiple types of tissue morphogenesis are coordinately regulated by macroscopic changes in body growth. PMID:26130757

  7. Relationship between cell volume and ion transport in the early distal tubule of the Amphiuma kidney.

    PubMed

    Guggino, W B; Oberleithner, H; Giebisch, G

    1985-07-01

    The roles of apical and basolateral transport mechanisms in the regulation of cell volume and the hydraulic water permeabilities (Lp) of the individual cell membranes of the Amphiuma early distal tubule (diluting segment) were evaluated using video and optical techniques as well as conventional and Cl-sensitive microelectrodes. The Lp of the apical cell membrane calculated per square centimeter of tubule is less than 3% that of the basolateral cell membrane. Calculated per square centimeter of membrane, the Lp of the apical cell membrane is less than 40% that of the basolateral cell membrane. Thus, two factors are responsible for the asymmetry in the Lp of the early distal tubule: an intrinsic difference in the Lp per square centimeter of membrane area, and a difference in the surface areas of the apical and basolateral cell membranes. Early distal tubule cells do not regulate volume after a reduction in bath osmolality. This cell swelling occurs without a change in the intracellular Cl content or the basolateral cell membrane potential. In contrast, reducing the osmolality of the basolateral solution in the presence of luminal furosemide diminishes the magnitude of the increase in cell volume to a value below that predicted from the change in osmolality. This osmotic swelling is associated with a reduction in the intracellular Cl content. Hence, early distal tubule cells can lose solute in response to osmotic swelling, but only after the apical Na/K/Cl transporter is blocked. Inhibition of basolateral Na/K ATPase with ouabain results in severe cell swelling. This swelling in response to ouabain can be inhibited by the prior application of furosemide, which suggests that the swelling is due to the continued entry of solutes, primarily through the apical cotransport pathway.

  8. Relationship between cell volume and ion transport in the early distal tubule of the Amphiuma kidney

    PubMed Central

    1985-01-01

    The roles of apical and basolateral transport mechanisms in the regulation of cell volume and the hydraulic water permeabilities (Lp) of the individual cell membranes of the Amphiuma early distal tubule (diluting segment) were evaluated using video and optical techniques as well as conventional and Cl-sensitive microelectrodes. The Lp of the apical cell membrane calculated per square centimeter of tubule is less than 3% that of the basolateral cell membrane. Calculated per square centimeter of membrane, the Lp of the apical cell membrane is less than 40% that of the basolateral cell membrane. Thus, two factors are responsible for the asymmetry in the Lp of the early distal tubule: an intrinsic difference in the Lp per square centimeter of membrane area, and a difference in the surface areas of the apical and basolateral cell membranes. Early distal tubule cells do not regulate volume after a reduction in bath osmolality. This cell swelling occurs without a change in the intracellular Cl content or the basolateral cell membrane potential. In contrast, reducing the osmolality of the basolateral solution in the presence of luminal furosemide diminishes the magnitude of the increase in cell volume to a value below that predicted from the change in osmolality. This osmotic swelling is associated with a reduction in the intracellular Cl content. Hence, early distal tubule cells can lose solute in response to osmotic swelling, but only after the apical Na/K/Cl transporter is blocked. Inhibition of basolateral Na/K ATPase with ouabain results in severe cell swelling. This swelling in response to ouabain can be inhibited by the prior application of furosemide, which suggests that the swelling is due to the continued entry of solutes, primarily through the apical cotransport pathway. PMID:2411847

  9. Keep Your Kidneys Healthy

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause kidney damage if left untreated. Make healthy food choices Choose foods that are healthy for your heart ... healthy for your body. Tips for making healthy food choices Cook with a mix of spices instead of ...

  10. Protective Effects of Selenium, Vitamin E, and Purple Carrot Anthocyanins on D-Galactose-Induced Oxidative Damage in Blood, Liver, Heart and Kidney Rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Zhang, Yunlong; Yuan, Yuan; Sun, Yong; Qin, Yan; Deng, Zeyuan; Li, Hongyan

    2016-10-01

    The present study was performed to investigate the protective effects of selenium (Se), vitamin E (Vit E) and anthocyanins from purple carrots and their combination against the oxidative stress induced by D-galactose in rats. A total of 80 male rats were equally divided into 11 groups, one of which acted as control (I) just receiving intraperitoneal injections of physiological saline. The remaining ten groups (II-XI) were intraperitoneally injected with D-galactose at a dose of 400 mg kg(-1) body weight (BW) per day for 42 consecutive days. Rats in groups III-XI were treated with antioxidants via gavage per day as follows: group III: Se-methylselenocysteine (SeMSC), IV: Se as sodium selenite (Na2SeO3), V: Se-enriched yeast (SeY), VI: Vit E as α-tocopherol acetate, VII: anthocyanin from purple carrots (APC), VIII: APC + Vit E, IX: SeMSC + APC+ Vit E, X: Na2SeO3 + APC + Vit E, XI: SeY + Ant + Vit E. The results showed that the rats treated with antioxidants (III-XI) showed significant decreases in the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and carbonyl protein (PCO) compared with the D-galactose-treated group (II) in the heart, liver, kidneys, and blood. Moreover, there were significant increases in the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), glutathione (GSH) concentration, and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in the heart, liver, kidneys, and blood of antioxidant-treated animals (III-XI) than those in control group (I). In addition, the combined treatments of two or three antioxidants showed greater antioxidant activities than those of individual treatments, suggesting the synergistic antioxidant effects of Se, Vit E, and APC. In conclusion, all the antioxidants exhibited protective effects against D-galactose-induced oxidative damage in rats, and these antioxidants showed a synergistic effect.

  11. Genotoxicity of freshwater ecosystem shows DNA damage in preponderant fish as validated by in vivo micronucleus induction in gill and kidney erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Obiakor, M O; Okonkwo, J C; Ezeonyejiaku, C D

    2014-12-01

    Genotoxicity of Anambra River was studied by micronucleus (MN) assay of preponderant fish species in the river. The micronucleus indices obtained were used as biomarker to estimate and predict pollution profile and possible danger of feeding on the aquatic species. Micronuclei profile of the fish was measured from gill and kidney erythrocytes using microscopic technique. Season, species and location effects on micronuclei, together with their interactions were also determined. Two major seasons (rainy and dry) and preponderant fish species in the river (Synodontis clarias, Linnaeus, 1758 and Tilapia nilotica, Linnaeus, 1757) were studied at five distinct locations that displayed differential environmental stresses. The study showed that the micronucleus index of fish is an excellent biomarker for measuring pollution level and genotoxicity of freshwater habitat. Season, species of fish and location affect micronuclei profile of the fish species sampled in the river. Disease outbreak among rural dwellers depending on the river for domestic and other uses is imminent and they lack knowledge on its health implication. Moreover, the study maintained that the micronuclei in fish could be measured from either the gill or kidney; however, gill is more efficient as it enables collection of several samples from the same individuals without sacrificing it, and Synodontis clarias fish species appeared to be more vulnerable to the genotoxic damage than Tilapia nilotica. Consequently, the study recommended regular monitoring (micronucleus tests) of edible aquatic life such as Synodontis clarias in order to eliminate the danger of people feeding on toxic metals, some of which are carcinogenic. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Prognostic value of the urea:creatinine ratio in decompensated heart failure and its relationship with acute kidney damage.

    PubMed

    Josa-Laorden, C; Sola, A; Giménez-López, I; Rubio-Gracia, J; Garcés-Horna, V; Pérez-Calvo, J I

    Worsening renal function is associated with an adverse prognosis for patients with acute heart failure (AHF). Urea-creatinine ratio (U:C ratio) might be useful for measuring renal function and could help stratify patients with AHF. An observational and prospective study was conducted to analyse the prognostic value of the U:C ratio, measured during the first 24-28 hours of admission, for patients hospitalised for decompensated Heart failure, and its relationship with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and acute kidney injury (AKI). The study included 204 patients, with a mean age of 79.3 years, and a median eGFR of 55 mL/min/1.73m 2 . In the multivariate analysis, an U:C ratio above the median (50) was related to the development of AKI (36.5% vs. 21.9%) and to increased mortality, both overall (OR 2.75) and by HF (OR 3.50) in long term. In combination with eGFR, the U:C ratio showed prognostic value in patients with normal eGFR (mortality of 4.4% for an U:C ratio ≤ 50 vs. 22% for U:C ratio > 50; p=0.01), as well as a better predictive capacity for AKI than each of them separately (AUC, 0.718; 95% CI 0.643-0.793; p>.000). An U:C ratio > 50 is a predictor of increased long-term mortality for patients hospitalised for decompensated HF and with normal eGFR. Given the simplicity of this biomarker, its use in clinical practice should be more systematic. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  13. Diabetes mellitus and CKD awareness: the Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP) and National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).

    PubMed

    Whaley-Connell, Adam; Sowers, James R; McCullough, Peter A; Roberts, Tricia; McFarlane, Samy I; Chen, Shu-Cheng; Li, Suying; Wang, Changchun; Collins, Allan J; Bakris, George L

    2009-04-01

    Diabetes contributes to increased morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). We sought to describe CKD awareness and identify factors associated with optimal glycemic control in diabetic and nondiabetic individuals both aware and unaware of CKD. This cross-sectional analysis compared Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP) and National Health and Nutrition and Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999 to 2006 participants with diabetes and CKD. CKD was defined and staged using glomerular filtration rate (estimated by using the 4-variable Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study equation) and urine albumin-creatinine ratio. NHANES defined diabetes as self-reported diabetes or fasting plasma blood glucose level of 126 mg/dL or greater, and KEEP as self-reported diabetes or diabetic retinopathy, use of diabetes medications, fasting blood glucose level of 126 mg/dL or greater, or nonfasting glucose level of 200 mg/dL or greater. Of 77,077 KEEP participants, 20,200 (26.2%) were identified with CKD and 23,082 (29.9%) were identified with diabetes. Of 9,536 NHANES participants, 1,743 (18.3%) were identified with CKD and 1,127 (11.8%) were identified with diabetes. Of KEEP participants with diabetes and CKD (n = 7,853), 736 (9.4%) were aware of CKD. Trends in lack of CKD awareness were similar for KEEP participants with and without diabetes. Unaware participants with and without diabetes identified with stages 1 and 2 CKD were less likely to reach target glucose levels, defined as fasting glucose level less than 126 mg/dL or nonfasting glucose level less than 140 mg/dL, than those with stages 3 to 5 (odds ratio, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.62 to 0.78; odds ratio, 0.69; 95% confidence interval, 0.58 to 0.81; P < 0.001, respectively). Our data support that KEEP, as a targeted screening program, is a more enriched population with CKD and comorbid diabetes than NHANES. In addition, our findings highlight the relationship between dysglycemia and early

  14. Identification of a sensitive urinary biomarker, selenium-binding protein 1, for early detection of acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyeong Seok; Yang, Hun Yong; Song, Hosup; Kang, Ye Rim; Kwon, JiHoon; An, JiHye; Son, Ji Yeon; Kwack, Seung Jun; Kim, Young-Mi; Bae, Ok-Nam; Ahn, Mee-Young; Lee, Jaewon; Yoon, Sungpil; Lee, Byung Mu; Kim, Hyung Sik

    2017-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with increased mortality rate in patients but clinically available biomarkers for disease detection are currently not available. Recently, a new biomarker, selenium-binding protein 1 (SBP1), was identified for detection of nephrotoxicity using proteomic analysis. The aim of this study was to assess the sensitivity of urinary SBP1 levels as an early detection of AKI using animal models such as cisplatin or ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with cisplatin (6 mg/kg, once i.p.) and sacrificed at 1, 3, or 5 days after treatment. Ischemia was achieved by bilaterally occluding both kidneys with a microvascular clamp for 45 min and verified visually by a change in tissue color. After post-reperfusion, urine samples were collected at 9, 24, and 48 hr intervals. Urinary excretion of protein-based biomarkers was measured by Western blot analysis. In cisplatin-treated rats, mild histopathologic alterations were noted at day 1 which became severe at day 3. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (SCr) levels were significantly increased at day 3. Levels of urinary excretion of SBP1, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), and a tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) were markedly elevated at day 3 and 5 following drug treatment. In the vehicle-treated I/R group, serum levels of BUN and SCr and AST activity were significantly increased compared to sham. Urinary excretion of SBP1 and NGAL rose markedly following I/R. The urinary levels of SBP1, NGAL, TIMP-1, and KIM-1 proteins excreted by AKI patients and normal subjects were compared. Among these proteins, a marked rise in SBP1 was observed in urine of patients with AKI compared to normal subjects. Based upon receiver-operator curves (ROC), SBP1 displayed a higher area under the curve (AUC) scores than levels of SCr, BUN, total protein, and glucose. In particular, SBP1 protein was readily detected in small amounts of urine without

  15. Testing the Language of German Cerebral Palsy Patients with Right Hemispheric Language Organization after Early Left Hemispheric Damage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwilling, Eleonore; Krageloh-Mann, Ingeborg; Konietzko, Andreas; Winkler, Susanne; Lidzba, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Language functions are generally represented in the left cerebral hemisphere. After early (prenatally acquired or perinatally acquired) left hemispheric brain damage language functions may be salvaged by reorganization into the right hemisphere. This is different from brain lesions acquired in adulthood which normally lead to aphasia. Right…

  16. Early supplemented low-protein diet restriction for chronic kidney disease patients in Taiwan - A cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    You, Joyce H S; Ming, Wai-Kit; Lin, Wei-An; Tarn, Yen-Huei

    2015-10-01

    Low-protein diet (LPD) together with supplementation with ketoanalogs (KA) is associated with slower decline of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) in chronic kidney disease (CKD). We compared potential clinical and economic outcomes of KA supplement initiation at eGFR 15 - 29 mL/min/1.73 m2 vs. eGFR < 15 mL/min/1.73 m2 in CKD patients on LPD from the healthcare payer's perspective. Markov model was designed to simulate outcomes of adult patients with eGFR 15 - 29 mL/min/1.73 m2 on two strategies LPD with KA supplementation; watchfulwaiting on LPD alone and KA initiation when eGFR declined to < 15 mL/min/1.73 m2. Medical cost and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) were calculated over 10 years. Results The early-initiation group gained higher QALYs (3.926 QALYs vs. 3.787 QALYs) with lower cost (USD 564,637 vs. USD 914,236) (USD 1 = NTD 30) when compared with the watchful-waiting group in base-case analysis. Sensitivity analysis indicated that early KA initiation at eGFR at 17 - 29 mL/min/1.73 m2 would be the preferred cost-effective option, if relative reduction of eGFR decline associated with LPD plus KA was > 4%. 10,000 Monte Carlo simulations showed the early-initiation group to be less costly with higher QALYs gained than the watchful-waiting group by USD 343,665 (95% CI 342,139 - 345,191) and 0.160 QALYs (95% CI 0.140 - 0.180), respectively. Early KA supplementation with LPD in CKD patients appeared to be cost-saving and gained higher QALYs in Taiwan. Acceptance of early supplemented LPD as cost-effective depended upon the reduction of eGFR decline associated with KA plus LPD and eGFR level to initiate KA supplementation.

  17. Early Brain Damage and the Development of Motor Behavior in Children: Clues for Therapeutic Intervention?

    PubMed Central

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2001-01-01

    The Neuronal Group Selection Theory (NGST) could offer new insights into the mechanisms directing motor disorders, such as cerebral palsy and developmental coordination disorder. According to NGST, normal motor development is characterized by two phases of variability. Variation is not at random but determined by criteria set by genetic information. Development starts with the phase of primary variability,during which variation in motor behavior is not geared to external conditions. At function-specific ages secondary variability starts, during which motor performance can be adapted to specific situations. In both forms, of variability, selection on the basis of afferent information plays a significant role. From the NGST point of view, children with pre- or perinatally acquired brain damage, such as children with cerebral palsy and part of the children with developmental coordination disorder, suffer from stereotyped motor behavior, produced by a limited repertoire or primary (sub)cortical neuronal networks. These children also have roblems in selecting the most efficient neuronal activity, due to deficits in the processing of sensory information. Therefore, NGST suggests that intervention in these children at early age should aim at an enlargement of the primary neuronal networks. With increasing age, the emphasis of intervention could shift to the provision of ample opportunities for active practice, which might form a compensation for the impaired selection. PMID:11530887

  18. Meniscus Induced Cartilaginous Damage and Non-linear Gross Anatomical Progression of Early-stage Osteoarthritis in a Canine Model

    PubMed Central

    Kahn, David; Mittelstaedt, Daniel; Matyas, John; Qu, Xiangui; Lee, Ji Hyun; Badar, Farid; Les, Clifford; Zhuang, Zhiguo; Xia, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Background: The predictable outcome of the anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) canine model, and the similarity to naturally occurring osteoarthritis (OA) in humans, provide a translatable method for studying OA. Still, evidence of direct meniscus-induced cartilaginous damage has not been identified, and gross-anatomical blinded scoring of early-stage OA has not been performed. Objective: A gross anatomical observation and statistical analysis of OA progression to determine meniscus induced cartilaginous damage, to measure the macroscopic progression of OA, and to address matters involving arthroscopic and surgical procedures of the knee. Method: Unblinded assessment and blinded scoring of meniscal, tibial, femoral, and patellar damage were performed for control and at four time points following unilateral ACLT: 3-week (N=4), 8-week (N=4), 12-week (N=5), and 25-week (N=4). Mixed-model statistics illustrates damage (score) progression; Wilcoxon rank-sum tests compared time-point scores; and Wilcoxon signed-rank tests compared ACLT and contralateral scores, and meniscus and tibia scores. Result: Damage was manifest first on the posterior aspect of the medial meniscus and subsequently on the tibia and femur, implying meniscal damage can precede, coincide with, and aggravate cartilage damage. Damage extent varied chronologically and was dependent upon the joint component. Meniscal damage was evident at 3 weeks and progressed through 25-weeks. Meniscal loose bodies corresponded to tibial cartilage damage location and extent through 12 weeks, followed by cartilage repair activity after complete meniscal degeneration. Conclusion: This study provides additional information for understanding OA progression, identifying OA biomarkers, and arthroscopic and meniscectomy procedures. PMID:28144379

  19. [Copeptin and ischemia modified albumin in early diagnosis and prognosis of myocardial damage in acute organic phosphorus pesticide poisoning].

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Zhang, Jianjun; Li, Na; Li, Jia; Liu, Juan; Liu, Qian

    2015-03-01

    To assess the value of combined detection of copeptin and ischemia modified albumin (IMA) in early diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of myocardial damage in patients with acute organic phosphorus pesticide poisoning (AOPP). A total of 126 AOPP patients were examined for blood copepin and IMA levels and myocardial injury markers within 1 h after admission. Copeptin and IMA levels significantly increased in patients with AOPP compared with those in the control subjects. Copeptin and IMA levels were significantly higher in severe AOPP cases than in mild to moderate cases (P<0.05). Logistic regression analysis showed that increased copeptin and IMA levels and severe complications of AOPP were associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. Early detection of copeptin and IMA levels has important clinical value in early diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of myocardial damage in patients with AOPP, and their levels are positively correlated with the severity of the condition.

  20. Peritransplant Soluble CD30 as a Risk Factor for Slow Kidney Allograft Function, Early Acute Rejection, Worse Long-Term Allograft Function, and Patients' Survival.

    PubMed

    Trailin, Andriy V; Ostapenko, Tetyana I; Nykonenko, Tamara N; Nesterenko, Svitlana N; Nykonenko, Olexandr S

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to determine whether serum soluble CD30 (sCD30) could identify recipients at high risk for unfavorable early and late kidney transplant outcomes. Serum sCD30 was measured on the day of kidney transplantation and on the 4th day posttransplant. We assessed the value of these measurements in predicting delayed graft function, slow graft function (SGF), acute rejection (AR), pyelonephritis, decline of allograft function after 6 months, and graft and patient survival during 5 years of follow-up in 45 recipients. We found the association between low pretransplant serum levels of sCD30 and SGF. The absence of significant decrease of sCD30 on the 4th day posttransplant was characteristic for SGF, early AR (the 8th day-6 months), late AR (>6 months), and early pyelonephritis (the 8th day-2 months). Lower pretransplant and posttransplant sCD30 predicted worse allograft function at 6 months and 2 years, respectively. Higher pretransplant sCD30 was associated with higher frequency of early AR, and worse patients' survival, but only in the recipients of deceased-donor graft. Pretransplant sCD30 also allowed to differentiate patients with early pyelonephritis and early AR. Peritransplant sCD30 is useful in identifying patients at risk for unfavorable early and late transplant outcomes.

  1. Peritransplant Soluble CD30 as a Risk Factor for Slow Kidney Allograft Function, Early Acute Rejection, Worse Long-Term Allograft Function, and Patients' Survival

    PubMed Central

    Ostapenko, Tetyana I.; Nykonenko, Tamara N.; Nesterenko, Svitlana N.; Nykonenko, Olexandr S.

    2017-01-01

    Background We aimed to determine whether serum soluble CD30 (sCD30) could identify recipients at high risk for unfavorable early and late kidney transplant outcomes. Methods Serum sCD30 was measured on the day of kidney transplantation and on the 4th day posttransplant. We assessed the value of these measurements in predicting delayed graft function, slow graft function (SGF), acute rejection (AR), pyelonephritis, decline of allograft function after 6 months, and graft and patient survival during 5 years of follow-up in 45 recipients. Results We found the association between low pretransplant serum levels of sCD30 and SGF. The absence of significant decrease of sCD30 on the 4th day posttransplant was characteristic for SGF, early AR (the 8th day–6 months), late AR (>6 months), and early pyelonephritis (the 8th day–2 months). Lower pretransplant and posttransplant sCD30 predicted worse allograft function at 6 months and 2 years, respectively. Higher pretransplant sCD30 was associated with higher frequency of early AR, and worse patients' survival, but only in the recipients of deceased-donor graft. Pretransplant sCD30 also allowed to differentiate patients with early pyelonephritis and early AR. Conclusions Peritransplant sCD30 is useful in identifying patients at risk for unfavorable early and late transplant outcomes. PMID:28694560

  2. Association between adjuvant chemotherapy and risk of acute kidney injury in elderly women diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuling; Liu, Jiannong; Virnig, Beth A; Collins, Allan J

    2017-02-01

    We studied elderly Medicare enrollees newly diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer to examine the association between adjuvant chemotherapy and acute kidney injury (AKI). Using the linked Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare database, we conducted a retrospective cohort study including women diagnosed with stages I-III breast cancer at ages 66-89 years between 1992 and 2007. We performed one-to-one matching on time-dependent propensity score on the day of adjuvant chemotherapy initiation within 6 months after the first cancer-directed surgery based on the estimated probability of chemotherapy initiation at each day for each patient, using a Cox proportional hazards model. We estimated the cumulative incidence of AKI using Kaplan-Meier methods. We used Cox proportional hazards models to evaluate the association between chemotherapy and the risk of AKI, and compared the risk among major chemotherapy types. The study included 28,048 women. The 6-month cumulative incidence of AKI was 0.80% for chemotherapy-treated patients, compared with 0.30% for untreated patients (P < 0.001). Adjuvant chemotherapy was associated with a nearly threefold increased risk of AKI [hazard ratio (HR) 2.73; 95% CI 1.8-4.1]. Compared with anthracycline-based chemotherapy, the HRs (95% CIs) were 1.66 (0.94-2.91), 0.88 (0.53-1.47), and 1.15 (0.57-2.32) for taxane-based, CMF, and other chemotherapy, respectively. Our findings showed that adjuvant chemotherapy was associated with increased risk of AKI in elderly women diagnosed with early-stage breast cancer. The risk seemed to vary by regimen type, but the differences were not statistically significant.

  3. Early eradication has a lower risk of peptic ulcer bleeding in Helicobacter pylori-infected chronic kidney disease patients.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ching-Hui; Hu, Hsiao-Yun; Huang, Nicole; Chang, Shen-Shong

    2016-09-01

    End stage renal disease (ESRD) contributes to a higher mortality rate in peptic ulcer bleeding (PUB) patients. A crucial question is whether early Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication therapy is necessary for H. pylori-infected chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. To explore whether H. pylori eradication therapy has a lower risk of PUB at the pre-ESRD stage than at the ESRD stage. Patients meeting 2 criteria were defined as newly diagnosed ESRD cases: (1) patients diagnosed with ESRD and receiving regular dialysis between 2000 and 2009; and (2) patients with no history of dialysis between 1997 and 1999. We divided the study participants into pre-ESRD and ESRD groups on the basis of the time between H. pylori eradication and dialysis. The date of the first PUB diagnosis was defined as the primary endpoint. Stratified Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to estimate the effect of H. pylori eradication at the pre-ESRD and ESRD stage on the occurrence of PUB. We included 476 patients in the pre-ESRD cohort and 476 patients in the matched ESRD cohort. After adjustment for age, sex, the presence of comorbidities, and medication use, the hazard ratio of PUB was 0.66 times less in the pre-ESRD cohort than in the ESRD cohort. Factors such as Charlson's score more than 3, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were associated with an increased risk of PUB. Our result supports that early H. pylori eradication has a lower risk of PUB in H. pylori-infected CKD patients. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. [Protective effects of sulforaphane on the oxidative damage of kidney mitochondria complex in obese rats induced by high-fat diet].

    PubMed

    Xue, Hongfeng; Li, Yajie; Liang, Bing; Wang, Shuran

    2014-11-01

    To realize the oxidative damage of kidney mitochondrial complex in obese rats induced by high-fat diet and investigate the protective effects of sulforaphane against the damage. Eighty-eight adult male SD rats were used, after 1 week adaptability feeding, 8 rats were selected as control group and given low-fat diet. The other 80 rats were given high-fat diet. After 2 weeks, the 32 diet-induced obesity models were choosen whose weight gain was higher than 40%. The 32 rats were randomly divided into 4 groups, i.e. high fat group, high fat+sulforaphane low dose group, high fat+sulforaphane middle dose group and high fat+sulforaphane high dose group. The rats in the sulforaphane low, middle and high dose groups were orally administered with sulforaphane 5, 10 and 20 mg/kg, all the 4 groups were kept feeding high-fat diet for 5 weeks. All rats were sacrificed and their kidneys were removed to assay the index of oxidative damages. The content of ROS (0.26 ± 0.04) and MDA((0.87 ± 0.05) U/mg) in the hight-fat group were significantly higher than those in the control group((0.20 ± 0.02),(0.57 ± 0.08) U/mg)(t values were -3.02 and -4.72, P < 0.05). The activity of T-AOC((0.43 ± 0.04) U/mg) and MMP (12.09 ± 1.56) were lower than the control group ((0.48 ± 0.04 U/mg, (16.08 ± 3.12) )(t values were 2.06 and 2.28, P < 0.05). Gavage intervention with sulforaphane, the MDA amount ((0.67 ± 0.05), (0.55 ± 0.05), (0.56 ± 0.07) U/mg) in the sulforaphane low, middle and high dose groups were lower than the hight-fat group ((0.87 ± 0.05) U/mg (t values were 3.65, 5.71 and 5.60. P < 0.05). The activity of T-AOC ((0.49 ± 0.05), (0.55 ± 0.05), (0.54 ± 0.04) U/mg), T-SOD ((61.07 ± 2.79), (55.95 ± 2.39), (60.26 ± 6.02) U/mg) and the level of MMP ((17.17 ± 2.52), (18.24 ± 2.54), (18.21 ± 3.65)) were higher than in the high-fat group ((0.43 ± 0.04) U/mg,(47.22 ± 2.43) U/mg,(12.09 ± 1.56)) (tT-AOC values were -2.36, -4.83 and -4.30; tT-SOD values were -6.37, -4.71 and -5

  5. Whole-exome sequencing reveals genetic variants associated with chronic kidney disease characterized by tubulointerstitial damages in North Central Region, Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Nanayakkara, Shanika; Senevirathna, S T M L D; Parahitiyawa, Nipuna B; Abeysekera, Tilak; Chandrajith, Rohana; Ratnatunga, Neelakanthi; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Kobayashi, Hatasu; Harada, Kouji H; Koizumi, Akio

    2015-09-01

    The familial clustering observed in chronic kidney disease of uncertain etiology (CKDu) characterized by tubulointerstitial damages in the North Central Region of Sri Lanka strongly suggests the involvement of genetic factors in its pathogenesis. The objective of the present study is to use whole-exome sequencing to identify the genetic variants associated with CKDu. Whole-exome sequencing of eight CKDu cases and eight controls was performed, followed by direct sequencing of candidate loci in 301 CKDu cases and 276 controls. Association study revealed rs34970857 (c.658G > A/p.V220M) located in the KCNA10 gene encoding a voltage-gated K channel as the most promising SNP with the highest odds ratio of 1.74. Four rare variants were identified in gene encoding Laminin beta2 (LAMB2) which is known to cause congenital nephrotic syndrome. Three out of four variants in LAMB2 were novel variants found exclusively in cases. Genetic investigations provide strong evidence on the presence of genetic susceptibility for CKDu. Possibility of presence of several rare variants associated with CKDu in this population is also suggested.

  6. Studies on the protective effect of dietary fish oil on uranyl-nitrate-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative damage in rat kidney.

    PubMed

    Priyamvada, Shubha; Khan, Sara A; Khan, Md Wasim; Khan, Sheeba; Farooq, Neelam; Khan, Farah; Yusufi, A N K

    2010-01-01

    Human and animal exposure demonstrates that uranium is nephrotoxic. However, attempts to reduce it were not found suitable for clinical use. Dietary fish oil (FO) enriched in omega-3 fatty acids reduces the severity of cardiovascular and renal diseases. Present study investigates the protective effect of FO on uranyl nitrate (UN)-induced renal damage. Rats prefed with experimental diets for 15 days, given single nephrotoxic dose of UN (0.5mg/kg body weight) intraperitoneally. After 5d of UN treatment, serum/urine parameters, enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, brush border membrane (BBM), oxidative stress and phosphate transport were analyzed in rat kidney. UN nephrotoxicity was characterized by increased serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen. UN increased the activity of lactate dehydrogenase and NADP-malic enzyme whereas decreased malate, isocitrate and glucose-6-phophate dehydrogenases; glucose-6-phophatase, fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase and BBM enzyme activities. UN caused oxidant/antioxidant imbalances as reflected by increased lipid peroxidation, activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and decreased catalase activity. Feeding FO alone increased activities of enzymes of glucose metabolism, BBM, oxidative stress and Pi transport. UN-elicited alterations were prevented by FO feeding. However, corn oil had no such effects and was not similarly effective. In conclusion, FO appears to protect against UN-induced nephrotoxicity by improving energy metabolism and antioxidant defense mechanism. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin Versus B-Type Natriuretic Peptide and Cystatin C to Predict Early Acute Kidney Injury and Outcome in Patients With Acute Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Palazzuoli, Alberto; Ruocco, Gaetano; Pellegrini, Marco; De Gori, Carmelo; Del Castillo, Gabriele; Franci, Beatrice; Nuti, Ranuccio; Ronco, Claudio

    2015-07-01

    Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) has been described in chronic heart failure (HF) as marker of tubular damage and renal dysfunction; however, less data are available in patients with acute HF. Because of high rate of acute kidney injury (AKI) development, we aimed to investigate the role of NGAL in predicting early AKI development; second, we compared NGAL with respect to cystatin C, B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), renal function, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) for outcome prediction. We measured admission serum NGAL, cystatin C, and BNP in 231 patients affected to acute HF; all patients were submitted to daily creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and measurement to identify inhospital AKI defined by Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-Stage Kidney Disease and Acute Kidney Injury Network criteria. We also measured admission and discharge estimated glomerular filtration rate, creatinine, and BUN to evaluate their prognostic role during a 6-month follow-up period; 78 patients developed AKI during hospitalization. In these subjects, NGAL levels were significantly increased respect to patients without AKI (295 ± 228 vs 129 ± 108 ng/ml, p <0.001). A cutoff of 134 ng/ml has been related to AKI with good sensibility and specificity (85% and 80%, respectively; area under the curve 0.81, p <0.001). BNP was also mildly increased (1,000 ± 906 vs 746 ± 580 pg/ml, p = 0.03) but not cystatin C. Patients with chronic kidney disease demonstrated higher NGAL levels compared with subjects with preserved renal function (258 ± 249 and 120 ± 77 ng/ml, p <0.001). The receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated that increased NGAL values were associated with increased mortality (cutoff 170 ng/ml, sensibility 60%, specificity 82%, accuracy 71%, area under the curve 0.77, p <0.001). The same significant correlation was also found for BUN at discharge (cutoff 100 mg/dl, sensibility 65%, specificity 85%, accuracy 71%, area under the curve 0

  8. Kidney Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... Events Advocacy Donate A to Z Health Guide Kidney Transplant Print Email When your kidneys fail, treatment ... doctor, nurse and family members. What is a kidney transplant? When you get a kidney transplant, a ...

  9. Kidney Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... store Donate Now Give Monthly Give In Honor Kidney Failure (ESRD) Causes, Symptoms, & Treatments www.kidneyfund.org > ... Disaster preparedness Kidney failure/ESRD diet What causes kidney failure? In most cases, kidney failure is caused ...

  10. Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Kidney Disease KidsHealth / For Teens / Kidney Disease What's in ... Coping With Kidney Conditions Print What Do the Kidneys Do? You might never think much about some ...

  11. Kidney Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Kidney Problems Basic Facts & Information The kidneys are two ... kidney (renal) diseases are called nephrologists . What are Kidney Diseases? For about one-third of older people, ...

  12. Kidney Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Series Urinary Tract Imaging Urodynamic Testing Virtual Colonoscopy Kidney Biopsy What is a kidney biopsy? A kidney biopsy is a procedure that ... performs procedures using imaging equipment Why is a kidney biopsy performed? A health care provider will perform ...

  13. Early Detection of Postoperative Acute Kidney Injury in Acute Stanford Type A Aortic Dissection With Doppler Renal Resistive Index.

    PubMed

    Qin, Huai; Wu, Haibo; Chen, Yi; Zhang, Nan; Fan, Zhanming

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the early efficiency of Doppler renal resistive index (DRRI) in prediction of acute kidney injury (AKI) after surgery in acute Stanford Type A aortic dissection (AAAD) patients. Sixty-one AAAD patients who planned to receive Sun's surgical management were prospectively enrolled. The DRRI was measured by ultrasonography Doppler on the day before surgery (DRRI pre ), on admission to the intensive care unit (DRRI T0 ), 6 hours after surgery (DRRI T6 ), 24 hours after surgery (DRRI T24 ), and 48 hours after surgery (DRRI T48 ). The maximum DRRI value (DRRI max ) was recorded. The AKI was evaluated according to the classifications of the Acute Kidney Injury Network. The DRRI and serum creatinine (sCr) were compared between the pre- and postoperative time stations, as well as between the AKI and no-AKI groups. Thirty-nine (63.9%) patients suffered from AKI, and 12 (19.6%) patients received dialysis. No significant difference was found in DRRI pre (0.63 ± 0.04 versus 0.65 ± 0.06, P = .059) and sCr pre (84.13 ± 23.77 versus 94.29 ± 51.11, P = .383) between the two groups with and without AKI. Both the DRRI and sCr increased significantly after surgery in the AKI groups (P < .001). However, the DRRI reached its maximum 6 hours after surgery, whereas the sCr reached its maximum after 24 hours. Both the DRRI and sCr improved 48 hours after surgery. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for DRRI max (0.864, 95% confidence interval: 0.770-0.957) and DRRI T6 (0.861, 95% confidence interval: 0.766-0.957) was larger than the other three DRRIs measured at different time points. The cutoff value of DRRI max was 0.71, a sensitivity of 76.9% and specificity of 95.5%. Postoperative DRRI predicts the AKI earlier than sCr after AAAD surgery. The best time to detect DRRI was 6 hours after surgery. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  14. Effect of Behavior Modification on Outcome in Early- to Moderate-Stage Chronic Kidney Disease: A Cluster-Randomized Trial.

    PubMed

    Yamagata, Kunihiro; Makino, Hirofumi; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Ito, Sadayoshi; Kimura, Kenjiro; Kusano, Eiji; Shibata, Takanori; Tomita, Kimio; Narita, Ichiei; Nishino, Tomoya; Fujigaki, Yoshihide; Mitarai, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Wada, Takashi; Nakamura, Teiji; Matsuo, Seiichi

    2016-01-01

    Owing to recent changes in our understanding of the underlying cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD), the importance of lifestyle modification for preventing the progression of kidney dysfunction and complications has become obvious. In addition, effective cooperation between general physicians (GPs) and nephrologists is essential to ensure a better care system for CKD treatment. In this cluster-randomized study, we studied the effect of behavior modification on the outcome of early- to moderate-stage CKD. Stratified open cluster-randomized trial. A total of 489 GPs belonging to 49 local medical associations (clusters) in Japan. A total of 2,379 patients (1,195 in group A (standard intervention) and 1,184 in group B (advanced intervention)) aged between 40 and 74 years, who had CKD and were under consultation with GPs. All patients were managed in accordance with the current CKD guidelines. The group B clusters received three additional interventions: patients received both educational intervention for lifestyle modification and a CKD status letter, attempting to prevent their withdrawal from treatment, and the group B GPs received data sheets to facilitate reducing the gap between target and practice. The primary outcome measures were 1) the non-adherence rate of accepting continuous medical follow-up of the patients, 2) the collaboration rate between GPs and nephrologists, and 3) the progression of CKD. The rate of discontinuous clinical visits was significantly lower in group B (16.2% in group A vs. 11.5% in group B, p = 0.01). Significantly higher referral and co-treatment rates were observed in group B (p<0.01). The average eGFR deterioration rate tended to be lower in group B (group A: 2.6±5.8 ml/min/1.73 m2/year, group B: 2.4±5.1 ml/min/1.73 m2/year, p = 0.07). A significant difference in eGFR deterioration rate was observed in subjects with Stage 3 CKD (group A: 2.4±5.9 ml/min/1.73 m2/year, group B: 1.9±4.4 ml/min/1.73 m2/year, p = 0.03). Our care

  15. Association between Brain and Kidney Near-Infrared Spectroscopy and Early Postresuscitation Mortality in Asphyxiated Newborn Piglets.

    PubMed

    Solevåg, Anne Lee; Schmölzer, Georg M; Nakstad, Britt; Saugstad, Ola Didrik; Cheung, Po-Yin

    2017-01-01

    Early outcome predictors after delivery room cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) of asphyxiated newborns are needed. To investigate if cerebral (rScO2) and renal (rSrO2) tissue oxygen saturation 30 min after return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) are different between surviving versus nonsurviving piglets with asphyxia-induced cardiac arrest and CPR. Further, to investigate the relationship of rScO2 and rSrO2 to cardiac output (CO), blood pressure (BP), and biochemical variables 30 min and 4 h after ROSC. Anesthetized, mechanically ventilated piglets (1-3 days, 1.7-2.4 kg) were used. rScO2, rSrO2, SpO2, right common carotid artery flow, and arterial BP were measured continuously. CO was measured with echocardiography. The piglets were asphyxiated until cardiac arrest and resuscitated. Piglets that survived 4 h after ROSC (n = 12) were compared with piglets that died before planned euthanasia at 4 h (n = 13). Left ventricular, and kidney and brain tissue lactate were analyzed. Correlations between variables were assessed. Thirty minutes after ROSC, median rSrO2 (43% [n = 10] vs. 25% [n = 2], p = 0.003) but not rScO2 (46% [41-55] [n = 10] vs. 40% [22-45] [n = 5], p = 0.08) was higher in survivors than in nonsurvivors. Arterial lactate was negatively correlated and pH positively correlated with rScO2 and rSrO2. Left ventricular, but not kidney or brain lactate was negatively correlated with rScO2 and rSrO2. There was no correlation between CO or BP and rScO2 or rSrO2. Despite satisfactory CO and BP vital organ oxygenation can be poor. Tissue oxygen saturation, pH, and lactate, as measures of anaerobic metabolism, may reflect vital organ oxygenation and outcome. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. [Recommendations for early identification of damage to the skeleton by malignant processes, and for early diagnosis of multiple myeloma].

    PubMed

    Adam, Z; Bednarík, J; Neubauer, J; Chaloupka, R; Fojtík, Z; Vanícek, J; Pour, L; Cermákova, Z; Scudla, V; Maisnar, V; Straub, J; Schützová, M; Gregora, E; Weinreb, M; Stuchlíková, K; Stanícek, J; Hájek, R; Krejcí, M; Vorlícek, J

    2006-11-01

    The number of newly diagnosed cases of multiple myeloma in the Czech Republic is about 3-4 per 100 000 persons per year. In the higher age groups, the incidence increases. Multiple myeloma is an illness that reacts well to treatment which can result in periods of remission lasting for years. Some of the patients are even able to return to work. A pre-requisite for successful treatment is early diagnosis and this is usually in the hands of first line physicians. This is the reason why the Czech Myeloma Group, in conjunction with neurologists, orthopedicians and radio diagnosticians has issued the following recommendations for first line physicians containing a more detailed description of the symptoms and the diagnostic pitfalls of the disease. This disease reminds a chameleon for the variety of its symptoms. For the sake of clarification, we shall divide multiple myeloma symptoms into five points, each of which is reason enough to warrant an examination to confirm or rule out a malignant cause of health problems (a negative result does not automatically mean exclusion). If any of the recommended examinations results positive, the diagnostic process must be continued, in which case a general practitioner refers the patient to a specialist health centre. Observing these recommendations should minimize the number of cases of late diagnosis. 1. Bone destruction symptoms. - Unexplained backache for more than one month in any part of spine even without nerve root irritability or without pain in other part of skeleton (ribs, hips, or long bones). - Pain at the beginning of myeloma disease is very similar to benigne common discopathy, however the intensity of backache is decreasing within one months in benigne disease. In the case of malignant process the intensity of bone pain is steadily increasing. - Immediate imaging and laboratory investigation are indicated by resting and night pain in spinal column or in any part of skeleton. - Backache with the sign of spinal cord

  17. Detecting early functional damage in glaucoma suspect and ocular hypertensive patients with the multifocal VEP technique.

    PubMed

    Thienprasiddhi, Phamornsak; Greenstein, Vivienne C; Chu, David H; Xu, Li; Liebmann, Jeffrey M; Ritch, Robert; Hood, Donald C

    2006-08-01

    To determine whether the multifocal visual evoked potential (mfVEP) technique can detect early functional damage in ocular hypertensive (OHT) and glaucoma suspect (GS) patients with normal standard achromatic automated perimetry (SAP) results. Twenty-five GS patients (25 eyes), 25 patients with OHT (25 eyes), and 50 normal controls (50 eyes) were enrolled in this study. All GS, OHT and normal control eyes had normal SAP as defined by a pattern standard deviation and mean deviation within the 95% confidence interval and a glaucoma hemifield test within normal limits on the Humphrey visual field 24-2 program. Eyes with GS had optic disc changes consistent with glaucoma with or without raised intraocular pressure (IOP), and eyes with OHT showed no evidence of glaucomatous optic neuropathy and IOPs >or=22 mm Hg. Monocular mfVEPs were obtained from both eyes of each subject using a pattern-reversal dartboard array with 60 sectors. The entire display had a radius of 22.3 degrees. The mfVEPs, for each eye, were defined as abnormal when either the monocular or interocular probability plot had a cluster of 3 or more contiguous points with P<0.05 and at least 2 of these points with P<0.01. The mfVEP results were abnormal in 4% of the eyes from normal subjects. Abnormal mfVEPs were detected in 20% of the eyes of GS patients and 16% of the eyes of OHT patients. Significantly more mfVEP abnormalities were detected in GS patients than in normal controls. However, there was no significant difference in mfVEP results between OHT patients and normal controls. The mfVEP technique can detect visual field deficits in a minority of eyes with glaucomatous optic disks and normal SAP results.

  18. Visual Indicators on Vaccine Boxes as Early Warning Tools to Identify Potential Freeze Damage.

    PubMed

    Angoff, Ronald; Wood, Jillian; Chernock, Maria C; Tipping, Diane

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the use of visual freeze indicators on vaccines would assist health care providers in identifying vaccines that may have been exposed to potentially damaging temperatures. Twenty-seven sites in Connecticut involved in the Vaccine for Children Program participated. In addition to standard procedures, visual freeze indicators (FREEZEmarker ® L; Temptime Corporation, Morris Plains, NJ) were affixed to each box of vaccine that required refrigeration but must not be frozen. Temperatures were monitored twice daily. During the 24 weeks, all 27 sites experienced triggered visual freeze indicator events in 40 of the 45 refrigerators. A total of 66 triggered freeze indicator events occurred in all 4 types of refrigerators used. Only 1 of the freeze events was identified by a temperature-monitoring device. Temperatures recorded on vaccine data logs before freeze indicator events were within the 35°F to 46°F (2°C to 8°C) range in all but 1 instance. A total of 46,954 doses of freeze-sensitive vaccine were stored at the time of a visual freeze indicator event. Triggered visual freeze indicators were found on boxes containing 6566 doses (14.0% of total doses). Of all doses stored, 14,323 doses (30.5%) were of highly freeze-sensitive vaccine; 1789 of these doses (12.5%) had triggered indicators on the boxes. Visual freeze indicators are useful in the early identification of freeze events involving vaccines. Consideration should be given to including these devices as a component of the temperature-monitoring system for vaccines.

  19. Thermography Inspection for Early Detection of Composite Damage in Structures During Fatigue Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zalameda, Joseph N.; Burke, Eric R.; Parker, F. Raymond; Seebo, Jeffrey P.; Wright, Christopher W.; Bly, James B.

    2012-01-01

    Advanced composite structures are commonly tested under controlled loading. Understanding the initiation and progression of composite damage under load is critical for validating design concepts and structural analysis tools. Thermal nondestructive evaluation (NDE) is used to detect and characterize damage in composite structures during fatigue loading. A difference image processing algorithm is demonstrated to enhance damage detection and characterization by removing thermal variations not associated with defects. In addition, a one-dimensional multilayered thermal model is used to characterize damage. Lastly, the thermography results are compared to other inspections such as non-immersion ultrasonic inspections and computed tomography X-ray.

  20. Circulating AST, H-FABP, and NGAL are early and accurate biomarkers of graft injury and dysfunction in a preclinical model of kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Jochmans, Ina; Lerut, Evelyne; van Pelt, Jos; Monbaliu, Diethard; Pirenne, Jacques

    2011-11-01

    To investigate circulating biomarkers of initial graft injury in a porcine kidney autotransplant model. Injury endured by kidney grafts early posttransplant determines their outcome. However, creatinine (clearance) is a poor surrogate of tissue injury and urinary biomarkers are limited by graft anuria or persistent native kidney diuresis. No validated circulating biomarkers quantifying initial graft injury exist. Minimally injured porcine kidney grafts (n = 6) were cold stored (18 hours) and autotransplanted. Moderately (n = 6) and severely injured grafts (n = 7) were exposed to 30 or 60 minutes warm ischemia before storage and autotransplantation. Four biomarkers [aspartate transaminase (AST), heart-type fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), and N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase (NAG)] were measured posttransplant and compared with creatinine (clearance) and histology. Diuresis was delayed in moderately [2.5 days (2-3)] and severely [4 days (4-5)] versus minimally injured grafts (P < 0.001). Creatinine peaked later than AST, H-FABP, and NGAL [4 days (3-5) vs 3 hours (3-6), 6 hours (6-24), 2 days (1-3), respectively] and only differentiated minimally from severely injured grafts. Peak AST and H-FABP distinguished all injury grades. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin discriminated initial graft injury 2 days posttransplant. Peak AST, H-FABP, and NGAL correlated with peak creatinine [Pearson coefficients: 0.70 (P = 0.001), 0.85 (P < 0.0001), 0.80 (P < 0.0001)]. N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase was not different. Decreased clearance accounted for a small percentage of H-FABP and NGAL increase. Histology was not different among transplanted groups. Plasma AST, H-FABP, and NGAL reflect the severity of initial kidney graft injury and predict graft dysfunction earlier and more accurately than creatinine (clearance) and histology. They represent promising tools to improve patient care after kidney transplantation.

  1. Perceptual Asymmetry for Chimeric Stimuli in Children with Early Unilateral Brain Damage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bava, Sunita; Ballantyne, Angela O.; May, Susanne J.; Trauner, Doris A.

    2005-01-01

    The present study used a chimeric stimuli task to assess the magnitude of the left-hemispace bias in children with congenital unilateral brain damage (n=46) as compared to typically developing matched controls (n=46). As would be expected, controls exhibited a significant left-hemispace bias. In the presence of left hemisphere (LH) damage, the…

  2. Early Allograft Dysfunction After Liver Transplantation Is Associated With Short- and Long-Term Kidney Function Impairment.

    PubMed

    Wadei, H M; Lee, D D; Croome, K P; Mai, M L; Golan, E; Brotman, R; Keaveny, A P; Taner, C B

    2016-03-01

    Early allograft dysfunction (EAD) after liver transplantation (LT) is related to ischemia-reperfusion injury and may lead to a systemic inflammatory response and extrahepatic organ dysfunction. We evaluated the effect of EAD on new-onset acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring renal replacement therapy within the first month and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) within the first year post-LT in 1325 primary LT recipients. EAD developed in 358 (27%) of recipients. Seventy-one (5.6%) recipients developed AKI and 38 (2.9%) developed ESRD. Compared with those without EAD, recipients with EAD had a higher risk of AKI and ESRD (4% vs. 9% and 2% vs. 6%, respectively, p < 0.001 for both). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed an independent relationship between EAD and AKI as well as ESRD (odds ratio 3.5, 95% confidence interval 1.9-6.4, and odds ratio 3.1, 95% confidence interval 11.9-91.2, respectively). Patients who experienced both EAD and AKI had inferior 1-, 3-, 5-, and 10-year patient and graft survival compared with those with either EAD or AKI alone, while those who had neither AKI nor EAD had the best outcomes (p < 0.001). Post-LT EAD is a risk factor for both AKI and ESRD and should be considered a target for future intervention to reduce post-LT short- and long-term renal dysfunction. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  3. High Intensity Interval Training Favourably Affects Angiotensinogen mRNA Expression and Markers of Cardiorenal Health in a Rat Model of Early-Stage Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Patrick S; Scanlan, Aaron T; Dalbo, Vincent J

    2015-01-01

    The majority of CKD-related complications stem from cardiovascular pathologies such as hypertension. To help reduce cardiovascular complications, aerobic exercise is often prescribed. Emerging evidence suggests high intensity interval training (HIIT) may be more beneficial than traditional aerobic exercise. However, appraisals of varying forms of aerobic exercise, along with descriptions of mechanisms responsible for health-related improvements, are lacking. This study examined the effects of 8 weeks of HIIT (85% VO2max), versus low intensity aerobic exercise (LIT; 45-50% VO2max) and sedentary behaviour (SED), in an animal model of early-stage CKD. Tissue-specific mRNA expression of RAAS-related genes and CKD-related clinical markers were examined. Compared to SED, HIIT resulted in increased plasma albumin (p = 0.001), reduced remnant kidney weight (p = 0.028), and reduced kidney weight-body weight ratios (p = 0.045). Compared to LIT, HIIT resulted in reduced Agt mRNA expression (p = 0.035), reduced plasma LDL (p = 0.001), triglycerides (p = 0.029), and total cholesterol (p = 0.002), increased plasma albumin (p = 0.047), reduced remnant kidney weight (p = 0.005), and reduced kidney weight-body weight ratios (p = 0.048). These results suggest HIIT is a more potent regulator of several markers that describe and influence health in CKD.

  4. High Intensity Interval Training Favourably Affects Angiotensinogen mRNA Expression and Markers of Cardiorenal Health in a Rat Model of Early-Stage Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Patrick S.; Scanlan, Aaron T.; Dalbo, Vincent J.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of CKD-related complications stem from cardiovascular pathologies such as hypertension. To help reduce cardiovascular complications, aerobic exercise is often prescribed. Emerging evidence suggests high intensity interval training (HIIT) may be more beneficial than traditional aerobic exercise. However, appraisals of varying forms of aerobic exercise, along with descriptions of mechanisms responsible for health-related improvements, are lacking. This study examined the effects of 8 weeks of HIIT (85% VO2max), versus low intensity aerobic exercise (LIT; 45–50% VO2max) and sedentary behaviour (SED), in an animal model of early-stage CKD. Tissue-specific mRNA expression of RAAS-related genes and CKD-related clinical markers were examined. Compared to SED, HIIT resulted in increased plasma albumin (p = 0.001), reduced remnant kidney weight (p = 0.028), and reduced kidney weight-body weight ratios (p = 0.045). Compared to LIT, HIIT resulted in reduced Agt mRNA expression (p = 0.035), reduced plasma LDL (p = 0.001), triglycerides (p = 0.029), and total cholesterol (p = 0.002), increased plasma albumin (p = 0.047), reduced remnant kidney weight (p = 0.005), and reduced kidney weight-body weight ratios (p = 0.048). These results suggest HIIT is a more potent regulator of several markers that describe and influence health in CKD. PMID:26090382

  5. Early Life Stress Affects Mortality Rate More than Social Behavior, Gene Expression or Oxidative Damage in Honey Bee Workers

    PubMed Central

    Rueppell, Olav; Yousefi, Babak; Collazo, Juan; Smith, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Early life stressors can affect aging and life expectancy in positive or negative ways. Individuals can adjust their behavior and molecular physiology based on early life experiences but relatively few studies have connected such mechanisms to demographic patterns in social organisms. Sociality buffers individuals from environmental influences and it is unclear how much early life stress affects later life history. Workers of the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) were exposed to two stressors, Varroa parasitism and paraquat exposure, early in life. Consequences were measured at the molecular, behavioral, and demographic level. While treatments did not significantly affect levels of oxidative damage, expression of select genes, and titers of the common deformed wing virus, most of these measures were affected by age. Some of the age effects, such as declining levels of deformed wing virus and oxidative damage, were opposite to our predictions but may be explained by demographic selection. Further analyses suggested some influences of worker behavior on mortality and indicated weak treatment effects on behavior. The latter effects were inconsistent among the two experiments. However, mortality rate was consistently reduced by Varroa mite stress during development. Thus, mortality was more responsive to early life stress than our other response variables. The lack of treatment effects on these measures may be due to the social organization of honey bees that buffers the individual from the impact of stressful developmental conditions. PMID:28122251

  6. Early life stress affects mortality rate more than social behavior, gene expression or oxidative damage in honey bee workers.

    PubMed

    Rueppell, Olav; Yousefi, Babak; Collazo, Juan; Smith, Daniel

    2017-04-01

    Early life stressors can affect aging and life expectancy in positive or negative ways. Individuals can adjust their behavior and molecular physiology based on early life experiences but relatively few studies have connected such mechanisms to demographic patterns in social organisms. Sociality buffers individuals from environmental influences and it is unclear how much early life stress affects later life history. Workers of the honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) were exposed to two stressors, Varroa parasitism and Paraquat exposure, early in life. Consequences were measured at the molecular, behavioral, and demographic level. While treatments did not significantly affect levels of oxidative damage, expression of select genes, and titers of the common deformed wing virus, most of these measures were affected by age. Some of the age effects, such as declining levels of deformed wing virus and oxidative damage, were opposite to our predictions but may be explained by demographic selection. Further analyses suggested some influences of worker behavior on mortality and indicated weak treatment effects on behavior. The latter effects were inconsistent among the two experiments. However, mortality rate was consistently reduced by Varroa mite stress during development. Thus, mortality was more responsive to early life stress than our other response variables. The lack of treatment effects on these measures may be due to the social organization of honey bees that buffers the individual from the impact of stressful developmental conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Single emergency room measurement of neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio for early detection of acute kidney injury (AKI).

    PubMed

    Abu Alfeilat, Mohsen; Slotki, Itzchak; Shavit, Linda

    2017-07-29

    Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) is considered a readily available biomarker of systemic inflammation. An association between elevated NLR and adverse outcomes in a variety of medical and surgical conditions including CKD has been demonstrated in several studies. In this study, we evaluated the accuracy of single Emergency Department (ED) measurement of NLR for early diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI). We prospectively studied 294 patients aged 71.6 ± 17. We measured NLR at presentation to the ED. AKI is defined as a new-onset 1.5-fold or more increase in serum creatinine or a 25% decrease in estimated GFR sustained for at least 3 days despite volume resuscitation. The primary outcome is AKI. Secondary outcome is in-hospital mortality. A multivariate model and ROC analysis were performed to evaluate the association and eventual predictive capacity of NLR for the outcomes. 36 patients (12.2%) developed AKI and 26 (9%) died, 8 (22%) of the AKI group and 17 patients (7%) of the non-AKI group. The Mean NLR is significantly higher in AKI compare to non-AKI patients (11.7 ± 15.2 vs 6.45 ± 7.19, p = 0.048). A multivariate model adjusted for age, gender, blood pressure, plasma albumin and hemoglobin levels confirms that the NLR is higher in AKI patients (p = 0.031). Receiver operating characteristics curve reveals an AUC of 0.715 (95% CI 0.63-0.8) sensitivity 0.78, specificity 0.65, and OR 6.423 (CI 2.659-16.026) for a cutoff value of NLR 5.5. The relation between NLR and in-hospital mortality is not statistically significant (p = 0.92). Single ED measurement of NLR might be a useful tool for early diagnosis of AKI. This finding is particularly important in light of the low cost and widespread availability of NLR, especially compared with other biomarkers currently under study in the context of AKI.

  8. Renal Integrin-Linked Kinase Depletion Induces Kidney cGMP-Axis Upregulation: Consequences on Basal and Acutely Damaged Renal Function

    PubMed Central

    Cano-Peñalver, José Luis; Griera, Mercedes; García-Jerez, Andrea; Hatem-Vaquero, Marco; Ruiz-Torres, María Piedad; Rodríguez-Puyol, Diego; de Frutos, Sergio; Rodríguez-Puyol, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is activated by nitric oxide (NO) and produces cGMP, which activates cGMP-dependent protein kinases (PKG) and is hydrolyzed by specific phosphodiesterases (PDE). The vasodilatory and cytoprotective capacity of cGMP-axis activation results in a therapeutic strategy for several pathologies. Integrin-linked kinase (ILK), a major scaffold protein between the extracellular matrix and intracellular signaling pathways, may modulate the expression and functionality of the cGMP-axis–related proteins. We introduce ILK as a novel modulator in renal homeostasis as well as a potential target for cisplatin (CIS)-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) improvement. We used an adult mice model of depletion of ILK (cKD-ILK), which showed basal increase of sGC and PKG expressions and activities in renal cortex when compared with wildtype (WT) littermates. Twenty-four h activation of sGC activation with NO enhanced the filtration rate in cKD-ILK. During AKI, cKD-ILK maintained the cGMP-axis upregulation with consequent filtration rates enhancement and ameliorated CIS-dependent tubular epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and inflammation and markers. To emphasize the role of cGMP-axis upregulation due to ILK depletion, we modulated the cGMP axis under AKI in vivo and in renal cultured cells. A suboptimal dose of the PDE inhibitor ZAP enhanced the beneficial effects of the ILK depletion in AKI mice. On the other hand, CIS increased contractility-related events in cultured glomerular mesangial cells and necrosis rates in cultured tubular cells; ILK depletion protected the cells while sGC blockade with ODQ fully recovered the damage. PMID:26562149

  9. An integrative study of the genetic, social and environmental determinants of chronic kidney disease characterized by tubulointerstitial damages in the North Central Region of Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Nanayakkara, Shanika; Senevirathna, S T M L D; Abeysekera, Tilak; Chandrajith, Rohana; Ratnatunga, Neelakanthi; Gunarathne, E D L; Yan, Junxia; Hitomi, Toshiaki; Muso, Eri; Komiya, Toshiyuki; Harada, Kouji H; Liu, Wanyang; Kobayashi, Hatasu; Okuda, Hiroko; Sawatari, Hideyuki; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Yamada, Ryo; Watanabe, Takao; Miyataka, Hideki; Himeno, Seiichiro; Koizumi, Akio

    2014-01-01

    Previous investigations on chronic kidney disease of unknown etiology characterized by tubulointerstitial damages (CKDu) in the North Central Region (NCR) of Sri Lanka have supported the involvement of social, environmental and genetic factors in its pathogenesis. We conducted a social-environmental-and-genetic epidemiology study on a male population in NCR to investigate the genetic and environmental contributors. We recruited 311 case-series patients and 504 control candidates. Of the 504 control candidates, 218 (43%) were eliminated because of the presence of hypertension, proteinuria, high HbA1c, high serum creatinine or high alpha-1 microglobulin in urine. None of 18 metals measured (μg//) in urine, including Cd, As and Pb, showed significantly higher concentrations in cases compared with controls. As speciation results showed that 75-80% of total urinary As was in the form of arsenobetaine, which is non-toxic to humans. None of the metal concentrations in drinking water samples exceeded guideline values. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) was conducted to determine the genetic contributors. The GWAS yielded a genome-wide significant association with CKDu for a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs6066043; p=5.23 × 10(-9) in quantitative trait locus analysis; p=3.73 × 10(-9) in dichotomous analysis) in SLC13A3 (sodium-dependent dicarboxylate transporter member 3). The population attributable fraction and odds ratio for this SNP were 50% and 2.13. Genetic susceptibility was identified as the major risk factor for CKDu. However, 43% of the apparently healthy male population suffers from non-communicable diseases, suggesting their possible influence on CKDu progression.

  10. Avocado oil induces long-term alleviation of oxidative damage in kidney mitochondria from type 2 diabetic rats by improving glutathione status.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Avila, Omar; Figueroa-García, María Del Consuelo; García-Berumen, Claudia Isabel; Calderón-Cortés, Elizabeth; Mejía-Barajas, Jorge A; Rodriguez-Orozco, Alain R; Mejía-Zepeda, Ricardo; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo; Cortés-Rojo, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Hyperglycemia and mitochondrial ROS overproduction have been identified as key factors involved in the development of diabetic nephropathy. This has encouraged the search for strategies decreasing glucose levels and long-term improvement of redox status of glutathione, the main antioxidant counteracting mitochondrial damage. Previously, we have shown that avocado oil improves redox status of glutathione in liver and brain mitochondria from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats; however, the long-term effects of avocado oil and its hypoglycemic effect cannot be evaluated because this model displays low survival and insulin depletion. Therefore, we tested during 1 year the effects of avocado oil on glycemia, ROS levels, lipid peroxidation and glutathione status in kidney mitochondria from type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats. Diabetic rats exhibited glycemia of 120-186 mg/dL the first 9 months with a further increase to 250-300 mg/dL. Avocado oil decreased hyperglycemia at intermediate levels between diabetic and control rats. Diabetic rats displayed augmented lipid peroxidation and depletion of reduced glutathione throughout the study, while increased ROS generation was observed at the 3rd and 12th months along with diminished content of total glutathione at the 6th and 12th months. Avocado oil ameliorated all these defects and augmented the mitochondrial content of oleic acid. The beneficial effects of avocado oil are discussed in terms of the hypoglycemic effect of oleic acid and the probable dependence of glutathione transport on lipid peroxidation and thiol oxidation of mitochondrial carriers.

  11. High-Throughput Sequencing Reveals Circulating miRNAs as Potential Biomarkers of Kidney Damage in Patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Quiroz, Elkin; Pacheco-Lugo, Lisandro; Lorenzi, Hernan; Díaz-Olmos, Yirys; Almendrales, Lisneth; Rico, Edwin; Navarro, Roberto; España-Puccini, Pierine; Iglesias, Antonio; Egea, Eduardo; Aroca, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Renal involvement is one of the most severe manifestations of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Renal biopsy is the gold standard when it comes to knowing whether a patient has lupus nephritis, and the degree of renal disease present. However, the biopsy has various complications, bleeding being the most common. Therefore, the development of alternative, non-invasive diagnostic tests for kidney disease in patients with SLE is a priority. Micro RNAs (miRNAs) are differentially expressed in various tissues, and changes in their expression have been associated with several pathological processes. The aim of this study was to identify changes in the abundance of miRNAs in plasma samples from patients with lupus nephritis that could potentially allow the diagnosis of renal damage in SLE patients. This is an observational case-control cross-sectional study, in which we characterized the differential abundance profiles of miRNAs among patients with different degrees of lupus compared with SLE patients without renal involvement and healthy control individuals. We found 89 miRNAs with changes in their abundance between lupus nephritis patients and healthy controls, and 17 miRNAs that showed significant variations between SLE patients with or without renal involvement. Validation for qPCR of a group of miRNAs on additional samples from lupus patients with or without nephritis, and from healthy individuals, showed that five miRNAs presented an average detection sensitivity of 97%, a specificity of 70.3%, a positive predictive value of 82.5%, a negative predictive value of 96% and a diagnosis efficiency of 87.9%. These results strongly suggest that miR-221-5p, miR-380-3p, miR-556-5p, miR-758-3p and miR-3074-3p are potential diagnostic biomarkers of lupus nephritis in patients with SLE. The observed differential pattern of miRNA abundance may have functional implications in the pathophysiology of SLE renal damage.

  12. Effect of Behavior Modification on Outcome in Early- to Moderate-Stage Chronic Kidney Disease: A Cluster-Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Yamagata, Kunihiro; Makino, Hirofumi; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Ito, Sadayoshi; Kimura, Kenjiro; Kusano, Eiji; Shibata, Takanori; Tomita, Kimio; Narita, Ichiei; Nishino, Tomoya; Fujigaki, Yoshihide; Mitarai, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Wada, Takashi; Nakamura, Teiji; Matsuo, Seiichi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Owing to recent changes in our understanding of the underlying cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD), the importance of lifestyle modification for preventing the progression of kidney dysfunction and complications has become obvious. In addition, effective cooperation between general physicians (GPs) and nephrologists is essential to ensure a better care system for CKD treatment. In this cluster-randomized study, we studied the effect of behavior modification on the outcome of early- to moderate-stage CKD. Design Stratified open cluster-randomized trial. Setting A total of 489 GPs belonging to 49 local medical associations (clusters) in Japan. Participants A total of 2,379 patients (1,195 in group A (standard intervention) and 1,184 in group B (advanced intervention)) aged between 40 and 74 years, who had CKD and were under consultation with GPs. Intervention All patients were managed in accordance with the current CKD guidelines. The group B clusters received three additional interventions: patients received both educational intervention for lifestyle modification and a CKD status letter, attempting to prevent their withdrawal from treatment, and the group B GPs received data sheets to facilitate reducing the gap between target and practice. Main outcome measure The primary outcome measures were 1) the non-adherence rate of accepting continuous medical follow-up of the patients, 2) the collaboration rate between GPs and nephrologists, and 3) the progression of CKD. Results The rate of discontinuous clinical visits was significantly lower in group B (16.2% in group A vs. 11.5% in group B, p = 0.01). Significantly higher referral and co-treatment rates were observed in group B (p<0.01). The average eGFR deterioration rate tended to be lower in group B (group A: 2.6±5.8 ml/min/1.73 m2/year, group B: 2.4±5.1 ml/min/1.73 m2/year, p = 0.07). A significant difference in eGFR deterioration rate was observed in subjects with Stage 3 CKD (group A: 2.4±5.9 ml

  13. Epigenetics of kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Wanner, Nicola; Bechtel-Walz, Wibke

    2017-07-01

    DNA methylation and histone modifications determine renal programming and the development and progression of renal disease. The identification of the way in which the renal cell epigenome is altered by environmental modifiers driving the onset and progression of renal diseases has extended our understanding of the pathophysiology of kidney disease progression. In this review, we focus on current knowledge concerning the implications of epigenetic modifications during renal disease from early development to chronic kidney disease progression including renal fibrosis, diabetic nephropathy and the translational potential of identifying new biomarkers and treatments for the prevention and therapy of chronic kidney disease and end-stage kidney disease.

  14. DNA repair efficiency in germ cells and early mouse embryos and consequences for radiation-induced transgenerational genomic damage

    SciTech Connect

    Marchetti, Francesco; Wyrobek, Andrew J.

    Exposure to ionizing radiation and other environmental agents can affect the genomic integrity of germ cells and induce adverse health effects in the progeny. Efficient DNA repair during gametogenesis and the early embryonic cycles after fertilization is critical for preventing transmission of DNA damage to the progeny and relies on maternal factors stored in the egg before fertilization. The ability of the maternal repair machinery to repair DNA damage in both parental genomes in the fertilizing egg is especially crucial for the fertilizing male genome that has not experienced a DNA repair-competent cellular environment for several weeks prior to fertilization.more » During the DNA repair-deficient period of spermatogenesis, DNA lesions may accumulate in sperm and be carried into the egg where, if not properly repaired, could result in the formation of heritable chromosomal aberrations or mutations and associated birth defects. Studies with female mice deficient in specific DNA repair genes have shown that: (i) cell cycle checkpoints are activated in the fertilized egg by DNA damage carried by the sperm; and (ii) the maternal genotype plays a major role in determining the efficiency of repairing genomic lesions in the fertilizing sperm and directly affect the risk for abnormal reproductive outcomes. There is also growing evidence that implicates DNA damage carried by the fertilizing gamete as a mediator of postfertilization processes that contribute to genomic instability in subsequent generations. Transgenerational genomic instability most likely involves epigenetic mechanisms or error-prone DNA repair processes in the early embryo. Maternal and embryonic DNA repair processes during the early phases of mammalian embryonic development can have far reaching consequences for the genomic integrity and health of subsequent generations.« less

  15. Pain Medicines and Kidney Damage

    MedlinePlus

    ... Process Research Training & Career Development Funded Grants & Grant History Research Resources Research at NIDDK Technology Advancement & Transfer Meetings & Workshops Health Information Diabetes Digestive ...

  16. Nephrology co-management versus primary care solo management for early chronic kidney disease: a retrospective cross-sectional analysis.

    PubMed

    Samal, Lipika; Wright, Adam; Waikar, Sushrut S; Linder, Jeffrey A

    2015-10-12

    Primary care physicians (PCPs) typically manage early chronic kidney disease (CKD), but recent guidelines recommend nephrology co-management for some patients with stage 3 CKD and all patients with stage 4 CKD. We sought to compare quality of care for co-managed patients to solo managed patients. We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional analysis. Patients included in the study were adults who visited a PCP during 2009 with laboratory evidence of CKD in the preceding two years, defined as two estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) between 15-59 mL/min/1.73 m(2) separated by 90 days. We assessed process measures (serum eGFR test, urine protein/albumin test, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker [ACE/ARB] prescription, and several tests monitoring for complications) and intermediate clinical outcomes (mean blood pressure and blood pressure control) and performed subgroup analyses by CKD stage. Of 3118 patients, 11 % were co-managed by a nephrologist. Co-management was associated with younger age (69 vs. 74 years), male gender (46 % vs. 34 %), minority race/ethnicity (black 32 % vs. 22 %; Hispanic 13 % vs. 8 %), hypertension (75 % vs. 66 %), diabetes (42 % vs. 26 %), and more PCP visits (5.0 vs. 3.9; p < 0.001 for all comparisons). After adjustment, co-management was associated with serum eGFR test (98 % vs. 94 %, p = <0.0001), urine protein/albumin test (82 % vs 36 %, p < 0.0001), and ACE/ARB prescription (77 % vs. 69 %, p = 0.03). Co-management was associated with monitoring for anemia and metabolic bone disease, but was not associated with lipid monitoring, differences in mean blood pressure (133/69 mmHg vs. 131/70 mmHg, p > 0.50) or blood pressure control. A subgroup analysis of Stage 4 CKD patients did not show a significant association between co-management and ACE/ARB prescription (80 % vs. 73 %, p = 0.26). For stage 3 and 4 CKD patients, nephrology co-management was associated with increased stage

  17. Kidney stones

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra. Within each kidney, urine flows from the outer cortex to the inner ... The renal pelvis is the funnel through which urine exits the kidney and enters the ureter. As ...

  18. Kidney Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... common cancers in the United States. Cancer Home Kidney Cancer Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... work with the chemical trichloroethylene. What Are the Kidneys? The body has two kidneys, one on each ...

  19. Kidney School

    MedlinePlus

    ... copies? Read our licensing agreement Living Successfully with Kidney Disease People with kidney disease can live long ... Listen Printing multiple copies? Read our licensing agreement Kidneys: How They Work, How They Fail, What You ...

  20. Environmental pollution and kidney diseases.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xin; Nie, Sheng; Ding, Hanying; Hou, Fan Fan

    2018-05-01

    The burden of disease and death attributable to environmental pollution is becoming a public health challenge worldwide, especially in developing countries. The kidney is vulnerable to environmental pollutants because most environmental toxins are concentrated by the kidney during filtration. Given the high mortality and morbidity of kidney disease, environmental risk factors and their effect on kidney disease need to be identified. In this Review, we highlight epidemiological evidence for the association between kidney disease and environmental pollutants, including air pollution, heavy metal pollution and other environmental risk factors. We discuss the potential biological mechanisms that link exposure to environmental pollutants to kidney damage and emphasize the contribution of environmental pollution to kidney disease. Regulatory efforts should be made to control environmental pollution and limit individual exposure to preventable or avoidable environmental risk. Population studies with accurate quantification of environmental exposure in polluted regions, particularly in developing countries, might aid our understanding of the dose-response relationship between pollutants and kidney diseases.

  1. Molecular pathways involved in the early and late damage induced by testis ischemia: evidence for a rational pharmacological modulation.

    PubMed

    Altavilla, D; Romeo, C; Squadrito, F; Marini, H; Morgia, G; Antonuccio, P; Minutoli, L

    2012-01-01

    Testicular torsion or torsion of the spermatic cord is a surgical emergency in which misdiagnosis and inappropriate treatment can lead to male infertility. Events occurring during testicular torsion and detorsion are representative of an ischemia-reperfusion injury observed in other organs. The two most important factors determining testicular damage are the degree of twisting and the early onset of a surgical treatment to counter-rotate both testis and spermatic cord for inducing reperfusion. The damage from reperfusion is more severe than that induced by ischemia and several mechanisms are implicated in the development of testicular damage following torsion and detorsion. However, these mechanisms have not yet been fully clarified and, as a consequence, there is still a strong need to identify specific pharmacological treatment to limit the damage triggered by the reperfusion procedures. Ischemia and reperfusion of testis result in elevated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), activate mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and PPARβ/δ receptor, induce transcription factors and growth factors including NF-κB and VEGF, trigger apoptotic machinery and induce several inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α and IL-1β . This pathological cascade is responsible for the testicular atrophy, decreased blood flow and impaired spermatogenesis. Several pharmacological approaches have been characterized as promising therapeutic agents for the management of testicular torsion and may be useful to ameliorate the sequel of this disease.

  2. Dental fluorosis, nutritional status, kidney damage, and thyroid function along with bone metabolic indicators in school-going children living in fluoride-affected hilly areas of Doda district, Jammu and Kashmir, India.

    PubMed

    Khandare, Arjun L; Gourineni, Shankar Rao; Validandi, Vakdevi

    2017-10-23

    A case-control study was undertaken among the school children aged 8-15 years to know the presence and severity of dental fluorosis, nutrition and kidney status, and thyroid function along with bone metabolic indicators in Doda district situated at high altitude where drinking water was contaminated and heat stress. This study included 824 participants with an age of 8-15 years. The results of the study reviled that dental fluorosis was significantly higher in affected than control area children. Urinary fluoride was significantly higher (p < 0.05) in affected children as compared to the control area school children. Nutritional status of affected children was lower than control area children. The chronic kidney damage (CKD) was higher in affected than control school children. Thyroid function was affected more in affected than control area schools. Serum creatinine, total alkaline phosphatase, parathyroid hormone, 1, 25(OH) 2 vitamin D, and osteocalcin were significantly higher in affected school children (p < 0.05) as compared to control school children, whereas there was no significant difference in triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and 25-OH vitamin D among the two groups. There was a significant decrease in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in the affected area school children compared to control. In conclusion, fluorotic area school children were more affected with dental fluorosis, kidney damage, along and some bone indicators as compared to control school children.

  3. Study of kidney damage in paediatric patients with neurogenic bladder and its relationship with the pattern of bladder function and treatment received.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Ruiz, M; Somoza, I; Curros-Mata, N

    2016-01-01

    Kidney failure is the main cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with myelodysplasia. We analysed the presence of renal lesions in these patients using dimercaptosuccinic acid scintigraphy and related their presence with the type of vesical function and the delay in receiving appropriate management. We performed a retrospective study of patients with myelodysplasia treated in our hospital since 2004. We analysed the epidemiological and clinical data and the pattern of bladder function according to urodynamic studies. We classified the patients into 4 urodynamic patterns according to detrusor and sphincter behaviour. We linked this behaviour to renal function in the scintigraphy and the care received since birth. The study included 39 patients with myelodysplasia. The most common bladder pattern was type A (61.5%), with sphincter and detrusor hyperactivity, followed by type D (20.5%), C (7.8%) and B (5.1%). Some 38% of our patients (n=15) had some type of nephropathy. Some 92.9% of the children who were properly treated during the first year of their life had no renal lesions in the scintigraphy. We found some type of nephropathy in 56% of the patients for whom appropriate treatment was delayed for more than a year. The nephropathy was more severe the later the management was started. There is a statistically significant relationship between a delay in treatment and impairment in renal scintigraphy in patients with neurogenic bladders. The early study and treatment of patients is essential for decreasing renal impairment, reducing the need for surgery and improving the continence options. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Urine protein profiling identified alpha-1-microglobulin and haptoglobin as biomarkers for early diagnosis of acute allograft rejection following kidney transplantation.

    PubMed

    Stubendorff, Beatrice; Finke, Stephanie; Walter, Martina; Kniemeyer, Olaf; von Eggeling, Ferdinand; Gruschwitz, Torsten; Steiner, Thomas; Ott, Undine; Wolf, Gunter; Wunderlich, Heiko; Junker, Kerstin

    2014-12-01

    Early diagnosis of acute rejection and effective immunosuppressive therapy lead to improvement in graft survival following kidney transplantation. In this study, we aimed to establish a urinary protein profile suitable to distinguish between patients with rejection and stable graft function and to predict acute rejection based on postoperatively collected urine samples. A further objective was to identify candidate proteins for the use as biomarkers in clinical practice. Urine samples of 116 kidney recipients were included. Rejection was proven by biopsy (n = 58), and stable transplant function was monitored for at least 2 years (n = 58). Postoperative urine samples were collected between 3rd and 10th day following transplantation. Urinary protein profiles were obtained by surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Protein identification and validation were performed using multiplex fluorescence 2DE, peptide mass fingerprinting and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A protein profile including four mass peaks differentiated acute rejection from stable transplants at the time point of rejection and at the postoperative state with 73 % sensitivity and 88 % specificity. Alpha-1-microglobulin (A1MG) and Haptoglobin (Hp) were identified as putative rejection biomarkers. Protein levels were significantly higher in postoperative urine from patients with rejection (A1MG 29.13 vs. 22.06 μg/ml, p = 0.001; Hp 628.34 vs. 248.57 ng/ml, p = 0.003). The combination of both proteins enabled the diagnosis of early rejection with 85 % sensitivity and 80 % specificity. Protein profiling using mass spectrometry is suitable for noninvasive detection of rejection-specific changes following kidney transplantation. A specific protein profile enables the prediction of early acute allograft rejection in the immediate postoperative period. A1MG and Hp appear to be reliable rejection biomarkers.

  5. Human Papillomavirus Types 16 and 18 Early-expressed Proteins Differentially Modulate the Cellular Redox State and DNA Damage

    PubMed Central

    Cruz-Gregorio, Alfredo; Manzo-Merino, Joaquín; Gonzaléz-García, María Cecilia; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Medina-Campos, Omar Noel; Valverde, Mahara; Rojas, Emilio; Rodríguez-Sastre, María Alexandra; García-Cuellar, Claudia María; Lizano, Marcela

    2018-01-01

    Oxidative stress has been proposed as a risk factor for cervical cancer development. However, few studies have evaluated the redox state associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. The aim of this work was to determine the role of the early expressed viral proteins E1, E2, E6 and E7 from HPV types 16 and 18 in the modulation of the redox state in an integral form. Therefore, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), concentration of reduced glutathione (GSH), levels and activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage, were analysed in epithelial cells ectopically expressing the viral proteins. Our research shows that E6 oncoproteins decreased GSH and catalase protein levels, as well as its enzymatic activity, which was associated with an increase in ROS production and DNA damage. In contrast, E7 oncoproteins increased GSH, as well as catalase protein levels and its activity, which correlated with a decrease in ROS without affecting DNA integrity. The co-expression of both E6 and E7 oncoproteins neutralized the effects that were independently observed for each of the viral proteins. Additionally, the combined expression of E1 and E2 proteins increased ROS levels with the subsequent increase in the marker for DNA damage phospho-histone 2AX (γH2AX). A decrease in GSH, as well as SOD2 levels and activity were also detected in the presence of E1 and E2, even though catalase activity increased. This study demonstrates that HPV early expressed proteins differentially modulate cellular redox state and DNA damage. PMID:29483822

  6. The plasma levels of soluble ST2 as a marker of gut mucosal damage in early HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Mehraj, Vikram; Jenabian, Mohammad-Ali; Ponte, Rosalie; Lebouché, Bertrand; Costiniuk, Cecilia; Thomas, Réjean; Baril, Jean-Guy; LeBlanc, Roger; Cox, Joseph; Tremblay, Cécile; Routy, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Following tissue barrier breaches, interleukin-33 (IL-33) is released as an ‘alarmin’ to induce inflammation. Soluble suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (sST2), as an IL-33 decoy receptor, contributes to limit inflammation. We assessed the relationship between the IL-33/ST2 axis and markers of gut mucosal damage in patients with early (EHI) and chronic HIV infection (CHI) and elite controllers. Design: Analyses on patients with EHI and CHI were conducted to determine IL-33/sST2 changes over time. Methods: IL-33 and sST2 levels were measured in plasma. Correlations between sST2 levels and plasma viral load, CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell counts, expression of T-cell activation/exhaustion markers, gut mucosal damage, microbial translocation and inflammation markers, as well as kynurenine/tryptophan ratio were assessed. Results: Plasma sST2 levels were elevated in EHI compared with untreated CHI and uninfected controls, whereas IL-33 levels were comparable in all groups. In EHI, sST2 levels were positively correlated with the CD8+ T-cell count and the percentage of T cells expressing activation and exhaustion markers, but not with viral load or CD4+ T-cell count. Plasma sST2 levels also correlated with plasma levels of gut mucosal damage, microbial translocation and kynurenine/tryptophan ratio and for some markers of inflammation. Prospective analyses showed that early antiretroviral therapy had no impact on sST2 levels, whereas longer treatment duration initiated during CHI normalized sST2. Conclusion: As sST2 levels were elevated in EHI and were correlated with CD8+ T-cell count, immune activation, and microbial translocation, sST2 may serve as a marker of disease progression, gut damage and may directly contribute to HIV pathogenesis. PMID:27045377

  7. Renal transplantation induces mitochondrial uncoupling, increased kidney oxygen consumption, and decreased kidney oxygen tension.

    PubMed

    Papazova, Diana A; Friederich-Persson, Malou; Joles, Jaap A; Verhaar, Marianne C

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia is an acknowledged pathway to renal injury and ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) and is known to reduce renal oxygen tension (Po2). We hypothesized that renal I/R increases oxidative damage and induces mitochondrial uncoupling, resulting in increased oxygen consumption and hence kidney hypoxia. Lewis rats underwent syngenic renal transplantation (TX) and contralateral nephrectomy. Controls were uninephrectomized (1K-CON) or left untreated (2K-CON). After 7 days, urinary excretion of protein and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances were measured, and after 14 days glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal blood flow, whole kidney Qo2, cortical Po2, kidney cortex mitochondrial uncoupling, renal oxidative damage, and tubulointerstitial injury were assessed. TX, compared with 1K-CON, resulted in mitochondrial uncoupling mediated via uncoupling protein-2 (16 ± 3.3 vs. 0.9 ± 0.4 pmol O2 · s(-1)· mg protein(-1), P < 0.05) and increased whole kidney Qo2 (55 ± 16 vs. 33 ± 10 μmol O2/min, P < 0.05). Corticomedullary Po2 was lower in TX compared with 1K-CON (30 ± 13 vs. 47 ± 4 μM, P < 0.05) whereas no significant difference was observed between 2K-CON and 1K-CON rats. Proteinuria, oxidative damage, and the tubulointerstitial injury score were not significantly different in 1K-CON and TX. Treatment of donors for 5 days with mito-TEMPO reduced mitochondrial uncoupling but did not affect renal hemodynamics, Qo2, Po2, or injury. Collectively, our results demonstrate increased mitochondrial uncoupling as an early event after experimental renal transplantation associated with increased oxygen consumption and kidney hypoxia in the absence of increases in markers of damage. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Biomarkers of Exposure to Toxic Substances. Volume 5: Biomarker Pre-validation Studies Prevalidation of Urine and Serum Biomarkers Indicative of Subclinical Kidney Damage in a Nephrotoxin Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    demonstrated to degrade a specific kidney segment (proximal tubule and glomerulus, respectively). In this study a total of seventeen protein biomarkers were...exposure. Two experimental nephrotoxins were interrogated, D-serine and puromycin, each previously demonstrated to degrade a specific kidney segment...to degradation during isolation from sample render it unlikely to develop into a fieldable, self-contained assay system within the near future

  9. Simple Kidney Cysts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Solitary Kidney Your Kidneys & How They Work Simple Kidney Cysts What are simple kidney cysts? Simple kidney cysts are abnormal, fluid-filled ... that form in the kidneys. What are the kidneys and what do they do? The kidneys are ...

  10. Sublethal Total Body Irradiation Leads to Early Cerebellar Damage and Oxidative Stress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    mice: protective effect of alpha - lipoic acid . Behav Brain Res 2007b; 177(1): 7-14. [8] Manda K, Ueno M, Anzai K. Melatonin mitigates oxidative...Memory impairment, oxidative damage and apoptosis induced by space radiation: ameliorative potential of alpha - lipoic acid . Behav Brain Res 2008b...1977; 171(1): 39-50. [6] Manda K, Ueno M, Moritake T, Anzai K. - Lipoic acid attenuates x-irradiation-induced oxidative stress in mice. Cell Biol

  11. Early density management of longleaf pine reduces susceptibility to ice storm damage

    Treesearch

    Timothy B. Harrington; Thaddeus A. Harrington

    2016-01-01

    The Pax winter storm of February 2014 caused widespread damage to forest stands throughout the southeastern U.S. In a long-term study of savanna plant community restoration at the Savannah River Site, Aiken, SC, precommercial thinning (PCT) of 8- to 11-year-old plantations of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) in 1994 reduced...

  12. Early and Late Chromosome Damages in Human Lymphocytes Induced by Gamma Rays and Fe Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sunagawa, Mayumi; Zhang, Ye; Yeshitla, Samrawit; Kadhim, Munira; Wilson, Bobby; Wu, Honglu

    2014-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations and inversions are considered stable, and cells containing these types of chromosome aberrations can survive multiple cell divisions. An efficient method to detect an inversion is multi-color banding fluorescent in situ hybridization (mBAND) which allows identification of both inter- and intrachromosome aberrations simultaneously. Post irradiation, chromosome aberrations may also arise after multiple cell divisions as a result of genomic instability. To investigate the stable or late-arising chromosome aberrations induced after radiation exposure, we exposed human lymphocytes to gamma rays and Fe ions ex vivo, and cultured the cells for multiple generations. Chromosome aberrations were analyzed in cells collected at first mitosis and at several time intervals during the culture period post irradiation. With gamma irradiation, about half of the damages observed at first mitosis remained after 7 day- and 14 day- culture, suggesting the transmissibility of damages to the surviving progeny. Detailed analysis of chromosome break ends participating in exchanges revealed a greater fraction of break ends involved in intrachromosome aberrations in the 7- and 14-day samples in comparison to the fraction at first mitosis. In particular, simple inversions were found at 7 and 14 days, but not at the first mitosis, suggesting that some of the aberrations might be formed days post irradiation. In contrast, at the doses that produced similar frequencies of gamma-induced chromosome aberrations as observed at first mitosis, a significantly lower yield of aberrations remained at the same population doublings after Fe ion exposure. At these equitoxic doses, more complex type aberrations were observed for Fe ions, indicating that Fe ion-induced initial chromosome damages are more severe and may lead to cell death. Comparison between low and high doses of Fe ion irradiation in the induction of late damages will also be discussed.

  13. [Effects of hydrogen on the lung damage of mice at early stage of severe burn].

    PubMed

    Qin, C; Bian, Y X; Feng, T T; Zhang, J H; Yu, Y H

    2017-11-20

    Objective: To investigate the effects of hydrogen on the lung damage of mice at early stage of severe burn. Methods: One hundred and sixty ICR mice were divided into sham injury, hydrogen, pure burn, and burn+ hydrogen groups according to the random number table, with 40 mice in each group. Mice in pure burn group and burn+ hydrogen group were inflicted with 40% total body surface area full-thickness scald (hereafter referred to as burn) on the back, while mice in sham injury group and hydrogen group were sham injured. Mice in hydrogen group and burn+ hydrogen group inhaled 2% hydrogen for 1 h at post injury hour (PIH) 1 and 6, respectively, while mice in sham injury group and pure burn group inhaled air for 1 h. At PIH 24, lung tissue of six mice in each group was harvested, and then pathological changes of lung tissue were observed by HE staining and the lung tissue injury pathological score was calculated. Inferior vena cava blood and lung tissue of other eight mice in each group were obtained, and then content of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) in serum and lung tissue was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) in serum and lung tissue was detected by spectrophotometry. After arterial blood of other six mice in each group was collected for detection of arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO(2)), the wet and dry weight of lung tissue were weighted to calculate lung wet to dry weight ratio. The survival rates of the other twenty mice in each group during post injury days 7 were calculated. Data were processed with one-way analysis of variance, LSD test and log-rank test. Results: (1) At PIH 24, lung tissue of mice in sham injury group and hydrogen group showed no abnormality. Mice in pure burn group were with pulmonary interstitial edema, serious rupture of alveolar capillary wall, and infiltration of a large number of inflammatory cells. Mice in burn+ hydrogen group were with mild

  14. DNA damage in bovine sperm does not block fertilization and early embryonic development but induces apoptosis after the first cleavages.

    PubMed

    Fatehi, A N; Bevers, M M; Schoevers, E; Roelen, B A J; Colenbrander, B; Gadella, B M

    2006-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate whether and at what level damage of paternal DNA influences fertilization of oocytes and early embryonic development. We hypothesized that posttesticular sperm DNA damage will only marginally affect sperm physiology due to the lack of gene expression, but that it will affect embryo development at the stage that embryo genome (including the paternal damaged DNA) expression is initiated. To test this, we artificially induced sperm DNA damage by irradiation with x- or gamma rays (doses of 0-300 Gy). Remarkably, sperm cells survived the irradiation quite well and, when compared with nonirradiated cells, sperm motility and integrity of plasma membrane, acrosome, and mitochondria were not altered by this irradiation treatment. In contrast, a highly significant logarithmic relation between irradiation dose and induced DNA damage to sperm cells was found by both terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and the acridin orange assay. Despite the DNA damage, irradiated sperm cells did not show any sign of apoptosis (nuclear fragmentation, depolarization of inner mitochondrial membranes, or phospholipid scrambling) and were normally capable of fertilizing oocytes, as there was no reduction in cleavage rates when compared with nonirradiated sperm samples up to irradiation doses of less than 10 Gy. Further embryonic development was completely blocked as the blastocyst rates at days 7 and 9 dropped from 28% (nonirradiated sperm) to less than 3% by greater than 2.5-Gy-irradiated sperm. This block in embryonic development was accompanied with the initiation of apoptosis after the second or third cleavage. Specific signs of apoptosis, such as nuclear fragmentation and aberrations in spindle formation, were observed in all embryos resulting from in vitro fertilization with irradiated sperm (irradiation doses >1.25 Gy). The results show that sperm DNA damage does not impair fertilization of the

  15. Glaucoma diagnostic accuracy of optical coherence tomography parameters in early glaucoma with different types of optic disc damage.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hye-Young; Park, Hae-Young Lopilly; Jung, Younhea; Choi, Jin-A; Park, Chan Kee

    2014-10-01

    To compare the initial visual field (VF) defect pattern and the spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) parameters and investigate the effects of distinct types of optic disc damage on the diagnostic performance of these OCT parameters in early glaucoma. Retrospective, observational study. A total of 138 control eyes and 160 eyes with early glaucoma were enrolled. The glaucomatous eyes were subdivided into 4 groups according to the type of optic disc damage: focal ischemic (FI) group, myopic (MY) group, senile sclerotic (SS) group, and generalized enlargement (GE) group. The values of total deviation (TD) maps were analyzed, and superior-inferior (S-I) differences of TD were calculated. The optic nerve head (ONH) parameters, peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (pRNFL), and ganglion cell-inner plexiform layer (GCIPL) thicknesses were measured. Comparison of diagnostic ability using area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUCs). The S-I and central S-I difference of the FI group were larger than those of the GE group. The rim area of the SS group was larger than those of the 3 other groups, and the vertical cup-to-disc ratio (CDR) of the GE group was larger than that of the MY group. In addition, the minimum and inferotemporal GCIPL thicknesses of the FI group were smaller than those of the GE group. The AUC of the rim area (0.89) was lower than that of the minimum GCIPL (0.99) in the SS group, and the AUC of the vertical CDR (0.90) was lower than that of the minimum GCIPL (0.99) in the MY group. Furthermore, the AUCs of the minimum GCIPL thicknesses of the FI and MY group were greater than those of the average pRNFL thickness for detecting glaucoma, as opposed to the SS and GE. The OCT parameters differed among the 4 groups on the basis of the distinct optic disc appearance and initial glaucomatous damage pattern. Clinicians should be aware that the diagnostic capability of OCT parameters could differ according to the type of optic

  16. Impact of antiviral prophylaxis in adults Epstein-Barr Virus-seronegative kidney recipients on early and late post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder onset: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ville, Simon; Imbert-Marcille, Berthe-Marie; Coste-Burel, Marianne; Garandeau, Claire; Meurette, Aurélie; Cantarovitch, Diego; Giral, Magali; Hourmant, Maryvonne; Blancho, Gilles; Dantal, Jacques

    2018-05-01

    Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) pathogenesis is related to EBV infection. Mismatch with the donor (EBV D+/R-) is the main risk factor for both early PTLD (<1 year post-transplantation) and late (>1 year). In these at-risk patients, the role of antiviral prophylaxis for preventing PTLD remains controversial. We analyzed the impact of antiviral drugs given to prevent CMV disease in a monocentric retrospective cohort of 73 adult kidney or kidney-pancreas EBV-seronegative recipients, transplanted between 01/01/2000 and 01/01/2016. Thirty-seven (50.7%, prophylaxis group) received (val-)aciclovir or (val-)ganciclovir for 3-6 months and 36 (49.3%, no-prophylaxis group) received no-prophylaxis. Mean follow-up was 69 ± 7.2 months in the prophylaxis group and 91 ± 10.3 months in the no-prophylaxis group. Monitoring of EBV PCR revealed that prophylaxis delayed primary infection at 100 days (43% vs. 84%, P = 0.02). Early PTLD incidence was not different between groups (4/37 vs. 4/36, P = 0.99). Concerning late events, EBV-related neoplasia incidence was significantly lower in treated patients among whom no cases were observed, while in the no-prophylaxis group 6 cases were reported (P = 0.02). Despite a weak level of evidence our study suggests that antiviral prophylaxis could prevent late onset PTLD. © 2017 Steunstichting ESOT.

  17. Impact of the early use of immunomodulators or TNF antagonists on bowel damage and surgery in Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Safroneeva, E; Vavricka, S R; Fournier, N; Pittet, V; Peyrin-Biroulet, L; Straumann, A; Rogler, G; Schoepfer, A M

    2015-10-01

    The impact of early treatment with immunomodulators (IM) and/or TNF antagonists on bowel damage in Crohn's disease (CD) patients is unknown. To assess whether 'early treatment' with IM and/or TNF antagonists, defined as treatment within a 2-year period from the date of CD diagnosis, was associated with development of lesser number of disease complications when compared to 'late treatment', which was defined as treatment initiation after >2 years from the time of CD diagnosis. Data from the Swiss IBD Cohort Study were analysed. The following outcomes were assessed using Cox proportional hazard modelling: bowel strictures, perianal fistulas, internal fistulas, intestinal surgery, perianal surgery and any of the aforementioned complications. The 'early treatment' group of 292 CD patients was compared to the 'late treatment' group of 248 CD patients. We found that 'early treatment' with IM or TNF antagonists alone was associated with reduced risk of bowel strictures [hazard ratio (HR) 0.496, P = 0.004 for IM; HR 0.276, P = 0.018 for TNF antagonists]. Furthermore, 'early treatment' with IM was associated with reduced risk of undergoing intestinal surgery (HR 0.322, P = 0.005), and perianal surgery (HR 0.361, P = 0.042), as well as developing any complication (HR 0.567, P = 0.006). Treatment with immunomodulators or TNF antagonists within the first 2 years of CD diagnosis was associated with reduced risk of developing bowel strictures, when compared to initiating these drugs >2 years after diagnosis. Furthermore, early immunomodulators treatment was associated with reduced risk of intestinal surgery, perianal surgery and any complication. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Old habits die hard; does early urinary catheter removal affect kidney size, bacteriuria and UTI after renal transplantation?

    PubMed

    Akbari, Roghayeh; Rahmani Firouzi, Sedigheh; Akbarzadeh-Pasha, Abazar

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Renal transplantation is the treatment of choice in chronic renal failure patients. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of urinary catheter removal time on transplanted kidney size and incidence of asymptomatic bacteriuria and urinary tract infections (UTIs). Patients and Methods: This retrospective cohort study evaluated the clinical outcomes of 109 consecutive live donor renal transplant recipients from December 2011 to July 2014. Routine ultrasound examinations were performed on donor's kidney prior to operation and one month later. Kidney volume was calculated. UTI and bacteriuria were evaluated one month later. Patients were divided into two groups based on time of Foley catheter removal (before and after fifth day posttransplantation). Results: In this study 74 males (67.9%) and 35 females (32.1%) were evaluated. Sixty-six patients (57.92%) were in group 1. None of the patients with positive urine culture had UTI but bacteriuria occurred in all of them (21.1%). Bacteriuria time after transplantation and catheter removal was significantly later in group 1 and it was not different in female group but they were later in male group. The mean renal volume increase was positively correlated to renal transplant recipient and donor's age and donor's body mass index (BMI) ( P <0.05). Conclusion: This study showed that the time of catheter removal after kidney transplantation does not affect incidence of UTI but increases the probability of bacteria in men whose catheter was removed within 5 days after transplantation. We also found that the renal volume change is not associated with catheter removal time and bacteriuria.

  19. Early Implementation of Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy Optimizes Casualty Evacuation for Combat-Related Acute Kidney Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    were Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) 3 and all developed critical hyperkalemia (mean [SD], peak K+ 6.4 [0.4]). The peak plasma creatinine ranged...related acid-base disorders, severe hyperkalemia , and metabolic disorders became apparent. Based on the mounting pressure and internal performance im...with severe hyperkalemia was the most common indication for renal replacement. Validation for critical care evacuation to the Role IV facility mandated a

  20. A study of cannabinoid-1 receptors during the early phase of excitotoxic damage to rat spinal locomotor networks in vitro.

    PubMed

    Veeraraghavan, Priyadharishini; Dekanic, Ana; Nistri, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    Endocannabinoids acting on cannabinoid-1 receptors (CB1Rs) are proposed to protect brain and spinal neurons from excitotoxic damage. The ability to recover from spinal cord injury (SCI), in which excitotoxicity is a major player, is usually investigated at late times after modulation of CB1Rs whose role in the early phases of SCI remains unclear. Using the rat spinal cord in vitro as a model for studying SCI initial pathophysiology, we investigated if agonists or antagonists of CB1Rs might affect SCI induced by the excitotoxic agent kainate (KA) within 24h from a transient (1h) application of this glutamate agonist. The CB1 agonist anandamide (AEA or pharmacological block of its degradation) did not limit excitotoxic depolarization of spinal networks: cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) assay demonstrated that CB1Rs remained functional 24h later and similarly expressed among dead or survived cells. Locomotor-like network activity recorded from ventral roots could not recover with such treatments and was associated with persistent depression of synaptic transmission. Motoneurons, that are particularly vulnerable to KA, were not protected by AEA. Application of 2-arachidonoylglycerol also did not attenuate the electrophysiological and histological damage. The intensification of damage by the CB1 antagonist AM251 suggested that endocannabinoids were operative after excitotoxic stimulation, yet insufficient to contrast it efficiently. The present data indicate that the early phases of excitotoxic SCI could not be arrested by pharmacologically exploiting the endocannabinoid system, consistent with the notion that AEA and its derivatives are more useful to treat late SCI phases. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Early Exposure to Toxic Substances Damages Brain Architecture. Working Paper #4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2006

    2006-01-01

    New science shows that exposure to toxins prenatally or early in life can have a devastating and lifelong effect on the developing architecture of the brain. Exposures to many chemicals have much more severe consequences for embryos, fetuses, and young children, whose brains are still developing, than for adults. Substances that can have a truly…

  2. Early age damage quantification of actively restrained concrete using inverse analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albanna, Ali

    Early-age cracking can be a significant problem in concrete pavements, floors, and bridge decks. Cracking occurs when the volumetric changes associated with drying, hydration, and temperature reduction are prevented. Good knowledge about the characteristics of early age concrete is necessary to achieve reliable crack control. Volumetric changes due to shrinkage depend on the type of concrete and its components. It has been found that light weight aggregates can work as internal reservoir to supply the concrete matrix with water that is needed during the early age; this process is called internal curing. Also fibers can give more ductility to the concrete and produce less shrinkage. There is a need to better understand the effects of early age uniaxial restraint on long term concrete mechanical performance. In this study, two types of concrete were studied (high performance fiber reinforced concrete and ordinary concrete) under actively restrained loading conditions to assess the effect on the long term fracture toughness and energy. Single edge notched specimens having dimensions of 250 mm x 150 mm x 75 mm and a notch to depth ratio of 0.33 were caste and used in both direct tension and three point bending. The direct tension tests were carried out on a direct tension loading frame constructed in house that was supplied with two mechanical jacks and load cell.

  3. Tuberculosis in the kidney (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Kidneys can be damaged by tuberculosis. Tuberculosis generally affects the lungs, but may cause infection in many other organs in the body. (Image courtesy of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.)

  4. Homocysteine and the C677T Gene Polymorphism of Its Key Metabolic Enzyme MTHFR Are Risk Factors of Early Renal Damage in Hypertension in a Chinese Han Population

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Lin; Xu, Rui; Li, Guohua; Yao, Yucai; Li, Jiamin; Cong, Dehong; Xu, Xingshun; Zhang, Lihua

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The combined hyperhomocysteinemia condition is a feature of the Chinese hypertensive population. This study used the case-control method to investigate the association between plasma homocysteine and the C677T gene polymorphism of its key metabolic enzyme, 5, 10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), and early renal damage in a hypertensive Chinese Han population. A total of 379 adult essential hypertensive patients were selected as the study subjects. The personal information, clinical indicators, and the C677T gene polymorphism of MTHFR were texted. This study used the urine microalbumin/urine creatinine ratio (UACR) as a grouping basis: the hypertension without renal damage group (NRD group) and the hypertension combined with early renal damage group (ERD group). Early renal damage in the Chinese hypertensive population was associated with body weight, systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, cystatin C, uric acid, aldosterone, and glomerular filtration rate. The homocysteine level and the UACR in the TT genotype group were higher than those in the CC genotype group. The binary logistic regression analysis results showed that after sex and age were adjusted, the MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism was correlated with early renal damage in hypertension in both the recessive model and in the additive model. Plasma homocysteine and the C677T gene polymorphism of its key metabolic enzyme MTHFR might be independent risk factors of early renal damage in the hypertensive Chinese Han population. PMID:26717388

  5. Homocysteine and the C677T Gene Polymorphism of Its Key Metabolic Enzyme MTHFR Are Risk Factors of Early Renal Damage in Hypertension in a Chinese Han Population.

    PubMed

    Yun, Lin; Xu, Rui; Li, Guohua; Yao, Yucai; Li, Jiamin; Cong, Dehong; Xu, Xingshun; Zhang, Lihua

    2015-12-01

    The combined hyperhomocysteinemia condition is a feature of the Chinese hypertensive population. This study used the case-control method to investigate the association between plasma homocysteine and the C677T gene polymorphism of its key metabolic enzyme, 5, 10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), and early renal damage in a hypertensive Chinese Han population.A total of 379 adult essential hypertensive patients were selected as the study subjects. The personal information, clinical indicators, and the C677T gene polymorphism of MTHFR were texted. This study used the urine microalbumin/urine creatinine ratio (UACR) as a grouping basis: the hypertension without renal damage group (NRD group) and the hypertension combined with early renal damage group (ERD group).Early renal damage in the Chinese hypertensive population was associated with body weight, systolic pressure, diastolic pressure, urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, cystatin C, uric acid, aldosterone, and glomerular filtration rate. The homocysteine level and the UACR in the TT genotype group were higher than those in the CC genotype group. The binary logistic regression analysis results showed that after sex and age were adjusted, the MTHFR C677T gene polymorphism was correlated with early renal damage in hypertension in both the recessive model and in the additive model.Plasma homocysteine and the C677T gene polymorphism of its key metabolic enzyme MTHFR might be independent risk factors of early renal damage in the hypertensive Chinese Han population.

  6. Commercial multicopter unmanned aircraft system as a tool for early stage forest survey after wind damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokros, Martin; Vybostok, Jozef; Merganic, Jan; Tomastik, Julian; Cernava, Juraj

    2017-04-01

    In recent years unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) are objects of research in many areas. This trend can be seen also in forest research where researchers are focusing on height, diameter and tree crown measurements, monitoring of forest fire, forest gaps and health condition. Our research is focusing on the use of UAS for detecting areas disturbed by wind and deriving the volume of fallen trees for management purposes. This information is crucial after the wind damage happened. We used DJI Phantom 2 Vision+ and acquired the imagery of one forest stand (5.7 ha). The UAS is a quadcopter "all in one" solution. It has a built-in camera with gimbal and a remote controller. The camera is controlled through the application (android/ios). The built-in camera has an image resolution of 4384×3288 (14 megapixels). We have placed five crosses within the plot to be able to georeference the point cloud from UAS. Their positions were measured by Topcon Hiper GGD survey-grade GNSS receiver. We measured the border of damaged area by four different GNSS devices - GeoExplorer 6000, Trimble Nomad, Garmin GPSMAP 60 CSx and by smartphone Sony Xperia X. To process images from UAS we used Agisoft Photoscan Professional, while ArcGIS 10.2 was used to calculate and compare the areas . From the UAS point cloud we calculated DTM and DSM and deducted them. The areas where the difference was close to zero (-0.2 to 0.2) were signed as potentially wind damage areas. Then we filtered the areas that were not signed correctly (for example routes). The calculated area from UAS was 2.66 ha, GeoExplorer 6000 was 2.20 ha, Nomad was 2.06 ha, Garmin was 2.21 ha and from Xperia was the area 2.24 ha. The differences between UAS and GPS devices vary from 0.42 ha to 0.6 ha. The differences were mostly caused by inability to detect small spots of fallen trees on UAS data. These small spots are difficult to measure by GPS devices because the signal is very poor under tree crowns and also it is difficult to find

  7. Early low-dose erythropoiesis-stimulating agent therapy and progression of moderate chronic kidney disease: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Fliser, Danilo; Dellanna, Frank; Koch, Michael; Wiggenhauser, Alfons

    2017-02-01

    It is unknown whether early intervention with low-dose erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) in non-anaemic patients delays progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In a single-blind, 24-month trial, adults with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 30–59 mL/min/1.73 m2 and either Type 2 diabetes mellitus or previous kidney transplantation were randomized to low-dose continuous erythropoiesis receptor activator (CERA; monthly dose 30–75 µg; n = 115) or placebo (n = 120). The primary endpoint was the annual change in eGFR (abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease formula). Mean (standard deviation) eGFR was 40.7 (9.8) mL/min/1.73 m2 versus 39.8 (9.2) mL/min/1.73 m2 at baseline for CERA and placebo, respectively, and 39.0 (11.6) g/dL versus 39.7 (10.6) g/dL at the final visit. The median (interquartile range) annual reduction in eGFR was 0.5 (−2.2, 3.8) mL/min/1.73 m2 with CERA versus 0.4 (−2.0, 3.2) mL/min/1.73 m2 with placebo (P = 0.657). No significant difference in the annual change in eGFR was observed between treatment groups in the subpopulations with Type 2 diabetes or kidney transplant. Adverse events with a suspected relation to study drug occurred in 22.0% and 16.2% of patients randomized to CERA or placebo, respectively, and adverse events led to study drug discontinuation in 11.0% and 8.5% of patients. Patients with moderate CKD and Type 2 diabetes or previous kidney transplantation showed stable renal function that was unaffected by administration of low-dose ESA. In addition, there was no clinically meaningful effect of 2-year low-dose ESA treatment on albuminuria, an important surrogate marker of kidney injury. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  8. Early myocardial damage assessment in dystrophinopathies using (99)Tc(m)-MIBI gated myocardial perfusion imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Li; Liu, Zhe; Hu, Ke-You; Tian, Qing-Bao; Wei, Ling-Ge; Zhao, Zhe; Shen, Hong-Rui; Hu, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Early detection of muscular dystrophy (MD)-associated cardiomyopathy is important because early medical treatment may slow cardiac remodeling and attenuate symptoms of cardiac dysfunction; however, no sensitive and standard diagnostic method for MD at an earlier stage has been well-recognized. Thus, the aim of this study was to test the early diagnostic value of technetium 99m-methoxyisobutylisonitrile ((99)Tc(m)-MIBI) gated myocardial perfusion imaging (G-MPI) for MD. Ninety-one patients underwent (99)Tc(m)-MIBI G-MPI examinations when they were diagnosed with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) (n=77) or Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD; n=14). (99)Tc(m)-MIBI G-MPI examinations were repeated in 43 DMD patients who received steroid treatments for 2 years as a follow-up examination. Myocardial defects were observed in nearly every segment of the left ventricular wall in both DMD and BMD patients compared with controls, especially in the inferior walls and the apices by using (99)Tc(m)-MIBI G-MPI. Cardiac wall movement impairment significantly correlated with age in the DMD and BMD groups (r s=0.534 [P<0.05] and r s=0.784 [P<0.05], respectively). Intermittent intravenous doses of glucocorticoids and continuation with oral steroid treatments significantly improved myocardial function in DMD patients (P<0.05), but not in BMD patients. (99)Tc(m)-MIBI G-MPI is a sensitive and safe approach for early evaluation of cardiomyopathy in patients with DMD or BMD, and can serve as a candidate method for the evaluation of progression, prognosis, and assessment of the effect of glucocorticoid treatment in these patients.

  9. De novo assembly of Sockeye salmon kidney transcriptomes reveal a limited early response to piscine reovirus with or without infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus superinfection.

    PubMed

    Polinski, Mark P; Bradshaw, Julia C; Inkpen, Sabrina M; Richard, Jon; Fritsvold, Camilla; Poppe, Trygve T; Rise, Matthew L; Garver, Kyle A; Johnson, Stewart C

    2016-11-02

    Piscine reovirus (PRV) has been associated with the serious disease known as Heart and Skeletal Muscle Inflammation (HSMI) in cultured Atlantic salmon Salmo salar in Norway. PRV is also prevalent in wild and farmed salmon without overt disease manifestations, suggesting multifactorial triggers or PRV variant-specific factors are required to initiate disease. In this study, we explore the head kidney transcriptome of Sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka during early PRV infection to identify host responses in the absence of disease in hopes of elucidating mechanisms by which PRV may directly alter host functions and contribute to the development of a disease state. We further investigate the role of PRV as a coinfecting agent following superinfection with infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) - a highly pathogenic rhabdovirus endemic to the west coast of North America. Challenge of Sockeye salmon with PRV resulted in high quantities of viral transcripts to become present in the blood and kidney of infected fish without manifestations of disease. De novo transcriptome assembly of over 2.3 billion paired RNA-seq reads from the head kidneys of 36 fish identified more than 320,000 putative unigenes, of which less than 20 were suggested to be differentially expressed in response to PRV at either 2 or 3 weeks post challenge by DESeq2 and edgeR analysis. Of these, only one, Ependymin, was confirmed to be differentially expressed by qPCR in an expanded sample set. In contrast, IHNV induced substantial transcriptional changes (differential expression of > 20,000 unigenes) which included transcripts involved in antiviral and inflammatory response pathways. Prior infection with PRV had no significant effect on host responses to superinfecting IHNV, nor did host responses initiated by IHNV exposure influence increasing PRV loads. PRV does not substantially alter the head kidney transcriptome of Sockeye salmon during early (2 to 3 week) infection and dissemination in

  10. Mineral & Bone Disorder in Chronic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood pressure. Once damaged, the kidneys can’t filter blood as they should. This damage can cause ... machine to circulate a person’s blood through a filter outside the body. The blood passes from a ...

  11. Kidney Disease Statistics for the United States

    MedlinePlus

    ... that a person’s kidneys are damaged and cannot filter blood the way they should. This damage can ... per 1.73 m 2 ). Dialysis: Treatment to filter wastes and water from the blood. When their ...

  12. Longitudinal study of children with perinatal brain damage in whom early neurohabilitation was applied: Preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Harmony, Thalía; Barrera-Reséndiz, Jesús; Juárez-Colín, María Elena; Carrillo-Prado, Cristina; Pedraza-Aguilar, M del Consuelo; Asprón Ramírez, Aurora; Hinojosa-Rodríguez, Manuel; Fernández, Thalía; Ricardo-Garcell, Josefina

    2016-01-12

    The neurohabilitation treatment has been shown to be a successful method for decreasing the sequelae of perinatal brain damage (PBD) in Hungarian population. The goal of this pilot trial was to introduce this procedure by describing the results of its application in infants with PBD as demonstrated by clinical, developmental and MRI studies. As this procedure has proved to be useful, according the declaration of Helsinki, no control clinical trial was permitted. Infants younger than 2 months of corrected age (CA) with prenatal and/or perinatal risk factors for brain damage. Two groups were considered. One group was treated using the "neurohabilitation" method (n=20), and the other was not treated (n=13) because treatment was voluntarily discontinued after the initial evaluation. Evaluations were carried out prior to 2 months of CA and at 6-8 years of age. All children showed abnormal clinical and MRI characteristics in the first study. The treated group had a higher percentage (90%) of children with normal outcome than did the non-treated group (38%; OR=2.37, CI 95%=1.2-4.7; p<0.005). In this latter group, only one out of five (20%) children born at or before 34 weeks of gestational age had a normal outcome. In contrast, eight out of nine treated preterm infants had normal outcomes (8/9=89%, OR=4.45, CI 95%=0.7-26; p=0.017). This pilot trial confirms previous studies suggesting that Neurohabilitation decreases the neurological and cognitive sequelae of preterm and at-term infants with PBD. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Effect of early postoperative use of ACEI/ARB or diuretics on the incidence of acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery in elderly patients].

    PubMed

    Hu, Peng-hua; Chen, Yuan-han; Liang, Xin-ling; Li, Rui-zhao; Li, Zhi-lian; Jiang, Fen; Shi, Wei

    2013-07-01

    To explore the influence of early postoperative use of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEI/ARB) or diuretics on acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac surgery in elderly patients. Data from elderly patients (age≥60 years old) who underwent cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation in Guangdong General Hospital between January 2007 and December 2010 were analyzed in this retrospective research. The primary endpoint was AKI as diagnosed according to the serum creatinine criteria of RIFLE (risk, injury, failure, loss, end stage renal disease). The baseline serum creatinine was defined as the latest serum creatinine level before cardiac surgery. Multivariate analysis by logistic regression was used to obtain the independent risk factors for AKI. Among 618 elderly patients, 76 (12.3%) patients received ACEI/ARB during early postoperative period, 491 (79.4%) patients were given diuretics during early postoperative period, and postoperative AKI occurred in 394 (63.8%) patients. The incidence of AKI was 46.1% in patients who received early postoperative ACEI/ARB, and 66.2% in patients who did not (P<0.001). Patients who received diuretics postoperatively were less likely to suffer from AKI compared with patients who did not (57.0% vs. 89.8%, P<0.001). After adjustment of other potential factors of postoperative AKI, logistic regression analysis showed that early postoperative use of ACEI/ARB [odds ratio (OR)=0.131, 95% confidence interval (95%CI) 0.033-0.517, P=0.004], and early postoperative use of diuretics (OR=0.149, 95%CI 0.076-0.291, P<0.001) independently predicted the occurrence of AKI. Early postoperative use of ACEI/ARB or diuretics is associated with a lower incidence of AKI after cardiac surgery with extracorporeal circulation in elderly patients.

  14. MRI evidence of persistent joint inflammation and progressive joint damage despite clinical remission during treatment of early rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Forslind, K; Svensson, B

    2016-01-01

    To determine the value of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of bones and joints in patients with recent-onset rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treated for 2 years from diagnosis with disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and glucocorticoids. Thirteen patients with early RA were treated according to clinical practice and followed with MRI, radiographs, and Disease Activity Score calculated on 28 joints (DAS28) at inclusion (baseline) and after 1, 4, 7, 13, and 25 months. MRI of the dominant wrist and metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints were assessed for synovitis, bone oedema, and erosions using the RA MRI Score (RAMRIS) and for tenosynovitis by an MRI tenosynovitis scoring method. Radiographs were assessed by the van der Heijde modified Sharp score (SHS). Clinical remission was defined by a DAS28 < 2.6. MRI at baseline detected inflammation in joints and tendons in all patients as well as erosions in 10 out of 13 patients. Over time, the erosion score increased while the synovitis and tenosynovitis scores remained almost unchanged. Bone oedema strongly correlated with synovitis. Synovitis and tenosynovitis correlated well with the erosion score at baseline but not thereafter. The MRI changes showed that joint damage started early and continued in the presence of persistent synovial and tenosynovial inflammation. The observations made in this small study suggest that the treatment goal of 'clinical remission' should be supplemented by a 'joint remission' goal. To this end, MRI is an appropriate tool. Further studies are needed to evaluate the optimal use of MRI in early RA.

  15. Early postnatal gentamicin and ceftazidime treatment in normal and food restricted neonatal wistar rats: Implications for kidney development.

    PubMed

    Bueters, Ruud R G; Jeronimus-Klaasen, Annelies; Brüggemann, Roger J M; van den Heuvel, Lambertus P; Schreuder, Michiel F

    2017-09-01

    Up to two-thirds of premature born neonates are treated for infections with aminoglycosides such as gentamicin. Although acute toxicities are well described, there is uncertainty on developmental changes after treatment of premature born neonates. We studied the effect of gentamicin and ceftazidime on kidney development in the rat. Additionally, we evaluated the modulating effect of extrauterine growth restriction. On postnatal day (PND) 2, Wistar rats were cross-fostered into normal sized litters (12 pups) or large litters (20 pups) to create normal food (NF) or food restricted (FR) litters to simulate growth restriction and dosed daily intraperitoneally with placebo, 4 mg/kg of gentamicin or 50 mg/kg ceftazidime until PND 8. Gentamicin pharmacokinetics were studied in a separate group of animals. Kidneys were weighed. Renal expression of 18 developmental genes was evaluated by quantitative PCR on PND 8. On PND 35, glomerular number was assessed by stereology and glomerular generations were counted. Food restricted litters showed 22% less body weight compared with controls by day 35 (p < 0.001), 1.4- to 1.5-fold down regulation of Renin, Oat1, and Agtr1a (p < 0.05) expression and a 12% reduction in glomerular numbers (mean 30841 vs. 35187, p < 0.001), whereas glomerular generation count was unaffected. Gentamicin pharmacokinetic parameters were found to be in a human clinical range (mean maximum concentration in plasma of 4.88 mg/L and mean area under the plasma-concentration time curve up to the last measured concentration after 4 hr of 10.71 mg.h/L for sexes combined) and all endpoints were unaffected. Ceftazidime reduced Renin expression by 1.7-fold (p < 0.01). Our experiments showed that gentamicin at clinical levels did not disturb kidney development, ceftazidime can affect Renin expression, and extrauterine growth restriction impairs kidney development, but did not modulate potential drug toxicity. Birth Defects Research 109:1228-1235, 2017. © 2017 Wiley

  16. Chronic kidney disease screening methods and its implication for Malaysia: an in depth review.

    PubMed

    Almualm, Yasmin; Zaman Huri, Hasniza

    2015-01-01

    Chronic Kidney Disease has become a public health problem, imposing heath, social and human cost on societies worldwide. Chronic Kidney Disease remains asymptomatic till late stage when intervention cannot stop the progression of the disease. Therefore, there is an urgent need to detect the disease early. Despite the high prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease in Malaysia, screening is still lacking behind. This review discusses the strengths and limitations of current screening methods for Chronic Kidney Disease from a Malaysian point of view. Diabetic Kidney Disease was chosen as focal point as Diabetes is the leading cause of Chronic Kidney Disease in Malaysia. Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease in Malaysia includes a urine test for albuminuria and a blood test for serum creatinine. Recent literature indicates that albuminuria is not always present in Diabetic Kidney Disease patients and serum creatinine is only raised after substantial kidney damage has occurred.  Recently, cystatin C was proposed as a potential marker for kidney disease but this has not been studied thoroughly in Malaysia.  Glomerular Filtration Rate is the best method for measuring kidney function and is widely estimated using the Modification of Diet for Renal Disease equation. Another equation, the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration Creatinine equation was introduced in 2009. The new equation retained the precision and accuracy of the Modification of Diet for Renal Disease equation at GFR < 60ml/min/1.73m2, showed less bias and improved precision at GFR>60ml/min/1.73m2. In Asian countries, adding an ethnic coefficient to the equation enhanced its performance. In Malaysia, a multi-ethnic Asian population, the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation should be validated and the Glomerular Filtration Rate should be reported whenever serum creatinine is ordered. Reporting estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate will help diagnose patients who would have been

  17. Chronic Kidney Disease Screening Methods and Its Implication for Malaysia: An in Depth Review

    PubMed Central

    Almualm, Yasmin; Huri, Hasniza Zaman

    2015-01-01

    Chronic Kidney Disease has become a public health problem, imposing heath, social and human cost on societies worldwide. Chronic Kidney Disease remains asymptomatic till late stage when intervention cannot stop the progression of the disease. Therefore, there is an urgent need to detect the disease early. Despite the high prevalence of Chronic Kidney Disease in Malaysia, screening is still lacking behind. This review discusses the strengths and limitations of current screening methods for Chronic Kidney Disease from a Malaysian point of view. Diabetic Kidney Disease was chosen as focal point as Diabetes is the leading cause of Chronic Kidney Disease in Malaysia. Screening for Chronic Kidney Disease in Malaysia includes a urine test for albuminuria and a blood test for serum creatinine. Recent literature indicates that albuminuria is not always present in Diabetic Kidney Disease patients and serum creatinine is only raised after substantial kidney damage has occurred. Recently, cystatin C was proposed as a potential marker for kidney disease but this has not been studied thoroughly in Malaysia. Glomerular Filtration Rate is the best method for measuring kidney function and is widely estimated using the Modification of Diet for Renal Disease equation. Another equation, the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration Creatinine equation was introduced in 2009. The new equation retained the precision and accuracy of the Modification of Diet for Renal Disease equation at GFR < 60ml/min/1.73m2, showed less bias and improved precision at GFR>60ml/min/1.73m2. In Asian countries, adding an ethnic coefficient to the equation enhanced its performance. In Malaysia, a multi-ethnic Asian population, the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation should be validated and the Glomerular Filtration Rate should be reported whenever serum creatinine is ordered. Reporting estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate will help diagnose patients who would have been

  18. Mitochondria‐targeted antioxidant MitoQ reduced renal damage caused by ischemia‐reperfusion injury in rodent kidneys: Longitudinal observations of T 2‐weighted imaging and dynamic contrast‐enhanced MRI

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoge; Murphy, Michael P.; Xing, Wei; Wu, Huanhuan; Zhang, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effect of mitochondria‐targeted antioxidant MitoQ in reducing the severity of renal ischemia‐reperfusion injury (IRI) in rats using T2‐weighted imaging and dynamic contrast‐enhanced MRI (DCE‐MRI). Methods Ischemia‐reperfusion injury was induced by temporarily clamping the left renal artery. Rats were pretreated with MitoQ or saline. The MRI examination was performed before and after IRI (days 2, 5, 7, and 14). The T2‐weighted standardized signal intensity of the outer stripe of the outer medulla (OSOM) was measured. The unilateral renal clearance rate kcl was derived from DCE‐MRI. Histopathology was evaluated after the final MRI examination. Results The standardized signal intensity of the OSOM on IRI kidneys with MitoQ were lower than those with saline on days 5 and 7 (P = 0.004, P < 0.001, respectively). Kcl values of IRI kidneys with MitoQ were higher than those with saline at all time points (P = 0.002, P < 0.001, P = 0.001, P < 0.001). Histopathology showed that renal damage was the most predominant on the OSOM of IRI kidneys with saline, which was less obvious with MitoQ (P < 0.001). Conclusions These findings demonstrate that MitoQ can reduce the severity of renal damage in rodent IRI models using T2‐weighted imaging and DCE‐MRI. Magn Reson Med 79:1559–1667, 2018. © 2017 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. PMID:28608403

  19. Early tissue damage and microstructural reorganization predict disease severity in experimental epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Janz, Philipp; Schwaderlapp, Niels; Heining, Katharina; Häussler, Ute; Korvink, Jan G; von Elverfeldt, Dominik; Hennig, Jürgen; Egert, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE) is the most common focal epilepsy in adults and is often refractory to medication. So far, resection of the epileptogenic focus represents the only curative therapy. It is unknown whether pathological processes preceding epilepsy onset are indicators of later disease severity. Using longitudinal multi-modal MRI, we monitored hippocampal injury and tissue reorganization during epileptogenesis in a mouse mTLE model. The prognostic value of MRI biomarkers was assessed by retrospective correlations with pathological hallmarks Here, we show for the first time that the extent of early hippocampal neurodegeneration and progressive microstructural changes in the dentate gyrus translate to the severity of hippocampal sclerosis and seizure burden in chronic epilepsy. Moreover, we demonstrate that structural MRI biomarkers reflect the extent of sclerosis in human hippocampi. Our findings may allow an early prognosis of disease severity in mTLE before its first clinical manifestations, thus expanding the therapeutic window. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.25742.001 PMID:28746029

  20. Early (N170/M170) Face-Sensitivity Despite Right Lateral Occipital Brain Damage in Acquired Prosopagnosia

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Esther Alonso; Caharel, Stéphanie; Henson, Richard; Rossion, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    Compared to objects, pictures of faces elicit a larger early electromagnetic response at occipito-temporal sites on the human scalp, with an onset of 130 ms and a peak at about 170 ms. This N170 face effect is larger in the right than the left hemisphere and has been associated with the early categorization of the stimulus as a face. Here we tested whether this effect can be observed in the absence of some of the visual areas showing a preferential response to faces as typically identified in neuroimaging. Event-related potentials were recorded in response to faces, cars, and their phase-scrambled versions in a well-known brain-damaged case of prosopagnosia (PS). Despite the patient’s right inferior occipital gyrus lesion encompassing the most posterior cortical area showing preferential response to faces (“occipital face area”), we identified an early face-sensitive component over the right occipito-temporal hemisphere of the patient that was identified as the N170. A second experiment supported this conclusion, showing the typical N170 increase of latency and amplitude in response to inverted faces. In contrast, there was no N170 in the left hemisphere, where PS has a lesion to the middle fusiform gyrus and shows no evidence of face-preferential response in neuroimaging (no left “fusiform face area”). These results were replicated by a magnetoencephalographic investigation of the patient, disclosing a M170 component only in the right hemisphere. These observations indicate that face-preferential activation in the inferior occipital cortex is not necessary to elicit early visual responses associated with face perception (N170/M170) on the human scalp. These results further suggest that when the right inferior occipital cortex is damaged, the integrity of the middle fusiform gyrus and/or the superior temporal sulcus – two areas showing face-preferential responses in the patient’s right hemisphere – might be necessary to generate the N170 effect

  1. Early axonal damage and progressive myelin pathology define the kinetics of CNS histopathology in a mouse model of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Recks, Mascha S; Stormanns, Eva R; Bader, Jonas; Arnhold, Stefan; Addicks, Klaus; Kuerten, Stefanie

    2013-10-01

    Studies of MS histopathology are largely dependent on suitable animal models. While light microscopic analysis gives an overview of tissue pathology, it falls short in evaluating detailed changes in nerve fiber morphology. The ultrastructural data presented here and obtained from studies of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG):35-55-induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in C57BL/6 mice delineate that axonal damage and myelin pathology follow different kinetics in the disease course. While myelin pathology accumulated with disease progression, axonal damage coincided with the initial clinical disease symptoms and remained stable over time. This pattern applied both to irreversible axolysis and early axonal pathology. Notably, these histopathological patterns were reflected by the normal-appearing white matter (NAWM), suggesting that the NAWM is also in an active neurodegenerative state. The data underline the need for neuroprotection in MS and suggest the MOG model as a highly valuable tool for the assessment of different therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Early Liver and Kidney Dysfunction Associated with Occupational Exposure to Sub-Threshold Limit Value Levels of Benzene, Toluene, and Xylenes in Unleaded Petrol

    PubMed Central

    Neghab, Masoud; Hosseinzadeh, Kiamars; Hassanzadeh, Jafar

    2015-01-01

    Background Unleaded petrol contains significant amounts of monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, and xylenes (BTX). Toxic responses following occupational exposure to unleaded petrol have been evaluated only in limited studies. The main purpose of this study was to ascertain whether (or not) exposure to unleaded petrol, under normal working conditions, is associated with any hepatotoxic or nephrotoxic response. Methods This was a cross-sectional study in which 200 employees of Shiraz petrol stations with current exposure to unleaded petrol, as well as 200 unexposed employees, were investigated. Atmospheric concentrations of BTX were measured using standard methods. Additionally, urine and fasting blood samples were taken from individuals for urinalysis and routine biochemical tests of kidney and liver function. Results The geometric means of airborne concentrations of BTX were found to be 0.8 mg m−3, 1.4 mg m−3, and 2.8 mg m−3, respectively. Additionally, means of direct bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, blood urea and plasma creatinine were significantly higher in exposed individuals than in unexposed employees. Conversely, serum albumin, total protein, and serum concentrations of calcium and sodium were significantly lower in petrol station workers than in their unexposed counterparts. Conclusion The average exposure of petrol station workers to BTX did not exceed the current threshold limit values (TLVs) for these chemicals. However, evidence of subtle, subclinical and prepathologic early liver and kidney dysfunction was evident in exposed individuals. PMID:26929843

  3. Adenovirus Core Protein VII Protects the Viral Genome from a DNA Damage Response at Early Times after Infection▿

    PubMed Central

    Karen, Kasey A.; Hearing, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    Adenovirus has a linear, double-stranded DNA genome that is perceived by the cellular Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) DNA repair complex as a double-strand break. If unabated, MRN elicits a double-strand break repair response that blocks viral DNA replication and ligates the viral genomes into concatemers. There are two sets of early viral proteins that inhibit the MRN complex. The E1B-55K/E4-ORF6 complex recruits an E3 ubiquitin ligase and targets MRN proteins for proteasome-dependent degradation. The E4-ORF3 protein inhibits MRN through sequestration. The mechanism that prevents MRN recognition of the viral genome prior to the expression of these early proteins was previously unknown. Here we show a temporal correlation between the loss of viral core protein VII from the adenovirus genome and a gain of checkpoint signaling due to the double-strand break repair response. While checkpoint signaling corresponds to the recognition of the viral genome, core protein VII binding to and checkpoint signaling at viral genomes are largely mutually exclusive. Transcription is known to release protein VII from the genome, and the inhibition of transcription shows a decrease in checkpoint signaling. Finally, we show that the nuclease activity of Mre11 is dispensable for the inhibition of viral DNA replication during a DNA damage response. These results support a model involving the protection of the incoming viral genome from checkpoint signaling by core protein VII and suggest that the induction of an MRN-dependent DNA damage response may inhibit adenovirus replication by physically masking the origins of DNA replication rather than altering their integrity. PMID:21345950

  4. Pronounced Structural and Functional Damage in Early Adult Pediatric-Onset Multiple Sclerosis with No or Minimal Clinical Disability.

    PubMed

    Giorgio, Antonio; Zhang, Jian; Stromillo, Maria Laura; Rossi, Francesca; Battaglini, Marco; Nichelli, Lucia; Mortilla, Marzia; Portaccio, Emilio; Hakiki, Bahia; Amato, Maria Pia; De Stefano, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (POMS) may represent a model of vulnerability to damage occurring during a period of active maturation of the human brain. Whereas adaptive mechanisms seem to take place in the POMS brain in the short-medium term, natural history studies have shown that these patients reach irreversible disability, despite slower progression, at a significantly younger age than adult-onset MS (AOMS) patients. We tested for the first time whether significant brain alterations already occurred in POMS patients in their early adulthood and with no or minimal disability ( n  = 15) in comparison with age- and disability-matched AOMS patients ( n  = 14) and to normal controls (NC, n  = 20). We used a multimodal MRI approach by modeling, using FSL, voxelwise measures of microstructural integrity of white matter tracts and gray matter volumes with those of intra- and internetwork functional connectivity (FC) (analysis of variance, p  ≤ 0.01, corrected for multiple comparisons across space). POMS patients showed, when compared with both NC and AOMS patients, altered measures of diffusion tensor imaging (reduced fractional anisotropy and/or increased diffusivities) and higher probability of lesion occurrence in a clinically eloquent region for physical disability such as the posterior corona radiata. In addition, POMS patients showed, compared with the other two groups, reduced long-range FC, assessed from resting functional MRI, between default mode network and secondary visual network, whose interaction subserves important cognitive functions such as spatial attention and visual learning. Overall, this pattern of structural damage and brain connectivity disruption in early adult POMS patients with no or minimal clinical disability might explain their unfavorable clinical outcome in the long term.

  5. Green tea polyphenols alleviate early BBB damage during experimental focal cerebral ischemia through regulating tight junctions and PKCalpha signaling.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaobai; Wang, Zhenhua; Wang, Ping; Yu, Bo; Liu, Yunhui; Xue, Yixue

    2013-07-21

    It has been supposed that green tea polyphenols (GTPs) have neuroprotective effects on brain damage after brain ischemia in animal experiments. Little is known regarding GTPs' protective effects against the blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption after ischemic stroke. We investigated the effects of GTPs on the expression of claudin-5, occludin, and ZO-1, and the corresponding cellular mechanisms involved in the early stage of cerebral ischemia. Male Wistar rats were subjected to a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 0, 30, 60, and 120 min. GTPs (400 mg/kg/day) or vehicle was administered by intragastric gavage twice a day for 30 days prior to MCAO. At different time points, the expression of claudin-5, occludin, ZO-1, and PKCα signaling pathway in microvessel fragments of cerebral ischemic tissue were evaluated. GTPs reduced BBB permeability at 60 min and 120 min after ischemia as compared with the vehicle group. Transmission electron microscopy also revealed that GTPs could reverse the opening of tight junction (TJ) barrier at 60 min and 120 min after MACO. The decreased mRNA and protein expression levels of claudin-5, occludin, and ZO-1 in microvessel fragments of cerebral ischemic tissue were significantly prevented by treatment with GTPs at the same time points after ischemia in rats. Furthermore, GTPs could attenuate the increase in the expression levels of PKCα mRNA and protein caused by cerebral ischemia. These results demonstrate that GTPs may act as a potential neuroprotective agent against BBB damage at the early stage of focal cerebral ischemia through the regulation of TJ and PKCα signaling.

  6. Axonal damage and loss of connectivity in nigrostriatal and mesolimbic dopamine pathways in early Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Caminiti, Silvia Paola; Presotto, Luca; Baroncini, Damiano; Garibotto, Valentina; Moresco, Rosa Maria; Gianolli, Luigi; Volonté, Maria Antonietta; Antonini, Angelo; Perani, Daniela

    2017-01-01

    A progressive loss of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) is considered the main feature of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Recent neuropathological evidence however suggests that the axons of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system are the earliest target of α-synuclein accumulation in PD, thus the principal site for vulnerability. Whether this applies to in vivo PD, and also to the mesolimbic system has not been investigated yet. We used [ 11 C]FeCIT PET to measure presynaptic dopamine transporter (DAT) activity in both nigrostriatal and mesolimbic systems, in 36 early PD patients (mean disease duration in months ± SD 21.8 ± 10.7) and 14 healthy controls similar for age. We also performed anatomically-driven partial correlation analysis to evaluate possible changes in the connectivity within both the dopamine networks at an early clinical phase. In the nigrostriatal system, we found a severe DAT reduction in the afferents to the dorsal putamen (DPU) (η 2  = 0.84), whereas the SN was the less affected region (η 2  = 0.31). DAT activity in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the ventral striatum (VST) were also reduced in the patient group, but to a lesser degree (VST η 2  = 0.71 and VTA η 2  = 0.31). In the PD patients compared to the controls, there was a marked decrease in dopamine network connectivity between SN and DPU nodes, supporting the significant derangement in the nigrostriatal pathway. These results suggest that neurodegeneration in the dopamine pathways is initially more prominent in the afferent axons and more severe in the nigrostriatal system. Considering PD as a disconnection syndrome starting from the axons, it would justify neuroprotective interventions even if patients have already manifested clinical symptoms.

  7. Kidney transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... kidney Patient Instructions Kidney removal - ... pancreas transplantation. In: Townsend CM Jr, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, Mattox KL, eds. Sabiston Textbook of Surgery . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017: ...

  8. Kidney removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... the surgical cut is located. Recovery after a laparoscopic procedure is most often quicker, with less pain. Outlook (Prognosis) The outcome is most often good when a single kidney is removed. If both kidneys are removed, ...

  9. Kidney Quiz

    MedlinePlus

    ... NKF Online Communities Featured Story Want to save money on your prescriptions? Introducing a new discount card ... Events and Galas Spring Clinical Meetings KEEP Healthy - Free Kidney Health checks Your Kidneys and You Meetings ...

  10. Attenuation of early phase inflammation by cannabidiol prevents pain and nerve damage in rat osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Philpott, Holly T.; O'Brien, Melissa; McDougall, Jason J.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial joint disease, which includes joint degeneration, intermittent inflammation, and peripheral neuropathy. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a noneuphoria producing constituent of cannabis that has the potential to relieve pain. The aim of this study was to determine whether CBD is anti-nociceptive in OA, and whether inhibition of inflammation by CBD could prevent the development of OA pain and joint neuropathy. Osteoarthritis was induced in male Wistar rats (150-175 g) by intra-articular injection of sodium monoiodoacetate (MIA; 3 mg). On day 14 (end-stage OA), joint afferent mechanosensitivity was assessed using in vivo electrophysiology, whereas pain behaviour was measured by von Frey hair algesiometry and dynamic incapacitance. To investigate acute joint inflammation, blood flow and leukocyte trafficking were measured on day 1 after MIA. Joint nerve myelination was calculated by G-ratio analysis. The therapeutic and prophylactic effects of peripheral CBD (100-300 μg) were assessed. In end-stage OA, CBD dose-dependently decreased joint afferent firing rate, and increased withdrawal threshold and weight bearing (P < 0.0001; n = 8). Acute, transient joint inflammation was reduced by local CBD treatment (P < 0.0001; n = 6). Prophylactic administration of CBD prevented the development of MIA-induced joint pain at later time points (P < 0.0001; n = 8), and was also found to be neuroprotective (P < 0.05; n = 6-8). The data presented here indicate that local administration of CBD blocked OA pain. Prophylactic CBD treatment prevented the later development of pain and nerve damage in these OA joints. These findings suggest that CBD may be a safe, useful therapeutic for treating OA joint neuropathic pain. PMID:28885454

  11. Attenuation of early phase inflammation by cannabidiol prevents pain and nerve damage in rat osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Philpott, Holly T; OʼBrien, Melissa; McDougall, Jason J

    2017-12-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a multifactorial joint disease, which includes joint degeneration, intermittent inflammation, and peripheral neuropathy. Cannabidiol (CBD) is a noneuphoria producing constituent of cannabis that has the potential to relieve pain. The aim of this study was to determine whether CBD is anti-nociceptive in OA, and whether inhibition of inflammation by CBD could prevent the development of OA pain and joint neuropathy. Osteoarthritis was induced in male Wistar rats (150-175 g) by intra-articular injection of sodium monoiodoacetate (MIA; 3 mg). On day 14 (end-stage OA), joint afferent mechanosensitivity was assessed using in vivo electrophysiology, whereas pain behaviour was measured by von Frey hair algesiometry and dynamic incapacitance. To investigate acute joint inflammation, blood flow and leukocyte trafficking were measured on day 1 after MIA. Joint nerve myelination was calculated by G-ratio analysis. The therapeutic and prophylactic effects of peripheral CBD (100-300 μg) were assessed. In end-stage OA, CBD dose-dependently decreased joint afferent firing rate, and increased withdrawal threshold and weight bearing (P < 0.0001; n = 8). Acute, transient joint inflammation was reduced by local CBD treatment (P < 0.0001; n = 6). Prophylactic administration of CBD prevented the development of MIA-induced joint pain at later time points (P < 0.0001; n = 8), and was also found to be neuroprotective (P < 0.05; n = 6-8). The data presented here indicate that local administration of CBD blocked OA pain. Prophylactic CBD treatment prevented the later development of pain and nerve damage in these OA joints. These findings suggest that CBD may be a safe, useful therapeutic for treating OA joint neuropathic pain.

  12. Associations of Early Kidney Disease With Brain Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Cognitive Function in African Americans With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Freedman, Barry I; Sink, Kaycee M; Hugenschmidt, Christina E; Hughes, Timothy M; Williamson, Jeff D; Whitlow, Christopher T; Palmer, Nicholette D; Miller, Michael E; Lovato, Laura C; Xu, Jianzhao; Smith, S Carrie; Launer, Lenore J; Barzilay, Joshua I; Cohen, Robert M; Sullivan, Mark D; Bryan, R Nick; Wagner, Benjamin C; Bowden, Donald W; Maldjian, Joseph A; Divers, Jasmin

    2017-11-01

    Relationships between early kidney disease, neurocognitive function, and brain anatomy are poorly defined in African Americans with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Cross-sectional associations were assessed between cerebral anatomy and cognitive performance with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR) in African Americans with T2DM. African Americans with cognitive testing and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the African American-Diabetes Heart Study Memory in Diabetes (AA-DHS MIND; n=512; 480 with MRI) and Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) MIND (n=484; 104 with MRI) studies. eGFR (CKD-EPI creatinine equation), spot UACR. MRI-based cerebral white matter volume (WMV), gray matter volume (GMV), and white matter lesion volume; cognitive performance (Mini-Mental State Examination, Digit Symbol Coding, Stroop Test, and Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test). Multivariable models adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, scanner, intracranial volume, education, diabetes duration, hemoglobin A 1c concentration, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration, smoking, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease were used to test for associations between kidney phenotypes and the brain in each study; a meta-analysis was performed. Mean participant age was 60.1±7.9 (SD) years; diabetes duration, 12.1±7.7 years; hemoglobin A 1c concentration, 8.3%±1.7%; eGFR, 88.7±21.6mL/min/1.73m 2 ; and UACR, 119.2±336.4mg/g. In the fully adjusted meta-analysis, higher GMV associated with lower UACR (P<0.05), with a trend toward association with higher eGFR. Higher white matter lesion volume was associated with higher UACR (P<0.05) and lower eGFR (P<0.001). WMV was not associated with either kidney parameter. Higher UACR was associated with lower Digit Symbol Coding performance (P<0.001) and a trend toward association with higher Stroop interference; eGFR was not associated with cognitive tests. Cross

  13. Serum levels of NGAL and cystatin C as markers of early kidney dysfunction in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Voulgaris, Athanasios; Archontogeorgis, Kostas; Nena, Evangelia; Tsigalou, Christina; Xanthoudaki, Maria; Kouratzi, Maria; Tripsianis, Grigorios; Froudarakis, Marios; Steiropoulos, Paschalis

    2018-06-26

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) has been recently proposed as an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease. Cystatin C (Cyst C) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) are novel biomarkers for the earlier detection of latent kidney disease. The aim of the study was to assess serum Cyst C and NGAL levels in otherwise healthy OSAS patients and to explore possible associations with sleep parameters. Consecutive subjects (n = 96, 79.2% males), without known comorbidities, with symptoms suggestive of OSAS were included. All of them underwent polysomnography (PSG) and blood examination for the measurement of serum Cyst C and NGAL levels. Based on apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), subjects were classified into two groups: 32 controls and 64 OSAS patients, with no significant differences in terms of age (50.1 ± 11.7 vs 51 ± 12.2 years, p = 0.747) and BMI (33.9 ± 8.8 vs 35.9 ± 13.1 kg/m 2 , p = 0.449). Serum Cyst C and NGAL mean levels were higher in OSAS patients compared to those in controls (1155.2 ± 319.3 vs 966.8 ± 173 ng/ml, p = 0.001, and 43.7 ± 23.2 vs 35.6 ± 13.8 ng/ml, p = 0.035, respectively). After adjustment for age and BMI in OSAS patients, serum NGAL levels were associated with AHI (β = 0.341, p = 0.015) and minimum oxyhemoglobin saturation during sleep (β = - 0.275, p = 0.032), while serum Cyst C levels were associated with percentage of time with oxyhemoglobin saturation < 90% (β = 0.270, p = 0.043), average (β = - 0.308, p = 0.018), and minimum (β = - 0.410, p = 0.001) oxyhemoglobin saturation during sleep. Higher risk for latent kidney disease in otherwise healthy OSAS patients is indicated. Sleep hypoxia seems to be a significant contributor in the pathogenetic process of renal dysfunction in OSAS.

  14. Postconditioning effects of argon or xenon on early graft function in a porcine model of kidney autotransplantation.

    PubMed

    De Deken, J; Rex, S; Lerut, E; Martinet, W; Monbaliu, D; Pirenne, J; Jochmans, I

    2018-07-01

    Ischaemia-reperfusion injury is inevitable during renal transplantation and can lead to delayed graft function and primary non-function. Preconditioning, reconditioning and postconditioning with argon and xenon protects against renal ischaemia-reperfusion injury in rodent models. The hypothesis that postconditioning with argon or xenon inhalation would improve graft function in a porcine renal autotransplant model was tested. Pigs (n = 6 per group) underwent left nephrectomy after 60 min of warm ischaemia (renal artery and vein clamping). The procured kidney was autotransplanted in a separate procedure after 18 h of cold storage, immediately after a right nephrectomy. Upon reperfusion, pigs were randomized to inhalation of control gas (70 per cent nitrogen and 30 per cent oxygen), argon (70 per cent and 30 per cent oxygen) or xenon (70 per cent and 30 per cent oxygen) for 2 h. The primary outcome parameter was peak plasma creatinine; secondary outcome parameters included further markers of graft function (creatinine course, urine output), graft injury (aspartate aminotransferase, heart-type fatty acid-binding protein, histology), apoptosis and autophagy (western blot, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) staining), inflammatory mediators and markers of cell survival/growth (mRNA and tissue protein quantification), and animal survival. Results are presented as median (i.q.r.). ANOVA and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used where indicated. Peak plasma creatinine levels were similar between the groups: control 20·8 (16·4-23·1) mg/dl, argon 21·4 (17·1-24·9) mg/dl and xenon 19·4 (17·5-21·0) mg/dl (P = 0·607). Xenon was associated with an increase in autophagy and proapoptotic markers. Creatinine course, urine output, injury markers, histology, survival and inflammatory mediators were not affected by the intervention. Postconditioning with argon or xenon did not improve kidney graft function in this

  15. Early biomarkers of acute kidney failure after heart angiography or heart surgery in patients with acute coronary syndrome or acute heart failure.

    PubMed

    Torregrosa, Isidro; Montoliu, Carmina; Urios, Amparo; Elmlili, Nisrin; Puchades, María Jesús; Solís, Miguel Angel; Sanjuán, Rafael; Blasco, Maria Luisa; Ramos, Carmen; Tomás, Patricia; Ribes, José; Carratalá, Arturo; Juan, Isabel; Miguel, Alfonso

    2012-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication in cardiac surgery and coronary angiography, which worsens patients' prognosis. The diagnosis is based on the increase in serum creatinine, which is delayed. It is necessary to identify and validate new biomarkers that allow for early and effective interventions. To assess the sensitivity and specificity of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin in urine (uNGAL), interleukin-18 (IL-18) in urine and cystatin C in serum for the early detection of AKI in patients with acute coronary syndrome or heart failure, and who underwent cardiac surgery or catheterization. The study included 135 patients admitted to the intensive care unit for acute coronary syndrome or heart failure due to coronary or valvular pathology and who underwent coronary angiography or cardiac bypass surgery or valvular replacement. The biomarkers were determined 12 hours after surgery and serum creatinine was monitored during the next six days for the diagnosis of AKI. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) for NGAL was 0.983, and for cystatin C and IL-18 the AUCs were 0.869 and 0.727, respectively. At a cut-off of 31.9 ng/ml for uNGAL the sensitivity was 100% and the specificity was 91%. uNGAL is an early marker of AKI in patients with acute coronary syndrome or heart failure and undergoing cardiac surgery and coronary angiography, with a higher predictive value than cystatin C or IL-18.

  16. Stem cells in kidney regeneration.

    PubMed

    Yokote, Shinya; Yokoo, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Currently many efforts are being made to apply regenerative medicine to kidney diseases using several types of stem/progenitor cells, such as mesenchymal stem cells, renal stem/progenitor cells, embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells. Stem cells have the ability to repair injured organs and ameliorate damaged function. The strategy for kidney tissue repair is the recruitment of stem cells and soluble reparative factors to the kidney to elicit tissue repair and the induction of dedifferentiation of resident renal cells. On the other hand, where renal structure is totally disrupted, absolute kidney organ regeneration is needed to rebuild a whole functional kidney. In this review, we describe current advances in stem cell research for kidney tissue repair and de novo organ regeneration.

  17. Seismogeodetic monitoring techniques for tsunami and earthquake early warning and rapid assessment of structural damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haase, J. S.; Bock, Y.; Saunders, J. K.; Goldberg, D.; Restrepo, J. I.

    2016-12-01

    As part of an effort to promote the use of NASA-sponsored Earth science information for disaster risk reduction, real-time high-rate seismogeodetic data are being incorporated into early warning and structural monitoring systems. Seismogeodesy combines seismic acceleration and GPS displacement measurements using a tightly-coupled Kalman filter to provide absolute estimates of seismic acceleration, velocity and displacement. Traditionally, the monitoring of earthquakes and tsunamis has been based on seismic networks for estimating earthquake magnitude and slip, and tide gauges and deep-ocean buoys for direct measurement of tsunami waves. Real-time seismogeodetic observations at subduction zones allow for more robust and rapid magnitude and slip estimation that increase warning time in the near-source region. A NASA-funded effort to utilize GPS and seismogeodesy in NOAA's Tsunami Warning Centers in Alaska and Hawaii integrates new modules for picking, locating, and estimating magnitudes and moment tensors for earthquakes into the USGS earthworm environment at the TWCs. In a related project, NASA supports the transition of this research to seismogeodetic tools for disaster preparedness, specifically by implementing GPS and low-cost MEMS accelerometers for structural monitoring in partnership with earthquake engineers. Real-time high-rate seismogeodetic structural monitoring has been implemented on two structures. The first is a parking garage at the Autonomous University of Baja California Faculty of Medicine in Mexicali, not far from the rupture of the 2011 Mw 7.2 El Mayor Cucapah earthquake enabled through a UCMexus collaboration. The second is the 8-story Geisel Library at University of California, San Diego (UCSD). The system has also been installed for several proof-of-concept experiments at the UCSD Network for Earthquake Engineering Simulation (NEES) Large High Performance Outdoor Shake Table. We present MEMS-based seismogeodetic observations from the 10 June

  18. Hyperhomocysteinaemia as a potential marker of early renal function decline in middle-aged Asian people without chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Tak, Young Jin; Jeong, Dong Wook; Kim, Yun Jin; Lee, Sang Yeoup; Lee, Jeong Gyu; Song, Sang Heon; Cha, Kwang Soo; Kang, Yang Ho

    2016-02-01

    High levels of serum total homocysteine (tHcy), often observed in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients, are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. However, little is known about the relationship between tHcy and renal function in healthy individuals. We examined whether tHcy levels are related to renal function in Asian individuals without CKD. This cross-sectional study examined 2032 subjects, aged 40-64 years. Individuals with kidney diseases or other conditions that could affect tHcy were excluded. Renal function was determined by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) from levels of serum creatinine (sCr) and cystatin C. Age, tHcy, sCr, and cystatin C of the subjects were 54.1 ± 6.0 years, 9.5 (8.0-11.4) μmol/L, 0.81 ± 0.1 mg/dL, and 0.82 ± 0.1 mg/L, respectively. In a multiple linear regression analysis, tHcy was a significant independent determinant of sCr and cystatin C in men (β = 0.206 and β = 0.282, respectively) and women (β = 0.247 and β = 0.229, respectively). Highest tHcy levels were independently associated with increased cystatin C (>s1.10 mg/L) with an odds ratio (OR) of 5.00 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2.81-8.09] and decreased eGFR (<90 mL/min/1.73 m(2)) with an OR of 1.69 (95% CI 1.36-2.11) compared to tHcy levels in the 1st-3rd quartiles. Higher levels of tHcy are independently associated with sCr and cystatin C elevation. Our study suggests that tHcy levels may be influenced by renal function in Asian populations without CKD. Future studies are needed to define the role of tHcy in renal function.

  19. Kidney Disease Basics

    MedlinePlus

    ... My Kidneys Fail? Clinical Trials What Is Chronic Kidney Disease? Chronic kidney disease (CKD) means your kidneys ... work, be active, and enjoy life. Will my kidneys get better? Kidney disease is often “progressive”, which ...

  20. Tissue responses to low protracted doses of high let radiations or photons - Early and late damage relevant to radio-protective countermeasures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ainsworth, E. J.; Afzal, S. M. J.; Crouse, D. A.; Hanson, W. R.; Fry, R. J. M.

    1989-01-01

    Early and late murine tissue responses to single or fractionated low doses of heavy charged particles, fission-spectrum neutrons or gamma rays are considered. Damage to the hematopoietic system is emphasized, but results on acute lethality, host response to challenge with transplanted leukemia cells and life-shortening are presented. Recent studies on protection against early and late effects by aminothiols, prostaglandins, and other compounds are discussed.

  1. Early perception of stink bug damage in developing seeds of field-grown soybean induces chemical defences and reduces bug attack.

    PubMed

    Giacometti, Romina; Barneto, Jesica; Barriga, Lucia G; Sardoy, Pedro M; Balestrasse, Karina; Andrade, Andrea M; Pagano, Eduardo A; Alemano, Sergio G; Zavala, Jorge A

    2016-08-01

    Southern green stink bugs (Nezara viridula L.) invade field-grown soybean crops, where they feed on developing seeds and inject phytotoxic saliva, which causes yield reduction. Although leaf responses to herbivory are well studied, no information is available about the regulation of defences in seeds. This study demonstrated that mitogen-activated protein kinases MPK3, MPK4 and MPK6 are expressed and activated in developing seeds of field-grown soybean and regulate a defensive response after stink bug damage. Although 10-20 min after stink bug feeding on seeds induced the expression of MPK3, MPK6 and MPK4, only MPK6 was phosphorylated after damage. Herbivory induced an early peak of jasmonic acid (JA) accumulation and ethylene (ET) emission after 3 h in developing seeds, whereas salicylic acid (SA) was also induced early, and at increasing levels up to 72 h after damage. Damaged seeds upregulated defensive genes typically modulated by JA/ET or SA, which in turn reduced the activity of digestive enzymes in the gut of stink bugs. Induced seeds were less preferred by stink bugs. This study shows that stink bug damage induces seed defences, which is perceived early by MPKs that may activate defence metabolic pathways in developing seeds of field-grown soybean. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. [Long-term effects of early hyperbaric oxygen therapy on neonatal rats with hypoxic-ischemic brain damage].

    PubMed

    Liu, Mei-Na; Zhuang, Si-Qi; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Qin, Zhao-Yuan; Li, Xiao-Yu

    2006-06-01

    The application and therapeutic effect of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) in hypoxic-ischemic brain damage (HIBD) remains controversial. Previous studies have focused on the early pathological and biochemical outcomes and there is a lack of long-term functional evaluation. This study was designed to evaluate the long-term pathological and behavioral changes of early HBO therapy on neonatal rats with HIBD. Postnatal 7 days (PD7) rat pups were randomly assigned into Control (n=18), HIBD (n=17) and HBO treatment groups (n=17). HIBD was induced by ligating the left common carotid, followed by 2 hrs hypoxia exposure in the HIBD and HBO treatment groups. The Control group was sham-operated and was not subjected to hypoxia exposure. The HBO therapy with 2 atmosphere absolutes began 0.5-1 hr after HIBD in the HIBD treatment group, once daily for 2 days. The spatial learning and memory ability were evaluated by the Morris water maze test at PD37 to PD41. The morphological and histological changes of the brain, including brain weight, survival neurons, AchE positive unit and NOS positive neurons in hippocampal CA1 region, were detected at PD42. The rats in the HIBD group displayed significant morphological and histological deficits, as well as severe spatial learning and memory disability. In the Morris water maze test, the mean escape latency were longer (56.35 +/- 22.37 s vs 23.07 +/- 16.28 s; P < 0.05) and the probe time and probe length were shorter in the HIBD group (29.29 +/- 6.06 s vs 51.21 +/- 4.59 s and 548 +/- 92 cm vs 989 +/- 101 cm; both P < 0.05) compared with the Control group. The left brain weight in the HIBD group was lighter than that in the Control group (0.601 +/- 0.59 g vs 0.984 +/- 0.18 g; P < 0.05). The survival neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region were less (100 +/- 27/mm vs 183 +/- 8/mm; P < 0.05), as well as the AchE-positive unit and NOS-positive neurons (18.50 +/- 2.24% vs 27.50 +/- 2.18% and 19.25 +/- 4.33 vs 33.75 +/- 5.57 respectively; P < 0.05) after

  3. Expression of kidney injury molecule-1 (Kim-1) in relation to necrosis and apoptosis during the early stages of Cd-induced proximal tubule injury

    SciTech Connect

    Prozialeck, Walter C.; Edwards, Joshua R.; Lamar, Peter C.

    2009-08-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a nephrotoxic industrial and environmental pollutant that causes a generalized dysfunction of the proximal tubule. Kim-1 is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is normally not detectable in non-injured kidney, but is up-regulated and shed into the urine during the early stages of Cd-induced proximal tubule injury. The objective of the present study was to examine the relationship between the Cd-induced increase in Kim-1 expression and the onset of necrotic and apoptotic cell death in the proximal tubule. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 0.6 mg (5.36 {mu}mol) Cd/kg, subcutaneously, 5 days per week for up to 12more » weeks. Urine samples were analyzed for levels of Kim-1 and the enzymatic markers of cell death, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alpha-glutathione-S-transferase ({alpha}-GST). In addition, necrotic cells were specifically labeled by perfusing the kidneys in situ with ethidium homodimer using a procedure that has been recently developed and validated in the Prozialeck laboratory. Cryosections of the kidneys were also processed for the immunofluorescent visualization of Kim-1 and the identification of apoptotic cells by TUNEL labeling. Results showed that significant levels of Kim-1 began to appear in the urine after 6 weeks of Cd treatment, whereas the levels of total protein, {alpha}-GST and LDH were not increased until 8-12 weeks. Results of immunofluorescence labeling studies showed that after 6 weeks and 12 weeks, Kim-1 was expressed in the epithelial cells of the proximal tubule, but that there was no increase in the number of necrotic cells, and only a modest increase in the number of apoptotic cells at 12 weeks. These results indicate that the Cd-induced increase in Kim-1 expression occurs before the onset of necrosis and at a point where there is only a modest level of apoptosis in the proximal tubule.« less

  4. Urinary Tamm-Horsfall protein, albumin, vitamin D-binding protein, and retinol-binding protein as early biomarkers of chronic kidney disease in dogs.

    PubMed

    Chacar, Fernanda; Kogika, Márcia; Sanches, Talita R; Caragelasco, Douglas; Martorelli, Cínthia; Rodrigues, Camila; Capcha, Jose Manuel C; Chew, Dennis; Andrade, Lúcia

    2017-06-01

    Proteinuria is a marker and mediator of chronic kidney disease (CKD). In clinical practice, the urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio (UP/C) is of limited usefulness, because it indicates only the magnitude of proteinuria and not the origin of the loss (glomerular or tubular). The complete assessment of proteinuria includes quantitative and qualitative evaluations, both of which are required in order to optimize the therapy. In addition to measuring the UP/C, we performed SDS-PAGE and western blotting to determine the expression of albumin, vitamin D-binding protein (VDBP), retinol-binding protein (RBP), and Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) in urine samples of 49 dogs: healthy (control) dogs ( n  =   9); and dogs with CKD ( n  =   40), stratified by stage. In the dogs with stage 3 or 4 CKD, there was a predominance of tubular proteins. Neither VDBP nor RBP was observed in the urine of the control dogs. Among the dogs with stage 1 or 2 CKD, VDBP and RBP were detected in those without proteinuria or with borderline proteinuria. The expression of urinary albumin was significantly higher in the stage 4 group than in any other group ( P  ≤   0.01). In the stage 4 group, urinary THP was either undetectable or lower than in the control group ( P  ≤   0.01). In conclusion, urinary VDBP and RBP might act as early markers of kidney injury, and a decrease in urinary THP could be an indicator of CKD progression. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  5. Recurrence of IgA nephropathy after kidney transplantation in steroid continuation versus early steroid-withdrawal regimens: a retrospective analysis of the UNOS/OPTN database.

    PubMed

    Leeaphorn, Napat; Garg, Neetika; Khankin, Eliyahu V; Cardarelli, Francesca; Pavlakis, Martha

    2018-02-01

    In the past 20 years, there has been an increase in use of steroid-withdrawal regimens in kidney transplantation. However, steroid withdrawal may be associated with an increased risk of recurrent IgA nephropathy (IgAN). Using United Network of (Organ Sharing/Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network) UNOS/OPTN data, we analyzed adult patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) due to IgAN who received their first kidney transplant between 2000 and 2014. For the primary outcome, we used a competing risk analysis to compare the cumulative incidence of graft loss due to IgAN recurrence between early steroid-withdrawal (ESW) and steroid continuation groups. The secondary outcomes were patient survival and death-censored graft survival (DCGS). A total of 9690 recipients were included (2831 in ESW group and 6859 in steroid continuation group). In total, 1238 recipients experienced graft loss, of which 191 (15.43%) were due to IgAN recurrence. In multivariable analysis, steroid use was associated with a decreased risk of recurrence (subdistribution hazard ratio 0.666, 95% CI 0.482-0.921; P = 0.014). Patient survival and DCGS were not different between the two groups. In the USA, ESW in transplant for ESRD due to IgAN is associated with a higher risk of graft loss due to disease recurrence. Future prospective studies are warranted to further address which patients with IgAN would benefit from steroid continuation. © 2017 Steunstichting ESOT.

  6. Usefulness of Urine Output Criteria for Early Detection of Acute Kidney Injury after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation

    PubMed Central

    Shacham, Yacov; Rofe, Maytal; Leshem-Rubinow, Eran; Gal-Oz, Amir; Arbel, Yaron; Keren, Gad; Roth, Arie; Ben-Assa, Eyal; Halkin, Amir; Finkelstein, Ariel; Banai, Shmuel; Steinvil, Arie

    2014-01-01

    Background Previous studies demonstrated that acute kidney injury (AKI) following transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) is frequent and associated with adverse outcomes. However, these studies only applied the serum creatinine (sCr) criteria while ignoring the urine output criteria. We hypothesized that adding the urine output criteria might contribute to an earlier diagnosis of AKI. Methods We included 143 patients with severe aortic stenosis who underwent transfemoral TAVI between December 2012 and April 2014. Urine output was assessed hourly for at least 24 h following TAVI, and sCr was assessed at least daily until discharge. Based on the Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 (VARC-2), AKI was determined using both sCr and urine output criteria. We compared the incidence of AKI and time to AKI diagnosis based on these two methods. Results The mean age was 81 ± 6 years (range 61-94) and 56% were male. AKI occurred in 27 (19%) patients, 13 (9%) of whom had AKI defined by sCr criteria. Twenty (14%) patients had AKI defined by urine output criteria, only 6 of whom had AKI also defined by sCr criteria. The use of urine output criteria resulted in earlier identification of AKI (18 ± 4 vs. 64 ± 57 h, p = 0.02) and was associated with lower sCr elevation in patients having AKI defined by only urine output criteria (0.03 ± 0.12 vs. 0.37 ± 0.06 mg/dl, p < 0.001). Conclusion The use of the VARC-2 urine output criteria significantly increased the incidence of AKI and shortened the time to AKI diagnosis. PMID:25737679

  7. Rule-Mining for the Early Prediction of Chronic Kidney Disease Based on Metabolomics and Multi-Source Data

    PubMed Central

    Luck, Margaux; Bertho, Gildas; Bateson, Mathilde; Karras, Alexandre; Yartseva, Anastasia; Thervet, Eric

    2016-01-01

    1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR)-based metabolic profiling is very promising for the diagnostic of the stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Because of the high dimension of NMR spectra datasets and the complex mixture of metabolites in biological samples, the identification of discriminant biomarkers of a disease is challenging. None of the widely used chemometric methods in NMR metabolomics performs a local exhaustive exploration of the data. We developed a descriptive and easily understandable approach that searches for discriminant local phenomena using an original exhaustive rule-mining algorithm in order to predict two groups of patients: 1) patients having low to mild CKD stages with no renal failure and 2) patients having moderate to established CKD stages with renal failure. Our predictive algorithm explores the m-dimensional variable space to capture the local overdensities of the two groups of patients under the form of easily interpretable rules. Afterwards, a L2-penalized logistic regression on the discriminant rules was used to build predictive models of the CKD stages. We explored a complex multi-source dataset that included the clinical, demographic, clinical chemistry, renal pathology and urine metabolomic data of a cohort of 110 patients. Given this multi-source dataset and the complex nature of metabolomic data, we analyzed 1- and 2-dimensional rules in order to integrate the information carried by the interactions between the variables. The results indicated that our local algorithm is a valuable analytical method for the precise characterization of multivariate CKD stage profiles and as efficient as the classical global model using chi2 variable section with an approximately 70% of good classification level. The resulting predictive models predominantly identify urinary metabolites (such as 3-hydroxyisovalerate, carnitine, citrate, dimethylsulfone, creatinine and N-methylnicotinamide) as relevant variables indicating that CKD significantly

  8. Detecting Kidney and Urinary Tract Abnormalities Before Birth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Advocacy Donate A to Z Health Guide Detecting Kidney and Urinary Tract Abnormalities Before Birth Print Email ... in many cases. Do these blockages always cause kidney damage? No. Before birth, the mother's placenta performs ...

  9. Aqueous extract of Senecio candicans DC induce liver and kidney damage in a sub-chronic oral toxicity study in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Lakshmanan, Hariprasath; Raman, Jegadeesh; Pandian, Arjun; Kuppamuthu, Kumaresan; Nanjian, Raaman; Sabaratam, Vikineswary; Naidu, Murali

    2016-08-01

    Senecio candicans DC. (Asteraceae) is used as a remedy for gastric ulcer and stomach pain in the Nilgiris, district, Tamil Nadu. The present investigation was carried out to evaluate the sub-chronic toxicity of an aqueous extract of Senecio candicans (AESC) plant in Wistar albino rats. The study was conducted in consideration of the OECD 408 study design (Repeated Dose 90-Day Oral Toxicity Study in Rodents) and the extract was administered via gavage at doses of 250, 500 or 750 mg/kg body weight per day for 90-days. Hematological, biochemical parameters were determined on days 0, 30, 60 and 90 of administration. Animals were euthanized after 90 d treatment and its liver and kidney sections were taken for histological study. The results of sub-chronic study showed significant increase (P < 0.05) in serum uric acid, creatinine, aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALP) levels. Histological examination of liver showed mild mononuclear infiltration in the portal trait, enlarged nucleus around the central vein and mild loss of hepatocyte architecture in rats treated with 750 mg/kg of AESC. Histological examination of kidney showed focal interstitial fibrosis, crowding of glomeruli and mild hydropic change with hypercellular glomeruli in rats treated with 750 mg/kg of AESC. However, no remarkable histoarchitectural change in hepatocytes and glomeruli were observed in rats treated with lower concentrations (250 and 500 mg/kg b.w.) of AESC compared to control group animals. The no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of AESC in the present study was 500 mg/kg b.w. Signs of toxic effects are evident from the current study. Although AESC contains low concentrations of PA, findings from this study suggest that regular consumers of herbal remedies derived from this plant may develop kidney and liver toxicity. Further studies on the isolation and characterization of PAs are necessary to determine the safe dose level of the extract for therapeutic use

  10. ATM-dependent E2F1 accumulation in the nucleolus is an indicator of ribosomal stress in early response to DNA damage

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Ya-Qiong; An, Guo-Shun; Ni, Ju-Hua; Li, Shu-Yan; Jia, Hong-Ti

    2014-01-01

    The nucleolus plays a major role in ribosome biogenesis. Most genotoxic agents disrupt nucleolar structure and function, which results in the stabilization/activation of p53, inducing cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. Likewise, transcription factor E2F1 as a DNA damage responsive protein also plays roles in cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, or apoptosis in response to DNA damage through transcriptional response and protein–protein interaction. Furthermore, E2F1 is known to be involved in regulating rRNA transcription. However, how E2F1 displays in coordinating DNA damage and nucleolar stress is unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that ATM-dependent E2F1 accumulation in the nucleolus is a characteristic feature of nucleolar stress in early response to DNA damage. We found that at the early stage of DNA damage, E2F1 accumulation in the nucleolus was an ATM-dependent and a common event in p53-suficient and -deficient cells. Increased nucleolar E2F1 was sequestered by the nucleolar protein p14ARF, which repressed E2F1-dependent rRNA transcription initiation, and was coupled with S phase. Our data indicate that early accumulation of E2F1 in the nucleolus is an indicator for nucleolar stress and a component of ATM pathway, which presumably buffers elevation of E2F1 in the nucleoplasm and coordinates the diversifying mechanisms of E2F1 acts in cell cycle progression and apoptosis in early response to DNA damage. PMID:24675884

  11. ATM-dependent E2F1 accumulation in the nucleolus is an indicator of ribosomal stress in early response to DNA damage.

    PubMed

    Jin, Ya-Qiong; An, Guo-Shun; Ni, Ju-Hua; Li, Shu-Yan; Jia, Hong-Ti

    2014-01-01

    The nucleolus plays a major role in ribosome biogenesis. Most genotoxic agents disrupt nucleolar structure and function, which results in the stabilization/activation of p53, inducing cell cycle arrest or apoptosis. Likewise, transcription factor E2F1 as a DNA damage responsive protein also plays roles in cell cycle arrest, DNA repair, or apoptosis in response to DNA damage through transcriptional response and protein-protein interaction. Furthermore, E2F1 is known to be involved in regulating rRNA transcription. However, how E2F1 displays in coordinating DNA damage and nucleolar stress is unclear. In this study, we demonstrate that ATM-dependent E2F1 accumulation in the nucleolus is a characteristic feature of nucleolar stress in early response to DNA damage. We found that at the early stage of DNA damage, E2F1 accumulation in the nucleolus was an ATM-dependent and a common event in p53-suficient and -deficient cells. Increased nucleolar E2F1 was sequestered by the nucleolar protein p14ARF, which repressed E2F1-dependent rRNA transcription initiation, and was coupled with S phase. Our data indicate that early accumulation of E2F1 in the nucleolus is an indicator for nucleolar stress and a component of ATM pathway, which presumably buffers elevation of E2F1 in the nucleoplasm and coordinates the diversifying mechanisms of E2F1 acts in cell cycle progression and apoptosis in early response to DNA damage.

  12. Early corneal nerve damage and recovery following small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) and laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK).

    PubMed

    Mohamed-Noriega, Karim; Riau, Andri K; Lwin, Nyein C; Chaurasia, Shyam S; Tan, Donald T; Mehta, Jodhbir S

    2014-03-25

    We compared early corneal nerve changes after small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) and laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). A total of 12 rabbits underwent LASIK in one eye and SMILE in the fellow eye. Baseline and follow-up evaluations at 1, 2, and 4 weeks postoperatively were performed with in vivo confocal microscopy to evaluate 5 different areas within the treated zone: center, superior, inferior, nasal, and temporal. Cryosections of the corneas and whole mount of the extracted SMILE lenticules were analyzed with immunostaining of βIII-tubulin. One week after SMILE and LASIK, a decrease in nerve length and density was observed in all evaluated areas. A trend toward greater subbasal nerve length and density (SLD), more eyes with subbasal nerves (ESN), more eyes with subbasal nerves longer than 200 μm (SNL), and higher mean number of subbasal nerves by frame (NSN) in SMILE than in LASIK groups was observed at subsequent follow-up time points. Only the SMILE group showed a recovery of SLD, ESN, and NSN by week 4 (P > 0.05). A trend toward more eyes with sprouting subbasal nerves and greater mean number of sprouting nerves was observed in LASIK than in SMILE, indicating that more subbasal nerves were disrupted and undergoing regeneration after LASIK. Immunostaining at postoperative week 4 revealed a faster stromal nerve recovery in post-SMILE eyes compared to post-LASIK eyes. Our findings suggest that SMILE results in less nerve damage and faster nerve recovery than LASIK.

  13. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ reduced renal damage caused by ischemia-reperfusion injury in rodent kidneys: Longitudinal observations of T2 -weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoge; Murphy, Michael P; Xing, Wei; Wu, Huanhuan; Zhang, Rui; Sun, Haoran

    2018-03-01

    To investigate the effect of mitochondria-targeted antioxidant MitoQ in reducing the severity of renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in rats using T 2 -weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI). Ischemia-reperfusion injury was induced by temporarily clamping the left renal artery. Rats were pretreated with MitoQ or saline. The MRI examination was performed before and after IRI (days 2, 5, 7, and 14). The T 2 -weighted standardized signal intensity of the outer stripe of the outer medulla (OSOM) was measured. The unilateral renal clearance rate k cl was derived from DCE-MRI. Histopathology was evaluated after the final MRI examination. The standardized signal intensity of the OSOM on IRI kidneys with MitoQ were lower than those with saline on days 5 and 7 (P = 0.004, P < 0.001, respectively). K cl values of IRI kidneys with MitoQ were higher than those with saline at all time points (P = 0.002, P < 0.001, P = 0.001, P < 0.001). Histopathology showed that renal damage was the most predominant on the OSOM of IRI kidneys with saline, which was less obvious with MitoQ (P < 0.001). These findings demonstrate that MitoQ can reduce the severity of renal damage in rodent IRI models using T 2 -weighted imaging and DCE-MRI. Magn Reson Med 79:1559-1667, 2018. © 2017 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. © 2017 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  14. [Values of combination of urinary L-FABP and NGAL in early diagnosis of acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery in children].

    PubMed

    Tang, Rong; Ao, Xiang; Zhong, Yong; Wang, Rui-Ling; Zhou, Qiao-Ling

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the values of combination of urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) in early diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI) after cardiac surgery in children. A total of 97 children with congenital heart disease undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass surgery were enrolled. Serum and urine samples were collected before and after surgery. Levels of serum creatinine (Scr), urinary L-FABP, and urinary NGAL from AKI group (n=18) and non-AKI group (n=79) were measured, and the postoperative dynamic changes in these markers were compared between the two groups. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and the area under ROC curve (AUC) were used to assess the values of these markers alone or in combination in the prediction of postoperative AKI. The levels of urinary L-FABP and NGAL in the AKI group were significantly higher than those in the non-AKI group at 2 and 6 hours after surgery, and the changes in their concentrations were earlier than Scr. The AUCs of urinary L-FABP alone in predicting AKI at 2 and 6 hours after surgery were 0.921 and 0.896 respectively, and those of urinary NGAL alone were 0.908 and 0.928 respectively. Those of their combination were 0.942 and 0.929 respectively. Urinary L-FABP and NGAL significantly increase in the early stage of AKI after cardiac surgery in children, which are significantly earlier than the changes in Scr. They can be used to predict the occurrence of AKI in the early stage. A combination of the two biomarkers can further improve the accuracy of diagnosis.

  15. Mononuclear phagocyte subpopulations in the mouse kidney

    PubMed Central

    George, James F.; Lever, Jeremie M.

    2017-01-01

    Mononuclear phagocytes are the most common cells in the kidney associated with immunity and inflammation. Although the presence of these cells in the kidney has been known for decades, the study of mononuclear phagocytes in the context of kidney function and dysfunction is still at an early stage. The purpose of this review is to summarize the present knowledge regarding classification of these cells in the mouse kidney and to identify relevant questions that would further advance the field and potentially lead to new opportunities for treatment of acute kidney injury and other kidney diseases. PMID:28100500

  16. Mononuclear phagocyte subpopulations in the mouse kidney.

    PubMed

    George, James F; Lever, Jeremie M; Agarwal, Anupam

    2017-04-01

    Mononuclear phagocytes are the most common cells in the kidney associated with immunity and inflammation. Although the presence of these cells in the kidney has been known for decades, the study of mononuclear phagocytes in the context of kidney function and dysfunction is still at an early stage. The purpose of this review is to summarize the present knowledge regarding classification of these cells in the mouse kidney and to identify relevant questions that would further advance the field and potentially lead to new opportunities for treatment of acute kidney injury and other kidney diseases.

  17. [Paired kidneys in transplant].

    PubMed

    Regueiro López, Juan C; Leva Vallejo, Manuel; Prieto Castro, Rafael; Anglada Curado, Francisco; Vela Jiménez, Francisco; Ruiz García, Jesús

    2009-02-01

    Many factors affect the graft and patient survival on the renal transplant outcome. These factors depend so much of the recipient and donor. We accomplished a study trying to circumvent factors that depend on the donor. We checked the paired kidneys originating of a same donor cadaver. We examined the risk factors in the evolution and follow-up in 278 couples of kidney transplant. We describe their differences, significance, the graft and patient survival, their functionality in 3 and 5 years and the risk factors implicated in their function. We study immunogenic and no immunogenic variables, trying to explain the inferior results in the grafts that are established secondly. We regroup the paired kidneys in those that they did not show paired initial function within the same couple. The results yield a discreet deterioration in the graft and patient survival for second group establish, superior creatinina concentration, without obtaining statistical significance. The Cox regression study establishes the early rejection (inferior to three months) and DR incompatibility values like risk factors. This model of paired kidneys would be able to get close to best-suited form for risk factors analysis in kidney transplant from cadaver donors, if more patients examine themselves in the same way. The paired kidneys originating from the same donor do not show the same function in spite of sharing the same conditions of the donor and perioperative management.

  18. Ischemic acute kidney injury and klotho in renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Panah, Fatemeh; Ghorbanihaghjo, Amir; Argani, Hassan; Asadi Zarmehri, Maryam; Nazari Soltan Ahmad, Saeed

    2018-05-01

    Post-transplant ischemic acute kidney injury (AKI), secondary to ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI), is a major problem influencing on the short and long term graft and patient survival. Many molecular and cellular modifications are observed during IRI, for example, tissue damage result production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), cytokines, chemokines, and leukocytes recruitment which are activated by NF-κB (nuclear factor kappa B) signaling pathway. Therefore, inhibiting these processes can significantly protect renal parenchyma from tissue damage. Klotho protein, mainly produced in distal convoluted tubules (DCT), is an anti-senescence protein. There is increasing evidence to confirm a relationship between Klotho levels and renal allograft function. Many studies have also demonstrated that expression of the Klotho gene would be down regulated with IRI, so it will be used as an early biomarker for acute kidney injury after renal transplantation. Other studies suggest that Klotho may have a renoprotective effect for attenuating of kidney injury. In this review, we will discuss pathophysiology of IRI-induced acute kidney injury and its relation with klotho level in renal transplantation procedure. Copyright © 2018 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Diabetic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Merlin C; Brownlee, Michael; Susztak, Katalin; Sharma, Kumar; Jandeleit-Dahm, Karin A M; Zoungas, Sophia; Rossing, Peter; Groop, Per-Henrik; Cooper, Mark E

    2015-07-30

    The kidney is arguably the most important target of microvascular damage in diabetes. A substantial proportion of individuals with diabetes will develop kidney disease owing to their disease and/or other co-morbidity, including hypertension and ageing-related nephron loss. The presence and severity of chronic kidney disease (CKD) identify individuals who are at increased risk of adverse health outcomes and premature mortality. Consequently, preventing and managing CKD in patients with diabetes is now a key aim of their overall management. Intensive management of patients with diabetes includes controlling blood glucose levels and blood pressure as well as blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system; these approaches will reduce the incidence of diabetic kidney disease and slow its progression. Indeed, the major decline in the incidence of diabetic kidney disease (DKD) over the past 30 years and improved patient prognosis are largely attributable to improved diabetes care. However, there remains an unmet need for innovative treatment strategies to prevent, arrest, treat and reverse DKD. In this Primer, we summarize what is now known about the molecular pathogenesis of CKD in patients with diabetes and the key pathways and targets implicated in its progression. In addition, we discuss the current evidence for the prevention and management of DKD as well as the many controversies. Finally, we explore the opportunities to develop new interventions through urgently needed investment in dedicated and focused research. For an illustrated summary of this Primer, visit: http://go.nature.com/NKHDzg.

  20. Kidney Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    You have two kidneys. They are fist-sized organs on either side of your backbone above your waist. The tubes inside filter and ... blood, taking out waste products and making urine. Kidney cancer forms in the lining of tiny tubes ...

  1. Kidney biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... normal structure. What Abnormal Results Mean An abnormal result means there are changes in the kidney tissue. This may be due to: Infection Poor blood flow through the kidney Connective tissue diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus Other diseases that may be affecting the ...

  2. Kainate and metabolic perturbation mimicking spinal injury differentially contribute to early damage of locomotor networks in the in vitro neonatal rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Taccola, G; Margaryan, G; Mladinic, M; Nistri, A

    2008-08-13

    Acute spinal cord injury evolves rapidly to produce secondary damage even to initially spared areas. The result is loss of locomotion, rarely reversible in man. It is, therefore, important to understand the early pathophysiological processes which affect spinal locomotor networks. Regardless of their etiology, spinal lesions are believed to include combinatorial effects of excitotoxicity and severe stroke-like metabolic perturbations. To clarify the relative contribution by excitotoxicity and toxic metabolites to dysfunction of locomotor networks, spinal reflexes and intrinsic network rhythmicity, we used, as a model, the in vitro thoraco-lumbar spinal cord of the neonatal rat treated (1 h) with either kainate or a pathological medium (containing free radicals and hypoxic/aglycemic conditions), or their combination. After washout, electrophysiological responses were monitored for 24 h and cell damage analyzed histologically. Kainate suppressed fictive locomotion irreversibly, while it reversibly blocked neuronal excitability and intrinsic bursting induced by synaptic inhibition block. This result was associated with significant neuronal loss around the central canal. Combining kainate with the pathological medium evoked extensive, irreversible damage to the spinal cord. The pathological medium alone slowed down fictive locomotion and intrinsic bursting: these oscillatory patterns remained throughout without regaining their control properties. This phenomenon was associated with polysynaptic reflex depression and preferential damage to glial cells, while neurons were comparatively spared. Our model suggests distinct roles of excitotoxicity and metabolic dysfunction in the acute damage of locomotor networks, indicating that different strategies might be necessary to treat the various early components of acute spinal cord lesion.

  3. SMK-1/PPH-4.1–mediated silencing of the CHK-1 response to DNA damage in early C. elegans embryos

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seung-Hwan; Holway, Antonia H.; Wolff, Suzanne; Dillin, Andrew; Michael, W. Matthew

    2007-01-01

    During early embryogenesis in Caenorhabditis elegans, the ATL-1–CHK-1 (ataxia telangiectasia mutated and Rad3 related–Chk1) checkpoint controls the timing of cell division in the future germ line, or P lineage, of the animal. Activation of the CHK-1 pathway by its canonical stimulus DNA damage is actively suppressed in early embryos so that P lineage cell divisions may occur on schedule. We recently found that the rad-2 mutation alleviates this checkpoint silent DNA damage response and, by doing so, causes damage-dependent delays in early embryonic cell cycle progression and subsequent lethality. In this study, we report that mutations in the smk-1 gene cause the rad-2 phenotype. SMK-1 is a regulatory subunit of the PPH-4.1 (protein phosphatase 4) protein phosphatase, and we show that SMK-1 recruits PPH-4.1 to replicating chromatin, where it silences the CHK-1 response to DNA damage. These results identify the SMK-1–PPH-4.1 complex as a critical regulator of the CHK-1 pathway in a developmentally relevant context. PMID:17908915

  4. Acute kidney damage induced by low- and iso-osmolar contrast media in rats: Comparison study with physiologic MRI and histologic-gene examination.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chen-Jiang; Bao, Mei-Ling; Wang, Qing; Wang, Xiao-Ning; Liu, Xi-Sheng; Shi, Hai-Bin; Zhang, Yu-Dong

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the physiopathological effects of low- and iso-osmolar contrast media (CM) on renal function with physiologic MRI and histologic-gene examination. Forty-eight rats underwent time-course DWI and DCE-MRI at 3.0 Tesla (T) before and 5-15 min after exposure of CM or saline (Iop.370: 370 mgI/mL iopromide; Iod.320: 320 mgI/mL iodixanol; Iod.270: 270 mgI/mL iodixanol; 4 gI/kg body weight). Intrarenal viscosity was reflected by apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Renal physiologies were evaluated by DCE-derived glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal blood flow (RBF), and renal blood volume (RBV). Potential acute kidney injury (AKI) was determined by histology and the expression of kidney injury molecule 1 (Kim-1). Iop.370 mainly increased ADC in inner-medulla (△ADC IM : 12.3 ± 11.1%; P < 0.001). Iod.320 and Iod.270 mainly decreased ADC in outer-medulla (△ADC IM ; Iod.320: 16.8 ± 7.5%; Iod.270: 18.1 ± 9.5%; P < 0.001) and inner-medulla (△ADC IM ; Iod.320: 28.4 ± 9.3%; Iod.270: 30.3 ± 6.3%; P < 0.001). GFR, RBF and RBV were significantly decreased by Iod.320 (△GFR: 45.5 ± 24.1%; △RBF: 44.6 ± 19.0%; △RBV: 35.2 ± 10.1%; P < 0.001) and Iod.270 (33.2 ± 19.0%; 38.1 ± 15.6%; 30.1 ± 10.1%; P < 0.001), while rarely changed by Iop.370 and saline. Formation of vacuoles and increase in Kim-1 expression was prominently detected in group of Iod.320, while rarely in Iod.270 and Iop.370. Iso-osmolar iodixanol, given at high-dose, produced prominent AKI in nonhydrated rats. This renal dysfunction could be assessed noninvasively by physiologic MRI. 1 J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2017;45:291-302. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  5. Urine biomarkers of kidney injury among adolescents in Nicaragua, a region affected by an epidemic of chronic kidney disease of unknown aetiology

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Rubio, Oriana; Amador, Juan José; Kaufman, James S.; Weiner, Daniel E.; Parikh, Chirag R.; Khan, Usman; McClean, Michael D.; Laws, Rebecca L.; López-Pilarte, Damaris; Friedman, David J.; Kupferman, Joseph; Brooks, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    Background An epidemic of chronic kidney disease (CKD) of non-traditional aetiology has been recently recognized by health authorities as a public health priority in Central America. Previous studies have identified strenuous manual work, agricultural activities and residence at low altitude as potential risk factors; however, the aetiology remains unknown. Because individuals are frequently diagnosed with CKD in early adulthood, we measured biomarkers of kidney injury among adolescents in different regions of Nicaragua to assess whether kidney damage might be initiated during childhood. Methods Participants include 200 adolescents aged 12–18 years with no prior work history from four different schools in Nicaragua. The location of the school served as a proxy for environmental exposures and geographic locations were selected to represent a range of factors that have been associated with CKD in adults (e.g. altitude, primary industry and CKD mortality rates). Questionnaires, urine dipsticks and kidney injury biomarkers [interleukin-18, N-acetyl-d-glucosaminidase (NAG), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and albumin–creatinine ratio] were assessed. Biomarker concentrations were compared by school using linear regression models. Results Protein (3.5%) and glucose (1%) in urine measured by dipstick were rare and did not differ by school. Urine biomarkers of tubular kidney damage, particularly NGAL and NAG, showed higher concentrations in those schools and regions within Nicaragua that were defined a priori as having increased CKD risk. Painful urination was a frequent self-reported symptom. Conclusions Although interpretation of these urine biomarkers is limited because of the lack of population reference values, results suggest the possibility of early kidney damage prior to occupational exposures in these adolescents. PMID:26311057

  6. Expression of Human Complement Factor H Prevents Age-Related Macular Degeneration–Like Retina Damage and Kidney Abnormalities in Aged Cfh Knockout Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jin-Dong; Kelly, Una; Landowski, Michael; Toomey, Christopher B.; Groelle, Marybeth; Miller, Chelsey; Smith, Stephanie G.; Klingeborn, Mikael; Singhapricha, Terry; Jiang, Haixiang; Frank, Michael M.; Bowes Rickman, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Complement factor H (CFH) is an important regulatory protein in the alternative pathway of the complement system, and CFH polymorphisms increase the genetic risk of age-related macular degeneration dramatically. These same human CFH variants have also been associated with dense deposit disease. To mechanistically study the function of CFH in the pathogenesis of these diseases, we created transgenic mouse lines using human CFH bacterial artificial chromosomes expressing full-length human CFH variants and crossed these to Cfh knockout (Cfh−/−) mice. Human CFH protein inhibited cleavage of mouse complement component 3 and factor B in plasma and in retinal pigment epithelium/choroid/sclera, establishing that human CFH regulates activation of the mouse alternative pathway. One of the mouse lines, which express relatively higher levels of CFH, demonstrated functional and structural protection of the retina owing to the Cfh deletion. Impaired visual function, detected as a deficit in the scotopic electroretinographic response, was improved in this transgenic mouse line compared with Cfh−/− mice, and transgenics had a thicker outer nuclear layer and less sub–retinal pigment epithelium deposit accumulation. In addition, expression of human CFH also completely protected the mice from developing kidney abnormalities associated with loss of CFH. These humanized CFH mice present a valuable model for study of the molecular mechanisms of age-related macular degeneration and dense deposit disease and for testing therapeutic targets. PMID:25447048

  7. Keto-supplemented Low Protein Diet: A Valid Therapeutic Approach for Patients with Steroid-resistant Proteinuria during Early-stage Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Xie, H; Fang, M; Wang, K; Chen, J; Sun, W; Yang, L; Lin, H

    2016-04-01

    Low protein diets supplemented with keto acid (sLPD) are recommended for patients with stage 3-5 chronic kidney disease (CKD). This study assessed whether sLPD is beneficial for patients with steroid-resistant proteinuria during early-stage CKD. A 1-year randomized controlled trial was conducted from 2010 to 2012. In this study, 108 proteinuric patients who were steroid-resistant were assigned to a sLPD group (0.6 g/kg/d with 0.09 g/kg/d keto acids) or a normal protein diet group (NPD, 1.0 g/kg/d). Estimated dietary protein intake, urinary protein excretion, remission rate, renal function, nutritional status, and blood pressure were measured. Baseline characteristics were comparable between the sLPD group (47 patients) and the NPD group (49 patients). Urinary protein excretion significantly decreased in sLPD compared to NPD in months 6, 9, and 12 (P<0.05). Proteinuria reduction was higher in sLPD than in NPD (P<0.001) at the end of the study. Complete remission and partial remission rates were higher in sLPD than in NPD. Serum albumin and pre-albumin levels were higher in sLPD than in NPD in months 9 and 12 (P<0.05). Serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels declined more significantly in sLPD than in NPD (P<0.01) at the end of the study. There were no differences in nutritional status, renal function, hemoglobin, or blood pressure between the two groups. sLPD is both nutritionally safe and beneficial, providing nephroprotective effects for early-stage CKD patients with steroid-resistant proteinuria.

  8. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity predicts decline in renal function and cardiovascular events in early stages of chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hye Eun; Shin, Dong Il; Kim, Sung Jun; Koh, Eun Sil; Hwang, Hyeon Seok; Chung, Sungjin; Shin, Seok Joon

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the predictive capacity of the brachial-ankle aortic pulse wave velocity (baPWV), a marker of arterial stiffness, for the decline in renal function and for cardiovascular events in the early stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Two hundred forty-one patients who underwent a comprehensive check-up were included and were divided into two groups according to their estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR): patients with CKD categories G2, G3a and G3b (30 ≤ eGFR < 90 ml/min/1.73m(2), eGFR < 90 group; n=117) and those with eGFR ≥ 90 ml/min/1.73 m(2) (eGFR ≥ 90 group; n=124). The change in renal function, the eGFR change, was determined by the slope of eGFR against time. We analysed whether baPWV was associated with eGFR change or predicted cardiovascular events. baPWV was independently associated with eGFR change in a multivariate analysis of the total patients (β=-0.011, p=0.011) and remained significantly associated with eGFR change in a subgroup analysis of the eGFR < 90 group (β=-0.015, p=0.035). baPWV was independently associated with cardiovascular events (odds ratio=1.002, p=0.048) in the eGFR < 90 group, but not in the eGFR ≥ 90 group. The receiver operative characteristic curve analysis showed that 1,568 cm/sec was the cut-off value of baPWV for predicting CV events in the eGFR < 90 group (area under curve=0.691, p=0.03) CONCLUSIONS: In patients with early stages of CKD, baPWV was independently associated with the decline in renal function and short-term cardiovascular events.

  9. Stereotactic Ablative Body Radiation Therapy for Primary Kidney Cancer: A 3-Dimensional Conformal Technique Associated With Low Rates of Early Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Pham, Daniel, E-mail: daniel.pham@petermac.org; Department of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria; Thompson, Ann

    Purpose: To describe our 3-dimensional conformal planning approaches and report early toxicities with stereotactic body radiation therapy for the management of primary renal cell carcinoma. Methods and Materials: This is an analysis of a phase 1 trial of stereotactic body radiation therapy for primary inoperable renal cell carcinoma. A dose of 42 Gy/3 fractions was prescribed to targets ≥5 cm, whereas for <5 cm 26 Gy/1 fraction was used. All patients underwent a planning 4-dimensional CT to generate a planning target volume (PTV) from a 5-mm isotropic expansion of the internal target volume. Planning required a minimum of 8 fields prescribing to the minimummore » isodose surrounding the PTV. Intermediate dose spillage at 50% of the prescription dose (R50%) was measured to describe the dose gradient. Early toxicity (<6 months) was scored using the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events (v4.0). Results: From July 2012 to August 2013 a total of 20 patients (median age, 77 years) were recruited into a prospective clinical trial. Eleven patients underwent fractionated treatment and 9 patients a single fraction. For PTV targets <100 cm{sup 3} the median number of beams used was 8 (2 noncoplanar) to achieve an average R50% of 3.7. For PTV targets >100 cm{sup 3} the median beam number used was 10 (4 noncoplanar) for an average R50% value of 4.3. The R50% was inversely proportional to decreasing PTV volume (r=−0.62, P=.003) and increasing total beams used (r=−0.51, P=.022). Twelve of 20 patients (60%) suffered grade ≤2 early toxicity, whereas 8 of 20 patients (40%) were asymptomatic. Nausea, chest wall pain, and fatigue were the most common toxicities reported. Conclusion: A 3-dimensional conformal planning technique of 8-10 beams can be used to deliver highly tolerable stereotactic ablation to primary kidney targets with minimal early toxicities. Ongoing follow-up is currently in place to assess long-term toxicities and cancer control.« less

  10. Kidney (Renal) Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Kidney Failure Kidney failure, also known as renal failure, ... evaluated? How is kidney failure treated? What is kidney (renal) failure? The kidneys are designed to maintain ...

  11. Chronic Kidney Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Chronic Kidney Diseases KidsHealth / For Kids / Chronic Kidney Diseases What's ... re talking about your kidneys. What Are the Kidneys? Your kidneys are tucked under your lower ribs ...

  12. Amyloidosis and Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Solitary Kidney Your Kidneys & How They Work Amyloidosis & Kidney Disease What is amyloidosis? Amyloidosis is a rare ... the organs and tissues affected. What are the kidneys and what do they do? The kidneys are ...

  13. Diets containing salmon fillet delay development of high blood pressure and hyperfusion damage in kidneys in obese Zucker fa/fa rats.

    PubMed

    Vikøren, Linn A; Drotningsvik, Aslaug; Mwakimonga, Angela; Leh, Sabine; Mellgren, Gunnar; Gudbrandsen, Oddrun A

    2018-04-01

    Hypertension is the leading risk factor for cardiovascular and chronic renal diseases, affecting more than 1 billion people. Fish intake is inversely correlated with the prevalence of hypertension in several, but not all, studies, and intake of fish oil and fish proteins has shown promising potential to delay development of high blood pressure in rats. The effects of baked and raw salmon fillet intake on blood pressure and renal function were investigated in obese Zucker fa/fa rats, which spontaneously develop hypertension with proteinuria and renal failure. Rats were fed diets containing baked or raw salmon fillet in an amount corresponding to 25% of total protein from salmon and 75% of protein from casein, or casein as the sole protein source (control group) for 4 weeks. Results show lower blood pressure and lower urine concentrations of albumin and cystatin C (relative to creatinine) in salmon diet groups when compared to control group. Morphological examinations revealed less prominent hyperfusion damage in podocytes from rats fed diets containing baked or raw salmon when compared to control rats. In conclusion, diets containing baked or raw salmon fillet delayed the development of hypertension and protected against podocyte damage in obese Zucker fa/fa rats. Copyright © 2018 American Heart Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Combined heart-kidney transplantation in Mexic].

    PubMed

    Careaga-Reyna, Guillermo; Zetina-Tun, Hugo Jesús; Lezama-Urtecho, Carlos Alberto; Hernández-Domínguez, José Mariano; Santos-Caballero, Marlene

    In our country, heart and kidney transplantation is a novel option for treatment of combined terminal heart and kidney failure. This program began in 2012 for selected patients with documented terminal heart failure and structural kidney damage with renal failure. Description of cases: Between January 1, 2012 and April 30, 2016, we made 92 orthotopic heart transplantations. In five of these cases the heart transplantation was combined with kidney transplantation. There were three male and two female patients with a mean age 25.6 ± 5.2 years (range, 17-29). The patients improved their renal function and the heart transplantation was successful with an improved quality of life. One patient died from abdominal sepsis. The other patients are doing well. The combined heart-kidney transplantation is a safe and efficient procedure for patients with structural kidney and heart damage as a cause of terminal failure.

  15. Morphologic and functional alterations induced by low doses of mercuric chloride in the kidney OK cell line: ultrastructural evidence for an apoptotic mechanism of damage.

    PubMed

    Carranza-Rosales, Pilar; Said-Fernández, Salvador; Sepúlveda-Saavedra, Julio; Cruz-Vega, Delia E; Gandolfi, A Jay

    2005-06-01

    Mercury produces acute renal failure in experimental animal models, but the mechanism of tubular injury has not completely been clarified. There is an increased interest in the role of apoptosis in the pathogenesis of renal diseases that result primarily from injury to renal tubular epithelial cells. However, detailed studies of morpho-functional alterations induced by mercuric chloride in kidney cell lines are scarce. This work characterizes these alterations in OK cell cultures. Morphological alterations were profiled using light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and confocal microscopy, as well as mitochondrial functional assays in the cells exposed to low concentrations of HgCl2. At concentrations of 1 and 10 microM of HgCl2 there were no morphological or ultrastructural alterations, but the mitochondrial function (MTT assay) and intracellular ATP content was increased, especially at longer incubation times (6 and 9 h). At 15 microM HgCl2, both the mitochondrial activity and the endogenous ATP decreased significantly. At this concentration the OK cells rounded up, had increased number of cytoplasmic vacuoles, and detached from the cell monolayer. At 15 microM HgCl2 ultrastructural changes were characterized by dispersion of the ribosomes, dilatation of the cisterns of the rough endoplasmic reticulum, increase of number of cytoplasmic vacuoles, chromatin condensation, invaginations of the nuclear envelope, presence of cytoplasmic inclusion bodies, and alterations in the size and morphology of mitochondria. At 15 microM HgCl2 apoptotic signs included membrane blebbing, chromatin condensation, mitochondrial alterations, apoptotic bodies, and nuclear envelope rupture. Using confocal microscopy and the mitochondrial specific dye MitoTracker Red, it was possible to establish qualitative changes induced by mercury on the mitochondrial membrane potential after incubation of the cells for 6 and 9h with 15 microM HgCl2. This effect was not observed at short

  16. Matrix metalloproteinase-2-mediated occludin degradation and caveolin-1-mediated claudin-5 redistribution contribute to blood-brain barrier damage in early ischemic stroke stage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Jin, Xinchun; Liu, Ke J; Liu, Wenlan

    2012-02-29

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption occurs early enough to be within the thrombolytic time window, and this early ischemic BBB damage is closely associated with hemorrhagic transformation and thus emerging as a promising target for reducing the hemorrhagic complications of thrombolytic stroke therapy. However, the mechanisms underlying early ischemic BBB damage remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated the early molecular events of ischemic BBB damage using in vitro oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and in vivo rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) models. Exposure of bEND3 monolayer to OGD for 2 h significantly increased its permeability to FITC-labeled dextran and promoted the secretion of metalloproteinase-2 and -9 (MMP-2/9) and cytosolic translocation of caveolin-1 (Cav-1). This same OGD treatment also led to rapid degradation of tight junction protein occludin and dissociation of claudin-5 from the cytoskeleton, which contributed to OGD-induced endothelial barrier disruption. Using selective MMP-2/9 inhibitor SB-3CT (2-[[(4-phenoxyphenyl)sulfonyl]methyl]-thiirane) or their neutralizing antibodies or Cav-1 siRNA, we found that MMP-2 was the major enzyme mediating OGD-induced occludin degradation, while Cav-1 was responsible for claudin-5 redistribution. The interaction between Cav-1 and claudin-5 was further confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation. Consistent with these in vitro findings, we observed fluorescence tracer extravasation, increased gelatinolytic activity, and elevated interstitial MMP-2 levels in ischemic subcortical tissue after 2 h MCAO. Moreover, occludin protein loss and claudin-5 redistribution were detected in ischemic cerebromicrovessels. These data indicate that cerebral ischemia initiates two rapid parallel processes, MMP-2-mediated occludin degradation and Cav-1-mediated claudin-5 redistribution, to cause BBB disruption at early stroke stages relevant to acute thrombolysis.

  17. Matrix metalloproteinase-2-mediated occludin degradation and caveolin-1-mediated claudin-5 redistribution contribute to blood brain barrier damage in early ischemic stroke stage

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Jin, Xinchun; Liu, Ke J.; Liu, Wenlan

    2012-01-01

    Blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption occurs early enough to be within the thrombolytic time window, and this early ischemic BBB damage is closely associated with hemorrhagic transformation and thus emerging as a promising target for reducing the hemorrhagic complications of thrombolytic stroke therapy. However, the mechanisms underlying early ischemic BBB damage remain poorly understood. Here we investigated the early molecular events of ischemic BBB damage using in vitro oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and in vivo rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) models. Exposure of bEND3 monolayer to OGD for 2 h significantly increased its permeability to FITC-labeled dextran, and promoted the secretion of metalloproteinase-2 and 9 (MMP-2/9) and cytosolic translocation of caveolin-1 (Cav-1). This same OGD treatment also led to rapid degradation of tight junction protein occludin and dissociation of claudin-5 from the cytoskeleton, which contributed to OGD-induced endothelial barrier disruption. Using selective MMP-2/9 inhibitor SB-3CT or their neutralizing antibodies or Cav-1 siRNA, we found that MMP-2 was the major enzyme mediating OGD-induced occludin degradation, while Cav-1 was responsible for claudin-5 redistribution. The interaction between Cav-1 and claudin-5 was further confirmed by coimmunoprecipitation. Consistent with these in vitro findings, we observed fluorescence tracer extravasation, increased gelatinolytic activity and elevated interstitial MMP-2 levels in ischemic subcortical tissue after 2-h MCAO. Moreover, occludin protein loss and claudin-5 redistribution were detected in ischemic cerebromicrovessels. These data indicate that cerebral ischemia initiates two rapid parallel processes, MMP-2-mediated occludin degradation and Cav-1-mediated claudin-5 redistribution, to cause BBB disruption at early stroke stages relevant to acute thrombolysis. PMID:22378877

  18. Urinary L-FABP and its combination with urinary NGAL in early diagnosis of acute kidney injury after cardiac surgery in adult patients.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shang; Che, Miaolin; Xue, Song; Xie, Bo; Zhu, Mingli; Lu, Renhua; Zhang, Weimin; Qian, Jiaqi; Yan, Yucheng

    2013-02-01

    The early detection of acute kidney injury (AKI) may be become possible by several promising early biomarkers which may facilitate the early detection, differentiation and prognosis prediction of AKI. In this study, we investigated the value of urinary liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and their combination in predicting the occurrence and the severity of AKI following cardiac surgery. We prospectively followed 109 patients undergoing open heart surgery and identified 26 that developed AKI, defined as an increase in serum creatinine of ≥0.3 mg/dl or ≥150% of baseline creatinine. Serum creatinine (SCr), urinary L-FABP, and NGAL corrected by urine creatinine were tested pre-operation, at 0 hour and 2 hours post-operation. Each marker was assessed at each time point between patients with and without AKI. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and area under curves (AUC) were used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of urinary L-FABP, NGAL and their combination for predicting AKI. Patients were aged 63.0 ± 11.3 years, 66.1% were male and baseline SCr was 70.5 ± 19.1 umol/L. Of 109 patients, 26(23.9%) developed AKI (AKIN stage I, II and III were 46.2%, 34.6% and 19.2% separately). The levels of urinary L-FABP and NGAL were significantly higher in AKI patients than non-AKI patients at 0 hour and 2 hours postoperative. AUCs for L-FABP was 0.844 (sensitivity (ST) 0.846, specificity (SP) 0.819, cut-off (CO) 2226.50 μg/g Ucr) at 0 hours and 0.832 at 2 hours (ST 0.808, SP 0.747, CO 673.09 μg/g Ucr) while 0.866 for NGAL at 0 hours (ST 0.769, SP 0.819, CO 131.12 μg/g Ucr) and 0.871 at 2 hours (ST 0.808, SP 0.831, CO 33.73 μg/g Ucr) to predict AKI occurrence. Using a combination of L-FABP and NGAL analyzed at the same timepoint as above, we were able to obtain an AUC of 0.911-0.927, p < 0.001. Similar AUCs of 0.81-0.87 were found to predict AKI stage II-III. Urinary L-FABP and NGAL increased at an

  19. Protective effect and mechanism of action of saponins isolated from the seeds of gac (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.) against cisplatin-induced damage in LLC-PK1 kidney cells.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kiwon; Lee, Dahae; Yu, Jae Sik; Namgung, Hojin; Kang, Ki Sung; Kim, Ki Hyun

    2016-03-01

    This study was performed to investigate the renoprotective effect and mechanism of Momordicae Semen, gac seeds, against the cisplatin-induced damage in LLC-PK1 kidney cells. In order to identify the active components, three major saponins were isolated from extract of the gac seed, gypsogenin 3-O-β-d-galactopyranosyl(1→2)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→3)]-β-d-glucuronopyranoside (1), quillaic acid 3-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl(1→2)-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→3)]-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (2), and momordica saponin I (3). Compounds 1 and 2 ameliorated cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity up to 80% of the control value at both 5 and 25μM. Phosphorylation of MAPKs was decreased along cisplatin treatment after treatment with compounds 1 and 2. These results show that blocking the MAPKs signaling cascade plays a critical role in mediating the renoprotective effect of Momordicae Semen extract and compounds 1 and 2. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ecstasy induces reactive oxygen species, kidney water absorption and rhabdomyolysis in normal rats. Effect of N-acetylcysteine and Allopurinol in oxidative stress and muscle fiber damage

    PubMed Central

    de Bragança, Ana C.; Moreau, Regina L. M.; de Brito, Thales; Shimizu, Maria H. M.; Canale, Daniele; de Jesus, Denise A.; Silva, Ana M. G.; Gois, Pedro H.; Seguro, Antonio C.

    2017-01-01

    Background Ecstasy (Ec) use produces hyperthermia, excessive sweating, intense thirst, an inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion (SIADH) and a multisystemic toxicity due to oxidative stress (OS). Intense thirst induces high intake of pure water, which associated with SIADH, usually develops into acute hyponatremia (Hn). As Hn is induced rapidly, experiments to check if Ec acted directly on the Inner Medullary Collecting Ducts (IMCD) of rats were conducted. Rhabdomyolysis and OS were also studied because Ec is known to induce Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and tissue damage. To decrease OS, the antioxidant inhibitors N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and Allopurinol (Allo) were used. Methods Rats were maintained on a lithium (Li) diet to block the Vasopressin action before Ec innoculation. AQP2 (Aquaporin 2), ENaC (Epitheliun Sodium Channel) and NKCC2 (Sodium, Potassium, 2 Chloride) expression were determined by Western Blot in isolated IMCDs. The TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) and GSH (reduced form of Glutathione) were determined in the Ec group (6 rats injected with Ec-10mg/kg), in Ec+NAC groups (NAC 100mg/Kg/bw i.p.) and in Allo+Ec groups (Allo 50mg/Kg/i.p.). Results Enhanced AQP2 expression revealed that Ec increased water transporter expression, decreased by Li diet, but the expression of the tubular transporters did not change. The Ec, Ec+NAC and Allo+Ec results showed that Ec increased TBARS and decreased GSH, showing evidence of ROS occurrence, which was protected by NAC and Allo. Rhabdomyolysis was only protected by Allo. Conclusion Results showed that Ec induced an increase in AQP2 expression, evidencing another mechanism that might contribute to cause rapid hyponatremia. In addition, they showed that NAC and Allo protected against OS, but only Allo decreased rhabdomyolysis and hyperthermia. PMID:28678861

  1. Knowledge, attitudes and practices of hypertensive patients towards prevention and early detection of chronic kidney disease: a cross sectional study from Palestine.

    PubMed

    Sa'adeh, Hala H; Darwazeh, Razan N; Khalil, Amani A; Zyoud, Sa'ed H

    2018-01-01

    Hypertension is the second most common cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Therefore, the aims of the study were to assess the knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of hypertensive patients towards prevention and early detection of CKD, and to determine the clinical and socio-demographic factors, which affect the KAP regarding prevention of CKD. A cross-sectional study was held using the CKD screening Index to assess the KAP of 374 hypertensive patients who were selected from multiple primary healthcare centers in Nablus, Palestine. The CKD Screening Index is formed of three scales. First, the knowledge scale was a dichotomous scale of 30 items, while the attitude scale used 5-point Likert-type scale for 18 items and finally the practice scale was measured using 4-point Likert-type scale for 12 items. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the association between clinical and socio-demographic factors and practices. In total, 374 hypertensive patients participated in the study. The mean age of participants was 59.14 ± 10.4 years, (range 26-85). The median (interquartile range) of the knowledge, attitude, and practice scores of hypertensive patients towards prevention and early detection of CKD were 20 (16-23), 69 (65-72), and 39 (36-42), respectively. In multiple linear regression analysis, patients age < 65 years ( p  < 0.001) and patients with high education level ( p  = 0.009) were the only factors significantly associated with higher knowledge scores. Additionally, patients age < 65 years ( p  = 0.007), patients with high income ( p  = 0.005), and patients with high knowledge score ( p  < 0.001) were the only factors significantly associated with higher attitude scores. Furthermore, regression analysis showed that patients with higher total knowledge ( p  = 0.001) as well as higher total attitudes scores towards CKD prevention ( p  < 0.001), male gender ( p  = 0.048), and patients with

  2. Analysis of spatiotemporal metabolomic dynamics for sensitively monitoring biological alterations in cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Irie, Miho; Hayakawa, Eisuke; Fujimura, Yoshinori; Honda, Youhei; Setoyama, Daiki; Wariishi, Hiroyuki; Hyodo, Fuminori; Miura, Daisuke

    2018-01-29

    Clinical application of the major anticancer drug, cisplatin, is limited by severe side effects, especially acute kidney injury (AKI) caused by nephrotoxicity. The detailed metabolic mechanism is still largely unknown. Here, we used an integrated technique combining mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to visualize the diverse spatiotemporal metabolic dynamics in the mouse kidney after cisplatin dosing. Biological responses to cisplatin was more sensitively detected within 24 h as a metabolic alteration, which is much earlier than possible with the conventional clinical chemistry method of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) measurement. Region-specific changes (e.g., medulla and cortex) in metabolites related to DNA damage and energy generation were observed over the 72-h exposure period. Therefore, this metabolomics approach may become a novel strategy for elucidating early renal responses to cisplatin, prior to the detection of kidney damage evaluated by conventional method. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. MicroRNAs and Drug-induced Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Pavkovic, Mira; Vaidya, Vishal S.

    2016-01-01

    Drug-induced kidney injury (DIKI) is a severe complication in hospitalized patients associated with higher probabilities of developing progressive chronic kidney disease or end-stage renal diseases. Furthermore, DIKI is a problem during preclinical and clinical phases of drug development leading to high rates of project terminations. Understanding the molecular perturbations caused by DIKI would pave the way for a new class of therapeutics to mitigate the damage. Yet, another approach to ameliorate DIKI is identifying sensitive and specific translational biomarkers that outperform the current diagnostic analytes like serum creatinine and facilitate early diagnosis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of non-coding RNAs, are increasingly being recognized to have a two-pronged approach towards DIKI management: 1) miRNAs have a regulatory role in gene expression and signaling pathways thereby making them novel interventional targets and 2) miRNAs enable diagnosis and prognosis of DIKI because of their stable presence in biofluids. In this review, apart from summarizing the literature on miRNAs in DIKI, we report small RNA sequencing results showing miRNA expression profiles at baseline in normal kidney samples from mice and humans. Additionally, we also compared the miRNA expression in biopsies of normal human kidneys to patients with acute tubular necrosis, and found 76 miRNAs significantly downregulated and 47 miRNAs upregulated (FDR adjusted p<0.05, +/−2-fold change). In summary, we highlight the transformative potential of miRNAs in therapeutics and translational medicine with a focus on drug-induced kidney damage. PMID:27126472

  4. The Effect of Early Intervention and Rehabilitation in the Expression of Aquaporin-4; and Ultrastructure Changes on Rat's Offspring's Damaged Brain Caused by Intrauterine Infection

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, Kumar; Xiangying, Kong

    2015-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of early intervention and rehabilitation in the expression of aquaporin-4 and ultrastructure changes on cerebral palsy pups model induced by intrauterine infection. Methods 20 pregnant Wistar rats were consecutively injected with lipopolysaccharide intraperitoneally. 60 Pups born from lipopolysaccharide group were randomly divided into intervention group (n=30) and non-intervention group (n=30); intervention group further divided into early intervention and rehabilitation group (n=10), acupuncture group (n=10) and consolidate group (n=10). Another 5 pregnant rats were injected with normal saline intraperitoneally; 30 pups born from the normal saline group were taken as control group. The intervention group received early intervention, rehabilitation and acupuncture treatment. The motor functions of all pups were assessed via suspension test and modified BBB locomotor score. Aquaporin-4 expression in brain tissue was studied through immunohistochemical and western-blot analysis. Ultrastructure changes in damaged brain and control group were studied electron-microscopically. Results The scores of suspension test and modified BBB locomotor test were significantly higher in the control group than the intervention and non intervention group (p<0.01); higher in the intervention group than the non-intervention group (p<0.01). The expression of Aquaporin-4 was lower in intervention and non intervention group than in the control group (p<0.01); also lower in non-intervention group than the intervention group (p<0.01). Marked changes were observed in ultrastructure of cortex and hippocampus CAI in brain damaged group. Conclusion Early intervention and rehabilitation training can improve the motor function in offspring with brain injury and reduce the expression of aquaporin-4 in damaged brain. PMID:26279808

  5. [Effect of early intervention with heparin on function of coagulopathy, liver and kidney in rats with exertional heatstroke under the ambient air of high temperature and low humidity].

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Wei, Yuying; Zhang, Xiangrong; Li, Xinyu

    2018-03-01

    To explore the effects of early intervention with heparin on function of coagulopathy, liver and kidney as well as the prognosis in rats with exertional heatstroke (EHS) under the ambient air of high temperature and low humidity. 108 healthy SPF male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into normal temperature control group, EHS + normal saline (NS) group and EHS + heparin group. Of which 54 rats were collected for survival analysis (18 rats in each group), the weight change and 8-hour survival rate were observed, and Kaplan-Meier survival curves were drawn. Other 54 rats were collected for intervention experiment, the rats in each group were subdivided into 0, 1, 2 hours subgroups according to the time points of intervention with heparin after model reproduction, with 6 rats in each subgroup. The rats were placed in an artificial experiment cabin with northwest special environment, and the temperature and the relative humidity were (25.0±1.0) centigrade and (35±5)%, respectively, in normal temperature control group, and the rats were not treated in the cabin. The rats in EHS + NS group and EHS + heparin group kept running in the cabin which temperature and relative humidity were set at (43.0±0.5) centigrade and (35±5)% until the anus temperature of rats reached 43.0 centigrade, and then the rats were placed in room temperature. The rats were injected with 1 mL/kg NS or 250 U/kg heparin sodium injection through their caudal veins at 0, 1, and 2 hours, respectively, and then the blood was collected after 1.5 hours to determine the biochemical parameters including coagulation, liver and kidney as well as platelet count (PLT). (1) The weight loss of EHS + NS group and EHS + heparin group was more significant than that of normal temperature control group (g: 8.28±1.41, 8.39±1.38 vs. 2.06±1.06, both P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference between EHS + NS group and EHS + heparin group. (2) As the time went on after modeling, serum creatinine

  6. What I Need to Know about Living with Kidney Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... kidney failure treatment options early. Three treatment options filter your blood— hemodialysis, peritoneal dialysis, and kidney transplant. ... daily life. Hemodialysis Hemodialysis is a treatment to filter wastes and extra water from your blood. A ...

  7. Kidney Stones (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Kidney Stones KidsHealth / For Parents / Kidney Stones What's in ... other treatments to help remove the stones. How Kidney Stones Form It's the kidneys' job to remove ...

  8. Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Donate Now Give Monthly Give In Honor Chronic kidney disease (CKD) www.kidneyfund.org > Kidney Disease > Chronic ... Kidney-friendly diet for CKD What causes chronic kidney disease (CKD)? Anyone can get CKD. Some people ...

  9. About Chronic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Donate A to Z Health Guide About Chronic Kidney Disease Tweet Share Print Email Chronic kidney disease ( ... about Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) What is chronic kidney disease (CKD)? Chronic kidney disease includes conditions that ...

  10. Nephrectomy (Kidney Removal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... nephrectomy is needed because of other kidney diseases. Kidney function Most people have two kidneys — fist-sized ... and the disease that prompted the surgery? Monitoring kidney function Most people can function well with only ...

  11. Kidney disease - resources

    MedlinePlus

    Resources - kidney disease ... The following organizations are good resources for information on kidney disease: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disease -- www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/kidney- ...

  12. Injury - kidney and ureter

    MedlinePlus

    ... injury of the kidney; Bruised kidney; Ureteral injury; Pre-renal failure - injury, Post-renal failure - injury; Kidney ... or falling blood pressure Signs of kidney failure Tests that may be done include: Abdominal CT scan ...

  13. Effects from early planting of late-maturing sunflowers on damage from primary insect pests in the United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Delayed planting is recommended to reduce damage from sunflower insect pests in the United States, including the sunflower moth, Homoeosoma electellum (Hulst) and banded sunflower moth, Cochylis hospes Walsingham. However, in some locations, planting earlier or growing later-maturing hybrids could i...

  14. Impact of an Early Invasive Strategy versus Conservative Strategy for Unstable Angina and Non-ST Elevation Acute Coronary Syndrome in Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Catriona; Nitsch, Dorothea; Lee, Jasmine; Fogarty, Damian; Sharpe, Claire C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinical practice guidelines support an early invasive approach after NSTE-ACS in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). There is no direct randomised controlled trial evidence in the CKD population, and whether the benefit of an early invasive approach is maintained across the spectrum of severity of CKD remains controversial. Methods We conducted a systematic review to evaluate the associatio