Paul, Julie A; Yount, Susan M; Breman, Rachel Blankstein; LeClair, Melissa; Keiran, Diane M; Landry, Nannette; Dever, Kimberly
Professional maternity care organizations within the United States are aligned in the goal to prevent the first cesarean birth in nulliparous women with a term, singleton, vertex fetus. Currently, one in 3 women are at risk for having a cesarean birth. The most common reason for cesarean in the United States is labor dystocia. The evidence supports delaying admission to the birthing unit until active labor is established, thereby minimizing the inadvertent diagnosis of labor dystocia. Providers are familiar with the rationale supporting delayed admission to the birthing unit until active labor is established; however, there is very little evidence on how to effectively promote this delay. Provider apprehension and the lack of early labor support are challenges to sending women home to await the onset of active labor. Maternal anxiety, fear, pain, and unpreparedness also play a part in this reluctance. To address these obstacles, South Shore Hospital created an early labor lounge with stations aimed at instilling confidence in the birth team, promoting teamwork, facilitating relaxation, and reducing anxiety for laboring women. A literature review focusing on women's perceptions of promoting admission in active labor, maternal anxiety, and nonpharmacologic strategies for managing early labor are discussed within the context of the creation, implementation, and evaluation of an early labor lounge. © 2017 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.
Gibson, Mary E
Fear of pain often overshadows childbirth, and each woman must decide whether to receive anesthesia to combat labor pain. Historically, this choice resulted in unintended consequences and marked the beginnings of medical interventions in labor and birth. The purpose of this article is to trace the use of anesthesia in childbirth from the mid-19th to the mid-20th centuries and to explore its influence on childbearing women and nurses. Copyright © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Matland, Marc A.
This articles summarizes the National Planning Association's (NPA) experience in its initial efforts to develop an early warning system to anticipate job openings generated in local communities by large Federal procurement contracts. (WL)
Early labor poses challenges for women and their health care providers. Qualitative research shows that women may have a hard time determining when labor begins and when to seek care, are unprepared for the realities of this part of labor, find it difficult to manage early labor at home, and often desire admission before active labor. Yet a primary clinical management goal in early labor is the delay of admission until active labor. This is based on evidence that admission before active labor is associated with higher rates of cesarean birth and interventions such as oxytocin augmentation and epidural analgesia. The reasons for the higher rates of intervention are not known, but may include the effect of the hospital environment, inherent problems with the labor, misdiagnosis of active labor, provider impatience, and institutional policies not compatible with the care of women in early labor. Programs to decrease early admission have had mixed results. Thus, a tension exists between the goal of delaying admission until active labor in order to decrease the incidence of unnecessary interventions and women's difficulty with managing this part of labor at home. In this case report, the midwife provides a significant amount of care and support before admission through phone calls and outpatient visits; however, admission occurred prior to active labor. Supportive care continued in the hospital, and the labor and birth occurred with little intervention. Strategies that can be used to optimize the management and experience of early labor are presented. © 2014 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.
Angle, Pamela J; Kurtz Landy, Christine; Djordjevic, Jasmine; Barrett, Jon; Kibbe, Alanna; Sriparamananthan, Saiena; Lee, Yuna; Hamata, Lydia; Zaki, Pearl; Kiss, Alex
The Angle Labor Pain Questionnaire (A-LPQ) is a new, 22-item multidimensional psychometric questionnaire that measures the 5 most important dimensions of women's childbirth pain experiences using 5 subscales: The Enormity of the Pain, Fear/Anxiety, Uterine Contraction Pain, Birthing Pain, and Back Pain/Long Haul. Previous work showed that the A-LPQ has overall good psychometric properties and performance during early active labor in women without pain relief. The current study assessed the tool's sensitivity to change during initiation of labor epidural analgesia with the standardized response mean (SRM, primary outcome). Two versions of the A-LPQ were administered once, in each of 2 test sessions, by the same trained interviewer during early active labor. The sequence of administration was randomized (ie, standard question order version [Test 1] followed by mixed version [Test 2] or vice versa). Test 1 was completed before epidural insertion; Test 2 commenced 20 to 30 minutes after the test dose. Providers assessed/treated pain independently of the study. Sensitivity to change was assessed using SRMs, Cohen's d, and paired t tests. Overall pain intensity was concurrently examined using Numeric Rating Scale and the Verbal Rating Scale (VRS); coping was assessed with the Pain Mastery Scale. Changes in pain were measured with the Patient Global Impression of Change Scale. Internal consistency was assessed with Cronbach's α. Concurrent validity with other tools was assessed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. A total of 51 complete datasets were analyzed. Most women reported moderate (63%, 32/51) or severe (18%, 9/51) baseline pain on VRS scores during Test 1; 29% (15/51) reported mild pain, and 6% (3/51) reported moderate pain during Test 2. Approximately 90% (46/51) of women reported much or very much improved pain at the end of testing. Cronbach's α for A-LPQ summary scores was excellent (0.94) and ranged from 0.78 (acceptable) to 0.92 (excellent) for
Warren, John R.; Sweeney, Megan M.; Hauser, Robert M.; Ho, Jeong-Hwa
Objectives. We examined the extent to which involuntary job loss, exposure to “bad jobs,” and labor union membership across the life course are associated with the risk of early retirement. Methods. Using data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, a large (N = 8,609) sample of men and women who graduated from high school in 1957, we estimated discrete-time event history models for the transition to first retirement through age 65. We estimated models separately for men and women. Results. We found that experience of involuntary job loss and exposure to bad jobs are associated with a lower risk of retiring before age 65, whereas labor union membership is associated with a higher likelihood of early retirement. These relationships are stronger for men than for women and are mediated to some extent by pre-retirement differences in pension eligibility, wealth, job characteristics, and health. Discussion. Results provide some support for hypotheses derived from theories of cumulative stratification, suggesting that earlier employment experiences should influence retirement outcomes indirectly through later-life characteristics. However, midlife employment experiences remain associated with earlier retirement, net of more temporally proximate correlates, highlighting the need for further theorization and empirical evaluation of the mechanisms through which increasingly common employment experiences influence the age at which older Americans retire. PMID:21310772
Bouzid, A; Kehila, M; Trabelsi, H; Abouda, H S; Ben Hmid, R; Chanoufi, M B
To evaluate discrimination of clinical parameters and ultrasound examination to differentiate "false labor" and "true labor". In a prospective study during a period of 6 months, a total of 178 patients in term (37-41 weeks) consulting our obstetric unit for uterine contraction, were enrolled. Patients were examined separately by a midwife and a resident and separated into "true labor group" and "false labor group". The clinical characteristics of true versus false labor patients were compared. ROC curves were developed to determine an optimal cervical length and uterocervical angle for prediction of true labor. The prevalence of real labor was 57.3%. Patients who were in true labor had more painful and more frequent contractions. The "true labor" group had shorter cervical length and larger uterocervical angle. The optimal CL cut-off was 1.4mm with a specificity of 73% (RR 4.3, sensibility 63%, PPV 14%, NPV 95%). The optimal UCA cut off was 123° (RR 6.7, sensitivity 50%, specificity of 83%, PPV 10%, NPV 96%). The best performance was demonstrated by combined testing, yielding LHR+ that rich 13. In this study, we reported a new application of ultrasound to identify false labor and avoid unnecessary hospitalization with obstetric and adverse economic impacts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
This theme issue of the "Bill of Rights in Action" looks at labor issues. The first article examines the unionization efforts of the Wobblies in the United States at the beginning of the 20th century. The second article explores the protests of the Luddites during Britain's Industrial Revolution. The final article looks at whether…
Benítez-Silva, Hugo; Heiland, Frank
The labor supply incentives provided by the early retirement rules of the United States Social Security Old Age benefits program are of growing importance as the Normal Retirement Age (NRA) increases to 67, and the labor force participation of Older Americans starts to increase. These incentives allow individuals who claim benefits before the NRA but continue to work, or return to the labor force, to increase their future rate of benefit pay by having benefits withheld. Since the adjustment of the benefit rate takes place only after the NRA is reached, benefits received before the NRA can become actuarially unfair for those who continue to work after claiming. Consistent with these incentives, estimates from bivariate models of the monthly labor force exit and claiming hazards using data from the Health and Retirement Study indicate that early claimers who do not withdraw from the labor force around the time they claim are increasingly likely to stay in the labor force.
Benítez-Silva, Hugo; Heiland, Frank
The labor supply incentives provided by the early retirement rules of the United States Social Security Old Age benefits program are of growing importance as the Normal Retirement Age (NRA) increases to 67, and the labor force participation of Older Americans starts to increase. These incentives allow individuals who claim benefits before the NRA but continue to work, or return to the labor force, to increase their future rate of benefit pay by having benefits withheld. Since the adjustment of the benefit rate takes place only after the NRA is reached, benefits received before the NRA can become actuarially unfair for those who continue to work after claiming. Consistent with these incentives, estimates from bivariate models of the monthly labor force exit and claiming hazards using data from the Health and Retirement Study indicate that early claimers who do not withdraw from the labor force around the time they claim are increasingly likely to stay in the labor force. PMID:20811509
This study aims to explore the impact of college quality on early labor market outcomes in China, including the fresh college graduates' initial employment status and starting wages for students who graduated in 2011. The main data source is the College Student Labor Market (CSLM) survey conducted by Tsinghua University. Distinguished from…
Riphahn, Regina T.; Zibrowius, Michael
We study the returns to apprenticeship and vocational training for three early labor market outcomes all measured at age 25 for East and West German youths: non-employment (i.e. unemployment or out of the labor force), permanent fulltime employment, and wages. We find strong positive effects of apprenticeship and vocational training. There are no…
AD A 4 844 PNAV P161N-7-S8 1I AD-A27 844RESEARCH REPORT NO.47 NAVY EEO LABOR MARKET AVAILABILITY DATA FOR THE EARLY 1990’S jE.S. ORES III JA. NELSON...NAVAL OPERATIONS (OP-IGH) a 4IvALWASHHNGTON9 D.C. 20350 92 3 25i 023LIAyw RE U~up! REQUIRED o Research Report No. 47 NAVY EEO LABOR MARKET AVAILABILITY...REPORT NUMBER 8. GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER 4. TITLE (and Subtile) S. TYPE OF REPORT 6 PERIOD COVERED Navy EEO Labor Market
Scott, John W., Ed.; Scott, John A., Ed.
Singing the tunes in this collection will help students understand many of the realities of life during the early years of the United States. From hearth and home to the perils of the sea, and from factory life to Presidential elections, this journal offers a selection of 19 songs to introduce the life and labor of New England people during the…
Choy, Susan P.; Geis, Sonya; Carroll, C. Dennis
This study used data from the Baccalaureate and Beyond (B&B) and Beginning Postsecondary Student (BPS) studies to examine: the early labor force experiences of college students who either graduated or dropped out; student borrowing for postsecondary education; and student loan debt burden and repayment status. The B&B group (n=11,000) was…
Skrablin, S; Drazancić, A; Letica, N; Tadić, V
Pregnancy complications, drugs and surgical interventions during pregnancy, fetal growth, medications and interventions during labor, labor complications as well as fetal heart activity during labor in a group of 114 term infants without malformations, but with signs of central nervous system (CNS) damage throughout early neonatal period are compared with paired group of term healthy infants born in the same presentation and mode of delivery. Among prelabor factors only maternal hypertension (found in 16.7% of encephalopathy children versus 0.8% in a control group) was significantly correlated with CNS damage. Fetal growth retardation and long term ritodrine administration were found more frequent in encephalopathy than in healthy group of infants, although statistical significance between the groups could not be demonstrated. A prolonged second stage of labor, high oxytocin dosage, too frequent uterine contractions and vacuum extractions were found significantly correlated with neonatal encephalopathy. CTG pattern during labor was normal in only 28.9% of children, with encepalopathy prepathologic in 46.4% and pathologic in 24.7%. The respective percentages for healthy newborns were: 82.5%, 16.25% and 1.2%. All differences between the groups were statistically significant. Mean duration of prepathologic CTG score in the group of infants with encephalopathy (78.8 minutes) as well as of pathologic score (51.7 minutes) was significantly longer than in healthy infants (23.7 minutes prepathologic and 7 minutes pathologic).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
Valensise, H; Tiralongo, G M; Pisani, I; Farsetti, D; Lo Presti, D; Gagliardi, G; Basile, M R; Novelli, G P; Vasapollo, B
To determine if hemodynamic assessment in 'low-risk' pregnant women at term with an appropriate-for-gestational age (AGA) fetus can improve the identification of patients who will suffer maternal or fetal/neonatal complications during labor. This was a prospective observational study of 77 women with low-risk term pregnancy and AGA fetus, in the early stages of labor. Hemodynamic indices were obtained using the UltraSonic Cardiac Output Monitor (USCOM ® ) system. Patients were followed until the end of labor to identify fetal/neonatal and maternal outcomes, and those which developed complications of labor were compared with those delivering without complications. Eleven (14.3%) patients had a complication during labor: in seven there was fetal distress and in four there were maternal complications (postpartum hemorrhage and/or uterine atony). Patients who developed complications during labor had lower cardiac output (5.6 ± 1.0 vs 6.7 ± 1.3 L/min, P = 0.01) and cardiac index (3.1 ± 0.6 vs 3.5 ± 0.7 L/min/m 2 , P = 0.04), and higher total vascular resistance (1195.3 ± 205.3 vs 1017.8 ± 225.6 dynes × s/cm 5 , P = 0.017) early in labor, compared with those who did not develop complications. Receiver-operating characteristics curve analysis to determine cut-offs showed cardiac output ≤ 5.8 L/min (sensitivity, 81.8%; specificity, 69.7%), cardiac index ≤ 2.9 L/min/m 2 (sensitivity, 63.6%; specificity, 76.9%) and total vascular resistance > 1069 dynes × s/cm 5 (sensitivity, 81.8%; specificity, 63.6%) to best predict maternal or fetal/neonatal complications. The study of maternal cardiovascular adaptation at the end of pregnancy could help to identify low-risk patients who may develop complications during labor. In particular, low cardiac output and high total vascular resistance are apparently associated with higher risk of fetal distress or maternal complications. Copyright © 2017 ISUOG. Published by John Wiley
Malgosa, Assumpció; Carrascal, Susana; Piga, Giampaolo; Isidro, Albert
In ancient times, maternal mortality would occur frequently, particularly during labor. Evidence of dystocia resulting in the death of a pregnant woman is very infrequent in paleopathologic literature, with only a few cases being demonstrated. In the early medieval site of Casserres, the skeleton of a young woman with a fetus in the pelvic region was found. Some abnormal findings of the maternal skeleton were evaluated, including a sacral anomaly, femoral head wound, the rare position of the lower left limb with the femoral head dislodged anteriorly and cephalad from the socket, and a fibular fracture. Examining the anomalies all together, a case of anterior hip dislocation related to a McRoberts-like maneuver performed during labor is a plausible explanation of the findings.
Brisson-Carroll, G; Fraser, W; Bréart, G; Krauss, I; Thornton, J
To obtain estimates of the effects of amniotomy on the risk of cesarean delivery and on other indicators of maternal and neonatal morbidity (Apgar score less than 7 at 5 minutes, admission to neonatal intensive care unit [NICU]). Published studies were identified through manual and computerized searches using Medline and the Cochrane Collaboration Pregnancy and Childbirth Database. Our search identified ten trials, all published in peer-reviewed journals. Trials were assigned a methodological quality score based on a standardized rating system. Three trials were excluded from the analysis for methodological limitations. Data were abstracted by two trained reviewers. Typical odds ratios (OR) were calculated. Amniotomy was associated with a reduction in labor duration varying from 0.8-2.3 hours. There was a nonstatistically significant increase in the risk of cesarean delivery; OR 1.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.9-1.6. The risk of a 5-minute Apgar score less than 7 was reduced in association with early amniotomy (OR 0.5, 95% CI 0.3-0.9). Groups were similar with respect to other indicators of neonatal status (arterial cord pH, NICU admissions). Routine early amniotomy is associated with both benefits and risks. Benefits include a reduction in labor duration and a possible reduction in abnormal 5-minute Apgar scores. This meta-analysis provides no support for the hypothesis that routine early amniotomy reduces the risk of cesarean delivery. An association between early amniotomy and cesarean delivery for fetal distress was noted in one large trial, suggesting that amniotomy should be reserved for patients with abnormal labor progress.
Roth, Louise Marie
Tort laws aim to deter risky medical practices and increase accountability for harm. This research examines their effects on deterrence of a high-risk obstetric practice in the United States: elective early-term (37-38 weeks gestation) induction of labor. Using birth certificate data from the Natality Detail Files and state-level data from publicly available sources, this study analyzes the effects of tort laws on labor induction with multilevel models (MLM) of 665,491 early-term births nested in states. Results reveal that caps on damages are associated with significantly higher odds of early-term induction and Proportionate Liability (PL) is associated with significantly lower odds compared to Joint and Several Liability (JSL). The findings suggest that clinicians are more likely to engage in practices that defy professional guidelines in tort environments with lower legal burdens. I discuss the implications of the findings for patient safety and the deterrence of high-risk practices. © American Sociological Association 2016.
Klerman, Jacob A.; Karoly, Lynn A.
Data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth were analyzed to identify patterns in the early labor market and employment experience of a sample of 12,781 U.S. youths who were first interviewed in 1979 (at ages 14 through 21) and last interviewed in 1990 (at ages 25 through 32 years). School-to-work transition patterns were classified by…
Beckmann, Michael; Merollini, Katharina; Kumar, Sailesh; Flenady, Vicki
In a randomized controlled trial of two policies for induction of labor (IOL) using Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) vaginal gel, women who had an earlier amniotomy experienced a shorter IOL-to-birth time. To report the cost analysis of this trial and determine if there are differences in healthcare costs when an early amniotomy is performed as opposed to giving more PGE2 vaginal gel, for women undergoing IOL at term. Following an evening dose of PGE2 vaginal gel, 245 women with live singleton pregnancies, ≥37+0 weeks, were randomized into an amniotomy or repeat-PGE2 group. Healthcare costs were a secondary outcome measure, sourced from hospital finance systems and included staff costs, equipment and consumables, pharmacy, pathology, hotel services and business overheads. A decision analytic model, specifically a Markov chain, was developed to further investigate costs, and a Monte Carlo simulation was performed to confirm the robustness of these findings. Mean and median costs and cost differences between the two groups are reported, from the hospital perspective. The healthcare costs associated with IOL were available for all 245 trial participants. A 1000-patient cohort simulation demonstrated that performing an early amniotomy was associated with a cost-saving of $AUD289 ($AUD7094 vs $AUD7338) per woman induced, compared with administering more PGE2. Propagating the uncertainty through the model 10,000 times, early amniotomy was associated with a median cost savings of $AUD487 (IQR -$AUD573, +$AUD1498). After an initial dose of PGE2 vaginal gel, a policy of administering more PGE2 when the Modified Bishop's score is <7 was associated with increased healthcare costs compared with a policy of performing an amniotomy, if technically possible. Length of stay was the main driver of healthcare costs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Paules, Cristina; Pueyo, Victoria; Martí, Elena; de Vilchez, Susana; Burd, Irina; Calvo, Pilar; Oros, Daniel
Threatened preterm labor is a leading cause of hospital admission during pregnancy. Patients with an episode of threatened preterm labor who deliver at term are considered to have false preterm labor. However, threatened preterm labor has been proposed as a pathologic insult that is not always sufficient to induce irreversible spontaneous preterm birth but that could alter the normal course of pregnancy. The aim of this study was to evaluate threatened preterm labor during pregnancy as a risk factor of neurodevelopmental deficits of children at 2 years of age. Two-year-old children who were born late preterm (n=22) or at term after threatened preterm labor (n=23) were compared with at-term control children (n=42). Neurodevelopment was evaluated at a corrected age of 24-29 months with the use of the Merrill-Palmer-Revised Scales of Development. Children who were born at term after threatened preterm labor had lower scores than control children on global cognitive index (95.4 vs 104.2; P=.011), cognition (95.1 vs 103.1; P=.021), fine motor (95.2 vs 103.4; P=.003), gross motor (84.7 vs 99.8; P=.001), memory (92.9 vs 100.4; P=.015), receptive language (93.9 vs 102.9; P=.03), speed of processing (105.7 vs 113.3; P=.011), and visual motor coordination (98.8 vs 106.7; P=.003) subtests. Children born at term after threatened preterm labor had an increased risk of mild neurodevelopmental delay compared with control children (odds ratio for global cognitive index, 2.06; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-3.88; P=.033). There were no significant differences in any cognitive domain between children who were born late preterm and children who were born at term after threatened preterm labor. Threatened preterm labor is a risk factor for impaired cognitive development at 2 years of age, even if birth occurred at term. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Pienta, A M; Burr, J A; Mutchler, J E
The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a model of labor force participation among a group of older women in the United States. A comprehensive measure of women's combined work and family experiences across the adult life course was created. Employing data from the 1984 Survey of Income and Program Participation, we applied multinomial logistic regression techniques to examine the association between work-family experiences and later life labor supply. Our findings generally support an attachment hypothesis, showing that women who were the most work-oriented throughout the life course were more likely than women who experienced family-related spells of nonlabor-market activity to participate in the labor force, either full-time or part-time, later in life.
Children working in agriculture have always been a part of the rural culture and work ethos of the United States, especially on the Great Plains. Many teenagers still detassel corn or walk the beans in the summer months to earn spending money or money for college. But what about the children who work as migrant laborers in commercialized…
Individuals who spent time in foster care as children fare on average worse than non-placed peers in early adult life. Recent research on the effect of foster care placement on early adult life outcomes provides mixed evidence. Some studies suggest negative effects of foster care placement on early adult outcomes, others find null effects. This study shows that differences in the average duration of foster care stays explain parts of these discordant findings and then test how foster care duration shapes later life outcomes using administrative data on 7220 children. The children experienced different average durations of foster care because of differences in exposure to a reform. Later born cohorts spent on average 3 months longer in foster care than earlier born cohorts. Isolating exogenous variation in duration of foster care, the study finds positive effects of increased duration of foster care on income and labor market participation. Copyright © 2013 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Gertler, Paul; Heckman, James; Pinto, Rodrigo; Zanolini, Arianna; Vermeersch, Christel; Walker, Susan; Chang, Susan M; Grantham-McGregor, Sally
A substantial literature shows that U.S. early childhood interventions have important long-term economic benefits. However, there is little evidence on this question for developing countries. We report substantial effects on the earnings of participants in a randomized intervention conducted in 1986-1987 that gave psychosocial stimulation to growth-stunted Jamaican toddlers. The intervention consisted of weekly visits from community health workers over a 2-year period that taught parenting skills and encouraged mothers and children to interact in ways that develop cognitive and socioemotional skills. The authors reinterviewed 105 out of 129 study participants 20 years later and found that the intervention increased earnings by 25%, enough for them to catch up to the earnings of a nonstunted comparison group identified at baseline (65 out of 84 participants). Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Preterm labor is labor that starts before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy. It can lead to premature birth. Premature babies may face serious health risks. Symptoms of preterm labor include Contractions every 10 minutes or more often ...
Ashwal, Eran; Shinar, Shiri; Wertheimer, Avital; Reina, Luciena; Miremberg, Hadas; Aviram, Amir; Yogev, Yariv; Hiersch, Liran
To evaluate the association between gestational age at presentation and interval to delivery in women with early spontaneous preterm delivery (PTD). A retrospective cohort study of women who presented with threatened preterm labor (tPTL) and intact membranes and had a spontaneous PTD <34 weeks in a university-affiliated hospital (2009-2015). The interval from presentation to delivery was compared between different gestational age subgroups. Of 67 550 deliveries during the study period, 252 met inclusion criteria. This cohort was divided to three gestational age subgroups at presentation: 24-28 6/7 weeks (n = 83), 29-31 6/7 weeks (n = 61) and 32-33 6/7 weeks (n = 108). Median time from presentation to delivery was 24.5 h. An inverse relation was observed between gestational age at presentation and admission-delivery interval (group A: 74.7 h, group B: 21.0 h, group C: 14.0 h, p < 0.001). Gestational age at presentation is inversely related to admission-delivery interval in women with tPTL and intact membranes.
Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2012
The labor force is the number of people ages 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or the institutionalized population, such as prison inmates. Determining the size of the labor force is a way of determining how big the economy can get. The size of the labor force depends on two…
Occupational Outlook Quarterly, 2010
The labor force is the number of people aged 16 or older who are either working or looking for work. It does not include active-duty military personnel or institutionalized people, such as prison inmates. Quantifying this total supply of labor is a way of determining how big the economy can get. Labor force participation rates vary significantly…
Johnson, Rucker C.; Schoeni, Robert F.
Using national data from the U.S., we find that poor health at birth and limited parental resources (including low income, lack of health insurance, and unwanted pregnancy) interfere with cognitive development and health capital in childhood, reduce educational attainment, and lead to worse labor market and health outcomes in adulthood. These effects are substantial and robust to the inclusion of sibling fixed effects and an extensive set of controls. The results reveal that low birth weight ages people in their 30s and 40s by 12 years, increases the probability of dropping out of high school by one-third, lowers labor force participation by 5 percentage points, and reduces labor market earnings by roughly 15 percent. While poor birth outcomes reduce human capital accumulation, they explain only 10 percent of the total effect of low birth weight on labor market earnings. Taken together, the evidence is consistent with a negative reinforcing intergenerational transmission of disadvantage within the family; parental economic status influences birth outcomes, birth outcomes have long reaching effects on health and economic status in adulthood, which in turn leads to poor birth outcomes for one’s own children. PMID:23412970
Christensen, Bent Jesper; Kallestrup-Lamb, Malene
The justification bias in the estimated impact of health shocks on retirement is mitigated by using objective health measures from a large, register-based longitudinal data set including medical diagnosis codes, along with labor market status, financial, and socio-economic variables. The duration until retirement is modeled using single and competing risk specifications, observed and unobserved heterogeneity, and flexible baseline hazards. Wealth is used as a proxy for elapsed duration to mitigate the potential selection bias stemming from conditioning on initial participation. The competing risk specification distinguishes complete multiperiod routes to retirement, such as unemployment followed by early retirement. A result on comparison of coefficients across all states is offered. The empirical results indicate a strong impact of health changes on retirement and hence a large potential for public policy measures intended to retain older workers longer in the labor force. Disability responds more to health shocks than early retirement, especially to diseases of the circulatory, respiratory, and musculoskeletal systems, as well as mental and behavioral disorders. Some unemployment spells followed by early retirement appear voluntary and spurred by life style diseases. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
drug combinations. Intrathecal Analgesia 36 Future Studies Recommendations for future studies include a prospective randomized clinical trial to examine...second stages of labor because of the variations in client population and in clinical practice. Friedman (1978) Intrathecal Analgesia 7 however, does...that the administration of morphine into the subarchnoid space of rats produced potent analgesia (Wang, 1977). These effects were then clinically applied
Küffer, Andreas L.; Thoma, Myriam V.; Maercker, Andreas
Background Recent research suggests that childhood adversity exerts a lasting impact not only on the affected individuals but also on their offspring. Little is known about the role of parental rearing behavior in the transgenerational conveyance of parental childhood adversity and filial psychological health. Objective Hence, it was the aim of the current study to investigate the relationship between parental rearing behavior of former Swiss indentured child laborers (“Verdingkinder”) and psychological health of their adult offspring. Methods We applied a two-generation control-group design with two parental samples (n=16, former “Verdingkinder,” Mage=76.13, SD=6.81 and n=19, parental controls, Mage=72.63, SD=5.96) and their offspring (n=21, former “Verdingkinder” offspring, Mage=52.91, SD=5.90, and n=29 offspring controls, Mage=44.55, SD=7.71). Parental rearing behavior, childhood trauma, and psychological health were assessed with questionnaires. Data were analyzed using Bayesian analyses, where Bayes factors (BF) of 3 or higher were considered as substantial evidence for the tested hypotheses. Results We found that “Verdingkinder” offspring reported more physical abuse (BF10=5.197) and higher total childhood trauma exposure (BF10=2.476). They described both their fathers (BF10=14.246) and mothers (BF10=24.153) as less emotional and their mothers as more punitive (BF10=18.725). An increased sense of reflection, for instance, one's ability to take different perspectives, was found in the offspring controls (BF10=5.245). Furthermore, exploratory analyses revealed that lower perceived familial emotionality was associated with higher psychopathology (all BF10=10.471) and higher pessimism (all BF10=5.396). Discussion Our data provide cross-sectional evidence of a meaningful transgenerational relationship between parental childhood adversity, dysfunctional rearing behavior, and psychological health of offspring. Prospective studies are needed to
Kaye, Allen E.
The U.S. Immigration and Nationality Act requires that those aliens who wish to obtain U.S. immigrant visas and who intend to be permanently employed here to obtain a certification from the U.S. Secretary of Labor. Certain aliens are exempt from this requirement. Those not exempt must follow the labor certification process. (NQ)
Wong, Cynthia A
The pain of childbirth is arguably the most severe pain most women will endure in their lifetimes. The pain of the early first stage of labor arises from dilation of the lower uterine segment and cervix. Pain from the late first stage and second stage of labor arises from descent of the fetus in the birth canal, resulting in distension and tearing of tissues in the vagina and perineum. An array of regional nerve blocks, systemic analgesic, and nonpharmacologic techniques are currently used for labor analgesia. Nonpharmacologic methods are commonly used, but the effectiveness of these techniques generally lacks rigorous scientific study. Continuous labor support has been shown to decrease the use of pharmacologic analgesia and shorten labor. Intradermal water injections decrease back labor pain. Neuraxial labor analgesia (most commonly epidural or combined spinal-epidural) is the most effective method of pain relief during childbirth, and the only method that provides complete analgesia without maternal or fetal sedation. Current techniques commonly combine a low dose of local anesthetic (bupivacaine or ropivacaine) with a lipid soluble opioid (fentanyl or sufentanil). Neuraxial analgesia does not increase the rate of cesarean delivery compared to systemic opioid analgesia; however, dense neuraxial analgesia may increase the risk of instrumental vaginal delivery. PMID:21072284
Sloan, Frank A; Grossman, Daniel S
We assessed the relation of alcohol consumption in young adulthood to problem alcohol consumption 10 years later and to educational attainment and labor market outcomes at midlife. We considered whether these relations differ between Blacks and Whites. We classified individuals on the basis of their drinking frequency patterns with data from the 1982 to 1984 National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979 (respondents aged 19-27 years). We assessed alcohol consumption from the 1991 reinterview (respondents aged 26-34 years) and midlife outcomes from the 2006 reinterview (respondents aged 41-49 years). Black men who consumed 12 or more drinks per week at baseline had lower earnings at midlife, but no corresponding relation for Black women or Whites was found. Black men and Black women who consumed 12 or more drinks per week at baseline had lower occupational attainment than did White male non-drinkers and White female non-drinkers, respectively, but this result was not statistically significant. The relation between alcohol consumption in young adulthood and important outcomes at midlife differed between Blacks and Whites and between Black men and Black women, although Blacks' alcohol consumption at baseline was lower on average than was that of Whites.
... many contractions may lead to changes in the fetal heart rate, umbilical cord problems, and other problems. Other risks of cervical ripening and labor induction include the following: • Infection in the mother or fetus • Uterine rupture • Increased risk of cesarean birth • Fetal ...
Khazan, Inna; McHale, James P; Decourcey, Wendy
Prior research has indicated that expectant parents overestimate the extent to which fathers will take part in the "work" of parenting, with mothers often becoming disenchanted when these expectations are violated following the baby's arrival. In this study, we examine the role of violated wishes concerning childcare involvement in accounting for variability in maternal and paternal marital satisfaction, and in early coparenting behavior as assessed during family-interaction sessions. The results indicate possible negative effects of violated wishes on the enacted family process and confirm previous findings regarding the effects of marital satisfaction. In addition, we uncovered differences in the way that violated maternal wishes are related to coparenting during playful and mildly stressful family interactions.
Khazan, Inna; Mchale, James P.; Decourcey, Wendy
Prior research has indicated that expectant parents overestimate the extent to which fathers will take part in the “work” of parenting, with mothers often becoming disenchanted when these expectations are violated following the baby’s arrival. In this study, we examine the role of violated wishes concerning childcare involvement in accounting for variability in maternal and paternal marital satisfaction, and in early coparenting behavior as assessed during family-interaction sessions. The results indicate possible negative effects of violated wishes on the enacted family process and confirm previous findings regarding the effects of marital satisfaction. In addition, we uncovered differences in the way that violated maternal wishes are related to coparenting during playful and mildly stressful family interactions. PMID:19768138
Supporting Children and Families through Investments in High-Quality Early Education. Hearing of the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions, United States Senate, One Hundred Thirteenth Congress, Second Session on Examining Supporting Children and Families through Investments in High-Quality Early Education (February 6, 2014). Senate Hearing 113-672
US Senate, 2015
This hearing serves as a first in a set of hearings focusing on early learning. In his opening statement, Senator Tom Harkin, Chairman of the Committee on Health, Education, Labor and Pensions, strongly encouraged members of this committee on both sides of the aisle to hold roundtables and have discussions on early learning in their local…
Hermans, Frederik J R; Schuit, Ewoud; Opmeer, Brent C; Oudijk, Martijn A; Bekker, Mireille; Woiski, Mallory; Bax, Caroline J; Sueters, Marieke; Scheepers, Hubertina C J; Franssen, Maureen T M; Pajkrt, Eva; Mol, Ben Willem J; Kok, Marjolein
Preterm birth is a major cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. As preventive strategies are largely ineffective, threatened preterm labor is a frequent problem that affects approximately 10 % of pregnancies. In recent years, risk assessment in these women has incorporated cervical length measurement and fetal fibronectin testing, and this has improved the capacity to identify women at increased risk for delivery within 14 days. Despite these improvements, risk for preterm birth continues to be increased in women who did not deliver after an episode of threatened preterm labor, as indicated by a preterm birth rate between 30 to 60 % in this group of women. Currently no effective treatment is available. Studies on maintenance tocolysis and progesterone have shown ambiguous results. The pessary has not been evaluated in women with threatened preterm labor, however studies in asymptomatic women with a short cervix show reduced rates of preterm birth rates as well as perinatal complications. The APOSTEL VI trial aims to assess the effectiveness of a cervical pessary in women who did not deliver within 48 h after an episode of threatened preterm labor. This is a nationwide multicenter open-label randomized clinical trial. Women with a singleton or twin gestation with intact membranes, who were admitted for threatened preterm labor, at a gestational age between 24 and 34 weeks, a cervical length between 15 and 30 mm and a positive fibronectin test or a cervical length below 15 mm, who did not deliver after 48 h will be eligible for inclusion. Women will be allocated to a pessary or no intervention (usual care). Primary outcome is preterm delivery < 37 weeks. Secondary outcomes are amongst others a composite of perinatal morbidity and mortality. Sample size is based on an expected 50 % reduction of preterm birth before 37 weeks (two-sided test, α 0.05 and β 0.2). Two hundred women with a singleton pregnancy need to be randomized. Analysis will be done
For many years, Germany has been regarded in international comparisons as an example of a generous early retirement culture, resulting in a low labor market participation of older employees. Recently, however, employment rates of older employees have increased remarkably. Reasons are the demographic structure of older persons in Germany, a long-term trend of increasing female labor market participation, and reforms in labor-market policies and pension policies during the last 10 years. Despite an increasing labor market participation of older employees, traditional labor market risks for older persons partly remained, but some new risks evolved as well. Therefore, social differentiation among older employees increased.Although detailed macro descriptions exist, the causes of labor market developments cannot be fully understood with cross-sectional data alone. An important stimulus is to be expected from individual longitudinal data which reflect employment histories and labor market transitions such as employment exit and retirement.
... some tips for getting prepared. Before the big day Arrives Labor coaches should go to childbirth classes ... get through her labor and delivery. When the day Arrives You might be at the hospital for ...
Carlson, Kenneth D.
Labor education reflects the pragmaticism of American culture and supports the system. It emphasizes leadership training, loyalty building, and political education. The control of labor education is centralized in union headquarters. (VW)
All paratransit services are labor intensive, second only to conventional taxis among transportation modes. As such, the manner in which the service is provided, the role of the labor force, and, in particular, the compensation afforded to drivers, h...
Collins, Christopher J; Stevens, Cynthia Kay
Theory and research from the marketing literature on customer-based brand equity were used to predict how positive exposure to 4 early recruitment-related activities-publicity, sponsorships, word-of-mouth endorsements, and advertising-may affect the application decisions of engineering students. Similar to prior marketing findings, the results suggested that early recruitment-related activities were indirectly related to intentions and decisions through 2 dimensions of employer brand image: general attitudes toward the company and perceived job attributes. The relationships between word-of-mouth endorsements and the 2 dimensions of brand image were particularly strong. In addition, it was found that early recruitment-related activities interacted with one another such that employer brand image was stronger when firms used publicity in conjunction with other early recruitment-related activities.
An interactive, biosocial model of early hominids presents evidence that physical sex differences are not the basis for the sexual division of labor as is commonly believed. Production (the deliberate collection and distribution of food) developed among early hominids as a prerequisite for survival. Although the population appears to have had…
Kramer, M S; Coates, A L; Michoud, M C; Dagenais, S; Moshonas, D; Davis, G M; Hamilton, E F; Nuwayhid, B; Joshi, A K; Papageorgiou, A
Previous studies suggest that women with asthma are at increased risk of preterm birth. Moreover, drugs (especially beta-agonists) used to treat asthma are also used to treat preterm labor. The authors carried out a case-control study of 555 women from three hospital centers with idiopathic preterm labor (< 37 weeks), including two overlapping (i.e., non-mutually exclusive) subsamples: cases with early idiopathic preterm labor (< 34 weeks) and cases with idiopathic recurrent preterm labor (< 37 weeks plus a previous history of preterm delivery or second-trimester miscarriage). Controls were matched to cases according to race and smoking history prior to and during pregnancy. All subjects responded in person to questions about atopic, respiratory, obstetric, and sociodemographic histories. Subjects in the early and recurrent preterm labor subsamples were also asked to undergo spirometric testing with methacholine challenge 6-12 weeks after delivery. Cases were significantly more likely to report histories of asthma symptoms and physician-diagnosed asthma (matched odds ratios of 2-3) than controls, particularly those cases with recurrent preterm labor. No significant associations were observed, however, with methacholine responsiveness. These results could not be explained by residual confounding by smoking or other variables, nor by selective recall of asthma symptoms and histories by cases. Women with asthma are at increased risk of idiopathic preterm labor. The fact that no such association was seen with methacholine responsiveness suggests that nonatopic, noncholinergic mechanisms may link bronchial and uterine smooth muscle lability.
The NASA Industrial Labor Relations Manual provides internal guidelines and procedures to assist NASA Field Installations in dealing with contractor labor management disputes, Service Contract Act variance hearings, and to provide access of Labor Union Representatives to NASA for the purpose of maintaining schedules and goals in connection with vital NASA programs. This manual will be revised by page changes as revisions become necessary. Initial distribution of this manual has been made to NASA Headquarters and Field Installations.
Rogers, Rebecca G; Gardner, Michael O; Tool, Kevin J; Ainsley, Jeanne; Gilson, George
Objective To compare the costs of a protocol of active management of labor with those of traditional labor management. Design Cost analysis of a randomized controlled trial. Methods From August 1992 to April 1996, we randomly allocated 405 women whose infants were delivered at the University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, to an active management of labor protocol that had substantially reduced the duration of labor or a control protocol. We calculated the average cost for each delivery, using both actual costs and charges. Results The average cost for women assigned to the active management protocol was $2,480.79 compared with an average cost of $2,528.61 for women in the control group (P = 0.55). For women whose infant was delivered by cesarean section, the average cost was $4,771.54 for active management of labor and $4,468.89 for the control protocol (P = 0.16). Spontaneous vaginal deliveries cost an average of $27.00 more for actively managed patients compared with the cost for the control protocol. Conclusions The reduced duration of labor by active management did not translate into significant cost savings. Overall, an average cost saving of only $47.91, or 2%, was achieved for labors that were actively managed. This reduction in cost was due to a decrease in the rate of cesarean sections in women whose labor was actively managed and not to a decreased duration of labor. PMID:10778374
This report is designed as a guide for those involved in labor relations in the transit industry. It begins with a history of transit labor relations. The economic, political, and legal environment of transit relations is then discussed. A section fo...
DOUGLASS, M.R.; AND OTHERS
CONDITIONS AND PROBLEMS RELATING TO THE EMPLOYMENT OF SEASONAL FARM WORKERS AND MIGRANTS IN COLORADO ARE PRESENTED. THE FIVE MAJOR SEASONAL FARM LABOR STATE EMPLOYMENT AREAS ARE SURVEYED ACCORDING TO (1) THE ORGANIZATION OF THE SEASONAL FARM LABOR (4) TRENDS IN AGRICULTURAL ACREAGE, PRODUCTION, AND TECHNOLOGICAL CHANGE, (5) COMMUNITY ATTITUDES AND…
American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations, Washington, DC.
Recent studies confirm that organized labor's role in society does not get fair treatment in the social studies and American history courses of the nation's schools. The report covers the first stage of AFL-CIO efforts in dealing with this problem, bringing together concerned persons in labor and education. Following the opening of the conference…
Bacak, Stephen J; Olson-Chen, Courtney; Pressman, Eva
Determining the optimal timing for induction of labor is critical in minimizing the risks to maternal and fetal health. While data are available to guide us in some clinical situations, such as hypertension and diabetes, many gaps in knowledge still exist in others, including cholestasis of pregnancy, fetal anomalies, and placental abruption. This review of the currently available literature assesses the risks and benefits of preterm and early term induction in a wide variety of maternal and fetal conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the... Child Labor AGENCY: The Bureau of International Labor Affairs, United States Department of Labor. ACTION..., 2011, regarding child labor and forced labor in foreign countries. Relevant information will be used by...
... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Child Labor, Forced Labor, and Forced or Indentured Child Labor in the... Child Labor AGENCY: The Bureau of International Labor Affairs, United States Department of Labor. ACTION..., 2013, regarding child labor and forced labor in foreign countries. Relevant information will be used by...
... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Labor dispute. 401.7 Section 401.7 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.7 Labor dispute. Labor dispute includes any controversy...
... labor. Nesting. There is no science behind the theory, but plenty of women feel the sudden urge ... seconds, and will get longer Not stop, no matter what you do Radiate (reach) into your lower ...
Sutcliffe, Peter; And Others
Includes "An Evil Unbearable to the Human Heart" (Sutcliffe); "Fighting Indifference and Inaction" (Fromont); "Concerted International Action for Children"; "New Shelter for Street Kids of Ankara" (Fromont); "IPEC's International Program for Elimination of Child Labor Challenge to Brazilian…
Ruiz Ortiz, E; Villalobos Román, M; Flores Murrieta, G; Sotomayor Alvarado, L
Eighty three primigravidae patients at the end of latency labor, erased cervix, 3 cm dilation, vertex presentation and adequate pelvis, were studied. Two groups were formed: 53 patients in the study group, who received active management of labor, and 30 patients in the control group, treated in the traditional way. In all the patients a graphic recording of labor, was carried out; it included all the events, and as labor advanced, a signoidal curve of cervical dilatation, was registered, as well as the hyperbolic one for presentation descent. The study group received the method in a systematized manner, as follows: 1. Peridular block. 2. Amniotomy. 3. IV oxytocin one hour after amniotomy. 4. FCR monitoring. 5. Detection of dystocia origin. Materno-fetal morbidity was registered in both groups, as well as cesarean section rate, instrumental delivery and its indications, labor duration, and time of stay in labor room. Diminution of above intems and opportune detection of dystocia, were determined. It was concluded that a constructive action plan, starting at hospital admission in most healthy women, allows a normal delivery of brief duration.
The United States is on the verge of a labor shortage that is partly the result of declining birth rates. An increase in work force participation by older adults, encouraged by reversals of early retirement and other policy changes, would be advantageous to employers, workers, and the economy. (Author/SK)
Hazard, Cambria Jones; Callister, Lynn Clark; Birkhead, Ana; Nichols, Lisa
the early postpartum period. The provision of culturally appropriate social support is critical in the care of Hispanic immigrant childbearing women. Programs such as the Hispanic Labor Friends Initiative can help improve support and promote positive outcomes in these vulnerable and disadvantaged women.
Catanzarite, V A; Ferguson, J E; Weinstein, C; Belton, S R
The occurrence of preterm labor is not uncommon in the pregnant quadriplegic. Early diagnosis is hampered by the inability of most quadriplegics to sense uterine contractions in the usual way. A patient we recently treated for preterm labor learned to recognize contractions by the associated symptoms of autonomic hyper-reflexia: flushing, headache, and piloerection. Tocolytic therapy was successful and a favorable neonatal outcome occurred. Increased awareness by the physician and the pregnant quadriplegic patient is encouraged so that symptoms of autonomic hyper-reflexia may be recognized as potentially indicative of uterine contractions.
... Individual live birth in a singleton (one fetus) pregnancy. Singleton induction rate : Number of labor inductions for singleton births per 100 singleton births. Gestational age categories : Early preterm: Births prior to 34 completed weeks of ...
Moore, Lisa E; Rayburn, William F
Induction of labor rates have more than doubled nationwide in the past 15 years. The increase in medically induced inductions was slower than the overall increase, suggesting that inductions for marginal or elective reasons rose more rapidly. Elective inductions seem to account for at least half of all inductions and 10% of all deliveries. Whether the experience of an elective induction is satisfactory to the patient, obstetrician, and intrapartum crew warrants more widespread attention. Cesarean rates are high for nulliparas undergoing an induction with an unfavorable cervix. Prospective studies are limited or nonexistent to recommend induction of labor for elective or marginal indications. Until more prospective work is performed, it will be difficult to evaluate the true impact of the elective induction of labor on population-wide cesarean delivery rates. Strategies for increased obstetrician awareness are proposed through practice guidelines and through clinical research trials.
... labor? • How can I tell the difference between true labor and false labor? What happens when labor ... Your uterus may contract off and on before “true” labor begins. These irregular contractions are called false ...
Borland, D T
The current economic and social environment in the country are affecting the allied health professions in a variety of ways. The employment relationships in health care institutions also are being affected by historical and political pressures within the trade labor movement. While there is disagreement as to how these diverse pressures may evolve in the allied health professions, it is clear that assertive activity by parties on each side of the employment issue has the potential to create positive and effective resolution of differences, whether through collective or individual means. This dilemma facing the allied health professions and the principles of proactive labor relations are examined.
Social ambivalence toward women's roles, sexuality, appearance, and aging combine with social standards of attractiveness to create both age and sex discrimination in the workplace. The life expectancy of presentability is shorter among women than men, thus creating an accelerated aging process termed labor market progeria. (SK)
In many districts, the notion of labor groups and district administration working together conjures descriptions of war and battle rather than cooperation and collaboration. However, in San Juan Unified School District, the headline, "Union and District Exhibit Positive Partnership" exemplifies the changing relationship between teacher…
... know about postpartum depression? Related A-Z Topics Breastfeeding and Breast Milk Preconception Care and Prenatal Care Preterm Labor and Birth NICHD News and Features Release: Women with pregnancy-related diabetes may be at risk for chronic kidney disease ...
Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.
Major policy, management, and program issues face the Congress and new administration in the area of labor. Many of the nation's youth are leaving school poorly prepared for the new work world. The nation already has a large group of economically disadvantaged people who lack necessary skills. Annually, 900,000 or more workers are at least…
A brief history of child labor and the fight for legislation to control it at both the state and federal level. The current legal status and the continued existence of child labor in modern times are also discussed. (MS)
The new Australian Labor government led by Kevin Rudd is to help science by offering 1000 new four-year fellowships to the county's top researchers. The fellowships will be worth A$ 140 000 (about €84 000) per year and include a further A$ 50 000 for lab infrastructure and equipment. The new government has also promised to double the number of postgraduate awards for PhD and research Masters students to nearly 10 000 by 2010.
Kayem, G; Lorthe, E; Doret, M
To define the management of preterm labor (MAP). The literature search was conducted using computer databases Medline and the Cochrane Library for a period from 1969 to March 2016. Leukocytosis screening may be useful in case of hospitalization for Preterm labor (PTL). Its use is not routine (professional consensus). Screening for urinary tract infection by urine culture should be systematic and antibiotic treatment should be performed in cases of bacterial colonization or urinary tract infection for a period of 7 days (grade A). The vaginal swab is useful to detect a strep B and was prescribed antibiotics during labor if positive (grade A). Routine antibiotic therapy is not recommended in case of PTL (grade A). Prolonged hospitalization does not reduce the risk of preterm delivery (NP3) and is not recommended (grade B). Bed rest does not reduce the risk of PTL (NP3), increases the risk of thromboembolism (NP3), and is not recommended (grade C). After hospitalization for PTL, a regular visit by a caregiver at home may be helpful when patients belong to a precarious environment or are psychologically vulnerable (Professional consensus). The benefit of monitoring home uterine activity repeated in the aftermath of hospitalization for PTL is not shown (NP3). It is not recommended to follow-up uterine activity systematically after hospitalization for PTL (grade C). The management of PTL should be individualized, include searching and treatment of infection and avoid prolonged hospitalization or bed rest. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Labor relations. 3022.101... ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 3022.101 Labor relations. ...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Labor relations. 222.101... OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 222.101 Labor relations. ...
... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Labor organization. 401.9 Section 401.9 Labor Regulations... MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.9 Labor organization. Labor organization means a labor organization engaged in an industry affecting commerce and includes any organization of any kind, any agency...
... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Early relief. 553.225 Section 553.225 Labor Regulations... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO EMPLOYEES OF STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Fire Protection and Law Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Tour of Duty and Compensable Hours of Work Rules § 553.225 Early...
... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Early relief. 553.225 Section 553.225 Labor Regulations... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO EMPLOYEES OF STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Fire Protection and Law Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Tour of Duty and Compensable Hours of Work Rules § 553.225 Early...
... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Early relief. 553.225 Section 553.225 Labor Regulations... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO EMPLOYEES OF STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Fire Protection and Law Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Tour of Duty and Compensable Hours of Work Rules § 553.225 Early...
Yesilcicek Calik, Kiymet; Komurcu, Nuran
Background: Acupressure has been used frequently to improve labor, manage labor pain, and shorten delivery time. However, there has been little research-based evidence to support the positive effects of acupressure in the obstetric area and obstetric nursing. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of SP6 acupressure on labor pain and delivery time in primigravida women in labor. Patients and Methods: The study was conducted at the Trabzon Maternity Hospital in Turkey. Its design was a randomized controlled clinical trial study using a single-blinded method. One hundred (100) primigravida women in labor were randomly assigned to either the SP6 acupressure (n = 50) or control group (n = 50). Acupressure was practiced 35 times in total on the SP6 point of both legs in the SP6 acupressure group; 15 times (during contraction) when cervical dilation was 2-3 cm, 10 times when cervical dilation was 5-6 cm and 10 times at 9-10 cm dilation, while the women in the control group received standard care. Labor pain was measured five times using a structured questionnaire of a subjective labor pain scale (visual analogue scale-VAS) when dilation was 2-3 cm (VAS 2), 5-6 cm (VAS 3) and 8-9 cm (VAS 4) before and after acupressure was applied to the SP6 point (VAS 1), and finally at the early postpartum period (VAS 5). The duration of labor in both groups was measured with a partograph and the length of delivery time was calculated in two stages: from 3 cm cervical dilation to full cervical dilation, and from full cervical dilation to delivery. Results: There were significant differences between the groups in subjective labor pain scores (except VAS 4) (P < 0.001). The duration of the Phase one (3 cm dilatation to full dilatation) and Phase two (full dilatation to birth) in the acupressure group was shorter than the control group (Phase one, 225 min and 320 min, respectively; Phase two, 15 min and 20 min, respectively; both P < 0.001). Conclusions: It was
Nikula, Pirkko; Laukkala, Helena; Pölkki, Tarja
The purpose of this study was to describe mothers' perceptions of labor support during childbirth. A cross-sectional, descriptive, correlational survey design was used. Data were collected using the Bryanton Adaptation of Nursing Support in Labor Questionnaire (BANSILQ) completed by new mothers (n = 260) in the postnatal ward in a Finnish university hospital. Nonparametric methods were used for data analysis. Mothers perceived emotional assistance to be most important. From the list of midwives' labor support behaviors provided in the survey, the following were considered most helpful: giving praise, treating on an individual basis, and answering questions truthfully and understandably. Emotional, tangible, and informational labor support enhanced the mothers' birth experiences. Labor support should be provided when caring for every mother during childbirth. An evidence-based model of labor support should be used for nursing and midwifery education and clinical practice.
Rodrigues, T; Barros, H
Most studies investigating preterm risk factors include medically induced preterm labor due to fetal or maternal complications and do not distinguish preterm labor from preterm premature rupture of membranes. Thus, the objective of this study was to determine the proportion of the three types of preterm birth and identify risk factors for spontaneous preterm labor in a sample of pregnant women who delivered at two level III units. From January to October 1996, we interviewed 385 women with live preterm newborns and, as controls, 357 mothers of term newborns. Preterm births were classified as preterm labor, preterm premature rupture of membranes and iathrogenic preterm. Independent associations between maternal sociodemographic, constitutional, nutritional and obstetric characteristics and preterm labor were identified using logistic regression analysis. In this sample of preterm births, 29% corresponded to preterm labor, 49% to preterm premature rupture of the membranes and 22% were iathrogenic preterm. The identified risk factors for preterm labor were multiple gestation, no paid work during pregnancy, less than six prenatal care visits, arm circumference less than 26 cm and previous preterm or low birth-weight. Gestational bleeding during the first or third trimester was significantly associated with preterm labor. As previously recognized, multiple gestation, prior preterm or low birthweight and gestational bleeding are established risk factors for preterm labor. However, prenatal care, maternal work and nutritional status have also been revealed as important issues in preterm risk, deserving special interest since they are susceptible to preventive intervention.
Bilić, Nada; Djaković, Ivka; Kličan-Jaić, Katarina; Rudman, Senka Sabolović; Ivanec, Željko
Labor pain is one of the most severe pains. Labor is a complex and individual process with varying maternal requesting analgesia. Labor analgesia must be safe and accompanied by minimal amount of unwanted consequences for both the mother and the child, as well as for the delivery procedure. Epidural analgesia is the treatment that best meets these demands. According to the American Congress of Obstetrics and Gynecology and American Society of Anesthesiologists, mother's demand is a reason enough for the introduction of epidural analgesia in labor, providing that no contraindications exist. The application of analgesics should not cease at the end of the second stage of labor, but it is recommended that lower concentration analgesics be then applied. Based on the latest studies, it can be claimed that epidural analgesia can be applied during the major part of the first and second stage of labor. According to previous investigations, there is no definitive conclusion about the incidence of instrumental delivery, duration of second stage of labor, time of epidural analgesia initiation, and long term outcomes for the newborn. Cooperation of obstetric and anesthesiology personnel, as well as appropriate technical equipment significantly decrease the need of instrumental completion of a delivery, as well as other complications encountered in the application of epidural analgesia. Our hospital offers 24/7 epidural analgesia service. The majority of pregnant women in our hospital were aware of the advantages of epidural analgesia for labor, however, only a small proportion of them used it, mainly because of inadequate level of information.
Masters, Roger D.
Praises and summarizes James Bernard Murphy's "The Moral Economy of Labor: Aristotelian Themes in Economic Theory." Linking economic theories from Adam Smith to Karl Marx, Murphy criticizes traditional economic and social thinking regarding the division of labor. He proposes an integration of conceptualization and execution to humanize…
The changing role of Japanese women can be seen in the stages of a domestic labor debate which occurred at three different times in the past 30 years. The first debate began with Ayako Ishigaki's (1955) insistence that women should have a job outside the home. Wartime production helped break down traditional divisions of labor by encouraging women…
Wehrle, Edmund F.
Presents a concise and interesting overview of the rise and extension of labor activity during the New Deal. Labor took advantage of Roosevelt's pro-union policies to consolidate their power and forever transform the lives of working men and women. Discusses improvements in working conditions, wages, and benefits. (MJP)
For demographic reasons, the German labor force will decrease dramatically and it will be much older on average. However, labor demand, especially for qualified workers, is expected to remain high. This paper focuses on the possibilities of expanding the labor force by increasing the participation rates of women and older persons. Herein, the change in the labor force is decomposed with respect to population and labor participation and, moreover, the effects of higher participation rates are simulated. The decomposition and simulation scenarios are based on data published by the Institute for Employment Research. The analysis clearly reveals that the effect of a considerably higher labor participation of women and older workers will disappear over time when the working-age population shrinks more and more. In addition, individuals who are currently unemployed or out of the labor force are not skilled enough. Since it seems difficult to get more qualified workers in the short and even in the medium term, improving the conditions for women and older people to take up jobs should be tackled soon. This includes investments in education and health care.
Solomon, Neta; Many, Ariel; Orbach, Rotem; Mandel, Dror; Shinar, Shiri
Hyponatremia during labor and delivery may result in severe maternal and neonatal sequelae. Our aim was to describe the direct effect of hyponatremia in labor on pregnancy outcome. A case series of parturients diagnosed with hyponatremia during labor and their neonates. Clinical presentation, laboratory workup, and maternal and neonatal outcomes are presented. Four parturients and their corresponding six neonates were diagnosed with hyponatremia. Of these, two cases were caused by water intoxication and two were preeclampsia induced. While two were identified due to maternal or neonatal symptoms, two were diagnosed by routine laboratory testing. In all cases, low maternal sodium resulted in similarly low neonatal sodium. Neonatal symptoms included respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), lethargy, and jaundice. Psychogenic drinking during labor and preeclampsia may predispose to maternal hyponatremia, resulting in neonatal hyponatremia. Early recognition and treatment can prevent further maternal deterioration and adverse neonatal sequelae.
Mehta, M N; Prabhu, S V; Mistry, H N
Of the world's largest child labor force in India, Bombay has over 30,000 working children, most of them migrants. In a prospective study of 73 working children from a part of Dharavi, the biggest slum in Asia, 68% were working as hotel boys; 22% had started working before their 10th birthday, a large number doing so to increase the family income, but earning less than Rs. 100 ($11) per month. Forty percent worked more than 12 hours a day and only 16% continued schooling. Two-thirds depended entirely on their employers for food which was adequate and no child in the study was malnourished. Overall incidence of anemia and vitamin deficiency was 10% each. Only 7% had ailments related to their occupation. Because this was a cross-sectional study no conclusions can be drawn regarding long term and residual effects. Preventing children from working is likely to make worse their own as well as their families' problems unless substitute sources of income or welfare are available. Legal protection and other services near their working places are essential for those who have to work.
American Federation of Labor and Congress of Industrial Organizations, Washington, DC.
This annotated bibliography of 90 books on labor issues presents selections in the following areas: labor history, biographies, contemporary issues, labor economics and labor relations, labor law, labor unions, women and work, and reference books. (DB)
Hosek, Claire; Faucher, Mary Ann; Lankford, Janice; Alexander, James
To assess perceptions of care from woman discharged from an obstetrical (OB) triage unit or a labor and delivery unit with a diagnosis of false or latent labor in order to determine factors that may increase or decrease the woman's satisfaction with care. Descriptive, convenience sample. One hundred low-income pregnant women at term presenting for care in latent labor consented to participate in a telephone survey. The survey was based on the relevant research about care of women in early labor and the Donabedian quality improvement framework assessing structure, process, and outcomes of care. Forty-one percent of women did not want to be discharged home in latent labor. Common reasons included women stating they were in too much pain or they were living too far from the birth setting. Eating, drinking, and comfort measures were the most common measures women cited that would have made them feel better when in the hospital. A reoccurring response from women was their desire for very clear and specific written instructions about how to stay comfortable at home and when to return to the hospital. Comfort measures in the birth setting, including in triage, should include a variety of options including ambulation and oral nutrition. Detailed and specific written instructions about early labor and staying comfortable while at home have value for women in this survey regarding their perceptions of care. Results from this survey of low-income women suggest that a subset of women in latent labor just do not want to go home and this may be related to having too much pain and/or travel distance to the hospital. Hospital birth settings also have an opportunity to create a care environment that provides services and embodies attributes that women report as important for their satisfaction with care in latent labor.
Leftwich, Heidi K.; Zaki, Mary N.; Wilkins, Isabelle; Hibbard, Judith U.
Objective To compare labor progression in twin vs singleton gestations. Study Design Retrospective review of electronic database created by Consortium on Safe Labor, reflecting labor and delivery information from 12 clinical centers 2002-2008. Women with twin gestations, cephalic presentation of presenting twin, gestational age ≥34 weeks, with ≥2 cervical examinations were included. Exclusion criteria were fetal anomalies or demise. Singleton controls were selected by the same criteria. Categorical variables were analyzed by χ2; continuous by Student t test. Interval censored regression was used to determine distribution for time of cervical dilation in centimeters, or “traverse times,” and controlled for confounding factors. Repeated-measures analysis constructed mean labor curves by parity and number of fetuses. Results A total of 891 twin gestations were compared with 100,513 singleton controls. Twin gestations were more often older, white or African American, earlier gestational age, increased prepregnancy body mass index, and with lower birthweight. There was no difference in number of prior cesarean deliveries, induction, or augmentation, or epidural use. Median traverse times increased at every centimeter interval in nulliparous twins, in both unadjusted and adjusted analysis (P < .01). A similar pattern was noted for multiparas in both analyses. Labor curves demonstrated a delayed inflection point in the labor pattern for nulliparous and multiparous twin gestations. Conclusion Both nulliparous and multiparous women have slower progression of active phase labor with twins even when controlling for confounding factors. PMID:23871795
... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Labor relations consultant. 401.13 Section 401.13 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS MEANING OF TERMS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 401.13 Labor relations consultant. Labor relations...
... best ways to prepare is to take a childbirth class to learn what to expect in labor. ... PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2012:chap 51. Minnich ME. Childbirth preparation and nonpharmacologic analgesia. In: Chestnut DH, Wong ...
Maxwell, Nan L.
Labor economics textbooks for use with college students were surveyed. Information concerning intended audience, content, and teaching aids is provided for each text. Criteria used in evaluating the texts is provided. (RM)
... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Early relief. 553.225 Section 553.225 Labor Regulations... Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Tour of Duty and Compensable Hours of Work Rules § 553.225 Early... employees on the previous shift prior to the scheduled starting time. Such early relief time may occur...
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Early relief. 553.225 Section 553.225 Labor Regulations... Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Tour of Duty and Compensable Hours of Work Rules § 553.225 Early... employees on the previous shift prior to the scheduled starting time. Such early relief time may occur...
You probably have mixed feelings about going into labor. On one hand, bringing a new life into the world is really exciting. On the other, it can be really scary to have a baby, especially if this is your first child. Unfortunately, it can be even scarier if you smoke. Research shows that smoking during pregnancy can lead to serious complications for you and your baby during labor and delivery.
Implementing at-scale, community-based distribution of misoprostol tablets to mothers in the third stage of labor for the prevention of postpartum haemorrhage in Sokoto State, Nigeria: Early results and lessons learned
Orobaton, Nosakhare; Abdulazeez, Jumare; Abegunde, Dele; Shoretire, Kamil; Maishanu, Abubakar; Ikoro, Nnenna; Fapohunda, Bolaji; Balami, Wapada; Beal, Katherine; Ganiyu, Akeem; Gwamzhi, Ringpon; Austin, Anne
Background Postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) is a leading cause of maternal death in Sokoto State, Nigeria, where 95% of women give birth outside of a health facility. Although pilot schemes have demonstrated the value of community-based distribution of misoprostol for the prevention of PPH, none have provided practical insight on taking such programs to scale. Methods A community-based system for the distribution of misoprostol tablets (in 600ug) and chlorhexidine digluconate gel 7.1% to mother-newborn dyads was introduced by state government officials and community leaders throughout Sokoto State in April 2013, with the potential to reach an estimated 190,467 annual births. A simple outcome form that collected distribution and consumption data was used to assess the percentage of mothers that received misoprostol at labor through December 2014. Mothers’ conditions were tracked through 6 weeks postpartum. Verbal autopsies were conducted on associated maternal deaths. Results Misoprostol distribution was successfully introduced and reached mothers in labor in all 244 wards in Sokoto State. Community data collection systems were successfully operational in all 244 wards with reliable capacity to record maternal deaths. 70,982 women or 22% of expected births received misoprostol from April 2013 to December 2014. Between April and December 2013, 33 women (< 1%) reported that heavy bleeding persisted after misoprostol use and were promptly referred. There were a total of 11 deaths in the 2013 cohort which were confirmed as maternal deaths by verbal autopsies. Between January and December of 2014, a total 434 women (1.25%) that ingested misoprostol reported associated side effects. Conclusion It is feasible and safe to utilize government guidelines on results-based primary health care to successfully introduce community distribution of life saving misoprostol at scale to reduce PPH and improve maternal outcomes. Lessons from Sokoto State’s at-scale program implementation
The conducive economy challenges both the conceptual foundations and the practices of present-day economies. In the Netherlands, a few initiatives during the 1980s and early 1990s looked promising, in particular, as these initiatives focused on work quality as one major precondition for reducing disability and enhancing labor participation.…
Beegle, Kathleen; Dehejia, Rajeev; Gatti, Roberta
Despite the extensive literature on the determinants of child labor, the evidence on the consequences of child labor on outcomes such as education, labor, and health is limited. We evaluate the causal effect of child labor participation among children in school on these outcomes using panel data from Vietnam and an instrumental variables strategy.…
Robbins, Lynn A.
Navajo participation in labor unions and Navajo labor relations have undergone rapid and fundamental changes since the development of industry around Lake Powell and on Black Mesa. Early attempts to unionize Navajo workers met with stiff resistance from employees and the Navajo Tribal Council. Union entry into the Navajo Reservation was viewed as…
Weeks, Fiona; Pantoja, Loreto; Ortiz, Jovita; Foster, Jennifer; Cavada, Gabriel; Binfa, Lorena
Satisfaction with care during labor and birth has been associated with various obstetric variables. The purpose of this study was to determine which labor and birth procedures are significant predictors of maternal patient satisfaction in a large cross-sectional sample. An observational, cross-sectional study of 1660 women giving birth in Chilean public hospital facilities was conducted from 2012 to 2013. Data were collected from 9 different hospitals in 8 regions of Chile using 2 instruments, including the American College of Nurse-Midwives Intrapartum Care Data Set and a locally validated measure of maternal well-being. Women were eligible if they arrived at the labor and delivery unit during early labor (2-3 centimeters dilated) and spent at least 4 hours in labor at the facility. In the current analysis, odds ratios were calculated using ordinal logistic regression for association with a less optimal well-being score (possible outcome values were optimal, adequate, and minimal). Odds ratios were adjusted for age, education, single status, and parity (nulliparous vs multiparous). Stepwise regression was used to identify the procedural factors that were significantly associated with labor and birth care satisfaction. Factors significantly associated with lower satisfaction were cesarean birth (odds ratio [OR], 1.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.1-1.7), pharmacologic pain management (OR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.02-1.7), continuous fetal heart rate monitoring (OR. 1.4; 95% CI, 1.2-1.8), and episiotomy (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-1.7). Nulliparity was also associated with minimal maternal satisfaction (OR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0-1.5). Greater satisfaction was associated with accompaniment by a companion of choice during labor (OR, 0.49: 95% CI, 0.40-0.60). This study is one of the first to provide empirical evidence that maternal patient satisfaction is negatively affected by many common obstetric procedures in the Latin American context. These findings are consistent with World
Zhang, Jun; Branch, D Ware; Ramirez, Mildred M; Laughon, S Katherine; Reddy, Uma; Hoffman, Mathew; Bailit, Jennifer; Kominiarek, Michelle; Chen, Zhen; Hibbard, Judith U
To examine the effects and safety of high-dose (compared with low-dose) oxytocin regimen for labor augmentation on perinatal outcomes. Data from the Consortium on Safe Labor were used. A total of 15,054 women from six hospitals were eligible for the analysis. Women were grouped based on their oxytocin starting dose and incremental dosing of 1, 2, and 4 milliunits/min. Duration of labor and a number of maternal and neonatal outcomes were compared among these three groups stratified by parity. Multivariable logistic regression and generalized linear mixed model were used to adjust for potential confounders. Oxytocin regimen did not affect the rate of cesarean delivery or other perinatal outcomes. Compared with 1 milliunit/min, the regimens starting with 2 milliunits/min and 4 milliunits/min reduced the duration of first stage by 0.8 hours (95% confidence interval 0.5-1.1) and 1.3 hours (1.0-1.7), respectively, in nulliparous women. No effect was observed on the second stage of labor. Similar patterns were observed in multiparous women. High-dose regimen was associated with a reduced risk of meconium stain, chorioamnionitis, and newborn fever in multiparous women. High-dose oxytocin regimen (starting dose at 4 milliunits/min and increment of 4 millliunits/min) is associated with a shorter duration of first-stage of labor for all parities without increasing the cesarean delivery rate or adversely affecting perinatal outcomes. II.
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Labor relations. 1422.101 Section 1422.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 1422.101 Labor relations. ...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Labor relations. 1222.101 Section 1222.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 1222.101 Labor relations. ...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Labor relations. 1322.101 Section 1322.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 1322.101 Labor relations. ...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Labor relations. 2822.101 Section 2822.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Socioeconomic Programs APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 2822.101 Labor relations. ...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labor standards. 570.603 Section... DEVELOPMENT COMMUNITY FACILITIES COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT BLOCK GRANTS Other Program Requirements § 570.603 Labor standards. (a) Section 110(a) of the Act contains labor standards that apply to nonvolunteer labor financed...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Labor relations. 22.101 Section 22.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 22.101 Labor relations. ...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Labor relations. 522.101 Section 522.101 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 522.101 Labor relations. ...
...) Laborers and mechanics other than Youthbuild Trainees. (1) All laborers and mechanics (other than... such laborers and mechanics on assisted housing shall be subject to the provisions of the Contract Work... standards apply to laborers and mechanics other than Youthbuild trainees to the extent required by the other...
...) Laborers and mechanics other than Youthbuild Trainees. (1) All laborers and mechanics (other than... such laborers and mechanics on assisted housing shall be subject to the provisions of the Contract Work... standards apply to laborers and mechanics other than Youthbuild trainees to the extent required by the other...
...) Laborers and mechanics other than Youthbuild Trainees. (1) All laborers and mechanics (other than... such laborers and mechanics on assisted housing shall be subject to the provisions of the Contract Work... standards apply to laborers and mechanics other than Youthbuild trainees to the extent required by the other...
In Africa, approximately 80 million children are working. Africa's 41% child labor rate is nearly twice as high as that in Asia. This study examined whether child labor is a direct result of poverty or of reading and math problems in school. The study analyzed reading and math scores of 62 child laborers and 62 non-child laborers from a farming…
Lee, S M
"The role of Chinese and Indian women as immigrants and workers in colonial Malaya is examined using data from censuses, immigration records, official reports and secondary sources. The article discusses the main types of work of female immigrants and their contribution to the economic development of colonial Malaya during the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in an attempt to redress the neglect of female immigrants' economic role in Malaya's history. Comparisons between male and female immigrants' labor and between Chinese and Indian immigrants, are drawn to highlight the different conditions of migration and labor for the different groups of immigrants." excerpt
Hearing on the Reauthorization of the Higher Education Act of 1965: Early Intervention. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Postsecondary Education of the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session.
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.
This document presents tetimony and prepared statements concerning three pieces of legislation which seek to increase early intervention and outreach activities designed to inform students and their families about postsecondary education and student financial assistance options. The legislation provides for technical assistance to guidance…
Home Visiting: A Promising Early Intervention Strategy for At-Risk Families. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Labor, Health and Human Services, Education, and Related Agencies, Committee on Appropriations, U.S. Senate.
Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.
The report reviews home visiting as an early intervention strategy to provide health, social, education, or other services to improve maternal and child health and well-being. The report describes: (1) the nature and scope of existing home-visiting programs in the United States and Europe; (2) the effectiveness of home visiting; (3) strategies…
Grandey, Alicia A; Melloy, Robert C
Emotional labor has been an area of burgeoning research interest in occupational health psychology in recent years. Emotional labor was conceptualized in the early 1980s by sociologist Arlie Hochschild (1983) as occupational requirements that alienate workers from their emotions. Almost 2 decades later, a model was published in Journal of Occupational Health Psychology ( JOHP ) that viewed emotional labor through a psychological lens, as emotion regulation strategies that differentially relate to performance and wellbeing. For this anniversary issue of JOH P, we review the emotional labor as emotion regulation model, its contributions, limitations, and the state of the evidence for its propositions. At the heart of our article, we present a revised model of emotional labor as emotion regulation, that incorporates recent findings and represents a multilevel and dynamic nature of emotional labor as emotion regulation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Ross, Alyson; Sundaramurthi, Thiruppavai; Bevans, Margaret
Background Evidence suggests that emotional distress and objective demands of cancer caregiving are comparable to those of dementia caregiving, yet little research has focused on the physical health of cancer caregivers. Whether the stress leads directly to changes in health or whether the stress leads to changes in health behaviors, which in turn affect health, has not been systematically examined. Objective The objective of this study was to review the research literature regarding changes in health behaviors associated with caring for an individual with cancer. Methods Literature was reviewed from multiple databases including CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), CINAHL Plus, PsycNET, PubMed, SCOPUS, EMBASE, and Web of Science. Key words included “health behavior,” “health promotion,” ”caregivers/caregiving,” “cancer/oncology,” “diet/nutrition,” “exercise/physical activity,” “stress management,” “smoking” and “alcohol.” Studies were included if they involved informal adult caregivers and at least 1 behavior associated with a healthy lifestyle. Of the 866 studies identified, 8 met the criteria. Results Studies revealed conflicting information, with some suggesting deleterious changes in behaviors, whereas others found the changes protective. Conclusions The lack of uniformity of terminology and conflicting findings make it difficult to conclude the impact of the caregiving experience on the health behaviors of cancer caregivers. Something is placing caregivers at risk for illness and early death, but the mechanisms behind the risk and the role of unhealthy behaviors are not clear. Implications for Practice At a minimum, cancer caregivers should be screened for behavior changes and disease risk. Developing standardized measures for future research including controlled, longitudinal studies is needed. PMID:23132126
Deborah Kelly, Director The mission of Labor Standards and Safety is to ensure safe and legal working of state and federal standards, and by training employers and employees to follow safe and healthful
Beebe, Kathleen R
Hypnotherapy is an integrative mind-body technique with therapeutic potential in various health care applications, including labor and birth. Evaluating the efficacy of this modality in controlled studies can be difficult, because of methodologic challenges, such as obtaining adequate sample sizes and standardizing experimental conditions. Women using hypnosis techniques for childbirth in hospital settings may face barriers related to caregiver resistance or institutional policies. The potential anxiolytic and analgesic effects of clinical hypnosis for childbirth merit further study. Nurses caring for women during labor and birth can increase their knowledge and skills with strategies for supporting hypnotherapeutic techniques. © 2014 AWHONN.
"Illegal migration to Taiwan is a recent phenomenon but with a rapid rate of increase. Most illegal foreign workers enter on visitor's visas and overstay. This paper's detailed analysis of official data reveals that Malaysia, Philippines, Indonesia and Thailand are the major sources, providing a stock of mostly male workers numbering around 40,000. Sociodemographic and attitudinal changes among Taiwanese workers coupled with labor shortages in low-skilled jobs are pressuring the Taiwanese government to formulate plans for a systematic importation of foreign labor." excerpt
Actions taken during the 1928 American Federation of Labor Convention against Brookwood Labor College are examined to demonstrate the depth and extent of anti-radicalism in this period of American labor's struggle for workers' education. (MJB)
Chao, Tamara T; Bloom, Steven L; Mitchell, Judith S; McIntire, Donald D; Leveno, Kenneth J
To estimate the natural history of pregnancies in women who present with preterm labor symptoms and who are sent home with a diagnosis of false labor. A prospective observational study of women with singletons and intact membranes who presented to triage between 24 0/7 and 33 6/7 weeks of gestation with preterm labor symptoms and cervical dilation less than 2 cm was conducted. Women sent home with a diagnosis of false preterm labor were analyzed against a comparable general obstetric population delivered during the same time period. The primary outcome was delivery before 37 weeks of gestation. Secondary outcomes included the interval between presentation and delivery, as well as maternal and neonatal outcomes. Of the 843 women who met inclusion criteria, 690 (82%) were sent home with a diagnosis of false preterm labor and 153 (18%) were admitted to labor and delivery. When analyzed compared with a comparable general obstetric population, women sent home had a similar rate of birth before 34 weeks of gestation (2% compared with 1%, P=.28) but a higher rate of birth between 34 and 36 weeks of gestation (5% compared with 2%, P<.001). There was no difference in neonatal mortality (0% compared with 0.3%, P=.18). Women with cervical dilation of 1 cm at discharge were more likely to deliver before 34 weeks of gestation compared with nondilated women (5% compared with 1%, P=.02); however, 89% of the 1-cm group delivered more than 21 days after presentation. Women sent home with a diagnosis of false preterm labor are not at increased risk for early preterm birth or neonatal mortality; however, they are at increased risk for late preterm birth. II.
Rivero, Maria del Rosario
In Chile, as many other countries, understanding how high-qualified teachers are distributed across schools and which are the relationships that may lead to teachers' potential sorting are key aspect of the teacher labor market and it is central to addressing student achievement gaps. The first paper uses rich new data on all elementary public…
Cohen, Wayne R; Friedman, Emanuel A
In a recent review we expressed concerns about new guidelines for the assessment and management of labor recommended jointly by the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM). These guidelines are based heavily on a new concept of how cervical dilatation and fetal descent progress, derived from the work of Zhang et al. In their Viewpoint article they have addressed, but not allayed, the concerns we described in our review. We assert that the dilatation curve promulgated by Zhang et al cannot be reconciled with direct clinical observation. Even if they were correct, however, it still does not follow that the ACOG/SMFM guidelines should recommend replacing the coherent system of identifying and managing labor aberrations described by Friedman. That system is grounded in well-established clinical principles based on decades of use and the objectively documented association of some labor abnormalities with poor fetal and maternal outcomes. Recommendations for new clinical management protocols should require the demonstration of superior outcomes through extensive, preferably prospective, assessment. Using untested guidelines for the management of labor may adversely affect women and children. Even if those guidelines were to reduce the currently excessive cesarean delivery rate, the price of that benefit is likely to be a trade-off in harm to parturients and their offspring. The nature and degree of that harm needs to be documented before considering adoption of the guidelines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Baer, Roger K.
This study attempts to test (via multiple regression analysis) hypothesized relationships between designated independent variables and age specific incidences of labor force participation for black male subpopulations in 54 Standard Metropolitan Statistical Areas. Leading independent variables tested include net migration, earnings, unemployment,…
"Publish or perish" has long been the formula of academic labor at research universities, but for many humanities professors that imperative has decayed into a simple rule of production. The publish-or-perish model assumed a peer-review process that maintained quality, but more and more it is the bare volume of printed words that counts. When…
Governor's Committee on Migratory Labor, Harrisburg, PA.
Operating for the 18th year, the Pennsylvania Governor's Committee on Migratory Labor, which is charged with coordinating and bringing into focus the activities of various governmental and nongovernmental agencies relating to Pennsylvania's migrant workers, submits the present document as an annual report. Some specific areas reported on by…
Bailey, John A.
Presents statistics on the changing human resources mix in the labor force, which vocational counselors should be aware of. Trends include higher percentages of women working, and older men and married men leaving the work force. One result is an increasing number of persons are able to retire earlier. (JAC)
Du Bois, Dan
The Library Labor Cost Accounting System will provide visibility on current costs of manually processing library materials, at each campus as well as system-wide. The scope of the study includes the following: (1) 100 individual activities, grouped into 14 functional areas, e.g., Ordering, Receiving; and into 3 major operations: Acquisitions,…
Nightingale, Demetra Smith; Fix, Michael
A number of economic and labor market trends in the United States over the past 30 years affect the well-being of workers and their families. This article describes key changes taking place and the implications for social and economic policies designed to help low-income working families and their children, particularly those families that include…
Lundborg, Petter; Nilsson, Anton; Rooth, Dan-Olof
Whereas a large literature has shown the importance of early life health for adult socioeconomic outcomes, there is little evidence on the importance of adolescent health. We contribute to the literature by studying the impact of adolescent health status on adult labor market outcomes using a unique and large-scale dataset covering almost the entire population of Swedish males. We show that most types of major conditions have long-run effects on future outcomes, and that the strongest effects result from mental conditions. Including sibling fixed effects or twin pair fixed effects reduces the magnitudes of the estimates, but they remain substantial. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Neal, Jeremy L; Lowe, Nancy K; Schorn, Mavis N; Holley, Sharon L; Ryan, Sharon L; Buxton, Margaret; Wilson-Liverman, Angela M
Contemporary labor and birth population norms should be the basis for evaluating labor progression and determining slow progress that may benefit from intervention. The aim of this article is to present guidelines for a common, evidence-based approach for determination of active labor onset and diagnosis of labor dystocia based on a synthesis of existing professional guidelines and relevant contemporary publications. A 3-point approach for diagnosing active labor onset and classifying labor dystocia-related labor aberrations into well-defined, mutually exclusive categories that can be used clinically and validated by researchers is proposed. The approach comprises identification of 1) an objective point that strictly defines active labor onset (point of active labor determination); 2) an objective point that identifies when labor progress becomes atypical, beyond which interventions aimed at correcting labor dystocia may be justified (point of protraction diagnosis); and 3) an objective point that identifies when interventions aimed at correcting labor dystocia, if used, can first be determined to be unsuccessful, beyond which assisted vaginal or cesarean birth may be justified (earliest point of arrest diagnosis). Widespread adoption of a common approach for diagnosing labor dystocia will facilitate consistent evaluation of labor progress, improve communications between clinicians and laboring women, indicate when intervention aimed at speeding labor progress or facilitating birth may be appropriate, and allow for more efficient translation of safe and effective management strategies into clinical practice. Correct application of the diagnosis of labor dystocia may lead to a decrease in the rate of cesarean birth, decreased health care costs, and improved health of childbearing women and neonates. © 2015 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.
... 29 Labor 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Labor organization initial information report. 402.2... LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS LABOR ORGANIZATION INFORMATION REPORTS § 402.2 Labor organization initial information report. Every labor organization shall file a report signed by its president and...
... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Labor organization initial information report. 402.2... LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS LABOR ORGANIZATION INFORMATION REPORTS § 402.2 Labor organization initial information report. Every labor organization shall file a report signed by its president and...
... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Labor organization initial information report. 402.2... LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS LABOR ORGANIZATION INFORMATION REPORTS § 402.2 Labor organization initial information report. Every labor organization shall file a report signed by its president and...
... 29 Labor 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Labor organization initial information report. 402.2... LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS LABOR ORGANIZATION INFORMATION REPORTS § 402.2 Labor organization initial information report. Every labor organization shall file a report signed by its president and...
... 29 Labor 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Labor organization initial information report. 402.2... LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS LABOR ORGANIZATION INFORMATION REPORTS § 402.2 Labor organization initial information report. Every labor organization shall file a report signed by its president and...
Cornfield, Daniel B.; And Others
Includes "Labor Transnationalism?" (Cornfield); "Globalization and International Labor Organizing" (Boswell, Stevis); "Trade Unions and European Integration" (Hyman); "Trade Policy and Southern Economy" (Margo, Griffin); "Institutionalization of the Sociology of Work in Latin America" (Abramo et…
... Sector Intermediate Unions 210 Persuader Agreements: Employer and Labor Consultant Reporting Under the...: Reports by Labor Organizations on Related Organizations; Reporting by Public 1215-AB75 Sector Intermediate... ORGANIZATIONS ON RELATED ORGANIZATIONS; REPORTING BY PUBLIC SECTOR INTERMEDIATE UNIONS Priority: Other...
This article presents an interview with Wilma B. Liebman, the new chair of the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB). In this interview, Liebman talks about labor law, academics, and reversing ossification.
... under the Davis-Bacon Act (40 U.S.C. 276a-276a-5) to be paid to laborers and mechanics employed in the... laborers and mechanics employed in the operation, and to architects, technical engineers, draftsmen and...
... under the Davis-Bacon Act (40 U.S.C. 276a-276a-5) to be paid to laborers and mechanics employed in the... laborers and mechanics employed in the operation, and to architects, technical engineers, draftsmen and...
... under the Davis-Bacon Act (40 U.S.C. 276a-276a-5) to be paid to laborers and mechanics employed in the... laborers and mechanics employed in the operation, and to architects, technical engineers, draftsmen and...
... mortgages insured under this part. (c) Each laborer or mechanic employed on any facility covered by a... advance a certificate as required by HUD certifying that the laborers and mechanics employed in...
... mortgages insured under this part. (c) Each laborer or mechanic employed on any facility covered by a... advance a certificate as required by HUD certifying that the laborers and mechanics employed in...
... mortgages insured under this part. (c) Each laborer or mechanic employed on any facility covered by a... advance a certificate as required by HUD certifying that the laborers and mechanics employed in...
.... ADDRESSES: Send inquiries to John Ruser, Office of Productivity and Technology, Bureau of Labor Statistics... FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: John Ruser, Office of Productivity and Technology, Bureau of Labor Statistics...
Adams, Ellise D; Bianchi, Ann L
In the United States, intrapartum nurses are present at 99% of births. These nurses have a unique opportunity to positively affect a laboring woman's comfort and labor progress through the use of labor support behaviors. These nonpharmacologic nursing strategies fall into four categories: physical, emotional, instructional/informational, and advocacy. Implementation of these strategies requires special knowledge and a commitment to the enhanced physical and emotional comfort of laboring women.
Grobman, William A; Bailit, Jennifer; Lai, Yinglei; Reddy, Uma M; Wapner, Ronald J; Varner, Michael W; Thorp, John M; Leveno, Kenneth J; Caritis, Steve N; Prasad, Mona; Tita, Alan T N; Saade, George; Sorokin, Yoram; Rouse, Dwight J; Blackwell, Sean C; Tolosa, Jorge E
While there are well-accepted standards for the diagnosis of arrested active-phase labor, the definition of a "failed" induction of labor remains less certain. One approach to diagnosing a failed induction is based on the duration of the latent phase. However, a standard for the minimum duration that the latent phase of a labor induction should continue, absent acute maternal or fetal indications for cesarean delivery, remains lacking. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes as a function of the duration of the latent phase among nulliparous women undergoing labor induction. This study is based on data from an obstetric cohort of women delivering at 25 US hospitals from 2008 through 2011. Nulliparous women who had a term singleton gestation in the cephalic presentation were eligible for this analysis if they underwent a labor induction. Consistent with prior studies, the latent phase was determined to begin once cervical ripening had ended, oxytocin was initiated, and rupture of membranes had occurred, and was determined to end once 5-cm dilation was achieved. The frequencies of cesarean delivery, as well as of adverse maternal (eg, postpartum hemorrhage, chorioamnionitis) and perinatal (eg, a composite frequency of seizures, sepsis, bone or nerve injury, encephalopathy, or death) outcomes, were compared as a function of the duration of the latent phase (analyzed with time both as a continuous measure and categorized in 3-hour increments). A total of 10,677 women were available for analysis. In the vast majority (96.4%) of women, the active phase had been reached by 15 hours. The longer the duration of a woman's latent phase, the greater her chance of ultimately undergoing a cesarean delivery (P < .001, for time both as a continuous and categorical independent variable), although >40% of women whose latent phase lasted ≥18 hours still had a vaginal delivery. Several maternal morbidities, such
James E. Granskog
The labor supply for timber harvesting has been a chronic issue for the southern pulp and paper industry since the mid-1950s. Whenever woodyard inventories drop substantially below desired levels, a renewed chorus of "Wood Labor Crisis" laments the dwindling labor force in a time of rising wood needs. Now that large acreages of pine plantations are reaching...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labor disputes. 652.9 Section 652.9 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR ESTABLISHMENT AND FUNCTIONING OF STATE EMPLOYMENT SERVICES Employment Service Operations § 652.9 Labor disputes. (a) State agencies shall make no...
... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Labor practices. 20.512 Section 20.512... Other Employee Conduct Provisions § 20.512 Labor practices. Employees are prohibited from striking... with employee organizations is found in the Department Manual, Part 370, Chapter 711, Labor Management...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labor standards. 1003.603 Section... § 1003.603 Labor standards. In accordance with the authority under section 107(e)(2) of the Act, the Secretary waives the provisions of section 110 of the Act (Labor Standards) with respect to this part...
... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labor standards 200.33 Section 200... Eligibility Requirements for Existing Projects Miscellaneous Cross Cutting Regulations § 200.33 Labor standards (a) The requirements set forth in 29 CFR parts 1, 3 and 5 for compliance with labor standards laws...
Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest incidence of child labor in the world and estimates show that it continues to grow. This paper examines the causes and magnitude of child labor in Kenya. Unlike previous studies that examined child labor as only an economic activity, this paper includes household chores. Including household chores is important…
... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Labor organization. 901.19 Section 901.19 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE GRIEVANCE BOARD GENERAL Meanings of Terms As Used in This Chapter § 901.19 Labor organization. Labor organization means any employee organization accorded recognition as the...
John R. Commons has contributed in one way or another to pratically every piece of social and labor legislation that has been enacted in the twentieth century. He has made his mark on such diverse aspects of American labor as apprenticeship, vocational education, workers' compensation, and the administration of labor law. (Author/JOW)
... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labor. 440.19 Section 440.19 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION WEATHERIZATION ASSISTANCE FOR LOW-INCOME PERSONS § 440.19 Labor. Payments for labor... supplement wages paid to training participants, public service employment workers, or other Federal or State...
...Pursuant to Article 19.5 of the U.S.-Korea Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA), the International Labor Affairs Bureau (ILAB) of the U.S. Department of Labor gives notice of the public session of the meeting of the Labor Affairs Council (``Council'' or ``LAC''). The LAC public session will be held the morning of March 19, 2013. The purpose of the public session is to provide an opportunity for the Council to meet with the public to discuss matters related to the implementation of Chapter 19 (the Labor Chapter) of the KORUS FTA, including activities of the Labor Cooperation Mechanism established under Article 19.6 of the FTA.
Kanngiesser, Patricia; Hood, Bruce
People often assign ownership to the person who has invested labor into making an object (labor rule). However, labor usually improves objects and increases their value, and it has not been investigated whether these considerations underlie people's use of the labor rule. We presented participants with third-party ownership conflicts between…
Chibber, Rachana; Al-Harmi, Jehad; Foda, Mohamed; Mohammed K, Zeinab; Al-Saleh, Eyad; Mohammed, Asiya Tasneem
To compare the outcome of induced and spontaneous labor in grand multiparous women with one previous lower segment cesarean section (CS), so that the safety of labor induction could be assessed. In 102 women (study group), labor was induced and the outcome was compared with 280 women (control group) who went into spontaneous labor. All 382 women were grand multiparous and had one previous CS. There were no significant difference in oxytocin augmentation, CS, scar dehiscence, fetal birth weight or apgar scores between groups. There was one neonatal death, two still births, one early neonatal death and one congenital malformation in the study group and this was not significant. There was no significant difference in vaginal birth in the study (80.9%) and the control group (83.8%). In this moderate-sized study, induction of labor may be a safe option in grand multiparous women, if there is no absolute induction for repeating CS.
... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Labor members of Adjustment Board. 1202.14 Section 1202.14 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD RULES OF PROCEDURE § 1202.14 Labor members of Adjustment Board. Section 3, First, (f) of title I of the Railway Labor Act relating to...
... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Local hand harvest laborers. 780.315 Section 780.315 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL...) Statutory Provisions § 780.315 Local hand harvest laborers. (a) A requirement of the exemption is that an...
... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Child labor provisions. 552.108 Section 552.108 Labor... OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO DOMESTIC SERVICE Interpretations § 552.108 Child labor provisions. Congress made no change in section 12 as regards domestic service employees. Accordingly, the child labor...
... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Child labor provisions. 552.108 Section 552.108 Labor... OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO DOMESTIC SERVICE Interpretations § 552.108 Child labor provisions. Congress made no change in section 12 as regards domestic service employees. Accordingly, the child labor...
... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Child labor provisions. 552.108 Section 552.108 Labor... OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO DOMESTIC SERVICE Interpretations § 552.108 Child labor provisions. Congress made no change in section 12 as regards domestic service employees. Accordingly, the child labor...
... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Child labor provisions. 552.108 Section 552.108 Labor... OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO DOMESTIC SERVICE Interpretations § 552.108 Child labor provisions. Congress made no change in section 12 as regards domestic service employees. Accordingly, the child labor...
... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Child labor provisions. 552.108 Section 552.108 Labor... OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO DOMESTIC SERVICE Interpretations § 552.108 Child labor provisions. Congress made no change in section 12 as regards domestic service employees. Accordingly, the child labor...
Zhang, Jun; Troendle, James; Grantz, Katherine L; Reddy, Uma M
In a recent review by Cohen and Friedman, several statistical questions on modeling labor curves were raised. This article illustrates that asking data to fit a preconceived model or letting a sufficiently flexible model fit observed data is the main difference in principles of statistical modeling between the original Friedman curve and our average labor curve. An evidence-based approach to construct a labor curve and establish normal values should allow the statistical model to fit observed data. In addition, the presence of the deceleration phase in the active phase of an average labor curve was questioned. Forcing a deceleration phase to be part of the labor curve may have artificially raised the speed of progression in the active phase with a particularly large impact on earlier labor between 4 and 6 cm. Finally, any labor curve is illustrative and may not be instructive in managing labor because of variations in individual labor pattern and large errors in measuring cervical dilation. With the tools commonly available, it may be more productive to establish a new partogram that takes the physiology of labor and contemporary obstetric population into account. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gomez-Lopez, Nardhy; StLouis, Derek; Lehr, Marcus A; Sanchez-Rodriguez, Elly N; Arenas-Hernandez, Marcia
Labor resembles an inflammatory response that includes secretion of cytokines/chemokines by resident and infiltrating immune cells into reproductive tissues and the maternal/fetal interface. Untimely activation of these inflammatory pathways leads to preterm labor, which can result in preterm birth. Preterm birth is a major determinant of neonatal mortality and morbidity; therefore, the elucidation of the process of labor at a cellular and molecular level is essential for understanding the pathophysiology of preterm labor. Here, we summarize the role of innate and adaptive immune cells in the physiological or pathological activation of labor. We review published literature regarding the role of innate and adaptive immune cells in the cervix, myometrium, fetal membranes, decidua and the fetus in late pregnancy and labor at term and preterm. Accumulating evidence suggests that innate immune cells (neutrophils, macrophages and mast cells) mediate the process of labor by releasing pro-inflammatory factors such as cytokines, chemokines and matrix metalloproteinases. Adaptive immune cells (T-cell subsets and B cells) participate in the maintenance of fetomaternal tolerance during pregnancy, and an alteration in their function or abundance may lead to labor at term or preterm. Also, immune cells that bridge the innate and adaptive immune systems (natural killer T (NKT) cells and dendritic cells (DCs)) seem to participate in the pathophysiology of preterm labor. In conclusion, a balance between innate and adaptive immune cells is required in order to sustain pregnancy; an alteration of this balance will lead to labor at term or preterm. PMID:24954221
Cierny, Jill T; Unal, E Ramsey; Flood, Pamela; Rhee, Ka Young; Praktish, Allison; Olson, Tara Hudak; Goetzl, Laura
We sought to examine the relationship between maternal markers of inflammation and labor performance. A nested cohort study was performed utilizing an established cohort of term nulliparous patients. Maternal blood was collected at the onset of regular, painful contractions in patients undergoing labor induction or at admission in patients with spontaneous labor. Levels of cytokines including interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α were determined using standard multiplex methodology. Maternal demographic data were collected prospectively. Detailed retrospective chart review was performed to extract data on cervical dilation, effacement, and station during labor. Subjects were excluded if they failed to achieve complete dilation. Mixed effects modeling was used to examine the association between serum cytokine quartiles and labor progress in the latent and active phases. In all, 334 women were included in our analysis. The lowest quartile of IL-6 was associated with slower latent labor (P = .001). In contrast, the highest quartiles of IL-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α were associated with slower active labor (P = .03 and .0002, respectively). Proinflammatory activation is important in labor initiation. However, once active labor is established, excess inflammation can be detrimental to efficient labor progress. These data may explain, in part, the known associations among clinical chorioamnionitis, cesarean delivery, and postpartum hemorrhage. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Iravani, Mina; Janghorbani, Mohsen; Zarean, Elahe; Bahrami, Masoud
Background: Despite the scientific and medical advances for management of complicated health issues, the current maternity care setting has increased risks for healthy women and their babies. The aim of this study was to conduct an overview of published systematic reviews on the interventions used most commonly for management of normal labor and delivery in the first stage of labor. Materials and Methods: The online databases through March 2013, limited to systematic reviews of clinical trials were searched. An updated search was performed in April 2014. Two reviewers independently assessed data inclusion, extraction, and quality of methodology. Results: Twenty-three reviews (16 Cochrane, 7 non-Cochrane), relating to the most common care practices for management of normal labor and delivery in the first stage of labor, were included. Evidence does not support routine enemas, routine perineal shaving, continuous electronic fetal heart rate monitoring, routine early amniotomy, and restriction of fluids and food during labor. Evidence supports continuity of midwifery care and support, encouragement to non-supine position, and freedom in movement throughout labor. There is insufficient evidence to support routine administration of intravenous fluids and antispasmodics during labor. More evidence is needed regarding delayed admission until active labor and use of partograph. Conclusions: Evidence-based maternity care emphasizes on the practices that increase safety for mother and baby. If policymakers and healthcare providers wish to promote obstetric care quality successfully, it is important that they implement evidence-based clinical practices in routine midwifery care. PMID:26120327
Iravani, Mina; Janghorbani, Mohsen; Zarean, Elahe; Bahrami, Masoud
Despite the scientific and medical advances for management of complicated health issues, the current maternity care setting has increased risks for healthy women and their babies. The aim of this study was to conduct an overview of published systematic reviews on the interventions used most commonly for management of normal labor and delivery in the first stage of labor. The online databases through March 2013, limited to systematic reviews of clinical trials were searched. An updated search was performed in April 2014. Two reviewers independently assessed data inclusion, extraction, and quality of methodology. Twenty-three reviews (16 Cochrane, 7 non-Cochrane), relating to the most common care practices for management of normal labor and delivery in the first stage of labor, were included. Evidence does not support routine enemas, routine perineal shaving, continuous electronic fetal heart rate monitoring, routine early amniotomy, and restriction of fluids and food during labor. Evidence supports continuity of midwifery care and support, encouragement to non-supine position, and freedom in movement throughout labor. There is insufficient evidence to support routine administration of intravenous fluids and antispasmodics during labor. More evidence is needed regarding delayed admission until active labor and use of partograph. Evidence-based maternity care emphasizes on the practices that increase safety for mother and baby. If policymakers and healthcare providers wish to promote obstetric care quality successfully, it is important that they implement evidence-based clinical practices in routine midwifery care.
Smart, J E; Casco, R R
This paper provides a general overview on foreign contract labor. The growth in the use of foreign contract labor is described with reference to other types of international labor movements such as 1) illegal, undocumented, or irregular migration; 2) free migration; and 3) permanent settlement migration. Within this general context, the various national advantages and disadvantages of contract labor are outlined. Particular issues like the role of trade unions and the likely future international labor circulation are noted. The 1984 World Labour Report estimates a global stock of almost 22 million foreign workers. Despite lack of reliable data, the size of irregular labor flows is considerable. More than 4 million undocumented workers, primarily Mexicans, can be found in the US alone. Other major flows of illegal labor go from China to Hong Kong, Malaysia to Singapore, Columbia to Venezuela, and poor Arab countries to oil-exporting countries in the Middle East. Laws are often poorly enforced and contradictory. Employers often actively recruit illegal migrants. While permanent migration was formerly the primary source of foreign workers, the numbers migrating in this manner are decreasing significantly. In absolute terms, host countries gain considerably more through the use of contract labor than sending countries. The pervasive commitment of national governments to economic growth is a prime consideration in the decision to import foreign labor. In general, trade unions have created an environment wherein the use of foreign labor in the formal as opposed to the informal labor market is more difficult. The disadvantages of labor export include the costs of family separation, worker exploitation, and cultural alienation. Remittances constitute the most tangible return of labor export. In many countries they have made a very considerable impact on the balance of payments deficit.
The present study aims to investigate job stressors and stress relievers for Korean emotional laborers, specifically focusing on the effects of work conditions and emotional labor properties. Emotional laborers are asked to hide or distort their real emotions in their interaction with clients. They are exposed to high levels of stress in the emotional labor process, which leads to serious mental health risks including burnout, depression, and even suicide impulse. Exploring job stressors and relieving factors would be the first step in seeking alternatives to protect emotional laborers from those mental health risks. Using the third wave data of Korean Working Conditions Survey, logistic regression analysis was conducted for two purposes: to examine the relations of emotional labor and stress, and to find out job stressors and relievers for emotional laborers. The chances of stress arousal are 3.5 times higher for emotional laborers; emotional laborers experience double risk-burden for stress arousal. In addition to general job stressors, emotional laborers need to bear burdens related to emotional labor properties. The effect of social support at the workplace is not significant for stress relief, unlike common assumptions, whereas subjective satisfaction (wage satisfaction and work-life balance) is proven to have relieving effects on emotional laborers' job stress. From the results, the importance of a balanced understanding of emotional labor for establishing effective policies for emotional laborer protection is stressed.
Background The present study aims to investigate job stressors and stress relievers for Korean emotional laborers, specifically focusing on the effects of work conditions and emotional labor properties. Emotional laborers are asked to hide or distort their real emotions in their interaction with clients. They are exposed to high levels of stress in the emotional labor process, which leads to serious mental health risks including burnout, depression, and even suicide impulse. Exploring job stressors and relieving factors would be the first step in seeking alternatives to protect emotional laborers from those mental health risks. Methods Using the third wave data of Korean Working Conditions Survey, logistic regression analysis was conducted for two purposes: to examine the relations of emotional labor and stress, and to find out job stressors and relievers for emotional laborers. Results The chances of stress arousal are 3.5 times higher for emotional laborers; emotional laborers experience double risk-burden for stress arousal. In addition to general job stressors, emotional laborers need to bear burdens related to emotional labor properties. The effect of social support at the workplace is not significant for stress relief, unlike common assumptions, whereas subjective satisfaction (wage satisfaction and work-life balance) is proven to have relieving effects on emotional laborers' job stress. Conclusion From the results, the importance of a balanced understanding of emotional labor for establishing effective policies for emotional laborer protection is stressed. PMID:26929847
..., prior to such employee's engagement in any activity enumerated in section 3(6) of the Act. A farm labor... farm labor contractor employee. 500.41 Section 500.41 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued... PROTECTION Registration of Farm Labor Contractors and Employees of Farm Labor Contractors Engaged in Farm...
..., prior to such employee's engagement in any activity enumerated in section 3(6) of the Act. A farm labor... farm labor contractor employee. 500.41 Section 500.41 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued... PROTECTION Registration of Farm Labor Contractors and Employees of Farm Labor Contractors Engaged in Farm...
Gaydos, Megan; Yu, Karen; Weintraub, June
Federal, state, and local labor laws establish minimum standards for working conditions, including wages, work hours, occupational safety, and collective bargaining. The adoption and enforcement of labor laws protect and promote social, economic, and physical determinants of health, while incomplete compliance undermines these laws and contributes to health inequalities. Using existing legal authorities, some public health agencies may be able to contribute to the adoption, monitoring, and enforcement of labor laws. We describe how routine public health functions have been adapted in San Francisco, California, to support compliance with minimum wage and workers' compensation insurance standards. Based on these experiences, we consider the opportunities and obstacles for health agencies to defend and advance labor standards. Increasing coordinated action between health and labor agencies may be a promising approach to reducing health inequities and efficiently enforcing labor standards. PMID:24179278
Bhatia, Rajiv; Gaydos, Megan; Yu, Karen; Weintraub, June
Federal, state, and local labor laws establish minimum standards for working conditions, including wages, work hours, occupational safety, and collective bargaining. The adoption and enforcement of labor laws protect and promote social, economic, and physical determinants of health, while incomplete compliance undermines these laws and contributes to health inequalities. Using existing legal authorities, some public health agencies may be able to contribute to the adoption, monitoring, and enforcement of labor laws. We describe how routine public health functions have been adapted in San Francisco, California, to support compliance with minimum wage and workers' compensation insurance standards. Based on these experiences, we consider the opportunities and obstacles for health agencies to defend and advance labor standards. Increasing coordinated action between health and labor agencies may be a promising approach to reducing health inequities and efficiently enforcing labor standards.
Fogleman, Kelly A; Herring, Amy H; Kaczor, Diane; Pusek, Susan N; Jo, Hyejin; Thorp, John M
Whether pre-term birth culminates as a result of a de novo pathologic process or is more simply early activation of physiologic mechanisms is unknown. Exploration of the onset of labor in term women with classical risk factors for early delivery might provide insights into the mechanisms leading to pre-term birth. This study examines whether sociodemographic factors known to increase the risk of pre-term birth also affect the length of term gestations. From a large prospective cohort composed of women delivering from 1995-2000, a sample was selected of 441 women from Central North Carolina, US, who delivered singletons after 37 weeks gestation. An algorithm was designed to identify induced labors and gestational age was censored at the time of induction. Gestational age was assigned by sonography and menstrual dating. Data were analysed using the Cox proportional hazards model. The main outcome measure was time to spontaneous labor. Women with 12 years of education had longer periods of gestation than women with less than 12 years of education, HR = 0.57 [0.39, 0.84]. Shorter gestational periods were found for women with pre-term premature rupture of membranes (PPROM) in a previous pregnancy, HR = 3.70 [1.60, 8.52], even after adjusting for confounders. Smoking was not associated (p > 0.1) with the timing of labor at term. By studying the timing of spontaneous parturition at term we identified that there is little overlap in risk factors that affect timing of delivery between spontaneous term and pre-term births.
Tanvisut, Rajavadi; Traisrisilp, Kuntharee; Tongsong, Theera
Many strategies for labor pain management have been studied, including aromatherapy, which is a noninvasive, alternative medicine used as an adjunct for labor pain control. Nevertheless, the results were contradictory. Therefore, we conducted this study to determine the effectiveness of aromatherapy for reducing pain during labor. A randomized controlled trial was carried out on Thai laboring primigravidae who were a low-risk singleton pregnancy undergoing vaginal delivery. All participants, both study and control group, received standard obstetric care. Aromatherapy was only provided to the study group during the first stage of labor. The women rated their pain intensity by rating scales at different stages of labor. The primary outcome was pain scores and the secondary outcomes were necessity of painkiller usage, labor time, aromatherapy-associated complications, route of delivery, and Apgar scores. A total of 104 women were recruited, 52 in each group. Baseline characteristics and baseline pain scores were comparable. The median pain score of latent and early active phase was lower in the aromatherapy group, 5 vs 6 and 7 vs 8, respectively. The mean differences of pain scores between latent and early active phase and the baseline were significantly lower in the aromatherapy group, 1.88 vs 2.6 (p = 0.010) and 3.82 vs 4.39 (p = 0.031), respectively. Late active phase pain scores and other perinatal outcomes were not significantly different. Aromatherapy is helpful in reducing pain in latent and early active phase, and can probably be used as an adjunctive method for labor pain control without serious side effects.
... Production of Goods in Foreign Countries and Efforts by Certain Countries to Eliminate the Worst Forms of... eliminate the worst forms of child labor.'' Title II of the TDA and the TDA Conference Report, Joint... ``[w]hether the country has implemented its commitments to eliminate the worst forms of child labor as...
Employment Standards Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Wage and Hour Div.
This booklet is a guide to the provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act (also known as the Wage-Hour Law) which apply to minors employed in nonagricultural occupations. The content is as follows: coverage of the child labor provisions (covers employees in commerce, the production of goods for commerce, an enterprise engaged in commerce, and an…
Cohen, Wayne R; Friedman, Emanuel A
In the 1930s, investigators in the US, Germany and Switzerland made the first attempts to quantify the course of labor in a clinically meaningful way. They emphasized the rupture of membranes as a pivotal event governing labor progress. Attention was also placed on the total number of contractions as a guide to normality. Beginning in the 1950s, Friedman determined that changes in cervical dilatation and fetal station over time were the most useful parameters for the assessment of labor progress. He showed all normal labors had similar patterns of dilatation and descent, differing only in the durations and slopes of their component parts. These observations led to the formulation of criteria that elevated the assessment of labor from a rather arbitrary exercise to one guided by scientific objectivity. Researchers worldwide confirmed the basic nature of labor curves and validated their functionality. This system allows us to quantify the effects of parity, analgesia, maternal obesity, prior cesarean, maternal age, and fetal presentation and position on labor. It permits analysis of outcomes associated with labor aberrations, quantifies the effectiveness of treatments and assesses the need for cesarean delivery. Also, dysfunctional labor patterns serve as indicators of short- and long-term risks to offspring. We still lack the necessary translational research to link the physiologic manifestations of uterine contractility with changes in dilatation and descent. Recent efforts to interpret electrohysterographic patterns hold promise in this regard, as does preliminary exploration into the molecular basis of dysfunctional labor. For now, the clinician is best served by a system of labor assessment proposed more than 60 years ago and embellished upon in considerable detail since.
... with serious health problems. Some health problems, like cerebral palsy , can last a lifetime. Other problems, such as ... This medication may help reduce the risk of cerebral palsy that is associated with early preterm birth. What ...
Fullerton, Howard N., Jr.; Flaim, Paul O.
Prepared as part of the Bureau of Labor Statistics' periodic reassessment of its projections of the future growth trends of the various sectors of the American economy, new labor force projections to 1990 are presented based on trends in labor force participation as observed through 1975 and on the most recent population projections of the U.S.…
This paper, by a teacher of migrants, summarizes various farm labor laws and child labor laws pertaining to migrant and seasonal workers. The Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act of 1983 provides workers with assurances about pay, hours, and working conditions, including safety and health. This legislation permits anyone…
Saunders, Robert J.
Provides historical review of gender-based division of labor. Argues that gender-based division of labor served a purpose in survival of tribal communities but has lost meaning today and may be a handicap to full use of human talent and ability in the arts. There is nothing in various art forms which make them more appropriate for males or…
Good Neighbor Commission of Texas, Austin.
THE CALENDAR YEAR 1966 WAS THE SECOND FULL YEAR IN WHICH NO BRACEROS WERE IMPORTED FROM MEXICO. CRITICAL LABOR SHORTAGES OCCURRED IN SOME AREAS, HOWEVER, THE DOMESTIC LABOR SUPPLY BECAME MORE STABLE AND FEWER PROBLEMS WERE EXPERIENCED THAN IN 1965. THE MAJORITY OF TEXAS MIGRANTS LIVE IN SOUTH TEXAS AND APPROXIMATELY 95 PERCENT OF THEM ARE OF…
... Day, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Through times of prosperity... the unshakable foundation of American innovation and economic growth. On Labor Day, we celebrate their... the laws of the United States, do hereby proclaim September 3, 2012, as Labor Day. I call upon all...
... Day, 2013 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation On September 5, 1882, in what is thought to be the first Labor Day event, thousands of working Americans gathered to march in a... revolution. On Labor Day, we celebrate these enduring contributions and honor all the men and women who make...
... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Labor costs. 140.906 Section 140.906 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT PROCEDURES REIMBURSEMENT Reimbursement for Railroad Work § 140.906 Labor costs. (a) General. (1) Salaries and wages, at actual or average rates, and...
... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Labor costs. 140.906 Section 140.906 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT PROCEDURES REIMBURSEMENT Reimbursement for Railroad Work § 140.906 Labor costs. (a) General. (1) Salaries and wages, at actual or average rates, and...
... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Labor costs. 140.906 Section 140.906 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PAYMENT PROCEDURES REIMBURSEMENT Reimbursement for Railroad Work § 140.906 Labor costs. (a) General. (1) Salaries and wages, at actual or average rates, and...
It is estimated that more than 12 million children in India under the age of 14 engage in paid labor at least part time, due mostly to economic reasons. Dominant discourses about childhood however conceptualize childhood labor not only as unethical but as exploitation. This article explored the tensions between Western notions of childhood…
Hanson, John R., II
Contends that it is widely believed that cheap labor in poor countries attracts foreign investors. Asserts that historical evidence indicates that past patterns of direct foreign investment in poor countries are inconsistent with the cheap-labor argument. Includes two figures and one table. (CFR)
Schaub, James D.
The report identifies structural changes and trends in the composition of the nonmetro labor force between 1973 and 1979; evaluates the labor force performance by race, sex, and age; and suggests underlying causes of the major changes and the likelihood of particular trends continuing into the eighties. Tabular data indicate that: (1) metro and…
Baldwin, Stephen E.
Discusses the contention that the resentment some men feel toward working women is based on sympathy toward unemployed male breadwinners. Argues that this rationalization ignores the gross discrepancy in the size of the two labor force groups and the real issues in labor market discrimination against women. (Author/IRT)
Sarmiento, Anthony R.
Most major workplace literacy programs involve unions. Organized labor's current leadership in worker education and training is not a continuation of earlier activities but an expansion of union interest and activity that is unprecedented in the history of organized labor. These efforts do not rely on public funding, because many unions have…
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Labor standards. 37.301 Section 37.301 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING SERVICE CONTRACTING Dismantling, Demolition, or Removal of Improvements 37.301 Labor standards...
Bureau of Labor Statistics, Washington, DC.
This report explains the current U.S. regulations governing child labor; provides a detailed look at youth labor in this country, including how it differs among major demographic groups and economic sectors, and over time; and describes the outcomes of young people's work activities, including occupational injuries and fatalities and other…
An estimated 200,000-800,000 children and adolescents work in the United States as migrant agricultural laborers, either alone or with their families. This digest describes the statutory and economic factors contributing to the presence of children in the fields and the impact of this labor on their health and educational progress. The Fair Labor…
...-Management Relations Statute (Statute). The revisions also clarify certain administrative matters relating to... strengthen labor-management relationships that will aid in resolving disputes short of litigation. These... Creating Labor-Management Forums to Improve Delivery of Government Services, issued on December 9, 2009 by...
...-Management Relations Statute (Statute). The revisions also clarify certain administrative matters relating to... strengthen labor-management relationships that will aid in resolving disputes short of litigation. These... Creating Labor-Management Forums to Improve Delivery of Government Services, issued on December 9, 2009, by...
James, Katie; Paino, Maria
Emotional labor refers to the process by which workers manage their emotions to align with organizational rules (Hochschild, 2012). In the classroom, the discussion of emotional labor was found to be a contentious issue, with students debating the validity of the concept and/or not understanding its relationship to status. The purpose of this…
Department of Labor, Washington, DC.
DEPICTED ARE 12 CHARTS OF MAJOR CROP PRODUCTION CENTERS IN THE UNITED STATES WHICH DEMAND THE LABOR OF MIGRATORY FARM WORKERS THROUGHOUT THE YEAR. EACH CHART ILLUSTRATES THE AREAS OF AGRICULTURAL MIGRANT LABOR DEMAND FOR ONE MONTH OF THE YEAR. THE PURPOSE IS TO ACQUAINT THE PUBLIC WITH THE COMPLEXITY OF PLACING AND SCHEDULING MIGRATORY WORKERS…
... assistance is involved. However, where the trainees' performance of public and Indian housing work is subject... such laborers and mechanics on assisted housing shall be subject to the provisions of the Contract Work... and HUD rules, regulations and requirements. (2) The labor standards requirements in paragraph (b)(1...
Mahoney, Thomas A.; Milkovich, George T.
Methods of internal labor market analysis for three organizational areas are presented, along with some evidence about the validity and utility of conceptual descriptions of such markets. The general concept of an internal labor market refers to the process of pricing and allocation of manpower resources with an employing organization and rests…
Just, David A.
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between female delinquent behavior and labor market experiences. Data for the research consisted of responses from approximately 4,000 15- to 17-year-old youth who participated in the 1980 New Youth Survey of the National Longitudinal Surveys of Labor Market Experience. Variables examined…
... of actual costs provided that (i) the rate is based on historical cost data of the company, (ii) such... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labor costs. 140.906 Section 140.906 Highways FEDERAL... Railroad Work § 140.906 Labor costs. (a) General. (1) Salaries and wages, at actual or average rates, and...
Hamermesh, Daniel S., Ed.
Originally presented at a Conference on Labor in Nonprofit Industry and Government held at Princeton University, the studies are the first to provide an economic discussion of the public sector labor market. Melvin Reder examines the effect of the absence of the profit motive on employment and wage determination in the public sector. Orley…
Springsteen, Rosalind, Comp.; Epstein, Rosalie, Comp.
This publication makes available in one volume the major series produced by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Technical notes preceding each major section contain information on data changes and explain the services. Forty-four tables derived from the Current Population Survey (CPS) provide statistics on labor force and employment status,…
Salvatore, Nick; And Others
Includes "Labor History, Industrial Relations, and the Crisis of American Labor" (Brody); "Reckoning with Company Unions: The Case of Thompson Products, 1934-1964" (Jacoby); "Managers and Nonunion Workers in the Rubber Industry: Union Avoidance Strategies in the 1930s" (Nelson); and "'Light Manufacturing': The…
Schaub, Andreas F; Litschgi, Mario; Hoesli, Irene; Holzgreve, Wolfgang; Bleul, Ulrich; Geissbühler, Verena
To determine whether the obstetric gel shortens the second stage of labor and exerts a protective effect on the perineum. A total of 251 nulliparous women with singleton low-risk pregnancies in vertex position at term were recruited. A total of 228 eligible women were randomly assigned to Group A, without obstetric gel use, or to Group B, obstetric gel use, i.e., intermittent application into the birth canal during vaginal examinations, starting at the early first stage of labor (prior to 4 cm dilation) and ending with delivery. A total of 183 cases were analyzed. For vaginal deliveries without interventions, such as C-section, vaginal operative procedure or Kristeller maneuver, obstetric gel use significantly shortened the second stage of labor by 26 min (30%) (P=0.026), and significantly reduced perineal tears (P=0.024). First stage of labor and total labor duration were also shortened, but not significantly. Results did not show a significant change in secondary outcome parameters, such as intervention rates or maternal and newborn outcomes. No side effects were observed with obstetric gel use. Systematic vaginal application of obstetric gel showed a significant reduction in the second stage of labor and a significant increase in perineal integrity. Future studies should further investigate the effect on intervention rates and maternal and neonatal outcome parameters.
The elective induction of labor has become commonplace, and many are concerned that the practice introduces risks for the woman and the fetus that would not be incurred if labor had been allowed to begin spontaneously. This second paper of a two-part communication reviews the risks and benefits of the elective induction of labor, and concludes that the risks of the induction of labor are few when the patient is properly screened medically and appropriately informed. The principal worry is a doubled risk of Cesarean delivery among primigravidas (not multiparas) in whom labor is electively induced. The benefits of selecting the date of delivery are powerful incentives for busy working women. But the benefits are primarily social, and add to the convenience of both the patient and her doctor. The risks, however, are medical, and are not confined to the pregnancy at risk. Appropriately informed consent is the key to balance the risks and benefits.
Meng, Marie-Louise; Smiley, Richard
The availability of safe, effective analgesia during labor has become an expectation for women in most of the developed world over the past two or three decades. More than 60% of women in the United States now receive some kind of neuraxial procedure during labor. This article is a brief review of the advantages and techniques of neuraxial labor analgesia along with the recent advances and controversies in the field of labor analgesia. For the most part, we have aimed the discussion at the non-anesthesiologist to give other practitioners a sense of the state of the art and science of labor analgesia in the second decade of the 21st century. PMID:28781763
Costa-Martins, José Manuel; Pereira, Marco; Martins, Henriqueta; Moura-Ramos, Mariana; Coelho, Rui; Tavares, Jorge
To examine the influence of attachment dimensions and sociodemographic and physical predictors in the experience of labor pain. Eighty-one pregnant women were assessed during their third trimester of pregnancy and during labor. The perceived intensity of pain in the early stages of labor (3 cm of cervical dilatation) and before the administration of patient-controlled epidural analgesia was measured using a visual analog scale. Pain was also assessed indirectly based on anesthetic doses. Attachment was assessed using the Adult Attachment Scale-Revised. Attachment anxiety and avoidance were positively and significantly correlated with labor pain and anesthetic consumption. In the multivariate models, attachment anxiety was a significant predictor of higher pain at 3 cm of cervical dilatation (β = 0.36, p = .042) and before the administration of patient-controlled epidural analgesia (β = 0.51, p = .002). Older age (β = 0.31, p = .005), a shorter duration of labor (β= -0.41, p = .001), and attachment avoidance (β = 0.41, p = .004) were significant predictors of higher anesthetic use. The study findings suggest that perceived labor pain and anesthetic use are strongly associated with attachment, rather than demographic and physical factors. These data support the importance of understanding the experience of labor pain within an attachment theoretical framework.
Simpson, Kathleen Rice
Elective induction of labor is at an all-time high in the United States despite known associated risks. It can lead to birth of an infant too early, a long labor, exposure to a high-alert medication with its potential side effects, unnecessary cesarean birth, and maternal and neonatal morbidity. There is a cascade of interventions related to elective induction such as an intravenous line, continuous electronic fetal monitoring, confinement to bed, amniotomy, pharmacologic labor stimulating agents, parental pain medications, and regional anesthesia, each with their own set of potential complications and risk of iatrogenic harm. These risks apply to all women having the procedure, however for nulliparous women before 41 weeks of gestation with an unfavorable cervix, the main risk is cesarean birth after unsuccessful labor induction with the potential for maternal and neonatal morbidity and increased healthcare costs. When cesarean occurs, subsequent births are likely to be via cesarean as well. Elective labor induction before 41 weeks is inconsistent with quality perinatal care, and performance of this unnecessary procedure should be minimized. Convenience as the reason for labor induction is contrary to a culture focused on patient safety. A review of current evidence, followed by changes in practice, is warranted to support the safest care possible during labor and birth. Various strategies to reduce the rate of elective induction in the United States are presented.
Early Education and Care: What Is the Federal Government's Role? Hearing before the Subcommittee on Education and Early Childhood Development of the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions, United States Senate, One Hundred Ninth Congress, First Session (April 20, 2005) S. Hrg. 109-116
US Senate, 2005
The purpose of this hearing was to examine the federal role in improving the effectiveness and coordination of sixty-nine Federal programs that are designed to help parents help their young children with child care and early education. Opening statements were delivered by Subcommittee Chairman Senator Lamar Alexander, Tennessee; Ranking Member…
Indiana Univ., Bloomington. Midwest Center for Public Sector Labor Relations.
An unfair labor practice is the violation of any right granted employees, unions, or employers by a collective bargaining law. This guide answers common questions about unfair labor practices in public sector labor relations. The booklet is divided into two sections, unfair employer labor practices and unfair union labor practices. The section…
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting labor disputes... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 1422.101-3 Reporting labor disputes. Labor disputes that may interfere with contract performance shall be reported to...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labor certification applications for... LABOR LABOR CERTIFICATION PROCESS FOR PERMANENT EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Labor Certification Process § 656.16 Labor certification applications for sheepherders. (a) Filing requirements and...
... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exchange of labor between farmers. 780.332 Section 780.332 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS...
... Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(a)(6... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Local hand harvest laborers. 780.315 Section 780.315 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL...
Chen, He; Inoue, Jun-ichi
We introduce a probabilistic model of labor markets for university graduates, in particular, in Japan. To make a model of the market efficiently, we take into account several hypotheses. Namely, each company fixes the (business year independent) number of opening positions for newcomers. The ability of gathering newcomers depends on the result of job matching process in past business years. This fact means that the ability of the company is weaken if the company did not make their quota or the company gathered applicants too much over the quota. All university graduates who are looking for their jobs can access the public information about the ranking of companies. Assuming the above essential key points, we construct the local energy function of each company and describe the probability that an arbitrary company gets students at each business year by a Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution. We evaluate the relevant physical quantities such as the employment rate. We find that the system undergoes a sort of `phase transition' from the `good employment phase' to `poor employment phase' when one controls the degree of importance for the ranking.
Brown, Donald Corey; Hammond, D Corydon
This paper reviews the benefits and effectiveness of hypnosis in obstetrics and labor and delivery, demonstrating significant reductions in the use of analgesics and anesthesia and in shorter Stages 1 and 2 labors. It presents empirical and theoretical rationales for use of hypnosis in preterm labor (PTL) and labor and delivery at term. The benefits of hypnosis in relation to labor length, pain levels, and the enjoyment of labor, as well as its effectiveness in preterm labor are noted in randomized controlled trials and in a meta-analysis. Risk factors are reported for preterm delivery; hypnosis significantly prolongs pregnancy. Six cases are presented of hypnosis stopping PTL a number of times and when indicated at term. A case report of successful use of hypnosis in quadruplets is presented with some scripts. Suggestions are made for further research.
Edmonds, Joyce K; Miley, Kathleen; Angelini, Kimberly J; Shah, Neel T
Postponing hospital admission until the active phase of labor is a recommended strategy to safely reduce the incidence of primary cesarean births. Success of this strategy depends on women's decisions about when to transfer from home to the hospital, a process that is largely absent from research about childbirth. This study aimed to determine the decision-making criteria used by women about when to go to the hospital after the self-identification of labor onset at home. A qualitative study was conducted at an academic medical center with a sample of 21 nulliparous women who went into spontaneous labor at home and had term, singleton, and vertex-presentation births. The purposive sample consisted of women who decided to stay at home or go to the hospital in early labor. Birth narratives from in-depth interviews conducted in the postpartum period using a semistructured interview guide were subjected to content analysis. The verbatim transcriptions of the interviews were coded and categorized into a set of decision criteria. Criteria used by women in deciding to go to the hospital or stay at home in early labor included the degree of certainty with the self-identification of labor onset, ability to cope with labor pain, influence of social network members, health care provider advice, and concerns about travel to the hospital. Perception of childbirth risk and the need for reassurance about the normalcy of symptoms and fetal well-being also influenced women's decisions. Women use a common set of criteria in deciding when to arrive at the hospital during labor. Antenatal education and telephone triage interventions that incorporate the considerations of women deciding to seek or delay hospital admission in childbirth may facilitate health seeking in more advanced labor. Symptom recognition education about early labor onset and progression could reduce decisional uncertainty. © 2018 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.
Hung, Tai-Ho; Chen, Szu-Fu; Lo, Liang-Ming; Hsieh, T'sang-T'ang
To compare the duration of second stage labor among modern Taiwanese women who achieved vaginal delivery without adverse neonatal outcomes and women who delivered during the early 1990 s. Data were collected from women who underwent spontaneous labor and vaginally delivered cephalic singleton fetuses with normal neonatal outcomes at the Taipei Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan from 1991-1995 (Cohort 1, n = 10,721) and 2010-2014 (Cohort 2, n = 3734). We calculated the median duration and 95th percentiles of second stage labor. The women were stratified according to analgesia and parity. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the association between the maternal/pregnancy characteristics and second stage labor duration. The median second stage labor duration was significantly longer for Cohort 2 than for Cohort 1. For nulliparous women, the 95th percentile second stage labor thresholds were 255 minutes and 152 minutes (Cohort 2) and 165 minutes and 107 minutes (Cohort 1) for women with and without epidural analgesia, respectively. For multiparous women, the 95th percentile second stage labor thresholds were 136 minutes and 43 minutes (Cohort 2) and 125 minutes and 39 minutes (Cohort 1) for women with and without epidural analgesia, respectively. Birth weight, maternal age at delivery, and time period (2010-2014 vs. 1991-1995) were significant factors associated with the duration of second stage labor. Modern Taiwanese women who achieved vaginal delivery without adverse neonatal outcomes experienced longer second stage labors than women 25 years ago. The 95th percentile thresholds differed between nulliparous and multiparous women with and without epidural analgesia. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Seventy percent of child laborers--more than 150 million girls and boys under 18--are agricultural workers. They are harshly exploited, toiling in poor to appalling conditions, performing dangerous jobs with little or no pay, and are deprived of an education. Because children's bodies and minds are still growing and developing, exposure to workplace hazards and risks can be more devastating and long-lasting for them. The line between what is acceptable work and what is not is easily crossed. However, not all work that children undertake in agriculture is bad for them. Age-appropriate, lower-risk tasks that do not interfere with schooling and leisure time are not at issue here. The goal of this paper is to examine the links between health and child labor in agriculture. It aims to explain why the International Labour Organization' goal of eliminating all of the worst forms of child labor by 2016 will only be possible if more work is done in agriculture. Review of the relevant literature and data on the hazards of child labor and the reasons why agricultural child labor is particularly difficult to tackle. Children who work in agriculture are exposed to a large number of health hazards, and yet the problem is particularly difficult to tackle because of the large numbers involved, the young age at which children start to work, the hazardous nature of the work, lack of regulation, invisibility of child laborers, denial of education, the effects of poverty, and ingrained attitudes and perceptions about the roles of children in rural areas. Policies for preventing and reducing agricultural child labor should mainstream and integrate child labor issues at the national and international levels with increasing emphasis on poverty alleviation and expanding and improving institutional mechanisms for education, law enforcement, health, and so forth. Cooperation between the International Labour Organization and international agricultural organizations is needed to ensure that
... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of Labor-Management Standards 29 CFR Part 404 Labor Organization Officer and Employee Reports CFR Correction In Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 100 to 499, revised as [[Page 4272
Stresing, R.; Lindenberger, D.; Kã¼mmel, R.
Cointegration analysis is applied to the linear combinations of the time series of (the logarithms of) output, capital, labor, and energy for Germany, Japan, and the USA since 1960. The computed cointegration vectors represent the output elasticities of the aggregate energy-dependent Cobb-Douglas function. The output elasticities give the economic weights of the production factors capital, labor, and energy. We find that they are for labor much smaller and for energy much larger than the cost shares of these factors. In standard economic theory output elasticities equal cost shares. Our heterodox findings support results obtained with LINEX production functions.
Rees, Daniel I; Sabia, Joseph J
While migraine headache can be physically debilitating, no study has attempted to estimate its effects on labor market outcomes. Using data drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, we estimate the effect of being diagnosed with migraine headache on labor force participation, hours worked, and wages. Ordinary least squares (OLS) estimates suggest that migraines are associated with reduced labor force participation and lower wages among females. A negative association between migraine headache and the wages of female respondents is also obtained using an instrumental variables (IV) approach, although the IV estimates are imprecise relative to the OLS estimates. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Glomb, Theresa M; Kammeyer-Mueller, John D; Rotundo, Maria
The concept of emotional labor demands and their effects on workers has received considerable attention in recent years, with most studies concentrating on stress, burnout, satisfaction, or other affective outcomes. This study extends the literature by examining the relationship between emotional labor demands and wages at the occupational level. Theories describing the expected effects of job demands and working conditions on wages are described. Results suggest that higher levels of emotional labor demands are associated with lower wage rates for jobs low in cognitive demands and with higher wage rates for jobs high in cognitive demands. Implications of these findings are discussed. (c) 2004 APA
Sen. Alexander, Lamar [R-TN
Senate - 09/16/2014 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:
This guide presents brief descriptions of major maritime management and trade organizations, seafaring labor organizations and their affiliations. Also included are U.S.-flag ship owner/operator companies, and their union affiliations. A directory of...
Trends in employment, occupations, output, and input provide evidence that firms increased their use of contract and contingent labor. Further research is needed to explore the causal factors behind the shift toward market-mediated work arrangements. (JOW)
Nelson, Richard R.
Discusses major laws enacted on a variety of subjects, including minimum wage, parental leave, drugs and AIDS testing, and door-to-door sales by children. A state-by-state summary of labor legislation is included. (Author)
Martin, Philip L.; Richards, Alan
According to international trade theory, free labor flows across national borders should benefit workers, employers, and societies. But recent evidence indicates that such migration may not provide these desired benefits. (Author/SK)
Zalusky, John L.
The compressed work week, flexitime, and job sharing are discussed from the labor perspective. The author suggests that it is unlikely that unions will endorse flexible work arrangements that jeopardize the eight-hour-day concept. (LBH)
Norwood, J L
In the decades ahead, the US labor force will reflect changes in the industrial structure, with declines in some manufacturing industries and expansion in service industries. The services sector is so diverse that the jobs within it cannot be categorized as either high wage or low wage. The service-producing sector employs 85% of professional specialty workers in the US. In general, information on compensation trends indicates that greater increases in compensation have occurred for workers in service-producing as opposed to goods-producing industries. The increase in service sector jobs has created opportunities for women to enter the labor force and, at present, 5 out of 6 women work in this sector compared to fewer than 2 out of 3 men. Productivity growth rates in the service-producing industries vary substantially and are strongly affected by the business cycle. Central to employment opportunities in the years ahead will be the effect of new technology. To date, the aggregate effect of new technology has been increased employment and higher living standards. Although retraining programs should be in place, the scenario of a huge technology-created labor surplus seems unlikely. In fact, a more likely problem is a shortage of labor resulting from earlier labor force withdrawal and demographic aging of the population. Those in the 25-54-year age group will represent a larger share of the labor force in the years ahead. In addition, blacks are expected to account for 20% of the labor force growth in the next decade. Finally, given increasing labor force participation rates among mothers, employers may have to provide more flexible work schedules, assistance with day care, and more attractive benefits packages.
Labor Costs in 000 Contracts HQ DA, ATTN: DACA -BUZ-X (Mr. Walker) HQ DA, ATTN: DACA -OM1Z-B (Mr. Olson) HQ DA, ATTN: DACS-DPZ-B (Dr. Bellaschi) Defense...counterparts and if so, recommend corrective action . C. APPROACH. In addition to reviewing current methods used to monitor and control labor costs, a...Compensation Related Actions .................................... 27 6. Compensation Data Information Flow .................................. 32 V
Laughon, S Katherine; Branch, D Ware; Beaver, Julie; Zhang, Jun
The objective of the study was to examine differences in labor patterns in a modern cohort compared with the 1960s in the United States. Data from pregnancies at term, in spontaneous labor, with cephalic, singleton fetuses were compared between the Collaborative Perinatal Project (CPP, n = 39,491 delivering 1959-1966) and the Consortium on Safe Labor (CSL; n = 98,359 delivering 2002-2008). Compared with the CPP, women in the CSL were older (26.8 ± 6.0 vs 24.1 ± 6.0 years), heavier (body mass index 29.9 ± 5.0 vs 26.3 ± 4.1 kg/m(2)), had higher epidural (55% vs 4%) and oxytocin use (31% vs 12%), and cesarean delivery (12% vs 3%). First stage of labor in the CSL was longer by a median of 2.6 hours in nulliparas and 2.0 hours in multiparas, even after adjusting for maternal and pregnancy characteristics, suggesting that the prolonged labor is mostly due to changes in practice patterns. Labor is longer in the modern obstetrical cohort. The benefit of extensive interventions needs further evaluation. Published by Mosby, Inc.
Cohen, Wayne R; Friedman, Emanuel A
Recent guidelines issued jointly by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine for assessing labor progress differ substantially from those described initially by Friedman, which have guided clinical practice for decades. The guidelines are based on results obtained from new and untested methods of analyzing patterns of cervical dilatation and fetal descent. Before these new guidelines are adopted into clinical practice, the results obtained by these unconventional analytic approaches should be validated and shown to be superior, or at least equivalent, to currently accepted standards. The new guidelines indicate the patterns of labor originally described by Friedman are incorrect and, further, are inapplicable to modern obstetric practice. We contend that the original descriptions of normal and abnormal labor progress, which were based on direct clinical observations, accurately describe progress in dilatation and descent, and that the differences reported more recently are likely attributable to patient selection and the potential inaccuracy of very high-order polynomial curve-fitting methods. The clinical evaluation of labor is a process of serially estimating the likelihood of a safe vaginal delivery. Because many factors contribute to that likelihood, such as cranial molding, head position and attitude, and the bony architecture and capacity of the pelvis, graphic labor patterns should never be used in isolation. The new guidelines are based heavily on unvalidated notions of labor progress and ignore clinical parameters that should remain cornerstones of intrapartum decision-making. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Laughon, S. Katherine; Branch, D. Ware; Beaver, Julie; Zhang, Jun
Objective The objective of the study was to examine differences in labor patterns in a modern cohort compared with the 1960s in the United States. Study Design Data from pregnancies at term, in spontaneous labor, with cephalic, singleton fetuses were compared between the Collaborative Perinatal Project (CPP, n = 39,491 delivering 1959-1966) and the Consortium on Safe Labor (CSL; n = 98,359 delivering 2002-2008). Results Compared with the CPP, women in the CSL were older (26.8 ± 6.0 vs 24.1 ± 6.0 years), heavier (body mass index 29.9 ± 5.0 vs 26.3 ±4.1 kg/m2), had higher epidural (55% vs 4%) and oxytocin use (31% vs 12%), and cesarean delivery (12% vs 3%). First stage of labor in the CSL was longer by a median of 2.6 hours in nulliparas and 2.0 hours in multiparas, even after adjusting for maternal and pregnancy characteristics, suggesting that the prolonged labor is mostly due to changes in practice patterns. Conclusion Labor is longer in the modern obstetrical cohort. The benefit of extensive interventions needs further evaluation. PMID:22542117
After giving an overview of the private retirement system and considering deferred wages and labor costs, the study explores the extent of the influence of private pensions on early retirement and on job opportunities of older persons, and the influence of lengthy job tenure requirements on worker mobility. The study weakens the case for…
Knaul, Felicia Marie
This chapter, Chapter 2 in "the Economics of Gender in Mexico," uses retrospective household survey data from Mexico to assess the long-term impacts of school dropout and of working early in life, in terms of adult labor market returns. Through these data, it is possible to link adult wages to the ages at which individuals started…
National Council of La Raza, Washington, DC.
Most early research on the impact of undocumented workers on the labor market held that it results in the widespread displacement of native workers. More recent and more sophisticated theory argues that immigrants, both legal and illegal, create jobs by consuming goods and services, and by starting new businesses. This latter idea may not be as…
Caro, Daniel H.; Cortina, Kai S.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.
This paper examines the long-term association of family socioeconomic status (SES), educational, and labor force outcomes in a regional US longitudinal sample (N = 2264). The results offer insights into the mechanisms underlying the role of family SES in transitions from secondary schooling to early work experiences. It was found that the academic…
Horton, John J; Tambe, Prasanna
This article describes how the fine-grained data being collected by Internet labor market intermediaries, such as employment websites, online labor markets, and knowledge discussion boards, are providing new research opportunities and directions for the empirical analysis of labor market activity. After discussing these data sources, we examine some of the research opportunities they have created, highlight some examples of existing work that already use these new data sources, and enumerate the challenges associated with the use of these corporate data sources.
...Pursuant to the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA), as amended, 5. U.S.C. App. 2, the Office of Trade and Labor Affairs (OTLA) gives notice of a meeting of the National Advisory Committee for Labor Provisions of U.S. Free Trade Agreements (``Committee'' or ``NAC''), which was established by the Secretary of Labor. The purpose of the meeting is to provide advice to the Secretary of Labor through the Bureau of International Labor Affairs (ILAB) concerning the implementation of the North American Agreement on Labor Cooperation (NAALC)--the labor side accord to the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)--and the labor provisions of free trade agreements.
Fathi Najafi, Tahereh; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Ebrahimipour, Hossein
Background and aims The process of giving birth is very stressing for the mother. Meanwhile, maternity ward staff’s lack of awareness of mothers’ fears make mothers feel lonely and helpless. This study aimed to explore women’s perceptions of labor support during vaginal delivery. Materials and methods This exploratory qualitative study used qualitative content analysis to explore Iranian mothers’ experiences of labor support. Data were collected using observations and semi-structured interviews with 25 individuals. The participants were recruited through a purposive sampling method. Results Three categories, including “involvement of the spouse in the labor process”, “asking for a companion during labor”, and “mother’s self-care to cope with labor pain”, emerged during data analysis. These categories were merged to form the main theme of “trying to comply with the labor process”. Conclusion Women believed that the presence of a companion, e.g. their husband, a family member, or a doula, during labor helped them better deal with the labor process, particularly when they felt lonely. Health care providers are expected to consider the needs of mothers and try to provide holistic support for mothers during labor pain. Implications for practice It seems that some mothers adopted particular coping strategies without receiving any relevant training. It is noteworthy that although mothers may make every effort to minimize their pain, health professionals should also practice medical approaches to help them through the process of labor. PMID:28683112
During the battle over comprehensive health care reform in the early 1990s, organized labor was not only unable to put together a winning coalition but also found itself divided and on the defensive as it struggled to prevent any further erosion of the private-sector safety net of the U.S. welfare state. Labor's relative ineffectiveness has deep institutional and political roots and was not merely a consequence of its dwindling membership base. Several key institutions of the private welfare state, notably the Taft-Hartley health and welfare funds and the Employment Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) preemption, brought the interests of organized labor more closely in line with those of large employers and commercial insurers and aggravated divisions within organized labor and between unions and public interest groups. In addition, several political factors conspired to reinforce labor's tendency to stick to a policy path on health care issues that was predicated on an employer-mandate solution and that had been charted primarily by business and leading Democrats. As a result, organized labor did not emerge from the 1993-1994 struggle with its political base fortified nor with a viable long-term political strategy to achieve universal health care and to shift the political debate over health policy in a more desirable direction.
To analyse the benefits and disadvantages of systematic antibiotic therapy in patient presenting a preterm labor with intact membranes. We reviewed French and English reports on Medline using to the following key words: "antibiotic therapy and preterm labor, preterm labor, streptococcus B, vaginose, mycoplasma, antenatal infection". The systematic prescription of antibiotics is not recommended for patients presenting preterm labor who have intact membranes and no symptoms of infection. The benefit of antibiotics is small and shows a tendency to prolong the pregnancy and the reduction of maternal infection. No benefit has been shown for neonatal results. When early-onset neonatal sepsis develops in a case in which antepartum chemoprophylaxis was used, the isolated bacteria will present an increasing risk of bacterial drug resistance. Local treatment (cream or pessary) do not belong in the treatment of threatening preterm labor and are not recommended for the prevention of prematurity or materno fetal infection. Risk groups of patients who present a positive vaginal colonization are subject to discussion. Studies do not allow us to ascertain that antibiotics have a beneficial effect on prematurity in these groups. Antibiotics are recommended for the treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria. This treatment reduces prematurity and maternal infections. Despite poor consensus criteria, if threatening preterm labor is associated with a bacteriuria, experts usually recommend treatment.
Ronca, A. E.; Daly, M. E.; Baer, L. A.; Hills, E. M.; Conway, G.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)
At birth, the newborn mammal must make rapid adaptations to the extrauterine environment to survive. We have previously shown that labor contractions augment the appearance of adaptive responses at birth, viz., postpartum breathing and the onset of suckling. Since neuronal activity has been shown to upregulate the activity of immediate early genes (IEGs) in the brain, we analyzed the neural distribution of c-Fos protein expression in newborn rats using immunohistochemistry. Previous studies have reported a burst of c-Fos mRNA expression in mouse and rat brain at birth however relationships to labor and delivery have not been examined. In the present study, we exposed near-term rat fetuses to elements of the vaginal birth process: 1) Simulated labor contractions. 2) Postpartum cooling (22 deg C). 3) Umbilical cord occlusion. and 4) Stroking to mimic postpartum licking by the dam. Cardinally delivered newborns (VG) were compared with those delivered by cesarean section following either prenatal exposure to compressions (C) [simulated labor contractions], or no compressions (NC) [no labor contractions]. Similar patterns of c-fos activation were observed throughout hypothalamic and thalamic nuclei, hippocampus and cerebral cortex in VG and C newborns that were not apparent in NC newborns. Our results indicate that labor contractions play a role in the induction of widespread neural activation in the newborn brain.
Labor-force participation among Mexican males in their early retirement years (60 to 64 years of age) has decreased in recent decades, from 94.6 percent in 1960 to 65.2 percent in 2010. Similar trends are evident elsewhere in Latin America, and have occurred in the developed world. Such trends pose challenges to financial sustainability of social security systems as working-age populations decrease and those in retirement increase both because of demographic trends and decisions to take early retirement. In this study, we find that the Mexican social security system provides incentives to retire early. The retirement incentives of the Mexican social security system affect retirement behavior, and may be one of the main contributors to early retirement decisions, particularly for lower-income populations. We simulated the effect of the reform from a Pay-As-You-Go (PAYG) to the new Personal Retirement Accounts (PRA) system and we find that the PRA system also provides incentives to early retirement. Further analysis is needed to assess the financial sustainability of the social security system and financial security in old age for the largest cohorts in Mexico that will begin to retire by 2040. PMID:25328441
Labor-force participation among Mexican males in their early retirement years (60 to 64 years of age) has decreased in recent decades, from 94.6 percent in 1960 to 65.2 percent in 2010. Similar trends are evident elsewhere in Latin America, and have occurred in the developed world. Such trends pose challenges to financial sustainability of social security systems as working-age populations decrease and those in retirement increase both because of demographic trends and decisions to take early retirement. In this study, we find that the Mexican social security system provides incentives to retire early. The retirement incentives of the Mexican social security system affect retirement behavior, and may be one of the main contributors to early retirement decisions, particularly for lower-income populations. We simulated the effect of the reform from a Pay-As-You-Go (PAYG) to the new Personal Retirement Accounts (PRA) system and we find that the PRA system also provides incentives to early retirement. Further analysis is needed to assess the financial sustainability of the social security system and financial security in old age for the largest cohorts in Mexico that will begin to retire by 2040.
Nelson, David B; McIntire, Donald D; Leveno, Kenneth J
To evaluate perinatal outcomes in women sent home with a diagnosis of false labor at term and assess the time interval to return for delivery. This was a prospective observational cohort study of women at 37 0/7 to 41 6/7 weeks of gestation without pre-existing medical complications who presented to our hospital-based triage unit with symptoms of labor and underwent a standardized evaluation. Women diagnosed as having false labor with a live singleton fetus in cephalic presentation without a prior cesarean delivery and sent home were compared with a group of similar women diagnosed to be in spontaneous labor. Women with hypertension, diabetes, and known fetal malformations were excluded. Using a perinatal composite outcome of respiratory insufficiency, intraventricular hemorrhage, culture-proven sepsis, Apgar score 3 or less at 5 minutes, phototherapy, and perinatal death, we tested the noninferiority of being sent home compared with being admitted for labor. The relationship of cervical dilatation to the time interval from discharge home to delivery was also analyzed. Between October 2012 and March 2016, a total of 3,949 women met inclusion criteria and were diagnosed with false labor, discharged, and returned to deliver, whereas 2,592 similar women were admitted in early labor. The mean interval from discharge to return was 4.9 days. Cesarean delivery rates were not different between the study groups-11% for both (P=.69), and the perinatal composite outcome rates were not significantly different between those sent home and those admitted-3.2% compared with 3.1% (P=.79). Women with more advanced cervical dilatation at discharge returned and delivered significantly earlier than those with less dilatation regardless of parity. Discharge with false labor at term after a standardized assessment in a triage unit was not associated with increased rates of adverse perinatal composite outcomes or cesarean delivery. The time interval to return for delivery was
Bui, Van; Stolpe, Michael
We study the impact of new drug launches on early retirement due to disease and injury in the German labor force between 1988 and 2004. We show that new drug launches have substantially helped to reduce the loss of labor at the disease-level over time. In Western Germany alone, each new chemical entity is estimated to have saved on average around 200 working years in every year of the observation period. Controlling for individual determinants of retirement, the 2001 reform of pension laws appears to have led to further reductions in the loss of labor from disease and injury.
Thirumurthy, Harsha; Zivin, Joshua Graff
Using longitudinal survey data collected in Kenya, this paper estimates the longer-term impacts of antiretroviral therapy (ART) on the labor supply of treated adults and their household members. Building upon previous work in Kenya, data collected from 2004–2006 indicate that early evidence on the short-run impacts of ART tends to be upheld over the long-term as well. The results show that the labor supply response among treated adults occurs rapidly and is sustained through the 3-year observation period in our study. These results underscore the strong relationship between health and labor supply that has been observed in other contexts. PMID:22984292
Volk, Terese M.
Explains that labor songs were song parodies with lyrics frequently written by college students. States that labor songs were used not to teach about music, but about labor concepts. Reports that labor colleges taught singing and acting to prepare students to speak in front of large crowds. (DAJ)
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting labor disputes. 2922.101-3 Section 2922.101-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF LABOR SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 2922.101-3 Reporting...
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Federal and State labor laws... State labor laws. A concessioner shall comply with all standards established pursuant to Federal or State labor laws, such as those concerning minimum wages, child labor, hours of work, and safety, that...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Invalidation of temporary labor... LABOR TEMPORARY EMPLOYMENT OF FOREIGN WORKERS IN THE UNITED STATES Labor Certification Process for Logging Employment and Non-H-2A Agricultural Employment § 655.209 Invalidation of temporary labor...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting labor disputes... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 222.101-3 Reporting labor disputes. Follow the procedures at PGI 222.101-3 for...
... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Exclusive recognition; Unfair labor practices. 1421.3 Section 1421.3 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE LABOR RELATIONS BOARD; FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY; GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY; AND THE FOREIGN SERVICE IMPASSE...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Federal and State labor... SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 222.102 Federal and State labor requirements. ...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Reporting labor disputes... Socioeconomic Programs APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 2822.101-3 Reporting labor disputes. The office administering the contract shall report, directly to the contracting...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting labor disputes... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 22.101-3 Reporting labor disputes. The office administering the contract shall report, in accordance with agency...
... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unfair labor practices; Board procedures. 28.121 Section... ACCOUNTABILITY OFFICE Special Procedures; Unfair Labor Practices § 28.121 Unfair labor practices; Board procedures. (a) Unfair labor practices are defined at GAO Order 2711.1. An allegation that a provision of GAO...
... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Filing of labor agreements. 8... LABOR STANDARDS APPLICABLE TO EMPLOYEES OF NATIONAL PARK SERVICE CONCESSIONERS § 8.8 Filing of labor...), concessioners shall file with the Director of the National Park Service a copy of each labor agreement in effect...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Department of Labor... REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Labor Standards for Contracts Involving Construction 222.403-4 Department of Labor regulations...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Revocation of approved labor certifications. 656.32 Section 656.32 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR CERTIFICATION PROCESS FOR PERMANENT EMPLOYMENT OF ALIENS IN THE UNITED STATES Labor Certification...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Labor-hour contracts. 16... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Time-and-Materials, Labor-Hour, and Letter Contracts 16.602 Labor-hour contracts. Description. A labor-hour contract is a variation of the time-and-materials...
... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Elections in local labor organizations. 452.26 Section 452... REPORTING AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Frequency and Kinds of Elections § 452.26 Elections in local labor organizations. Local labor organizations must conduct their regular elections of officers by secret ballot among...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disputes Concerning Labor....222-14 Disputes Concerning Labor Standards. As prescribed in 22.407(a), insert the following clause: Disputes Concerning Labor Standards (FEB 1988) The United States Department of Labor has set forth in 29...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Supervision, Labor, or....247-12 Supervision, Labor, or Materials. As prescribed in 47.207-5(b), insert a clause substantially... when the contractor is required to furnish supervision, labor, or materials: Supervision, Labor, or...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supervision, Labor, or....247-12 Supervision, Labor, or Materials. As prescribed in 47.207-5(b), insert a clause substantially... when the contractor is required to furnish supervision, labor, or materials: Supervision, Labor, or...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Supervision, Labor, or....247-12 Supervision, Labor, or Materials. As prescribed in 47.207-5(b), insert a clause substantially... when the contractor is required to furnish supervision, labor, or materials: Supervision, Labor, or...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Supervision, Labor, or....247-12 Supervision, Labor, or Materials. As prescribed in 47.207-5(b), insert a clause substantially... when the contractor is required to furnish supervision, labor, or materials: Supervision, Labor, or...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Supervision, Labor, or....247-12 Supervision, Labor, or Materials. As prescribed in 47.207-5(b), insert a clause substantially... when the contractor is required to furnish supervision, labor, or materials: Supervision, Labor, or...
Lewis, Lionel S.
The contemporary academic labor market is examined using concepts from labor market economics and sociology to elucidate why teaching, universally acknowledged to be at the center of American academic life, is not at the center of the academic labor market and is only modestly rewarded. First, tenets of the neoclassical labor market model are…
The mythology surrounding Hercules has been a part of human culture for over 2,500 years. In ancient Greek mythology, Eurystheus assigns various labors to Hercules, who has to perform them in order to cleanse his soul. This article treats one of the more famous labors, the fifth labor: The Augean Stables. The labor is provided verbatim from…
Psacharopoulos, G; Tzannatos, Z
This article gives an international perspective in regard to female participation in the labor force. In most countries women contribute less than men toward the value of recorded production. Social environment, statistical inconsistencies and methods of recording labor all contribute to this inequity. In Britain for instance, women caring for the household duties are in some studies considered to be part of the labor force and in other studies they are not. Further, internationally, women often find themselves in casual, temporary, or seasonal work that goes unrecorded. Defining what "labor force participation" constitutes is a key starting point to any survey. At what age is one considered employable? What constitutes a person "actively seeking" employment? Economists often try to explain labor force participation rate by age, sex, race and income groups and use this information to cite trends. The income-leisure model theorizes that choice of work or non-work by women is based primarily upon wages for work vs. wages for non-work. This theory sees non-labor income exerting a negative influence. Empirical evidence, however, suggests that women will choose work if wages are good regardless of any non-work benefits. Because most men are permanently in the labor force, estimates of labor reserves and projections of supply focus mostly on women. International generalizations are often misleading since trends vary widely among countries. During the last 20 years the global female participation rate has remained almost constant, but this is misleading. The percentage of working women in industrial countries increased 10%; developing countries showed a decrease of 7%. Female rates are often tied closely to shifts in the overall economy, (e.g., a transition from an agricultural to an industrial economy often sees a drop in female labor because subsistence jobs are lost). Of course the ability of women to bear children and the social expectations regarding child care often
... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of Intent To Suspend the Agricultural Labor Survey and Farm Labor Reports AGENCY: National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of suspension of data collection and publication. SUMMARY: This notice announces the intention of...
Smith, Ralph E.; Vanski, Jean E.
Alerts researchers to the potential value and limitations of the gross flow data published in the Department of Labor's Current Population Survey (CPS). Reports on research which used CPS data to analyze patterns of teenage unemployment and labor force participation. (PR)
... report. Public Participation: Written data, views, or comments for consideration by the NAC on the agenda...'' or ``NAC''), which was established by the Secretary of Labor. During the inaugural meeting of the NAC... Working Group of the Vice Ministers Responsible for Trade and Labor in the Countries of Central America...
Kahn, Lawrence M.
I review theories and evidence on wage-setting institutions and labor market policies in an international comparative context. These include collective bargaining, minimum wages, employment protection laws, unemployment insurance (UI), mandated parental leave, and active labor market policies (ALMPs). Since it is unlikely that an unregulated…
Wage and Hour and Public Contracts Divisions (DOL), Washington, DC.
This revised guide to the child labor provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act contains general information useful to employers and coordinators of cooperative and work experience programs involving employment of youth under 18 years of age. Included in the document are provisions relating to: (1) age standards, (2) coverage of the act, (3)…
Labor-management relations in the airline industry evolved largely in the context of government regulation up to 1978, driven heavily by the implications of the Railway Labor Act. The Aieline Deregulation Act of 1978 brought in a new era in airline l...
Gal-Ezer, Miri; Tidhar, Chava
This study focuses on "Independence Day", an episode of "Arab Labor" (first season, 2008), a pioneer bilingual Hebrew-Arabic satirical Israeli TV series, written by Sayed Kashua, an Arab-Israeli author and journalist. "Arab Labor" was a breakthrough in the Israeli popular TV scape, where, as a rule, Arab-Israeli…
... agricultural productivity; wage rates are used in the administration of the H-2A Program and for setting... DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE National Agricultural Statistics Service Notice of Intent To Resume the Agricultural Labor Survey and Farm Labor Reports. AGENCY: National Agricultural Statistics Service, USDA...
Talati, Asha N; Hackney, David N; Mesiano, Sam
Preterm labor with intact membranes is a major cause of spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB). To prevent sPTB a clear understanding is needed of the hormonal interactions that initiate labor. The steroid hormone progesterone acting via its nuclear progesterone receptors (PRs) in uterine cells is essential for the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy and disruption of PR signaling (i.e., functional progesterone/PR withdrawal) is key trigger for labor. The process of parturition is also associated with inflammation within the uterine tissues and it is now generally accepted that inflammatory stimuli from multiple extrinsic and intrinsic sources induce labor. Recent studies suggest inflammatory stimuli induce labor by affecting PR transcriptional activity in uterine cells to cause functional progesterone/PR withdrawal. Advances in understanding the functional interaction of inflammatory load on the pregnancy uterus and progesterone/PR signaling is opening novel areas of research and may lead to rational therapeutic strategies to effectively prevent sPTB. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Maswoswe, J J; Stewart, K R; Enigbokan, M; Egbunike, I; Jackson, D M
Several solutions, ranging from increased technician duties to salary raises, automation, and increasing job satisfaction, have been presented in the literature as methods of assuaging the pharmacist shortage. Although a significant portion of pharmacy graduates from American pharmacy colleges are foreign nationals, no marketing strategies have been elucidated in the retention and recruitment of foreign nationals through labor certification. Labor certifications are generally approved by the Secretary of Labor if the following factors have been verified: 1) there are not sufficient United States workers who are able, willing, qualified, and available for employment; and 2) the employment of the foreign national will not adversely affect the wages and working conditions of U.S. workers similarly employed. When properly understood, the labor certification process is a test of the job market where foreigners, by virtue of their skills and qualifications, attain certification which subsequently leads to permanent residency (green card). The objective of this report is to elucidate the tedious yet effective method of retaining American-educated foreign nationals through labor certification.
Guerrero, Omar A.; Axtell, Robert L.
It is conventional in labor economics to treat all workers who are seeking new jobs as belonging to a labor pool, and all firms that have job vacancies as an employer pool, and then match workers to jobs. Here we develop a new approach to study labor and firm dynamics. By combining the emerging science of networks with newly available employment micro-data, comprehensive at the level of whole countries, we are able to broadly characterize the process through which workers move between firms. Specifically, for each firm in an economy as a node in a graph, we draw edges between firms if a worker has migrated between them, possibly with a spell of unemployment in between. An economy's overall graph of firm-worker interactions is an object we call the labor flow network (LFN). This is the first study that characterizes a LFN for an entire economy. We explore the properties of this network, including its topology, its community structure, and its relationship to economic variables. It is shown that LFNs can be useful in identifying firms with high growth potential. We relate LFNs to other notions of high performance firms. Specifically, it is shown that fewer than 10% of firms account for nearly 90% of all employment growth. We conclude with a model in which empirically-salient LFNs emerge from the interaction of heterogeneous adaptive agents in a decentralized labor market. PMID:23658682
Guerrero, Omar A; Axtell, Robert L
It is conventional in labor economics to treat all workers who are seeking new jobs as belonging to a labor pool, and all firms that have job vacancies as an employer pool, and then match workers to jobs. Here we develop a new approach to study labor and firm dynamics. By combining the emerging science of networks with newly available employment micro-data, comprehensive at the level of whole countries, we are able to broadly characterize the process through which workers move between firms. Specifically, for each firm in an economy as a node in a graph, we draw edges between firms if a worker has migrated between them, possibly with a spell of unemployment in between. An economy's overall graph of firm-worker interactions is an object we call the labor flow network (LFN). This is the first study that characterizes a LFN for an entire economy. We explore the properties of this network, including its topology, its community structure, and its relationship to economic variables. It is shown that LFNs can be useful in identifying firms with high growth potential. We relate LFNs to other notions of high performance firms. Specifically, it is shown that fewer than 10% of firms account for nearly 90% of all employment growth. We conclude with a model in which empirically-salient LFNs emerge from the interaction of heterogeneous adaptive agents in a decentralized labor market.
To describe the use of hydrotherapy for pain management in labor. This was a retrospective cohort study. Hospital labor and delivery unit in the Northwestern United States, 2006 through 2013. Women in a nurse-midwifery-managed practice who were eligible to use hydrotherapy during labor. Descriptive statistics were used to report the proportion of participants who initiated and discontinued hydrotherapy and duration of hydrotherapy use. Logistic regression was used to provide adjusted odds ratios for characteristics associated with hydrotherapy use. Of the 327 participants included, 268 (82%) initiated hydrotherapy. Of those, 80 (29.9%) were removed from the water because they met medical exclusion criteria, and 24 (9%) progressed to pharmacologic pain management. The mean duration of tub use was 156.3 minutes (standard deviation = 122.7). Induction of labor was associated with declining the offer of hydrotherapy, and nulliparity was associated with medical removal from hydrotherapy. In a hospital that promoted hydrotherapy for pain management in labor, most women who were eligible initiated hydrotherapy. Hospital staff can estimate demand for hydrotherapy by being aware that hydrotherapy use is associated with nulliparity. Copyright © 2017 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
This Special Labor Force Report of March 1973, shows a continued decline in labor force participation rates of married men and an increase in rates of married women with young children. It also explores the trends of husbands' and wives' labor force participation, as well as labor force activity of other groups, such as women heads of families and…
Kenny, Tiffany H; Fenton, Bradford W; Melrose, Erica L; McCarroll, Michele L; von Gruenigen, Vivian E
History of fast labor is currently subjectively defined and inductions for non-medical indications are becoming restricted. We hypothesized that women induced for a history of fast labor do not have faster previous labors and do not deliver more quickly. A retrospective case-control cohort design studied multiparas undergoing elective induction at one high risk center. Outcomes of dyads electively induced for a history of previous fast labor indication (PFast) were compared to controls with a psychosocial indication. A total of 612 elective inductions with 1074 previous deliveries were evaluated: 81 (13%) PFast and 531 (87%) control. PFast had faster previous labors (median 5.5 h, IQR: 4.5-6) versus. control (10 h, IQR: 9-10.5; p < 0.001). Subsequent delivery time from start to expulsion was shorter for PFast (median 7 h, IQR: 5-9, p < 0.001) than controls with and without a previous labor <5.5 h (8.6 h, IQR: 6-14 and 9.5 h, IQR: 7-15, respectively). PFast were less likely to have a serious maternal complication. Neonatal complications were similar. Patients induced for a history of fast labor do have faster previous labors, suggesting a significant history of fast labor can be defined as <5.5 h. These women deliver more quickly and with lower morbidity than controls when subsequently induced, therefore the benefit may warrant the risk for a select number of women with a history of a prior labor length <5.5 h.
Romero, Roberto; Dey, Sudhansu K; Fisher, Susan J
Preterm birth is associated with 5 to 18% of pregnancies and is a leading cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Spontaneous preterm labor, a syndrome caused by multiple pathologic processes, leads to 70% of preterm births. The prevention and the treatment of preterm labor have been long-standing challenges. We summarize the current understanding of the mechanisms of disease implicated in this condition and review advances relevant to intra-amniotic infection, decidual senescence, and breakdown of maternal-fetal tolerance. The success of progestogen treatment to prevent preterm birth in a subset of patients at risk is a cause for optimism. Solving the mystery of preterm labor, which compromises the health of future generations, is a formidable scientific challenge worthy of investment. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Proudfoot, K L; Jensen, M B; Heegaard, P M H; von Keyserlingk, M A G
Cows are often moved from a group to an individual maternity pen just before calving. However, it is unclear whether moving cows during labor may alter their behavior or affect the progress of labor. The aim of this study was to determine if moving cows to a maternity pen at different stages of labor would influence calving behavior or the length of the second stage of labor. Seventy-nine multiparous Holstein dairy cows were moved from 1 of 2 group pens to 1 of 10 maternity pens adjacent to each group pen either 3 d before expected calving date or when one or more behavioral or physical signs of labor were observed. These signs were noted, and were used to retrospectively categorize cows into 1 of 3 movement categories: (1) moved before labor, (2) moved during early stage I labor (signs of suddenly tense and enlarged udder, raised tail or relaxed pelvic ligaments; could also be immediately prelabor), or (3) moved during late stage I labor (signs of viscous, bloody mucus or abdominal contractions; could also be transitioning to stage II labor). Calves were weighed within 12h of birth and remained with their dam for 3 d. The length of the second stage of labor (the time between first abdominal contractions to the delivery the calf) and the total time of abdominal contractions, lying time, and number of position changes from standing to lying made by the cow in the hour before calving were recorded. A single blood sample was taken from the jugular vein of cows 3 to 27 h after calving to determine content of haptoglobin, a marker of systemic inflammation. The effect of movement category on length of the second stage of labor and behavioral variables was tested with ANOVA; category was a fixed effect and calf body weight (BW) and cow parity were covariates. The relationship between haptoglobin and the length of the second stage of labor was tested in a model with time of sampling relative to calving as a covariate. Cows moved during late stage I had the longest labor
Zissimopoulos, Julie M.; Karoly, Lynn A.
Labor-market transitions toward the latter parts of workers’ careers can be complex, with movement between jobs and classes of work and in and out of retirement. The authors analyzed factors associated with the labor-market transitions of older workers to self-employment from unemployment or disability, retirement, or wage and salary work using rich panel data from seven waves of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS). They found evidence that (prior) job characteristics and liquidity constraints are important predictors of movements to self-employment for workers and nonworkers, while risk aversion is a significant predictor only for workers. PMID:23049149
Reichlin, P; Rustichini, A
"The standard neoclassical model cannot explain persistent migration flows and lack of cross-country convergence when capital and labor are mobile. Here we present a model where both phenomena may take place.... Our model is based on the Arrow-Romer approach to endogenous growth theory. We single out the importance of a (however weak) scale effect from the size of the workforce.... The main conclusion of this simple model is that lack of convergence, or even divergence, among countries is possible, even with perfect capital mobility and labor mobility." excerpt
ZAKI, Mary N.; HIBBARD, Judith U.; KOMINIAREK, Michelle A.
Objective To evaluate labor progress and length according to maternal age. Methods Data were abstracted from the Consortium on Safe Labor, a multicenter retrospective study from 19 hospitals in the United States. We studied 120,442 laboring gravid women with singleton, term, cephalic fetuses with normal outcomes and without a prior cesarean delivery from 2002 to 2008. Maternal age categories were less than 20 years old, greater than or equal to 20 to less than 30, greater than or equal to 30 to less than 40 and greater than or 40 years old, with the reference being less than 20 years. Interval-censored regression analysis was used to determine median traverse times (progression cm by cm) with 95th percentiles, adjusting for covariates (race, admission body mass index, diabetes, gestational age, induction, augmentation, epidural use and birth weight). A repeated-measures analysis with an eighth-degree polynomial model was used to construct mean labor curves for each maternal age category, stratified by parity. Results Traverse times for nulliparous women demonstrated the time to progress from 4 to 10 cm decreased as age increased up to age 40 (median 8.5 hrs vs. 7.8 hrs in those greater than or equal to 20 to less than 30 year old group and 7.4 hrs in the greater than or equal to 30 to less than 40 year old group, p<0.001); the length of the second stage with and without epidural increased with age (p<0.001). For multiparous women, time to progress from 4 to 10 cm decreased as age increased (median 8.8 hrs, 7.5, 6.7 and 6.5 from the youngest to oldest maternal age groups, p<0.001). Labor progressed faster with increasing maternal age in both nulliparous and multiparous women in the labor curves analysis. Conclusion The first stage of labor progressed more quickly with increasing age for nulliparous up to age 40 and all multiparous women. Contemporary labor management should account for maternal age. PMID:24104787
Buhimschi, Catalin S; Buhimschi, Irina A; Malinow, Andrew M; Kopelman, Jerome N; Weiner, Carl P
It is believed that delivery is faster if women are instructed to voluntarily bear down in synchrony with their uterine contractions. Confronted by the large variance in the duration of the second stage of labor, many clinicians attribute a "fast" or a "short" expulsion time solely to the patient's willingness to cooperate or to the strength of epidural anesthesia if it is a factor. Yet, knowledge of pushing performance and the factors affecting it remain limited. We investigated the maternal, fetal, and labor characteristics that influence the maternal "pushing performance" and sought to design a predictive index that prospectively identified "high" versus "low" pushing performers. Intrauterine pressure (IP) was prospectively measured during the second stage of labor in 52 women recruited at one North American hospital. Recordings were begun after documentation of full cervical dilatation and descent of the fetal head to +2 station (on a -3/+3 scale). Each woman acted as her own control, received epidural anesthesia, and was alert and responsive throughout the study. Pushing (closed glottis technique) was performed in a standardized fashion. Multivariate analysis with linear regression was applied to identify significant associations between maternal, fetal, or labor characteristics as the independent variables and the percent increase in IP consequent to active pushing as the dependent variable. Women in labor increase their IP 62% by actively pushing with a contraction during the second stage. A scattergram of the individual percent increase above the baseline IP integral revealed that for some women, pushing more readily increased their IP than it did for others (range, 0% to 192%). The percent increase was best calculated by a linear combination of myometrial thickness, estimated fetal weight, the maternal body mass index, and the obstetric need for labor augmentation (P =.007, r = 0.52, power = 0.975). A 66% change in IP provided the best separation between
... Production of Goods in Foreign Countries and Efforts by Certain Countries To Eliminate the Worst Forms of...'s individual advancement toward eliminating the worst forms of child labor during the current... beneficiary country's implementation of its international commitments to eliminate the worst forms of child...
Fogg, Neeta P.; Harrington, Paul E.
The authors examine how the American economy has experienced sharp contractions in overall levels of output, income, and wealth resulting from the recent financial crisis, and how these losses have had an impact on the nation's labor market. The significance of these trends to American higher education is summarized in these terms: "Large labor…
General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. Div. of Human Resources.
During 1987, investigations of 113 cases of alleged or suspected child labor violations at Massachusetts business establishments were conducted. Thirteen (38 percent) of these were randomly selected for review. Compliance officers in the Department of Labor's Wage and Hour Division substantiated child labor violations in 9 of the 13 cases. A total…
This article explores the labor market status of older males in the early twentieth century, focusing on how the extent of pressure toward retirement differed across occupations and how it changed over time. A comparison of the probability of retirement across occupations shows that men who had better occupations in terms of economic status and work conditions were less likely to retire than were those with poorer jobs. The difficulty faced by older workers in the labor market, as measured by the relative incidence of long-term unemployment, was relatively severe among craftsmen, operatives, and salesmen. In contrast, aged farmers, professionals, managers, and proprietors appear to have fared well in the labor market. The pattern of shifts in the occupational structure that occurred between 1880 and 1940 suggests that industrialization had brought a growth of the sectors in which the pressure toward departure from employment at old ages was relatively strong. PMID:20234793
Shah, Utsavi; Bellows, Patricia; Drexler, Kathleen; Hawley, Lauren; Davidson, Christina; Sangi-Haghpeykar, Haleh; Gandhi, Manisha
To compare induction of labor methods in patients attempting a trial of labor after cesarean (TOLAC) with an unfavorable cervix. This is a retrospective cohort study from patients attempting TOLAC from 2009 to 2013. Patients with a simplified Bishop score of three or less where labor was initiated with either a Cook balloon or oxytocin were included. Our primary outcome was mode of delivery. Our secondary outcomes included duration of labor and multiple maternal and neonatal morbidities. Two-hundred and fourteen women met inclusion criteria: 150 received oxytocin and 64 had the Cook balloon placed. The vaginal birth after cesarean delivery rate was significantly higher in the oxytocin group at 70.7% versus 50.0% in the Cook balloon group (p = 0.004). In the multivariable analysis, odds for cesarean delivery were two times higher with the Cook balloon than with oxytocin (Adjusted OR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.05-4.18, p = 0.036). The duration of labor was longer with the Cook balloon versus oxytocin (21.9 versus 16.3 hours, p = 0.0002). There were no significant differences in maternal and neonatal health outcomes. Oxytocin induction of labor was associated with a higher rate of vaginal delivery and a shorter duration of labor compared to the Cook balloon in women undergoing TOLAC with an unfavorable cervix.
Bergström, Malin; Kieler, Helle; Waldenström, Ulla
To study whether use of psychoprophylaxis during labor affects course of labor and experience of childbirth in nulliparous women. Cohort study. Women were recruited from 15 antenatal clinics in Sweden between October 2005 and January 2007. A total of 857 nulliparous women with a planned vaginal delivery. Using data from a randomized controlled trial of antenatal education where the allocated groups were merged, we compared course of labor and experience of childbirth between women who used psychoprophylaxis during labor and those who did not. Data were collected by questionnaires in mid-pregnancy and three months after birth, and from the Swedish Medical Birth Register. Logistic regression was used to assess associations. Mode of delivery, augmentation of labor, length of labor, Apgar score, pain relief and experience of childbirth as measured by the Wijma Delivery Experience Questionnaire. Use of psychoprophylaxis during labor was associated with a lower risk of emergency cesarean section (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.57; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.37-0.88), but an increased risk of augmentation of labor (adjusted OR 1.68; 95% CI 1.23-2.28). No statistical differences were found in length of labor (adjusted OR 1.32; 95% CI 0.95-1.83), Apgar score < 7 at five minutes (adjusted OR 0.82; 95% CI 0.33-2.01), epidural analgesia (adjusted OR 1.13; 95% CI 0.84-1.53) or fearful childbirth experience (adjusted OR 1.04; 95% CI 0.62-1.74). Psychoprophylaxis may reduce the rate of emergency cesarean section but may not affect the experience of childbirth.
Solorio, Maria Rosa; Galvan, Frank H
To identify the characteristics of male Latino urban day laborers who self-report having tested for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 356 Latino day laborers, aged 18 to 40 years, who had been sexually active in the previous 12 months, from 6 day labor sites in the City of Los Angeles. Most of the men were single, mainly from Mexico and Guatemala, and had been employed as a day laborer for fewer than 3 years; 38% had an annual income of $4000 or less. Ninety-two percent of the men reported having sex with women only, and 8% reported a history of having sex with men and women. Forty-six percent had received an HIV test in the previous 12 months and 1 person tested positive. In univariate logistic regression analyses, day laborers who were aged 26 years or older, had more than 3 years in the United States, had more than 1 year but fewer than 5 years employed as a day laborer, and had annual incomes greater than $4000 were significantly more likely to self-report HIV testing in the previous 12 months. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis, only higher annual income was found to be significantly associated with self-reported HIV testing. Interventions that target lower-income Latino day laborers are needed to promote early HIV detection. HIV detection offers individual benefits through treatment, with decreased morbidity and mortality, as well as public health benefits through decreased rates of HIV transmission in the community.
Tang, Yao; Ji, Hongjing; Liu, Haiyan; Gu, Weirong; Li, Xiaotian; Peng, Ting
Spontaneous preterm labor is an important complication in perinatology characterized by early onset myometrium contractions leading to labor at preterm. However, the exact mechanism that maintain uterine quiescence and promote increased uterine contractility during labor were incompletely defined. MicroRNAs is a class of short non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level by binding the 3’ untranslated region of target mRNAs and play an important role in biological process and cellular functions. We hypothesized we could find differentially expressed microRNAs in the myometrium of women in spontaneous preterm labor. Thus, a microarray analysis of miRNAs of preterm myometrium was performed. 18 out of the 2006 detected microRNAs were found to be significantly dysregulated in myometrium in labor verse not in labor at preterm. Biological validation by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction confirms us a consistence rate of 83.3% (5 out of 6) with microarray analysis. The target genes for validated microRNAs were predicted by three algorithms (PicTar, TargetScan, and miRanda). Most of the potential targets of the miRNAs were relevant to positive regulation of cardiac muscle hypertrophy, reduction of cytosolic calcium ion concentration and relaxation of cardiac muscle as well as prostate cancer, adherents junction, regulation of actin cytoskeleton and regulation and other factor-regulated calcium reabsorption. Our result illustrates a characteristic microRNA profile in myometrium tissues and provides a new understanding of the process involved in spontaneous preterm labor. PMID:26722471
Labor legislation reforms contained in Law 50 of 1990 were intended to facilitate international opening of Colombia's economy, which has been beset by external debt, an absence of foreign investment, technological backwardness, and low productivity. The weakness of the labor movement, aggravated by the failure of the socialist economic model and its power organization, made possible a dismantling of past labor victories. The labor reform is intended to combat stagnation in productivity which is believed by the government to result from labor instability; to create a climate permitting generation of employment, and to adapt internal labor laws to recommendations of the International Labour Organization. The effort to make labor legislation more flexible and more adaptable to market conditions removed some protectionist measures and facilitated firing or laying off of workers. Several categories of workers were removed from the jurisdiction of labor laws and placed under the jurisdiction of civil law and ultimately of market forces. The new labor law will lead to salary reductions for most workers. A 36-hour work week without overtime was created for new enterprises as a strategy to encourage job creation. The principle that labor laws should protect workers because of their unequal power relative to employers has been suppressed in the new legislation. Although it is too early to draw definite conclusions about the effect of the law on women workers, some effects are predictable. The liberating power of employment for married women has been limited in Colombia as in many other countries because women are expected to carry out their full traditional domestic role in addition to their paid employment. Women's status in the workplace has improved considerably over the past 50 years, but they still have higher unemployment rates than men, receive lower wages, and are concentrated in less skilled jobs and the informal sector. Employment in the informal sector allows
Siegel, Irving H.; Weinberg, Edgar
This book examines the wide range of opportunities, the attendant problems, and the potential benefits of labor-management cooperation. Cooperative arrangements are considered at different economic levels, and 65 cases are discussed. The first of 10 chapters sets up a conceptual framework for the review of American experience in cooperation.…
New York State Interdepartmental Committee on Farm and Food Processing Labor, Albany.
SEVEN NEW YORK STATE DEPARTMENTS WORK TOGETHER TO SEE THAT THE MIGRANT IS TREATED FAIRLY AND HUMANELY IN THE AREAS OF HEALTH, HOUSING, CHILD CARE, EDUCATION, LABOR CONDITIONS, SAFETY, AND EMPLOYER-EMPLOYEE RELATIONS. AN INTERDEPARTMENTAL COMMITTEE GUIDES THE EFFORTS OF THE DEPARTMENTS. THE AGENCIES WORK WITH A BODY OF STATE LAW WHICH IS UPDATED…
Comptroller General of the U.S., Washington, DC.
The Secretary of Labor should place emphasis on five issues to ensure safe and healthful workplaces and to promote the welfare of wage earners. First, the Secretary should improve the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's enforcement program. Second, the Secretary should enhance the use of Job Training Partnership Act resources. Third,…
Yabiku, Scott T.; Agadjanian, Victor; Cau, Boaventura
Male labor migration is widespread in many parts of the world, yet its consequences for child outcomes and especially childhood mortality remain unclear. Male labor migration could bring benefits, in the form of remittances, to the families that remain behind and thus help child survival. Alternatively, the absence of a male adult could imperil the household's well-being and its ability to care for its members, increasing child mortality risks. In this analysis, we use longitudinal survey data from Mozambique collected in 2006 and 2009 to examine the association between male labor migration and under-five mortality in families that remain behind. Using a simple migrant/non-migrant dichotomy, we find no difference in mortality rates across migrant and non-migrant men's children. When we separated successful from unsuccessful migration based on the wife's perception, however, stark contrasts emerge: children of successful migrants have the lowest mortality, followed by children of non-migrant men, followed by the children of unsuccessful migrants. Our results illustrate the need to account for the diversity of men's labor migration experience in examining the effects of migration on left-behind households. PMID:23121856
In this column, reviewers offer perspectives and commentary on three books: From Telling to Teaching: A Dialogue Approach to Adult Learning by Joye Norris; The Pocket Doula: A Labor Partner's Guide to Surviving Childbirth by Christine Wallace; and My Mommy's Midwife by Trish Payne and Hayley Holland.
Good Neighbor Commission of Texas, Austin.
THE CALENDAR YEAR 1965 WAS THE FIRST FULL YEAR IN WHICH NO BRACEROS WERE IMPORTED FROM MEXICO. CROP LOSSES OCCURRED IN SOME AREAS OF THE COUNTRY DUE TO LABOR SHORTAGES, HOWEVER, GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS STATE THAT THESE SHORTAGES CAN BE AVOIDED IN THE FUTURE. THE MAJORITY OF TEXAS MIGRANTS LIVE IN SOUTH TEXAS AND APPROXIMATELY 95 PERCENT OF THEM ARE…
of the limited amount of governmental resources and because any disaster will affect the entire community including the economy and businesses ...National Defense Transportation Association, Red Cross, Salvation Army, business organizations, etc., through a trained cadre of people belonging to these...Snohomish County Labor Council Mr. Carl Hill, Building & Construction Trades Council, North Central Washington Mr. Clarence Johnston Business Manager
Psacharopoulos, George; Tzannatos, Zafiris
Statistics have created an arbitrary, confusing distinction between a labor force participant and an nonparticipant; women were relegated to a second class employment citizenship that failed to recognize household production and assigned them a lower participation rate relative to males. Despite these shortcomings, such statistics can prove…
Bednarzik, Robert W.; Klein, Deborah P.
Since 1950, social changes and employment-retirement experiences have contributed to a dramatic increase in labor force participation rates for women, a slower but steady decline for men, and a mixed pattern for teenagers. Tables and charts depict data analyzed in the text. (MF)
Engel, Mimi; Jacob, Brian A.; Curran, F. Chris
Recent evidence on the large variance in teacher effectiveness has spurred interest in teacher labor markets. Research documents that better qualified teachers typically work in more advantaged schools but cannot determine the relative importance of supply versus demand. To isolate teacher preferences, we document which schools prospective…
Godwin, Deborah D.; Marlowe, Julia
Examines relationship between employment earnings and farm wives' decisions to work off-farm. Examines effects of wives' human capital, home factors, and labor market on work decisions and earnings. Education, experience, debt, and farm size were stronger influences on wives' decisions than on their earnings variations, once employed. (TES)
R?y, Inna U.; Shakulikova, Gulzada T.; Kozhakhmetova, Gulnar A.; Lashkareva, Olga V.; Bondarenko, Elena G.; Bermukhambetova, Botagoz B.; Baimagambetova, Zamzagul A.; Zhetessova, Mariyam T.; Beketova, Kamar N.; Anafiyaeva, Zhibek
Agricultural problems associated with prospects of the rural population and agriculture in general have recently become an important factor in the modern economic policy development. The urgency of finding ways to improve the labor resource efficiency in agriculture pursuant to the state tasks is determined by the need to restore the agricultural…
Sorcinelli, Gino; Spencer, David C.
Describes the development and classroom application of a microcomputer-assisted collective bargaining simulation by Indiana University's Division of Labor Studies. Student involvement in the simulation is described, instructional development techniques used in designing the simulation are discussed, and benefits of the simulation are reviewed.…
Fafchamps, Marcel; Soderbom, Mans
Using matched employer-employee data from ten African countries, we examine the relationship between wages, worker supervision, and labor productivity in manufacturing. Wages increase with firm size for both production workers and supervisors. We develop a two-tier model of supervision that can account for this stylized fact and we fit the…
The labor force participation rates of whites, blacks, and Spanish-Americans, grouped by sex, are explained in a linear regression model fitted with 1970 U. S. Census data on Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (SMSA). The explanatory variables are: average age, average years of education, vocational training rate, disabled rate, unemployment…
The author argues that the American labor market is in the midst of historic transition that will challenge human resource development professionals. Sweeping demographic changes will soon combine with a "Second Industrial Revolution" in technology and a quantum leap in the level and quality of foreign competition to raise sharply the importance…
This paper provides a review of some basic general semantic principles and then applies them to the area of prenatal classes and labor room practices. It first presents an overview of the principle that language is not a neutral factor in human perceptions but an active, reactive force. Next, it looks at the relationship between language and…
Mississippi Employment Security Commission, Jackson. Dept. of Research & Statistics.
There has been a rapid increase in Mississippi women's participation in the labor force, but female participation still lags behind male participation. The 1960s witnessed dramatic increases in younger women's participation. The trend is expected to continue into the late 1970s. Annual 1977 averages showed women made up almost 40% of Mississippi's…
Valli, Linda R.
Scholars have long acknowledged the role schools have in reproducing a sexual division of labor. Despite the reemergence of a feminist movement and anti-sex-discrimination legislation, schools are still places where boys and girls tend to study different curricula and where traditional sex roles are perpetuated. Physics, calculus, and shop classes…
Even if convergences are to be observed among the orientations adopted by higher education policies in European countries, they still are characterized by strong national features. One of the most striking national patterns of each system is its academic labor market, salaries, status, recruitment procedures, workloads, career patterns, promotion…
Taylor, Vicki Fairbanks; Provitera, Michael J.
Undergraduate business students in North America are often unfamiliar with the labor organizing process and frequently fail to identify with the reasons why workers join unions. This article suggests a discussion exercise based on the 1979 film, "Norma Rae," by 20th Century Fox, as an effective tool for familiarizing students with fundamental…
... of our families, labor unions have helped advance the safe and equitable working conditions that... Day, 2010 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Working Americans are the... immeasurable contributions of working men and women today and throughout our history. As we recognize the...
Storesletten, Kjetil; Telmer, Chris I.; Yaron, Amir
Is individual labor income more risky in recessions? This is a difficult question to answer because existing panel data sets are so short. To address this problem, we develop a generalized method of moments estimator that conditions on the macroeeonomic history that each member of the panel has experienced. Variation in the cross-sectional…
Oremland, Evelyn K.
(A division of labor model was applied in a study of the efforts to minimize health crises and maximize benefits of medical protocols in eight families, each with a hemophilic school-age boy. Subject families were studied for a 5-year period through participant-observer techniques including interviews with the children in their homes, with the…
Kolev, N; Kovachev, E; Ivanov, S; Kornovski, Y; Tsvetkov, K; Angelova, M; Tsonev, A; Ismail, E
Authors track current trends in preterm labor diagnostics. The emphasis is laid on biochemical tests for examination of fibronectin (fFN) and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein (IGFBP-1) in cervical and vaginal secretions, as well as ultrasound assessment of cervical length.
... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE VISAS REGULATIONS PERTAINING TO BOTH NONIMMIGRANTS AND IMMIGRANTS... Immigrants § 40.51 Labor certification. (a) INA 212(a)(5) applicable only to certain immigrant aliens. INA 212(a)(5)(A) applies only to immigrant aliens described in INA 203(b)(2) or (3) who are seeking to...
Watts, Harold W.; And Others
The labor-supply or work-effort response of male heads of families eligible for or receiving subsidies such as negative income tax (Graduated Work Incentive Experiment-New Jersey, Pennsylvania) revealed no sharp disincentive for male family heads. Any disincentive reflected was concentrated among the poorest stratum. (EA)
Describes the ground rules used by Nazi architects in choosing the sites for slave labor camps. While some, like Auschwitz, became extermination camps, others also produced armaments. One camp, Theresienstadt, became a "model" camp to show to reporters and Red Cross representatives. (CS)
Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Shafiq, M. Najeeb
We introduce a simple empirical model that assumes a positive stigma (or norm) towards child labor that is common in some developing countries. We then illustrate our positive stigma model using data from Guatemala. Controlling for several child- and household-level characteristics, we use two instruments for measuring stigma: a child's indigenous…
One of the major concerns about the one-child policy is its negative impact on the current and future labor force in China. People have talked about the Lewis Turning Point and the end of demographic dividends. Some of these arguments, however, can be misleading. The working-age population (ages 15 to 59) can be treated as the potential labor…
Turner, John A.; And Others
This book analyzes what happens to the pension benefits of workers who quit or are laid off jobs. The first chapter reviews the connection between job mobility and pension portability. Chapter 2 portrays a labor market undergoing changes that often result in reductions in retirement benefits. Chapter 3 describes job change further by examining…
This 4-part report is one of a series prepared to provide background material for United States businessmen and others employing local workers abroad, trade union and labor specialists, consulting economists, and students. The data used were obtained from personnel in London's Departments of Employment, Health and Social Security, the Commission…
This paper uses a regression discontinuity design to examine the effects of geographically targeted business incentives on local labor markets. Unlike elsewhere in the United States, enterprise zone (EZ) designations in Texas are determined in part by a cutoff rule based on census block group poverty rates. Exploiting this discontinuity as a…
Good Neighbor Commission of Texas, Austin.
The Texas farm labor pool is made up almost entirely of Mexican Americans; many of these are naturalized but the majority are native-born American citizens whose families and ethnic ties remain in and around the border. All of these field workers have, at some time, migrated to a job or in search of a job either interstate or within the boundaries…
National Center for Productivity and Quality of Working Life, Washington, DC.
This report draws on a series of conferences held to develop guides for labor-management cooperation at the plant level. These included six recent initiatives conferences held in cooperation with State University Institutes of Industrial Relations and the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service (FMCS) and a seventh sponsored by the Commission…
Levy, David A.
The primary areas considered by State legislatures in 1973 included higher minimum wage rates and broader coverage of minimum wage laws, improved occupational safety, collective bargaining procedures for public employees, elimination of discrimination in employment, and updating of child labor standards. (Author)
Antos, Joseph R.; Mellow, Wesley S.
Based on the National Longitudinal Surveys of over 10,000 men and women aged eighteen to twenty-seven who were interviewed annually from 1966 through 1971, this study investigates how the youth labor market operates and identifies its manpower problems that should be addressed by policymakers. A five-part recursive model is established for the…
Peters, Michael A., Ed.; Bulut, Ergin, Ed.
Cognitive capitalism--sometimes referred to as "third capitalism," after mercantilism and industrial capitalism--is an increasingly significant theory, given its focus on the socio-economic changes caused by Internet and Web 2.0 technologies that have transformed the mode of production and the nature of labor. The theory of cognitive…
Review of the methods for estimating future employment opportunities shows that there is an ongoing system, involving the Department of Labor and state employment agencies, for making projections for the United States as a whole and for states and major metropolitan areas. This system combines national research on economic growth, technological…
The subject of this study is the more or less seasonal influx of Mexican (bracero) laborers to work in agriculture in California between 1942 and 1960. The migration began as a joint effort between the governments of Mexico and the United States to ease the manpower shortage created by World War II. Dire needs of these migrants, and their…
United States Catholic Conference, Washington, DC. Catholic Legal Immigration Network, Inc.
This report focuses on "at risk" immigrants in the United States. This third report in a series highlights the plight of low-income immigrant laborers in the United States. This series does not seek to advance specific policies or reforms. It intends merely to relate the stories of newcomers in the confidence that they will speak powerfully for…
Benalcazar-Parra, Carlos; Ye-Lin, Yiyao; Garcia-Casado, Javier; Monfort-Orti, Rogelio; Alberola-Rubio, Jose; Perales, Alfredo; Prats-Boluda, Gema
Labor induction is a common practice to promote uterine contractions and labor onset. Uterine electrohysterogram (EHG) has proved its suitability for characterizing the uterus electrophysiological condition in women with spontaneous labor. The aim of this study was to characterize and compare uterine myoelectrical activity during the first 4 h in response to labor induction drugs, Misoprostol (G1) and Dinoprostone (G2), by analyzing the differences between women who achieved active phase of labor and those who did not (successful and failed inductions). A set of temporal, spectral and complexity parameters were computed from the EHG-bursts. As for successful inductions, statistical significant and sustained increases with respect to basal period were obtained for EHG amplitude, mean frequency, uterine activity index (UAI) and Teager, after 60' for the G1 group; duration, amplitude, number of contractions and UAI for the G2 group, after 120'. Moreover, Teager showed statistical significant and sustained differences between successful and failed inductions (1.43 ± 1.45 µV 2. Hz 2. 10 5 vs. 0.40 ± 0.26 µV 2. Hz 2. 10 5 after 240') for the G1 group, but not in the G2 group, probably due to the slower pharmacokinetics of this drug. These results revealed that EHG could be useful for successful induction prediction in the early stages of induction, especially when using Misoprostol. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kacmar, Rachel M
The present review highlights recent advances in efforts to improve patient safety on labor and delivery units and well tolerated care for pregnant patients in general. Recent studies in obstetric patient safety have a broad focus but repetitive themes for interdisciplinary training include: simulating critical events, having open multidisciplinary communication, frequent reviews of cases of maternal morbidity, and implementing maternal early warning systems. The National Partnership for Maternal Safety is also active in promoting care bundles across many topics on maternal safety. A culture of safety is the goal for all obstetric units. Achieving that ideal requires multidisciplinary collaboration, frequent reassessment for areas of improvement, and a culture of openness to change when improvement opportunities arise.
Towers, Craig V; Yates, Angela; Zite, Nikki; Smith, Casey; Chernicky, Lindsey; Howard, Bobby
The current recommendation regarding the management of a term newborn delivered of a mother with an intrapartum fever or a diagnosis of clinical chorioamnionitis is that the neonate should have baseline laboratory work drawn along with blood cultures and be universally treated with antibiotics until culture results return. These guidelines report that the rate of intrapartum fever is about 3%; however, a few large studies suggest that the rate is higher at about 7%. We sought to prospectively evaluate the rate of fever during labor in a large number of deliveries and determine the rate of early-onset neonatal sepsis in newborns delivered from mothers with an intrapartum fever compared with newborns delivered from mothers without intrapartum fever. This was a prospective cohort study of all temperatures obtained in women in labor from Jan. 1, 2011, through June 30, 2014. Every patient with a fever of ≥38°C at ≥36 weeks' gestation was evaluated for gestational age, parity, spontaneous or induced labor, group B streptococcus status, regional anesthesia, mode of delivery, treatment with intrapartum antibiotics, and whether a clinical diagnosis of chorioamnionitis was made by the managing physician. Neonates were assessed for blood culture results, neonatal intensive care unit admission, length of stay, and any major newborn complications. Statistical analysis involved χ 2 , Fisher exact, and Student t test. A total of 412 patients (6.8%; 95% confidence interval, 6.2-7.5%) developed a fever in 6057 deliveries at ≥36 weeks' gestation. No cases of maternal sepsis occurred. Of the 417 newborns (5 sets of twins), only 1 (0.24%; 95% confidence interval, 0.01-1.3%) developed early-onset neonatal sepsis with a positive blood culture for Escherichia coli. There were 4 cases (0.07%; 95% confidence interval, 0.02-0.18%) of early-onset neonatal sepsis in the 5697 newborns (52 sets of twins) delivered from mothers who were not febrile and this difference was not significant
Neal, Jeremy L; Ryan, Sharon L; Lowe, Nancy K; Schorn, Mavis N; Buxton, Margaret; Holley, Sharon L; Wilson-Liverman, Angela M
Labor dystocia (slow or difficult labor or birth) is the most commonly diagnosed aberration of labor and the most frequently documented indication for primary cesarean birth. Yet, dystocia remains a poorly specified diagnostic category, with determinations often varying widely among clinicians. The primary aims of this review are to 1) summarize definitions of active labor and dystocia, as put forth by leading professional obstetric and midwifery organizations in world regions wherein English is the majority language and 2) describe the use of dystocia and related terms in contemporary research studies. Major national midwifery and obstetric organizations from qualifying United Nations-member sovereign nations and international organizations were searched to identify guidelines providing definitions of active labor and dystocia or related terms. Research studies (2000-2013) were systematically identified via PubMed, MEDLINE, and CINAHL searches to describe the use of dystocia and related terms in contemporary scientific publications. Only 6 organizational guidelines defined dystocia or related terms. Few research teams (n = 25 publications) defined dystocia-related terms with nonambiguous clinical parameters that can be applied prospectively. There is heterogeneity in the nomenclature used to describe dystocia, and when a similar term is shared between guidelines or research publications, the underlying definition of that term is sometimes inconsistent between documents. Failure to define dystocia in evidence-based, well-described, clinically meaningful terms that are widely acceptable to and reproducible among clinicians and researchers is concerning at both national and global levels. This failure is particularly problematic in light of the major contribution of this diagnosis to primary cesarean birth rates. © 2015 by the American College of Nurse-Midwives.
Feghali, Maisa; Timofeev, Julia; Huang, Chun-Chih; Driggers, Rita; Miodovnik, Menachem; Landy, Helain J; Umans, Jason G
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the labor curves of patients who undergo preterm induction of labor (IOL) and to assess possible predictors of vaginal delivery (VD). Data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Consortium on Safe Labor were analyzed. A total of 6555 women who underwent medically indicated IOL at <37 weeks of gestation were included in this analysis. Patients were divided into 4 groups based on gestational age (GA): group A, 24-27+6 weeks; B, 28-30+6 weeks; C, 31-33+6 weeks; and D, 34-36+6 weeks. Pregnant women with a contraindication to VD, IOL ≥37 weeks of gestation, and without data from cervical examination on admission were excluded. Analysis of variance was used to assess differences between GA groups. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess predictors of VD. A repeated measures analysis was used to determine average labor curves. Rates of vaginal live births increased with GA, from 35% (group A) to 76% (group D). Parous women (odds ratio, 6.78; 95% confidence interval, 6.38-7.21) and those with a favorable cervix at the start of IOL (odds ratio, 2.35; 95% confidence interval, 2.23-2.48) were more likely to deliver vaginally. Analysis of labor curves in nulliparous women showed shorter duration of labor with increasing GA; the active phase of labor was, however, similar across all GAs. Most women who undergo medically indicated preterm IOL between 24 and 36+6 weeks of gestation deliver vaginally. The strongest predictor of VD was parity. Preterm IOL had a limited influence on estimated labor curves across GAs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Feghali, Maisa; Timofeev, Julia; Huang, Chun-Chih; Driggers, Rita; Miodovnik, Menachem; Landy, Helain J.; Umans, Jason G.
Objective To evaluate the labor curves of patients undergoing preterm induction of labor (IOL) and assess possible predictors of vaginal delivery (VD). Study Design Data from the NICHD Consortium on Safe Labor were analyzed. A total of 6,555 women undergoing medically-indicated IOL before 37 weeks gestational age (GA) were included in this analysis. Patients were divided into four groups based on gestational age: A: 24-27+6, B: 28-30+6, C: 31-33+6, and D: 34-36+6 weeks. Pregnant women with a contraindication to VD, IOL at or after 37 weeks and those without data from cervical exam on admission were excluded. ANOVA was used to assess differences between GA groups. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess predictors of VD. A repeated measures analysis was used to determine average labor curves. Results Rates of vaginal live births increased with GA, from 35% (Group A) to 76% (Group D). Parous women [odds ratio (OR)=6.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) 6.38-7.21] and those with a favorable cervix at the start of IOL (OR=2.35, 95% CI 2.23-2.48) were more likely to deliver vaginally. Analysis of labor curves in nulliparous women showed shorter duration of labor with increasing GA; the active phase of labor was, however, similar across all GA. Conclusion The majority of women undergoing medically-indicated preterm IOL between 24 and 36+6 weeks’ GA deliver vaginally. The strongest predictor of VD was parity. Preterm IOL had a limited influence on estimated labor curves across gestational age. PMID:25068566
Pessanha, Elina Gonçalves da Fonte; Artur, Karen
This paper presents the main institutional changes in labor relations in Brazil, highlighting their impact on the organization of workers. A more recent central change is the regulation of outsourcing by the Labor Judiciary. Research into claims in the Superior Labor Court, guidelines from the Labor Prosecution Office, and trade union lawsuits, show that outsourcing and working hours are subjects which have directly affected health workers. By addressing the institutional principles of justice in contracts, it was concluded that labor reform should deal with the inequality of rights that have characterized the Brazilian labor market.
... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bill of rights of members of labor organizations. 458.2 Section 458.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF... § 458.2 Bill of rights of members of labor organizations. (a)(1) Equal rights. Every member of a labor...
... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bill of rights of members of labor organizations. 458.2 Section 458.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF... § 458.2 Bill of rights of members of labor organizations. (a)(1) Equal rights. Every member of a labor...
... 5333(b), FEDERAL TRANSIT LAW § 215.8 Department of Labor contact. Questions concerning the subject... of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20210; phone number 202-693-0126 or e-mailed...
... 5333(b), FEDERAL TRANSIT LAW § 215.8 Department of Labor contact. Questions concerning the subject... of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20210; phone number 202-693-0126 or e-mailed...
... 5333(b), FEDERAL TRANSIT LAW § 215.8 Department of Labor contact. Questions concerning the subject... of Labor, 200 Constitution Avenue, NW., Washington, DC 20210; phone number 202-693-0126 or e-mailed...
... FEDERAL MEDIATION AND CONCILIATION SERVICE Labor-Management Relations Information Collection... of Subjects Labor-management relations, employee management relations, and Information collection... opportunity to comment on the following information collection requests. The information collection requests...
... complications? Share Facebook Twitter Pinterest Email Print What are some common complications during labor and delivery? Each ... as necessary. Some of the more common complications are: 1 , 2 Labor that does not progress. Sometimes ...
Rosner, D; Markowitz, G
We celebrate Labor Day every year with barbecues and picnics, rarely remembering that the holiday was born in the midst of tremendous labor struggles to improve working conditions. In the last century, 16-hour workdays and 6- and 7-day workweeks led to terribly high injury rates in the nation's mines and mills. Thousands upon thousands of workers died, caught in the grinding machinery of our growing industries. Today, despite improvements, thousands of workers still die in what has been described as a form of war on the American workforce. This commentary reminds us of the historical toll in lives and limbs that workers have paid to provide us with our modern prosperity. It also reminds us that the continuing toll is far too high and that workers who died and continue to die in order to produce our wealth deserve to be remembered and honored on this national holiday. PMID:10474546
Malinowski, Beth; Stock, Laura
Using a social–ecological framework, we drew on a targeted literature review and historical and contemporary cases from the US labor movement to illustrate how unions address physical and psychosocial conditions of work and the underlying inequalities and social determinants of health. We reviewed labor involvement in tobacco cessation, hypertension control, and asthma, limiting articles to those in English published in peer-reviewed public health or medical journals from 1970 to 2013. More rigorous research is needed on potential pathways from union membership to health outcomes and the facilitators of and barriers to union–public health collaboration. Despite occasional challenges, public health professionals should increase their efforts to engage with unions as critical partners. PMID:25521905
Obese women are at an increased risk of antepartum pregnancy complications and are therefore more likely to require an induction of labor than normal weight women. They also have an increased rate of failing an induction of labor, a rate that rises significantly with increasing body mass index, and subsequent surgical and neonatal complications of an intrapartum cesarean delivery. This increase in induction failure may be due to differences in the myometrium of obese women resulting in decreased contraction strength. There have been only a few studies comparing the efficacy of the various cervical ripening agents in obese women and at this point no recommendation can be made as to what method may result in the greatest chance of a successful induction. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
It has long been known that environmental conditions can affect humans' performance of various tasks, both physical and mental. In light of projected climate change, heat's impact on performance is of particular concern. While there is evidence that performance suffers, from an economic standpoint, how this performance effect changes a worker's ability or willingness to work is of particular concern. Workers' decisions to supply less labor may be a key channel for economic losses due to climate change, especially in developing countries that experience high temperatures and humidity. In a study of worker behavior in Guatemala, Mexico, and Nicaragua, increasing temperatures by 1°C was found to reduce labor supplied by up to an hour per day for each worker on average in the poorest and hottest places. This result holds across different levels of risk exposure to heat, indicating little evidence of potential adaptation measures.
Ammar, Walid; Awar, May
The Ministry of Labor (MOL) has submitted to the Council of Ministers a social security reform plan. The Ministry of Public Health (MOPH) considers that health financing should be dealt with as part of a more comprehensive health reform plan that falls under its prerogatives. While a virulent political discussion is taking place, major stakeholders' inputs are very limited and civil society is totally put away from the whole policy making process. The role of the media is restricted to reproducing political disputes, without meaningful substantive debate. This paper discusses health insurance reform from labor market as well as public health perspectives, and aims at launching a serious public debate on this crucial issue that touches the life of every citizen.
Malinowski, Beth; Minkler, Meredith; Stock, Laura
Using a social-ecological framework, we drew on a targeted literature review and historical and contemporary cases from the US labor movement to illustrate how unions address physical and psychosocial conditions of work and the underlying inequalities and social determinants of health. We reviewed labor involvement in tobacco cessation, hypertension control, and asthma, limiting articles to those in English published in peer-reviewed public health or medical journals from 1970 to 2013. More rigorous research is needed on potential pathways from union membership to health outcomes and the facilitators of and barriers to union-public health collaboration. Despite occasional challenges, public health professionals should increase their efforts to engage with unions as critical partners.
Wallerstein, N; Baker, R
Labor health and safety programs encourage workers to take an active part in making the workplace safe. The authors describe the growing need for preparing workers to participate in prevention efforts, the role of training in addressing this need, educational principles and traditions that contribute to empowerment education, and a step-by-step process that is required to achieve the goals of worker involvement and empowerment.
accompany economic policy and the mdoernization of the productive apparatus; and promoting greater efficiency in the Ministerio de Trabajo y Seguridad Social...Carri, Sindicatos y Poder en la A-gentina. Buenos Aires: Editorial Sudestaba, 1967; R. Rotundaro, Realidad y Cambio en el Sindicalismo. Buenos Aires...Ministry (Ministerio de Trabajo y Sequridad Social) serves as O. lead agency in the national labor relations system, focus on these variables allows
Management of the third stage of labor has been an issue of discussion, concern, and continued debate for the past two decades. Despite the many strategies employed and the divergent approaches to care and philosophies espoused, there has not been a significant, consistent reduction in the postpartum hemorrhage rates reported in industrialized countries in recent times. This article explores the strategies that have been and are currently being used in an effort to reduce the risk of postpartum hemorrhage.
Gold mining brought a forced labor system to Witwatersrand, South Africa, in the 1880s as African laborers were rounded up from the hinterland and delivered to the mines. The system produced low wages, high mortality, and the loss of chances for upward mobility. Forced labor persists today in South African mines. (VM)
The United States labor market has undergone a dramatic sea change with increasing numbers of permanent freelancers and temporary workers. One in three workers has a temporary freelance job. It is estimated that, by 2020, more than 40% of the American labor force-60 million people-will be self-employed. This article discusses labor force trends,…
Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.
This report summarizes the presentations and discussions at a conference on contingent labor sponsored by the U.S. Department of Labor. The first two sections are introductory: (1) "Introduction to the Role of Contingent Labor" (Kathleen Christensen, Mary Murphree); and (2) "Between Now and the Year 2000: A Glimpse of the Workplace" (Jill Houghton…
Streshly, William A.; DeMitchell, Todd A.
This book is designed to provide school administrators and labor leaders with ideas about how to improve school district labor relations by incorporating the principles of Total Quality Management (TQM). In schools that apply the principles of Total Quality Education (TQE)--that is TQM as it modified to school practice--labor and management can…
Groen, Jeffrey A.
The goal of this paper is to estimate the impact of labor demand on time to the doctorate. Empirical investigation of this relationship in previous research was hampered by the difficulty of measuring labor demand. I construct a measure of labor demand in seven fields in the humanities and social sciences based on the annual number of job listings…
Workforce Economics, 1998
Important changes are taking place in the U.S. labor market. The economy has performed solidly over the last several years; the labor market has experienced robust job growth. A strong labor market benefits different segments of the population. Unemployment rates for those with less than a high school diploma fell by the largest amount between…
... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Temporary labor certification applications... applications. (a)(1) An employer who anticipates a labor shortage of workers for agricultural or logging... an agent file, in duplicate, a temporary labor certification application, signed by the employer...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Labor relations. 970.2201-1 Section 970.2201-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Application of Labor Policies 970.2201-1 Labor...
Nishimura, Kazuaki; Yoshimura, Kazuaki; Kubo, Tatsuhiko; Hachisuga, Toru
Recent developments in transperineal ultrasound imaging of the pelvis have prompted trials to objectively evaluate labor progression for labor management. We evaluated the accuracy of transperineal ultrasound in diagnosing arrest of labor. Transperineal ultrasound and digital pelvic examinations were performed simultaneously in 63 term laboring patients (singleton fetuses in cephalic presentation). We analyzed a total of 216 ultrasound images (Sonography Volume Computer Aided Display Labor [Sono VCAD Labor®] installed in Voluson E8 ultrasound). We examined the correlation between the three ultrasound parameters head direction (HD), progression distance (PD), and progression angle (PA), and digital pelvic examination findings during labor in a transvaginal delivery group and an arrested labor group. The coefficient of correlations between HD/PD/PA and cervical dilation/fetal station were 0.667/0.657/0.706 and 0.667/0.751/0.803, respectively. The three parameters had strong correlations with digital pelvic examination (P < 0.05). In the 11 cases (17%) of cesarean section due to arrested labor, the position of the fetal head was visually unchanged on sequential ultrasound images. According to receiver operating characteristic curves, the significant cut-offs for HD, PD, and PA for arrested labor were 105° (P = 0.048), 35 mm (P = 0.048), and 120° (P = 0.001), respectively. Transperineal ultrasound imaging is helpful for objective evaluation of labor progression and the diagnosis of arrested labor. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Basic labor policies. 970.2201 Section 970.2201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Application of Labor Policies 970.2201 Basic labor policies. ...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Labor-hour contracts. 1316... AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Time-and-Materials, Labor-Hour, and Letter Contracts 1316.602 Labor-hour contracts. ...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Labor-hour contracts. 2816... and Contract Types TYPES OF CONTRACTS Time-and-Materials, Labor-Hour, and Letter Contracts 2816.602 Labor-hour contracts. The limitations set forth in 2816.601 for time-and-material contracts also apply...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Supplementary labor... 836.576 Supplementary labor standards provisions. The contracting officer shall insert the clause at 852.236-85, Supplementary labor standards provisions, in solicitations and contracts for construction...
... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Expenses of labor and storage. 19.7 Section 19.7....7 Expenses of labor and storage. (a) All merchandise deposited in public stores or in bonded warehouses shall be held liable for the expenses of labor and storage chargeable thereon at the customary...
... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Inconsistent labor agreement provisions. 2471.12 Section 2471.12 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY, GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY AND FEDERAL SERVICE IMPASSES PANEL FEDERAL SERVICE IMPASSES...
Wilson, Margaret Gibbons, Ed.
This document contains the proceedings from a one-day symposium designed to illuminate the history of the labor movement in Florida. The proceedings are organized into two parts: Part 1 "Topics in Florida Labor History" features "Labor History in Florida: What Do We Know? Where Do We Go?" (R. Zieger); "Workers' Culture and…
National Council of La Raza, Washington, DC.
This paper gives a brief statistical survey of the demographics of Hispanic labor force participation in the years 1980-1985. The progress of Hispanics in the labor market is hindered by their low levels of education, and they have lower economic returns on their education than whites do. Hispanic males were found to have the highest labor force…
... 29 Labor 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Constitution of labor organization. 452.109 Section 452.109... AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.109 Constitution of labor organization. Elections must be conducted in accordance with the constitution and bylaws of the organization...
... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Constitution of labor organization. 452.109 Section 452.109... AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.109 Constitution of labor organization. Elections must be conducted in accordance with the constitution and bylaws of the organization...
... 29 Labor 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Constitution of labor organization. 452.109 Section 452.109... AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.109 Constitution of labor organization. Elections must be conducted in accordance with the constitution and bylaws of the organization...
... 29 Labor 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Labor organization constitution and bylaws. 402.1 Section... constitution and bylaws. Every labor organization shall adopt a constitution and bylaws consistent with the... a constitution and bylaws which it has previously adopted and under which it is operating when the...
... 29 Labor 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Constitution of labor organization. 452.109 Section 452.109... AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.109 Constitution of labor organization. Elections must be conducted in accordance with the constitution and bylaws of the organization...
... 29 Labor 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Labor organization constitution and bylaws. 402.1 Section... constitution and bylaws. Every labor organization shall adopt a constitution and bylaws consistent with the... a constitution and bylaws which it has previously adopted and under which it is operating when the...
... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Labor organization constitution and bylaws. 402.1 Section... constitution and bylaws. Every labor organization shall adopt a constitution and bylaws consistent with the... a constitution and bylaws which it has previously adopted and under which it is operating when the...
... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Labor organization constitution and bylaws. 402.1 Section... constitution and bylaws. Every labor organization shall adopt a constitution and bylaws consistent with the... a constitution and bylaws which it has previously adopted and under which it is operating when the...
... 29 Labor 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Labor organization constitution and bylaws. 402.1 Section... constitution and bylaws. Every labor organization shall adopt a constitution and bylaws consistent with the... a constitution and bylaws which it has previously adopted and under which it is operating when the...
... 29 Labor 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Constitution of labor organization. 452.109 Section 452.109... AND DISCLOSURE ACT OF 1959 Election Procedures; Rights of Members § 452.109 Constitution of labor organization. Elections must be conducted in accordance with the constitution and bylaws of the organization...
... Secretary of Labor under the Davis-Bacon Act (40 U.S.C. 276a-276a-5) to be paid to laborers and mechanics... shall be paid to maintenance laborers and mechanics employed in the operation, and to architects...
... Secretary of Labor under the Davis-Bacon Act (40 U.S.C. 276a-276a-5) to be paid to laborers and mechanics... shall be paid to maintenance laborers and mechanics employed in the operation, and to architects...
... Secretary of Labor under the Davis-Bacon Act (40 U.S.C. 276a-276a-5) to be paid to laborers and mechanics... shall be paid to maintenance laborers and mechanics employed in the operation, and to architects...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Railway labor organizations. 202.15 Section... EMPLOYERS UNDER THE ACT § 202.15 Railway labor organizations. Railway labor organizations, national in scope... bylaws of such organizations, shall be employers within the meaning of the act. (a) An organization doing...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disputes concerning labor standards. 22.1026 Section 22.1026 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Amended 22.1026 Disputes concerning labor standards. Disputes concerning labor standards requirements of...
Nation, William C.
This paper reviews existing manpower training programs in light of the dual labor market theory, and discusses the implications for community colleges in addressing the needs of the unemployed within their service areas. The dual labor market theory postulates that there are two distinct spheres of employment: a primary labor market in which…
Ndiaye, Serigne; Sofranko, Andrew J.
Explores relationship between farm technology and labor availability in Africa. Studies introduction of high-yielding maize variety in Zambia and resulting effects on labor availability/mobilization. Shows shift to hybrids requires additional labor, including available children. Illustrates need for adoption research taking broader farming…
This paper investigates the effect of various idiosyncratic shocks against child labor, child labor hour and school attendance. Also, the role of the assets held by households as one of the coping strategies to mitigate the effects of shocks. The results show that various idiosyncratic shocks that encourage child labor is generally caused by crop…
American Educator, 2012
In the high school history textbooks children read, too often they find that labor's role in American history--and labor's important accomplishments, which changed American life--are misrepresented, downplayed, or ignored. That is a tragedy because labor played (and continues to play) a key role in the development of American democracy and the…
... Employment in Agriculture That Is Exempted From the Minimum Wage and Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section... Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS... performance of work by his crew and his authority to determine the wage rates paid to his workers. (c) There...
Cooper, Richard V. L.
This paper argues that the military plays an extremely important role in youth labor markets by providing not only jobs but also experience and training which can later be transferred to the civilian labor market. Following the introduction, section II examines the military's demand for labor; its fluctuations due to secular, cyclical, and…
... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Labor Surplus Area Classification Under... Bureau of Labor Statistics are used in making these classifications. The average unemployment rate for all states includes data for the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico. The basic LSA classification criteria...
... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Computerized Labor Monitoring System. 884.2800... Devices § 884.2800 Computerized Labor Monitoring System. (a) Identification. A computerized labor monitoring system is a system intended to continuously measure cervical dilation and fetal head descent and...
Zabaleta, Mariela Buonomo
Child labor is considered a key obstacle to reaching the international commitments of Education For All. However, the empirical evidence on the effects of child labor on educational attainments is mostly limited to static measurements. This paper assesses the consequences of child labor on schooling outcomes over time by employing a three-year…
Organized labor's relationship to vocational education has always been one of wholehearted support and encouragement. Since the passage of the Smith-Hughes Act in 1917, the American Federation of Labor (AFL) has supported state efforts to develop vocational education. Labor has strongly supported apprenticeship programs that included cooperative…
The contemporary conflict between blacks and selected white ethnic groups (Catholic immigrants, Jews) is the product of competition for jobs in the secondary labor market. Radical economists have described the existence of a dual labor market within the American economy. The idea of this segmented labor market provides a useful way to integrate…
Melzack, R; Schaffelberg, D
Earlier studies have shown that labor pain is highly variable in intensity and spatial location. Most women feel pain predominantly in the abdominal area whereas others complain about severe back pain. In addition to the pains associated with contractions, many women report continuous low-back pain. This study used the McGill Pain Questionnaire to examine each type of pain. Women during labor also tracked their perceived pain levels at the same time that contractions were registered on cardiotachographic records. The results show that continuous low-back pain is severe and is reported by about 33% of women during labor. It is described as being qualitatively different from the pains associated with uterine contractions. The pain of contractions felt in the back is often reported as "riding on" the continuous low-back pain so that both together may reach "horrible" or "excruciating" intensities. Continuous low-back pain is probably caused by the distention and pressure on adjacent visceral and neural structures in the peritoneum, in contrast to the rhythmic pains that are clearly related to contractions of the uterus. It is possible that each of these major kinds of pain may be controlled by different anesthesiologic and psychologic procedures.
Hirshberg, Adi; Levine, Lisa D; Srinivas, Sindhu
Maternal weight is thought to impact labor. With rising rates of obesity and inductions, we sought to evaluate labor times among induced women by body mass index (BMI) category. Retrospective cohort study of term inductions from 2005 to 2010. BMI categories were: normal weight (NW), overweight (OW), and obese (Ob) (18.5-24.9, 25-29.9, ≥30 kg/m(2)). Kruskal-Wallis tests compared median latent labor (LL) length and active labor (AL) length. Chi-square determined associations. Multivariable logistic regression controlled for confounders. Analyses were stratified by parity. A total of 448 inductions were analyzed. For nulliparas, there was no difference in LL by BMI category (p = 0.22). However, OW nulliparas had a longer AL compared to NW and Ob nulliparas (3.2, 1.7, 2.0 h, p = 0.005). For multiparas, NW had the shortest LL (5.5 h, p = 0.025) with no difference in AL among BMI categories (p = 0.42). The overall cesarean rate was 23% with no difference by BMI category (p = 0.95). However, Ob women had a greater percentage of first stage cesareans (41%) and NW had a greater percentage of second stage cesareans (55%), p = 0.06. The association between BMI and labor length among inductions differs by phase of labor and parity. BMI also influences the stage of labor in which a cesarean occurs.
Abdolahian, Somayeh; Ghavi, Fatemeh; Abdollahifard, Sareh; Sheikhan, Fatemeh
Background: There are a wide variety of non- pharmacologic pain relief techniques for labor which include pelvic movement, upright position, back massage and partner support during the first stage of labor. The effectiveness of dance labor- which is a combination of these techniques- has not been evaluated. Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of dance labor in pain reduction and woman’s satisfaction during the first stage of labor. Methods: 60 primiparous women aged 18-35 years old were randomly assigned to dance labor and control groups. In the dance labor group, women were instructed to do standing upright with pelvic tilt and rock their hips back and forth or around in a circle while their partner massaged their back and sacrum for a minimum of 30 minutes. In the control group, the participants received usual care during physiologic labor. Pain and satisfaction scores were measured by Visual Analogue Scale. Data were analyzed by using the t. test and Chi-square. Findings: Mean pain score in the dance labor group was significantly lower than the control group (P < 0.05). The mean satisfaction score in the dance labor group was significantly higher than in the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Dance labor which is a complementary treatment with low risk can reduce the intensity of pain and increase mothers, satisfaction with care during the active phase of labor. PMID:24762366
Kim, Joon K.
During the interwar period, California's labor-intensive agriculture transitioned from reliance on diverse immigrants to preference for Mexicans. Political movements to restrict immigration, the Great Depression, and labor unrest compelled farm employers to search for labor that could be used flexibly and deported easily. To achieve this…
Abdolahian, Somayeh; Ghavi, Fatemeh; Abdollahifard, Sareh; Sheikhan, Fatemeh
There are a wide variety of non- pharmacologic pain relief techniques for labor which include pelvic movement, upright position, back massage and partner support during the first stage of labor. The effectiveness of dance labor- which is a combination of these techniques- has not been evaluated. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of dance labor in pain reduction and woman's satisfaction during the first stage of labor. 60 primiparous women aged 18-35 years old were randomly assigned to dance labor and control groups. In the dance labor group, women were instructed to do standing upright with pelvic tilt and rock their hips back and forth or around in a circle while their partner massaged their back and sacrum for a minimum of 30 minutes. In the control group, the participants received usual care during physiologic labor. Pain and satisfaction scores were measured by Visual Analogue Scale. Data were analyzed by using the t. test and Chi-square. Mean pain score in the dance labor group was significantly lower than the control group (P < 0.05). The mean satisfaction score in the dance labor group was significantly higher than in the control group (P < 0.05). Dance labor which is a complementary treatment with low risk can reduce the intensity of pain and increase mothers, satisfaction with care during the active phase of labor.
Ophir, Ella; Bornstein, Jacob; Odeh, Marwan; Kaminsky, Svetlana; Shnaider, Oleg; Megel, Yuri; Barnea, Ofer
To obtain and study new data on the dynamics of the labor process and to develop a contraction-based index of labor progress. This study was carried out at the Delivery Room, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Western Galilee Hospital, Nahariya, Israel, using a new device (Birth Track). We continuously monitored cervical dilatation (CD) and head descent (HD) in 30 nulliparaous women during active labor with (augmented group) and without (study group) oxytocin augmentation. This led to the development and validation of progress indices based on features extracted from continuous monitoring. There were no significant differences between the average of each parameter in the study and augmented groups, except for HD velocity. Average HD velocity was faster in the study group. Linear regression analyses demonstrated that head station (HS) amplitude and Toco amplitude were the best parameters for predicting HD velocity in both groups. In the study group, average HD velocity was also significantly related to Toco rate and contraction efficiency. In the augmented group, only a weak correlation with Toco rate was seen, and no correlation with contraction efficiency. With the assistance of the Birth Track device, we can obtain continuous data on the labor process and indices to estimate the labor progress process without the use of vaginal (manual) examination. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
De Lew, Nancy
Medicare hospital payments are adjusted to reflect variation in hospital wages across geographic areas by grouping hospitals into labor market areas. By only recognizing the average wage in an area, Medicare encourages hospitals to contain costs. Labor market area definitions have recently received renewed attention because of their impact on hospital payments. Alternative labor market areas were evaluated using several criteria, including ability to explain wage variation and impact on payment equity. Rural labor market areas can be improved using county population size; however, further research on urban labor market areas is needed. PMID:10127453
Ainsworth, Robert G.
This booklet provides an overview of the labor market problems facing Indians and Native Americans, the most economically disadvantaged ethnic group in the United States. It summarizes Indian policy, particularly major policies and laws that relate to early trade restrictions and the exploitation of Indians through trade; their forced removal from…
Hofferth, Sandra L.; And Others
The primary focus of this paper is on the impact an early birth has on later labor force participation and earnings of women. Variables affecting the participation of women in a given year and factors affecting the total work experience are discussed in detail. These include: hours worked, annual earnings, hourly wages, occupational status, race,…
Ebrahimzadeh Zagami, Samira; Golmakani, Nahid; Saadatjoo, Seyyed Ali-Reza; Ghomian, Nayyereh; Baghbani, Behjat
Dystocia is the most common indication of primary cesarean section. The most common cause of dystocia is uterine dysfunction. In prolonged labor, more attention is usually paid to the fetus and pelvis rather than to the role of uterine contractions in a delivery. Therefore, we decided to determine the relationship between the labor progress and uterine contractions shapes. In this cross-sectional study, 200 primiparous women participated having a single pregnancy and cephalic presentation. Uterus contractions were recorded using electronic fetal monitoring at the beginning of the active phase of labor (dilatation 3-5 cm) for 30 min. Fall to rise (F:R) ratio was calculated by determining the duration of returning from a contraction peak to its baseline (fall) and the duration of the rise time from baseline to peak (rise) in two groups. The data were analyzed using t-test and Chi-square test. In this study, 162 women had a normal delivery and 38 women had a cesarean (CS) delivery due to the lack of labor progress. The average F:R ratio was 1.13±0.193 seconds in the vaginal delivery group and 1.64±0.301 seconds in the CS group. This difference was statistically significant (P<0.001). The frequency of contractions in the vaginal delivery group was more than the CS group (P=0.008). Our findings demonstrated that uterine contractions shapes change; and F:R ratio was higher in the group that lacked labor progress. Therefore, contraction shapes can be used to predict the labor progress.
Waldorf, Kristina M. Adams; Singh, Natasha; Mohan, Aarthi R.; Young, Roger C.; Ngo, Lisa; Das, Ananya; Tsai, Jesse; Bansal, Aasthaa; Paolella, Louis; Herbert, Bronwen R.; Sooranna, Suren R.; Gough, G. Michael; Astley, Cliff; Vogel, Keith; Baldessari, Audrey E.; Bammler, Theodor K.; MacDonald, James; Gravett, Michael G.; Rajagopal, Lakshmi; Johnson, Mark R.
OBJECTIVE Uterine overdistention is thought to induce preterm labor in women with twin and multiple pregnancies, but the pathophysiology remains unclear. We investigated for the first time the pathogenesis of preterm birth associated with rapid uterine distention in a pregnant nonhuman primate model. STUDY DESIGN A nonhuman primate model of uterine overdistention was created using preterm chronically catheterized pregnant pigtail macaques (Macaca nemestrina) by inflation of intraamniotic balloons (N = 6), which were compared to saline controls (N = 5). Cesarean delivery was performed due to preterm labor or at experimental end. Microarray, quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, Luminex (Austin, TX), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were used to measure messenger RNA (mRNA) and/or protein levels from monkey (amniotic fluid, myometrium, maternal plasma) and human (amniocytes, amnion, myometrium) tissues. Statistical analysis employed analysis of covariance and Wilcoxon rank sum. Biomechanical forces were calculated using the law of Laplace. RESULTS Preterm labor occurred in 3 of 6 animals after balloon inflation and correlated with greater balloon volume and uterine wall stress. Significant elevations of inflammatory cytokines and prostaglandins occurred following uterine overdistention in an “inflammatory pulse” that correlated with preterm labor (interleukin [IL]-1β, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α, IL-6, IL-8, CCL2, prostaglandin E2, prostaglandin F2α, all P < .05). A similar inflammatory response was observed in amniocytes in vitro following mechanical stretch (IL1β, IL6, and IL8 mRNA multiple time points, P < .05), in amnion of women with polyhydramnios (IL6 and TNF mRNA, P < .05) and in amnion (TNF-α) and myometrium of women with twins in early labor (IL6, IL8, CCL2, all P < .05). Genes differentially expressed in the nonhuman primate after balloon inflation and in women with polyhydramnios and twins are involved in tissue
Long-Bellil, Linda; Mitra, Monika; Iezzoni, Lisa I; Smeltzer, Suzanne C; Smith, Lauren D
Childbirth is widely acknowledged as one of the most painful experiences most women will undergo in their lifetimes. Alleviating labor and delivery pain for women with physical disabilities can involve an additional level of complexity beyond that experienced by most women, but little research has explored their experiences. The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of women with physical disabilities with respect to pain relief during labor and delivery with the goal of informing their care. Data were collected using semi-structured interviews with twenty-five women with physical disabilities from across the United States. Women expressed specific preferences for the method of pain relief. Some confronted systemic barriers in exploring their options for pain relief, while others were given a choice. At times, anesthesiologists lacked knowledge and experience in caring for women with disabilities. Conversely, some women described how the administration of anesthesia was meticulously planned and attributed their positive labor and delivery experiences to this careful planning. Advanced, individualized planning and evaluation of their options for pain relief was most satisfying to women and enabled them to make an informed choice. This approach is consistent with the recommendations of clinicians who have successfully provided pain relief during labor to women with complex physical disabilities. Clinicians who have successfully delivered babies of women with these and similar disabilities emphasize the importance of a team approach where the anesthesiologist and other specialists are involved early on in a woman's care. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bucklin, Brenda A; Chestnut, David H; Hawkins, Joy L
Some anesthesiologists contend that intrathecal opioid administration has advantages over conventional epidural techniques during labor. Randomized clinical trials comparing analgesia and obstetric outcome using single-injection intrathecal opioids versus epidural local anesthetics suggest that intrathecal opioids provide comparable analgesia with few serious side effects. This meta-analysis compared the analgesic efficacy, side effects, and obstetric outcome of single-injection intrathecal opioid techniques versus epidural local anesthetics in laboring women. Relevant clinical studies were identified using electronic and manual searches of the literature covering the period from 1989 to 2000. Searches used the following descriptors: intrathecal analgesia, spinal opioids, epidural analgesia, epidural local anesthetics, and analgesia for labor. Data were extracted from 7 randomized clinical trials comparing analgesic measures, incidence of motor block, pruritus, nausea, hypotension, mode of delivery, and/or Apgar scores. Combined test results indicated comparable analgesic efficacy 15 to 20 minutes after injection with single-injection intrathecal opioid administration. Intrathecal opioid injections were associated with a greater incidence of pruritus (odds ratio, 14.01; 99% confidence interval, 6.9 to 28.3), but there was no difference in the incidence of nausea or in the method of delivery. Published studies suggest that intrathecal opioids provide comparable early labor analgesia when compared with epidural local anesthetics. Intrathecal opioid administration results in a greater incidence of pruritus. The choice of technique does not appear to affect the method of delivery.
New Solutions is republishing this 1991 article by Robert Asher, which reviews the history of organized labor's efforts in the United States to secure health and safety protections for workers. The 1877 passage of the Massachusetts factory inspection law and the implementation of primitive industrial safety inspection systems in many states paralleled labor action for improved measures to protect workers' health and safety. In the early 1900s labor was focusing on workers' compensation laws. The New Deal expanded the federal government's role in worker protection, supported at least by the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO), but challenged by industry and many members of the U.S. Congress. The American Federation of Labor (AFL) and the CIO backed opposing legal and inspection strategies in the late 1940s and through the 1950s. Still, by the late 1960s, several unions were able to help craft the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 and secure new federal protections for U.S. workers.
This article gives an account of Canadian Chemicals Policy over the past three decades, including the project for the "virtual elimination" of toxic chemicals and the federal government's Chemical Management Plan. The latter is what remained when the virtual elimination program achieved few results. The article then embarks on its central theme: explaining how the labor movement introduced the concept and the practice of Pollution Prevention (P2) to Canada, as well as its impact on legislation and policies over the use reduction of chemical pesticides. The Appendix is a glossary of terms and concepts used in the article.
N 04 .- . / Washington. D.C. 20350 If. CONTROLLING OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS Navy Personnel Research and Development Center,/, Sentber 1 8 Code 303 N-i...8217Mn. RESEARCH REPORT NO. 37 EEO EXTERNAL RELEVANT LABOR FORCE ANALYSIS D.M. ATWATER R. J. NIEHAUS’ N BY J. A. SHERIDAN ii OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT...San Diego. CA 92152 86 I4. MONITORING AGENCY NAME & AOORESS(I diflerent ham Controlling ONce.) IS. SECURITY CLASS. (of Ihis report) oA SN (/#/F
Houfflin-Debarge, V; Closset, E; Deruelle, P
Intrapartum asphyxia is increased in several situations such as intrauterine growth retardation, preterm labor, postdate pregnancy or maternal diabetes. In all these cases, fetal heart rate monitoring should be preferred to intermittent auscultation. Fetal scalp blood pH or lactates can be used to identify fetuses at risk of intrapartum asphyxia. However, fetal scalp blood sampling should not delay delivery in case of severe abnormal fetal heart rate as fetal asphyxia could occur rapidly in theses high-risk pregnancies. Data is insufficient to recommend fetal pulse oximetry or ECG analysis. Research should be undertaken to evaluate their performance in these situations.
... 452.14 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor OFFICE OF LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR LABOR-MANAGEMENT STANDARDS GENERAL STATEMENT CONCERNING THE ELECTION PROVISIONS OF THE LABOR-MANAGEMENT... identity the terms of its officers may not be extended beyond the maximum period specified by the Act for...
... Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act (LMRDA), specifically with regard to the scope of the... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Office of Labor-Management Standards OLMS Listens: Office of Labor-Management Standards Stakeholder Meeting AGENCY: Office of Labor-Management Standards, Department of Labor. ACTION...
... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Bureau of Labor Statistics Establishment of the Bureau of Labor Statistics..., the Secretary of Labor has determined that the establishment of the Bureau of Labor Statistics... performance of duties imposed upon the Commissioner of Labor Statistics by 29 U.S.C. 1 and 2. This...
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Rose, William N; Dayton, Paula J; Raife, Thomas J
Labor efficiency is desirable in mobile blood collection. There are few published data on labor efficiency. The variability in the labor efficiency of mobile whole blood collections was analyzed. We determined to improve our labor efficiency using lean manufacturing principles. Workflow changes in mobile collections were implemented with the goal of minimizing labor expenditures. To measure success, data on labor efficiency measured by units/hour/full-time equivalent (FTE) were collected. The labor efficiency in a 6-month period before the implementation of changes, and in months 1 to 6 and 7 to 12 after implementation was analyzed and compared. Labor efficiency in the 6-month period preceding implementation was 1.06 ± 0.4 units collected/hour/FTE. In months 1 to 6, labor efficiency declined slightly to 0.92 ± 0.4 units collected/hour/FTE (p = 0.016 vs. preimplementation). In months 7 to 12, the mean labor efficiency returned to preimplementation levels of 1.09 ±0.4 units collected/hour/FTE. Regression analysis correlating labor efficiency with total units collected per drive revealed a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.48 for the aggregate data from all three periods), indicating that nearly half of labor efficiency was associated with drive size. The lean-based changes in workflow were subjectively favored by employees and donors. The labor efficiency of our mobile whole blood drives is strongly influenced by size. Larger drives are more efficient, with diminishing returns above 40 units collected. Lean-based workflow changes were positively received by employees and donors. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.
We introduce a probabilistic model to analyze job-matching processes of recent Japanese labor markets, in particular, for university graduates by means of statistical physics. To make a model of the market efficiently, we take into account several hypotheses. Namely, each company fixes the (business year independent) number of opening positions for newcomers. The ability of gathering newcomers depends on the result of job matching process in past business years. This fact means that the ability of the company is weakening if the company did not make their quota or the company gathered applicants too much over the quota. All university graduates who are looking for their jobs can access the public information about the ranking of companies. By assuming the above essential key points, we construct the local energy function of each company and describe the probability that an arbitrary company gets students at each business year by a Boltzmann-Gibbs distribution. We evaluate the relevant physical quantities such as the employment rate and Gini index. We discuss social inequalities in labor markets, and provide some ways to improve these situations, such as the informal job offer rate, the job-worker mismatch between students and companies. Graduate School of Information Science and Technology.
Prior, Tomas; Mullins, Edward; Bennett, Phillip; Kumar, Sailesh
The majority of intrapartum fetal hypoxia occurs in uncomplicated pregnancies. Current intrapartum monitoring techniques have not resulted in a reduction in the incidence of cerebral palsy in term neonates. We report the development of a composite risk score to allow risk stratification of normal pregnancies before labor. Six hundred one women were recruited to this prospective observational study. All women underwent an ultrasound examination before active labor, during which fetal biometry and fetal Doppler flow resistance indices were measured. A composite risk score, amalgamating data from the umbilical artery, middle cerebral artery, and umbilical vein, was then developed and correlated with intrapartum outcomes. In cases with the highest composite risk scores, the incidence of fetal compromise (the primary outcome) was 80.0% compared with just 15.3% in cases with the lowest risk scores (relative risk 5.2, 95% confidence interval 2.7-10.1). These cases were also at increased risk of cesarean delivery (53.3% compared with 3.4%, P<.001) and of developing a fetal heart rate pattern considered pathologic by National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence criteria (P=.003). No significant variation in Apgar scores or umbilical artery pH was observed. Intrapartum fetal compromise remains a significant global health issue. The composite risk score reported here can identify fetuses at both high risk and low risk of a subsequent diagnosis of intrapartum fetal compromise. This may enable more judicious use of current intrapartum fetal monitoring techniques, which are hampered by low specificity. II.
Hadar, Eran; Hiersch, Liran; Ashwal, Eran; Chen, Rony; Wiznitzer, Arnon; Gabbay-Benziv, Rinat
Maternal age is an important consideration for antenatal care, labor and delivery. We aimed to evaluate the induction of labor (IoL) failure rates among elderly nulliparous women. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all nulliparous women at 34 + 0 to 41 + 6 weeks, undergoing cervical ripening by prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) vaginal insert. Study group included elderly (≥35 years) nulliparous and control group included non-elderly (<35 years) nulliparous women. Primary outcome was IoL failure rate and secondary outcome was cesarean delivery rate. Outcomes were compared between the groups by univariate analysis followed by regression analysis to adjust results to potential confounders. Of 537 women undergoing IoL, 69 (12.8%) were elderly. The univariate analysis demonstrated no difference in IoL failure rate (26.5% versus 34.8%, p = 0.502) between groups. However, elderly nulliparous women had higher rates of cesarean delivery (36.2% versus 21.4%, p = 0.009). This difference was no longer significant after adjustment for maternal body mass index, indication for delivery, birth weight and gestational age at delivery. Among nulliparous women, older maternal age is not associated with higher rates of IoL failure or cesarean deliveries.
Johnson, Beverly L.; Hayghe, Howard
Based on information from supplementary questions in the March 1976 Current Population Survey, the report presents data which indicate that women are contributing increasingly to family incomes. Analysis of the information reveals that the marital composition of the American labor force has changed significantly since 1970. A rapidly growing youth…
Young, Anne McD.
This report by the U.S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Statistics covers youth employment and education, and their interwoven causes and results. Numerous statistical charts and explanatory notes are included. Factors, such as age, race, sex and status, are analyzed. (MML)
Canagarajah, Sudharshan; Coulombe, Harold
This report examines the determinants of child labor in conjunction with school participation trends for children ages 7-14 in Ghana. The report is based on data from national household surveys conducted 1987-92. Specifically, the study examined the influence of variables such as child age and sex; parent's education, religion, and employment; and…
MacRae, C. Duncan; And Others
The report describes the construction, application, and theoretical implications of an econometric model depicting the effects of labor subsidies on the supply of workers in the U.S. Three papers deal with the following aspects of constructing the econometric model: (1) examination of equilibrium wages, employment, and earnings of primary and…
... Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting Notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the... meeting of the Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: March... in current and anticipated trade negotiations will be discussed. Pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 2155(f) it has...
... Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting Notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the... meeting of the Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: May 14... anticipated trade negotiations will be discussed. Pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 2155(f) it has been determined that...
... Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the... meeting of the Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: January... current and anticipated trade negotiations will be discussed. Pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 2155(f) it has been...
... Committee for Trade Negotiations and Trade Policy ACTION: Meeting notice. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the... meeting of the Labor Advisory Committee for Trade Negotiation and Trade Policy. Date, Time, Place: June 28... current and anticipated trade negotiations will be discussed. Pursuant to 19 U.S.C. 2155(f) it has been...
Preibisch, Kerry L.
Temporary visa workers are increasingly taking on a heightened profile in Canada, entering the workforce each year in greater numbers than immigrant workers with labor mobility rights (Sharma 2006). This paper examines the incorporation of foreign workers in Canadian horticulture under the Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program (SAWP). I argue that…
Gabriel, Allison S; Daniels, Michael A; Diefendorff, James M; Greguras, Gary J
Research on emotional labor focuses on how employees utilize 2 main regulation strategies-surface acting (i.e., faking one's felt emotions) and deep acting (i.e., attempting to feel required emotions)-to adhere to emotional expectations of their jobs. To date, researchers largely have considered how each strategy functions to predict outcomes in isolation. However, this variable-centered perspective ignores the possibility that there are subpopulations of employees who may differ in their combined use of surface and deep acting. To address this issue, we conducted 2 studies that examined surface acting and deep acting from a person-centered perspective. Using latent profile analysis, we identified 5 emotional labor profiles-non-actors, low actors, surface actors, deep actors, and regulators-and found that these actor profiles were distinguished by several emotional labor antecedents (positive affectivity, negative affectivity, display rules, customer orientation, and emotion demands-abilities fit) and differentially predicted employee outcomes (emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction, and felt inauthenticity). Our results reveal new insights into the nature of emotion regulation in emotional labor contexts and how different employees may characteristically use distinct combinations of emotion regulation strategies to manage their emotional expressions at work. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.
Wilber, George L.; And Others
The major task of this report is to describe and evaluate the participation and status achievements of Orientals in the labor market, with particular attention to factors affecting such participation and whether differences in participation as compared to that of whites reflect discrimination. Inequalities and discrimination are examined in terms…
... Regulations, Orders and Statements of Interpretation; Child Labor Violations--Civil Money Penalties AGENCY..., DC 20210; telephone: (202) 693-0072 (this is not a toll free number). Copies of this notice of...), upon request, by calling (202) 693-0023. TTY/TDD callers may dial toll-free (877) 889-5627 to obtain...
NEAL, Jeremy L.; LAMP, Jane M.; BUCK, Jacalyn S.; LOWE, Nancy K.; GILLESPIE, Shannon L.; RYAN, Sharon L.
Introduction The timing of when a woman is admitted to the hospital for labor care following spontaneous contraction onset may be among the most important decisions that labor attendants make as it can influence care patterns and birth outcomes. The aims of this study were to estimate the percentage of low-risk, nulliparous women at term who are admitted to labor units prior to active labor and to evaluate the effects of the timing of admission (i.e., pre-active versus active labor) on labor interventions and mode of birth. Methods Obstetrics data from low-risk, nulliparous women with spontaneous labor onset at term gestation (N = 216) were merged from two prospective studies conducted at three large, Midwestern hospitals. Baseline characteristics, labor interventions, and outcomes were compared between groups using Fisher’s exact and Mann-Whitney U tests, as appropriate. Likelihoods for oxytocin augmentation, amniotomy, and cesarean delivery were assessed by logistic regression. Results Of the sample of 216 low-risk nulliparous women, 114 (52.8%) were admitted in pre-active labor and 102 (47.2%) were admitted in active labor. Women admitted in pre-active labor were more likely to undergo oxytocin augmentation (84.2% and 45.1%, respectively; odds ratio (OR) 6.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.43–12.27) but not amniotomy (55.3% and 61.8%, respectively; OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.44–1.32) when compared to women admitted in active labor. The likelihood of cesarean delivery was higher for women admitted before active labor onset (15.8% and 6.9%, respectively; OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.02–6.37). Discussion Many low-risk nulliparous women with regular, spontaneous uterine contractions are admitted to labor units before active labor onset, which increases their likelihood of receiving oxytocin and being delivered via cesarean section. An evidence-based, standardized approach for labor admission decision-making is recommended to decrease inadvertent admissions of women in pre
Vasak, Blanka; Graatsma, Elisabeth M; Hekman-Drost, Elske; Eijkemans, Marinus J; Schagen van Leeuwen, Jules H; Visser, Gerard H A; Jacod, Benoit C
Worldwide induction and cesarean delivery rates have increased rapidly, with consequences for subsequent pregnancies. The majority of intrapartum cesarean deliveries are performed for failure to progress, typically in nulliparous women at term. Current uterine registration techniques fail to identify inefficient contractions leading to first-stage labor arrest. An alternative technique, uterine electromyography has been shown to identify inefficient contractions leading to first-stage arrest of labor in nulliparous women with spontaneous onset of labor at term. The objective of this study was to determine whether this finding can be reproduced in induction of labor. Uterine activity was measured in 141 nulliparous women with singleton term pregnancies and a fetus in cephalic position during induced labor. Electrical activity of the myometrium during contractions was characterized by its power density spectrum. No significant differences were found in contraction characteristics between women with induced labor delivering vaginally with or without oxytocin and women with arrested labor with subsequent cesarean delivery. Uterine electromyography shows no correlation with progression of labor in induced labor, which is in contrast to spontaneous labor. © 2017 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Kehila, M; Abouda, H S; Sahbi, K; Cheour, H; Chanoufi, M Badis
Induction of labor is one of the most common procedures in modern obstetrics, with an incidence of approximately 20% of all deliveries. Not all of these inductions result in vaginal delivery; some lead to cesarean sections, either for emergency reasons or for failed induction. That's why, It seems necessary to outline strategies for the improvement of the success rate of induced deliveries. Traditionally, the identification of women in whom labor induction is more likely to be successful is based on the Bishop score. However, several studies have shown it to be subjective, with high variation and a poor predictor of the outcome of labor induction. Transvaginal sonography for cervical measurement can be a more objective criterion in assessing the success of labor induction. Many studies have been done recently to compare cervical measurement and Bishop Score in labor induction.This paper reviewed the literature that evaluated sonographic cervical length measurement to predict induction of labor outcome.
Landrigan, P J; McCammon, J B
Child labor is a major threat to the health of children in the United States. The U.S. Department of Labor estimates that more than four million children are legally employed and that another one to two million are employed under illegal, often exploitative conditions. Across the United States, child labor accounts for 20,000 workers compensation claims, 200,000 injuries, thousands of cases of permanent disability, and more than 70 deaths each year. Agriculture and newspaper delivery are the two most hazardous areas of employment for children and adolescents. Poverty, massive immigration, and relaxation in enforcement of Federal child labor law are the three factors principally responsible for the last two decades' resurgence of child labor in the United States. Control of the hazards of child labor will require a combination of strategies including vigorous enforcement, education, and public health surveillance. Images p466-a p467-a p468-a PMID:10822472
Schofield, Deborah J; Passey, Megan E; Earnest, Arul; Gloor, Ian C; Shrestha, Rupendra
The Intergenerational Report (IGR) released by the Department of the Treasury of the Commonwealth of Australia in 2002 highlighted pressures that in the future would threaten the sustainability of the Australian government's budget balance. These pressures result from the growing needs of an aging population and labor shortages that will limit economic growth and taxation revenue. The IGR has become a driving force in planning government policy. The Treasurer has recently said that "the whole economic agenda of the government at the moment is drawn from the IGR." In response, the Prime Minster and Treasurer have promoted deferred or gradual retirement as part of the solution. However, about 50% of men and 20% of women retire early as a result of ill health, indicating that poor health is potentially a limiter of economic growth. This paper reports lower labor force participation among persons with poorer health and that these persons move out of the labor force at a faster rate as they age. A range of measures suggests some decline in health in the pre-retirement age group (those aged from 40 to 64 years). This indicates that better health may be a facilitator of greater labor force participation in the baby boomer cohort. However, there is evidence that improving economic conditions in Australia leading to low unemployment has created an environment more favorable to the employment of older workers with health problems as there has been a rise in labor force participation in these groups, and measures to prevent chronic disease may further increase the employment prospects.
Richardson, Michael G; Lopez, Brandon M; Baysinger, Curtis L
Nitrous oxide, long used during labor in Europe, is gaining popularity in the United States. It offers many beneficial attributes, with few drawbacks. Cost, safety, and side effect profiles are favorable. Analgesic effectiveness is highly variable, yet maternal satisfaction is often high among the women who choose to use it. Despite being less effective in treating labor pain than neuraxial analgesic modalities, nitrous oxide serves the needs and preferences of a subset of laboring parturients. Nitrous oxide should, therefore, be considered for inclusion in the repertoire of modalities used to alleviate pain and facilitate effective coping during labor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shilling, Teri; Romano, Amy M.; DiFranco, Joyce T.
This updated edition of Care Practice Paper #2 presents the evidence for the benefits of allowing freedom of movement in labor. Physiologic and anatomical principles that support the benefits of movement are explained. The authors review common obstacles to movement in labor, including the routine use of interventions that inhibit women's ability to walk or change position. Women are encouraged to plan to be active in labor and to select care providers and birth settings that provide the full range of options for using movement in labor. PMID:18566644
Bacio, Guadalupe A.; Moore, Alison A.; Karno, Mitchell P.; Ray, Lara
Little is known about alcohol misuse and depression among Latino day laborers despite the fact that they encounter multiple stressors (e.g. job instability, unsafe work environments). A structural equation model tested the relationships among laborer stress, social support, health status, current alcohol misuse, and depression. A sample of 89 male, urban Latino day laborers completed measures assessing these constructs in 2011. Stress was negatively related to physical health status, which was associated with depression. Findings suggest that stressors specific to being a day laborer resulting from their work and living conditions generate and maintain health disparities in this vulnerable population. PMID:24779503
Payant, Laura; Davies, Barbara; Graham, Ian D; Peterson, Wendy E; Clinch, Jennifer
To examine the determinants of nurses' intentions to practice continuous labor support. A descriptive survey based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. A large, urban Canadian hospital with 2 sites and 7,000 births per year. Ninety-seven registered nurses from 2 birthing units. Scores measuring nurses' attitudes, subjective norms, and intentions regarding continuous labor support for women with epidural analgesia were significantly lower than those for women without epidural analgesia (p<.0001). Multiple regression analyses revealed that previous labor support courses, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control explained 55% of the variance in nurses' intentions to provide continuous labor support to women without epidural analgesia while 88% of the variance in intentions to provide continuous labor support to women with epidural analgesia was explained by subjective norms and attitudes. Subjective norms made the most significant contribution to the variance in nurses' intentions to provide continuous labor support. Top perceived organizational barriers to continuous labor support included unit acuity and method of patient assignment. Nurses' intentions to provide continuous labor support are lower for women receiving epidural analgesia and are influenced by the perceived social pressures on their unit. Nurses view organizational barriers as important factors influencing their ability to provide continuous labor support.
AD-A267 985liiiiiii ii ii iii lillinl lJtlflllllIi 1\\k . Music in Labor DTIC43.t ELECTE wN AUGt 1 1993UThe Use of Music in Labor: A C1 Pain...Perception Kathy Jo Keever Patricia A. Shepherd AFIT/Georgetown University School of Nursing Running head: MUSIC IN LABOR Ap9i" "r85T16x• ~ ;u~c r~eca _W...FUNDING NUMBERS The Use of Music in Labor: Pain Perception 6. AUTHOR(S) 1st Lt Kathy Keever Capt Patricia Shepherd PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND
... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Employment of Workers with... appropriate notices that state the contractor's obligations and the rights of individuals with disabilities...
Webber, Douglas A; Bjelland, Melissa J
According to the justification hypothesis, non-employed individuals may over-report their level of work limitation, leading to biased census/survey estimates of the prevalence of severe disabilities and the associated labor force participation rate. For researchers studying policies which impact the disabled or elderly (e.g., Supplemental Security Income, Disability Insurance, and Early Retirement), this could lead to significant bias in key parameters of interest. Using the American Community Survey, we examine the potential for both inflated and deflated reported disability status and generate a general index of disability, which can be used to reduce the bias of these self-reports in other studies. We find that at least 4.8 million individuals have left the labor force because of a work-limiting disability, at least four times greater than the impact implied by our replication of previous models. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
de Heus, Roel; Mulder, Eduard J H; Visser, Gerard H A
Preterm birth is strongly associated with neonatal death and long-term neurological morbidity. The purpose of tocolytic drug administration is to postpone threatening preterm delivery for 48 hours to allow maximal effect of antenatal corticosteroids and maternal transportation to a center with specialized neonatal care facilities. There is uncertainty about the value of atosiban (oxytocin receptor antagonist) and nifedipine (calcium channel blocker) as first-line tocolytic drugs in the management of preterm labor. For nifedipine, concerns have been raised about unproven safety, lack of placebo-controlled trials, and its off-label use. The tocolytic efficacy of atosiban has also been questioned because of a lack of reduction in neonatal morbidity. This review discusses the available evidence, the pros and cons of either drug and aims to provide information to support a balanced choice of first-line tocolytic drug: atosiban or nifedipine?
Bergstrom, Linda; Richards, Lori; Proctor, Adele; Avila, Leticia Bohrer; Morse, Janice M; Roberts, Joyce E
In this secondary analysis of videotape data, we describe birth talk demonstrated by caregivers to women during the second stage of labor. Birth talk is a distinctive verbal register or a set of linguistic features that are used with particular behaviors during specific situations, has a particular communication purpose, and is characterized by distinctive language features. Birth talk is found cross-culturally among speakers of diverse languages. Our findings show that birth talk occurred mainly during contractions and co-occurred with two general styles of caregiving: "directed toward forced bearing down" and "supportive of physiologic bearing down." We also describe talk that occurred during rest periods, which was similar across the two styles. Caregivers' use of language tended to be either procedural (giving directions, instructions) or comfort related (encouraging and supporting). Linguistic features of the talk consisted of utterances of short duration, level pitch patterns with no sudden pitch shifts, and a restricted pitch range.
Stahl, C W
"Emigration pressures are primarily the result of increasing inequalities between countries which, in turn, are the result of factors internal to less developed countries and their relations with developed countries. Both micro (neoclassical) and macrostructural theories of migration are reviewed. It is argued that the neoclassical theory of migration is often unjustly criticized and is sufficiently robust to incorporate those structural considerations which are at the core of macrostructural theories. Moreover, the neoclassical theory, with slight modification, can incorporate the ¿new economics of migration.' The major empirical problem confronting models of international labor migration is that migration flows are constrained by immigration policy. This policy, in turn, is influenced by various special interest groups. The direction and form of migration flows is conditioned by contemporary and historical relationships between source and destination countries." excerpt
Peltier, Morgan R
During pregnancy there is an alteration in maternal immunity within the uterus where innate, proinflammatory immune responses are tightly regulated to prevent immunological rejection of the fetal allograft. Disruption of the delicate balance of cytokines by bacteria or other factors increases the production of proinflammatory cytokines at the maternal-fetal interface and activates the parturition mechanism prematurely. Despite years of searching, there is still no broadly effective strategy for preventing preterm labor and most therapies are directed at inhibiting myometrial contractions and improving neonatal outcome. Recent studies with progestins and interleukin-10 (IL-10), however, are showing promise in randomized clinical trials and animal studies. Furthermore, the identification of the Toll-like receptors as upstream mediators of inflammation may offer alternative therapeutic targets for preventing this common pregnancy complication. PMID:14651749
Elo, Irma T.; Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Gansey, Romeo; Thomas, Duncan
The number of migrants to the United States from Africa has grown exponentially since the 1930s. For the first time in America’s history, migrants born in Africa are growing at a faster rate than migrants from any other continent. The composition of African-origin migrants has also changed dramatically: in the mid-twentieth century, the majority were white and came from only three countries; but today, about one-fifth are white, and African-origin migrants hail from across the entire continent. Little is known about the implications of these changes for their labor market outcomes in the United States. Using the 2000–2011 waves of the American Community Survey, we present a picture of enormous heterogeneity in labor market participation, sectoral choice, and hourly earnings of male and female migrants by country of birth, race, age at arrival in the United States, and human capital. For example, controlling a rich set of human capital and demographic characteristics, some migrants—such as those from South Africa/Zimbabwe and Cape Verde, who typically enter on employment visas—earn substantial premiums relative to other African-origin migrants. These premiums are especially large among males who arrived after age 18. In contrast, other migrants—such as those from Sudan/Somalia, who arrived more recently, mostly as refugees—earn substantially less than migrants from other African countries. Understanding the mechanisms generating the heterogeneity in these outcomes—including levels of socioeconomic development, language, culture, and quality of education in countries of origin, as well as selectivity of those who migrate—remain important unresolved research questions. PMID:26304845
Elo, Irma T; Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Gansey, Romeo; Thomas, Duncan
The number of migrants to the United States from Africa has grown exponentially since the 1930s. For the first time in America's history, migrants born in Africa are growing at a faster rate than migrants from any other continent. The composition of African-origin migrants has also changed dramatically: in the mid-twentieth century, the majority were white and came from only three countries; but today, about one-fifth are white, and African-origin migrants hail from across the entire continent. Little is known about the implications of these changes for their labor market outcomes in the United States. Using the 2000-2011 waves of the American Community Survey, we present a picture of enormous heterogeneity in labor market participation, sectoral choice, and hourly earnings of male and female migrants by country of birth, race, age at arrival in the United States, and human capital. For example, controlling a rich set of human capital and demographic characteristics, some migrants-such as those from South Africa/Zimbabwe and Cape Verde, who typically enter on employment visas-earn substantial premiums relative to other African-origin migrants. These premiums are especially large among males who arrived after age 18. In contrast, other migrants-such as those from Sudan/Somalia, who arrived more recently, mostly as refugees-earn substantially less than migrants from other African countries. Understanding the mechanisms generating the heterogeneity in these outcomes-including levels of socioeconomic development, language, culture, and quality of education in countries of origin, as well as selectivity of those who migrate-figures prominently among important unresolved research questions.
Field Hearing on the Reauthorization of the Early Intervention and Preschool Programs under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Select Education of the Committee on Education and Labor, House of Representatives, One Hundred Second Congress, First Session (Brooklyn, New York).
Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.
This hearing, held in Brooklyn, New York, on the reauthorization of the early intervention and preschool programs of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, addresses the at-risk factors that prevent school readiness of young children and seeks to ascertain the extent to which at-risk children have been identified and served. A statement…
A Fresh Start for New Orleans' Children: Improving Education after Katrina. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Education and Early Childhood Development of the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions, United States Senate. One Hundred Ninth Congress, Second Session on Examining the Education System of New Orleans (July 14, 2006, New Orleans, LA). Senate Hearing 109-626
US Senate, 2007
The purpose of this hearing was to examine the education system of New Orleans. Statements were presented by: Honorable Lamar Alexander, Chairman, Subcommittee on Education and Early Childhood Development; Honorable Mary L. Landrieu, U.S. Senator from Louisiana; Honorable Richard Burr, U.S. Senator from North Carolina; Linda Johnson, President,…
Head Start: Ensuring Dollars Benefit the Children. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Education and Early Childhood Development of the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions, United States Senate, One Hundred Ninth Congress, First Session (April 5, 2005). Senate Hearing 109-119
US Senate, 2005
In his opening statement, Senator Lamar Alexander (R-TN), chairman, Subcommittee on Education and Early Childhood Development, stated that one responsibility of Congress is to ensure that taxpayer dollars are being spent for the purposes intended and for the children intended. Between January 2003 and the first months of this year, there were…
Improving Head Start for America's Children. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary and Secondary Education of the Committee on Education and Labor, U.S. House of Representatives, One Hundred Tenth Congress, First Session (February 28, 2007). Serial Number 110-6
US House of Representatives, 2007
Head Start and Early Head Start provide high-quality comprehensive services to children and their families that help children develop cognitively and non-cognitively to enable them to succeed in school and in life. When families are under stress, that stress affects their children's development. One of the greatest stresses on families has been…
.... Department of Labor, which is the point of contact for the NAALC and the Labor Chapters of U.S. FTAs. The... of the U.S. Department of Labor serves as the U.S. point of contact under the FTAs listed above. The... for travel expenses. Authority: The authority for this notice is granted by the FACA (5 U.S.C. App. 2...
Christiansen, Morten H; Monaghan, Padraic
Psychologists have used experimental methods to study language for more than a century. However, only with the recent availability of large-scale linguistic databases has a more complete picture begun to emerge of how language is actually used, and what information is available as input to language acquisition. Analyses of such "big data" have resulted in reappraisals of key assumptions about the nature of language. As an example, we focus on corpus-based research that has shed new light on the arbitrariness of the sign: the longstanding assumption that the relationship between the sound of a word and its meaning is arbitrary. The results reveal a systematic relationship between the sound of a word and its meaning, which is stronger for early acquired words. Moreover, the analyses further uncover a systematic relationship between words and their lexical categories-nouns and verbs sound differently from each other-affecting how we learn new words and use them in sentences. Together, these results point to a division of labor between arbitrariness and systematicity in sound-meaning mappings. We conclude by arguing in favor of including "big data" analyses into the language scientist's methodological toolbox. Copyright © 2015 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.
Zhang, Jun; Landy, Helain J; Branch, D Ware; Burkman, Ronald; Haberman, Shoshana; Gregory, Kimberly D; Hatjis, Christos G; Ramirez, Mildred M; Bailit, Jennifer L; Gonzalez-Quintero, Victor H; Hibbard, Judith U; Hoffman, Matthew K; Kominiarek, Michelle; Learman, Lee A; Van Veldhuisen, Paul; Troendle, James; Reddy, Uma M
To use contemporary labor data to examine the labor patterns in a large, modern obstetric population in the United States. Data were from the Consortium on Safe Labor, a multicenter retrospective study that abstracted detailed labor and delivery information from electronic medical records in 19 hospitals across the United States. A total of 62,415 parturients were selected who had a singleton term gestation, spontaneous onset of labor, vertex presentation, vaginal delivery, and a normal perinatal outcome. A repeated-measures analysis was used to construct average labor curves by parity. An interval-censored regression was used to estimate duration of labor, stratified by cervical dilation at admission and centimeter by centimeter. Labor may take more than 6 hours to progress from 4 to 5 cm and more than 3 hours to progress from 5 to 6 cm of dilation. Nulliparous and multiparous women appeared to progress at a similar pace before 6 cm. However, after 6 cm, labor accelerated much faster in multiparous than in nulliparous women. The 95 percentiles of the second stage of labor in nulliparous women with and without epidural analgesia were 3.6 and 2.8 hours, respectively. A partogram for nulliparous women is proposed. In a large, contemporary population, the rate of cervical dilation accelerated after 6 cm, and progress from 4 cm to 6 cm was far slower than previously described. Allowing labor to continue for a longer period before 6 cm of cervical dilation may reduce the rate of intrapartum and subsequent repeat cesarean deliveries in the United States.
Zhang, Jun; Landy, Helain J.; Branch, D. Ware; Burkman, Ronald; Haberman, Shoshana; Gregory, Kimberly D.; Hatjis, Christos G.; Ramirez, Mildred M.; Bailit, Jennifer L.; Gonzalez-Quintero, Victor H.; Hibbard, Judith U.; Hoffman, Matthew K.; Kominiarek, Michelle; Learman, Lee A.; Van Veldhuisen, Paul; Troendle, James; Reddy, Uma M.
Objective To use contemporary labor data to examine the labor patterns in a large, modern obstetric population in the United States. Methods Data were from the Consortium on Safe Labor, a multicenter retrospective study that abstracted detailed labor and delivery information from electronic medical records in 19 hospitals across the United States. A total of 62,415 parturients were selected who had a singleton term gestation, spontaneous onset of labor, vertex presentation, vaginal delivery, and a normal perinatal outcome. A repeated-measures analysis was used to construct average labor curves by parity. An interval-censored regression was used to estimate duration of labor stratified by cervical dilation at admission and centimeter by centimeter. Results Labor may take over 6 hours to progress from 4 to 5 cm and over 3 hours to progress from 5 to 6 cm of dilation. Nulliparas and multiparas appeared to progress at a similar pace before 6 cm. However, after 6 cm labor accelerated much faster in multiparas than in nulliparas. The 95th percentile of the 2nd stage of labor in nulliparas with and without epidural analgesia was 3.6 and 2.8 hours, respectively. A partogram for nulliparas is proposed. Conclusion In a large, contemporary population, the rate of cervical dilation accelerated after 6 cm and progress from 4 to 6 cm was far slower than previously described. Allowing labor to continue for a longer period before 6 cm of cervical dilation may reduce the rate of intrapartum and subsequent repeat cesarean deliveries in the United States. PMID:21099592
of midwifery on the island of Borneo, according to legend, started when a husband and his pregnant wife were hunting food in the jungle. He came upon a...fully cemented the doctor- hospital-childbirth relationship (Tanzer & Block, 1972). The use of these drugs sometimes, instead of making the patient quiet...By the end of the 1960s, physicians were crying out to give less drugs during labor as these drugs were severely affecting the infants. Thus, the push
Child Labor: Labor Can Strengthen Its Efforts To Protect Children Who Work. Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education, Committee on Appropriations, U.S. Senate.
General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.
Occupational safety and health data and labor statistics were evaluated in order to update a 1991 report on child labor. Data were from the Bureau of Labor Statistics; Department of Health and Human Services; National Institutes for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH); the Department of Labor's (DOL's) investigations database and individual…
Lilly, Meredith B; Laporte, Audrey; Coyte, Peter C
As people continue to age and receive complex health care services at home, concern has arisen about the availability of family caregivers and their ability to combine employment with caregiving. This article evaluates the international research on unpaid caregivers and their labor market choices, highlighting three conclusions: first, caregivers in general are equally as likely to be in the labor force as noncaregivers; second, caregivers are more likely to work fewer hours in the labor market than noncaregivers, particularly if their caring commitments are heavy; and finally, only those heavily involved in caregiving are significantly more likely to withdraw from the labor market than noncaregivers. Policy recommendations are targeting greater access to formal care for "intensive" caregivers and developing workplace policies for employed caregivers.