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Sample records for early late jurassic

  1. A total petroleum system of the Browse Basin, Australia; Late Jurassic, Early Cretaceous-Mesozoic

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bishop, M.G.

    1999-01-01

    The Browse Basin Province 3913, offshore northern Australia, contains one important petroleum system, Late Jurassic, Early Cretaceous-Mesozoic. It is comprised of Late Jurassic through Early Cretaceous source rocks deposited in restricted marine environments and various Mesozoic reservoir rocks deposited in deep-water fan to fluvial settings. Jurassic age intraformational shales and claystones and Cretaceous regional claystones seal the reservoirs. Since 1967, when exploration began in this 105,000 km2 area, fewer than 40 wells have been drilled and only one recent oil discovery is considered potentially commercial. Prior to the most recent oil discovery, on the eastern side of the basin, a giant gas field was discovered in 1971, under a modern reef on the west side of the basin. Several additional oil and gas discoveries and shows were made elsewhere. A portion of the Vulcan sub-basin lies within Province 3913 where a small field, confirmed in 1987, produced 18.8 million barrels of oil (MMBO) up to 1995 and has since been shut in.

  2. Dolomitization in Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Platform Carbonates (Berdiga Formation), Ayralaksa Yayla (Trabzon), NE Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yıldız, Merve; Ziya Kırmacı, Mehmet; Kandemir, Raif

    2017-04-01

    ABSTRACT Pontides constitute an E-W trending orogenic mountain belt that extends about 1100 km along the northern side of Turkey from the immediate east of Istanbul to the Georgian border at the east. Tectono-stratigraphically, the Pontides are divided into three different parts: Eastern, Central, and Western Pontides. The Eastern Pontides, including the studied area, comprise an area of 500 km in length and 100 km in width, extending along the southeast coast of the Black Sea from the Kizilirmak and Yesilirmak Rivers in the vicinity of Samsun to the Little Caucasus. This area is bordered by the Eastern Black Sea basin to the north and the Ankara-Erzincan Neotethyan suture zone to the south. The Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous platform carbonates are widely exposed in E-W direction in the Eastern Pontides (NE Turkey). The Platform carbonates shows varying lithofacies changing from supratidal to platform margin reef laterally and vertically, and was buried until the end of Late Cretaceous. The studied Ayralaksa Yayla (Trabzon, NE Turkey) area comprises one of the best typical exposures of formation in northern zone of Eastern Pontides. In this area, the lower parts of the formation are pervasively dolomitized by fabric-destructive and fabric-preserving replacement dolomite which are Ca-rich and nonstoichiometric (Ca56-66Mg34-44). Replacement dolomites (Rd) are represented by D18O values of -19.0 to -4.2 (VPDB), D13C values of 4.4 to 2.1 \\permil (VPDB) and 87Sr/86Sr ratios of 0.70889 to 0.70636. Petrographic and geochemical data indicate that Rd dolomites are formed prior to compaction at shallow-moderate burial depths from Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous seawater and/or partly modified seawater as a result of water/rock interaction and they were recrystallized at elevated temperatures during subsequent burial. In the subsequent diagenetic process during the Late Cretaceous when the region became a magmatic arc, as a result of interaction with Early Jurassic volcanic

  3. Paleomagnetic tests for tectonic reconstructions of the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Woyla Group, Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Advokaat, Eldert; Bongers, Mayke; van Hinsbergen, Douwe; Rudyawan, Alfend; Marshal, Edo

    2017-04-01

    SE Asia consists of multiple continental blocks, volcanic arcs and suture zones representing remnants of closing ocean basins. The core of this mainland is called Sundaland, and was formed by accretion of continental and arc fragments during the Paleozoic and Mesozoic. The former positions of these blocks are still uncertain but reconstructions based on tectonostratigraphic, palaeobiogeographic, geological and palaeomagnetic studies indicate the continental terranes separated from the eastern margin of Gondwana. During the mid-Cretaceous, more continental and arc fragments accreted to Sundaland, including the intra-oceanic Woyla Arc now exposed on Sumatra. These continental fragments were derived from Australia, but the former position of the Woyla Arc is unconstrained. Interpretations on the former position of the Woyla Arc fall in two end-member groups. The first group interprets the Woyla Arc to be separated from West Sumatra by a small back-arc basin. This back arc basin opened in the Late Jurassic, and closed mid-Cretaceous, when the Woyla Arc collided with West Sumatra. The other group interprets the Woyla Arc to be derived from Gondwana, at a position close to the northern margin of Greater India in the Late Jurassic. Subsequently the Woyla Arc moved northwards and collided with West Sumatra in the mid-Cretaceous. Since these scenarios predict very different plate kinematic evolutions for the Neotethyan realm, we here aim to place paleomagnetic constraints on paleolatitudinal evolution of the Woyla Arc. The Woyla Arc consists mainly of basaltic to andesitic volcanics and dykes, and volcaniclastic shales and sandstones. Associated limestones with volcanic debris are interpreted as fringing reefs. This assemblage is interpreted as remnants of an Early Cretaceous intra-oceanic arc. West Sumatra exposes granites, surrounded by quartz sandstones, shales and volcanic tuffs. These sediments are in part metamorphosed. This assemblage is interpreted as a Jurassic-Early

  4. Geomagnetic Reversals of the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous Captured in a North China Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhn, T.; Fu, R. R.; Kent, D. V.; Olsen, P. E.

    2016-12-01

    The Tuchengzi formation in North China nominally spans nearly 20 million years of the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, an interval during which age calibration of the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale (GPTS) based on seafloor magnetic anomalies is poorly known. The overlying Yixian formation is of special paleontological interest due to an abundance of spectacularly preserved macrofossils of feathered non-avian dinosaurs, birds, mammals, and insects. Scarce fossils in the Tuchengzi, sparse accurate radiometric dates on both the Tuchengzi and overlying Yixian formation, and scant previous paleomagnetic studies on these formations motivated our application of magnetostratigraphy as a geochronological tool. We constructed a geomagnetic reversal sequence from the upper 142m of a 200m core extracted in Liaoning Province at Huangbanjigou spanning the lower Yixian Formation and the unconformably underlying Tuchengzi Formation. Thermal demagnetization up to 680°C in steps of 25-50°C revealed predominantly normal overprints consistent with the modern day field with unblocking temperatures between 125°C and as high as 550°C, as well as normal and reverse characteristic components with unblocking temperatures between 500°C and 680°C. Going up from the base of the core, there is a reverse polarity magnetozone >6m thick, followed by a 5m normal magnetozone, a 10m reverse magnetozone, a 25m normal magnetozone, and a 6m reverse magnetozone truncated by the Yixian-Tuchengzi unconformity. Above the unconformity, all 81m of core were normal. These results indicate that a meaningful polarity stratigraphy can be recovered from the Tuchengzi and Yixian formations that will be invaluable for correlations across the Tuchengzi and potentially the Yixian formations, which span thousands of square kilometers and vary in thickness by many hundreds of meters. The results also demonstrate that, in combination with accurate and precise radiometric dates, the Tuchengzi Formation has the

  5. Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous continental convergence and intracontinental orogenesis in East Asia: A synthesis of the Yanshan Revolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Shuwen; Zhang, Yueqiao; Zhang, Fuqin; Cui, Jianjun; Chen, Xuanhua; Zhang, Shuanhong; Miao, Laicheng; Li, Jianhua; Shi, Wei; Li, Zhenhong; Huang, Shiqi; Li, Hailong

    2015-12-01

    The basic tectonic framework of continental East Asia was produced by a series of nearly contemporaneous orogenic events in the late Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous. Commonly, the Late Mesozoic orogenic processes were characterized by continent-continent collision, large-scale thrusting, strike-slip faulting and intense crustal shortening, crustal thickening, regional anatexis and metamorphism, followed by large-scale lithospheric extension, rifting and magmatism. To better understand the geological processes, this paper reviews and synthesizes existing multi-disciplinary geologic data related to sedimentation, tectonics, magmatism, metamorphism and geochemistry, and proposes a two-stage tectono-thermal evolutionary history of East Asia during the late Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous (ca. 170-120 Ma). In the first stage, three orogenic belts along the continental margins were formed coevally at ca. 170-135 Ma, i.e., the north Mongol-Okhotsk orogen, the east paleo-Pacific coastal orogen, and the west Bangong-Nujiang orogen. Tectonism related to the coastal orogen caused extensive intracontinental folding and thrusting that resulted in a depositional hiatus in the Late Jurassic, as well as crustal anatexis that generated syn-kinematic granites, adakites and migmatites. The lithosphere of the East Asian continent was thickened, reaching a maximum during the latest Jurassic or the earliest Cretaceous. In the second stage (ca. 135-120 Ma), delamination of the thickened lithosphere resulted in a remarkable (>120 km) lithospheric thinning and the development of mantle-derived magmatism, mineralization, metamorphic core complexes and rift basins. The Middle Jurassic-Early Cretaceous subduction of oceanic plates (paleo-Pacific, meso-Tethys, and Mongol-Okhotsk) and continent-continent collision (e.g. Lhasa and Qiangtang) along the East Asian continental margins produced broad coastal and intracontinental orogens. These significant tectonic activities, marked by

  6. Late Jurassic - Early Cretaceous convergent margins of Northeastern Asia with Northwestern Pacific and Proto-Arctic oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Sergey; Luchitskaya, Marina; Tuchkova, Marianna; Moiseev, Artem; Ledneva, Galina

    2013-04-01

    Continental margin of Northeastern Asia includes many island arc terranes that differ in age and tectonic position. Two convergent margins are reconstructed for Late Jurassic - Early Cretaceous time: Uda-Murgal and Alazeya - Oloy island arc systems. A long tectonic zone composed of Upper Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous volcanic and sedimentary rocks is recognized along the Asian continent margin from the Mongol-Okhotsk thrust-fold belt on the south to the Chukotka Peninsula on the north. This belt represents the Uda-Murgal arc, which was developed along the convergent margin between Northeastern Asia and Northwestern Meso-Pacific. Several segments are identified in this arc based upon the volcanic and sedimentary rock assemblages, their respective compositions and basement structures. The southern and central parts of the Uda-Murgal island arc system were a continental margin belt with heterogeneous basement represented by metamorphic rocks of the Siberian craton, the Verkhoyansk terrigenous complex of Siberian passive margin and the Koni-Taigonos late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic island arc with accreted oceanic terranes. At the present day latitude of the Pekulney and Chukotka segments there was an ensimatic island arc with relicts of the South Anyui oceanic basin in backarc basin. Alazeya-Oloy island arc systems consists of Paleozoic and Mesozoic complexes that belong to the convergent margin between Northeastern Asia and Proto-Artic Ocean. It separated structures of the North American and Siberian continents. The Siberian margin was active whereas the North American margin was passive. The Late Jurassic was characterized by termination of a spreading in the Proto-Arctic Ocean and transformation of the latter into the closing South Anyui turbidite basin. In the beginning the oceanic lithosphere and then the Chukotka microcontinent had been subducted beneath the Alazeya-Oloy volcanic belt

  7. The conchostracan subgenus Orthestheria (Migransia) from the Tacuarembó Formation (Late Jurassic-?Early Cretaceous, Uruguay) with notes on its geological age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanbin, Shen; Gallego, Oscar F.; Martínez, Sergio

    2004-04-01

    Conchostracans from the Tacuarembó Formation s.s. of Uruguay are reassigned to the subgenus Orthestheria (Migransia) Chen and Shen. They show more similarities to genera of Late Jurassic age in the Congo Basin and China than to those of Early Cretaceous age. On the basis of the character of the conchostracans, we suggest that the Tacuarembó Formation is unlikely to be older than Late Jurassic. It is probably Kimmeridgian, but an Early Cretaceous age cannot be excluded. This finding is consistent with isotopic dating of the overlying basalts, as well as the age range of recently described fossil freshwater sharks.

  8. Biotic and environmental dynamics through the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous transition: evidence for protracted faunal and ecological turnover.

    PubMed

    Tennant, Jonathan P; Mannion, Philip D; Upchurch, Paul; Sutton, Mark D; Price, Gregory D

    2017-05-01

    The Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous interval represents a time of environmental upheaval and cataclysmic events, combined with disruptions to terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Historically, the Jurassic/Cretaceous (J/K) boundary was classified as one of eight mass extinctions. However, more recent research has largely overturned this view, revealing a much more complex pattern of biotic and abiotic dynamics than has previously been appreciated. Here, we present a synthesis of our current knowledge of Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous events, focusing particularly on events closest to the J/K boundary. We find evidence for a combination of short-term catastrophic events, large-scale tectonic processes and environmental perturbations, and major clade interactions that led to a seemingly dramatic faunal and ecological turnover in both the marine and terrestrial realms. This is coupled with a great reduction in global biodiversity which might in part be explained by poor sampling. Very few groups appear to have been entirely resilient to this J/K boundary 'event', which hints at a 'cascade model' of ecosystem changes driving faunal dynamics. Within terrestrial ecosystems, larger, more-specialised organisms, such as saurischian dinosaurs, appear to have suffered the most. Medium-sized tetanuran theropods declined, and were replaced by larger-bodied groups, and basal eusauropods were replaced by neosauropod faunas. The ascent of paravian theropods is emphasised by escalated competition with contemporary pterosaur groups, culminating in the explosive radiation of birds, although the timing of this is obfuscated by biases in sampling. Smaller, more ecologically diverse terrestrial non-archosaurs, such as lissamphibians and mammaliaforms, were comparatively resilient to extinctions, instead documenting the origination of many extant groups around the J/K boundary. In the marine realm, extinctions were focused on low-latitude, shallow marine shelf-dwelling faunas

  9. Geological and technological characterization of the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous clay deposits (Jebel Ammar, northeastern Tunisia) for ceramic industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben M'barek-Jemaï, Moufida; Sdiri, Ali; Ben Salah, Imed; Ben Aissa, Lassaad; Bouaziz, Samir; Duplay, Joelle

    2017-05-01

    Late Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous clays of the Jebel Ammar study site were used as raw materials for potential applications in ceramic industry. Physico-chemical characterization of the collected samples was performed using atomic absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetry and dilatometry (Bugot's curve). Geotechnical study was also undertaken by the assessment of plasticity and liquidity limits. It was found that high concentrations of silica, alumina with SiO2/Al2O3 ratio characterized the studied clays; its high amounts of CaO and Fe2O3 in the Late Jurassic clays indicated their calcareous nature. In addition, technological tests indicated moderate to low plasticity values for the Late Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous clays, respectively. Clay fraction (<2 μm) reached 50% of the natural clay in some cases. Mineralogical analysis showed that Jurassic clays were dominated by smectite, illite and kaolinite, as clay mineral species; calcite was the main associated mineral. Lower Cretaceous clays were mainly composed of abundant illite accompanied by well-crystallized smectite and kaolinite. Kaolinite gradually increased upwards, reaching 70% of the total clay fraction (i.e. <2 μm). Quartz, calcite and feldspar were the main non-clay minerals. Based on these analyses, the clays meet technological requirements that would allow their use in the ceramic industry and for the manufacturing of ceramic tiles.

  10. Late Jurassic plutonism in the southwest U.S. Cordillera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barth, A.P.; Wooden, J.L.; Howard, K.A.; Richards, J.L.

    2008-01-01

    Although plate reconstructions suggest that subduction was an approximately steady-state process from the mid-Mesozoic through the early Tertiary, recent precise geochronologic studies suggest highly episodic emplacement of voluminous continental-margin batholiths in the U.S. Cordillera. In central and southern California and western Arizona, major episodes of batholithic magmatism are known to have occurred in Permian-Triassic, Middle Jurassic, and late Early to Late Cretaceous time. However, recent studies of forearc-basin and continental-interior sediments suggest that Late Jurassic time was probably also a period of significant magmatism, although few dated plutons of this age have been recognized. We describe a belt of Late Jurassic plutonic and hypabyssal rocks at least 200 km in length that extends from the northwestern Mojave Desert through the Transverse Ranges. The belt lies outboard of both the voluminous Middle Jurassic arc and the ca. 148 Ma Independence dike swarm at these latitudes. The plutons include two intrusive suites emplaced between 157 and 149 Ma: a calc-alkaline suite compositionally unlike Permian-Triassic and Middle Jurassic mon-zonitic suites but similar to Late Cretaceous arc plutons emplaced across this region, and a contemporaneous but not comagmatic alkaline suite. The Late Jurassic was thus a time of both tectonic and magmatic transitions in the southern Cordillera. ?? 2008 The Geological Society of America.

  11. Hg concentrations from Late Triassic and Early Jurassic sedimentary rocks: first order similarities and second order depositional and diagenetic controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yager, J. A.; West, A. J.; Bergquist, B. A.; Thibodeau, A. M.; Corsetti, F. A.; Berelson, W.; Bottjer, D. J.; Rosas, S.

    2016-12-01

    Mercury concentrations in sediments have recently gained prominence as a potential tool for identifying large igneous province (LIP) volcanism in sedimentary records. LIP volcanism coincides with several mass extinctions during the Phanerozoic, but it is often difficult to directly tie LIP activity with the record of extinction in marine successions. Here, we build on mercury concentration data reported by Thibodeau et al. (Nature Communications, 7:11147, 2016) from the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic of New York Canyon, Nevada, USA. Increases in Hg concentrations in that record were attributed to Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) activity in association with the end-Triassic mass extinction. We expand the measured section from New York Canyon and report new mercury concentrations from Levanto, Peru, where dated ash beds provide a discrete chronology, as well as St. Audrie's Bay, UK, a well-studied succession. We correlate these records using carbon isotopes and ammonites and find similarities in the onset of elevated Hg concentrations and Hg/TOC in association with changes in C isotopes. We also find second order patterns that differ between sections and may have depositional and diagenetic controls. We will discuss these changes within a sedimentological framework to further understand the controls on Hg concentrations in sedimentary records and their implications for past volcanism.

  12. A Giant Pliosaurid Skull from the Late Jurassic of England

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Roger B. J.; Evans, Mark; Smith, Adam S.; Sassoon, Judyth; Moore-Faye, Scott; Ketchum, Hilary F.; Forrest, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Pliosaurids were a long-lived and cosmopolitan group of marine predators that spanned 110 million years and occupied the upper tiers of marine ecosystems from the Middle Jurassic until the early Late Cretaceous. A well-preserved giant pliosaurid skull from the Late Jurassic Kimmeridge Clay Formation of Dorset, United Kingdom, represents a new species, Pliosaurus kevani. This specimen is described in detail, and the taxonomy and systematics of Late Jurassic pliosaurids is revised. We name two additional new species, Pliosaurus carpenteri and Pliosaurus westburyensis, based on previously described relatively complete, well-preserved remains. Most or all Late Jurassic pliosaurids represent a globally distributed monophyletic group (the genus Pliosaurus, excluding ‘Pliosaurus’ andrewsi). Despite its high species diversity, and geographically widespread, temporally extensive occurrence, Pliosaurus shows relatively less morphological and ecological variation than is seen in earlier, multi-genus pliosaurid assemblages such as that of the Middle Jurassic Oxford Clay Formation. It also shows less ecological variation than the pliosaurid-like Cretaceous clade Polycotylidae. Species of Pliosaurus had robust skulls, large body sizes (with skull lengths of 1.7–2.1 metres), and trihedral or subtrihedral teeth suggesting macropredaceous habits. Our data support a trend of decreasing length of the mandibular symphysis through Late Jurassic time, as previously suggested. This may be correlated with increasing adaptation to feeding on large prey. Maximum body size of pliosaurids increased from their first appearance in the Early Jurassic until the Early Cretaceous (skull lengths up to 2360 mm). However, some reduction occurred before their final extinction in the early Late Cretaceous (skull lengths up to 1750 mm). PMID:23741520

  13. Development of a high resolution chemostratigraphy for the Late Triassic-Early Jurassic Newark Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinney, S.; Olsen, P. E.; Chang, C.

    2017-12-01

    The 6.7 km of continuous core recovered from the paleo-tropical Triassic-Jurassic Newark rift basin during the Newark Basin Coring Project (NBCP) has provided a wealth of data since the conclusion of drilling 25 years ago. These cores comprise the longest ( 30 Myr) continuously-cored record of orbitally-paced environmental change and have informed our understanding in several different areas including tropical climate change, history of CO­2, mass extinctions, the geological time scale, and solar system dynamics. Despite the utility of NBCP cores for these endeavors, a critical missing dataset is a comprehensive characterization of their geochemical variations relevant to paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic interests, largely a consequence of the cost of analyses at an appropriate resolution using conventional techniques. With the advent of new technology permitting the rapid acquisition of reliable geochemical data, such limitations may no longer be an obstacle for constructing a high-resolution chemostratigraphic record for the NBCP. We present the results of a proof-of-concept study using both ICP-MS-calibrated scanning ITRAX XRF and handheld Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) using the SciAps Z-300. We will show elemental abundances at resolutions as high as 500 mm obtained using these methods from correlative sections of the Titusville and Nursery cores (Lockatong Fm.). These sections are sufficiently long to capture orbital variations and include the range of lithologies present throughout the entire section. Our preliminary results are consistent with previous, semi-quantitative means (e.g., depth ranks) of assessing Milankovitch-scale orbital variations and are also consistent with core and hole geophysical data, demonstrating that these methods can acquire meaningful geochemical data from the entire NBCP. With continued work, we aim to provide an objective characterization of orbitally-paced lake level cyclicity using geochemical proxy

  14. New type of kinematic indicator in bed-parallel veins, Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Vaca Muerta Formation, Argentina: E-W shortening during Late Cretaceous vein opening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukar, Estibalitz; Lopez, Ramiro G.; Gale, Julia F. W.; Laubach, Stephen E.; Manceda, Rene

    2017-11-01

    In the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Vaca Muerta Formation, previously unrecognized yet abundant structures constituting a new category of kinematic indicator occur within bed-parallel fibrous calcite veins (BPVs) in shale. Domal shapes result from localized shortening and thickening of BPVs and the intercalation of centimeter-thick, host-rock shale inclusions within fibrous calcite beef, forming thrust fault-bounded pop-up structures. Ellipsoidal and rounded structures show consistent orientations, lineaments of interlayered shale and fibrous calcite, and local centimeter-scale offset thrust faults that at least in some cases cut across the median line of the BPV and indicate E-W shortening. Continuity of crystal fibers shows the domal structures are contemporaneous with BPV formation and help establish timing of fibrous vein growth in the Late Cretaceous, when shortening directions were oriented E-W. Differences in the number of opening stages and the deformational style of the different BPVs indicate they may have opened at different times. The new domal kinematic indicators described in this study are small enough to be captured in core. When present in the subsurface, domal structures can be used to either infer paleostress orientation during the formation of BPVs or to orient core in cases where the paleostress is independently known.

  15. Petrosal anatomy and inner ear structures of the Late Jurassic Henkelotherium (Mammalia, Cladotheria, Dryolestoidea): insight into the early evolution of the ear region in cladotherian mammals

    PubMed Central

    Ruf, Irina; Luo, Zhe-Xi; Wible, John R; Martin, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The petrosal anatomy and inner ear structure of Jurassic cladotherian mammals represent the ancestral morphological conditions (groundplan) from which modern therian mammals (marsupials and placentals) have evolved. We present the reconstruction of the petrosal and inner ear features of the Late Jurassic dryolestoid mammal Henkelotherium guimarotae from high-resolution computed tomography and three-dimensional imaging analysis. This study of Henkelotherium revealed a combination of derived and primitive features, including: cladotherian apomorphies, such as the promontorial sulcus for the internal carotid artery and reduced lateral trough; trechnotherian characters, such as an enclosed cochlear canaliculus for the perilymphatic duct, post-promontorial tympanic sinus and caudal tympanic process; in addition to plesiomorphic mammalian features, such as the cavum supracochleare and prootic canal. The inner ear of Henkelotherium shows a division between the utricle and saccule, a cochlear canal coiled through at least 270°, a distinctive primary bony lamina for the basilar membrane, and a secondary bony lamina. The development of the primary and secondary bony laminae in the cochlear canal is suggested here to be correlated with the concurrent coiling of the bony canal and membranous duct of the inner ear cochlea, apomorphies of the more inclusive cladotherian clade that also represent the ancestral morphotype of modern therian mammals. Because these features are crucial for high-frequency hearing in extant therian mammals, their early appearance in Late Jurassic cladotherians suggests a more ancient origination for high-frequency hearing in mammalian history than previously thought. PMID:19438763

  16. Oxidation state inherited from the magma source and implications for mineralization: Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous granitoids, Central Lhasa subterrane, Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, MingJian; Qin, KeZhang; Li, GuangMing; Evans, Noreen J.; McInnes, Brent I. A.; Li, JinXiang; Zhao, JunXing

    2018-03-01

    Arc magmas are more oxidized than mid-ocean ridge basalts; however, there is continuing debate as to whether this higher oxidation state is inherited from the source magma or developed during late-stage magmatic differentiation processes. Well-constrained Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous arc-related intermediate to felsic rocks derived from distinct magma sources provide us with a good opportunity to resolve this enigma. A series of granitoids from the western Central Lhasa subterrane were analyzed for whole-rock magnetic susceptibility, Fe2O3/FeO ratios, and trace elements in zircon. Compared to Late Jurassic samples (1.8 ± 2.0 × 10-4 emu g-1 oe-1, Fe3+/Fetotal = 0.32 ± 0.07, zircon Ce4+/Ce3+* = 15.0 ± 13.4), Early Cretaceous rocks show higher whole-rock magnetic susceptibility (5.8 ± 2.5 × 10-4 emu g-1 oe-1), Fe3+/Fetotal ratios (0.43 ± 0.04), and zircon Ce4+/Ce3+* values (23.9 ± 22.3). In addition, positive correlations among whole-rock magnetic susceptibility, Fe3+/Fetotal ratios, and zircon Ce4+/Ce3+* reveal a slight increase in oxidation state from fO2 = QFM to NNO in the Late Jurassic to fO2 = ˜NNO in the Early Cretaceous. Obvious linear correlation between oxidation indices (whole-rock magnetic susceptibility, zircon Ce4+/Ce3+*) and source signatures (zircon ɛHf(t), TDM C ages) indicates that the oxidation state was predominantly inherited from the source with only a minor contribution from magmatic differentiation. Thus, the sources for both the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous rocks were probably influenced by mantle wedge-derived magma, contributing to the increased fO2. Compared to ore-forming rocks at giant porphyry Cu deposits, the relatively low oxidation state (QFM to NNO) and negative ɛHf(t) (-16 to 0) of the studied granitoids implies relative infertility. However, this study demonstrates two potential fast and effective indices ( fO2 and ɛHf(t)) to evaluate the fertility of granitoids for porphyry-style mineralization. In an

  17. Finding of two new radiolarian associations calibrated with ammonoids in the Vaca Muerta Formation (Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous), Neuquén Basin, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vennari, Verónica V.; Pujana, Ignacio

    2017-04-01

    An association of ammonoids and radiolarians retrieved from a sedimentary section of the Vaca Muerta Formation at Vega de Escalone, Neuquén Basin, Argentina, was analized under a strict stratigraphic control. Nine ammonoid assemblage biozones were identified, indicating an age span from Early Tithonian to Late Berriasian/earlymost Valanginian for the Vaca Muerta Formation at the studied section. In connection to the ammonoid record, two radiolarian faunas were identified and named J3A1 and J3B1. Fauna J3A1, corresponding to the Virgatosphinctes andesensis Biozone, is dominated by nasellarian genera and represents the first Lower Tithonian radiolarian fauna described from the Neuquén Basin. Fauna J3B1, linked to the interval assigned to the Substeueroceras koeneni Biozone (Late Tithonian-Early Berriasian), yields abundant representatives of the Pantanellid Family. The presence of Complexapora kozuri (Kiessling and Zeiss) and Loopus primitivus (Matsuoka and Yao), two important radiolarian primary markers of the Late Jurassic in North America, supports a Late Tithonian age for at least part of the S. koeneni Biozone in the studied area. Nor certain Berriasian radiolarian faunas nor elements of the Vallupinae Family were identified so far at the Vega de Escalone section.

  18. Palaeoclimatic conditions in the Late Triassic-Early Jurassic of southern Africa: A geochemical assessment of the Elliot Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciscio, Lara; Bordy, Emese M.

    2016-07-01

    The Triassic-Jurassic boundary marks a global faunal turnover event that is generally considered as the third largest of five major biological crises in the Phanerozoic geological record of Earth. Determining the controlling factors of this event and their relative contributions to the biotic turnover associated with it is on-going globally. The Upper Triassic and Lower Jurassic rock record of southern Africa presents a unique opportunity for better constraining how and why the biosphere was affected at this time not only because the succession is richly fossiliferous, but also because it contains important palaeoenvironmental clues. Using mainly sedimentary geochemical proxies (i.e., major, trace and rare earth elements), our study is the first quantitative assessment of the palaeoclimatic conditions during the deposition of the Elliot Formation, a continental red bed succession that straddles the Triassic-Jurassic boundary in southern Africa. Employing clay mineralogy as well as the indices of chemical alteration and compositional variability, our results confirm earlier qualitative sedimentological studies and indicate that the deposition of the Upper Triassic and Lower Jurassic Elliot Formation occurred under increasingly dry environmental conditions that inhibited chemical weathering in this southern part of Pangea. Moreover, the study questions the universal validity of those studies that suggest a sudden increase in humidity for the Lower Jurassic record and supports predictions of long-term global warming after continental flood basalt emplacement.

  19. Multi-stage metamorphism in the South Armenian Block during the Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous: Tectonics over south-dipping subduction of Northern branch of Neotethys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hässig, M.; Rolland, Y.; Sahakyan, L.; Sosson, M.; Galoyan, G.; Avagyan, A.; Bosch, D.; Müller, C.

    2015-04-01

    The geologic evolution of the South Armenian Block (SAB) in the Mesozoic is reconstructed from a structural, metamorphic, and geochronologic study including U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar dating. The South Armenian Block Crystalline Basement (SABCB) outcrops solely in a narrow tectonic window, NW of Yerevan. The study of this zone provides key and unprecedented information concerning closing of the Northern Neotethys oceanic domain north of the Taurides-Anatolides platform from the Middle Jurassic to the Early Cretaceous. The basement comprises of presumed Proterozoic orthogneiss overlain by metamorphosed pelites as well as intrusions of granodiorite and leucogranite during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. Structural, geochronological and petrological observations show a multiphased evolution of the northern margin of the SAB during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. A south-dipping subduction under the East Anatolian Platform-South Armenian Block (EAP-SAB) is proposed in order to suit recent findings pertaining emplacement of relatively hot subduction related granodiorite as well as the metamorphic evolution of the crystalline basement in the Lesser Caucasus area. The metamorphism is interpreted as evidencing: (1) M1 Barrovian MP-MT conditions (staurolite-kyanite) at c. 157-160 Ma and intrusion of dioritic magmas at c. 150-156 Ma, (2) near-adiabatic decompression is featured by partial melting and production of leucogranites at c. 153 Ma, followed by M2 HT-LP conditions (andalusite-K-feldspar). A phase of shearing and recrystallization is ascribed to doming at c. 130-150 Ma and cooling at 400 °C by c. 123 Ma (M3). Structural observations show (1) top to the north shearing during M1 and (2) radial extension during M2. The extensional event ends by emplacement of a thick detrital series along radial S, E and W-dipping normal faults. Further, the crystalline basement is unconformably covered by Upper Cretaceous-Paleocene series dated by nannofossils, evolving from

  20. New Early Jurassic Tetrapod Assemblages Constrain Triassic-Jurassic Tetrapod Extinction Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, P. E.; Shubin, N. H.; Anders, M. H.

    1987-08-01

    The discovery of the first definitively correlated earliest Jurassic (200 million years before present) tetrapod assemblage (Fundy basin, Newark Supergroup, Nova Scotia) allows reevaluation of the duration of the Triassic-Jurassic tetrapod extinction event. Present are tritheledont and mammal-like reptiles, prosauropod, theropod, and ornithischian dinosaurs, protosuchian and sphenosuchian crocodylomorphs, sphenodontids, and hybodont, semionotid, and palaeonisciform fishes. All of the families are known from Late Triassic and Jurassic strata from elsewhere; however, pollen and spore, radiometric, and geochemical correlation indicate an early Hettangian age for these assemblages. Because all ``typical Triassic'' forms are absent from these assemblages, most Triassic-Jurassic tetrapod extinctions occurred before this time and without the introduction of new families. As was previously suggested by studies of marine invertebrates, this pattern is consistent with a global extinction event at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. The Manicouagan impact structure of Quebec provides dates broadly compatible with the Triassic-Jurassic boundary and, following the impact theory of mass extinctions, may be implicated in the cause.

  1. Climatic fluctuations and seasonality during the Late Jurassic (Oxfordian-Early Kimmeridgian) inferred from δ18O of Paris Basin oyster shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigaud, Benjamin; Pucéat, Emmanuelle; Pellenard, Pierre; Vincent, Benoît; Joachimski, Michael M.

    2008-08-01

    Oxygen isotope data from biostratigraphically well-dated oyster shells from the Late Jurassic of the eastern Paris Basin are used to reconstruct the thermal evolution of western Tethyan surface waters during the Early Oxfordian-Early Kimmeridgian interval. Seventy eight oyster shells were carefully screened for potential diagenetic alteration using cathodoluminescence microscopy. Isotope analyses were performed on non-luminescent parts of shells (n = 264). Intra-shell δ18O variability was estimated by microsampling along a transect perpendicular to the growth lines of the largest oyster shell. The sinusoidal distribution of the δ18O values along this transect and the dependence of the amplitude of variations with bathymetry suggest that intra-shell variability reflects seasonal variations of temperature and/or salinity. Average amplitudes of about 5 °C in shallow water environments and of about 2-3 °C in deeper offshore environments are calculated. These amplitudes reflect minimum seasonal temperature variation. Our new data allow to constrain existing paleotemperature trends established from fish tooth and belemnite δ18O data and are in better agreement with paleontological data. More specifically, a warming trend of about 3 °C is reconstructed for oceanic surface waters during the Early to Middle Oxfordian transition, with maximum temperatures reaching 24 °C in the transversarium Zone (late Middle Oxfordian). From the transversarium Zone to the bimmamatum Zone, a cooling of about 7 °C is indicated, whereas from the bimmamatum Zone, temperatures increased again by about 7 °C to reach 24 °C in average during the cymodoce Zone (Early Kimmeridgian).

  2. Early and late lithification of aragonitic bivalve beds in the Purbeck Formation (upper jurassic-lower cretaceous) of Southern England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Shahat, Adam; West, Ian

    1983-05-01

    Beds of euryhaline bivalves alternating with shales constitute much of the middle Purbeck Formation. They originated on "tidal" flats at the western margin of an extensive brackish lagoon. When these shell beds are thin and enclosed in shale they are often still preserved as aragonite and are associated with "beef", fibrous calcite formed during compaction. In most cases, however, the shell debris has been converted by diagenesis into calcitic biosparrudite limestones. A compacted type has been lithified at a late stage, after deep burial. In this, pyrite is abundant and most of the shell aragonite has been replaced neomorphically by ferroan pseudopleochroic calcite. A contrasting uncompacted type of biosparrudite is characterised by bivalve fragments with micrite envelopes. Shells and former pores are occupied by non-ferroan sparry calcite cement, and there is little pyrite. These limestones frequently contain dinosaur footprints and originated in "supratidal" environments where they were cemented early, mainly in meteoric water. Once lithified they were unaffected by compaction. This uncompacted type indicates phases of mild uplift or halts in subsidence. These shell-bed lithologies, and also intermediate types described here, will probably be recognised in other lagoonal formations.

  3. Paleomagnetism of Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous red beds from the Cardamom Mountains, southwestern Cambodia: Tectonic deformation of the Indochina Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiyama, Yukiho; Zaman, Haider; Sotham, Sieng; Samuth, Yos; Sato, Eiichi; Ahn, Hyeon-Seon; Uno, Koji; Tsumura, Kosuke; Miki, Masako; Otofuji, Yo-ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous red beds of the Phuquoc Formation were sampled at 33 sites from the Sihanoukville and Koah Kong areas of the Phuquoc-Kampot Som Basin, southwestern Cambodia. Two high-temperature remanent components with unblocking temperature ranging 650°-670 °C and 670-690 °C were identified. The magnetization direction for the former component (D = 5.2 °, I = 18.5 ° with α95 = 3.1 ° in situ) reveals a negative fold test that indicates a post-folding secondary nature. However, the latter component, carried by specular hematite, is recognized as a primary remanent magnetization. A tilt-corrected mean direction of D = 43.4 °, I = 31.9 ° (α95 = 3.6 °) was calculated for the primary component at 11 sites, corresponding to a paleopole of 47.7°N, 178.9°E (A95 = 3.6 °). When compared with the 130 Ma East Asian pole, a southward displacement of 6.0 ° ± 3.5 ° and a clockwise rotation of 33.1 ° ± 4.0 ° of the Phuquoc-Kampot Som Basin (as a part of the Indochina Block) with respect to East Asia were estimated. This estimate of the clockwise rotation is ∼15° larger than that of the Khorat Basin, which we attribute to dextral motion along the Wang Chao Fault since the mid-Oligocene. The comparison of the herein estimated clockwise rotation with the counter-clockwise rotation reported from the Da Lat area in Vietnam suggests the occurrence of a differential tectonic rotation in the southern tip of the Indochina Block. During the southward displacement of the Indochina Block, the non-rigid lithosphere under its southern tip moved heterogeneously, while the rigid lithosphere under the Khorat Basin moved homogeneously.

  4. Tracking Early Jurassic marine (de)oxygenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Them, T. R., II; Caruthers, A. H.; Gill, B. C.; Gröcke, D. R.; Marroquín, S. M.; Owens, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    It has been suggested that the carbon cycle was perturbed during the Toarcian OAE (T-OAE) as observed in the carbon isotope record, and more recently other elemental cycles (e.g., Hg, Mo, Os, S). The most widely accepted hypothesis focuses on the emplacement of the Karoo-Ferrar large igneous province, outgassing of greenhouse gases, and subsequent feedbacks in the Earth system, which caused severe environmental change and biological turnover. Feedbacks to elevated atmospheric pCO2 include enhanced weathering rates, dissociation of methane clathrates, increased terrestrial methanogenesis, and widespread marine anoxia. The sequence of events related to the development and duration of marine anoxia are not well constrained for this time interval due to a lack of open-ocean geochemical records. In order to reconstruct the timing of marine deoxygenation during the Early Jurassic T-OAE, we have utilized thallium isotopes, a novel geochemical proxy from multiple anoxic basins in North America and Germany. Three sites representing a basin transect from the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin, and one site from the South German Basin, were chosen to reconstruct the thallium isotopic composition (ɛ205Tl) of the ocean. The ɛ205Tl composition of sediments deposited under anoxic and euxinic water columns records the global seawater ɛ205Tl composition, a function of the amount of manganese oxides that are precipitated. Increased geographic extent of marine anoxia will cause a decrease in manganese oxide precipitation and perturb the thallium system. Importantly, the inputs of thallium are nearly identical, thus changes in these fluxes cannot drive the observed perturbation. Our new Early Jurassic ɛ205Tl records suggest that the onset of marine deoxygenation occurred concurrently with Karoo-Ferrar magmatism in the late Pliensbachian and continued until after the T-OAE. These new data support a Karoo-Ferrar trigger of the T-OAE. However, thallium isotopes also suggest that

  5. Tectono-stratigraphy and low-grade metamorphism of Late Permian and Early Jurassic accretionary complexes within the Kurosegawa belt, Southwest Japan: Implications for mechanisms of crustal displacement within active continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hara, Hidetoshi; Kurihara, Toshiyuki; Mori, Hiroshi

    2013-04-01

    We characterize the tectono-stratigraphic architecture and low-grade metamorphism of the accretionary complex preserved in the Kurosegawa belt of the Kitagawa district in eastern Shikoku, Southwest Japan, in order to understand its internal structure, tectono-metamorphic evolution, and assessments of displacement of continental fragments within the complex. We report the first ever documented occurrence of an Early Jurassic radiolarian assemblage within the accretionary complex of the Kurosegawa belt that has been previously classified as the Late Permian accretionary complex, thus providing a revised age interpretation for these rocks. The accretionary complex is subdivided into four distinct tectono-stratigraphic units: Late Permian mélange and phyllite units, and Early Jurassic mélange and sandstone units. The stratigraphy of these four units is structurally repeated due to an E-W striking, steeply dipping regional fault. We characterized low-grade metamorphism of the accretionary complex via illite crystallinity and Raman spectroscopy of carbonaceous material. The estimated pattern of low-grade metamorphism showed pronounced variability within the complex and revealed no discernible spatial trends. The primary thermal structure in these rocks was overprinted by later tectonic events. Based on geological and thermal structure, we conclude that continental fragments within the Kurosegawa belt were structurally translated into both the Late Permian and Early Jurassic accretionary complexes, which comprise a highly deformed zone affected by strike-slip tectonics during the Early Cretaceous. Different models have been proposed to explain the initial structural evolution of the Kurosegawa belt (i.e., micro-continent collision and klippe tectonic models). Even if we presuppose either model, the available geological evidence requires a new interpretation, whereby primary geological structures are overprinted and reconfigured by later tectonic events.

  6. An early extensional event of the South China Block during the Late Mesozoic recorded by the emplacement of the Late Jurassic syntectonic Hengshan Composite Granitic Massif (Hunan, SE China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wei; Chen, Yan; Faure, Michel; Martelet, Guillaume; Lin, Wei; Wang, Qingchen; Yan, Quanren; Hou, Quanlin

    2016-03-01

    Continental scaled extension is the major Late Mesozoic (Jurassic and Cretaceous) tectonic event in East Asia, characterized by faulting, magmatic intrusions and half-grabens in an area with a length of > 5000 km and a width of > 1000 km. Numerous studies have been conducted on this topic in the South China Block (SCB), However, the space and time ranges of the compressional or extensional regimes of the SCB during the Jurassic are still unclear, partly due to the lack of structural data. The emplacement fabrics of granitic plutons can help determine the regional tectonic background. In this study, a multidisciplinary approach, including Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS), macro and microstructural analyses, quartz c-axis preferred orientation, gravity modeling and monazite EPMA dating, was conducted on the Hengshan composite granitic massif in SCB that consists of the Triassic Nanyue biotite granitic pluton and the Late Jurassic Baishifeng two-mica granitic pluton. The magnetic fabrics are characterized by a consistent NW-SE oriented lineation and weakly inclined foliation. A dominant high temperature deformation with a top-to-the-NW shear sense is identified for both plutons. The deformation increasing from the center of the Baishifeng pluton to its western border is associated to the development of the West Hengshan Boundary Fault (WHBF). The gravity modeling shows a ;saw tooth-shaped; NE-SW oriented structure of the Baishifeng pluton, which may be considered as NE-SW oriented tension-gashes formed due to the NW-SE extension. All results show that the Triassic Nanyue pluton was deformed under post-solidus conditions by the WHBF coeval with the emplacement of the Late Jurassic Baishifeng pluton. All these observations comply with the NW-SE extensional tectonics coeval with the emplacement of the Baishifeng pluton, which argues that the NW-SE crustal stretching started since the Late Jurassic, at least in this part of the SCB.

  7. Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous episodic development of the Bangong Meso-Tethyan subduction: Evidence from elemental and Sr-Nd isotopic geochemistry of arc magmatic rocks, Gaize region, central Tibet, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu-Xiu; Li, Zhi-Wu; Yang, Wen-Guang; Zhu, Li-Dong; Jin, Xin; Zhou, Xiao-Yao; Tao, Gang; Zhang, Kai-Jun

    2017-03-01

    The Bangong Meso-Tethys plays a critical role in the development of the Tethyan realm and the initial elevation of the Tibetan Plateau. However, its precise subduction polarity, and history still remain unclear. In this study, we synthesize a report for the Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous two-phase magmatic rocks in the Gaize region at the southern margin of the Qiangtang block located in central Tibet. These rocks formed during the Late Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous (161-142 Ma) and Early Cretaceous (128-106 Ma), peaking at 146 Ma and 118 Ma, respectively. The presence of inherited zircons indicates that an Archean component exists in sediments in the shallow Qiangtang crust, and has a complex tectonomagmatic history. Geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic data show that the two-phase magmatic rocks exhibit characteristics of arc magmatism, which are rich in large-ion incompatible elements (LIIEs), but are strongly depleted in high field strength elements (HFSEs). The Late Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous magmatic rocks mixed and mingled among mantle-derived mafic magmas, subduction-related sediments, or crustally-derived felsic melts and fluids, formed by a northward and steep subduction of the Bangong Meso-Tethys ocean crust. The magmatic gap at 142-128 Ma marks a flat subduction of the Meso-Tethys. The Early Cretaceous magmatism experienced a magma MASH (melting, assimilation, storage, and homogenization) process among mantle-derived mafic magmas, or crustally-derived felsic melts and fluids, as a result of the Meso-Tethys oceanic slab roll-back, which triggered simultaneous back-arc rifting along the southern Qiangtang block margin.

  8. Early diagenetic dolomitization and dedolomitization of Late Jurassic and earliest Cretaceous platform carbonates: A case study from the Jura Mountains (NW Switzerland, E France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rameil, Niels

    2008-12-01

    Early diagenetic dolomitization is a common feature in cyclic shallow-water carbonates throughout the geologic record. After their generation, dolomites may be subject to dedolomitization (re-calcification of dolomites), e.g. by contact with meteoric water during emersion. These patterns of dolomitization and subsequent dedolomitization frequently play a key role in unravelling the development and history of a carbonate platform. On the basis of excellent outcrops, detailed logging and sampling and integrating sedimentological work, high-resolution sequence stratigraphic interpretations, and isotope analyses (O, C), conceptual models on early diagenetic dolomitization and dedolomitization and their underlying mechanisms were developed for the Upper Jurassic / Lower Cretaceous Jura platform in north-western Switzerland and eastern France. Three different types of early diagenetic dolomites and two types of dedolomites were observed. Each is defined by a distinct petrographic/isotopic signature and a distinct spatial distribution pattern. Different types of dolomites are interpreted to have been formed by different mechanisms, such as shallow seepage reflux, evaporation on tidal flats, and microbially mediated selective dolomitization of burrows. Depending on the type of dolomite, sea water with normal marine to slightly enhanced salinities is proposed as dolomitizing fluid. Based on the data obtained, the main volume of dolomite was precipitated by a reflux mechanism that was switched on and off by high-frequency sea-level changes. It appears, however, that more than one dolomitization mechanism was active (pene)contemporaneously or several processes alternated in time. During early diagenesis, percolating meteoric waters obviously played an important role in the dedolomitization of carbonate rocks that underlie exposure surfaces. Cyclostratigraphic interpretation of the sedimentary succession allows for estimates on the timing of early diagenetic (de

  9. A late Jurassic pterosaur (Reptilia, Pterodactyloidea) from northwestern Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Codorniú, Laura; Gasparini, Zulma; Paulina-Carabajal, Ariana

    2006-03-01

    A small to medium-sized pterodactyloid pterosaur (wingspan approximately 1.10 m) from the Upper Jurassic (middle-late Tithonian) marine deposits of the Vaca Muerta Formation of Patagonia (Los Catutos area, central Neuquén Province, Argentina) is reported. The specimen lacks the skull but constitutes a nearly complete postcranial skeleton, which includes cervical and dorsal vertebrae; a few thoracic ribs; both pectoral girdles; the left pelvic girdle; a proximal right wing (humerus, ulna, and radius) and metacarpal IV; a left wing that lacks only wing phalanx four; and both hindlimbs, the right one without the foot. Ontogenetic features suggest that the new fossil corresponds to a relatively mature individual, probably a subadult. Observed characters support its assignment to the Archaeopteroactyloidea, a basal clade within the Pterodactyloidea. This specimen is the second pterosaur from Los Catutos and the most complete Jurassic pterosaur so far known from South America.

  10. Non-marine carbonate facies, facies models and palaeogeographies of the Purbeck Formation (Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous) of Dorset (Southern England).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallois, Arnaud; Bosence, Dan; Burgess, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Non-marine carbonates are relatively poorly understood compared with their more abundant marine counterparts. Sedimentary facies and basin architecture are controlled by a range of environmental parameters such as climate, hydrology and tectonic setting but facies models are few and limited in their predictive value. Following the discovery of extensive Early Cretaceous, non-marine carbonate hydrocarbon reservoirs in the South Atlantic, the interest of understanding such complex deposits has increased during recent years. This study is developing a new depositional model for non-marine carbonates in a semi-arid climate setting in an extensional basin; the Purbeck Formation (Upper Jurassic - Lower Cretaceous) in Dorset (Southern England). Outcrop study coupled with subsurface data analysis and petrographic study (sedimentology and early diagenesis) aims to constrain and improve published models of depositional settings. Facies models for brackish water and hypersaline water conditions of these lacustrine to palustrine carbonates deposited in the syn-rift phase of the Wessex Basin will be presented. Particular attention focusses on the factors that control the accumulation of in-situ microbialite mounds that occur within bedded inter-mound packstones-grainstones in the lower Purbeck. The microbialite mounds are located in three units (locally known as the Skull Cap, the Hard Cap and the Soft Cap) separated by three fossil soils (locally known as the Basal, the Lower and the Great Dirt Beds) respectively within three shallowing upward lacustrine sequences. These complex microbialite mounds (up to 4m high), are composed of tabular small-scale mounds (flat and long, up to 50cm high) divided into four subfacies. Many of these small-scale mounds developed around trees and branches which are preserved as moulds (or silicified wood) which are surrounded by a burrowed mudstone-wackestone collar. Subsequently a thrombolite framework developed on the upper part only within

  11. Late Jurassicearly Cretaceous inversion of rift structures, and linkage of petroleum system elements across post-rift unconformity, U.S. Chukchi Shelf, arctic Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houseknecht, David W.; Connors, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    Oil-prone source rocks, reservoir-quality sandstone, migration pathways, and structural closure are linked intimately across the Jurassic unconformity, which reflects inversion. Thus, all these key petroleum systems elements were in place when Triassic source rocks entered the oil generation window during Cretaceous–Cenozoic stratigraphic burial.

  12. Correlation of the major late Jurassicearly Tertiary low- and highstand cycles of south-west Egypt and north-west Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wycisk, Peter

    1994-12-01

    The mainly continental deposits of northwest Sudan and south-west Egypt have been correlated with coeval shallow marine and marine deposits in northern Egypt along a north-south running cross-section, based on surface and subsurface data. The palaeodepth curve of northern Egypt illustrates the gradual seal-level rise, reaching its maximum during the Late Cretaceous with conspicuous advances during the Aptian and late Cenomanian. A general highstand is also recorded during the Campanian-Maastrichtian in north-west Sudan. A detailed facies correlation is given for the Aptian and late Cenomanian highstand in western Egypt. The correlation of the Cenomanian Bahariya and Maghrabi formations displays short-term relative sealevel fluctuations. The interpretation illustrates the extensiveness of related erosional processes in the hinterland, partly intensified by temporarily uplift of the Uweinat-Aswan High in the south. Regional uplift and constant erosion took place in south-west Egypt during Coniacian and Santonian times. The regional stratigraphic gaps and uncertain interpretation of the Bahariya Uplift are induced by the influence of the Trans-African Lineament, especially during the Late Cretaceous. Low-stand fluvial sheet sandstones characterized by non-cyclic sequence development and high facies stability occur, especially in the Neocomian and early Turonian. During the Barremian and Albian, fluvial architecture changes to more cyclic fluvial sequences and increasing soil formation, due to increasing subsidence, more humid climatic conditions and the generally rising sea level, culminating in the extensive shallow marine Abu Ballas and Maghrabi formations.

  13. Direct evidence of hybodont shark predation on Late Jurassic ammonites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vullo, Romain

    2011-06-01

    Sharks are known to have been ammonoid predators, as indicated by analysis of bite marks or coprolite contents. However, body fossil associations attesting to this predator-prey relationship have never been described so far. Here, I report a unique finding from the Late Jurassic of western France: a complete specimen of the Kimmeridgian ammonite Orthaspidoceras bearing one tooth of the hybodont shark Planohybodus. Some possible tooth puncture marks are also observed. This is the first direct evidence of such a trophic link between these two major Mesozoic groups, allowing an accurate identification of both organisms. Although Planohybodus displays a tearing-type dentition generally assumed to have been especially adapted for large unshelled prey, our discovery clearly shows that this shark was also able to attack robust ammonites such as aspidoceratids. The direct evidence presented here provides new insights into the Mesozoic marine ecosystem food webs.

  14. Broad-scale patterns of late jurassic dinosaur paleoecology.

    PubMed

    Noto, Christopher R; Grossman, Ari

    2010-09-03

    There have been numerous studies on dinosaur biogeographic distribution patterns. However, these distribution data have not yet been applied to ecological questions. Ecological studies of dinosaurs have tended to focus on reconstructing individual taxa, usually through comparisons to modern analogs. Fewer studies have sought to determine if the ecological structure of fossil assemblages is preserved and, if so, how dinosaur communities varied. Climate is a major component driving differences between communities. If the ecological structure of a fossil locality is preserved, we expect that dinosaur assemblages from similar environments will share a similar ecological structure. This study applies Ecological Structure Analysis (ESA) to a dataset of 100+ dinosaur taxa arranged into twelve composite fossil assemblages from around the world. Each assemblage was assigned a climate zone (biome) based on its location. Dinosaur taxa were placed into ecomorphological categories. The proportion of each category creates an ecological profile for the assemblage, which were compared using cluster and principal components analyses. Assemblages grouped according to biome, with most coming from arid or semi-arid/seasonal climates. Differences between assemblages are tied to the proportion of large high-browsing vs. small ground-foraging herbivores, which separates arid from semi-arid and moister environments, respectively. However, the effects of historical, taphonomic, and other environmental factors are still evident. This study is the first to show that the general ecological structure of Late Jurassic dinosaur assemblages is preserved at large scales and can be assessed quantitatively. Despite a broad similarity of climatic conditions, a degree of ecological variation is observed between assemblages, from arid to moist. Taxonomic differences between Asia and the other regions demonstrate at least one case of ecosystem convergence. The proportion of different ecomorphs, which

  15. Broad-Scale Patterns of Late Jurassic Dinosaur Paleoecology

    PubMed Central

    Noto, Christopher R.; Grossman, Ari

    2010-01-01

    Background There have been numerous studies on dinosaur biogeographic distribution patterns. However, these distribution data have not yet been applied to ecological questions. Ecological studies of dinosaurs have tended to focus on reconstructing individual taxa, usually through comparisons to modern analogs. Fewer studies have sought to determine if the ecological structure of fossil assemblages is preserved and, if so, how dinosaur communities varied. Climate is a major component driving differences between communities. If the ecological structure of a fossil locality is preserved, we expect that dinosaur assemblages from similar environments will share a similar ecological structure. Methodology/Principal Findings This study applies Ecological Structure Analysis (ESA) to a dataset of 100+ dinosaur taxa arranged into twelve composite fossil assemblages from around the world. Each assemblage was assigned a climate zone (biome) based on its location. Dinosaur taxa were placed into ecomorphological categories. The proportion of each category creates an ecological profile for the assemblage, which were compared using cluster and principal components analyses. Assemblages grouped according to biome, with most coming from arid or semi-arid/seasonal climates. Differences between assemblages are tied to the proportion of large high-browsing vs. small ground-foraging herbivores, which separates arid from semi-arid and moister environments, respectively. However, the effects of historical, taphonomic, and other environmental factors are still evident. Conclusions/Significance This study is the first to show that the general ecological structure of Late Jurassic dinosaur assemblages is preserved at large scales and can be assessed quantitatively. Despite a broad similarity of climatic conditions, a degree of ecological variation is observed between assemblages, from arid to moist. Taxonomic differences between Asia and the other regions demonstrate at least one case of

  16. Chasing the Late Jurassic APW Monster Shift in Ontario Kimberlites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, D. V.; Muttoni, G.; Gee, J. S.; Kjarsgaard, B. A.

    2012-12-01

    A 30° gap was recognized in a composite APW path when global poles from predominantly igneous rocks were assembled in North American coordinates using plate reconstructions (Kent & Irving 2010 JGR). The 'monster shift' occurred between a 160-190 Ma cluster of mean poles at 75-80°N 90-110°E to a 140-145 Ma grouping centered at 60-65°N ~200°E. There are hardly any intermediate igneous poles whereas the rather divergent directions from the Late Jurassic Morrison Formation published by Steiner & Helsley (1975 GSA Bulletin) are subject to adjustments for Colorado Plateau rotation and sedimentary inclination error, neither of which are precisely known for this redbed unit sampled in Colorado. On the other hand, similar large rapid swings have been recognized in the Late Jurassic APW path for Adria (Channell et al. 2010 Paleo3), suggesting a global phenomena. In an effort to fill the data gap between ~145 and 160 Ma, we sampled accessible outcrops/subcrops of kimberlites in the Timiskaming area of Ontario, Canada, that are associated with high precision U-Pb perovskite ages (Heamon & Kjarsgaard 2000 EPSL). We report initial results from two of the intrusions: the 153.6±2.4 Ma Peddie kimberlite from outcrop and the Triple B kimberlite that was accessible by trenching and is assumed to be the same age as the nearby 153.7±1.8 Ma Seed kimberlite as delineated by aeromagnetic surveys and borings. Systematic progressive thermal demagnetization indicated in each unit a dominant characteristic component with unblocking temperatures to 575° that presumably reflect a magnetite carrier that will be checked by further rock magnetic experiments. Samples from the Peddie kimberlite had stable downward (normal polarity) magnetizations whose mean direction gives a paleopole at 73°N 184°E. In contrast, samples from the Triple B kimberlite have upward (reverse polarity) magnetizations with a well-grouped direction whose (north) paleopole is 78°N 197°E, proximal to the Peddie

  17. Anomalous Late Jurassic motion of the Pacific Plate with implications for true polar wander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Roger R.; Kent, Dennis V.

    2018-05-01

    True polar wander, or TPW, is the rotation of the entire mantle-crust system about an equatorial axis that results in a coherent velocity contribution for all lithospheric plates. One of the most recent candidate TPW events consists of a ∼30° rotation during Late Jurassic time (160-145 Ma). However, existing paleomagnetic documentation of this event derives exclusively from continents, which compose less than 50% of the Earth's surface area and may not reflect motion of the entire mantle-crust system. Additional paleopositional information from the Pacific Basin would significantly enhance coverage of the Earth's surface and allow more rigorous testing for the occurrence of TPW. We perform paleomagnetic analyses on core samples from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 801B, which were taken from the oldest available Pacific crust, to determine its paleolatitude during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous (167-133 Ma). We find that the Pacific Plate underwent a steady southward drift of 0.49°-0.74° My-1 except for an interval between Kimmeridgian and Tithonian time (157-147 Ma), during which it underwent northward motion at 1.45° ± 0.76° My-1 (1σ). This trajectory indicates that the plates of the Pacific Basin participated in the same large-amplitude (∼30°) rotation as continental lithosphere in the 160-145 Ma interval. Such coherent motion of a large majority of the Earth's surface strongly supports the occurrence of TPW, suggesting that a combination of subducting slabs and rising mantle plumes was sufficient to significantly perturb the Earth's inertia tensor in the Late Jurassic.

  18. Revision of the Late Jurassic teleosaurid genus Machimosaurus (Crocodylomorpha, Thalattosuchia)

    PubMed Central

    Young, Mark T.; Hua, Stéphane; Steel, Lorna; Foffa, Davide; Brusatte, Stephen L.; Thüring, Silvan; Mateus, Octávio; Ruiz-Omeñaca, José Ignacio; Havlik, Philipe; Lepage, Yves; De Andrade, Marco Brandalise

    2014-01-01

    Machimosaurus was a large-bodied genus of teleosaurid crocodylomorph, considered to have been durophagous/chelonivorous, and which frequented coastal marine/estuarine ecosystems during the Late Jurassic. Here, we revise the genus based on previously described specimens and revise the species within this genus. We conclude that there were three European Machimosaurus species and another taxon in Ethiopia. This conclusion is based on numerous lines of evidence: craniomandibular, dental and postcranial morphologies; differences in estimated total body length; geological age; geographical distribution; and hypothetical lifestyle. We re-diagnose the type species Machimosaurus hugii and limit referred specimens to only those from Upper Kimmeridgian–Lower Tithonian of Switzerland, Portugal and Spain. We also re-diagnose Machimosaurus mosae, demonstrate that it is an available name and restrict the species to the uppermost Kimmeridgian–lowermost Tithonian of northeastern France. We re-diagnose and validate the species Machimosaurus nowackianus from Harrar, Ethiopia. Finally, we establish a new species, Machimosaurus buffetauti, for the Lower Kimmeridgian specimens of France and Germany (and possibly England and Poland). We hypothesize that Machimosaurus may have been analogous to the Pliocene–Holocene genus Crocodylus in having one large-bodied taxon suited to traversing marine barriers and additional, geographically limited taxa across its range. PMID:26064545

  19. Anomalous Late Jurassic motion of the Pacific Plate with implications for true polar wander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, R. R.; Kent, D.

    2017-12-01

    True polar wander, or TPW, is the rotation of the entire mantle-crust system that results in simultaneous change in latitude and orientation for all lithospheric plates. One of the most recent candidate TPW events consists of a 30˚ rotation during Late Jurassic time (160 - 145 Ma). However, existing paleomagnetic documentation of this event derives exclusively from continental studies. Because all major landmasses except China were connected directly or via spreading centers in the Late Jurassic, the velocities of these continents were mutually constrained and their motion as a group over the underlying mantle would be indistinguishable from TPW using only continental data. On the other hand, plates of the Pacific Basin constituted a kinematically independent domain, interfacing with continents at subduction zones and slip-strike boundaries. Coherent motion of both Pacific Basin and continental plates would therefore indicate uniform motion of virtually the entire lithosphere, providing a means to distinguish TPW from continental drift. We performed thermal demagnetization on remaining samples from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 801B, which were cored from the oldest sampled oceanic crust in the Western Pacific, to determine its change in paleolatitude during the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous (167 - 134 Ma). We find that the Pacific Plate likely underwent a steady southward drift during this time period, consistent with previous results from magnetic anomalies, except for an episode of northward motion between Oxfordian and Tithonian time (161 - 147 Ma). Although the amplitude of this northward shift is subject to significant uncertainty due to the sparse recovery of core samples, the trajectory of the Pacific Plate is most simply explained by TPW in the 160 - 145 Ma interval as inferred from continental data. Furthermore, such an interpretation is consistent with the sense of shear inferred at the Farallon-North American Plate boundary, whereas uniform

  20. Middle to Late Jurassic Tectonic Evolution of the Klamath Mountains, California-Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, Gregory D.; Wright, James E.

    1984-12-01

    The geochronology, stratigraphy, and spatial relationships of Middle and Late Jurassic terranes of the Klamath Mountains strongly suggest that they were formed in a single west-facing magmatic arc built upon older accreted terranes. A Middle Jurassic arc complex is represented by the volcanic rocks of the western Hayfork terrane and consanguineous dioritic to peridotitic plutons. New U/Pb zircon dates indicate that the Middle Jurassic plutonic belt was active from 159 to 174 Ma and is much more extensive than previously thought. This plutonic belt became inactive just as the 157 Ma Josephine ophiolite, which lies west and structurally below the Middle Jurassic arc, was generated. Late Jurassic volcanic and plutonic arc rocks (Rogue Formation and Chetco intrusive complex) lie outboard and structurally beneath the Josephine ophiolite; U/Pb and K/Ar age data indicate that this arc complex is coeval with the Josephine ophiolite. Both the Late Jurassic arc complex and the Josephine ophiolite are overlain by the "Galice Formation," a Late Jurassic flysch sequence, and are intruded by 150 Ma dikes and sills. The following tectonic model is presented that accounts for the age and distribution of these terranes: a Middle Jurassic arc built on older accreted terranes undergoes rifting at 160 Ma, resulting in formation of a remnant arc/back-arc basin/island arc triad. This system collapsed during the Late Jurassic Nevadan Orogeny (150 Ma) and was strongly deformed and stacked into a series of east-dipping thrust sheets. Arc magmatism was active both before and after the Nevadan Orogeny, but virtually ceased at 140 Ma.

  1. Plume type ophiolites in Japan, East Russia and Mongolia: Peculiarity of the Late Jurassic examples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishiwatari, Akira; Ichiyama, Yuji; Ganbat, Erdenesaikhan

    2013-04-01

    Dilek and Furnes (2011; GSAB) provided a new comprehensive classification of ophiolites. In addition to the mid-ocean ridge (MOR) and supra-subduction zone (SSZ) types that are known for decades, they introduced rift-zone (passive margin) type, volcanic arc (active margin) type, and plume type. The last type is thought to be originated in oceanic large igneous provinces (LIPs; oceanic plateaus), and is preserved in the subduction-accretion complexes in the Pacific margins. The LIP-origin greenstones occur in the Middle Paleozoic (Devonian) accretionary complex (AC) in central Mongolia (Ganbat et al. 2012; AGU abst.). The Late Paleozoic and Mesozoic plume-type ophiolites are abundant in Japan. They are Carboniferous greenstones covered by thick limestone in the Akiyoshi belt (Permian AC, SW Japan; Tatsumi et al., 2000; Geology), Permian greenstones in the Mino-Tamba belt (Jurassic AC, SW Japan; Ichiyama et al. 2008; Lithos), and Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous greenstone in the Sorachi (Hokkaido; Ichiyama et al, 2012; Geology) and Mikabu (SW Japan; this study) belts. The LIP origin of these greenstones is indicated by abundance of picrite (partly komatiite and meimechite), geochemical features resembling HIMU basalts (e.g. high Nb/Y and Zr/Y) and Mg-rich (up to Fo93) picritic olivines following the "mantle array", suggesting very high (>1600oC) temperature of the source mantle plume. The Sorachi-Mikabu greenstones are characterized by the shorter time interval between magmatism and accretion than the previous ones, and are coeval with the meimechite lavas and Alaskan-type ultramafic intrusions in the Jurassic AC in Sikhote-Alin Mountains of Primorye (E. Russia), that suggest a superplume activity in the subduction zone (Ishiwatari and Ichiyama, 2004; IGR). The Mikabu greenstones extend for 800 km along the Pacific coast of SW Japan, and are characterized by the fragmented "olistostrome" occurrence of the basalts, gabbros and ultramafic cumulate rocks (but no mantle

  2. The Jurassic-early Cretaceous Ilo batholith of southern coastal Peru: geology, geochronology and geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boekhout, Flora; Sempere, Thierry; Spikings, Richard; Schaltegger, Urs

    2010-05-01

    The Ilo batholith (17°00 - 18°30 S) crops out in an area of about 20 by 100 km, along the coast of southern Peru. This batholith is emplaced into the ‘Chocolate‘ Formation of late Permian to middle Jurassic age, which consists of more than 1000 m of basaltic and andesitic lavas, with interbedded volcanic agglomerates and breccias. The Ilo Batholith is considered to be a rarely exposed fragment of the Jurassic arc in Peru. Our aim is to reconstruct the magmatic evolution of this batholith, and place it within the context of long-lasting magma genesis along the active Andean margin since the Paleozoic. Sampling for dating and geochemical analyses was carried out along several cross sections through the batholith that were exposed by post-intrusion eastward tilting of 20-30°. Sparse previous work postulates early to middle Jurassic and partially early Cretaceous emplacement, on the basis of conventional K/Ar and 40Ar/39Ar dating methods in the Ilo area. Twenty new U-Pb zircon ages (LA-ICP-MS and CA-ID-TIMS) accompanied by geochemical data suggests the Ilo batholith formed via the amalgamation of middle Jurassic and early Cretaceous, subduction-related plutons. Preliminary Hf isotope studies reveal a primitive mantle source for middle Jurassic intrusions. Additional Sr, Nd and Hf isotope analyses are planned to further resolve the source regions of different pulses of plutonic activity. We strongly suggest that batholith emplacement was at least partly coeval with the emplacement of the late Permian to middle Jurassic Chocolate Formation, which was deposited in an extensional tectonic regime. Our age results and geochemical signature fit into the scheme of episodic emplacement of huge amounts of subduction related magmatism that is observed throughout the whole Andean event, particularly during the middle Jurassic onset of the first Andean cycle (southern Peru, northern Chile and southern Argentina). Although the exact geodynamic setting remains to be precisely

  3. Early to Middle Jurassic tectonic evolution of the Bogda Mountains, Northwest China: Evidence from sedimentology and detrital zircon geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Hongjie; Tao, Huifei; Wang, Qi; Qiu, Zhen; Ma, Dongxu; Qiu, Junli; Liao, Peng

    2018-03-01

    The Bogda Mountains, as an important intracontinental orogenic belt, are situated in the southern part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), and are a key area for understanding the Mesozoic evolution of the CAOB. However, the tectonic evolution of the Bogda Mountains remains controversial during the Mesozoic Era, especially the Early to Middle Jurassic Periods. The successive Lower to Middle Jurassic strata are well preserved and exposed along the northern flank of the Western Bogda Mountains and record the uplift processes of the Bogda Mountains. In this study, we analysed sedimentary facies combined with detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology at five sections of Lower to Middle Jurassic strata to detect the tectonic evolution and changes of provenance in the Bogda area. During Early to Middle Jurassic times, the fluvial, deltaic and lacustrine environments dominated in the western section of the Bogda area. The existence of Early Triassic peak age indicates that the Bogda Mountains did not experience uplift during the period of early Badaowan Formation deposition. The Early Triassic to Late Permian granitoid plutons and Carboniferous volcanic rocks from the Barkol and Santanghu areas were the main provenances. The significant change in the U-Pb age spectrum implies that the Eastern Bogda Mountains initiated uplift in the period of late Badaowan Formation deposition, and the Eastern Junggar Basin and the Turpan-Hami Basin were partially partitioned. The Eastern Bogda Mountains gradually became the major provenance. From the period of early Sangonghe to early Toutunhe Formations deposition, the provenance of the sediments and basin-range frame were similar to that of late Badaowan. However, the Eastern Bogda Mountains suffered intermittent uplift three times, and successive denudation. The uplifts respectively happened in early Sangonghe, late Sangonghe to early Xishanyao, and late Xishanyao to early Toutunhe. During the deposition stage of Toutunhe Formation, a

  4. A toothed turtle from the Late Jurassic of China and the global biogeographic history of turtles.

    PubMed

    Joyce, Walter G; Rabi, Márton; Clark, James M; Xu, Xing

    2016-10-28

    Turtles (Testudinata) are a successful lineage of vertebrates with about 350 extant species that inhabit all major oceans and landmasses with tropical to temperate climates. The rich fossil record of turtles documents the adaptation of various sub-lineages to a broad range of habitat preferences, but a synthetic biogeographic model is still lacking for the group. We herein describe a new species of fossil turtle from the Late Jurassic of Xinjiang, China, Sichuanchelys palatodentata sp. nov., that is highly unusual by plesiomorphically exhibiting palatal teeth. Phylogenetic analysis places the Late Jurassic Sichuanchelys palatodentata in a clade with the Late Cretaceous Mongolochelys efremovi outside crown group Testudines thereby establishing the prolonged presence of a previously unrecognized clade of turtles in Asia, herein named Sichuanchelyidae. In contrast to previous hypotheses, M. efremovi and Kallokibotion bajazidi are not found within Meiolaniformes, a clade that is here reinterpreted as being restricted to Gondwana. A revision of the global distribution of fossil and recent turtle reveals that the three primary lineages of derived, aquatic turtles, including the crown, Paracryptodira, Pan-Pleurodira, and Pan-Cryptodira can be traced back to the Middle Jurassic of Euramerica, Gondwana, and Asia, respectively, which resulted from the primary break up of Pangaea at that time. The two primary lineages of Pleurodira, Pan-Pelomedusoides and Pan-Chelidae, can similarly be traced back to the Cretaceous of northern and southern Gondwana, respectively, which were separated from one another by a large desert zone during that time. The primary divergence of crown turtles was therefore driven by vicariance to the primary freshwater aquatic habitat of these lineages. The temporally persistent lineages of basal turtles, Helochelydridae, Meiolaniformes, Sichuanchelyidae, can similarly be traced back to the Late Mesozoic of Euramerica, southern Gondwana, and Asia. Given

  5. Sedimentary Provenance Constraints on the Middle Jurassic to Late Cretaceous Paleogeography of the Sichuan Basin, SW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; He, D.; Li, D.; Lu, R.

    2017-12-01

    Sedimentary provenance of the Middle Jurassic to Late Cretaceous sediments in the Sichuan Basin is constrained by sandstone petrology and detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology, which provides critical insights into mid-late Mesozoic paleogeographic evolution of the Sichuan Basin. Petrographic analyses of 22 sandstone samples indicate moderate to high mature sediments and are primarily derived from cratonic or recycled sources. U-Pb age data for the Middle Jurassic to Late Cretaceous detrital zircons generally show populations at 130-200, 200-330, 400-490, 680-890, 1730-1960, and 2360-2600 Ma, with up-section variations. The Middle Jurassic sediments contain a relatively high density of 1.85 and 2.5 Ga zircons and a low density of the 800 Ma zircons, which are consistent with derivation mainly from the Songpan-Ganzi terrane and the South Qinling belt, and secondarily from the Western Jiangnan Orogen. The Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous sedimentation with a scattered age distribution shared common multiple-source to sink systems that were predominantly draining towards the south and southeast, but increasingly drained southward, and were later disrupted by a synchronous northeastward drainage capture. Late Cretaceous sediments have a distinct reduction in <213 Ma zircons, suggesting that sedimentation involved southeastward and southwestward transport of sediments likely derived from the Songpan-Ganzi terrane, the south segment of the Longmenshan fault belt and western Yangtze Craton, and the uplifting areas of the N- and NE-Sichuan Basin. Changes in provenances during the mid-late Mesozoic period are coincident with temporal-spatial variations in depocenter migration and paleogeographic evolution of the Sichuan Basin, which are closely related to the multi-stage intracontinental subduction associated with clockwise rotation of the South China Block.

  6. Chemo- and biostratigraphy of the Late Jurassic from the Lower Saxony Basin, Northern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erbacher, Jochen; Luppold, Friedrich Wilhelm; Heunisch, Carmen; Heldt, Matthias; Caesar, Sebastian

    2013-04-01

    The upper Jurassic (Oxfordian to Tithonian) sediments of the Lower Saxony Basin (Northern Germany) comprises a succession of limestones, marlstones and claystones deposited in a shallow marine to lacustrine epicontinental basin situated between the Tethys and the Sub-Boreal seas. Both, the depositional environment and the palaeogeographically isolated position strongly compromise a chronostratigraphic dating of the regional lithostratigraphical and biostratigraphical units. In order to obtain a stratigraphic standard section for the Late Jurassic of the Lower Saxony Basin we drilled a 325 m long core (Core Eulenflucht 1) covering the lower part of the Berriasian (Wealden 2-3 of the Bückeburg Formation) to the lower Oxfordian (Heersum Formation). A compilation with a section outcropping in an active quarry 2 km north of the drill site resulted in a 340 m long section reaching down to the late Callovian (Ornatenton Formation) . Ammonites have only been described in the lowermost, Callovian part of the section. Investigations of benthic foraminifers, ostracods as well as palynology, however, allowed for a rather detailed biozonation of the core. These data indicate the stratigrapical completeness of the section when compared to the regional stratigraphic data of the Lower Saxony Basin. Due to the lack of ammonites in Late Jurassic part of the section, which would have allowed for a correlation with Tethyan successions, high resolution stable carbon isotope data have been produced from bulk rock carbonate. Even though most of the data derive from shallow marine, rather coarse grained carbonates, such as ooliths and floatstones the resulting carbon isotope curve is surprisingly clean with only little "noise" in the upper part (early Tithonian?) of the measured succession. The curve clearly shows some distinctive features reported from biostratigraphically well-dated carbon isotope records of the Northern Tethys (e.g. Bartolini et al., 2003, Padden et al., 2002, Rais et

  7. Palaeoclimatic oscillations in the Pliensbachian (Early Jurassic) of the Asturian Basin (Northern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez, Juan J.; Comas-Rengifo, María J.; Goy, Antonio

    2016-05-01

    One of the main controversial themes in palaeoclimatology involves elucidating whether climate during the Jurassic was warmer than the present day and if it was the same over Pangaea, with no major latitudinal gradients. There has been an abundance of evidence of oscillations in seawater temperature throughout the Jurassic. The Pliensbachian (Early Jurassic) constitutes a distinctive time interval for which several seawater temperature oscillations, including an exceptional cooling event, have been documented. To constrain the timing and magnitude of these climate changes, the Rodiles section of the Asturian Basin (Northern Spain), a well exposed succession of the uppermost Sinemurian, Pliensbachian and Lower Toarcian deposits, has been studied. A total of 562 beds were measured and sampled for ammonites, for biochronostratigraphical purposes, and for belemnites, to determine the palaeoclimatic evolution through stable isotope studies. Comparison of the recorded latest Sinemurian, Pliensbachian and Early Toarcian changes in seawater palaeotemperature with other European sections allows characterization of several climatic changes that are likely of a global extent. A warming interval partly coinciding with a δ13Cbel negative excursion was recorded at the Late Sinemurian. After a "normal" temperature interval, with temperatures close to average values of the Late Sinemurian-Early Toarcian period, a new warming interval containing a short-lived positive δ13Cbel peak, developed during the Early-Late Pliensbachian transition. The Late Pliensbachian represents an outstanding cooling interval containing a δ13Cbel positive excursion interrupted by a small negative δ13Cbel peak. Finally, the Early Toarcian represented an exceptional warming period, which has been pointed out as being responsible for the prominent Early Toarcian mass extinction.

  8. Toward establishing a definitive Late-Mid Jurassic (M-series) Geomagnetic Polarity Reversal Time Scale through unraveling the nature of Jurassic Quiet Zone.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tominaga, M.; Tivey, M.; Sager, W.

    2017-12-01

    Two major difficulties have hindered improving the accuracy of the Late-Mid Jurassic geomagnetic polarity time scale: a dearth of reliable high-resolution radiometric dates and the lack of a continuous Jurassic geomagnetic polarity time scale (GPTS) record. We present the latest effort towards establishing a definitive Mid Jurassic to Early Cretaceous (M-series) GPTS model using three high-resolution, multi-level (sea surface [0 km], mid-water [3 km], and near-source [5.2 km]) marine magnetic profiles from a seamount-free corridor adjacent to the Waghenaer Fracture Zone in the western Pacific Jurassic Quiet Zone (JQZ). The profiles show a global coherency in magnetic anomaly correlations between two mid ocean ridge systems (i.e., Japanese and Hawaiian lineations). Their unprecedented high data resolution documents a detailed anomaly character (i.e., amplitudes and wavelengths). We confirm that this magnetic anomaly record shows a coherent anomaly sequence from M29 back in time to M42 with previously suggested from the Japanese lineation in the Pigafetta Basin. Especially noticeable is the M39-M41 Low Amplitude Zone defined in the Pigafetta Bsin, which potentially defines the bounds of JQZ seafloor. We assessed the anomaly source with regard to the crustal architecture, including the effects of Cretaceous volcanism on crustal magnetization and conclude that the anomaly character faithfully represents changes in geomagnetic field intensity and polarity over time and is mostly free of any overprint of the original Jurassic magnetic remanence by later Cretaceous volcanism. We have constructed polarity block models (RMS <5 nT [normalized] between observed and calculated profiles) for each of the survey lines, yielding three potential GPTS candidate models with different source-to-sensor resolutions, from M19-M38, which can be compared to currently available magnetostratigraphic records. The overall polarity reversal rates calculated from each of the models are

  9. Astronomical constraints on the duration of the Early Jurassic Pliensbachian Stage and global climatic fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhl, Micha; Hesselbo, Stephen P.; Hinnov, Linda; Jenkyns, Hugh C.; Xu, Weimu; Riding, James B.; Storm, Marisa; Minisini, Daniel; Ullmann, Clemens V.; Leng, Melanie J.

    2016-12-01

    The Early Jurassic was marked by multiple periods of major global climatic and palaeoceanographic change, biotic turnover and perturbed global geochemical cycles, commonly linked to large igneous province volcanism. This epoch was also characterised by the initial break-up of the super-continent Pangaea and the opening and formation of shallow-marine basins and ocean gateways, the timing of which are poorly constrained. Here, we show that the Pliensbachian Stage and the Sinemurian-Pliensbachian global carbon-cycle perturbation (marked by a negative shift in δ13 C of 2- 4 ‰), have respective durations of ∼8.7 and ∼2 Myr. We astronomically tune the floating Pliensbachian time scale to the 405 Kyr eccentricity solution (La2010d), and propose a revised Early Jurassic time scale with a significantly shortened Sinemurian Stage duration of 6.9 ± 0.4 Myr. When calibrated against the new time scale, the existing Pliensbachian seawater 87Sr/86Sr record shows relatively stable values during the first ∼2 Myr of the Pliensbachian, superimposed on the long-term Early Jurassic decline in 87Sr/86Sr. This plateau in 87Sr/86Sr values coincides with the Sinemurian-Pliensbachian boundary carbon-cycle perturbation. It is possibly linked to a late phase of Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) volcanism that induced enhanced global weathering of continental crustal materials, leading to an elevated radiogenic strontium flux to the global ocean.

  10. The earliest mollusc dominated seep fauna from the Early Jurassic of Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaim, Andrzej; Jenkins, Robert; Parent, Horacio; Garrido, Alberto; Moriya, Kazuhiro

    2015-04-01

    The earliest mollusc dominated seep fauna from the Early Jurassic of Argentina Andrzej Kaim, Robert G. Jenkins, Horacio Parent, Alberto C. Garrido The hydrocarbon seep deposits are known from Early Jurassic of Argentina since the report of Gomez-Perez (2003). The latter author identified very negative δ13C values (down to -33) and several fabrics typical for seep carbonates. Nevertheless she identified no macrofaunal assemblages apart from worm tubes. We re-visited the locality of Gomez-Perez (named here La Elina) and we were able to collect several molluscs associated with the seep carbonate. The most common and diversified are molluscs and worm tubes. We identified at least three species of gastropods, including the oldest-known species of neomphalids, lucinid and protobranch bivalves and numerous ammonoids. Unlike another known Early Jurassic seep from Oregon and the only Late Triassic seep (also from Oregon) there are no brachiopods associated with this seep. Therefore we consider the seep at La Elina as the oldest seep of modern aspect where the fauna is dominated by molluscs and not brachiopods.

  11. New Chironomidae (Diptera) with elongate proboscises from the Late Jurassic of Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Lukashevich, Elena D.; Przhiboro, Andrey A.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Four new species of Chironomidae with well-developed elongate proboscises are described from a Late Jurassic site Shar Teg in SW Mongolia. These are named Cretaenne rasnicyni sp. n., Podonomius blepharis sp. n., Podonomius macromastix sp. n., ?Podonomius robustus sp. n. PMID:22259285

  12. Late Jurassic low latitude of Central Iran: paleogeographic and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattei, Massimo; Muttoni, Giovanni; Cifelli, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    The individual blocks forming present-day Central Iran are now comprised between the Zagros Neo-Tethys suture to the south and the Alborz Palaeo-Tethys suture to the north. At the end of the Palaeozoic, the Iranian blocks rifted away from the northern margin of Gondwana as consequence of the opening of the Neo-Tethys, and collided with Eurasia during the Late Triassic, giving place to the Eo-Cimmerian orogeny. From then on, the Iranian block(s) should have maintained European affinity. Modern generations of apparent polar wander paths (APWPs) show the occurrence in North American and African coordinates of a major and rapid shift in pole position (=plate shift) during the Middle-Late Jurassic. This so-called monster polar shift is predicted also for Eurasia from the North Atlantic plate circuit, but Jurassic data from this continent are scanty and problematic. Here, we present paleomagnetic data from the Kimmeridgian-Tithonian (Upper Jurassic) Garedu Formation of Iran. Paleomagnetic component directions of primary (pre-folding) age indicate a paleolatitude of deposition of 10°N ± 5° that is in excellent agreement with the latitude drop predicted for Iran from APWPs incorporating the Jurassic monster polar shift. We show that paleolatitudes calculated from these APWPs, used in conjunction with simple zonal climate belts, better explain the overall stratigraphic evolution of Iran during the Mesozoic.

  13. Geochemical Astro- and Geochronological Constraints on the Early Jurassic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storm, M.; Condon, D. J.; Ruhl, M.; Jenkyns, H. C.; Hesselbo, S. P.; Al-Suwaidi, A. H.; Percival, L.

    2017-12-01

    The Early Jurassic Hettangian and Sinemurian time scales are poorly defined due to the lack of continuous geochemical records, and the temporal constrain of the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event and associated global carbon cycle perturbation is afflicted by geochemical and biostratigraphical uncertainties of the existing radiometric dates from various volcanic ash bearing sections. Here we present a continuous, orbitally paced Hettangian to Pliensbachian carbon-isotope record of the Mochras drill-core (Cardigan bay Basin, UK). The record generates new insights into the evolution and driving mechanisms of the Early Jurassic carbon cycle, and is contributing to improve the Hettangian and Sinemurian time scale. Furthermore, we introduce a new high-resolution carbon-isotope chemostratigraphy, integrated with ammonite biostratigraphy and new U/Pb single zircon geochronology of the Las Overas section (Neuquén Basin, Argentina). The studied section comprises sediments from the tenuicostatum to Dumortiera Andean Ammonite zone (tenuicostatum to levesqui European standard zones). A stratigraphically expanded negative shift in d13Corg values, from -24‰ down to -32­‰, appears in the tenuicostatum and hoelderi ammonite zone, coeval to the negative excursion in European realm which is associated with the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event. The negative isotope excursion appears concomitant with an increase in sedimentary mercury levels, indicating enhanced volcanic activity. TOC values and elemental data suggest a high sedimentation dilution in the tenuicostatum to pacificum zone. The new geochronological data from several volcanic ash beds throughout the section are further improving the temporal correlation between the Early Toarcian isotope event and causal mechanisms

  14. Middle Jurassic - Early Cretaceous rifting on the Chortis Block in Honduras: Implications for proto-Caribbean opening (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, R. D.; Emmet, P. A.

    2009-12-01

    Regional mapping integrated with facies analysis, age constraints and airborne geophysical data reveal WNW and NE trends of Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous basins which intersect in southeast Honduras that we interpret as the result of rifting associated with the breakup of the Americas and opening of the proto-Caribbean seaway. The WNW-trending rift is 250 km long by 90 km wide and defined by a basal 200 to 800 m thick sequence of Middle to Late Jurassic fluvial channel and overbank deposits overlain by transgressive clastic shelf strata. At least three sub-basins are apparent. Flanking the WNW trending rift basins are fault bounded exposures of the pre-Jurassic continental basement of the Chortis block which is the source of the conglomeratic channel facies that delineate the axes of the rifts. Cretaceous terrigenous strata mantle the exposed basement-cored rift flanks. Lower Cretaceous clastic strata and shallow marine limestone strata are dominant along this trend indicating that post-rift related subsidence continued through the Early Cretaceous. The rifts coincide with a regional high in the total magnetic intensity data. We interpret these trends to reflect NNE-WSW extension active from the Middle Jurassic through Early Cretaceous. These rifts were inverted during Late Cretaceous shortening oriented normal to the rift axes. To the east and at a 120 degree angle to the WNW trending rift is the 300 km long NE trending Guayape fault system that forms the western shoulder of the Late Jurassic Agua Fria rift basin filled by > 2 km thickness of clastic marine shelf and slope strata. This NE trending basin coincides with the eastern extent of the surface exposure of continental basement rocks and a northeast-trending fabric of the Jurassic (?) metasedimentary basement rocks. We have previously interpreted the eastern basin to be the Jurassic rifted margin of the Chortis block with the Guayape originating as a normal fault system. These two rifts basin intersect

  15. Embryology of Early Jurassic dinosaur from China with evidence of preserved organic remains.

    PubMed

    Reisz, Robert R; Huang, Timothy D; Roberts, Eric M; Peng, ShinRung; Sullivan, Corwin; Stein, Koen; LeBlanc, Aaron R H; Shieh, DarBin; Chang, RongSeng; Chiang, ChengCheng; Yang, Chuanwei; Zhong, Shiming

    2013-04-11

    Fossil dinosaur embryos are surprisingly rare, being almost entirely restricted to Upper Cretaceous strata that record the late stages of non-avian dinosaur evolution. Notable exceptions are the oldest known embryos from the Early Jurassic South African sauropodomorph Massospondylus and Late Jurassic embryos of a theropod from Portugal. The fact that dinosaur embryos are rare and typically enclosed in eggshells limits their availability for tissue and cellular level investigations of development. Consequently, little is known about growth patterns in dinosaur embryos, even though post-hatching ontogeny has been studied in several taxa. Here we report the discovery of an embryonic dinosaur bone bed from the Lower Jurassic of China, the oldest such occurrence in the fossil record. The embryos are similar in geological age to those of Massospondylus and are also assignable to a sauropodomorph dinosaur, probably Lufengosaurus. The preservation of numerous disarticulated skeletal elements and eggshells in this monotaxic bone bed, representing different stages of incubation and therefore derived from different nests, provides opportunities for new investigations of dinosaur embryology in a clade noted for gigantism. For example, comparisons among embryonic femora of different sizes and developmental stages reveal a consistently rapid rate of growth throughout development, possibly indicating that short incubation times were characteristic of sauropodomorphs. In addition, asymmetric radial growth of the femoral shaft and rapid expansion of the fourth trochanter suggest that embryonic muscle activation played an important role in the pre-hatching ontogeny of these dinosaurs. This discovery also provides the oldest evidence of in situ preservation of complex organic remains in a terrestrial vertebrate.

  16. A Jurassic avialan dinosaur from China resolves the early phylogenetic history of birds.

    PubMed

    Godefroit, Pascal; Cau, Andrea; Dong-Yu, Hu; Escuillié, François; Wenhao, Wu; Dyke, Gareth

    2013-06-20

    The recent discovery of small paravian theropod dinosaurs with well-preserved feathers in the Middle-Late Jurassic Tiaojishan Formation of Liaoning Province (northeastern China) has challenged the pivotal position of Archaeopteryx, regarded from its discovery to be the most basal bird. Removing Archaeopteryx from the base of Avialae to nest within Deinonychosauria implies that typical bird flight, powered by the forelimbs only, either evolved at least twice, or was subsequently lost or modified in some deinonychosaurians. Here we describe the complete skeleton of a new paravian from the Tiaojishan Formation of Liaoning Province, China. Including this new taxon in a comprehensive phylogenetic analysis for basal Paraves does the following: (1) it recovers it as the basal-most avialan; (2) it confirms the avialan status of Archaeopteryx; (3) it places Troodontidae as the sister-group to Avialae; (4) it supports a single origin of powered flight within Paraves; and (5) it implies that the early diversification of Paraves and Avialae took place in the Middle-Late Jurassic period.

  17. Astronomical Constraints on the Duration of Early Jurassic Stages and Global Carbon Cycle and Climatic Perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruhl, M.; Hesselbo, S. P.; Hinnov, L.; Jenkyns, H. C.; Storm, M.; Xu, W.; Riding, J. B.; Ullmann, C. V.

    2015-12-01

    The Early Jurassic (201.3 to 174.1 Ma) is bracketed by the end-Triassic mass extinction and global warming event, and the Toarcian-Aalenian shift to (global) icehouse conditions (McElwain et al., 1999; Hesselbo et al., 2002; Ruhl et al., 2011; Korte et al., in review). It is further marked by the early Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (T-OAE), with possibly the largest exogenic carbon cycle perturbation of the Mesozoic and related perturbations in global geochemical cycles, climate and the environment, which are linked to large igneous province emplacement in the Karoo-Ferrar region (Jenkyns, 2010; Burgess et al., 2015). Furthermore, Early Jurassic continental rifting and the break-up of Pangaea and subsequent Early Jurassic opening of the Hispanic Corridor and Viking Strait respectively linked the equatorial Tethys Ocean to Eastern Panthalassa and the high-latitude Arctic Boreal realm. This initiated changes in (global) ocean currents and Earth's heat distribution and ultimately was followed by the opening of the proto-North Atlantic (Porter et al., 2013; Korte et al., in review). Here, we present high-resolution (sub-precession scale) elemental concentration data from the Mochras borehole (UK), which represents ~1300m of possibly the most complete and expanded lower Jurassic hemi-pelagic marine sedimentary archive known. We construct a floating ~9 Myr astronomical time-scale for the complete Early Jurassic Pliensbachian stage and biozones. Combined with radiometric and astrochronological constraints on early Jurassic stage boundaries, we construct a new Early Jurassic Time-Scale. With this we assess the duration and rate of change of early Jurassic global carbon cycle and climatic perturbations and we asses fundamental changes in the nature and expression of Early Jurassic long (100 - 1000 kyr) eccentricity cycles.

  18. A Middle Jurassic abelisaurid from Patagonia and the early diversification of theropod dinosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Pol, Diego; Rauhut, Oliver W. M.

    2012-01-01

    Abelisaurids are a clade of large, bizarre predatory dinosaurs, most notable for their high, short skulls and extremely reduced forelimbs. They were common in Gondwana during the Cretaceous, but exceedingly rare in the Northern Hemisphere. The oldest definitive abelisaurids so far come from the late Early Cretaceous of South America and Africa, and the early evolutionary history of the clade is still poorly known. Here, we report a new abelisaurid from the Middle Jurassic of Patagonia, Eoabelisaurus mefi gen. et sp. nov., which predates the so far oldest known secure member of this lineage by more than 40 Myr. The almost complete skeleton reveals the earliest evolutionary stages of the distinctive features of abelisaurids, such as the modification of the forelimb, which started with a reduction of the distal elements. The find underlines the explosive radiation of theropod dinosaurs in the Middle Jurassic and indicates an unexpected diversity of ceratosaurs at that time. The apparent endemism of abelisauroids to southern Gondwana during Pangean times might be due to the presence of a large, central Gondwanan desert. This indicates that, apart from continent-scale geography, aspects such as regional geography and climate are important to reconstruct the biogeographical history of Mesozoic vertebrates. PMID:22628475

  19. A Middle Jurassic abelisaurid from Patagonia and the early diversification of theropod dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Pol, Diego; Rauhut, Oliver W M

    2012-08-22

    Abelisaurids are a clade of large, bizarre predatory dinosaurs, most notable for their high, short skulls and extremely reduced forelimbs. They were common in Gondwana during the Cretaceous, but exceedingly rare in the Northern Hemisphere. The oldest definitive abelisaurids so far come from the late Early Cretaceous of South America and Africa, and the early evolutionary history of the clade is still poorly known. Here, we report a new abelisaurid from the Middle Jurassic of Patagonia, Eoabelisaurus mefi gen. et sp. nov., which predates the so far oldest known secure member of this lineage by more than 40 Myr. The almost complete skeleton reveals the earliest evolutionary stages of the distinctive features of abelisaurids, such as the modification of the forelimb, which started with a reduction of the distal elements. The find underlines the explosive radiation of theropod dinosaurs in the Middle Jurassic and indicates an unexpected diversity of ceratosaurs at that time. The apparent endemism of abelisauroids to southern Gondwana during Pangean times might be due to the presence of a large, central Gondwanan desert. This indicates that, apart from continent-scale geography, aspects such as regional geography and climate are important to reconstruct the biogeographical history of Mesozoic vertebrates.

  20. The Late Jurassic Panjeh submarine volcano in the northern Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone, northwest Iran: Mantle plume or active margin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizi, Hossein; Lucci, Federico; Stern, Robert J.; Hasannejad, Shima; Asahara, Yoshihiro

    2018-05-01

    The tectonic setting in which Jurassic igneous rocks of the Sanandaj-Sirjan Zone (SaSZ) of Iran formed is controversial. SaSZ igneous rocks are mainly intrusive granodiorite to gabbroic bodies, which intrude Early to Middle Jurassic metamorphic basement; Jurassic volcanic rocks are rare. Here, we report the age and petrology of volcanic rocks from the Panjeh basaltic-andesitic rocks complex in the northern SaSZ, southwest of Ghorveh city. The Panjeh magmatic complex consists of pillowed and massive basalts, andesites and microdioritic dykes and is associated with intrusive gabbros; the overall sequence and relations with surrounding sediments indicate that this is an unusually well preserved submarine volcanic complex. Igneous rocks belong to a metaluminous sub-alkaline, medium-K to high-K calc-alkaline mafic suite characterized by moderate Al2O3 (13.7-17.6 wt%) and variable Fe2O3 (6.0-12.6 wt%) and MgO (0.9-11.1 wt%) contents. Zircon U-Pb ages (145-149 Ma) define a Late Jurassic (Tithonian) age for magma crystallization and emplacement. Whole rock compositions are enriched in Th, U and light rare earth elements (LREEs) and are slightly depleted in Nb, Ta and Ti. The initial ratios of 87Sr/86Sr (0.7039-0.7076) and εNd(t) values (-1.8 to +4.3) lie along the mantle array in the field of ocean island basalts and subcontinental metasomatized mantle. Immobile trace element (Ti, V, Zr, Y, Nb, Yb, Th and Co) behavior suggests that the mantle source was enriched by fluids released from a subducting slab (i.e. deep-crustal recycling) with some contribution from continental crust for andesitic rocks. Based the chemical composition of Panjeh mafic and intermediate rocks in combination with data for other gabbroic to dioritic bodies in the Ghorveh area we offer two interpretations for these (and other Jurassic igneous rocks of the SaSZ) as reflecting melts from a) subduction-modified OIB-type source above a Neo-Tethys subduction zone or b) plume or rift tectonics involving

  1. Fish faunas from the Late Jurassic (Tithonian) Vaca Muerta Formation of Argentina: One of the most important Jurassic marine ichthyofaunas of Gondwana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouiric-Cavalli, Soledad; Cione, Alberto Luis

    2015-11-01

    The marine deposits of the Vaca Muerta Formation (Tithonian-Berriasian) houses one of the most diverse Late Jurassic ichthyofaunas of Gondwana. However, most of the specimens remain undescribed. Jurassic fishes have been recovered from several localities at Neuquén Province (i.e., Picún Leufú, Plaza Huincul, Cerro Lotena, Portada Las Lajas, Los Catutos, and Arroyo Covunco) but also from Mendoza Province (i.e., La Valenciana, Los Molles, and Arroyo del Cajón Grande). Presently, the fish fauna of Los Catutos, near Zapala city (Neuquén Province), has yielded the highest number of specimens, which are taxonomically and morphologically diverse. At Los Catutos locality, the Vaca Muerta Formation is represented by the Los Catutos Member, which is considered the only lithographic limestones known in the Southern Hemisphere. Here, we review the Tithonian fish faunas from the Vaca Muerta Formation. During Late Jurassic times, the actual Argentinian territory could have been a morphological diversification center, at least for some actinopterygian groups. The apparently lower species diversity recorded in marine Jurassic ichthyofaunas of Argentina (and some Gondwanan countries) in comparison with Chilean and European fish faunas could be related to the fish paleontological research history in Gondwana and the low number of detailed studies of most of specimens recorded.

  2. An enigmatic plant-eating theropod from the Late Jurassic period of Chile.

    PubMed

    Novas, Fernando E; Salgado, Leonardo; Suárez, Manuel; Agnolín, Federico L; Ezcurra, Martín D; Chimento, Nicolás R; de la Cruz, Rita; Isasi, Marcelo P; Vargas, Alexander O; Rubilar-Rogers, David

    2015-06-18

    Theropod dinosaurs were the dominant predators in most Mesozoic era terrestrial ecosystems. Early theropod evolution is currently interpreted as the diversification of various carnivorous and cursorial taxa, whereas the acquisition of herbivorism, together with the secondary loss of cursorial adaptations, occurred much later among advanced coelurosaurian theropods. A new, bizarre herbivorous basal tetanuran from the Upper Jurassic of Chile challenges this conception. The new dinosaur was discovered at Aysén, a fossil locality in the Upper Jurassic Toqui Formation of southern Chile (General Carrera Lake). The site yielded abundant and exquisitely preserved three-dimensional skeletons of small archosaurs. Several articulated individuals of Chilesaurus at different ontogenetic stages have been collected, as well as less abundant basal crocodyliforms, and fragmentary remains of sauropod dinosaurs (diplodocids and titanosaurians).

  3. Virtual reconstruction of the endocranial anatomy of the early Jurassic marine crocodylomorph Pelagosaurus typus (Thalattosuchia)

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Megan; Benson, Roger B.J.

    2017-01-01

    Thalattosuchians were highly specialised aquatic archosaurs of the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, and represent a peak of aquatic adaptation among crocodylomorphs. Relatively little is known of their endocranial anatomy or its relevance for the evolution of sensory systems, physiology, and other aspects of biology. Nevertheless, such data have significance for two reasons: (1) thalattosuchians represent an important data point regarding adaptation to marine life in tetrapods; and (2) as early-diverging members of the crocodylian stem-lineage, thalattosuchians provide information on the evolutionary assembly of the brain and other endocranial structures in crocodylomorphs. Here we use µCT data to virtually reconstruct the endocranial anatomy of Pelagosaurus typus, an early thalattosuchian with plesiomorphic traits of relevance to the split between the two major subgroups: Teleosauroidea and Metriorhynchoidea. Interpretation of these data in a broad comparative context indicate that several key endocranial features may be unique to thalattosuchians, including: a pyramidal morphology of the semicircular canals, the presence of an elongate endosseous cochlear duct that may indicate enhanced hearing ability, the presence of large, paired canals extending anteriorly from an enlarged pituitary fossa, a relatively straight brain (possibly due to the presence of large, laterally placed orbits), and an enlarged venous sinus projecting dorsally from the endocast that is confluent with the paratympanic sinus system. Notably, we document a large expansion of the nasal cavity anterior to the orbits in Pelagosaurus as an osteological correlate of an enlarged salt gland previously only documented in Late Jurassic metriorhynchoids. This is the first anatomical evidence of this structure in early thalattosuchians. Pelagosaurus also shares the presence of paired olfactory bulbs with metriorhynchoids, and shows an enlarged cerebrum, which may also be present in teleosauroids. Taken

  4. Coupled organic and carbonate δ13C records of the late Triassic and early Jurassic in northern Italy: implications for carbon cycling during the aftermath of the end-Triassic mass extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachan, A.; van de Schootbrugge, B.; Payne, J.

    2011-12-01

    A large protracted positive carbon isotope excursion has been observed in the lowermost Jurassic following the end-Triassic mass extinction. However, the lack of paired records from carbonate rocks (δ13Ccarb) and organic carbon (δ13Corg) and limited biostratigraphic constraints leave open the possibility that variations in δ13Ccarb and δ13Corg are not correlative and do not represent a shift in the δ13C of the global carbon pool. Consequently, the long term carbon cycle behavior following the end-Triassic mass extinction remains incompletely understood. Here we present the first extended, coupled δ13Ccarb and δ13Corg records of the uppermost Triassic and lowermost Jurassic from stratigraphic sections in the Lombardy Basin of northern Italy. The large positive excursion previously observed in the carbonates also occurs in the organics from the same samples, but with a smaller magnitude. Because few post-depositional mechanisms affect the isotopic composition of Ccarb and Corg in similar ways, the correspondence of the two curves presents strong support for a primary origin for the large positive isotopic excursion. The more muted response of the organics is consistent with variation in the fractionation between carbonates and organic carbon, mixing of contemporaneous organic matter with extrabasinal organic carbon of a constant isotopic composition, or some combination of the two. In either case, the occurrence of the positive excursion in multiple locations globally in both carbonates and organic matter is best explained by a change in the isotopic value of the global carbon reservoir. The elevated δ13C values and increased magnitude of the difference between the carbonates and organics is consistent with the predicted biogeochemical consequences of heightened pCO2. The coincidence of the extinction and carbon cycle disturbance with emplacement of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province suggests that volatiles derived from its emplacement were the likely

  5. Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous radiolarian age constraints from the sedimentary cover of the Amasia ophiolite (NW Armenia), at the junction between the Izmir-Ankara-Erzinçan and Sevan-Hakari suture zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danelian, T.; Asatryan, G.; Galoyan, Gh.; Sahakyan, L.; Stepanyan, J.

    2016-01-01

    The Amasia ophiolite, situated at the northernmost corner of Armenia, is part of the Sevan-Hakari suture zone which links with the Izmir-Ankara-Erzinçan suture zone in northern Turkey. Three new radiolarian assemblages have been extracted from siliceous sedimentary rocks that accumulated on the Amasia ophiolite in an oceanic setting. Two of these assemblages were extracted from red-brownish bedded cherts overlying basaltic lavas; one of these is likely to be middle Oxfordian to early Kimmeridgian in age, while the second correlates with the Berriasian. Similar time-equivalent lava-chert sequences have been dated recently using radiolarians from the Stepanavan, Vedi and Sevan ophiolite units, where they are considered to relate to submarine volcanic activity in the back-arc marginal basin in which the Armenian ophiolites were formed. The third radiolarian assemblage, of late Barremian age, was extracted from a more than 15-m-thick volcaniclastic-chert sequence. The related volcanic activity is likely to have been subaerial and probably relates to the formation of an oceanic volcanic plateau; no Cretaceous subaerial volcanism has been previously recorded in the Lesser Caucasus area.

  6. Warm Middle Jurassic-Early Cretaceous high-latitude sea-surface temperatures from the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkyns, H. C.; Schouten-Huibers, L.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.

    2012-02-01

    Although a division of the Phanerozoic climatic modes of the Earth into "greenhouse" and "icehouse" phases is widely accepted, whether or not polar ice developed during the relatively warm Jurassic and Cretaceous Periods is still under debate. In particular, there is a range of isotopic and biotic evidence that favours the concept of discrete "cold snaps", marked particularly by migration of certain biota towards lower latitudes. Extension of the use of the palaeotemperature proxy TEX86 back to the Middle Jurassic indicates that relatively warm sea-surface conditions (26-30 °C) existed from this interval (∼160 Ma) to the Early Cretaceous (∼115 Ma) in the Southern Ocean, with a general warming trend through the Late Jurassic followed by a general cooling trend through the Early Cretaceous. The lowest sea-surface temperatures are recorded from around the Callovian-Oxfordian boundary, an interval identified in Europe as relatively cool, but do not fall below 25 °C. The early Aptian Oceanic Anoxic Event, identified on the basis of published biostratigraphy, total organic carbon and carbon-isotope stratigraphy, records an interval with the lowest, albeit fluctuating Early Cretaceous palaeotemperatures (∼26 °C), recalling similar phenomena recorded from Europe and the tropical Pacific Ocean. Extant belemnite δ18O data, assuming an isotopic composition of waters inhabited by these fossils of -1‰ SMOW, give palaeotemperatures throughout the Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous interval that are consistently lower by ∼14 °C than does TEX86 and the molluscs likely record conditions below the thermocline. The long-term, warm climatic conditions indicated by the TEX86 data would only be compatible with the existence of continental ice if appreciable areas of high altitude existed on Antarctica, and/or in other polar regions, during the Mesozoic Era.

  7. Geophysical Evidence for a Possible Late Jurassic Mantle Plume in the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, D. E.; Hall, S. A.; Casey, J. F.; Burke, K.

    2001-12-01

    Gravity, magnetic and seismic refraction data reveal a prominent basement structure beneath the Keathley Canyon area of the western Gulf of Mexico. Several seismic refraction profiles acquired near and over the structure indicate depths to its crest range from 10.5 to 12 km, rising from basement depths of 14 to 16 km below sea level. Because of the presence of extensive salt features, seismic reflection data are unable to accurately image the structure but several reflection profiles indicate the existence of a basement high in the area. A positive free-air gravity anomaly associated with this basement structure extends 200 km from 93.9o W, 26.4o N along a roughly WNW-ESE directed path to 91.7o W, 25.9o N where it turns northeastward. Bathymetric and seismic reflection data indicate the gravity anomaly is not produced by seafloor topography or shallow sedimentary sources, but can be attributed to the basement relief documented. Its amplitude and wavelength decrease to the ESE, from 70 mGal and 100 km wavelength to 35 mGal and 40 km wavelength. A positive magnetic anomaly with a 130 nT amplitude and 30 km wavelength coincides with the WNW end of the free air gravity anomaly. It extends to the ESE in a similar manner to the gravity anomaly, but its amplitude decays more rapidly. Most models for the formation of the Gulf of Mexico basin culminate in a late Jurassic-early Cretaceous phase of seafloor spreading as the Yucatan Block rotates counterclockwise away from North America. The shape of the free air gravity anomaly over the deep basement structure defines a geometry that is similar to those produced by other hotspot tracks, such as the New England Seamounts, Rio Grande Rise or Vitoria-Trindade seamount chain. The WNW-ESE direction is broadly consistent with motion of North America in the hotspot reference frame at the time of basin formation. Such an interpretation suggests that a minor mantle plume may have been active during spreading and played a significant

  8. A revision of Sanpasaurus yaoi Young, 1944 from the Early Jurassic of China, and its relevance to the early evolution of Sauropoda (Dinosauria)

    PubMed Central

    Upchurch, Paul; Mannion, Philip D.; Sullivan, Corwin; Butler, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    The Early Jurassic of China has long been recognized for its diverse array of sauropodomorph dinosaurs. However, the contribution of this record to our understanding of early sauropod evolution is complicated by a dearth of information on important transitional taxa. We present a revision of the poorly known taxon Sanpasaurus yaoi Young, 1944 from the late Early Jurassic Ziliujing Formation of Sichuan Province, southwest China. Initially described as the remains of an ornithopod ornithischian, we demonstrate that the material catalogued as IVPP V156 is unambiguously referable to Sauropoda. Although represented by multiple individuals of equivocal association, Sanpasaurus is nonetheless diagnosable with respect to an autapomorphic feature of the holotypic dorsal vertebral series. Additional material thought to be collected from the type locality is tentatively referred to Sanpasaurus. If correctly attributed, a second autapomorphy is present in a referred humerus. The presence of a dorsoventrally compressed pedal ungual in Sanpasaurus is of particular interest, with taxa possessing this typically ‘vulcanodontid’ character exhibiting a much broader geographic distribution than previously thought. Furthermore, the association of this trait with other features of Sanpasaurus that are broadly characteristic of basal eusauropods underscores the mosaic nature of the early sauropod–eusauropod transition. Our revision of Sanpasaurus has palaeobiogeographic implications for Early Jurassic sauropods, with evidence that the group maintained a cosmopolitan Pangaean distribution. PMID:27781168

  9. Multivariate and Cladistic Analyses of Isolated Teeth Reveal Sympatry of Theropod Dinosaurs in the Late Jurassic of Northern Germany.

    PubMed

    Gerke, Oliver; Wings, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Remains of theropod dinosaurs are very rare in Northern Germany because the area was repeatedly submerged by a shallow epicontinental sea during the Mesozoic. Here, 80 Late Jurassic theropod teeth are described of which the majority were collected over decades from marine carbonates in nowadays abandoned and backfilled quarries of the 19th century. Eighteen different morphotypes (A-R) could be distinguished and 3D models based on micro-CT scans of the best examples of all morphotypes are included as supplements. The teeth were identified with the assistance of discriminant function analysis and cladistic analysis based on updated datamatrices. The results show that a large variety of theropod groups were present in the Late Jurassic of northern Germany. Identified specimens comprise basal Tyrannosauroidea, as well as Allosauroidea, Megalosauroidea cf. Marshosaurus, Megalosauridae cf. Torvosaurus and probably Ceratosauria. The formerly reported presence of Dromaeosauridae in the Late Jurassic of northern Germany could not be confirmed. Some teeth of this study resemble specimens described as pertaining to Carcharodontosauria (morphotype A) and Abelisauridae (morphotype K). This interpretation is however, not supported by discriminant function analysis and cladistic analysis. Two smaller morphotypes (N and Q) differ only in some probably size-related characteristics from larger morphotypes (B and C) and could well represent juveniles of adult specimens. The similarity of the northern German theropods with groups from contemporaneous localities suggests faunal exchange via land-connections in the Late Jurassic between Germany, Portugal and North America.

  10. The Late Jurassic Pterosaur Rhamphorhynchus, a Frequent Victim of the Ganoid Fish Aspidorhynchus?

    PubMed Central

    Frey, Eberhard; Tischlinger, Helmut

    2012-01-01

    Associations of large vertebrates are exceedingly rare in the Late Jurassic Solnhofen Limestone of Bavaria, Southern Germany. However, there are five specimens of medium-sized pterosaur Rhamphorhynchus that lie adjacent to the rostrum of a large individual of the ganoid fish Aspidorhynchus. In one of these, a small leptolepidid fish is still sticking in the esophagus of the pterosaur and its stomach is full of fish debris. This suggests that the Rhamphorhynchus was seized during or immediately after a successful hunt. According to the fossil record, Rhamphorhynchus frequently were accidentally seized by large Aspidorhnychus. In some cases the fibrous tissue of the wing membrane got entangled with the rostral teeth such that the fish was unable to get rid of the pterosaur. Such encounters ended fatally for both. Intestinal contents of Aspidorhynchus-type fishes are known and mostly comprise fishes and in one single case a Homoeosaurus. Obviously Rhamphorhynchus did not belong to the prey spectrum of Aspidorhynchus. PMID:22412850

  11. Megalosauripus transjuranicus ichnosp. nov. A new Late Jurassic theropod ichnotaxon from NW Switzerland and implications for tridactyl dinosaur ichnology and ichnotaxomy.

    PubMed

    Razzolini, Novella L; Belvedere, Matteo; Marty, Daniel; Paratte, Géraldine; Lovis, Christel; Cattin, Marielle; Meyer, Christian A

    2017-01-01

    A new ichnospecies of a large theropod dinosaur, Megalosauripus transjuranicus, is described from the Reuchenette Formation (Early-Late Kimmeridgian, Late Jurassic) of NW Switzerland. It is based on very well-preserved and morphologically-distinct tracks (impressions) and several trackways, including different preservational types from different tracksites and horizons. All trackways were excavated along federal Highway A16 near Courtedoux (Canton Jura) and systematically documented in the field including orthophotos and laserscans. The best-preserved tracks were recovered and additional tracks were casted. Megalosauripus transjuranicus is characterized by tridactyl tracks with clear claw and digital pad impressions, and notably an exceptionally large and round first phalangeal pad on the fourth digit (PIV1) that is connected to digit IV and forms the round heel area. Due to this combination of features, M. transjuranicus clearly is of theropod (and not ornithopod) origin. M. transjuranicus is compared to other Megalosauripus tracks and similar ichnotaxa and other unassigned tracks from the Early Jurassic to Early Cretaceous. It is clearly different from other ichnogenera assigned to large theropods such as Eubrontes-Grallator from the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic or Megalosauripus-Megalosauropus-Bueckeburgichnus and Therangospodus tracks from the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. A second tridactyl morphotype (called Morphotype II) is different from Megalosauripus transjuranicus in being subsymmetric, longer than wide (sometimes almost as wide as long), with blunt toe impressions and no evidence for discrete phalangeal pad and claw marks. Some Morphotype II tracks are found in trackways that are assigned to M. transjuranicus, to M.? transjuranicus or M. cf. transjuranicus indicating that some Morphotype II tracks are intra-trackway preservational variants of a morphological continuum of Megalosauripus transjuranicus. On the other hand, several up to 40 steps

  12. A New Basal Sauropod Dinosaur from the Middle Jurassic of Niger and the Early Evolution of Sauropoda

    PubMed Central

    Remes, Kristian; Ortega, Francisco; Fierro, Ignacio; Joger, Ulrich; Kosma, Ralf; Marín Ferrer, José Manuel; Ide, Oumarou Amadou; Maga, Abdoulaye

    2009-01-01

    Background The early evolution of sauropod dinosaurs is poorly understood because of a highly incomplete fossil record. New discoveries of Early and Middle Jurassic sauropods have a great potential to lead to a better understanding of early sauropod evolution and to reevaluate the patterns of sauropod diversification. Principal Findings A new sauropod from the Middle Jurassic of Niger, Spinophorosaurus nigerensis n. gen. et sp., is the most complete basal sauropod currently known. The taxon shares many anatomical characters with Middle Jurassic East Asian sauropods, while it is strongly dissimilar to Lower and Middle Jurassic South American and Indian forms. A possible explanation for this pattern is a separation of Laurasian and South Gondwanan Middle Jurassic sauropod faunas by geographic barriers. Integration of phylogenetic analyses and paleogeographic data reveals congruence between early sauropod evolution and hypotheses about Jurassic paleoclimate and phytogeography. Conclusions Spinophorosaurus demonstrates that many putatively derived characters of Middle Jurassic East Asian sauropods are plesiomorphic for eusauropods, while South Gondwanan eusauropods may represent a specialized line. The anatomy of Spinophorosaurus indicates that key innovations in Jurassic sauropod evolution might have taken place in North Africa, an area close to the equator with summer-wet climate at that time. Jurassic climatic zones and phytogeography possibly controlled early sauropod diversification. PMID:19756139

  13. Early Jurassic diversification of pycnodontiform fishes (Actinopterygii, Neopterygii) after the end-Triassic extinction event: evidence from a new genus and species, Grimmenodon aureum

    PubMed Central

    Stumpf, Sebastian; Ansorge, Jörg; Pfaff, Cathrin; Kriwet, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT A new genus and species of pycnodontiform fishes, Grimmenodon aureum, from marginal marine, marine-brackish lower Toarcian (Harpoceras exaratum ammonite subzone) clay deposits of Grimmen in northeastern Germany is described. The single specimen represents a diagnostic left prearticular dentition characterized by unique tooth arrangement and ornamentation patterns. Grimmenodon aureum, gen. et sp. nov., is the second unambiguously identified pycnodontiform species from the Early Jurassic, in addition to Eomesodon liassicus from the early Lower Jurassic of western Europe. We also report an indeterminate pycnodontiform tooth crown from the upper Pliensbachian (Pleuroceras apyrenum ammonite subzone) of the same site. The material expands the Early Jurassic range of pycnodontiforms significantly northwards and confirms their presence before and immediately following the onset of the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (T-OAE) in the marginal marine ecosystems south of the Fennoscandian Shield. Moreover, the new records indicate that the Early Jurassic diversity of pycnodontiform fishes was greater than previously assumed and probably equaled that of the Late Triassic. Therefore, it is hypothesized that the Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction event did not affect pycnodontiform fishes significantly. Micro-computed tomography was used to study the internal anatomy of the prearticular of Grimmenodon aureum, gen. et sp. nov. Our results show that no replacement teeth were formed within the tooth-bearing bone but rather were added posteriorly to functional teeth. http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:A56BDE9C-40C4-4CFA-9C2E-F5FA35A66F2 Citation for this article: Stumpf, S., J. Ansorge, C. Pfaff, and J. Kriwet. 2017. Early Jurassic diversification of pycnodontiform fishes (Actinopterygii, Neopterygii) after the end-Triassic extinction event: Evidence from a new genus and species, Grimmenodon aureum. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. DOI: 10

  14. Early Jurassic diversification of pycnodontiform fishes (Actinopterygii, Neopterygii) after the end-Triassic extinction event: evidence from a new genus and species, Grimmenodon aureum.

    PubMed

    Stumpf, Sebastian; Ansorge, Jörg; Pfaff, Cathrin; Kriwet, Jürgen

    2017-07-04

    A new genus and species of pycnodontiform fishes, Grimmenodon aureum , from marginal marine, marine-brackish lower Toarcian ( Harpoceras exaratum ammonite subzone) clay deposits of Grimmen in northeastern Germany is described. The single specimen represents a diagnostic left prearticular dentition characterized by unique tooth arrangement and ornamentation patterns. Grimmenodon aureum , gen. et sp. nov., is the second unambiguously identified pycnodontiform species from the Early Jurassic, in addition to Eomesodon liassicus from the early Lower Jurassic of western Europe. We also report an indeterminate pycnodontiform tooth crown from the upper Pliensbachian ( Pleuroceras apyrenum ammonite subzone) of the same site. The material expands the Early Jurassic range of pycnodontiforms significantly northwards and confirms their presence before and immediately following the onset of the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (T-OAE) in the marginal marine ecosystems south of the Fennoscandian Shield. Moreover, the new records indicate that the Early Jurassic diversity of pycnodontiform fishes was greater than previously assumed and probably equaled that of the Late Triassic. Therefore, it is hypothesized that the Triassic-Jurassic mass extinction event did not affect pycnodontiform fishes significantly. Micro-computed tomography was used to study the internal anatomy of the prearticular of Grimmenodon aureum , gen. et sp. nov. Our results show that no replacement teeth were formed within the tooth-bearing bone but rather were added posteriorly to functional teeth. http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:A56BDE9C-40C4-4CFA-9C2E-F5FA35A66F2 Citation for this article: Stumpf, S., J. Ansorge, C. Pfaff, and J. Kriwet. 2017. Early Jurassic diversification of pycnodontiform fishes (Actinopterygii, Neopterygii) after the end-Triassic extinction event: Evidence from a new genus and species, Grimmenodon aureum . Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. DOI: 10.1080/02724634.2017.1344679.

  15. Megalosauripus transjuranicus ichnosp. nov. A new Late Jurassic theropod ichnotaxon from NW Switzerland and implications for tridactyl dinosaur ichnology and ichnotaxomy

    PubMed Central

    Razzolini, Novella L.; Belvedere, Matteo; Marty, Daniel; Paratte, Géraldine; Lovis, Christel; Cattin, Marielle; Meyer, Christian A.

    2017-01-01

    A new ichnospecies of a large theropod dinosaur, Megalosauripus transjuranicus, is described from the Reuchenette Formation (Early–Late Kimmeridgian, Late Jurassic) of NW Switzerland. It is based on very well-preserved and morphologically-distinct tracks (impressions) and several trackways, including different preservational types from different tracksites and horizons. All trackways were excavated along federal Highway A16 near Courtedoux (Canton Jura) and systematically documented in the field including orthophotos and laserscans. The best-preserved tracks were recovered and additional tracks were casted. Megalosauripus transjuranicus is characterized by tridactyl tracks with clear claw and digital pad impressions, and notably an exceptionally large and round first phalangeal pad on the fourth digit (PIV1) that is connected to digit IV and forms the round heel area. Due to this combination of features, M. transjuranicus clearly is of theropod (and not ornithopod) origin. M. transjuranicus is compared to other Megalosauripus tracks and similar ichnotaxa and other unassigned tracks from the Early Jurassic to Early Cretaceous. It is clearly different from other ichnogenera assigned to large theropods such as Eubrontes–Grallator from the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic or Megalosauripus–Megalosauropus–Bueckeburgichnus and Therangospodus tracks from the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. A second tridactyl morphotype (called Morphotype II) is different from Megalosauripus transjuranicus in being subsymmetric, longer than wide (sometimes almost as wide as long), with blunt toe impressions and no evidence for discrete phalangeal pad and claw marks. Some Morphotype II tracks are found in trackways that are assigned to M. transjuranicus, to M.? transjuranicus or M. cf. transjuranicus indicating that some Morphotype II tracks are intra-trackway preservational variants of a morphological continuum of Megalosauripus transjuranicus. On the other hand, several up to

  16. Extensive Gravity Sliding of Late Jurassic-Cretaceous Age along the Northern Yucatan Margin of the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steier, A.; Mann, P.

    2017-12-01

    Gravity slides on salt or shale detachment surfaces linking updip extension with down dip compression have been described from several margins of the Gulf of Mexico (GOM). In a region 250 km offshore from the southwestern coast of Florida, the late Jurassic section near Destin Dome and Desoto Canyon has undergone late Jurassic to Cretaceous gravity sliding and downdip dispersion of rigid blocks along the top of the underlying Louann salt. Yet there has been no previous study of similar structural styles on the slope and deep basin of its late Jurassic conjugate margin located 200 km offshore of the northern margin of the Yucatan Peninsula. This study describes an extensive area of Mesozoic gravity sliding from the northern Yucatan slope using a grid of 2D seismic data covering a 134,000 km2 area of the northern Yucatan margin tied to nine wells. These data allow the northern Yucatan margin to be divided into three slope and basinal provinces: 1) a 225 km length of the northeastern margin consisting of late Jurassic-Cretaceous section that is not underlain by salt, exhibits no gravity sliding features, and has sub-horizontal dips; 2) a 120 km length of the north-central Yucatan margin with gravity slide features characterized by an 80-km-wide updip zone of normal faults occupying the shelf edge and upper slope and a 50-km-wide downdip zone of folds and thrust faults at the base of the slope; the slide area exhibits multiple detached slide blocks composed of late Jurassic sandstones and marine mudstones separated by intervening salt rollers; growth wedges adjacent to listric, normal faults suggest a gradual and long-lived downdip motion of rigid fault blocks throughout much of the late Jurassic and Cretaceous rather than a catastrophic and instantaneous collapse of the shelf edge; the basal, normal detachment fault averages 3° in dip and is overlain by salt that varies from 0-500 ms in time thickness; by the end of the Cretaceous, most gravity sliding and vertical

  17. Lowland-upland migration of sauropod dinosaurs during the Late Jurassic epoch.

    PubMed

    Fricke, Henry C; Hencecroth, Justin; Hoerner, Marie E

    2011-10-26

    Sauropod dinosaurs were the largest vertebrates ever to walk the Earth, and as mega-herbivores they were important parts of terrestrial ecosystems. In the Late Jurassic-aged Morrison depositional basin of western North America, these animals occupied lowland river-floodplain settings characterized by a seasonally dry climate. Massive herbivores with high nutritional and water needs could periodically experience nutritional and water stress under these conditions, and thus the common occurrence of sauropods in this basin has remained a paradox. Energetic arguments and mammalian analogues have been used to suggest that migration allowed sauropods access to food and water resources over a wide region or during times of drought or both, but there has been no direct support for these hypotheses. Here we compare oxygen isotope ratios (δ(18)O) of tooth-enamel carbonate from the sauropod Camarasaurus with those of ancient soil, lake and wetland (that is, 'authigenic') carbonates that formed in lowland settings. We demonstrate that certain populations of these animals did in fact undertake seasonal migrations of several hundred kilometres from lowland to upland environments. This ability to describe patterns of sauropod movement will help to elucidate the role that migration played in the ecology and evolution of gigantism of these and associated dinosaurs.

  18. Petrogenesis and tectonic implications of an Early Jurassic magmatic arc from South to East China Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Xu, C.

    2017-12-01

    Granite and diorite samples by drilling in northeastern South China Sea (SCS) and southwestern East China Sea (ECS) contribute key information to understanding tectonic regime of South China Block in Jurassic time. SIMS and LA-ICPMS U-Pb zircon analyses yield ages ranging from 195±2 Ma to 198±1 Ma for samples from well LF3511 in SCS, and an age of 187±1 Ma for the sample from well ESC635 in ECS. They are low temperature I-type granitoids with strongly enriched fluid-mobile elements and depleted Nb-Ta features, indicating subduction arc-related magmatism in their origin. Sr-Nd isotopic compositions for samples from SCS ((87Sr/86Sr)i=0.705494-0.706623, ɛNdt=-0.9 to +2.2) and sample from ECS ((87Sr/86Sr)i=0.705200, ɛNdt=1.1) suggest an affinity with evolved mantle-derived melts. The granitoids found from NE SCS, SE Taiwan to the SW ECS could spatially define an Early Jurassic NE-SW-trending Dongsha-Talun-Yandang low-temperature magmatic arc zone along the East Asian continental margin, paired with Jurassic accretionary complexes exposed in SW Japan, E Taiwan to the W Philippines. Its geodynamic context is associated with oblique subduction of the paleo-Pacific slab beneath Eurasia, as a mechanism responsible for early Jurassic lithospheric extension with magmatism in the South China Block.

  19. Jurassic cooling ages in Paleozoic to early Mesozoic granitoids of northeastern Patagonia: 40Ar/39Ar, 40K-40Ar mica and U-Pb zircon evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez Dopico, Carmen I.; Tohver, Eric; López de Luchi, Mónica G.; Wemmer, Klaus; Rapalini, Augusto E.; Cawood, Peter A.

    2017-10-01

    U-Pb SHRIMP zircon crystallization ages and Ar-Ar and K-Ar mica cooling ages for basement rocks of the Yaminué and Nahuel Niyeu areas in northeastern Patagonia are presented. Granitoids that cover the time span from Ordovician to Early Triassic constitute the main outcrops of the western sector of the Yaminué block. The southern Yaminué Metaigneous Complex comprises highly deformed Ordovician and Permian granitoids crosscut by undeformed leucogranite dikes (U-Pb SHRIMP zircon age of 254 ± 2 Ma). Mica separates from highly deformed granitoids from the southern sector yielded an Ar-Ar muscovite age of 182 ± 3 Ma and a K-Ar biotite age of 186 ± 2 Ma. Moderately to highly deformed Permian to Early Triassic granitoids made up the northern Yaminué Complex. The Late Permian to Early Triassic (U-Pb SHRIMP zircon age of 252 ± 6 Ma) Cabeza de Vaca Granite of the Yaminué block yielded Jurassic mica K-Ar cooling ages (198 ± 2, 191 ± 1, and 190 ± 2 Ma). At the boundary between the Yaminué and Nahuel Niyeu blocks, K-Ar muscovite ages of 188 ± 3 and 193 ± 5 Ma were calculated for the Flores Granite, whereas the Early Permian Navarrete granodiorite, located in the Nahuel Niyeu block, yielded a K-Ar biotite age of 274 ± 4 Ma. The Jurassic thermal history is not regionally uniform. In the supracrustal exposures of the Nahuel Niyeu block, the Early Permian granitoids of its western sector as well as other Permian plutons and Ordovician leucogranites located further east show no evidence of cooling age reset since mica ages suggest cooling in the wake of crystallization of these intrusive rocks. In contrast, deeper crustal levels are inferred for Permian-Early Triassic granitoids in the Yaminué block since cooling ages for these rocks are of Jurassic age (198-182 Ma). Jurassic resetting is contemporaneous with the massive Lower Jurassic Flores Granite, and the Marifil and Chon Aike volcanic provinces. This intraplate deformational pulse that affected northeastern

  20. Early and Late Retirement Exits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brougham, Ruby R.; Walsh, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The current study proposes that personal need fulfillment (relatedness, generativity, identity, growth, and finances) predicts early and late retirement intentions. The personal needs of 160 full-time older employees were measured by personal goals, job satisfactions, job characteristics, and intrinsic motivation. Results suggest that the personal…

  1. Early to middle Jurassic salt in Baltimore Canyon trough

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKinney, B. Ann; Lee, Myung W.; Agena, Warren F.; Poag, C. Wylie

    2005-01-01

    A pervasive, moderately deep (5-6 s two-way traveltime), high-amplitude reflection is traced on multichannel seismic sections over an approximately 7500 km² area of Baltimore Canyon Trough. The layer associated with the reflection is about 25 km wide, about 60 m thick in the center, and thins monotonically laterally, though asymmetrically, at the edges. Geophysical characteristics are compatible with an interpretation of this negative-polarity reflector as a salt lens deposited on the top of a synrift evaporite sequence. However, alternative interpretations of the layer as gas-saturated sediments, an overpressured shale, or a weathered igneous intrusion are also worthy of consideration.Geophysical analyses were made on three wavelet- and true-amplitude processed multichannel seismic dip lines. The lens-shaped layer demarked by the reflection has a velocity of 4.4 km/s; the lens lies within strata having velocities of 5.3 to 5.7 km/s. A trough marking the onset of the lens has an amplitude that is 10 to 20 db greater than reflections from the encasing layers and an apparent reflection coefficient of -0.24. Using amplitude versus offset analysis methods, we determined that observed reflection coefficients, though variable, decrease consistently with respect to increasing offset. Linear inversion yields a low density, about 2.2 g/cc. Integration of one of the true-amplitude-processed lines and one-dimensional modeling of the layer provide data on the impedance contrast and interference patterns that further reinforce the salt lens interpretation.The thin, horizontal salt lens was probably deposited or precipitated during the Jurassic in a shallow, narrow (peripheral) rift basin, as rifting progressed down the North Atlantic margin. Unlike thicker deposits in other areas that deformed and flowed, often into diapir structures, this thin lens has remained relatively undisturbed since deposition.

  2. Strontium and carbon isotope stratigraphy of the Late Jurassic shallow marine limestone in western Palaeo-Pacific, northwest Borneo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakizaki, Yoshihiro; Weissert, Helmut; Hasegawa, Takashi; Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi; Matsuoka, Jun; Kano, Akihiro

    2013-09-01

    Strontium and carbon isotope stratigraphy was applied to a 202 m-thick shallow marine carbonate section within the Late Jurassic Bau Limestone at the SSF quarry in northwest Borneo, Malaysia, which was deposited in the western Palaeo-Pacific. Strontium isotopic ratios of rudist specimens suggest that the SSF section was formed between the latest Oxfordian (155.95 Ma) and the Late Kimmeridgian (152.70 Ma), which is consistent with previous biostratigraphy. The δ13Ccarb values of bulk carbonate range from -0.10 to +2.28‰ and generally show an increasing upward trend in the lower part of the section and a decreasing upward trend in the upper part of the section. A comparable pattern is preserved in the δ13Corg isotope record. Limestone samples of the SSF section mainly preserve the initial δ13Ccarb values, except for the interval 84-92 m, where an apparent negative anomaly likely developed as a result of meteoric diagenesis. Comparing with the Tethyan δ13Ccarb profile, a negative anomaly in the lower SSF section can be correlated with the lowered δ13C values around the Oxfordian/Kimmeridgian boundary. In addition, δ13Ccarb values of the Bau Limestone are generally ∼1‰ lower than the Tethyan values, but comparable with the values reported from Scotland and Russia, located in Boreal realm during the Late Jurassic. This suggests that either the Tethyan record or the other records have been affected by the δ13C values of regionally variable dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). The Late Jurassic δ13CDIC values are thought to have been regionally variable as a result of their palaeoceanographic settings. This study shows that δ13C chemostratigraphy of the Palaeo-Pacific region contributes to an improved understanding of global carbon cycling and oceanography during this time period.

  3. Early and late retirement exits.

    PubMed

    Brougham, Ruby R; Walsh, David A

    2009-01-01

    The current study proposes that personal need fulfillment (relatedness, generativity, identity, growth, and finances) predicts early and late retirement intentions. The personal needs of 160 full-time older employees were measured by personal goals, job satisfactions, job characteristics, and intrinsic motivation. Results suggest that the personal needs fulfilled by job employment remain important in retirement. The expectation for personal need fulfillment for identity, growth, and relatedness shifts from work to retirement for those who intend to retire early. The results are discussed in terms of the need for greater study of the relationship between expectations of personal need fulfillment, worker self-concept, and retirement decisions.

  4. A new basal galeomorph shark (Synechodontiformes, Neoselachii) from the Early Jurassic of Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klug, Stefanie; Kriwet, Jürgen

    2008-05-01

    Palaeospinacids are a group of basal galeomorph sharks and are placed in the order Synechodontiformes (Chondrichthyes, Neoselachii) ranging from the Permian to the Eocene. Currently, there is a controversy concerning the identity of diagnostic characters for distinguishing palaeospinacid genera because of very similar dental morphologies and the scarcity of articulated skeletal material. The most notable character for distinguishing species within the Palaeospinacidae is, however, the dental morphology. The main dental character uniting all palaeospinacids is the very specialised pseudopolyaulacorhize root vascularisation. A re-examination of articulated neoselachian skeletons from the Lower Jurassic of Lyme Regis (England) and Holzmaden (S Germany), and recently discovered specimens from the Upper Jurassic of the Solnhofen area and Nusplingen (S Germany) has yielded several hitherto unrecognised complete skeletons of the palaeospinacids Synechodus and Paraorthacodus enabling a re-evaluation of characters. These specimens indicate that the number of dorsal fins and the presence or absence of dorsal fin spines represent important features for identifying palaeospinacids. Synechodus bears two dorsal fins without fin spines, whereas Paraorthacodus only has a single dorsal fin lacking a fin spine directly in front of the caudal fin. All palaeospinacids from the Early Jurassic have two spines supporting the dorsal fins and are consequently assigned to a new genus, Palidiplospinax nov. gen. Three species are placed into the new taxon: Synechodus enniskilleni, S. occultidens and S. smithwoodwardi.

  5. A new rhynchocephalian from the late jurassic of Germany with a dentition that is unique amongst tetrapods.

    PubMed

    Rauhut, Oliver W M; Heyng, Alexander M; López-Arbarello, Adriana; Hecker, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Rhynchocephalians, the sister group of squamates (lizards and snakes), are only represented by the single genus Sphenodon today. This taxon is often considered to represent a very conservative lineage. However, rhynchocephalians were common during the late Triassic to latest Jurassic periods, but rapidly declined afterwards, which is generally attributed to their supposedly adaptive inferiority to squamates and/or Mesozoic mammals, which radiated at that time. New finds of Mesozoic rhynchocephalians can thus provide important new information on the evolutionary history of the group. A new fossil relative of Sphenodon from the latest Jurassic of southern Germany, Oenosaurus muehlheimensis gen. et sp. nov., presents a dentition that is unique amongst tetrapods. The dentition of this taxon consists of massive, continuously growing tooth plates, probably indicating a crushing dentition, thus representing a previously unknown trophic adaptation in rhynchocephalians. The evolution of the extraordinary dentition of Oenosaurus from the already highly specialized Zahnanlage generally present in derived rhynchocephalians demonstrates an unexpected evolutionary plasticity of these animals. Together with other lines of evidence, this seriously casts doubts on the assumption that rhynchocephalians are a conservative and adaptively inferior lineage. Furthermore, the new taxon underlines the high morphological and ecological diversity of rhynchocephalians in the latest Jurassic of Europe, just before the decline of this lineage on this continent. Thus, selection pressure by radiating squamates or Mesozoic mammals alone might not be sufficient to explain the demise of the clade in the Late Mesozoic, and climate change in the course of the fragmentation of the supercontinent of Pangaea might have played a major role.

  6. Kinematic reconstruction of the Caribbean region since the Early Jurassic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochman, Lydian; van Hinsbergen, Douwe; Torsvik, Trond; Spakman, Wim; Pindell, James

    2014-05-01

    The Caribbean region results from a complex tectonic history governed by the interplay of the North American, South American and (Paleo-)Pacific plates, between which the Caribbean plate evolved since the early Cretaceous. During its entire tectonic evolution, the Caribbean plate was largely surrounded by subduction and transform boundaries, which hampers a quantitative integration into the global circuit of plate motions. In addition, reconstructions of the region have so far not resulted in a first order kinematic description of the main tectonic units in terms of Euler poles and finite rotation angles. Here, we present an updated, quantitatively described kinematic reconstruction of the Caribbean region back to 200 Ma integrated into the global plate circuit, and implemented with GPlates free software. Our analysis of Caribbean tectonic evolution incorporates an extensive literature review. To constrain the Caribbean plate motion between the American continents, we use a novel approach that takes structural geological observations rather than marine magnetic anomalies as prime input, and uses regionally extensive metamorphic and magmatic phenomena such as the Great Arc of the Caribbean, the Caribbean Large Igneous Province (CLIP) and the Caribbean high-pressure belt as correlation markers. The resulting model restores the Caribbean plate back along the Cayman Trough and major strike-slip faults in Guatemala, offshore Nicaragua, offshore Belize and along the Northern Andes towards its position of origin, west of the North and South American continents in early Cretaceous time. We provide the paleomagnetic reference frame for the Caribbean region by rotating the Global Apparent Polar Wander Path into coordinates of the Caribbean plate interior, Cuba, and the Chortis Block. We conclude that a plate kinematic scenario for a Panthalassa/Pacific origin of Caribbean lithosphere leads to a much simpler explanation than a Proto-Caribbean/Atlantic origin. Placing our

  7. Fauna and Predator-Prey Relationships of Ettling, an Actinopterygian Fish-Dominated Konservat-Lagerstätte from the Late Jurassic of Southern Germany

    PubMed Central

    Ebert, Martin; Kölbl-Ebert, Martina; Lane, Jennifer A.

    2015-01-01

    The newly recognized Konservat-Lagerstätte of Ettling (Bavaria), field site of the Jura-Museum Eichstätt (JME), is unique among Late Jurassic plattenkalk basins (Solnhofen region) in its abundant, extremely well preserved fossil vertebrates, almost exclusively fishes. We report actinopterygians (ginglymodins, pycnodontiforms, halecomorphs, aspidorynchiforms, “pholidophoriforms,” teleosts); turtles; and non-vertebrates (echinoderms, arthropods, brachiopods, mollusks, jellyfish, sponges, biomats, plants) in a current faunal list. Ettling has yielded several new fish species (Bavarichthys incognitus; Orthogonikleithrus hoelli; Aspidorhynchus sanzenbacheri; Macrosemimimus fegerti). Upper and lower Ettling strata differ in faunal content, with the lower dominated by the small teleost Orthogonikleithrus hoelli (absent from the upper layers, where other prey fishes, Leptolepides sp. and Tharsis sp., occur instead). Pharyngeal and stomach contents of Ettling fishes provide direct evidence that Orthogonikleithrus hoelli was a primary food source during early Ettling times. Scarcity of ammonites and absence of vampyromorph coleoids at Ettling differ markedly from the situation at other nearby localities in the region (e.g., Eichstätt, Painten, Schamhaupten, the Mörnsheim beds), where they are more common. Although the exact biochronological age of Ettling remains uncertain (lack of suitable index fossils), many Ettling fishes occur in other plattenkalk basins of Germany (e.g., Kelheim) and France (Cerin) dated as Late Kimmeridgian to Early Tithonian (eigeltingense horizon), suggesting a comparable geologic age. The Ettling deposits represent an independent basin within the larger Upper Jurassic “Solnhofen Archipelago”, a shallow subtropical sea containing scattered islands, sponge-microbial and coral reefs, sandbars, and deeper basins on a vast carbonate platform along the northern margin of the Tethys Ocean. PMID:25629970

  8. Fauna and predator-prey relationships of Ettling, an actinopterygian fish-dominated Konservat-Lagerstätte from the Late Jurassic of southern Germany.

    PubMed

    Ebert, Martin; Kölbl-Ebert, Martina; Lane, Jennifer A

    2015-01-01

    The newly recognized Konservat-Lagerstätte of Ettling (Bavaria), field site of the Jura-Museum Eichstätt (JME), is unique among Late Jurassic plattenkalk basins (Solnhofen region) in its abundant, extremely well preserved fossil vertebrates, almost exclusively fishes. We report actinopterygians (ginglymodins, pycnodontiforms, halecomorphs, aspidorynchiforms, "pholidophoriforms," teleosts); turtles; and non-vertebrates (echinoderms, arthropods, brachiopods, mollusks, jellyfish, sponges, biomats, plants) in a current faunal list. Ettling has yielded several new fish species (Bavarichthys incognitus; Orthogonikleithrus hoelli; Aspidorhynchus sanzenbacheri; Macrosemimimus fegerti). Upper and lower Ettling strata differ in faunal content, with the lower dominated by the small teleost Orthogonikleithrus hoelli (absent from the upper layers, where other prey fishes, Leptolepides sp. and Tharsis sp., occur instead). Pharyngeal and stomach contents of Ettling fishes provide direct evidence that Orthogonikleithrus hoelli was a primary food source during early Ettling times. Scarcity of ammonites and absence of vampyromorph coleoids at Ettling differ markedly from the situation at other nearby localities in the region (e.g., Eichstätt, Painten, Schamhaupten, the Mörnsheim beds), where they are more common. Although the exact biochronological age of Ettling remains uncertain (lack of suitable index fossils), many Ettling fishes occur in other plattenkalk basins of Germany (e.g., Kelheim) and France (Cerin) dated as Late Kimmeridgian to Early Tithonian (eigeltingense horizon), suggesting a comparable geologic age. The Ettling deposits represent an independent basin within the larger Upper Jurassic "Solnhofen Archipelago", a shallow subtropical sea containing scattered islands, sponge-microbial and coral reefs, sandbars, and deeper basins on a vast carbonate platform along the northern margin of the Tethys Ocean.

  9. Two new ootaxa from the late Jurassic: The oldest record of crocodylomorph eggs, from the Lourinhã Formation, Portugal

    PubMed Central

    Mateus, Octávio; Marzola, Marco; Balbino, Ausenda

    2017-01-01

    The Late Jurassic Lourinhã Formation is known for its abundant remains of dinosaurs, crocodylomorphs and other vertebrates. Among this record are nine localities that have produced either dinosaur embryos, eggs or eggshell fragments. Herein, we describe and identify the first crocodiloid morphotype eggs and eggshells from the Lourinhã Formation, from five occurrences. One clutch from Cambelas, composed of 13 eggs, eggshell fragments from Casal da Rola and Peralta, one crushed egg and eggshells from Paimogo North, and four crushed eggs as well as eggshell fragments from Paimogo South. We observed and confirmed diagnostic morphological characters for crocodiloid eggshells and which are consistent with a crocodylomorph affinity, such as the ellipsoidal shape, wedge-shaped shell units, triangular extinction under cross-polarized light, and tabular ultrastructure. This material is distinctive enough to propose two new ootaxa within the oofamily Krokolithidae, Suchoolithus portucalensis, oogen. and oosp. nov., for the material from Cambelas, the most complete clutch known for crocodiloid eggs, and Krokolithes dinophilus, oosp. nov., for the remaining material. These are the oldest crocodylomorph eggs known, extending the fossil record for this group to the Late Jurassic. Furthermore, except for the clutch from Cambelas, the material was found with theropod eggs and nests, in the other four occurrences, which seem to suggest some form of biological relationship, still unclear at this point. PMID:28273086

  10. A Jurassic mammal from South America.

    PubMed

    Rauhut, Oliver W M; Martin, Thomas; Ortiz-Jaureguizar, Edgardo; Puerta, Pablo

    2002-03-14

    The Jurassic period is an important stage in early mammalian evolution, as it saw the first diversification of this group, leading to the stem lineages of monotremes and modern therian mammals. However, the fossil record of Jurassic mammals is extremely poor, particularly in the southern continents. Jurassic mammals from Gondwanaland are so far only known from Tanzania and Madagascar, and from trackway evidence from Argentina. Here we report a Jurassic mammal represented by a dentary, which is the first, to our knowledge, from South America. The tiny fossil from the Middle to Late Jurassic of Patagonia is a representative of the recently termed Australosphenida, a group of mammals from Gondwanaland that evolved tribosphenic molars convergently to the Northern Hemisphere Tribosphenida, and probably gave rise to the monotremes. Together with other mammalian evidence from the Southern Hemisphere, the discovery of this new mammal indicates that the Australosphenida had diversified and were widespread in Gondwanaland well before the end of the Jurassic, and that mammalian faunas from the Southern Hemisphere already showed a marked distinction from their northern counterparts by the Middle to Late Jurassic.

  11. Exceptionally preserved insect fossils in the Late Jurassic lagoon of Orbagnoux (Rhône Valley, France)

    PubMed Central

    Nel, Patricia; Krieg-Jacquier, Régis; Pouillon, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    The Late Kimmeridgian marine limestones of the area around Orbagnoux (Rhône, France) are well known for their fish fauna and terrestrial flora. Here we record the first insects and their activities (mines on leaves and trails in sediments) from these layers, including the oldest record of the gerromorphan bugs, as a new genus and species Gallomesovelia grioti, attributed to the most basal family Mesoveliidae and subfamily Madeoveliinae. These new fossils suggest the presence of a complex terrestrial palaeoecosystem on emerged lands near the lagoon where the limestones were deposited. The exquisite state of preservation of these fossils also suggests that these outcrops can potentially become an important Konservat-Lagerstätte for the Late Jurassic of Western Europe. PMID:25210652

  12. Tectonic Evolution of the Jurassic Pacific Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakanishi, M.; Ishihara, T.

    2015-12-01

    We present the tectonic evolution of the Jurassic Pacific plate based on magnetic anomly lineations and abyssal hills. The Pacific plate is the largest oceanic plate on Earth. It was born as a microplate aroud the Izanagi-Farallon-Phoenix triple junction about 192 Ma, Early Jurassic [Nakanishi et al., 1992]. The size of the Pacific plate at 190 Ma was nearly half that of the present Easter or Juan Fernandez microplates in the East Pacific Rise [Martinez et at, 1991; Larson et al., 1992]. The plate boundary surrounding the Pacific plate from Early Jurassic to Early Cretaceous involved the four triple junctions among Pacific, Izanagi, Farallon, and Phoenix plates. The major tectonic events as the formation of oceanic plateaus and microplates during the period occurred in the vicinity of the triple junctions [e.g., Nakanishi and Winterer, 1998; Nakanishi et al., 1999], implying that the study of the triple junctions is indispensable for understanding the tectonic evolution of the Pacific plate. Previous studies indicate instability of the configuration of the triple junctions from Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous (155-125 Ma). On the other hand, the age of the birth of the Pacific plate was determined assuming that all triple junctions had kept their configurations for about 30 m.y. [Nakanishi et al., 1992] because of insufficient information of the tectonic history of the Pacific plate before Late Jurassic.Increase in the bathymetric and geomagnetic data over the past two decades enables us to reveal the tectonic evolution of the Pacific-Izanagi-Farallon triple junction before Late Jurassic. Our detailed identication of magnetic anomaly lineations exposes magnetic bights before anomaly M25. We found the curved abyssal hills originated near the triple junction, which trend is parallel to magnetic anomaly lineations. These results imply that the configuration of the Pacific-Izanagi-Farallon triple junction had been RRR before Late Jurassic.

  13. Bird-like anatomy, posture, and behavior revealed by an early jurassic theropod dinosaur resting trace.

    PubMed

    Milner, Andrew R C; Harris, Jerald D; Lockley, Martin G; Kirkland, James I; Matthews, Neffra A

    2009-01-01

    Fossil tracks made by non-avian theropod dinosaurs commonly reflect the habitual bipedal stance retained in living birds. Only rarely-captured behaviors, such as crouching, might create impressions made by the hands. Such tracks provide valuable information concerning the often poorly understood functional morphology of the early theropod forelimb. Here we describe a well-preserved theropod trackway in a Lower Jurassic ( approximately 198 million-year-old) lacustrine beach sandstone in the Whitmore Point Member of the Moenave Formation in southwestern Utah. The trackway consists of prints of typical morphology, intermittent tail drags and, unusually, traces made by the animal resting on the substrate in a posture very similar to modern birds. The resting trace includes symmetrical pes impressions and well-defined impressions made by both hands, the tail, and the ischial callosity. The manus impressions corroborate that early theropods, like later birds, held their palms facing medially, in contrast to manus prints previously attributed to theropods that have forward-pointing digits. Both the symmetrical resting posture and the medially-facing palms therefore evolved by the Early Jurassic, much earlier in the theropod lineage than previously recognized, and may characterize all theropods.

  14. Bird-like anatomy, posture, and behavior revealed by an early jurassic theropod dinosaur resting trace

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milner, Andrew R.C.; Harris, J.D.; Lockley, M.G.; Kirkland, J.I.; Matthews, N.A.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Fossil tracks made by non-avian theropod dinosaurs commonly reflect the habitual bipedal stance retained in living birds. Only rarely-captured behaviors, such as crouching, might create impressions made by the hands. Such tracks provide valuable information concerning the often poorly understood functional morphology of the early theropod forelimb. Methodology/Principal Findings: Here we describe a well-preserved theropod trackway in a Lower Jurassic (???198 millionyear- old) lacustrine beach sandstone in the Whitmore Point Member of the Moenave Formation in southwestern Utah. The trackway consists of prints of typical morphology, intermittent tail drags and, unusually, traces made by the animal resting on the substrate in a posture very similar to modern birds. The resting trace includes symmetrical pes impressions and well-defined impressions made by both hands, the tail, and the ischial callosity. Conclusions/Significance: The manus impressions corroborate that early theropods, like later birds, held their palms facing medially, in contrast to manus prints previously attributed to theropods that have forward-pointing digits. Both the symmetrical resting posture and the medially-facing palms therefore evolved by the Early Jurassic, much earlier in the theropod lineage than previously recognized, and may characterize all theropods.

  15. Bird-Like Anatomy, Posture, and Behavior Revealed by an Early Jurassic Theropod Dinosaur Resting Trace

    PubMed Central

    Milner, Andrew R. C.; Harris, Jerald D.; Lockley, Martin G.; Kirkland, James I.; Matthews, Neffra A.

    2009-01-01

    Background Fossil tracks made by non-avian theropod dinosaurs commonly reflect the habitual bipedal stance retained in living birds. Only rarely-captured behaviors, such as crouching, might create impressions made by the hands. Such tracks provide valuable information concerning the often poorly understood functional morphology of the early theropod forelimb. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we describe a well-preserved theropod trackway in a Lower Jurassic (∼198 million-year-old) lacustrine beach sandstone in the Whitmore Point Member of the Moenave Formation in southwestern Utah. The trackway consists of prints of typical morphology, intermittent tail drags and, unusually, traces made by the animal resting on the substrate in a posture very similar to modern birds. The resting trace includes symmetrical pes impressions and well-defined impressions made by both hands, the tail, and the ischial callosity. Conclusions/Significance The manus impressions corroborate that early theropods, like later birds, held their palms facing medially, in contrast to manus prints previously attributed to theropods that have forward-pointing digits. Both the symmetrical resting posture and the medially-facing palms therefore evolved by the Early Jurassic, much earlier in the theropod lineage than previously recognized, and may characterize all theropods. PMID:19259260

  16. Marine ecosystem resilience during extreme deoxygenation: the Early Jurassic oceanic anoxic event.

    PubMed

    Caswell, Bryony A; Frid, Christopher L J

    2017-01-01

    Global warming during the Early Jurassic, and associated widespread ocean deoxygenation, was comparable in scale with the changes projected for the next century. This study quantifies the impact of severe global environmental change on the biological traits of marine communities that define the ecological roles and functions they deliver. We document centennial-millennial variability in the biological trait composition of Early Jurassic (Toarcian) seafloor communities and examine how this changed during the event using biological traits analysis. Environmental changes preceding the global oceanic anoxic event (OAE) produced an ecological shift leading to stressed benthic palaeocommunities with reduced resilience to the subsequent OAE. Changes in traits and ecological succession coincided with major environmental changes; and were of similar nature and magnitude to those in severely deoxygenated benthic communities today despite the very different timescales. Changes in community composition were linked to local redox conditions whereas changes in populations of opportunists were driven by primary productivity. Throughout most of the OAE substitutions by tolerant taxa conserved the trait composition and hence functioning, but periods of severe deoxygenation caused benthic defaunation that would have resulted in functional collapse. Following the OAE recovery was slow probably because the global nature of the event restricted opportunities for recruitment from outside the basin. Our findings suggest that future systems undergoing deoxygenation may initially show functional resilience, but severe global deoxygenation will impact traits and ecosystem functioning and, by limiting the species pool, will slow recovery rates.

  17. Carbonate-evaporite sequences of the late Jurassic, southern and southwestern Arabian Gulf

    SciTech Connect

    Alsharhan, A.S.; Whittle, G.L.

    1995-11-01

    The carbonate-evaporite sequences of the Upper Jurassic Arab and overlying Hith formations in the southern and southwestern Arabian Gulf form many supergiant and giant fields that produce from the Arab Formation and are excellent examples of a classic reservoir/seal relationship. The present-day sabkha depositional setting that extends along most of the southern and southwestern coasts of the Arabian Gulf provides an analog to these Upper Jurassic sedimentary rocks. In fact, sabkha-related diagenesis of original grain-supported sediments in the Arab and Hith formations has resulted in five distinct lithofacies that characterize the reservoir/seal relationship: (1) oolitic/peloidal grainstone, (2) dolomitic grainstone, (3)more » dolomitic mudstone, (4) dolomitized grainstone, and (5) massive anhydrite. Interparticle porosity in grainstones and dolomitic grainstones and intercrystalline porosity in dolomitized rocks provide the highest porosity in the study area. These sediments accumulated in four types of depositional settings: (1) supratidal sabkhas, (2) intertidal mud flats and stromatolitic flats, (3) shallow subtidal lagoons, and (4) shallow open-marine shelves. The diagenetic history of the Arab and Hith formations in the southern and southwestern Arabian Gulf suggests that the anhydrite and much of the dolomitization are a result of penecontemporaneous sabkha diagenesis. The character and timing of the paragenetic events are responsible for the excellent porosity of the Arab Formation and the lack of porosity in the massive anhydrites of the Hith, which together result in the prolific hydrocarbon sequences of these formations.« less

  18. Topographic inversion of early interdune deposits, Navajo Sandstone (Lower Jurassic), Colorado Plateau, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bromley, Michael

    1992-09-01

    Outliers of Navajo Sandstone (Lower Jurassic Glen Canyon Group) form low paleohills east of the main body of the Formation in the Salt Anticline region of southwestern Colorado. The paleohills consist of interdune deposits which developed topographic inversion during erosion of the Jurassic J-2 unconformity owing to a tough shell of early cemented sandstones and cherty limestones. The interdune deposits accumulated over playa mudstones of the Kayenta Formation which formed in a structural low between the Uncompahgre Uplift and the Paradox Valley salt anticline. Open-framework textures indicate the early formation of quartz or chert cement in sandstone beds immediately above the impermeable playa mudstones. The mudstones enhanced the subsequent formation of wet interdune deposits keeping groundwater near the surface. Microcrystalline quartz cements and fresh feldspars suggest that groundwater was alkaline. A source of alkalinity may have been eolian dust carried from emergent Pennsylvanian evaporite intrusions upwind of the playa deposits. The high specific surface of siliceous and evaporite dusts combined with shallow groundwater and high evaporation rates resulted in the rapid formation of quartzitic silcrete crusts above the playa mudstone aquacludes. As these early silcretes were buried, the impermeable mudstone foundations beneath them continued to serve as aquacludes. The inclined potentiometric surface of perched water tables above the isolated aquacludes intersected the land surface at progressively higher levels as the mudstone lenses were buried. Groundwater moving laterally from above the aquacludes carried dissolved material towards the inclined water tables at their margins. This mobilized material was redeposited as early cement where the capillary fringe intersected the land surface. As the land surface aggraded vertically, the zone of cement formation migrated laterally in response of a change of the relative positions of the land surface and an

  19. Ammonite paleobiogeography during the Pliensbachian-Toarcian crisis (Early Jurassic) reflecting paleoclimate, eustasy, and extinctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dera, Guillaume; Neige, Pascal; Dommergues, Jean-Louis; Brayard, Arnaud

    2011-08-01

    The Pliensbachian-Toarcian crisis (Early Jurassic) is one of the major Mesozoic paleoecological disturbances when ca. 20% of marine and continental families went extinct. Contemporaneously, profound paleobiogeographical changes occurred in most oceanic domains including a disruption of ammonite provincialism during the Early Toarcian. Here, we quantitatively reappraise the structure and evolution of paleobiogeographical patterns displayed by ammonite faunas before, during, and after the biological crisis, over a time-interval including 13 biochronozones. The high-resolution study presented here involves the use of hierarchical Cluster Analyses, non-metric Multi-Dimensional Scaling methods, and Bootstrap Spanning Network approaches that we apply to a large database including 772 ammonite species from 16 northwestern Tethyan and Arctic basins. Our results confirm a robust faunal dichotomy between Euro-Boreal and Mediterranean areas throughout the Pliensbachian, with the first emergence of an Arctic biome during the cooling regressive event of the Spinatum Zone. Whatever its complexity, Pliensbachian provincialism could be directly linked to paleogeographical barriers and to latitudinal paleoclimatic and paleoecological contrasts. During the Early Toarcian, this pattern was progressively lost, with northward expansions of Mediterranean ammonites during the Tenuicostatum Zone, followed by a strong interprovincial mixing during the Falciferum Zone. This faunal homogenization results from the combination of several parameters including a major sea-level rise facilitating basinal connections, a global warming event stretching the spatial range limits of southern taxa, and a mass extinction preferentially removing endemic species. Ammonite provincialism, although slightly different, was progressively re-established during the cooling regressive trend of the Middle Toarcian. These results therefore suggest a paramount influence of paleoclimatic, eustatic, and extinction

  20. Cold seep-related occurrence of the Early Jurassic rhynchonellid brachiopod Anarhynchia from the Canadian Cordillera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pálfy, József; Price, Gregory D.; Vörös, Attila; Kovács, Zsófia; Johannson, Gary G.

    2017-04-01

    Cold seeps, where seepage of methane and/or other hydrocarbon-rich fluids and hydrogen-sulfide occurs in the sea floor, are sites which harbor highly specialized ecosystems associated with distinctive carbonate sediments. Although their Mesozoic record is scarce and patchy, it commonly includes rhynchonellid brachiopods, often of large size. Each new occurrence is valuable in filling gaps and providing additional insight into these peculiar ecosystems. Here we report a monospecific assemblage of Anarhynchia from a boulder-sized limestone clast of Early Pliensbachian (Early Jurassic) age in the Inklin Formation of the Whitehorse Trough in Stikine terrane, recovered from a locality at Copper Island in Atlin Lake, northern British Columbia, Canada. Specimens are of unusually large size, up to 9 cm in length, and their external and internal morphology allows assignment to Anarhynchia but warrants introduction of a new species. Although d13C and d18O values of the shells are close to equilibrium with ancient seawater, early precipitated carbonate cement phases of the enclosing limestone are characterised by highly depleted carbon isotopic composition, indicative of the influence of microbial oxidation of methane derived from a cold seep. Carbonate petrography of the isopachous, banded-fibrous cement supports its origin in a cold seep environment. Volcanogenic detrital grains in the micritic matrix of the limestone clast are indistinguishable from those in the sandstone layers in the siliciclastic sequence, suggesting that the seep carbonate is broadly coeval with the enclosing conglomerate. Previously, Anarhynchia has been known from the Lower Jurassic of California and Oregon, from both cold seep and hydrothermal vent deposits. Our new record extends the geographic range and species-level diversity of the genus, but supports its endemism to the East Pacific and membership in chemosynthesis-based ecosystems.

  1. Sedimentological, climatic and environmental changes during the Early Jurassic (Hettangian-Pliensbachian) on the northern Tethyan margin (Switzerland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöllhorn, Iris; Foellmi, Karl; adatte, Thierry

    2016-04-01

    The Early Jurassic interval witnessed different phases of paleoenvironmental change, starting with the end-Triassic mass extinction event, c. 201.4 Ma ago, which was marked by terrestrial ecosystem turnover, up to 50% loss in marine biodiversity and large turnovers in global geochemical cycles linked to the onset of Central Atlantic Magmatic Province volcanism (Raup et Sepkosky, 1982 ; Hesselbo et al., 2002 ; Deenen et al., 2010). This time interval saw equally a phase of major climate change near the Pliensbachian-Toarcian boundary, which was followed by the Early Toarcian oceanic anoxic episode (e.g., Suan et al., 2010). Previous studies mainly focused on these major and short-lived events, while the remaining intervals of the Early Jurassic received significantly less attention. Therefore, in this study, we examine the sedimentological, geochemical and environmental changes between these events on the northern Tethyan margin (Swiss Jura). With this purpose, a wide array of geochemical analyses (carbon isotope, Rock-Eval, phosphorus content, mineralogy, trace and major element content and clay analyses) and sedimentary observations has been performed on four sections and cores (Frick, Riniken, Pfaffnau and Kreuzlingen). We observed two depositional systems: (1) the Schambelen Member (lower Hettangian) and the Frick Mb. (middle Upper Sinemurian), which are characterised by organic-rich shales intercalated by tempestites; and (2) the Beggingen Member (Upper Hettangian to Lower Sinemurian) and the Grünscholz, Breitenmatt and Rietheim Members (upper Upper Sinemurian to Pliensbachian), which are composed of carbonates marked by the presence of hiati, condensed beds, phosphate- and fossil-rich strata, and erosional features, which testify to a dynamic environment characterised by overall low sediment-accumulation rates. The clay fraction, composed mainly of kaolinite, chlorite and illite, was controlled by various parameters. The rise of kaolinite in the Late

  2. Footwall progradation in syn-rift carbonate platform-slope systems (Early Jurassic, Northern Apennines, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbi, Simone; Santantonio, Massimo

    2012-12-01

    The so-called Umbria-Marche Domain of Northern Apennines represents a vast depositional system, also stretching across the Adriatic Sea subsurface, that was characterized by dominantly pelagic sedimentation through most of its Jurassic to Oligocene/Early Miocene history. The pelagic succession is underlain by Hettangian shallow-water carbonates (Calcare Massiccio Fm.), constituting a regional carbonate platform that was subjected to tectonic extension due to rifting of the Adria/African Plate in the earliest Jurassic. While tectonic subsidence of the hangingwalls drove the drowning of the platform around the Hettangian/Sinemurian boundary, the production of benthic carbonate on footwall blocks continued parallel to faulting, through a sequence of facies that was abruptly terminated by drowning and development of condensed pelagites in the early Pliensbachian. By then rifting had ceased, so that the Pliensbachian to Early Cretaceous hangingwall deposits represent a post-rift basin-fill succession onlapping the tectonically-generated escarpment margins of the highs. During the early phases of syndepositional faulting, the carbonate factories of footwall blocks were still temporarily able to fill part of the accommodation space produced by the normal faults by prograding into the incipient basins. In this paper we describe for the first time a relatively low-angle (< 10°) clinoform bed package documenting such an ephemeral phase of lateral growth of a carbonate factory. The clinoforms are sigmoidal, and form low-relief (maximum 5-7 m) bodies representing a shallow-water slope that was productive due to development of a Lithocodium-dominated factory. Continued faulting and hangingwall subsidence then decoupled the slope from the platform top, halting the growth of clinoforms and causing the platform margin to switch from accretionary to bypass mode as the pre-rift substrate became exposed along a submarine fault escarpment. The downfaulted clinoform slope was then

  3. Late Paleozoic to Jurassic chronostratigraphy of coastal southern Peru: Temporal evolution of sedimentation along an active margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boekhout, F.; Sempere, T.; Spikings, R.; Schaltegger, U.

    2013-11-01

    We present an integrated geochronological and sedimentological study that significantly revises the basin and magmatic history associated with lithospheric thinning in southern coastal Peru (15-18°S) since the onset of subduction at ˜530 Ma. Until now, estimating the age of the sedimentary and volcanic rocks has heavily relied on paleontologic determinations. Our new geochronological data, combined with numerous field observations, provide the first robust constraints on their chronostratigraphy, which is discussed in the light of biostratigraphical attributions. A detailed review of the existing local units simplifies the current stratigraphic nomenclature and clarifies its absolute chronology using zircon U-Pb ages. We observe that the Late Paleozoic to Jurassic stratigraphy of coastal southern Peru consists of two first-order units, namely (1) the Yamayo Group, a sedimentary succession of variable (0-2 km) thickness, with apparently no nearby volcanic lateral equivalent, and (2) the overlying Yura Group, consisting of a lower, 1-6 km-thick volcanic and volcaniclastic unit, the Chocolate Formation, and an upper, 1-2 km-thick sedimentary succession that are in markedly diachronous contact across the coeval arc and back-arc. We date the local base of the Chocolate Formation, and thus of the Yura Group, to 216 Ma, and show that the underlying Yamayo Group spans a >110 Myr-long time interval, from at least the Late Visean to the Late Triassic, and is apparently devoid of significant internal discontinuities. The age of the top of the Chocolate Formation, i.e. of the volcanic arc pile, varies from ˜194 Ma to less than ˜135 Ma across the study area. We suggest that this simplified and updated stratigraphic framework can be reliably used as a reference for future studies.

  4. Early Permian Pangea `B' to Late Permian Pangea `A'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muttoni, Giovanni; Kent, Dennis V.; Garzanti, Eduardo; Brack, Peter; Abrahamsen, Niels; Gaetani, Maurizio

    2003-10-01

    The pre-drift Wegenerian model of Pangea is almost universally accepted, but debate exists on its pre-Jurassic configuration since Ted Irving introduced Pangea 'B' by placing Gondwana farther to the east by ˜3000 km with respect to Laurasia on the basis of paleomagnetic data. New paleomagnetic data from radiometrically dated Early Permian volcanic rocks from parts of Adria that are tectonically coherent with Africa (Gondwana), integrated with published coeval data from Gondwana and Laurasia, again only from igneous rocks, fully support a Pangea 'B' configuration in the Early Permian. The use of paleomagnetic data strictly from igneous rocks excludes artifacts from sedimentary inclination error as a contributing explanation for Pangea 'B'. The ultimate option to reject Pangea 'B' is to abandon the geocentric axial dipole hypothesis by introducing a significant non-dipole (zonal octupole) component in the Late Paleozoic time-averaged geomagnetic field. We demonstrate, however, by using a dataset consisting entirely of paleomagnetic directions with low inclinations from sampling sites confined to one hemisphere from Gondwana as well as Laurasia that the effects of a zonal octupole field contribution would not explain away the paleomagnetic evidence for Pangea 'B' in the Early Permian. We therefore regard the paleomagnetic evidence for an Early Permian Pangea 'B' as robust. The transformation from Pangea 'B' to Pangea 'A' took place during the Permian because Late Permian paleomagnetic data allow a Pangea 'A' configuration. We therefore review geological evidence from the literature in support of an intra-Pangea dextral megashear system. The transformation occurred after the cooling of the Variscan mega-suture and lasted ˜20 Myr. In this interval, the Neotethys Ocean opened between India/Arabia and the Cimmerian microcontinents in the east, while widespread lithospheric wrenching and magmatism took place in the west around the Adriatic promontory. The general

  5. Degradation processes and consolidation of Late Jurassic sandstone dinosaur tracks in museum environment (Museum of Lourinhã, Portugal)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leal, Sofia; mateus, Octavio; Tomas, Carla; Dionisio, Amelia

    2014-05-01

    The current study aims to conciliate conservation and restoration museology diagnosis with paleontological and geological curational needs and has, as subject of study, dinosaur footprints (vertebrates fossils). The footprints have been being exposed since 2004 in the paleontology hall of the Museum of Lourinhã, Portugal, and are part of a important paleontological collection of Late Jurassic vertebrate fossils from Lourinhã Formation. Presently, it is considered a unique heritage in danger of disappearing due to high decay level of disaggregation of its geological structure. The dinosaur footprints, (ML557) found, more precisely, on a coastline cliff in Lourinhã, Porto das Barcas, Lagido do Forno (coordinate 39° 14. 178'N, 9° 20. 397'W), Jurassic period, on the 5th of June 2001, by Jesper Milàn. This cliff of high slope presents sedimentary stratigraphic characteristics of a sandstone/siltstone of gray and red colors, by the '' Munsell scale and Color Chart''. Geological the tracks are Late Jurassic in age, and colected in the Lourinhã Formation, Praia Azul Member, of the Lusitanian Basin. There are three natural infills tridactyl tracks, possibly ascribed to ornithopod, a bipedal herbivore, resultant of a left foot movement, right and left. Footprints have 300-400mm of wide and 330-360mm of height with round fingers, which are elongated due to some degradation/erosion. In 2001, the footprints were collected from the field, cleaned, consolidated and glued in the laboratory of the Museum of Lourinhã before being exhibited in a museum display. Stone matrix was removed and a consolidation product applied, probably a polyvinyl acetate, of the brand Plexigum. The footprint with broken central digit was glued with an epoxy resin, Araldite. Both applied products were confirmed by analysis of µ-FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) and both presented colour change and detachment surface problems. After collecting and storing, in 2004, footprints were

  6. Sedimentology and palaeontology of upper Karoo aeolian strata (Early Jurassic) in the Tuli Basin, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordy, Emese M.; Catuneanu, Octavian

    2002-08-01

    The Karoo Supergroup in the Tuli Basin (South Africa) consists of a sedimentary sequence composed of four stratigraphic units, namely the Basal, Middle and Upper units, and Clarens Formation. The units were deposited in continental settings from approximately Late Carboniferous to Middle Jurassic. This paper focuses on the Clarens Formation, which was examined in terms of sedimentary facies and palaeo-environments based on evidence provided by primary sedimentary structures, palaeo-flow measurements and palaeontological findings. Two main facies associations have been identified: (i) massive and large-scale planar cross-bedded sandstones of aeolian origin; and (ii) horizontally and cross-stratified sandstones of fluvial origin. Most of the sandstone lithofacies of the Clarens Formation were generated as transverse aeolian dunes produced by northwesterly winds in a relatively wet erg milieu. Direct evidence of aquatic subenvironments comes from local small ephemeral stream deposits, whereas palaeontological data provide indirect evidence. Fossils of the Clarens Formation include petrified logs of Agathoxylon sp. wood type and several trace fossils which were produced by insects and vertebrates. The upper part of the Clarens Formation lacks both direct and indirect evidence of aquatic conditions, and this suggests aridification that led to the dominance of dry sand sea conditions.

  7. Equatorial seawater temperatures and latitudinal temperature gradients during the Middle to Late Jurassic: the stable isotope record of brachiopods and oysters from Gebel Maghara, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alberti, Matthias; Fürsich, Franz T.; Abdelhady, Ahmed A.; Andersen, Nils

    2017-04-01

    The Jurassic climate has traditionally been described as equable, warmer than today, with weak latitudinal temperature gradients, and no polar glaciations. This view changed over the last decades with studies pointing to distinct climate fluctuations and the occasional presence of polar ice caps. Most of these temperature reconstructions are based on stable isotope analyses of fossil shells from Europe. Additional data from other parts of the world is slowly completing the picture. Gebel Maghara in the northern Sinai Peninsula of Egypt exposes a thick Jurassic succession. After a phase of terrestrial sedimentation in the Early Jurassic, marine conditions dominated since the end of the Aalenian. The stable isotope (δ18O, δ13C) composition of brachiopod and oyster shells was used to reconstruct seawater temperatures from the Bajocian to the Kimmeridgian at a palaeolatitude of ca. 3°N. Throughout this time interval, temperatures were comparatively constant aorund an average of 25.7°C. Slightly warmer conditions existed in the Early Bathonian ( 27.0°C), while the Kimmeridgian shows the lowest temperatures ( 24.3°C). The seasonality has been reconstructed with the help of high-resolution sampling of two oyster shells and was found to be very low (<2°C) as can be expected for a tropical palaeolatitude. A comparison of the results from Egypt with literature data enabled the reconstruction of latitudinal temperature gradients. During the Middle Jurassic, this gradient was much steeper than previously expected and comparable to today. During the Kimmeridgian, temperatures in Europe were generally warmer leading to weaker latitudinal gradients. Based on currently used estimates for the δ18O value of seawater during the Jurassic, reconstructed water temperatures for localities above the thermocline in Egypt and Europe were mostly lower than Recent sea-surface temperatures. These results improve our understanding of the Jurassic climate and its influence on marine

  8. Late Jurassic rhyolites from the Wuchagou region in the central Great Xing'an Range, NE China: Petrogenesis and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Zheng; Ge, Wen-Chun; Yang, Hao; Wang, Qing-hai; Zhang, Yan-long; Wang, Zhi-hui; Bi, Jun-Hui

    2018-06-01

    We report geochronological, whole-rock geochemical, and zircon Hf isotopic data for Late Jurassic rhyolites in the central Great Xing'an Range of northeastern China, to determine their petrogenesis, source, and tectonic setting. Laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) zircon U-Pb ages indicate that the rhyolites previously mapped as the lower Permian Dashizhai Formation in the Wuchagou region formed during the Late Jurassic (162-154 Ma). Geochemically, these rhyolites belong to the mid- to high-K calc-alkaline series and show peraluminous characteristics and consistent correlations between major elements and SiO2. They are characterized by enrichments in large ion lithophile elements (LILEs; e.g., Rb and K) and light rare earth elements (LREEs), and depletions in high field strength elements (HFSEs; e.g., Nb, Ta, and Ti) and heavy rare earth elements (HREEs). In situ Hf isotopic analyses of zircons from the rhyolites reveal relatively homogeneous Hf isotopic compositions, with εHf(t) values of +4.84 to +9.44, and two-stage model ages of 606-895 Ma. Based on their eruption ages, geochemical characteristics, and Hf isotopic compositions, we conclude that the magmas that formed the Late Jurassic rhyolites were produced during partial melting of a Neoproterozoic quartz-bearing amphibolite-facies mafic crust. These magmas subsequently underwent extensive fractional crystallization of plagioclase, hornblende, Ti-bearing phases, monazite, and apatite. Combined with previous data, our results demonstrate that the Late Jurassic volcanic rocks in the Great Xing'an Range were formed in a post-collisional extensional setting. The gravitational collapse of the orogenically thickened crust was caused by break-off of the subducted oceanic slab and upwelling of asthenosphere after closure of the Mongol-Okhotsk Ocean.

  9. Oldest known dinosaurian nesting site and reproductive biology of the Early Jurassic sauropodomorph Massospondylus

    PubMed Central

    Reisz, Robert R.; Evans, David C.; Roberts, Eric M.; Sues, Hans-Dieter; Yates, Adam M.

    2012-01-01

    The extensive Early Jurassic continental strata of southern Africa have yielded an exceptional record of dinosaurs that includes scores of partial to complete skeletons of the sauropodomorph Massospondylus, ranging from embryos to large adults. In 1976 an incomplete egg clutch including in ovo embryos of this dinosaur, the oldest known example in the fossil record, was collected from a road-cut talus, but its exact provenance was uncertain. An excavation program at the site started in 2006 has yielded multiple in situ egg clutches, documenting the oldest known dinosaurian nesting site, predating other similar sites by more than 100 million years. The presence of numerous clutches of eggs, some of which contain embryonic remains, in at least four distinct horizons within a small area, provides the earliest known evidence of complex reproductive behavior including site fidelity and colonial nesting in a terrestrial vertebrate. Thus, fossil and sedimentological evidence from this nesting site provides empirical data on reproductive strategies in early dinosaurs. A temporally calibrated optimization of dinosaurian reproductive biology not only demonstrates the primary significance of the Massospondylus nesting site, but also provides additional insights into the initial stages of the evolutionary history of dinosaurs, including evidence that deposition of eggs in a tightly organized single layer in a nest evolved independently from brooding. PMID:22308330

  10. Early Jurassic extensional inheritance in the Lurestan region of the Zagros fold-and-thrust belt, Iran.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavani, Stefano; Parente, Mariano; Vitale, Stefano; Puzone, Francesco; Erba, Elisabetta; Bottini, Cinzia; Morsalnejad, Davoud; Mazzoli, Stefano

    2017-04-01

    It has long been recognized that the tectonic architecture of the Zagros mountain belt was strongly controlled by inherited structures previously formed within the Arabian plate. These preexisting features span in age from the pre-Cambrian to the Mesozoic, showing different trends and deformation styles. Yet, these structures are currently not fully understood. This uncertainty is partly related with the paucity of exposures, which rarely allows a direct observation of these important deformation features. The Lurestan Province of Iran provides a remarkable exception, since it is one of the few places of the Zagros mountain belt where exposures of Triassic and Jurassic rocks are widespread. In this area we carried out structural observations on Mesozoic extensional structures developed at the southern margin of the Neo-Tethyan basin. Syn-sedimentary extensional faults are hosted within the Triassic-Cretaceous succession, being particularly abundant in the Jurassic portion of the stratigraphy. Early to Middle Jurassic syn-sedimentary faults are observed in different paleogeographic domains of the area, and their occurrence is coherent with the subsequent transition from shallow-water to deep-sea basin environments, observed in a wide portion of the area. Most of the thrusts exposed in the area may indeed be interpreted as reactivated Jurassic extensional faults, or as reverse faults whose nucleation was controlled by the location of preexisting normal faults, as a result of positive inversion during crustal shortening and mountain building.

  11. Environmental and ecological upheval in shallow marine systems during the Early Jurassic (Pliensbachian and Toarcian)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martindale, R. C.; Ettinger, N. P.; Bodin, S.; Kosir, A.; Brame, H. M. R.; Thibodeau, A. M.; Larson, T. E.; Kerans, C.

    2017-12-01

    Carbon cycle perturbations, such as the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (T-OAE), have a significant influence on marine communities (e.g., extinctions), as well as the nature of the sedimentary record (e.g., carbonate factory collapse and black shale deposition) and geochemical cycling. To date, there remains a gap in our knowledge about the shallow-water record of the T-OAE and the geochemical signature of this event. This research combines geochemical, sedimentological, and paleontological data from two shallow-water Early Jurassic records in Slovenia and Morocco. The Dinaric Carbonate Platform (Slovenia) records a relatively continuous record of Pliensbachian and Toarcian strata and captures the T-OAE in shallow-water carbonates. The Trnovski Gozd karst plateau (western Slovenia) contains Pleinsbachian lithiotid (bivalve) biostromes, coral bioherms, and a diverse assemblage of carbonate producing fauna. This work documents the geochemical and sedimentological signature of the T-OAE in shallow water carbonates and tests whether mercury concentrations link paleontological and sedimentological changes with the Karoo-Ferrar Large Igneous Province. Elemental data coupled with sedimentologic and stratigraphic evidence indicate a prolonged period of deoxygenation on the shelf coincident with both large igneous province activity and the OAE. The Moroccan High Atlas Mountains provide another excellent shallow-water record of the T-OAE, with a thick mixed carbonate-siliciclastic shelf-to-ramp setting with sustained deposition through the Early Jurassic interval. In Morocco there is no evidence for anoxia in this shallow-water locality; however, the carbonate factory collapses at the Pliensbachian-Toarcian stage boundary as well as the T-OAE. Reef communities, particularly the lithiotid biostromes, persist across the stage boundary and are observed through to the T-OAE. The studied localities also record the oldest corals reefs following the T-OAE; coral reefs recover

  12. Dike orientations in the late jurassic independence dike swarm and implications for vertical-axis tectonic rotations in eastern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hopson, R.F.; Hillhouse, J.W.; Howard, K.A.

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of the strikes of 3841 dikes in 47 domains in the 500-km-long Late Jurassic Independence dike swarm indicates a distribution that is skewed clockwise from the dominant northwest strike. Independence dike swarm azimuths tend to cluster near 325?? ?? 30??, consistent with initial subparallel intrusion along much of the swarm. Dike azimuths in a quarter of the domains vary widely from the dominant trend. In domains in the essentially unrotated Sierra Nevada block, mean dike azimuths range mostly between 300?? and 320??, with the exception of Mount Goddard (247??). Mean dike azimuths in domains in the Basin and Range Province in the Argus, Inyo, and White Mountains areas range from 291?? to 354?? the mean is 004?? in the El Paso Mountains. In the Mojave Desert, mean dike azimuths range from 318?? to 023??, and in the eastern Transverse Ranges, they range from 316?? to 051??. Restoration for late Cenozoic vertical-axis rotations, suggested by paleodeclinations determined from published studies from nearby Miocene and younger rocks, shifts dike azimuths into better agreement with azimuths measured in the tectonically stable Sierra Nevada. This confirms that vertical-axis tectonic rotations explain some of the dispersion in orientation, especially in the Mojave Desert and eastern Transverse Ranges, and that the dike orientations can be a useful if imperfect guide to tectonic rotations where paleomagnetic data do not exist. Large deviations from the main trend of the swarm may reflect (1) clockwise rotations for which there is no paleomagnetic evidence available, (2) dike intrusions of other ages, (3) crack filling at angles oblique or perpendicular to the main swarm, (4) pre-Miocene rotations, or (5) unrecognized domain boundaries between dike localities and sites with paleomagnetic determinations. ?? 2008 The Geological Society of America.

  13. Early- versus Late-Onset Dysthymia

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Lori A.

    2009-01-01

    In the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, dysthymic disorder is categorized as either early-onset or late-onset, based upon the emergence of symptoms before or after the age of 21, respectively. Does this diagnostic distinction have any meaningful clinical implications? In this edition of The Interface, we present empirical studies that have, within a single study, compared individuals with early-versus late-onset dysthymia. In this review, we found that, compared to those with late-onset dysthymia, early-onset patients are more likely to harbor psychiatric comorbidity both on Axis I and II, exhibit less psychological resilience, and have more prominent family loadings for mood disorders. These findings suggest that this distinction is meaningful and that the early-onset subtype of dysthymia is more difficult to effectively treat. PMID:20049145

  14. The late early Miocene Sabine River

    SciTech Connect

    Manning, E.

    Work on a new late early Miocene vertebrate fossil site, in a paleochannel deposit of the upper Carnahan Bayou Member of the lower Fleming Formation, has revealed unexpected data on the course and nature of the Sabine River of that time. Screen washing for smaller vertebrate remains at the site, just west of the Sabine River in Newton County, central eastern Texas, has resulted in the recovery of early Permian, Early Cretaceous, Late Cretaceous (Maestrichtian), Paleocene/Eocene, late Eocene, and Oligocene/Miocene fossils, in addition to the main early Miocene fauna. The reworked fossils, as well as distinctive mineral grains, show thatmore » the late early Miocene Sabine River was connected to the Texas/Oklahoma/Arkansas boundary section of the Red River, as well as to rivers draining the southern Ouachita Mountains. These rivers must have joined the Texas/Louisiana boundary section of the Sabine River somewhere in northwest Louisiana at that time. This suggests that the Louisiana section of the present Red River pirated the Texas/Oklahoma/Arkansas boundary section of the river some time after the early Miocene. The preservation of recognizable fossils transported hundreds of miles in a large river itself requires explanation. It is speculated here that the late early Miocene Sabine River incorporated a large amount of the then recently deposited volcanic ash from the Trans-Pecos Volcanic Field. Montmorillonite clay from the altered volcanic ash would have made the river very turbid, which could have allowed coarse sand-sized particles to be carried in the suspended load of the river, rather than in its bed load (where they would have been destroyed by the rolling chert gravel). Additional evidence for such long-distance fossil transport in the late early Miocene rivers of the western Gulf Coastal Plain comes from the abundant Cretaceous fossils of the upper Oakville Formation of southeast Texas and the Siphonina davisi zone of the southeast Texas subsurface.« less

  15. The Cranial Osteology and Feeding Ecology of the Metriorhynchid Crocodylomorph Genera Dakosaurus and Plesiosuchus from the Late Jurassic of Europe

    PubMed Central

    Young, Mark T.; Brusatte, Stephen L.; de Andrade, Marco Brandalise; Desojo, Julia B.; Beatty, Brian L.; Steel, Lorna; Fernández, Marta S.; Sakamoto, Manabu; Ruiz-Omeñaca, Jose Ignacio; Schoch, Rainer R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Dakosaurus and Plesiosuchus are characteristic genera of aquatic, large-bodied, macrophagous metriorhynchid crocodylomorphs. Recent studies show that these genera were apex predators in marine ecosystems during the latter part of the Late Jurassic, with robust skulls and strong bite forces optimized for feeding on large prey. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we present comprehensive osteological descriptions and systematic revisions of the type species of both genera, and in doing so we resurrect the genus Plesiosuchus for the species Dakosaurus manselii. Both species are diagnosed with numerous autapomorphies. Dakosaurus maximus has premaxillary ‘lateral plates’; strongly ornamented maxillae; macroziphodont dentition; tightly fitting tooth-to-tooth occlusion; and extensive macrowear on the mesial and distal margins. Plesiosuchus manselii is distinct in having: non-amblygnathous rostrum; long mandibular symphysis; microziphodont teeth; tooth-crown apices that lack spalled surfaces or breaks; and no evidence for occlusal wear facets. Our phylogenetic analysis finds Dakosaurus maximus to be the sister taxon of the South American Dakosaurus andiniensis, and Plesiosuchus manselii in a polytomy at the base of Geosaurini (the subclade of macrophagous metriorhynchids that includes Dakosaurus, Geosaurus and Torvoneustes). Conclusions/Significance The sympatry of Dakosaurus and Plesiosuchus is curiously similar to North Atlantic killer whales, which have one larger ‘type’ that lacks tooth-crown breakage being sympatric with a smaller ‘type’ that has extensive crown breakage. Assuming this morphofunctional complex is indicative of diet, then Plesiosuchus would be a specialist feeding on other marine reptiles while Dakosaurus would be a generalist and possible suction-feeder. This hypothesis is supported by Plesiosuchus manselii having a very large optimum gape (gape at which multiple teeth come into contact with a prey-item), while Dakosaurus

  16. Harper Creek and Cuyamaca Reservoir gneisses, CLMSZ: Late Jurassic plutons of the Peninsular Ranges batholith

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.; Girty, G.H.; Girty, M.S.

    1993-04-01

    The Cuyamaca Laguna Mountains shear zone (CLMSZ), southern California, has been interpreted to represent east-over-west thrusting resulting from Early Cretaceous arc-continent collision. Near Pine Valley, the western margin of the CLMSZ is underlain by the Harper Creek (HCg) and Cuyamaca Reservoir (CRg) gneisses. U-Pb zircon studies indicate ages of 161 [+-] 17 Ma and 156 [+-] 12 Ma for the Hcg and an age of 158 Ma for the CRg. Geochemically the HCg and CRg are calc-alkaline and peraluminous. Trace element data suggest a magmatic arc setting. Modal and normative mineralogy suggest granodioritic and tonalitic protoliths. Mineral assemblages indicate uppermore » greenschist facies to lower amphibolite grade conditions during deformation. The HCg and CRg were deformed prior to the emplacement of the adjacent 118 [+-] 9 Ma Pine Valley pluton. Structural fabrics described above suggest NE-SW contraction and subvertical extension and are thus compatible with the arc-continent collisional model proposed by earlier workers.« less

  17. Late Cretaceous-Early Palaeogene tectonic development of SE Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morley, C. K.

    2012-10-01

    -South China Sea) is preferred. Lying between the two subduction related arcs, the Khorat Basin is of predominantly Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous age but stratigraphic and apatite fission track data also indicates deposition of 1-2 km of Late Cretaceous sediments. The synformal basin geometry probably arose due to the dynamic topography created by converging Tethyan and Palaeo-Pacific subduction zones. The Aptian-Albian slowing of basin subsidence and onset of evaporite deposition coincides with collision of the Mawgyi and Woyla island arcs. Extensive Palaeogene deformation and exhumation (3 + km in places) affected all margins of the Khorat Plateau. Deformation includes folds of the Phu Phan uplift, and strike-slip faults, thrusts and folds on the southern and eastern margins. South of the Khorat Plateau outcrop, and seismic reflection data from the Ton Le Sap Basin (Cambodia), and the Gulf of Thailand, indicate syn-depositional fault-controlled subsidence was important during Cretaceous deposition. The hot, thickened crust developed during the Late Cretaceous-Palaeogene events follows the weak (Indosinian), crustal-scale Inthanon and Sukhothai zones, which persistently guided the location of later structures including Cenozoic extensional, and post-rift basins, and influenced the widespread occurrence of low-angle normal faults, metamorphic core complexes, and eastern Gulf of Thailand super-deep post-rift basins.

  18. Mantle source heterogeneity of the Early Jurassic basalt of eastern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregory Shellnutt, J.; Dostal, Jaroslav; Yeh, Meng-Wan

    2018-04-01

    One of the defining characteristics of the basaltic rocks from the Early Jurassic Eastern North America (ENA) sub-province of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) is the systematic compositional variation from South to North. Moreover, the tectono-thermal regime of the CAMP is debated as it demonstrates geological and structural characteristics (size, radial dyke pattern) that are commonly associated with mantle plume-derived mafic continental large igneous provinces but is considered to be unrelated to a plume. Mantle potential temperature ( T P) estimates of the northern-most CAMP flood basalts (North Mountain basalt, Fundy Basin) indicate that they were likely produced under a thermal regime ( T P ≈ 1450 °C) that is closer to ambient mantle ( T P ≈ 1400 °C) conditions and are indistinguishable from other regions of the ENA sub-province ( T Psouth = 1320-1490 °C, T Pnorth = 1390-1480 °C). The regional mantle potential temperatures are consistent along the 3000-km-long ENA sub-province suggesting that the CAMP was unlikely to be generated by a mantle plume. Furthermore, the mantle potential temperature calculation using the rocks from the Northern Appalachians favors an Fe-rich mantle (FeOt = 8.6 wt %) source, whereas the rocks from the South Appalachians favor a less Fe-rich (FeOt = 8.3 wt %) source. The results indicate that the spatial-compositional variation of the ENA basaltic rocks is likely related to differing amounts of melting of mantle sources that reflect the uniqueness of their regional accreted terranes (Carolinia and West Avalonia) and their post-accretion, pre-rift structural histories.

  19. Evolution of the Toarcian (Early Jurassic) carbon-cycle and global climatic controls on local sedimentary processes (Cardigan Bay Basin, UK)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Weimu; Ruhl, Micha; Jenkyns, Hugh C.; Leng, Melanie J.; Huggett, Jennifer M.; Minisini, Daniel; Ullmann, Clemens V.; Riding, James B.; Weijers, Johan W. H.; Storm, Marisa S.; Percival, Lawrence M. E.; Tosca, Nicholas J.; Idiz, Erdem F.; Tegelaar, Erik W.; Hesselbo, Stephen P.

    2018-02-01

    The late Early Jurassic Toarcian Stage represents the warmest interval of the Jurassic Period, with an abrupt rise in global temperatures of up to ∼7 °C in mid-latitudes at the onset of the early Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (T-OAE; ∼183 Ma). The T-OAE, which has been extensively studied in marine and continental successions from both hemispheres, was marked by the widespread expansion of anoxic and euxinic waters, geographically extensive deposition of organic-rich black shales, and climatic and environmental perturbations. Climatic and environmental processes following the T-OAE are, however, poorly known, largely due to a lack of study of stratigraphically well-constrained and complete sedimentary archives. Here, we present integrated geochemical and physical proxy data (high-resolution carbon-isotope data (δ13 C), bulk and molecular organic geochemistry, inorganic petrology, mineral characterisation, and major- and trace-element concentrations) from the biostratigraphically complete and expanded entire Toarcian succession in the Llanbedr (Mochras Farm) Borehole, Cardigan Bay Basin, Wales, UK. With these data, we (1) construct the first high-resolution biostratigraphically calibrated chemostratigraphic reference record for nearly the complete Toarcian Stage, (2) establish palaeoceanographic and depositional conditions in the Cardigan Bay Basin, (3) show that the T-OAE in the hemipelagic Cardigan Bay Basin was marked by the occurrence of gravity-flow deposits that were likely linked to globally enhanced sediment fluxes to continental margins and deeper marine (shelf) basins, and (4) explore how early Toarcian (tenuicostatum and serpentinum zones) siderite formation in the Cardigan Bay Basin may have been linked to low global oceanic sulphate concentrations and elevated supply of iron (Fe) from the hinterland, in response to climatically induced changes in hydrological cycling, global weathering rates and large-scale sulphide and evaporite deposition.

  20. Portlandemys gracilis n. sp., a New Coastal Marine Turtle from the Late Jurassic of Porrentruy (Switzerland) and a Reconsideration of Plesiochelyid Cranial Anatomy

    PubMed Central

    Anquetin, Jérémy; Püntener, Christian; Billon-Bruyat, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background Several groups of stem cryptodires became adapted to coastal marine environments as early as the Late Jurassic, 40 million years before the Pan-Chelonioidea. The Plesiochelyidae are a major component of this first radiation of crown-group turtles into marine habitats. They are abundant in many European localities, but their systematics is still greatly confused. Only three species are represented by cranial material: Plesiochelys etalloni, Plesiochelys planiceps, and Portlandemys mcdowelli. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, we describe a cranium and a mandible from the Kimmeridgian of Porrentruy (Switzerland), which we refer to a new species, Portlandemys gracilis n. sp. This new taxon differs from Portlandemys mcdowelli in several aspects of the cranium and mandible, notably in being generally more gracile, but the two species share a narrow skull, a more acute angle between the labial ridges on the mandible, and a unique configuration of the anterodorsal part of the basicranium. The cranial anatomy of plesiochelyid turtles is discussed in details based primarily on these new specimens and new cranial material of Plesiochelys etalloni from Solothurn, Switzerland. Conclusions/Significance Several characters (e.g., the contribution of the parietal to the foramen nervi trigemini, the configuration of the dorsum sellae and sella turcica, the presence of an infolding ridge on the posterior surface of the quadrate) appear as potential candidates to help elucidate plesiochelyid relationships. Some of these characters are included in a previously published phylogenetic dataset and help to stabilize the relationships of plesiochelyid turtles and closely related taxa. For the first time, our results suggest that plesiochelyids, 'Thalassemys' moseri, and Solnhofia parsonsi (representing the Eurysternidae) form a clade at the base of Eucryptodira. PMID:26106888

  1. Swelling behaviour of Early Jurassic shales when exposed to water vapour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houben, Maartje; Barnhoorn, Auke; Peach, Colin; Drury, Martyn

    2017-04-01

    The presence of water in mudrocks has a largely negative impact on production of gas, due to the fact that water causes swelling of the rock. Removing the water from the mudrock on the other hand could potentially shrink the rock and increase the matrix permeability. Investigation of the swelling/shrinkage behaviour of the rock during exposure to water vapour is of key importance in designing and optimizing unconventional production strategies. We have used outcrop samples of the Whitby Mudstone and the Posidonia shale [1], potential unconventional sources for gas in North-western Europe, to measure the swelling and shrinkage behaviour. Subsamples, 1 mm cubes, were prepared by the Glass Workshop at Utrecht University using a high precision digitally controlled diamond wafering saw cooled by air. The mm cubes were then exposed to atmospheres with different relative humidities either in an Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope (ESEM) or in a 3D dilatometer. So that the sample responses to exposure of water vapour could be measured. Parallel to the bedding we found a swelling strain between 0.5 and 1.5 %, perpendicular to the bedding though swelling strain varied between 1 and 3.5%. Volumetric swelling strain varied between 1 and 2% at a maximum relative humidity of 95%. Volumetric swelling strains measured in the Early Toarcian Shales are similar to the ones found in coal [2], where the results suggest that it might be possible to increase permeability in the reservoir by decreasing the in-situ water activity due to shrinkage of the matrix. [1] M.E. Houben, A. Barnhoorn, L. Wasch, J. Trabucho-Alexandre, C. J. Peach, M.R. Drury (2016). Microstructures of Early Jurassic (Toarcian) shales of Northern Europe, International Journal of Coal Geology, 165, 76-89. [2] Jinfeng Liu, Colin J. Peach, Christopher J. Spiers (2016). Anisotropic swelling behaviour of coal matrix cubes exposed to water vapour: Effects of relative humidity and sample size, International Journal of

  2. Stratigraphic evolution of the Late Jurassic Hanifa Formation along the Tuwaiq Escarpment, Saudi Arabia: Evidence for a carbonate ramp system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fallatah, Mohammed I.; Kerans, Charles

    2018-01-01

    A sequence stratigraphic framework of the Late Jurassic (Oxfordian) Hanifa Formation at its exposure in Central Arabia is presented for the first time. This study offers the first high-resolution stratigraphic framework of the Hanifa along the Tuwaiq Escarpment by measuring 15 sections ( 770 m total thickness) over an oblique-to-dip distance of 260 km and collecting 295 samples for petrographic analysis. On the basis of these data, the Hanifa Formation can be subdivided into eight facies; 1) tabular cross-bedded quartz-peloidal-skeletal grainstone, 2) cross-bedded skeletal-peloidal grainstone, 3) bioturbated foraminiferal wackestone/mud-dominated packstone, 4) oncolitic rudstone, 5) stromatoporoid-coral biostrome/bioherm, 6) peloidal/composite-grain grain-dominated packstone/grainstone, 7) bioturbated spiculitic wackestone/mud-dominated packstone, and 8) thinly-bedded argillaceous mudstone/wackestone. The vertical and lateral distributions of these facies along the exposure define their sequence setting using the principals of sequence stratigraphy. By recognizing erosional surfaces, facies offset, and changes in facies proportions, five third-order sequences, with an average duration of 1.1 Myr, are interpreted for the Hanifa Formation. The correlation of the sequences across the study area shows that only four sequences are preserved in the north where shallow-water deposits are well-developed. Facies trends within these sequences are further illustrated in depositional models representing the highstand systems tracts (HST) and the transgressive systems tracts (TST) of the Hanifa Formation. These proposed models represent depositional settings of a carbonate ramp with normal open-marine conditions. The HST depositional model is characterized by a high-energy shoreline and depicts the presence of an offshore, structurally controlled skeletal-peloidal shoal body described here for the first time at the Hanifa exposure in the Hozwa area. This work provides a

  3. Triassic–Jurassic mass extinction as trigger for the Mesozoic radiation of crocodylomorphs

    PubMed Central

    Toljagić, Olja; Butler, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Pseudosuchia, one of the two main clades of Archosauria (Reptilia: Diapsida), suffered a major decline in lineage diversity during the Triassic–Jurassic (TJ) mass extinction (approx. 201 Ma). Crocodylomorpha, including living crocodilians and their extinct relatives, is the only group of pseudosuchians that survived into the Jurassic. We reassess changes in pseudosuchian morphological diversity (disparity) across this time interval, using considerably larger sample sizes than in previous analyses. Our results show that metrics of pseudosuchian disparity did not change significantly across the TJ boundary, contrasting with previous work suggesting low pseudosuchian disparity in the Early Jurassic following the TJ mass extinction. However, a significant shift in morphospace occupation between Late Triassic and Early Jurassic taxa is recognized, suggesting that the TJ extinction of many pseudosuchian lineages was followed by a major and geologically rapid adaptive radiation of crocodylomorphs. This marks the onset of the spectacularly successful evolutionary history of crocodylomorphs in Jurassic and Cretaceous ecosystems. PMID:23536443

  4. Early and late arrhythmogenic effects of doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Kilickap, Saadettin; Barista, Ibrahim; Akgul, Ebru; Aytemir, Kudret; Aksoy, Sercan; Tekuzman, Gulten

    2007-03-01

    To determine the incidence of early and late arrhythmogenic effects of doxorubicin-containing chemotherapy regimens. A prospective study including 29 patients who were treated with doxorubicin-containing regimens. Cardiac evaluation was based on 24-hour electrocardiographic monitorization (Holter), which was performed during the first cycle of doxorubicin-containing regimens, as well as after the last cycle of chemotherapy. The mean age of the patients was 45.8 +/- 15.1 (range 18-69). Holter records obtained during the first cycle of treatment revealed varying arrhythmias in 19 patients (65.5%) and in 18 (62.1%) patients after completion of therapy. One patient presented with syncope and both Mobitz Type 2 atrioventricular block and complete atrioventricular block were demonstrated. The patient subsequently underwent permanent pacemaker implantation. Doxorubicin may result in arrhythmias both in early and late periods of treatment. These arrhythmias are rarely life threatening.

  5. Early- versus Late-Onset Systemic Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Alba, Marco A.; Velasco, César; Simeón, Carmen Pilar; Fonollosa, Vicent; Trapiella, Luis; Egurbide, María Victoria; Sáez, Luis; Castillo, María Jesús; Callejas, José Luis; Camps, María Teresa; Tolosa, Carles; Ríos, Juan José; Freire, Mayka; Vargas, José Antonio; Espinosa, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Peak age at onset of systemic sclerosis (SSc) is between 20 and 50 years, although SSc is also described in both young and elderly patients. We conducted the present study to determine if age at disease onset modulates the clinical characteristics and outcome of SSc patients. The Spanish Scleroderma Study Group recruited 1037 patients with a mean follow-up of 5.2 ± 6.8 years. Based on the mean ± 1 standard deviation (SD) of age at disease onset (45 ± 15 yr) of the whole series, patients were classified into 3 groups: age ≤30 years (early onset), age between 31 and 59 years (standard onset), and age ≥60 years (late onset). We compared initial and cumulative manifestations, immunologic features, and death rates. The early-onset group included 195 patients; standard-onset group, 651; and late-onset, 191 patients. The early-onset group had a higher prevalence of esophageal involvement (72% in early-onset compared with 67% in standard-onset and 56% in late-onset; p = 0.004), and myositis (11%, 7.2%, and 2.9%, respectively; p = 0.009), but a lower prevalence of centromere antibodies (33%, 46%, and 47%, respectively; p = 0.007). In contrast, late-onset SSc was characterized by a lower prevalence of digital ulcers (54%, 41%, and 34%, respectively; p < 0.001) but higher rates of heart conduction system abnormalities (9%, 13%, and 21%, respectively; p = 0.004). Pulmonary hypertension was found in 25% of elderly patients and in 12% of the youngest patients (p = 0.010). After correction for the population effects of age and sex, standardized mortality ratio was shown to be higher in younger patients. The results of the present study confirm that age at disease onset is associated with differences in clinical presentation and outcome in SSc patients. PMID:24646463

  6. A new stem turtle from the Middle Jurassic of Scotland: new insights into the evolution and palaeoecology of basal turtles.

    PubMed

    Anquetin, Jérémy; Barrett, Paul M; Jones, Marc E H; Moore-Fay, Scott; Evans, Susan E

    2009-03-07

    The discovery of a new stem turtle from the Middle Jurassic (Bathonian) deposits of the Isle of Skye, Scotland, sheds new light on the early evolutionary history of Testudinata. Eileanchelys waldmani gen. et sp. nov. is known from cranial and postcranial material of several individuals and represents the most complete Middle Jurassic turtle described to date, bridging the morphological gap between basal turtles from the Late Triassic-Early Jurassic and crown-group turtles that diversify during the Late Jurassic. A phylogenetic analysis places the new taxon within the stem group of Testudines (crown-group turtles) and suggests a sister-group relationship between E. waldmani and Heckerochelys romani from the Middle Jurassic of Russia. Moreover, E. waldmani also demonstrates that stem turtles were ecologically diverse, as it may represent the earliest known aquatic turtle.

  7. A new stem turtle from the Middle Jurassic of Scotland: new insights into the evolution and palaeoecology of basal turtles

    PubMed Central

    Anquetin, Jérémy; Barrett, Paul M.; Jones, Marc E.H.; Moore-Fay, Scott; Evans, Susan E.

    2008-01-01

    The discovery of a new stem turtle from the Middle Jurassic (Bathonian) deposits of the Isle of Skye, Scotland, sheds new light on the early evolutionary history of Testudinata. Eileanchelys waldmani gen. et sp. nov. is known from cranial and postcranial material of several individuals and represents the most complete Middle Jurassic turtle described to date, bridging the morphological gap between basal turtles from the Late Triassic–Early Jurassic and crown-group turtles that diversify during the Late Jurassic. A phylogenetic analysis places the new taxon within the stem group of Testudines (crown-group turtles) and suggests a sister-group relationship between E. waldmani and Heckerochelys romani from the Middle Jurassic of Russia. Moreover, E. waldmani also demonstrates that stem turtles were ecologically diverse, as it may represent the earliest known aquatic turtle. PMID:19019789

  8. The Early Jurassic Bokan Mountain peralkaline granitic complex (southeastern Alaska): geochemistry, petrogenesis and rare-metal mineralization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dostal, Jaroslav; Kontak, Daniel J.; Karl, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    The Early Jurassic (ca. 177 Ma) Bokan Mountain granitic complex, located on southern Prince of Wales Island, southernmost Alaska, cross-cuts Paleozoic igneous and metasedimentary rocks of the Alexander terrane of the North American Cordillera and was emplaced during a rifting event. The complex is a circular body (~3 km in diameter) of peralkaline granitic composition that has a core of arfvedsonite granite surrounded by aegirine granite. All the rock-forming minerals typically record a two-stage growth history and aegirine and arfvedsonite were the last major phases to crystalize from the magma. The Bokan granites and related dikes have SiO2 from 72 to 78 wt. %, high iron (FeO (tot) ~3-4.5 wt. %) and alkali (8-10 wt.%) concentrations with high FeO(tot)/(FeO(tot)+MgO) ratios (typically >0.95) and the molar Al2O3/(Na2O+K2O) ratio Nd values which are indicative of a mantle signature. The parent magma is inferred to be derived from an earlier metasomatized lithospheric mantle by low degrees of partial melting and generated the Bokan granitic melt through extensive fractional crystallization. The Bokan complex hosts significant rare-metal (REE, Y, U, Th, Nb) mineralization that is related to the late-stage crystallization history of the complex which involved the overlap of emplacement of felsic dikes, including pegmatite bodies, and generation of orthomagmatic fluids. The abundances of REE, HFSE, U and Th as well as Pb and Nd isotopic values of the pluton and dikes were modified by orthomagmatic hydrothermal fluids highly enriched in the strongly incompatible trace elements, which also escaped along zones of structural weakness to generate rare-metal mineralization. The latter was deposited in two stages: the first relates to the latest stage of magma emplacement and is associated with felsic dikes that intruded along the faults and shear deformations, whereas the second stage involved ingress of hydrothermal fluids that both remobilized and enriched the initial

  9. A new Cheirolepidiaceae (Coniferales) from the Early Jurassic of Patagonia (Argentina): Reconciling the records of impression and permineralized fossils.

    PubMed

    Escapa, Ignacio; Leslie, Andrew

    2017-02-01

    Plants preserved in different fossil modes provide complementary data concerning the paleobiology and evolutionary relationships among plant groups. New material from the Early Jurassic of Patagonia shows the importance of combining these sources of information, as we describe the first compression/impression fossils of Pararaucaria , a genus of the extinct conifer family Cheirolepidiaceae previously known from permineralized fossils. These fossils extend the temporal range of this genus and may allow its wider recognition in the fossil record. We studied fossil plants from the Early Jurassic (Pleinsbachian-Toarcian) locality of Taquetrén in Patagonia, Argentina using standard paleobotanical preparation and description techniques. Pararaucaria taquetrensis consists of isolated ovuliferous scales and small seed cones with helically arranged bract-scale complexes attached to scale-leaf foliage. Bract-scale complexes consist of separated bracts and ovuliferous scales with two seeds and three broad distal lobes. Pararaucaria taquetrensis represents the oldest known Cheirolepidiaceae seed cones from the Southern Hemisphere, and this material highlights the importance of compression and impression fossils in understanding the distribution of fossil taxa. This material also suggests that Cheirolepidiaceae cone scales can be easily confused with those of another common conifer family, the Araucariaceae, which has important implications for accurately understanding Mesozoic conifer diversity and paleoecology. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  10. Sedimentology of the Early Jurassic terrestrial Steierdorf Formation in Anina, Colonia Cehă Quarry, South Carpathians, Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kędzior, Artur; Popa, Mihai E.

    2013-06-01

    Kędzior, A. and Popa, E.M. 2013. Sedimentology of the Early Jurassic terrestrial Steierdorf Formation in Anina, Colonia Cehă Quarry, South Carpathians, Romania. Acta Geologica Polonica, 63 (2), 175-199. Warszawa. The continental, coal bearing Steierdorf Formation, Hettangian - Sinemurian in age, is included in the Mesozoic cover of the Reşiţa Basin, Getic Nappe, South Carpathians, Romania. The Steierdorf Formation can be studied in Anina, a coal mining center and an exceptional locality for Early Jurassic flora and fauna, occurring in the middle of the Reşiţa Basin. This paper presents the results of sedimentological, stratigraphical and paleobotanical researches undertaken in Colonia Cehă open cast mine in Anina, where the Steierdorf Formation outcrops widely. Several sedimentary facies associations have been described, these associations permitting the reconstruction of various depositional systems such as alluvial fans, braided and meandering river systems, as well as lacustrine and coal generating marsh systems of the Steierdorf Formation. The sedimentary associations recorded within the Steierdorf Formation show a gradual fining upward trend, pointing to a rising marine water table and a decreasing relief within the source area.

  11. Sills, aureoles and pipes in the Karoo Basin, South Africa, as triggers for Early Jurassic environmental changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensen, Henrik H.; Planke, Sverre; Silkoset, Petter; Hammer, Øyvind; Iyer, Karthik; Schmid, Dani W.; Chevallier, Luc

    2017-04-01

    Most of the Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) formed during the last 260 million years are associated with climatic change, oceanic anoxia, or extinctions in marine and terrestrial environments. Current hypotheses involve A) degassing of carbon either from oceans or shallow sea-bed reservoirs, B) carbon and sulfur degassing from flood basalts, C) degassing from sedimentary basins heavily intruded by LIPs. Here we present new data on gas generation and degassing from the Karoo LIP, based on fieldwork, borehole studies (geochemistry, petrography), and thermal modeling. Our data expand and corroborate earlier work on the sub-volcanic processes in the Karoo Basin. We show that 1) hundreds of breccia pipes are rooted in Early Jurassic sill complexes and contact aureoles within the organic-rich Ecca Group, 2) statistical analyses reveal a fractal distribution of pipes and that they are overdispersed at small scales (<50 m), but clustered at larger scales (>800 m), 3) contact aureoles show a reduction in organic matter content towards the sill contacts, reduced to zero in the nearest zones, producing more carbon gas compared to thermal model calculations, 4) we find up to 3 permil reduction in the d13C of the organic matter remaining in the aureoles, and finally 5) some pipes contain recent oil seeps. We conclude that the sill-pipe system released thermogenic gases to the Early Jurassic atmosphere and that the pipes may have acted as permanent fluid flow pathways.

  12. Environmental change during the Late Berriasian - Early Valanginian: a prelude to the late Early Valanginian carbon-isotope event?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Chloé; Schnyder, Johann; Spangenberg, Jorge; Adatte, Thierry; Westermann, Stephane; Föllmi, Karl

    2010-05-01

    The Valanginian period is well known for a positive excursion in marine and terrestrial δ13C records, which has been interpreted as the consequence of a major perturbation in the global carbon cycle (Lini et al., 1992; Erba et al., 2004). In contrast to the positive δ13C excursions of the Early Aptian and latest Cenomanian, marine organic-rich sediments have only been recognized from a few localities (van de Schootbrugge et al., 2003; Reboulet et al., 2003; Gröcke et al., 2005; Westermann et al., in press). The δ13C excursion began in the late Early Valanginian (campylotoxus ammonite zone) and gradually ended during the Late Valanginian. It is associated with a phase of widespread carbonate-platform drowning on the shelf (Föllmi et al., 1994) and a decline in calcareous nannofossils in the pelagic realm (Erba et al., 2004). As a triggering mechanism, numerous authors invoke the formation of the Parañà-Etendeka flood basalt. The correlation of this episode with the Valanginian δ13C event depends, however, on the absolute ages attributed to the Valanginian stage. The recent geological timescale by Ogg et al. (2008) shows that the major eruptional phase occurred during the Late Valanginian. This may imply that the late Early Valanginian δ13C event resulted from a combination of different factors. Important paleoenvironmental change occurred already in the latest Berriasian and earliest Valanginian, prior to the positive δ13C excursion. An increase in nutrient input near the onset of the δ13C excursion (campylotoxus ammonite zone), which may be considered as a trigger of the carbon cycle perturbation, has been identified in different studies, (Hennig, 2003; Duchamp-Alphonse et al., 2007; Bornemann & Mutterlose, 2008). Heterozoan faunal associations became dominant since the Early Valanginian on the northern Tethyan Helvetic platform and may indicate the beginning of sea-water eutrophication (Föllmi et al., 2007). Clay assemblages in the Tethys and Western

  13. Bokan Mountain peralkaline granitic complex, Alexander terrane (southeastern Alaska): evidence for Early Jurassic rifting prior to accretion with North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dostal, Jaroslav; Karl, Susan M.; Keppie, J. Duncan; Kontak, Daniel J.; Shellnutt, J. Gregory

    2013-01-01

    The circular Bokan Mountain complex (BMC) on southern Prince of Wales Island, southernmost Alaska, is a Jurassic peralkaline granitic intrusion about 3 km in diameter that crosscuts igneous and metasedimentary rocks of the Alexander terrane. The BMC hosts significant rare metal (rare earth elements, Y, U, Th, Zr, and Nb) mineralization related to the last stage of BMC emplacement. U–Pb (zircon) and 40Ar/39Ar (amphibole and whole-rock) geochronology indicates the following sequence of intrusive activity: (i) a Paleozoic basement composed mainly of 469 ± 4 Ma granitic rocks; (ii) intrusion of the BMC at 177 ± 1 Ma followed by rapid cooling through ca. 550 °C at 176 ± 1 Ma that was synchronous with mineralization associated with vertical, WNW-trending pegmatites, felsic dikes, and aegirine–fluorite veins and late-stage, sinistral shear deformation; and (iii) intrusion of crosscutting lamprophyre dikes at >150 Ma and again at ca. 105 Ma. The peralkaline nature of the BMC and the WNW trend of associated dikes suggest intrusion during NE–SW rifting that was followed by NE–SW shortening during the waning stages of BMC emplacement. The 177 Ma BMC was synchronous with other magmatic centres in the Alexander terrane, such as (1) the Dora Bay peralkaline stock and (2) the bimodal Moffatt volcanic suite located ∼30 km north and ∼100 km SE of the BMC, respectively. This regional magmatism is interpreted to represent a regional extensional event that precedes deposition of the Late Jurassic – Cretaceous Gravina sequence that oversteps the Wrangellia and Alexander exotic accreted terranes and the Taku and Yukon–Tanana pericratonic terranes of the Canadian–Alaskan Cordillera.

  14. Bokan Mountain peralkaline granitic complex, Alexander terrane (southeastern Alaska): evidence for Early Jurassic rifting prior to accretion with North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dostal, Jaroslav; Karl, Susan M.; Keppie, J. Duncan; Kontak, Daniel J.; Shellnutt, J. Gregory

    2013-01-01

    The circular Bokan Mountain complex (BMC) on southern Prince of Wales Island, southernmost Alaska, is a Jurassic peralkaline granitic intrusion about 3 km in diameter that crosscuts igneous and metasedimentary rocks of the Alexander terrane. The BMC hosts significant rare metal (rare earth elements, Y, U, Th, Zr, and Nb) mineralization related to the last stage of BMC emplacement. U–Pb (zircon) and 40Ar/39Ar (amphibole and whole-rock) geochronology indicates the following sequence of intrusive activity: (i) a Paleozoic basement composed mainly of 469 ± 4 Ma granitic rocks; (ii) intrusion of the BMC at 177 ± 1 Ma followed by rapid cooling through ca. 550 °C at 176 ± 1 Ma that was synchronous with mineralization associated with vertical, WNW-trending pegmatites, felsic dikes, and aegirine–fluorite veins and late-stage, sinistral shear deformation; and (iii) intrusion of crosscutting lamprophyre dikes at >150 Ma and again at ca. 105 Ma. The peralkaline nature of the BMC and the WNW trend of associated dikes suggest intrusion during NE–SW rifting that was followed by NE–SW shortening during the waning stages of BMC emplacement. The 177 Ma BMC was synchronous with other magmatic centres in the Alexander terrane, such as (1) the Dora Bay peralkaline stock and (2) the bimodal Moffatt volcanic suite located ~30 km north and ~100 km SE of the BMC, respectively. This regional magmatism is interpreted to represent a regional extensional event that precedes deposition of the Late Jurassic – Cretaceous Gravina sequence that oversteps the Wrangellia and Alexander exotic accreted terranes and the Taku and Yukon–Tanana pericratonic terranes of the Canadian–Alaskan Cordillera.

  15. Eruptive history of the Karoo lava flows and their impact on early Jurassic environmental change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moulin, M.; Fluteau, F.; Courtillot, V.; Marsh, J.; Delpech, G.; Quidelleur, X.; Gérard, M.

    2017-02-01

    This paper reports new paleomagnetic and geochronologic data from a 1500 m thick composite section belonging to the Drakensberg group, the thickest remnant of the Karoo lavas in Northern Lesotho. Flow-by-flow analysis of paleomagnetic directions reveals 21 magnetic directional groups, corresponding to single eruptive events, and 16 individual lava flows. The new age determinations of lava flows range from 180.1 ± 1.4 to 182.8 ± 2.6 Ma. These data, combined with previous results, allow us to propose that the main part of the Drakensberg group and the Karoo intrusive complex dated around 181-183 Ma may have been erupted over a period as short as 250 kyr and may have coincided with the two main phases of extinction in the Early Toarcian. This scenario agrees well with the discontinuous rhythm of environmental and biotic perturbations in the Late Pliensbachian-Toarcian interval.

  16. Isotopic evidence bearing on Late Triassic extinction events, Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, and implications for the duration and cause of the Triassic/Jurassic mass extinction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ward, P.D.; Garrison, G.H.; Haggart, J.W.; Kring, D.A.; Beattie, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Stable isotope analyses of Late Triassic to earliest Jurassic strata from Kennecott Point in the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia, Canada shows the presence of two distinct and different organic carbon isotope anomalies at the Norian/Rhaetian and Rhaetian/Hettangian (=Triassic/Jurassic) stage boundaries. At the older of these boundaries, which is marked by the disappearance of the bivalve Monotis, the isotope record shows a series of short-lived positive excursions toward heavier values. Strata approaching this boundary show evidence of increasing anoxia. At the higher boundary, marked by the disappearance of the last remaining Triassic ammonites and over 50 species of radiolarians, the isotopic pattern consists of a series of short duration negative anomalies. The two events, separated by the duration of the Rhaetian age, comprise the end-Triassic mass extinction. While there is no definitive evidence as to cause, the isotopic record does not appear similar to that of the impact-caused Cretaceous/Tertiary boundary extinction. ?? 2004 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Cycles and trends in the δ18O and δ13C records over the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Mathieu; Dera, Guillaume

    2015-04-01

    The million-year fluctuations of the Mesozoic climate are explored through spectral analyses performed on an exhaustive compilation of δ18O and δ13C data measured on belemnite rostra. The data include more than 3500 data points, all coming from Western Tethys and Euro-boreal domains, and covering a time interval spanning 76 Myr from the Sinemurian (~197 Ma; Early Jurassic) to the Aptian (~123 Ma; Early Cretaceous) with an average sample step of ~0.04 Myr. Spectral analyses are performed using the multi-taper method and the evolutive Fast Fourier Transform in order to get an accurate estimate of significant periods and their evolution during geological times. The age uncertainties of the Geological Time Scale 2012 are taken into account to assess the impact of these uncertainties on the identification of the significant periods. After implementing an error model that simulates the uncertainties of the Geological Time Scale, two periods remains significant: the δ13C displays a high-amplitude period at 9.1 Myr, while the δ18O displays a high-amplitude period at 16.4 Myr. The 16.4-Myr period is only expressed in the Early and Middle Jurassic, with maximum amplitudes reached during the 'Toarcian Plateau' (Dera et al., 2011). It is probably a consequence of the activity of the Karoo-Ferrar Large Igneous Province and is an event in the δ18O rather than a true cycle. The 9.1-Myr period displays a spectacular continuity from the Toarcian to the Aptian, and could be related to this intriguing 9.1-Myr cycle observed in the δ13C from the Cenozoic, related to a Myr-amplitude modulation of the eccentricity cycles (Boulila et al., 2012). The δ13C in the Western Tethys thus appears to have a very rhythmic behaviour, interpreted here as a long-term orbital modulation of moisture and heat transfer from equatorial to higher latitudes, modulating in return continental weathering, nutrient and detrital exports to basins, neritic vs. pelagic productivity and finally preservation

  18. Petrogenesis of Late Jurassic granodiorites from Gutian, Fujian Province, South China: Implications for multiple magma sources and origin of porphyry Cu-Mo mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bin; Jiang, Shao-Yong; Lu, An-Huai; Lai, Jian-Qing; Zhao, Kui-Dong; Yang, Tao

    2016-11-01

    The Gutian porphyry Cu-Mo deposit is a newly proved porphyry copper deposit in the coastal South China associated with granodioritic porphyries. In this study, zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotope data, as well as geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb-Re-Os isotopic compositions, are reported for these intrusions and minerals. Both zircon U-Pb and molybdenite Re-Os dating suggest that the Gutian granodiorite porphyries and related mineralization formed at 160 Ma. The Gutian granodiorites show a low-Mg adakitic geochemical affinity, with relatively high K2O but low Cr and Ni contents. These rocks have initial (87Sr/86Sr)i ratios of 0.7085 to 0.7097, negative εNd(t) values (- 12.5 to - 7.8), (206Pb/204Pb)t ratios of 18.048 to 18.241, (207Pb/204Pb)t ratios of 15.609 to 15.628, and (208Pb/204Pb)t ratios of 38.494 to 38.667. Zircons from the granodiorites have negative εHf(t) values of - 15.7 to - 8.5, which are close to those of Cathaysia crust-derived melts. Geochemical and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopic compositions suggest that they may be derived from Late Jurassic thickened juvenile lower crust. These lower crustal magma sources may not only contain pre-Proterozoic basement rocks, but also involve Triassic and Middle-Late Jurassic arc magmas within the lower crust, which were likely derived from an enriched mantle source associated with paleo-Pacific Plate subduction from the Middle to Late Jurassic. The Gutian ore-related granodiorites represent a new example for significant contributions of ancient subduction melts and enriched mantle-derived sources for porphyry-type magmatism and Cu-Mo mineralization, which occurred in response to an arc regime during the Middle to Late Jurassic in South China. Supplemental Table S2. Hf isotopic compositions of zircons from the studied rocks from the Gutian porphyry deposit in South China. Supplemental Table S3. Statistics for zircon U-Pb ages and Hf isotope compositions from Gutian granodiorites in South China Supplemental Table S4. Major element (wt

  19. Early Jurassic mafic dykes from the Xiazhuang ore district (South China): Implications for tectonic evolution and uranium metallogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lian-Xun; Ma, Chang-Qian; Lai, Zhong-Xin; Marks, Michael A. W.; Zhang, Chao; Zhong, Yu-Fang

    2015-12-01

    A comprehensive study on zircon U-Pb age dating, whole-rock geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotope data has been conducted on the mafic rocks of the Xiazhuang uranium ore district and adjacent regions in South China. Based on field work and petrographic features, three rock types (the Kuzhukeng gabbro, the WNW-trending dolerite dykes and the NNE-trending lamprophyre dykes) are distinguished. Early Jurassic SHRIMP and LA-ICPMS ages of zircon for the Kuzhukeng gabbro (198 ± 1 Ma) and WNW-trending dolerite dykes (193 ± 4 Ma) have been obtained, which are 50 Ma older than previously thought (being Cretaceous). These geochronologic data provide new evidence for the rarely identified Early Jurassic magmatisms in South China. Whole-rock geochemical data for the Kuzhukeng gabbro and WNW-trending dolerite dykes are similar, both of which being higher in FeO and TiO2 but lower in SiO2 and K2O than the NNE-trending lamprophyre dykes. Trace element characteristics and Sr-Nd isotope data indicate arc-like signatures similar to the Cretaceous southeast coast basalts of China for the lamprophyre dykes, but an OIB-like geochemical affinity for the high-TiO2 mafic rocks similar to the Permo/Triassic Emeishan flood basalts and the Middle Jurassic Ningyuan alkaline basalts. We propose that the lamprophyre dykes formed in an arc volcanic system driven by the subduction of the paleo-Pacific plate. In contrast, the Kuzhukeng gabbro and associated dolerite dykes record the post-orogenic (Indosinian) extension event in the Tethyan tectonic regime. This further implies that the Indosinian extension may have lasted until the Early Jurassic, and therefore, the subduction of the paleo-Pacific plate in south China was probably later than this period. Most U deposits of the Xiazhuang area are located at the intersection between the WNW-trending dolerite dykes and the NNE-trending faults within the Triassic granites of eastern Guidong complex, South China. Previous metallogenesis studies assumed that

  20. The Chachil Limestone (Pliensbachian-earliest Toarcian) Neuquén Basin, Argentina: U-Pb age calibration and its significance on the Early Jurassic evolution of southwestern Gondwana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leanza, H. A.; Mazzini, A.; Corfu, F.; Llambías, E. J.; Svensen, H.; Planke, S.; Galland, O.

    2013-03-01

    New radiometric U-Pb ages obtained on zircon crystals from Early Jurassic ash layers found within beds of the Chachil Limestone at its type locality in the Chachil depocentre (southern Neuquén Basin) confirm a Pliensbachian age (186.0 ± 0.4 Ma). Additionally, two ash layers found in limestone beds in Chacay Melehue at the Cordillera del Viento depocentre (central Neuquén Basin) gave Early Pliensbachian (185.7 ± 0.4 Ma) and earliest Toarcian (182.3 ± 0.4 Ma) U-Pb zircon ages. Based on these new datings and regional geological observations, we propose that the limestones cropping out at Chacay Melehue are correlatable with the Chachil Limestone. Recent data by other authors from limestones at Serrucho creek in the upper Puesto Araya Formation (Valenciana depocentre, southern Mendoza) reveal ages of 182.16 ± 0.6 Ma. Based on these new evidences, we consider the Chachil Limestone an important Early Jurassic stratigraphic marker, representing an almost instantaneous widespread flooding episode in western Gondwana. The unit marks the initiation in the Neuquén Basin of the Cuyo Group, followed by widespread black shale deposition. Accordingly, these limestones can be regarded as the natural seal of the Late Triassic -earliest Jurassic Precuyano Cycle, which represents the infill of halfgrabens and/or grabens related to a strong extensional regime. Paleontological evidence supports that during Pliensbachian-earliest Toarcian times these limestones were deposited in western Gondwana in marine warm water environments.

  1. Climatic and palaeoceanographic changes during the Pliensbachian (Early Jurassic) inferred from clay mineralogy and stable isotope (C-O) geochemistry (NW Europe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bougeault, Cédric; Pellenard, Pierre; Deconinck, Jean-François; Hesselbo, Stephen P.; Dommergues, Jean-Louis; Bruneau, Ludovic; Cocquerez, Théophile; Laffont, Rémi; Huret, Emilia; Thibault, Nicolas

    2017-02-01

    The Early Jurassic was broadly a greenhouse climate period that was punctuated by short warm and cold climatic events, positive and negative excursions of carbon isotopes, and episodes of enhanced organic matter burial. Clay minerals from Pliensbachian sediments recovered from two boreholes in the Paris Basin, are used here as proxies of detrital supplies, runoff conditions, and palaeoceanographic changes. The combined use of these minerals with stable isotope data (C-O) from bulk carbonates and organic matter allows palaeoclimatic reconstructions to be refined for the Pliensbachian. Kaolinite/illite ratio is discussed as a reliable proxy of the hydrological cycle and runoff from landmasses. Three periods of enhanced runoff are recognised within the Pliensbachian. The first one at the Sinemurian-Pliensbachian transition shows a significant increase of kaolinite concomitant with the negative carbon isotope excursion at the so-called Sinemurian Pliensbachian Boundary Event (SPBE). The Early/Late Pliensbachian transition was also characterised by more humid conditions. This warm interval is associated with a major change in oceanic circulation during the Davoei Zone, likely triggered by sea-level rise; the newly created palaeogeography, notably the flooding of the London-Brabant Massif, allowed boreal detrital supplies, including kaolinite and chlorite, to be exported to the Paris Basin. The last event of enhanced runoff occurred during the late Pliensbachian (Subnodosus Subzone of the Margaritatus Zone), which occurred also during a warm period, favouring organic matter production and preservation. Our study highlights the major role of the London Brabant Massif in influencing oceanic circulation of the NW European area, as a topographic barrier (emerged lands) during periods of lowstand sea-level and its flooding during period of high sea-level. This massif was the unique source of smectite in the Paris Basin. Two episodes of smectite-rich sedimentation ('smectite

  2. Evolution of the carbon cycle and seawater temperature from the Triassic-Jurassic boundary to the Early Toarcian based on brachiopod geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Tamás; Tomašových, Adam

    2017-04-01

    The ecological crisis and extinction at the end of the Triassic coincides with several environmental perturbations such as global temperature rise, ocean acidification and carbon isotope anomalies, with a large observed negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) in the Late Rhaetian as well. Followed by the ETE, the Early Jurassic was characterized by marked fluctuations of the global seawater temperature and carbon cycle. Carbon isotope records are showing positive and remarkable negative excursions. A particular example of these phenomena is connected to the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (TOAE). The δ13C record of the TOAE is showing a negative excursion of a high magnitude, suggesting the injection of large amount of light carbon into the ocean-atmosphere system, coinciding with rapid global warming and widespread anoxia. Beside the TOAE there are many other, smaller scale carbon isotope anomalies and environmental perturbations at the Sinemurian-Pliensbachian transition or at the Pliensbachian-Toarcian boundary. In our study, we provide new brachiopod δ13C, δ18O, and Mg/Ca data from the time interval starting in the Rhaetian till the end of the Early Toarcian. Considering the strong resistance of brachiopod shells against diagenesis, our aim is to reconstruct seawater temperature, seawater Mg/Ca, and carbon cycle evolution based on a reliable geochemical proxy database of the studied time interval. The samples have been collected from various localities across Europe achieving a good, at least ammonite subzone scale resolution for the Rhaetian stage and for the Lower Jurassic. The geochemical preservation of the shell material have been tested by several approaches. Thin-sections were made from the shells and analyzed by electron microprobe and ICP-OES to evaluate their preservation by assessing concentrations of Fe, Mn, Sr, and their ratios (Mn/Ca, Sr/Ca). Considering the various elemental composition data of fossil and recent brachiopods published by several

  3. Postprandial dysmetabolism: Too early or too late?

    PubMed

    Pappas, Christos; Kandaraki, Eleni A; Tsirona, Sofia; Kountouras, Dimitrios; Kassi, Georgia; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2016-07-01

    Postprandial dysmetabolism is a postprandial state characterized by abnormal metabolism of glucose and lipids and, more specifically, of elevated levels of glucose and triglyceride (TG) containing lipoproteins. Since there is evidence that postprandial dysmetabolism is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, due to macro- and microvascular complications, as well as with conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), it is recommended that clinicians be alert for early detection and management of this condition. Management consists of a holistic approach including dietary modification, exercise and use of hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic medication aiming to decrease the postprandial values of circulating glucose and triglycerides. This review aims to explain glucose and lipid homeostasis and the impact of postprandial dysmetabolism on the cardiovascular system as well as to offer suggestions with regard to the therapeutic approach for this entity. However, more trials are required to prevent or reverse early and not too late the actual tissue damage due to postprandial dysmetabolism.

  4. Timing of the Toarcian Ocean Anoxic Event (Early Jurassic) from correlation of astronomically forced global stratigraphic sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C.; Hinnov, L. A.; Hesselbo, S. P.

    2012-12-01

    The Early Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE) in the Early Jurassic Period is associated with a major negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE), mass extinction, marine transgression and global warming. The Toarcian OAE is thought to have been caused by flood basalt magmatism, and may have been a trigger for mass extinction. However, these proposed causes of the Toarcian OAE and associated biotic crisis are not adequately resolved by a precise chronology. The duration of the Toarcian OAE has been estimated to be anywhere from ~0.12 to ~0.9 Myr, most recently 0.74 to 3.26 Myr from U-Pb dating. The CIE associated with the Toarcian OAE has a similar pattern at numerous localities, and there is evidence for astronomical forcing of marine carbon isotopes. Here we estimate a duration of ~625 kyr for the main negative CIE, ~860 kyr for the polymorphum zone and >1.58 Myr for the levisoni zone based on 405-kyr astronomical eccentricity tuning of the marine section at Peniche (Portugal). This 405-kyr tuned series provides a ~2.5 Myr continuous high-resolution chronology through the Early Toarcian. There are 6, or possibly 7 short eccentricity cycles in the main CIE interval at Peniche. To confirm this astronomically based estimate, we analyzed five other sections at Yorkshire (UK), Dotternhausen (Germany), Valdorbia (Italy), Mechowo (Poland) and Serrucho, Neuquén (Argentina), from marine and terrestrial carbon isotopic series. These six stratigraphic sections from Early Jurassic western Tethys and eastern Panthalassa record the Toarcian OAE with ~6 prominent carbon isotope cycles in the CIE that provide us a 600 ± 100 kyr duration. The Peniche 405 kyr-tuned series indicates that the pre- and post-CIE intervals experienced strong precession-eccentricity-forced climate change, whereas the CIE interval is marked by dominant obliquity forcing. These dramatic and abrupt changes in astronomical response in the carbon isotopes point to fundamental shifting in the Early Toarcian

  5. Mesozoic units in SE Rhodope (Bulgaria): new structural and petrologic data and geodynamic implications for the Early Jurassic to Mid-Cretaceous evolution of the Vardar ocean basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonev, N.; Stampfli, G.

    2003-04-01

    . Immobile trace element discrimination of both rock types constrains the volcanic (oceanic)-arc origin. They generally show low total REE concentrations (LREE>HREE) with enrichment of LIL elements relative to the HFS elements, and also very low Nb and relatively high Ce content consistent with an island-arc tectonic setting. We consider that the Meliata-Maliac ocean northern passive margin could be the source provenance for the Upper Permian clastics and Middle-Upper Triassic limestone blocks within the olistostromic melange-like unit, whereas turbidites and magmatic blocks may originate in an island arc-accretionary complex that relates to the southward subduction of the Maliac ocean under the supra-subduction back-arc Vardar ocean/island arc system. These new structural and petrologic data allow to precise the tectonic setting of the Mesozoic units and their geodynamic context in the frame of the Early Jurassic to Late Cretaceous evolution of the Vardar ocean.

  6. New data towards the development of a comprehensive taphonomic framework for the Late Jurassic Cleveland-Lloyd Dinosaur Quarry, Central Utah

    PubMed Central

    Warnock, Jonathan P.; Eberhart, Shawn L.; Clawson, Steven R.; Noto, Christopher R.

    2017-01-01

    derived from post-depositional and diagenetic processes, and others are potentially produced from an abundance of decomposing vertebrate carcasses. These new data help to support the inferred depositional environment of the quarry as an ephemeral pond, and represent a significant step in understanding the taphonomy of the bonebed and Late Jurassic paleoecology in this region. PMID:28603668

  7. Early Jurassic hydrothermal vent community from the Franciscan Complex, San Rafael Mountains, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Crispin T. S.; Herrington, Richard J.; Haymon, Rachel M.; Danelian, Taniel

    1999-02-01

    The Figueroa massive sulfide deposit, located in Franciscan Complex rocks in the San Rafael Mountains of California, preserves the only known Jurassic hydrothermal vent fossils. The Figueroa fossil assemblage is specimen rich but of low diversity and comprises, in order of decreasing abundance, vestimentiferan worm tubes, the rhynchonellid brachiopod Anarhynchia cf. gabbi and a species of ?nododelphinulid gastropod. The Figueroa fossil organisms lived at a deep-water, high-temperature vent site located on a mid-ocean ridge or seamount at an equatorial latitude. The fossil vent site was then translated northwestward by the motion of the Farallon plate and was subsequently accreted to its present location. An iron-silica exhalite bed, the probable lateral equivalent of the Figueroa deposit, contains abundant filamentous microfossils with two distinct morphologies and probably represents a lower-temperature, diffuse-flow environment. The Figueroa fossil community was subject to the same environmental conditions as modern vent communities, but it is unique among modern and other fossil vent communities in having rhynchonellid brachiopods.

  8. Animal behavior frozen in time: gregarious behavior of Early Jurassic lobsters within an ammonoid body chamber.

    PubMed

    Klompmaker, Adiël A; Fraaije, René H B

    2012-01-01

    Direct animal behavior can be inferred from the fossil record only in exceptional circumstances. The exceptional mode of preservation of ammonoid shells in the Posidonia Shale (Lower Jurassic, lower Toarcian) of Dotternhausen in southern Germany, with only the organic periostracum preserved, provides an excellent opportunity to observe the contents of the ammonoid body chamber because this periostracum is translucent. Here, we report upon three delicate lobsters preserved within a compressed ammonoid specimen of Harpoceras falciferum. We attempt to explain this gregarious behavior. The three lobsters were studied using standard microscopy under low angle light. The lobsters belong to the extinct family of the Eryonidae; further identification was not possible. The organic material of the three small lobsters is preserved more than halfway into the ammonoid body chamber. The lobsters are closely spaced and are positioned with their tails oriented toward each other. The specimens are interpreted to represent corpses rather than molts. The lobsters probably sought shelter in preparation for molting or against predators such as fish that were present in Dotternhausen. Alternatively, the soft tissue of the ammonoid may have been a source of food that attracted the lobsters, or it may have served as a long-term residency for the lobsters (inquilinism). The lobsters represent the oldest known example of gregariousness amongst lobsters and decapods in the fossil record. Gregarious behavior in lobsters, also known for extant lobsters, thus developed earlier in earth's history than previously known. Moreover, this is one of the oldest known examples of decapod crustaceans preserved within cephalopod shells.

  9. A synthesis of Jurassic and Early Cretaceous crustal evolution along the southern margin of the Arctic Alaska–Chukotka microplate and implications for defining tectonic boundaries active during opening of Arctic Ocean basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Till, Alison B.

    2016-01-01

    A synthesis of Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous collision-related metamorphic events in the Arctic Alaska–Chukotka microplate clarifies its likely movement history during opening of the Amerasian and Canada basins. Comprehensive tectonic reconstructions of basin opening have been problematic, in part, because of the large size of the microplate, uncertainties in the location and kinematics of structures bounding the microplate, and lack of information on its internal deformation history. Many reconstructions have treated Arctic Alaska and Chukotka as a single crustal entity largely on the basis of similarities in their Mesozoic structural trends and similar late Proterozoic and early Paleozoic histories. Others have located Chukotka near Siberia during the Triassic and Jurassic, on the basis of detrital zircon age populations, and suggested that it was Arctic Alaska alone that rotated. The Mesozoic metamorphic histories of Arctic Alaska and Chukotka can be used to test the validity of these two approaches.A synthesis of the distribution, character, and timing of metamorphic events reveals substantial differences in the histories of the southern margin of the microplate in Chukotka in comparison to Arctic Alaska and places specific limitations on tectonic reconstructions. During the Late Jurassic and earliest Cretaceous, the Arctic Alaska margin was subducted to the south, while the Chukotka margin was the upper plate of a north-dipping subduction zone or a zone of transpression. An early Aptian blueschist- and greenschist-facies belt records the most profound crustal thickening event in the evolution of the orogen. It may have resulted in thicknesses of 50–60 km and was likely the cause of flexural subsidence in the foredeep of the Brooks Range. This event involved northern Alaska and northeasternmost Chukotka; it did not involve central and western Chukotka. Arctic Alaska and Chukotka evolved separately until the Aptian thickening event, which was likely a

  10. Animal Behavior Frozen in Time: Gregarious Behavior of Early Jurassic Lobsters within an Ammonoid Body Chamber

    PubMed Central

    Klompmaker, Adiël A.; Fraaije, René H. B.

    2012-01-01

    Direct animal behavior can be inferred from the fossil record only in exceptional circumstances. The exceptional mode of preservation of ammonoid shells in the Posidonia Shale (Lower Jurassic, lower Toarcian) of Dotternhausen in southern Germany, with only the organic periostracum preserved, provides an excellent opportunity to observe the contents of the ammonoid body chamber because this periostracum is translucent. Here, we report upon three delicate lobsters preserved within a compressed ammonoid specimen of Harpoceras falciferum. We attempt to explain this gregarious behavior. The three lobsters were studied using standard microscopy under low angle light. The lobsters belong to the extinct family of the Eryonidae; further identification was not possible. The organic material of the three small lobsters is preserved more than halfway into the ammonoid body chamber. The lobsters are closely spaced and are positioned with their tails oriented toward each other. The specimens are interpreted to represent corpses rather than molts. The lobsters probably sought shelter in preparation for molting or against predators such as fish that were present in Dotternhausen. Alternatively, the soft tissue of the ammonoid may have been a source of food that attracted the lobsters, or it may have served as a long-term residency for the lobsters (inquilinism). The lobsters represent the oldest known example of gregariousness amongst lobsters and decapods in the fossil record. Gregarious behavior in lobsters, also known for extant lobsters, thus developed earlier in earth's history than previously known. Moreover, this is one of the oldest known examples of decapod crustaceans preserved within cephalopod shells. PMID:22412846

  11. Microanatomy and life history in Palaeopleurosaurus (Rhynchocephalia: Pleurosauridae) from the Early Jurassic of Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Nicole; Scheyer, Torsten M.

    2017-02-01

    The tuatara ( Sphenodon punctatus) from New Zealand is often—erroneously—identified as a `living fossil', although it is the lone survivor of a large, successful radiation of Rhynchocephalia, sister taxon to squamates (lizards and snakes), that thrived through the Mesozoic and Cenozoic and experienced an intricate evolution of life histories and feeding habits. Within Rhynchocephalia, only Pleurosauridae are thought to be marine and piscivorous. Here, we present bone histological data of the Jurassic pleurosaurid Palaeopleurosaurus, showing osteosclerosis (i.e. bone mass increase) in its gastralia, and some osteosclerosis in its rib but no increase in bone mass in the femur, supporting a gradual skeletal specialization for an aquatic way of life. Similar to Sphenodon, the bone tissue deposited in Palaeopleurosaurus is lamellar zonal bone. The femoral growth pattern in Palaeopleurosaurus differs from that of terrestrial Sphenodon in a more irregular spacing of growth marks and deposition of non-annual (i.e. non-continuous) rest lines, indicating strong dependency on exogenous factors. The annual growth mark count in adult but not yet fully grown Palaeopleurosaurus is much lower when compared to adult individuals of Sphenodon, which could indicate a lower lifespan for Palaeopleurosaurus. Whereas the gastral ribs of Palaeopleurosaurus and Sphenodon are similar in composition, the ribs of Sphenodon differ profoundly in being separated into a proximal tubular rib part with a thick cortex, and an elliptical, flared ventral part characterised by extremely thin cortical bone. The latter argues against a previously inferred protective function of the ventral rib parts for the vulnerable viscera in Sphenodon.

  12. A New Sauropodomorph Dinosaur from the Early Jurassic of Patagonia and the Origin and Evolution of the Sauropod-type Sacrum

    PubMed Central

    Pol, Diego; Garrido, Alberto; Cerda, Ignacio A.

    2011-01-01

    Background The origin of sauropod dinosaurs is one of the major landmarks of dinosaur evolution but is still poorly understood. This drastic transformation involved major skeletal modifications, including a shift from the small and gracile condition of primitive sauropodomorphs to the gigantic and quadrupedal condition of sauropods. Recent findings in the Late Triassic–Early Jurassic of Gondwana provide critical evidence to understand the origin and early evolution of sauropods. Methodology/Principal Findings A new sauropodomorph dinosaur, Leonerasaurus taquetrensis gen. et sp. nov., is described from the Las Leoneras Formation of Central Patagonia (Argentina). The new taxon is diagnosed by the presence of anterior unserrated teeth with a low spoon-shaped crown, amphicoelous and acamerate vertebral centra, four sacral vertebrae, and humeral deltopectoral crest low and medially deflected along its distal half. The phylogenetic analysis depicts Leonerasaurus as one of the closest outgroups of Sauropoda, being the sister taxon of a clade of large bodied taxa composed of Melanorosaurus and Sauropoda. Conclusions/Significance The dental and postcranial anatomy of Leonerasaurus supports its close affinities with basal sauropods. Despite the small size and plesiomorphic skeletal anatomy of Leonerasaurus, the four vertebrae that compose its sacrum resemble that of the large-bodied primitive sauropods. This shows that the appearance of the sauropod-type of sacrum predated the marked increase in body size that characterizes the origins of sauropods, rejecting a causal explanation and evolutionary linkage between this sacral configuration and body size. Alternative phylogenetic placements of Leonerasaurus as a basal anchisaurian imply a convergent acquisition of the sauropod-type sacrum in the new small-bodied taxon, also rejecting an evolutionary dependence of sacral configuration and body size in sauropodomorphs. This and other recent discoveries are showing that the

  13. Early Jurassic mafic dykes from the Aigao uranium ore deposit in South China: Geochronology, petrogenesis and relationship with uranium mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Di; Zhao, Kui-Dong; Chen, Wei; Jiang, Shao-Yong

    2018-05-01

    Mafic dykes are abundant and widely distributed in many granite-hosted uranium ore deposits in South China. However, their geochronology, petrogenesis and relationship with uranium mineralization were poorly constrained. In this study, apatite U-Pb dating, whole-rock major and trace element and Sr-Nd-Pb isotope analysis were conducted for the dolerite dykes from the Aigao uranium ore deposit. Apatite U-Pb isotopic data indicate that the mafic dykes were emplaced at Early Jurassic (189 ± 4 Ma), which provides new evidence for the rarely identified Early Jurassic magmatism in South China. Pyroxene from the dykes is mainly augite, and plagioclase belongs to albite. The dolerite samples have relatively low SiO2 contents (45.33-46.79 wt%), relatively high total alkali contents (K2O + Na2O = 4.11-4.58 wt%) and Al2O3 contents (13.39-13.80 wt%), and medium MgO contents (4.29-5.16 wt%). They are enriched in Nb, Ta, Ti, rare earth elements and depleted in Rb, K, Sr, Th, showing the typical OIB-like geochemical affinity. All the dolerite samples show homogeneous Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic compositions, with (87Sr/86Sr)i varying from 0.706049 to 0.707137, εNd(t) from +4.6 to +5.2, 206Pb/204Pb from 19.032 to 19.126 and 207Pb/204Pb from 15.641 to 15.653. The mafic dykes in the Aigao deposit should be derived from the partial melting of the asthenospheric mantle and formed in a within-plate extensional environment. The emplacement age of the mafic dykes is older than the uranium mineralization age. Therefore, CO2 in ore-forming fluids couldn't originate from the basaltic magma as suggested by previous studies. The dolerite dykes might only provide a favorable reducing environment to promote the precipitation of uraninite from oxidize hydrothermal fluids.

  14. Stable iron isotopes and microbial mediation in red pigmentation of the Rosso Ammonitico (mid-late Jurassic, Verona area, Italy).

    PubMed

    Préat, Alain R; de Jong, Jeroen T M; Mamet, Bernard L; Mattielli, Nadine

    2008-08-01

    The iron (Fe) isotopic composition of 17 Jurassic limestones from the Rosso Ammonitico of Verona (Italy) have been analyzed by Multiple-Collector Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). Such analysis allowed for the recognition of a clear iron isotopic fractionation (mean -0.8 per thousand, ranging between -1.52 to -0.06 per thousand) on a millimeter-centimeter scale between the red and grey facies of the studied formation. After gentle acid leaching, measurements of the Fe isotopic compositions gave delta(56)Fe values that were systematically lower in the red facies residues (median: -0.84 per thousand, range: -1.46 to +0.26 per thousand) compared to the grey facies residues (median: -0.08 per thousand, range: -0.34 to +0.23 per thousand). In addition, the red facies residues were characterized by a lighter delta(56)Fe signal relative to their corresponding leachates. These Fe isotopic fractionations could be a sensitive fingerprint of a biotic process; systematic isotopic differences between the red and grey facies residues, which consist of hematite and X-ray amorphous iron hydroxides, respectively, are hypothesized to have resulted from the oxidizing activity of iron bacteria and fungi in the red facies. The grey Fe isotopic data match the Fe isotopic signature of the terrestrial baseline established for igneous rocks and low-C(org) clastic sedimentary rocks. The Fe isotopic compositions of the grey laminations are consistent with the influx of detrital iron minerals and lack of microbial redox processes at the water-interface during deposition. Total Fe concentration measurements were performed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) (confirmed by concentration estimations obtained by MC-ICP-MS analyses of microdrilled samples) on five samples, and resultant values range between 0.30% (mean) in the grey facies and 1.31% (mean) in the red facies. No correlation was observed between bulk Fe content and pigmentation

  15. Breccia pipes in the Karoo Basin, South Africa, as conduits for metamorphic gases to the Early Jurassic atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silkoset, Petter; Svensen, Henrik; Planke, Sverre

    2014-05-01

    The Toarcian (Early Jurassic) event was manifested by globally elevated temperatures and anoxic ocean conditions that particularly affected shallow marine taxa. The event coincided with the emplacement of the vast Karoo-Ferrar Large Igneous Province. Among the suggestions for trigger mechanisms for the climatic perturbation is metamorphic methane generation from black shale around the sills in the Karoo Basin, South Africa. The sill emplacement provides a mechanism for voluminous in-situ production and emission of greenhouse gases, and establishes a distinct link between basin-trapped and atmospheric carbon. In the lower stratigraphic levels of the Karoo Basin, black shales are metamorphosed around sills and the sediments are cut by a large number of pipe structures with metamorphic haloes. The pipes are vertical, cylindrical structures that contain brecciated and baked sediments with variable input of magmatic material. Here, we present borehole, petrographic, geochemical and field data from breccia pipes and contact aureoles based on field campaigns over a number of years (2004-2014). The metamorphism around the pipes show equivalent metamorphic grade as the sediments around nearby sills, suggesting a more prominent phreatomagmatic component than previously thought. The stratigraphic position of pipes and the breccia characteristics strengthens the hypothesis of a key role in the Toarcian carbon isotope excursion.

  16. Discovery of the early Jurassic Gajia mélange in the Bangong-Nujiang suture zone: Southward subduction of the Bangong-Nujiang Ocean?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Wen; Hu, Xiumian; Zhu, Dicheng; An, Wei; Ma, Anlin

    2017-06-01

    Mélange records a series of geological processes associated with oceanic subduction and continental collision. This paper reports for the first time the presence of Early Jurassic mélange from NW Nagqu in the southern margin of the Bangong-Nujiang suture zone, termed as the Gajia mélange. It shows typically blocks-in-matrix structure with matrix of black shale and siliceous mudstone, and several centimeters to several meters sized blocks of sandstone, silicalite, limestone and basalt. The sandstone blocks consist of homologous sandstone and two types of exotic sandstone, with different modal compositions. The Group 1 of exotic sandstone blocks consists of mainly of feldspar and quartz, whereas the Group 2 is rich in volcanic detritus. The Group 3 of homologous sandstone blocks is rich in feldspar and volcanic detritus with rare occurrence of quartz. U-Pb age data and in situ Hf isotopic compositions of detrital zircons from sandstone blocks are similar to those from the Lhasa terrane, suggesting that the sandstone blocks in the Gajia mélange most probably came from the Lhasa terrane. The YC1σ(2+) age of homologous sandstone blocks is 177 ± 2.4 Ma, suggesting an Early Jurassic depositional age for the sandstones within the Gajia mélange. The Gajia mélange likely records the southward subduction of the Bangong-Nujiang Ocean during the Early Jurassic.

  17. The impact of global warming and anoxia on marine benthic community dynamics: an example from the Toarcian (Early Jurassic).

    PubMed

    Danise, Silvia; Twitchett, Richard J; Little, Crispin T S; Clémence, Marie-Emilie

    2013-01-01

    The Pliensbachian-Toarcian (Early Jurassic) fossil record is an archive of natural data of benthic community response to global warming and marine long-term hypoxia and anoxia. In the early Toarcian mean temperatures increased by the same order of magnitude as that predicted for the near future; laminated, organic-rich, black shales were deposited in many shallow water epicontinental basins; and a biotic crisis occurred in the marine realm, with the extinction of approximately 5% of families and 26% of genera. High-resolution quantitative abundance data of benthic invertebrates were collected from the Cleveland Basin (North Yorkshire, UK), and analysed with multivariate statistical methods to detect how the fauna responded to environmental changes during the early Toarcian. Twelve biofacies were identified. Their changes through time closely resemble the pattern of faunal degradation and recovery observed in modern habitats affected by anoxia. All four successional stages of community structure recorded in modern studies are recognised in the fossil data (i.e. Stage III: climax; II: transitional; I: pioneer; 0: highly disturbed). Two main faunal turnover events occurred: (i) at the onset of anoxia, with the extinction of most benthic species and the survival of a few adapted to thrive in low-oxygen conditions (Stages I to 0) and (ii) in the recovery, when newly evolved species colonized the re-oxygenated soft sediments and the path of recovery did not retrace of pattern of ecological degradation (Stages I to II). The ordination of samples coupled with sedimentological and palaeotemperature proxy data indicate that the onset of anoxia and the extinction horizon coincide with both a rise in temperature and sea level. Our study of how faunal associations co-vary with long and short term sea level and temperature changes has implications for predicting the long-term effects of "dead zones" in modern oceans.

  18. The Impact of Global Warming and Anoxia on Marine Benthic Community Dynamics: an Example from the Toarcian (Early Jurassic)

    PubMed Central

    Danise, Silvia; Twitchett, Richard J.; Little, Crispin T. S.; Clémence, Marie-Emilie

    2013-01-01

    The Pliensbachian-Toarcian (Early Jurassic) fossil record is an archive of natural data of benthic community response to global warming and marine long-term hypoxia and anoxia. In the early Toarcian mean temperatures increased by the same order of magnitude as that predicted for the near future; laminated, organic-rich, black shales were deposited in many shallow water epicontinental basins; and a biotic crisis occurred in the marine realm, with the extinction of approximately 5% of families and 26% of genera. High-resolution quantitative abundance data of benthic invertebrates were collected from the Cleveland Basin (North Yorkshire, UK), and analysed with multivariate statistical methods to detect how the fauna responded to environmental changes during the early Toarcian. Twelve biofacies were identified. Their changes through time closely resemble the pattern of faunal degradation and recovery observed in modern habitats affected by anoxia. All four successional stages of community structure recorded in modern studies are recognised in the fossil data (i.e. Stage III: climax; II: transitional; I: pioneer; 0: highly disturbed). Two main faunal turnover events occurred: (i) at the onset of anoxia, with the extinction of most benthic species and the survival of a few adapted to thrive in low-oxygen conditions (Stages I to 0) and (ii) in the recovery, when newly evolved species colonized the re-oxygenated soft sediments and the path of recovery did not retrace of pattern of ecological degradation (Stages I to II). The ordination of samples coupled with sedimentological and palaeotemperature proxy data indicate that the onset of anoxia and the extinction horizon coincide with both a rise in temperature and sea level. Our study of how faunal associations co-vary with long and short term sea level and temperature changes has implications for predicting the long-term effects of “dead zones” in modern oceans. PMID:23457537

  19. First report of Plesiochelys etalloni and Tropidemys langii from the Late Jurassic of the UK and the palaeobiogeography of plesiochelyid turtles

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Sandra D.

    2016-01-01

    Plesiochelyidae is a clade of relatively large coastal marine turtles that inhabited the shallow epicontinental seas that covered western Europe during the Late Jurassic. Although the group has been reported from many deposits, the material is rarely identified at the species level. Here, we describe historical plesiochelyid material from the Kimmeridge Clay Formation of England and compare it with contemporaneous localities from the continent. An isolated basicranium is referred to the plesiochelyid Plesiochelys etalloni based notably on the presence of a fully ossified pila prootica. This specimen represents the largest individual known so far for this species and is characterized by remarkably robust features. It is, however, uncertain whether this represents an ontogenetic trend towards robustness in this species, some kind of specific variation (temporal, geographical or sexual), or an abnormal condition of this particular specimen. Four other specimens from the Kimmeridge Clay are referred to the plesiochelyid Tropidemys langii. This contradicts a recent study that failed to identify this species in this formation. This is the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that the presence of Plesiochelys etalloni and Tropidemys langii is confirmed outside the Swiss and French Jura Mountains. Our results indicate that some plesiochelyids had a wide palaeobiogeographic distribution during the Kimmeridgian. PMID:26909172

  20. Early Jurassic clay authigenesis in the Central Appalachian Valley and Ridge province; infiltration of surface-derived fluids during Pangean rifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, E. A.; van der Pluijm, B.; Vennemann, T. W.

    2017-12-01

    The eastern margin of North America has a protracted and intricate tectonic history. The terminal collision of Gondwana and Laurentia in the late Paleozoic formed the Appalachian mountain belt, a trans-continental orogen that persisted for almost 100 million years until Mesozoic break-up of the supercontinent Pangea. A host of studies have targeted the evolution and migration of fluids through Appalachian crust in an effort to understand how fluid promotes mass and heat redistribution, and mediates crustal deformation, particularly during the assembly of Pangea. Folded clay units from the Central Appalachian Valley and Ridge province were sampled for stable and radiogenic isotope analysis. Separation of samples into different grain-size fractions characterizes detrital (host) and authigenic (neomineralized) clays. Stable H-isotope compositions reveal a systematic pattern with varying proportions of illite polytypes—the finer, younger fraction is D-depleted compared to the coarser, primarily detrital fraction. For each individual location, the H-isotopic composition of the fluid from which the authigenic population was grown is calculated. δDVSMOW of these fluids has a range from -77 to -52 ± 2 ‰, consistent with a surface-derived fluid source. The notably negative values for several samples indicates a meteoric composition of moderate to high elevation origin, suggesting that they are not connate waters, but instead preserve infiltration of fluids due to fracture-induced permeability. Key to this interpretation is 40Ar/39Ar-dating of a subset of these samples that reveals a post-orogenic age for authigenic clay mineralization in the Early Jurassic ( 180 Ma). These ages are evidence that surface fluid infiltration was unrelated to the Appalachian orogeny, but coeval with (upper) crustal extension from the initial break-up of Pangea and the emplacement of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province.

  1. Pollen and spores date origin of rift basins from Texas to nova scotia as early late triassic.

    PubMed

    Traverse, A

    1987-06-12

    Palynological studies of the nonmarine Newark Supergroup of eastern North America and of rift basins in the northern Gulf of Mexico facilitate correlation with well-dated marine sections of Europe. New information emphasizes the chronological link between the Newark basins and a Gulf of Mexico basin and their common history in the rifting of North America from Pangea. Shales from the subsurface South Georgia Basin are shown to be of late Karnian age (early Late Triassic). The known time of earliest sedimentation in the Culpeper Basin is extended from Norian (late Late Triassic) to mid-Karnian, and the date of earliest sedimentation in the Richmond and Deep River basins is moved to at least earliest Karnian, perhaps Ladinian. The subsurface Eagle Mills Formation in Texas and Arkansas has been dated palynologically as mid- to late Karnian. The oldest parts of the Newark Supergroup, and the Eagle Mills Formation, mostly began deposition in precursor rift basins that formed in Ladinian to early Karnian time. In the southern Newark basins, sedimentation apparently ceased in late Karnian but continued in the northern basins well into the Jurassic, until genesis of the Atlantic ended basin sedimentation.

  2. "How Early Is Early?" or "How Late Is Late?": Thinking through Some Issues in Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercieca, Daniela; Mercieca, Duncan P.

    2014-01-01

    Early intervention comes in-between the lives of children, families and teachers. This article uses part of a report written by an educational psychologist about a little girl to question the nature of intervention through Rancière's writings. As children and parents are seen as put into the position of inadequacy, they require such…

  3. Jurassic faults of southwest Alabama and offshore areas

    SciTech Connect

    Mink, R.M.; Tew, B.H.; Bearden, B.L.

    1991-03-01

    Four fault groups affecting Jurassic strata occur in the southwest and offshore Alabama areas. They include the regional basement rift trend, the regional peripheral fault trend, the Mobile graben fault system, and the Lower Mobile Bay fault system. The regional basement system rift and regional peripheral fault trends are distinct and rim the inner margin of the eastern Gulf Coastal Plain. The regional basement rift trend is genetically related to the breakup of Pangea and the opening of the Gulf of Mexico in the Late Triassic-Early Jurassic. This fault trend is thought to have formed contemporaneously with deposition of Latemore » Triassic-Early Jurassic Eagle Mills Formation and to displace pre-Mesozoic rocks. The regional peripheral fault trend consists of a group of en echelon extensional faults that are parallel or subparallel to regional strike of Gulf Coastal Plain strata and correspond to the approximate updip limit of thick Louann Salt. Nondiapiric salt features are associated with the trend and maximum structural development is exhibited in the Haynesville-Smackover section. No hydrocarbon accumulations have been documented in the pre-Jurassic strata of southwest and offshore Alabama. Productive hydrocarbon reservoirs occur in Jurassic strata along the trends of the fault groups, suggesting a significant relationship between structural development in the Jurassic and hydrocarbon accumulation. Hydrocarbon traps are generally structural or contain a major structural component and include salt anticlines, faulted salt anticlines, and extensional fault traps. All of the major hydrocarbon accumulations are associated with movement of the Louann Salt along the regional peripheral fault trend, the Mobile graben fault system, or the Lower Mobile Bay fault system.« less

  4. Petrogenesis of early Jurassic basalts in southern Jiangxi Province, South China: Implications for the thermal state of the Mesozoic mantle beneath South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cen, Tao; Li, Wu-xian; Wang, Xuan-ce; Pang, Chong-jin; Li, Zheng-xiang; Xing, Guang-fu; Zhao, Xi-lin; Tao, Jihua

    2016-07-01

    Early Jurassic bimodal volcanic and intrusive rocks in southern South China show distinct associations and distribution patterns in comparison with those of the Middle Jurassic and Cretaceous rocks in the area. It is widely accepted that these rocks formed in an extensional setting, although the timing of the onset and the tectonic driver for extension are debated. Here, we present systematic LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages, whole-rock geochemistry and Sr-Nd isotope data for bimodal volcanic rocks from the Changpu Formation in the Changpu-Baimianshi and Dongkeng-Linjiang basins in southern Jiangxi Province, South China. Zircon U-Pb ages indicate that the bimodal volcanic rocks erupted at ca. 190 Ma, contemporaneous with the Fankeng basalts ( 183 Ma). A compilation of geochronological results demonstrates that basin-scale basaltic eruptions occurred during the Early Jurassic within a relatively short interval (< 5 Ma). These Early Jurassic basalts have tholeiitic compositions and OIB-like trace element distribution patterns. Geochemical analyses show that the basalts were derived from depleted asthenospheric mantle, dominated by a volatile-free peridotite source. The calculated primary melt compositions suggest that the basalts formed at 1.9-2.1 GPa, with melting temperatures of 1378 °C-1405 °C and a mantle potential temperature (TP) ranging from 1383 °C to 1407 °C. The temperature range is somewhat hotter than normal mid-ocean-basalt (MORB) mantle but similar to an intra-plate continental mantle setting, such as the Basin and Range Province in western North America. This study provides an important constraint on the Early Jurassic mantle thermal state beneath South China. Reference: Raczek, I., Stoll, B., Hofmann, A.W., Jochum, K.P. 2001. High-precision trace element data for the USGS reference materials BCR-1, BCR-2, BHVO-1, BHVO-2, AGV-1, AGV-2, DTS-1, DTS-2, GSP-1 and GSP-2 by ID-TIMS and MIC-SSMS. Geostandards Newsletter 25(1), 77-86.

  5. Closure of the Mongol-Okhotsk Ocean as Constrained by Late Permian to Early Cretaceous Paleomagnetic Data from the Suture Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cogne, J.; Kravchinsky, V.; Gilder, S.; Hankard, F.

    2005-12-01

    The Paleozoic Mongol-Okhotsk Ocean separated the Siberian craton to the north from a landmass composed of Amuria, Tarim, Qaidam, Tibet and the North and South China blocks to the south. Based on a comparison of paleomagnetic data from the NCB with the Eurasian apparent polar wander path, this ocean closed by the beginning of the Cretaceous. We present here a review of recent paleomagnetic studies of Late Permian to Early Cretaceous formations from the Transbaikal area of south Siberia, coming from localities situated on both sides of the Mongol-Okhotsk suture zone. The main conclusions that we draw from these studies are as follows. (1) A Late Permian ~4500 km latitude difference indeed existed between Amuria and the Siberia blocks at 110°E longitude. (2) In Middle-Late Jurassic times, a 1700 to 2700 km paleolatitudinal gap still existed between the two blocks. This contradicts geological interpretations of a Middle Jurassic closure of the ocean at this longitude. (3) Consistency of Early Cretaceous paleolatitudes from both sides of the suture demonstrates the closure of the ocean at that time. Altogether, these suggest a quite fast closure between the Middle Jurassic and the Early Cretaceous, at about 15±11 cm/yr. Finally, all pre-Late Cretaceous paleomagnetic poles appear to be distributed along small-circles centered on site localities. We think this is due to continued deformation acting in the Mongol-Okhotsk suture region related to suturing. Conversely, the post-Early Cretaceous rotations may be related to Tertiary deformation under the effect of the India-Asia collision.

  6. Recycling of Amazonian detrital zircons in the Mixteco terrane, southern Mexico: Paleogeographic implications during Jurassic-Early Cretaceous and Paleogene times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva-Romo, Gilberto; Mendoza-Rosales, Claudia Cristina; Campos-Madrigal, Emiliano; Morales-Yáñez, Axél; de la Torre-González, Alam Israel; Nápoles-Valenzuela, Juan Ivan

    2018-04-01

    In the northeastern Mixteco terrane of southern Mexico, in the Ixcaquixtla-Atzumba region, the recycling of Amazonian detrital zircons records the paleogeography during the Mesozoic period in the context of the breakup of Pangea, a phenomenon that disarticulated the Sanozama-La Mora paleo-river. The clastic units of southern Mexico in the Ayuquila, Otlaltepec and Zapotitlán Mesozoic basins, as well as in the Atzumba Cenozoic basin, are characterized by detrital zircon contents with ages specific to the Amazonian craton, ranging between 3040 and 1278 Ma. The presence of zircons of Amazonian affinity suggests a provenance by recycling from carrier units such as the La Mora Formation or the Ayú Complex. In the area, the Ayú and Acatlán complexes form the Cosoltepec block, a paleogeographic element that during Early Cretaceous time acted as the divide between the slopes of the paleo-Gulf of Mexico and the paleo-Pacific Ocean. The sedimentological characteristics of the Jurassic-Cenozoic clastic successions in the Ixcaquixtla-Atzumba region denote relatively short transport in braided fluvial systems and alluvial fans. In this way, several basins are recognized around the Cosoltepec block. At the southeastern edge of the Cosoltepec block, the Ayuquila and Tecomazúchil formations accumulated in the Ayuquila continental basin on the paleo-Pacific Ocean slope. On the other hand, within the paleo-Gulf of Mexico slope, in the Otlaltepec continental basin, the Piedra Hueca and the Otlaltepec formations accumulated. The upper member of the Santa Lucía Formation accumulated in a transitional environment on the southwestern shoulder of the Zapotitlán basin, as well as on the paleo-Gulf of Mexico slope. In the Ayuquila basin, a marine transgression is recognized that advanced from south to north during the Late Jurassic. At the northeastern edge of the Cosoltepec block, we propose that the Santa Lucía formation attests to a transgression from the paleo-Gulf of Mexico

  7. Abrupt Change in North American Plate Motion: Magnetostratigraphy and Paleopoles of the Early Jurassic Moenave Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutny, M. K.; Steiner, M. B.

    2001-12-01

    The J-1 cusp marks a dramatic ~ 180° change in the apparent motion of the magnetic pole with respect to North America. The cusp is defined by a sequence of poles: Chinle - Moenave - Kayenta. The Moenave pole (Ekstrand and Butler, 1989), which forms the point of the cusp, was obtained primarily from the lower member (Dinosaur Canyon) of the three-member Moenave Formation. We present new paleomagnetic data from the upper two members (Whitmore Point and Springdale Sandstone) of the formation. The Vermillion Cliffs in southern Utah present excellent exposures of the Moenave Formation. At this location, the Moenave rests uncomformably on the Late Triassic Chinle Group, although to the southeast it overlies it in a conformable manner. The Moenave is seemingly conformably overlain by the Kayenta Formation. Our study identified six polarity intervals in 100 meters of section. A preliminary paleopole from the Whitmore Point Member falls within the 95% confidence limits of the Dinosaur Canyon pole (Ekstrand and Butler, 1989), as does our pole from the top Springdale Sandstone member. If the apparent polar wander does indeed represent motion of the North American continent, then the reversal in direction implied by the J-1 cusp takes place after the deposition of the Springdale Sandstone, and either before or during the deposition of the lower Kayenta Formation. No directions intermediate between the Moenave and Kayenta directions were observed up through the uppermost Moenave strata. Within the Moenave, the lack of discernable change in magnetic direction between the three members suggests continuous deposition. This result is consistent with the observed mutually interfingering nature of the Whitmore Point and Springdale Sandstone. The sudden change in magnetic direction between the top of the Moenave and the Kayenta suggests the possibility of an unconformity between the two formations, and/or rapid continental motion following the turnaround.

  8. Mid-Mesozoic (Mid-Jurassic to Early Cretaceous) evolution of the Georges Bank Basin, U.S. North Atlantic outer continental shelf: Sedimentology of the Conoco 145-1 well

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poppe, L.J.; Poag, C.W.; Stanton, R.W.

    1992-01-01

    The Conoco 145-1 exploratory well, located in the southeastern portion of the Georges Bank Basin, was drilled to a total depth of 4303 m below the sea floor. The oldest sedimentary rocks sampled are of Middle Jurassic age (Late Bathonian-Callovian). A dolomite-limestone-evaporite sequence dominates the section below 3917 m; limestone is the predominant lithology in the intervals of 3271-3774 m, 2274-3158 m, and 1548-1981 m. Siliciclastics dominate the remainder of the drilled section. Calcite tightly cements most of the rocks below 1548 m; dolomite, silica, siderite, and diagenetic clay cements are locally important. Restricted inner marine environments, representing lagoonal and tidal flat conditions, prevailed at the wellsite during much of the deposition recorded by the Callovian-Bathonian age Iroquois Formation. These environments gave way to a carbonate platform, which formed part of the > 5,000 km long Bahama-Grand Banks gigaplatform that lasted through the end of the Late Jurassic (encompassing the uppermost portion of the Iroquois Formation and the Scatarie Limestone and Bacarro Limestone Members of the Abenaki Formation). The absence of a skeletal-reef association and the dominance of muddy limestone fabrics are evidence that the 145-1 wellsite was located on the platform interior. Major periods of siticiclastic deposition interrupted carbonate deposition, and they are recorded by stratigraphic equivalents of the Mohican Formation, Misaine Shale Member of the Abenaki Formation, and the Mohawk and Mic Mac Formations. A series of sustained prograding delta systems, the earliest of which is preserved as the Missisauga Formation, buried the carbonate platform following its drowning in the Early Cretaceous (Berriasian-Valanginian). The sparser, primarily allochthonous lignite content and better-sorted, glauconite-bearing sands of the Missisauga strata at the 145-1 wellsite suggest that shallow marine or barrier-bar environments were more prevalent than the low

  9. Cognitive advantages and disadvantages in early and late bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Pelham, Sabra D; Abrams, Lise

    2014-03-01

    Previous research has documented advantages and disadvantages of early bilinguals, defined as learning a 2nd language by school age and using both languages since that time. Relative to monolinguals, early bilinguals manifest deficits in lexical access but benefits in executive function. We investigated whether becoming bilingual after childhood (late bilinguals) can produce the cognitive advantages and disadvantages typical of early bilinguals. Participants were 30 monolingual English speakers, 30 late English-Spanish bilinguals, and 30 early Spanish-English bilinguals who completed a picture naming task (lexical access) and an attentional network task (executive function). Late and early bilinguals manifested equivalent cognitive effects in both tasks, demonstrating lexical access deficits and executive function benefits. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that cognitive effects associated with bilingualism arise as the result of proficient, habitual use of 2 languages and not of developmental changes associated with becoming bilingual during childhood.

  10. Cranial anatomy of Bellusaurus sui (Dinosauria: Eusauropoda) from the Middle-Late Jurassic Shishugou Formation of northwest China and a review of sauropod cranial ontogeny

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xing

    2018-01-01

    Bellusaurus sui is an enigmatic sauropod dinosaur from the Middle-Late Jurassic Shishugou Formation of northwest China. Bellusaurus is known from a monospecific bonebed preserving elements from more than a dozen juvenile individuals, including numerous bones of the skull, providing rare insight into the cranial anatomy of juvenile sauropods. Here, we present a comprehensive description of the cranial anatomy of Bellusaurus, supplementing the holotypic cranial material with additional elements recovered from recent joint Sino-American field expeditions. Bellusaurus is diagnosed by several unique autapomorphies, including a neurovascular foramen piercing the ascending process of the maxilla at midheight, the frontal process of the nasal extending farther posteriorly onto the frontal than the prefrontal, and U-shaped medial and lateral notches in the posterior margin of the ventral process of the squamosal. Several features identified here, including a preantorbital opening in the maxilla, a stepped dorsal margin of the vomerine process of the pterygoid, and the partitioning of the dorsal midline endocranial fossae associated with the dural venous sinuses into anterior and posterior components by a transverse ridge of the parietal, are consistent with recent phylogenetic hypotheses that recover Bellusaurus as a basal macronarian or close relative of Neosauropoda. We review the current state of knowledge of sauropod cranial ontogeny, placing several aspects of the cranial anatomy of Bellusaurus in an ontogenetic context and providing explicit hypotheses of ontogenetic transformations that can be tested by future discoveries of ontogenetic variants of sauropod skulls. While scoring ontogenetically variable characters as unknown may help to alleviate the biasing effects of ontogeny on the phylogenetic position of juvenile specimens, we caution that this approach may remove phylogenetically informative character information, and argue that inference methods that are known

  11. Response of marine biota to a period of oceanic anoxia during the Toarcian (Early Jurassic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caswell, B. A.; Coe, A. L.; Cohen, A. S.

    2008-12-01

    The early Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE; 183 Ma) was associated with a species level extinction of marine fauna and a crisis in the marine phytoplankton. The event lasted c. 250 ka and was characterised by a large, negative C-isotope excursion (CIE) of ~-7 per mil in marine organic matter, marine carbonates and fossilized wood. Geochemical evidence suggests that there was a contemporaneous increase in seawater temperature of 6-13° C that was accompanied by a large increase in the rate of global weathering. The present study documents changes in marine macrofauna in the early Toarcian at a high resolution and explores how species composition and biometric measurements are linked to geochemical changes. Reanalysis of the published palaeontological data for the Toarcian OAE suggests three apparent extinction horizons on a global and regional scale. The youngest of these horizons coincides exactly with the initial decrease in δ13C, and with the initial increases in sea surface temperature, continental weathering rates and seawater anoxia. New species range data were collected during this study from Toarcian sections in N Yorkshire, England. The results show distinct relationships with high resolution geochemical datasets (Cohen et al. 2007; Pearce et al. 2008). For example, there was an almost complete absence of fauna for 1750-12500 years immediately after each of the four abrupt shifts that make up the overall CIE. Only one bivalve species, Pseudomytiloides dubius, occurs in high abundance throughout the event, except within these discrete horizons. Increased epifaunal bivalve diversity and the reappearance of infauna indicate a brief return to relatively oxygenated conditions towards the end of the CIE. Biometric data were obtained for the two dominant bivalve species P. dubius and Bositra radiata from over 226 stratigraphic levels across the event. The data show that shell size is related to fluctuating seawater anoxia as recorded from Mo abundance and Mo

  12. So Close, yet So Far Away: Early vs. Late Dropouts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Yanli; Cragg, Kristina M.

    2013-01-01

    While some students drop out early in their academic career, others drop out close to completion. What similarities and differences exist between these early and late dropouts? Using a sample 3,520 first-time, full-time (FTFT) students seeking a bachelor's degree at a state university, this study employs multinomial logistic regression to model…

  13. On the age of the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lena, Luis; Ramos, Victor; Pimentel, Marcio; Aguirre-Urreta, Beatriz; Naipauer, Maximiliano; Schaltegger, Urs

    2017-04-01

    Calibrating the geologic time is of utmost importance to understanding geological and biological processes throughout Earth history. The Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary has proven to be one of the most problematic boundaries to calibrate in the geologic time. The present definition of the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary still remains contentious mainly because of the dominant endemic nature of the flora and fauna in stratigraphic sections, which hinders an agreement on a GSSP. Consequently, an absolute and precise age for the boundary is yet to meet an agreement among the community. Additionally, integrating chemical, paleomagnetic or astronomical proxies to aid the definition of the boundary has also proven to be difficult because the boundary lacks any abrupt geochemical changes or recognizable geological events. However, the traditional Berriasella jacobi Subzone is disregarded as a primary marker and the use of calpionellids has been gaining momentum for defining the boundary. The Jurassic Cretaceous boundary in the Vaca Muerta Fm. in the Nuequen Basin of the Andes is a potential candidate for the boundary stratotype because of its high density of ammonites, nannofossils and interbedded datable horizons. Consequently, the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary is very well defined in the Vaca Muerta Fm. On the basis of both ammonites and nannofossils. Here we present new high-precision U-Pb age determinations from two volcanic ash beds that bracket the age of the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary: 1) ash bed LLT_14_9, with a 206Pb/238U age of 139.7 Ma, which is 2 meters above Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary based on the Argetiniceras noduliferum (Early Berriasian ) and Substeueroceras Koeneni (Late Tithonian) ammonites zone; and 2) bed LLT_14_10, with an age of 140.1 Ma, located 3m below the J-K boundary based on last occurrence of the nannofossils N. kamptneri minor and N. steinmanni minor. Therefore, we propose that the age of the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary should be close to 140

  14. Early versus Late Parenteral Nutrition in Critically Ill Children.

    PubMed

    Fivez, Tom; Kerklaan, Dorian; Mesotten, Dieter; Verbruggen, Sascha; Wouters, Pieter J; Vanhorebeek, Ilse; Debaveye, Yves; Vlasselaers, Dirk; Desmet, Lars; Casaer, Michael P; Garcia Guerra, Gonzalo; Hanot, Jan; Joffe, Ari; Tibboel, Dick; Joosten, Koen; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2016-03-24

    Recent trials have questioned the benefit of early parenteral nutrition in adults. The effect of early parenteral nutrition on clinical outcomes in critically ill children is unclear. We conducted a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial involving 1440 critically ill children to investigate whether withholding parenteral nutrition for 1 week (i.e., providing late parenteral nutrition) in the pediatric intensive care unit (ICU) is clinically superior to providing early parenteral nutrition. Fluid loading was similar in the two groups. The two primary end points were new infection acquired during the ICU stay and the adjusted duration of ICU dependency, as assessed by the number of days in the ICU and as time to discharge alive from ICU. For the 723 patients receiving early parenteral nutrition, parenteral nutrition was initiated within 24 hours after ICU admission, whereas for the 717 patients receiving late parenteral nutrition, parenteral nutrition was not provided until the morning of the 8th day in the ICU. In both groups, enteral nutrition was attempted early and intravenous micronutrients were provided. Although mortality was similar in the two groups, the percentage of patients with a new infection was 10.7% in the group receiving late parenteral nutrition, as compared with 18.5% in the group receiving early parenteral nutrition (adjusted odds ratio, 0.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.35 to 0.66). The mean (±SE) duration of ICU stay was 6.5±0.4 days in the group receiving late parenteral nutrition, as compared with 9.2±0.8 days in the group receiving early parenteral nutrition; there was also a higher likelihood of an earlier live discharge from the ICU at any time in the late-parenteral-nutrition group (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.37). Late parenteral nutrition was associated with a shorter duration of mechanical ventilatory support than was early parenteral nutrition (P=0.001), as well as a smaller proportion of patients

  15. A Cost-effectiveness Analysis of Early vs Late Tracheostomy.

    PubMed

    Liu, C Carrie; Rudmik, Luke

    2016-10-01

    The timing of tracheostomy in critically ill patients requiring mechanical ventilation is controversial. An important consideration that is currently missing in the literature is an evaluation of the economic impact of an early tracheostomy strategy vs a late tracheostomy strategy. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the early tracheostomy strategy vs the late tracheostomy strategy. This economic analysis was performed using a decision tree model with a 90-day time horizon. The economic perspective was that of the US health care third-party payer. The primary outcome was the incremental cost per tracheostomy avoided. Probabilities were obtained from meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials. Costs were obtained from the published literature and the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project database. A multivariate probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed to account for uncertainty surrounding mean values used in the reference case. The reference case demonstrated that the cost of the late tracheostomy strategy was $45 943.81 for 0.36 of effectiveness. The cost of the early tracheostomy strategy was $31 979.12 for 0.19 of effectiveness. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for the late tracheostomy strategy compared with the early tracheostomy strategy was $82 145.24 per tracheostomy avoided. With a willingness-to-pay threshold of $50 000, the early tracheostomy strategy is cost-effective with 56% certainty. The adaptation of an early vs a late tracheostomy strategy depends on the priorities of the decision-maker. Up to a willingness-to-pay threshold of $80 000 per tracheostomy avoided, the early tracheostomy strategy has a higher probability of being the more cost-effective intervention.

  16. Immediate, early and late seizures after primary intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Qian, Cheng; Löppönen, Pekka; Tetri, Sami; Huhtakangas, Juha; Juvela, Seppo; Turtiainen, Hanna-Maria E; Bode, Michaela K; Hillbom, Matti

    2014-05-01

    Seizures after primary intracerebral hemorrhage (PICH) are significant and treatable complications, but the factors predicting immediate, early and late seizures are poorly known. We investigated characteristics and outcome with special reference to occurrence and timing of a first seizure among consecutive subjects with PICH. A population-based study was conducted in Northern Ostrobothnia, Finland, in 1993-2008 that included all patients with a first-ever primary ICH without any prior diagnosis of epilepsy. Immediate (<24h after admission), early (1-14 days) and late (>2 weeks) seizures were considered separately. Out of a total of 935 ICH patients, 51 had immediate, 21 early and 58 late seizures. The patients with seizures were significantly younger than the others and more often had a subcortical hematoma location (p<0.05). Lifestyle factors did not differ between the groups. The risk factors for immediate seizures in multivariable analysis were a low Glasgow coma scale score (GCS) on admission, subcortical location and age inversely (p<0.01). The only independent risk factor for early seizures was subcortical location (p<0.001), whereas subcortical location (p<0.001), age inversely (p<0.01) and hematoma evacuation (p<0.05) independently predicted late seizures. Immediate and early seizures predicted infectious complications (p<0.05). Patients with subcortical hematoma and of younger age are at risk for immediate seizures after primary ICH irrespective of hematoma size. Patients with immediate and early seizures more often had infectious complications. Surgery increases the risk of a late seizure after ICH. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Examining early-diagenetic processes as a chief sink for carbonate in the aftermath of the Triassic-Jurassic crisis: Hettangian concretions of Muller Canyon, NV, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritterbush, K. A.; Loyd, S. J.; Corsetti, F. A.; Bottjer, D. J.; Berelson, W.

    2015-12-01

    Tectonic, climate, and biotic changes across the Triassic-Jurassic transition appear to have resulted in a "carbonate gap" in the rock record of many shallow marine environments. Ecological state changes documented in near-shore settings in both Tethys and Panthassa show an earliest Jurassic switch to sponge-dominated biosiliceous sedimentation regimes. The Sunrise Formation exposed in the Gabbs Valley Range of Nevada (USA) records a peculiar juxtaposition of Hettangian carbonate-rich strata that contain demosponge spicules as the primary bioclast. It is unclear 1) why biocalcifiers were not recorded in higher abundance in this near-shore back-arc basin setting; 2) why carbonates formed following a biosiliceous regime; and 3) what the lithology indicates about post-extinction marine geochemical dynamics. Detailed sedimentological, paleontological, and geochemical analyses were applied to a 20-m thick sequence of limestone and chert in the Muller Canyon area, which is the Auxiliary Stratotype for the Triassic/Jurassic boundary. Concretion anatomy, bioclast microfacies, and oxygen and carbon isotopic signatures all indicate the Hettangian limestones are chiefly diagenetic concretions that all formed very shallowly, some essentially at the sediment-water interface. We infer that local bottom waters and/or pore waters were supersaturated with respect to calcium carbonate and that this contributed to widespread concretion sedimentation independent of biomineralization. Ecological incumbency of the demosponge meadows may have been supported by concurrent augmentation of marine silica concentration and this apparently proved inhospitable to re-colonization of benthic biocalcifying macrofauna. Together the biotic and lithologic consequences of the extinction represent million-year scale ecological restructuring and highlight early diagenetic precipitation as a major sink in long-term regional carbonate cycling. Perhaps the widespread 'carbonate gap' is actually a gap in

  18. Basin geodynamics and sequence stratigraphy of Upper Triassic to Lower Jurassic deposits of Southern Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpentier, Cédric; Hadouth, Suhail; Bouaziz, Samir; Lathuilière, Bernard; Rubino, Jean-Loup

    2016-05-01

    Aims of this paper are to propose a geodynamic and sequential framework for the late Triassic and early Jurassic of and south Tunisia and to evidence the impact of local tectonics on the stratigraphic architecture. Facies of the Upper Triassic to Lower Jurassic of Southern Tunisia have been interpreted in terms of depositional environments. A sequential framework and correlation schemes are proposed for outcrops and subsurface transects. Nineteen middle frequency sequences inserted in three and a half low frequency transgression/regression cycles were evidenced. Despite some datation uncertainties and the unknown durations of Lower Jurassic cycles, middle frequency sequences appear to be controlled by eustasy. In contrast the tectonics acted as an important control on low frequency cycles. The Carnian flooding was certainly favored by the last stages of a rifting episode which started during the Permian. The regression accompanied by the formation of stacked angular unconformities and the deposition of lowstand deposits during the late Carnian and Norian occured during the uplift and tilting of the northern basin margins. The transpressional activity of the Jeffara fault system generated the uplift of the Tebaga of Medenine high from the late Carnian and led to the Rhaetian regional angular Sidi Stout Unconformity. Facies analysis and well-log correlations permitted to evidence that Rhaetian to Lower Jurassic Messaoudi dolomites correspond to brecciated dolomites present on the Sidi Stout unconformity in the North Dahar area. The Early-cimmerian compressional event is a possible origin for the global uplift of the northern African margin and Western Europe during the late Carnian and the Norian. During the Rhaetian and the early Jurassic a new episode of normal faulting occured during the third low frequency flooding. This tectonosedimentary evolution ranges within the general geodynamic framework of the north Gondwana margin controlled by the opening of both

  19. Total petroleum systems of the Bonaparte Gulf Basin area, Australia; Jurassic, Early Cretaceous-Mesozoic; Keyling, Hyland Bay-Permian; Milligans-Carboniferous, Permian

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bishop, M.G.

    1999-01-01

    The Bonaparte Gulf Basin Province (USGS #3910) of northern Australia contains three important hydrocarbon source-rock intervals. The oldest source-rock interval and associated reservoir rocks is the Milligans-Carboniferous, Permian petroleum system. This petroleum system is located at the southern end of Joseph Bonaparte Gulf and includes both onshore and offshore areas within a northwest to southeast trending Paleozoic rift that was initiated in the Devonian. The Milligans Formation is a Carboniferous marine shale that sources accumulations of both oil and gas in Carboniferous and Permian deltaic, marine shelf carbonate, and shallow to deep marine sandstones. The second petroleum system in the Paleozoic rift is the Keyling, Hyland Bay-Permian. Source rocks include Lower Permian Keyling Formation delta-plain coals and marginal marine shales combined with Upper Permian Hyland Bay Formation prodelta shales. These source-rock intervals provide gas and condensate for fluvial, deltaic, and shallow marine sandstone reservoirs primarily within several members of the Hyland Bay Formation. The Keyling, Hyland Bay-Permian petroleum system is located in the Joseph Bonaparte Gulf, north of the Milligans-Carboniferous, Permian petroleum system, and may extend northwest under the Vulcan graben sub-basin. The third and youngest petroleum system is the Jurassic, Early Cretaceous-Mesozoic system that is located seaward of Joseph Bonaparte Gulf on the Australian continental shelf, and trends southwest-northeast. Source-rock intervals in the Vulcan graben sub-basin include deltaic mudstones of the Middle Jurassic Plover Formation and organic-rich marine shales of the Upper Jurassic Vulcan Formation and Lower Cretaceous Echuca Shoals Formation. These intervals produce gas, oil, and condensate that accumulates in, shallow- to deep-marine sandstone reservoirs of the Challis and Vulcan Formations of Jurassic to Cretaceous age. Organic-rich, marginal marine claystones and coals of the

  20. Palaeogeography and relative sea-level history forcing eco-sedimentary contexts in Late Jurassic epicontinental shelves (Prebetic Zone, Betic Cordillera): An ecostratigraphic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olóriz, Federico; Reolid, Matías; Rodríguez-Tovar, Francisco J.

    2012-02-01

    The analysis of macroinvertebrate and foraminiferal assemblages from Upper Jurassic (Middle Oxfordian to Lower Kimmeridgian) epicontinental shelf deposits in the Prebetic (Betic Cordillera, southern Spain) reveals the influence of environmental changes. They are expressed as selected parameters in palaeogeographic and stratigraphic trends (litho- and microfacies, faunal composition, taphonomy), which are interpreted in the context of relative sea-level histories. Middle Oxfordian to early Kimmeridgian (Transversarium to Planula Chrones) rocks and faunal assemblages in comparatively distal sectors (distal shelf) show lower sedimentation rates (lumpy lithofacies), and higher proportions of ammonoids, planktic foraminifera, corrasion degree, microboring and encrustation. Landwards, towards the mid-shelf, eco-sedimentary conditions resulted in spongiolithic limestones and marl-limestone rhythmites with local development of microbial-sponge buildups. Greater distance from shore during relative sea-level highs accords with greater: (1) stratigraphic condensation; (2) abundance in ammonoids, planktic foraminifera and nubeculariids; and (3) degrees of corrasion, microboring and encrustation. These trends in faunal composition and taphonomy agree with backstepping phases, increasing ecospace and a longer exposition of shelly remains on the sea bottom. Decreasing distance from shore during relative sea-level lows relates to opposite trends, as evidenced by: (4) increasing terrigenous input and decreasing stratigraphic condensation; (5) impoverishment in ammonoids and planktic foraminifera; and (6) diminution of corrasion, microboring and encrustation. Phases of forestepping/progradation and aggradation, a reduction of ecospace for nekto-planktic organisms, and comparatively rapid burial of shell remains are interpreted to force the recorded trends. An ecostratigraphic approach is used here to correlate and characterise sea-level changes, applying high resolution stratigraphy

  1. Early school attainment in late-preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Peacock, Philip J; Henderson, John; Odd, David; Emond, Alan

    2012-02-01

    To investigate whether infants born late-preterm have poorer school attainment compared to those born at term. This study used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Key stage one (KS1) school assessment results were obtained from local education authorities. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the effect of gestation, that is, late-preterm (32-36 weeks) versus term (37-41 weeks), on success in KS1 teacher assessments. Regression models were adjusted for potential confounders, including maternal education and markers of socioeconomic status. There were 12 089 term infants and 734 late-preterm infants. 71% of late-preterm children were successful in KS1 assessments compared to 79% of those born at term (OR 0.64 (95% CI 0.53 to 0.78); p<0.001). This difference persisted on adjusting for potential confounders (OR 0.74 (95% CI 0.59 to 0.92); p=0.007). Children born late-preterm are less likely to be successful in early school assessments than those born at term. This group of vulnerable children warrants closer surveillance for early identification of potential educational failure.

  2. Middle to Upper Jurassic sedimentary sequences and marine biota of the early Indian Ocean (Southwest Madagascar): some biostratigraphic, palaeoecologic and palaeobiogeographic conclusions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mette, Wolfgang

    2004-03-01

    As part of an intradisciplinary project which was concerned with the early rifting processes between Madagascar and East Africa, the Middle to Upper Jurassic sedimentary sequences of the Morondava Basin in Southwest Madagascar has been investigated with respect to biostratigraphy, sedimentary facies and palaeoecology. The transgressive sedimentary sections in the Bajocian and Callovian-Oxfordian yield rich macro- and microfossil assemblages which improved the biostratigraphic framework and gave some important information about the palaeoenvironments. Palaeogeographic distribution patterns of the Bajocian ostracod Paradoxorhyncha are suggestive of a migration along the southern shores of Gondwana between Madagascar, Australia and South America. The Callovian ostracods show strong affinities to the Indian faunas, indicating existence of a free migration route for shallow marine benthic organisms between Madagascar and India. Significant faunal differences between Madagascar and Tanzania suggest a physical or environmental migration barrier between Madagascar and East Africa during the Callovian to Kimmeridgian interval. The Upper Jurassic ostracods from the northern and eastern margin of Gondwana show a very high degree of endemism and they can be assigned to two faunal provinces in North Gondwana (Arabia, Near East, North Africa) and South Gondwana (India, Madagascar, East Africa).

  3. The risks for late adolescence of early adolescent marijuana use.

    PubMed Central

    Brook, J S; Balka, E B; Whiteman, M

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the relation of early adolescent marijuana use to late adolescent problem behaviors, drug-related attitudes, drug problems, and sibling and peer problem behavior. METHODS: African American (n = 627) and Puerto Rican (n = 555) youths completed questionnaires in their classrooms initially and were individually interviewed 5 years later. Logistic regression analysis estimated increases in the risk of behaviors or attitudes in late adolescence associated with more frequent marijuana use in early adolescence. RESULTS: Early adolescent marijuana use increased the risk in late adolescence of not graduating from high school; delinquency; having multiple sexual partners; not always using condoms; perceiving drugs as not harmful; having problems with cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana; and having more friends who exhibit deviant behavior. These relations were maintained with controls for age, sex, ethnicity, and, when available, earlier psychosocial measures. CONCLUSIONS: Early adolescent marijuana use is related to later adolescent problems that limit the acquisition of skills necessary for employment and heighten the risks of contracting HIV and abusing legal and illegal substances. Hence, assessments of and treatments for adolescent marijuana use need to be incorporated in clinical practice. PMID:10511838

  4. Mayer Kangri metamorphic complexes in Central Qiangtang (Tibet, western China): implications for the Triassic-early Jurassic tectonics associated with the Paleo-Tethys Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yixuan; Liang, Xiao; Wang, Genhou; Yuan, Guoli; Bons, Paul D.

    2018-03-01

    The Mesozoic orogeny in Central Qiangtang Metamorphic Belt, northern Tibet, provides important insights into the geological evolution of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean. However, the Triassic-early Jurassic tectonics, particularly those associated with the continental collisionstage, remains poorly constrained. Here we present results from geological mapping, structural analysis, P-T data, and Ar-Ar geochronology of the Mayer Kangri metamorphic complex. Our data reveal an E-W-trending, 2 km wide dome-like structure associated with four successive tectonic events during the Middle Triassic and Early Jurassic. Field observations indicate that amphibolite and phengite schist complexes in this complex are separated from the overlying lower greenschist mélange by normal faulting with an evident dextral shearing component. Open antiform-like S2 foliation of the footwall phengite schist truncates the approximately north-dipping structures of the overlying mélange. Microtextures and mineral chemistry of amphibole reveal three stages of growth: Geothermobarometric estimates yield temperatures and pressures of 524 °C and 0.88 GPa for pargasite cores, 386 °C and 0.34 GPa for actinolite mantles, and 404 °C and 0.76 GPa for winchite rims. Peak blueschist metamorphism in the phengite schist occurred at 0.7-1.1 GPa and 400 °C. Our Ar-Ar dating of amphibole reveals rim-ward decreasing in age bands, including 242.4-241.2 Ma, ≥202.6-196.8, and 192.9-189.8 Ma. The results provide evidence for four distinct phases of Mesozoic tectonic evolution in Central Qiangtang: (1) northward oceanic subduction beneath North Qiangtang ( 244-220 Ma); (2) syn-collisional slab-break off (223-202 Ma); (3) early collisional extension driven by buoyant extrusion flow from depth ( 202.6-197 Ma); and (4) post-collision contraction and reburial (195.6-188.7 Ma).

  5. First Jurassic grasshopper (Insecta, Caelifera) from China.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jun-Jie; Yue, Yanli; Shi, Fuming; Tian, He; Ren, Dong

    2016-09-20

    Orthoptera is divided into two suborders, the Ensifera (katydids, crickets and mole crickets) and the Caelifera (grasshoppers and pygmy mole crickets). The earliest definitive caeliferans are those found in the Triassic (Bethoux & Ross 2005). The extinct caeliferan families, such as Locustopsidae and Locustavidae, may prove to be stem groups to some of the modern superfamilies (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). Locustopsidae is known from the Late Triassic or Early Jurassic to Late Cretaceous, consisting of two subfamilies (Gorochov et al. 2006). They are recorded from Europe, England, Russia, central Asia, China, Egypt, North America, Brazil and Australia. Up to now, Late Mesozoic fossil deposits of China has been reported plenty taxa of orthopterids, e.g. ensiferans, phasmatodeans, grylloblattids (Cui et al. 2012; Gu et al. 2010; Gu et al. 2012a; Gu et al. 2012b; Ren et al. 2012; Wang et al. 2014); but, with few caeliferans records, only four species, Pseudoacrida costata Lin 1982, Mesolocustopsis sinica Hong 1990, Tachacris stenosis Lin 1977 and T. turgis Lin 1980, were reported from the Early Cretaceous of Ningxia, Shandong, Yunnan and Zhejiang of China.

  6. Early intervention for late-onset ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Daisuke; Mitsubuchi, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Shirou; Iwai, Masanori; Nakamura, Kimitoshi; Hoshide, Ryuji; Harada, Nawomi; Yoshino, Makoto; Endo, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a family with late-onset ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD). Several family members had died from OTCD, and the c.221G>A, p.Lys221Lys mutation was detected at the 3' end of exon 6 of OTC in the X-chromosome of some members. We provided genetic counseling on pregnancy, delivery, and neonate management to a 4th-generation female carrier and decided on metabolic management of her child from birth. Two male patients were diagnosed with late-onset OTCD on the basis of blood amino acid and genetic analysis, and they received arginine supplementation from the asymptomatic, early neonatal period. These children grew and developed normally, without decompensation. Patients with late-onset OTCD can and should be diagnosed and treated in the early neonatal period, especially those from families already diagnosed with late-onset OTCD, and family members must be provided with genetic counseling. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  7. First glimpse into Lower Jurassic deep-sea biodiversity: in situ diversification and resilience against extinction

    PubMed Central

    Thuy, Ben; Kiel, Steffen; Dulai, Alfréd; Gale, Andy S.; Kroh, Andreas; Lord, Alan R.; Numberger-Thuy, Lea D.; Stöhr, Sabine; Wisshak, Max

    2014-01-01

    Owing to the assumed lack of deep-sea macrofossils older than the Late Cretaceous, very little is known about the geological history of deep-sea communities, and most inference-based hypotheses argue for repeated recolonizations of the deep sea from shelf habitats following major palaeoceanographic perturbations. We present a fossil deep-sea assemblage of echinoderms, gastropods, brachiopods and ostracods, from the Early Jurassic of the Glasenbach Gorge, Austria, which includes the oldest known representatives of a number of extant deep-sea groups, and thus implies that in situ diversification, in contrast to immigration from shelf habitats, played a much greater role in shaping modern deep-sea biodiversity than previously thought. A comparison with coeval shelf assemblages reveals that, at least in some of the analysed groups, significantly more extant families/superfamilies have endured in the deep sea since the Early Jurassic than in the shelf seas, which suggests that deep-sea biota are more resilient against extinction than shallow-water ones. In addition, a number of extant deep-sea families/superfamilies found in the Glasenbach assemblage lack post-Jurassic shelf occurrences, implying that if there was a complete extinction of the deep-sea fauna followed by replacement from the shelf, it must have happened before the Late Jurassic. PMID:24850917

  8. Comment on "Astronomical constraints on the duration of the Early Jurassic Pliensbachian Stage and global climatic fluctuations" [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 455 (2016) 149-165

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, David G.; Bailey, Robin J.

    2018-01-01

    Astrochronology employs spectral analysis of stratigraphic data series to substantiate and quantify depositional cyclicity, and thus to establish a probable causal link between cases of rhythmic bedding and periodic orbitally-forced climate change. Vaughan et al. (2011 - not cited by Ruhl et al.) showed that the spectral methods conventionally used in cyclostratigraphy will generate false positive results - they will identify multiple cycles that are not present in the data. Tests with synthetic random datasets are both a simple and an essential way to prove this. Ruhl et al. (2016) used the methods to which these criticisms apply in their analysis of XRF-compositional data series from the Early Jurassic of the Mochras borehole, Wales. We use properly corrected methods to re-examine some of their data, showing that their spectral results are not valid, thus casting doubt on their proposed calibration of Pliensbachian time.

  9. Where Is ELSA? The Early to Late Shift in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Buchler, Norbou; Dobbins, Ian G.; Cabeza, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Studies of cognitive and neural aging have recently provided evidence of a shift from an early- to late-onset cognitive control strategy, linked with temporally extended activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). It has been uncertain, however, whether this age-related shift is unique to PFC and executive control tasks or whether the functional location might vary depending on the particular cognitive processes that are altered. The present study tested whether an early-to-late shift in aging (ELSA) might emerge in the medial temporal lobes (MTL) during a protracted context memory task comprising both anticipatory cue (retrieval preparation) and retrieval probe (retrieval completion) phases. First, we found reduced MTL activity in older adults during the early retrieval preparation phase coupled with increased MTL activity during the late retrieval completion phase. Second, we found that functional connectivity between MTL and PFC regions was higher during retrieval preparation in young adults but higher during retrieval completion in older adults, suggesting an important interactive relationship between the ELSA pattern in MTL and PFC. Taken together, these results critically suggest that aging results in temporally lagged activity even in regions not typically associated with cognitive control, such as the MTL. PMID:22114083

  10. How do you manage early or late clock-ins? .

    PubMed

    Marlowe, Cathy L

    2013-08-01

    My current practice has historically been very strict with hourly employees. The workday is 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m. for most employees. They are to clock in and out at exactly those times unless overtime has been approved. (Staff working with late patients are exempt.) My business manager is constantly fighting over clock-ins 15 to 20 minutes early or late, with similar clock-outs. Staff may have a stop to make and would like to make up those 15 minutes. We do grant paid time off in an initial minimum block of 30 minutes to assist with some of this. ... The issue is not overtime, as we're well aware that we have to pay for it when appropriate. It's simply to streamline our policy and make it fair. ... I'm looking for practice policies that deal with employee variances from the 8 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. clock-ins. For example, someone wants to come in 30 minutes early in order to leave 30 minutes early for an appointment. Or someone comes in 22 minutes late due to traffic and wants either to make it up or to take the minimal half-hour paid-time-off time.

  11. A contribution to regional stratigraphic correlations of the Afro-Brazilian depression - The Dom João Stage (Brotas Group and equivalent units - Late Jurassic) in Northeastern Brazilian sedimentary basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuchle, Juliano; Scherer, Claiton Marlon dos Santos; Born, Christian Correa; Alvarenga, Renata dos Santos; Adegas, Felipe

    2011-04-01

    The Dom João Stage comprises an interval with variable thickness between 100 and 1200 m, composed of fluvial, eolian and lacustrine deposits of Late Jurassic age, based mainly on the lacustrine ostracod fauna (although the top deposits may extend into the Early Cretaceous). These deposits comprise the so-called Afro-Brazilian Depression, initially characterized as containing the Brotas Group of the Recôncavo Basin (which includes the Aliança and the Sergi Formations) and subsequently extended into the Tucano, Jatobá, Camamu, Almada, Sergipe, Alagoas and Araripe Basins in northeastern Brazil, encompassing the study area of this paper. The large occurrence area of the Dom João Stage gives rise to discussions about the depositional connectivity between the basins, and the real extension of sedimentation. In the first studies of this stratigraphic interval, the Dom João Stage was strictly associated with the rift phase, as an initial stage (decades of 1960-70), but subsequent analyses considered the Dom João as an intracratonic basin or pre-rift phase - without any relation to the active mechanics of a tectonic syn-rift phase (decades of 1980-2000). The present work developed an evolutionary stratigraphic and tectonic model, based on the characterization of depositional sequences, internal flooding surfaces, depositional systems arrangement and paleoflow directions. Several outcrops on the onshore basins were used to build composite sections of each basin, comprising facies, architectural elements, depositional systems, stratigraphic and lithostratigraphic frameworks, and paleocurrents. In addition to that, over a hundred onshore and offshore exploration wells were used (only 21 of which are showed) to map the depositional sequences and generate correlation sections. These show the characteristics and relations of the Dom João Stage in each studied basin, and they were also extended to the Gabon Basin. The results indicate that there were two main phases during

  12. Early Jurassic Volcanism in the South Lhasa Terrane, Southern Tibet: Record of Back-arc Extension in the Active Continental Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhu, D. C.; Wang, Z.; Liu, D.; Mo, X.

    2015-12-01

    Indus-Yarlung Zangbo Suture Zone (IYZSZ) represents the Mesozoic remnants of the Neo-Tethyan Ocean lithosphere after its northward subduction beneath the Lhasa Terrane. The evolution of the Neo-Tethyan Ocean prior to India-Asia collision remains unclear. To explore this period of history, we investigate zircon U-Pb geochronology, geochemistry and Nd-Hf isotopes of the Early Jurassic bimodal-like volcanic sequence around Dagze area, south Tibet. The volcanic sequence comprises calc-alkaline basalts to rhyolites whereas intermediate components are volumetrically restricted. Zircons from a basaltic andesite yielded crystallization age of 178Ma whereas those from 5 silicic rocks were dated at 183-174Ma, which suggest that both the basaltic and the silicic rocks are coeval. The basaltic rocks are enriched in LREE and LILE, and depleted in HFSE, with Epsilon Nd(t) of 1.6-4.0 and zircon Epsilon Hf(t) of 0.7-11.8, which implies that they were derived from a heterogenetic mantle source metasomatized by subduction components. Trace element geochemistry shows that the basaltic rocks are compositionally transitional from normal mid-ocean ridge basalts (N-MORB) to island arc basalts (IAB, e.g. Zedong arc basalts of ~160-155Ma in the south margin of Lhasa Terrane), with the signature of immature back-arc basin basalts. The silicic rocks display similar Nd-Hf isotopic features of the Gangdese batholith with Epsilon Nd(t) of 0.9-3.4 and zircon Epsilon Hf(t) of 2.4-17.7, indicating that they were possibly generated by anatexis of basaltic juvenile lower crust, instead of derived from the basaltic magma. These results support an Early to Middle Jurassic (183-155Ma) model that the back-arc extension tectonic setting were existing in the active continental margin in the south Lhasa Terrane.

  13. The Braincase and Neurosensory Anatomy of an Early Jurassic Marine Crocodylomorph: Implications for Crocodylian Sinus Evolution and Sensory Transitions.

    PubMed

    Brusatte, Stephen L; Muir, Amy; Young, Mark T; Walsh, Stig; Steel, Lorna; Witmer, Lawrence M

    2016-11-01

    Modern crocodylians are a morphologically conservative group, but extinct relatives (crocodylomorphs) experimented with a wide range of diets, behaviors, and body sizes. Among the most unusual of these fossil groups is the thalattosuchians, an assemblage of marine-dwellers that transitioned from semiaquatic species (teleosaurids and kin) into purely open-ocean forms (metriorhynchids) during the Jurassic and Cretaceous Periods (ca 191-125 million years ago). Thalattosuchians can give insight into the origin of modern crocodylian morphologies and how anatomy and behavior change during a major evolutionary transition into a new habitat. Little is known, however, about their brains, sensory systems, cranial sinuses, and vasculature. We here describe the endocranial anatomy of a well-preserved specimen of the Jurassic semiaquatic teleosaurid Steneosaurus cf. gracilirostris using X-ray micro-CT. We find that this teleosaurid still had an ear well attuned to hear on land, but had developed large internal carotid and orbital arteries that likely supplied salt glands, previously thought to be present in only the fully pelagic metriorhynchids. There is no great gulf in endocranial anatomy between this teleosaurid and the metriorhynchids, and some of the features that later permitted metriorhynchids to invade the oceanic realm were apparently first developed in semiaquatic taxa. Compared to modern crocodylians, Steneosaurus cf. gracilirostris has a more limited set of pharyngotympanic sinuses, but it is unclear whether this relates to its aquatic habitat or represents the primitive condition of crocodylomorphs that was later elaborated. Anat Rec, 299:1511-1530, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. The Oldest Jurassic Dinosaur: A Basal Neotheropod from the Hettangian of Great Britain.

    PubMed

    Martill, David M; Vidovic, Steven U; Howells, Cindy; Nudds, John R

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 40% of a skeleton including cranial and postcranial remains representing a new genus and species of basal neotheropod dinosaur is described. It was collected from fallen blocks from a sea cliff that exposes Late Triassic and Early Jurassic marine and quasi marine strata on the south Wales coast near the city of Cardiff. Matrix comparisons indicate that the specimen is from the lithological Jurassic part of the sequence, below the first occurrence of the index ammonite Psiloceras planorbis and above the last occurrence of the Rhaetian conodont Chirodella verecunda. Associated fauna of echinoderms and bivalves indicate that the specimen had drifted out to sea, presumably from the nearby Welsh Massif and associated islands (St David's Archipelago). Its occurrence close to the base of the Blue Lias Formation (Lower Jurassic, Hettangian) makes it the oldest known Jurassic dinosaur and it represents the first dinosaur skeleton from the Jurassic of Wales. A cladistic analysis indicates basal neotheropodan affinities, but the specimen retains plesiomorphic characters which it shares with Tawa and Daemonosaurus.

  15. Precious metals associated with Late Cretaceous-early Tertiary igneous rocks of southwestern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bundtzen, Thomas K.; Miller, Marti L.; Goldfarb, Richard J.; Miller, Lance D.

    1997-01-01

    many of the mineral deposits associated with Late Cretaceous-early tertiary volcanic and plutonic rocks represent geologically and spatially related, vertically zoned hydrothermal systems now exposed at several erosional levels.Polymetallic gold deposits of the Kuskokwim mineral belt are probably related to 77 to 52 Ma plutonism and volcanism associated with a period of rapid, north-directed subduction of the Kula plate. The geologic interpretation suggests that igneous complexes of the Kuskokwim mineral belt formed in an intracontinental back-arc setting during a period of extensional, wrench fault tectonics.The Kuskokwim mineral belt has many geologic and metallogenic features similar to other precious metal-bearing systems associated with arc-related igneous rocks such as the Late Cretaceous-early Tertiary Rocky Mountain alkalic province, the Jurassic Mount Milligan district of central British Columbia, the Andean orogen of South America, and the Okhotsk-Chukotka belt of northeast Asia.

  16. Petrogenesis of the Late Jurassic peraluminous biotite granites and muscovite-bearing granites in SE China: geochronological, elemental and Sr-Nd-O-Hf isotopic constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yao-Hui; Zhu, Shu-Qi

    2017-12-01

    Biotite granites and muscovite-bearing granites are dominant rock types of the widespread granites in SE China. However, their petrogenesis has been enigmatic. A combined study of zircon U-Pb dating and Lu-Hf isotopes, whole-rock element geochemistry and Sr-Nd-O isotopes was performed for three late Mesozoic granitic plutons (Xinfengjie, Jiangbei and Dabu) in central Jiangxi province, SE China. All the plutons are composed of biotite granites and muscovite-bearing granites that have been poorly investigated previously. The new data not only allow us to assess their sources and magma evolution processes, but also helps us to better understand the genetic link to the large-scale polymetallic mineralization in SE China. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating shows that three plutons were emplaced in the Late Jurassic (159-148 Ma) and that the muscovite-bearing granites are almost contemporaneous with the biotite granites. The biotite granites have SiO2 contents of 70.3-74.4 wt% and are weakly to strongly peraluminous with ASI from 1.00 to 1.26, and show a general decrease in ASI with increasing SiO2. They have relatively high zircon saturation temperatures ( T Zr = 707-817 °C, most > 745 °C) and show a general decrease in T Zr with increasing SiO2. They have high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7136 to 0.7166) and high δ18O values (9.1-12.8‰, most > 9.5‰) and clearly negative ɛ Nd (T) (- 9.5 to - 11.8) and ɛ Hf (T) (in situ zircon) (- 13.1 to - 13.5). The muscovite-bearing granites have high SiO2 contents (74.7-78.2 wt%). They are also weakly to strongly peraluminous with ASI of 1.04-1.18 but show a general increase in ASI with increasing SiO2. They have relatively low T Zr (671-764 °C, most < 745 °C) and also show a general decrease in T Zr with increasing SiO2. The muscovite-bearing granites have high Rb (up to 810 ppm) and high (K2O + Na2O)/CaO (up to 270), Rb/Sr (up to 42) and Rb/Ba (up to 30) as well as low K/Rb (< 150, down to 50), Zr/Hf (< 24, down to 11) and Nb

  17. Jurassic Paleolatitudes, Paleogeography, and Climate Transitions In the Mexican Subcontinen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Garza, R. S.; Geissman, J. W.; Lawton, T. F.

    2014-12-01

    Jurassic northward migration of Mexico, trailing the North America plate, resulted in temporal evolution of climate-sensitive depositional environments. Lower-Middle Jurassic rocks in central Mexico contain a record of warm-humid conditions, which are indicated by coal and compositionally mature sandstone deposited in continental environments. Preliminary paleomagnetic data indicate that these rocks were deposited at near-equatorial paleolatitudes. The Middle Jurassic (ca. 170 Ma) Diquiyú volcanic sequence in central Oaxaca give an overall mean of D=82.2º/ I= +4.1º (n=10; k=17.3, α95=12º). In the Late Jurassic, the Gulf of Mexico formed as a subsidiary basin of the Atlantic Ocean, when the supercontinent Pangaea ruptured. Upper Jurassic strata, including eolianite and widespread evaporite deposits, across Mexico indicate dry-arid conditions. Available paleomagnetic data (compaction-corrected) from eolianites in northeast Mexico indicate deposition at ~15-20ºN. As North America moved northward during Jurassic opening of the Atlantic, different latitudinal regions experienced coeval Late Jurassic climatic shifts. Climate transitions have been widely recognized in the Colorado plateau region. The plateau left the horse-latitudes in the late Middle Jurassic to reach temperate humid climates at ~40ºN in the latest Jurassic. In turn, the southern end of the North America plate (central Mexico) reached arid horse-latitudes in the Late Jurassic. At that time, epeiric platforms developed in the circum-Gulf region after a long period of margin extension. We suggest that Upper Jurassic hydrocarbon source rocks in the circum-Gulf region accumulated on these platforms as warm epeiric hypersaline seas and the Gulf of Mexico itself were fertilized by an influx of wind-blown silt from continental regions. Additional nutrients were brought to shallow zones of photosynthesis by ocean upwelling driven by changes in the continental landmass configuration.

  18. Biostratigraphic restudy documents Triassic/Jurassic section in Georges Bank COST G-2 well

    SciTech Connect

    Cousminer, H.L.; Steinkraus, W.E.; Hall, R.E.

    1984-04-01

    In 1977, the COST G-2 well as drilled in Georges Bank, 132 mi (212 km) east of Nantucket Island to a total depth of 21,874 ft (6667 m). Biostratigraphic studies of 363 sidewall and conventional cores and 695 cutting samples resulted in a detailed zonation from the Late Jurassic to the present. Restudy of the original samples, as well as new preparations from previously unstudied core material, resulted in revision of the zonation of the Late Jurassic and older section. On the basis of our study of pollen and spores, dinoflagellates, nannofossils, and foraminifers, we revised the age sequence asmore » follows: 5856 ft (1785 m) Late Jurassic (Thithonian); 6000 ft (1829 m) Kimmeridgian; 6420 ft (1957 m) Oxfordian; 6818 ft (2078 m) Callovian; 8200 ft (2499 m) Bathonian; 9677 ft (2950 m) Bajocian; 14567 ft (4440 m) Norian (Late Triassic). Norian dinoflagellate cysts and Tasmanites sp. indicate that intermittent normal marine sedimentation was taking place on Georges Bank as early as Norian time, although most of the Triassic section (+14,500 ft or 4420 m to T.D.) interpreted as having been deposited under evaporitic sabkha-like conditions. The Norian dinoflagellates (Noricysta, Heibergella, Hebecysta, Suessia, Dapcodinium, and Rhombodella) include species common to both Arctic Canada and the Tethyan region, indicating a possible Late Triassic marine connection.« less

  19. Integrated Sr isotope variations and global environmental changes through the Late Permian to early Late Triassic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Haijun; Wignall, Paul B.; Tong, Jinnan; Song, Huyue; Chen, Jing; Chu, Daoliang; Tian, Li; Luo, Mao; Zong, Keqing; Chen, Yanlong; Lai, Xulong; Zhang, Kexin; Wang, Hongmei

    2015-08-01

    New 87Sr/86Sr data based on 127 well-preserved and well-dated conodont samples from South China were measured using a new technique (LA-MC-ICPMS) based on single conodont albid crown analysis. These reveal a spectacular climb in seawater 87Sr/86Sr ratios during the Early Triassic that was the most rapid of the Phanerozoic. The rapid increase began in Bed 25 of the Meishan section (GSSP of the Permian-Triassic boundary, PTB), and coincided closely with the latest Permian extinction. Modeling results indicate that the accelerated rise of 87Sr/86Sr ratios can be ascribed to a rapid increase (>2.8×) of riverine flux of Sr caused by intensified weathering. This phenomenon could in turn be related to an intensification of warming-driven runoff and vegetation die-off. Continued rise of 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the Early Triassic indicates that continental weathering rates were enhanced >1.9 times compared to those of the Late Permian. Continental weathering rates began to decline in the middle-late Spathian, which may have played a role in the decrease of oceanic anoxia and recovery of marine benthos. The 87Sr/86Sr values decline gradually into the Middle Triassic to an equilibrium values around 1.2 times those of the Late Permian level, suggesting that vegetation coverage did not attain pre-extinction levels thereby allowing higher runoff.

  20. Early and Late Acute Kidney Injury in Severely Burned Patients

    PubMed Central

    Witkowski, Wojciech; Kawecki, Marek; Surowiecka-Pastewka, Agnieszka; Klimm, Wojciech; Szamotulska, Katarzyna; Niemczyk, Stanisław

    2016-01-01

    Background This study evaluated factors influencing early and late occurrence of AKI in severely burned patients and assessed the relationship between time of occurrence of AKI and mortality of AKI patients. Material/Methods Renal function was evaluated at 3 time points: at admission, at the critical point or middle point of hospitalization, and at the endpoint for which death or a discharge from the center was considered. AKI criteria were: decrease in GFR of less than 60 ml/min at admission, decrease in GFR of more than 75% compared to baseline, and decrease in the daily diuresis of less than 500 ml/24 h. Results At admission, 15.1% of the patients had eGFR <60 ml/min. AKI occurred in 38.5% of cases. The occurrence of AKI was associated with: elderly age (p<0.001), female sex (p=0.017), overweight and obesity (p=0.055); extent and depth of burns, respiratory failure, low protein concentration (for all p<0.001), low blood pressure (p=0.014), and high WBC (p=0.010). Early AKI was detected in 28% of patients. Mortality was 100% with the initial GFR ≥60, 100% with the initial GFR <60 and early deterioration of renal function, 80% with the initial GFR <60 and late worsening, and 60% with the initial GFR <60 and no worsening. Late AKI was observed in 10% of patients and mortality in this group was 79.2%. Mortality in the entire group with AKI was 88.0% versus 24.5%. Conclusions The frequent occurrence of AKI, especially early, worsens the prognosis for survival. Assessment of renal function should be included in the prognostic scales for burned patients. PMID:27746455

  1. Final results on the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary in the Gresten Klippenbelt (Austria): Macro-, micro-, nannofossils, isotopes, geochemistry, susceptibility, gamma-log and palaeomagnetic data as environmental proxies of the early Penninic Ocean history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukeneder, A.; Halásová, E.; Kroh, A.; Mayrhofer, S.; Pruner, P.; Reháková, D.; Schnabl, P.; Sprovieri, M.

    2009-04-01

    Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous pelagic sediments are well known to form a major element of the northernmost tectonic units of the Gresten Klippenbelt (Lower Austria). The Penninic Ocean was a side tract of the Central Atlantic Oceanic System intercalated between the European and the Austroalpine plates. Its opening started during the Mid Jurrasic, as rifting of the of the oceanic crust between the European and the Austroalpine plates. The turnover of the deposition on the European shelf (Helvetic Zone) from deep-water siliciclastics into pelagic carbonates is correlated with the deepening of this newly arising ocean. Within the Gresten Klippenbelt Unit, this transition is reflected by the lithostratigraphic boundary between the Tithonian marl-limestone succession and the Berriasian limestones of the Blassenstein Formation. This boundary is well exposed in a newly discovered site at Nutzhof, in the heart of Lower Austria (Kroh and Lukeneder 2009, Lukeneder 2009, Pruner, Schnabl, and Lukeneder 2009, Reháková, Halásová and Lukeneder 2009). Biostratigraphy. According to microfossil (calcareous dinoflagellates, calpionellids) and palaeomagnetic data, the association indicates that the cephalopod-bearing beds of the Nutzhof section belong to the Carpistomiosphaera tithonica-Zone of the Early Tithonian up to the Calpionella Zone of the Middle Berriasian. This interval corresponds to the ammonoid zones from the Early Tithonian Hybonoticeras hybonotum-Zone up to the Middle Berriasian Subthurmannia occitanica-Zone. Ammonoids. Late Jurassic to Early Cretaceous ammonoids were collected at the Nutzhof locality in the eastern part of the Gresten Klippenbelt in Lower Austria. The cephalopod fauna from the Blassenstein Formation, correlated with micro- and nannofossil data from the marly unit and the limestone unit, indicates Early Tithonian to Middle Berriasian age (Hybonoticeras hybonotum Zone up to the Subthurmannia occitanica Zone). According to the correlation of the fossil

  2. Paleogeographic evolution of the western Maghreb (Berberids) during the Jurassic

    SciTech Connect

    Elmi, S.

    1988-08-01

    Several basins of the western Maghreb (northwest Africa) have been studied, taking into account their sedimentological and structural evolutions. Special attention is given to paleontological data (biostratigraphy, paleobiology, paleobiogeography). The paleogeographic pattern was the result of the differentiation in four stable blocks (Moroccan Meseta, Oran High Plains, Constantine block, Tunisian north-south ridge) which were developed between the Sahara craton and median strike-slips of the Tethys. This area, called the Berberids, was split by basins and furrows evolving during the Jurassic. Large, shallow, heterochronous initial carbonate platforms (Early Jurassic) were broken by local tectonic movements (tilting and rifting). A mature progradationmore » resulted from a rupture in the balance between carbonate production and subsidence. The result was the growth of more-or-less extended carbonate platforms along the basins margins during the Aalenian and Bajocia. From the late Bajocian, a large deltaic system prograded from the southwest and the west. Terrigenous input and large-scale tectonics provoked the filling of many basins. The southern and western areas became continental. In the north, carbonate series prograded on deltaic formations. A large, shallow platform developed on the southern rim of the Alpine Tethys. The tectonics of the basement on the southern rim of the Alpine Tethys. The tectonics of the basement became less important and sea level changes controlled the sedimentologic evolution. Bio- and chronostratigraphic correlations allow us to chart the main tectonic and eustatic events which occurred in the western Maghreb during the Jurassic.« less

  3. Middle-Upper Triassic and Middle Jurassic tetrapod track assemblages of southern Tunisia, Sahara Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedźwiedzki, Grzegorz; Soussi, Mohamed; Boukhalfa, Kamel; Gierliński, Gerard D.

    2017-05-01

    Three tetrapod track assemblages from the early-middle Mesozoic of southern Tunisia are reported. The strata exposed at the Tejra 2 clay-pit near the Medenine and Rehach site, located in the vicinity of Kirchaou, contain the first tetrapod tracks found in the Triassic of Tunisia. The Middle Jurassic (early Aalenian) dinosaur tracks are reported from the Mestaoua plain near Tataouine. In the Middle Triassic outcrop of the Tejra 2 clay-pit, tridactyl tracks of small and medium-sized dinosauromorphs, were discovered. These tracks represent the oldest evidence of dinosaur-lineage elements in the Triassic deposits of Tunisia. Similar tracks have been described from the Middle Triassic of Argentina, France and Morocco. An isolated set of the manus and pes of a quadrupedal tetrapod discovered in Late Triassic Rehach tracksite is referred to a therapsid tracemaker. The Middle Jurassic deposits of the Mestaoua plain reveal small and large tridactyl theropod dinosaur tracks (Theropoda track indet. A-C). Based on comparison with the abundant record of Triassic tetrapod ichnofossils from Europe and North America, the ichnofauna described here indicates the presence of a therapsid-dinosauromorph ichnoassociation (without typical Chirotheriidae tracks) in the Middle and Late Triassic, which sheds light on the dispersal of the Middle-Upper Triassic tetrapod ichnofaunas in this part of Gondwana. The reported Middle Jurassic ichnofauna show close similarities to dinosaur track assemblages from the Lower and Middle Jurassic of northwestern Africa, North America, Europe and also southeastern Asia. Sedimentological and lithostratigraphic data of each new tracksite have been defined on published data and new observations. Taken together, these discoveries present a tantalizing window into the evolutionary history of tetrapods from the Triassic and Jurassic of southern Tunisia. Given the limited early Mesozoic tetrapod record from the region, these discoveries are of both temporal and

  4. A source-depleted Early Jurassic granitic pluton from South China: Implication to the Mesozoic juvenile accretion of the South China crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Zuo-Min; Ma, Chang-Qian; Wang, Lian-Xun; Chen, Shu-Guang; Xie, Cai-Fu; Li, Yong; Liu, Wei

    2018-02-01

    Source-depleted granites were rarely reported in South China. Hereby we identified such a granitic pluton, the Tiandong pluton, at Northeastern Guangdong province in Southeastern (SE) China. Whole-rock Sr-Nd and zircon Hf isotopes of the Tiandong granites both revealed obviously depleted source signatures, with initial isotopic values of initial 87Sr/86Sr = 0.7032-0.7040, εNd(t) = 1.1-1.5, and εHf(t) = 6-13, respectively. Zircon U-Pb dating implied the granite was intruded in Early Jurassic (188 Ma). The dominant minerals of the Tiandong granite consist of K-feldspar, plagioclase, quartz and biotite, with accessory mineral assemblage of apatite + zircon + magnetite. Based on the mineralogy and the depleted isotopic signature, the granites chemically show I-type affinity such as low Zr + Nb + Ce + Y (131.6 to 212.2), 104 × Ga/Al (2.12-2.27), A/CNK values < 1.1 (0.97-1.03), corundum molecule < 1 (0-0.55) and extremely low P2O5 contents (0.05 wt%). The one-stage and two-stage depleted mantle Nd model ages (TDM = 0.89 to 0.84 Ga, T2DM = 0.88 to 0.85 Ga) are consistent. TDM(Hf) values of 0.31-0.63 Ga are also indistinguishable from T2DM(Hf) values of 0.35-0.75 Ga. The Nd and Hf isotopic compositions confirm that the Tiandong granites are juvenile crustal accretion but decoupled Nd-Hf isotopic systems. The juvenile crust is likely to originate from a mixed source of the primary asthenospheric mantle and the subordinate EMII. Combined with early studies of adjacent rocks, we propose that the early Jurassic ( 200-175 Ma) magmatism as evidenced by the Tiandong granites might be driven by upwelling of asthenosphere and subsequent underplating of mafic melts in an intra-plate extensional setting as a response to far-field stress during early stage subduction of the paleo-pacific plate.

  5. Lower limits of ornithischian dinosaur body size inferred from a new Upper Jurassic heterodontosaurid from North America

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Richard J.; Galton, Peter M.; Porro, Laura B.; Chiappe, Luis M.; Henderson, Donald M.; Erickson, Gregory M.

    2010-01-01

    The extremes of dinosaur body size have long fascinated scientists. The smallest (<1 m length) known dinosaurs are carnivorous saurischian theropods, and similarly diminutive herbivorous or omnivorous ornithischians (the other major group of dinosaurs) are unknown. We report a new ornithischian dinosaur, Fruitadens haagarorum, from the Late Jurassic of western North America that rivals the smallest theropods in size. The largest specimens of Fruitadens represent young adults in their fifth year of development and are estimated at just 65–75 cm in total body length and 0.5–0.75 kg body mass. They are thus the smallest known ornithischians. Fruitadens is a late-surviving member of the basal dinosaur clade Heterodontosauridae, and is the first member of this clade to be described from North America. The craniodental anatomy and diminutive body size of Fruitadens suggest that this taxon was an ecological generalist with an omnivorous diet, thus providing new insights into morphological and palaeoecological diversity within Dinosauria. Late-surviving (Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous) heterodontosaurids are smaller and less ecologically specialized than Early (Late Triassic and Early Jurassic) heterodontosaurids, and this ecological generalization may account in part for the remarkable 100-million-year-long longevity of the clade. PMID:19846460

  6. Marine Jurassic lithostratigraphy of Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meesook, A.; Grant-Mackie, J. A.

    Marine Jurassic rocks of Thailand are well-exposed in the Mae Sot and Umphang areas and less extensively near Mae Hong Son, Kanchanaburi, Chumphon and Nakhon Si Thammarat, in the north, west, and south respectively. They are generally underlain unconformably by Triassic and overlain by Quaternary strata. Based mainly on five measured sections, fourteen new lithostratigraphic units are established: (in ascending order) Pa Lan, Mai Hung and Kong Mu Formations of the Huai Pong Group in the Mae Hong Son area; Khun Huai, Doi Yot and Pha De Formations of the Hua Fai Group in the Mae Sot area; Klo Tho, Ta Sue Kho, Pu Khloe Khi and Lu Kloc Tu Formations of the Umphang Group in the Umphang area; and the Khao Lak Formation in the Chumphon area. Mudstone, siltstone, sandstone, limestone and marl are the dominant lithologies. Mudstones, siltstones and sandstones are widespread; limestones are confined to the Mae Sot, Umphang, Kanchanaburi and Mae Hong Son areas; marls are found only in Mae Sot. The sequences are approximately 900 m thick in Mae Sot and 450 m thick in Umphang and are rather thinner in the other areas, particularly in the south. Based on ammonites, with additional data from bivalves and foraminifera, the marine Jurassic is largely Toarcian-Aalenian plus some Bajocian. Late Jurassic ages given previously for strata in the Mae Sot and Umphang areas have not been confirmed.

  7. Comparison of early versus late onset familial Mediterranean fever.

    PubMed

    Yasar Bilge, Nazife Sule; Sari, Ismail; Solmaz, Dilek; Senel, Soner; Emmungil, Hakan; Kilic, Levent; Yilmaz Oner, Sibel; Yildiz, Fatih; Yilmaz, Sedat; Ersozlu Bozkirli, Duygu; Aydin Tufan, Muge; Yilmaz, Sema; Yazisiz, Veli; Pehlivan, Yavuz; Bes, Cemal; Yildirim Cetin, Gozde; Erten, Sukran; Gonullu, Emel; Sahin, Fezan; Akar, Servet; Aksu, Kenan; Kalyoncu, Umut; Direskeneli, Haner; Erken, Eren; Sayarlioglu, Mehmet; Cınar, Muhammed; Kasifoglu, Timucin

    2018-04-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most common autoinflammatory disease. One of the common characteristics of this disease is its young age predominance. Nearly 90% of patients experience disease flares during early adult age periods. Currently there are limited data for the comparison of early versus late onset FMF and therefore the primary aim of this study was to investigate these two subsets with regard to their certain demographic, clinical and genetic differences. Early (≤ 20 years, Group 1) and late (> 20 years, Group 2) onset FMF patients were identified from the national FMF registry that involves 2246 patients from 15 adult rheumatology clinics located in different geographical areas of Turkey. Of the 2246 patients, 1633 (72.7%) were aged ≤ 20 years old (Group 1) and the remaining 613 were older than 20 years (Group 2). Delay in diagnosis was longer in Group 1 and fever, peritonitis, pleuritis, erysipelas-like erythema (ELE), arthritis, family history of FMF and amyloidosis were more common in Group 1. On the other hand, sex distribution, rates of amyloidosis, vasculitis and kidney failure were not different between the groups. Among patients with available genotypes, homozygous and heterozygous M694V mutations were significantly higher and heterozygous E148Q mutation was significantly lower in Group 1 compared to Group 2. Patients with FMF whose symptoms start before 20 years of age seem to have severe symptoms and M694V mutation may be responsible for the early expression of the disease. © 2018 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  8. Influx of Dissolved Silica in Shallow Marine Environments in the Early Rhaetian (Late Triassic): Implications for Timing of Supercontinental Rifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tackett, L.

    2017-12-01

    The Rhaetian Stage of the Late Triassic terminated with a mass extinction, but the late Norian-early Rhaetian paleoecological and geochemical transitions and their relationship to events leading up to the End-Triassic mass extinction are poorly understood. To address this issue, presented here is a multi-proxy dataset from New York Canyon, Nevada (USA) relating isotope chemostratigraphy (Sr, C, O), shallow marine benthic macrofossils, and microfossils. At this Panthalassan locality the Norian-Rhaetian boundary is characterized by a negative strontium isotope excursion that facilitates correlation with Tethyan deposits. In sedimentary horizons immediately below and above this excursion, siliceous demosponge spicules (desmids) are abundant components of the microfossil populations, and silicification of calcareous microfossils becomes common. In the sedimentary beds marking the main excursion, hexactinellid sponge spicules are abundant. These results indicate a large input of dissolved silica in shallow marine environments, while the negative strontium values are consistent with increased seafloor spreading and hydrothermal vent activity or basalt weathering, either scenario being a plausible silica source for the typically silica-limited sponges that proliferated during this interval. The biosedimentary features observed across the Norian-Rhaetian boundary are similar to those observed in the earliest Jurassic in marine sections around the world following the End-Triassic mass extinction, but no clear biotic turnover is observed across the Norian-Rhaetian boundary in this succession. Thus, biosedimentary shifts across the Norian-Rhaetian boundary may add important geochemical context to the end-Triassic mass extinction event.

  9. A Jurassic wood providing insights into the earliest step in Ginkgo wood evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zikun; Wang, Yongdong; Philippe, Marc; Zhang, Wu; Tian, Ning; Zheng, Shaolin

    2016-12-01

    The fossil record of Ginkgo leaf and reproductive organs has been well dated to the Mid-Jurassic (170 Myr). However, the fossil wood record that can safely be assigned to Ginkgoales has not yet been reported from strata predating the late Early Cretaceous (ca. 100 Myr). Here, we report a new fossil wood from the Mid-Late Jurassic transition deposit (153-165 Myr) of northeastern China. The new fossil wood specimen displays several Ginkgo features, including inflated axial parenchyma and intrusive tracheid tips. Because it is only slightly younger than the oldest recorded Ginkgo reproductive organs (the Yima Formation, 170 Myr), this fossil wood very probably represents the oldest bona fide fossil Ginkgo wood and the missing ancestral form of Ginkgo wood evolution.

  10. A Jurassic wood providing insights into the earliest step in Ginkgo wood evolution.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zikun; Wang, Yongdong; Philippe, Marc; Zhang, Wu; Tian, Ning; Zheng, Shaolin

    2016-12-16

    The fossil record of Ginkgo leaf and reproductive organs has been well dated to the Mid-Jurassic (170 Myr). However, the fossil wood record that can safely be assigned to Ginkgoales has not yet been reported from strata predating the late Early Cretaceous (ca. 100 Myr). Here, we report a new fossil wood from the Mid-Late Jurassic transition deposit (153-165 Myr) of northeastern China. The new fossil wood specimen displays several Ginkgo features, including inflated axial parenchyma and intrusive tracheid tips. Because it is only slightly younger than the oldest recorded Ginkgo reproductive organs (the Yima Formation, 170 Myr), this fossil wood very probably represents the oldest bona fide fossil Ginkgo wood and the missing ancestral form of Ginkgo wood evolution.

  11. Characteristics of early versus late implant failure: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Manor, Yifat; Oubaid, Saheer; Mardinger, Ofer; Chaushu, Gavriel; Nissan, Joseph

    2009-12-01

    Implant failures can be divided into early and late according to the timing of failure. The purpose of this study was to characterize and compare both types. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in 194 patients (98 men and 96 women) who presented after dental implant failures during a 6-year period (2000 to 2006). The patient served as the unit of analysis. A history of at least 1 failed and removed dental implant served as the inclusion criterion. Patients were excluded from this study whenever their files had missing data. The collected data included a patient's characteristics, failure characteristics, and the anatomic status of the alveolar ridge after failure. Late failures were associated with moderate to severe bone loss, a larger number of failed implants per patient, a higher incidence in men, and mostly in posterior areas. Early failures were associated with minimal bone loss, occurred more in women, at a younger age, and in most cases the implants were intended to support single crowns. Meticulous follow-up is needed to reveal and treat failing or ailing implants. Once established as hopeless, they should be removed as soon as possible to prevent further bone loss.

  12. A new Jurassic theropod from China documents a transitional step in the macrostructure of feathers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefèvre, Ulysse; Cau, Andrea; Cincotta, Aude; Hu, Dongyu; Chinsamy, Anusuya; Escuillié, François; Godefroit, Pascal

    2017-10-01

    Genuine fossils with exquisitely preserved plumage from the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous of northeastern China have recently revealed that bird-like theropod dinosaurs had long pennaceous feathers along their hindlimbs and may have used their four wings to glide or fly. Thus, it has been postulated that early bird flight might initially have involved four wings (Xu et al. Nature 421:335-340, 2003; Hu et al. Nature 461:640-643, 2009; Han et al. Nat Commun 5:4382, 2014). Here, we describe Serikornis sungei gen. et sp. nov., a new feathered theropod from the Tiaojishan Fm (Late Jurassic) of Liaoning Province, China. Its skeletal morphology suggests a ground-dwelling ecology with no flying adaptations. Our phylogenetic analysis places Serikornis, together with other Late Jurassic paravians from China, as a basal paravians, outside the Eumaniraptora clade. The tail of Serikornis is covered proximally by filaments and distally by slender rectrices. Thin symmetrical remiges lacking barbules are attached along its forelimbs and elongate hindlimb feathers extend up to its toes, suggesting that hindlimb remiges evolved in ground-dwelling maniraptorans before being co-opted to an arboreal lifestyle or flight.

  13. Early versus late initiation of epidural analgesia for labour.

    PubMed

    Sng, Ban Leong; Leong, Wan Ling; Zeng, Yanzhi; Siddiqui, Fahad Javaid; Assam, Pryseley N; Lim, Yvonne; Chan, Edwin S Y; Sia, Alex T

    2014-10-09

    Pain during childbirth is arguably the most severe pain some women may experience in their lifetime. Epidural analgesia is an effective form of pain relief during labour. Many women have concerns regarding its safety. Furthermore, epidural services and anaesthetic support may not be available consistently across all centres. Observational data suggest that early initiation of epidural may be associated with an increased risk of caesarean section, but the same findings were not seen in recent randomised controlled trials. More recent guidelines suggest that in the absence of a medical contraindication, maternal request is a sufficient medical indication for pain relief during labour. The choice of analgesic technique, agent, and dosage is based on many factors, including patient preference, medical status, and contraindications. There is no systematically reviewed evidence on the maternal and foetal outcomes and safety of this practice. This systematic review aimed to summarise the effectiveness and safety of early initiation versus late initiation of epidural analgesia in women. We considered the obstetric and fetal outcomes relevant to women and side effects of the treatments, including risk of caesarean section, instrumental birth and time to birth. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (12 February 2014), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2014, Issue 1), MEDLINE (January 1966 to February 2014), Embase (January 1980 to February 2014) and reference lists of retrieved studies. We included all randomised controlled trials involving women undergoing epidural labour analgesia that compared early initiation versus late initiation of epidural labour analgesia. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, extracted the data and assessed the trial quality. Data were checked for accuracy. We included nine studies with a total of 15,752 women.The overall risk of bias of

  14. Precambrian Continent Arctida: A New Kinematic Reconstruction of Late Precambrian - Early Paleozoic Arctida U Europe (baltia) Collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, T. P.; Guertseva, M. V.; Egorov, A. Ju.; Kononov, M. V.; Kouznetsov, N. B.

    In according to L.P.Zonenshain and L.M.Natapov (1988, 1990), different size conti- nental blocks locating at the margins and inside of present-day Arctic ocean composed the hypothetical early Paleozoic paleocontinent Arctida. The blocks are Kara block (north part of Taymir peninsula, Severnaja Zemlja archipelago and Franz Joseph Land archipelago), north part of Alaska (northward Bruks ridge), Chukchi block, Novosi- birsky block (Novosibirskiye islands together their shelves), several fragments north- ward to the Innuitian orogen (north parts of Peary Land and Ellesmere Island), and Lomonosov ridgeSs block. In the previous kinematic reconstruction it was believed that Arctida as a whole collided with north flanks of Laurentia (Innuitian margin) and Europe (Baltia, Barentsia margin) in middle Paleozoic time. Later, the Arctida (been a fragment of supercontinent Pangea) was fragmented due to a spreading in the Arctic ocean and north part of Atlantic ocean in late Mesozoic and Cenozoic times. Then ArctidaSs fragments were accreted to the Eurasia and North America conti- nents. During the last decade "AEROGEOLOGIA" company has been gathered new data (geologic, stratigraphical, paleomagnetic, and others) of Russian Arctic sector and Svalbard. The data were summarized into "Paleogeographical Atlas for the Rus- sian Arctic sector and Svalbard from Vendian to Jurassic times" (see Abstact SE1.04, ID-NR: EGS02-A-02453). An analyzing of the maps for Vend and Cambrian times allows us to reconsider a few stages of kinematic scenario of late Precambrian - early Paleozoic Arctida U Europe collision. 1) Old interpretation: Arctida was considered as an isolated paleocontinent during early Paleozoic time. New interpretation: during the early Paleozoic Arctida together Europe (Baltia) were assembled into a paleo- continent named us Arcteurope. This conclusion is based on excellent coincidence of Paleozoic paleomagnetic poles of the Kara block (which is a part of Arctida) and Europe

  15. Corrigendum to "Decadal to millennial variations in water column parameters in pelagic marine environments of the Western Tethys (Carpathian realm) during Middle-Late Jurassic - Evidence from the radiolarian record" [Glob. Planet. Chang. 162 (2018) 148-162

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bąk, Marta; Bąk, Krzysztof; Michalik, Mariola

    2018-04-01

    The authors regret (Abstract. The causal link between changes in Middle-Late Jurassic radiolarian habitat group abundances, microfacies and water column conditions in the Western Tethys was studied based on the examination of siliceous limestones and cherts from the Tatra Mountains, Central Western Carpathians. Deposition occurred on a morphological high with incised pelagic sedimentation within a tropical zone. High-resolution quantitative analyses of millimetre-thick microlaminae show changes in microfacies constituents that most likely record the fluxes of nutrients and biological activity in superficial waters. Variability of radiolarian assemblages that are classified to represent (i) upwelling and (ii) stratified water taxa suggest successive changes in water conditions that fluctuated between periods of upwelling and periods of formation of a thick, stratified, warm superficial layer above a deep thermocline during middle Bajocian-late Oxfordian time. Such variations would be strongly influenced by ocean-atmosphere global circulation patterns, which are caused by pressure gradients and are the result of Walker circulation along the equatorial part of the Tethys and the Panthalassa Ocean, including the duration of El Niño-like and La Niña-like cycles, which affect sea surface temperature trends on decadal scales. The fluctuations in radiolarian assemblages in the sediments indicate that long-term palaeoceanographic changes occurred on multi-decadal to centennial-scales during the Bajocian, but lengthened in duration to millennial-scale during the Bathonian through the Oxfordian.)

  16. The development of phonological skills in late and early talkers

    PubMed Central

    KEHOE, Margaret; CHAPLIN, Elisa; MUDRY, Pauline; FRIEND, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between phonological and lexical development in a group of French-speaking children (n=30), aged 29 months. The participants were divided into three sub-groups based on the number of words in their expressive vocabulary : low vocabulary (below the 15th percentile) (<< late-talkers >>) ; average-sized vocabulary (40-60th percentile) (<< middle group >>) and advanced vocabulary (above the 90th percentile) (<< precocious >> or “early talkers”). The phonological abilities (e.g., phonemic inventory, percentage of correct consonants, and phonological processes) of the three groups were compared. The comparison was based on analyses of spontaneous language samples. Most findings were consistent with previous results found in English-speaking children, indicating that the phonological abilities of late talkers are less well developed than those of children with average-sized vocabularies which in turn are less well-developed than those of children with advanced vocabularies. Nevertheless, several phonological measures were not related to vocabulary size, in particular those concerning syllable-final position. These findings differ from those obtained in English. The article finally discusses the clinical implications of the findings for children with delayed language development. PMID:26924855

  17. Juxtapapillary duodenal diverticula early and late clinical and therapeutical implications.

    PubMed

    Straja, D; Marincaş, M; Alecu, M; Boroghina, G; Simion, L; Stanescu, A; Drilea, E; Brătucu, E

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify the early and late implications of JPDD for biliary pathology, as well as for endoscopic therapy and classical surgery dealing mainly with lithiasis. This paper is based on a retrospective study comprising a number of 675 ERCP performed on 601 patients between 1997-2007, out of which 399 cases were followed by therapeutic measures. A total of 79 procedures were performed on 65 cases with JPDD. The main criteria were: gender, age, indications regarding the performance of ERCP+/-ES, complications that occurred while carrying out these procedures. In all the cases examined (601) the percentage of JPDD reported was of 10.81%. The rate of complications in the sphincterotomized patients without JPDD was 5.75% and the rate in the sphincterotomized patients with JPDD was 14.89%. In conclusion, the paper discusses the clinical and therapeutic implications of JPDD in biliary pathology. It has been found that JPDD is an important etiological cause for the late diseases occurring after cholelithiasis surgery. JPDD also leads to immediate therapeutic implications such as: difficult cannulation and high incidence of ERCP+/-ES complications.

  18. Viscous cosmology for early- and late-time universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, Iver; Grøn, Øyvind; de Haro, Jaume; Odintsov, Sergei D.; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.

    From a hydrodynamicist’s point of view the inclusion of viscosity concepts in the macroscopic theory of the cosmic fluid would appear most natural, as an ideal fluid is after all an abstraction (exluding special cases such as superconductivity). Making use of modern observational results for the Hubble parameter plus standard Friedmann formalism, we may extrapolate the description of the universe back in time up to the inflationary era, or we may go to the opposite extreme and analyze the probable ultimate fate of the universe. In this review, we discuss a variety of topics in cosmology when it is enlarged in order to contain a bulk viscosity. Various forms of this viscosity, when expressed in terms of the fluid density or the Hubble parameter, are discussed. Furthermore, we consider homogeneous as well as inhomogeneous equations of state. We investigate viscous cosmology in the early universe, examining the viscosity effects on the various inflationary observables. Additionally, we study viscous cosmology in the late universe, containing current acceleration and the possible future singularities, and we investigate how one may even unify inflationary and late-time acceleration. Finally, we analyze the viscosity-induced crossing through the quintessence-phantom divide, we examine the realization of viscosity-driven cosmological bounces, and we briefly discuss how the Cardy-Verlinde formula is affected by viscosity.

  19. Sedimentation of Jurassic fan-delta wedges in the Xiahuayuan basin reflecting thrust-fault movements of the western Yanshan fold-and-thrust belt, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chengfa; Liu, Shaofeng; Zhuang, Qitian; Steel, Ronald J.

    2018-06-01

    Mesozoic thrusting within the Yanshan fold-and-thrust belt of North China resulted in a series of fault-bounded intramontane basins whose infill and evolution remain poorly understood. In particular, the bounding faults and adjacent sediment accumulations along the western segments of the belt are almost unstudied. A sedimentological and provenance analysis of the Lower Jurassic Xiahuayuan Formation and the Upper Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation have been mapped to show two distinctive clastic wedges: an early Jurassic wedge representing a mass-flow-dominated, Gilbert-type fan delta with a classic tripartite architecture, and an late Jurassic shoal-water fan delta without steeply inclined strata. The basinward migration of the fan-delta wedges, together with the analysis of their conglomerate clast compositions, paleocurrent data and detrital zircon U-Pb age spectra, strongly suggest that the northern-bounding Xuanhuan thrust fault controlled their growth during accumulation of the Jiulongshan Formation. Previous studies have suggested that the fan-delta wedge of the Xiahuayuan Formation was also syntectonic, related to movement on the Xuanhua thrust fault. Two stages of thrusting therefore exerted an influence on the formation and evolution of the Xiahuayuan basin during the early-late Jurassic.

  20. Deep burial dolomitization driven by plate collision: Evidence from strontium-isotopes of Jurassic Arab IV dolomites from offshore Qatar

    SciTech Connect

    Vahrenkamp, V.C.; Taylor, S.R.

    The use of strontium-isotope ratios of dolomites to constrain timing and mechanism of diagenesis has been investigated on Jurassic Arab IV dolomites from offshore Qatar. Reservoir quality is determined by two types of dolomites, which were differentiated geochemically (cathodoluminescence, fluid inclusions, and carbon and oxygen stable isotopes): (1) stratigraphically concordant sucrosic dolomites with high porosity formed during early near-surface diagenesis (Jurassic) and (2) stratigraphically discordant cylindrical bodies of massive, porosity-destroying dolomites formed late during deep burial diagenesis (Eocene-Pliocene). Detailed Sr-isotope analysis of dolomites from the Arab IV confirms an Early Jurassic age of the sucrosic, high porosity dolomites ({sup 87}Sr/{supmore » 86}SR = 0.70707 for NBS 987 = 0.71024) with magnesium and strontium being derived from Jurassic seawater. Late Tertiary compressional orogeny of the Zagros belt to the north is proposed to have caused large-scale squeezing of fluids from the pore system of sedimentary rocks. A regional deep fluid flow system developed dissolving infra-Cambrian evaporites upflow and causing large-scale deep burial dolomitization downflow.« less

  1. Late Pleistocene climate drivers of early human migration.

    PubMed

    Timmermann, Axel; Friedrich, Tobias

    2016-10-06

    On the basis of fossil and archaeological data it has been hypothesized that the exodus of Homo sapiens out of Africa and into Eurasia between ~50-120 thousand years ago occurred in several orbitally paced migration episodes. Crossing vegetated pluvial corridors from northeastern Africa into the Arabian Peninsula and the Levant and expanding further into Eurasia, Australia and the Americas, early H. sapiens experienced massive time-varying climate and sea level conditions on a variety of timescales. Hitherto it has remained difficult to quantify the effect of glacial- and millennial-scale climate variability on early human dispersal and evolution. Here we present results from a numerical human dispersal model, which is forced by spatiotemporal estimates of climate and sea level changes over the past 125 thousand years. The model simulates the overall dispersal of H. sapiens in close agreement with archaeological and fossil data and features prominent glacial migration waves across the Arabian Peninsula and the Levant region around 106-94, 89-73, 59-47 and 45-29 thousand years ago. The findings document that orbital-scale global climate swings played a key role in shaping Late Pleistocene global population distributions, whereas millennial-scale abrupt climate changes, associated with Dansgaard-Oeschger events, had a more limited regional effect.

  2. Late Pleistocene climate drivers of early human migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmermann, Axel; Friedrich, Tobias

    2016-10-01

    On the basis of fossil and archaeological data it has been hypothesized that the exodus of Homo sapiens out of Africa and into Eurasia between ~50-120 thousand years ago occurred in several orbitally paced migration episodes. Crossing vegetated pluvial corridors from northeastern Africa into the Arabian Peninsula and the Levant and expanding further into Eurasia, Australia and the Americas, early H. sapiens experienced massive time-varying climate and sea level conditions on a variety of timescales. Hitherto it has remained difficult to quantify the effect of glacial- and millennial-scale climate variability on early human dispersal and evolution. Here we present results from a numerical human dispersal model, which is forced by spatiotemporal estimates of climate and sea level changes over the past 125 thousand years. The model simulates the overall dispersal of H. sapiens in close agreement with archaeological and fossil data and features prominent glacial migration waves across the Arabian Peninsula and the Levant region around 106-94, 89-73, 59-47 and 45-29 thousand years ago. The findings document that orbital-scale global climate swings played a key role in shaping Late Pleistocene global population distributions, whereas millennial-scale abrupt climate changes, associated with Dansgaard-Oeschger events, had a more limited regional effect.

  3. Regional and temporal variability of melts during a Cordilleran magma pulse: Age and chemical evolution of the jurassic arc, eastern mojave desert, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barth, A.P.; Wooden, J.L.; Miller, David; Howard, Keith A.; Fox, Lydia; Schermer, Elizabeth R.; Jacobson, C.E.

    2017-01-01

    Intrusive rock sequences in the central and eastern Mojave Desert segment of the Jurassic Cordilleran arc of the western United States record regional and temporal variations in magmas generated during the second prominent pulse of Mesozoic continental arc magmatism. U/Pb zircon ages provide temporal control for describing variations in rock and zircon geochemistry that reflect differences in magma source components. These source signatures are discernible through mixing and fractionation processes associated with magma ascent and emplacement. The oldest well-dated Jurassic rocks defining initiation of the Jurassic pulse are a 183 Ma monzodiorite and a 181 Ma ignimbrite. Early to Middle Jurassic intrusive rocks comprising the main stage of magmatism include two high-K calc-alkalic groups: to the north, the deformed 183–172 Ma Fort Irwin sequence and contemporaneous rocks in the Granite and Clipper Mountains, and to the south, the 167–164 Ma Bullion sequence. A Late Jurassic suite of shoshonitic, alkali-calcic intrusive rocks, the Bristol Mountains sequence, ranges in age from 164 to 161 Ma and was emplaced as the pulse began to wane. Whole-rock and zircon trace-element geochemistry defines a compositionally coherent Jurassic arc with regional and secular variations in melt compositions. The arc evolved through the magma pulse by progressively greater input of old cratonic crust and lithospheric mantle into the arc magma system, synchronous with progressive regional crustal thickening.

  4. Late effects of early growth hormone treatment in Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Myrelid, Å; Bergman, S; Elfvik Strömberg, M; Jonsson, B; Nyberg, F; Gustafsson, J; Annerén, G

    2010-05-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is associated with short stature and psychomotor delay. We have previously shown that growth hormone (GH) treatment during infancy and childhood normalizes growth velocity and improves fine motor skill performance in DS. The aim of this study was to investigate late effects of early GH treatment on growth and psychomotor development in the DS subjects from the previous trial. Twelve of 15 adolescents with DS (3 F) from the GH group and 10 of 15 controls (5 F) participated in this follow-up study. Fifteen other subjects with DS (6 F) were included as controls in anthropometric analyses. Cognitive function was assessed with the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised (Leiter-R) and selected subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Third edition (WISC-III). The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Second edition (BOT-2), was used to assess general motor ability. Although early GH treatment had no effect on final height, the treated subjects had a greater head circumference standard deviation score (SDS) than the controls (-1.6 SDS vs. -2.2 SDS). The adolescents previously treated with GH had scores above those of the controls in all subtests of Leiter-R and WISC-III, but no difference in Brief IQ-score was seen between the groups. The age-adjusted motor performance of all subjects was below -2 SD, but the GH-treated subjects performed better than the controls in all but one subtest. The combined finding of a greater head circumference SDS and better psychomotor performance indicates that DS subjects may benefit from early GH treatment.

  5. Late Tharsis formation and implications for early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouley, Sylvain; Baratoux, David; Matsuyama, Isamu; Forget, Francois; Séjourné, Antoine; Turbet, Martin; Costard, Francois

    2016-03-01

    The Tharsis region is the largest volcanic complex on Mars and in the Solar System. Young lava flows cover its surface (from the Amazonian period, less than 3 billion years ago) but its growth started during the Noachian era (more than 3.7 billion years ago). Its position has induced a reorientation of the planet with respect to its spin axis (true polar wander, TPW), which is responsible for the present equatorial position of the volcanic province. It has been suggested that the Tharsis load on the lithosphere influenced the orientation of the Noachian/Early Hesperian (more than 3.5 billion years ago) valley networks and therefore that most of the topography of Tharsis was completed before fluvial incision. Here we calculate the rotational figure of Mars (that is, its equilibrium shape) and its surface topography before Tharsis formed, when the spin axis of the planet was controlled by the difference in elevation between the northern and southern hemispheres (hemispheric dichotomy). We show that the observed directions of valley networks are also consistent with topographic gradients in this configuration and thus do not require the presence of the Tharsis load. Furthermore, the distribution of the valleys along a small circle tilted with respect to the equator is found to correspond to a southern-hemisphere latitudinal band in the pre-TPW geographical frame. Preferential accumulation of ice or water in a south tropical band is predicted by climate model simulations of early Mars applied to the pre-TPW topography. A late growth of Tharsis, contemporaneous with valley incision, has several implications for the early geological history of Mars, including the existence of glacial environments near the locations of the pre-TPW poles of rotation, and a possible link between volcanic outgassing from Tharsis and the stability of liquid water at the surface of Mars.

  6. Late Tharsis formation and implications for early Mars.

    PubMed

    Bouley, Sylvain; Baratoux, David; Matsuyama, Isamu; Forget, Francois; Séjourné, Antoine; Turbet, Martin; Costard, Francois

    2016-03-17

    The Tharsis region is the largest volcanic complex on Mars and in the Solar System. Young lava flows cover its surface (from the Amazonian period, less than 3 billion years ago) but its growth started during the Noachian era (more than 3.7 billion years ago). Its position has induced a reorientation of the planet with respect to its spin axis (true polar wander, TPW), which is responsible for the present equatorial position of the volcanic province. It has been suggested that the Tharsis load on the lithosphere influenced the orientation of the Noachian/Early Hesperian (more than 3.5 billion years ago) valley networks and therefore that most of the topography of Tharsis was completed before fluvial incision. Here we calculate the rotational figure of Mars (that is, its equilibrium shape) and its surface topography before Tharsis formed, when the spin axis of the planet was controlled by the difference in elevation between the northern and southern hemispheres (hemispheric dichotomy). We show that the observed directions of valley networks are also consistent with topographic gradients in this configuration and thus do not require the presence of the Tharsis load. Furthermore, the distribution of the valleys along a small circle tilted with respect to the equator is found to correspond to a southern-hemisphere latitudinal band in the pre-TPW geographical frame. Preferential accumulation of ice or water in a south tropical band is predicted by climate model simulations of early Mars applied to the pre-TPW topography. A late growth of Tharsis, contemporaneous with valley incision, has several implications for the early geological history of Mars, including the existence of glacial environments near the locations of the pre-TPW poles of rotation, and a possible link between volcanic outgassing from Tharsis and the stability of liquid water at the surface of Mars.

  7. New Fossil Evidence on the Sister-Group of Mammals and Early Mesozoic Faunal Distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shubin, Neil H.; Crompton, A. W.; Sues, Hans-Dieter; Olsen, Paul E.

    1991-03-01

    Newly discovered remains of highly advanced mammal-like reptiles (Cynodontia: Tritheledontidae) from the Early Jurassic of Nova Scotia, Canada, have revealed that aspects of the characteristic mammalian occlusal pattern are primitive. Mammals and tritheledontids share an homologous pattern of occlusion that is not seen in other cynodonts. The new tritheledontids represent the first definite record of this family from North America. The extreme similarity of North American and African tritheledontids supports the hypothesis that the global distribution of terrestrial tetrapods was homogeneous in the Early Jurassic. This Early Jurassic cosmopolitanism represents the continuation of a trend toward increased global homogeneity among terrestrial tetrapod communities that began in the late Paleozoic.

  8. Baltica from the Late Precambrian to the Early Ordovician

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torsvik, T. H.; Cocks, L. R.

    2004-05-01

    Current thinking supports the existence of the Rodinia supercontinent which consolidated at perhaps 1100 to 1000 million years ago and most probably disintegrated somewhere before 800 Ma. Within the Rodinian collage, Baltica was adjacent to, and probably welded to, Laurentia, with the modern eastern (Uralian) part of Baltica conjugate with the north of Laurentia. Laurentia was in turn attached to the South American terranes of Rio Plata and Amazonia, and possibly also West Africa. Baltica became an independent terrane when it split off from Laurentia, leaving a widening Iapetus Ocean between the two. When this rifting actually commenced is a matter of dispute due to very conflicting palaeomagnetic data from both Laurentia and Baltica; however, we favor that the southern part of the Iapetus, between Laurentia and South America, opened first at about 570 Ma and that this rifting spread gradually northwards until Baltica separated from Laurentia at approximately 550 Ma, near the end of Precambrian time at 543 Ma. New palaeomagnetic and geochronological data from the 616-610 Ma Egersund Dykes (SW Baltica) place Baltica at the south pole whereas subsequent Late Precambrian to Early Cambrian poles places Baltica at lower latitudes. During the late and middle Vendian, the NW margin of Baltica changed from an extensional tectonic regime to an active margin (Timanian Orogeny) in which microcontinental blocks in the Timan-Pechora, northern Ural and Novaya Zemlya areas were united with Baltica at 550-560 Ma. Largely between Middle Cambrian and Middle Ordovician times, the whole large terrane of Baltica underwent a very substantial rotation of about 120°, the maximum rate of this rotation occurred in late Cambrian and early Ordovician times. Much of the craton of Baltica appears to have been submerged under shelf seas for long parts of this time, which lasted from 544 to 490 Ma. As a consequence the olenid trilobite fauna represent a fauna living largely in niches which were

  9. Florida: A Jurassic transform plate boundary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klitgord, Kim D.; Popenoe, Peter; Schouten, Hans

    1984-01-01

    Magnetic, gravity, seismic, and deep drill hole data integrated with plate tectonic reconstructions substantiate the existence of a transform plate boundary across southern Florida during the Jurassic. On the basis of this integrated suite of data the pre-Cretaceous Florida-Bahamas region can be divided into the pre-Jurassic North American plate, Jurassic marginal rift basins, and a broad Jurassic transform zone including stranded blocks of pre-Mesozoic continental crust. Major tectonic units include the Suwannee basin in northern Florida containing Paleozoic sedimentary rocks, a central Florida basement complex of Paleozoic age crystalline rock, the west Florida platform composed of stranded blocks of continental crust, the south Georgia rift containing Triassic sedimentary rocks which overlie block-faulted Suwannee basin sedimentary rocks, the Late Triassic-Jurassic age Apalachicola rift basin, and the Jurassic age south Florida, Bahamas, and Blake Plateau marginal rift basins. The major tectonic units are bounded by basement hinge zones and fracture zones (FZ). The basement hinge zone represents the block-faulted edge of the North American plate, separating Paleozoic and older crustal rocks from Jurassic rifted crust beneath the marginal basins. Fracture zones separate Mesozoic marginal sedimentary basins and include the Blake Spur FZ, Jacksonville FZ, Bahamas FZ, and Cuba FZ, bounding the Blake Plateau, Bahamas, south Florida, and southeastern Gulf of Mexico basins. The Bahamas FZ is the most important of all these features because its northwest extension coincides with the Gulf basin marginal fault zone, forming the southern edge of the North American plate during the Jurassic. The limited space between the North American and the South American/African plates requires that the Jurassic transform zone, connecting the Central Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico spreading systems, was located between the Bahamas and Cuba FZ's in the region of southern Florida. Our

  10. Vascular Effects of Early versus Late Postmenopausal Treatment with Estradiol.

    PubMed

    Hodis, Howard N; Mack, Wendy J; Henderson, Victor W; Shoupe, Donna; Budoff, Matthew J; Hwang-Levine, Juliana; Li, Yanjie; Feng, Mei; Dustin, Laurie; Kono, Naoko; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Selzer, Robert H; Azen, Stanley P

    2016-03-31

    Data suggest that estrogen-containing hormone therapy is associated with beneficial effects with regard to cardiovascular disease when the therapy is initiated temporally close to menopause but not when it is initiated later. However, the hypothesis that the cardiovascular effects of postmenopausal hormone therapy vary with the timing of therapy initiation (the hormone-timing hypothesis) has not been tested. A total of 643 healthy postmenopausal women were stratified according to time since menopause (<6 years [early postmenopause] or ≥10 years [late postmenopause]) and were randomly assigned to receive either oral 17β-estradiol (1 mg per day, plus progesterone [45 mg] vaginal gel administered sequentially [i.e., once daily for 10 days of each 30-day cycle] for women with a uterus) or placebo (plus sequential placebo vaginal gel for women with a uterus). The primary outcome was the rate of change in carotid-artery intima-media thickness (CIMT), which was measured every 6 months. Secondary outcomes included an assessment of coronary atherosclerosis by cardiac computed tomography (CT), which was performed when participants completed the randomly assigned regimen. After a median of 5 years, the effect of estradiol, with or without progesterone, on CIMT progression differed between the early and late postmenopause strata (P=0.007 for the interaction). Among women who were less than 6 years past menopause at the time of randomization, the mean CIMT increased by 0.0078 mm per year in the placebo group versus 0.0044 mm per year in the estradiol group (P=0.008). Among women who were 10 or more years past menopause at the time of randomization, the rates of CIMT progression in the placebo and estradiol groups were similar (0.0088 and 0.0100 mm per year, respectively; P=0.29). CT measures of coronary-artery calcium, total stenosis, and plaque did not differ significantly between the placebo group and the estradiol group in either postmenopause stratum. Oral estradiol

  11. Emergence and early survival of early versus late seral species in Great Basin restoration in two different soil types

    Treesearch

    Shauna M. Uselman; Keirith A. Snyder; Elizabeth A. Leger; Sara E. Duke

    2015-01-01

    Comparing emergence and survival probabilities, early seral natives generally outperformed late seral natives when growing with exotics and had earlier emergence timing, although results differed among functional groups and soil types. In contrast, survival probabilities did not differ between the early and late seral mixes when growing without exotics. Within each...

  12. Predictors of early and late stroke following cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Whitlock, Richard; Healey, Jeff S.; Connolly, Stuart J.; Wang, Julie; Danter, Matthew R.; Tu, Jack V.; Novick, Richard; Fremes, Stephen; Teoh, Kevin; Khera, Vikas; Yusuf, Salim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Much is known about the short-term risks of stroke following cardiac surgery. We examined the rate and predictors of long-term stroke in a cohort of patients who underwent cardiac surgery. Methods: We obtained linked data for patients who underwent cardiac surgery in the province of Ontario between 1996 and 2006. We analyzed the incidence of stroke and death up to 2 years postoperatively. Results: Of 108 711 patients, 1.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7%–1.9%) had a stroke perioperatively, and 3.6% (95% CI 3.5%–3.7%) had a stroke within the ensuing 2 years. The strongest predictors of both early and late stroke were advanced age (≥ 65 year; adjusted hazard ratio [HR] for all stroke 1.9, 95% CI 1.8–2.0), a history of stroke or transient ischemic attack (adjusted HR 2.1, 95% CI 1.9–2.3), peripheral vascular disease (adjusted HR 1.6, 95% CI 1.5–1.7), combined coronary bypass grafting and valve surgery (adjusted HR 1.7, 95% CI 1.5–1.8) and valve surgery alone (adjusted HR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2–1.5). Preoperative need for dialysis (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.1, 95% CI 1.6–2.8) and new-onset postoperative atrial fibrillation (adjusted OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.3–1.6) were predictors of only early stroke. A CHADS2 score of 2 or higher was associated with an increased risk of stroke or death compared with a score of 0 or 1 (19.9% v. 9.3% among patients with a history of atrial fibrillation, 16.8% v. 7.8% among those with new-onset postoperative atrial fibrillation and 14.8% v. 5.8% among those without this condition). Interpretation: Patients who had cardiac surgery were at highest risk of stroke in the early postoperative period and had continued risk over the ensuing 2 years, with similar risk factors over these periods. New-onset postoperative atrial fibrillation was a predictor of only early stroke. The CHADS2 score predicted stroke risk among patients with and without atrial fibrillation. PMID:25047983

  13. Basin evolution during the transition from continental rifting to subduction: Evidence from the lithofacies and modal petrology of the Jurassic Latady Group, Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willan, Robert C. R.; Hunter, Morag A.

    2005-12-01

    The Jurassic Latady Basin (southern Antarctic Peninsula) developed in a broad rift zone associated with the early stages of Gondwana extension. Early Jurassic sedimentation (˜185 Ma) occurred in small, isolated terrestrial to lacustrine rift basins in the present-day northwest and west and became shallow marine by the early Middle Jurassic. Quantitative modal analysis reveals a high proportion of mature, quartzose sandstone derived from cratonic and quartzose recycled-orogen provenances, most likely in the direction of the Ellsworth-Whitmore Mountains in the Gondwana interior. Sandstones with a more volcanolithic provenance probably represent an influx of sands from a Permian volcanic source in West Antarctica. The Early Jurassic Latady sequence contains abundant volcanic quartz and rhyodacite grains, locally derived from the nearby ignimbrites of the rift-related Mount Poster Formation (˜185 Ma). Between the Middle and Late Jurassic (?160-150 Ma), there was a dramatic change throughout the Latady Basin to higher-energy conditions with marked lateral facies variations. Sandstones contain abundant fresh volcanic detritus and plot in the transitional arc field. Their source was a nearby, active continental margin arc, but there is no outcrop of arc material on the Antarctic Peninsula from this time. A possible source area is preserved on the Thurston Island block to the southwest. However, some fluvial systems still had access to areas of uplifted metamorphic/plutonic basement and quartzose, cratonic sources. Evidence of mixing of fluvial systems from different provenances and the lack of mixing of other fluvial systems suggest a complex topography of variably uplifted fault blocks with fluvial systems constrained in narrow valleys. The change from continental rift- to arc-related sources illustrates the shift from plume- (continental provenances) to continental margin arc-dominated tectonics. Thermal relaxation in the Late Jurassic led to the final phase of

  14. Personality differences in early versus late suicide attempters.

    PubMed

    Lewitzka, Ute; Denzin, Sebastian; Sauer, Cathrin; Bauer, Michael; Jabs, Burkhard

    2016-08-09

    Suicidality is an individual behaviour caused by a complex framework of internal and external factors. The predictive values of personality traits for a suicide attempt have been demonstrated, especially in conjunction with Cloninger's TCI and impulsivity. Two issues remain unsolved, namely whether these traits alter over time after a suicide attempt, and how they may be influenced by depressive symptoms. We studied two patient cohorts: one sample of 81 patients after a suicide attempt no longer than 3 months previously (SA early) and another sample of 32 patients whose attempt had taken place more than 6 months previously (SA late). We carried out structured interviews with these subjects addressing diagnosis (MINI), suicidality (Scale for suicide ideation), depression (HAMD-17), temperament and character inventory (TCI), and impulsivity (BIS-10). Data analysis was done using SPSS 16.0. Our two groups did not differ significantly in sociodemographics or suicidality. However, patients in the SA early group were significantly more depressed (p < 0.001), and scored lower in reward dependence (p < 0.001) and persistence (p = 0.005) but higher in harm avoidance (p < 0.001); they did not differ significantly in impulsivity (p < 0.01). Reward dependence, persistence, and harm avoidance remained significantly different between the two groups after controlling for depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that some personality traits vary after a suicide attempt. Further investigations are necessary to verify our results, ideally in longitudinal studies with larger, carefully-described cohorts. It would be also clinically important to investigate the influence of therapeutic strategies on the variability of personality traits and their impact on suicidal behavior.

  15. Late Tharsis tectonic activity and implications for Early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouley, S.; Baratoux, D.; Paulien, N.; Missenard, Y.; Saint-Bezar, B.

    2017-12-01

    Constraining the timing of Tharsis volcanism is critical to understanding the planet's evolution including its climate, surface environment and mantle dynamics. The tectonic history of the Tharsis bulge was previously documented from the distribution and ages of related tectonic features [1]. Here we revisit the ages of 7493 Tharsis-related tectonic features based on their relationship with stratigraphic units defined in the new geological map [2]. Conversely to previous tectonic mapping [1], which suggested that Tharsis growth was nearly achieved during the Noachian, we find a protracted growth of Tharsis during the Hesperian. Faulting at Tempe Terra, Claritas and Coracis Fossae and Thaumasia Planum confirms that tectonic deformation started during the Noachian. Accumulated tectonic deformation was maximum in the Early Hesperian for compressional strain (Solis, Lunae and Ascuris Planum) and extended over time from Noachian to Amazonian for extensional strain (Noctis Labyrinthus and Fossae, Sinai Planum and Tractus, Ulysses and Fortuna fossae, Alba Patera). This new scenario is consistent with a protracted growth of Tharsis dome during the Hesperian and with the timing a large Tharsis-driven true polar wander post-dating the incision of Late Noachian/Hesperian valley networks[3]. References:[1] Anderson et al. JGR-Planets 106, E9, 20,563-20,585 (2001).[2] Tanaka, K.L. et al. Geologic map of Mars (2014). [3] Bouley et al. Nature doi:10.1038 (2016)

  16. Early versus late repair of bile duct injuries.

    PubMed

    Mercado, Miguel Angel

    2006-11-01

    Biliary injuries associated with laparoscopic cholecystectomy occur at a constant rate of 0.3% to 0.6%. The spectrum of injures ranges from small leaks of bile to complete section of the main ducts requiring bilioenteric reconstruction. The goal of biliary reconstruction is to obtain a high-quality bilioenteric anastomosis that will not malfunction for a long time. No prospective, controlled, randomized trial (evidence level 1) has been conducted that shows whether an early repair is better than a late one. The timing of the operative procedure should be individualized. A complete examination of the patient should be performed to identify the type of injury and coexistent comorbidities. For septic patients and those with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, the repair should be delayed. Maneuvers to drain the bile ducts can be performed to relieve jaundice and cholangitis in these patients. For these cases, the surgery should be delayed. If a stable patient is found, without comorbidities, the operation can be scheduled earlier. Subhepatic drains should not be left for a long period because of the risk for intestinal fistulization. If needed, they should be changed for transhepatic stents. High-quality bilioenteric anastomoses are performed with fine absorbable sutures for healthy ducts (nonscarred, noninflamed, nonischemic) in a wide opening, with anastomosis of a (tension-free) defunctionalized jejunal limb. Individualization of the patient is the best rule.

  17. Early and Late Onset Side Effects of Photodynamic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Borgia, Francesco; Giuffrida, Roberta; Caradonna, Emanuela; Guarneri, Fabrizio; Cannavò, Serafinella P.

    2018-01-01

    Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is a non-invasive treatment successfully used for neoplastic, inflammatory and infectious skin diseases. One of its strengths is represented by the high safety profile, even in elderly and/or immuno-depressed subjects. PDT, however, may induce early and late onset side effects. Erythema, pain, burns, edema, itching, desquamation, and pustular formation, often in association with each other, are frequently observed in course of exposure to the light source and in the hours/days immediately after the therapy. In particular, pain is a clinically relevant short-term complication that also reduces long-term patient satisfaction. Rare complications are urticaria, contact dermatitis at the site of application of the photosensitizer, and erosive pustular dermatosis. Debated is the relationship between PDT and carcinogenesis: the eruptive appearance of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in previously treated areas has been correlated to a condition of local and/or systemic immunosuppression or to the selection of PDT-resistant SCC. Here we review the literature, with particular emphasis to the pathogenic hypotheses underlying these observations. PMID:29382133

  18. Late Oligocene-early Miocene birth of the Taklimakan Desert.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hongbo; Wei, Xiaochun; Tada, Ryuji; Clift, Peter D; Wang, Bin; Jourdan, Fred; Wang, Ping; He, Mengying

    2015-06-23

    As the world's second largest sand sea and one of the most important dust sources to the global aerosol system, the formation of the Taklimakan Desert marks a major environmental event in central Asia during the Cenozoic. Determining when and how the desert formed holds the key to better understanding the tectonic-climatic linkage in this critical region. However, the age of the Taklimakan remains controversial, with the dominant view being from ∼ 3.4 Ma to ∼ 7 Ma based on magnetostratigraphy of sedimentary sequences within and along the margins of the desert. In this study, we applied radioisotopic methods to precisely date a volcanic tuff preserved in the stratigraphy. We constrained the initial desertification to be late Oligocene to early Miocene, between ∼ 26.7 Ma and 22.6 Ma. We suggest that the Taklimakan Desert was formed as a response to a combination of widespread regional aridification and increased erosion in the surrounding mountain fronts, both of which are closely linked to the tectonic uplift of the Tibetan-Pamir Plateau and Tian Shan, which had reached a climatically sensitive threshold at this time.

  19. Geochronology, geochemistry and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotopes of the Early Jurassic granodiorite from the Sankuanggou intrusion, Heilongjiang Province, Northeastern China: Petrogenesis and geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Ke; Li, Qiugen; Chen, Yanjing; Zhang, Cheng; Zhu, Xuefeng; Xu, Qiangwei

    2018-01-01

    Mesozoic granitoid rocks represent a volumetrically component of the Northeastern (NE) China and preserve useful information about the tectonomagmatic history of this region. The Sankuanggou intrusion associated with skarn Fe-Cu deposit in the Duobaoshan ore field within NE China primarily consists of granodiorite with minor alkali-feldspar granite and diorite, which intrudes the Ordovician Duobaoshan Formation in the region. Zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb geochronology and whole-rock geochemistry, and Sr-Nd-Pb-Hf isotope analysis were performed on the Sankuanggou intrusion to investigate the petrogenesis and geodynamic implications. Zircon U-Pb dating of magmatic zircons from the granodiorite rock suggests that the intrusion was emplaced in the Early Jurassic (177 ± 1 Ma). Geochemically, it belongs to the metaluminous to slightly peraluminous high-K calc-alkaline I-type granitoids with a narrow range of SiO2 concentration (65.73-67.33 wt.%), high Ba, Sr, LREE and LILE contents and low abundance of Rb, Y, HREE and HFSE. All of these studied samples have homogeneous initial isotope traits with (87Sr/86Sr)i ranging from 0.70415 to 0.70423, εNd(t) of + 3.6 to + 4.0, (206Pb/204Pb)i = 17.933-18.458, (207Pb/204Pb)i = 15.520-15.587 and (208Pb/204Pb)i = 37.523-38.087, and zircon εHf(t) values varying from + 4.8 to + 9.9. These results, combined with the previous data, demonstrate that the Sankuanggou granitoids were formed by partial melting of the pre-existing juvenile crust in an extensional regime related to the post-collisional setting following the closure of the CAOB rather than previously proposed continental arc setting related to Paleo-Pacific or the Mongol-Okhotsk subduction, although their potential influence should not be dismissed.

  20. Early rifting deposition: examples from carbonate sequences of Sardinia (Cambrian) and Tuscany (Triassic-Jurassic), Italy: an analogous tectono-sedimentary and climatic context

    SciTech Connect

    Cocozza, T.; Gandin, A.

    Lower Cambrian Ceroide Limestone (Sardinia) and Lower Jurassic Massiccio Limestone (Tuscany) belong to sequences deposited in analogous tectono-sedimentary context: the former linked to the Caledonian Sardic Phase, the latter to the Alpine Orogeny. Both units consist of massive pure limestone characterized by marginal and lagoonal sequences repeatedly interfingering in the same geological structure. This distribution indicates a morphology of the platforms composed of banks (marginal facies) and shallow basins (lagoonal facies) comparable with a Bahamian complex. Dolomitization affects patchily the massive limestone bodies, and karstic features, breccias, and sedimentary dikes occur at their upper boundary. Both units overlie early dolomitemore » and evaporites (sabkha facies) containing siliciclastic intercalations in their lower and/or upper part and are unconformably covered by open-shelf red (hematitic), nodular limestone Ammonitico Rosso facies). The sedimentary evolution of the two sequences appears to have been controlled by synsedimentary tectonics whose major effects are the end of the terrigenous input, the bank-and-basin morphology of the platform, the irregular distribution of the dolomitization, and the nodular fabric of the overlying facies. The end of the Bahamian-type system is marked by the karstification of the emerged blocks and is followed by their differential sinking and burial under red-nodular facies. From a geodynamic viewpoint, sequences composed of Bahamian-like platform carbonates followed by Ammonitico Rosso facies imply deposition along continental margins subjected to block-faulting during an extensional regime connected with the beginning of continental rifting. Moreover, the variation from sabkha to Bahamian conditions suggests the drifting of the continent from arid to humid, tropical areas.« less

  1. Latest Jurassic ammonoid provinces: Paleoecological implications using a general circulation model

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, C.A.; Moore, G.T.; Hayashida, D.N.

    1992-01-01

    The Lake Permian-early Mesozoic megacontinent Pangea was progressively fragmented by two rift systems that propagated westward out of the Tethys Sea and a third more persistent rift system that connected the Boreal and Tethys seas. By the late Tithonian, these major rift systems produced interconnected oceanic seaways that divided Pangea into four continental segments: North America, Eur-Asia, and northern and southern Gondwana. Increased rates of sea-floor spreading during the Jurassic reduced the volumetric capacity of ocean basins and produced a sea level rise through the period that culminated in the Lake Jurassic. The extensive marine shelf margins and epeiric seasmore » hosted a widely distributed and diverse ammonoid fauna. By the early Tithonian, faunal communication existed between the northwestern Tethys Sea and the eastern Panthalassa Ocean through the proto-Gulf of Mexico. By the late Tithonian, faunal similarities indicate the opening of the proto-Indian Ocean so that northern and southern Gondwana had become separate continents. A region of the equatorial Tethys that includes most of the present Arabian Peninsular contains neuritic platform facies but lacks ammonoids. In high northern latitudes, cool to cold water faunas formed a Boreal Realm which extended westward across northern North America, Europe, and Siberia during middle and late Tithonian. Late Kimmeridgian and Tithonian ammonoid distributions when compared with Late Jurassic paleoclimate simulations show likely causal relationships with sea surface water temperatures and upwelling, and possibly shed light on the temperature limitations of ammonoids. Results from modeled seasonal sea surface temperature, sea ice distribution, precipitation-evaporation, and wind-driven upwelling permit the evaluation and quantification of paleoenvironmental factors favorable as well as pernicious for ammonoid distribution.« less

  2. Zircon U-Pb ages and petrogenesis of a tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) complex in the northern Sanandaj-Sirjan zone, northwest Iran: Evidence for Late Jurassic arc-continent collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizi, Hossein; Zanjefili-Beiranvand, Mina; Asahara, Yoshihiro

    2015-02-01

    The Ghalaylan Igneous Complex is located in the northern part of the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone (SSZ) in northwest Iran. At the surface, the complex is ellipsoidal or ring-shaped. The igneous rocks, which are medium- to fine-grained, were intruded into a Jurassic metamorphic complex and are cut by younger dikes. Zircon U-Pb ages indicate that the crystallization of the main body occurred from 157.9 ± 1.6 to 155.6 ± 5.6 Ma. The igneous complex includes granodiorite, tonalite, and quartz monzonite, as well as subvolcanic to volcanic rocks such as dacite and rhyolite. The rocks have high concentrations of Al2O3 (15-19 wt.%), SiO2 (65-70 wt.%), and Sr (700-1100 ppm), high (La/Yb)N ratios (15-40), and very low concentrations of MgO (< 0.83 wt.%), Ni (< 7 ppm), and Cr (usually < 50 ppm). There is a lack of negative Eu anomalies. These geochemical features show that the rocks are similar to high-silica adakites and Archaean tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) rocks. The initial ratios of 87Sr/86Sr and 143Nd/144Nd vary from 0.70430 to 0.70476 and from 0.51240 to 0.51261, respectively, values that are similar to those of primitive mantle and the bulk Earth. The chemical compositions of the igneous rocks of the complex, and their isotope ratios, differ from those of neighboring granitic bodies in the northern SSZ. Based on our results, we suggest a new geodynamic model for the development of this complex, as follows. During the generation of the Songhor-Ghorveh island arc in the Neotethys Ocean, an extensional basin, such as a back-arc, developed between the island arc and the Sanandaj-Sirjan zone (SSZ). As a consequence, basaltic magma was injected from the asthenosphere without the development of a mature oceanic crust. During arc-continent collision in the Late Jurassic, hot basaltic rocks were present beneath the SSZ at depths of 30-50 km, and the partial melting of these rocks led to the development of TTG-type magmas, forming the source of the Ghalaylan Igneous

  3. Multiple sources for the origin of Late Jurassic Linglong adakitic granite in the Shandong Peninsula, eastern China: Zircon U-Pb geochronological, geochemical and Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Liang; Jiang, Shao-Yong; Dai, Bao-Zhang; Jiang, Yao-Hui; Hou, Ming-Lan; Pu, Wei; Xu, Bin

    2013-03-01

    The Linglong granite is one of the most important Mesozoic plutons in the Shandong Peninsula, eastern China, and its petrogenesis has long been controversial, particularly with regard to the nature of source region and geodynamic setting. Our new precise zircon U-Pb dating results reveal that the Linglong granite was emplaced in the Late Jurassic (157-160 Ma). In addition, abundant inherited zircons are identified in the granite with four groups of age peaked at ~ 208, ~ 750, ~ 1800 and ~ 2450 Ma. Geochemical studies indicate that the Linglong granite is weakly peraluminous I-type granite, and is characterized by high SiO2, Sr and La, but low MgO, Y and Yb contents, strongly fractionated REE pattern and high Sr/Y and La/Yb ratios. It also exhibits high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7097 to 0.7125), low ɛNd(t) (- 17.7 to - 20.3) and variable zircon ɛHf(t) (- 22.2 to - 8.7) values. Calculation of the zircon saturation temperature (TZr) reveals that the magma temperatures are 760 ± 20 °C, and the lowest TZr value of 740 °C may be close to initial magma temperature of this inheritance-rich rock. Interpretation of the elemental and isotopic data suggests that the Linglong granite has some affinities with the adakite, and was most likely derived from partial melting of thickened lower crust without any significant contribution of mantle components. The presence of a large number of inherited zircons and variable Sr-Nd-Hf isotopic compositions reveal that the Linglong granite probably has multiple sources consisting of the lower crust of both South China Block and North China Block, as well as the collision-related alkaline rocks and UHP metamorphic rocks. The continental arc-rifting related to the Izanagi plate subduction was the most likely geodynamic force for formation of the Jurassic Linglong adakatic granite in the Shandong Peninsula.

  4. Decreasing Irradiated Rat Lung Volume Changes Dose-Limiting Toxicity From Early to Late Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Veen, Sonja J. van der; Faber, Hette; Ghobadi, Ghazaleh

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Technological developments in radiation therapy result in smaller irradiated volumes of normal tissue. Because the risk of radiation therapy-induced toxicity generally depends on irradiated volume, changing volume could change the dose-limiting toxicity of a treatment. Recently, in our rat model, we found that early radiation-induced lung dysfunction (RILD) was closely related to irradiated volume dependent vascular remodeling besides inflammation. The exact relationship between early and late RILD is still unknown. Therefore, in this preclinical study we investigated the dose-volume relationship of late RILD, assessed its dependence on early and late pathologies and studied if decreasing irradiated volume changed themore » dose-limiting toxicity. Methods and Materials: A volume of 25%, 32%, 50%, 63%, 88%, or 100% of the rat lung was irradiated using protons. Until 26 weeks after irradiation, respiratory rates were measured. Macrovascular remodeling, pulmonary inflammation, and fibrosis were assessed at 26 weeks after irradiation. For all endpoints dose-volume response curves were made. These results were compared to our previously published early lung effects. Results: Early vascular remodeling and inflammation correlated significantly with early RILD. Late RILD correlated with inflammation and fibrosis, but not with vascular remodeling. In contrast to the early effects, late vascular remodeling, inflammation and fibrosis showed a primarily dose but not volume dependence. Comparison of respiratory rate increases early and late after irradiation for the different dose-distributions indicated that with decreasing irradiated volumes, the dose-limiting toxicity changed from early to late RILD. Conclusions: In our rat model, different pathologies underlie early and late RILD with different dose-volume dependencies. Consequently, the dose-limiting toxicity changed from early to late dysfunction when the irradiated volume was reduced. In patients, early and

  5. 77 FR 65245 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Late Roman and Early...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8069] Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Late Roman and Early Byzantine Treasures From The British Museum'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby... objects to be included in the exhibition ``Late Roman and Early Byzantine Treasures From The British...

  6. Spiroplasma infection causes either early or late male killing in Drosophila, depending on maternal host age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kageyama, Daisuke; Anbutsu, Hisashi; Shimada, Masakazu; Fukatsu, Takema

    2007-04-01

    Symbiont-induced male-killing phenotypes have been found in a variety of insects. Conventionally, these phenotypes have been divided into two categories according to the timing of action: early male killing at embryonic stages and late male killing at late larval stages. In Drosophila species, endosymbiotic bacteria of the genus Spiroplasma have been known to cause early male killing. Here, we report that a spiroplasma strain normally causing early male killing also induces late male killing depending on the maternal host age: male-specific mortality of larvae and pupae was more frequently observed in the offspring of young females. As the lowest spiroplasma density and occasional male production were also associated with newly emerged females, we proposed the density-dependent hypothesis for the expression of early and late male-killing phenotypes. Our finding suggested that (1) early and late male-killing phenotypes can be caused by the same symbiont and probably by the same mechanism; (2) late male killing may occur as an attenuated expression of early male killing; (3) expression of early and late male-killing phenotypes may be dependent on the symbiont density, and thus, could potentially be affected by the host immunity and regulation; and (4) early male killing and late male killing could be alternative strategies adopted by microbial reproductive manipulators.

  7. Presence of the dinosaur Scelidosaurus indicates Jurassic age for the Kayenta Formation (Glen Canyon Group, northern Arizona)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padian, Kevin

    1989-05-01

    The Glen Canyon Group (Moenave, Wingate, Kayenta and Navajo Formations) of northern Arizona represents an extensive outcrop of early Mesozoic age terrestrial sediments. The age of these formations has long been disputed because independent stratigraphic data from marine tie-ins, paleobotanical and palynological evidence, and radiometric calibrations have been scanty or absent. The fauna of the Kayenta Formation in particular has been problematic because it has appeared to contain both typical Late Triassic and Early Jurassic taxa Here I report that the principal evidence for Late Triassic taxa, dermal scutes previously assigned to an aetosaur, in fact belongs to the thyreophoran ornithischian dinosaur Scelidosaurus, previously known only as a washed-in form found in marine sediments in the Early Jurassic of England. The presence of this dinosaur represents the first vertebrate biostratigraphic tie-in of the Glen Canyon Group horizons with reliably dated marine deposits in Europe. Together with revised systematic assessments of other vertebrates and independent evidence from fossil pollen, it supports an Early Jurassic age for the Kayenta Formation and most or all of the Glen Canyon Group.

  8. Annual monsoon rains recorded by Jurassic dunes.

    PubMed

    Loope, D B; Rowe, C M; Joeckel, R M

    2001-07-05

    Pangaea, the largest landmass in the Earth's history, was nearly bisected by the Equator during the late Palaeozoic and early Mesozoic eras. Modelling experiments and stratigraphic studies have suggested that the supercontinent generated a monsoonal atmospheric circulation that led to extreme seasonality, but direct evidence for annual rainfall periodicity has been lacking. In the Mesozoic era, about 190 million years ago, thick deposits of wind-blown sand accumulated in dunes of a vast, low-latitude desert at Pangaea's western margin. These deposits are now situated in the southwestern USA. Here we analyse slump masses in the annual depositional cycles within these deposits, which have been described for some outcrops of the Navajo Sandstone. Twenty-four slumps, which were generated by heavy rainfall, appear within one interval representing 36 years of dune migration. We interpret the positions of 20 of these masses to indicate slumping during summer monsoon rains, with the other four having been the result of winter storms. The slumped lee faces of these Jurassic dunes therefore represent a prehistoric record of yearly rain events.

  9. Northern Hemisphere Glaciation during the Globally Warm Early Late Pliocene

    PubMed Central

    De Schepper, Stijn; Groeneveld, Jeroen; Naafs, B. David A; Van Renterghem, Cédéric; Hennissen, Jan; Head, Martin J.; Louwye, Stephen; Fabian, Karl

    2013-01-01

    The early Late Pliocene (3.6 to ∼3.0 million years ago) is the last extended interval in Earth's history when atmospheric CO2 concentrations were comparable to today's and global climate was warmer. Yet a severe global glaciation during marine isotope stage (MIS) M2 interrupted this phase of global warmth ∼3.30 million years ago, and is seen as a premature attempt of the climate system to establish an ice-age world. Here we propose a conceptual model for the glaciation and deglaciation of MIS M2 based on geochemical and palynological records from five marine sediment cores along a Caribbean to eastern North Atlantic transect. Our records show that increased Pacific-to-Atlantic flow via the Central American Seaway weakened the North Atlantic Current and attendant northward heat transport prior to MIS M2. The consequent cooling of the northern high latitude oceans permitted expansion of the continental ice sheets during MIS M2, despite near-modern atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Sea level drop during this glaciation halted the inflow of Pacific water to the Atlantic via the Central American Seaway, allowing the build-up of a Caribbean Warm Pool. Once this warm pool was large enough, the Gulf Stream–North Atlantic Current system was reinvigorated, leading to significant northward heat transport that terminated the glaciation. Before and after MIS M2, heat transport via the North Atlantic Current was crucial in maintaining warm climates comparable to those predicted for the end of this century. PMID:24349081

  10. A new hadrosauroid dinosaur from the early late cretaceous of Shanxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Run-Fu; You, Hai-Lu; Xu, Shi-Chao; Wang, Suo-Zhu; Yi, Jian; Xie, Li-Juan; Jia, Lei; Li, Ya-Xian

    2013-01-01

    The origin of hadrosaurid dinosaurs is far from clear, mainly due to the paucity of their early Late Cretaceous close relatives. Compared to numerous Early Cretaceous basal hadrosauroids, which are mainly from Eastern Asia, only six early Late Cretaceous (pre-Campanian) basal hadrosauroids have been found: three from Asia and three from North America. Here we describe a new hadrosauroid dinosaur, Yunganglong datongensis gen. et sp. nov., from the early Late Cretaceous Zhumapu Formation of Shanxi Province in northern China. The new taxon is represented by an associated but disarticulated partial adult skeleton including the caudodorsal part of the skull. Cladistic analysis and comparative studies show that Yunganglong represents one of the most basal Late Cretaceous hadrosauroids and is diagnosed by a unique combination of features in its skull and femur. The discovery of Yunganglong adds another record of basal Hadrosauroidea in the early Late Cretaceous, and helps to elucidate the origin and evolution of Hadrosauridae.

  11. American Jurassic symmetrodonts and Rhaetic "pantotheres".

    PubMed

    Crompton, A W; Jenkins, F A

    1967-02-24

    The molar morphology of the symmetrodonts Tinodon and Eurylambda from the late Jurassic of North America is virtually identical to that of so-called "pantotheres" from the Rhaetic of Wales. Therefore a primitive symmetrodont molar pattern was probably present in the phylogeny of pantotherian and tribosphenic molars. Occlusion of Tinodon and Eurylambda produced complex wear facets unlike the simple trigon-trigonid shear surfaces of Spalacotherium and Peralestes.

  12. Childhood abuse and late-life depression: Mediating effects of psychosocial factors for early- and late-onset depression.

    PubMed

    Wielaard, Ilse; Hoyer, Mathijs; Rhebergen, Didi; Stek, Max L; Comijs, Hannie C

    2018-03-01

    Childhood abuse makes people vulnerable to developing depression, even in late life. Psychosocial factors that are common in late life, such as loneliness or lack of a partner, may explain this association. Our aim was to investigate whether the association between childhood abuse and depression in older adults can be explained by psychosocial factors. Cross-sectional data were derived from the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons (aged 60-93), including 132 without lifetime depression, 242 persons with an early-onset depression (<60 years), and 125 with a late-onset (≥60 years) depression. Childhood abuse (yes/no) and a frequency-based childhood abuse index were included. Multinomial regression and multivariable mediation analyses were used to examine the association between childhood abuse and the onset of depression, and the influence of loneliness, social network, and partner status. Multinomial regression analyses showed a significant association between childhood abuse and the childhood abuse index with early- and late-onset depression. Multivariable mediation analyses showed that the association between childhood abuse and early-onset depression was partly mediated by social network size and loneliness. This was particularly present for emotional neglect and psychological abuse, but not for physical and sexual abuse. No psychosocial mediators were found for the association between childhood abuse and late-onset depression. A smaller social network and feelings of loneliness mediate the association between childhood abuse and early-onset depression in older adults. Our findings show the importance of detecting childhood abuse as well as the age at depression onset and mapping of relevant psychosocial factors in the treatment of late-life depression. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Meal frequencies in early adolescence predict meal frequencies in late adolescence and early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Holstein, Bjørn E; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Rasmussen, Mette

    2013-05-04

    Health and risk behaviours tend to be maintained from adolescence into adulthood. There is little knowledge on whether meal frequencies in adolescence are maintained into adulthood. We investigated whether breakfast, lunch and evening meal frequencies in early adolescence predicted meal frequencies in late adolescence and in early adulthood. Further, the modifying effect of gender and adolescent family structure were investigated. National representative sample of 15-year-olds in Denmark with 4 and 12 year follow-up studies with measurement of breakfast, lunch and evening meal frequencies. A total of 561 persons completed questionnaires at age 15 years (baseline 1990, n=847, response rate 84.6%), age 19 years (n=729, response rate 73.2%) and age 27 years (n=614, response rate 61.6%). Low meal frequencies at age 15 years was a significant predictor for having low meal frequencies at age 19 years (odds ratio (OR, 95% CI)) varying between 2.11, 1.33-3.34 and 7.48, 3.64-15.41). Also, low meal frequencies at age 19 years predicted low meal frequencies at age 27 years (OR varying between 2.26, 1.30-3.91 and 4.38, 2.36-8.13). Significant predictions over the full study period were seen for low breakfast frequency and low lunch frequency (OR varying between 1.78, 1.13-2.81 and 2.58, 1.31-5.07). Analyses stratified by gender showed the same patterns (OR varying between 1.88, 1.13-3.14 and 8.30, 2.85-24.16). However, the observed predictions were not statistical significant among men between age 15 and 27 years. Analyses stratified by adolescent family structure revealed different lunch predictions in strata. Having low meal frequencies in early adolescence predicted low meal frequencies in late adolescence and early adulthood. We propose that promotion of regular meals become a prioritised issue within health education.

  14. Generic Difference Between Early and Late Stages of BATSE Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitrofanov, Igor G.; Litvak, Maxim L.; Anfimov, Dimitrij S.; Sanin, Anton B.; Briggs, Michael S.; Paciesas, William S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Preece, Robert D.; Meegan, Charles A.

    2001-01-01

    The early and late stages of gamma-ray bursts are studied in a statistical analysis of the large sample of long BATSE events. The primary peak is used as the boundary between the early and late stages of emission. Significant differences are found between the stages: the early stage is shorter, it has harder emission, and it becomes a smaller fraction of the total burst duration for burst groups of decreasing intensity.

  15. General Differences between Early and Late Stages of BATSE Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitrofanov, I. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Anfimov, D. S.; Sanin, A. B.; Briggs, M. S.; Paciesas, W. S.; Pendleton, G. N.; Preece, R. D.; Meegan, C. A.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The early and late stages of gamma-ray bursts are studied in a statistical analysis of the large sample of long BATSE events. The primary peak is used as the boundary between the early and late stages of emission. Significant differences are found between the stages: the early stage is shorter, it has harder emission, and it becomes a smaller fraction of the total burst duration for burst groups of decreasing intensity.

  16. Gaze holding deficits discriminate early from late onset cerebellar degeneration.

    PubMed

    Tarnutzer, Alexander A; Weber, K P; Schuknecht, B; Straumann, D; Marti, S; Bertolini, G

    2015-08-01

    The vestibulo-cerebellum calibrates the output of the inherently leaky brainstem neural velocity-to-position integrator to provide stable gaze holding. In healthy humans small-amplitude centrifugal nystagmus is present at extreme gaze-angles, with a non-linear relationship between eye-drift velocity and eye eccentricity. In cerebellar degeneration this calibration is impaired, resulting in pathological gaze-evoked nystagmus (GEN). For cerebellar dysfunction, increased eye drift may be present at any gaze angle (reflecting pure scaling of eye drift found in controls) or restricted to far-lateral gaze (reflecting changes in shape of the non-linear relationship) and resulting eyed-drift patterns could be related to specific disorders. We recorded horizontal eye positions in 21 patients with cerebellar neurodegeneration (gaze-angle = ±40°) and clinically confirmed GEN. Eye-drift velocity, linearity and symmetry of drift were determined. MR-images were assessed for cerebellar atrophy. In our patients, the relation between eye-drift velocity and gaze eccentricity was non-linear, yielding (compared to controls) significant GEN at gaze-eccentricities ≥20°. Pure scaling was most frequently observed (n = 10/18), followed by pure shape-changing (n = 4/18) and a mixed pattern (n = 4/18). Pure shape-changing patients were significantly (p = 0.001) younger at disease-onset compared to pure scaling patients. Atrophy centered around the superior/dorsal vermis, flocculus/paraflocculus and dentate nucleus and did not correlate with the specific drift behaviors observed. Eye drift in cerebellar degeneration varies in magnitude; however, it retains its non-linear properties. With different drift patterns being linked to age at disease-onset, we propose that the gaze-holding pattern (scaling vs. shape-changing) may discriminate early- from late-onset cerebellar degeneration. Whether this allows a distinction among specific cerebellar disorders remains to be determined.

  17. Contrasting styles of large-scale displacement of unconsolidated sand: examples from the early Jurassic Navajo Sandstone on the Colorado Plateau, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryant, Gerald

    2015-04-01

    Large-scale soft-sediment deformation features in the Navajo Sandstone have been a topic of interest for nearly 40 years, ever since they were first explored as a criterion for discriminating between marine and continental processes in the depositional environment. For much of this time, evidence for large-scale sediment displacements was commonly attributed to processes of mass wasting. That is, gravity-driven movements of surficial sand. These slope failures were attributed to the inherent susceptibility of dune sand responding to environmental triggers such as earthquakes, floods, impacts, and the differential loading associated with dune topography. During the last decade, a new wave of research is focusing on the event significance of deformation features in more detail, revealing a broad diversity of large-scale deformation morphologies. This research has led to a better appreciation of subsurface dynamics in the early Jurassic deformation events recorded in the Navajo Sandstone, including the important role of intrastratal sediment flow. This report documents two illustrative examples of large-scale sediment displacements represented in extensive outcrops of the Navajo Sandstone along the Utah/Arizona border. Architectural relationships in these outcrops provide definitive constraints that enable the recognition of a large-scale sediment outflow, at one location, and an equally large-scale subsurface flow at the other. At both sites, evidence for associated processes of liquefaction appear at depths of at least 40 m below the original depositional surface, which is nearly an order of magnitude greater than has commonly been reported from modern settings. The surficial, mass flow feature displays attributes that are consistent with much smaller-scale sediment eruptions (sand volcanoes) that are often documented from modern earthquake zones, including the development of hydraulic pressure from localized, subsurface liquefaction and the subsequent escape of

  18. A New Basal Sauropodomorph Dinosaur from the Lower Jurassic Navajo Sandstone of Southern Utah

    PubMed Central

    Sertich, Joseph J. W.; Loewen, Mark A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Basal sauropodomorphs, or ‘prosauropods,’ are a globally widespread paraphyletic assemblage of terrestrial herbivorous dinosaurs from the Late Triassic and Early Jurassic. In contrast to several other landmasses, the North American record of sauropodomorphs during this time interval remains sparse, limited to Early Jurassic occurrences of a single well-known taxon from eastern North America and several fragmentary specimens from western North America. Methodology/Principal Findings On the basis of a partial skeleton, we describe here a new basal sauropodomorph dinosaur from the Lower Jurassic Navajo Sandstone of southern Utah, Seitaad ruessi gen. et sp. nov. The partially articulated skeleton of Seitaad was likely buried post-mortem in the base of a collapsed dune foreset. The new taxon is characterized by a plate-like medial process of the scapula, a prominent proximal expansion of the deltopectoral crest of the humerus, a strongly inclined distal articular surface of the radius, and a proximally and laterally hypertrophied proximal metacarpal I. Conclusions/Significance Phylogenetic analysis recovers Seitaad as a derived basal sauropodomorph closely related to plateosaurid or massospondylid ‘prosauropods’ and its presence in western North America is not unexpected for a member of this highly cosmopolitan clade. This occurrence represents one of the most complete vertebrate body fossil specimens yet recovered from the Navajo Sandstone and one of the few basal sauropodomorph taxa currently known from North America. PMID:20352090

  19. Associations of Early and Late Gestational Weight Gain with Infant Birth Size.

    PubMed

    Wander, Pandora L; Sitlani, Colleen M; Badon, Sylvia E; Siscovick, David S; Williams, Michelle A; Enquobahrie, Daniel A

    2015-11-01

    Associations of gestational weight gain (GWG) during specific periods of pregnancy with infant birth size have been inconsistent. Infant sex-specific differences in these associations are unknown Information on GWG (kg) [total, early (<20 weeks gestation), and late (≥20 weeks gestation)] and indices of infant birth size including birthweight (BW), ponderal index (PI), crown-heel length (CHL), and head circumference (HC) was collected from 3,621 pregnant women. We calculated adjusted mean differences and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) relating total, early and late GWG to infant birth size using multivariable linear regression procedures. We used stratified analyses and interaction terms to test whether associations differed by infant sex. One-kg increases in total, early or late GWG were associated with BW increases of 17.2 g (95 % CI 13.8-18.9), 14.1 g (95 % CI 10.3-18.0), and 21.0 g (95 % CI 16.7-25.4), respectively. Early GWG-BW and late GWG-BW associations were different (p = 0.026). Sex-stratified total GWG-BW associations were similar to overall results. There were sex-specific differences in early GWG-BW and late GWG-BW associations. Among females, early GWG-BW (12.0 g, 95 % CI 6.7-17.2) and late GWG-BW (24.2 g, 95 % CI 18.2-30.3) associations differed (p = 0.0042); the corresponding associations did not differ among males. Total, early, and late GWG were associated with CHL and HC, but not with PI. Associations did not differ for early or late GWG. For comparable GWG, late-GWG-related BW increase is greater than early-GWG-related BW increase, particularly among female infants.

  20. The impact of early bilingualism on controlling a language learned late: an ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Clara D.; Strijkers, Kristof; Santesteban, Mikel; Escera, Carles; Hartsuiker, Robert J.; Costa, Albert

    2013-01-01

    This study asks whether early bilingual speakers who have already developed a language control mechanism to handle two languages control a dominant and a late acquired language in the same way as late bilingual speakers. We therefore, compared event-related potentials in a language switching task in two groups of participants switching between a dominant (L1) and a weak late acquired language (L3). Early bilingual late learners of an L3 showed a different ERP pattern (larger N2 mean amplitude) as late bilingual late learners of an L3. Even though the relative strength of languages was similar in both groups (a dominant and a weak late acquired language), they controlled their language output in a different manner. Moreover, the N2 was similar in two groups of early bilinguals tested in languages of different strength. We conclude that early bilingual learners of an L3 do not control languages in the same way as late bilingual L3 learners –who have not achieved native-like proficiency in their L2– do. This difference might explain some of the advantages early bilinguals have when learning new languages. PMID:24204355

  1. Four new species of hangingflies (Insecta, Mecoptera, Bittacidae) from the Middle Jurassic of northeastern China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Sulin; Shih, Chungkun; Ren, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of Mongolbittacus Petrulevičius, Huang & Ren, 2007, Mongolbittacus speciosus sp. n. and Mongolbittacus oligophlebius sp. n., and two new species of Exilibittacus Yang, Ren & Shih, 2012, Exilibittacus foliaceus sp. n. and Exilibittacus plagioneurus sp. n., in the family Bittacidae, are described and illustrated based on five well-preserved fossil specimens. These specimens were collected from the late Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation of Daohugou, Inner Mongolia, China. These new findings enhance our understanding of the morphological characters of early hangingflies and highlight the diversity of bittacids in the Mid Mesozoic ecosystems. PMID:25610337

  2. Four new species of hangingflies (Insecta, Mecoptera, Bittacidae) from the Middle Jurassic of northeastern China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Sulin; Shih, Chungkun; Ren, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Two new species of Mongolbittacus Petrulevičius, Huang & Ren, 2007, Mongolbittacusspeciosus sp. n. and Mongolbittacusoligophlebius sp. n., and two new species of Exilibittacus Yang, Ren & Shih, 2012, Exilibittacusfoliaceus sp. n. and Exilibittacusplagioneurus sp. n., in the family Bittacidae, are described and illustrated based on five well-preserved fossil specimens. These specimens were collected from the late Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation of Daohugou, Inner Mongolia, China. These new findings enhance our understanding of the morphological characters of early hangingflies and highlight the diversity of bittacids in the Mid Mesozoic ecosystems.

  3. Major strike-slip faulting along the tectonic boundary between East and West Antarctica: implications for early Gondwana break-up and Jurassic granitic magma emplacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, T. A.; Ferraccioli, F.; Anderson, L.; Ross, N.; Corr, H.; Leat, P. T.; Bingham, R.; Rippin, D. M.; Le Brocq, A. M.; Siegert, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    The fragmentation of the Gondwana supercontinent began with continental rifting between the Weddell Sea region of Antarctica and South Africa during the Jurassic. This initial Jurassic phase of continental rifting is critical for understanding the process that initiated supercontinent breakup and dispersal, including the role of mantle plumes and major intracrustal tectonic structures. However, due to the remote location and blanketing ice sheets, the tectonic and magmatic evolution of the Weddell Sea Sector of Antarctica has remained relatively poorly understood. Our recent aeromagnetic and airborne gravity investigations have revealed the inland extent of the Weddell Sea Rift system beneath the West Antarctic Ice Sheet, and indicate the presence of a major left-lateral strike slip fault system separating the Ellsworth Whitmore block (a possible exotic microcontinent derived from the Natal Embayment, or the Shackleton Range region of East Antarctica) from East Antarctica (Jordan et al., 2013 Tectonophysics). In this study we use GPlates plate-tectonic reconstruction software to start evaluating the influence of strike-slip faulting between East and West Antarctica on Gondwana breakup models. Specifically, we investigate the possibility of poly-phase motion along the fault system and explore scenarios involving more diffuse strike slip faulting extending into the interior of East Antarctica in the hinterland of the Transantarctic Mountains. Our preliminary models suggest that there may be a link between the prominent step in the flank of the later Cretaceous-Cenozoic West Antarctic Rift System (at the southern end of Ellsworth-Whitmore Block) and the earlier Jurassic Weddell Sea rift system. Additionally, we present preliminary joint 3D magnetic and gravity models to investigate the crustal architecture of the proposed strike-slip fault system and assess its influence on the emplacement of voluminous Jurassic granitic magmatism along the boundary of the Ellsworth

  4. A Study of Specialty Clones’ Yield Performance in Early and Late Harvests

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Technical Abstract: A study was conducted on specialty potato breeding lines to examine yield components in an early and late harvest. Upon first examination it was apparent that the early water cutoff had a large effect on total yield. In the early trial only one clone achieved 600 cwt/A of total...

  5. Jurassic, slow-spreading ridge in the southeast Gulf of Mexico and its along-strike morpho-volcanic expression explained by a two-phase opening model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, P.; Mann, P.

    2016-12-01

    Previous workers have used extensive grids of 2D seismic reflection data to describe the width, structural character, and adjacent oceanic crust of the late Jurassic, slow-spreading ridge in the southeast Gulf of Mexico (SEGOM). Characteristics of the now-buried SEGOM slow spreading ridge include: 1) wide, axial valley segments ranging from 5-20 km; 2) alternating, deep, axial valley segments up to 2 km in depth; 3) normal faults dipping towards the axial valleys; and 4) isolated seamounts within the axial valleys projecting 1 km above regional oceanic basement depth and reflecting along-strike variations in the ridge's magmatic supply. We have used additional seismic reflection, gravity, and magnetic data to map the ridge and its environs to its southern termination, a 2.6-km-high seamount - informally named here Buffler seamount. The southernmost, 427-km long section of the SEGOM ridge from Buffler seamount northwest to the southwestern limit of the DeSoto Canyon arch can be divided into four alternating ridge segments with two distinctive morphologies: 1) wide and deep axial valleys lying below regional oceanic basement depth and characterized by gravity high and magnetic lows; and 2) elevated, linear areas of clustered, seamounts characterized by gravity low and magnetic highs. The continental margins of both Yucatan and Florida exhibit a prominent N60E magnetic fabric created by Phase 1, NW-SE Triassic-early Jurassic continental rifting of the GOM that was subsequently offset at right angles by Phase 2, NE-SW late Jurassic stretching and oceanic spreading. Removal of the V-shaped area of oceanic crust of the SEGOM shows that the wide, axial valleys of the late Jurassic spreading ridge coincide with rifted areas of thicker crust on the "arches" or horst blocks of Triassic-early Jurassic, Phase 1 rifting (Sarasota, Middle Ground) while the elevated areas of elevated and clustered seamounts coincide with thinner crust of the intervening rifts (Apalachicola, Tampa

  6. Peri-equatorial paleolatitudes for Jurassic radiolarian cherts of Greece

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aiello, I.W.; Hagstrum, J.T.; Principi, G.

    2008-01-01

    Radiolarian-rich sediments dominated pelagic deposition over large portions of the Tethys Ocean during middle to late Jurassic time as shown by extensive bedded chert sequences found in both continental margin and ophiolite units of the Mediterranean region. Which paleoceanographic mechanisms and paleotectonic setting favored radiolarian deposition during the Jurassic, and the nature of a Tethys-wide change from biosiliceous to biocalcareous (mainly nannofossil) deposition at the beginning of Cretaceous time, have remained open questions. Previous paleomagnetic analyses of Jurassic red radiolarian cherts in the Italian Apennines indicate that radiolarian deposition occurred at low peri-equatorial latitudes, similar to modern day deposition of radiolarian-rich sediments within equatorial zones of high biologic productivity. To test this result for other sectors of the Mediterranean region, we undertook paleomagnetic study of Mesozoic (mostly middle to upper Jurassic) red radiolarian cherts within the Aegean region on the Peloponnesus and in continental Greece. Sampled units are from the Sub-Pelagonian Zone on the Argolis Peninsula, the Pindos-Olonos Zone on the Koroni Peninsula, near Karpenissi in central Greece, and the Ionian Zone in the Varathi area of northwestern Greece. Thermal demagnetization of samples from all sections removed low-temperature viscous and moderate-temperature overprint magnetizations that fail the available fold tests. At Argolis and Koroni, however, the cherts carry a third high-temperature magnetization that generally exhibits a polarity stratigraphy and passes the available fold tests. We interpret the high-temperature component to be the primary magnetization acquired during chert deposition and early diagenesis. At Kandhia and Koliaky (Argolis), the primary declinations and previous results indicate clockwise vertical-axis rotations of ??? 40?? relative to "stable" Europe. Due to ambiguities in hemispheric origin (N or S) and thus

  7. Adaptations for marine habitat and the effect of Triassic and Jurassic predator pressure on development of decompression syndrome in ichthyosaurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothschild, B. M.; Xiaoting, Z.; Martin, L. D.

    2012-06-01

    Decompression syndrome (caisson disease or the "the bends") resulting in avascular necrosis has been documented in mosasaurs, sauropterygians, ichthyosaurs, and turtles from the Middle Jurassic to Late Cretaceous, but it was unclear that this disease occurred as far back as the Triassic. We have examined a large Triassic sample of ichthyosaurs and compared it with an equally large post-Triassic sample. Avascular necrosis was observed in over 15 % of Late Middle Jurassic to Cretaceous ichthyosaurs with the highest occurrence (18 %) in the Early Cretaceous, but was rare or absent in geologically older specimens. Triassic reptiles that dive were either physiologically protected, or rapid changes of their position in the water column rare and insignificant enough to prevent being recorded in the skeleton. Emergency surfacing due to a threat from an underwater predator may be the most important cause of avascular necrosis for air-breathing divers, with relative frequency of such events documented in the skeleton. Diving in the Triassic appears to have been a "leisurely" behavior until the evolution of large predators in the Late Jurassic that forced sudden depth alterations contributed to a higher occurrence of bends.

  8. Adaptations for marine habitat and the effect of Triassic and Jurassic predator pressure on development of decompression syndrome in ichthyosaurs.

    PubMed

    Rothschild, B M; Xiaoting, Z; Martin, L D

    2012-06-01

    Decompression syndrome (caisson disease or the "the bends") resulting in avascular necrosis has been documented in mosasaurs, sauropterygians, ichthyosaurs, and turtles from the Middle Jurassic to Late Cretaceous, but it was unclear that this disease occurred as far back as the Triassic. We have examined a large Triassic sample of ichthyosaurs and compared it with an equally large post-Triassic sample. Avascular necrosis was observed in over 15% of Late Middle Jurassic to Cretaceous ichthyosaurs with the highest occurrence (18%) in the Early Cretaceous, but was rare or absent in geologically older specimens. Triassic reptiles that dive were either physiologically protected, or rapid changes of their position in the water column rare and insignificant enough to prevent being recorded in the skeleton. Emergency surfacing due to a threat from an underwater predator may be the most important cause of avascular necrosis for air-breathing divers, with relative frequency of such events documented in the skeleton. Diving in the Triassic appears to have been a "leisurely" behavior until the evolution of large predators in the Late Jurassic that forced sudden depth alterations contributed to a higher occurrence of bends.

  9. Cognitive Advantages and Disadvantages in Early and Late Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelham, Sabra D.; Abrams, Lise

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has documented advantages and disadvantages of early bilinguals, defined as learning a 2nd language by school age and using both languages since that time. Relative to monolinguals, early bilinguals manifest deficits in lexical access but benefits in executive function. We investigated whether becoming bilingual "after"…

  10. The economic and clinical burden of early versus late initiation of celecoxib among patients with osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Shelbaya, Ahmed; Solem, Caitlyn T; Walker, Chris; Wan, Yin; Johnson, Courtney; Cappelleri, Joseph C

    2018-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics associated with early versus late initiation of celecoxib treatment after osteoarthritis (OA) diagnosis and whether economic and safety outcomes differ between patients with early versus late initiation of celecoxib. Methods Adults (≥18 years) with a confirmed OA diagnosis (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Edition, Clinical Modifications code: 715.XX), ≥12 months of continuous pre- and post-index enrollment, and ≥1 post-index claim for celecoxib were included from the MarketScan® Commercial Claims and Encounter Database (2009–2013). Index date was defined as initial OA diagnosis. Patients were categorized as initiating celecoxib early (within 6 months of index date) or late (≥6 months after index date). Logistic regressions were used to assess characteristics associated with early versus late celecoxib initiation. Key outcomes included health care resource utilization (HCRU) and costs post-index, and adverse event incidence post-celecoxib initiation. Unadjusted and adjusted comparisons (using generalized linear models with a gamma distribution for costs and Poisson distribution for event and resource utilization) were made between early and late celecoxib initiators. Results Of the 62,434 OA patients identified, 27,402 were early and 35,032 were late initiators. Post-index hospital admissions and length of stay did not differ statistically between early versus late initiators after controlling for pre-index event rates and covariates, but early patients had significantly fewer outpatient (incidence rate ratio [IRR]: 0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.95, 0.97) and emergency room visits (IRR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.84, 0.95). After adjustment for key covariates, early initiators (versus late initiators) had lower all-cause (US$12,909 versus US$13,781, P<0.001) and OA-related (US$4,988 versus US$5,178, P=0.015) costs per person-year. Early initiators had no statistically significant

  11. Lead isotope compositions of Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary igneous rocks and sulfide minerals in Arizona: Implications for the sources of plutons and metals in porphyry copper deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bouse, R.M.; Ruiz, J.; Titley, S.R.; Tosdal, R.M.; Wooden, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    lower model Th/U. These Pb isotope differences are inferred to result from differences in their respective post-1.7 Ga magmatic histories. Throughout Arizona, Pb isotope compositions of Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary plutons and associated sulfide minerals are distinct from those of Jurassic plutons and also middle Tertiary igneous rocks and sulfide minerals. These differences most likely reflect changes in tectonic setting and magmatic sources. Within Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary igneous complexes that host economic porphyry copper deposits, there is commonly a decrease in Pb isotope composition from older to younger plutons. This decrease in Pb isotope values with time suggests an increasing involvement of crust with lower U/Pb than average crust in the source(s) of Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary magmas. Lead isotope compositions of the youngest porphyries in the igneous complexes are similar to those in most sulfide minerals within the associated porphyry copper deposit. This Pb isotope similarity argues for a genetic link between them. However, not all Pb in the sulfide minerals in porphyry copper deposits is magmatically derived. Some sulfide minerals, particularly those that are late stage, or distal to the main orebody, or in Proterozoic or Paleozoic rocks, have elevated Pb isotope compositions displaced toward the gross average Pb isotope composition of the local country rocks. The more radiogenic isotopic compositions argue for a contribution of Pb from those rocks at the site of ore deposition. Combining the Pb isotope data with available geochemical, isotopic, and petrologic data suggests derivation of the young porphyry copper-related plutons, most of their Pb, and other metals from a hybridized lower continental crustal source. Because of the likely involvement of subduction-related mantle-derived basaltic magma in the hybridized lower crustal source, an indiscernible mantle contribution is probable in the porphyry magmas. Clearly, in addition

  12. EARLY VERSUS LATE MRI IN ASPHYXIATED NEWBORNS TREATED WITH HYPOTHERMIA

    PubMed Central

    Wintermark, Pia; Hansen, Anne; Soul, Janet; Labrecque, Michelle; Robertson, Richard L.; Warfield, Simon K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purposes of this feasibility study are to assess: (1) the potential utility of early brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in asphyxiated newborns treated with hypothermia; (2) whether early MRI predicts later brain injury observed in these newborns after hypothermia is completed; and (3) whether early MRI indicators of brain injury in these newborns represent reversible changes. Patients and Methods All consecutive asphyxiated term newborns meeting the criteria for therapeutic hypothermia were enrolled prospectively. Each of them underwent 1–2 “early” MRI scans while receiving hypothermia, on day of life (DOL) 1 and DOL 2–3, and also 1–2 “late” MRI scans on DOL 8–13 and at 1 month of age. Results Thirty-seven MRI scans were obtained in twelve asphyxiated neonates treated with induced hypothermia. Four newborns did develop MRI evidence of brain injury, already visible on early MRI scans. The remaining eight newborns did not develop significant MRI evidence of brain injury on any of the MRI scans. In addition, two patients displayed unexpected findings on early MRIs, leading to early termination of hypothermia treatment. Conclusions MRI scans obtained on DOL 2–3 during hypothermia seem to predict later brain injuries in asphyxiated newborns in this feasibility study. Brain injuries identified during this early time appear to represent irreversible changes. Early MRI scans might also be useful to demonstrate unexpected findings not related to hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, which could potentially be exacerbated by induced hypothermia. Additional studies with larger numbers of patients will be useful to more definitively confirm these results. PMID:20688865

  13. Palaeo-equatorial temperatures and carbon-cycle evolution at the Triassic- Jurassic boundary: A stable isotope perspective from shallow-water carbonates from the UAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honig, M. R.; John, C. M.

    2013-12-01

    The Triassic-Jurassic boundary was marked by global changes including carbon-cycle perturbations and the opening of the Atlantic Ocean. These changes were accompanied by one of the major extinction events of the Phanerozoic. The carbon-cycle perturbations have been recorded in carbon isotope curves from bulk carbonates, organic carbon and fossil wood in several Tethyan locations and have been used for chemostratigraphic purposes. Here we present data from shallow-marine carbonates deposited on a homoclinal Middle Eastern carbonate ramp (United Arab Emirates). Our site was located at the equator throughout the Late Triassic and the Early Jurassic, and this study provides the first constraints of environmental changes at the low-latitudes for the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. Shallow-marine carbonate depositional systems are extremely sensitive to palaeoenvironmental changes and their usefulness for chemostratigraphy is being debated. However, the palaeogeographic location of the studied carbonate ramp gives us a unique insight into a tropical carbonate factory at a time of severe global change. Stable isotope measurements (carbon and oxygen) are being carried out on micrite, ooids and shell material along the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. The stable isotope results on micrite show a prominent negative shift in carbon isotope values of approximately 2 ‰ just below the inferred position of the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. A similar isotopic trend is also observed across the Tethys but with a range of amplitudes (from ~2 ‰ to ~4 ‰). These results seem to indicate that the neritic carbonates from our studied section can be used for chemostratigraphic purposes, and the amplitudes of the carbon isotope shifts provide critical constraints on the magnitude of carbon-cycle perturbations at low latitudes across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary. Seawater temperatures across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary will be constrained using the clumped isotope palaeo-thermometer applied

  14. An analysis of the differences between early and late preeclampsia with severe hypertension.

    PubMed

    Li, X L; Guo, P L; Xue, Y; Gou, W L; Tong, M; Chen, Q

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia is clinically divided into early onset and late onset preeclampsia based on the gestational age at delivery. Although the diagnostic criteria are the same in each subgroup of preeclampsia, it has been suggested that the maternal and perinatal mortalities of early onset and late onset preeclampsia are different. However, studies that compare clinical parameters or laboratory biomarkers between early onset and late onset preeclampsia are limited. Data on 177 women with early or late preeclampsia with severe hypertension were collected from a University Teaching Hospital from January 2010 to January 2011 and analysed. Data included all the clinical parameters and laboratory biomarkers of liver and renal function. 63 women and 114 women were diagnosed with early and late preeclampsia with severe hypertension, respectively. There was no difference in the maternal age and the incidence of clinical symptoms including edema, vision disturbance, severe headache and stillbirth between two groups. There was a decrease in alkaline phosphatase levels in early preeclampsia with severe hypertension but other markers of liver function were not altered. However, renal function including blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and uric acid were significantly higher in early preeclampsia with severe hypertension. Umbilical artery systolic velocity/diastolic velocity ratio was significantly higher in early preeclampsia with severe hypertension. Our data demonstrates that the laboratory biomarkers of renal function differ between early and late preeclampsia with severe hypertension. The severity of renal dysfunction correlated with the time of delivery in preeclampsia with severe hypertension. Copyright © 2015 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Early and Late Recurrent Epistaxis Admissions: Patterns of Incidence and Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Oded; Shoffel-Havakuk, Hagit; Warman, Meir; Tzelnick, Sharon; Haimovich, Yaara; Kohlberg, Gavriel D; Halperin, Doron; Lahav, Yonatan

    2017-09-01

    Objective Epistaxis is a common complaint, yet few studies have focused on the incidence and risk factors of recurrent epistaxis. Our objective was to determine the patterns of incidence and risk factors for recurrent epistaxis admission (REA). Study Design Case series with chart review. Settings Single academic center. Subjects and Methods The medical records of patients admitted for epistaxis between 1999 and 2015 were reviewed. The follow-up period was defined as 3 years following initial admission. REAs were categorized as early (30 days) and late (31 days to 3 years) following initial admission. Logistic regression was used to identify potential predictors of REAs. Results A total of 653 patients were included. Eighty-six patients (14%) had REAs: 48 (7.5%) early and 38 (6.5%) late. Nonlinear incidence curve was demonstrated for both early and late REAs. Based on logistic regression, prior nasal surgery and anemia were independent risk factors for early REAs. According to multivariate analysis, thrombocytopenia was significantly associated with late REAs. Conclusion Early and late REAs demonstrate different risk predictors. Knowledge of such risk factors may help in risk stratification for this selected group of patients. All patients at risk should be advised on possible preventive measures. Patients at risk for early REA may benefit from a more proactive approach.

  16. Early and late menarche are associated with oligomenorrhea and predict metabolic syndrome 26 years later.

    PubMed

    Glueck, Charles J; Morrison, John A; Wang, Ping; Woo, Jessica G

    2013-11-01

    We determined whether simple, clinical information on late and early menarche could help identify adult women with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and oligomenorrhea. We carried out a 26-year prospective follow-up of 272 suburban schoolgirls from ages 5-22 to 30-46. Early menarche (≤10 years, 5.2% of girls) and late menarche (≥16 years, 6.7% of girls) were both associated with oligomenorrhea (≥42 days) in adulthood, 29% and 11%, vs. 5% for normal menarche (11-15 years), p=.004. Early menarche was characterized by high childhood BMI (LS mean±SE: 21.2 ±1.0 kg/m2) and by high childhood and adult MetS (15%, 36%). Girls with late menarche had the lowest childhood BMI (18.1±1.0), no childhood MetS, and the highest adult MetS (47%). Increasing age at menarche was associated with uniformly decreasing childhood BMI and MetS, but with a U-shaped pattern of BMI (p = .05), MetS (p=.008), and oligomenorrhea (p=.02) in adulthood. Change to MetS from median ages 13 to 38 was associated with early-late menarche (OR=3.11, 95% CI 1.37-7.07, p=.007). MetS in adulthood was associated with childhood MetS (OR=8.03, 95% CI 2.57-25.08, p=.0003) and with early-late menarche (OR =3.43, 95% CI 1.44-8.15, p=.005). Menarche age had a curvilinear ('U' shaped) relationship with MetS and oligomenorrhea in adulthood. Late menarche and early menarche are risk factors for adult oligomenorrhea, MetS, and cardiometabolic abnormalities. Girls with early (≤ age 10) and with late menarche (≥ 16) represent a group at high risk for adult cardiometabolic abnormalities and oligomenorrhea that is easily identifiable by physicians. © 2013.

  17. Atg1 kinase regulates early and late steps during autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Kijanska, Monika; Peter, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The notion that phosphorylation constitutes a major mechanism to induce autophagy was established 15 years ago when a conserved Atg1/ULK kinase family was identified as an essential component of the autophagy machinery. The key observation was that starved atg1Δ cells lack autophagosomes in the cytosol and fail to accumulate autophagic bodies in the vacuole. Although many studies have revealed important details of Atg1 activation and function, a cohesive model for how Atg1 regulates the autophagic machinery is lacking. Our recent findings identified conserved steps of temporal and spatial regulation of Atg1/ULK1 kinase at both the PAS and autophagosomal membranes, suggesting that Atg1 not only promotes autophagy induction, but may also facilitate late stages of autophagosome biogenesis. PMID:23108207

  18. Early and Late Language Start at Private Schools in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cepik, Saban; Sarandi, Hedayat

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the interaction effect of age in L2 attainment. It explores whether success in foreign language learning at early childhood grades varies depending on age. It also addresses the beliefs of foreign language teachers regarding the variables under review. Eighty-three 11 year-old language learners who started learning English at…

  19. Adaptive neuroplastic responses in early and late hemispherectomized monkeys.

    PubMed

    Burke, Mark W; Kupers, Ron; Ptito, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    Behavioural recovery in children who undergo medically required hemispherectomy showcase the remarkable ability of the cerebral cortex to adapt and reorganize following insult early in life. Case study data suggest that lesions sustained early in childhood lead to better recovery compared to those that occur later in life. In these children, it is possible that neural reorganization had begun prior to surgery but was masked by the dysfunctional hemisphere. The degree of neural reorganization has been difficult to study systematically in human infants. Here we present a 20-year culmination of data on our nonhuman primate model (Chlorocebus sabeus) of early-life hemispherectomy in which behavioral recovery is interpreted in light of plastic processes that lead to the anatomical reorganization of the early-damaged brain. The model presented here suggests that significant functional recovery occurs after the removal of one hemisphere in monkeys with no preexisting neurological dysfunctions. Human and primate studies suggest a critical role for subcortical and brainstem structures as well as corticospinal tracts in the neuroanatomical reorganization which result in the remarkable behavioral recovery following hemispherectomy. The non-human primate model presented here offers a unique opportunity for studying the behavioral and functional neuroanatomical reorganization that underlies developmental plasticity.

  20. Selection is stronger in early-versus-late stages of divergence in a Neotropical livebearing fish.

    PubMed

    Ingley, Spencer J; Johnson, Jerald B

    2016-03-01

    How selection acts to drive trait evolution at different stages of divergence is of fundamental importance in our understanding of the origins of biodiversity. Yet, most studies have focused on a single point along an evolutionary trajectory. Here, we provide a case study evaluating the strength of divergent selection acting on life-history traits at early-versus-late stages of divergence in Brachyrhaphis fishes. We find that the difference in selection is stronger in the early-diverged population than the late-diverged population, and that trait differences acquired early are maintained over time. © 2016 The Author(s).

  1. Hominin teeth from the early Late Pleistocene site of Xujiayao, Northern China.

    PubMed

    Xing, Song; Martinón-Torres, María; Bermúdez de Castro, Jose María; Wu, Xiujie; Liu, Wu

    2015-02-01

    It is generally accepted that from the late Middle to the early Late Pleistocene (∼340-90 ka BP), Neanderthals were occupying Europe and Western Asia, whereas anatomically modern humans were present in the African continent. In contrast, the paucity of hominin fossil evidence from East Asia from this period impedes a complete evolutionary picture of the genus Homo, as well as assessment of the possible contribution of or interaction with Asian hominins in the evolution of Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis. Here we present a comparative study of a hominin dental sample recovered from the Xujiayao site, in Northern China, attributed to the early Late Pleistocene (MIS 5 to 4). Our dental study reveals a mosaic of primitive and derived dental features for the Xujiayao hominins that can be summarized as follows: i) they are different from archaic and recent modern humans, ii) they present some features that are common but not exclusive to the Neanderthal lineage, and iii) they retain some primitive conformations classically found in East Asian Early and Middle Pleistocene hominins despite their young geological age. Thus, our study evinces the existence in China of a population of unclear taxonomic status with regard to other contemporary populations such as H. sapiens and H. neanderthalensis. The morphological and metric studies of the Xujiayao teeth expand the variability known for early Late Pleistocene hominin fossils and suggest the possibility that a primitive hominin lineage may have survived late into the Late Pleistocene in China. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Preventability of early vs. late readmissions in an academic medical center

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Kelly L.; Dike, Ogechi; Doctoroff, Lauren; Jupiter, Marisa; Vanka, Anita

    2017-01-01

    Background It is unclear if the 30-day unplanned hospital readmission rate is a plausible accountability metric. Objective Compare preventability of hospital readmissions, between an early period [0–7 days post-discharge] and a late period [8–30 days post-discharge]. Compare causes of readmission, and frequency of markers of clinical instability 24h prior to discharge between early and late readmissions. Design, setting, patients 120 patient readmissions in an academic medical center between 1/1/2009-12/31/2010 Measures Sum-score based on a standard algorithm that assesses preventability of each readmission based on blinded hospitalist review; average causation score for seven types of adverse events; rates of markers of clinical instability within 24h prior to discharge. Results Readmissions were significantly more preventable in the early compared to the late period [median preventability sum score 8.5 vs. 8.0, p = 0.03]. There were significantly more management errors as causative events for the readmission in the early compared to the late period [mean causation score [scale 1–6, 6 most causal] 2.0 vs. 1.5, p = 0.04], and these errors were significantly more preventable in the early compared to the late period [mean preventability score 1.9 vs 1.5, p = 0.03]. Patients readmitted in the early period were significantly more likely to have mental status changes documented 24h prior to hospital discharge than patients readmitted in the late period [12% vs. 0%, p = 0.01]. Conclusions Readmissions occurring in the early period were significantly more preventable. Early readmissions were associated with more management errors, and mental status changes 24h prior to discharge. Seven-day readmissions may be a better accountability measure. PMID:28622384

  3. Late stages of accumulation and early evolution of the planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vityazev, Andrey V.; Perchernikova, G. V.

    1991-01-01

    Recently developed solutions of problems are discussed that were traditionally considered fundamental in classical solar system cosmogony: determination of planetary orbit distribution patterns, values for mean eccentricity and orbital inclinations of the planets, and rotation periods and rotation axis inclinations of the planets. Two important cosmochemical aspects of accumulation are examined: the time scale for gas loss from the terrestrial planet zone, and the composition of the planets in terms of isotope data. It was concluded that the early beginning of planet differentiation is a function of the heating of protoplanets during collisions with large (thousands of kilometers) bodies. Energetics, heat mass transfer processes, and characteristic time scales of these processes at the early stages of planet evolution are considered.

  4. Middle Jurassic Radiolaria from a siliceous argillite block in a structural melange zone near Viqueque, Timor Leste: Paleogeographic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haig, David W.; Bandini, Alexandre Nicolas

    2013-10-01

    Thin-bedded siliceous argillite forming a large block within a structural melange zone at Viqueque, Timor Leste, has yielded a Middle Jurassic (late Bathonian-early Callovian) radiolarian assemblage belonging to Unitary Association Zone 7. Fifty-five species are recognized and illustrated, forming the most diverse radiolarian fauna yet documented from the Jurassic of Timor. The fauna shows little similarity in species content to the few other assemblages previously listed from the Middle or Late Jurassic of Timor, and also has few species in common with faunas known elsewhere in the region from Rotti, Sumatra, South Kalimantan, and Sula. Based on lithofacies similarities and age, the siliceous argillite succession in the melange block at Viqueque is included in the Noni Group originally described as the lower part of the Palelo Series in West Timor. In terms of lithofacies, the Noni Group is distinct from other stratigraphic units known in Timor. It may be associated with volcanic rocks but age relationships are uncertain, although some of the radiolarian cherts in the Noni Group in West Timor have been reported to include tuffaceous sediment. The deep-water character of the siliceous hemipelagite-pelagite facies, the probable volcanic association, and an age close to that of continental breakup in the region suggest deposition in a newly rifted Indian Ocean. In Timor's tectonostratigraphic classification scheme, the Noni Group is here placed in the "Indian Ocean Megasequence".

  5. CONSEQUENCES OF REPEATED ETHANOL EXPOSURE DURING EARLY OR LATE ADOLESCENCE ON CONDITIONED TASTE AVERSIONS IN RATS

    PubMed Central

    Saalfield, Jessica; Spear, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use is prevalent during adolescence, yet little is known about possible long-lasting consequences.. Recent evidence suggests that adolescents are less sensitive than adults to ethanol’s aversive effects, an insensitivity that may be retained into adulthood after repeated adolescent ethanol exposure. This study assessed whether intermittent ethanol exposure during early or late adolescence (early-AIE or late-AIE, respectively) would affect ethanol conditioned taste aversions 2 days (CTA1) and >3 weeks (CTA2) post-exposure using supersaccharin and saline as conditioning stimuli (CS), respectively. Pair-housed male Sprague-Dawley rats received 4 g/kg i.g. ethanol (25%) or water every 48 hours from postnatal day (P) 25–45 (early AIE) or P45–65 (late AIE), or were left non-manipulated (NM). During conditioning, 30 min home cage access to the CS was followed by 0, 1, 1.5, 2 or 2.5 g/kg ethanol i.p., with testing 2 days later. Attenuated CTA relative to controls was seen among early and late AIE animals at both CTA1 and CTA2, an effect particularly pronounced at CTA1 after late AIE. Thus, adolescent exposure to ethanol was found to induce an insensitivity to ethanol CTA seen soon after exposure and lasting into adulthood, and evident with ethanol exposures not only early but also later in adolescence. PMID:25698309

  6. Consequences of repeated ethanol exposure during early or late adolescence on conditioned taste aversions in rats.

    PubMed

    Saalfield, Jessica; Spear, Linda

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol use is prevalent during adolescence, yet little is known about possible long-lasting consequences. Recent evidence suggests that adolescents are less sensitive than adults to ethanol's aversive effects, an insensitivity that may be retained into adulthood after repeated adolescent ethanol exposure. This study assessed whether intermittent ethanol exposure during early or late adolescence (early-AIE or late-AIE, respectively) would affect ethanol conditioned taste aversions 2 days (CTA1) and >3 weeks (CTA2) post-exposure using supersaccharin and saline as conditioning stimuli (CS), respectively. Pair-housed male Sprague-Dawley rats received 4g/kg i.g. ethanol (25%) or water every 48 h from postnatal day (P) 25-45 (early AIE) or P45-65 (late AIE), or were left non-manipulated (NM). During conditioning, 30 min home cage access to the CS was followed by 0, 1, 1.5, 2 or 2.5g/kg ethanol i.p., with testing 2 days later. Attenuated CTA relative to controls was seen among early and late AIE animals at both CTA1 and CTA2, an effect particularly pronounced at CTA1 after late AIE. Thus, adolescent exposure to ethanol was found to induce an insensitivity to ethanol CTA seen soon after exposure and lasting into adulthood, and evident with ethanol exposures not only early but also later in adolescence. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. A New Hadrosauroid Dinosaur from the Early Late Cretaceous of Shanxi Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Run-Fu; You, Hai-Lu; Xu, Shi-Chao; Wang, Suo-Zhu; Yi, Jian; Xie, Li-Juan; Jia, Lei; Li, Ya-Xian

    2013-01-01

    Background The origin of hadrosaurid dinosaurs is far from clear, mainly due to the paucity of their early Late Cretaceous close relatives. Compared to numerous Early Cretaceous basal hadrosauroids, which are mainly from Eastern Asia, only six early Late Cretaceous (pre-Campanian) basal hadrosauroids have been found: three from Asia and three from North America. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we describe a new hadrosauroid dinosaur, Yunganglong datongensis gen. et sp. nov., from the early Late Cretaceous Zhumapu Formation of Shanxi Province in northern China. The new taxon is represented by an associated but disarticulated partial adult skeleton including the caudodorsal part of the skull. Cladistic analysis and comparative studies show that Yunganglong represents one of the most basal Late Cretaceous hadrosauroids and is diagnosed by a unique combination of features in its skull and femur. Conclusions/Significance The discovery of Yunganglong adds another record of basal Hadrosauroidea in the early Late Cretaceous, and helps to elucidate the origin and evolution of Hadrosauridae. PMID:24204734

  8. Jurassic subduction initiation in the western and central Neo-Tethys and the origin of the Balkan ophiolites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Hinsbergen, D. J. J.; Maffione, M.

    2017-12-01

    Jurassic subduction initiation in the Neo-Tethys Ocean was the first, critical step of a long tectonic process that eventually led to the collision of the Adria-Africa and Eurasia plates and the formation of a 6000 km long Alpine orogenic belt spanning from the Balkan Peninsula to Iran. Investigating the process of subduction initiation in the Neo-Tethys during the Jurassic is crucial to (i) reconstruct the complex geological evolution of this orogen from its initial stages, and (ii) shed new lights over the enigmatic kinematics and driving mechanisms of subduction initiation. Records of the initial closure of the Neo-Tethys are today preserved in a fragmented belt of Middle Jurassic ophiolites (170-160 Ma) distributed above the Alpine orogen. In particular, the well-preserved and extensively studied ophiolites of the Balkan Peninsula offer a unique chance to study the mechanisms leading to the closure of the western domain of the Neo-Tethys. Here we provide the first quantitative constraints on the geometry of the Jurassic Neo-Tethyan subduction system using a net tectonic rotation analysis based on paleomagnetic and structural geological data from the sheeted dyke complexes of various ophiolites of Serbia (Maljen, Ibar) and Greece (Othris, Pindos, Vourinos, Guevgueli). Our results show that closure of the western Neo-Tethys was accommodated by two subduction zones, one intra-oceanic, formed at the N-S trending Neo-Tethyan ridge, the other initiated at the European passive margin and curving southward from a N-S to a NW-SE direction following the shape of the passive margin. We propose that these two subduction zones formed upon propagation of subduction(s) initiated in the central Neo-Tethys (modern Turkey) in the late Early Jurassic ( 185-180 Ma).

  9. Early human symbolic behavior in the Late Pleistocene of Wallacea.

    PubMed

    Brumm, Adam; Langley, Michelle C; Moore, Mark W; Hakim, Budianto; Ramli, Muhammad; Sumantri, Iwan; Burhan, Basran; Saiful, Andi Muhammad; Siagian, Linda; Suryatman; Sardi, Ratno; Jusdi, Andi; Abdullah; Mubarak, Andi Pampang; Hasliana; Hasrianti; Oktaviana, Adhi Agus; Adhityatama, Shinatria; van den Bergh, Gerrit D; Aubert, Maxime; Zhao, Jian-Xin; Huntley, Jillian; Li, Bo; Roberts, Richard G; Saptomo, E Wahyu; Perston, Yinika; Grün, Rainer

    2017-04-18

    Wallacea, the zone of oceanic islands separating the continental regions of Southeast Asia and Australia, has yielded sparse evidence for the symbolic culture of early modern humans. Here we report evidence for symbolic activity 30,000-22,000 y ago at Leang Bulu Bettue, a cave and rock-shelter site on the Wallacean island of Sulawesi. We describe hitherto undocumented practices of personal ornamentation and portable art, alongside evidence for pigment processing and use in deposits that are the same age as dated rock art in the surrounding karst region. Previously, assemblages of multiple and diverse types of Pleistocene "symbolic" artifacts were entirely unknown from this region. The Leang Bulu Bettue assemblage provides insight into the complexity and diversification of modern human culture during a key period in the global dispersal of our species. It also shows that early inhabitants of Sulawesi fashioned ornaments from body parts of endemic animals, suggesting modern humans integrated exotic faunas and other novel resources into their symbolic world as they colonized the biogeographically unique regions southeast of continental Eurasia.

  10. Early human symbolic behavior in the Late Pleistocene of Wallacea

    PubMed Central

    Brumm, Adam; Hakim, Budianto; Ramli, Muhammad; Sumantri, Iwan; Burhan, Basran; Saiful, Andi Muhammad; Siagian, Linda; Suryatman; Sardi, Ratno; Jusdi, Andi; Abdullah; Mubarak, Andi Pampang; Hasliana; Hasrianti; Oktaviana, Adhi Agus; Adhityatama, Shinatria; van den Bergh, Gerrit D.; Aubert, Maxime; Zhao, Jian-xin; Huntley, Jillian; Li, Bo; Roberts, Richard G.; Saptomo, E. Wahyu; Perston, Yinika; Grün, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    Wallacea, the zone of oceanic islands separating the continental regions of Southeast Asia and Australia, has yielded sparse evidence for the symbolic culture of early modern humans. Here we report evidence for symbolic activity 30,000–22,000 y ago at Leang Bulu Bettue, a cave and rock-shelter site on the Wallacean island of Sulawesi. We describe hitherto undocumented practices of personal ornamentation and portable art, alongside evidence for pigment processing and use in deposits that are the same age as dated rock art in the surrounding karst region. Previously, assemblages of multiple and diverse types of Pleistocene “symbolic” artifacts were entirely unknown from this region. The Leang Bulu Bettue assemblage provides insight into the complexity and diversification of modern human culture during a key period in the global dispersal of our species. It also shows that early inhabitants of Sulawesi fashioned ornaments from body parts of endemic animals, suggesting modern humans integrated exotic faunas and other novel resources into their symbolic world as they colonized the biogeographically unique regions southeast of continental Eurasia. PMID:28373568

  11. Wildfire Activity Across the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary in the Polish Basin: Evidence from New Fossil Charcoal & Carbon-isotope Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pointer, R.; Belcher, C.; Hesselbo, S. P.; Hodbod, M.; Pieńkowski, G.

    2017-12-01

    New fossil charcoal abundance and carbon-isotope data from two sedimentary cores provide new evidence of extreme environmental conditions in the Polish Basin during the Latest Triassic to Earliest Jurassic. Sedimentary cores from the Polish Basin provide an excellent record of terrestrial environmental conditions across the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary, a time of climatic extremes. Previous work has shown that the marine realm was affected by a large perturbation to the carbon cycle across the Triassic-Jurassic Boundary (manifested by large negative and positive carbon-isotope excursions) and limited records of charcoal abundance and organic geochemistry have indicated important changes in fire regime in the coeval ecosystems. Here we present two new carbon-isotope records generated from fossil plant matter across the Triassic-Jurassic boundary, and present new charcoal records. The charcoal abundance data confirm that there was variation in wildfire activity during the Late Triassic-Early Jurassic in the Polish Basin. Peaks in the number of fossil charcoal fragments present occur in both sedimentary cores, and increases in fossil charcoal abundance are linked to wildfires, signalling a short-lived rise in wildfire activity. Fossil charcoal abundance does not appear to be fully controlled by total organic matter content, depositional environment or bioturbation. We argue that increased wildfire activity is likely caused by an increase in ignition of plant material as a result of an elevated number of lightning strikes. Global warming (caused by a massive input of carbon into the atmosphere, as indicated by carbon-isotope data) can increase storm activity, leading to increased numbers of lightning strikes. Previous Triassic-Jurassic Boundary wildfire studies have found fossil charcoal abundance peaks at other northern hemisphere sites (Denmark & Greenland), and concluded that they represent increases in wildfire activity in the earliest Jurassic. Our new charcoal and

  12. Clinical Features of Early and Late Postoperative Hypothyroidism After Lobectomy.

    PubMed

    Park, Suyeon; Jeon, Min Ji; Song, Eyun; Oh, Hye-Seon; Kim, Mijin; Kwon, Hyemi; Kim, Tae Yong; Hong, Suck Joon; Shong, Young Kee; Kim, Won Bae; Sung, Tae-Yon; Kim, Won Gu

    2017-04-01

    Lobectomy is preferred in thyroid cancer to decrease surgical complications and avoid lifelong thyroid-hormone replacement. However, postoperative hypothyroidism, requiring thyroid-hormone replacement, may occur. We aimed to identify the incidence and risk factors of postoperative hypothyroidism to develop a surveillance strategy after lobectomy for papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC). This historical cohort study involved 335 patients with PTMC treated by lobectomy. Postoperative thyroid functions were measured regularly, and patients were prescribed levothyroxine according to specific criteria. Patients not satisfying hormone-replacement criteria were closely followed up. Postoperative hypothyroidism occurred in 215 patients (64.2%) including 5 (1.5%) with overt hypothyroidism and 210 (62.7%) with subclinical hypothyroidism. Forty patients (11.9%) were required thyroid hormone replacement. One hundred nineteen patients (33.5%) experienced temporary hypothyroidism and spontaneously recovered to euthyroid state. High preoperative thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was the most important factor predicting postoperative hypothyroidism and failure of recover from hypothyroidism (odds ratio [OR], 2.82 and 1.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.07 to 3.95 and 1.22 to 2.63; P < 0.001 and 0.002, respectively). Of the 215 patients eventually developing postoperative hypothyroidism, 70 (32.6%) developed hypothyroidism after the first postoperative year. Postoperative 1-year TSH levels were able to differentiate patients developing late hypothyroidism or euthyroidism (OR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.68 to 3.26; P < 0.001). Preoperative and postoperative TSH levels might be predictive for patients who develop postlobectomy hypothyroidism and identify those requiring long-term surveillance for hypothyroidism. Additionally, mild postoperative hypothyroidism cases should be followed up without immediate levothyroxine replacement with the expectation of spontaneous recovery. Copyright

  13. Palaeotectonic implications of increased late Eocene-early Oligocene volcanism from South Pacific DSDP sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennett, J.P.; Von Der Borch, C.; Baker, P.A.; Barton, C.E.; Boersma, A.; Cauler, J.P.; Dudley, W.C.; Gardner, J.V.; Jenkins, D.G.; Lohman, W.H.; Martini, E.; Merrill, R.B.; Morin, R.; Nelson, Campbell S.; Robert, C.; Srinivasan, M.S.; Stein, R.; Takeuchi, A.; Murphy, M.G.

    1985-01-01

    Late Eocene-early Oligocene (42-35 Myr) sediments cored at two DSDP sites in the south-west Pacific contain evidence of a pronounced increase in local volcanic activity, particularly in close association with the Eocene-Oligocene boundary. This pulse of volcanism is coeval with that in New Zealand and resulted from the development of an Indo- Australian / Pacific Plate boundary through the region during the late Eocene. The late Eocene / earliest Oligocene was marked by widespread volcanism and tectonism throughout the Pacific and elsewhere, and by one of the most important episodes of Cenozoic climatic cooling. ?? 1985 Nature Publishing Group.

  14. Correlates and prevalence of hypogonadism in patients with early- and late-onset type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Zhang, M; Liu, X; Cui, W; Rampersad, S; Li, F; Lin, Z; Yang, P; Li, H; Sheng, C; Cheng, X; Qu, S

    2017-07-01

    This study aims to compare the prevalence of hypogonadism between male patients with early-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and late-onset type 2 diabetes. A total of 122 male patients with early-onset T2DM (diagnosis age ≤40 years) and 100 male patients with late-onset T2DM (diagnosis age >40 years) were recruited from our in-patient department between 1 January 2013 and 28 December 2015. Serum FSH, LH, testosterone, lipid profile, uric acid, HbA1c, and beta-cell function were determined in blood samples. The diagnosis of hypogonadism was based on the levels of LH, FSH, and total testosterone. The mean onset age was 29.86 ± 6.31 and 54.47 ± 9.97 years old in the early-onset group and late-onset group, respectively. Compared with late-onset T2DM, those with early-onset T2DM had a higher proportion of new-onset diabetes, were more likely to be obese, and had worse glycemic control, lipid control, and lower sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). The prevalence of hypogonadism was much higher in the early-onset group than in the late-onset group (48.0% vs. 26.7%, p < 0.05). The rate of secondary hypogonadism in the early-onset group and late-onset group were 44.3% and 25.0%, respectively (p < 0.05). Obesity, waist circumference, and SHBG were significantly associated with serum total testosterone level in all, early-onset, and late-onset T2DM. Both all and early-onset T2DM groups had positive correlations between total testosterone and fasting C-peptide, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and uric acid. Our results indicate that in a population of admission to a large urban hospital in China, the prevalence of hypogonadism was higher in the patients with early-onset T2DM than that of late-onset T2DM. This prevalence might be attributable to greater obesity, worse lipid control, and lower SHBG levels in those patients. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  15. Boldness and aggressiveness in early and late hatched three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Gomez, M L; Huntingford, F A

    2012-08-01

    Levels of boldness and the degree of aggressiveness were compared in juvenile three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus that had hatched early and late in the breeding season. The most striking result found in this study was that early hatched individuals were bolder when exploring a novel environment than were late-hatched individuals. No differences in levels of aggression between early and late hatchlings were found, but a relationship between boldness and aggressiveness was present regardless of hatching date. The implications of these findings are discussed in the light of research on individual variation in behaviour and the development of behavioural syndromes. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  16. Geochronology and geochemistry of the Early Jurassic Yeba Formation volcanic rocks in southern Tibet: Initiation of back-arc rifting and crustal accretion in the southern Lhasa Terrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Youqing; Zhao, Zhidan; Niu, Yaoling; Zhu, Di-Cheng; Liu, Dong; Wang, Qing; Hou, Zengqian; Mo, Xuanxue; Wei, Jiuchuan

    2017-05-01

    Understanding the geological history of the Lhasa Terrane prior to the India-Asia collision ( 55 ± 10 Ma) is essential for improved models of syn-collisional and post-collisional processes in the southern Lhasa Terrane. The Miocene ( 18-10 Ma) adakitic magmatism with economically significant porphyry-type mineralization has been interpreted as resulting from partial melting of the Jurassic juvenile crust, but how this juvenile crust was accreted remains poorly known. For this reason, we carried out a detailed study on the volcanic rocks of the Yeba Formation (YF) with the results offering insights into the ways in which the juvenile crust may be accreted in the southern Lhasa Terrane in the Jurassic. The YF volcanic rocks are compositionally bimodal, comprising basalt/basaltic andesite and dacite/rhyolite dated at 183-174 Ma. All these rocks have an arc-like signature with enriched large ion lithophile elements (LILEs; e.g., Rb, Ba and U) and light rare earth elements (LREEs) and depleted high field strength elements (HFSEs; e.g., Nb, Ta, Ti). They also have depleted whole-rock Sr-Nd and zircon Hf isotopic compositions, pointing to significant mantle isotopic contributions. Modeling results of trace elements and isotopes are most consistent with the basalts being derived from a mantle source metasomatized by varying enrichment of subduction components. The silicic volcanic rocks show the characteristics of transitional I-S type granites, and are best interpreted as resulting from re-melting of a mixed source of juvenile amphibole-rich lower crust with reworked crustal materials resembling metagraywackes. Importantly, our results indicate northward Neo-Tethyan seafloor subduction beneath the Lhasa Terrane with the YF volcanism being caused by the initiation of back-arc rifting. The back-arc setting is a likely site for juvenile crustal accretion in the southern Lhasa Terrane.

  17. Accuracy of different diagnostic tests for early, delayed and late prosthetic joint infection.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Sampedro, M; Fariñas-Alvarez, C; Garces-Zarzalejo, C; Alonso-Aguirre, M A; Salas-Venero, C; Martínez-Martínez, L; Fariñas, M C

    2017-08-25

    A combination of laboratory, histopathological and microbiological tests for diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) have been strongly recommended. This study aims to characterize the accuracy of individual or group tests, such as culture of sonicate fluid, synovial fluid and peri-implant tissue, C-reactive protein (CRP) and histopathology for detection of early, delayed and late PJI. A prospective study of patients undergoing hip or knee arthroplasty from February 2009 to February 2014 was performed in a Spanish tertiary health care hospital. The diagnostic accuracy of the different methods was evaluated constructing receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curve areas. One hundred thirty consecutive patients were included: 18 (13.8%) early PJI, 35 (27%) delayed PJI and 77 (59.2%) late PJI. For individual parameters, the area under the ROC curve for peri-implant tissue culture was larger for early (0.917) than for delayed (0.829) and late PJI (0.778), p = 0.033. There was a significantly larger difference for ROC area in the synovial fluid culture for delayed (0.803) than for early (0.781) and late infections (0.679), p = 0.039. The comparison of the areas under the ROC curves for the two microbiological tests showed that sonicate fluid was significantly different from peri-implant tissue in delayed (0.951 vs 0.829, p = 0.005) and late PJI (0.901 vs 0.778, p = 0.000). The conjunction of preoperative parameters, synovial fluid culture and CRP, improved the accuracy for late PJI (p = 0.01). The conjunction of histopathology and sonicate fluid culture increased the area under ROC curve of sonication in early (0.917 vs 1.000); p = 0.06 and late cases (0.901 vs 0.999); p < 0.001. For early PJI, sonicate fluid and peri-implant tissue cultures achieve the same best sensitivity. For delayed and late PJI, sonicate fluid culture is the most sensitive individual diagnostic method. By combining histopathology and peri-implant tissue, all early, 97% of

  18. Discrete β-adrenergic mechanisms regulate early and late erythropoiesis in erythropoietin-resistant anemia.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Shirin; Mosier, Michael J; Szilagyi, Andrea; Gamelli, Richard L; Muthumalaiappan, Kuzhali

    2017-10-01

    Anemia of critical illness is resistant to exogenous erythropoietin. Packed red blood cells transfusions is the only treatment option, and despite related cost and morbidity, there is a need for alternate strategies. Erythrocyte development can be divided into erythropoietin-dependent and erythropoietin-independent stages. We have shown previously that erythropoietin-dependent development is intact in burn patients and the erythropoietin-independent early commitment stage, which is regulated by β1/β2-adrenergic mechanisms, is compromised. Utilizing the scald burn injury model, we studied erythropoietin-independent late maturation stages and the effect of β1/β2, β-2, or β-3 blockade in burn mediated erythropoietin-resistant anemia. Burn mice were randomized to receive daily injections of propranolol (nonselective β1/β2 antagonist), nadolol (long-acting β1/β2 antagonist), butoxamine (selective β2 antagonist), or SR59230A (selective β3 antagonist) for 6 days after burn. Total bone marrow cells were characterized as nonerythroid cells, early and late erythroblasts, nucleated orthochromatic erythroblasts and enucleated reticulocyte subsets using CD71, Ter119, and Syto-16 by flow cytometry. Multipotential progenitors were probed for MafB expressing cells. Although propranolol improved early and late erythroblasts, only butoxamine and selective β3-antagonist administrations were positively reflected in the peripheral blood hemoglobin and red blood cells count. While burn impeded early commitment and late maturation stages, β1/β2 antagonism increased the early erythroblasts through commitment stages via β2 specific MafB regulation. β3 antagonism was more effective in improving overall red blood cells through late maturation stages. The study unfolds novel β2 and β3 adrenergic mechanisms orchestrating erythropoietin resistant anemia after burn, which impedes both the early commitment stage and the late maturation stages, respectively. Copyright © 2017

  19. Hippocampal Morphology and Distinguishing Late-Onset From Early-Onset Elderly Depression

    PubMed Central

    Ballmaier, Martina; Narr, Katherine L.; Toga, Arthur W.; Elderkin-Thompson, Virginia; Thompson, Paul M.; Hamilton, Liberty; Haroon, Ebrahim; Pham, Daniel; Heinz, Andreas; Kumar, Anand

    2010-01-01

    Objective Despite evidence for hippocampal abnormalities in elderly depression, it is unknown whether these changes are regionally specific. This study used three-dimensional mapping techniques to identify regional hippocampal abnormalities in early- and late-onset depression. Neuropsychological correlates of hippocampal morphology were also investigated. Method With high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging, hippocampal morphology was compared among elderly patients with early- (N=24) and late-onset (N=22) depression and comparison subjects (N=34). Regional structural abnormalities were identified by comparing distances, measured from homologous hippocampal surface points to the central core of each individual’s hippocampal surface model, between groups. Results Hippocampal volumes differed between depressed patients and comparison subjects but not between patients with early- and late-onset depression. However, statistical mapping results showed that regional surface contractions were significantly pronounced in late-compared to early-onset depression in the anterior of the subiculum and lateral posterior of the CA1 subfield in the left hemisphere. Significant shape differences were observed bilaterally in anterior CA1–CA3 subfields and the subiculum in patients in relation to comparison subjects. These results were similar when each disease group was separately compared to comparison subjects. Hippocampal surface contractions significantly correlated with memory measures among late- but not early-onset depressed patients or comparison subjects. Conclusions More pronounced regional volume deficits and their associations with memory in late-onset depression may suggest that these patients are more likely to develop cognitive impairment over time than individuals with early-onset depression. Mapping regional hippocampal abnormalities and their cognitive correlates may help guide research in defining risk profiles and treatment strategies. PMID:17986679

  20. Petrogenesis of Jurassic granitoids at the northeastern margin of the North China Craton: New geochemical and geochronological constraints on subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jin; Zhang, Jian; Liu, Zhenghong; Yin, Changqing; Zhao, Chen; Peng, Youbo

    2018-06-01

    At the junction between the North China Craton (NCC) and the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), northern Liaoning province, NE China, there are widespread Jurassic igneous rocks. The tectonic setting and petrogenesis of these rocks are unresolved. Zircon U-Pb dating, whole-rock geochemistry, and Hf isotopic compositions of Jurassic granitoids were investigated to constrain their ages and petrogenesis in order to understand the tectonic evolution of the Paleo-Pacific Ocean along the northeastern margin of the NCC. Geochronological data indicate that magmatism occurred between the early and late Jurassic (180-156 Ma). Despite the wide range in ages of the intrusions, Jurassic granitoids were likely derived from a similar or common source, as inferred from their geochemical and Hf isotopic characteristics. Compared to the island arc andesite-dacite-rhyolite series, the Jurassic granitoids are characterized by higher SiO2, Al2O3, and Sr contents, and lower MgO, FeOT, Y, and Yb contents, indicating that the primary magmas show typical characteristics of adakitic magmas derived from partial melting of thickened lower crust. These findings, combined with their εHf(t) values (+1.4 to +5.4) and two-stage model ages (1515-1165 Ma), indicate the primary magmas originated from partial melting of juvenile crustal material accreted during the Mesoproterozoic. They are enriched in large-ion lithophile elements (e.g., Rb, K, Th, Ba, and U) and light rare-earth elements (REE), and depleted in high-field-strength elements (e.g., Nb, Ta, Ti, and P) and heavy REE. Based on these findings and previous studies, we suggest that the Jurassic adakitic granitoids (180-156 Ma) were formed in an active continental margin and compressive tectonic setting, related to subduction of the Paleo-Pacific Plate.

  1. A late Pleistocene human presence at Huaca Prieta, Peru, and early Pacific Coastal adaptations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillehay, Tom D.; Bonavia, Duccio; Goodbred, Steve L.; Pino, Mario; Vásquez, Victor; Tham, Teresa Rosales

    2012-05-01

    Archaeological excavations in deep pre-mound levels at Huaca Prieta in northern Peru have yielded new evidence of late Pleistocene cultural deposits that shed insights into the early human occupation of the Pacific coast of South America. Radiocarbon dates place this occupation between ~ 14,200 and 13,300 cal yr BP. The cultural evidence shares certain basic technological and subsistence traits, including maritime resources and simple flake tools, with previously discovered late Pleistocene sites along the Pacific coast of Peru and Chile. The results help to expand our knowledge of early maritime societies and human adaption to changing coastal environments.

  2. [Intrauterine devices in the immediate, early and late postabortion period].

    PubMed

    Nun, S

    1971-01-01

    2146 cases of IUD insertions after hospitalization for abortion at a hospital in Chile were studied. In 1514 cases the IUDs were inserted immediately after abortion, in 430 cases between 1-5 days after the operation, and in 202 cases between 5-40 days after. It is concluded that immediate or early insertion results in a somewhat lower retention rate, but offers the advantage of making it possible to treat a greater number of patients, many of whom would not return later to have the IUD inserted. The incidence of removal for medical causes was very low and immediate insertion was found to be harmless. The medical causes of removal were the usual ones of bleeding, pain, and infection; the most frequent cause of interruption of use was expulsion, which tends to occur during the 1st few months of use and among younger women. The probability of failure due to pregnancy was somewhat higher than in the case of insertion during the intermenstrual period. Cases of voluntary removal tend to increase after prolonged use, and a study to analyze the actual reasons for this fact is necessary.

  3. Paleoenvironments of the Jurassic and Cretaceous Oceans: Selected Highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogg, J. G.

    2007-12-01

    There are many themes contributing to the sedimentation history of the Mesozoic oceans. This overview briefly examines the roles of the carbonate compensation depth (CCD) and the associated levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide, of the evolution of marine calcareous microplankton, of major transgressive and regressive trends, and of super-plume eruptions. Initiation of Atlantic seafloor spreading in the Middle Jurassic coincided with an elevated carbonate compensation depth (CCD) in the Pacific-Tethys mega-ocean. Organic-rich sediments that would become the oil wealth of regions from Saudi Arabia to the North Sea were deposited during a continued rise in CCD during the Oxfordian-early Kimmeridgian, which suggests a possible increase in carbon dioxide release by oceanic volcanic activity. Deep-sea deposits in near-equatorial settings are dominated by siliceous shales or cherts, which reflect the productivity of siliceous microfossils in the tropical surface waters. The end-Jurassic explosion in productivity by calcareous microplankton contributed to the lowering of the CCD and onset of the chalk ("creta") deposits that characterize the Tithonian and lower Cretaceous in all ocean basins. During the mid-Cretaceous, the eruption of enormous Pacific igneous provinces (Ontong Java Plateau and coeval edifices) increased carbon dioxide levels. The resulting rise in CCD terminated chalk deposition in the deep sea. The excess carbon was progressively removed in widespread black-shale deposits in the Atlantic basins and other regions - another major episode of oil source rock. A major long-term transgression during middle and late Cretaceous was accompanied by extensive chalk deposition on continental shelves and seaways while the oceanic CCD remained elevated. Pacific guyots document major oscillations (sequences) of global sea level superimposed on this broad highstand. The Cretaceous closed with a progressive sea-level regression and lowering of the CCD that again enabled

  4. Cardiorenal benefits of early versus late cyclosporine to sirolimus conversion in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Sereno, José; Romão, Ana M.; Parada, Belmiro; Lopes, Patrícia; Carvalho, Eugénia; Teixeira, Frederico; Reis, Flávio

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the cardiorenal effects of early versus late cyclosporine (CsA) to sirolimus (SRL) conversion, using a novel animal model that mimics these protocols used in the clinical practice, and focusing on blood pressure, heart rate (HR), biochemical data and heart and kidney lipid peroxidation. Materials and Methods: The study had five groups. Six male Wistar rats in each group were used during a 9-week study protocol: control, CsA (5 mg/kg/day), SRL (1 mg/kg/day); early conversion and late conversion. Cardiorenal evaluation was assessed by biochemical data, blood pressure, HR, and heart and kidney lipid peroxidation. Results: As expected, CsA promoted cardiorenal impairment, viewed by development of hypertension, tachycardia, increased urea, creatine kinase, and glucose levels, as well as heart and kidney oxidative stress. SRL, as expected, promoted less cardiorenal side effects, namely those related with nephrotoxicity. In agreement, both early and late conversions from CsA to SRL produced less side-effects, namely those related to the CsA-induced nephrotoxicity. Conclusions: In our model, both early and late CsA to SRL conversion promoted amelioration of the CsA -induced cardiorenal damage. However, early substitution seems to produce more benefits, in particular due to higher improvement of the cardiac profile. PMID:22629089

  5. Biological determinants of spontaneous late preterm and early term birth: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Brown, H K; Speechley, K N; Macnab, J; Natale, R; Campbell, M K

    2015-03-01

    Our aim was to examine the association between biological determinants of preterm birth (infection and inflammation, placental ischaemia and other hypoxia, diabetes mellitus, other) and spontaneous late preterm (34-36 weeks) and early term (37-38 weeks) birth. Retrospective cohort study. City of London and Middlesex County, Canada. Singleton live births, delivered at 34-41 weeks to London-Middlesex mothers following spontaneous labour. Data were obtained from a city-wide perinatal database on births between 2002 and 2011 (n = 17,678). Multivariable analyses used multinomial logistic regression. The outcome of interest was the occurrence of late preterm (34-36 weeks) and early term (37-38 weeks) birth, compared with full term birth (39-41 weeks). After controlling for covariates, there were associations between infection and inflammation and late preterm birth (aOR = 2.07, 95% CI 1.65, 2.60); between placental ischaemia and other hypoxia and late preterm (aOR = 2.21, 95% CI 1.88, 2.61) and early term (aOR = 1.25, 95% CI 1.13, 1.39) birth; between diabetes mellitus and late preterm (aOR = 3.89, 95% CI 2.90, 5.21) and early term (aOR = 2.66, 95% CI 2.19, 3.23) birth; and between other biological determinants (polyhydramnios, oligohydramnios) and late preterm (aOR = 2.81, 95% CI 1.70, 4.64) and early term (aOR = 1.89, 95% CI 1.32, 2.70) birth. Our findings show that delivery following spontaneous labour even close to full term may be a result of pathological processes. Because these biological determinants of preterm birth contribute to an adverse intrauterine environment, they have important implications for fetal and neonatal health. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  6. The use of early summer mosquito surveillance to predict late summer West Nile virus activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsberg, Howard S.; Rochlin, Ilia; Campbell, Scott R.

    2010-01-01

    Utility of early-season mosquito surveillance to predict West Nile virus activity in late summer was assessed in Suffolk County, NY. Dry ice-baited CDC miniature light traps paired with gravid traps were set weekly. Maximum-likelihood estimates of WNV positivity, minimum infection rates, and % positive pools were generally well correlated. However, positivity in gravid traps was not correlated with positivity in CDC light traps. The best early-season predictors of WNV activity in late summer (estimated using maximum-likelihood estimates of Culex positivity in August and September) were early date of first positive pool, low numbers of mosquitoes in July, and low numbers of mosquito species in July. These results suggest that early-season entomological samples can be used to predict WNV activity later in the summer, when most human cases are acquired. Additional research is needed to establish which surveillance variables are most predictive and to characterize the reliability of the predictions.

  7. Paleocurrents of the Middle-Upper Jurassic strata in the Paradox Basin, Colorado, inferred from anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ejembi, J. I.; Ferre, E. C.; Potter-McIntyre, S. L.

    2017-12-01

    The Middle-Upper Jurassic sedimentary strata in the southwestern Colorado Plateau recorded pervasive eolian to fluvio-lacustrine deposition in the Paradox Basin. While paleocurrents preserved in the Entrada Sandstone, an eolian deposition in the Middle Jurassic, has been well constrained and show a northwesterly to northeasterly migration of ergs from the south onto the Colorado Plateau, there is yet no clear resolution of the paleocurrents preserved in the Wanakah Formation and Tidwell Member of the Morrison Formation, both of which are important sedimentary sequences in the paleogeographic framework of the Colorado Plateau. New U-Pb detrital zircon geochronology of sandstones from these sequences suggests that an abrupt change in provenance occurred in the early Late Jurassic, with sediments largely sourced from eroding highlands in central Colorado. We measured the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) of sediments in oriented sandstone samples from these three successive sequences; first, to determine the paleocurrents from the orientations of the AMS fabrics in order to delineate the source area and sediments dispersal pattern and second, to determine the depositional mechanisms of the sediments. Preliminary AMS data from two study sites show consistency and clustering of the AMS axes in all the sedimentary sequences. The orientations of the Kmin - Kint planes in the Entrada Sandstone sample point to a NNE-NNW paleocurrent directions, which is in agreement with earlier studies. The orientations of the Kmin - Kint planes in the Wanakah Formation and Tidwell Member samples show W-SW trending paleocurrent directions, corroborating our hypothesis of a shift in provenance to the eroding Ancestral Front Range Mountain, located northeast of the Paradox Basin, during the Late Jurassic. Isothermal remanence magnetization (IRM) of the samples indicate that the primary AMS carriers are detrital, syndepositional ferromagnetic minerals. Thus, we contend that AMS can

  8. The First Metriorhynchid Crocodylomorph from the Middle Jurassic of Spain, with Implications for Evolution of the Subclade Rhacheosaurini

    PubMed Central

    Parrilla-Bel, Jara; Young, Mark T.; Moreno-Azanza, Miguel; Canudo, José Ignacio

    2013-01-01

    Background Marine deposits from the Callovian of Europe have yielded numerous species of metriorhynchid crocodylomorphs. While common in English and French Formations, metriorhynchids are poorly known from the Iberian Peninsula. Twenty years ago an incomplete, but beautifully preserved, skull was discovered from the Middle Callovian of Spain. It is currently the oldest and best preserved metriorhynchid specimen from the Iberian Peninsula. Until now it has never been properly described and its taxonomic affinities remained obscure. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we present a comprehensive description for this specimen and in doing so we refer it to a new genus and species: Maledictosuchus riclaensis. This species is diagnosed by numerous autapomorphies, including: heterodont dentition; tightly interlocking occlusion; lachrymal anterior process excludes the jugal from the preorbital fenestra; orbits longer than supratemporal fenestrae; palatine has two non-midline and one midline anterior processes. Our phylogenetic analysis finds Maledictosuchus riclaensis to be the basal-most known member of Rhacheosaurini (the subclade of increasingly mesopelagic piscivores that includes Cricosaurus and Rhacheosaurus). Conclusions/Significance Our description of Maledictosuchus riclaensis shows that the craniodental morphologies that underpinned the success of Rhacheosaurini in the Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous, as a result of increasing marine specialization to adaptations for feeding on fast small-bodied prey (i.e. divided and retracted external nares; reorientation of the lateral processes of the frontal; elongate, tubular rostrum; procumbent and non-carinated dentition; high overall tooth count; and dorsolaterally inclined paroccipital processes), first appeared during the Middle Jurassic. Rhacheosaurins were curiously rare in the Middle Jurassic, as only one specimen of Maledictosuchus riclaensis is known (with no representatives discovered from the well

  9. Qualitative Assessment of Speech Perception Performance of Early and Late Cochlear Implantees.

    PubMed

    Kant, Anjali R; Pathak, Sonal

    2015-09-01

    The present study aims to provide a qualitative description and comparison of speech perception performance using model based tests like multisyllabic lexical neighborhood test (MLNT) and lexical neighborhood test (LNT), in early and late implanted (prelingual) hearing impaired children using cochlear implants. The subjects comprised of cochlear implantees; Group I (early implantees)-n = 15, 3-6 years of age; mean age at implantation-3½ years. Group II (late implantees)-n = 15, 7-13 years of age; mean age at implantation-5 years. The tests were presented in a sound treated room at 70 dBSPL. The children were instructed to repeat the words on hearing them. Responses were scored as percentage of words correctly repeated. Their means were computed. The late implantees achieved higher scores for words on MLNT than those on LNT. This may imply that late implantees are making use of length cues in order to aid them in speech perception. The major phonological process used by early implantees was deletion and by the late implantees was substitution. One needs to wait until the child achieves a score of 20 % on LNT before assessing other aspects of his/her speech perception abilities. There appears to be a need to use speech perception tests which are based on theoretical empirical models, in order to enable us to give a descriptive analysis of post implant speech perception performance.

  10. Effects of early and late harvest on agronomic performance and stability of late blight resistant (R-gene free) potato genotypes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To assess the effectiveness of genotype resistance to potato late blight, foliar blight development, area under disease progress curves (AUDPC) and tuber blight were quantified. Late blight resistant potato genotypes (R-gene free) were assessed for yield performance and stability at early (90 days) ...

  11. Early versus late GD-DTPA MRI enhancement in experimental glioblastomas.

    PubMed

    Farace, Paolo; Tambalo, Stefano; Fiorini, Silvia; Merigo, Flavia; Daducci, Alessandro; Nicolato, Elena; Conti, Giamaica; Degrassi, Anna; Sbarbati, Andrea; Marzola, Pasquina

    2011-03-01

    To compare early versus late enhancement in two glioblastoma models characterized by different infiltrative/edematous patterns. Three weeks after inoculation into nude mice of U87MG and U251 cells, T1-weighted images were acquired early (10.5 min), intermediate (21 min) and late (30.5 min) after a bolus injection of Gd-DTPA at 300 μ mol/kg dosage. EARLY(TH) and LATE(TH) were the corresponding volumes with an enhancement higher than a threshold TH, defined by the mean (μ) and standard deviation (σ) on a contralateral healthy area. ADD(TH) was the enhancing volume found in LATE(TH) but not in EARLY(TH). T2 imaging of both tumors was performed, and T2 mapping of U251. In all tumors, LATE(TH) was significantly higher than EARLY(TH) for TH ranging from μ+σ to μ+5σ. The ADD(TH) /EARLY(TH) ratio was not significantly different when U251 and U87MG tumors were compared. In the U87MG tumors, some enhancement was observed outside the regularly demarcated T2-hyperintense area. In the U251 tumors, irregularly T2 demarcated, a large portion of ADD(μ+3σ) had normal T2 values. At histology, U251 showed a higher infiltrative pattern than U87MG. In these models, the increase over time in the enhancing volume did not depend on the different infiltrative/edematous patterns and was not closely related with edema. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Brain Structure Changes Visualized in Early- and Late-Onset Blind Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Leporé, Natasha; Voss, Patrice; Lepore, Franco; Chou, Yi-Yu; Fortin, Madeleine; Gougoux, Frédéric; Lee, Agatha D.; Brun, Caroline; Lassonde, Maryse; Madsen, Sarah K.; Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2009-01-01

    We examine 3D patterns of volume differences in the brain associated with blindness, in subjects grouped according to early and late onset. Using tensor-based morphometry, we map volume reductions and gains in 16 early-onset (EB) and 16 late-onset (LB) blind adults (onset <5 and >14 years old, respectively) relative to 16 matched sighted controls. Each subject’s structural MRI was fluidly registered to a common template. Anatomical differences between groups were mapped based on statistical analysis of the resulting deformation fields revealing profound deficits in primary and secondary visual cortices for both blind groups. Regions outside the occipital lobe showed significant hypertrophy, suggesting widespread compensatory adaptations. EBs but not LBs showed deficits in the splenium and hypertrophy in the isthmus. Gains in the isthmus and non-occipital white matter were more widespread in the EBs. These differences may reflect regional alterations in late neurodevelopmental processes, such as myelination, that continue into adulthood. PMID:19643183

  13. The bivalve Anopaea (Inoceramidae) from the Upper Jurassic-lowermost Cretaceous of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zell, Patrick; Crame, J. Alistair; Stinnesbeck, Wolfgang; Beckmann, Seija

    2015-07-01

    In Mexico, the Upper Jurassic to lowermost Cretaceous La Casita and coeval La Caja and La Pimienta formations are well-known for their abundant and well-preserved marine vertebrates and invertebrates. The latter include conspicuous inoceramid bivalves of the genus Anopaea not formally described previously from Mexico. Anopaea bassei (Lecolle de Cantú, 1967), Anopaea cf. stoliczkai (Holdhaus, 1913), Anopaea cf. callistoensis Crame and Kelly, 1995 and Anopaea sp. are rare constituents in distinctive Tithonian-lower Berriasian levels of the La Caja Formation and one Tithonian horizon of the La Pimienta Formation. Anopaea bassei was previously documented from the Tithonian of central Mexico and Cuba, while most other members of Anopaea described here are only known from southern high latitudes. The Mexican assemblage also includes taxa which closely resemble Anopaea stoliczkai from the Tithonian of India, Indonesia and the Antarctic Peninsula, and Anopaea callistoensis from the late Tithonian to ?early Berriasian of the Antarctic Peninsula. Our new data expand the palaeogeographical distribution of the high latitude Anopaea to the Gulf of Mexico region and substantiate faunal exchange, in the Late Jurassic-earliest Cretaceous, between Mexico and the Antarctic Realm.

  14. Disease evolution in late-onset and early-onset systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Aljohani, R; Gladman, D D; Su, J; Urowitz, M B

    2017-10-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to compare clinical features, disease activity, and outcome in late-onset versus early-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) over 5 years of follow up Method Patients with SLE since 1970 were followed prospectively according to standard protocol and tracked on a computerized database. Patients entering the cohort within one year of diagnosis constitute the inception cohort. Patients with late-onset (age at diagnosis ≥50) disease were identified and matched 1:2 based on gender and first clinic visit (±5) years with patients with early-onset disease (age at diagnosis 18-40 years). Results A total of 86 patients with late-onset disease (84.9% female, 81.4% Caucasian, mean age at SLE diagnosis ± SD 58.05 ± 7.30) and 169 patients with early-onset disease (86.4% female, 71% Caucasian, mean age at SLE diagnosis ± SD 27.80 ± 5.90) were identified. At enrollment, late-onset SLE patients had a lower total number of American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria, with less renal and neurologic manifestations. Mean SLE Disease Activity Index 2000 (SLEDAI-2K) scores were lower in late-onset SLE, especially renal features and anti-dsDNA positivity. Over 5 years, mean SLEDAI-2K scores decreased in both groups, while mean Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics/ACR Damage Index (SDI) scores increased more significantly in the late-onset group; they developed more cardiovascular, renal, and ocular damage, and had higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusion Although the late-onset SLE group had a milder presentation and less active disease, with the evolution of disease, they developed more organ damage likely as a consequence of cardiovascular risk factors and aging.

  15. Group relationships in early and late sessions and improvement in interpersonal problems.

    PubMed

    Lo Coco, Gianluca; Gullo, Salvatore; Di Fratello, Carla; Giordano, Cecilia; Kivlighan, Dennis M

    2016-07-01

    Groups are more effective when positive bonds are established and interpersonal conflicts resolved in early sessions and work is accomplished in later sessions. Previous research has provided mixed support for this group development model. We performed a test of this theoretical perspective using group members' (actors) and aggregated group members' (partners) perceptions of positive bonding, positive working, and negative group relationships measured early and late in interpersonal growth groups. Participants were 325 Italian graduate students randomly (within semester) assigned to 1 of 16 interpersonal growth groups. Groups met for 9 weeks with experienced psychologists using Yalom and Leszcz's (2005) interpersonal process model. Outcome was assessed pre- and posttreatment using the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems, and group relationships were measured at Sessions 3 and 6 using the Group Questionnaire. As hypothesized, early measures of positive bonding and late measures of positive working, for both actors and partners, were positively related to improved interpersonal problems. Also as hypothesized, late measures of positive bonding and early measures of positive working, for both actors and partners, were negatively related to improved interpersonal problems. We also found that early actor and partner positive bonding and negative relationships interacted to predict changes in interpersonal problems. The findings are consistent with group development theory and suggest that group therapists focus on group-as-a-whole positive bonding relationships in early group sessions and on group-as-a-whole positive working relationships in later group sessions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Cardioprotective effects of early and late aerobic exercise training in experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Moreira-Gonçalves, Daniel; Ferreira, Rita; Fonseca, Hélder; Padrão, Ana Isabel; Moreno, Nuno; Silva, Ana Filipa; Vasques-Nóvoa, Francisco; Gonçalves, Nádia; Vieira, Sara; Santos, Mário; Amado, Francisco; Duarte, José Alberto; Leite-Moreira, Adelino F; Henriques-Coelho, Tiago

    2015-11-01

    Clinical studies suggest that aerobic exercise can exert beneficial effects in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We compared the impact of early or late aerobic exercise training on right ventricular function, remodeling and survival in experimental PAH. Male Wistar rats were submitted to normal cage activity (SED), exercise training in early (EarlyEX) and in late stage (LateEX) of PAH induced by monocrotaline (MCT, 60 mg/kg). Both exercise interventions resulted in improved cardiac function despite persistent right pressure-overload, increased exercise tolerance and survival, with greater benefits in EarlyEX+MCT. This was accompanied by improvements in the markers of cardiac remodeling (SERCA2a), neurohumoral activation (lower endothelin-1, brain natriuretic peptide and preserved vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA), metabolism and mitochondrial oxidative stress in both exercise interventions. EarlyEX+MCT provided additional improvements in fibrosis, tumor necrosis factor-alpha/interleukin-10 and brain natriuretic peptide mRNA, and beta/alpha myosin heavy chain protein expression. The present study demonstrates important cardioprotective effects of aerobic exercise in experimental PAH, with greater benefits obtained when exercise training is initiated at an early stage of the disease.

  17. Evaluation of the attentional capacities and working memory of early and late blind persons.

    PubMed

    Pigeon, Caroline; Marin-Lamellet, Claude

    2015-02-01

    Although attentional processes and working memory seem to be significantly involved in the daily activities (particularly during navigating) of persons who are blind and who use these abilities to compensate for their lack of vision, few studies have investigated these mechanisms in this population. The aim of this study is to evaluate the selective, sustained and divided attention, attentional inhibition and switching and working memory of blind persons. Early blind, late blind and sighted participants completed neuropsychological tests that were designed or adapted to be achievable in the absence of vision. The results revealed that the early blind participants outperformed the sighted ones in selective, sustained and divided attention and working memory tests, and the late blind participants outperformed the sighted participants in selective, sustained and divided attention. However, no differences were found between the blind groups and the sighted group in the attentional inhibition and switching tests. Furthermore, no differences were found between the early and late blind participants in this set of tests. These results suggest that early and late blind persons can compensate for the lack of vision by an enhancement of the attentional and working memory capacities. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Figuring The Value of Literacy Education in the Late 19th and Early 20th Centuries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, D'Ann

    As part of the research for a dissertation on composition at Bryn Mawr College during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, hundreds of student essays and daily themes were read. Over and over students affirmed the essential worth and significance of events in their daily lives and of their college education in general. More often than not,…

  19. Minimal Brain Dysfunction in Childhood: 1. Outcome in Late Adolescence and Early Adult Years. Final Version.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milman, Doris H.

    Seventy-three patients, diagnosed in childhood as having either maturational lag or organic brain syndrome, were followed for an average of 12 years into late adolescence and early adult life for the purpose of discovering the outcome with respect to ultimate psychiatric status, educational attainment, social adjustment, and global adjustment. At…

  20. Reconceptualizing Early and Late Onset: A Life Course Analysis of Older Heroin Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeri, Miriam Williams; Sterk, Claire E.; Elifson, Kirk W.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Researchers' knowledge regarding older users of illicit drugs is limited despite the increasing numbers of users. In this article, we apply a life course perspective to gain a further understanding of older adult drug use, specifically contrasting early- and late-onset heroin users. Design and Methods: We collected qualitative data from…

  1. Prediction of early and late preeclampsia by flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery*

    PubMed Central

    Brandão, Augusto Henriques Fulgêncio; Evangelista, Aline Aarão; Martins, Raphaela Menin Franco; Leite, Henrique Vítor; Cabral, Antônio Carlos Vieira

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the accuracy in the prediction of both early and late preeclampsia by flow-mediated dilation of the brachial artery (FMD), a biophysical marker for endothelial dysfunction. Materials and Methods A total of 91 patients, considered at high risk for development of preeclampsia were submitted to brachial artery FMD between 24 and 28 weeks of gestation. Results Nineteen out of the selected patients developed preeclampsia, 8 in its early form and 11 in the late form. With a cut-off value of 6.5%, the FMD sensitivity for early preeclampsia prediction was 75.0%, with specificity of 73.3%, positive predictive value (PPV) of 32.4% and negative predictive value (NPV) of 91.9%. For the prediction of late preeclampsia, sensitivity = 83.3%, specificity = 73.2%, PPV = 34.4% and NPV = 96.2% were observed. And for the prediction of all associated forms of preeclampsia, sensitivity = 84.2%, specificity = 73.6%, PPV = 45.7% and NPV = 94.6% were observed. Conclusion FMD of the brachial artery is a test with good accuracy in the prediction of both early and late preeclampsia, which may represent a positive impact on the follow-up of pregnant women at high risk for developing this syndrome. PMID:25741086

  2. Mexican-Origin Youth's Cultural Orientations and Adjustment: Changes from Early to Late Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Umana-Taylor, Adriana J.; McHale, Susan M.; Wheeler, Lorey A.; Perez-Brena, Norma J.

    2012-01-01

    Drawing from developmental and cultural adaptation perspectives and using a longitudinal design, this study examined: (a) mean-level changes in Mexican-origin adolescents' cultural orientations and adjustment from early to late adolescence and (b) bidirectional associations between cultural orientations and adjustment using a cross-lag panel…

  3. Integrated Knowledge of Agreement in Early and Late English-Spanish Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foote, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Research suggests that late bilinguals may have persistent difficulties with the automatic access and use of some second language structures because of a lack of underlying integrated knowledge of those structures. In contrast, early bilinguals show advantages in aspects of language use that require this type of automatic knowledge. This study…

  4. Semantic Interaction in Early and Late Bilinguals: All Words Are Not Created Equally

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gathercole, Virginia C. Mueller; Moawad, Ruba Abdelmatloub

    2010-01-01

    This study examines L1-L2 interaction in semantic categorization in early and late L2 learners. Word categories that overlapped but were not identical in Arabic and English were tested. Words always showed a "wider" range of application in one language, "narrower" in the other. Three types of categories--"classical", "radial", and…

  5. The Developmental Significance of Late Adolescent Substance Use for Early Adult Functioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Englund, Michelle M.; Siebenbruner, Jessica; Oliva, Elizabeth M.; Egeland, Byron; Chung, Chu-Ting; Long, Jeffrey D.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the predictive significance of late adolescent substance use groups (i.e., abstainers, experimental users, at-risk users, and abusers) for early adult adaptation. Participants (N = 159) were drawn from a prospective longitudinal study of first-born children of low-income mothers. At 17.5 years of age, participants were assigned…

  6. Aboveground-belowground biodiversity linkages differ in early and late successional temperate forests

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Wang, Xugao; Liang, Chao; Hao, Zhanqing; Zhou, Lisha; Ma, Sam; Li, Xiaobin; Yang, Shan; Yao, Fei; Jiang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Understanding ecological linkages between above- and below-ground biota is critical for deepening our knowledge on the maintenance and stability of ecosystem processes. Nevertheless, direct comparisons of plant-microbe diversity at the community level remain scarce due to the knowledge gap between microbial ecology and plant ecology. We compared the α- and β- diversities of plant and soil bacterial communities in two temperate forests that represented early and late successional stages. We documented different patterns of aboveground-belowground diversity relationships in these forests. We observed no linkage between plant and bacterial α-diversity in the early successional forest, and even a negative correlation in the late successional forest, indicating that high bacterial α-diversity is not always linked to high plant α-diversity. Beta-diversity coupling was only found at the late successional stage, while in the early successional forest, the bacterial β-diversity was closely correlated with soil property distances. Additionally, we showed that the dominant competitive tree species in the late successional forest may play key roles in driving forest succession by shaping the soil bacterial community in the early successional stage. This study sheds new light on the potential aboveground-belowground linkage in natural ecosystems, which may help us understand the mechanisms that drive ecosystem succession. PMID:26184121

  7. Converting the Rosebud: Sicangu Lakota Catholicism in the Late Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Centuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markowitz, Harvey

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses a number of the dominant features of late nineteenth- and early twentieth-century Indian Catholicism on the Rosebud Reservation, focusing primarily on the Sicangu's responses to the significant differences between their traditional religious customs and the beliefs, rituals, and requirements of Catholicism. It first examines…

  8. Early-, Middle-, and Late-Developing Sounds in Monolingual and Bilingual Children: An Exploratory Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Goldstein, Brian A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the accuracy of early-, middle-, and late-developing (EML) sounds in Spanish-English bilingual children and their monolingual peers. Method: Twenty-four typically developing children, age 3-4 years, were included in this study: 8 bilingual Spanish-English-speaking children, 8 monolingual Spanish speakers, and 8 monolingual…

  9. Russian Education Policy from the Late 1980S through the Early 2000S

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosaretsky, S.; Grunicheva, I.; Goshin, M.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the results of a study of Russian educational policy from the late 1980s to the early 2000s in connection with the emerging trends of educational inequality in the field of K-12 education. A statistical analysis of data on educational organizations, content analysis of documents, and a review of legislation and materials collected…

  10. Non-targeted plasma metabolome of early and late lactation gilts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Female pigs nursing their first litter (first-parity gilts) have increased energy requirements not only to support their piglets, but they themselves are still maturing. Non-targeted plasma metabolomics were used to investigate the differences between (1) post-farrowing and weaning (early or late l...

  11. Tactile Sensitivity and Braille Reading in People with Early Blindness and Late Blindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oshima, Kensuke; Arai, Tetsuya; Ichihara, Shigeru; Nakano, Yasushi

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The inability to read quickly can be a disadvantage throughout life. This study focused on the associations of braille reading fluency and individual factors, such as the age at onset of blindness and number of years reading braille, and the tactile sensitivity of people with early and late blindness. The relationship between reading…

  12. Reading Disability Spectrum: Early and Late Recognition, Subthreshold, and Full Comorbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Töro, Krisztina Tárnokiné; Miklósi, Mónika; Horanyi, Eszter; Kovács, Gábor Pers; Balázs, Judit

    2018-01-01

    Several studies have reported high comorbidity for reading disability (RD) and psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate the comorbidity of subthreshold and full psychiatric disorders with RD while comparing subgroups based on age of RD recognition (early vs. late). We analyzed data from 130 children with RD and 82 typically…

  13. Evidence Supporting an Early as Well as Late Heavy Bombardment on the Moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frey, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Evidence supporting an intense early bombardment on the Moon in addition to the traditional Late Heavy Bombardment at approx. 4 BY ago include the distribution of N(50) Crater Retention Ages (CRAs) for candidate basins, a variety of absolute age scenarios for both a "young" and an "old" Nectaris age, and the decreasing contrasts in both topographic relief and Bouguer gravity with increasing CRA.

  14. Skin manifestations in sulfur mustard exposed victims with ophthalmologic complications: Association between early and late phase.

    PubMed

    Hejazi, Somayeh; Soroush, Mohammadreza; Moradi, Ahmad; Khalilazar, Sara; Mousavi, Batool; Firooz, Alireza; Younespour, Shima

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) was used during the Iraq-Iran war (1980-1988). Exposed veterans continue to suffer from its ocular, skin, and respiratory complications. We aimed to evaluate associations between early (at the time of acute exposure) and decades later skin manifestations in individuals with severe ophthalmologic complications secondary to sulfur mustard exposure. One hundred forty-nine veterans with severe ocular injuries were evaluated for acute and chronic skin complications. Logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between early and late skin manifestations. Late skin complaints were observed in nearly all survivors who had early skin lesions (131 out of 137; 95.62%). Seven out of 12 patients (58.33%) who did not have early skin lesions ultimately developed late skin complications. There was a significant relationship between the presence of lesions at the time of exposure and developing late skin complaints (two-sided Fisher's exact test, OR = 15.59, p < 0.001). There was an association between having at least one early skin lesion and occurrence of late skin complications. Survivors with blisters at the time of chemical exposure were more likely to complain of itching (95% CI: 3.63-25.97, p < 0.001), burning (OR = 11.16; 95% CI: 2.97-41.89, p < 0.001), pigmentation changes (OR = 10.17; 95% CI: 2.54-40.75, p = 0.001), dryness (OR = 6.71, 95% CI: 1.22-37.01, p = 0.03) or cherry angioma (OR = 2.59; 95% CI:1.21-5.55, p = 0.01) during the late phase. Using multivariate logistic models, early blisters remained significantly associated with latent skin complaints. Of note, the genitalia and great flexure areas were the most involved anatomical sites for both early and late skin lesions in SM exposed survivors. According to this study, the presence of blisters at the time of exposure to SM is the most important predictor of developing dermatologic complications decades later in patients with severe ophthalmologic

  15. Hints of the Early Jehol Biota: Important Dinosaur Footprint Assemblages from the Jurassic-Cretaceous Boundary Tuchengzi Formation in Beijing, China

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Lida; Zhang, Jianping; Lockley, Martin G.; McCrea, Richard T.; Klein, Hendrik; Alcalá, Luis; Buckley, Lisa G.; Burns, Michael E.; Kümmell, Susanna B.; He, Qing

    2015-01-01

    New reports of dinosaur tracksites in the Tuchengzi Formation in the newly established Yanqing Global Geopark, Beijing, China, support previous inferences that the track assemblages from this formation are saurischian-dominated. More specifically, the assemblages appear theropod-dominated, with the majority of well-preserved tracks conforming to the Grallator type (sensus lato), thus representing relatively small trackmakers. Such ichnofaunas supplement the skeletal record from this unit that lacks theropods thus far, proving a larger diversity of dinosaur faunas in that region. Sauropods are represented by medium to large sized and narrow and wide-gauge groups, respectively. The latter correspond with earlier discoveries of titanosauriform skeletons in the same unit. Previous records of ornithischian tracks cannot be positively confirmed. Purported occurrences are re-evaluated here, the trackways and imprints, except of a single possible specimen, re-assigned to theropods. Palecologically the Tuchengzi ichnofauna is characteristic of semi-arid fluvio-lacustrine inland basins with Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous deposits in northern China that all show assemblages with abundant theropod and sauropod tracks and minor components of ornithopod, pterosaur and bird tracks. PMID:25901363

  16. Exotic Members of Southern Alaska's Jurassic Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, E.; Jones, J. V., III; Karl, S. M.; Box, S.; Haeussler, P. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Jurassic Talkeetna arc and contemporaneous plutonic rocks of the Alaska-Aleutian Range batholith (ARB) are key components of the Peninsular terrane of southern Alaska. The Talkeetna arc, considered to be a type example of an intra-oceanic arc, was progressively accreted to northwestern North America in the Jurassic to Late Cretaceous, together with associated components of the Wrangellia Composite terrane. Older Paleozoic and Mesozoic rock successions closely associated with the ARB suggest that at least part of the Peninsular terrane might be an overlap succession built on pre-existing crust, possibly correlative with the Wrangellia terrane to the east. However, the relationship between the Talkeetna arc, ARB, and any pre-existing crust remains incompletely understood. Field investigations focused on the petrogenesis of the ARB near Lake Clark National Park show that Jurassic to Late Cretaceous plutonic rocks commonly host a diverse range of mineralogically distinct xenolith inclusions, ranging in size from several cm to hundreds of meters. The modal fraction of these inclusions ranges from <1% to >50% in some outcrops. They are generally mafic in composition and, with few exceptions, are more mafic than host plutonic rocks, although they are observed as both igneous (e.g., gabbro cumulate, diorite porphyry) and metamorphic types (e.g., amphibolite, gneiss and quartzite). Inclusion shapes range from angular to rounded with sharp to diffuse boundaries and, in some instances, are found as planar, compositionally distinct bands or screens containing high-temperature ductile shear fabrics. Other planar bands are more segmented, consistent with lower-temperature brittle behavior. Comparison of age, geochemical fractionation trends, and isotope systematics between the inclusions and host plutons provides a critical test of whether they are co-genetic with host plutons. Where they are related, mafic inclusions provide clues about magmatic evolution and fractionation

  17. Early Versus Late Weight-Bearing Protocols for Surgically Managed Posterior Wall Acetabular Fractures.

    PubMed

    Heare, Austin; Kramer, Nicholas; Salib, Christopher; Mauffrey, Cyril

    2017-07-01

    Despite overall improved outcomes with open reduction and internal fixation of acetabular fractures, posterior wall fractures show disproportionately poor results. The effect of weight bearing on outcomes of fracture management has been investigated in many lower extremity fractures, but evidence-based recommendations in posterior wall acetabular fractures are lacking. The authors systematically reviewed the current literature to determine if a difference in outcome exists between early and late postoperative weight-bearing protocols for surgically managed posterior wall acetabular fractures. PubMed and MEDLINE were searched for posterior wall acetabular fracture studies that included weight-bearing protocols and Merle d'Aubigné functional scores. Twelve studies were identified. Each study was classified as either early or late weight bearing. Early weight bearing was defined as full, unrestricted weight bearing at or before 12 weeks postoperatively. Late weight bearing was defined as restricted weight bearing for greater than 12 weeks postoperatively. The 2 categories were then compared by functional score using a 2-tailed t test and by complication rate using chi-square analysis. Six studies (152 fractures) were placed in the early weight-bearing category. Six studies (302 fractures) were placed in the late weight-bearing category. No significant difference in Merle d'Aubigné functional scores was found between the 2 groups. No difference was found regarding heterotopic ossification, avascular necrosis, superficial infections, total infections, or osteoarthritis. This systematic review found no difference in functional outcome scores or complication rates between early and late weight-bearing protocols for surgically treated posterior wall fractures. [Orthopedics. 2017: 40(4):e652-e657.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Dissociating early- and late-selection processes in recall: the mixed blessing of categorized study lists.

    PubMed

    Guzel, Mehmet A; Higham, Philip A

    2013-07-01

    Two experiments are reported in which we used type-2 signal detection theory to separate the effects of semantic categorization on early- and late-selection processes in free and cued recall. In Experiment 1, participants studied cue-target pairs for which the targets belonged to two, six, or 24 semantic categories, and later the participants were required to recall the targets either with (cued recall) or without (free recall) the studied cues. A confidence rating and a report decision were also required, so that we could compute both forced-report quantity and metacognitive resolution (type-2 discrimination), which served as our estimates of early- and late-selection processes, respectively. Consistent with prior research, having fewer categories enhanced the early-selection process (in performance, two > six > 24 categories). However, in contrast, the late-selection process was impaired (24 > six = two categories). In Experiment 2, encoding of paired associates, for which the targets belonged to either two or 20 semantic categories, was manipulated by having participants either form interactive images or engage in rote repetition. Having fewer categories again was associated with enhanced early selection (two > 20 categories); this effect was greater for rote repetition than for interactive imagery, and greater for free recall than for cued recall. However, late selection again showed the opposite pattern (20 > two categories), even with interactive-imagery encoding, which formed distinctive, individuated memory traces. The results are discussed in terms of early- and late-selection processes in retrieval, as well as overt versus covert recognition.

  19. Effect of early and late syphilis on central nervous system: cerebrospinal fluid changes and neurological deficit.

    PubMed Central

    van Eijk, R V; Wolters, E C; Tutuarima, J A; Hische, E A; Bos, J D; van Trotsenburg, L; de Koning, G A; van der Helm, H J

    1987-01-01

    Neurological examination and investigation of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was performed on 24 patients with early and 180 patients with late syphilis. In 21 (12%) patients with late syphilis positive CSF treponemal test results and neurological deficits suggestive of symptomatic neurosyphilis were found. Concomitantly all but three patients with neurosyphilis showed one or more of the following abnormal CSF variables: CSF concentration of albumin X 10(3)/serum concentration (albumin ratio) greater than or equal to 7.9; mononuclear cells greater than 5 microliters: ratio of CSF to serum IgG concentrations/ratio of CSF to serum albumin concentrations (IgG index) greater than or equal to 0.7 or of IgM/albumin (IgM index) greater than or equal to 0.1; or oligoclonal CSF immunoglobulins. In 20 (95%) patients with neurosyphilis evidence of the production of treponemal antibodies within the central nervous system (CNS) was shown. Ten (48%) patients with neurosyphilis had been treated previously for late syphilis. These observations emphasise the need to screen for neurosyphilis in patients with late syphilis. Intrathecal production of treponemal antibodies was detected in six (25%) patients with early and 44 (28%) with late syphilis who did not show any neurological deficit. Intrathecal production of treponemal antibodies indicating that the CNS was affected led us to suspect asymptomatic neurosyphilis in these patients. Seventeen (11%) patients with late syphilis but no neurosyphilis and only one (4%) with early syphilis showed additional abnormal CSF variables. Surprisingly, six out of 22 patients with treated early and 20 out of 68 patients with treated late syphilis showed evidence of treponema antibody production within the CNS. We do not know whether these findings indicate that the CNS was affected because of inadequate treatment or merely reflect persistent synthesis of treponemal antibodies associated with cured infection. In one (4%) patient with early and in

  20. Early-late life trade-offs and the evolution of ageing in the wild.

    PubMed

    Lemaître, Jean-François; Berger, Vérane; Bonenfant, Christophe; Douhard, Mathieu; Gamelon, Marlène; Plard, Floriane; Gaillard, Jean-Michel

    2015-05-07

    Empirical evidence for declines in fitness components (survival and reproductive performance) with age has recently accumulated in wild populations, highlighting that the process of senescence is nearly ubiquitous in the living world. Senescence patterns are highly variable among species and current evolutionary theories of ageing propose that such variation can be accounted for by differences in allocation to growth and reproduction during early life. Here, we compiled 26 studies of free-ranging vertebrate populations that explicitly tested for a trade-off between performance in early and late life. Our review brings overall support for the presence of early-late life trade-offs, suggesting that the limitation of available resources leads individuals to trade somatic maintenance later in life for high allocation to reproduction early in life. We discuss our results in the light of two closely related theories of ageing-the disposable soma and the antagonistic pleiotropy theories-and propose that the principle of energy allocation roots the ageing process in the evolution of life-history strategies. Finally, we outline research topics that should be investigated in future studies, including the importance of natal environmental conditions in the study of trade-offs between early- and late-life performance and the evolution of sex-differences in ageing patterns. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Cortico-cortical evoked potentials for sites of early versus late seizure spread in stereoelectroencephalography.

    PubMed

    Lega, Bradley; Dionisio, Sasha; Flanigan, Patrick; Bingaman, William; Najm, Imad; Nair, Dileep; Gonzalez-Martinez, Jorge

    2015-09-01

    Cortico-cortical evoked potentials offer the possibility of understanding connectivity within seizure networks to improve diagnosis and more accurately identify candidates for seizure surgery. We sought to determine if cortico-cortical evoked potentials and post-stimulation oscillatory changes differ for sites of EARLY versus LATE ictal spread. 37 patients undergoing stereoelectroencephalography were tested using a cortico-cortical evoked potential paradigm. All electrodes were classified according to the speed of ictal spread. EARLY spread sites were matched to a LATE spread site equidistant from the onset zone. Root-mean-square was used to quantify evoked responses and post-stimulation gamma band power and coherence were extracted and compared. Sites of EARLY spread exhibited significantly greater evoked responses after stimulation across all patients (t(36)=2.973, p=0.004). Stimulation elicited enhanced gamma band activity at EARLY spread sites (t(36)=2.61, p=0.03, FDR corrected); this gamma band oscillation was highly coherent with the onset zone. Cortico-cortical evoked potentials and post-stimulation changes in gamma band activity differ between sites of EARLY versus LATE ictal spread. The oscillatory changes can help visualize connectivity within the seizure network. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. JURASSIC Retrieval Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blank, J.; Ungermann, J.; Guggenmoser, T.; Kaufmann, M.; Riese, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Gimballed Limb Observer for Radiance Imaging in the Atmosphere (GLORIA) is an aircraft based infrared limb-sounder. This presentation will give an overview of the retrieval techniques used for the analysis of data produced by the GLORIA instrument. For data processing, the JUelich RApid Spectral SImulation Code 2 (JURASSIC2) was developed. It consists of a set of programs to retrieve atmospheric profiles from GLORIA measurements. The GLORIA Michelson interferometer can run with a wide range of parameters. In the dynamics mode, spectra are generate with a medium spectral and a very high temporal and spatial resolution. Each sample can contain thousands of spectral lines for each contributing trace gas. In the JURASSIC retrieval code this is handled by using a radiative transport model based on the Emissivity Growth Approximation. Deciding which samples should be included in the retrieval is a non-trivial task and requires specific domain knowledge. To ease this problem we developed an automatic selection program by analysing the Shannon information content. By taking into account data for all relevant trace gases and instrument effects, optimal integrated spectral windows are computed. This includes considerations for cross-influence of trace gases, which has non-obvious consequence for the contribution of spectral samples. We developed methods to assess the influence of spectral windows on the retrieval. While we can not exhaustively search the whole range of possible spectral sample combinations, it is possible to optimize information content using a genetic algorithm. The GLORIA instrument is mounted with a viewing direction perpendicular to the flight direction. A gimbal frame makes it possible to move the instrument 45° to both direction. By flying on a circular path, it is possible to generate images of an area of interest from a wide range of angles. These can be analyzed in a 3D-tomographic fashion, which yields superior spatial resolution along line of

  3. Late Paleogene-early Neogene dinoflagellate cyst biostratigraphy of the eastern Equatorial Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Walaa K.; Oboh-Ikuenobe, Francisca E.

    2018-04-01

    Six dinoflagellate cyst biozones (zone 1-zone 5, subzones 1a and 1b) are recognized in the late Paleogene-early Neogene interval of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 959 (Hole 959 A), Côte d'Ivoire-Ghana Transform Margin in the eastern Equatorial Atlantic. The biozones are based on palynological analysis of 30 samples covering a 273.2-m interval with generally fair preservation and good to poor recovery. We propose a new age of Late Eocene (Priabonian) for subunit IIB as opposed to the previously published mid-Early Oligocene age (middle Rupelian). This age assignment is mainly based on the presence of Late Eocene marker taxa, such as Hemiplacophora semilunifera and Schematophora speciosa in the lower part of the studied interval. We also document for the first time a hiatus event within dinoflagellate cyst zone 3, based on the last occurrences of several taxa. This interval is assigned to an Early Miocene age and is barren of other microfossils. Furthermore, we propose new last occurrences for two species. The last occurrence of Cerebrocysta bartonensis is observed in the late Aquitanian-early Burdigalian in this study vs. Priabonian-early Rupelian in mid and high latitude regions. Also, the last occurrence of Chiropteridium galea extends to the latest Early Miocene (Burdigalian) in ODP Hole 959 A; this event was previously identified in other studies as Chattian in equatorial regions, and Aquitanian in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes. We suspect that these differences are due to physical (offshore vs. nearshore) and latitudinal locations of the areas studied.

  4. Differential effects of estradiol on carotid artery inflammation when administered early versus late after surgical menopause.

    PubMed

    Sophonsritsuk, Areepan; Appt, Susan E; Clarkson, Thomas B; Shively, Carol A; Espeland, Mark A; Register, Thomas C

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of estrogen therapy (ET) on carotid artery inflammation when initiated early and late relative to surgical menopause. Female cynomolgus macaques consuming atherogenic diets were ovariectomized and randomized to control or oral estradiol (E2; human equivalent dose of 1 mg/d micronized E2) initiated at 1 month (early menopause, n = 24) or 54 months (late menopause, n = 40) after ovariectomy. The treatment period was 8 months. Carotid artery expression of the markers of monocyte/macrophages (CD68 and CD163), dendritic cells (CD83), natural killer cells (neural cell adhesion molecule-1), and interferon-γ was significantly lower in E2-treated animals in the early menopause group but not in the late menopause group (P < 0.05). In contrast, carotid artery transcripts for T-cell markers (CD3, CD4, CD8, and CD25), interleukin-10, type I collagen, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and tumor necrosis factor-α were lower in E2-treated monkeys regardless of menopausal stage (P < 0.05). ET initiated soon after menopause inhibits macrophage accumulation in the carotid artery, an effect that is not observed when E2 is administered after several years of estrogen deficiency. No evidence for pro-inflammatory effects of late ET is observed. The results provide support for the timing hypothesis of postmenopausal ET with implications for the interpretation of outcomes in the Women's Health Initiative.

  5. Acquisition of English word stress patterns in early and late bilinguals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guion, Susan G.

    2004-05-01

    Given early acquisition of prosodic knowledge as demonstrated by infants' sensitivity to native language accentual patterns, the question of whether learners can acquire new prosodic patterns across the life span arises. Acquisition of English stress by early and late Spanish-English and Korean-English bilinguals was investigated. In a production task, two-syllable nonwords were produced in noun and verb sentence frames. In a perception task, preference for first or last syllable stress on the nonwords was indicated. Also, real words that were phonologically similar to the nonwords were collected. Logistic regression analyses and ANOVAs were conducted to determine the effect of three factors (syllable structure, lexical class, and stress patterns of phonologically similar words) on the production and perception responses. In all three groups, stress patterns of phonologically similar real words predicted stress on nonwords. For the two other factors, early bilinguals patterned similarly to the native-English participants. Late Spanish-English bilinguals demonstrated less learning of stress patterns based on syllabic structure, and late Korean-English bilinguals demonstrated less learning of stress patterns based on lexical class than native-English speakers. Thus, compared to native speakers, late bilinguals' ability to abstract stress patterns is reduced and affected by the first language. [Work supported by NIH.

  6. ASSESSMENT OF OXIDATIVE STRESS IN EARLY AND LATE ONSET PRE-ECLAMPSIA AMONG GHANAIAN WOMEN.

    PubMed

    Tetteh, P W; Adu-Bonsaffoh, K; Antwi-Boasiako, C; Antwi, D A; Gyan, B; Obed, S A

    2015-01-01

    Pre-eclampsia is a multisystem pregnancy-related disorder with multiple theories regarding its aetiology resulting in lack of reliable screening tests and well-established measures for primary prevention. However, oxidative stress is increasingly being implicated in the pathogenesi of pre-eclampsia although conflicting findings have been reported. To determine and compare the levels of oxidative stress in early and late onset pre-eclampsia by measuring urinary excretion of isoprostane and total antioxidant power (TAP) in a cohort of pre-eclamptic women at Korle Bu Teaching Hospital. This was a cross-sectional study conducted at Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital, Accra, Ghana involving pre-eclamptic women between the ages 18 and 45 years who gave written informed consent. Urinary isoprostane levels were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit whereas the Total Anti-oxidant Power in urine samples was determined using Total Antioxidant Power Colorimetric Microplate Assay kit. The data obtained were analyzed using MEGASTAT statistical software package. We included 102 pre-eclamptic women comprising 68 (66.7%) and 34 (33.3%) with early-onset and late-onset pre-eclampsia respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between the mean maternal age, haematological indices, serum ALT, AST, ALT, albumin, urea, creatinine uric acid and total protein at the time of diagnosis. The mean gestational age at diagnosis of early and late onset pre-eclampsia were 31.65 ± 0.41 and 38.03 ± 0.21 respectively (p ˂ 0.001). Also, there were statistically significant differences between the diastolic blood pressure (BP), systolic BP and mean arterial pressure (MAP) at diagnosis of pre-eclampsia in the two categories. The mean urinary Isoprostane excretion was significantly higher in the early onset pre-eclamptic group (3.04 ± 0.34 ng/mg Cr) compared to that of the late onset pre-eclamptic group (2.36 ± 0.45 ng/mg Cr), (p=0.019). Urinary total

  7. The Jurassic section along McElmo Canyon in southwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Sullivan, Robert B.

    1997-01-01

    In McElmo Canyon, Jurassic rocks are 1500-1600 ft thick. Lower Jurassic rocks of the Glen Canyon Group include (in ascending order) Wingate Sandstone, Kayenta Formation and Navajo Sandstone. Middle Jurassic rocks are represented by the San Rafael Group, which includes the Entrada Sandstone and overlying Wanakah Formation. Upper Jurassic rocks comprise the Junction Creek Sandstone overlain by the Morrison Formation. The Burro Canyon Formation, generally considered to be Lower Cretaceous, may be Late Jurassic in the McElmo Canyon area and is discussed with the Jurassic. The Upper Triassic Chinle Formation in the subsurface underlies, and the Upper Cretaceous Dakota Sandstone overlies, the Jurassic section. An unconformity is present at the base of the Glen Canyon Group (J-0), at the base of the San Rafael Group (J-2), and at the base of the Junction Creek Sandstone (J-5). Another unconformity of Cretaceous age is at the base of the Dakota Sandstone. Most of the Jurassic rocks consist of fluviatile, lacustrine and eolian deposits. The basal part of the Entrada Sandstone and the Wanakah Formation may be of marginal marine origin.

  8. Late Pennsylvanian and early permian chondrichthyan microremains from San Salvador Patlanoaya (Puebla, Mexico)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Derycke-Khatir, C.; Vachard, D.; Degardin, J.-M.; Flores de Dios, A.; Buitron, B.; Hansen, M.

    2005-01-01

    The San Salvador Patlanoaya section (Puebla State, Mexico) is known for its richness of many fossil groups. Among them, the calcareous shells have been principally investigated. This paper deals with Missourian-Virgilian (Late Pennsylvanian) and Leonardian (late Early Permian) Mexican fish remains. A discussion about Helicoprion and related genera, is followed by the systematic description of the revised or discovered taxa: Cooperella typicalis, Moreyella cf. M. typicalis, M. (?) sp., "Sturgeonella" quinqueloba, Hybodontidae gen. sp. 1 and 2, scale indet. Palaeobiogeographic implications are suggested. ?? 2005 Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of education on the progression of early- versus late-stage mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Ye, Byoung Seok; Seo, Sang Won; Cho, Hanna; Kim, Seong Yoon; Lee, Jung-Sun; Kim, Eun-Joo; Lee, Yunhwan; Back, Joung Hwan; Hong, Chang Hyung; Choi, Seong Hye; Park, Kyung Won; Ku, Bon D; Moon, So Young; Kim, Sangyun; Han, Seol-Heui; Lee, Jae-Hong; Cheong, Hae-Kwan; Na, Duk L

    2013-04-01

    Highly educated participants with normal cognition show lower incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) than poorly educated participants, whereas longitudinal studies involving AD have reported that higher education is associated with more rapid cognitive decline. We aimed to evaluate whether highly educated amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) participants show more rapid cognitive decline than those with lower levels of education. A total of 249 aMCI patients enrolled from 31 memory clinics using the standard assessment and diagnostic processes were followed with neuropsychological evaluation (duration 17.2 ± 8.8 months). According to baseline performances on memory tests, participants were divided into early-stage aMCI (-1.5 to -1.0 standard deviation (SD)) and late-stage aMCI (below -1.5 SD) groups. Risk of AD conversion and changes in neuropsychological performances according to the level of education were evaluated. Sixty-two patients converted to AD over a mean follow-up of 1.43 years. The risk of AD conversion was higher in late-stage aMCI than early-stage aMCI. Cox proportional hazard models showed that aMCI participants, and late-stage aMCI participants in particular, with higher levels of education had a higher risk of AD conversion than those with lower levels of education. Late-stage aMCI participants with higher education showed faster cognitive decline in language, memory, and Clinical Dementia Rating Sum of Boxes (CDR-SOB) scores. On the contrary, early-stage aMCI participants with higher education showed slower cognitive decline in MMSE and CDR-SOB scores. Our findings suggest that the protective effects of education against cognitive decline remain in early-stage aMCI and disappear in late-stage aMCI.

  10. Early viral-specific T-cell testing predicts late Cytomegalovirus reactivation following Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Sood, S; Haifer, C; Yu, L; Pavlovic, J; Gow, P J; Jones, R M; Visvanathan, K; Angus, P W; Testro, A G

    2018-05-29

    Although antiviral prophylaxis is effective in preventing early cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation following liver transplantation (OLT), it predisposes patients to late CMV after prophylaxis has ceased. QuantiFERON-CMV (QFN-CMV, Qiagen, The Netherlands) measures an individual's viral-specific immune response. Fifty-nine OLT recipients were prospectively monitored post-OLT in an observational cohort study. QFN-CMV was performed at regular time-points. An absolute QFN-CMV <0.1IU/mL was considered non-reactive. 50/59 (84.7%) had a reactive QFN-CMV by M6. 38/59 (64.4%) had antiviral prophylaxis or treatment before M6, with 31/38 (81.6%) developing a reactive QFN-CMV by 6 months. Over 90% already had a reactive result as early as 3 months post-transplant. 3 patients (5.08%) developed late CMV between 6-12 months (median 251 days) - all had a non-reactive M6 QFN-CMV. 2/3 experienced CMV disease. Non-reactive M6 QFN-CMV was significantly associated with late CMV (OR=54.4, PPV=0.33, NPV=1.00, p=0.003). Although only 5% of recipients developed late CMV, 2/3 suffered CMV disease. M6 QFN-CMV has an excellent NPV for late CMV, suggesting patients who exhibit a robust ex-vivo immune response at M6 can safely cease CMV monitoring. Furthermore, >90% already express viral-specific immunity as early as 3 months. Conceivably, antiviral prophylaxis could be discontinued early in these patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Early versus late removal of the laryngeal mask airway (LMA) for general anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Preethy J; Mathew, Joseph L

    2015-08-10

    The laryngeal mask airway (LMA) is a safe and effective modality to maintain the airway for general anaesthesia during surgical procedures. The LMA is removed at the end of surgery and anaesthesia, when the patient maintains an adequate respiratory rate and depth. This removal of the LMA can be done either when the patient is deep under anaesthesia (early removal) or only after the patient has regained consciousness (late removal). It is not clear which of these techniques is superior. The objective of this review was to compare the safety of LMA removal in the deep plane of anaesthesia (early removal) versus removal in the awake state (late removal) for participants undergoing general anaesthesia. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2014, Issue 8); MEDLINE (1966 to August 2014); EMBASE (1980 to August 2014); LILACS (1982 to August 2014); CINAHL (WebSPIRS; 1984 to August 2014); and ISI Web of Science (1984 to August 2014). We searched for ongoing trials through various trial registration websites. In addition, we searched conference proceedings and reference lists of relevant articles. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on adults and children undergoing elective general anaesthesia using the LMA, that compared early removal of the LMA (defined as removal of the LMA in the deep plane of anaesthesia) versus late removal of the LMA (defined as removal of the LMA after the patient is awake). Two authors independently assessed trial quality and extracted data. We contacted study authors for additional information. We used a random-effects model to generate forest plots from the data. We identified a total of 9188 citations and included 15 RCTs conducted on 2242 participants in this review. All trials used the LMA Classic in American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) physical status I or II for patients undergoing elective general anaesthesia. Children were enrolled in 11 trials and adults in five trials. None of the

  12. Late Pan-African and early Mesozoic brittle compressions in East and Central Africa: lithospheric deformation within the Congo-Tanzania Cratonic area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delvaux, D.; Kipata, M. L.; Macheyeki, A. S.

    2012-04-01

    Tectonic reconstructions leading to the formation of the Central-African part of Gondwana have so far not much taken into account constraints provided by the evolution of brittle structures and related stress field. This is largely because little is known on continental brittle deformation in Equatorial Africa before the onset of the Mesozoic Central-African and Late Cenozoic East-African rifts. We present a synthesis of fault-kinematic data and paleostress inversion results from field surveys covering parts of Tanzania, Zambia and the Democratic Republic of Congo. It is based on investigations along the eastern margin of the Tanzanian craton, in the Ubendian belt between the Tanzanian craton and Bangweulu block, in the Lufilian Arc between the Kalahari and Congo cratons and along the Congo intracratonic basin. Paleostress tensors were computed for a substantial database by interactive stress tensor inversion and data subset separation, and the relative succession of major brittle events established. Two of them appear to be of regional importance and could be traced from one region to the other. The oldest one is the first brittle event recorded after the paroxysm of the Terminal Pan-African event that led to the amalgamation Gondwana at the Precambrian-Cambrian transition. It is related to compressional deformation with horizontal stress trajectories fluctuating from an E-W compression in Central Tanzania to NE-SW in the Ubende belt and Lufilian Arc. The second event is a transpressional inversion with a consistent NW-SE compression that we relate to the far-field effects of the active margin south of Gondwana during the late Triassic - early Jurassic.

  13. Early and late fracture following extensive limb lengthening in patients with achondroplasia and hypochondroplasia.

    PubMed

    Kitoh, H; Mishima, K; Matsushita, M; Nishida, Y; Ishiguro, N

    2014-09-01

    Two types of fracture, early and late, have been reported following limb lengthening in patients with achondroplasia (ACH) and hypochondroplasia (HCH). We reviewed 25 patients with these conditions who underwent 72 segmental limb lengthening procedures involving the femur and/or tibia, between 2003 and 2011. Gender, age at surgery, lengthened segment, body mass index, the shape of the callus, the amount and percentage of lengthening and the healing index were evaluated to determine predictive factors for the occurrence of early (within three weeks after removal of the fixation pins) and late fracture (> three weeks after removal of the pins). The Mann‑Whitney U test and Pearson's chi-squared test for univariate analysis and stepwise regression model for multivariate analysis were used to identify the predictive factor for each fracture. Only one patient (two tibiae) was excluded from the analysis due to excessively slow formation of the regenerate, which required supplementary measures. A total of 24 patients with 70 limbs were included in the study. There were 11 early fractures in eight patients. The shape of the callus (lateral or central callus) was the only statistical variable related to the occurrence of early fracture in univariate and multivariate analyses. Late fracture was observed in six limbs and the mean time between removal of the fixation pins and fracture was 18.3 weeks (3.3 to 38.4). Lengthening of the tibia, larger healing index, and lateral or central callus were related to the occurrence of a late fracture in univariate analysis. A multivariate analysis demonstrated that the shape of the callus was the strongest predictor for late fracture (odds ratio: 19.3, 95% confidence interval: 2.91 to 128). Lateral or central callus had a significantly larger risk of fracture than fusiform, cylindrical, or concave callus. Radiological monitoring of the shape of the callus during distraction is important to prevent early and late fracture of lengthened

  14. The distribution of early- and late-type galaxies in the Coma cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doi, M.; Fukugita, M.; Okamura, S.; Turner, E. L.

    1995-01-01

    The spatial distribution and the morohology-density relation of Coma cluster galaxies are studied using a new homogeneous photmetric sample of 450 galaxies down to B = 16.0 mag with quantitative morphology classification. The sample covers a wide area (10 deg X 10 deg), extending well beyond the Coma cluster. Morphological classifications into early- (E+SO) and late-(S) type galaxies are made by an automated algorithm using simple photometric parameters, with which the misclassification rate is expected to be approximately 10% with respect to early and late types given in the Third Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies. The flattened distribution of Coma cluster galaxies, as noted in previous studies, is most conspicuously seen if the early-type galaxies are selected. Early-type galaxies are distributed in a thick filament extended from the NE to the WSW direction that delineates a part of large-scale structure. Spiral galaxies show a distribution with a modest density gradient toward the cluster center; at least bright spiral galaxies are present close to the center of the Coma cluster. We also examine the morphology-density relation for the Coma cluster including its surrounding regions.

  15. The Wandering Indian Plate and Its Changing Biogeography During the Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary Period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Sankar; Scotese, Christopher

    Palaeobiogeographic analysis of Indian tetrapods during the Late Cretaceous-Early Tertiary time has recognized that both vicariance and geodispersal have played important roles in producing biogeographic congruence. The biogeographic patterns show oscillating cycles of geodispersal (Late Cretaceous), followed by congruent episodes of vicariance and geodispersal (Early Eocene), followed by another geodispersal event (Middle Eocene). New biogeographic synthesis suggests that the Late Cretaceous Indian tetrapod fauna is cosmopolitan with both Gondwanan and Laurasian elements. Throughout most of the Cretaceous, India was separated from the rest of Gondwana, but in the latest Cretaceous it reestablished contact with Africa through Kohistan-Dras (K-D) volcanic arc, and maintained biotic link with South America via Ninetyeast Ridge-Kerguelen-Antarctica corridor. These two geodispersal routes allowed exchanges of "pan-Gondwana" terrestrial tetrapods from Africa, South America, and Madagascar. During that time India also maintained biotic connections with Laurasia across the Neotethys via Kohistan-Dras Arc and Africa. During the Palaeocene, India, welded to the K-D Arc, rafted like a "Noah's Ark" as an island continent and underwent rapid cladogenesis because of allopatric speciation. Although the Palaeocene fossil record is blank, Early Eocene tetrapods contain both endemic and cosmopolitan elements, but Middle Eocene faunas have strong Asian character. India collided with Asia in Early and Middle Eocene time and established a new northeast corridor for faunal migration to facilitate the bidirectional "Great Asian Interchange" dispersals.

  16. Cytokine expression during early and late phase of acute Puumala hantavirus infection

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hantaviruses of the family Bunyaviridae are emerging zoonotic pathogens which cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in the Old World and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in the New World. An immune-mediated pathogenesis is discussed for both syndromes. The aim of our study was to investigate cytokine expression during the course of acute Puumala hantavirus infection. Results We retrospectively studied 64 patients hospitalised with acute Puumala hantavirus infection in 2010 during a hantavirus epidemic in Germany. Hantavirus infection was confirmed by positive anti-hantavirus IgG/IgM. Cytokine expression of IL-2, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IFN-γ, TNF-α and TGF-β1 was analysed by ELISA during the early and late phase of acute hantavirus infection (average 6 and 12 days after onset of symptoms, respectively). A detailed description of the demographic and clinical presentation of severe hantavirus infection requiring hospitalization during the 2010 hantavirus epidemic in Germany is given. Acute hantavirus infection was characterized by significantly elevated levels of IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, TGF-β1 and TNF-α in both early and late phase compared to healthy controls. From early to late phase of disease, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α significantly decreased whereas TGF-β1 levels increased. Disease severity characterized by elevated creatinine and low platelet counts was correlated with high pro-inflammatory IL-6 and TNF-α but low immunosuppressive TGF-β1 levels and vice versa . Conclusion High expression of cytokines activating T-lymphocytes, monocytes and macrophages in the early phase of disease supports the hypothesis of an immune-mediated pathogenesis. In the late phase of disease, immunosuppressive TGF-β1 level increase significantly. We suggest that delayed induction of a protective immune mechanism to downregulate a massive early pro-inflammatory immune response might contribute to the pathologies characteristic of human hantavirus infection

  17. Health and cost consequences of early versus late invasive strategy after thrombolysis for acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Bøhmer, Ellen; Kristiansen, Ivar Sønbø; Arnesen, Harald; Halvorsen, Sigrun

    2011-10-01

    The NORwegian study on DIstrict treatment of ST-Elevation Myocardial Infarction showed an improved clinical outcome with early transfer for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) compared to a more conservative approach after thrombolysis. The aim of this substudy was to compare the 12-month quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and costs of these alternative strategies. Patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction <6 h duration and >90 min expected delay to PCI, received full-dose tenecteplase and were randomized to either early or late invasive strategy (n = 266). Detailed quality of life and resource use data were registered prospectively for a period of 12 months. Health outcomes were measured as quality of life using a generic instrument (15D). Quality of life scores were translated into QALYs. Unit costs were based on hospital accounts, fee schedules, and market prices. After 12 months of follow-up, patients in the early invasive group had 0.008 (95% CI -0.027 to 0.043) more QALYs compared to the late invasive group. The mean total costs were €18,201 in the early versus €17,643 in the late invasive group, with a mean difference of €558 (95% CI -2258 to 3484). Cost/QALY was €69,750 while cost/avoided clinical endpoint was €5636. Early and late invasive strategies after thrombolysis resulted in similar quality of life and similar costs in ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients living far from a PCI centre (NCT00161005).

  18. Compounded effect of early adolescence depressive symptoms and impulsivity on late adolescence gambling: A longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Grace P.; Storr, Carla L.; Ialongo, Nicholas S.; Martins, Silvia S.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Depression and impulsivity have been positively correlated to problem gambling, but no study has focused on the combined effects of both on the onset of problem gambling. This study examined the possible synergistic effect of depressive symptoms and impulsivity in early adolescence on late adolescence gambling behaviors among a longitudinal cohort of 678 students from Baltimore, MD. Methods The South Oaks Gambling Screen-Revised for Adolescents (SOGS-RA), Teacher Observation of Classroom Adaptation Revised (TOCA-R), and Baltimore How I Feel-Adolescent Version (BHIF-AY), were used to assess late adolescence gambling behaviors, early adolescence impulsivity and depressive symptoms, respectively. Data analyses were conducted using ANOVA and binary logistic regression models. Results Twelve percent of the sample were problem gamblers (includes at-risk and problem gamblers), 87.5% of whom were males and 12.5% were females (p<0.001). Among males, there appeared to be a slight association between early adolescence depressive symptoms and late adolescence problem gambling. Compared to nongambling (NG) and social gambling (SG), depressive symptoms increased the odds of problem gambling by four-fold (PG vs. NG: OR=4.1, 95% CI=0.73–22.47, p=0.11; PG vs. SG: OR=3.9, 95% CI=0.78–19.31, p=0.10). Among those with high depressive symptoms, increases in impulsivity decreased the odds of problem gambling while among those with high impulsivity, increases in depressive symptoms decreased the odds of problem gambling. Conclusions Early adolescence depressive symptoms appear to be more positively associated with late adolescence problem gambling than early adolescence impulsivity, there seems to be a divisive interaction between depressive symptoms and impulsivity on problem gambling. PMID:21257115

  19. Comparative study of clinical and neuropsychological characteristics between early-, late and very-late-onset schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Hanssen, Manon; van der Werf, Margriet; Verkaaik, Mike; Arts, Baer; Myin-Germeys, Inez; van Os, Jim; Verhey, Frans; Köhler, Sebastian

    2015-08-01

    To compare the clinical and neurocognitive profile of early-onset (EOP, <40 years), late-onset (LOP, 40-59 years) and very-late-onset (VLOP, ≥60 years) psychosis. Cross-sectional observational study. Secondary, tertiary, and community mental health care. Patients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of non-affective psychotic disorder were included from two complementary studies (GROUP and PSITE) on genetic and environmental risk factors of psychosis in the Netherlands and Belgium. Main outcome measures were the severity of positive and negative symptoms, quality of life, and age-corrected scores on measures of general intelligence, verbal memory, attention, and executive function. One-year follow-up data were used to validate diagnoses and exclude participants with possible or probable dementia. 286 EOP (85%), 24 LOP (7%) and 28 VLOP (8%) participated. VLOP patients reported significantly more positive symptoms than EOP patients. Age-at-onset groups had similar age-corrected scores on IQ, verbal memory, attention and executive functions. A significantly better performance was found in VLOP compared with LOP on the CAMCOG total score, though scores were still within the normal range. After controlling for possible confounding, however, VLOP differed significantly on an attention accuracy task compared with LOP patients. Re-entering data for probable dementia patients (N = 4) did change the results regarding cognition outcomes. VLOP patients show more positive symptoms but do not appear to differ on neuropsychological tests from EOP and LOP when age is controlled for. This questions the idea that VLOP is the expression of underlying neurodegeneration. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. From Early Starters to Late Finishers? A Longitudinal Study of Early Foreign Language Learning in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaekel, Nils; Schurig, Michael; Florian, Merle; Ritter, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Foreign language education has now been implemented at the elementary school level across Europe, and early foreign language education has gained traction following language policies set by the European Commission. The long-term effects of an early start, however, have not received ample scientific scrutiny. The present study assessed early…

  1. 2014 CODEPEH recommendations: Early detection of late onset deafness, audiological diagnosis, hearing aid fitting and early intervention.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Batalla, Faustino; Jáudenes-Casaubón, Carmen; Sequí-Canet, Jose Miguel; Vivanco-Allende, Ana; Zubicaray-Ugarteche, Jose

    2016-01-01

    The latest scientific literature considers early diagnosis of deafness as the key element to define the educational and inclusive prognosis of the deaf child, because it allows taking advantage of the critical period of development (0-4 years). Highly significant differences exist between deaf people who have been stimulated early and those who have received late or improper intervention. Early identification of late-onset disorders requires special attention and knowledge on the part of every childcare professional. Programs and additional actions beyond neonatal screening should be designed and planed to ensure that every child with a significant hearing loss is detected early. For this purpose, the CODEPEH would like to highlight the need for continuous monitoring of children's auditory health. Consequently, CODEPEH has drafted the recommendations included in the present document. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.

  2. Developmental Patterns of Social Trust between Early and Late Adolescence: Age and School Climate Effects

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, Constance A.; Stout, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Social trust (i.e., beliefs that people are generally fair and trustworthy) is important to the functioning of democracies and trend studies show it has declined. We test hypotheses concerning the development of these beliefs in adolescence. Based on surveys of 1535 adolescents collected over two years, we find that middle and late adolescents had significantly lower levels of trust than early adolescents and that these beliefs became more stable and less related to interpersonal trust between early and late adolescence. Results of multiple group SEMs revealed that, regardless of age, adolescents’ reports that a strong sense of student solidarity characterized their school significantly increased ST at T2, controlling for levels at T1, and opportunities to exchange perspectives with fellow students increased ST at T2 indirectly, through feelings of student solidarity. The study points to the role of schools in nurturing the democratic dispositions of younger generations. PMID:20936077

  3. Early and late brain signatures of emotional prosody among individuals with high versus low power.

    PubMed

    Paulmann, Silke; Uskul, Ayse K

    2017-04-01

    Using ERPs, we explored the relationship between social power and emotional prosody processing. In particular, we investigated differences at early and late processing stages between individuals primed with high or low power. Comparable to previously published findings from nonprimed participants, individuals primed with low power displayed differentially modulated P2 amplitudes in response to different emotional prosodies, whereas participants primed with high power failed to do so. Similarly, participants primed with low power showed differentially modulated amplitudes in response to different emotional prosodies at a later processing stage (late ERP component), whereas participants primed with high power did not. These ERP results suggest that high versus low power leads to emotional prosody processing differences at the early stage associated with emotional salience detection and at a later stage associated with more in-depth processing of emotional stimuli. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  4. Prediction of Late Postoperative Hemorrhage after Whipple Procedure Using Computed Tomography Performed During Early Postoperative Period.

    PubMed

    Han, Ga Jin; Kim, Suk; Lee, Nam Kyung; Kim, Chang Won; Seo, Hyeong Il; Kim, Hyun Sung; Kim, Tae Un

    2018-01-01

    Postpancreatectomy hemorrhage (PPH) is an uncommon but serious complication of Whipple surgery. To evaluate the radiologic features associated with late PPH at the first postoperative follow up CT, before bleeding. To evaluate the radiological features associated with late PPH at the first follow-up CT, two radiologists retrospectively reviewed the initial postoperative follow-up CT images of 151 patients, who had undergone Whipple surgery. Twenty patients showed PPH due to vascular problem or anastomotic ulcer. The research compared CT and clinical findings of 20 patients with late PPH and 131 patients without late PPH, including presence of suggestive feature of pancreatic fistula (presence of air at fluid along pancreaticojejunostomy [PJ]), abscess (fluid collection with an enhancing rim or gas), fluid along hepaticojejunostomy or PJ, the density of ascites, and the size of visible gastroduodenal artery (GDA) stump. CT findings including pancreatic fistula, abscess, and large GDA stump were associated with PPH on univariate analysis ( p ≤ 0.009). On multivariate analysis, radiological features suggestive of a pancreatic fistula, abscess, and a GDA stump > 4.45 mm were associated with PPH ( p ≤ 0.031). Early postoperative CT findings including GDA stump size larger than 4.45 mm, fluid collection with an enhancing rim or gas, and air at fluid along PJ, could predict late PPH.

  5. Rise and demise of the Bahama-Grand Banks gigaplatform, northern margin of the Jurassic proto-Atlantic seaway

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poag, C. Wylie

    1991-01-01

    An extinct, > 5000-km-long Jurassic carbonate platform and barrier reef system lies buried beneath the Atlantic continental shelf and slope of the United States. A revised stratigraphic framework, a series of regional isopach maps, and paleogeographic reconstructions are used to illustrate the 42-m.y. history of this Bahama-Grand Banks gigaplatform from its inception in Aalenian(?) (early Middle Jurassic) time to its demise and burial in Berriasian-Valanginian time (early Early Cretaceous). Aggradation-progradation rates for the gigaplatform are comparable to those of the familiar Capitan shelf margin (Permian) and are closely correlated with volumetric rates of siliciclastic sediment accumulation and depocenter migration. Siliciclastic encroachment behind the carbonate tracts appears to have been an important impetus for shelf-edge progradation. During the Early Cretaceous, sea-level changes combined with eutrophication (due to landward soil development and seaward upwelling) and the presence of cooler upwelled waters along the outer shelf appear to have decimated the carbonate producers from the Carolina Trough to the Grand Banks. This allowed advancing siliciclastic deltas to overrun the shelf edge despite a notable reduction in siliciclastic accumulation rates. However, upwelling did not extend southward to the Blake-Bahama megabank, so platform carbonate production proceeded there well into the Cretaceous. Subsequent stepwise carbonate abatement characterized the Blake Plateau Basin, whereas the Bahamas have maintained production to the present. The demise of carbonate production on the northern segments of the gigaplatform helped to escalate deep-water carbonate deposition in the Early Cretaceous, but the sudden augmentation of deep-water carbonate reservoirs in the Late Jurassic was triggered by other agents, such as global expansion of nannoplankton communities. ?? 1991.

  6. The Late Oligocene to Early Miocene early evolution of rifting in the southwestern part of the Roer Valley Graben

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deckers, Jef

    2016-06-01

    The Roer Valley Graben is a Mesozoic continental rift basin that was reactivated during the Late Oligocene. The study area is located in the graben area of the southwestern part of the Roer Valley Graben. Rifting initiated in the study area with the development of a large number of faults in the prerift strata. Some of these faults were rooted in preexisting zones of weakness in the Mesozoic strata. Early in the Late Oligocene, several faults died out in the study area as strain became focused upon others, some of which were able to link into several-kilometer-long systems. Within the Late Oligocene to Early Miocene northwestward prograding shallow marine syn-rift deposits, the number of active faults further decreased with time. A relatively strong decrease was observed around the Oligocene/Miocene boundary and represents a further focus of strain onto the long fault systems. Miocene extensional strain was not accommodated by further growth, but predominantly by displacements along the long fault systems. Since the Oligocene/Miocene boundary coincides with a radical change in the European intraplate stress field, the latter might have contributed significantly to the simultaneous change of fault kinematics in the study area.

  7. Prevalence of Early and Late Age-Related Macular Degeneration in India: The INDEYE Study

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Tiruvengada; Ravindran, Ravilla D.; Murthy, Gudlavalleti V. S.; Vashist, Praveen; Fitzpatrick, Kathryn E.; Thulasiraj, R. Duraisami; John, Neena; Maraini, Giovanni; Camparini, Monica; Chakravarthy, Usha

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. To estimate the prevalence of early and late age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in India. Methods. Of 7518 people aged 60 years and older identified from randomly sampled villages in North and South India, 5853 (78%) attended an eye examination including fundus photography. Fundus images were graded according to the Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System. Results. Fundus images were ungradable in 1587 people, mainly because of cataract. People 80 years of age and older were less likely to attend the eye examination and more likely to have ungradable images. For ages 60 to 79 years, the percent prevalence (95% confidence interval [CI]) were late AMD 1.2 (0.8–1.5); and early AMD: grade 1 (soft distinct drusen or pigmentary irregularities), 39.3 (37.2–41.5); grade 2 (soft distinct drusen with pigmentary irregularities or soft indistinct or reticular drusen), 6.7 (5.8–7.6); and grade 3 (soft indistinct or reticular drusen with pigmentary irregularities), 0.2 (0.1–0.4). For ages 80 and older, the respective percent prevalence was: late AMD, 2.5 (0.4–4.7); and early AMD: grade 1, 43.1(35.7–50.6); grade 2, 8.1 (4.3–12.0); and grade 3, 0.5 (0–1.5). Conclusions. The prevalence of early AMD (grades 1 and 2) is similar to that observed in Western populations, but grade 3 appears to be lower. The prevalence of late AMD is comparable to that in Western populations in the age group 60 to 79 years. It is likely that the prevalence in the 80 and older age group is underestimated. PMID:19696177

  8. Confirmation of a late Oligocene-early Miocene age of the Deseadan Salla Beds of Bolivia.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naeser, C.W.; McKee, E.H.; Johnson, N.M.; Macfadden, B.J.

    1987-01-01

    Three new fission-track (zircon) and four new K-Ar (biotite) dates corroborate a late Oligocene-early Miocene age (22-28 Ma) for the Salla Beds of Bolivia. These ages contrast markedly with the previously accepted age of about 35 Ma for these strata and their contained faunas, and recasts of order and chronology of interchange between New World and Old World mammals. -Authors

  9. Effects of glucocorticoid treatment given in early or late gestation on growth and development in sheep.

    PubMed

    Li, S; Sloboda, D M; Moss, T J M; Nitsos, I; Polglase, G R; Doherty, D A; Newnham, J P; Challis, J R G; Braun, T

    2013-04-01

    Antenatal corticosteroids are used to augment fetal lung maturity in human pregnancy. Dexamethasone (DEX) is also used to treat congenital adrenal hyperplasia of the fetus in early pregnancy. We previously reported effects of synthetic corticosteroids given to sheep in early or late gestation on pregnancy length and fetal cortisol levels and glucocorticoids alter plasma insulin-like growth factor (IGF) and insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP) concentrations in late pregnancy and reduce fetal weight. The effects of administering DEX in early pregnancy on fetal organ weights and betamethasone (BET) given in late gestation on weights of fetal brain regions or organ development have not been reported. We hypothesized that BET or DEX administration at either stage of pregnancy would have deleterious effects on fetal development and associated hormones. In early pregnancy, DEX was administered as four injections at 12-hourly intervals over 48 h commencing at 40-42 days of gestation (dG). There was no consistent effect on fetal weight, or individual fetal organ weights, except in females at 7 months postnatal age. When BET was administered at 104, 111 and 118 dG, the previously reported reduction in total fetal weight was associated with significant reductions in weights of fetal brain, cerebellum, heart, kidney and liver. Fetal plasma insulin, leptin and triiodothyronine were also reduced at different times in fetal and postnatal life. We conclude that at the amounts given, the sheep fetus is sensitive to maternal administration of synthetic glucocorticoid in late gestation, with effects on growth and metabolic hormones that may persist into postnatal life.

  10. Opposite effects on regulation of urea synthesis by early and late uraemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Susanne Schouw; Grøfte, Thorbjørn; Grønbaek, Henning; Tygstrup, Niels; Vilstrup, Hendrik

    2007-04-01

    Acute and chronic kidney failure lead to catabolism with loss of lean body mass. Up-regulation of hepatic urea synthesis may play a role for the loss of body nitrogen and for the level of uraemia. The aims were to investigate the effects of early and late experimental renal failure on the regulation of hepatic urea synthesis and the expression of urea cycle enzyme genes in the liver. We examined the in vivo capacity of urea nitrogen synthesis, mRNA levels of urea cycle enzyme genes, and N-balances 6 days and 21 days after 5/6th partial nephrectomy in rats, and compared these data with pair- and free-fed control animals. Compared with pair-fed animals, early uraemia halved the in vivo urea synthesis capacity and decreased urea gene expressions (P<0.05). In contrast, late uraemia up-regulated in vivo urea synthesis and expression of all urea genes (P<0.05), save that of the flux-generating enzyme carbamoyl phosphate synthetase. The N-balance in rats with early uraemia was markedly negative (P<0.05) and near zero in late uraemia. Early uraemia down-regulated urea synthesis, so hepatic ureagenesis was not in itself involved in the negative N-balance. In contrast, late uraemia up-regulated urea synthesis, which probably contributed towards the reduced N-balance of this condition. These time-dependent, opposite effects on the uraemia-induced regulation of urea synthesis in vivo were not related to food restriction and probably mostly reflected regulation on gene level.

  11. Late Mesolithic and early Neolithic forest disturbance: a high resolution palaeoecological test of human impact hypotheses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Innes, James B.; Blackford, Jeffrey J.; Rowley-Conwy, Peter A.

    2013-10-01

    The transition in north-west Europe from the hunter-gatherer societies of the Late Mesolithic to the pioneer farming societies of the early Neolithic is not well understood, either culturally or palaeoecologically. In Britain the final transition was rapid but it is unclear whether novel Neolithic attributes were introduced by immigrants who supplanted the native hunter-gatherers, or whether the latest Mesolithic foragers gradually adopted elements of the Neolithic economic package. In this study, relatively coarse- (10 mm interval) and fine-resolution (2 mm), multi-proxy palaeoecological data including pollen, charcoal and NPPs including fungi, have been used to investigate two phases of vegetation disturbance of (a) distinctly Late Mesolithic and (b) early Neolithic age, at an upland site in northern England in a region with both a Neolithic and a Late Mesolithic archaeological presence. We identify and define the palaeoecological characteristics of these two disturbance phases, about a millennium apart, in order to investigate whether differing land-use techniques can be identified and categorised as of either foraging or early farming cultures. The Late Mesolithic phase is defined by the repetitive application of fire to the woodland to encourage a mosaic of productive vegetation regeneration patches, consistent with the promotion of Corylus and to aid hunting. In this phase, weed species including Plantago lanceolata, Rumex and Chenopodiaceae are frequent, taxa which are normally associated with the first farmers. The early Neolithic phase, including an Ulmus decline, has characteristics consistent with 'forest farming', possibly mainly for domestic livestock, with an inferred succession of tree girdling, fire-prepared cultivation, and coppice-woodland management. Such fine-resolution, potentially diagnostic land-use signatures may in future be used to recognise the cultural complexion of otherwise enigmatic woodland disturbance phases during the centuries of

  12. Cost utility modeling of early vs late total knee replacement in osteoarthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Mari, K; Dégieux, P; Mistretta, F; Guillemin, F; Richette, P

    2016-12-01

    Given the dramatic increase in the number of total knee replacement (TKR) surgeries in developed countries, the issue of the best time for surgery needs to be addressed from an economic perspective. To assess, from the perspective of the healthcare payer, the cost-utility of two surgical strategies in which knee replacement is performed at the early or late stage of the disease in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Patient data and evidence from published literature on economic costs and outcomes in OA, including utilities, non-pharmacological, pharmacological and surgical options, combined with population life tables were entered in a Markov model of OA. The model represented the lifetime experience of a cohort of patients following their therapeutic management, discounting costs (euros) and utilities (quality-adjusted life-years) at 4% annually. In the base-case scenario, early TKR cost €6,624 more than late TKR (€76,223 vs €69,599) with a 0.15 gain in QALYs (18.675 vs 18.524). This yielded an incremental cost-utility ratio (ICUR) of 43,631 €/QALY. Sensitivity analyses of the most influential uncertain parameters were performed and did not modify the direction of the conclusions: early TKR cost between €3,655 and €7,194 more than late TKR with a gain in QALYs between 0.15 and 0.39. The ICUR ranged from 17,131 €/QALY to 48,241 €/QALY. Our data do not support the early TKR strategy over the late TKR strategy in knee OA patients from a medico-economic perspective. Copyright © 2016 Osteoarthritis Research Society International. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Differential effects of subtype-specific nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists on early and late hippocampal LTP.

    PubMed

    Kroker, Katja S; Rast, Georg; Rosenbrock, Holger

    2011-12-05

    Brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are involved in several neuropsychiatric disorders, e.g. Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, Tourette's syndrome, schizophrenia, depression, autism, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and anxiety. Currently, approaches selectively targeting the activation of specific nicotinic acetylcholine receptors are in clinical development for treatment of memory impairment of Alzheimer's disease patients. These are α4β2 and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists which are believed to enhance cholinergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission, respectively. In order to gain a better insight into the mechanistic role of these two nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in learning and memory, we investigated the effects of the α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist TC-1827 and the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist SSR180711 on hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a widely accepted cellular experimental model of memory formation. Generally, LTP is distinguished in an early and a late form, the former being protein-synthesis independent and the latter being protein-synthesis dependent. TC-1827 was found to increase early LTP in a bell-shaped dose dependent manner, but did not affect late LTP. In contrast, the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist SSR180711 showed enhancing effects on both early and late LTP in a bell-shaped manner. Furthermore, SSR180711 not only increased early LTP, but also transformed it into late LTP, which was not observed with the α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist. Therefore, based on these findings α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (partial) agonists appear to exhibit stronger efficacy on memory improvement than α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonists. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Early elective cesarean delivery before 36 weeks vs late spontaneous delivery in infants with gastroschisis.

    PubMed

    Hadidi, Ahmed; Subotic, Ulrike; Goeppl, Maximilian; Waag, Karl-L

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the value of early elective cesarean delivery for patients with gastroschisis in comparison with late spontaneous delivery. Analysis of infants with gastroschisis admitted between 1986 and 2006 at a tertiary care center was performed. The findings were analyzed statistically. Eighty-six patients were involved in the study. This included 15 patients who underwent emergency cesarean delivery (EM CD group) because of fetal distress and/or bowel ischemia. The remaining 71 patients born electively were stratified into 4 groups. The early elective cesarean delivery (ECD) group included 23 patients born by ECD before 36 weeks; late vaginal delivery (LVD) group included 23 patients who had LVD after 36 weeks; 24 patients had LCD after 36 weeks because of delayed diagnosis that resulted in late referral; and 1 patient had early spontaneous vaginal delivery (EVD group) before 36 weeks. The mean time to start oral feeding, incidence of complications, and primary closure were significantly better in the ECD group than in the LVD group. The duration of ventilation and the length of stay were shorter in ECD group, but the difference was not statistically significant. Elective cesarean delivery before 36 weeks allows earlier enteral feeding and is associated with less complications and higher incidence of primary closure (statistically significant).

  15. Colour expectations during object perception are associated with early and late modulations of electrophysiological activity.

    PubMed

    Stojanoski, Bobby Boge; Niemeier, Matthias

    2015-10-01

    It is well known that visual expectation and attention modulate object perception. Yet, the mechanisms underlying these top-down influences are not completely understood. Event-related potentials (ERPs) indicate late contributions of expectations to object processing around the P2 or N2. This is true independent of whether people expect objects (vs. no objects) or specific shapes, hence when expectations pertain to complex visual features. However, object perception can also benefit from expecting colour information, which can facilitate figure/ground segregation. Studies on attention to colour show attention-sensitive modulations of the P1, but are limited to simple transient detection paradigms. The aim of the current study was to examine whether expecting simple features (colour information) during challenging object perception tasks produce early or late ERP modulations. We told participants to expect an object defined by predominantly black or white lines that were embedded in random arrays of distractor lines and then asked them to report the object's shape. Performance was better when colour expectations were met. ERPs revealed early and late phases of modulation. An early modulation at the P1/N1 transition arguably reflected earlier stages of object processing. Later modulations, at the P3, could be consistent with decisional processes. These results provide novel insights into feature-specific contributions of visual expectations to object perception.

  16. Neural Correlates of Natural Human Echolocation in Early and Late Blind Echolocation Experts

    PubMed Central

    Thaler, Lore; Arnott, Stephen R.; Goodale, Melvyn A.

    2011-01-01

    Background A small number of blind people are adept at echolocating silent objects simply by producing mouth clicks and listening to the returning echoes. Yet the neural architecture underlying this type of aid-free human echolocation has not been investigated. To tackle this question, we recruited echolocation experts, one early- and one late-blind, and measured functional brain activity in each of them while they listened to their own echolocation sounds. Results When we compared brain activity for sounds that contained both clicks and the returning echoes with brain activity for control sounds that did not contain the echoes, but were otherwise acoustically matched, we found activity in calcarine cortex in both individuals. Importantly, for the same comparison, we did not observe a difference in activity in auditory cortex. In the early-blind, but not the late-blind participant, we also found that the calcarine activity was greater for echoes reflected from surfaces located in contralateral space. Finally, in both individuals, we found activation in middle temporal and nearby cortical regions when they listened to echoes reflected from moving targets. Conclusions These findings suggest that processing of click-echoes recruits brain regions typically devoted to vision rather than audition in both early and late blind echolocation experts. PMID:21633496

  17. Different nucleosomal architectures at early and late replicating origins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Soriano, Ignacio; Morafraile, Esther C; Vázquez, Enrique; Antequera, Francisco; Segurado, Mónica

    2014-09-13

    Eukaryotic genomes are replicated during S phase according to a temporal program. Several determinants control the timing of origin firing, including the chromatin environment and epigenetic modifications. However, how chromatin structure influences the timing of the activation of specific origins is still poorly understood. By performing high-resolution analysis of genome-wide nucleosome positioning we have identified different chromatin architectures at early and late replication origins. These different patterns are already established in G1 and are tightly correlated with the organization of adjacent transcription units. Moreover, specific early and late nucleosomal patterns are fixed robustly, even in rpd3 mutants in which histone acetylation and origin timing have been significantly altered. Nevertheless, higher histone acetylation levels correlate with the local modulation of chromatin structure, leading to increased origin accessibility. In addition, we conducted parallel analyses of replication and nucleosome dynamics that revealed that chromatin structure at origins is modulated during origin activation. Our results show that early and late replication origins present distinctive nucleosomal configurations, which are preferentially associated to different genomic regions. Our data also reveal that origin structure is dynamic and can be locally modulated by histone deacetylation, as well as by origin activation. These data offer novel insight into the contribution of chromatin structure to origin selection and firing in budding yeast.

  18. Comfort with motherhood in late pregnancy facilitates maternal role attainment in early postpartum.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yasuka; Takeishi, Yoko; Ito, Naoko; Ito, Mizuki; Atogami, Fumi; Yoshizawa, Toyoko

    2015-01-01

    Quality of life, comfort, and wellbeing during pregnancy are essential for every country in the world. Pregnancy is considered a preparation period for becoming a mother. Maternal role development, including confidence and satisfaction as a mother, is important in the transition to motherhood. Negative psychosocial affect, such as increased anxiety and distress, during pregnancy adversely influences the childbirth experience and childcare, which contributes to postpartum depression. However, the impact of positive feelings on the maternal role development remains unclear. Therefore, the study purpose was to clarify the relationship between comfort in late pregnancy and maternal role attainment and childcare during early postpartum. We designed a descriptive, longitudinal, correlational study by using the Prenatal Comfort Scale, the Postpartum Maternal Role Confidence Scale, and the Postpartum Maternal Satisfaction Scale. Among 339 participants who had received care at a university hospital located in Sendai city in Japan, 215 subjects completed the longitudinal study by answering a questionnaire for the respective Scale late in their pregnancy or during early postpartum. The subjects consisted of 114 primipara (32.0 ± 5.4 years) and 101 multipara (33.4 ± 4.9 years). In primipara, comfort with motherhood was significantly correlated with maternal confidence regarding knowledge and childcare skills and maternal satisfaction. In multipara, comfort in late pregnancy was related to maternal confidence and satisfaction. Positive affect was related to maternal confidence and maternal satisfaction in early postpartum. Therefore, a prenatal nursing intervention helps women become more comfortable with impending motherhood, thereby promoting maternal role attainment after delivery.

  19. Early alcohol use with parental permission: Psychosocial characteristics and drinking in late adolescence.

    PubMed

    Colder, Craig R; Shyhalla, Kathleen; Frndak, Seth E

    2018-01-01

    The earliest experiences with alcohol for many children occur in the family context with parental supervision. The current study examined individual and sociocultural characteristics associated with early (prior to age 13years) sipping and tasting alcohol with parental permission in two longitudinal community samples. Early sipping/tasting was also tested as a predictor of frequency and quantity of alcohol use, and alcohol-related problems seven years later in late adolescence. Early sipping/tasting with parental permission was associated with a sociocultural context supportive of alcohol use (e.g., parental alcohol use, permissive rules about alcohol use in the home, parental attitudes about underage drinking, perceived peer norms), adolescent sensation seeking and disinhibition (e.g., surgency, externalizing behavior) and appraisals of alcohol (negative outcome expectancies and negative implicit alcohol associations). Early sipping/tasting predicted increased frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption, and increased alcohol-related problems in late adolescence, even after controlling sociocultural and individual difference variables. Findings suggest that early sipping/tasting with parental permission is not benign and is a viable target for preventive interventions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ichnological evidence of Megalosaurid Dinosaurs Crossing Middle Jurassic Tidal Flats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razzolini, Novella L.; Oms, Oriol; Castanera, Diego; Vila, Bernat; Santos, Vanda Faria Dos; Galobart, Àngel

    2016-08-01

    A new dinosaur tracksite in the Vale de Meios quarry (Serra de Aire Formation, Bathonian, Portugal)preserves more than 700 theropod tracks. They are organized in at least 80 unidirectional trackways arranged in a bimodal orientation pattern (W/NW and E/SE). Quantitative and qualitative comparisons reveal that the large tridactyl, elongated and asymmetric tracks resemble the typical Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Megalosauripus ichnogenus in all morphometric parameters. Few of the numerous tracks are preserved as elite tracks while the rest are preserved as different gradients of modified true tracks according to water content, erosive factors, radial fractures and internal overtrack formations. Taphonomical determinations are consistent with paleoenvironmental observations that indicate an inter-tidal flat located at the margin of a coastal barrier. The Megalosauripus tracks represent the oldest occurrence of this ichnotaxon and are attributed to large megalosaurid dinosaurs. Their occurrence in Vale de Meios tidal flat represents the unique paleoethological evidence of megalosaurids moving towards the lagoon, most likley during the low tide periods with feeding purposes.

  1. Ichnological evidence of Megalosaurid Dinosaurs Crossing Middle Jurassic Tidal Flats.

    PubMed

    Razzolini, Novella L; Oms, Oriol; Castanera, Diego; Vila, Bernat; Santos, Vanda Faria Dos; Galobart, Àngel

    2016-08-19

    A new dinosaur tracksite in the Vale de Meios quarry (Serra de Aire Formation, Bathonian, Portugal)preserves more than 700 theropod tracks. They are organized in at least 80 unidirectional trackways arranged in a bimodal orientation pattern (W/NW and E/SE). Quantitative and qualitative comparisons reveal that the large tridactyl, elongated and asymmetric tracks resemble the typical Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Megalosauripus ichnogenus in all morphometric parameters. Few of the numerous tracks are preserved as elite tracks while the rest are preserved as different gradients of modified true tracks according to water content, erosive factors, radial fractures and internal overtrack formations. Taphonomical determinations are consistent with paleoenvironmental observations that indicate an inter-tidal flat located at the margin of a coastal barrier. The Megalosauripus tracks represent the oldest occurrence of this ichnotaxon and are attributed to large megalosaurid dinosaurs. Their occurrence in Vale de Meios tidal flat represents the unique paleoethological evidence of megalosaurids moving towards the lagoon, most likley during the low tide periods with feeding purposes.

  2. Rethinking Controls on the Long-Term Cenozoic Carbonate Compensation Depth: Case Studies across Late Paleocene - Early Eocene Warming and Late Eocene - Early Oligocene Cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, S. E.; Ridgwell, A. J.; Schmidt, D. N.; Kirtland Turner, S.; Paelike, H.; Thomas, E.

    2014-12-01

    The carbonate compensation depth (CCD) is the depth below which negligible calcium carbonate is preserved in marine sediments. The long-term position of the CCD is often considered to be a powerful constraint on palaeoclimate and atmospheric CO2 concentration due to the requirement that carbonate burial balance riverine weathering over long timescales. The requirement that weathering and burial be in balance is clear, but it is less certain that burial compensates for changes in weathering via shoaling or deepening of the CCD. Because most carbonate burial occurs well above the CCD , changes in weathering fluxes may be primarily accommodated by increasing or decreasing carbonate burial at shallower depths, i.e., at or near the lysocline, the depth range over which carbonate dissolution markedly increases. Indeed, recent earth system modelling studies have suggested that the position of the CCD is relatively insensitive to changes in atmospheric pCO2. Additionally, studies have questioned the nature and strength of the relationship between the CCD, carbonate saturation state in the water column, and lysocline. To test the relationship between palaeoclimate and the location of the CCD, we reconstructed the global, long-term CCD behaviour across major Cenozoic climate transitions: the late Paleocene - early Eocene long-term warming trend (study interval ~58 to 49 Ma) and the late Eocene - early Oligocene cooling and glaciation (study interval ~38 to 27 Ma). We use Earth system modelling (GENIE) to explore the links between atmospheric pCO2 and the CCD, isolating and teasing apart the roles of total dissolved inorganic carbon, temperature, circulation, and productivity in determining the CCD.

  3. Carbon cycle history through the Middle Jurassic (Aalenian - Bathonian) of the Mecsek Mountains, Southern Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Gregory D.; Főzy, István; Galácz, András

    2018-04-01

    A carbonate carbon isotope curve from the Aalenian-Bathonian interval is presented from the Óbánya valley, of the Mecsek Mountains, Hungary. This interval is certainly less well constrained and studied than other Jurassic time slices. The Óbánya valley lies in the eastern part of the Mecsek Mountains, between Óbánya and Kisújbánya and provides exposures of an Aalenian to Lower Cretaceous sequence. It is not strongly affected by tectonics, as compared to other sections of eastern Mecsek of the same age. In parts, a rich fossil assemblage has been collected, with Bathonian ammonites being especially valuable at this locality. The pelagic Middle Jurassic is represented by the Komló Calcareous Marl Formation and thin-bedded limestones of the Óbánya Limestone Formation. These are overlain by Upper Jurassic siliceous limestones and radiolarites of the Fonyászó Limestone Formation. Our new data indicate a series of carbon isotope anomalies within the late Aalenian and early-middle Bajocian. In particular, analysis of the Komló Calcareous Marl Formation reveals a negative carbon isotope excursion followed by positive values that occurs near the base of the section (across the Aalenian-Bajocian boundary). The origin of this carbon-isotope anomaly is interpreted to lie in significant changes to carbon fluxes potentially stemming from reduced run off, lowering the fertility of surface waters which in turn leads to lessened primary production and a negative δ13C shift. These data are comparable with carbonate carbon isotope records from other Tethyan margin sediments. Our integrated biostratigraphy and carbon isotope stratigraphy enable us to improve stratigraphic correlation and age determination of the examined strata. Therefore, this study of the Komló Calcareous Marl Formation confirms that the existing carbon isotope curves serve as a global standard for Aalenian-Bathonian δ13C variation.

  4. Reply to the Comment on "Astronomical constraints on the duration of the Early Jurassic Pliensbachian Stage and global climatic fluctuations" [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 455 (2016) 149-165

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinnov, Linda A.; Ruhl, Micha; Hesselbo, Stephen P.

    2018-01-01

    Smith and Bailey (2018) (henceforth SB17) criticize methods employed in our recent study of a highly cyclic calcium (Ca) series measured through the Early Jurassic, Pliensbachian-age, marine succession of the Llanbedr (Mochras Farm) core, referred to as Mochras (Ruhl et al., 2016, henceforth R16). In particular SB17 focus on the red noise spectral models calculated in R16. Here we clarify the red noise models displayed in Fig. 5 and Supplementary Figs. 4 and 5 of R16, and comment further on estimating power spectra and AR1 red noise model spectra. We highlight effects from nonrandom data variation, sampling and pre-whitening on red noise model estimation, and concur with SB17 that red noise modeling should not be applied with a "boiler-plate" approach. Using the Mochras Ca series as an example, we discuss practical solutions that can be used for other cyclostratigraphic data presenting similar issues. In summary, whereas SB17 advocate alternative red noise models, e.g., bent power law models, we show that modest adjustments to the data can dramatically improve the fit between AR1 red noise and data spectra.

  5. Differential influence of asynchrony in early and late chronotypes on convergent thinking.

    PubMed

    Simor, Péter; Polner, Bertalan

    2017-01-01

    Eveningness preference (late chronotype) was previously associated with different personality dimensions and thinking styles that were linked to creativity, suggesting that evening-type individuals tend to be more creative than the morning-types. Nevertheless, empirical data on the association between chronotype and creative performance is scarce and inconclusive. Moreover, cognitive processes related to creative thinking are influenced by other factors such as sleep and the time of testing. Therefore, our aim was to examine convergent and divergent thinking abilities in late and early chronotypes, taking into consideration the influence of asynchrony (optimal versus nonoptimal testing times) and sleep quality. We analyzed the data of 36 evening-type and 36 morning-type young, healthy adults who completed the Compound Remote Associates (CRAs) as a convergent and the Just suppose subtest of the Torrance Tests of Creative Thinking as a divergent thinking task within a time interval that did (n = 32) or did not (n = 40) overlap with their individually defined peak times. Chronotype was not directly associated with creative performance, but in case of the convergent thinking task an interaction between chronotype and asynchrony emerged. Late chronotypes who completed the test at subjectively nonoptimal times showed better performance than late chronotypes tested during their "peak" and early chronotypes tested at their peak or off-peak times. Although insomniac symptoms predicted lower scores in the convergent thinking task, the interaction between chronotype and asynchrony was independent of the effects of sleep quality or the general testing time. Divergent thinking was not predicted by chronotype, asynchrony or their interaction. Our findings indicate that asynchrony might have a beneficial influence on convergent thinking, especially in late chronotypes.

  6. New gliding mammaliaforms from the Jurassic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qing-Jin; Grossnickle, David M.; Liu, Di; Zhang, Yu-Guang; Neander, April I.; Ji, Qiang; Luo, Zhe-Xi

    2017-08-01

    Stem mammaliaforms are Mesozoic forerunners to mammals, and they offer critical evidence for the anatomical evolution and ecological diversification during the earliest mammalian history. Two new eleutherodonts from the Late Jurassic period have skin membranes and skeletal features that are adapted for gliding. Characteristics of their digits provide evidence of roosting behaviour, as in dermopterans and bats, and their feet have a calcaneal calcar to support the uropagatium as in bats. The new volant taxa are phylogenetically nested with arboreal eleutherodonts. Together, they show an evolutionary experimentation similar to the iterative evolutions of gliders within arboreal groups of marsupial and placental mammals. However, gliding eleutherodonts possess rigid interclavicle-clavicle structures, convergent to the avian furculum, and they retain shoulder girdle plesiomorphies of mammaliaforms and monotremes. Forelimb mobility required by gliding occurs at the acromion-clavicle and glenohumeral joints, is different from and convergent to the shoulder mobility at the pivotal clavicle-sternal joint in marsupial and placental gliders.

  7. The Stochastic Early Reaction, Inhibition, and late Action (SERIA) model for antisaccades

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The antisaccade task is a classic paradigm used to study the voluntary control of eye movements. It requires participants to suppress a reactive eye movement to a visual target and to concurrently initiate a saccade in the opposite direction. Although several models have been proposed to explain error rates and reaction times in this task, no formal model comparison has yet been performed. Here, we describe a Bayesian modeling approach to the antisaccade task that allows us to formally compare different models on the basis of their evidence. First, we provide a formal likelihood function of actions (pro- and antisaccades) and reaction times based on previously published models. Second, we introduce the Stochastic Early Reaction, Inhibition, and late Action model (SERIA), a novel model postulating two different mechanisms that interact in the antisaccade task: an early GO/NO-GO race decision process and a late GO/GO decision process. Third, we apply these models to a data set from an experiment with three mixed blocks of pro- and antisaccade trials. Bayesian model comparison demonstrates that the SERIA model explains the data better than competing models that do not incorporate a late decision process. Moreover, we show that the early decision process postulated by the SERIA model is, to a large extent, insensitive to the cue presented in a single trial. Finally, we use parameter estimates to demonstrate that changes in reaction time and error rate due to the probability of a trial type (pro- or antisaccade) are best explained by faster or slower inhibition and the probability of generating late voluntary prosaccades. PMID:28767650

  8. Semantic and syntactic reading comprehension strategies used by deaf children with early and late cochlear implantation.

    PubMed

    Gallego, Carlos; Martín-Aragoneses, M Teresa; López-Higes, Ramón; Pisón, Guzmán

    2016-01-01

    Deaf students have traditionally exhibited reading comprehension difficulties. In recent years, these comprehension problems have been partially offset through cochlear implantation (CI), and the subsequent improvement in spoken language skills. However, the use of cochlear implants has not managed to fully bridge the gap in language and reading between normally hearing (NH) and deaf children, as its efficacy depends on variables such as the age at implant. This study compared the reading comprehension of sentences in 19 children who received a cochlear implant before 24 months of age (early-CI) and 19 who received it after 24 months (late-CI) with a control group of 19 NH children. The task involved completing sentences in which the last word had been omitted. To complete each sentence children had to choose a word from among several alternatives that included one syntactic and two semantic foils in addition to the target word. The results showed that deaf children with late-CI performed this task significantly worse than NH children, while those with early-CI exhibited no significant differences with NH children, except under more demanding processing conditions (long sentences with infrequent target words). Further, the error analysis revealed a preference of deaf students with early-CI for selecting the syntactic foil over a semantic one, which suggests that they draw upon syntactic cues during sentence processing in the same way as NH children do. In contrast, deaf children with late-CI do not appear to use a syntactic strategy, but neither a semantic strategy based on the use of key words, as the literature suggests. Rather, the numerous errors of both kinds that the late-CI group made seem to indicate an inconsistent and erratic response when faced with a lack of comprehension. These findings are discussed in relation to differences in receptive vocabulary and short-term memory and their implications for sentence reading comprehension. Copyright © 2015

  9. Late onset dysthymic disorder and major depression differ from early onset dysthymic disorder and major depression in elderly outpatients.

    PubMed

    Devanand, D P; Adorno, Elizabeth; Cheng, Jocelyn; Burt, Tal; Pelton, G H Gregory H; Roose, S P Steven P; Sackeim, H A Harold A

    2004-03-01

    Age of onset may affect clinical features and prognosis in elderly patients with major depression (MDD), but there is a lack of such data in elderly patients with dysthymic disorder (DD) and systematic comparisons of late onset MDD and DD have not been conducted. In a Late Life Depression Clinic, patients > or = 60 years old who met DSM-III-R or DSM-IV criteria for MDD or DD were studied. The 24-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) and SCID-P were completed, family history was obtained, and medical illnesses were assessed. In the total sample (n=370; 211 MDD and 159 DD), compared to early onset patients, late onset (onset > or =60 years) patients had a higher rate of cardiovascular disease (chi(2)=4.12, df=1, P<0.05), lower rate of anxiety disorder (chi(2)=4.19, df=1, P<0.05), and a lower rate of family history of affective disorder (chi(2)=9.37, df=1, P<0.002). Late onset DD patients were more likely to have cardiovascular disease than early onset DD patients (chi(2)=5.63, df=1, P<0.02), but the rate of cardiovascular disease did not differ between late and early onset MDD patients (chi(2)=0.35, df=1, P<0.6). Late onset MDD patients were less likely to have a family history of affective disorder than early onset MDD patients (chi(2)=10.71, df=1, P<0.001). Prevalence of anxiety disorders did not differ between the early and late onset MDD patients (chi(2)=0.07, df=1, P<0.79), but was more common in the early onset DD compared to the late onset DD patients (17.98% versus 4.29%, chi(2)=6.98, df=1, P<0.01). Late onset DD did not differ from late onset MDD in the rates of cardiovascular disease, anxiety disorders, and family history of affective disorder. Excluding patients with double depression (n=32) did not alter the cardiovascular or family history findings, but the difference in anxiety disorders between early and late onset DD patients was no longer significant. Academic clinic sample results may not generalize to community populations. In the

  10. Early versus late tracheostomy in pediatric intensive care unit: does it matter? A 6-year experience.

    PubMed

    Pizza, Alessandro; Picconi, Enzo; Piastra, Marco; Genovese, Orazio; Biasucci, Daniele G; Conti, Giorgio

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this study is to examine the clinical data of children who underwent tracheostomy during their stay in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU), in order to describe the relationship between the timing of tracheostomy, the length of PICU stay and the occurrence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). This is a retrospective cohort study that collects all patients undergoing tracheostomy during their PICU stay over a six-year period. Data collection included PICU length of stay, days of intubation, days of mechanical ventilation, primary indication for tracheostomy, information about VAP and decannulations. The early tracheostomy group was defined as patients who had ten or fewer days of continuous ventilation, whereas the late tracheostomy group had more than ten days of continuous ventilation. A significant decrease in the rate of VAP incidence was noticed in the early tracheostomy group vs. late group (P=0.004, OR=0.39, 95% CI: 0.18-0.85). No differences were observed about decannulation, need of long-term ventilation and death rate. Significant decreases of days of mechanical ventilation and PICU stay were found in subgroup of patients who underwent early tracheostomy and were decannulated within 18 months. No standard timing for tracheostomy placement has been established in the pediatric population. Early tracheostomy can shorten the days of ventilation and hospitalization in PICU and reduce the incidence of VAP, but further studies are needed to identify patient categories in which it can be of benefit.

  11. Maternal, fetal, and placental conditions associated with medically indicated late preterm and early term delivery: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Brown, H K; Speechley, K N; Macnab, J; Natale, R; Campbell, M K

    2016-04-01

    Our objectives were: (1) to examine the association between maternal, fetal, and placental phenotypes of preterm delivery and medically indicated early delivery of singletons during the late preterm and early term periods; and (2) to identify the specific maternal, fetal, and placental conditions associated with these early deliveries. Retrospective study. City of London and Middlesex County, Ontario, Canada. Singleton live deliveries, at 34-41 weeks of gestation to women in London and Middlesex. We obtained data from a city-wide perinatal database (2002-2011; n = 25 699). We used multinomial logistic regression for multivariable analyses. The outcome was the occurrence of medically indicated late preterm (34-36 weeks of gestation) and early term (37-38 weeks of gestation) delivery, versus delivery at full term (39-41 weeks of gestation). After controlling for confounding factors, all phenotypes were associated with increased odds of medically indicated late preterm and early term delivery. Within the maternal phenotype, chronic maternal medical conditions were associated with increased odds of medically indicated early term delivery (e.g. for gastrointestinal disease, adjusted odds ratio, aOR 1.72, 95% CI 1.47-2.00; for anaemia, aOR 1.40, 95% CI 1.20-1.63), but not late preterm delivery. The aetiology of medically indicated early delivery close to full term is heterogeneous. Patterns of associations suggest slightly different conditions underlying the late preterm and early term phenotypes, with chronic maternal medical conditions being associated with early term delivery but not with late preterm delivery. These results have implications for the prevention of early delivery as well as the identification of high-risk groups among those born early. The aetiology of medically indicated late preterm and early term delivery is heterogeneous. © 2015 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  12. Earlier Snowmelt Changes the Ratio Between Early and Late Season Forest Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knowles, J. F.; Molotch, N. P.; Trujillo, E.; Litvak, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    Future projections of declining snowpack and increasing potential evaporation associated with climate warming are predicted to advance the timing of snowmelt in mountain ecosystems globally. This scenario has direct implications for snowmelt-driven forest productivity, but the net effect of temporally shifting moisture dynamics is unknown with respect to the annual carbon balance. Accordingly, this study uses both satellite- and tower-based observations to document the forest productivity response to snowpack and potential evaporation variability between 1989 and 2012 throughout the southern Rocky Mountain ecoregion, USA. These results show that a combination of low snow accumulation and record high potential evaporation in 2012 resulted in the 34-year minimum ecosystem productivity that could be indicative of future conditions. Moreover, early and late season productivity were significantly and inversely related, suggesting that future shifts toward earlier or reduced snowmelt could increase late-season moisture stress to vegetation and thus restrict productivity despite a longer growing season. This relationship was further subject to modification by summer precipitation, and the controls on the early/late season productivity ratio are explored within the context of ecosystem carbon storage in the future. Any perturbation to the carbon cycle at this scale represents a potential feedback to climate change since snow-covered forests represent an important global carbon sink.

  13. Enhanced musical rhythmic perception in Turkish early and late learners of German

    PubMed Central

    Roncaglia-Denissen, M. Paula; Schmidt-Kassow, Maren; Heine, Angela; Vuust, Peter; Kotz, Sonja A.

    2013-01-01

    As language rhythm relies partly on general acoustic properties, such as intensity and duration, mastering two languages with distinct rhythmic properties (i.e., stress position) may enhance musical rhythm perception. We investigated whether competence in a second language (L2) with different rhythmic properties than a L1 affects musical rhythm aptitude. Turkish early (TELG) and late learners (TLLG) of German were compared to German late L2 learners of English (GLE) regarding their musical rhythmic aptitude. While Turkish and German present distinct linguistic rhythm and metric properties, German and English are rather similar in this regard. To account for inter-individual differences, we measured participants' short-term and working memory (WM) capacity, melodic aptitude, and time they spent listening to music. Both groups of Turkish L2 learners of German perceived rhythmic variations significantly better than German L2 learners of English. No differences were found between early and late learners' performance. Our findings suggest that mastering two languages with different rhythmic properties enhances musical rhythm perception, providing further evidence of shared cognitive resources between language and music. PMID:24065946

  14. Impact of Early Versus Late Diuretic Exposure on Metabolic Bone Disease and Growth in Premature Neonates.

    PubMed

    Orth, Lucas E; O'Mara, Keliana L

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether there are differences in the incidence of metabolic bone disease (MBD) between preterm neonates first exposed to diuretics prior to 2 weeks of life versus those exposed after 2 weeks. This study was a retrospective analysis of premature neonates born at a tertiary care center between 2011 and 2015 who received either furosemide or chlorothiazide. The primary outcome was incidence of MBD. Secondary outcomes included growth, electrolyte disturbances, oxygen requirement, and length of stay. A total of 147 patients were included. Early initiation (n = 90) and late initiation (n = 57) arms were balanced with respect to birth weight and gestational age. There was no difference in incidence of MBD in the early group (76%) versus the late group (65%; p = 0.164). Stratification by cumulative dose showed incidence of 85% in patients receiving ≥8 mg/kg of furosemide, compared with 68% and 64% of those in the <4 mg/kg and 4 to 7.9 mg/kg strata, respectively (p = 0.06). The early group experienced greater reductions in length-for-age growth during diuretic therapy (-70% versus -40%; p = 0.009). Electrolyte abnormalities were more prevalent in the early group. Although there was no difference in duration of mechanical ventilation, duration of supplemental oxygen requirement was reduced in the late group (75 versus 89 days; p = 0.003). Timing of diuretic initiation did not affect incidence of MBD. Increased cumulative furosemide exposure may be associated with higher incidence. Patients first exposed to diuretics within 2 weeks of life are at higher risk for electrolyte abnormalities and reduced growth velocity.

  15. Classification of Rhinoentomophthoromycosis into Atypical, Early, Intermediate, and Late Disease: A Proposal

    PubMed Central

    Blumentrath, Christian G.; Grobusch, Martin P.; Matsiégui, Pierre-Blaise; Pahlke, Friedrich; Zoleko-Manego, Rella; Nzenze-Aféne, Solange; Mabicka, Barthélemy; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Kremsner, Peter G.; Schaumburg, Frieder

    2015-01-01

    Background Rhinoentomophthoromycosis, or rhino-facial conidiobolomycosis, is a rare, grossly disfiguring disease due to an infection with entomophthoralean fungi. We report a case of rhinoentomophthoromycosis from Gabon and suggest a staging system, which provides information on the prognosis and duration of antifungal therapy. Methods We present a case of rhinoentomophthoromycosis including the histopathology, mycology, and course of disease. For the suggested staging system, all cases on confirmed rhinoentomophthoromycosis published in the literature without language restriction were eligible. Exclusion criteria were missing data on (i) duration of disease before correct diagnosis, (ii) outcome, and (iii) confirmation of entomophthoralean fungus infection by histopathology and/or mycology. We classified cases into atypical (orbital cellulitis, severe pain, fever, dissemination), early, intermediate, and late disease based on the duration of symptoms before diagnosis. The outcome was evaluated for each stage of disease. Findings The literature search of the Medpilot database was conducted on January 13, 2014, (updated on January 18, 2015). The search yielded 8,333 results including 198 cases from 117 papers; of these, 145 met our inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis. Median duration of treatment was 4, 3, 4, and 5 months in atypical, early, intermediate, and late disease, respectively. Cure rates were clearly associated with stage of disease and were 57%, 100%, 82%, and 43% in atypical, early, intermediate, and late disease, respectively. Conclusion We suggest a clinical staging system that underlines the benefit of early case detection and may guide the duration of antifungal treatment. The scientific value of this classification is its capacity to structure and harmonize the clinical and research approach towards rhinoentomophthoromycosis. PMID:26426120

  16. A Jurassic stem pleurodire sheds light on the functional origin of neck retraction in turtles

    PubMed Central

    Anquetin, Jérémy; Tong, Haiyan; Claude, Julien

    2017-01-01

    Modern turtles are composed of two monophyletic groups, notably diagnosed by divergent neck retraction mechanisms. Pleurodires (side-necked turtles) bend their neck sideways and protect their head under the anterior margin of the carapace. Cryptodires (hidden-necked turtles) withdraw their neck and head in the vertical plane between the shoulder girdles. These two mechanisms of neck retraction appeared independently in the two lineages and are usually assumed to have evolved for protective reasons. Here we describe the neck of Platychelys oberndorferi, a Late Jurassic early stem pleurodire, and find remarkable convergent morphological and functional similarities with modern cryptodires. Partial vertical neck retraction in this taxon is interpreted to have enabled fast forward projection of the head during underwater prey capture and offers a likely explanation to the functional origin of neck retraction in modern cryptodires. Complete head withdrawal for protection may therefore have resulted from an exaptation in that group. PMID:28206991

  17. Birdshot Retinochoroidopathy: Differences in Clinical Characteristics between Patients with Early and Late Age of Onset.

    PubMed

    Silpa-Archa, Sukhum; Cao, Jennifer H; Boonsopon, Sutasinee; Lee, Joan; Preble, Janine M; Foster, C Stephen

    2017-10-01

    To describe differences in the clinical characteristics of birdshot retinochoroidopathy (BSRC) patients diagnosed early and later in life. This is a retrospective cohort study. Age was primarily analyzed and 50 years of age at diagnosis was selected as a cut-off point. A total of 144 patients (288 eyes) were included; 68 with early-onset and 76 with late-onset BSRC. The younger group had a statistically significant higher rate of more severe iritis (p = 0.04); an average number of non-steroidal immunosuppressants and biologic agents (NSIB) (p = 0.04); and a prolonged time to initiation of NSIB (p = 0.01). There were only four patients (3%) who had >0.5+ cells in the anterior chamber. Patients with early-onset BSRC carried a higher risk for anterior segment inflammation, had a more prolonged delay to initiation of treatment with NSIB, and required a greater number of NSIBs to achieve remission.

  18. The Earliest Case of Extreme Sexual Display with Exaggerated Male Organs by Two Middle Jurassic Mecopterans

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qi; Shih, Chungkun; Ren, Dong

    2013-01-01

    Background Many extant male animals exhibit exaggerated body parts for display, defense or offence in sexual selection, such as male birds of paradise showing off colorful and elegant feathers and male moose and reindeers bearing large structured antlers. For insects, male rhinoceros and stag beetles have huge horn-like structure for fighting and competition and some male Leptopanorpa scorpionflies have very long abdominal terminal segments for sexual display and competition. Fossil records of insects having exaggerated body parts for sexual display are fairly rare. One example is two male holcorpids with elongate abdominal segments from sixth (A6) to eighth (A8) and enlarged male genitalia from Eocene, suggesting evolution of these characters occurred fairly late. Principal Findings We document two mecopterans with exaggerated male body parts from the late Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation in northeastern China. Both have extremely extended abdominal segments from A6 to A8 and enlarged genitalia, which might have been used for sexual display and, to less extent, for fighting with other males in the competition for mates. Although Fortiholcorpa paradoxa gen. et sp. nov. and Miriholcorpa forcipata gen. et sp. nov. seem to have affinities with Holcorpidae, we deem both as Family Incertae sedis mainly due to significant differences in branching pattern of Media (M) veins and relative length of A8 for F. paradoxa, and indiscernible preservation of 5-branched M veins in hind wing for M. forcipata. Conclusions/Significance These two new taxa have extended the records of exaggerated male body parts of mecopterans for sexual display and/or selection from the Early Eocene to the late Middle Jurassic. The similar character present in some Leptopanorpa of Panorpidae suggests that the sexual display and/or sexual selection due to extremely elongated male abdominal and sexual organs outweigh the negative impact of bulky body and poor mobility in the evolutionary process

  19. Effective treatment of haemorrhoids: early complication and late results after 150 consecutive stapled haemorrhoidectomies.

    PubMed

    Bove, Aldo; Bongarzoni, Giuseppe; Palone, Gino; Chiarini, Stella; Calisesi, Enrico Maria; Corbellini, Luciano

    2009-01-01

    Haemorrhoidectomy according to Longo potentially reduces post-operative pain and allows an early return to work. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the technique, the early and especially late complications, and recurrences, in 150 patients. Between January 2005 and December 2006, we performed 150 consecutive haemorrhoidectomies with the Longo technique: 82 for third degree haemorrhoids and 68 for fourth degree haemorrhoids. The mean age of patients was 42 years. Every patient had a pre-operative proctoscopy and endoscopy KIT PPH01 (Ethicon Endo Surgery) was used. We evaluated the length of the operation, the post-operative pain, the early and late complications, and the recurrence of the disease. The mean follow up was 52 months (range 36-72). There was no mortality. The mean length of the operation was 25 minutes with a range of 15 to 45 minutes. Pain, evaluated using the V.A.S. scale, was very light in 114 patients (V.A.S. 2,1) and light in 36 (V.A.S. 3.2). Only 11 (7.5%) patients took painkillers, on demand, for a week after discharge from hospital and 2 patients (1,3%) for more than one month. Early complications (6.6%) were: 5 bleeding (2 after seven days), 4 acute urinary retentions, 1 external haemorrhoid thrombosis and 1 haematoma of the rectus wall. Mean Hospital stay was 2.1 days. Late complications (10%) were: 5 "faecal urgency" which disappeared after six months, 6 moderate asymptomatic strictures, and 4 persistent skin tags. There were 8 recurrences (5.1%), 2 for haemorrhoids of grade 3 e 6 for haemorrhoids of grade 4. All the recurrences appeared within the first 24 months. The stapled procedure according to Longo is an effective treatment for haemorrhoids. The results for postoperative pain and early return to work are very good. However, special care for haemostasis is essential in order to avoid bleeding. An effective surgical technique prevents late complications, but results after long term follow up show a not insignificant

  20. Nonmarine facies in the Late Triassic(?) to Early Jurassic Horn Mountain Tuff member of the Talkeetna Formation, Horn Mountain, lower Cook Inlet basin, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LePain, D.L.; Stanley, Richard G.; Helmold, K.P.

    2016-01-01

    The Talkeetna Formation is a prominent lithostratigraphic unit in south-central Alaska. In the Iniskin–Tuxedni area, Detterman and Hartsock (1966) divided the formation into three mappable units including, from oldest to youngest, the Marsh Creek Breccia, the Portage Creek Agglomerate, and the Horn Mountain Tuff Members. The Horn Mountain Tuff Member was thought to include rocks deposited in a nonmarine setting based on the presence of “tree stumps in an upright position” (Detterman and Hartsock, 1966, p. 19) near the top of the type section at Horn Mountain. Bull (2015) recognized possible nonmarine volcaniclastic rocks in the member during the 2014 field season in a saddle on the north side of Horn Mountain (figs. 2-1 and 2-2). The authors visited this location in 2015 and measured a short stratigraphic section to document facies, interpret depositional setting, and constrain age. This report summarizes our field observations and presents preliminary interpretations.

  1. Facies architecture of the fluvial Missão Velha Formation (Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous), Araripe Basin, Northeast Brazil: paleogeographic and tectonic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fambrini, Gelson Luís; Neumann, Virgínio Henrique M. L.; Menezes-Filho, José Acioli B.; Da Silva-Filho, Wellington F.; De Oliveira, Édison Vicente

    2017-12-01

    Sedimentological analysis of the Missão Velha Formation (Araripe Basin, northeast Brazil) is the aim of this paper through detailed facies analysis, architectural elements, depositional systems and paleocurrent data. The main facies recognized were: (i) coarse-grained conglomeratic sandstones, locally pebbly conglomerates, with abundant silicified fossil trunks and several large-to-medium trough cross-stratifications and predominantly lenticular geometry; (ii) lenticular coarse-to-medium sandstones with some granules, abundant silicified fossil wood, and large-to-medium trough cross-stratifications, cut-and fill features and mud drapes on the foresets of cross-strata, (iii) poorly sorted medium-grained sandstones with sparse pebbles and with horizontal stratification, (iv) fine to very fine silty sandstones, laminated, interlayered with (v) decimetric muddy layers with horizontal lamination and climbing-ripple cross-lamination. Nine architectural elements were recognized: CH: Channels, GB: Gravel bars and bed forms, SB: Sand bars and bedforms, SB (p): sand bedform with planar cross-stratification, OF: Overbank flow, DA: Downstream-accretion macroforms, LS: Laminated sandsheet, LA: Lateral-accretion macroforms and FF: Floodplain fines. The lithofacies types and facies associations were interpreted as having been generated by alluvial systems characterized by (i) high energy perennial braided river systems and (ii) ephemeral river systems. Aeolian sand dunes and sand sheets generated by the reworking of braided alluvial deposits can also occur. The paleocurrent measurements show a main dispersion pattern to S, SE and SW, and another to NE/E. These features imply a paleodrainage flowing into the basins of the Recôncavo-Tucano-Jatobá.

  2. Early life stress and physical and psychosocial functioning in late adulthood.

    PubMed

    Alastalo, Hanna; von Bonsdorff, Mikaela B; Räikkönen, Katri; Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Osmond, Clive; Barker, David J P; Heinonen, Kati; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G

    2013-01-01

    Severe stress experienced in early life may have long-term effects on adult physiological and psychological health and well-being. We studied physical and psychosocial functioning in late adulthood in subjects separated temporarily from their parents in childhood during World War II. The 1803 participants belong to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study, born 1934-44. Of them, 267 (14.8%) had been evacuated abroad in childhood during WWII and the remaining subjects served as controls. Physical and psychosocial functioning was assessed with the Short Form 36 scale (SF-36) between 2001 and 2004. A test for trends was based on linear regression. All analyses were adjusted for age at clinical examination, social class in childhood and adulthood, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, body mass index, cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Physical functioning in late adulthood was lower among the separated men compared to non-separated men (b = -0.40, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]: -0.71 to -0.08). Those men separated in school age (>7 years) and who were separated for a duration over 2 years had the highest risk for lower physical functioning (b = -0.89, 95% CI: -1.58 to -0.20) and (b = -0.65, 95% CI: -1.25 to -0.05), respectively). Men separated for a duration over 2 years also had lower psychosocial functioning (b = -0.70, 95% CI: -1.35 to -0.06). These differences in physical and psychosocial functioning were not observed among women. Early life stress may increase the risk for impaired physical functioning in late adulthood among men. Timing and duration of the separation influenced the physical and psychosocial functioning in late adulthood.

  3. Soil nutrients and microbial activity after early and late season prescribed burns in a Sierra Nevada mixed conifer forest

    Treesearch

    Sarah T. Hamman; Ingrid C. Burke; Eric E. Knapp

    2008-01-01

    Restoring the natural fire regime to forested systems that have experienced fire exclusion throughout the past century can be a challenge due to the heavy fuel loading conditions. Fire is being re-introduced to mixed conifer forests in the Sierra Nevada through both early season and late season prescribed burns, even though most fires historically occurred in the late...

  4. Does preoperative atrial fibrillation influence early and late outcomes of coronary artery bypass grafting?

    PubMed

    Ngaage, Dumbor L; Schaff, Hartzell V; Mullany, Charles J; Sundt, Thoralf M; Dearani, Joseph A; Barnes, Sunni; Daly, Richard C; Orszulak, Thomas A

    2007-01-01

    The study objective was to describe the independent effect of preoperative atrial fibrillation on the outcome of coronary artery bypass grafting, including the causes of death (cardiac vs noncardiac). We analyzed the outcome of patients with preoperative atrial fibrillation who underwent on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting between 1993 and 2002 and compared them with matched controls in sinus rhythm; matching variables were age, gender, ejection fraction, and numbers of diseased coronary arteries and distal anastomoses. Direct patient follow-up focused on late complications and reinterventions, and we investigated causes for all deaths. Operative mortality (1.6% vs 1.9%, P = .79) was similar in patients with preoperative atrial fibrillation (n = 257) compared with patients in sinus rhythm (n = 269). The patients with atrial fibrillation had longer hospital stays (9 +/- 6 days vs 8 +/- 6 days, P = .0008) and a trend to more frequent early readmissions (13% vs 9%, P = .08). During follow-up (median 6.7 years, maximum 12 years), late hospital admission was more frequent in patients with atrial fibrillation (59% vs 31%, P < .0001). Risk of late mortality (all causes) in patients with atrial fibrillation was increased by 40% compared with patients in sinus rhythm (P = 0.02), and the late cardiac death rate in the atrial fibrillation group was 2.8 times that of the sinus rhythm group (P = .0004). Major adverse cardiac events occurred in 70% of patients with preoperative atrial fibrillation compared with 52% of patients in preoperative sinus rhythm (P < .0001). Subsequent rhythm-related intervention, including pacemaker implantations, was more common in the atrial fibrillation group (relative risk = 2.1, P = .0027). Uncorrected preoperative atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting is associated with increased late cardiac morbidity and mortality and poor long-term survival. These data support consideration of atrial fibrillation

  5. Peer influences on moral disengagement in late childhood and early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Caravita, Simona C S; Sijtsema, Jelle J; Rambaran, J Ashwin; Gini, Gianluca

    2014-02-01

    Moral disengagement processes are cognitive self-justification processes of transgressive actions that have been hypothesized to be learned and socialized within social contexts. The current study aimed at investigating socialization of moral disengagement by friends in two developmentally different age groups, namely late childhood (age: 9-10 years; n = 133, 42.9% girls) and early adolescence (age: 11-14 years; n = 236, 40.6% girls) over a 1-year period. Specifically, the current study examined whether similarity in moral disengagement between friends was the result of friends' influence or friend selection. Moreover, gender (42% girls), individual bullying behavior, and perceived popularity status were examined as potential moderators of socialization for moral disengagement within friendship networks. Self-report measures were used to assess moral disengagement, sociometric questions and a peer-nomination scale for friendship networks and bullying behavior, respectively. Longitudinal social network analysis (RSiena) was used to study change of moral disengagement in friendship networks during a 1-year interval. In early adolescence, friends were more likely to be similar to each other over time and this was explained only by influence processes and not by selection processes. Gender, bullying, and perceived popularity did not moderate the friends' influence on moral disengagement over time. Results indicate that self-justification processes change over time already in late childhood, but only in early adolescence this change is likely to be dependent upon peers' moral disengagement.

  6. Mirolydidae, a new family of Jurassic pamphilioid sawfly (Hymenoptera) highlighting mosaic evolution of lower Hymenoptera.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mei; Rasnitsyn, Alexandr P; Yang, Zhongqi; Shih, Chungkun; Wang, Hongbin; Ren, Dong

    2017-03-07

    We describe Pamphilioidea: Mirolydidae Wang, Rasnitsyn et Ren, fam. n., containing Mirolyda hirta Wang, Rasnitsyn et Ren, gen. et sp. n., from the late Middle Jurassic Jiulongshan Formation of Daohugou, Inner Mongolia, China. The new taxon is characterized by unique forewing venation with the presence of forewing SC, 1-RS almost as long as 1-M, M + Cu straight, 2r-rs strongly reclival, and antenna with homonomous flagellum, revealing new and important details in antennal evolutionary transformations. Thus, M. hirta with a combination of primitive and more derived characters highlights its transitional state in the Pamphilioidea and complex mosaic evolution within Pamphilioidea in the late Middle Jurassic. The body of this species is densely covered with thin and long setae, suggesting its possible habit of visiting gymnosperm reproductive organs for pollen feeding and/or pollination during the late Middle Jurassic, much earlier than the appearance of angiosperm flowers.

  7. Rationale for early versus late intervention with arthroscopy for treatment of inflammatory/degenerative temporomandibular joint disorders.

    PubMed

    Israel, Howard A; Behrman, David A; Friedman, Joel M; Silberstein, Jennifer

    2010-11-01

    The goal of this study was to determine if there were differences in outcomes of arthroscopic surgery in patients with inflammatory/degenerative temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disease who underwent early surgical intervention versus late surgical intervention. The study population included 44 consecutive patients who met the criteria for TMJ operative arthroscopy who were divided into early and late intervention groups. The time between the onset of symptoms and the performance of arthroscopy was used to determine entry into the early versus late intervention group. All groups were evaluated for changes in preoperative versus postoperative pain levels based on visual analog scale (VAS) scores and maximum interincisal opening distance. Statistical analyses included the Student t test to determine if there were significant differences between preoperative and postoperative assessments in the early and late intervention groups. The mean time between onset of symptoms in the early intervention group (21 patients) was 5.4 months compared with 33 months in the late intervention group (23 patients). All patient groups had statistically significant decreases in pain and improvement in maximum interincisal opening distance after arthroscopy. The early intervention group had a mean decrease in VAS pain scores of 5.14 compared with the late intervention group with a mean decrease in VAS pain scores of 2.84, and this difference was significant (P = .012). The early intervention group had a mean increase in maximum interincisal opening of 12.38 mm compared with the late intervention group with a mean increase of 7.70. Although statistical significance was not achieved for increases in maximum interincisal opening between the early and late intervention groups (P = .089), the difference between the 2 groups was suggestive of a trend. There were no surgical complications for either group; however, 2 patients in the late intervention group developed persistent chronic neuropathic

  8. Quantitative Proteomic Profiling of Early and Late Responses to Salicylic Acid in Cucumber Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Li, Liang; Shang, Qing-Mao

    2016-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is an important phytohormone that plays vital regulatory roles in plant growth, development, and stress responses. However, studies on the molecular mechanism of SA, especially during the early SA responses, are lagging behind. In this study, we initiated a comprehensive isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)-based proteomic analysis to explore the early and late SA-responsive proteins in leaves of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings. Upon SA application through the roots, endogenous SA accumulated in cucumber leaves. By assaying the changes in marker gene expression and photosynthetic rate, we collected samples at 12 h and 72 h post treatment (hpt) to profile the early and late SA responsiveness, respectively. The iTRAQ assay followed by tandem mass spectrometry revealed 135 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) at 12 hpt and 301 DEPs at 72 hpt. The functional categories for these SA-responsive proteins included in a variety of biochemical processes, including photosynthesis, redox homeostasis, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, lipid metabolism, transport, protein folding and modification, proteolysis, cell wall organization, and the secondary phenylpropanoid pathway. Conclusively, based on the abundant changes of these DEPs, together with their putative functions, we proposed a possible SA-responsive protein network. It appears that SA could elicit reactive oxygen species (ROS) production via enhancing the photosynthetic electron transferring, and then confer some growth-promoting and stress-priming effects on cells during the late phase, including enhanced photosynthesis and ROS scavenging, altered carbon metabolic flux for the biosynthesis of amino acids and nucleotides, and cell wall reorganization. Overall, the present iTRAQ assay provides higher proteome coverage and deepened our understanding of the molecular basis of SA-responses. PMID:27551830

  9. Prospective inter-relationships between late adolescent personality and major depressive disorder in early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Wilson, S; DiRago, A C; Iacono, W G

    2014-02-01

    A well-established body of literature demonstrates concurrent associations between personality traits and major depressive disorder (MDD), but there have been relatively few investigations of their dynamic interplay over time. Prospective inter-relationships between late-adolescent personality and MDD in early adulthood were examined in a community sample of male and female twins from the Minnesota Twin Family Study (MTFS; n = 1252). Participants were classified into naturally occurring MDD groups based on the timing (adolescent versus adult onset) and course (chronic/recurrent versus remitting) of MDD. MDD diagnoses were assessed at ages 17, 20, 24 and 29 years, and personality traits [negative emotionality (NEM), positive emotionality (PEM) and constraint (CON)] were assessed at ages 17, 24 and 29 years. Multilevel modeling (MLM) analyses indicated that higher age-17 NEM was associated with the subsequent development of MDD, and any MDD, regardless of onset or course, was associated with higher NEM up to age 29. Moreover, the chronic/recurrent MDD groups failed to show the normative decrease in NEM from late adolescence to early adulthood. Lower age-17 PEM was also associated with the subsequent development of MDD but only among the chronic/recurrent MDD groups. Finally, the adolescent-onset MDD groups reported lower age-17 CON relative to the never-depressed and adult-onset MDD groups. Taken together, the results speak to the role of personality traits for conferring risk for the onset of MDD in late adolescence and early adulthood, in addition to the pernicious implications of chronic/recurrent MDD, particularly when it onsets during adolescence, for adaptive personality development.

  10. Predictors of Cigarette Smoking Initiation in Early, Middle, and Late Adolescence.

    PubMed

    O'Loughlin, Jennifer; O'Loughlin, Erin K; Wellman, Robert J; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Dugas, Erika N; Chagnon, Miguel; Dutczak, Hartley; Laguë, Johanne; McGrath, Jennifer J

    2017-09-01

    Little is known about age-related differences in risk factors for cigarette smoking initiation. We identified predictors of initiation in early, middle, and late adolescence from among sociodemographic factors, indicators of smoking in the social environment, psychological characteristics, lifestyle indicators, and perceived need for cigarettes. Data were drawn from a longitudinal study of 1,801 children recruited at age 10-11 years from 29 elementary schools in Montreal, Canada. Multivariable logistic regression within a generalized estimating equations framework was used to identify predictors among never smokers across three 2-year windows: age 11-13 years (n = 1,221); age 13-15 years (n = 737); and age 15-17 years (n = 690). Among the 18 risk factors investigated, two differed across age. Friends' smoking, a strong risk factor in early adolescence (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 5.78 [3.90-8.58]), lost potency in late adolescence (1.83 [1.31-2.57]). Depressive symptoms, a risk factor in early and middle adolescence (1.60 [1.26-2.02] and 1.92 [1.45-2.54], respectively), were inversely associated in late adolescence (.76 [.58-1.00]). Sex, TV viewing, and weight-related goals were not associated with initiation at any age. All other factors were significant in two or three age groups. Most risk factors for smoking initiation were stable across age. Tobacco control interventions may be robust for risk factors across age groups and may not need adjustment. At all ages, interventions should focus on eliminating smoking in the social environment and on reducing the availability of tobacco products. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Induction of the early-late Ddc gene during Drosophila metamorphosis by the ecdysone receptor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Li; Reece, Christian; O'Keefe, Sandra L; Hawryluk, Gregory W L; Engstrom, Monica M; Hodgetts, Ross B

    2002-06-01

    During Drosophila metamorphosis, the 'early-late' genes constitute a unique class regulated by the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone. Their induction is comprised of both a primary and a secondary response to ecdysone. Previous work has suggested that the epidermal expression of the dopa decarboxylase gene (Ddc) is likely that of a typical early-late gene. Accumulation of the Ddc transcript is rapidly initiated in the absence of protein synthesis, which implies that the ecdysone receptor plays a direct role in induction. However, full Ddc expression requires the participation of one of the transcription factors encoded by the Broad-Complex. In this paper, we characterize an ecdysone response element (EcRE) that contributes to the primary response. Using gel mobility shift assays and transgenic assays, we identified a single functional EcRE, located at position -97 to -83 bp relative to the transcription initiation site. This is the first report of an EcRE associated with an early-late gene in Drosophila. Competition experiments indicated that the affinity of the Ddc EcRE for the ecdysone receptor complex was at least four-fold less than that of the canonical EcRE of the hsp27 gene. Using in vitro mutagenesis, we determined that the reduced affinity of the EcRE resided at two positions where the nucleotides differed from those found in the canonical sequence. The ecdysone receptor, acting through this EcRE, releases Ddc from a silencing mechanism, whose cis-acting domain we have mapped to the 5'-upstream region between -2067 and -1427 bp. Deletion of this repressive element resulted in precocious expression of Ddc in both epidermis and imaginal discs. Thus, epidermal Ddc induction at pupariation is under the control of an extended genomic region that contains both positive and negative regulatory elements. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science Ireland Ltd.

  12. Protein requirements of healthy pregnant women during early and late gestation are higher than current recommendations.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Trina V; Payne, Magdalene; Ball, Ronald O; Pencharz, Paul B; Elango, Rajavel

    2015-01-01

    Adequate maternal dietary protein intake is necessary for healthy pregnancy. However, current protein intake recommendations for healthy pregnant women are based on factorial calculations of nitrogen balance data derived from nonpregnant adults. Thus, an estimate of protein requirements based on pregnancy-specific data is needed. The objective of this study was to determine protein requirements of healthy pregnant women at 11-20 (early) and 31-38 (late) wk of gestation through use of the indicator amino acid oxidation method. Twenty-nine healthy women (24-37 y) each randomly received a different test protein intake (range: 0.22-2.56 g · kg(-1) · d(-1)) during each study day in early (n = 35 observations in 17 women) and late (n = 43 observations in 19 women) gestation; 7 women participated in both early and late gestation studies. The diets were isocaloric and provided energy at 1.7 × resting energy expenditure. Protein was given as a crystalline amino acid mixture based on egg protein composition, except phenylalanine and tyrosine, which were maintained constant across intakes. Protein requirements were determined by measuring the oxidation rate of L-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine to (13)CO2 (F(13)CO2). Breath and urine samples were collected at baseline and isotopic steady state. Linear regression crossover analysis identified a breakpoint (requirement) at minimal F(13)CO2 in response to different protein intakes. The estimated average requirement (EAR) for protein in early and late gestation was determined to be 1.22 (R(2) = 0.60; 95% CI: 0.79, 1.66 g · kg(-1) · d(-1)) and 1.52 g · kg(-1) · d(-1) (R(2) = 0.63; 95% CI: 1.28, 1.77 g · kg(-1) · d(-1)), respectively. These estimates are considerably higher than the EAR of 0.88 g · kg(-1) · d(-1) currently recommended by the Dietary Reference Intakes. To our knowledge, this study is the first to directly estimate gestational stage-specific protein requirements in healthy pregnant women and suggests that current

  13. [Early-onset and late-onset male hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Okada, Hiroshi; Shin, Takeshi; Kobori, Yoshitomo

    2016-07-01

    Hypogonadism is classified into two major clinical entities, namely early-onset hypogonadism and late-onset hypogonadism. The former is characterized by the malfunction of hypothalamo-pituitary-gonadal(testicular)axis or by the primary hypofunction of testes(e.g. Klinefelter's syndrome). The latter is summarized as LOH syndrome which is attributed to the dropped level of bioavailable testosterone. In these diseases testosterone is the key molecule which may cause various symptoms relating not only to physical health but also to mental or psychologic health. In this review issues concerning bone health in these disease are described.

  14. Hydrologic activity during late Noachian and Early Hesperian downwarping of Borealis Basin, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, Kenneth L.

    1991-01-01

    Pronounced global volcanism as well as fracturing and erosion along the highland/lowland boundary (HLB) during the Late Noachian (LN) and Early Hesperian (EH) led McGill and Dimitriou to conclude that the Borealis basin formed tectonically during this period. This scenario provides a basis for interpretation of the initiation and mode of formation of erosional and collapse features along the HLB. The interpretation, in turn, is integral to hypotheses regarding the development of ancient lakes (or an ocean) and their impact on the climate history of Mars. Hydrologic features of Mars are discussed along with their implications for paleolakes and climate history.

  15. Paleoenvironmental conditions across the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary in central-eastern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez-Yáñez, Mario; Núñez-Useche, Fernando; López Martínez, Rafael; Gardner, Rand D.

    2017-08-01

    The Padni section of central-eastern Mexico is characterized by pelagic, organic-rich carbonates and shales dated in this study by calpionellid biostratigraphy to the late Tithonian-late Berriasian time interval. Microfacies, pyrite framboid size, spectrometric gamma-ray and mineralogical data are herein integrated in order to reconstruct the paleoenvironmental change during the Jurassic-Cretaceous boundary. Deposits of the late Tithonian-early Berriasian are characterized by laminated, organic-rich facies with abundant radiolarian, tiny pyrite framboids and low Th/U ratios. They are linked to upwelling in a semi-restricted basin, high marine productivity and anoxic bottom waters. The early incursions of Tethyan oceanic waters into the proto-Gulf of Mexico occurred during late Tithonian as attested the appearance of calpionellids. Short and intermittent accumulations of saccocomids during early Berriasian suggest episodes of sporadic connection between the Tethys, the proto-Atlantic and the Pacific ocean during sea-level rise events. A full and stable connection between the Tethys and proto-Gulf of Mexico was established until the late Berriasian. This event is supported by the presence of open marine and bioturbated facies with a framboid population typical of dysoxic conditions, higher Th/U ratios and a decreasing pattern of the total organic carbon content. In addition to highlighting the replenishment of the oxygen supply to the basin, this facies also points to a younger age for the finalization of the Yucatán Block rotation and the end of the Gulf of Mexico opening. Deposition of the studied section occurred mostly during a Tithonian-Berriasian arid phase reported in other Tethyan and Atlantic regions. The similarity between the discrete segments of the standard gamma-ray curve defined in the studied outcrop and those reported from subsurface implies their regional continuity allowing their use for correlation purposes.

  16. Is alcohol binge drinking in early and late pregnancy associated with behavioural and emotional development at age 7 years?

    PubMed

    Niclasen, Janni; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo; Strandberg-Larsen, Katrine; Teasdale, Thomas William

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate associations of maternal binge drinking in early and late pregnancy with child behavioural and emotional development at age seven. It was hypothesised that late exposure is associated with more negative outcomes than early exposure. Differences were expected on the continuous outcome measures, but not on above cutoff scale scores. Data were derived from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Three exposure groups were defined according to binge drinking from three interviews regarding binge episodes in early, middle and late pregnancy. A 'no binge' group included women with no binge episodes reported in any of the interviews, the 'early bingers' reported episodes in the first interview only, and the 'late bingers' in the last part of pregnancy only. The outcome measure was the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) used as continuous externalising/internalising scores and above cutoff hyperactivity/inattention, conduct, emotional and peer problems scores. Only women with full information concerning binge drinking from the three interviews, together with full-scale SDQ information on their children at age seven and being term-born, were included in the study (N = 37,315). After adjustment for maternal education, psychiatric diagnoses, age and smoking, children exposed to binge drinking in early and late pregnancy had significantly higher mean externalizing scores at age seven than unexposed children, an effect albeit much less for early binge drinking (relative change in mean 1.02, CI 1.00-1.05) than for late binge drinking (relative change in mean 1.21, CI 1.04-1.42). No associations were observed for any of the above cutoff outcomes. Exposure to binge drinking in early and late pregnancy is associated with elevated externalising scores, particularly so in late pregnancy. No increased risk for any of the above cutoff scale scores was observed.

  17. Response of Late Carboniferous and Early Permian Plant Communities to Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimichele, William A.; Pfefferkorn, Hermann W.; Gastaldo, Robert A.

    Late Carboniferous and Early Permian strata record the transition from a cold interval in Earth history, characterized by the repeated periods of glaciation and deglaciation of the southern pole, to a