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Sample records for early late miocene

  1. The late early Miocene Sabine River

    SciTech Connect

    Manning, E.

    Work on a new late early Miocene vertebrate fossil site, in a paleochannel deposit of the upper Carnahan Bayou Member of the lower Fleming Formation, has revealed unexpected data on the course and nature of the Sabine River of that time. Screen washing for smaller vertebrate remains at the site, just west of the Sabine River in Newton County, central eastern Texas, has resulted in the recovery of early Permian, Early Cretaceous, Late Cretaceous (Maestrichtian), Paleocene/Eocene, late Eocene, and Oligocene/Miocene fossils, in addition to the main early Miocene fauna. The reworked fossils, as well as distinctive mineral grains, show thatmore » the late early Miocene Sabine River was connected to the Texas/Oklahoma/Arkansas boundary section of the Red River, as well as to rivers draining the southern Ouachita Mountains. These rivers must have joined the Texas/Louisiana boundary section of the Sabine River somewhere in northwest Louisiana at that time. This suggests that the Louisiana section of the present Red River pirated the Texas/Oklahoma/Arkansas boundary section of the river some time after the early Miocene. The preservation of recognizable fossils transported hundreds of miles in a large river itself requires explanation. It is speculated here that the late early Miocene Sabine River incorporated a large amount of the then recently deposited volcanic ash from the Trans-Pecos Volcanic Field. Montmorillonite clay from the altered volcanic ash would have made the river very turbid, which could have allowed coarse sand-sized particles to be carried in the suspended load of the river, rather than in its bed load (where they would have been destroyed by the rolling chert gravel). Additional evidence for such long-distance fossil transport in the late early Miocene rivers of the western Gulf Coastal Plain comes from the abundant Cretaceous fossils of the upper Oakville Formation of southeast Texas and the Siphonina davisi zone of the southeast Texas subsurface.« less

  2. Late Oligocene-early Miocene birth of the Taklimakan Desert.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hongbo; Wei, Xiaochun; Tada, Ryuji; Clift, Peter D; Wang, Bin; Jourdan, Fred; Wang, Ping; He, Mengying

    2015-06-23

    As the world's second largest sand sea and one of the most important dust sources to the global aerosol system, the formation of the Taklimakan Desert marks a major environmental event in central Asia during the Cenozoic. Determining when and how the desert formed holds the key to better understanding the tectonic-climatic linkage in this critical region. However, the age of the Taklimakan remains controversial, with the dominant view being from ∼ 3.4 Ma to ∼ 7 Ma based on magnetostratigraphy of sedimentary sequences within and along the margins of the desert. In this study, we applied radioisotopic methods to precisely date a volcanic tuff preserved in the stratigraphy. We constrained the initial desertification to be late Oligocene to early Miocene, between ∼ 26.7 Ma and 22.6 Ma. We suggest that the Taklimakan Desert was formed as a response to a combination of widespread regional aridification and increased erosion in the surrounding mountain fronts, both of which are closely linked to the tectonic uplift of the Tibetan-Pamir Plateau and Tian Shan, which had reached a climatically sensitive threshold at this time.

  3. Confirmation of a late Oligocene-early Miocene age of the Deseadan Salla Beds of Bolivia.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naeser, C.W.; McKee, E.H.; Johnson, N.M.; Macfadden, B.J.

    1987-01-01

    Three new fission-track (zircon) and four new K-Ar (biotite) dates corroborate a late Oligocene-early Miocene age (22-28 Ma) for the Salla Beds of Bolivia. These ages contrast markedly with the previously accepted age of about 35 Ma for these strata and their contained faunas, and recasts of order and chronology of interchange between New World and Old World mammals. -Authors

  4. The Late Oligocene to Early Miocene early evolution of rifting in the southwestern part of the Roer Valley Graben

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deckers, Jef

    2016-06-01

    The Roer Valley Graben is a Mesozoic continental rift basin that was reactivated during the Late Oligocene. The study area is located in the graben area of the southwestern part of the Roer Valley Graben. Rifting initiated in the study area with the development of a large number of faults in the prerift strata. Some of these faults were rooted in preexisting zones of weakness in the Mesozoic strata. Early in the Late Oligocene, several faults died out in the study area as strain became focused upon others, some of which were able to link into several-kilometer-long systems. Within the Late Oligocene to Early Miocene northwestward prograding shallow marine syn-rift deposits, the number of active faults further decreased with time. A relatively strong decrease was observed around the Oligocene/Miocene boundary and represents a further focus of strain onto the long fault systems. Miocene extensional strain was not accommodated by further growth, but predominantly by displacements along the long fault systems. Since the Oligocene/Miocene boundary coincides with a radical change in the European intraplate stress field, the latter might have contributed significantly to the simultaneous change of fault kinematics in the study area.

  5. Late Oligocene to early Miocene geochronology and paleoceanography from the subantarctic South Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billups, K.; Channell, J. E. T.; Zachos, J.

    2002-01-01

    At Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1090 on the Agulhas Ridge (subantarctic South Atlantic) benthic foraminiferal stable isotope records span the late Oligocene through the early Miocene (25-16 Ma) at a temporal resolution of ~10 kyr. In the same time interval a magnetic polarity stratigraphy can be unequivocally correlated to the geomagnetic polarity timescale (GPTS), thereby providing secure correlation of the isotope record to the GPTS. On the basis of the isotope-magnetostratigraphic correlation we provide refined age calibration of established oxygen isotope events Mi1 through Mi2 as well as several other distinctive isotope events. Our data suggest that the δ18O maximum commonly associated with the Oligocene/Miocene (O/M) boundary falls within C6Cn.2r (23.86 Ma). The δ13C maximum coincides, within the temporal resolution of our record, with C6Cn.2n/r boundary and hence to the O/M boundary. Comparison of the stable isotope record from ODP Site 1090 to the orbitally tuned stable isotope record from ODP Site 929 across the O/M boundary shows that variability in the two records is very similar and can be correlated at and below the O/M boundary. Site 1090 stable isotope records also provide the first deep Southern Ocean end-member for reconstructions of circulation patterns and late Oligocene to early Miocene climate change. Comparison to previously published records suggests that basin to basin carbon isotope gradients were small or nonexistent and are inconclusive with respect to the direction of deep water flow. Oxygen isotope gradients between sites suggest that the deep Southern Ocean was cold in comparison to the North Atlantic, Indian, and the Pacific Oceans. Dominance of cold Southern Component Deep Water at Site 1090, at least until 17 Ma, suggests that relatively cold circumpolar climatic conditions prevailed during the late Oligocene and early Miocene. We believe that a relatively cold Southern Ocean reflects unrestricted circumpolar flow through

  6. Astrochronology of a Late Oligocene to Early Miocene Magnetostratigraphy from the Northwest Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Peer, T. E.; Xuan, C.; Liebrand, D.; Lippert, P. C.; Wilson, P. A.

    2016-12-01

    The Oligocene-Miocene Boundary is defined by the geomagnetic polarity reversal C6Cn.2n/C6Cn.2r with an astronomically tuned age of 23 Ma. For late Oligocene to early Miocene reversals, only a few records (mainly from the equatorial Pacific and South Atlantic) integrate magneto- and cyclo-stratigraphy with astronomical tuning. Reversal ages acquired from these records show differences up to 100 kyr. We report new astronomically tuned ages for reversals between 21-26.5 Ma, based on integrated palaeomagnetic and X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) data from rapidly accumulated drift sediments (mean sedimentation rate of 2.5 cm/kyr) at Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Site U1406 (northwest Atlantic). The natural remanence preserved in the sediments is relatively weak (especially at high demagnetisation steps) and prone to influence from measurement noise. We introduce an optimisation protocol to improve the estimation of component directions used to define the reversals. For each 1-cm interval measurement, the protocol searches for the combination of a fixed number of steps of demagnetisation data that minimises the maximum angular deviation, statistically excluding the noisy measurement steps. For the tuning, we use the logarithm of the calcium over potassium ratio ln(Ca/K) from XRF core scanning data, a proxy of carbonate content in the sediment. Spectral and wavelet analyses of the 140-m long ln(Ca/K) record highlight dominant obliquity (including the 178 and 1200 kyr modulation) and additional eccentricity forcing. Supported by preliminary stable isotope analysis on benthic foraminifera, we tuned ln(Ca/K) minima to obliquity minima and eccentricity maxima. The resulting age model yield new independent ages for all reversals between C6Ar/C6AAn to C8r/C9n. Our results are generally consistent (within an obliquity cycle) with the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1090 age model [Billups et al., 2004], but deviate up to 80 kyr relative to ODP Site 1218 [Pälike et al

  7. Late Oligocene and Early Miocene Muroidea of the Zinda Pir Dome.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Everett H; Flynn, Lawrence J

    2016-02-17

    A series of Oligocene through Early Miocene terrestrial deposits preserved in the foothills of the Zinda Pir Dome of western Pakistan produce multiple, superposed fossil mammal localities. These include small mammal assemblages that shed light on the evolution of rodent lineages, especially Muroidea, in South Asia. Nine small mammal localities span approximately 28-19 Ma, an interval encompassing the Oligocene-Miocene boundary. The Early Miocene rodent fossil assemblages are dominated by muroid rodents, but muroids are uncommon and archaic in earlier Oligocene horizons. The Zinda Pir sequence includes the evolutionary transition to modern Muroidea at about the Oligocene-Miocene boundary. We review the muroid record for the Zinda Pir Dome, which includes the early radiation of primitive bamboo rats (Rhizomyinae) and early members of the modern muroid radiation, which lie near crown Cricetidae and Muridae. The Zinda Pir record dates diversification of modern muroids in the Indian Subcontintent and establishment by 19 Ma of muroid assemblages characteristic of the later Siwaliks.

  8. Late Miocene-Early Pliocene reactivation of the Main Boundary Thrust: Evidence from the seismites in southeastern Kumaun Himalaya, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Anurag; Srivastava, Deepak C.; Shah, Jyoti

    2013-05-01

    Tectonic history of the Himalaya is punctuated by successive development of the faults that run along the boundaries between different lithotectonic terrains. The Main Boundary Fault, defining the southern limit of the Lesser Himalayan terrain, is tectonically most active. A review of published literature reveals that the nature and age of reactivation events on the Main Boundary Fault is one of the poorly understood aspects of the Himalayan orogen. By systematic outcrop mapping of the seismites, this study identifies a Late Miocene-Early Pliocene reactivation on the Main Boundary Thrust in southeast Kumaun Himalaya. Relatively friable and cohesionless Neogene sedimentary sequences host abundant soft-sediment deformation structures in the vicinity of the Main Boundary Thrust. Among a large variety of structures, deformed cross-beds, liquefaction pockets, slump folds, convolute laminations, sand dykes, mushroom structures, fluid escape structures, flame and load structures and synsedimentary faults are common. The morphological attributes, the structural association and the distribution pattern of the soft-sediment deformation structures with respect to the Main Boundary Fault strongly suggest their development by seismically triggered liquefaction and fluidization. Available magnetostratigraphic age data imply that the seismites were developed during a Late Miocene-Early Pliocene slip on the Main Boundary Thrust. The hypocenter of the main seismic event may lie on the Main Boundary Thrust or to the north of the study area on an unknown fault or the Basal Detachment Thrust.

  9. Diagenetic history of late Oligocene-early Miocene carbonates in East Sabah, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zainal Abidin, N. S.; Raymond, R. R.; Bashah, N. S. I.

    2017-10-01

    Limestones are particularly susceptible to drastic early diagenesis modifications, mainly cementation and dissolution. During the early Miocene, a major tectonic deformation has caused a widespread of uplift in Sabah. This has resulted change in depositional environment from deep to shallow marine, which favours the deposition of Gomantong Limestone. This study aims to investigate the diagenetic history of Gomantong Limestone in East Sabah. Thorough understanding of the diagenetic processes may provide data to unravel the tectonic activities which affected the reservoir quality of the carbonates. Combining the data from comprehensive petrographic analysis, and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of 30 samples, two main cements type were identified. These are microcrystalline cement and Mg-calcite cement of granular and blocky mosaics which are dominantly seen in all samples. The sequence of diagenesis events are determined as (1) micritization; (2) grain scale compaction; (3) cementation (pore-filling); (4) mechanical compaction and cementation infilling fractures and (5) chemical compaction. These diagenetic events are interpreted as reflection of changes in diagenetic environment from shallow marine to deep burial. The massive cementation in the Gomantong Limestone has resulted into a poor reservoir quality.

  10. First discovery of colobine fossils from the Late Miocene/Early Pliocene in central Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Takai, Masanaru; Thaung-Htike; Zin-Maung-Maung-Thein; Soe, Aung Naing; Maung, Maung; Tsubamoto, Takehisa; Egi, Naoko; Nishimura, Takeshi D; Nishioka, Yuichiro

    2015-07-01

    Here we report two kinds of colobine fossils discovered from the latest Miocene/Early Pliocene Irrawaddy sediments of the Chaingzauk area, central Myanmar. A left mandibular corpus fragment preserving M1-3 is named as a new genus and species, Myanmarcolobus yawensis. Isolated upper (M(1)?) and lower (M2) molars are tentatively identified as Colobinae gen. et sp. indet. Although both forms are medium-sized colobines, they are quite different from each other in M2 morphology. The isolated teeth of the latter show typical colobine-type features, so it is difficult to identify their taxonomic position, whereas lower molars of Myanmarcolobus have unique features, such as a trapezoid-shaped long median lingual notch, a deeply concave median buccal cleft, a strongly developed mesiobuccal notch, and rather obliquely running transverse lophids. Compared with fossil and living Eurasian colobine genera, Myanmarcolobus is most similar in lower molar morphology to the Pliocene Dolichopithecus of Europe rather than to any Asian forms. In Dolichopithecus, however, the tooth size is much larger and the median lingual notch is mesiodistally much shorter than that of Myanmarcolobus. The discovery of Myanmarcolobus in central Myanmar is the oldest fossil record in Southeast Asia not only of colobine but also of cercopithecid monkeys and raises many questions regarding the evolutionary history of Asian colobine monkeys. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Early guenon from the late Miocene Baynunah Formation, Abu Dhabi, with implications for cercopithecoid biogeography and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Christopher C.; Bibi, Faysal; Hill, Andrew; Beech, Mark J.

    2014-01-01

    A newly discovered fossil monkey (AUH 1321) from the Baynunah Formation, Emirate of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, is important in a number of distinct ways. At ∼6.5–8.0 Ma, it represents the earliest known member of the primate subfamily Cercopithecinae found outside of Africa, and it may also be the earliest cercopithecine in the fossil record. In addition, the fossil appears to represent the earliest member of the cercopithecine tribe Cercopithecini (guenons) to be found anywhere, adding between 2 and 3.5 million y (∼50–70%) to the previous first-appearance datum of the crown guenon clade. It is the only guenon—fossil or extant—known outside the continent of Africa, and it is only the second fossil monkey specimen so far found in the whole of Arabia. This discovery suggests that identifiable crown guenons extend back into the Miocene epoch, thereby refuting hypotheses that they are a recent radiation first appearing in the Pliocene or Pleistocene. Finally, the new monkey is a member of a unique fauna that had dispersed from Africa and southern Asia into Arabia by this time, suggesting that the Arabian Peninsula was a potential filter for cross-continental faunal exchange. Thus, the presence of early cercopithecines on the Arabian Peninsula during the late Miocene reinforces the probability of a cercopithecoid dispersal route out of Africa through southwest Asia before Messinian dispersal routes over the Mediterranean Basin or Straits of Gibraltar. PMID:24982136

  12. Early guenon from the late Miocene Baynunah Formation, Abu Dhabi, with implications for cercopithecoid biogeography and evolution.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Christopher C; Bibi, Faysal; Hill, Andrew; Beech, Mark J

    2014-07-15

    A newly discovered fossil monkey (AUH 1321) from the Baynunah Formation, Emirate of Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates, is important in a number of distinct ways. At ∼ 6.5-8.0 Ma, it represents the earliest known member of the primate subfamily Cercopithecinae found outside of Africa, and it may also be the earliest cercopithecine in the fossil record. In addition, the fossil appears to represent the earliest member of the cercopithecine tribe Cercopithecini (guenons) to be found anywhere, adding between 2 and 3.5 million y (∼ 50-70%) to the previous first-appearance datum of the crown guenon clade. It is the only guenon--fossil or extant--known outside the continent of Africa, and it is only the second fossil monkey specimen so far found in the whole of Arabia. This discovery suggests that identifiable crown guenons extend back into the Miocene epoch, thereby refuting hypotheses that they are a recent radiation first appearing in the Pliocene or Pleistocene. Finally, the new monkey is a member of a unique fauna that had dispersed from Africa and southern Asia into Arabia by this time, suggesting that the Arabian Peninsula was a potential filter for cross-continental faunal exchange. Thus, the presence of early cercopithecines on the Arabian Peninsula during the late Miocene reinforces the probability of a cercopithecoid dispersal route out of Africa through southwest Asia before Messinian dispersal routes over the Mediterranean Basin or Straits of Gibraltar.

  13. Climate variations in the late Miocene - early Pliocene in the Black Sea region (Taman peninsula) inferred from palynological analyses.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grundan, Ekaterina; Kürschner, Wolfram; Krijgsman, Wout

    2017-04-01

    A palynological study of Neogene sediments from the cape "Zhelezny Rog" (Taman peninsula, the Black Sea area) was carried out as part of integrated micropaleontological, lithological and paleomagnetic research. The Neogene section of the cape "Zhelezny Rog" (the Zhelezny Rog section) is one of the most representative Upper Miocene to Lower Pliocene succession of Eastern Paratethys. The section covers the Sarmatian, Maeotian, Pontian (upper Miocene) and Kimmerian (lower Pliocene) local stages. One hundred and eighteen samples were selected from the Zhelezny rog section for quantitative palynological analysis. Using PCA analysis and additional proxy such as "steppe index", art/chen and poa/ast ratios the regional climate history was reconstructed. The Early Maeotian is characterized by a warm, warm-temperate climate on the background of relatively high humidity. During the Late Maeotian it became colder and dryer. The coldest and driest conditions during the Maeotian correspond to the middle part of the Late Maeotian. There were a high number of steppe elements (as Artemisia) and low amount of thermophilous ones. Climate of the end of the Maeotian was characterized by warmer and wetter conditions. In the beginning of the Pontian there was a cooling trend, as evidenced by the decreasing thermophilous elements and the increasing high-latitude trees. Most significant changes were found within the Pontian-Kimmerian boundary beds. This level is characterized by decreasing of thermophilous elements, increasing of cool-temperate pollen and Sphagnum spores that are considered as an evidence of a temperature decrease in the background of high humidity conditions. The results will be discussed and correlated to Neogene global climate trends.

  14. Declining Atmospheric pCO2 During the Late Miocene and Early Pliocene: New Insights from Paired Alkenone and Coccolith Stable Isotope Barometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phelps, S. R.; Polissar, P. J.; deMenocal, P. B.; Swann, J. P.; Guo, M. Y.; Stoll, H. M.

    2015-12-01

    806 combined with previous published measurements suggests atmospheric CO2 values declined across the late Miocene and early Pliocene. This decline is coincident with decreasing ocean temperatures suggesting the fundamental relationship between atmospheric CO2 and climate can qualitatively explain late Miocene warmth.

  15. Refinement of late-Early and Middle Miocene diatom biostratigraphy for the east coast of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barron, John A.; Browning, James; Sugarman, Peter; Miller, Kenneth G.

    2013-01-01

    Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 313 continuously cored Lower to Middle Miocene sequences at three continental shelf sites off New Jersey, USA. The most seaward of these, Site M29, contains a well-preserved Early and Middle Miocene succession of planktonic diatoms that have been independently correlated with the geomagnetic polarity time scale derived in studies from the equatorial and North Pacific. Shallow water diatoms (species of Delphineis, Rhaphoneis, and Sceptroneis) dominate in onshore sequences in Maryland and Virginia, forming the basis for the East Coast Diatom Zones (ECDZ). Integrated study of both planktonic and shallow water diatoms in Hole M29A as well as in onshore sequences in Maryland (the Baltimore Gas and Electric Company well) and Delaware (the Ocean Drilling Program Bethany Beach corehole) allows the refinement of ECDZ zones into a high-resolution biochronology that can be successfully applied in both onshore and offshore regions of the East Coast of the United States. Strontium isotope stratigraphy supports the diatom biochronology, although for much of the Middle Miocene it suggests ages that are on average 0.4 m.y. older. The ECDZ zonal definitions are updated to include evolutionary events of Delphineis species, and regional occurrences of important planktonic diatom marker taxa are included. Updated taxonomy, reference to published figures, and photographic images are provided that will aid in the application of this diatom biostratigraphy.

  16. Mineralogy and Geochemical Evidence of the Late Early Miocene Aridification Intensification in Xining Basin Caused By the Northeastern Tibetan Plateau Uplift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, C.; Xiao, G.; Wu, H.; Hao, Q.; Guo, Z.

    2014-12-01

    A typical inland aridification is present in Central Asia, global cooling, the retreat of Para-Tethys Sea and Tibetan Plateau uplift have been thought to be the main driving forces of the climate change in interior Asia during Cenozoic. However, only few terrestrial climate records from the Asian inland were extended to the late Oligocene-early Miocene, it is still unclear the evolution of aridification before the middle Miocene and which of these driving forces plays the key role. Here, a sedimentary, mineralogy and geochemical proxies record of the early Miocene sedimentary sequence (ca. 22.1 to 16.7 Ma) from Xining Basin was present in this paper, which locates in the northeastern side of Tibetan Plateau. Mineralogical and geochemical parameters show obvious two stages climate change. During ~ 22.1-19 Ma (Unit I), the enrichment of I/S (irregular mixed-layers of illite and smectite) content, high values of a*/L* and much stronger chemical weathering degree reveal a warm and humid climate condition. During 19-16.7 Ma (Unit II), the increase of chlorite and dolomite contents, the upward decrease of a*/L* and much weaker chemical weathering than Unit I suggest evidently increased aridity since ca. 19 Ma. Comprehensive comparisons among records from the central western China demonstrate that the aridification since ca. 19 Ma is widespread in northeastern of Tibetan Plateau. The early Miocene episodic uplift of the north and northeastern Tibetan Plateau, especially, the uplift of Laji Shan at ~22 Ma, possibly have played a key role in the aridification of the Xining Basin.

  17. Detrital Zircon Provenance response to slip transfer from the San Gabriel Fault to the San Andreas Fault in Late Miocene-Early Pliocene Ridge Basin, southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, V.; Cohen, H.; Cecil, R.; Heermance, R. V., III

    2016-12-01

    The San Andreas Fault (SAF) in southern California has created a dynamic plate-boundary that has controlled basin depocenters, fluvial systems, and range uplift since the early Miocene. From 11-5 Ma, dextral slip was localized along the San Gabriel Fault (SGF) north of Los Angeles. Slip was transferred onto the SAF in the Late Miocene or Early Pliocene, but the timing and landscape implications of this tectonic reorganization are not well constrained. We use detrital zircon (DZ) geochronology from the Ridge Basin, located at the nexus of the SGF and SAF, to determine the provenance of stratigraphy during this fault reorganization. We present data from two samples (n=187) from Middle to Upper Miocene Ridge Route Formation (RRF) and four samples (n=483) from Pliocene Hungry Valley Formation (HVF) of Ridge Basin Group. All Ridge Basin samples have peaks at ca. 1.7 Ga, though the relative proportion of Precambrian grains decreases upsection. RRF samples have two dominant Mesozoic peaks at ca. 150 Ma and at ca. 80 Ma. HVF has peak ages of 145-135 Ma and ca. 77 Ma. HVF samples also have Triassic peaks at 235-220 Ma, which is absent in the RRF. To evaluate the provenance of these samples, modern sands were collected from five major drainages in the San Gabriel (SGM, n=181), the San Bernardino Mountains (SBM, n=258) and a rock sample from the Middle Miocene Crowder Formation (n=99) between the ranges. DZ spectra of the RRF is dissimilar to that of modern rivers draining the SGM, although we acknowledge that a more proximal source from the western Transverse Ranges or Sierra Pelona is possible. The source for HVF is more problematic, in that the DZ spectra of the HVF is unlike that of all modern rivers and Crowder Formation. Triassic zircons combined with the presence of unique volcanic clasts suggest a source from the Granite Mountain area in the Mojave Desert. The differences in DZ spectra between RRF and HVF suggests that the transfer of slip from the SGF to the SAF in

  18. Early evidence for complex social structure in Proboscidea from a late Miocene trackway site in the United Arab Emirates

    PubMed Central

    Bibi, Faysal; Kraatz, Brian; Craig, Nathan; Beech, Mark; Schuster, Mathieu; Hill, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Many living vertebrates exhibit complex social structures, evidence for the antiquity of which is limited to rare and exceptional fossil finds. Living elephants possess a characteristic social structure that is sex-segregated and multi-tiered, centred around a matriarchal family and solitary or loosely associated groups of adult males. Although the fossil record of Proboscidea is extensive, the origin and evolution of social structure in this clade is virtually unknown. Here, we present imagery and analyses of an extensive late Miocene fossil trackway site from the United Arab Emirates. The site of Mleisa 1 preserves exceptionally long trackways of a herd of at least 13 individuals of varying size transected by that of a single large individual, indicating the presence of both herding and solitary social modes. Trackway stride lengths and resulting body mass estimates indicate that the solitary individual was also the largest and therefore most likely a male. Sexual determination for the herd is equivocal, but the body size profile and number of individuals are commensurate with those of a modern elephant family unit. The Mleisa 1 trackways provide direct evidence for the antiquity of characteristic and complex social structure in Proboscidea. PMID:22357934

  19. Chad Basin: Paleoenvironments of the Sahara since the Late Miocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, Mathieu; Duringer, Philippe; Ghienne, Jean-François; Roquin, Claude; Sepulchre, Pierre; Moussa, Abderamane; Lebatard, Anne-Elisabeth; Mackaye, Hassan Taisso; Likius, Andossa; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

    2009-08-01

    Since the mid 1990s, the Mission paléoanthropologique francotchadienne (MPFT) conducts yearly paleontological field investigations of the Miocene-Pliocene of the Chad Basin. This article synthesizes some of the results of the MPFT, with focus on the Chad Basin development during the Neogene. We propose an overview of the depositional paleoenvironments of this part of Africa at different scales of time and space, based on a multidisciplinary approach (sedimentary geology, geomorphology, geophysic, numerical simulations and geochronology). The Miocene-Pliocene paleoenvironments are examined through the sedimentary archives of the early hominids levels and the Holocene Lake Mega-Chad episode illustrates the last major paleoenvironmental change in this area. The sedimentary record of the Chad Basin since the Late Miocene can be schematized as the result of recurrent interactions from lake to desert environments.

  20. Style and age of late Oligocene-early Miocene deformation in the southern Stillwater Range, west central Nevada: Paleomagnetism, geochronology, and field relations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hudson, Mark R.; John, David A.; Conrad, James E.; McKee, Edwin H.

    2000-01-01

    Paleomagnetic and geochronologic data combined with geologic mapping tightly restrict the timing and character of a late Oligocene to early Miocene episode of large magnitude extension in the southern Stillwater Range and adjacent regions of west central Nevada. The southern Stillwater Range was the site of an Oligocene to early Miocene volcanic center comprising (1) 28.3 to 24.3 Ma intracaldera ash flow tuffs, lava flows, and subjacent plutons associated with three calderas, (2) 24.8 to 20.7 Ma postcaldera silicic dikes and domes, and (3) unconformably overlying 15.3 to 13.0 Ma dacite to basalt lava flows, plugs, and dikes. The caldera-related tuffs, lava flows, and plutons were tilted 60°-70° either west or east during the initial period of Cenozoic deformation that accommodated over 100% extension. Directions of remanent magnetization obtained from these extrusive and intrusive, caldera-related rocks are strongly deflected from an expected Miocene direction in senses appropriate for their tilt. A mean direction for these rocks after tilt correction, however, suggests that they were also affected by a moderate (33.4° ± 11.8°) component of counterclockwise vertical axis rotation. Paleomagnetic data indicate that the episode of large tilting occurred during emplacement of 24.8 to 20.7 Ma postcaldera dikes and domes. In detail, an apparent decrease in rotation with decreasing age of individual, isotopically dated bodies of the postcaldera group indicates that most tilting occurred between 24.4 and 24.2 Ma. The onset of tilting immediately following after the final caldera eruptions suggests that the magmatism and deformation were linked. Deformation was not driven by magma buoyancy, however, because tilting equally affected the caldera systems of different ages, including their plutonic roots. It is more likely that regional extension was focused in the southern Stillwater Range due to magmatic warming and reduction of tensile strength of the brittle crust

  1. Late Oligocene-Early Miocene compressional tectosedimentary episode and associated land-mammal faunas in the Andes of central Chile and adjacent Argentina (32 37°s)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semper, Thierry; Marshall, Larry G.; Rivano, Sergio; Godoy, Estanislao

    1994-01-01

    A reassessment of the geologic and land-mammal fossil evidence used in attribution of a tectosedimentary episode in the Andes between 32 and 37°S to the Middle Eocene "Incaic tectonic phase" of Peru indicates that the episode occurred during Late Oligocene-Early Miocene times(~ 27-20 Ma). From west to east, three structural domains are recognized for this time span in the study area: a volcanic arc (Chile); a thin-skinned, E-verging fold-thrust belt (Cordillera Principal, Chile-Argentina border strip); and a foreland basin (Argentina). Initiation of thrusting in the Cordillera Principal fold-thrust belt produced the coeval initiation of sedimentation in the foreland basin of adjacent Argentina. This onset of foreland deposition postdates strata bearing a Divisaderan Land Mammal Age fauna (i.e. ~ 35-30 Ma) and is marked at ~ 36°30'S by the base of the "Rodados Lustrosos" conglomerates, which are conformably overlain by sedimentary rocks containing a Deseadan Land Mammal Age fauna (i.e. ~ 29-21 Ma). Geologic relationships between the thick volcanic Abanico (Coya-Machalí) and Farellones formations also demonstrate that this tectosedimentary episode practically ended at ~ 20 Ma at least in the volcanic arc, and was therefore roughly coeval with the major tectonic crisis (~ 27-19 Ma) known in northwestern Andean Bolivia some 1500 km to the north. This strongly suggests that a long, outstanding tectonic upheaval affected at least an extended 12-37°S segment of the Andean margin of South America during Late Oligocene and Early Miocene times.

  2. Direct dating of Late Miocene-Early Pliocene compression on Elba Island: Is a new paradigm necessary for the opening of the Northern Tyrrhenian Sea?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viola, Giulio; Torgersen, Espen; Mazzarini, Francesco; Musumeci, Giovanni; Garofalo, Paolo Stefano; van der Lelij, Roelant

    2017-04-01

    medium-grade hornfels rocks of the contact aureole at c. 6.2 Ma. K-Ar ages were produced from synkinematic illite separated from multiple grain sizes, with the goal to discriminate the role of clay synkinematic authigenesis and thus date the last increment of deformation. The age of the dated finest fraction constrains the age of the Calanchiole shear zone to 6.14±0.64 Ma (<0.1 µm fraction) and of the Capo Norsi thrust to 4.9±0.27 Ma (<0.4 µm fraction). Our results are fully consistent with the existing data and importantly provide the first direct dating of brittle deformation in the Apennines. In combination with field, kinematic and regional considerations, they undoubtedly constrain a Late Miocene-Early Pliocene regional compressive stress state, with the brittle ZF likely being its latest expression. This followed an earlier phase of upper crustal extension, presumably active since ˜16 Ma and was in turn followed by renewed extension. Compression at that time requires a re-evaluation of the geodynamic models of the evolution of the northern Apennines orogenic prism.

  3. Geologic Reconnaissance of the Antelope-Ashwood Area, North-Central Oregon: With Emphasis on the John Day Formation of Late Oligocene and Early Miocene Age

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peck, Dallas L.

    1964-01-01

    This report briefly describes the geology of an area of about 750 square miles in Jefferson, Wasco, Crook, and Wheeler Counties, Oregon. About 16,000 feet of strata that range in age from pre-Tertiary to Quaternary are exposed. These include the following units: pre-Tertiary slate, graywacke, conglomerate, and meta-andesite; Clarno Formation of Eocene age - lava flows, volcanic breccia, tuff, and tuffaceous mudstone, chiefly of andesitic composition; John Day Formation of late Oligocene and early Miocene age - pyroclastic rocks, flows, and domes, chiefly of rhyolitic composition; Columbia River Basalt of middle Miocene age - thick, columnar jointed flows of very fine grained dense dark-gray basalt; Dalles Formation of Pliocene age - bedded tuffaceous sandstone, siltstone, and conglomerate; basalt of Pliocene or Pleistocene age - lava flows of porous-textured olivine basalt; and Quaternary loess, landslide debris, and alluvium. Unconformities separate pre-Tertiary rocks and Clarno Formation, Clarno and John Day Formations, John Day Formation and Columbia River Basalt, and Columbia River Basalt and Dalles Formation. The John Day Formation, the only unit studied in detail, consists of about 4,000 feet of tuff, lapilli tuff, strongly to weakly welded rhyolite ash flows, and less abundant trachyandesite flows and rhyolite flows and domes. The formation was divided into nine mappable members in part of the area, primarily on the basis of distinctive ledge-forming welded ash-flow sheets. Most of the sheets are composed of stony rhyolite containing abundant lithophysae and sparse phenocrysts. One sheet contains 10 to 20 percent phenocrysts, mostly cryptoperthitic soda sanidine, but including less abundant quartz, myrmekitic intergrowths of quartz and sanidine, and oligoclase. The rhyolitic ash flows and lava flows were extruded from nearby vents, in contrast to some of the interbedded air-fall tuff and lapilli tuff of dacitic and andesitic composition that may have been

  4. Connectivity controls on the late Miocene eastern Mediterranean fish fauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agiadi, Konstantina; Antonarakou, Assimina; Kontakiotis, George; Kafousia, Nefeli; Moissette, Pierre; Cornée, Jean-Jacques; Manoutsoglou, Emmanouil; Karakitsios, Vasileios

    2017-04-01

    Environmental change significantly affects the production of fish resources and their dependent societies. The paleontological record offers unique insight into the effects of long-term paleoenvironmental variability on the fish species' distributions and abundances. In the present study, we investigate the late Miocene (7.5-6.5 Ma) fish assemblages of the Potamida section in western Crete (eastern Mediterranean). The determined fish taxa are examined in a paleobiogeographic context, with regard to their geographic and stratigraphic distribution from the early Miocene ( 13 Ma) through today. In addition, present-day ecological data are used to reconstruct the paleoenvironmental conditions in the study area. Planktonic foraminifer biostratigraphy significantly improves the earlier dating of the studied sequence. The late Miocene fish fauna of Potamida includes 35 taxa (seven in open nomenclature) from 13 teleost families. The eastern Mediterranean biostratigraphic and geographic distribution of 32 taxa is significantly expanded into the Tortonian, whereas 13 species are recorded for the first time from the Messinian. Four stages are distinguished in the area's paleoenvironmental evolution. (1) The Potamida area was an open marine environment with depths exceeding 150 m between 7.5-7.45 Ma. (2) Between 7.45-7.36 Ma, the results suggest depths between 300-400 m. (3) The depositional depth increases between 7.36-7.28 Ma to 400-550 m. (4) Later on, approximately between 6.8-6.6 Ma, the depth is again estimated around 100-150 m.

  5. Revised Late Oligocene to Early Miocene magnetic stratigraphy recorded by drift sediments at Sites U1405 and U1406, IODP Expedition 342 (Newfoundland, NW Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Peer, Tim; Xuan, Chuang; Wilson, Paul; Liebrand, Diederik; Lippert, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The nannofossil oozes drilled at IODP Expedition 342 (Paleogene Newfoundland Sediment Drifts) Sites U1405 and U1406 provide an exceptional sedimentary archive of the Late Oligocene to Early Miocene due to high sedimentation rates (2-6 cm/kyr at U1406 and up to 20 cm/kyr at U1405) and their ideal location below the Deep Western Boundary Current. These drift sediment sequences provide a unique opportunity to study the Oligocene-Miocene Transition (OMT) and Mi1-event (a transient 1‰ positive oxygen isotope excursion) at an unprecedented resolution from a Northern Hemisphere perspective. The exact timing of the OMT and its rate of change require a reliable and high-resolution magnetic stratigraphic age control, as Chron C6Cn with its three subchrons roughly spans the Mi1 event and the reversal C6Cn.2n/C6Cn.2r defines the Oligocene-Miocene boundary. Natural Remanent Magnetisation (NRM) was measured on 140 m of u-channel samples at U1405 and 190 m at U1406. The u-channel sample based magnetostratigraphy is in good agreement with that based on the shipboard data and reveal distinctive well-defined patterns of normal and reversed polarities, which can be correlated to the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale between C6Bn.2n and C9n (ca. 22.2 to 27 Ma) at U1406 and between C6Bn.2n and C6Cr (ca. 22.2 to 23.5 Ma) at U1405. Furthermore, putative cryptochrons in Chron C6Br and C7Ar, previously reported at Site U1334 (IODP Expedition 320), are observed in the u-channel magnetic stratigraphy for Sites U1405 and U1406. Anhysteretic Remanent Magnetisation (ARM) intensity variations are combined with X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) generated elemental measurements to refine the shipboard splice of both U1405 and U1406. Latest Oligocene to earliest Miocene splice refinements are complicated by the presence of large-scale stratigraphic gaps (up to 25 m at U1405) unrelated to drilling disturbances. The depth and estimated age of these stratigraphic gaps vary from hole to hole, and do not appear

  6. Late Miocene to Pleistocene Mineralogy of ODP Site 1146

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, E. M.

    2001-12-01

    ODP Site 1146 (19° 27.40'N, 116° 16.37'E, 2092 m depth) was drilled on the continental slope of the South China Sea. A composite section, comprised of three stratigraphic units, extends down to 640 mcd. Unit 1 is late Pliocene to Pleistocene nannofossil clay (0 - 243 mcd); Unit 2, middle Miocene to Late Pliocene foraminifera - nannofossil - clay mixed sediment (243 - 553 mcd); Unit 3, early to middle Miocene nannofossil clay (553 - 642 mcd). This study reports the < 2 μ m mineralogy from the late Miocene through early Pleistocene. Samples were analyzed at approximately 1.5 m intervals from 150 to 225 mcd, and 1 m intervals from 225 to 440 mcd, with an age resolution of ~25 ka and ~35 ka, respectively. Illite, chlorite, quartz and plagioclase concentrations decrease with increasing depth through Unit 1. Kaolinite and calcite concentrations increase with depth, while smectite values are constant in this unit. Illite, quartz and plagioclase show high variability in Unit 1 compared with the underlying Unit 2. Unit 2 has more uniform sediment composition, with constant illite, chlorite, and quartz concentrations. Kaolinite concentration increases with depth, following a drop in concentration across the Unit 1/2 boundary. Plagioclase concentration shows a small, steady decrease throughout this unit. Smectite concentration does not change across the Unit 1/2 boundary, decreases to a steady low value from 310 - 400 mcd, and increases again towards the bottom. The mineralogy of sediments recovered at Site 1146 suggest a classic pattern of source region aridification from the middle Pliocene through the Pleistocene, indicated in Unit 1 mineralogy as a decrease in kaolinite with decreasing depth, concomitant with an increase in quartz, plagioclase, illite and chlorite. The mineral variability in this interval suggests glacial - interglacial control of the terrigenous sedimentation. The sediment sources and source area weathering regimes were relatively constant throughout

  7. Late Miocene to Early Pleistocene Paleo-Erosion Rates and Provenance Change in the NE Argentinian Andes: Apparent Coupling of Sediment Fluxes with 400-kyr Eccentricity Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burch Fisher, G.; Amidon, William H.; Burbank, Douglas W.; Luna, Lisa V.

    2016-04-01

    Proposed linkages among climate, erosion, and tectonics provide an appealing framework for interpretation of the interplay among tectonic forcing, topographic form, climatic inputs, and rates of erosion. More rapid deformation is hypothesized to create higher and steeper topography that focuses precipitation, drives faster erosion, and enhances slip rates. But, a determination of cause and effect or synchrony in any proposed tectonic-climate-erosion coupling is commonly difficult to extract. Typically constraints on age and provenance are too loose, or records are too short, irregular, or sparse to permit nuanced interpretations. In fact, clear records in active orogens that reveal a persistent climatic imprint on erosion rates (such as ones scaled by Milankovich-type cyclicity) are rare, especially for pre-Quaternary intervals. Here, along the Rio Iruya on the eastern flank of the NE Argentinian Andes, we exploit a unique field setting in which a 100-m-deep canyon has been cut during the past century through a 6-km-thick tilted sequence of upper Cenozoic synorogenic strata. Sample ages in the Iruya gorge are provided by a high-quality magnetostratigraphy (~100-kyr resolution) that is calibrated with U-Pb zircon ages of interbedded tephra. Detrital zircon ages and quartz trace elements provide a provenance record for the sampled section. Here, we report 49 new detrital 10Be cosmogenic paleo-erosion rates spanning from the Late Miocene to Early Pleistocene (~5.8 to 1.8 Ma). Paired with each 10Be sample that is younger than ~3.3 Ma, 23 26Al samples provide a second proxy for paleo-erosion rates. 20th-century canyon cutting obviates the typical uncertainties associated with unconstrained Late Quaternary cosmogenic production due to exhumation prior to sampling. Three different erosion-rate regimes are apparent: from 1.8 to 2.3 Ma, rates are high with few oscillations; from 2.3 to 4.0 Ma, rates oscillate by a factor of 5 on a ~400-kyr timescale; and from 5.8 to 4.0 Ma

  8. Early Eocene to Late Miocene Variations in the South Atlantic CCD: Constraints from the Walvis Ridge Depth-Transect (ODP Leg 208)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsey, M. M.; Schellenberg, S. A.

    2006-12-01

    Carbonate saturation profiles are complex and dynamic products of processes operating on spatiotemporal scales from the "short-term local" (e.g. carbonate export production, carbonate ion concentration) to the "long- term global" (e.g. carbonate-silicate weathering, shelf:basin carbonate partitioning). Thus, a refined history of carbonate saturation may provide insight on global carbon-cycle dynamics. An established, if crude, proxy for reconstructing carbonate saturation is the wt% carbonate content of pelagic sediments, where <20 wt% is ascribed to deposition below the carbonate compensation depth (CCD). A number of now classic works (e.g. Berger and Roth, 1975; van Andel, 1977) established first-order and presumably global Cenozoic CCD fluctuations. The Walvis Ridge depth-transect of ODP Leg 208 represents an excellent opportunity to refine our understanding of the South Atlantic Cenozoic CCD. Wt% carbonate determinations (n = 299) through the Early Eocene to Late Miocene section at Site 1267 are significantly correlated with associated natural gamma ray values (r2 = 0.92). This relationship was used to produce a cm-scale synthetic wt% carbonate record ordinated in the time-domain via the ship-board age-model and in the paleodepth-domain via Sclater and Parsons (1977) crustal age-depth relationship. The Site 1267 record shows good general agreement with previous low-resolution (>10^{5-6} yr) CCD reconstructions and correlates relatively well with estimates of eustatic sea level fluctuations. Ongoing research expands this general approach to shallower and deeper ODP Leg 208 sites to provide greater constraints on the history of the South Atlantic CCD. These data, combined with other proxies (e.g. planktonic foraminifer fragmentation, stable isotopes) and placed within evolving Leg 208 age-models, will provide valuable constraints on cyclic and secular fluctuations in the South Atlantic carbonate saturation profile and their relation to various components of the

  9. Evaluating climatic response to external radiative forcing during the late Miocene to early Pliocene: New perspectives from eastern equatorial Pacific (IODP U1338) and North Atlantic (ODP 982) locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drury, Anna Joy; John, Cédric M.; Shevenell, Amelia E.

    2016-01-01

    Orbital-scale climate variability during the latest Miocene-early Pliocene is poorly understood due to a lack of high-resolution records spanning 8.0-3.5 Ma, which resolve all orbital cycles. Assessing this variability improves understanding of how Earth's system sensitivity to insolation evolves and provides insight into the factors driving the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) and the Late Miocene Carbon Isotope Shift (LMCIS). New high-resolution benthic foraminiferal Cibicidoides mundulus δ18O and δ13C records from equatorial Pacific International Ocean Drilling Program Site U1338 are correlated to North Atlantic Ocean Drilling Program Site 982 to obtain a global perspective. Four long-term benthic δ18O variations are identified: the Tortonian-Messinian, Miocene-Pliocene, and Early-Pliocene Oxygen Isotope Lows (8-7, 5.9-4.9, and 4.8-3.5 Ma) and the Messinian Oxygen Isotope High (MOH; 7-5.9 Ma). Obliquity-paced variability dominates throughout, except during the MOH. Eleven new orbital-scale isotopic stages are identified between 7.4 and 7.1 Ma. Cryosphere and carbon cycle sensitivities, estimated from δ18O and δ13C variability, suggest a weak cryosphere-carbon cycle coupling. The MSC termination coincided with moderate cryosphere sensitivity and reduced global ice sheets. The LMCIS coincided with reduced carbon cycle sensitivity, suggesting a driving force independent of insolation changes. The response of the cryosphere and carbon cycle to obliquity forcing is established, defined as Earth System Response (ESR). Observations reveal that two late Miocene-early Pliocene climate states existed. The first is a prevailing dynamic state with moderate ESR and obliquity-driven Antarctic ice variations, associated with reduced global ice volumes. The second is a stable state, which occurred during the MOH, with reduced ESR and lower obliquity-driven variability, associated with expanded global ice volumes.

  10. Asymmetrical, inversely graded, upstream-migrating cyclic steps in marine settings: Late Miocene-early Pliocene Fish Creek-Vallecito Basin, southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Chenglin; Chen, Liuqin; West, Logan

    2017-10-01

    Cyclic steps are ubiquitous in modern sedimentary environments, yet their recognition remains sparse in the rock record. Here, we interpret three sets of undulating backsets (1 to 3) recognized in the late Miocene-early Pliocene Latrania Formation in the Anza-Borrego Desert, the Fish Creek-Vallecito Basin, southern California, USA as the first cm- to dm-scale outcrop record of cyclic steps, based on asymmetrical cross-sections, upstream migration, and inversely graded laminae. Upstream migration and asymmetrical cross-sections of backsets and concomitant backset laminae are attributed to supercritical-to-subcritical flow transitions through weak hydraulic jumps, which are composed of: (i) thin (tens of centimetres) and slower (reported as flow velocities (Ū) of 0.45 to 1.45 m s- 1, with mean value of Ū = 0.89 m s- 1) subcritical (represented by internal Froude numbers (Fr) of 0.67 to 0.99, with mean value of Fr = 0.84) turbidity currents on the stoss sides, and (ii) thin (tens of centimetres) and faster (reported as Ū of 0.99 to 4.03 m s- 1, with mean value of Ū = 2.24 m s- 1) supercritical (represented by Fr of 1.84 to 3.07, with mean value of Fr = 2.42) turbidity flows on the lee sides. The inversely graded laminae in the troughs of backsets are 2 to 5 cm thick, and consist of two discrete divisions: (i) 1 to 2 cm thick, lower finer-grained divisions made up of parallel laminated siltstones, overlain by very fine- to fine-grained sandstones, and (ii) 2 to 3 cm thick, upper divisions composed of medium- to coarse-grained sandstones, with sporadic occurrence of subrounded pebbles. These inversely graded laminae are related to stratified, collisional and/or frictional traction carpets under conditions of high fall-out rates. Due to the poor preservation potential of cyclic steps, the rock record of cyclic steps is generally considered to be rare. The present outcrop-based study presents a detailed analysis of sedimentary facies, growth patterns, and flow

  11. Late Oligocene-Early Miocene larger benthic foraminifera from the mixed siliciclastic-carbonate and reefal strata of Kharabeh Sanji stratigraphic section, NW Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseinzadeh, R.

    2012-04-01

    The marine Oligo-Miocene sediments of the Qom Formation at Kharabeh Sanji section west Uromieh consisting of mixed siliciclastic-carbonates changing to reefal strata were studied in detail to establish a high resolution biostratigraphic zonal scheme. Contineous distribution of larger benthic foraminifera (mainly miogypsinids) allowed us to correlate the identified taxa with the shallow benthic zonation (SBZ) already introduced for European sequences and to ascribe detailed age to the study section based on the determined biozones. The identified fauna include the genera Miogypsinodes, Miogypsina, Neorotalia, Nephrolepidina, Eulepidina and Spiroclypeus. The foraminifereal assemblage resemble to the fauna described from European basins characterizing the SBZ 23 to SBZ 25 zones representing a time interval from the Late Chattian to Burdigalian.

  12. Proterotheriidae (Mammalia, Litopterna) from the Cerro Azul Formation (late Miocene), La Pampa Province, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, G. I.; Montalvo, C. I.; Sostillo, R.; Cerdeño, E.

    2018-04-01

    Remains of Proterotheriidae (Litopterna) recovered from different localities in La Pampa Province, Argentina, are described. The fossiliferous levels in these localities correspond to the Cerro Azul Formation (late Miocene), where Chasicoan and Huayquerian faunal associations are known. The specimens of Proterotheriidae herein studied are assigned to Diplasiotherium pampa, Eoauchenia primitiva, cf. Brachytherium cuspidatum, Neobrachytherium sp. and Proterotheriidae indet. Although the holotype of D. pampa (left mandibular fragment with p3-m2) was defined in a previous paper, it is figured and fully described here, and its m3 is now known among the new collected specimens. Eoauchenia, Brachytherium and Neobrachytherium are registered in La Pampa Province for the first time, and the record of E. primitiva extends back to late Miocene its temporal distribution. Proterotheriids from the Cerro Azul Formation gather exclusive elements and others related to taxa represented in different Argentinean geological units corresponding to late Miocene-early Pliocene period.

  13. A new slider turtle (Testudines: Emydidae: Deirochelyinae: Trachemys) from the late Hemphillian (late Miocene/early Pliocene) of eastern Tennessee and the evolution of the deirochelyines

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Trachemys (Testudines: Emydidae) represents one of the most well-known turtle genera today. The evolution of Trachemys, while being heavily documented with fossil representatives, is not well understood. Numerous fossils from the late Hemphillian Gray Fossil Site (GFS) in northeastern Tennessee help to elucidate its evolution. The fossil Trachemys at the GFS represent a new species. The new taxon, Trachemys haugrudi, is described, and currently represents the most thoroughly described fossil emydid species known. A phylogenetic analysis, including 31 species, focusing on the subfamily Deirochelyinae is performed that includes the new fossil species, along with numerous other modern and fossil deirochelyine species, representing the first phylogenetic analysis published that includes several fossil deirochelyines. The phylogenetic analysis, utilizing morphological evidence, provides monophyletic clades of all modern deirochelyines, including Chrysemys, Deirochelys, Pseudemys, Malaclemys, Graptemys, and Trachemys. A strict consensus tree finds the recently described fossil species Graptemys kerneri to be part of a clade of Graptemys + Malaclemys. Three fossil taxa, including one previously referred to Pseudemys (Pseudemys caelata) and two to Deirochelys (Deirochelys carri and Deirochelys floridana) are found to form a clade with modern Deirochelys reticularia reticularia, with D. floridana sister to the other members of the clade. Chrysemys is found to be part of a basal polytomy with Deirochelys in relation to other deirochelyine taxa. Two fossil taxa previously referred to Chrysemys (Chrysemys timida and Chrysemys williamsi) form a paraphyly with the modern Chrysemys picta picta and Deirochelys, and may be referable to distinct genera. Additionally, fossil taxa previously attributed to Trachemys (Trachemys hillii, Trachemys idahoensis, Trachemys inflata, and Trachemys platymarginata) and T. haugrudi are found to form a clade separate from clades of northern and

  14. Gratkorn - A new late Middle Miocene vertebrate fauna from Styria (Late Sarmatian, Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, M.; Böhme, M.; Prieto, J.

    2009-04-01

    Integrated stratigraphic approaches provide precise correlations of global standard stages with regional Paratethys stages. Nevertheless, higher resolution stratigraphic matching of terrestrial deposits remains challenging due to the lack of a practical continental biostratigraphy. The mostly used tool for biostratigraphic correlation of non-marine deposits in the Old World is still the concept of Neogene Mammal-zones (MN-zones). However, at higher biostratigraphic resolution (<1 million years) this concept looses its practicability and has to be replaced by a taxon-range-zonation. To solve this problem a higher number of independently dated small-mammal localities are needed. This is especially crucial for the late Middle to earliest Late Miocene, for which vertebrate faunas in the (Central-)Paratethyan area rare. Recently, a new vertebrate fauna was discovered at the locality Gratkorn (clay pit St. Stefan) just beyond the northwestern margin of the Styrian Basin (Gratkorn Basin; 10 km NW Graz; 15°20'55"E/47°08'15"N). The fauna originates from a c. 0.5 m thick hydromorphic paleosol, underlain by fluvial sands and gravels and topped by c. 15 m thick limnic pelites (Gross, 2008). Sedimentological data as well as the gastropod (Harzhauser et al., 2008) and vertebrate faunas point to a highly structured, more or less vegetated alluvial fan/braided river landscape. Active and abandoned fluvial channels, moist floodplain-soils and ephemeral ponds but also nearby dryer open areas and limestone screes of the up-lifting Palaeozoic basement offered a wide range of habitats. The occurrence of xero- and thermophile terrestrial gastropods and ectothermic vertebrates correspond well with the late Middle/early Late Miocene dry-spell in Central Europe (Böhme et al., 2008). Furthermore, an overall semiarid climate is supported by the development of a calcrete horizon c. 0.6 m below the fossiliferous horizon. The vertebrate remains are irregularly distributed throughout the

  15. The early to mid-Miocene environment of Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashworth, A. C.; Lewis, A.

    2012-12-01

    Paleoecological studies in the Transantarctic Mountains of the McMurdo region provide evidence that the climate was both warmer and wetter in the early to mid-Miocene than it was during the late Miocene. The climate change was accompanied by a shift from wet- to cold-based glaciation in the TAM and the probable growth of the polar ice sheet. Terrestrial and freshwater aquatic fossil assemblages from the Friis Hills (77°S) and the Olympus Range (77°S), with endpoint 40Ar/39Ar ages on tephras of 19.76 Ma and 14.07 Ma, respectively, indicate climatic cooling during the interval. At c.14 Ma, the temperature dropped below the threshold required to support the plants and insects of a tundra biome, and they became extinct. This interpretation is supported by pollen studies from Ross Sea cores. The extinction of the tundra biota on the continent appears to have been time-transgressive, occurring at 12.8 Ma on the Antarctic Peninsula. Evidence of climatic cooling from early to mid-Miocene is based on a decrease in biodiversity. During interglacial phases of the early Miocene, the poorly drained valley of the Friis Hills supported a sexually-reproducing moss community dominated by Campylium cf. polygamum, which today grows on the margins of lakes and in soil between boulders. Wood and leaves of Nothofagus (Southern Beech), and the seeds of at least five other angiosperm species are preserved as fossils. In addition, there are abundant megaspores and spiny, curved leaves of the aquatic lycopod Isoetes (Quillwort), as well as chitinous remains of curculionid beetles and Chironomidae (midges). During glacial phases, the only fossils found are Nothofagus leaves of a species which appears to be different than that associated with the interglacial phases. Pollen supports the interpretation that there was more than one species of Nothofagus in the vegetation. The types and numbers of species indicate that the vegetation was a shrub tundra. The closest modern analog for the fossil

  16. Glacial Extent During the Late Early Miocene (18-16 Ma): Results from the ANDRILL AND-2A Drillcore, Southern McMurdo Sound Project, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekar, Stephen; Koss, Howard; Passchier, Sandra

    2010-05-01

    equivocal, suggesting a smaller advance than for the one at the Mi1b event. Between these two ice advances, the lithofacies indicates generally more distal ice environments and therefore less ice volume and correlates to the early Miocene Climatic Optimum (17.2-16.4 Ma).

  17. Fish Productivity in Open-Ocean Gyre Systems in the Late Oligocene and Miocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuevas, J. M.; Sibert, E. C.; Norris, R. D.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding how marine ecosystems respond to climate change is very important as we continue to warm the climate. Fish represent a critical protein source for a significant portion of the global population, and as such, an understanding of fish production and its interactions with climate change may help better prepare for the future. Ichthyoliths, fossil fish teeth and shark scales, are a novel fossil group which can be used as an indicator for fish productivity. Several important climate events occurred during the Miocene (7 to 23 Ma), including the Middle Miocene Climatic Optimum. Here we reconstruct fish production from across the Miocene from Pacific and Atlantic Ocean gyres. South Atlantic samples, from Deep Sea Drilling Program (DSDP) Site 522 spanning from 30 to 20 Ma, show fairly variable numbers in the Oligocene (ranging from 100 to 800 ich/cm2/yr), but stabilization in the Early Miocene (around 400 ich/cm2/yr), suggesting that the beginning of the Miocene brought consistent conditions for fish production. In the North Pacific, our record from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 886 shows a distinct crash in fish productivity at 11 Ma, from 3500 ich/cm2/yr to a steady decline around 100 ich/cm2/yr for the next million years. This crash is followed by a marked increase in the presence of diatoms and biogenous opal. This is somewhat surprising, since in modern oceanic systems, an increase in diatoms and other large-celled phytoplankton is associated with shorter, more efficient food chains and higher levels of fish. It is also interesting to note that denticles remain consistently low at both sites, indicating consistently low shark populations through this time period. Together, these results suggest that the Late Oligocene and Miocene was a time of variable fish production and provide a window into understanding of dynamic ecosystem changes through the Miocene in open-ocean gyre ecosystems.

  18. Anthracothere dental anatomy reveals a late Miocene Chado-Libyan bioprovince

    PubMed Central

    Lihoreau, Fabrice; Boisserie, Jean-Renaud; Viriot, Laurent; Coppens, Yves; Likius, Andossa; Mackaye, Hassane Taisso; Tafforeau, Paul; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

    2006-01-01

    Recent discovery of an abundant and diverse late Miocene fauna at Toros-Ménalla (Chad, central Africa) by the Mission Paléoanthropologique Franco-Tchadienne provides a unique opportunity to examine African faunal and hominid evolution relative to the early phases of the Saharan arid belt. This study presents evidence from an African Miocene anthracotheriid Libycosaurus, particularly well documented at Toros-Ménalla. Its remains reveal a large semiaquatic mammal that evolved an autapomorphic upper fifth premolar (extremely rare in Cenozoic mammals). The extra tooth appeared ≈12 million years ago, probably in a small northern African population isolated by climate-driven fragmentation and alteration of the environments inhabited by these anthracotheriids [Flower, B. P. & Kennett, J. P. (1994) Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 108, 537–555 and Zachos, J., Pagani, M., Sloan, L., Thomas, E. & Billups, K. (2001) Science 292, 686–693]. The semiaquatic niche of Libycosaurus, combined with the distribution and relationships of its late Miocene species, indicates that by the end of the Miocene, wet environments connected the Lake Chad Basin to the Libyan Sirt Basin, across what is now the Sahara desert. PMID:16723392

  19. Early Miocene Tectonic Activity in the western Ross Sea (Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauli, C.; Sorlien, C. C.; Busetti, M.; Geletti, R.; De Santis, L.

    2012-12-01

    In the framework of the Rossmap Italian PNRA work objectives to compile extended and revised digital maps of the main unconformities in Ross Sea, Antarctica, much additional seismic reflection data, that were not available to previous ANTOSTRAT compilation, were incorporated into a new ROSSMAP interpretation. The correlation across almost all of Ross Sea, from DSDP Site 270 and Site 272 in Eastern Basin to northern Victoria Land Basin, of additional early Miocene and late Oligocene horizons that were not part of ANTOSTRAT allows interpretations to be made of fault activity and glacial erosion or deposition at a finer time resolution. New conclusions include that extensional or transtensional fault activity within the zone between Victoria Land Basin and Northern Basin, initiated by 23 Ma or earlier, and continued after 18 Ma. Steep parallel-striking faults in southern Victoria Land Basin display both reverse and normal separation of 17.5 Ma (from Cape Roberts Program-core 1) and post-16 Ma horizons, suggesting an important strike-slip component. This result may be compared with published papers that proposed post-17 Ma extension in southern Victoria Land Basin, 16-17 Ma extension in the AdareTrough, north of the Ross Sea continental shelf, but no Miocene extension affecting the Northern Basin (Granot et al., 2010). Thus, our evidence for extension through the early Miocene is significant to post-spreading tectonic models. Reference Granot R., Cande S. C., Stock J. M., Davey F. J. and Clayton R. W. (2010) Postspreading rifting in the Adare Basin, Antarctica: Regional tectonic consequences. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 8, Q08005, doi:10.1029/2010GC003105.

  20. A late Miocene-early Pliocene chain of lakes fed by the Colorado River: Evidence from Sr, C, and O isotopes of the Bouse Formation and related units between Grand Canyon and the Gulf of California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roskowski, J.A.; Patchett, P.J.; Spencer, J.E.; Pearthree, P.A.; Dettman, D.L.; Faulds, J.E.; Reynolds, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    We report strontium isotopic results for the late Miocene Hualapai Limestone of the Lake Mead area (Arizona-Nevada) and the latest Miocene to early Pliocene Bouse Formation and related units of the lower Colorado River trough (Arizona-California-Nevada), together with parallel oxygen and carbon isotopic analyses of Bouse samples, to constrain the lake-overflow model for integration of the Colorado River. Sr iso topic analyses on the basal 1-5 cm of marl, in particular along a transect over a range of altitude in the lowest-altitude basin that contains freshwater, brackish, and marine fossils, document the 87Sr/86Sr of first-arriving Bouse waters. Results reinforce the similarity between the 87Sr/86Sr of Bouse Formation carbonates and present-day Colorado River water, and the systematic distinction of these values from Neogene marine Sr. Basal Bouse samples show that 87Sr/86Sr decreased from 0.7111 to values in the range 0.7107-0.7109 during early basin filling. 87Sr/86Sr values from a recently identified marl in the Las Vegas area are within the range of Bouse Sr ratios. 87Sr/86Sr values from the Hualapai Limestone decrease upsection from 0.7195 to 0.7137, in the approach to a time soon after 6 Ma when Hualapai deposition ceased and the Colorado River became established through the Lake Mead area. Bouse Formation ??18O values range from -12.9??? to +1.0??? Vienna Pee Dee belemnite (VPDB), and ??13C between -6.5??? and +3.4??? VPDB. Negative ??18O values appear to require a continental origin for waters, and the trend to higher ??18O suggests evaporation in lake waters. Sr and stable isotopic results for sectioned barnacle shells and from bedding planes of the marine fish fossil Colpichthys regis demonstrate that these animals lived in saline freshwater, and that there is no evidence for incursions of marine water, either long-lived or brief in duration. Lack of correlation of Sr and O isotopic variations in the same samples also argue strongly against systematic

  1. New magnetochronology of Late Miocene mammal fauna, NE Tibetan Plateau, China: Mammal migration and paleoenvironments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ao, Hong; Zhang, Peng; Dekkers, Mark J.; Roberts, Andrew P.; An, Zhisheng; Li, Yongxiang; Lu, Fengyan; Lin, Shan; Li, Xingwen

    2016-01-01

    Lanzhou Basin lies on the northeastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau in western China and is a rich source of Oligocene-Miocene mammalian fossils. Obtaining precise age determinations for these fossils is important to address key questions concerning mammalian and environmental evolution in Asia associated with stepwise Tibetan Plateau uplift. Here we report a new magnetostratigraphic record for the Xingjiawan fluvio-lacustrine section from the northwestern margin of Lanzhou Basin that can be correlated to the geomagnetic polarity timescale with two options. The Late Miocene Xingjiawan Fauna is located either at the boundary between reversed polarity chron C4r.1r and normal polarity chron C4n.2n or at the boundary between subchrons C5r.1r and C5n.2n, with an estimated age of at least ∼8 Ma or perhaps as early as ∼11 Ma. Both age estimations imply that the fossil Stegodon in the Lanzhou Basin is the oldest known record of Stegodon worldwide; it predates the formerly oldest Stegodon find from Africa by at least one million years and perhaps by as many as four million years. This provides new evidence for an Asian origin of Stegodon. Together with other faunal components, a mixed woodland/grassland setting existed in the Lanzhou Basin during the Late Miocene, in contrast to its modern arid environment.

  2. Constant Chinese Loess Plateau dust source since the Late Miocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, Anna; Millar, Ian; Stevens, Thomas; Rodenburg, Tanja; Rittner, Martin; Vermeesch, Pieter; Lu, Huayu

    2017-04-01

    The dramatic deepening of northern hemisphere glaciation at the Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary is accompanied by major changes in global climate. The role of the global atmospheric dust cycle in this event is not clear; in particular, whether, changes in the dust cycle influenced climates change, or resulted from it. Miocene and Quaternary wind-blown Chinese loess records past dust-cycle history, influences of aridification and monsoon circulation. Previous work on the vast Chinese Loess Plateau is in conflict over whether changes in dust source occur at the Pliocene-Pleistocene boundary (2.59 Ma), or at 1.2 Ma, despite these intervals marking major shifts in monsoon dynamics (Sun 2005; Nie et al. 2014a). Here we present Sr, Nd and Hf isotopic data from multiple sites and show that the dust source remains the same across these boundaries. The use of isotope tracers from multiple sites allows us to demonstrate that shifts in sediment geochemistry can be explained by grain-size and weathering changes. Nd and Hf isotopes show that the dust was dominantly sourced from the Tibetan Plateau, with some input from bedrock underlying the Badain Jaran/Tengger deserts. This shows that a major established and constant dust source on the northern Tibetan Plateau has been active and unchanged since the late Miocene, despite dramatically changing climate conditions. Changes in loess accumulation are therefore a function of climate change in the Tibetan Plateau source regions rather than due to expanding source areas controlled by aridification over a widening area over the Pliocene and Quaternary.

  3. Sensitivity of climate and Atlantic overturning circulation to uncertain ocean gateway configurations for the late Miocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradshaw, C.; Lunt, D. J.; Flecker, R.; Martinez-Mendez, G.

    2013-12-01

    The palaeorecord documents late Miocene (11.6-5.3 Ma) climate to be much warmer and wetter than today yet CO2 reconstructions are similar to modern levels. Given the apparent decoupling between CO2 and warmth for this period we investigate here the role of the oceans. The late Miocene experienced significant tectonic change including the restriction of some of the last ocean gateways to close (Panama Gateway and Indonesian Seaway) and open (Bering Strait and Barents/Kara Sea). However, the timing and configuration of these tectonic changes is uncertain. The final closure of the Panama Gateway is dated to the Pliocene, but continental mammal exchange suggests the existence of a Central American archipelago from the mid-late Miocene. The Bering Strait is typically assumed to have opened at the very end of the late Miocene/early Pliocene based on diatom exchange, but other marine and terrestrial evidence points to a much earlier, perhaps intermittent, opening. The timing of the restriction of the Indonesian Seaway is very poorly constrained at middle Miocene to Pliocene. The Barents Sea and Kara Sea shelves are documented as having being subject to extensive glacial erosion and post-glacial uplift since the Pliocene and throughout the Quaternary but records of uplift and erosion during the earlier Cenozoic are limited. However, the presence of significant preglacial sediments suggests that this region underwent tectonic uplift, volcanism and subsequent erosion during the Eocene-Miocene period although the age assignment of the data remains controversial. The Panama Gateway has been suggested to influence North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) production through numerous modelling studies, the Bering Strait has been suggested to greatly impact NADW during the Quaternary, and the strength of Indonesian Throughflow is hypothesised to influence Agulhas Leakage, which, in turn, has been speculated to influence Atlantic meridional overturning and thus NADW production. Here, we

  4. Integrated diagenetic and sequence stratigraphy of a late Oligocene-early Miocene, mixed-sediment platform (Austral Basin, southern Patagonia): Resolving base-level and paleoceanographic changes, and paleoaquifer characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dix, George R.; Parras, Ana

    2014-06-01

    A condensed (~ 20-m-thick) marine transgressive-highstand succession comprises the upper San Julián Formation (upper Oligocene-lower Miocene) of the northern retroarc Austral Basin, southern Patagonia. Mixed-sediment facies identify a shelf-interior setting, part of an overall warm-temperate regional platform of moderate energy. Giant oyster-dominated skeletal-hiatal accumulations along the maximum flooding surface and forming high-energy event beds in the highstand succession preserve relict micrite in protected shelter porosity, and identify periods of reduced sediment accumulation. The stratigraphic distribution of marine-derived glaucony and diagenetic carbonates is spatially related to sequence development. Depositional siderite coincides with prominent marine transgression, defining transient mixing of marine and meteoric waters across coastal-plain deposits. Chemically evolved autochthonous glaucony coincides with periods of extended seafloor exposure and transgressions that bracket the marine succession, and within the oyster-dominated skeletal accumulations. Seafloor cement, likely once magnesian calcite, formed in association with an encrusting/boring biota along the maximum flooding surface in concert with incursion of cool (11-13 °C) water. The cement is present locally in skeletal event beds in the highstand succession suggesting a possible association with high-order base-level change and cooler water. As the highstand succession coincides with elevated global sea level in the late Oligocene-early Miocene, the locally marine-cemented glauconitic skeletal event beds in the highstand succession may identify higher order glacio-eustatic control. Local stratal condensation, however, is best explained by regional differences in basement subsidence. In the burial realm, carbonate diagenesis produced layers of phreatic calcrete coincident with skeletal-rich deposits. Zeolite (clinoptilolite-K) cement is restricted to the lowermost marine transgressive

  5. The Late Miocene paleogeography of the Amazon Basin and the evolution of the Amazon River system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latrubesse, Edgardo M.; Cozzuol, Mario; da Silva-Caminha, Silane A. F.; Rigsby, Catherine A.; Absy, Maria Lucia; Jaramillo, Carlos

    2010-05-01

    On the basis of paleontological content (vertebrates and palynology) and facies analysis from river banks, road cuts, and three wells, we have assigned the uppermost levels of the Solimões Formation in western Amazonia, Brazil, to the Late Miocene. The vertebrate fossil record from outcropping sediments is assigned to the Huayquerian-Mesopotamian mammalian biozones, spanning 9-6.5 Ma. Additionally, we present results that demonstrate that deposits in Peruvian Amazonia attributed to Miocene tidal environments are actually fluvial sediments that have been misinterpreted (both environmentally and chronologically) by several authors. The entire Late Miocene sequence was deposited in a continental environment within a subsiding basin. The facies analysis, fossil fauna content, and palynological record indicate that the environment of deposition was dominated by avulsive rivers associated with megafan systems, and avulsive rivers in flood basins (swamps, lakes, internal deltas, and splays). Soils developed on the flatter, drier areas, which were dominated by grasslands and gallery forest in a tropical to subtropical climate. These Late Miocene sediments were deposited from westward of the Purus arch up to the border of Brazil with Peru (Divisor Ranges) and Bolivia (Pando block). Eastward of the Iquitos structural high, however, more detailed studies, including vertebrate paleontology, need to be performed to calibrate with more precision the ages of the uppermost levels of the Solimões Formation. The evolution of the basin during the late Miocene is mainly related to the tectonic behavior of the Central Andes (˜ 3°-15°S). At approximately 5 Ma, a segment of low angle of subduction was well developed in the Nazca Plate, and the deformation in the Subandean foreland produced the inland reactivation of the Divisor/Contamana Ranges and tectonic arrangements in the Eastern Andes. During the Pliocene southwestern Brazilian Amazonia ceased to be an effective sedimentary

  6. New method to estimate paleoprecipitation using fossil amphibians and reptiles and the middle and late Miocene precipitation gradients in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhme, M.; Ilg, A.; Ossig, A.; Küchenhoff, H.

    2006-06-01

    Existing methods for determining paleoprecipitation are subject to large errors (±350 400 mm or more using mammalian proxies), or are restricted to wet climate systems due to their strong facies dependence (paleobotanical proxies). Here we describe a new paleoprecipitation tool based on an indexing of ecophysiological groups within herpetological communities. In recent communities these indices show a highly significant correlation to annual precipitation (r2 = 0.88), and yield paleoprecipitation estimates with average errors of ±250 280 mm. The approach was validated by comparison with published paleoprecipitation estimates from other methods. The method expands the application of paleoprecipitation tools to dry climate systems and in this way contributes to the establishment of a more comprehensive paleoprecipitation database. This method is applied to two high-resolution time intervals from the European Neogene: the early middle Miocene (early Langhian) and the early late Miocene (early Tortonian). The results indicate that both periods show significant meridional precipitation gradients in Europe, these being stronger in the early Langhian (threefold decrease toward the south) than in the early Tortonian (twofold decrease toward the south). This pattern indicates a strengthening of climatic belts during the middle Miocene climatic optimum due to Southern Hemisphere cooling and an increased contribution of Arctic low-pressure cells to the precipitation from the late Miocene onward due to Northern Hemisphere cooling.

  7. Molluscan evidence for early middle Miocene marine glaciation in southern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marincovich, L.

    1990-01-01

    Profound cooling of Miocene marine climates in southern Alaska culminated in early middle Miocene coastal marine glaciation in the northeastern Gulf of Alaska. This climatic change resulted from interaction of the Yakutat terrane with southern Alaska beginning in late Oligocene time. The ensuing extreme uplift of the coastal Chugach and St. Elias Mountains resulted in progressive regional cooling that culminated in coastal marine glaciation beginning in the early middle Miocene (15-16 Ma) and continuing to the present. The counterclockwise flow of surface water from the frigid northeastern Gulf of Alaska resulted in a cold-temperate shallow-marine environment in the western Gulf of Alaska, as it does today. Ironically, dating of Gulf of Alaska marine glaciation as early middle Miocene is strongly reinforced by the presence of a few tropical and subtropical mollusks in western Gulf of Alaska faunas. Shallow-marine waters throughout the Gulf of Alaska were cold-temperate to cold in the early middle Miocene, when the world ocean was undergoing peak Neogene warming. -Author

  8. Palynology of latest Neogene (Middle Miocene to late Pliocene) strata in the Delmarva Peninsula of Maryland and Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sirkin, L.; Owens, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Palynology of Miocene and Pliocene formations in the Delmarva Peninsula of Maryland and Virginia reveals a significant representation of exotic pollen interspersed in pollen assemblages that are otherwise comparable to those from the modern vegetation of the Mid-Alantic coastal plain region. The late Tertiary arboreal pollen (AP) assemblages are dominated by oak, hickory, pine, birch and alder with minor amounts of mid- and southern coastal tree taxa, as well as minor spruce and hemlock and a trace of fir. Nonarboreal pollen (NAP) include grass, sedge, composite and aquatic taxa. Exotic pollen in these assemblages represent plants now foreign to this region. They may be placed in three categories. First, there are extinct forms, such as Labrapollis, Plicatopollis, and Multiporopollenites, that can be traced from the Cretaceous or Early Tertiary into the Late Tertiary. The second group includes forms, such as Podocarpus, Engelhardtia, Pterocarya, Ephedra, Eucommia, Ulmus-Zelkova, Glyptostrobus, Palmae, and Cyathea, that are not found in this region today and not found in early Pleistocene sediments in the eastern United States. Many of these taxa are subtropical or greatly restricted in geographic range. A third group of exotics, mainly Cyrilla, Planera, Gordonia, Jussiaea, and Sapotacaea, including Minusops, are generally found south of the study area or have their northern limit here at this time. The lack of the extinct or distant exotics in early to mid-Pleistocene sediments in the mid-Atlantic coastal plain and the last appearance of Pterocarya, as the last exotic taxon in the early Pleistocene of western Europe, support the stratigraphic assignment of the Pliocene units. The number of exotic taxa diminish markedly between the Miocene pollen assemblages and those of the Late Pliocene. Climatic fluctuations characterize the Late Tertiary environments. The Miocene, for example, incorporates a warming trend between the upper, middle Miocene and the Manokin beds

  9. Late Miocene (Proto-Gulf) Extension and Magmatism on the Sonoran Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gans, P.; MacMillan, I.; Roldan-Quintana, J.

    2003-12-01

    Constraints on the magnitude and character of late Miocene (Proto-Gulf) deformation on the Sonoran margin of the Gulf of California extensional province are key to understanding how and when Baja California was captured by the Pacific plate and how strain was partitioned during the early stages of this transtensional rift system. Our new geologic mapping in southwestern Sonora and 40Ar/39Ar dating of pre-, syn-, and post-tectonic volcanic units indicate that late Miocene deformation and volcanic activity were largely restricted to a NW-trending, 100-120 km wide belt adjacent to the coast. Inboard of this belt, NW-SE extension is mainly older (>15 Ma) and occurred in an intra-arc or back-arc setting. Proto-Gulf deformation within the coastal belt was profoundly transtensional, with NW-striking, dextral strike slip faults operating in concert with N-S and NNE-striking normal and oblique slip faults to produce an inferred NW or NNW tectonic transport direction. The total amount of late Miocene NW directed dextral shear within the coastal belt is still poorly constrained, but may exceed 100 km. The locus of deformation and volcanic activity migrated westward or northwestward within the Sonoran coastal belt. in the eastern portion (Sierra Libre and Sierra El Bacatete) major volcanic activity commenced at ˜13.0 Ma and peaked at 12.0 Ma, and major faulting and tilting is bracketed between 12.0 and 10.6 Ma. Further west in the Sierra El Aguaje/San Carlos region, major volcanic activity commenced at 11.5 Ma and peaked at 10.5 Ma, and most faulting and tilting is bracketed between 10.7 and 9.3 Ma. On the coastal mountains northwest of San Carlos, rift related faulting and tilting continued after 8.5 Ma. Voluminous late Miocene (13-8 Ma) volcanic rocks within the Sonoran coastal belt were erupted from numerous centers (e.g. Sierra Libre, Guaymas, Sierra El Aguaje). These thick volcanic sections are compositionally diverse (basalt to rhyolite, with abundant dacite and

  10. Late Oligocene to Late Miocene Antarctic Climate Reconstructions Using Molecular and Isotopic Biomarker Proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, B.; Mckay, R. M.; Bendle, J. A.; Naish, T.; Levy, R. H.; Ventura, G. T.; Moossen, H. M.; Krishnan, S.; Pagani, M.

    2015-12-01

    Major climate and environmental changes occurred during late Oligocene to the late Miocene when atmospheric CO2 ranged between 500 and 300ppm, indicating threshold response of Antarctic ice sheets and climate to relatively modest CO2 variations. This implies that the southern high latitudes are highly sensitive to feedbacks associated with changes in global ice sheet and sea-ice extent, as well as terrestrial and marine ecosystems. This study focuses on two key intervals during the evolution of the Antarctic Ice Sheet: (1) The Late Oligocene and the Oligocene/Miocene boundary, when the East Antarctic Ice Sheet expanded close to present day volume following an extended period of inferred warmth. (2) The Mid-Miocene Climate Optimum (MMCO ~17-15 Ma), a period of global warmth and moderately elevated CO2 (350->500 ppm) which was subsequently followed by rapid cooling at 14-13.5 Ma. Reconstructions of climate and ice sheet variability, and thus an understanding of the various feedbacks that occurred during these intervals, are hampered by a lack of temperature and hydroclimate proxy data from the southern high latitudes. We present proxy climate reconstructions using terrestrial and marine organic biomarkers that provide new insights into Antarctica's climate evolution, using Antarctic drill cores and outcrop samples from a range of depositional settings. Bacterial ether-lipids have been analysed to determine terrestrial mean annual temperatures and soil pH (via the methylation and cyclisation indexes of branched tetraethers - MBT and CBT, respectively). Tetraether-lipids of crenarchaeota found in marine sediments sampled from continental shelves around Antarctica have been used to derive sea surface temperatures using the TEX86 index. Compound specific stable isotopes on n-alkanes sourced from terrestrial plants have been analysed to investigate changes in the hydrological and carbon cycles.

  11. Late Miocene “washhouse” climate in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhme, Madelaine; Ilg, August; Winklhofer, Michael

    2008-11-01

    We present two eight-million year long proxy records of precipitation for Southwest and Central Europe, covering the middle to late Miocene (5.3-13 Ma) at a temporal resolution of about 60 kyr and 150 kyr, respectively. The estimates of precipitation are based on the ecophysiological structure of herpetological assemblages (amphibians and reptiles). From 13.0 Ma until about 9 Ma, both records show a similar trend, evolving from a long dry period (13-11 Ma) into a "washhouse climate" (10.2-9.8 Ma), characterized by global warm conditions and several times more precipitation than present. The transition from washhouse to a dryer climate between 9.7 and 9.5 Ma and the concomitant cooling episode appear to have triggered a severe biotic event known as the Vallesian crisis, which included the extinction of hominoids in Western Europe. A second washhouse period (9.0-8.5 Ma), coeval with a global warm episode, was unprecedentedly intense in Southwest Europe, but less pronounced in Central Europe. From 8 Ma onward, a divergence in the two precipitation records is observed, with Southwest Europe staying wetter and Central Europe becoming dryer than present. Both precipitation records are combined into a common run-off curve as a measure of the relative intensity of the hydrological cycle for moderate latitudes of continental Europe. The run-off curve shows a remarkable positive correlation with Atlantic deep-water temperatures from Ceará Rise by Lear et al. (2003), which are significantly higher (up to + 3 °C) during the two washhouse periods and show no other positive excursion of comparable magnitude. We discuss potential links and the role of the coeval temporary restriction of the Central American Seaway on ocean and atmosphere circulation.

  12. A macroecological glance at the structure of late Miocene rodent assemblages from Southwest Europe

    PubMed Central

    Cano, Ana Rosa Gómez; Cantalapiedra, Juan L.; Álvarez-Sierra, M. Ángeles; Fernández, Manuel Hernández

    2014-01-01

    Deep-time perspectives in macroecology are essential with regard to understanding the impact of climate forcing on faunal communities. Using late Miocene rodent faunas (12 to 5 Ma) from two different biogeographical provinces from southwestern Europe, we asked whether the waxing and waning of faunas with dissimilar ecological affinities tracked climate in different ways. The latest middle Miocene featured a fauna dominated by dormice with forest and mixed-habitat affinities. This group declined towards the Upper Miocene. Rodent taxa with the highest values of richness at the beginning of the Upper Miocene are generalists in the southern province and specialists of forested habitats in the northern province. Finally, we identified a third, increasingly significant group of rodents linked to open landscapes towards the end of the Miocene. These three broad ecological groups showed differential responses to a complex set of interconnected circumstances, including the biogeographic structure of the study area and climatic changes throughout time. PMID:25297009

  13. A macroecological glance at the structure of late Miocene rodent assemblages from Southwest Europe.

    PubMed

    Gómez Cano, Ana Rosa; Cantalapiedra, Juan L; Álvarez-Sierra, M Ángeles; Hernández Fernández, Manuel

    2014-10-09

    Deep-time perspectives in macroecology are essential with regard to understanding the impact of climate forcing on faunal communities. Using late Miocene rodent faunas (12 to 5 Ma) from two different biogeographical provinces from southwestern Europe, we asked whether the waxing and waning of faunas with dissimilar ecological affinities tracked climate in different ways. The latest middle Miocene featured a fauna dominated by dormice with forest and mixed-habitat affinities. This group declined towards the Upper Miocene. Rodent taxa with the highest values of richness at the beginning of the Upper Miocene are generalists in the southern province and specialists of forested habitats in the northern province. Finally, we identified a third, increasingly significant group of rodents linked to open landscapes towards the end of the Miocene. These three broad ecological groups showed differential responses to a complex set of interconnected circumstances, including the biogeographic structure of the study area and climatic changes throughout time.

  14. A macroecological glance at the structure of late Miocene rodent assemblages from Southwest Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cano, Ana Rosa Gómez; Cantalapiedra, Juan L.; Álvarez-Sierra, M. Ángeles; Fernández, Manuel Hernández

    2014-10-01

    Deep-time perspectives in macroecology are essential with regard to understanding the impact of climate forcing on faunal communities. Using late Miocene rodent faunas (12 to 5 Ma) from two different biogeographical provinces from southwestern Europe, we asked whether the waxing and waning of faunas with dissimilar ecological affinities tracked climate in different ways. The latest middle Miocene featured a fauna dominated by dormice with forest and mixed-habitat affinities. This group declined towards the Upper Miocene. Rodent taxa with the highest values of richness at the beginning of the Upper Miocene are generalists in the southern province and specialists of forested habitats in the northern province. Finally, we identified a third, increasingly significant group of rodents linked to open landscapes towards the end of the Miocene. These three broad ecological groups showed differential responses to a complex set of interconnected circumstances, including the biogeographic structure of the study area and climatic changes throughout time.

  15. Early Miocene origin and cryptic diversification of South American salamanders

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    likely arrived at least by the Early Miocene, well before the completion of the Late Pliocene Panamanian land bridge (widely accepted as ca. 3 MYA). This date is in agreement with recent, controversial, arguments that an older, perhaps short-lived, land connection may have existed between South America and present-day Panama 23–25 MYA. Since its arrival in South America, Bolitoglossa has diversified more extensively than previously presumed and currently includes several cryptic species within a relatively small geographic area. Rather than two upper Amazonian species currently recorded for this region, we propose that at least eight should be recognized, although these additional lineages remain to be formally described. PMID:23497060

  16. Application of carbon isotope stratigraphy to late miocene shallow marine sediments, new zealand.

    PubMed

    Loutit, T S; Kennett, J P

    1979-06-15

    A distinct (0.5 per mil) carbon-13/carbon-12 isotopic shift in the light direction has been identified in a shallow marine sedimentary sequence of Late Miocene age at Blind River, New Zealand, and correlated with a similar shift in Late Miocene Deep Sea Drilling Project sequences throughout the Indo-Pacific. A dated piston core provides an age for the shift of 6.2 +/- 0.1 million years. Correlations based on the carbon isotopic change require a revision of the previously established magnetostratigraphy at Blind River. The carbon shift at Blind River occurs between 6.2 and 6.3 +/- 0.1 million years before present. A new chronology provides an age for the evolutionary first appearance datum of Globorotalia conomiozea at 6.1 +/- 0.1 million years, the beginning of a distinct latest Miocene cooling event associated with the Kapitean stage at 6.2 +/- 0.1 million years, and the beginning of a distinct shallowing of water depths at 6.1 +/- 0.1 million years. The Miocene-Pliocene boundary as recognized in New Zealand is now dated at 5.3 +/- 0.1 million years. Extension of carbon isotope stratigraphy to other shallow Late Miocene sequences should provide an important datum for international correlation of Late Miocene shallow and deep marine sequences.

  17. A major reorganization of Asian climate by the early Miocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Z. T.; Sun, B.; Zhang, Z. S.; Peng, S. Z.; Xiao, G. Q.; Ge, J. Y.; Hao, Q. Z.; Qiao, Y. S.; Liang, M. Y.; Liu, J. F.; Yin, Q. Z.; Wei, J. J.

    2008-08-01

    The global climate system experienced a series of drastic changes during the Cenozoic. In Asia, these include the climate transformation from a zonal pattern to a monsoon-dominated pattern, the disappearance of typical subtropical aridity, and the onset of inland deserts. Despite major advances in the last two decades in characterizing and understanding these climate phenomena, disagreements persist relative to the timing, behaviors and underlying causes. This paper addresses these issues mainly based on two lines of evidence. First, we compiled newly collected data from geological indicators of the Cenozoic environment in China as paleoenvironmental maps of ten intervals. In confirming the earlier observation that a zonal climate pattern was transformed into a monsoonal one, the maps within the Miocene indicate that this change was achieved by the early Miocene, roughly consistent with the onset of loess deposition in China. Although a monsoon-like regime would have existed in the Eocene, it was restricted to tropical-subtropical regions. The latitudinal oscillations of the climate zones during the Paleogene are likely attributable to the imbalance in evolution of polar ice-sheets between the two hemispheres. Secondly, we examine the relevant depositional and soil forming processes of the Miocene loess-soil sequences to determine the circulation characteristics with emphasis on the early Miocene. Continuous eolian deposition in the middle reaches of the Yellow River since the early Miocene firmly indicates the formation of inland deserts, which have been constantly maintained during the past 22 Ma. Grain-size gradients between loess sections indicate northerly dust-carrying winds from northern sources, a clear indication of an Asian winter monsoon system. Meanwhile, well-developed Luvisols show evidence that moisture from the oceans reached northern China. This evidence shows the coexistence of two kinds of circulations, one from the ocean carrying moisture and

  18. Late Miocene - Pliocene Evolution of the Pacific Warm Pool and Cold Tongue: Implications for El Niño

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Pagani, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Western Pacific Warm Pool of the tropical Pacific Ocean retains the largest and warmest sea surface water body on Earth, while the eastern equatorial Pacific is characterized by strong upwelling of cold, nutrient-rich deep waters, termed the Pacific cold tongue. Evolution of the Pacific warm pool and cold tongue are important because they control the circum-Pacific climate and impact the globe via El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO) teleconnections. Sea surface temperature (SST) reconstructions using a single site from the warm pool (ODP 806) and two sites from the cold tongue (ODP 846, 847) suggest that the temperature of the warm pool was "stable" throughout the Plio-Pleistocene, whereas the cold tongue was much warmer in the Pliocene and subsequently cooled. The absence of an east-west Pacific temperature gradient during the early Pliocene is the basis for the "permanent El Niño" hypothesis. However, annually-resolved fossil coral and evaporite records found 3-7 years climate variability during the Pliocene warm period and late Miocene, challenging a "permanent" or invariant climate state. Here we present a multi-proxy (TEX86, UK37, Mg/Ca), multi-site reconstruction of the late Miocene - Pliocene (ca. 12 Ma - 3 Ma) SST in the Pacific warm pool (ODP 806, ODP 769 in the Sulu Sea, ODP 1143 in the South China Sea) and the cold tongue (ODP 850, 849, 846). Our results show that the cold tongue was even warmer in the late Miocene than the Pliocene, and that the warm pool cooled 2-3°C from the late Miocene into the Pliocene - in contrast to the invariant character previously assumed. Temperature comparison between different sites suggests that the warm pool may have expanded in size in the late Miocene. Although eastern and western ends of the tropical Pacific were warmer, a persistent, but low east-west temperature gradient (~3°C) is apparent. This agrees with recent studies which have shown ENSO-related frequency of climate change in the late Miocene and

  19. The late Miocene 'paradox' of the CO2 climate sensitivity (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Pagani, M.

    2013-12-01

    Ancient climates provide opportunities for studying the impact of CO2 change on global temperatures. While advances in CO2-reconstruction techniques are yielding a clearer picture of the Cenozoic history of CO2 (Beerling and Royer, 2011), the late Miocene (~12-5 Ma) remains enigmatic. For example, recent sea-surface temperature reconstructions from 12-5 Ma have shown that mid-latitude and equatorial regions of the Pacific cooled 6°C (LaRiviere et al., 2012) and 2°C (Zhang et al., 2013), respectively. This cooling trend was probably initiated at the mid-Miocene climate transition (14 Ma), and continued into the Plio-Pleistocene. However, existing compilation of late Miocene - Pliocene CO2 records show little variability, with some indicating a rise in CO2 concurrent with global cooling. Here we present four continuous alkenone-based CO2 records using Pacific sediment samples (ODP Sites 769, 806, 850 and 1143), from late Miocene to Pliocene. Compound-specific carbon isotope measurements show a broad decrease in alkenone δ13C values in all four sites, suggesting increasing pCO2 levels in the late Miocene. Decreasing ocean temperature and increasing pCO2 in the late Miocene appears to challenge a leading climatic role for CO2 during this time. Alternatively, alkenone-CO2 estimates are flawed in the late Miocene because factors other than CO2, such as algal growth rate, cell geometry, and carbon-fixation pathways, can influence carbon isotopic fractionation during algae growth. We explore the uncertainty of the alkenone-CO2 methodology and assess the potential influence that non-CO2 variables have in producing spurious CO2 estimates and trends. Beerling, D.J., Royer, D.L., 2011. Convergent Cenozoic CO2 history. Nat. Geosci. 4, 418-420. LaRiviere, J.P., Ravelo, A.C., Crimmins, A., Dekens, P.S., Ford, H.L., Lyle, M., Wara, M.W., 2012. Late Miocene decoupling of oceanic warmth and atmospheric carbon dioxide forcing. Nature 486, 97-100. Zhang, Y.G., Pagani, M., Liu, Z

  20. Tectonic/climatic control on sediment provenance in the Cape Roberts Project core record (southern Victoria Land, Antarctica): A pulsing late Oligocene/early Miocene signal from south revealed by detrital thermochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivetti, V.; Balestrieri, M. L.; Rossetti, F.; Talarico, F. M.

    2012-04-01

    , three peaks are detected reflecting different bedrock provenance areas. Two peaks older than 40 Ma (P2 and P3) are compatible with thermochronological data from TAM bedrock that underwent a stepwise denudation in Cretaceous times. A Peak younger than 40 Ma (P1) has been detected occasionally, recording the signal of a source area exhumed during late Oligocene /early Miocene with a constant denudation rate of 0.4 mm/yr (constant lag-time up-section), but absent in the onshore portion of the proximal TAM. Indeed, when compared with AFT data from ANDRILL cores, the relatively young P1 ages, suggest that part of sediments in the Cape Robert Rift basin have a provenance from source regions probably located far away in the south (i.e. Skelton-Byrd glaciers region) where bedrock experienced compatible thermal histories. This provenance would imply glacial systems with main flow patterns from south to the north, therefore orthogonal to the orientation of present-day drainage. We thus infer that the post-Eocene glacial and erosional history of the TAM front was significantly controlled by the N-S-trending transtensional regime that affected the western Ross Sea margin during transition from orthogonal to oblique rifting in the region. The appearance and disappearance of P1 along the drill-cored stratigraphic succession seems to be linked to the oscillation in the extent of the ice sheet.

  1. The early Miocene balaenid Morenocetus parvus from Patagonia (Argentina) and the evolution of right whales

    PubMed Central

    Cozzuol, Mario A.; Fitzgerald, Erich M.G.

    2017-01-01

    Balaenidae (right and bowhead whales) are a key group in understanding baleen whale evolution, because they are the oldest surviving lineage of crown Mysticeti, with a fossil record that dates back ∼20 million years. However, this record is mostly Pliocene and younger, with most of the Miocene history of the clade remaining practically unknown. The earliest recognized balaenid is the early Miocene Morenocetus parvus Cabrera, 1926 from Argentina. M. parvus was originally briefly described from two incomplete crania, a mandible and some cervical vertebrae collected from the lower Miocene Gaiman Formation of Patagonia. Since then it has not been revised, thus remaining a frequently cited yet enigmatic fossil cetacean with great potential for shedding light on the early history of crown Mysticeti. Here we provide a detailed morphological description of this taxon and revisit its phylogenetic position. The phylogenetic analysis recovered the middle Miocene Peripolocetus as the earliest diverging balaenid, and Morenocetus as the sister taxon of all other balaenids. The analysis of cranial and periotic morphology of Morenocetus suggest that some of the specialized morphological traits of modern balaenids were acquired by the early Miocene and have remained essentially unchanged up to the present. Throughout balaenid evolution, morphological changes in skull arching and ventral displacement of the orbits appear to be coupled and functionally linked to mitigating a reduction of the field of vision. The body length of Morenocetus and other extinct balaenids was estimated and the evolution of body size in Balaenidae was reconstructed. Optimization of body length on our phylogeny of Balaenidae suggests that the primitive condition was a relatively small body length represented by Morenocetus, and that gigantism has been acquired independently at least twice (in Balaena mysticetus and Eubalaena spp.), with the earliest occurrence of this trait in the late Miocene–early

  2. Origin, evolution and sedimentary processes associated with a late Miocene submarine landslide, southeast Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sola, F.; Puga-Bernabéu, Á.; Aguirre, J.; Braga, J. C.

    2018-02-01

    A submarine landslide, the Alhama de Almería Slide, influenced late Tortonian and early Messinian (late Miocene) sedimentary processes in the vicinity of Alhama de Almería in southeast Spain. Its 220-m-high headscarp and deposits are now subaerially exposed. The landslide occurred at the northern slope of the antecedent relief of the present-day Sierra de Gádor mountain range. This is a large antiform trending east-west to east-northeast-west-southwest, which has been uplifting since the late Miocene due to convergence of the African and Eurasian plates. During the Tortonian, this relief was an island separated from the Iberian Peninsula mainland by the Alpujarra corridor, a small and narrow intermontane basin of the Betic Cordillera in the western Mediterranean Sea. The materials involved in the slope failure were Triassic dolostones and phyllites from the metamorphic Alpujárride Complex and Tortonian marine conglomerates, sandstones, and marls that formed an initial sedimentary cover on the basement rocks. Coherent large masses of metamorphic rocks and Miocene deposits at the base of the headscarp distally change to chaotic deposits of blocks of different lithologies embedded in upper Tortonian marine marls, and high-strength cohesive debrites. During downslope sliding, coherent carbonate blocks brecciated due to their greater strength. Phyllites disintegrated, forming a cohesive matrix that engulfed and/or sustained the carbonate blocks. Resedimented, channelized breccias were formed by continuing clast collision, bed fragmentation, and disaggregation of the failed mass. The conditions leading to rock/sediment failure were favoured by steep slopes and weak planes at the contact between the basement carbonates and phyllites. Displacement of collapsed rocks created a canyon-like depression at the southeast edge of the landslide. This depression funnelled sediment gravity flows that were generated upslope, promoting local thick accumulations of sediments during

  3. First diatomyid rodent from the Early Miocene of Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Antoñanzas, Raquel

    2011-02-01

    The Asian family Diatomyidae is known from the Early Oligocene to the present. Among living rodents, this group comprises only the recently discovered Laonastes aenigmamus from Laos. Fossil diatomyids are known from only a few sites, in which they are often rare. The discovery of Pierremus explorator gen. nov. sp. nov. in the Lower Miocene of As-Sarrar (Saudi Arabia) raises to ten the number of extinct diatomyid species recognized. Pierremus explorator is the first record of a diatomyid from the Afro-Arabian plate. This discovery provides evidence that, together with other rodents (ctenodactylids, zapodids…), the diatomyids took advantage of the corridor that was established between Afro-Arabia and Eurasia in Early Miocene times.

  4. A giant termite from the Late Miocene of Styria, Austria (Isoptera)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Michael S.; Gross, Martin

    2009-02-01

    A giant termite is described and figured from the Late Miocene of the Styrian Basin in southeastern Austria. Gyatermes styriensis gen. n. et sp. n. is represented by a relatively complete forewing, with basal scale. The fossil approximates in size the largest of all termites today and is the largest fossil termite on record. The presence of this species in the Late Miocene fauna of Europe indicates that climatic conditions were appropriate for the persistence of species and colonies requiring relatively stable, warm conditions. The genus is primitive in overall features but shares some similarity with the dampwood termites.

  5. Distribution history and climatic controls of the Late Miocene Pikermian chronofauna.

    PubMed

    Eronen, Jussi T; Ataabadi, Majid Mirzaie; Micheels, Arne; Karme, Aleksis; Bernor, Raymond L; Fortelius, Mikael

    2009-07-21

    The Late Miocene development of faunas and environments in western Eurasia is well known, but the climatic and environmental processes that controlled its details are incompletely understood. Here we map the rise and fall of the classic Pikermian fossil mammal chronofauna between 12 and 4.2 Ma, using genus-level faunal similarity between localities. To directly relate land mammal community evolution to environmental change, we use the hypsodonty paleoprecipitation proxy and paleoclimate modeling. The geographic distribution of faunal similarity and paleoprecipitation in successive timeslices shows the development of the open biome that favored the evolution and spread of the open-habitat adapted large mammal lineages. In the climate model run, this corresponds to a decrease in precipitation over its core area south of the Paratethys Sea. The process began in the latest Middle Miocene and climaxed in the medial Late Miocene, about 7-8 million years ago. The geographic range of the Pikermian chronofauna contracted in the latest Miocene, a time of increasing summer drought and regional differentiation of habitats in Eastern Europe and Southwestern Asia. Its demise at the Miocene-Pliocene boundary coincides with an environmental reversal toward increased humidity and forestation, changes inevitably detrimental to open-adapted, wide-ranging large mammals.

  6. Late Miocene extensional systems in northern Tunisia and their relation with SE directed delamination of the African subcontinental mantle lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Gaidi, Seif; Melki, Fetheddine; Pérez-Peña, Vicente; Marzougui, Wissem; Azañón, Jose Miguel; Galve, Jorge Pedro

    2017-04-01

    Recent work has proposed the delamination of the subcontinental mantle lithosphere under northern Tunisia during the late Miocene. This process is required to explain the present location of the Tunisian segment of the African slab, imaged by seismic tomography, hanging under the Gulf of Gabes to the south of Tunisia. Thus, having retreated towards the SE several hundred km from its original position under the Tellian-Atlas nappe contact that crops out along the north of Tunisia. However, no tectonic structures have been described which could be related to this mechanism of lithospheric mantle peeling. Here we describe for the first time extensional fault systems in northern Tunisia that strongly thinned the Tellian nappes, exhuming rocks from the Tunisian Atlas in the core of folded extensional detachments. Two normal fault systems with sub-orthogonal extensional transport occur. These were active during the late Miocene associated to the extrusion of 13 Ma granodiorite and 9 Ma rhyodacite in the footwall of the Nefza detachment. We have differentiated an extensional system formed by low-angle normal faults with NE- and SW-directed transport cutting through the Early to Middle Miocene Tellian nappen stack and a later system of low and high-angle normal faults that cuts down into the underlying Tunisian Atlas units with SE-directed transport, which root in the Nefza detachment. Both normal fault systems have been later folded and cut by thrusts during Plio-Quaternary NW-SE directed compression. These findings change the interpretation of the tectonic evolution of Tunisia that has always been framed in a transpressive to compressive setting, manifesting the extensional effects of Late Miocene lithospheric mantle delamination under northern Tunisia.

  7. Oligocene and Early Miocene coral faunas from Iran: palaeoecology and palaeobiogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster, F.; Wielandt, U.

    Oligocene and Early Miocene coral assemblages from three sections of central Iran are investigated with respect to their palaeoecological and palaeobiogeographic implications. These corals are compared with faunas from the Mediterranean Tethys and the Indopacific. Associated larger foraminifers are used for biostratigraphy and to support the palaeoecological interpretation. The studied sections are situated in the foreland basins of the Iranian Plate which is structured into a fore-arc and a back-arc basin separated by a volcanic arc. The coral assemblages from Abadeh indicate a shallowing-upward trend. Infrequently distributed solitary corals at the base of the section indicate a turbid environment. Above, a distinct horizon characterised by a Leptoseris-Stylophora assemblage associated with lepidocyclinids and planktonic foraminifers is interpreted as maximum flooding surface. Small patch reefs with a Porites-Faviidae assemblage are a common feature of Late Oligocene to Early Miocene coral occurrences and indicate water depths of less than 20m. The diversity of the coral faunas shows marked differences. Oligocene corals from the Esfahan-Sirjan fore-arc basin comprise more than 45 species of 32 genera and occur in a wide range of environments. Early Miocene corals from the Qom back-arc basin are less frequent, show a lower diversity (13 genera with 15 species) and occur in single horizons or small patch reefs.

  8. Peltephilidae and Mesotheriidae (Mammalia) from late Miocene strata of Northern Chilean Andes, Caragua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montoya-Sanhueza, Germán; Moreno, Karen; Bobe, René; Carrano, Matthew T.; García, Marcelo; Corgne, Alexandre

    2017-04-01

    Until now, only one Cenozoic fossil mammal from the Chilean Precordillera (Arica and Parinacota Region) has been reported, Caraguatypotherium munozi (Mesotheriidae: Notoungulata). In this study, we describe a fourth specimen of C. munozi and a new armadillo species, Epipeltephilus caraguensis (Peltephilidae: Cingulata), both collected from a new site closer to the fossiliferous outcrops of the Caragua area (Serravallian - Tortonian). E. caraguensis differs from other members of the family in having: two sulci in the articular surface of the mobile osteoderm; having a tubular, rough and raised anterior edge; a conspicuous transverse depression; and four widely spaced foramina. This taxon represents the youngest known peltephilid from intermediate latitudes and indicates a wide geographic distribution (Patagonia to Central Andes) of the family just prior to its extinction. The new mesothere specimen is 19% larger than previous records. The revision of the dental features of C. munozi allowed the identification of an ambiguous trait in its original diagnosis, i.e. an enamel fracture was misinterpreted with the presence of a posterior sulcus on the talonid of the m3, suggesting that further taxonomic and systematic revision for the Caragua mesothere is necessary. Although the fossil record from the Caragua area is still scarce, mesotheriines seem to be abundant at this latitude, just as has been observed at several early to late Miocene sites such as Chucal (Chile), Cerdas and Nazareno (Bolivia), as well as in southern regions such as Arroyo Chasicó and Mendoza (Argentina). The presence of a new peltephilid species in Caragua sustains the hypothesis of provincialism during the Miocene in intermediate latitudes. Our findings also provide further support for probable faunal movements between intermediate and higher latitudes rather than to lower ones.

  9. Integrated Chronology, Flora and Faunas, and Paleoecology of the Alajuela Formation, Late Miocene of Panama

    PubMed Central

    MacFadden, Bruce J.; Jones, Douglas S.; Jud, Nathan A.; Moreno-Bernal, Jorge W.; Morgan, Gary S.; Portell, Roger W.; Perez, Victor J.; Moran, Sean M.; Wood, Aaron R.

    2017-01-01

    The late Miocene was an important time to understand the geological, climatic, and biotic evolution of the ancient New World tropics and the context for the Great American Biotic Interchange (GABI). Despite this importance, upper Miocene deposits containing diverse faunas and floras and their associated geological context are rare in Central America. We present an integrated study of the geological and paleontological context and age of a new locality from Lago Alajuela in northern Panama (Caribbean side) containing late Miocene marine and terrestrial fossils (plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates) from the Alajuela Formation. These taxa indicate predominantly estuarine and shallow marine paleoenvironments, along with terrestrial influences based on the occurrence of land mammals. Sr-isotope ratio analyses of in situ scallop shells indicate an age for the Alajuela Formation of 9.77 ± 0.22 Ma, which also equates to a latest Clarendonian (Cl3) North American Land Mammal Age. Along with the roughly contemporaneous late Miocene Gatun and Lago Bayano faunas in Panama, we now have the opportunity to reconstruct the dynamics of the Central America seaway that existed before final closure coincident with formation of the Isthmus of Panama. PMID:28107398

  10. An Early Miocene bumble bee from northern Bohemia (Hymenoptera, Apidae).

    PubMed

    Prokop, Jakub; Dehon, Manuel; Michez, Denis; Engel, Michael S

    2017-01-01

    A new species of fossil bumble bee (Apinae: Bombini) is described and figured from Early Miocene (Burdigalian) deposits of the Most Basin at the Bílina Mine, Czech Republic. Bombus trophonius sp. n. , is placed within the subgenus Cullumanobombus Vogt and distinguished from the several species groups therein. The species is apparently most similar to the Nearctic B. (Cullumanobombus) rufocinctus Cresson, the earliest-diverging species within the clade and the two may be related only by symplesiomorphies. The age of the fossil is in rough accordance with divergence estimations for Cullumanobombus .

  11. Late Miocene climate and time scale reconciliation: Accurate orbital calibration from a deep-sea perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drury, Anna Joy; Westerhold, Thomas; Frederichs, Thomas; Tian, Jun; Wilkens, Roy; Channell, James E. T.; Evans, Helen; John, Cédric M.; Lyle, Mitch; Röhl, Ursula

    2017-10-01

    Accurate age control of the late Tortonian to early Messinian (8.3-6.0 Ma) is essential to ascertain the origin of benthic foraminiferal δ18O trends and the late Miocene carbon isotope shift (LMCIS), and to examine temporal relationships between the deep-sea, terrasphere and cryosphere. The current Tortonian-Messinian Geological Time Scale (GTS2012) is based on astronomically calibrated Mediterranean sections; however, no comparable non-Mediterranean stratigraphies exist for 8-6 Ma suitable for testing the GTS2012. Here, we present the first high-resolution, astronomically tuned benthic stable isotope stratigraphy (1.5 kyr resolution) and magnetostratigraphy from a single deep-sea location (IODP Site U1337, equatorial Pacific Ocean), which provides unprecedented insight into climate evolution from 8.3-6.0 Ma. The astronomically calibrated magnetostratigraphy provides robust ages, which differ by 2-50 kyr relative to the GTS2012 for polarity Chrons C3An.1n to C4r.1r, and eliminates the exceptionally high South Atlantic spreading rates based on the GTS2012 during Chron C3Bn. We show that the LMCIS was globally synchronous within 2 kyr, and provide astronomically calibrated ages anchored to the GPTS for its onset (7.537 Ma; 50% from base Chron C4n.1n) and termination (6.727 Ma; 11% from base Chron C3An.2n), confirming that the terrestrial C3:C4 shift could not have driven the LMCIS. The benthic records show that the transition into the 41-kyr world, when obliquity strongly influenced climate variability, already occurred at 7.7 Ma and further strengthened at 6.4 Ma. Previously unseen, distinctive, asymmetric saw-tooth patterns in benthic δ18O imply that high-latitude forcing played an important role in late Miocene climate dynamics from 7.7-6.9 Ma. This new integrated deep-sea stratigraphy from Site U1337 can act as a new stable isotope and magnetic polarity reference section for the 8.3-6.0 Ma interval.

  12. Late Miocene climate and orbital time scale reconciliation from a deep-sea perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drury, Anna Joy; Westerhold, Thomas; Frederichs, Thomas; Tian, Jun; Wilkens, Roy; Channell, James E. T.; Evans, Helen; John, Cédric M.; Lyle, Mitch; Röhl, Ursula

    2017-04-01

    The late Tortonian to early Messinian (8-6 Ma) is characterised by a long-term reduction in benthic foraminiferal δ18O, with distinctive short-term δ18O cycles superimposed. Coevally, a permanent -1‰ change in oceanic δ13CDIC, the late Miocene carbon isotope shift (LMCIS), marks the last major permanent shift in the carbon cycle expressed in all oceanic basins, after which near-modern δ13C gradients are established around 6.7 Ma. Accurate age control is crucial to ascertain the origin of the δ18O cyclicity and the LMCIS, as constraining the precise timing of such events can allow temporal and causal relationships to be established between the deep-sea, terrestrial and cryosphere records. Here, we present the first independent high-resolution chemo-, magneto-, and cyclostratigraphy for the interval between 8.3-6.0 Ma from a single deep-sea site. Generated at equatorial Pacific Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Site U1337, our integrated astronomically tuned benthic stable isotope stratigraphy (1.5 kyr resolution) and magnetostratigraphy is suitable to test the current Tortonian-Messinian Geological Time Scale (GTS2012), currently based on astronomically calibrated Mediterranean sections. Between 7.7-6.9 Ma, the new benthic δ18O and δ13C data from IODP U1337 show distinctive obliquity-driven saw-tooth patterns suggesting that high-latitude forcing dominated late Miocene climate dynamics. For the first time, the LMCIS is astronomically calibrated and anchored to the GPTS between Chrons C4n.1n and C3An.2n. Anchoring the LMCIS facilitates comparison with terrestrial records of the C3/C4 vegetation shift, which has been linked to the LMCIS. The astronomically calibrated Site U1337 magnetostratigraphy additionally provides robust ages for polarity Chrons C3An.1n to C4r.1r, with ages changing by 2-50 kyr relative to the GTS2012. The new integrated deep-sea stratigraphy from Site U1337 has potential as a new stable isotope and magnetic polarity reference

  13. Basal Adare volcanics, Robertson Bay, North Victoria Land, Antarctica: Late Miocene intraplate basalts of subaqueous origin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mortimer, N.; Dunlap, W.J.; Isaac, M.J.; Sutherland, R.P.; Faure, K.

    2007-01-01

    Late Cenozoic lavas and associated hyaloclastite breccias of the Adare volcanics (Hallett volcanic province) in Robertson Bay, North Victoria Land rest unconformably on Paleozoic greywackes. Abundant hyaloclastite breccias are confined to a paleovalley; their primary geological features, and the stable isotope ratios of secondary minerals, are consistent with eruption in a subaqueous environment with calcite formation probably involving seawater. In contrast, the lavas which stratigraphically overlie the hyaloclastites on Mayr Spur probably were erupted subaerially. K-Ar dating of eight samples from this basal sequence confirms the known older age limit (Late Miocene) of the Hallett volcanic province. Geochemical data reveal an ocean island basalt-like affinity, similar to other Cenozoic igneous rocks of the Hallett volcanic province. If a submarine eruptive paleoenvironment is accepted then there has been net tectonic or isostatic post-Late Miocene uplift of a few hundred metres in the Robertson Bay-Adare Peninsula area

  14. Early Miocene sequence development across the New Jersey margin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Monteverde, D.H.; Mountain, Gregory S.; Miller, K.G.

    2008-01-01

    Sequence stratigraphy provides an understanding of the interplay between eustasy, sediment supply and accommodation in the sedimentary construction of passive margins. We used this approach to follow the early to middle Miocene growth of the New Jersey margin and analyse the connection between relative changes of sea level and variable sediment supply. Eleven candidate sequence boundaries were traced in high-resolution multi-channel seismic profiles across the inner margin and matched to geophysical log signatures and lithologic changes in ODP Leg 150X onshore coreholes. Chronologies at these drill sites were then used to assign ages to the intervening seismic sequences. We conclude that the regional and global correlation of early Miocene sequences suggests a dominant role of global sea-level change but margin progradation was controlled by localized sediment contribution and that local conditions played a large role in sequence formation and preservation. Lowstand deposits were regionally restricted and their locations point to both single and multiple sediment sources. The distribution of highstand deposits, by contrast, documents redistribution by along shelf currents. We find no evidence that sea level fell below the elevation of the clinoform rollover, and the existence of extensive lowstand deposits seaward of this inflection point indicates efficient cross-shelf sediment transport mechanisms despite the apparent lack of well-developed fluvial drainage. ?? 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation ?? 2008 Blackwell Publishing.

  15. Late oligocene and miocene faulting and sedimentation, and evolution of the southern Rio Grande rift, New Mexico, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mack, Greg H.; Seager, William R.; Kieling, John

    1994-08-01

    The distribution of nonmarine lithofacies, paleocurrents, and provenance data are used to define the evolution of late Oligocene and Miocene basins and complementary uplifts in the southern Rio Grande rift in the vicinity of Hatch, New Mexico, USA. The late Oligocene-middle Miocene Hayner Ranch Formation, which consists of a maximum of 1000 m of alluvial-fan, alluvial-flat, and lacustrine-carbonate lithofacies, was deposited in a narrow (12 km), northwest-trending, northeast-tilted half graben, whose footwall was the Caballo Mountains block. Stratigraphic separation on the border faults of the Caballo Mountains block was approximately 1615 m. An additional 854 m of stratigraphic separation along the Caballo Mountains border faults occurred during deposition of the middle-late Miocene Rincon Valley Formation, which is composed of up to 610 m of alluvial-fan, alluvial-flat, braided-fluvial, and gypsiferous playa lithofacies. Two new, north-trending fault blocks (Sierra de las Uvas and Dona Ana Mountains) and complementary west-northwest-tilted half graben also developed during Rincon Valley time, with approximately 549 m of stratigraphic separation along the border fault of the Sierra de las Uvas block. In latest Miocene and early Pliocene time, following deposition of the Rincon Valley Formation, movement continued along the border faults of the Caballo Mountains, Dona Ana Mountains, and Sierra de las Uvas blocks, and large parts of the Hayner Ranch and Rincon Valley basins were segmented into smaller fault blocks and basins by movement along new, largely north-trending faults. Analysis of the Hayner Ranch and Rincon Valley Formations, along with previous studies of the early Oligocene Bell Top Formation and late Pliocene-early Pleistocene Camp Rice Formation, indicate that the traditional two-stage model for development of the southern Rio Grande rift should be abandoned in favor of at least four episodes of block faulting beginning 35 Ma ago. With the exception of

  16. Evidence for ice-free summers in the late Miocene central Arctic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Ruediger; Fahl, Kirsten; Schreck, Michael; Knorr, Gregor; Niessen, Frank; Forwick, Matthias; Gebhardt, Catalina; Jensen, Laura; Kaminski, Michael; Kopf, Achim; Matthiessen, Jens; Jokat, Wilfried; Lohmann, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    Although the permanently to seasonally ice-covered Arctic Ocean is a unique and sensitive component in the Earth's climate system, the knowledge of its long-term climate history remains very limited due to the restricted number of pre-Quaternary sedimentary records. During Polarstern Expedition PS87/2014, we discovered multiple submarine landslides along Lomonosov Ridge. Removal of younger sediments from steep headwalls has led to exhumation of Miocene sediments close to the seafloor. Here we document the presence of IP25 as a proxy for spring sea-ice cover and alkenone-based summer sea-surface temperatures >4 °C that support a seasonal sea-ice cover with an ice-free summer season being predominant during the late Miocene in the central Arctic Ocean. A comparison of our proxy data with Miocene climate simulations seems to favour either relatively high late Miocene atmospheric CO2 concentrations and/or a weak sensitivity of the model to simulate the magnitude of high-latitude warming in a warmer than modern climate. PMID:27041737

  17. Geochronologic evidence for Late Cretaceous and Miocene tectonism in northern New England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amidon, W. H.; Barr, M.; Walcott, C.; Kylander-Clark, A. R.

    2017-12-01

    The persistence of mountainous relief in the northeastern U.S. suggests post-rift tectonic rejuvenation has occurred, although specific mechanisms and timing have been difficult to identify. Here we present direct evidence for significant tectonism in New Hampshire and Vermont during the Late-Cretaceous ( 85-65 Ma) and Miocene periods ( 20-5 Ma). Low temperature thermochronology from a drill core in the White Mountains of New Hampshire suggests 2-3 km of accelerated exhumation during the Late Cretaceous. This exhumation is synchronous with compressional thrusting and rapid exhumation on many other Atlantic margins and also with a change in spreading direction in the Atlantic from 85-65 Ma. Recently obtained U-Pb ages of vein calcite from faults and fractures in the Champlain Valley of New York and Vermont suggest significant brittle fracturing occurred during the Late Cretaceous and also during the Miocene. Although many questions remain, this evidence points to tectonic rejuvenation by lateral tectonic stresses in the latest Cretaceous and possibly in the Miocene. The Late Cretaceous seems to have been a particularly significant tectonic episode in northern New England and elsewhere in the circum-Atlantic region.

  18. Constraining the Late Miocene paleo-CO2 estimates through GCM model-data comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradshaw, Catherine; Pound, Matthew; Lunt, Daniel; Flecker, Rachel; Salzmann, Ulrich; Haywood, Alan; Riding, James; Francis, Jane

    2010-05-01

    The period following the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum experienced a continued downward trend in the δ18O record - a record acknowledged as a proxy indicator of both ice volume and temperature (Zachos et al., 2001). Given the link between atmospheric CO2 and temperature (IPCC, 2007), it could be thought that the timeline throughout the Late Miocene would show a general decline in CO2 in accordance with the δ18O record. However, examination of the palaeo-CO2 record shows a relatively flat profile across this time, or perhaps even a slight increase, but there is a wide variation in the palaeo-CO2 estimate for the differing approximation methods. We use the fully coupled atmosphere-ocean-vegetation model of the Hadley Centre, HadCM3L, which has a low resolution ocean (Hadley Centre Coupled Model, Version 3 - low resolution ocean) with TRIFFID (Top-down Representation of Interactive Foliage and Flora Including Dynamics: Cox, 2001) to generate CO2 sensitivity scenarios for the Late Miocene: 180ppmv, 280ppmv and 400ppmv, as well as a preindustrial control simulation: 280 ppmv. We also run the BIOME4 model offline to produce predicted biome distributions for each of our scenarios. We compare both marine and terrestrial modelled temperatures, and the predicted vegetation distributions for these scenarios against available palaeodata As we simulate with a coupled dynamic ocean model, we use planktonic and benthic foraminiferal-based proxy palaeotemperature estimates to compare to the modelled marine temperatures at the depths consistent with the reconstructed palaeoecology of the foraminifera. We compare our modelled terrestrial temperatures to vegetation-based proxy palaeotemperatures, and we use a newly compiled vegetation reconstruction for the Late Miocene to compare to our modelled vegetation distributions. The new Late Miocene vegetation reconstruction is based on a 200+ point database of palaeobotanical sites. Each location is classified into a biome consistent with

  19. Morphometry, Bite-Force, and Paleobiology of the Late Miocene Caiman Purussaurus brasiliensis

    PubMed Central

    Aureliano, Tito; Ghilardi, Aline M.; Guilherme, Edson; Souza-Filho, Jonas P.; Cavalcanti, Mauro; Riff, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Purussaurus brasiliensis thrived in the northwestern portion of South America during the Late Miocene. Although substantial material has been recovered since its early discovery, this fossil crocodilian can still be considered as very poorly understood. In the present work, we used regression equations based on modern crocodilians to present novel details about the morphometry, bite-force and paleobiology of this species. According to our results, an adult Purussaurus brasiliensis was estimated to reach around 12.5 m in length, weighing around 8.4 metric tons, with a mean daily food intake of 40.6 kg. It was capable of generating sustained bite forces of 69,000 N (around 7 metric tons-force). The extreme size and strength reached by this animal seems to have allowed it to include a wide range of prey in its diet, making it a top predator in its ecosystem. As an adult, it would have preyed upon large to very large vertebrates, and, being unmatched by any other carnivore, it avoided competition. The evolution of a large body size granted P. brasiliensis many advantages, but it may also have led to its vulnerability. The constantly changing environment on a large geological scale may have reduced its long-term survival, favoring smaller species more resilient to ecological shifts. PMID:25689140

  20. Morphometry, bite-force, and paleobiology of the late miocene caiman Purussaurus brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Aureliano, Tito; Ghilardi, Aline M; Guilherme, Edson; Souza-Filho, Jonas P; Cavalcanti, Mauro; Riff, Douglas

    2015-01-01

    Purussaurus brasiliensis thrived in the northwestern portion of South America during the Late Miocene. Although substantial material has been recovered since its early discovery, this fossil crocodilian can still be considered as very poorly understood. In the present work, we used regression equations based on modern crocodilians to present novel details about the morphometry, bite-force and paleobiology of this species. According to our results, an adult Purussaurus brasiliensis was estimated to reach around 12.5 m in length, weighing around 8.4 metric tons, with a mean daily food intake of 40.6 kg. It was capable of generating sustained bite forces of 69,000 N (around 7 metric tons-force). The extreme size and strength reached by this animal seems to have allowed it to include a wide range of prey in its diet, making it a top predator in its ecosystem. As an adult, it would have preyed upon large to very large vertebrates, and, being unmatched by any other carnivore, it avoided competition. The evolution of a large body size granted P. brasiliensis many advantages, but it may also have led to its vulnerability. The constantly changing environment on a large geological scale may have reduced its long-term survival, favoring smaller species more resilient to ecological shifts.

  1. New, Late Miocene mammalian assemblage from the Palo Pintado Formation (Northwestern Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimicz, Natalia; Payrola, Patricio; del Papa, Cecilia

    2018-01-01

    A new mammalian assemblage from the Late Miocene Palo Pintado Formation in Northwestern Argentina is described. Specimens were exhumed from the lower levels of the unit cropping out at Tonco Valley, Salta Province. The association includes representatives of seven families and three orders: Cingulata (Macrochorobates, Vetelia, Euphractini gen et sp. indet. a and b), Notoungulata (Paedotherium, Protypotherium, Typotheriopsis), and Rodentia (Caviidae gen et sp. indet. a and b, Procardiomys, Protabrocoma, Prolagostomus, Lagostomus). This assemblage, together with stratigraphical information, suggests a Late Miocene age, probably intermediate between Chasicoan and Huayquerian SALMAs for the fossiliferous levels of the Palo Pintado Formation in Tonco Valley. Paleoecological data discernible from the faunal association suggest grassland and marsh communities that developed in the flood-plain setting under a seasonal climate with a conspicuous dry season.

  2. Seasonal ocean upwelling recorded by the late Miocene Pisco Formation diatomites of Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gariboldi, Karen; Pike, Jennifer; Di Celma, Claudio; Malinverno, Elisa; Gioncada, Anna; Bianucci, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    A 25-cm-thick sample of diatomaceous mudstone was collected in the whale fossil-bearing late Miocene Pisco Formation at Cerro Los Quesos in Peru. This macroscopically-laminated sample was divided into blocks and embedded in epoxy resin for light and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis. In only a few cases are laminae well preserved and, hence, useful for paleoenvironmental studies. In these few cases, a terrigenous lamina - Coscinodiscus ooze lamina - mixed lamina (Chaetoceros resting spores, Thalassionema, terrigenous material) sequence is observed. By comparison with Holocene sediment laminations from the Gulf of California, the late Miocene Peruvian triplet laminations are interpreted as an annual depositional cycle. The terrigenous lamina was deposited in the wet season (summer). Coscinodiscus ooze was the product of: (1) initial high summer primary production which took place at the thermocline during water column stratification; and (2) a subsequent 'Fall dump', or sedimentation, of the diatoms due to autumn storm-related mixing of the water column. Finally, the mixed lamina was deposited during/following the spring bloom. The frequent disruption or homogenisation of laminae observed in the slides was attributed to bioturbation by microbenthic organisms. This bioturbation was accompanied by a general absence of macrobenthos in the late Miocene diatomites of the Pisco Formation; such conditions are commonly interpreted as the consequence of a suboxic sea floor environment. In this presentation we will demonstrate the seasonal nature of the Late Miocene Pisco Formation diatomites and show novel SEM microelemental maps that help interpreting the paleonvironmental conditions at the sea floor at the time of diatomites deposition.

  3. Linking Late Miocene Magmatism and Exhumation of the Pamir-West Kunlun Mountains to Lithospheric Thinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, K.; Wang, G.; Zeng, Z.; Replumaz, A.

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we report newly-discovered potassic plutons emplaced at 11 Ma in the SE Pamir. Together with recently-reported volcanism at 12 Ma in the West Kunlun Mts. (Cao et al., 2015), it can be inferred that Late Miocene magmas extend from the north-central Tibet to the central Pamir. Furthermore, our new apatite fission-track analysis in the SE Pamir-West Kunlun Mountains present uniform ages clustering at 11-6 Ma. Forward and inverse modeling indicate Late Miocene ( 11-6 Ma) rapid exhumation of the SE Pamir-West Kunlun Mountains, concurrent with accelerated exhumation of the Shakhdara dome (Stübner et al., 2013), initial doming of the Muztagata massif (Robinson et al., 2007; Sobel et al., 2011; Cao et al., 2013), and thrusting of the front faults along Pamir-West Kunlun Mts. (Bershaw et al., 2012; Cao et al., 2013, 2015). The simultaneous doming and potassic magmatism could attributed to stress relaxation of the upper crust at that time, possibly driven by the thinning of lower lithosphere beneath Pamir-West Kunlun Mts.. Such plausible mechanisms could be responsible for Neogene magmatism, rock exhumation and plateau growth in northwestern Tibet. At the continental scale, our results support that the Tibetan Plateau underwent a Late Miocene phase of deformation and developed outward and upward since then (Molnar et al., 2012). Three representative models are proposed to account for Late Miocene magmatism and crustal deformation in northern Tibet, including 1) southward subduction of the Tarim lithosphere mantle (Matte et al., 1996; Wittlinger et al., 2004), 2) convective removal of lower lithosphere (Molnar et al., 1993; Turner et al., 1993, 1996), and 3) penetration of molten crust into Kunlun terrane (Le Pape et al., 2012; Wang et al., 2012). Our results allow to discuss these competing models in the western Tibet, to better understand the intracontinent orogenesis in central Asia, in which the lithospheric processes have led to upper crust deformation.

  4. C4 expansion in the central Inner Mongolia during the latest Miocene and early Pliocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chunfu; Wang, Yang; Deng, Tao; Wang, Xiaoming; Biasatti, Dana; Xu, Yingfeng; Li, Qiang

    2009-10-01

    The emergence of C4 photosynthesis in plants as a significant component of terrestrial ecosystems is thought to be an adaptive response to changes in atmospheric CO 2 concentration and/or climate during Neogene times and has had a profound effect on the global terrestrial biosphere. Although expansion of C4 grasses in the latest Miocene and Pliocene has been widely documented around the world, the spatial and temporal variations in the C4 expansion are still not well understood and its driving mechanisms remain a contentious issue. Here we present the results of carbon and oxygen isotope analyses of fossil and modern mammalian tooth enamel samples from the central Inner Mongolia. Our samples represent a diverse group of herbivorous mammals including deer, elephants, rhinos, horses and giraffes, ranging in age from the late Oligocene to modern. The δ13C values of 91 tooth enamel samples of early late-Miocene age or older, with the exception of two 13 Ma rhino samples (- 7.8 and - 7.6‰) and one 8.5 Ma suspected rhino sample (- 7.6‰), were all less than - 8.0‰ (VPDB), indicating that there were no C4 grasses present in their diets and thus probably few or no C4 grasses in the ecosystems of the central Inner Mongolia prior to ~ 8 Ma. However, 12 out of 26 tooth enamel samples of younger ages (~ 7.5 Ma to ~ 3.9 Ma) have δ13C values higher than - 8.0‰ (up to - 2.4‰), indicating that herbivores in the area had variable diets ranging from pure C3 to mixed C3-C4 vegetation during that time interval. The presence of C4 grasses in herbivores' diets (up to ~ 76% C4) suggests that C4 grasses were a significant component of the local ecosystems in the latest Miocene and early Pliocene, consistent with the hypothesis of a global factor as the driving mechanism of the late Miocene C4 expansion. Today, C3 grasses dominate grasslands in the central Inner Mongolia area. The retreat of C4 grasses from this area after the early Pliocene may have been driven by regional

  5. Petrochemistry of late miocene peraluminous silicic volcanic rocks from the Morococala field, Bolivia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morgan, VI G.B.; London, D.; Luedke, R.G.

    1998-01-01

    Late Miocene peraluminous volcanic rocks of the Morococala field, Bolivia, define a layered stratigraphy of basal andalusite-, biotite-(?? Muscovite)-bearing rhyolite tuffs (AR), overlain by cordierite-, biotite-bearing rhyolite tuffs (CR), and capped by biotite-beanng quartz latite tuffs, lavas, and late domal flows (QL). Mineral and whole-rock compositions become more evolved from top to bottom, with differentiation reflected by decreasing Ca, Ba, Mg, Fe, and rare earth elements (REE) versus increasing F, Na/K, and aluminosity from QL to AR. Mineral, whole-rock, and glass inclusion compositions are consistent with derivation of all three rock types from a single stratified magma reservoir, but age and spatial relations between the three units make this unlikely. Genesis of the QL involved biotite-dehydration melting of an aluminous source at T > 750??C and P ??? 4-6 kbar. If not co-magmatic with QL, the other units were generated primarily by muscovite-dehydration melting at T = 730-750??C and P ??? 3??5-4??5 kbar for CR, and T ??? 750??C for AR with pre-emptive residence at low pressure (1??5-3??0 kbar). Low hematite contents (XHem ??? 0??06) of ilmenite grains in AR, CR, and early grains (as inclusions in plagioclase and sanidine cores) in QL indicate reduced conditions imposed by a graphite-bearing source. Compositional variability among texturally later oxides (ilmenite with XHem = 0??06-0??50, primary magnetite), however, apparently records progressive increases in pre-eruptive f(O2) in QL. Plagioclase-melt equilibria and electron microprobe analysis difference for quartz-hosted glass inclusions suggest pre-emptive melt H2O contents ??? 5-7 wt % for the AR, ???4-6 wt % for the CR, and ???3-5 wt % for the QL.

  6. Dental remains of cebid platyrrhines from the earliest late Miocene of Western Amazonia, Peru: Macroevolutionary implications on the extant capuchin and marmoset lineages.

    PubMed

    Marivaux, Laurent; Adnet, Sylvain; Altamirano-Sierra, Ali J; Pujos, François; Ramdarshan, Anusha; Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo; Tejada-Lara, Julia V; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier

    2016-11-01

    Undoubted fossil Cebidae have so far been primarily documented from the late middle Miocene of Colombia, the late Miocene of Brazilian Amazonia, the early Miocene of Peruvian Amazonia, and very recently from the earliest Miocene of Panama. The evolutionary history of cebids is far from being well-documented, with notably a complete blank in the record of callitrichine stem lineages until and after the late middle Miocene (Laventan SALMA). Further documenting their evolutionary history is therefore of primary importance. Recent field efforts in Peruvian Amazonia (Contamana area, Loreto Department) have allowed for the discovery of an early late Miocene (ca. 11 Ma; Mayoan SALMA) fossil primate-bearing locality (CTA-43; Pebas Formation). In this study, we analyze the primate material, which consists of five isolated teeth documenting two distinct Cebidae: Cebus sp., a medium-sized capuchin (Cebinae), and Cebuella sp., a tiny marmoset (Callitrichinae). Although limited, this new fossil material of platyrrhines contributes to documenting the post-Laventan evolutionary history of cebids, and besides testifies to the earliest occurrences of the modern Cebuella and Cebus/Sapajus lineages in the Neotropics. Regarding the evolutionary history of callitrichine marmosets, the discovery of an 11 Ma-old fossil representative of the modern Cebuella pushes back by at least 6 Ma the age of the Mico/Cebuella divergence currently proposed by molecular biologists (i.e., ca. 4.5 Ma). This also extends back to > 11 Ma BP the divergence between Callithrix and the common ancestor (CA) of Mico/Cebuella, as well as the divergence between the CA of marmosets and Callimico (Goeldi's callitrichine). This discovery from Peruvian Amazonia implies a deep evolutionary root of the Cebuella lineage in the northwestern part of South America (the modern western Amazon basin), slightly before the recession of the Pebas mega-wetland system (PMWS), ca. 10.5 Ma, and well-before the subsequent

  7. Late Miocene Coral faunas of Iran (Zagros, Aghar, Firuz abad, Fars) palaeoecology and palaeobiogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dehbozorgi, M.; Yazdi, M.; Torabi, H.

    2009-04-01

    Late Miocene Corals assemblage from Zagros Iran are investigated with respect to their palaeoecology and palaeobiogeography implications. This Corals are compared with fauna from Mediterranean Tethys and the Indopacific. Small foraminifers are used for biogeography and to support paleoecology interpretation. The studied section situated in the Zagros Mishan F.m is last depositions sea. A distinct horizon characterized by Porites- Antiguastrea assemblage associated Milliolid and Rotalia is interpreted a shallow bioclastic shoal. Patch reef with a porites and faviidae assemblage are a common feature of Oligocene and Miocene coral occurrence and indicate water depth of less than 20m. The diversity of corals in this area are low and all corals are hematypic. Miocene Corals from Mishan F.m Comprise 7 genera and occur in the single horizon or patch reef. This Corals and patch reefs are compared with corals and patch reefs in Qom F.m Central Iran. This corals report from this section: Antiguastrea sp., Monastrea sp., Favites sp., Porites sp., Dichocoenia sp., Asterohelia sp., Leptoria sp. Keywords: Miocene- Iran- Mishan-Zagros- Formation- Tethys seaway- Corals- Palaeoecology- palaeobiogeography.

  8. Solar Cycle Driven Environmental Changes on Decadal to Centennial Scale of Late Miocene Lake Sediments (tortonian, Lake Pannon, Central Europe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piller, W. E.; Kern, A. K.; Harzhauser, M.; Soliman, A.; Mandic, O.

    2012-12-01

    High time resolution is a key issue in reconstructing past climate systems. This is of particular importance when searching for model predictions of future climate change, such as the warm Late Miocene. For this study we selected Lake Pannon, a paleo-ancient, alkaline, brackish lake in Europe during the Tortonian (early Late Miocene). On a continuous sediment core including the interval from ca. 10.5 - 10.4 Ma we show the power of high resolution multiproxy analyses for reconstructing paleoclimatology on a decadal scale over several millennia of Late Miocene time. To demonstrate this high-resolution interpretation we selected a core from the western margin of Lake Pannon and studied it in respect to 2 different time resolutions. A continuous 6-m-core clearly displays regular fluctuations and modulations within three different environmental proxies (natural gamma radiation, magnetic susceptibility, total abundance of ostracods). Lomb-Scargle and REDFIT periodograms next to wavelet spectra of all data sets reveal distinct frequencies. Only few of these are deciphered in all proxy data sets at the same power, while some occur only in two or one proxies. A higher resolution study was conducted on a 1.5-m-long core interval based on pollen and dinoflagellate cysts, ostracod abundance, carbon and sulfur contents as well as magnetic susceptibility and natural gamma radiation. Based on an already established age model the study covers about two millennia of Late Miocene time with a resolution of ~13.7 years per sample. No major ecological turnovers are expected in respect to this very short interval. Thus, the pollen record suggests rather stable wetland vegetation with a forested hinterland. Shifts in the spectra can be mainly attributed to variations in transport mechanism, represented by few phases of fluvial input but mainly by changes in wind intensity and probably also wind direction. Even within this short time span, dinoflagellates document rapid changes between

  9. Large mammal burrows in late Miocene calcic paleosols from central Argentina: paleoenvironment, taphonomy and producers.

    PubMed

    Cardonatto, María Cristina; Melchor, Ricardo Néstor

    2018-01-01

    Large cylindrical sediment-filled structures interpreted as mammal burrows occur within the loess-paleosol sequence of the late Miocene Cerro Azul Formation of central Argentina. A total of 115 burrow fills from three localities were measured. They are typically shallowly dipping, subcylindrical, unbranched structures with rounded ends and lacking enlargements. The horizontal diameter of the burrows range between 0.15 and 1.50 m, with most of the burrows in the interval of 0.39 to 0.98 m. Geometric morphometric analysis of transverse cross-sections support their distinct subcircular and elliptical (horizontally flattened) shapes. Burrow fills are typically laminated in the lower part and massive in the upper part. The laminated intervals reflect pulses of flowing water entering the abandoned burrow during moderate rains, whereas massive intervals reflect mass flow input of dense sediment-water mixtures during heavy rains that produced sheet floods. Approximately 1% of the burrows contained fragmentary, disarticulated and weathered mammal bones that were introduced in the open burrow by currents along with other sedimentary particles. Analysis of the tetrapod burrow fossil record suggests that Miocene burrows, including those studied herein, reflect a remarkable increase in the average size of the fossorial fauna. We conclude that large late Miocene mammals dug burrows essentially as a shelter against environmental extremes and to escape predation. The simple architecture of the burrows suggests that the producers essentially foraged aboveground. Several mammal groups acquired fossorial habits in response to cold and seasonally dry climatic conditions that prevailed during the late Miocene in southern South America. The considerable range of horizontal diameters of the studied burrows can be attributed to a variety of producers, including dasypodids, the notoungulate Paedotherium minor , Glyptodontidae and Proscelidodon sp.

  10. Late Miocene remagnetization within the internal sector of the Northern Apennines, Italy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aiello, I.W.; Hagstrum, J.T.; Principi, G.

    2004-01-01

    Paleomagnetic and geologic evidence indicates that Upper Jurassic radiolarian cherts of both the Tuscan Cherts Formation (continental margin, Tuscan Units) and the Monte Alpe Cherts Formation (oceanic crust, Ligurian Units) were remagnetized during Miocene orogenesis of the Northern Apennines of Italy. Characteristic overprint magnetizations with reversed polarities have been found over a large area within the internal sector of the Northern Apennines, including eastern Liguria, Elba Island and the Thyrrenian margin, and west of the Middle Tuscan Ridge. The reversed-polarity overprint (average direction: D=177??, I=-52??, ??95=15??) was most likely acquired during Late Miocene uplift and denudation of the orogenic chain, and thermochemical remagnetization was a probable consequence of increased circulation of orogenic fluids. Similarly, mostly reversed-polarity directions of magnetization have been found by other workers in overlying post-orogenic Messinian sediments (D=177??, I=-57??, ??95=3??), which show little counterclockwise (CCW) vertical-axis rotation with respect to stable Europe (-8??5??). The Monte Alpe Cherts sampled at sites in the external sector of the Northern Apennines, close to major tectonic features, have normal- polarity overprint directions with in situ W-SW declinations. Since the overlying post-orogenic Messinian sediments have not been substantially rotated about vertical axes, the evidence points to an earlier,pre-Late Miocene remagnetization in the external parts of the orogenic chain. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Late Miocene sedimentary environments in south-western Amazonia (Solimões Formation; Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Martin; Piller, Werner E.; Ramos, Maria Ines; Douglas da Silva Paz, Jackson

    2011-01-01

    In Miocene times a vast wetland existed in Western Amazonia. Whereas the general development of this amazing ecosystem is well established, many questions remain open on sedimentary environments, stratigraphical correlations as well as its palaeogeographical configuration. Several outcrops located in a barely studied region around Eirunepé (SW Amazonas state, Brazil) were investigated to obtain basic sedimentological data. The observed deposits belong to the upper part of the Solimões Formation and are biostratigraphically dated to the Late Miocene. Vertically as well as laterally highly variable fine-grained clastic successions were recorded. Based on the lithofacies assemblages, these sediments represent fluvial deposits, possibly of an anastomosing river system. Sand bodies formed within active channels and dominant overbank fines are described (levees, crevasse splays/channels/deltas, abandoned channels, backswamps, floodplain paleosols). Lacustrine environments are restricted to local floodplain ponds/lakes. The mollusc and ostracod content as well as very light δ18O and δ13C values, measured on ostracod valves, refer to exclusively freshwater conditions. Based on palaeontological and geological results the existence of a long-lived lake (“Lake Pebas”) or any influx of marine waters can be excluded for that region during the Late Miocene. PMID:26523089

  12. Late Miocene sedimentary environments in south-western Amazonia (Solimões Formation; Brazil).

    PubMed

    Gross, Martin; Piller, Werner E; Ramos, Maria Ines; Douglas da Silva Paz, Jackson

    2011-08-01

    In Miocene times a vast wetland existed in Western Amazonia. Whereas the general development of this amazing ecosystem is well established, many questions remain open on sedimentary environments, stratigraphical correlations as well as its palaeogeographical configuration. Several outcrops located in a barely studied region around Eirunepé (SW Amazonas state, Brazil) were investigated to obtain basic sedimentological data. The observed deposits belong to the upper part of the Solimões Formation and are biostratigraphically dated to the Late Miocene. Vertically as well as laterally highly variable fine-grained clastic successions were recorded. Based on the lithofacies assemblages, these sediments represent fluvial deposits, possibly of an anastomosing river system. Sand bodies formed within active channels and dominant overbank fines are described (levees, crevasse splays/channels/deltas, abandoned channels, backswamps, floodplain paleosols). Lacustrine environments are restricted to local floodplain ponds/lakes. The mollusc and ostracod content as well as very light δ 18 O and δ 13 C values, measured on ostracod valves, refer to exclusively freshwater conditions. Based on palaeontological and geological results the existence of a long-lived lake ("Lake Pebas") or any influx of marine waters can be excluded for that region during the Late Miocene.

  13. Invertebrate Paleontology of the Wilson Grove Formation (Late Miocene to Late Pliocene), Sonoma and Marin Counties, California, with some Observations on Its Stratigraphy, Thickness, and Structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, Charles L.; Allen, James R.; Holland, Peter J.

    2004-01-01

    central California through Oregon. Outcrops at Salmon Creek, northeast of Steinbeck Ranch and also in the central part of the outcrop area, contain Aulacofusus? recurva (Gabb) and Turcica brevis Stewart, which are both restricted to the Pliocene, as well as Lirabuccinum portolaensis (Arnold) known from the early Pliocene of central and northern California and into the late Pliocene in southern California. These data suggest an overall pattern of older rocks and deeper water to the south and west, and younger rocks and shallower water to the east and north. Outcrops to the southwest, south of the Bloomfield fault, are not well dated but presumably are older than the late Miocene Roblar tuff of Sarna-Wojcicki (1992). Fossils in this part of the section are rare and are not useful in determining a precise age or environment of deposition for the lower part of the Wilson Grove Formation. However, sedimentary sequences and structures in the rocks here are useful and suggest probable outer shelf and slope water depths. Lituyapecten turneri (Arnold) which occurs in this part of the section has previously been restricted to the Pliocene, but its occurrence below the Roblar tuff of Sarna-Wojcicki (1992) indicates a revised late Miocene age for this taxon. Three possibly new gastropods (Mollusca) are reported here: Calyptraea (Trochita) n. sp. and Nucella sp., aff. N. lamellosa (Gmelin), both from the Bloomfield Quarry area, and Acanthinucella? n. sp. from the River Road area. These species are not described here because this venue is deemed insufficient for the description of new taxa.

  14. Middle to Late Miocene Contractional Deformation in Costa Rica Triggered by Plate Geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mescua, José Francisco; Porras, Hernán.; Durán, Patrick; Giambiagi, Laura; de Moor, Maarten; Cascante, Monserrat; Salazar, Esteban; Protti, Marino; Poblete, Fernando

    2017-12-01

    Contractional deformation in Costa Rica is usually attributed to the subduction of the aseismic Cocos Ridge. In this work, we review the evidences for contraction in the middle to late Miocene, prior to the arrival of the Cocos Ridge at the Middle America Trench. We find that the Miocene phase of contractional deformation is found in all of Costa Rica, probably extending to Nicaragua as well. The widespread distribution of this event requires a regional or plate geodynamic trigger. We analyze the possible mechanisms that could produce the onset of contractional deformation, using the better known case of subduction orogeny, the Andes, as an analog. We propose that a change in the direction of the Cocos plate since ˜19 Ma led to a change from oblique to orthogonal convergence, producing contractional deformation of the upper plate.

  15. Paleomagnetic evidence for Late Miocene counterclockwise rotation of north coast carbonate sequence, Puerto Rico

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, J.A.; Plumley, P.W.; Schellekens, J.H.

    1991-03-01

    A paleomagnetic study of the essentially undeformed middle Tertiary carbonate sequence along the north coast of Puerto Rico reveals statistically significant pre-Pliocene discordance of characteristic component directions against those expected from cratonic North America for much of the section. Despite generally weak to moderately weak magnetic intensities, confirmation of the magnetization as primary in origin comes from the presence of two distinct components of magnetization, intrasite bipolarity, and/or the reproducibility of measurements. The mean geographic direction for the upper Oligocene to middle Miocene strata is 335.2{degree}/32.9{degree} and the corrected mean paleomagnetic pole is 207.6{degree}/66.5{degree}, (N = 3, {alpha}95 = 4.3{degree}).more » This suggests a counter-clockwise (CCW) block rotation of Puerto Rico and its microplate of 24.5{degrees} ({plus minus} 5.8{degrees}) during the late Miocene. Using a width of 250 km for the Northern Caribbean Plate Boundary Zone (NCPBZ) between the North American Plate and Caribbean Plate, the mean left lateral displacement implied is 1.8 to 2.4 cm/yr, which agrees fairly well with published relative motion rates for the two plates. Average rotation rate for 50 Ma to 20 Ma was 0.7{degree}/my but perhaps as great as 4{degree}/my in the Miocene. Resolution of mean paleolatitude indicates northward motion of a degree or less during the period of rotation. Causes of this short-lived rotation may include (1) tectonic escape from the inhibiting presence of the Bahama Banks and Beata Ridge during eastward motion of Puerto Rico along the sinistral transpressive Puerto Rico Trench and Muertos Trough fault systems or (2) changes in relative plate motions of the Caribbean and North American Plate during the late Miocene.« less

  16. Magneto- and litho-stratigraphic records of the Oligocene-Early Miocene climatic changes from deep drilling in the Linxia Basin, Northeast Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Fuli; Fang, Xiaomin; Meng, Qingquan; Zhao, Yan; Tang, Fenjun; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Weilin; Zan, Jinbo

    2017-11-01

    The East Asian monsoon is generally regarded to have initiated at the transition from the Late Oligocene to the Early Miocene. However, little is known about this process because of a lack of continuous strata across the boundary between the Late Oligocene and the Early Miocene in Asia. Based on previous drilling (core HZ-1) in the Miocene sediments in the southern Linxia Basin in NW China, we drilled a new 620 m core (HZ-2) into the Late Oligocene strata and obtained 206 m of continuous new core. The detailed paleomagnetism of the new core reveals eleven pairs of normal and reversed polarity zones that can be readily correlated with chrons 6Bn-9n of the geomagnetic polarity time scale (GPTS), define an age interval of 21.6-26.5 Ma and indicate continuity from the Late Oligocene to Early Miocene. The core is characterized by the remarkable occurrence of brownish-red paleosols of luvic cambisols (brown to luvic drab soils) above reddish-brown floodplain siltstones and mudstones, which suggest that the East Asian monsoon likely began by 26.5 Ma. In contrast to the siltstone and mudstone of the Late Oligocene strata, the Miocene strata begin with a thick fine sandstone bed, which marks sudden increases in erosion and loading that most likely reflect a response to tectonic uplift. The hematite content and redness index records of the core further demonstrate that the monsoonal climate in the Late Oligocene to Early Miocene in this area was mainly controlled by global temperature trends and events.

  17. Aridification of the Sahara desert caused by Tethys Sea shrinkage during the Late Miocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhongshi; Ramstein, Gilles; Schuster, Mathieu; Li, Camille; Contoux, Camille; Yan, Qing

    2014-09-01

    It is widely believed that the Sahara desert is no more than ~2-3 million years (Myr) old, with geological evidence showing a remarkable aridification of north Africa at the onset of the Quaternary ice ages. Before that time, north African aridity was mainly controlled by the African summer monsoon (ASM), which oscillated with Earth's orbital precession cycles. Afterwards, the Northern Hemisphere glaciation added an ice volume forcing on the ASM, which additionally oscillated with glacial-interglacial cycles. These findings led to the idea that the Sahara desert came into existence when the Northern Hemisphere glaciated ~2-3 Myr ago. The later discovery, however, of aeolian dune deposits ~7 Myr old suggested a much older age, although this interpretation is hotly challenged and there is no clear mechanism for aridification around this time. Here we use climate model simulations to identify the Tortonian stage (~7-11 Myr ago) of the Late Miocene epoch as the pivotal period for triggering north African aridity and creating the Sahara desert. Through a set of experiments with the Norwegian Earth System Model and the Community Atmosphere Model, we demonstrate that the African summer monsoon was drastically weakened by the Tethys Sea shrinkage during the Tortonian, allowing arid, desert conditions to expand across north Africa. Not only did the Tethys shrinkage alter the mean climate of the region, it also enhanced the sensitivity of the African monsoon to orbital forcing, which subsequently became the major driver of Sahara extent fluctuations. These important climatic changes probably caused the shifts in Asian and African flora and fauna observed during the same period, with possible links to the emergence of early hominins in north Africa.

  18. Aridification of the Sahara desert caused by Tethys Sea shrinkage during Late Miocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Z.; Ramstein, G.; Schuster, M.; Li, C.; Contoux, C.; Yan, Q.

    2014-12-01

    It is widely believed that the Sahara desert is no more than ~2-3 million years (Myr) old, with geological evidence showing a remarkable aridification of north Africa at the onset of the Quaternary ice ages. Before that time, north African aridity was mainly controlled by the African summer monsoon (ASM), which oscillated with Earth's orbital precession cycles. Afterwards, the Northern Hemisphere glaciation added an ice volume forcing on the ASM, which additionally oscillated with glacial-interglacial cycles. These findings led to the idea that the Sahara desert came into existence when the Northern Hemisphere glaciated ~2-3 Myr ago. The later discovery, however, of aeolian dune deposits ~7 Myr old suggested a much older age, although this interpretation is hotly challenged and there is no clear mechanism for aridification around this time. Here we use climate model simulations to identify the Tortonian stage (~7-11 Myr ago) of the Late Miocene epoch as the pivotal period for triggering north African aridity and creating the Sahara desert. Through a set of experiments with the Norwegian Earth System Model and the Community Atmosphere Model, we demonstrate that the African summer monsoon was drastically weakened by the Tethys Sea shrinkage during the Tortonian, allowing arid, desert conditions to expand across north Africa. Not only did the Tethys shrinkage alter the mean climate of the region, it also enhanced the sensitivity of the African monsoon to orbital forcing, which subsequently became the major driver of Sahara extent fluctuations. These important climatic changes probably caused the shifts in Asian and African flora and fauna observed during the same period, with possible links to the emergence of early hominins in north Africa.

  19. Paleo-environment in the upper amazon basin during early to middle Miocene times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Soelen, Els; Hoorn, Carina; Santos, Roberto V.; Dantas, Elton L.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Kim, Jung-Hyun

    2014-05-01

    The Amazon River has the largest catchment in the world and is responsible for the largest water discharge from land to the ocean. The river system that flows from the Andes to the Atlantic Equatorial Margin exists since the late Miocene, and results from Andean uplift which strongly affected erosion/deposition and major flow patterns in northern South-America. Two outcrop sites from the Solimões basin, Mariñame (17.7-16.1 Ma) and Los Chorros (14.2-12.7 Ma), may shed light on the inland paleo-environmental conditions during a period of active Andean uplift in the early to middle Miocene. Earlier works revealed the Mariñame outcrops to represent a river born in Amazonia. Instead the Los Chorros outcrops are relics of the Amazon River system, characterized by extensive wetlands consisting of swamps, shallow lakes, crevasse splays channels and crevasse-delta lakes (e.g. Hoorn et al., 2010). The freshwater ecosystems alternate with some intervals that are rich in marine palynomorphs (such as dinocysts), mangrove pollen, brackish tolerant molluscs and ostracods, which indicate brackish conditions and a marine influence. It is thought that these marine incursion are related to phases of global sea-level rise and rapid subsidence in the Andean foreland (Marshall & Lundberg, 1996). Still, much remains unknown about the Miocene river systems, like the extent and diversity of the wetland system and the nature of the marine incursions. To get a better understanding of the sources of the (in)organic material, geochemical methods were used. Strontium (Sr) and Neodymium (Nd) isotopes were analyzed on bulk sediments, and used for a paleo-provenance study. The Sr and Nd isotopic signature in the older section (Mariñame) is in general more radiogenic compared to the Los Chorros section. The most radiogenic values are comparable to those found nowadays in the the Precambrian Guyana shield. A Guyana sediment source would suggest a distinctly different flow direction of the major

  20. Ice-free summers predominant in the late Miocene central Arctic Ocean - New insights from a proxy-modeling approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Ruediger; Fahl, Kirsten; Schreck, Michael; Knorr, Gregor; Forwick, Matthias; Lohmann, Gerrit; Niessen, Frank

    2016-04-01

    During Polarstern Expedition PS87/2014, we discovered multiple submarine landslides over a distance of >350 km along Lomonosov Ridge between about 81°N and 84°N (Stein, 2015). The load and erosional behaviour of an extended ice sheet/shelf that probably occurred during major Quaternary glaciations, may have caused physical conditions that triggered these landslides and major down-slope transport of sediments at this part of Lomonosov Ridge (Stein et al., 2016 and further references therein). The removal of younger sediments from steep headwalls has led to exhumation of Miocene to early Quaternary sediments close to the seafloor, allowing the retrieval of such old sediments by gravity coring and multi-proxy studies of theses sediments. Within one of these studies (Stein et al., 2016), we used for the first time the sea-ice biomarker IP25 (for background of approach see Belt et al., 2007; Müller et al., 2009, 2011) together with alkenone-based sea-surface temperatures (SST) to reconstruct upper Miocene Arctic Ocean sea-ice and SST conditions. The presence of IP25 as proxy for spring sea-ice cover and alkenone-based relatively warm summer SST of >4 °C support a seasonal sea-ice cover with an ice-free summer season being dominant during (most of) the late Miocene central Arctic Ocean. A comparison of our proxy data with Miocene climate simulations seems to favour either relatively high late Miocene atmospheric CO2 concentrations and/or an overly weak sensitivity of the model to simulate the magnitude of high-latitude warming in a warmer than modern climate. References: Belt, S.T., Massé, G., Rowland, S.J., Poulin, M., Michel, and C., LeBlanc, B., 2007. A novel chemical fossil of palaeo sea ice: IP25, Organic Geochemistry 38, 16-27. Müller, J., Massé, G., Stein, R., and Belt, S., 2009. Extreme variations in sea ice cover for Fram Strait during the past 30 ka. Nature Geoscience, DOI: 10.1038/NGEO665. Müller, J., Wagner, A., Fahl, K., Stein, R., Prange, M., and

  1. Folivory or fruit/seed predation for Mesopithecus, an earliest colobine from the late Miocene of Eurasia?

    PubMed

    Merceron, Gildas; Scott, Jessica; Scott, Robert S; Geraads, Denis; Spassov, Nikolai; Ungar, Peter S

    2009-12-01

    Here we compare dental microwear textures from specimens of the fossil genus Mesopithecus (Cercopithecidae, Colobinae) from the late Miocene of Eastern Europe with dental microwear textures from four extant primate species with known dietary differences. Results indicate that the dental microwear textures of Mesopithecus differ from those of extant leaf eaters Alouatta palliata and Trachypithecus cristatus and instead resemble more closely those of the occasional hard-object feeders Cebus apella and Lophocebus albigena. Microwear texture data presented here in combination with results from previous analyses suggest that Mesopithecus was a widespread, opportunistic feeder that often consumed hard seeds. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that early colobines may have preferred hard seeds to leaves.

  2. High richness of insect herbivory from the early Miocene Hindon Maar crater, Otago, New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Daphne E.; Wappler, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    Plants and insects are key components of terrestrial ecosystems and insect herbivory is the most important type of interaction in these ecosystems. This study presents the first analysis of associations between plants and insects for the early Miocene Hindon Maar fossil lagerstätte, Otago, New Zealand. A total of 584 fossil angiosperm leaves representing 24 morphotypes were examined to determine the presence or absence of insect damage types. Of these leaves, 73% show signs of insect damage; they comprise 821 occurrences of damage from 87 damage types representing all eight functional feeding groups. In comparison to other fossil localities, the Hindon leaves display a high abundance of insect damage and a high diversity of damage types. Leaves of Nothofagus(southern beech), the dominant angiosperm in the fossil assemblage, exhibit a similar leaf damage pattern to leaves from the nearby mid to late Miocene Dunedin Volcano Group sites but display a more diverse spectrum and much higher percentage of herbivory damage than a comparable dataset of leaves from Palaeocene and Eocene sites in the Antarctic Peninsula. PMID:28224051

  3. Late Miocene decoupling of oceanic warmth and atmospheric carbon dioxide forcing.

    PubMed

    LaRiviere, Jonathan P; Ravelo, A Christina; Crimmins, Allison; Dekens, Petra S; Ford, Heather L; Lyle, Mitch; Wara, Michael W

    2012-06-06

    Deep-time palaeoclimate studies are vitally important for developing a complete understanding of climate responses to changes in the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration (that is, the atmospheric partial pressure of CO(2), p(co(2))). Although past studies have explored these responses during portions of the Cenozoic era (the most recent 65.5 million years (Myr) of Earth history), comparatively little is known about the climate of the late Miocene (∼12-5 Myr ago), an interval with p(co(2)) values of only 200-350 parts per million by volume but nearly ice-free conditions in the Northern Hemisphere and warmer-than-modern temperatures on the continents. Here we present quantitative geochemical sea surface temperature estimates from the Miocene mid-latitude North Pacific Ocean, and show that oceanic warmth persisted throughout the interval of low p(co(2)) ∼12-5 Myr ago. We also present new stable isotope measurements from the western equatorial Pacific that, in conjunction with previously published data, reveal a long-term trend of thermocline shoaling in the equatorial Pacific since ∼13 Myr ago. We propose that a relatively deep global thermocline, reductions in low-latitude gradients in sea surface temperature, and cloud and water vapour feedbacks may help to explain the warmth of the late Miocene. Additional shoaling of the thermocline after 5 Myr ago probably explains the stronger coupling between p(co(2)), sea surface temperatures and climate that is characteristic of the more recent Pliocene and Pleistocene epochs.

  4. Listriodon guptai Pilgrim, 1926 (Mammalia, Suidae) from the early Miocene of the Bugti Hills, Balochistan, Pakistan: new insights into early Listriodontinae evolution and biogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orliac, Maeva Judith; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier; Métais, Grégoire; Marivaux, Laurent; Crochet, Jean-Yves; Welcomme, Jean-Loup; Baqri, Syed Rafiqul Hassan; Roohi, Ghazala

    2009-08-01

    New dental remains of listriodont suids are described from the lower member of the early to middle Miocene Vihowa Formation of the Bugti Hills, Pakistan. The material is homogeneous in terms of morphology and dimensions and referred as a whole to Listriodon guptai Pilgrim, 1926. This species is also mentioned in coeval deposits of the Zinda Pir Dome, Pakistan, dating back to ca. 19 Ma. The early occurrence of an advanced listriodont in Pakistan constrains the age of acquisition of several characters correlated to lophodonty within Listriodontini, and raises major questions about the early history of the Old World Listriodontinae. Strong morphological similarity between Listriodon guptai and the African species Listriodon akatikubas found in the late early Miocene of Maboko (Kenya, ca. 16.5 Ma) suggests that this latter is most probably a migrant originating from Asia.

  5. Listriodon guptai Pilgrim, 1926 (Mammalia, Suidae) from the early Miocene of the Bugti Hills, Balochistan, Pakistan: new insights into early Listriodontinae evolution and biogeography.

    PubMed

    Orliac, Maeva Judith; Antoine, Pierre-Olivier; Métais, Grégoire; Marivaux, Laurent; Crochet, Jean-Yves; Welcomme, Jean-Loup; Baqri, Syed Rafiqul Hassan; Roohi, Ghazala

    2009-08-01

    New dental remains of listriodont suids are described from the lower member of the early to middle Miocene Vihowa Formation of the Bugti Hills, Pakistan. The material is homogeneous in terms of morphology and dimensions and referred as a whole to Listriodon guptai Pilgrim, 1926. This species is also mentioned in coeval deposits of the Zinda Pir Dome, Pakistan, dating back to ca. 19 Ma. The early occurrence of an advanced listriodont in Pakistan constrains the age of acquisition of several characters correlated to lophodonty within Listriodontini, and raises major questions about the early history of the Old World Listriodontinae. Strong morphological similarity between Listriodon guptai and the African species Listriodon akatikubas found in the late early Miocene of Maboko (Kenya, ca. 16.5 Ma) suggests that this latter is most probably a migrant originating from Asia.

  6. Detailed view into the dynamics of the Late Miocene glaciation episode that accompanied terrestrial evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzanova, A.; Herbert, T.; Lawrence, K. T.; Peterson, L.; Kelly, C. S.

    2015-12-01

    We focus on the period of ~ 9 - 5 Ma when an episode of notably cool temperatures corresponds to evidence of high latitude Northern Hemisphere glaciation and mid-latitude terrestrial evolution. Alkenone-based sea surface temperatures (SST) from six globally distributed sites: ODP Sites 907 and 982 in the North Atlantic, ODP Site 1088 in the South Atlantic and ODP Sites 883, 884 and 887 in the North Pacific, and the Monte dei Corvi marine section in the Mediterranean unequivocally establish a dramatic, Late Miocene cold episode that persisted over approximately 2.5 Myr. In this work we establish the timing and synchronization of temperature decrease as well as rebound at orbital timescales. All sites were notably warmer than their modern annual average at ~9 Ma and exhibit sustained cooling beginning at ~8 Ma. SSTs rebound close to ~5.9 Ma at most locations suggesting that the cooling trend that began in the Late Miocene slowed down or even reversed in some locations in the Pliocene. The newly reconstructed SSTs highlight the role of cooling and an increase in equator to pole temperature gradients in terrestrial evolution at this pivotal time.

  7. First evidence of “ancient deer” (cervid) in the late Miocene Bira Formation, Northern Israel

    PubMed Central

    Shaked Gelband, Dotan; Stein, Mordechai; Mienis, Henk K.; Rabinovich, Rivka

    2017-01-01

    Despite the extensive geological and paleontological searches in the south Levant, no terrestrial fauna of late Neogene age was yet reported. Here, we report the first evidence of “ancient deer”–cervid in the late Miocene (Tortonian) lacustrine section of the Bira Formation at Hagal Stream, Jordan Valley, northern Israel. The section comprises rich assemblage of macrofauna fossils, mostly freshwater mollusks. The mammalian bone was discovered among the macrofauna fossils, and is described as an almost complete left humerus of an adult animal identified as an artiodactyls element probably of a cervid. This terrestrial mammal shares similar paleoenvironmental conditions with other contemporaneous localities, where cervids prevailed with bovids and other taxa. It appears that the freshwater lakes provided favorite habitat for the development of the cervids and possibly other mammals. The specific conditions of preservation of the cervid illuminate the role of post depositional processes (taphonomic constrains) in masking terrestrial fauna remains in the region. Accordingly, further efforts will be devoted to unveil the mute part of the southern Levant–east Mediterranean terrestrial faunistic realm at the end of the Miocene. PMID:29091714

  8. Late Miocene-Pliocene Asian monsoon intensification linked to Antarctic ice-sheet growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ao, Hong; Roberts, Andrew P.; Dekkers, Mark J.; Liu, Xiaodong; Rohling, Eelco J.; Shi, Zhengguo; An, Zhisheng; Zhao, Xiang

    2016-06-01

    Environmental conditions in one of Earth's most densely populated regions, East Asia, are dominated by the monsoon. While Quaternary monsoon variability is reasonably well understood, pre-Quaternary monsoon variability and dynamics remain enigmatic. In particular, little is known about potential relationships between northern hemispheric monsoon response and major Cenozoic changes in Antarctic ice cover. Here we document long-term East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) intensification through the Late Miocene-Pliocene (∼8.2 to 2.6 Ma), and attribute this to progressive Antarctic glaciation. Our new high-resolution magnetic records of long-term EASM intensification come from the Late Miocene-Pliocene Red Clay sequence on the Chinese Loess Plateau; we identify underlying mechanisms using a numerical climate-model simulation of EASM response to an idealized stepwise increase in Antarctic ice volume. We infer that progressive Antarctic glaciation caused intensification of the cross-equatorial pressure gradient between an atmospheric high-pressure cell over Australia and a low-pressure cell over mid-latitude East Asia, as well as intensification of the cross-equatorial sea-surface temperature (SST) gradient. These combined atmospheric and oceanic adjustments led to EASM intensification. Our findings offer a new and more global perspective on the controls behind long-term Asian monsoon evolution.

  9. Late Miocene-Pliocene Asian monsoon intensification linked to Antarctic ice-sheet growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ao, H.; Roberts, A. P.; Dekkers, M. J.; Liu, X.; Rohling, E. J.; Shi, Z.; An, Z.; Zhao, X.

    2016-12-01

    Environmental conditions in one of Earth's most densely populated regions, East Asia, are dominated by the monsoon. While Quaternary monsoon variability is reasonably well understood, pre-Quaternary monsoon variability and dynamics remain enigmatic. In particular, little is known about potential relationships between northern hemispheric monsoon response and major Cenozoic changes in Antarctic ice cover. Here we document long-term East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) intensification through the Late Miocene-Pliocene (˜8.2 to 2.6 Ma), and attribute this to progressive Antarctic glaciation. Our new high-resolution magnetic records of long-term EASM intensification come from the Late Miocene-Pliocene Red Clay sequence on the Chinese Loess Plateau; we identify underlying mechanisms using a numerical climate-model simulation of EASM response to an idealized stepwise increase in Antarctic ice volume. We infer that progressive Antarctic glaciation caused intensification of the cross-equatorial pressure gradient between an atmospheric high-pressure cell over Australia and a low-pressure cell over mid-latitude East Asia, as well as intensification of the cross-equatorial sea-surface temperature (SST) gradient. These combined atmospheric and oceanic adjustments led to EASM intensification. Our findings offer a new and more global perspective on the controls behind long-term Asian monsoon evolution.

  10. First Hominoid from the Late Miocene of the Irrawaddy Formation (Myanmar)

    PubMed Central

    Jaeger, Jean-Jacques; Naing Soe, Aung; Chavasseau, Olivier; Coster, Pauline; Emonet, Edouard-Georges; Guy, Franck; Lebrun, Renaud; Maung, Aye; Aung Khyaw, Aung; Shwe, Hla; Thura Tun, Soe; Linn Oo, Kyaw; Rugbumrung, Mana; Bocherens, Hervé; Benammi, Mouloud; Chaivanich, Kamol; Tafforeau, Paul; Chaimanee, Yaowalak

    2011-01-01

    For over a century, a Neogene fossil mammal fauna has been known in the Irrawaddy Formation in central Myanmar. Unfortunately, the lack of accurately located fossiliferous sites and the absence of hominoid fossils have impeded paleontological studies. Here we describe the first hominoid found in Myanmar together with a Hipparion (s.l.) associated mammal fauna from Irrawaddy Formation deposits dated between 10.4 and 8.8 Ma by biochronology and magnetostratigraphy. This hominoid documents a new species of Khoratpithecus, increasing thereby the Miocene diversity of southern Asian hominoids. The composition of the associated fauna as well as stable isotope data on Hipparion (s.l.) indicate that it inhabited an evergreen forest in a C3-plant environment. Our results enlighten that late Miocene hominoids were more regionally diversified than other large mammals, pointing towards regionally-bounded evolution of the representatives of this group in Southeast Asia. The Irrawaddy Formation, with its extensive outcrops and long temporal range, has a great potential for improving our knowledge of hominoid evolution in Asia. PMID:21533131

  11. Amazonian Amphibian Diversity Is Primarily Derived from Late Miocene Andean Lineages

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Juan C; Coloma, Luis A; Summers, Kyle; Caldwell, Janalee P; Ree, Richard; Cannatella, David C

    2009-01-01

    The Neotropics contains half of remaining rainforests and Earth's largest reservoir of amphibian biodiversity. However, determinants of Neotropical biodiversity (i.e., vicariance, dispersals, extinctions, and radiations) earlier than the Quaternary are largely unstudied. Using a novel method of ancestral area reconstruction and relaxed Bayesian clock analyses, we reconstructed the biogeography of the poison frog clade (Dendrobatidae). We rejected an Amazonian center-of-origin in favor of a complex connectivity model expanding over the Neotropics. We inferred 14 dispersals into and 18 out of Amazonia to adjacent regions; the Andes were the major source of dispersals into Amazonia. We found three episodes of lineage dispersal with two interleaved periods of vicariant events between South and Central America. During the late Miocene, Amazonian, and Central American-Chocoan lineages significantly increased their diversity compared to the Andean and Guianan-Venezuelan-Brazilian Shield counterparts. Significant percentage of dendrobatid diversity in Amazonia and Chocó resulted from repeated immigrations, with radiations at <10.0 million years ago (MYA), rather than in situ diversification. In contrast, the Andes, Venezuelan Highlands, and Guiana Shield have undergone extended in situ diversification at near constant rate since the Oligocene. The effects of Miocene paleogeographic events on Neotropical diversification dynamics provided the framework under which Quaternary patterns of endemism evolved. PMID:19278298

  12. Magnetostratigraphy of The Astronomically-forced Alluvial Fan To Lacustrine Sequences of The Teruel Basin (late Miocene, Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Dam, J.; Aziz, H. Abdul; Hilgen, F. J.; Krijgsman, W.

    During the last years, more and more examples of allocyclic, astronomical forced variations in the continental record have been documented. Sedimentary hiatuses, tra- ditionally regarded as the primary reason for the absence of clear patterns of orbital signature in the terrestrial domain, may be absent or short, given the appropriate set- ting. Spanish endoreic basins, for instance, form a ideal setting for the registration of orbital-forced climate change, as has been demonstrated for the Middle Miocene distal-alluvial fan-floodplain to lacustrine deposits of the Calatayud Basin. Astronom- ical forcing of sedimentary cycles has also been demonstrated in the Late Miocene distal alluvial fan to lacustrine sequences of the Teruel Basin. The early Late Miocene Cascante and Cañizar sections South of the town of Teruel show distinct cyclic bed- ding of red and/or green mottled mudstones alternating with white carbonate beds, whereby the alternation is mainly controlled by precession and eccentricity. The car- bonate beds are interpreted as (shallow) lake highstands, which occur in response to submergence of the alluvial fan distal plain. Small mammal teeth have been recov- ered from organic-richer layers at the base of the carbonate cycles in the Cascante and Cañizar sections. The recovery of mammal remains in terrestrial Milankovitch forced settings is crucial for several reasons: 1) it provides a first approximate age estimation for the sequence, thereby constraining other sources of temporal information such as magnetostratigraphy; 2) it infers very accurate ages of the mammal localities after as- tronomical tuning of the cyclic patterns; 3) it formulates hypotheses on the climatic regime and its variability using precise correlations to the insolation curve and in- terpretation of phase relations; and 4) it confronts the astronomically-based climatic reconstruction with the paleoecological reconstructions and faunal changes observed in the mammals themselves

  13. A study of uranium favorability of Cenozoic sedimentary rocks, Basin and Range Province, Arizona: Part I, General geology and chronology of pre-late Miocene Cenozoic sedimentary rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scarborough, Robert Bryan; Wilt, Jan Carol

    1979-01-01

    This study focuses attention on Cenozoic sedimentary rocks in the Basin and Range Province of Arizona. The known occurrences of uranium and anomalous radioactivity in these rocks are associated with sediments that accumulated in a low energy environment characterized by fine-grained clastics, including important tuffaceous materials, and carbonate rocks. Most uranium occurrences, in these rocks appear to be stratabound. Emphasis was placed on those sedimentary materials that pre-date the late Cenozoic Basin and Range disturbance. They are deformed and crop out on pedimented range blocks and along the province interface with the Transition Zone. Three tentative age groups are recognized: Group I - Oligocene, pre-22 m.y., Group II - early Miocene - 22 m.y. - 16 m.y., and Group III - middle Miocene - 16 m.y. to 13--10 m.y. Regionally, these three groups contain both coarse to fine-grained red clastics and low energy lighter colored 'lacustrine' phases. Each of the three groups has been the object of uranium exploration. Group II, the early Miocene strata, embraces the Anderson Mine - Artillery region host rocks and also the New River - Cave Creek early Miocene beds-along the boundary with the Transition Zone. These three groups of rocks have been tectonically deformed to the extent that original basins of deposition cannot yet be reconstructed. However, they were considerably more extensive in size than the late Cenozoic basins the origin of which deformed the former. Group II rocks are judged to be of prime interest because of: (1) the development and preservation of organic matter in varying lithologies, (2) apparent contemporaneity with silicic volcanic centers, (3) influence of Precambrian crystalline rocks, and (4) relative outcrop continuity near the stable Transition Zone. The Transition Zone, especially along its boundary with the Basin and Range Province, needs additional geologic investigation, especially as regards the depositional continuity of Group II

  14. Early and Late Retirement Exits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brougham, Ruby R.; Walsh, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The current study proposes that personal need fulfillment (relatedness, generativity, identity, growth, and finances) predicts early and late retirement intentions. The personal needs of 160 full-time older employees were measured by personal goals, job satisfactions, job characteristics, and intrinsic motivation. Results suggest that the personal…

  15. Geometry-Lithology-Origin: Solving the mystery of the Late Miocene mounded features below Lake Balaton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visnovitz, Ferenc; Horváth, Ferenc; Surányi, Gergely

    2014-05-01

    The Department of Geophysics and Space Sciences of Eötvös University has carried out single- and multichannel water seismic surveys at the Lake Balaton since 1993. The dense grid of 2D profiles offers a high resolution image of the Late Miocene sedimentary strata (Tihany, Somló and Szák Formations) up to a thickness of 200 meters below the lake. These strata can be divided into smaller sedimentary units by numerous parasequence boundaries (Sztanó&Magyar, 2007). In one of these parasequence interesting, high amplitude mounded features have been observed that follow a seismic horizon over large area. It means that these features indicate a Late Miocene regional event. In terms of their shape these mounds are few tens of meters wide, several tens to a hundreds of meters long and few meters high. Their geometry and inner structure were mapped from 2D segments that were used for 3D reconstructions. The shape and stratigraphic position of these features have inspired Sacchi and Horvath (1999) to interpret them as the subsurface equivalent of the fresh-water siliceous-limestone mounds exposed on the Tihany Peninsula. They held these mounds as an evidence of dryland conditions in the time period of the formation of a Late Miocene erosional surface (PAN-2) that they regarded as a 3rd order sequence boundary. In addition to this so called "travertine" concept another explanation was also formulated as the mounds are the product of sedimentary failures e.g. slumps or water escape. To solve the problem an offshore drilling with a total depth of 19 meters was accomplished in October 2013 to sample one of these mounds and determine their origin. The well has not crossed any travertine body, instead alternating layers of clay-silt and very fine sand - without any convincing sign of fluid escape structures - were found in the core (typical lithology of the Tihany Formation). 3D structural analysis of the mounds revealed spherical organization composing bodies that are

  16. Paleomagnetic record of a geomagnetic field reversal from late miocene mafic intrusions, southern nevada.

    PubMed

    Ratcliff, C D; Geissman, J W; Perry, F V; Crowe, B M; Zeitler, P K

    1994-10-21

    Late Miocene (about 8.65 million years ago) mafic intrusions and lava flows along with remagnetized host rocks from Paiute Ridge, southern Nevada, provide a high-quality paleomagnetic record of a geomagnetic field reversal. These rocks yield thermoremanent magnetizations with declinations of 227 degrees to 310 degrees and inclinations of -7 degrees to 49 degrees , defining a reasonably continuous virtual geomagnetic pole path over west-central Pacific longitudes. Conductive cooling estimates for the intrusions suggest that this field transition, and mafic magmatism, lasted only a few hundred years. Because this record comes principally from intrusive rocks, rather than sediments or lavas, it is important in demonstrating the longitudinal confinement of the geomagnetic field during a reversal.

  17. Miocene deepwater oceanography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodruff, Fay; Savin, Samuel M.

    1989-02-01

    A global synthesis of Miocene benthic foraminiferal carbon and oxygen isotopic and faunal abundance data indicates that Miocene thermohaline circulation evolved through three regimes corresponding approximately to early, middle, and late Miocene times. There is evidence for major qualitative differences between the circulation of the modern ocean and the Miocene ocean prior to 11 Ma. The 13C/12C ratios of the benthic foraminifera Cibicidoides are interpreted in terms of water mass aging, i.e., the progressive depletion of dissolved O2 and lowering of δ13C values as the result of oxidation of organic matter as water flows further from its sources at the surface of the oceans. Both isotopic and faunal data indicate that the early Miocene regime, from 22 to 15 Ma, was the most different from today's. During that interval intermediate and deep waters of both the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans aged in a northward direction, and the intermediate waters of the Indian, the South Atlantic and the South Pacific oceans were consistently the youngest in the global ocean. We speculate that early Miocene global thermohaline circulation may have been strongly influenced by the influx of warm saline water, Tethyan Indian Saline Water, from the Tethys into the northern Indian Ocean. The isotopic and faunal data suggest that flow from the Tethyan region into the Indian Ocean diminished or terminated at about 14 Ma. Isotopic and faunal data give no evidence for North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) formation prior to about 14.5 Ma (with the exception of a brief episode in the early Miocene). From 14.5 to 11 Ma NADW formation was weak, and circumpolar and Antarctic water flooded the deep South Atlantic and South Pacific as the Antarctic ice cap grew. From about 10 Ma to the end of the Miocene, thermohaline circulation resembled the modern circulation in many ways. In latest Miocene time (6 to 5 Ma) circulation patterns were very similar to today's except that NADW formation was greatly

  18. The palaeoclimatic significance of Eurasian Giant Salamanders (Cryptobranchidae: Zaissanurus, Andrias) - indications for elevated humidity in Central Asia during global warm periods (Eocene, late Oligocene warming, Miocene Climate Optimum)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilyan, Davit; Böhme, Madelaine; Winklhofer, Michael

    2010-05-01

    Cryptobranchids represent a group of large sized (up to 1.8 m) tailed amphibians known since the Middle Jurassic (Gao & Shubin 2003). Two species are living today in eastern Eurasia: Andrias davidianus (China) and A. japonicus (Japan). Cenozoic Eurasian fossil giant salamanders are known with two genera and two or three species from over 30 localities, ranging from the Late Eocene to the Early Pliocene (Böhme & Ilg 2003). The Late Eocene species Zaissanurus beliajevae is restricted to the Central Asian Zaissan Basin (SE-Kazakhstan, 50°N, 85°E), whereas the Late Oligocene to Early Pliocene species Andrias scheuchzeri is distributed from Central Europe to the Zaissan Basin. In the latter basin the species occur during two periods; the latest Oligocene and the late Early to early Middle Miocene (Chkhikvadse 1982). Andrias scheuchzeri is osteological indistinguishable from both recent species, indicating a similar ecology (Westfahl 1958). To investigate the palaeoclimatic significance of giant salamanders we analyzed the climate within the present-day distribution area and at selected fossil localities with independent palaeoclimate record. Our results indicate that fossil and recent Andrias species occur in humid areas where the mean annual precipitation reach over 900 mm (900 - 1.300 mm). As a working hypothesis (assuming a similar ecology of Andrias and Zaissanurus) we interpret occurrences of both fossil Eurasian giant salamanders as indicative for humid palaeoclimatic conditions. Based on this assumption the Late Eocene, the latest Oligocene (late Oligocene warming) and the late Early to early Middle Miocene (Miocene Climatic Optimum) of Central Asia (Zaissan Basin) are periods of elevated humidity, suggesting a direct (positive) relationship between global climate and Central Asian humidity evolution. Böhme M., Ilg A. 2003: fosFARbase, www.wahre-staerke.com/ Chkhikvadze V.M. 1982. On the finding of fossil Cryptobranchidae in the USSR and Mongolia. Vertebrata

  19. A new large squalodelphinid (Cetacea, Odontoceti) from Peru sheds light on the Early Miocene platanistoid disparity and ecology

    PubMed Central

    Bosio, Giulia; Malinverno, Elisa; Villa, Igor M.; Urbina, Mario

    2018-01-01

    The South Asian river dolphin (Platanista gangetica) is the only extant survivor of the large clade Platanistoidea, having a well-diversified fossil record from the Late Oligocene to the Middle Miocene. Based on a partial skeleton collected from the Chilcatay Formation (Chilcatay Fm; southern coast of Peru), we report here a new squalodelphinid genus and species, Macrosqualodelphis ukupachai. A volcanic ash layer, sampled near the fossil, yielded the 40Ar/39Ar age of 18.78 ± 0.08 Ma (Burdigalian, Early Miocene). The phylogenetic analysis places Macrosqualodelphis as the earliest branching squalodelphinid. Combined with several cranial and dental features, the large body size (estimated body length of 3.5 m) of this odontocete suggests that it consumed larger prey than the other members of its family. Together with Huaridelphis raimondii and Notocetus vanbenedeni, both also found in the Chilcatay Fm, this new squalodelphinid further demonstrates the peculiar local diversity of the family along the southeastern Pacific coast, possibly related to their partition into different dietary niches. At a wider geographical scale, the morphological and ecological diversity of squalodelphinids confirms the major role played by platanistoids during the Early Miocene radiation of crown odontocetes. PMID:29765678

  20. A new large squalodelphinid (Cetacea, Odontoceti) from Peru sheds light on the Early Miocene platanistoid disparity and ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianucci, Giovanni; Bosio, Giulia; Malinverno, Elisa; de Muizon, Christian; Villa, Igor M.; Urbina, Mario; Lambert, Olivier

    2018-04-01

    The South Asian river dolphin (Platanista gangetica) is the only extant survivor of the large clade Platanistoidea, having a well-diversified fossil record from the Late Oligocene to the Middle Miocene. Based on a partial skeleton collected from the Chilcatay Formation (Chilcatay Fm; southern coast of Peru), we report here a new squalodelphinid genus and species, Macrosqualodelphis ukupachai. A volcanic ash layer, sampled near the fossil, yielded the 40Ar/39Ar age of 18.78 ± 0.08 Ma (Burdigalian, Early Miocene). The phylogenetic analysis places Macrosqualodelphis as the earliest branching squalodelphinid. Combined with several cranial and dental features, the large body size (estimated body length of 3.5 m) of this odontocete suggests that it consumed larger prey than the other members of its family. Together with Huaridelphis raimondii and Notocetus vanbenedeni, both also found in the Chilcatay Fm, this new squalodelphinid further demonstrates the peculiar local diversity of the family along the southeastern Pacific coast, possibly related to their partition into different dietary niches. At a wider geographical scale, the morphological and ecological diversity of squalodelphinids confirms the major role played by platanistoids during the Early Miocene radiation of crown odontocetes.

  1. A new large squalodelphinid (Cetacea, Odontoceti) from Peru sheds light on the Early Miocene platanistoid disparity and ecology.

    PubMed

    Bianucci, Giovanni; Bosio, Giulia; Malinverno, Elisa; de Muizon, Christian; Villa, Igor M; Urbina, Mario; Lambert, Olivier

    2018-04-01

    The South Asian river dolphin ( Platanista gangetica ) is the only extant survivor of the large clade Platanistoidea, having a well-diversified fossil record from the Late Oligocene to the Middle Miocene. Based on a partial skeleton collected from the Chilcatay Formation (Chilcatay Fm; southern coast of Peru), we report here a new squalodelphinid genus and species, Macrosqualodelphis ukupachai . A volcanic ash layer, sampled near the fossil, yielded the 40 Ar/ 39 Ar age of 18.78 ± 0.08 Ma (Burdigalian, Early Miocene). The phylogenetic analysis places Macrosqualodelphis as the earliest branching squalodelphinid. Combined with several cranial and dental features, the large body size (estimated body length of 3.5 m) of this odontocete suggests that it consumed larger prey than the other members of its family. Together with Huaridelphis raimondii and Notocetus vanbenedeni , both also found in the Chilcatay Fm, this new squalodelphinid further demonstrates the peculiar local diversity of the family along the southeastern Pacific coast, possibly related to their partition into different dietary niches. At a wider geographical scale, the morphological and ecological diversity of squalodelphinids confirms the major role played by platanistoids during the Early Miocene radiation of crown odontocetes.

  2. Fruits and wood of Parinari from the early Miocene of Panama and the fossil record of Chrysobalanaceae.

    PubMed

    Jud, Nathan A; Nelson, Chris W; Herrera, Fabiany

    2016-02-01

    Chrysobalanaceae are woody plants with over 500 species in 20 genera. They are among the most common trees in tropical forests, but a sparse fossil record has limited our ability to test evolutionary and biogeographic hypotheses, and several previous reports of Chrysobalanaceae megafossils are doubtful. We prepared fossil endocarps and wood collected from the lower Miocene beds along the Panama Canal using the cellulose acetate peel technique and examined them using light microscopy. We compared the fossil endocarps with previously published fossils and with fruits from herbarium specimens. We compared the fossil wood with photographs and descriptions of extant species. Parinari endocarps can be distinguished from other genera within Chrysobalanaceae by a suite of features, i.e., thick wall, a secondary septum, seminal cavities lined with dense, woolly trichomes, and two ovate to lingulate basal germination plugs. Fossil endocarps from the Cucaracha, Culebra, and La Boca Formations confirm that Parinari was present in the neotropics by the early Miocene. The earliest unequivocal evidence of crown-group Chrysobalanaceae is late Oligocene-early Miocene, and the genus Parinari was distinct by at least 19 million years ago. Parinari and other Chrysobalanaceae likely reached the neotropics via long-distance dispersal rather than vicariance. The presence of Parinari in the Cucaracha flora supports the interpretation of a riparian, moist tropical forest environment. Parinari was probably a canopy-dominant tree in the Cucaracha forest and took advantage of the local megafauna for seed dispersal. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  3. Late Cretaceous to Miocene sea-level estimates from the New Jersey and Delaware coastal plain coreholes: An error analysis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kominz, M.A.; Browning, J.V.; Miller, K.G.; Sugarman, P.J.; Mizintseva, S.; Scotese, C.R.

    2008-01-01

    Sea level has been estimated for the last 108 million years through backstripping of corehole data from the New Jersey and Delaware Coastal Plains. Inherent errors due to this method of calculating sea level are discussed, including uncertainties in ages, depth of deposition and the model used for tectonic subsidence. Problems arising from the two-dimensional aspects of subsidence and response to sediment loads are also addressed. The rates and magnitudes of sea-level change are consistent with at least ephemeral ice sheets throughout the studied interval. Million-year sea-level cycles are, for the most part, consistent within the study area suggesting that they may be eustatic in origin. This conclusion is corroborated by correlation between sequence boundaries and unconformities in New Zealand. The resulting long-term curve suggests that sea level ranged from about 75-110 m in the Late Cretaceous, reached a maximum of about 150 m in the Early Eocene and fell to zero in the Miocene. The Late Cretaceous long-term (107 years) magnitude is about 100-150 m less than sea level predicted from ocean volume. This discrepancy can be reconciled by assuming that dynamic topography in New Jersey was driven by North America overriding the subducted Farallon plate. However, geodynamic models of this effect do not resolve the problem in that they require Eocene sea level to be significantly higher in the New Jersey region than the global average. ?? 2008 The Authors. Journal compilation ?? 2008 Blackwell Publishing.

  4. A new giraffid (Mammalia, Ruminantia, Pecora) from the late Miocene of Spain, and the evolution of the sivathere-samothere lineage

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    Giraffids include the only living giraffomorph ruminants and are diagnosed by the presence of bi-lobed canines and a special type of epiphyseal cranial appendages called ossicones. The family Giraffidae ranges from the latest early Miocene until today. However they are currently extant relics with only two living representatives, the African genera Okapia and Giraffa. Giraffids were much more diverse and widespread in the past, with more than 30 fossil species described. For the past decades a number of studies intended to resolve the phylogenetic relationships of the family, but due to the lack of really good cranial material no clear consensus was reached regarding the phylogenetic relationships amongst the different members of the group. The exceptionally complete remains of a new large giraffid from the late Miocene of Spain, Decennatherium rex sp. nov., allows us to improve and reassess giraffid systematics, offering a lot of new data, both anatomic and phylogenetic, on the large late Miocene giraffids of Eurasia. The results of our cladistic analysis show Decennatherium as a basal offshoot of a clade containing the gigantic samotheres and sivatheres, characterized by the presence of a Sivatherium-like ossicone-plan among other features. Decennatherium thus offers the most ancient evidence of this Sivatherium-plan and firmly establishes the early morphological patterns of evolution of a sivathere / samothere-clade that is defined as the less inclusive clade that contains Decennatherium and Sivatherium. Finally, this large group of four-ossiconed giraffids evolutionarily links Miocene Europe and Africa indicating vicariance / migration processes among the giraffid genetic pools separated by the Mediterranean Sea. PMID:29091914

  5. δ18O and Marion Plateau backstripping: Combining two approaches to constrain late middle Miocene eustatic amplitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Cédric M.; Karner, Garry D.; Mutti, Maria

    2004-09-01

    δ18Obenthic values from Leg 194 Ocean Drilling Program Sites 1192 and 1195 (drilled on the Marion Plateau) were combined with deep-sea values to reconstruct the magnitude range of the late middle Miocene sea-level fall (13.6 11.4 Ma). In parallel, an estimate for the late middle Miocene sea-level fall was calculated from the stratigraphic relationship identified during Leg 194 and the structural relief of carbonate platforms that form the Marion Plateau. Corrections for thermal subsidence induced by Late Cretaceous rifting, flexural sediment loading, and sediment compaction were taken into account. The response of the lithosphere to sediment loading was considered for a range of effective elastic thicknesses (10 < Te < 40 km). By overlapping the sea-level range of both the deep-sea isotopes and the results from the backstripping analysis, we demonstrate that the amplitude of the late middle Miocene sea-level fall was 45 68 m (56.5 ± 11.5 m). Including an estimate for sea-level variation using the δ18Obenthic results from the subtropical Marion Plateau, the range of sea-level fall is tightly constrained between 45 and 55 m (50.0 ± 5.0 m). This result is the first precise quantitative estimate for the amplitude of the late middle Miocene eustatic fall that sidesteps the errors inherent in using benthic foraminifera assemblages to predict paleo water depth. The estimate also includes an error analysis for the flexural response of the lithosphere to both water and sediment loads. Our result implies that the extent of ice buildup in the Miocene was larger than previously estimated, and conversely that the amount of cooling associated with this event was less important.

  6. Rapid diversification of falcons (Aves: Falconidae) due to expansion of open habitats in the Late Miocene.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Jérôme; Johnson, Jeff A; Mindell, David P

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how and why lineages diversify is central to understanding the origins of biological diversity. The avian family Falconidae (caracaras, forest-falcons, falcons) has an uneven distribution of species among multiple well-supported clades, and provides a useful system for testing hypotheses about diversification rate and correlation with environmental changes. We analyzed eight independent loci for 1-7 individuals from each of the 64 currently recognized Falconidae species, together with two fossil falconid temporal calibrations, to assess phylogeny, absolute divergence times and potential shifts in diversification rate. Our analyses supported similar diversification ages in the Early to Middle Miocene for the three traditional subfamilies, Herpetotherinae, Polyborinae and Falconinae. We estimated that divergences within the subfamily Falconinae began about 16mya and divergences within the most species-rich genus, Falco, including about 60% of all Falconidae species, began about 7.5mya. We found evidence for a significant increase in diversification rate at the basal phylogenetic node for the genus Falco, and the timing for this rate shift correlates generally with expansion of C4 grasslands beginning around the Miocene/Pliocene transition. Concomitantly, Falco lineages that are distributed primarily in grassland or savannah habitats, as opposed to woodlands, and exhibit migratory, as opposed to sedentary, behavior experienced a higher diversification rate. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. New Evidence For A Late Miocene Onset Of The Amazon River Following Andean Tectonics And Quaternary Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoorn, M. C.; Bogota-Angel, G.; Romero-Baez, M.; Lammertsma, E.; Flantua, S. G. A.; Dantas, E. L.; Dino, R.; do Carmo, D.; Chemale, F., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    The Amazon River influenced biotic evolution on land and at sea, but its onset and development are still debated. Terrestrial sedimentary records are sparse, far apart, and do not present a continuous stratigraphy and thus greatly complicate the reconstruction of the history of this river system. At sea the stratigraphic record is better known thanks to hydrocarbon exploration efforts, but these data are not in the public domain. Renewed exploration in the Amazon submarine fan (Brazilian Equatorial Margin) has provided novel data and materials from wells drilled along the slope of the Amazon submarine fan, that are now partially available for scientific research. Here we report on the results of a geochemical and palynological study of `Well 2' based on which we determined the age and provenance of early Miocene to Pleistocene sediments. The palynological data were also used to reconstruct past biomes on land, which ranged from mangrove and lowland forest to alpine vegetation. A distinct change in provenance was observed between 9.4 Ma and 9 Ma, which represented a change from Amazonian to Andean sediment source. This signal is replicated in the palynological record, which shows a shift from lowland to high-mountain taxa. Furthermore, we observed a very large increase of grass pollen from the Pliocene onwards with a further rise in the Pleistocene. These changes coincide with a rise in sedimentation rates. We interpret these results as following: a) the arrival of Andean sediments is related to the onset of the transcontinental river, b) the two-step rise of grass pollen and manifold increase in sediment discharge are related to Quaternary climatic change. These results agree with earlier and recent findings on the Ceara Rise and firmly place the birth of this river in the late Miocene. This study exemplifies the continental scale of tectonic changes on fluvial environments and biota across a W-E transect of South America. The study of this well is continued and we

  8. Early and late retirement exits.

    PubMed

    Brougham, Ruby R; Walsh, David A

    2009-01-01

    The current study proposes that personal need fulfillment (relatedness, generativity, identity, growth, and finances) predicts early and late retirement intentions. The personal needs of 160 full-time older employees were measured by personal goals, job satisfactions, job characteristics, and intrinsic motivation. Results suggest that the personal needs fulfilled by job employment remain important in retirement. The expectation for personal need fulfillment for identity, growth, and relatedness shifts from work to retirement for those who intend to retire early. The results are discussed in terms of the need for greater study of the relationship between expectations of personal need fulfillment, worker self-concept, and retirement decisions.

  9. Late Miocene/Pliocene Ostracod Biostratigraphy from South Carpathian Foredeep, Romania (Badislava-Topolog Area)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Floroiu, Alina; Stoica, Marius; Vasiliev, Iuliana; Krijgsman, Wout

    2016-04-01

    The Paratethys epicontinental sea has been an essential paleogeographic feature defining the Eurasian interior since Oligocene. By the end of the Miocene, ongoing tectonic activity in the region determined severe restrictions of the connection of the large former Paratethys sea resulting in the formation of several smaller subbasins: the Pannonian basin, the Dacian basin, the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea. In the western part of the Dacian Basin, the thick and continuous Mio-Pliocene sedimentary successions of the Getic Depression of Romania provide an exceptional opportunity to study the paleoecological changes in the Eastern Paratethys during the time when the Mediterranean and Black Sea experienced important sea level changes related to the Messinian Salinity Crisis. These sedimentary successions were the basis of high-resolution magnetobiostratigraphic studies that allow a detailed correlation to the Geological Time Scale. Here, we present the main characteristics of the ostracod assemblages of the Late Miocene/Pliocene sedimentary succession from Badislava-Topolog section covering the Eastern Paratethys regional Maeotian and Pontian, stages that are, at moment, under ongoing formal stratigraphic definition process. The Mio-Pliocene is exposed in the central part of the Getic Depression, especially Topolog-Arges area, where it riches up to 500 m in thickness being incorporated into a large monocline structure with 15o-20o plungeto the south. The Upper Maeotian deposits from the area have developed mainly in fluviatile-deltaic facies with frequent continental intercalations. The ostracod assemblage is represented by rare fresh water ostracods of Candona, Pseudocandona and Ilyocypris genera, capable to populate unstable environments like flood-plains, lakes and rivers with temporary existence. The scarce Maeotian ostracod fauna from this marginal section differs essentially from the more diversified one of the same age recorded in areas that evolved in basinal

  10. The Miocene mammal Necrolestes demonstrates the survival of a Mesozoic nontherian lineage into the late Cenozoic of South America

    PubMed Central

    Rougier, Guillermo W.; Wible, John R.; Beck, Robin M. D.; Apesteguía, Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    The early Miocene mammal Necrolestes patagonensis from Patagonia, Argentina, was described in 1891 as the only known extinct placental “insectivore” from South America (SA). Since then, and despite the discovery of additional well-preserved material, the systematic status of Necrolestes has remained in flux, with earlier studies leaning toward placental affinities and more recent ones endorsing either therian or specifically metatherian relationships. We have further prepared the best-preserved specimens of Necrolestes and compared them with newly discovered nontribosphenic Mesozoic mammals from Argentina; based on this, we conclude that Necrolestes is related neither to marsupials nor placentals but is a late-surviving member of the recently recognized nontherian clade Meridiolestida, which is currently known only from SA. This conclusion is supported by a morphological phylogenetic analysis that includes a broad sampling of therian and nontherian taxa and that places Necrolestes within Meridiolestida. Thus, Necrolestes is a remnant of the highly endemic Mesozoic fauna of nontribosphenic mammals in SA and extends the known record of meridiolestidans by almost 45 million years. Together with other likely relictual mammals from earlier in the Cenozoic of SA and Antarctica, Necrolestes demonstrates the ecological diversity of mammals and the mosaic pattern of fauna replacement in SA during the Cenozoic. In contrast to northern continents, the Cenozoic faunal history of SA was characterized by a long period of interaction between endemic mammalian lineages of Mesozoic origin and metatherian and eutherian lineages that probably dispersed to SA during the latest Cretaceous or earliest Paleocene. PMID:23169652

  11. Sub-decadal resolution in sediments of Late Miocene Lake Pannon reveals speciation of Cyprideis (Crustacea, Ostracoda).

    PubMed

    Gitter, Frank; Gross, Martin; Piller, Werner E

    2015-01-01

    Late Miocene "Lake Pannon" (~11.3 Ma) was a remnant of the Central Paratethyan Sea. Successive freshening and constantly changing environmental conditions, like oxygenation, nutrition and substrate led to a well-documented radiation in molluscs and ostracods. Among ostracods (small crustaceans), Cyprideis is one of the most common genera in "Lake Pannon", as well as in several other ancient lakes, showing numerous adaptations and speciations. Here, we present high-resolution data from an early transgression of "Lake Pannon" in the Eastern Styrian Basin (SE Austria). Mataschen clay pit is in the focus of geologic and paleontologic research since 20 years and its geologic and paleoecologic evolution is well-documented. We drilled five cores covering a ~2.3 m long section and completely sampled it in 5-mm thick intervals to reconstruct minute changes in the ostracod fauna over a transgression of a brackish water body. The dominant genus, Cyprideis, is represented by three species C. mataschensis, C. kapfensteinensis and C. ex gr. pannonica. Through morphometric analyses we highlight the variance of each taxon and suggest that there is no direct ecologic control on size or shape. Furthermore, we found a second, co-occurring morphotype of C. kapfensteinensis which is directly related to an elevation of salinities above 13 psu. The presence of two intermediate specimens between the two morphotypes in the sample directly below the first appearance of C. kapfensteinensis B leads us to the conclusion that we are facing a speciation event leading to four sympatric species of Cyprideis.

  12. The late Miocene elasmobranch assemblage from Cerro Colorado (Pisco Formation, Peru)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landini, Walter; Altamirano-Sierra, Alì; Collareta, Alberto; Di Celma, Claudio; Urbina, Mario; Bianucci, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    The new late Miocene elasmobranch assemblage from Cerro Colorado (Pisco Formation) described herein provides a first comprehensive view on the composition and structure of this community in the Pisco Basin (Peru), one of the most important Neogene Konservat-Lagerstätten of the world. The studied assemblage includes at least 21 species attributed to 10 families and 5 orders: 7 taxa are recorded for the first time in the Pisco Formation and 3 for the first time in the fossil record of Peru. Three shark-tooth bearing intervals have been recognized at Cerro Colorado. Changes in the taxonomic composition of these three fossiliferous deposits allowed us to reconstruct ecological, trophic and environmental dynamics over the stratigraphic succession of Cerro Colorado. In particular, the environmental scenario of the most diversified shark tooth-bearing interval (ST-low1) is consistent with a shallow marine coastal area, influenced by both brackish and open sea waters, dominated by a community of small mesopredator sharks that used this ecospace as reproductive ground (nursery) and recruitment area.

  13. The earliest modern mongoose (Carnivora, Herpestidae) from Africa (late Miocene of Chad)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peigné, Stéphane; Bonis, Louis; Likius, Andossa; Mackaye, Hassane Taïsso; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

    2005-06-01

    We report on the earliest modern mongooses of Africa, from the late Miocene (ca. 7 Ma) of the hominid locality TM 266, Toros-Menalla, Chad. The material is based on fragmentary dentitions of three individuals. The main diagnostic feature of the Chadian species is the great development of the shear in the carnassials, which distinguishes the Chadian specimens from all extant herpestids except Herpestes and Galerella. In comparison with most extinct and extant Herpestes, the species from Toros-Menalla differs by a markedly smaller size and, depending on the species, relatively more elongated carnassials, more transversely elongated M1 and more reduced p4. On the basis of a great morphological similarity and the absence of significant differences, we assign our material to Galerella sanguinea; the Chadian finding therefore represents the earliest appearance of an extant species of Herpestidae. This record ties the first appearance of the genus to a minimum age of ca. 7 Ma, which is consistent with the estimated divergence date of 11.4 Ma known from the literature for the species of Galerella.

  14. The earliest modern mongoose (Carnivora, Herpestidae) from Africa (late Miocene of Chad).

    PubMed

    Peigné, Stéphane; de Bonis, Louis; Likius, Andossa; Mackaye, Hassane Taïsso; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

    2005-06-01

    We report on the earliest modern mongooses of Africa, from the late Miocene (ca. 7 Ma) of the hominid locality TM 266, Toros-Menalla, Chad. The material is based on fragmentary dentitions of three individuals. The main diagnostic feature of the Chadian species is the great development of the shear in the carnassials, which distinguishes the Chadian specimens from all extant herpestids except Herpestes and Galerella. In comparison with most extinct and extant Herpestes, the species from Toros-Menalla differs by a markedly smaller size and, depending on the species, relatively more elongated carnassials, more transversely elongated M1 and more reduced p4. On the basis of a great morphological similarity and the absence of significant differences, we assign our material to Galerella sanguinea; the Chadian finding therefore represents the earliest appearance of an extant species of Herpestidae. This record ties the first appearance of the genus to a minimum age of ca. 7 Ma, which is consistent with the estimated divergence date of 11.4 Ma known from the literature for the species of Galerella.

  15. Structural Features of the Western Taiwan Foreland Basin in the Eastern Taiwan Strait since Late Miocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WANG, J. H.; Liu, C. S.; Chang, J. H.; Yang, E. Y.

    2017-12-01

    The western Taiwan Foreland Basin lies on the eastern part of Taiwan Strait. The structures in this region are dominated by crustal stretch and a series of flexural normal faults have been developed since Late Miocene owing to the flexural of Eurasia Plate. Through deciphering multi-channel seismic data and drilling data, these flexural features are observed in the offshore Changhua coastal area. The flexure normal faults are important features to realize structural activity in the western Taiwan Foreland Basin. Yang et al. (2016) mention that the reactivated normal faults are found north of the Zhushuixi estuary. It should be a significant issue to decipher whether these faults are still active. In this study, we have analyzed all the available seismic reflections profiles in the central part of the Taiwan Strait, and have observed many pre-Pliocene normal faults that are mainly distributed in the middle of the Taiwan Strait to Changyun Rise, and we tentatively suggest that the formation of these faults may be associated with the formation of the foreland basal unconformity. Furthermore, we will map the distribution of these normal faults and examine whether the reactivated normal faults have extended to south of the Zhushuixi estuary. Finally, we discuss the relation between the reactivated normal faults in the Taiwan Strait and those faults onshore. Key words: Multichannel seismic reflection profile, Taiwan Strait, Foreland basin, normal fault.

  16. First evidence of denitrification vis-à-vis monsoon in the Arabian Sea since Late Miocene.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Shubham; Tiwari, Manish; Lee, Jongmin; Khim, Boo-Keun

    2017-02-21

    In the Arabian Sea, South Asian monsoon (SAM)-induced high surface water productivity coupled with poor ventilation of intermediate water results in strong denitrification within the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). Despite the significance of denitrification in the Arabian Sea, we have no long-term record of its evolution spanning the past several million years. Here, we present the first record of denitrification evolution since Late Miocene (~10.2 Ma) in the Eastern Arabian Sea, where the SAM generates moderate surface water productivity, based on the samples retrieved during the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 355. We find that (i) the SAM was persistently weaker from ~10.2 to 3.1 Ma; it did not intensify at ~8 Ma in contrast to a few previous studies, (ii) on tectonic timescale, both the SAM and the East Asian Monsoon (EAM) varied synchronously, (iii) the first evidence of denitrification and productivity/SAM intensification was at ~3.2-2.8 Ma that coincided with Mid-Pliocene Warm Period (MPWP), and (iv) the modern strength of the OMZ where denitrification is a permanent feature was attained at ~1.0 Ma.

  17. First evidence of denitrification vis-à-vis monsoon in the Arabian Sea since Late Miocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Shubham; Tiwari, Manish; Lee, Jongmin; Khim, Boo-Keun; Pandey, Dhananjai K.; Clift, Peter D.; Kulhanek, Denise K.; Andò, Sergio; Bendle, James A. P.; Aharonovich, Sophia; Griffith, Elizabeth M.; Gurumurthy, Gundiga P.; Hahn, Annette; Iwai, Masao; Kumar, Anil; Kumar, A. Ganesh; Liddy, Hannah M.; Lu, Huayu; Lyle, Mitchell W.; Mishra, Ravi; Radhakrishna, Tallavajhala; Routledge, Claire M.; Saraswat, Rajeev; Saxena, Rakesh; Scardia, Giancarlo; Sharma, Girish K.; Singh, Arun D.; Steinke, Stephan; Suzuki, Kenta; Tauxe, Lisa; Xu, Zhaokai; Yu, Zhaojie

    2017-02-01

    In the Arabian Sea, South Asian monsoon (SAM)-induced high surface water productivity coupled with poor ventilation of intermediate water results in strong denitrification within the oxygen minimum zone (OMZ). Despite the significance of denitrification in the Arabian Sea, we have no long-term record of its evolution spanning the past several million years. Here, we present the first record of denitrification evolution since Late Miocene (~10.2 Ma) in the Eastern Arabian Sea, where the SAM generates moderate surface water productivity, based on the samples retrieved during the International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 355. We find that (i) the SAM was persistently weaker from ~10.2 to 3.1 Ma it did not intensify at ~8 Ma in contrast to a few previous studies, (ii) on tectonic timescale, both the SAM and the East Asian Monsoon (EAM) varied synchronously, (iii) the first evidence of denitrification and productivity/SAM intensification was at ~3.2-2.8 Ma that coincided with Mid-Pliocene Warm Period (MPWP), and (iv) the modern strength of the OMZ where denitrification is a permanent feature was attained at ~1.0 Ma.

  18. A new enigmatic Late Miocene mylodontoid sloth from northern South America

    PubMed Central

    Rincón, Ascanio D.; McDonald, H. Gregory; Solórzano, Andrés; Flores, Mónica Núñez; Ruiz-Ramoni, Damián

    2015-01-01

    A new genus and species of sloth (Eionaletherium tanycnemius gen. et sp. nov.) recently collected from the Late Miocene Urumaco Formation, Venezuela (northern South America) is herein described based on a partial skeleton including associated femora and tibiae. In order to make a preliminary analysis of the phylogenetic affinities of this new sloth we performed a discriminate analysis based on several characters of the femur and tibia of selected Mylodontoidea and Megatherioidea sloths. The consensus tree produced indicates that the new sloth, E. tanycnemius, is a member of the Mylodontoidea. Surprisingly, the new taxon shows some enigmatic features among Neogene mylodontoid sloths, e.g. femur with a robust lesser trochanter that projects medially and the straight distinctly elongated tibia. The discovery of E. tanycnemius increases the diversity of sloths present in the Urumaco sequence to ten taxa. This taxon supports previous studies of the sloth assemblage from the Urumaco sequence as it further indicates that there are several sloth lineages present that are unknown from the better sampled areas of southern South America. PMID:26064594

  19. Quantifying the Mediterranean freshwater budget throughout the late Miocene: New implications for sapropel formation and the Messinian Salinity Crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Dirk; Marzocchi, Alice; Flecker, Rachel; Lunt, Daniel J.; Hilgen, Frits J.; Meijer, Paul Th.

    2017-08-01

    The cyclic sedimentary record of the late Miocene Mediterranean shows a clear transition from open marine to restricted conditions and finally to evaporitic environments associated with the Messinian Salinity Crisis. This evolution has been attributed to changes in Mediterranean-Atlantic connectivity and regional climate, which has a strong precessional pulse. 31 Coupled climate simulations with different orbital configurations have been combined in a regression model that estimates the evolution of the freshwater budget of the Mediterranean throughout the late Miocene. The study suggests that wetter conditions occur at precession minima and are enhanced at eccentricity maxima. We use the wetter peaks to predict synthetic sapropel records. Using these to retune two Mediterranean sediment successions indicates that the overall net freshwater budget is the most likely mechanism driving sapropel formation in the late Miocene. Our sapropel timing is offset from precession minima and boreal summer insolation maxima during low eccentricity if the present-day drainage configuration across North Africa is used. This phase offset is removed if at least 50% more water drained into the Mediterranean during the late Miocene, capturing additional North African monsoon precipitation, for example via the Chad-Eosahabi catchment in Libya. In contrast with the clear expression of precession and eccentricity in the model results, obliquity, which is visible in the sapropel record during minimum eccentricity, does not have a strong signal in our model. By exploring the freshwater evolution curve in a box model that also includes Mediterranean-Atlantic exchange, we are able, for the first time, to estimate the Mediterranean's salinity evolution, which is quantitatively consistent with precessional control. Additionally, we separate and quantify the distinct contributions regional climate and tectonic restriction make to the lithological changes associated with the Messinian Salinity

  20. Miocene reef corals: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, S.H.

    1988-01-01

    Tectonic blockage in the Middle East of westward-flowing Tethys surface circulation during the latest Oligocene led to creation in the earliest Miocene of endemic Mediterranean, Western Atlantic-Caribbean, and Indo-Pacific realms. A great reduction in reef coral diversity from 60-80 Oligocene species to 25-35 early Miocene species occurred in the Western Atlantic-Caribbean and Mediterranean areas accompanied by a decrease in reef growth. A slower and less drastic change apparently occurred in the Indo-Pacific area. Early Miocene reef corals of the Western Atlantic-Caribbean comprise a transition between the cosmopolitan Oligocene fauna and its endemic mid-Miocene to modern counterpart. Although early Miocene reefsmore » were dominated by a Porites-Montastrea assemblage, eastward flow of Pacific circulation brought with it ''exotic'' corals such as Coscinaraea and Pseudocolumnastrea. Also, many cosmopolitan genera persisted from the Oligocene. During the middle to late Miocene, most of the species still living on Holocene reefs evolved. As the Mediterranean basin became more restricted, there was a slow decline in reef corals from 20 - 25 species in the Aquitainian to less than five species in the Messinian. Eustatic lowstand led to the extinction of reef-building corals in the late Messinian. In the Indo-Pacific, Neogene evolution of reef corals was conservative. Excluding the Acroporidae and Seriatoporidae, most Holocene framework species had evolved by the middle Miocene. Interplay between regional tectonics and eustatic sea level changes led to extensive development of middle to late Miocene pinnacle reefs over the southwestern Pacific.« less

  1. Early Miocene shortening in the lower Comondú Group in Baja California Sur (México)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonini, Marco; Cerca, Mariano; Moratti, Giovanna; López-Martínez, Margarita; Corti, Giacomo; Gracia-Marroquín, Diego

    2017-11-01

    The Late Oligocene-Early Miocene volcaniclastic deposits of Baja California Sur form most of the exposed western margin of the Gulf of California rift. In some places these deposits, collectively referred to as Comondú Group, show complex deformation patterns given by the coexistence of tectonic and gravitational features. The area north of La Paz is characterized by the occurrence of several slump bodies, which are displaced by normal faults connected with the rift opening. In some places we have identified 100's m scale thrust-related folds and reverse faults that we have interpreted as shortening features. The latter displace the slump layers and are offset by the normal faults. If confirmed, this would represent the first report of a shortening event in the Early Miocene volcaniclastic deposits of Baja California Sur. The observed shortening has modest magnitude (ca 3-5% bulk shortening), and has been detected in a sector extending over 100 km north from La Paz. New 40Ar-39*Ar ages, integrated with existing radiometric age datasets, constrain the timing of this shortening episode. The rocks affected by shortening have ages between 24 and 21 Ma, and are capped by undeformed volcanic rocks with ages spanning between 19.4 and 17.2 Ma. These relationships define an intra-Early Miocene unconformity, which we interpret to be related to the shortening deformation. The available timing constraints allow us to infer that a main ENE-to-ESE-trending shortening was short-lived, possibly ca. 19.4-21 Ma. The account of this shortening event may shed some light on the complex subduction and microplate processes that preceded the continental rifting of the Gulf of California.

  2. Early Miocene reef- and mudflat-associated gastropods from Makran (SE-Iran).

    PubMed

    Harzhauser, Mathias; Reuter, Markus; Mohtat, Tayebeh; Piller, Werner E

    2017-01-01

    A new gastropod fauna of Burdigalian (early Miocene) age is described from the Iranian part of Makran. The fauna comprises 19 species and represents three distinct assemblages from turbid water coral reef, shallow subtidal soft-bottom and mangrove-fringed mudflat environments in the northern Indian Ocean. Especially the reef-associated assemblage comprises largely new species. This is explained by the rare occurrence of reefs along the northern margin of the Miocene Indian Ocean and the low number of scientific studies dealing with the region. In terms of paleobiogeography, the fauna corresponds well to coeval faunas from the Pakistani Balochistan and Sindh provinces and the Indian Kathiawar, Kutch and Kerala provinces. During the early Miocene, these constituted a discrete biogeographic unit, the Western Indian Province, which documents the near complete biogeographic isolation from the Proto-Mediterranean Sea. Some mudflat taxa might represent examples of vicariance following the Tethys closure. The fauna also displays little connection with coeval faunas from Indonesia, documenting a strong provincialism within the Indo-West Pacific Region during early Miocene times. Neritopsis gedrosiana sp. nov., Calliostoma irerense sp. nov., Calliostoma mohtatae sp. nov. and Trivellona makranica sp. nov. are described as new species.

  3. Sandy contourite drift in the late Miocene Rifian Corridor (Morocco): Reconstruction of depositional environments in a foreland-basin seaway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capella, W.; Hernández-Molina, F. J.; Flecker, R.; Hilgen, F. J.; Hssain, M.; Kouwenhoven, T. J.; van Oorschot, M.; Sierro, F. J.; Stow, D. A. V.; Trabucho-Alexandre, J.; Tulbure, M. A.; de Weger, W.; Yousfi, M. Z.; Krijgsman, W.

    2017-06-01

    The Rifian Corridor was a seaway between the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea during the late Miocene. The seaway progressively closed, leading to the Messinian Salinity Crisis in the Mediterranean Sea. Despite the key palaeogeographic importance of the Rifian Corridor, patterns of sediment transport within the seaway have not been thoroughly studied. In this study, we investigated the upper Miocene sedimentation and bottom current pathways in the South Rifian Corridor. The planktic and benthic foraminifera of the upper Tortonian and lower Messinian successions allow us to constrain the age and palaeo-environment of deposition. Encased in silty marls deposited at 150-300 m depth, there are (i) 5 to 50 m thick, mainly clastic sandstone bodies with unidirectional cross-bedding; and (ii) 50 cm thick, mainly clastic, tabular sandstone beds with bioturbation, mottled silt, lack of clear base or top, and bi-gradational sequences. Furthermore, seismic facies representing elongated mounded drifts and associated moat are present at the western mouth of the seaway. We interpret these facies as contourites: the products of a westward sedimentary drift in the South Rifian Corridor. The contourites are found only on the northern margin of the seaway, thus suggesting a geostrophic current flowing westward along slope and then northward. This geostrophic current may have been modulated by tides. By comparing these fossil examples with the modern Gulf of Cadiz, we interpret these current-dominated deposits as evidence of late Miocene Mediterranean overflow into the Atlantic Ocean, through the Rifian Corridor. This overflow may have affected late Miocene ocean circulation and climate, and the overflow deposits may represent one of the first examples of mainly clastic contourites exposed on land.

  4. Antarctic ice sheet sensitivity to atmospheric CO2 variations in the early to mid-Miocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, Richard; Harwood, David; Florindo, Fabio; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Tripati, Robert; von Eynatten, Hilmar; Gasson, Edward; Kuhn, Gerhard; Tripati, Aradhna; DeConto, Robert; Fielding, Christopher; Field, Brad; Golledge, Nicholas; McKay, Robert; Naish, Timothy; Olney, Matthew; Pollard, David; Schouten, Stefan; Talarico, Franco; Warny, Sophie; Willmott, Veronica; Acton, Gary; Panter, Kurt; Paulsen, Timothy; Taviani, Marco; SMS Science Team; Acton, Gary; Askin, Rosemary; Atkins, Clifford; Bassett, Kari; Beu, Alan; Blackstone, Brian; Browne, Gregory; Ceregato, Alessandro; Cody, Rosemary; Cornamusini, Gianluca; Corrado, Sveva; DeConto, Robert; Del Carlo, Paola; Di Vincenzo, Gianfranco; Dunbar, Gavin; Falk, Candice; Field, Brad; Fielding, Christopher; Florindo, Fabio; Frank, Tracy; Giorgetti, Giovanna; Grelle, Thomas; Gui, Zi; Handwerger, David; Hannah, Michael; Harwood, David M.; Hauptvogel, Dan; Hayden, Travis; Henrys, Stuart; Hoffmann, Stefan; Iacoviello, Francesco; Ishman, Scott; Jarrard, Richard; Johnson, Katherine; Jovane, Luigi; Judge, Shelley; Kominz, Michelle; Konfirst, Matthew; Krissek, Lawrence; Kuhn, Gerhard; Lacy, Laura; Levy, Richard; Maffioli, Paola; Magens, Diana; Marcano, Maria C.; Millan, Cristina; Mohr, Barbara; Montone, Paola; Mukasa, Samuel; Naish, Timothy; Niessen, Frank; Ohneiser, Christian; Olney, Mathew; Panter, Kurt; Passchier, Sandra; Patterson, Molly; Paulsen, Timothy; Pekar, Stephen; Pierdominici, Simona; Pollard, David; Raine, Ian; Reed, Joshua; Reichelt, Lucia; Riesselman, Christina; Rocchi, Sergio; Sagnotti, Leonardo; Sandroni, Sonia; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Schmitt, Douglas; Speece, Marvin; Storey, Bryan; Strada, Eleonora; Talarico, Franco; Taviani, Marco; Tuzzi, Eva; Verosub, Kenneth; von Eynatten, Hilmar; Warny, Sophie; Wilson, Gary; Wilson, Terry; Wonik, Thomas; Zattin, Massimiliano

    2016-03-01

    Geological records from the Antarctic margin offer direct evidence of environmental variability at high southern latitudes and provide insight regarding ice sheet sensitivity to past climate change. The early to mid-Miocene (23-14 Mya) is a compelling interval to study as global temperatures and atmospheric CO2 concentrations were similar to those projected for coming centuries. Importantly, this time interval includes the Miocene Climatic Optimum, a period of global warmth during which average surface temperatures were 3-4 °C higher than today. Miocene sediments in the ANDRILL-2A drill core from the Western Ross Sea, Antarctica, indicate that the Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) was highly variable through this key time interval. A multiproxy dataset derived from the core identifies four distinct environmental motifs based on changes in sedimentary facies, fossil assemblages, geochemistry, and paleotemperature. Four major disconformities in the drill core coincide with regional seismic discontinuities and reflect transient expansion of grounded ice across the Ross Sea. They correlate with major positive shifts in benthic oxygen isotope records and generally coincide with intervals when atmospheric CO2 concentrations were at or below preindustrial levels (˜280 ppm). Five intervals reflect ice sheet minima and air temperatures warm enough for substantial ice mass loss during episodes of high (˜500 ppm) atmospheric CO2. These new drill core data and associated ice sheet modeling experiments indicate that polar climate and the AIS were highly sensitive to relatively small changes in atmospheric CO2 during the early to mid-Miocene.

  5. Simulating a Dynamic Antarctic Ice Sheet in the Early to Middle Miocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gasson, E.; DeConto, R.; Pollard, D.; Levy, R. H.

    2015-12-01

    There are a variety of sources of geological data that suggest major variations in the volume and extent of the Antarctic ice sheet during the early to middle Miocene. Simulating such variability using coupled climate-ice sheet models is problematic due to a strong hysteresis effect caused by height-mass balance feedback and albedo feedback. This results in limited retreat of the ice sheet once it has reached the continental size, as likely occurred prior to the Miocene. Proxy records suggest a relatively narrow range of atmospheric CO2 during the early to middle Miocene, which exacerbates this problem. We use a new climate forcing which accounts for ice sheet-climate feedbacks through an asynchronous GCM-RCM coupling, which is able to better resolve the narrow Antarctic ablation zone in warm climate simulations. When combined with recently suggested mechanisms for retreat into subglacial basins due to ice shelf hydrofracture and ice cliff failure, we are able to simulate large-scale variability of the Antarctic ice sheet in the Miocene. This variability is equivalent to a seawater oxygen isotope signal of ~0.5 ‰, or a sea level equivalent change of ~35 m, for a range of atmospheric CO2 between 280 - 500 ppm.

  6. Antarctic ice sheet sensitivity to atmospheric CO2 variations in the early to mid-Miocene.

    PubMed

    Levy, Richard; Harwood, David; Florindo, Fabio; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Tripati, Robert; von Eynatten, Hilmar; Gasson, Edward; Kuhn, Gerhard; Tripati, Aradhna; DeConto, Robert; Fielding, Christopher; Field, Brad; Golledge, Nicholas; McKay, Robert; Naish, Timothy; Olney, Matthew; Pollard, David; Schouten, Stefan; Talarico, Franco; Warny, Sophie; Willmott, Veronica; Acton, Gary; Panter, Kurt; Paulsen, Timothy; Taviani, Marco

    2016-03-29

    Geological records from the Antarctic margin offer direct evidence of environmental variability at high southern latitudes and provide insight regarding ice sheet sensitivity to past climate change. The early to mid-Miocene (23-14 Mya) is a compelling interval to study as global temperatures and atmospheric CO2 concentrations were similar to those projected for coming centuries. Importantly, this time interval includes the Miocene Climatic Optimum, a period of global warmth during which average surface temperatures were 3-4 °C higher than today. Miocene sediments in the ANDRILL-2A drill core from the Western Ross Sea, Antarctica, indicate that the Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) was highly variable through this key time interval. A multiproxy dataset derived from the core identifies four distinct environmental motifs based on changes in sedimentary facies, fossil assemblages, geochemistry, and paleotemperature. Four major disconformities in the drill core coincide with regional seismic discontinuities and reflect transient expansion of grounded ice across the Ross Sea. They correlate with major positive shifts in benthic oxygen isotope records and generally coincide with intervals when atmospheric CO2 concentrations were at or below preindustrial levels (∼280 ppm). Five intervals reflect ice sheet minima and air temperatures warm enough for substantial ice mass loss during episodes of high (∼500 ppm) atmospheric CO2 These new drill core data and associated ice sheet modeling experiments indicate that polar climate and the AIS were highly sensitive to relatively small changes in atmospheric CO2 during the early to mid-Miocene.

  7. Late Miocene uplift in the Romagnan Apennines and the detachment of subducted lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Meulen, M. J.; Kouwenhoven, T. J.; van der Zwaan, G. J.; Meulenkamp, J. E.; Wortel, M. J. R.

    1999-12-01

    We report part of a test of the hypothesis that detachment of subducted lithosphere may be a process of lateral propagation of a horizontal tear [Wortel and Spakman, Proc. Kon. Ned. Akad. Wetensch., 95 (1992) 325-347]. We have used the Apennines as a test area. The test procedure consists of the comparison of hypothetical vertical motions, predicted from the expected redistribution of slab pull forces, with observed vertical motions. We demonstrate that a Late Miocene depocentre migration from the Northern towards the Central Apennines is associated with uplift of (the fore-arc of) the Northern Apennines. Such a combination of a depocentre shift and uplift is thought to be diagnostic for lateral migration of slab detachment. The depocentre migration was identified in earlier work [van der Meulen et al., Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 154 (1998) 203-219]. This contribution focuses on uplift, which has primarily been identified through the geohistory analysis of the Monte del Casino Section (Romagnan Apennines, Northern Italy). Owing to methodological problems, the start and duration of the uplift phase could not be constrained, and only a minimum estimate of the total amount of uplift (483±180 m) is obtained. The data do allow for an estimate of the uplift rate: 163±61 cm/ky. A review of regional data results in better constraints on the timing of the above lateral reorganisation of the fore-arc, and on the spatial extent of the uplifted area. Depocentre development in the Central Apennines began between 8.6 and 8.3 Ma B.P. Uplift started between 9 and 8 Ma B.P., and affected the entire northernmost Apennines.

  8. Late Miocene Washhouse Climate due to Temporary Closure of Panama Seaway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohme, M.; Ilg, A.; Winklhofer, M.

    2007-12-01

    Tectonic processes have played an important role in driving long-term climatic change. It has been shown that the final closure of the Central American Seaway (CAS) in the Pliocene caused a major reorganization of ocean and atmospheric circulation. A comparable tectonic situation existed in the time interval between ~ 10.9 and 8.3 Ma, when the CAS was temporarily closed. To study the effects of such a major paleogeographic change on continental climate, we reconstructed an 8 million-year proxy record of European precipitation and runoff variations for the Middle to Late Miocene (5.3 to 13 Ma, temporal resolution ~ 60 kyr), based on the ecophysiological structure of herpetological (amphibians and reptiles) assemblages. Our data provide strong evidence of a washhouse climate in mid latitudes, characterized by a several-fold increase in the continental runoff induced by up to more than 200% increase in precipitation relative to recent. We interpret the washhouse climate in terms of a weakened Azores High due to a reversed oceanic northward heat transport upon closure of the CAS. The two intervals of washhouse climate (between 10.2-9.8 Ma and 9.0 -8.5 Ma) occur in warm periods, while the in-between interval (from 9.7 to 9.2 Ma) with a reduced hydrological cycle occurs in a globally cool period when the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) was weaker. The transition between the washhouse and the cool climate may well have been fuelled by the enhanced atmospheric moisture transport into high latitudes and promoted by increasing amplitudes of obliquity variations. The reduced European hydrological cycle in the cool interval caused a severe biotic crisis, including the extinction of hominoids in Europe. Our data corroborate results from coupled ocean-atmosphere-land models predicting significant increases in the hydrological cycle in response to global warming.

  9. Late Miocene threshold response of marine algae to carbon dioxide limitation.

    PubMed

    Bolton, Clara T; Stoll, Heather M

    2013-08-29

    Coccolithophores are marine algae that use carbon for calcification and photosynthesis. The long-term adaptation of these and other marine algae to decreasing carbon dioxide levels during the Cenozoic era has resulted in modern algae capable of actively enhancing carbon dioxide at the site of photosynthesis. This enhancement occurs through the transport of dissolved bicarbonate (HCO3(-)) and with the help of enzymes whose expression can be modulated by variable aqueous carbon dioxide concentration, [CO2], in laboratory cultures. Coccolithophores preserve the geological history of this adaptation because the stable carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of their calcite plates (coccoliths), which are preserved in the fossil record, are sensitive to active carbon uptake and transport by the cell. Here we use a model of cellular carbon fluxes and show that at low [CO2] the increased demand for HCO3(-) at the site of photosynthesis results in a diminished allocation of HCO3(-) to calcification, which is most pronounced in larger cells. This results in a large divergence between the carbon isotopic compositions of small versus large coccoliths only at low [CO2]. Our evaluation of the oxygen and carbon isotope record of size-separated fossil coccoliths reveals that this isotopic divergence first arose during the late Miocene to the earliest Pliocene epoch (about 7-5 million years ago). We interpret this to be a threshold response of the cells' carbon acquisition strategies to decreasing [CO2]. The documented coccolithophore response is synchronous with a global shift in terrestrial vegetation distribution between 8 and 5 Myr ago, which has been interpreted by some studies as a floral response to decreasing partial pressures of carbon dioxide () in the atmosphere. We infer a global decrease in carbon dioxide levels for this time interval that has not yet been identified in the sparse proxy record but is synchronous with global cooling and progressive glaciations.

  10. Stratigraphy, age and environments of the late Miocene Mpesida Beds, Tugen Hills, Kenya.

    PubMed

    Kingston, John D; Fine Jacobs, Bonnie; Hill, Andrew; Deino, Alan

    2002-01-01

    Interpretations of faunal assemblages from the late Miocene Mpesida Beds in the Tugen Hills of the Central Kenyan Rift Valley have figured prominently in discussions of faunal turnover and establishment of the modern East African communities. These faunal changes have important implications for the divergence of the human lineage from the African apes ca. 8-5 Ma. While fossil material recovered from the Mpesida Beds has traditionally been analyzed collectively, accumulating evidence indicates that Mpesida facies span the 7-6 Ma interval and are scattered more than 25 km along the eastern flanks of the Tugen Hills. Stratigraphic distinctions between Mpesida facies and younger sediments in the sequence, such as the Lukeino Formation, are not yet fully resolved, further complicating temporal assessments and stratigraphic context of Mpesida facies. These issues are discussed with specific reference to exposures of Mpesida facies at Rurmoch, where large fossil tree fragments were swept up in an ancient ash flow. Preserved anatomical features of the fossil wood as well as estimated tree heights suggest a wet, lowland rainforest in this portion of the rift valley. Stable isotopic analyses of fossil enamel and paleosol components indicate the presence of more open habitats locally. Overlying air-fall tuffs and epiclastic debris, possibly associated with the ash flow, have yielded an assemblage of vertebrate fossils including two teeth belonging to one of the earliest colombines of typical body size known from Africa, after the rather small Microcolobus. Single-crystal, laser-fusion,(40)Ar/(39)Ar dates from a capping trachyte flow as well as tuffs just below the lava contact indicate an age of greater than 6.37 Ma for the fossil material. Copyright 2002 Academic Press.

  11. A Late Miocene Accipitrid (Aves: Accipitriformes) from Nebraska and Its Implications for the Divergence of Old World Vultures

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zihui; Feduccia, Alan; James, Helen F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Old World vultures are likely polyphyletic, representing two subfamilies, the Aegypiinae and Gypaetinae, and some genera of the latter may be of independent origin. Evidence concerning the origin, as well as the timing of the divergence of each subfamily and even genera of the Gypaetinae has been elusive. Methodology/Principal Findings Compared with the Old World, the New World has an unexpectedly diverse and rich fossil component of Old World vultures. Here we describe a new accipitriform bird, Anchigyps voorhiesi gen. et sp. nov., from the Ash Hollow Formation (Upper Clarendonian, Late Miocene) of Nebraska. It represents a form close in morphology to the Old World vultures. Characteristics of its wing bones suggest it was less specialized for soaring than modern vultures. It was likely an opportunistic predator or scavenger having a grasping foot and a mandible morphologically similar to modern carrion-feeding birds. Conclusions/Significance The new fossil reported here is intermediate in morphology between the bulk of accipitrids and the Old World gypaetine vultures, representing a basal lineage of Accipitridae trending towards the vulturine habit, and of its Late Miocene age suggests the divergence of true gypaetine vultures, may have occurred during or slightly before the Miocene. PMID:23152811

  12. Late Cretaceous to Miocene phosphatic sediments in the Georges Bank Basin, U.S. North Atlantic outer continental shelf

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poppe, L.J.; Manheim, F. T.; Popenoe, P.

    1992-01-01

    Phosphorite and phosphatic sediments are present in the Georges Bank Basin in marine, Late Cretaceous to Miocene strata equivalent to the Dawson Canyon Formation and Banquereau Formation of offshore Nova Scotia. The Late Cretaceous to Paleocene phosphorite occurs predominantely as sand- and gravel-sized pellets and as cement in conglomeratic aggregates. The Eocene and Miocene phosphate occurs mainly as fine-very fine sand-size spheroidal-avoidal pellets in unconsolidated clayey silts. The older phosphorites form intraformational conglomerates that are the result of a winnowed finer-grained matrix, leaving lag deposits of phosphorite. We present evidence that most of the Eocene and Miocene phosphate is primary and formed during marine trangressions. Our observations extend the geographic and temporal limits of the major phosphogenic system of the Western North Atlantic northward and through time. However, compared to the well-known phosphorite deposits along the southeastern margin of the U.S.A., these northern deposits are not of commercial scale due to a high terrigenous input and the lack of a mechanism capable of driving persistant upwelling. ?? 1992.

  13. The occurrence of an abdominal fauna in an articulated tapir (Tapirus polkensis) from the Late Miocene Gray Fossil Site, Northeastern Tennessee.

    PubMed

    McCONNELL, Shannon M; Zavada, Michael S

    2013-03-01

    The analysis of samples recovered from the abdominal area of an articulated tapir (Tapirus polkensis) from the Late Miocene (4.5-7 million BP) Gray Fossil Site (GFS) revealed a rich palyno-fauna comprised of about 94% egg/oocyst-like structures and 6% pollen and other palynomorphs. In addition, a group of 6 hickory nuts (Carya) was recovered from the same area suggesting that the samples represent the abdominal contents. The analysis of a sample from immediately outside the tapir produced a sample with 98% pollen and less than 0.5% egg/oocyst-like structures. The size, shape, and general morphology of egg/oocyst-like structures were analyzed with light and scanning electron microscopy and were compared to a variety of intestinal parasites found in extant ungulates, and the Perissodactyla in particular. We also compared fossil structures to the numbers and kind of intestinal parasites recovered from fecal samples from the Baird's tapir (T. bairdii) in Costa Rica and from samples collected from the lowland tapir (T. terrestris) from Ecuador to assess their similarity to our fossil sample. Based on these data, we discuss what role parasites may have played in the biology of T. polkensis during the Late Miocene-Early Pliocene. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd, ISZS and IOZ/CAS.

  14. How We Got to the Northern Hemisphere Ice Ages: Late Miocene Global Cooling and Plate Tectonic CO2 Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herbert, T.; Dalton, C. A.; Carchedi, C.

    2017-12-01

    The evolution of Earth's climate between "refrigeration" of East Antarctica and the onset of cyclic Northern Hemisphere glaciation spanned more than 11 Myr. In the latest Miocene (Messinian) time, approximately half way on this journey, changes on land, ranging from the expansion of arid zones to major floral and faunal ecosystem shifts, accelerated. Recent compilations of marine surface temperatures reveal that global cooling from the Miocene Optimum (14-16Ma) also accelerated in late Miocene (7-5.35 Ma) time to reach temperatures not much above Holocene conditions. Both hemispheres cooled in parallel, with the changes amplified at higher latitudes in comparison to the tropics. Despite the strong circumstantial case for CO2 decline as the dominant cause of late Miocene climatic and evolutionary change, proxy indicators of CO2concentrations paint an equivocal picture of greenhouse forcing. Here we provide evidence that global sea floor spreading (SFS) rates decelerated at exactly the times of major climatic cooling, linking a decline in tectonic degassing (at both subduction zones and mid-ocean ridges) to fundamental shifts in the global carbon cycle. Our work utilizes newly available global compilations of seafloor fabric and marine magnetic anomalies provided by the NSF-funded Global Seafloor Fabric and Magnetic Lineation Data Base Project. Previous global compilations of SFS typically binned estimates over 10 Myr increments, losing critical resolution on the timescale of late Neogene climate changes. We further improve the signal:noise of SFS estimates by incorporating recent advances in the astronomical calibration of the Miocene geomagnetic polarity timescale. We use two approaches to compile spreading rate estimates over the past 20 Myr at each spreading system: optimized finite rotation calculations, and averages of sea floor-spreading derived from the distances of magnetic lineations along flow lines on the sea floor. Weighted by ridge length, we find an 25

  15. Orbital forcing in the early Miocene alluvial sediments of the western Ebro Basin, Northeast Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garces, M.; Larrasoaña, J. C.; Muñoz, A.; Margalef, O.; Murelaga, X.

    2009-04-01

    . Astronomic calibration of the late Oligocene through early Miocene geomagnetic polarity time scale, Earth and Planetary Letters 224, 33-44. Laskar, J., Robutel, P., Joutel, F., Gastineau, M., Correia, A.C.M. and Levrard, B., 2004. A long-term numerical solution for the insolation quantities of the Earth, Astron. Astrophys. 428, 261-285. Lourens, L.J., Hilgen, F.J., Shackleton, N.J., Laskar, J. and Wilson, D.S., The Neogene Period, in: A Geologic Time Scale, F.M. Gradstein, J.G. Ogg and A. Smith, eds., pp. 409-440, Cambridge University Press, 2004. Sierro, F.J., Ledesma, S., Flores, J.A., Torrescusa, S. and Martinez Del Olmo, W., 2000. Sonic and gamma-ray astrochronology: cycle to cycle calibration of Atlantic climatic records to Mediterranean sapropels and astronomical oscillations, Geology 28, 695-698.

  16. Rodents and lagomorphs (Mammalia) from the Hemphillian (late Miocene) of Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Korth, W.W.; De Blieux, D. D.

    2010-01-01

    Four species of rodents (two heteromyids and two cricetids) and one lagomorph are identified from the late Tertiary Sevier River Formation of Utah. The heteromyids include a new genus and species of heteromyine, Metaliomys sevierensis, which is intermediate in morphology between the Clarendonian and early Hemphillian Diprionomys Kellogg and the extant genera Liomys and Heteromys. A single specimen is referred to Diprionomys sp., cf. D. minimus (Kellogg). The cricetid Paronychomys lemredfieldi Jacobs is known from the Hemphillian of Arizona. The second cricetid is referred to a new genus Basirepomys. Peromyscus pliocenicus Wilson from the Hemphillian of California is designated as the type species of the new genus, to which the new species B. robertsi from Utah is referred. Basirepomys is viewed as intermediate between Peromyscus and the basal neotomyine Repomys May from the late Hemphillian and Blancan. The only lagomorph in the fauna is Hypolagus vetus (Kellogg). Four of the taxa recognized from the Sevier River Formation (Diprionomys, Paronychomys lemredfieldi, Basirepomys, and Hypolagus vetus) are elsewhere known from the Hemphillian of North America. However, it is not possible at this time to determine whether the fauna is early or late Hemphillian. ?? 2010 by the Society of Vertebrate Paleontology.

  17. Magnetostratigraphy of the Vallesian (late Miocene) in the Vallès-Penedès Basin (northeast Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcés, M.; Agustí, J.; Cabrera, L.; Parés, J. M.

    1996-08-01

    The magnetostratigraphic analysis of the late Miocene continental deposits from the Vallès-Penedès Basin, combined with its well-documented fossil mammal record, has provided a well-resolved chronology for the upper basin infill. The study is based on the biostratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic cross-correlation of 12 sections throughout the alluvial sequences in the western Vallès area. The biostratigraphic framework consists of 21 mammal localities corresponding to the Mammal Neogene MN9 and MN10 units. The composite magnetic polarity sequence is based on 400 paleomagnetic sites. Correlation with the Geomagnetic Polarity Time Scale (GPTS) has led to an absolute dating of the faunal events and a precise chronostratigraphy of the Vallesian mammal stage in its type area. The Hipparion First Appearance Datum (FAD), at the MN8/MN9 boundary, is dated at 11.1 Ma in the Vallès-Penedès Basin. This age, compared to other radiometrically dated localities in Europe, North Africa and Turkey, is consistent with an isochronous dispersal of this equid through the Mediterranean region. A possible isochrony at a larger geographical scale (Old World, Mesogea) must await more reliable ages of the Hipparion FAD in Asia and Africa. The Cricetulodon FAD ( MN9a/MN9b boundary) is dated to 10.4 Ma, in chron C5n. The Progonomys FAD ( MN9/MN10 boundary), corresponding to the intra-Vallesian faunal crisis, is dated at 9.7 Ma (C4Ar.3r). The Vallesian spans 2.4 Myr, from 11.1 Ma (C5r.1n) to 8.7 Ma (C4An) and correlates to the early Tortonian.

  18. Sub-Decadal Resolution in Sediments of Late Miocene Lake Pannon Reveals Speciation of Cyprideis (Crustacea, Ostracoda)

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Martin; Piller, Werner E.

    2015-01-01

    Late Miocene "Lake Pannon" (~11.3 Ma) was a remnant of the Central Paratethyan Sea. Successive freshening and constantly changing environmental conditions, like oxygenation, nutrition and substrate led to a well-documented radiation in molluscs and ostracods. Among ostracods (small crustaceans), Cyprideis is one of the most common genera in "Lake Pannon", as well as in several other ancient lakes, showing numerous adaptations and speciations. Here, we present high-resolution data from an early transgression of "Lake Pannon" in the Eastern Styrian Basin (SE Austria). Mataschen clay pit is in the focus of geologic and paleontologic research since 20 years and its geologic and paleoecologic evolution is well-documented. We drilled five cores covering a ~2.3 m long section and completely sampled it in 5-mm thick intervals to reconstruct minute changes in the ostracod fauna over a transgression of a brackish water body. The dominant genus, Cyprideis, is represented by three species C. mataschensis, C. kapfensteinensis and C. ex gr. pannonica. Through morphometric analyses we highlight the variance of each taxon and suggest that there is no direct ecologic control on size or shape. Furthermore, we found a second, co-occurring morphotype of C. kapfensteinensis which is directly related to an elevation of salinities above 13 psu. The presence of two intermediate specimens between the two morphotypes in the sample directly below the first appearance of C. kapfensteinensis B leads us to the conclusion that we are facing a speciation event leading to four sympatric species of Cyprideis. PMID:25902063

  19. Functional anatomy of the forelimb in Promegantereon* ogygia (Felidae, Machairodontinae, Smilodontini) from the late miocene of spain and the origins of the sabre-toothed felid model.

    PubMed

    Salesa, Manuel J; Antón, Mauricio; Turner, Alan; Morales, Jorge

    2010-03-01

    We examine the functional anatomy of the forelimb in the primitive sabre-toothed cat Promegantereon ogygia in comparison with that of the extant pantherins, other felids and canids. The study reveals that this early machairodontine had already developed strong forelimbs and a short and robust thumb, a combination that probably allowed P. ogygia to exert relatively greater forces than extant pantherins. These features can be clearly related to the evolution of the sabre-toothed cat hunting method, in which the rapid killing of prey was achieved with a precise canine shear-bite to the throat. In this early sabre-toothed cat from the Late Miocene, the strong forelimbs and thumb were adapted to achieve the rapid immobilization of prey, thus decreasing the risk of injury and minimizing energy expenditure. We suggest that these were the major evolutionary pressures that led to the appearance of the sabre-toothed cat model from the primitive forms of the Middle Miocene, rather than the hunting of very large prey, although these adaptations reached their highest development in the more advanced sabre-toothed cats of the Plio-Pleistocene, such as Smilodon and Homotherium. Although having very different body proportions, these later animals developed such extremely powerful forelimbs that they were probably able to capture relatively larger prey than extant pantherins.

  20. Early Miocene hippopotamids (Cetartiodactyla) constrain the phylogenetic and spatiotemporal settings of hippopotamid origin

    PubMed Central

    Orliac, Maeva; Boisserie, Jean-Renaud; MacLatchy, Laura; Lihoreau, Fabrice

    2010-01-01

    The affinities of the Hippopotamidae are at the core of the phylogeny of Cetartiodactyla (even-toed mammals: cetaceans, ruminants, camels, suoids, and hippos). Molecular phylogenies support Cetacea as sister group of the Hippopotamidae, implying a long ghost lineage between the earliest cetaceans (∼53 Ma) and the earliest hippopotamids (∼16 Ma). Morphological studies have proposed two different sister taxa for hippopotamids: suoids (notably palaeochoerids) or anthracotheriids. Evaluating these phylogenetic hypotheses requires substantiating the poorly known early history of the Hippopotamidae. Here, we undertake an original morphological phylogenetic analysis including several “suiform” families and previously unexamined early Miocene taxa to test previous conflicting hypotheses. According to our results, Morotochoerus ugandensis and Kulutherium rusingensis, until now regarded as the sole African palaeochoerid and the sole African bunodont anthracotheriid, respectively, are unambiguously included within the Hippopotamidae. They are the earliest known hippopotamids and set the family fossil record back to the early Miocene (∼21 Ma). The analysis reveals that hippopotamids displayed an unsuspected taxonomic and body size diversity and remained restricted to Africa during most of their history, until the latest Miocene. Our results also confirm the deep nesting of Hippopotamidae within the paraphyletic Anthracotheriidae; this finding allows us to reconstruct the sequence of dental innovations that links advanced selenodont anthracotheriids to hippopotamids, previously a source of major disagreements on hippopotamid origins. The analysis demonstrates a close relationship between Eocene choeropotamids and anthracotheriids, a relationship that potentially fills the evolutionary gap between earliest hippopotamids and cetaceans implied by molecular analyses. PMID:20547829

  1. A new age model for the early-middle Miocene in the North Alpine Foreland Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichenbacher, Bettina; Krijgsman, Wout; Pippèrr, Martina; Sant, Karin; Kirscher, Uwe

    2016-04-01

    The establishment of high-resolution age models for sedimentary successions is crucial for numerous research questions in the geosciences and related disciplines. Such models provide an absolute chronology that permits precise dating of depositional episodes and related processes such as mountain uplift or climate change. Recently, our work in the Miocene sediments of the North Alpine Foreland Basin (NAFB) has revealed a significantly younger age (16.6 Myr) for sediments that were thought to have been deposited 18 Myr ago. This implies that a fundamentally revised new age model is needed for the entire suite of lower-middle Miocene sedimentary rocks in the NAFB (20 to 15-Myr). Our new data also indicate that previously published reconstructions of early-middle Miocene palaeogeography, sedimentation dynamics, mountain uplift and climate change in the NAFB all require a critical review and revision. Further, the time-span addressed is of special interest, since it encompasses the onset of a global warming phase. However, it appears that a fundamentally revised new age model for the entire suite of lower-middle Miocene sedimentary rocks in the NAFB can only be achieved based on a 500 m deep drilling in the NAFB for which we currently seek collaboration partners to develop a grant application to the International Continental Deep Drilling Program (ICDP). Reference: Reichenbacher, B., W. Krijgsman, Y. Lataster, M. Pippèrr, C. G. C. Van Baak, L. Chang, D. Kälin, J. Jost, G. Doppler, D. Jung, J. Prieto, H. Abdul Aziz, M. Böhme, J. Garnish, U. Kirscher, and V. Bachtadse. 2013. A new magnetostratigraphic framework for the Lower Miocene (Burdigalian/Ottnangian, Karpatian) in the North Alpine Foreland Basin. Swiss Journal of Geosciences 106:309-334.

  2. Late Miocene fossils from shallow marine sediments in Brunei Darussalam: systematics, palaeoenvironment and ecology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roslim, Amajida; Briguglio, Antonino; Kocsis, László; Ćorić, Stjepan; Razak, Hazirah

    2016-04-01

    The geology of Brunei Darussalam is fascinating but difficult to approach: rainforests and heavy precipitation tend to erode and smoothen the landscape limiting rocks exposure, whereas abundant constructions sites and active quarries allow the creation of short time available outcrop, which have to be immediately sampled. The stratigraphy of Brunei Darussalam comprises mainly Neogene sediments deposited in a wave to tide dominated shallow marine environment in a pure siliciclastic system. Thick and heavily bioturbated sandstone layers alternate to claystone beds which occasionally yield an extraordinary abundance and diversity of fossils. The sandstones, when not bioturbated, are commonly characterized by a large variety of sedimentary structures (e.g., ripple marks, planar laminations and cross beddings). In this study, we investigate the sediments and the fossil assemblages to record the palaeoenvironmental evolution of the shallow marine environment during the late Miocene, in terms of sea level change, chemostratigraphy and sedimentation rate. The study area is one of the best in terms of accessibility, extension, abundance and preservation of fossils; it is located in the region -'Bukit Ambug' (Ambug Hill), Tutong District. The fossils fauna collected encompasses mollusks, decapods, otoliths, shark and ray teeth, amber, foraminifera and coccolithophorids. In this investigation, sediment samples were taken along a section which measures 62.5 meters. A thick clay layer of 9 meters was sampled each 30 cm to investigate microfossils occurrences. Each sample was treated in peroxide and then sieved trough 63 μm, 150μm, 250μm, 450μm, 600μm, 1mm and 2mm sieves. Results point on the changes in biodiversity of foraminifera along the different horizons collected reflecting sea level changes and sediment production. The most abundant taxa identified are Pseoudorotalia schroeteriana, Ampistegina lessonii, Elphidium advenum, Quinqueloculina sp., Bolivina sp

  3. Paleomagnetism and paleosecular variation from the late Miocene to recent lavas of Mauritius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doubrovine, Pavel V.; Torsvik, Trond H.; Domeier, Mathew

    2017-04-01

    We present new paleomagnetic data from the late Miocene to recent lavas of the island of Mauritius in the southwestern Indian Ocean (20.3˚ S, 57.6˚ E). The island is a shield volcano that has formed over the Reunion hotspot and is composed of three temporally-distinct series of basaltic lavas: the Older Series (4.7-8.9 Ma), the Intermediate Series (1.7-3.5 Ma) and the Younger Series (0-1 Ma). Oriented core specimens were collected from 36 sampling sites covering all three lava series. Rock magnetic analyses indicate that the remanence carriers in these basalts are pseudo-single-domain titanomagnetites with variable degrees of high-temperature oxidation. Nearly half of the sites showed pervasive magnetic overprints imparted by lightning strikes. Nonetheless, in almost all cases (35 sites), we were able to isolate the characteristic (primary) remanence directions through detailed thermal and alternating field demagnetization experiments, using the principal component analysis of demagnetization data and the analysis of remagnetization circles. Both normal and reverse polarity directions were observed, with the mean direction of the reversely-magnetized lavas (15 sites, D = 189.2˚ , I = 44˚ , α95 = 5.3˚ ) being steeper than and ca. 9˚ of antiparallel from the mean direction of the normal-polarity flows (20 sites, D = 1.1˚ , I = -37.3˚ , α95 = 6.9˚ ). The mean normal and reverse directions yield a negative reversal test that is just significant at the 5% probability level (P = 4.5%). However, when our new data set is combined with previously published paleomagnetic results from Mauritius, the difference between the normal mean direction and the antipode of the reverse mean is not significant at the 5% level, yielding a positive reversal test. The paleomagnetic pole corresponding to the combined polarity data set excluding transitional directions (86.7˚ N, 186.2˚ E, A95 = 3.5˚ , n = 32) is slightly far-sided, but the difference between its position and the

  4. Late Miocene (Pannonian) Vegetation from the Northern Part of Central Paratethys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kováčová, M.; Doláková, N.

    2009-04-01

    During Late Miocene, the Western Carpathian paleogeography started to change. The Lake Pannon retreated southwards, and the northern coast of the back arc basin was slightly elevated due to progradation of deltaic and alluvial facies, especially in the lowlands. The studied „Pannonian lake" sediments come from the Czech and Slovak parts of Central Paratethys. Changes of the sedimentary environment from deep to shallow lake and deltaic environment, followed by development of alluvial plains were noticed. Salinity crisis due to Paratethys isolation led to development of total freshwater environment to the end of this period. Samples from 3 surficial localities and 15 boreholes were palynologically studied. Occasional occurences of Dinoflagellates indicate a slightly higher salinity, whereas green algae Pediastrum, aquatic ferns Azolla, and aquatic and coastal plants (Nelumbo, Nymphaea, Myriophyllum, Sparganium, Potamogeton, Cyperaceae etc.) represent a freshwater environment. Due to paleogeographic changes and climatic oscillations the number of thermophilous taxa decreased and some of them disappeared completely from this area (f. e. Sapotaceae, Palmae). Mostly broad-leaved deciduous elements of mixed mesophytic forests (Quercus, Celtis, Carya, Tilia, Carpinus, Betula, Juglans) with some thermophilous elements admixture of Engelhardia, Castanea, Trigonobalanopsis, Symplocos, Cornaceaepollis satzveyensis generally dominate. Variously high relief of the uplifted mountainy chains created ideal conditions for higher presence of extrazonal vegetation (Cedrus, Tsuga, Picea, Cathaya) in the investigated area. Zonal type of vegetation including marshes, riparian forests with Alnus, Salix, Pterocarya, Liquidambar, Betula, Fraxinus, shrubs and lianas on dryer substrates associated riparian forest (Buxus, Ericaceae, Vitaceae, Lonicera, Rosaceae type Rubus), and coastal swamps with Taxodiaceae, Nyssa, Myrica, Sciadopitys were growing in the floodplain lowlands of Vienna Basin

  5. Climate-vegetation modelling and fossil plant data suggest low atmospheric CO2 in the late Miocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrest, M.; Eronen, J. T.; Utescher, T.; Knorr, G.; Stepanek, C.; Lohmann, G.; Hickler, T.

    2015-12-01

    There is an increasing need to understand the pre-Quaternary warm climates, how climate-vegetation interactions functioned in the past, and how we can use this information to understand the present. Here we report vegetation modelling results for the Late Miocene (11-7 Ma) to study the mechanisms of vegetation dynamics and the role of different forcing factors that influence the spatial patterns of vegetation coverage. One of the key uncertainties is the atmospheric concentration of CO2 during past climates. Estimates for the last 20 million years range from 280 to 500 ppm. We simulated Late Miocene vegetation using two plausible CO2 concentrations, 280 ppm CO2 and 450 ppm CO2, with a dynamic global vegetation model (LPJ-GUESS) driven by climate input from a coupled AOGCM (Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Model). The simulated vegetation was compared to existing plant fossil data for the whole Northern Hemisphere. For the comparison we developed a novel approach that uses information of the relative dominance of different plant functional types (PFTs) in the palaeobotanical data to provide a quantitative estimate of the agreement between the simulated and reconstructed vegetation. Based on this quantitative assessment we find that pre-industrial CO2 levels are largely consistent with the presence of seasonal temperate forests in Europe (suggested by fossil data) and open vegetation in North America (suggested by multiple lines of evidence). This suggests that during the Late Miocene the CO2 levels have been relatively low, or that other factors that are not included in the models maintained the seasonal temperate forests and open vegetation.

  6. Ostracods (Crustacea) and their palaeoenvironmental implication for the Solimões Formation (Late Miocene; Western Amazonia/Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Martin; Ramos, Maria Ines; Caporaletti, Marco; Piller, Werner E.

    2013-01-01

    Western Amazonia's landscape and biota were shaped by an enormous wetland during the Miocene epoch. Among the most discussed topics of this ecosystem range the question on the transitory influx of marine waters. Inter alia the occurrence of typically brackish water associated ostracods is repeatedly consulted to infer elevated salinities or even marine ingressions. The taxonomical investigation of ostracod faunas derived from the upper part of the Solimões Formation (Eirunepé; W-Brazil) documents a moderately diverse assemblage (19 species). A wealth of freshwater ostracods (mainly Cytheridella, Penthesilenula) was found co-occurring with taxa (chiefly Cyprideis) usually related to marginal marine settings today. The observed faunal compositions as well as constantly very light δ18O- and δ13C-values obtained by measuring both, the freshwater and brackish water ostracod group, refer to entirely freshwater conditions. These results corroborate with previous sedimentological and palaeontological observations, which proposed a fluvial depositional system for this part of western Amazonia during the Late Miocene. We demonstrate that some endemic, “brackish” water ostracods (i.e., Cyprideis) have been effectively adapted to freshwater conditions. Thus, their occurrence is no univocal evidence for the influence of brackish or marine waters in western Amazonia during the Miocene. PMID:26523090

  7. Ostracods (Crustacea) and their palaeoenvironmental implication for the Solimões Formation (Late Miocene; Western Amazonia/Brazil).

    PubMed

    Gross, Martin; Ramos, Maria Ines; Caporaletti, Marco; Piller, Werner E

    2013-03-01

    Western Amazonia's landscape and biota were shaped by an enormous wetland during the Miocene epoch. Among the most discussed topics of this ecosystem range the question on the transitory influx of marine waters. Inter alia the occurrence of typically brackish water associated ostracods is repeatedly consulted to infer elevated salinities or even marine ingressions. The taxonomical investigation of ostracod faunas derived from the upper part of the Solimões Formation (Eirunepé; W-Brazil) documents a moderately diverse assemblage (19 species). A wealth of freshwater ostracods (mainly Cytheridella , Penthesilenula ) was found co-occurring with taxa (chiefly Cyprideis ) usually related to marginal marine settings today. The observed faunal compositions as well as constantly very light δ 18 O- and δ 13 C-values obtained by measuring both, the freshwater and brackish water ostracod group, refer to entirely freshwater conditions. These results corroborate with previous sedimentological and palaeontological observations, which proposed a fluvial depositional system for this part of western Amazonia during the Late Miocene. We demonstrate that some endemic, "brackish" water ostracods (i.e., Cyprideis ) have been effectively adapted to freshwater conditions. Thus, their occurrence is no univocal evidence for the influence of brackish or marine waters in western Amazonia during the Miocene.

  8. Lake Qinghai Drilling Project: Evolution History of Lake Qinghai and East Asian Monsoon Changes since the Late Miocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Z.; Colman, S.

    2007-12-01

    As a closed continental lake on the north-east margin of the Tibetan Plateau, Lake Qinghai is sensitive to climate variations as well as the environmental effects of Plateau growth/uplift. Supported by Chinese funding agencies and ICDP, onshore and offshore lake cores were drilled in 2005. We compare our preliminary chronostratigraphic, sedimentologic, and geochemical results with climatic records from the Loess Plateau, South China Sea, Arctic and global oceans, and we discuss the evolution of Lake Qinghai at different time scales since the late Miocene. Lake Qinghai is shown to have intimate linkages with the warm/moist East Asian summer monsoon, the cold/dry East Asian winter monsoon, and the growth/uplift of the Tibetan Plateau. Magnetostratigraphic studies of the onshore drill cores indicate that thick greenish clays were deposited during Late Miocene, suggesting the initial formation of the Qinghai Lake basin. Consistent with proxies from the Loess Plateau and the South China Sea, they imply summer-monsoon strengthening and inland intrusion. These changes may be related to a growth event of the Tibetan Plateau at 10-8 Ma, which led to the uplift of Qinghai Nanshan, formation of faulted lake basins, and enhanced summer monsoon circulation. From 6 to 4.6Ma eolian red clays in the core indicate lake basin dessication, as Loess Plateau dust flux increased with the strengthening of the winter monsoon and coincident with intense Arctic ice rafting at 6-5 Ma. From 4.6 to 3.5 Ma thick greenish clays were deposited as modern Lake Qinghai formed. Significantly increased fluxes of TOC, C/N and total sediment might be related to uplift of Qinghai Nanshan and basin subsidence at that time, and they are coeval with the increasing strength of East Asian monsoon during early Pliocene. At 3.5-2.6 Ma, continued strengthening of the East Asian summer monsoon, inland aridification, and increases in global ice volume suggest another growth event of the Tibetan Plateau. Shallow

  9. Miocene mass-transport sediments, Troodos Massif, Cyprus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lord, A.R.; Harrison, R.W.; BouDagher-Fadel, M.; Stone, B.D.; Varol, O.

    2009-01-01

    Sediment mass-transport layers of submarine origin on the northern and southern flanks of the Troodos ophiolitic massif are dated biostratigraphically as early Miocene and late Miocene, respectively and therefore represent different seismogenic events in the uplift and erosional history of the Troodos terrane. Analysis of such events has potential for documenting Miocene seismic and uplift events regionally in the context of changing stress field directions and plate vectors through time. ?? 2009 The Geologists' Association.

  10. Tertiary evolution of the Shimanto belt (Japan): A large-scale collision in Early Miocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raimbourg, Hugues; Famin, Vincent; Palazzin, Giulia; Yamaguchi, Asuka; Augier, Romain

    2017-07-01

    To decipher the Miocene evolution of the Shimanto belt of southwestern Japan, structural and paleothermal studies were carried out in the western area of Shikoku Island. All units constituting the belt, both in its Cretaceous and Tertiary domains, are in average strongly dipping to the NW or SE, while shortening directions deduced from fault kinematics are consistently orientated NNW-SSE. Peak paleotemperatures estimated with Raman spectra of organic matter increase strongly across the southern, Tertiary portion of the belt, in tandem with the development of a steeply dipping metamorphic cleavage. Near the southern tip of Ashizuri Peninsula, the unconformity between accreted strata and fore-arc basin, present along the whole belt, corresponds to a large paleotemperature gap, supporting the occurrence of a major collision in Early Miocene. This tectonic event occurred before the magmatic event that affected the whole belt at 15 Ma. The associated shortening was accommodated in two opposite modes, either localized on regional-scale faults such as the Nobeoka Tectonic Line in Kyushu or distributed through the whole belt as in Shikoku. The reappraisal of this collision leads to reinterpret large-scale seismic refraction profiles of the margins, where the unit underlying the modern accretionary prism is now attributed to an older package of deformed and accreted sedimentary units belonging to the Shimanto belt. When integrated into reconstructions of Philippine Sea Plate motion, the collision corresponds to the oblique collision of a paleo Izu-Bonin-Mariana Arc with Japan in Early Miocene.

  11. Antarctic ice sheet sensitivity to atmospheric CO2 variations in the early to mid-Miocene

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Richard; Harwood, David; Florindo, Fabio; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Tripati, Robert; von Eynatten, Hilmar; Tripati, Aradhna; DeConto, Robert; Fielding, Christopher; Field, Brad; Golledge, Nicholas; McKay, Robert; Naish, Timothy; Olney, Matthew; Pollard, David; Schouten, Stefan; Talarico, Franco; Warny, Sophie; Willmott, Veronica; Acton, Gary; Panter, Kurt; Paulsen, Timothy; Taviani, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Geological records from the Antarctic margin offer direct evidence of environmental variability at high southern latitudes and provide insight regarding ice sheet sensitivity to past climate change. The early to mid-Miocene (23–14 Mya) is a compelling interval to study as global temperatures and atmospheric CO2 concentrations were similar to those projected for coming centuries. Importantly, this time interval includes the Miocene Climatic Optimum, a period of global warmth during which average surface temperatures were 3–4 °C higher than today. Miocene sediments in the ANDRILL-2A drill core from the Western Ross Sea, Antarctica, indicate that the Antarctic ice sheet (AIS) was highly variable through this key time interval. A multiproxy dataset derived from the core identifies four distinct environmental motifs based on changes in sedimentary facies, fossil assemblages, geochemistry, and paleotemperature. Four major disconformities in the drill core coincide with regional seismic discontinuities and reflect transient expansion of grounded ice across the Ross Sea. They correlate with major positive shifts in benthic oxygen isotope records and generally coincide with intervals when atmospheric CO2 concentrations were at or below preindustrial levels (∼280 ppm). Five intervals reflect ice sheet minima and air temperatures warm enough for substantial ice mass loss during episodes of high (∼500 ppm) atmospheric CO2. These new drill core data and associated ice sheet modeling experiments indicate that polar climate and the AIS were highly sensitive to relatively small changes in atmospheric CO2 during the early to mid-Miocene. PMID:26903644

  12. Slowing extrusion tectonics: Lowered estimate of post-Early Miocene slip rate for the Altyn Tagh fault

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yue, Y.; Ritts, B.D.; Graham, S.A.; Wooden, J.L.; Gehrels, G.E.; Zhang, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Determination of long-term slip rate for the Altyn Tagh fault is essential for testing whether Asian tectonics is dominated by lateral extrusion or distributed crustal shortening. Previous slip-history studies focused on either Quaternary slip-rate measurements or pre-Early Miocene total-offset estimates and do not allow a clear distinction between rates based on the two. The magmatic and metamorphic history revealed by SHRIMP zircon dating of clasts from Miocene conglomerate in the Xorkol basin north of the Altyn Tagh fault strikingly matches that of basement in the southern Qilian Shan and northern Qaidam regions south of the fault. This match requires that the post-Early Miocene long-term slip rate along the Altyn Tagh fault cannot exceed 10 mm/year, supporting the hypothesis of distributed crustal thickening for post-Early Miocene times. This low long-term slip rate and recently documented large pre-Early Miocene cumulative offset across the fault support a two-stage evolution, wherein Asian tectonics was dominated by lateral extrusion before the end of Early Miocene, and since then has been dominated by distributed crustal thickening and rapid plateau uplift. ?? 2003 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Insights into the diagenetic environment of fossil marine vertebrates of the Pisco Formation (late Miocene, Peru) from mineralogical and Sr-isotope data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gioncada, A.; Petrini, R.; Bosio, G.; Gariboldi, K.; Collareta, A.; Malinverno, E.; Bonaccorsi, E.; Di Celma, C.; Pasero, M.; Urbina, M.; Bianucci, G.

    2018-01-01

    The late Miocene Pisco Formation of Peru is an outstanding example of richness and high-quality preservation of fossil marine vertebrates. In order to reconstruct the fossilization path, we present new textural, mineralogical and Sr-isotope data of diagenetic minerals formed in correspondence of fossil specimens such as marine vertebrates and mollusks. These fossil specimens were found at Cerro los Quesos, in the Ica Desert, within the diatomaceous strata of the Pisco Formation. Dolomite, gypsum, anhydrite and Mn minerals are the main phases found, while the calcium carbonate originally forming the mollusk valves is replaced by gypsum. An early formation of dolomite and of Mn minerals, triggered by the modifications of the geochemical environment due to organic matter degradation, is suggested by the textural relationships and is confirmed by the Sr isotopic ratio of dolomite, which agrees with that of seawater at the time of sedimentation. Instead, gypsum Sr isotopic ratios indicate a pre-Miocene seawater-derived brine circulating within the sedimentary sequence as a source for Sr. Oxidation of diagenetic sulfide causing a lowering of the pH of porewater is proposed as an explanation for Ca-carbonate dissolution. The diagenetic chemical environment was, nevertheless, favorable to bone preservation.

  14. Remnants of an ancient forest provide ecological context for Early Miocene fossil apes.

    PubMed

    Michel, Lauren A; Peppe, Daniel J; Lutz, James A; Driese, Steven G; Dunsworth, Holly M; Harcourt-Smith, William E H; Horner, William H; Lehmann, Thomas; Nightingale, Sheila; McNulty, Kieran P

    2014-01-01

    The lineage of apes and humans (Hominoidea) evolved and radiated across Afro-Arabia in the early Neogene during a time of global climatic changes and ongoing tectonic processes that formed the East African Rift. These changes probably created highly variable environments and introduced selective pressures influencing the diversification of early apes. However, interpreting the connection between environmental dynamics and adaptive evolution is hampered by difficulties in locating taxa within specific ecological contexts: time-averaged or reworked deposits may not faithfully represent individual palaeohabitats. Here we present multiproxy evidence from Early Miocene deposits on Rusinga Island, Kenya, which directly ties the early ape Proconsul to a widespread, dense, multistoried, closed-canopy tropical seasonal forest set in a warm and relatively wet, local climate. These results underscore the importance of forested environments in the evolution of early apes.

  15. From middle Miocene to late Quaternary spatial and temporal evolution of Cappadocian Volcanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydar, E.; Cubukcu, E.; Ersoy, O.; Kabadayı, E.; Duncan, R.

    2009-04-01

    Cappadocian Volcanism, Central Turkey was active from Miocene to upper Holocene, originating from varying sources and presents various dynamics. Central Anatolia constitutes a plateau reaching to 1100-1200 meters from the sea level. From Miocene to Quaternary, the volcanism and/or its relationships with local tectonic targeted in numerous works. Those works can be classified as follows: (i) volcanism-tectonic relationship (Pasquare et al, 1988; Toprak and Goncuoglu, 1993; Toprak, 1998, Dhont et al, 1998; Froger et al, 1998), (ii) volcanological, petrological, geochemical works on stratovolcanoes, monogenetic vents, ignimbrites (Batum, 1978; Ercan, 1985; Aydar, 1992; Aydar and Gourgaud, 1993; Aydar et al, 1994; Aydar et al, 1995; Le Pennec et al, 1994; Druitt et al, 1995; Aydar and Gourgaud, 1998; Deniel et al, 1998, Temel, 1998; Kuzucuoglu et al, 1998; Mouralis et al, 2002; Sen et al, 2003) (iii) Geophysical works on the missing calderas (Ongur, 1978; Ekingen, 1982; Froger et al,1998). Cappadocian landscape is made principally of eroded ignimbirites forming fair chimneys. Apart from the ignimbrites, Cappadocia bears several stratovolcanoes (Mt Erciyes, Mt. Hasan) and numerous monogenetic vents (cinder cones, maars, domes) and some andesitic dacitic relicts of lava fields intercalated within the ignimbritic sequence. Although the stratovolcanoes have some historical activities, their initial eruptions occured in Miocene (Kecikalesi stage of Mt Hasan- 13 My), Pliocene (Kocdag stage of Mt Erciyes). The monogenetic vents demonstrate interestingly bi-modal character which is typically found in rifted regions of the world. Origin of this young volcanism is proposed as collision related transitional alkaline-calcalkaline association (Aydar, 1992, Deniel et al, 1998), is also linked to the subduction (Olanca, 1994). Our preliminary data on the Quaternary rhyolitic glass combined with chemical analysis of the Miocene volcanics exhibit that a slight transition from

  16. Intraplate volcanism in the Danube Basin of NW Hungary: 3D geophysical modelling of the Late Miocene Pásztori volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pánisová, Jaroslava; Balázs, Attila; Zalai, Zsófia; Bielik, Miroslav; Horváth, Ferenc; Harangi, Szabolcs; Schmidt, Sabine; Götze, Hans-Jürgen

    2017-12-01

    Three-dimensional geophysical modelling of the early Late Miocene Pásztori volcano (ca. 11-10 Ma) and adjacent area in the Little Hungarian Plain Volcanic Field of the Danube Basin was carried out to get an insight into the most prominent intra-crustal structures here. We have used gridded gravity and magnetic data, interpreted seismic reflection sections and borehole data combined with re-evaluated geological constraints. Based on petrological analysis of core samples from available six exploration boreholes, the volcanic rocks consist of a series of alkaline trachytic and trachyandesitic volcanoclastic and effusive rocks. The measured magnetic susceptibilities of these samples are generally very low suggesting a deeper magnetic source. The age of the modelled Pásztori volcano, buried beneath a 2 km-thick Late Miocene-to-Quaternary sedimentary sequence, is 10.4 +/- 0.3 Ma belonging to the dominantly normal C5 chron. Our model includes crustal domains with different effective induced magnetizations and densities: uppermost 0.3-1.8 km thick layer of volcanoclastics underlain by a trachytic-trachyandesitic coherent and volcanoclastic rock units of a maximum 2 km thickness, with a top situated at minimal depth of 2.3 km, and a deeper magmatic pluton in a depth range of 5-15 km. The 3D model of the Danube Basin is consistent with observed high ΔZ magnetic anomalies above the volcano, while the observed Bouguer gravity anomalies correlate better with the crystalline basement depth. Our analysis contributes to deeper understanding of the crustal architecture and the evolution of the basin accompanied by alkaline intraplate volcanism.

  17. D/H of late Miocene meteoric waters in Western Australia: Paleoenvironmental conditions inferred from the δD of (U-Th)/He-dated CID goethite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yapp, Crayton J.; Shuster, David L.

    2017-09-01

    Nineteen (U-Th)/He ages were determined for eight samples from a core drilled in an ore-grade channel iron deposit (CID) of the Robe Pisolite (Robe Formation) of Mesa J in Western Australia. With one exception, uncorrected ages of the analyzed aliquots range from 6.7(±0.4) Ma to 30.2(±3.1) Ma, while molar ratios of Th/U range from 0.42 to 5.06. The exception is an aliquot with an apparent age of 2.7 Ma and Th/U of 5.70. A three-component mixing model involving one generation of goethite and two generations of hematite suggests that the age of crystallization of the oolitic goethites is ∼7(±1) Ma. If so, the goethites have effectively been closed systems for ∼7 million years and should preserve a stable hydrogen isotope record of late Miocene rainfall in the vicinity of Mesa J. Cenozoic movement of the Australian continent had placed Mesa J and environs in the subtropics at a paleolatitude of about 29 °S during the late Miocene. Al-adjusted δD values of oolitic goethite in the eight CID samples range from -153‰ to -146‰ and imply that the δD of the late Miocene meteoric waters ranged from -61‰ to -53‰, with an average of -56‰. These relatively negative δD values might indicate that near-coastal, late Miocene rain was derived primarily from summer-season tropical cyclones with storm tracks that extended into the subtropics of western Australia. The postulated late Miocene tropical cyclones would have occurred more often and/or exhibited greater intensity at a paleolatitude of 29 °S than is the case for modern sites at approximately 30 °S on the west coast of Australia (e.g., Perth). Higher fluxes of meteoric water in the Miocene summers would have facilitated dissolution and removal of BIF-sourced silica with concomitant enrichment in oxidized Fe. Moreover, wetter late Miocene summers could have promoted multiple cycles of microbially mediated dissolution and recrystallization of Fe(III) oxides in the aerobic systems. The oolitic textures may

  18. Dynamic Antarctic ice sheet during the early to mid-Miocene

    PubMed Central

    DeConto, Robert M.; Pollard, David; Levy, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    Geological data indicate that there were major variations in Antarctic ice sheet volume and extent during the early to mid-Miocene. Simulating such large-scale changes is problematic because of a strong hysteresis effect, which results in stability once the ice sheets have reached continental size. A relatively narrow range of atmospheric CO2 concentrations indicated by proxy records exacerbates this problem. Here, we are able to simulate large-scale variability of the early to mid-Miocene Antarctic ice sheet because of three developments in our modeling approach. (i) We use a climate–ice sheet coupling method utilizing a high-resolution atmospheric component to account for ice sheet–climate feedbacks. (ii) The ice sheet model includes recently proposed mechanisms for retreat into deep subglacial basins caused by ice-cliff failure and ice-shelf hydrofracture. (iii) We account for changes in the oxygen isotopic composition of the ice sheet by using isotope-enabled climate and ice sheet models. We compare our modeling results with ice-proximal records emerging from a sedimentological drill core from the Ross Sea (Andrill-2A) that is presented in a companion article. The variability in Antarctic ice volume that we simulate is equivalent to a seawater oxygen isotope signal of 0.52–0.66‰, or a sea level equivalent change of 30–36 m, for a range of atmospheric CO2 between 280 and 500 ppm and a changing astronomical configuration. This result represents a substantial advance in resolving the long-standing model data conflict of Miocene Antarctic ice sheet and sea level variability. PMID:26903645

  19. Early Miocene benthic foraminifera and biostratigraphy of the Qom Formation, Deh Namak, Central Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daneshian, Jahanbakhsh; Dana, Leila Ramezani

    2007-03-01

    A total of 165 samples were collected from the Qom Formation investigated in a stratigraphic section north of Deh Namak, in Central Iran. From these, 35 genera and 47 species of benthic foraminifera were identified. The age of the studied section is Early Miocene (Aquitanian to Early Burdigalian) based on the occurrence of Borelis melo curdica, Meandropsina anahensis, Meandropsina iranica, Elphidium sp. 14, Peneroplis farsensis, and Triloculina tricarinata. The thickness of the Qom Formation is 401 m of which 161.2 m is early Burdigalian in age. Foraminiferal assemblages in the Deh Namak section are referable to the Borelis melo group- Meandropsina iranica Assemblage Zone and Miogypsinoides- Archaias-Valvulinid Assemblage Zone of [Adams, T.D., Bourgeois, F., 1967. Asmari biostratigraphy. Iranian Oil Operating Companies, Geological and Exploration Division, Report1074 (unpublished) 1-37.] described originally from the Asmari Formation.

  20. Early- versus Late-Onset Dysthymia

    PubMed Central

    Sansone, Lori A.

    2009-01-01

    In the current Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, dysthymic disorder is categorized as either early-onset or late-onset, based upon the emergence of symptoms before or after the age of 21, respectively. Does this diagnostic distinction have any meaningful clinical implications? In this edition of The Interface, we present empirical studies that have, within a single study, compared individuals with early-versus late-onset dysthymia. In this review, we found that, compared to those with late-onset dysthymia, early-onset patients are more likely to harbor psychiatric comorbidity both on Axis I and II, exhibit less psychological resilience, and have more prominent family loadings for mood disorders. These findings suggest that this distinction is meaningful and that the early-onset subtype of dysthymia is more difficult to effectively treat. PMID:20049145

  1. Late Miocene ignimbrites at the southern Puna-northern Sierras Pampeanas border (˜27°S): Stratigraphic correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montero-López, Carolina; Guzmán, Silvina; Barrios, Fabiola

    2015-10-01

    New field observations and petrographic and geochemical data of pyroclastic deposits exposed along the Las Papas valley (border between southern Puna and northern Sierras Pampeanas, Argentina) and further north, lead us to propose a new stratigraphic correlation and classification of the late Miocene volcanism in this area. We redefine the Las Papas, Las Juntas, Aguada Alumbrera and Rosada ignimbrites and define the Agua Caliente and Del Medio ignimbrites. The whole set of ignimbrites are rhyolites and less frequently dacites of calc-alkaline affinity. In the present contribution we divide ignimbrites into the Agua Negra and Rincón groups, based mainly on their geochemical signature. The Agua Negra Group is formed by the Las Papas and Las Juntas ignimbrites, indurated and welded, lithic-rich, with crystal-poor pumices and crystal-rich matrix. The Rincón Group comprises the Agua Caliente, Aguada Alumbrera, Rosada and Del Medio ignimbrites, with variable welding degrees, lithic and crystal content. The greater enrichment of crystals in the matrix in comparison with the crystal content in pumices indicates significant elutriation during flow transport and thus volume estimations are to be considered lower bounds for the actual erupted volume. The total minimum estimated volume for the ignimbrites of the Agua Negra and Rincón groups is 2.8 km3 (2.3 km3 DRE). Field relationships and new analytical data indicate that the different acid ignimbrites that crop out in this small area are related to at least two different magma chambers. The widespread Quaternary volcanism in this area covers the older deposits, thus making it difficult to recognize the volcanic centers that produced these late Miocene ignimbrites.

  2. Morphological affinities of the Sahelanthropus tchadensis (Late Miocene hominid from Chad) cranium

    PubMed Central

    Guy, Franck; Lieberman, Daniel E.; Pilbeam, David; de León, Marcia Ponce; Likius, Andossa; Mackaye, Hassane T.; Vignaud, Patrick; Zollikofer, Christoph; Brunet, Michel

    2005-01-01

    The recent reconstruction of the Sahelanthropus tchadensis cranium (TM 266-01-60-1) provides an opportunity to examine in detail differences in cranial shape between this earliest-known hominid, African apes, and other hominid taxa. Here we compare the reconstruction of TM 266-01-60-1 with crania of African apes, humans, and several Pliocene hominids. The results not only confirm that TM 266-01-60-1 is a hominid but also reveal a unique mosaic of characters. The TM 266-01-60-1 reconstruction shares many primitive features with chimpanzees but overall is most similar to Australopithecus, particularly in the basicranium. However, TM 266-01-60-1 is distinctive in having the combination of a short subnasal region associated with a vertical upper face that projects substantially in front of the neurocranium. Further research is needed to determine the evolutionary relationships between Sahelanthropus and the known Miocene and Pliocene hominids. PMID:16380424

  3. Phylogenetic and paleobotanical evidence for late Miocene diversification of the Tertiary subtropical lineage of ivies (Hedera L., Araliaceae).

    PubMed

    Valcárcel, V; Guzmán, B; Medina, N G; Vargas, P; Wen, J

    2017-06-22

    Hedera (ivies) is one of the few temperate genera of the primarily tropical Asian Palmate group of the Araliaceae, which extends its range out of Asia to Europe and the Mediterranean basin. Phylogenetic and phylogeographic results suggested Asia as the center of origin and the western Mediterranean region as one of the secondary centers of diversification. The bird-dispersed fleshy fruits of ivies suggest frequent dispersal over long distances (e.g. Macaronesian archipelagos), although reducing the impact of geographic barriers to gene flow in mainland species. Genetic isolation associated with geographic barriers and independent polyploidization events have been postulated as the main driving forces of diversification. In this study we aim to evaluate past and present diversification patterns in Hedera within a geographic and temporal framework to clarify the biogeographic history of the genus. Phylogenetic (biogeographic, time divergence and diversification) and phylogeographic (coalescence) analyses using four DNA regions (nrITS, trnH-psbA, trnT-trnL, rpl32) revealed a complex spatial pattern of lineage divergence. Scarce geographic limitation to gene flow and limited diversification are observed during the early-mid Miocene, followed by a diversification rate increase related to geographic divergence from the Tortonian/Messinian. Genetic and palaeobotanical evidence points the origin of the Hedera clade in Asia, followed by a gradual E-W Asian extinction and the progressive E-W Mediterranean colonization. The temporal framework for the E Asia - W Mediterranean westward colonization herein reported is congruent with the fossil record. Subsequent range expansion in Europe and back colonization to Asia is also inferred. Uneven diversification among geographic areas occurred from the Tortonian/Messinian onwards with limited diversification in the newly colonized European and Asian regions. Eastern and western Mediterranean regions acted as refugia for Miocene and

  4. The Brahmaputra tale of tectonics and erosion: Early Miocene river capture in the Eastern Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracciali, Laura; Najman, Yani; Parrish, Randall R.; Akhter, Syed H.; Millar, Ian

    2015-04-01

    The Himalayan orogen provides a type example on which a number of models of the causes and consequences of crustal deformation are based and it has been suggested that it is the site of a variety of feedbacks between tectonics and erosion. Within the broader orogen, fluvial drainages partly reflect surface uplift, different climatic zones and a response to crustal deformation. In the eastern Himalaya, the unusual drainage configuration of the Yarlung Tsangpo-Brahmaputra River has been interpreted either as antecedent drainage distorted by the India-Asia collision (and as such applied as a passive strain marker of lateral extrusion), latest Neogene tectonically-induced river capture, or glacial damming-induced river diversion events. Here we apply a multi-technique approach to the Neogene paleo-Brahmaputra deposits of the Surma Basin (Bengal Basin, Bangladesh) to test the long-debated occurrence and timing of river capture of the Yarlung Tsangpo by the Brahmaputra River. We provide U-Pb detrital zircon and rutile, isotopic (Sr-Nd and Hf) and petrographic evidence consistent with river capture of the Yarlung Tsangpo by the Brahmaputra River in the Early Miocene. We document influx of Cretaceous-Paleogene zircons in Early Miocene sediments of the paleo-Brahmaputra River that we interpret as first influx of material from the Asian plate (Transhimalayan arc) indicative of Yarlung Tsangpo contribution. Prior to capture, the predominantly Precambrian-Paleozoic zircons indicate that only the Indian plate was drained. Contemporaneous with Transhimalayan influx reflecting the river capture, we record arrival of detrital material affected by Cenozoic metamorphism, as indicated by rutiles and zircons with Cenozoic U-Pb ages and an increase in metamorphic grade of detritus as recorded by petrography. We interpret this as due to a progressively increasing contribution from the erosion of the metamorphosed core of the orogen. Whole rock Sr-Nd isotopic data from the same samples

  5. First North American fossil monkey and early Miocene tropical biotic interchange.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Jonathan I; Woodruff, Emily D; Wood, Aaron R; Rincon, Aldo F; Harrington, Arianna R; Morgan, Gary S; Foster, David A; Montes, Camilo; Jaramillo, Carlos A; Jud, Nathan A; Jones, Douglas S; MacFadden, Bruce J

    2016-05-12

    New World monkeys (platyrrhines) are a diverse part of modern tropical ecosystems in North and South America, yet their early evolutionary history in the tropics is largely unknown. Molecular divergence estimates suggest that primates arrived in tropical Central America, the southern-most extent of the North American landmass, with several dispersals from South America starting with the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama 3-4 million years ago (Ma). The complete absence of primate fossils from Central America has, however, limited our understanding of their history in the New World. Here we present the first description of a fossil monkey recovered from the North American landmass, the oldest known crown platyrrhine, from a precisely dated 20.9-Ma layer in the Las Cascadas Formation in the Panama Canal Basin, Panama. This discovery suggests that family-level diversification of extant New World monkeys occurred in the tropics, with new divergence estimates for Cebidae between 22 and 25 Ma, and provides the oldest fossil evidence for mammalian interchange between South and North America. The timing is consistent with recent tectonic reconstructions of a relatively narrow Central American Seaway in the early Miocene epoch, coincident with over-water dispersals inferred for many other groups of animals and plants. Discovery of an early Miocene primate in Panama provides evidence for a circum-Caribbean tropical distribution of New World monkeys by this time, with ocean barriers not wholly restricting their northward movements, requiring a complex set of ecological factors to explain their absence in well-sampled similarly aged localities at higher latitudes of North America.

  6. First North American fossil monkey and early Miocene tropical biotic interchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloch, Jonathan I.; Woodruff, Emily D.; Wood, Aaron R.; Rincon, Aldo F.; Harrington, Arianna R.; Morgan, Gary S.; Foster, David A.; Montes, Camilo; Jaramillo, Carlos A.; Jud, Nathan A.; Jones, Douglas S.; MacFadden, Bruce J.

    2016-05-01

    New World monkeys (platyrrhines) are a diverse part of modern tropical ecosystems in North and South America, yet their early evolutionary history in the tropics is largely unknown. Molecular divergence estimates suggest that primates arrived in tropical Central America, the southern-most extent of the North American landmass, with several dispersals from South America starting with the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama 3-4 million years ago (Ma). The complete absence of primate fossils from Central America has, however, limited our understanding of their history in the New World. Here we present the first description of a fossil monkey recovered from the North American landmass, the oldest known crown platyrrhine, from a precisely dated 20.9-Ma layer in the Las Cascadas Formation in the Panama Canal Basin, Panama. This discovery suggests that family-level diversification of extant New World monkeys occurred in the tropics, with new divergence estimates for Cebidae between 22 and 25 Ma, and provides the oldest fossil evidence for mammalian interchange between South and North America. The timing is consistent with recent tectonic reconstructions of a relatively narrow Central American Seaway in the early Miocene epoch, coincident with over-water dispersals inferred for many other groups of animals and plants. Discovery of an early Miocene primate in Panama provides evidence for a circum-Caribbean tropical distribution of New World monkeys by this time, with ocean barriers not wholly restricting their northward movements, requiring a complex set of ecological factors to explain their absence in well-sampled similarly aged localities at higher latitudes of North America.

  7. Strong evidence for the influence of solar cycles on a Late Miocene lake system revealed by biotic and abiotic proxies

    PubMed Central

    Kern, A.K.; Harzhauser, M.; Piller, W.E.; Mandic, O.; Soliman, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Late Miocene paleogeography of central Europe and its climatic history are well studied with a resolution of c. 106 years. Small-scale climatic variations are yet unresolved. Observing past climatic change of short periods, however, would encourage the understanding of the modern climatic system. Therefore, past climate archives require a resolution on a decadal to millennial scale. To detect such a short-term evolution, a continuous 6-m-core of the Paleo-Lake Pannon was analyzed in 1-cm-sample distance to provide information as precise and regular as possible. Measurements of the natural gamma radiation and magnetic susceptibility combined with the total abundance of ostracod shells were used as proxies to estimate millennial- to centennial scale environmental changes during the mid-Tortonian warm period. Patterns emerged, but no indisputable age model can be provided for the core, due to the lack of paleomagnetic reversals and the lack of minerals suitable for absolute dating. Therefore, herein we propose another method to determine a hypothetic time frame for these deposits. Based on statistical processes, including Lomb–Scargle and REDFIT periodograms along with Wavelet spectra, several distinct cyclicities could be detected. Calculations considering established off-shore sedimentation rates of the Tortonian Vienna Basin revealed patterns resembling Holocene solar-cycle-records well. The comparison of filtered data of Miocene and Holocene records displays highly similar patterns and comparable modulations. A best-fit adjustment of sedimentation rate results in signals which fit to the lower and upper Gleissberg cycle, the de Vries cycle, the unnamed 500-year- and 1000-year-cycles, as well as the Hallstatt cycle. Each of these cycles has a distinct and unique expression in the investigated environmental proxies, reflecting a complex forcing-system. Hence, a single-proxy-analysis, as often performed on Holocene records, should be considered cautiously as

  8. Late Miocene volcanic sequences in northern Victoria Land, Antarctica: products of glaciovolcanic eruptions under different thermal regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smellie, J. L.; Rocchi, S.; Armienti, P.

    2011-01-01

    Late Miocene (c. 13-5 Ma) volcanic sequences of the Hallett Volcanic Province (HVP) crop out along >250 km of western Ross Sea coast in northern Victoria Land. Eight primary volcanic and six sedimentary lithofacies have been identified, and they are organised into at least five different sequence architectures as a consequence of different combinations of eruptive and/or depositional conditions. The volcanoes were erupted in association with a Miocene glacial cover and the sequences are overwhelmingly glaciovolcanic. The commonest and most representative are products of mafic aa lava-fed deltas, a type of glaciovolcanic sequence that has not been described before. It is distinguished by (1) a subaerially emplaced relatively thin caprock of aa lavas lying on and passing down-dip into (2) a thicker association of chaotic to crudely bedded hyaloclastite breccias, water-chilled lava sheets and irregular lava masses, collectively called lobe-hyaloclastite. A second distinctive sequence type present is characterised by water-cooled lavas and associated sedimentary lithofacies (diamictite (probably glacigenic) and fluvial sands and gravels) similar to some mafic glaciovolcanic sheet-like sequences (see Smellie, Earth-Science Reviews, 74, 241-268, 2008), but including (for the first time) examples of likely sheet-like sequences with felsic compositions. Other sequence types in the HVP are minor and include tuff cones, cinder cones and a single ice-marginal lacustrine sequence. The glacial thermal regime varied from polar, characterised by sequences lacking glacial erosion, glacigenic sediments or evidence for free water, to temperate or sub-polar for sequences in which all of these features are conspicuously developed.

  9. Late Miocene Pacific plate kinematic change explained with coupled global models of mantle and lithosphere dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stotz, I. L.; Iaffaldano, G.; Davies, D. R.

    2017-07-01

    The timing and magnitude of a Pacific plate motion change within the past 10 Ma remains enigmatic, due to the noise associated with finite-rotation data. Nonetheless, it has been hypothesized that this change was driven by the arrival of the Ontong Java Plateau (OJP) at the Melanesian arc and the consequent subduction polarity reversal. The uncertainties associated with the timing of this event, however, make it difficult to quantitatively demonstrate a dynamical association. Here, we first reconstruct the Pacific plate's absolute motion since the mid-Miocene (15 Ma), at high-temporal resolution, building on previous efforts to mitigate the impact of finite-rotation data noise. We find that the largest change in Pacific plate-motion direction occurred between 10 and 5 Ma, with the plate rotating clockwise. We subsequently develop and use coupled global numerical models of the mantle/lithosphere system to test hypotheses on the dynamics driving this change. These indicate that the arrival of the OJP at the Melanesian arc, between 10 and 5 Ma, followed by a subduction polarity reversal that marked the initiation of subduction of the Australian plate underneath the Pacific realm, were the key drivers of this kinematic change.

  10. Palaeobiology, palaeoecology and stratigraphic significance of the Late Miocene cockle Lymnocardium soproniense from Lake Pannon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magyar, Imre; Cziczer, István; Sztanó, Orsolya; Dávid, Árpád; Johnson, Michael

    2016-12-01

    Stratigraphic subdivision of the Upper Miocene deposits in the Pannonian Basin has been traditionally based on the endemic mollusc species of Lake Pannon. The cockle species Lymnocardium soproniense Vitális, apparently evolving through a sympatric speciation event in the sublittoral zone of Lake Pannon about 10.2-10.3 Ma, attained wide geographical distribution in the Pannonian basin and thus may serve as a good stratigraphic marker. Lymnocardium soproniense was one of the few large-sized cockles in Lake Pannon, most closely related to its ancestor, L. schedelianum (Fuchs), and to another descendant of the latter, L. variocostatum Vitális. According to the δ18O stable isotope record of its shells, the large size of L. soproniense was coupled with an extended life time of more than 10 years, probably reflecting a stable lake environment with increased resource availability and decreased predation. The species lived in quiet offshore conditions, below the storm wave base, where clay was deposited from suspension and the influence of currents was negligible. The base of the Lymnocardium soproniense Zone in the sublittoral deposits of Lake Pannon is defined by the first occurrence of the species, whereas the top of the zone is marked with the base of the overlying Congeria praerhomboidea Zone, defined by the FAD of C. praerhomboidea.

  11. A first possible chameleon from the late Miocene of India (the hominoid site of Haritalyangar): a tentative evidence for an Asian dispersal of chameleons.

    PubMed

    Sankhyan, Anek R; Čerňanský, Andrej

    2016-12-01

    Miocene rare fossils from India, tentatively attributed to chameleons, are described for the first time. The material consists of a fragment of the left squamosal and an element interpreted as a posterodorsal process of the parietal. The specimens come from a late Miocene site of the Nagri Formation (Middle Siwaliks, ~ 9 Mya) at Haritalyangar, North India. This material presents a possible evidence for a chameleon dispersal to Asia. Based on molecular data, the dispersion of an Asian chamaeleonid lineage from Africa to Arabia/Asia is dated at approximately 13 Mya and its diversification in situ at around 6-8 Mya. However, till now, no Miocene-age fossil record has been described to support crown chamaeleonid presence in this area. The material described herein is very fragmented. If correctly allocated, the Haritalyangar chameleons show the oldest known occurrence of this clade in India, at least approximately 9 Mya ago.

  12. A first possible chameleon from the late Miocene of India (the hominoid site of Haritalyangar): a tentative evidence for an Asian dispersal of chameleons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sankhyan, Anek R.; Čerňanský, Andrej

    2016-12-01

    Miocene rare fossils from India, tentatively attributed to chameleons, are described for the first time. The material consists of a fragment of the left squamosal and an element interpreted as a posterodorsal process of the parietal. The specimens come from a late Miocene site of the Nagri Formation (Middle Siwaliks, 9 Mya) at Haritalyangar, North India. This material presents a possible evidence for a chameleon dispersal to Asia. Based on molecular data, the dispersion of an Asian chamaeleonid lineage from Africa to Arabia/Asia is dated at approximately 13 Mya and its diversification in situ at around 6-8 Mya. However, till now, no Miocene-age fossil record has been described to support crown chamaeleonid presence in this area. The material described herein is very fragmented. If correctly allocated, the Haritalyangar chameleons show the oldest known occurrence of this clade in India, at least approximately 9 Mya ago.

  13. Geochronology and geology of late Oligocene through Miocene volcanism and mineralization in the western San Juan Mountains, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bove, D.J.; Hon, Ken; Budding, K.E.; Slack, J.F.; Snee, L.W.; Yeoman, R.A.

    2000-01-01

    resurgent intrusions indicates that it is closely related to the early stages of bimodal high-silica rhyolite-alkali basalt volcanism that accompanied the onset of extensional tectonism in the region. Both 40Ar/39Ar ages and paleomagnetic data confirm that the entire caldera sequence formed in less than 330,000 years. Only weak quartz vein mineralization is present in the center of the caldera, and it appears to be related to leaching of metals from the intracaldera tuffs above the resurgent intrusion. Massive alunitization and weak Mo and Cu mineralization along the eastern ring fracture are associated with calc-alkaline lavas and stocks related to late stages of the caldera cycle. These calc-alkaline stocks also appear to be genetically and temporally linked to a radial pattern of barite-precious metal veins on the northeastern margin of the Lake City caldera.

  14. Early to mid-Miocene palaeoclimate of Antarctica based on terrestrial records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashworth, Allan; Lewis, Adam

    2017-04-01

    Paleontological and stratigraphic studies of sites in the Transantarctic Mountains (TAM) are advancing knowledge of the landscape, vegetation and climate that existed immediately before the growth of the modern East Antarctic Ice Sheet. The sites are located in the Friis Hills and the western Olympus Range in the McMurdo Dry Valleys. In both localities, parts of ancient landscapes are preserved on upland surfaces high above modern valley floors. The early to mid-Miocene interval is bracketed by 40Ar/39Ar ages on volcanic ashes of 19.76 ± 0.11 Ma to 13.85 ± 0.03 Ma. Like all glacial records it is discontinuous but even so several trends can be detected. The record is one of an evolving glacial system during which ice caps coalesced to form an ice sheet. Initially, small alpine glaciers flowed southwestward toward the continental interior eroding shallow troughs into granitic bedrock. By the close of the interval, large glaciers flowed eastward from the continental interior to the Ross Sea. The interval was marked by numerous glacial advances and retreats. Tills are matrix-rich, and outwash sands and gravels ripple-laminated and cross-bedded, typical of those associated with wet-based glaciation. The vegetation during the interval was in a dynamic flux retreating downslope during glacial advances and recolonizing valleys after retreats. Fossils accumulated in peat beds and organic silts representing lacustrine, fluvial and paludal environments. Fossils include diatoms, fungal ascomycetes, pollen and spores, lycopod megaspores, mosses, wood and leaves of Nothofagus (southern beech), fruits of vascular plants, and insect skeletal parts of Diptera (flies) and Coleoptera (beetles). The vegetation was a tundra, initially shrub- and later moss-dominated. During the interval there was a marked decline in biodiversity. Initially, there were 4 species of Nothofagus represented by different leaf types and at least 9 species of vascular plants by their seeds. At the close of

  15. Temporal Geochemical Variations in Glass and Minerals from Early Oligocene to Miocene Volcanic Sediments, DSDP Site 296, Kyushu Palau Ridge: Is There a Geochemical Signal for Arc Rifting?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickey-Vargas, R.; Samajpati, E.

    2015-12-01

    Volcaniclastic sediments and sedimentary rocks from DSDP Site 296, located within a basin at the crest of the northern Kyushu Palau ridge (KPR), record the latter part of the first stage of Izu Bonin Mariana (IBM) arc evolution, up to the cessation of volcanism caused by arc rifting and opening of the Shikoku basin. The lower section consists of early to late Oligocene coarse volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks, and is overlain by late Oligocene to Pleistocene nannofossil chalks and oozes with volcanic sand and ash-rich layers. We have studied the chemical composition of pyroxene, feldspar and glass grains separated from the coarse volcaniclastic rocks at depths from 435 to 1082 meters below sea floor, and of glass shards in layers in the overlying sediments of late Oligocene to early Miocene age. Overall, pyroxene and feldspar compositions show little systematic variation with depth in the core, although for pyroxene, highest En and highest Al2O3 contents are found in the interval from 600-900 meters bsf. An contents in feldspars show a bimodal distribution throughout the core, with most values > 90 or in the range 60-70, with more abundant intermediate compositions in the 600-900 meter interval. Compositions of glass shards vary widely, from basalt to rhyolite, and from low K, light rare earth (LREE)-depleted to high K, strongly LREE-enriched character, without systematic variation with depth in the core. However, all cores sampled from early Oligocene to early Miocene contain relatively low K basalt and basaltic andesite glass. Like the pyroxenes, a wider range of compositions is found in glass from the 600 to 900 mbsf interval. The Site 296 sequence overlaps in age with the uppermost sedimentary section of recently drilled IODP Site 1438, located 230 km to the southwest in the Amami Sankaku basin, thus the two sites may contain volcanic debris shed from contemporaneous sections of the KPR.

  16. Vegetation and climate development on the Atlantic Coastal Plain during the late Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum (IODP Expedition 313)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prader, Sabine; Kotthoff, Ulrich; McCarthy, Francine; Greenwood, David

    2015-04-01

    which was reminiscent of Oligocene and early Miocene ecosystems analyzed in previous studies (e.g. Kotthoff et al. 2014). The ecosystem was characterized by oak-hickory forests which probably dominated in the lowlands, while frequent occurrence of conifer pollen (Pinus, Picea, Abies, Sciadopitys, and Tsuga canadensis) indicate that conifer forests prevailed in higher altitudes during the MMCO. We assume that the Miocene uplift of the Appalachian Mountains (e.g. Gallen et al., 2013) led to the proliferation of mountainous taxa and thus to an increase of related pollen taxa in the palynological record. References: Gallen, S. F., Wegmann, K. W., Bohnenstieh, D. W. R.: Miocene rejuvenation of topographic relief in the southern Appalachians, GSA Today, 23, 4-10, 2013. Kotthoff, U., McCarthy, F.M.G., Greenwood, D.R., Müller-Navarra, K., Prader, S., Hesselbo, S.P., (2014): Vegetation and climate development on the Atlantic Coastal Plain from 33 to 13 million years ago (IODP expedition 313). Climate of the Past 10, 1523-1539.

  17. A secondary nursery area for the copper shark Carcharhinus brachyurus from the late Miocene of Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landini, Walter; Collareta, Alberto; Pesci, Fabio; Di Celma, Claudio; Urbina, Mario; Bianucci, Giovanni

    2017-10-01

    The life history strategies of sharks often include the use of protected nursery areas by young-of-the-year and juveniles. Nursery areas can be primary (i.e., grounds where the sharks are born and spend the very first part of their lives) or secondary (i.e., grounds inhabited by slightly older but not yet mature individuals). Criteria utilized to recognize these strategic habitats include: high concentration of young sharks, high food availability, and low predation risk. Since the fossil record of sharks consists mainly of isolated teeth, identification of paleonurseries involves a series of problems due to difficult application of actualistic criteria. A rich shark tooth-bearing level (ST-low1) has recently been discovered in the upper Miocene deposits of the Pisco Formation exposed at Cerro Colorado (southern coast of Peru). Most of the teeth collected from this level belong to the extant copper shark Carcharhinus brachyurus. These teeth are small and compatible with those of extant juveniles. This observation, coupled with other paleoenvironmental considerations, indicates that the ST-low1 horizon could have represented a nursery ground for juvenile individuals of C. brachyurus. The absence of very small-sized teeth (i.e., referable to young-of-the-year) suggests a secondary nursery ground inhabited by immature copper sharks. Observations on the tooth size of other Lamniformes, Carcharhiniformes, and Myliobatiformes occurring along with C. brachyurus point to a significantly juvenile structure of this elasmobranch assemblage, thus supporting the hypothesis of a communal use of the Cerro Colorado paleonursery.

  18. Equatorial Pacific Productivity Events and Intervals in the Middle and late Miocene through XRF-Scanned Bulk Sediment Composition Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyle, M. W.; Stepanova, A.; Wilson, J. K.; Marcantonio, F.

    2014-12-01

    The equatorial Pacific is the largest open ocean productivity center, responsible for nearly half of global marine new production and about 40% of CaCO3 burial. Understanding how the equatorial Pacific upwelling system has evolved over the Neogene is critical to understand the evolution of the global carbon cycle. We know from reconnaissance studies that productivity in equatorial Pacific surface waters as well as dissolution driven by deep waters have strongly affected the sediment record. We have used calibrated XRF scanning to capture anomalies in equatorial Pacific upwelling and productivity at Milankovitch-resolving resolution since the early Miocene. The 8 elements calibrated in the XRF scans can be used to distinguish intervals of high carbonate dissolution from those of high productivity. Carbonate dissolution intervals are recorded by a drop of CaCO3 relative to Aeolian clays, with little change in the ratio between estimated opal and clay (estimated by TiO2). In contrast, high production intervals have high opal/TiO2 and low CaCO3. Low CaCO3 contents are caused partly by dilution, since high production skews tropical particulate rain to be more opal-rich relative to carbonate, and additional C-org rain can help to increase CaCO3 dissolution within near-surface sediments. We observe long-lived high production anomalies modulated by orbitally-driven climate variability. Prominent intervals are found at the end of the Miocene climate optimum (~ 14 Ma), interspersed with dissolution intervals in the Carbonate Crash interval (~9-11 Ma), and in the Biogenic Bloom interval (8-4.5 Ma). Using relationships among biogenic fluxes in modern equatorial sediment trap studies, especially the positive correlations between biogenic Ba , C-org, and CaCO3 fluxes, we find that the highest production intervals have much higher opal/C-org in the particulate rain, implying an inefficient carbon pump to the deep ocean. If confirmed, productivity was not as strong a feedback to

  19. Ar-Ar dating and petrogenesis of the Early Miocene Taşkapı-Mecitli (Erciş-Van) granitoid, Eastern Anatolia Collisional Zone, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyan, Vural

    2018-06-01

    The Early Miocene Taşkapı-Mecitli granitoid that is located in the northern section of the Eastern Anatolia Collision Zone has typical I-type, metaluminous and calk-alkaline characteristics. It also contains mafic microgranular / magmatic enclaves (MMEs). New Ar-Ar dating results show that the age of the Taşkapı-Mecitli granitoid is ∼23 Ma and it crystallised in the Early Miocene, in contrast to its previously known Cretaceous age. Identical crystallisation ages (∼23 Ma), similar mineral assemblages and geochemical compositions, and indistinguishable isotopic compositions of MMEs and host rocks imply that the MMEs are most consistent with a cumulate origin formed at earlier stages of the same magmatic system that produced the Taşkapı-Mecitli granitoid. MELTS modelling suggests that magma of the Taşkapı-Mecitli granitoid was the result of fractionation under a crustal pressure of 4 kbar, with a H2O content of 1.5%. EC-AFC model calculation reveals that the Taşkapı-Mecitli granitoid includes from 0.5% to 2% crustal assimilation rates. These rates indicate that crustal contamination can be negligible when compared to fractional crystallisation in the evolution of the magma beneath the Taşkapı-Mecitli granitoid. The partial melting model calculations and MORB-normalised trace element concentrations of the least evolved samples of the Taşkapı-Mecitli granitoid are consistent with those of mafic melts obtained from partial melting of interacting mantle- lower crust with a melting degree of 18%. The age (23 Ma) of the post- or syn-collisional Taşkapı-Mecitli granitoid suggests that the collision between Arabian and Eurasian plates could be before/around ∼23 Ma (Late Oligocene to Early Miocene).

  20. The Early Miocene Climatic Optimum (18-16 Ma): Stable Isotope and Mg/Ca Records from ODP Leg 189 Site 1168.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syed, S.; Pekar, S.

    2008-12-01

    Ice volume estimates for the late early Miocene (~18-16 Ma) were derived from paired oxygen isotope records and Mg/Ca ratios from ODP Site 1168, which is located on the southwest slope of Tasmania. These records indicate the presence of a dynamic ice sheet in Antarctica, with ice-volume estimates up to present day levels occurring with relatively warm bottom water temperatures during isotope events Mi1b (17.9-17.6 Ma) and Mi2 (16.2 Ma). These records also indicate ice-volume decreased significantly during the Early Miocene Climatic Optimum ~17.2 to 16.4 Ma suggesting a near complete collapse of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet, based on an approximately 1‰ decrease in oxygen isotope value of seawater. Bottom water temperatures (BWT) derived from Mg/Ca ratios indicate temperature varied from ~8°C to 3°C, during the early Miocene, with the warmest BWT's occurring during glacial maxima and lowest occurring during glacial minima. Mg/Ca records from other records also indicate ice-volume increases coinciding with deep sea warming. These records suggest Antarctic glaciation may have been influenced by the moisture input by warm saline deep waters (WSDW) originating from the Indian Ocean/Tethys Sea. These WSDW would become entrained and ultimately upwell near Antarctica, resulting in delivering increased moisture/snowfall and therefore increased ice volume on the Antarctic continent. However, an alternative interpretation of the records could be that temperature estimates derived from Mg/Ca ratios may be over estimating the magnitude of temperature changes, thus resulting in an overestimation of ice-volume changes.

  1. Understanding climate's influence on the extinction of Oreopithecus (late Miocene, Tusco-Sardinian paleobioprovince, Italy).

    PubMed

    DeMiguel, Daniel; Rook, Lorenzo

    2018-03-01

    Despite its long history of scientific study, the causes underlying the extinction of the insular hominoid Oreopithecus bambolii are still a matter of ongoing debate. While some authors consider intense tectonism and invading species the cause of its extinction ca. 6.7 Ma, others propose climatic change as the main contributing factor. We rely on long-term patterns of tooth wear and hypsodonty of the Baccinello and Fiume Santo herbivore-faunas to reconstruct changes in habitat prior to, during and after the extinction. While a mosaic of habitats was represented in Baccinello V1 (as shown by a record of browsers, mixed feeders and species engaged in grazing), more closed forests (higher proportion of browsers, shortage of mixed feeders and lack of grazers) characterised Baccinello V2. Finally, there was a partial loss of canopy cover and development of open-patches and low-abrasive grasses in Baccinello V3 (as denoted by new records of taxa involved in grazing)-although still dominated by a forested habitat (since browse was a component in all diets). Our results provide evidence for two perceptible shifts in climate, one between 8.1 and 7.1 Ma and other ca. 6.7 Ma, though this latter was not drastic enough to lead to intensive forest loss, substantially alter the local vegetation or affect Oreopithecus lifestyle-especially if considering the growing evidence of its versatile diet. Although the disappearance of Oreopithecus is complex, our data reject the hypothesis of environmental change as the main factor in the extinction of Oreopithecus and Maremma fauna. When our results are analysed together with other evidence, faunal interaction and predation by invading species from mainland Europe seems to be the most parsimonious explanation for this extinction event. This contrasts with European hominoid extinctions that were associated with major climatic shifts that led to environmental uniformity and restriction of the preferred habitats of Miocene apes. Copyright

  2. Dispersals of Hyoscyameae and Mandragoreae (Solanaceae) from the New World to Eurasia in the early Miocene and their biogeographic diversification within Eurasia.

    PubMed

    Tu, Tieyao; Volis, Sergei; Dillon, Michael O; Sun, Hang; Wen, Jun

    2010-12-01

    The cosmopolitan Solanaceae contains 21 tribes and has the greatest diversity in South America. Hyoscyameae and Mandragoreae are the only tribes of this family distributed exclusively in Eurasia with two centers of diversity: the Mediterranean-Turanian (MT) region and the Tibetan Plateau (TP). In this study, we examined the origins and biogeographical diversifications of the two tribes based on the phylogenetic framework and chronogram inferred from a combined data set of six plastid DNA regions (the atpB gene, the ndhF gene, the rps16-trnK intergenic spacer, the rbcL gene, the trnC-psbM region and the psbA-trnH intergenic spacer) with two fossil calibration points. Our data suggest that Hyoscyameae and Mandragoreae each forms a monophyletic group independently derived from different New World lineages in the early Miocene. Phylogenetic relationships within both tribes are generally well resolved. All genera of Hyoscyameae are found to be monophyletic and they diversified in middle to late Miocene. At nearly the same time, Mandragoreae split into two clades, corresponding to the MT region and the TP region, respectively. Both the phylogenetic relationships and the estimated ages of Hyoscyameae and Mandragoreae support two independent dispersal events of their ancestors from the New World into Eurasia. After their arrivals in Eurasia, the two tribes diversified primarily in the MT region and in the TP region via multiple biogeographic processes including vicariance, dispersal, recolonization or being preserved as relicts, from the mid Miocene to the late Quaternary. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Late Eocene to middle Miocene (33 to 13 million years ago) vegetation and climate development on the North American Atlantic Coastal Plain (IODP Expedition 313, Site M0027)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotthoff, U.; Greenwood, D. R.; McCarthy, F. M. G.; Müller-Navarra, K.; Prader, S.; Hesselbo, S. P.

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the palynology of sediment cores from Site M0027 of IODP (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program) Expedition 313 on the New Jersey shallow shelf to examine vegetation and climate dynamics on the east coast of North America between 33 and 13 million years ago and to assess the impact of over-regional climate events on the region. Palynological results are complemented with pollen-based quantitative climate reconstructions. Our results indicate that the hinterland vegetation of the New Jersey shelf was characterized by oak-hickory forests in the lowlands and conifer-dominated vegetation in the highlands from the early Oligocene to the middle Miocene. The Oligocene witnessed several expansions of conifer forest, probably related to cooling events. The pollen-based climate data imply an increase in annual temperatures from ∼11.5 °C to more than 16 °C during the Oligocene. The Mi-1 cooling event at the onset of the Miocene is reflected by an expansion of conifers and mean annual temperature decrease of ∼4 °C, from ∼16 °C to ∼12 °C around 23 million years before present. Relatively low annual temperatures are also recorded for several samples during an interval around ∼20 million years before present, which may reflect the Mi-1a and the Mi-1aa cooling events. Generally, the Miocene ecosystem and climate conditions were very similar to those of the Oligocene. Miocene grasslands, as known from other areas in the USA during that time period, are not evident for the hinterland of the New Jersey shelf, possibly reflecting moisture from the proto-Gulf Stream. The palaeovegetation data reveal stable conditions during the mid-Miocene climatic optimum at ∼15 million years before present, with only a minor increase in deciduous-evergreen mixed forest taxa and a decrease in swamp forest taxa. Pollen-based annual temperature reconstructions show average annual temperatures of ∼14 °C during the mid-Miocene climatic optimum, ∼2

  4. Soft-sediment deformation structures in the late Miocene Şelmo Formation around Adıyaman area, Southeastern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koç Taşgın, Calibe; Orhan, Hükmü; Türkmen, İbrahim; Aksoy, Ercan

    2011-04-01

    The Şelmo Formation was deposited in the basins associated with the Southeastern Anatolian Thrust Belt and East Anatolian Fault Zone in SE Turkey. These structures developed as a result of compressional stresses created by the movement of the Arabian plate to the north and the Eurasian plate to the west from early Miocene to late Pliocene. The outcrops of the Şelmo Formation in the Adýyaman area (SE Turkey) comprise braided river deposits (lower alluvial unit) at the base, lacustrine and deltaic deposits in the middle (lacustrine unit) and low sinuousity river and alluvial deposits at the top (upper alluvial unit). Soft-sediment deformation structures were developed in sandstone, siltstone and marl of the deltaic and lacustrine unit of the Şelmo Formation. These are slumps, recumbent folds, load casts, ball-and-pillow structures, flame structures, neptunian dykes, chaotically associated structures and synsedimentary faults. The tectonic setting of the basin, the lateral extent of the soft-sediment deformation structures over tens of kilometers, their similarities to deformation structures interpreted as being induced seismically in other regions worldwide or in a laboratory setting, and being confined by undeformed layers suggest that the main trigger system was related to seismic activity in the area.

  5. No deep diving: evidence of predation on epipelagic fish for a stem beaked whale from the Late Miocene of Peru

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Olivier; Collareta, Alberto; Landini, Walter; Post, Klaas; Ramassamy, Benjamin; Di Celma, Claudio; Urbina, Mario; Bianucci, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Although modern beaked whales (Ziphiidae) are known to be highly specialized toothed whales that predominantly feed at great depths upon benthic and benthopelagic prey, only limited palaeontological data document this major ecological shift. We report on a ziphiid–fish assemblage from the Late Miocene of Peru that we interpret as the first direct evidence of a predator–prey relationship between a ziphiid and epipelagic fish. Preserved in a dolomite concretion, a skeleton of the stem ziphiid Messapicetus gregarius was discovered together with numerous skeletons of a clupeiform fish closely related to the epipelagic extant Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax). Based on the position of fish individuals along the head and chest regions of the ziphiid, the lack of digestion marks on fish remains and the homogeneous size of individuals, we propose that this assemblage results from the death of the whale (possibly via toxin poisoning) shortly after the capture of prey from a single school. Together with morphological data and the frequent discovery of fossil crown ziphiids in deep-sea deposits, this exceptional record supports the hypothesis that only more derived ziphiids were regular deep divers and that the extinction of epipelagic forms may coincide with the radiation of true dolphins. PMID:26354940

  6. Seismic features and evolution of a late Miocene submarine channel system in the Yinggehai basin, northwestern South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, H.; Jiang, T.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Submarine channel is one of key conduits for coarse terrigenous clastic sediments to abyssal plain, which provides the possibility for deepwater hydrocarbon exploration. Recently, a new high-quality 3D seismic data is acquired in south Yinggehai basin (YGHB) and the detailed interpretations on those seismic profiles as well as RMS amplitude attributes and variance slices reveal a submarine channel system developed in late Miocene, which could be supplied from Hainan Island via turbidity currents so that it would be filled with sand-rich turbidites as good hydrocarbon reservoir. Based on the integration between regional seismic survey and some boreholes, the investigations on its infilling architectures and depositional processes are carried out. The results show that it composes two converged submarine channels with two channelized submarine fans to their west and the main submarine channel (MSC) is characterized by a downstream increasing width and is infilled by sediments with high amplitude seismic facies, which could be originated from channelized submarine fans. Furthermore, the complicated depositional processes around the confluence region of these two channels are pointed out and the interactions between the submarine channel system and nearby channelized submarine fans are discussed. The detailed illustration on the seismic features and depositional processes of the subsurface submarine system provides us better understanding deepwater sedimentary dynamics and would be more benefit for the hydrocarbon exploration in similar deepwater area around the world.

  7. Amplitude of late Miocene sea-level fluctuations from karst development in reef-slope deposits (SE Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reolid, Jesús; Betzler, Christian; Braga, Juan Carlos

    2016-11-01

    A prograding late Miocene carbonate platform in southern Spain revealing different sea-level pinning points was analysed with the aim to increase the accuracy of reconstruction of past sea-level changes. These pinning points are distinct diagenetic zones (DZ) and the position of reef-framework deposits. DZ1 is defined by the dissolution of bioclastic components and DZ2 by calcitic cement precipitation in dissolution pores. Calcite cements are granular and radiaxial fibrous, and are of meteoric origin as deduced from cathodoluminescence, EDX spectroscopy, as well as from δ13C and δ18O isotope analyses. DZ3 has moldic porosity after aragonitic bioclasts with minor granular calcitic cements. DZ1 and DZ2 indicate karstification and the development of a coastal palaeoaquifer during a sea-level lowstand. DZ3 diagenetic features are related to the final subaerial exposure of the section during the Messinian Salinity Crisis. Facies and diagenetic data reveal a complete cycle of sea-level fall (23 ± 1 m) and rise (31 ± 1 m). A robust age model based on magneto- and cyclostratigraphy for these deposits places this cycle between 5.89 and 5.87 Ma. Therefore, for the first time, this work allows a direct comparison of an outcrop with a pelagic marine proxy record of a specific Neogene sea-level fluctuation.

  8. A late Miocene dust shower from the break-up of an asteroid in the main belt.

    PubMed

    Farley, Kenneth A; Vokrouhlický, David; Bottke, William F; Nesvorný, David

    2006-01-19

    Throughout the history of the Solar System, Earth has been bombarded by interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), which are asteroid and comet fragments of diameter approximately 1-1,000 microm. The IDP flux is believed to be in quasi-steady state: particles created by episodic main belt collisions or cometary fragmentation replace those removed by comminution, dynamical ejection, and planetary or solar impact. Because IDPs are rich in 3He, seafloor sediment 3He concentrations provide a unique means of probing the major events that have affected the IDP flux and its source bodies over geological timescales. Here we report that collisional disruption of the >150-km-diameter asteroid that created the Veritas family 8.3 +/- 0.5 Myr ago also produced a transient increase in the flux of interplanetary dust-derived 3He. The increase began at 8.2 +/- 0.1 Myr ago, reached a maximum of approximately 4 times pre-event levels, and dissipated over approximately 1.5 Myr. The terrestrial IDP accretion rate was overwhelmingly dominated by Veritas family fragments during the late Miocene. No other event of this magnitude over the past approximately 10(8) yr has been deduced from main belt asteroid orbits. One remarkably similar event is present in the 3He record 35 Myr ago, but its origin by comet shower or asteroid collision remains uncertain.

  9. Biochemical Characteristics of Organic Matter in a Guano Concretion of Late Miocene or Pliocene Age from Manchester Parish in Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    Spence, Adrian; Hanson, Richard E.; Johnson, Toni; Robinson, Claion; Annells, Richard N.

    2013-01-01

    The biogeochemical fate of organic matter (OM) entering soils is an important issue that must be examined to better understand its roles in nitrogen cycling and as a natural modulator of soil-atmospheric carbon fluxes. Despite these critical roles, there are uncertainties in estimating the contribution of this feedback mechanism due in part to a lack of molecular-level information regarding the origin and labile and refractory inventories of OM in soils. In this study, we used a multi-analytical approach to determine molecular-level information for the occurrence and stabilization of OM in a bird guano concretion of the Late Miocene or Pliocene age in Jamaica. We determined the specific organic structures persisting in the concretion and the possible contribution of fossil organic matter to the OM pool in modern environments. Our results indicate that aliphatic species, presumably of a highly polymethylenic nature [(CH2)n], may significantly contribute to the stable soil-C pool. Although not as significant, proteins and carbohydrates were also enriched in the sample, further suggesting that fossil organic matter may contribute to carbon and nitrogen pools in present day soil organic matter. PMID:23843688

  10. Biochemical characteristics of organic matter in a guano concretion of late miocene or pliocene age from manchester parish in Jamaica.

    PubMed

    Spence, Adrian; Hanson, Richard E; Johnson, Toni; Robinson, Claion; Annells, Richard N

    2013-01-01

    The biogeochemical fate of organic matter (OM) entering soils is an important issue that must be examined to better understand its roles in nitrogen cycling and as a natural modulator of soil-atmospheric carbon fluxes. Despite these critical roles, there are uncertainties in estimating the contribution of this feedback mechanism due in part to a lack of molecular-level information regarding the origin and labile and refractory inventories of OM in soils. In this study, we used a multi-analytical approach to determine molecular-level information for the occurrence and stabilization of OM in a bird guano concretion of the Late Miocene or Pliocene age in Jamaica. We determined the specific organic structures persisting in the concretion and the possible contribution of fossil organic matter to the OM pool in modern environments. Our results indicate that aliphatic species, presumably of a highly polymethylenic nature [(CH2)n], may significantly contribute to the stable soil-C pool. Although not as significant, proteins and carbohydrates were also enriched in the sample, further suggesting that fossil organic matter may contribute to carbon and nitrogen pools in present day soil organic matter.

  11. Early and late arrhythmogenic effects of doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Kilickap, Saadettin; Barista, Ibrahim; Akgul, Ebru; Aytemir, Kudret; Aksoy, Sercan; Tekuzman, Gulten

    2007-03-01

    To determine the incidence of early and late arrhythmogenic effects of doxorubicin-containing chemotherapy regimens. A prospective study including 29 patients who were treated with doxorubicin-containing regimens. Cardiac evaluation was based on 24-hour electrocardiographic monitorization (Holter), which was performed during the first cycle of doxorubicin-containing regimens, as well as after the last cycle of chemotherapy. The mean age of the patients was 45.8 +/- 15.1 (range 18-69). Holter records obtained during the first cycle of treatment revealed varying arrhythmias in 19 patients (65.5%) and in 18 (62.1%) patients after completion of therapy. One patient presented with syncope and both Mobitz Type 2 atrioventricular block and complete atrioventricular block were demonstrated. The patient subsequently underwent permanent pacemaker implantation. Doxorubicin may result in arrhythmias both in early and late periods of treatment. These arrhythmias are rarely life threatening.

  12. High-resolution seismic sequence stratigraphy and history of relative sea level changes since the Late Miocene, northern continental margin, South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, G.; Wang, L.

    2013-12-01

    The northern South China Sea (SCS) margin is suggested as one of the ideal sites for documenting the late Cenozoic sea level changes for its characteristics of rapid sedimentation and relatively stable structural subsidence since the Late Miocene. In this study, high-resolution seismic profiles acquired by the Guangzhou Marine Geological Survey, calibrated by well control from the ODP sites 1146 and 1148, were utilized to construct a time-significant sequence stratigraphic framework, from which the history of relative sea level changes since the Late Miocene on the northern SCS margin was derived. Our study area is situated in the middle segment of the margin, between the Hainan Island to the west and the Dongsha Islands to the east. This region is to a certain degree far away from the active structural zones and is suggested as the most stable region in the margin. Totally 4000 km seismic profiles were used, which controls an area of about 6×104 km2. The seismic data have a vertical resolution of 5 to 15 m for the Upper Miocene to Quaternary interval. Three regional seismic sequence boundaries were identified. They subdivide the Late Miocene to Quaternary into three mega-sequences, which correspond to the Quaternary, Pliocene and Late Miocene, respectively by tying to well control. The Late Miocene mega-sequence, including 13 component sequences, is characterized with a basal incised canyon-developed interval overlain by three sets of progradational sequences formed in deep-water slope environments. The Pliocene mega-sequence consists of four sets of progradational sequences. Each sequence set contains one to three component sequences. At least 7 component sequences can be identified. The Quaternary mega-sequence consists of five sets of progradational sequences, in which the lower two constitute a retrogressive sequence set and the upper three a progradational sequence set. At least 9 component sequences can be recognized. Most of the component sequences within

  13. Early- versus Late-Onset Systemic Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Alba, Marco A.; Velasco, César; Simeón, Carmen Pilar; Fonollosa, Vicent; Trapiella, Luis; Egurbide, María Victoria; Sáez, Luis; Castillo, María Jesús; Callejas, José Luis; Camps, María Teresa; Tolosa, Carles; Ríos, Juan José; Freire, Mayka; Vargas, José Antonio; Espinosa, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Peak age at onset of systemic sclerosis (SSc) is between 20 and 50 years, although SSc is also described in both young and elderly patients. We conducted the present study to determine if age at disease onset modulates the clinical characteristics and outcome of SSc patients. The Spanish Scleroderma Study Group recruited 1037 patients with a mean follow-up of 5.2 ± 6.8 years. Based on the mean ± 1 standard deviation (SD) of age at disease onset (45 ± 15 yr) of the whole series, patients were classified into 3 groups: age ≤30 years (early onset), age between 31 and 59 years (standard onset), and age ≥60 years (late onset). We compared initial and cumulative manifestations, immunologic features, and death rates. The early-onset group included 195 patients; standard-onset group, 651; and late-onset, 191 patients. The early-onset group had a higher prevalence of esophageal involvement (72% in early-onset compared with 67% in standard-onset and 56% in late-onset; p = 0.004), and myositis (11%, 7.2%, and 2.9%, respectively; p = 0.009), but a lower prevalence of centromere antibodies (33%, 46%, and 47%, respectively; p = 0.007). In contrast, late-onset SSc was characterized by a lower prevalence of digital ulcers (54%, 41%, and 34%, respectively; p < 0.001) but higher rates of heart conduction system abnormalities (9%, 13%, and 21%, respectively; p = 0.004). Pulmonary hypertension was found in 25% of elderly patients and in 12% of the youngest patients (p = 0.010). After correction for the population effects of age and sex, standardized mortality ratio was shown to be higher in younger patients. The results of the present study confirm that age at disease onset is associated with differences in clinical presentation and outcome in SSc patients. PMID:24646463

  14. Palaeoenvironments during a terminal Oligocene or early Miocene transgression in a fluvial system at the southwestern tip of Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, D. L.; Neumann, F. H.; Cawthra, H. C.; Carr, A. S.; Scott, L.; Durugbo, E. U.; Humphries, M. S.; Cowling, R. M.; Bamford, M. K.; Musekiwa, C.; MacHutchon, M.

    2017-03-01

    A multi-proxy study of an offshore core in Saldanha Bay (South Africa) provides new insights into fluvial deposition, ecosystems, phytogeography and sea-level history during the late Paleogene-early Neogene. Offshore seismic data reveal bedrock topography, and provide evidence of relative sea levels as low as - 100 m during the Oligocene. 3D landscape reconstruction reveals hills, plains and an anastomosing river system. A Chattian or early Miocene age for the sediments is inferred from dinoflagellate taxa Distatodinium craterum, Chiropteridium lobospinosum, Homotryblium plectilum and Impagidinium paradoxum. The subtropical forest revealed by palynology includes lianas and vines, evergreen trees, palms and ferns, implying higher water availability than today, probably reduced seasonal drought and stronger summer rainfall. From topography, sedimentology and palynology we reconstruct Podocarpaceae-dominated forests, Proto-Fynbos, and swamp/riparian forests with palms and other angiosperms. Rhizophoraceae present the first South African evidence of Palaeogene/Neogene mangroves. Subtropical woodland-thicket with Combretaceae and Brachystegia (Peregrinipollis nigericus) probably developed on coastal plains. Some of the last remaining Gondwana elements on the sub-continent, e.g., Araucariaceae, are recorded. Charred particles signal fires prior to the onset of summer dry climate at the Cape. Marine and terrestrial palynomorphs, together with organic and inorganic geochemical proxy data, suggest a gradual glacio-eustatic transgression. The data shed light on Southern Hemisphere biogeography and regional climatic conditions at the Palaeogene-Neogene transition. The proliferation of the vegetation is partly ascribed to changes in South Atlantic oceanographic circulation, linked to the closure of the Central American Seaway and the onset of the Benguela Current 14 Ma.

  15. Late Paleogene-early Neogene dinoflagellate cyst biostratigraphy of the eastern Equatorial Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Walaa K.; Oboh-Ikuenobe, Francisca E.

    2018-04-01

    Six dinoflagellate cyst biozones (zone 1-zone 5, subzones 1a and 1b) are recognized in the late Paleogene-early Neogene interval of the Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 959 (Hole 959 A), Côte d'Ivoire-Ghana Transform Margin in the eastern Equatorial Atlantic. The biozones are based on palynological analysis of 30 samples covering a 273.2-m interval with generally fair preservation and good to poor recovery. We propose a new age of Late Eocene (Priabonian) for subunit IIB as opposed to the previously published mid-Early Oligocene age (middle Rupelian). This age assignment is mainly based on the presence of Late Eocene marker taxa, such as Hemiplacophora semilunifera and Schematophora speciosa in the lower part of the studied interval. We also document for the first time a hiatus event within dinoflagellate cyst zone 3, based on the last occurrences of several taxa. This interval is assigned to an Early Miocene age and is barren of other microfossils. Furthermore, we propose new last occurrences for two species. The last occurrence of Cerebrocysta bartonensis is observed in the late Aquitanian-early Burdigalian in this study vs. Priabonian-early Rupelian in mid and high latitude regions. Also, the last occurrence of Chiropteridium galea extends to the latest Early Miocene (Burdigalian) in ODP Hole 959 A; this event was previously identified in other studies as Chattian in equatorial regions, and Aquitanian in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes. We suspect that these differences are due to physical (offshore vs. nearshore) and latitudinal locations of the areas studied.

  16. Antarctic glacio-eustatic contributions to late Miocene Mediterranean desiccation and reflooding

    PubMed Central

    Ohneiser, Christian; Florindo, Fabio; Stocchi, Paolo; Roberts, Andrew P.; DeConto, Robert M.; Pollard, David

    2015-01-01

    The Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC) was a marked late Neogene oceanographic event during which the Mediterranean Sea evaporated. Its causes remain unresolved, with tectonic restrictions to the Atlantic Ocean or glacio-eustatic restriction of flow during sea-level lowstands, or a mixture of the two mechanisms, being proposed. Here we present the first direct geological evidence of Antarctic ice-sheet (AIS) expansion at the MSC onset and use a δ18O record to model relative sea-level changes. Antarctic sedimentary successions indicate AIS expansion at 6 Ma coincident with major MSC desiccation; relative sea-level modelling indicates a prolonged ∼50 m lowstand at the Strait of Gibraltar, which resulted from AIS expansion and local evaporation of sea water in concert with evaporite precipitation that caused lithospheric deformation. Our results reconcile MSC events and demonstrate that desiccation and refilling were timed by the interplay between glacio-eustatic sea-level variations, glacial isostatic adjustment and mantle deformation in response to changing water and evaporite loads. PMID:26556503

  17. Sedimentology and paleoenvironments of a new fossiliferous late Miocene-Pliocene sedimentary succession in the Rukwa Rift Basin, Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mtelela, Cassy; Roberts, Eric M.; Hilbert-Wolf, Hannah L.; Downie, Robert; Hendrix, Marc S.; O'Connor, Patrick M.; Stevens, Nancy J.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a detailed sedimentologic investigation of a newly identified, fossiliferous Late Neogene sedimentary succession in the Rukwa Rift Basin, southwestern Tanzania. This synrift deposit is a rare and significant new example of a fossiliferous succession of this age in the Western Branch of East Africa Rift System. The unit, informally termed the lower Lake Beds succession, is late Miocene to Pliocene in age based on cross-cutting relationships, preliminary biostratigraphy, and U-Pb geochronology. An angular unconformity separates the lower Lake Beds from underlying Cretaceous and Oligocene strata. Deposition was controlled by rapid generation of accommodation space and increased sediment supply associated with late Cenozoic tectonic reactivation of the Rukwa Rift and synchronous initiation of the Rungwe Volcanic Centre. The lower Lake Beds, which have thus far only been identified in three localities throughout the Rukwa Rift Basin, are characterized by two discrete lithologic members (herein A and B). The lower Member A is a volcanic-rich succession composed mostly of devitrified volcanic tuffs, and volcaniclastic mudstones and sandstones with minor conglomerates. The upper Member B is a siliciclastic-dominated succession of conglomerates, sandstones, mudstones and minor volcanic tuffs. Detailed facies analysis of the lower Lake Beds reveals various distinctive depositional environments that can be grouped into three categories: 1) alluvial fan; 2) fluvial channel; and 3) flood basin environments, characterized by volcanoclastic-filled lakes and ponds, abandoned channel-fills and pedogenically modified floodplains. Member A represents a shallow lacustrine setting filled by tuffaceous sediments, which grade up into a system of alluvial fans and high-energy, proximal gravel-bed braided rivers. An unconformity marks the contact between the two members. Member B shows an upward transition from a high-energy, gravel-bed braided river system to a sandy

  18. Modeling the Climatic Effect of Convergent Tectonics During the Middle to Late Miocene: Effective Closure of the Indonesian Seaway, Himalayan Uplift and the East Asian Monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeConto, R. M.; MacConnell, A.; Leckie, R.

    2001-05-01

    During the middle to late Miocene, the northward drift of Australia and New Guinea progressively restricted Indonesian throughflow (ITF). Today, ITF plays an important role in modulating inter-basin fresh water flux, heat transport, and the volume of the Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP). Today's WPWP is a center for deep convection that contributes considerable diabatic heating to the tropical atmosphere, affecting both the Walker and Hadley circulation. The WPWP fuels the East Asian Monsoon with moisture and latent heat and is an important component of ENSO. As the Indonesian Seaway became restricted, India was impinging on Asia. Asian continentality was increased and Himalayan/Tibetan uplift begun affecting zonal atmospheric flow and land-surface albedo. In order to better understand the climate system's response to changing Miocene paleogeography (horizontal and vertical tectonics), we have begun a series of climate model experiments using atmosphere, ocean, and coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (GCMs). The GCM experiments are designed to isolate the possible response to effective Indonesian gateway closure within the framework of evolving Miocene Paleogeography between 11 and 7 Ma. In the first phase of our modeling study, an AGCM was used to test the sensitivity of tropical Indo-Pacific and Asian climate (including monsoonal intensity) to the presence of a WPWP in a pre and post Himalayan/Tibetan Plateau world. The results of the GCM simulations will be discussed in the context of the hypotheses that 1) a proto-WPWP became established as the Indonesian Seaway became increasingly restricted during the late middle to late Miocene; and 2) the growth of the WPWP had a first order affect on tropical Pacific climate and the East Asian monsoon.

  19. Potential hominin affinities of Graecopithecus from the Late Miocene of Europe

    PubMed Central

    Fuss, Jochen; Spassov, Nikolai; Begun, David R.

    2017-01-01

    The split of our own clade from the Panini is undocumented in the fossil record. To fill this gap we investigated the dentognathic morphology of Graecopithecus freybergi from Pyrgos Vassilissis (Greece) and cf. Graecopithecus sp. from Azmaka (Bulgaria), using new μCT and 3D reconstructions of the two known specimens. Pyrgos Vassilissis and Azmaka are currently dated to the early Messinian at 7.175 Ma and 7.24 Ma. Mainly based on its external preservation and the previously vague dating, Graecopithecus is often referred to as nomen dubium. The examination of its previously unknown dental root and pulp canal morphology confirms the taxonomic distinction from the significantly older northern Greek hominine Ouranopithecus. Furthermore, it shows features that point to a possible phylogenetic affinity with hominins. G. freybergi uniquely shares p4 partial root fusion and a possible canine root reduction with this tribe and therefore, provides intriguing evidence of what could be the oldest known hominin. PMID:28531170

  20. Does Late Miocene Exhumation Along the Western Slope of the Colorado Rockies Reflect Differential Rock Uplift?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, R. H.; Kirby, E.; Aslan, A.; Karlstrom, K. E.; Heizler, M. T.; Kelley, S. A.; Piotraschke, R. E.; Furlong, K. P.

    2011-12-01

    It is increasingly recognized that dynamic effects associated with changes in mantle flow and buoyancy can influence the evolution of surface topography. In the Rocky Mountain province of the western United States, recent seismic deployments reveal intriguing correlations between anomalies in the velocity structure of the upper mantle and regions of high topography. Here, we investigate whether regional correlations between upper-mantle structure and topography are associated with the history of Late Cenozoic fluvial incision and exhumation. Major tributaries of the upper Colorado River, including the Gunnison and Dolores Rivers, which drain high topography in central and western Colorado overlie upper mantle with slow seismic wave velocities; these drainages exhibit relatively steep longitudinal profiles (normalized for differences in drainage area and discharge) and are associated with ~1000-1500 m of incision over the past 10 Ma. In contrast, tributaries of the Green River that drain the western slope in northern Colorado (White, Yampa, and Little Snake Rivers) overlie mantle of progressively higher seismic wave velocities. River profiles in northern Colorado are two to three times less steep along reaches with comparable bedrock lithologies. New Ar39/Ar40 ages on ~11 Ma basalt flows capping the Tertiary Brown's Park Formation in northern Colorado indicate that the magnitude of exhumation along these profiles ranges from ~400 - 600 m over this time interval. The correspondence of steep river profiles in regions of greater incision implies that the fluvial systems are dynamically adjusting to an external forcing. New constraints on the exhumation history of the upper Colorado River from apatite fission track ages in boreholes near Rifle, Colorado are best explained by an onset of exhumation at ca. 8-10 Ma. Thus, relative base level fall associated with development of Grand Canyon (ca. 6-5 Ma) does not explain the regional onset of incision along the western slope

  1. Early Miocene amber inclusions from Mexico reveal antiquity of mangrove-associated copepods

    PubMed Central

    Huys, Rony; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Serrano-Sánchez, María de Lourdes; Centeno-García, Elena; Vega, Francisco J.

    2016-01-01

    Copepods are aquatic microcrustaceans and represent the most abundant metazoans on Earth, outnumbering insects and nematode worms. Their position of numerical world predominance can be attributed to three principal radiation events, i.e. their major habitat shift into the marine plankton, the colonization of freshwater and semiterrestrial environments, and the evolution of parasitism. Their variety of life strategies has generated an incredible morphological plasticity and disparity in body form and shape that are arguably unrivalled among the Crustacea. Although their chitinous exoskeleton is largely resistant to chemical degradation copepods are exceedingly scarce in the geological record with limited body fossil evidence being available for only three of the eight currently recognized orders. The preservation of aquatic arthropods in amber is unusual but offers a unique insight into ancient subtropical and tropical ecosystems. Here we report the first discovery of amber-preserved harpacticoid copepods, represented by ten putative species belonging to five families, based on Early Miocene (22.8 million years ago) samples from Chiapas, southeast Mexico. Their close resemblance to Recent mangrove-associated copepods highlights the antiquity of the specialized harpacticoid fauna living in this habitat. With the taxa reported herein, the Mexican amber holds the greatest diversity of fossil copepods worldwide. PMID:27731321

  2. Early Miocene amber inclusions from Mexico reveal antiquity of mangrove-associated copepods.

    PubMed

    Huys, Rony; Suárez-Morales, Eduardo; Serrano-Sánchez, María de Lourdes; Centeno-García, Elena; Vega, Francisco J

    2016-10-12

    Copepods are aquatic microcrustaceans and represent the most abundant metazoans on Earth, outnumbering insects and nematode worms. Their position of numerical world predominance can be attributed to three principal radiation events, i.e. their major habitat shift into the marine plankton, the colonization of freshwater and semiterrestrial environments, and the evolution of parasitism. Their variety of life strategies has generated an incredible morphological plasticity and disparity in body form and shape that are arguably unrivalled among the Crustacea. Although their chitinous exoskeleton is largely resistant to chemical degradation copepods are exceedingly scarce in the geological record with limited body fossil evidence being available for only three of the eight currently recognized orders. The preservation of aquatic arthropods in amber is unusual but offers a unique insight into ancient subtropical and tropical ecosystems. Here we report the first discovery of amber-preserved harpacticoid copepods, represented by ten putative species belonging to five families, based on Early Miocene (22.8 million years ago) samples from Chiapas, southeast Mexico. Their close resemblance to Recent mangrove-associated copepods highlights the antiquity of the specialized harpacticoid fauna living in this habitat. With the taxa reported herein, the Mexican amber holds the greatest diversity of fossil copepods worldwide.

  3. Subcellular preservation in giant ostracod sperm from an early Miocene cave deposit in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Matzke-Karasz, Renate; Neil, John V.; Smith, Robin J.; Symonová, Radka; Mořkovský, Libor; Archer, Michael; Hand, Suzanne J.; Cloetens, Peter; Tafforeau, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Cypridoidean ostracods are one of a number of animal taxa that reproduce with giant sperm, up to 10 000 µm in length, but they are the only group to have aflagellate, filamentous giant sperm. The evolution and function of this highly unusual feature of reproduction with giant sperm are currently unknown. The hypothesis of long-term evolutionary persistence of this kind of reproduction has never been tested. We here report giant sperm discovered by propagation phase contrast X-ray synchrotron micro- and nanotomography, preserved in five Miocene ostracod specimens from Queensland, Australia. The specimens belong to the species Heterocypris collaris Matzke-Karasz et al. 2013 (one male and three females) and Newnhamia mckenziana Matzke-Karasz et al. 2013 (one female). The sperm are not only the oldest petrified gametes on record, but include three-dimensional subcellular preservation. We provide direct evidence that giant sperm have been a feature of this taxon for at least 16 Myr and provide an additional criterion (i.e. longevity) to test hypotheses relating to origin and function of giant sperm in the animal kingdom. We further argue that the highly resistant, most probably chitinous coats of giant ostracod sperm may play a role in delaying decay processes, favouring early mineralization of soft tissue. PMID:24827442

  4. Early miocene bimodal volcanism, Northern Wilson Creek Range, Lincoln County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Willis, J.B.; Willis, G.C.

    1996-01-01

    Early Miocene volcanism in the northern Wilson Creek Range, Lincoln County, Nevada, produced an interfingered sequence of high-silica rhyolite (greater than 74% SiO2) ash-flow tuffs, lava flows and dikes, and mafic lava flows. Three new potassium-argon ages range from 23.9 ?? 1.0 Ma to 22.6 ?? 1.2 Ma. The rocks are similar in composition, stratigraphic character, and age to the Blawn Formation, which is found in ranges to the east and southeast in Utah, and, therefore, are herein established as a western extension of the Blawn Formation. Miocene volcanism in the northern Wilson Creek Range began with the eruption of two geochemically similar, weakly evolved ash-flow tuff cooling units. The lower unit consists of crystal-poor, loosely welded, lapilli ash-flow tuffs, herein called the tuff member of Atlanta Summit. The upper unit consists of homogeneous, crystal-rich, moderately to densely welded ash-flow tuffs, herein called the tuff member of Rosencrans Peak. This unit is as much as 300 m thick and has a minimum eruptive volume of 6.5 km3, which is unusually voluminous for tuffs in the Blawn Formation. Thick, conspicuously flow-layered rhyolite lava flows were erupted penecontemporaneously with the tuffs. The rhyolite lava flows have a range of incompatible trace element concentrations, and some of them show an unusual mixing of aphyric and porphyritic magma. Small volumes of alkaline, vesicular, mafic flows containing 50 weight percent SiO2 and 2.3 weight percent K2O were extruded near the end of the rhyolite volcanic activity. The Blawn Formation records a shift in eruptive style and magmatic composition in the northern Wilson Creek Range. The Blawn was preceded by voluminous Oligocene eruptions of dominantly calc-alkaline orogenic magmas. The Blawn and younger volcanic rocks in the area are low-volume, bimodal suites of high-silica rhyolite tuffs and lava flows and mafic lava flows.

  5. Exploring late Miocene climate stability: constraining background variability using high-resolution benthic δ18O and δ13C records from Site U1338

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drury, A.; John, C. M.; Lee, G.; Shevenell, A.

    2012-12-01

    The late Miocene (11.61 - 5.33 Ma) was one of the more stable climatic periods of the Cenozoic. Superimposed on this stable background climate, a number of threshold events occurred, including the late Miocene Carbon Isotope Shift (CIS, 7.6-6.6 Ma) and the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC, 5.96-5.33 Ma). The goal of our study is to constrain the background climate cyclicity during the late Miocene. A better knowledge of the background cyclicity in the Earth's climate system is required to advance understanding of, and to successfully model, climate variability. Improving understanding of how changes in background climate variability affect important parameters and fluxes, such as ice volume and the carbon pump, is crucial for explaining the occurrence of threshold events such as the CIS and MSC during an otherwise climatically stable period. The study site is located in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific (IODP Site U1338, Expedition 321). U1338 was chosen, as the equatorial Pacific is an important component of the global climate system, representing half of the total tropical ocean and a quarter of the global ocean. We present δ18O and δ13C records from 3.5 to 8.5 Ma using the benthic foraminiferal species Cibicidoides mundulus, with a resolution of 3-4 kyr, which resolves all Milankovitch scale cycles. We present a revised shipboard age model, generated from new biostratigraphic age constraints based on planktic foraminiferal datums. Benthic δ18O records at IODP Site U1338 reflect the stable nature of the late Miocene climate accurately, with long-term trends showing low-amplitude (0.2‰) variations. Superimposed on this are higher-amplitude short-term fluctuations (0.3-0.4‰). Deep-sea benthic foraminferal δ18O records both temperature and the δ18O composition of global deep seawater (δ18Odsw). δ18Odsw largely reflects glacio-eustatic change. Our benthic δ18O implies that long-term trends in ice volume were minimal during the late Miocene. However, the short

  6. Early to middle Miocene climate evolution: benthic oxygen and carbon isotope records from Walvis Ridge Site 1264.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lourens, L. J.; Beddow, H.; Liebrand, D.; Schrader, C.; Hilgen, F. J.

    2016-12-01

    Across the early to middle Miocene, high-resolution records from the Pacific Ocean indicate a dynamic climate system, encompassing a 2 Myr global warming event from 17 Ma to 14.7 Ma, followed by a major Cenozoic cooling step at 14.2 Ma -13.8 Ma. Currently, no high-resolution benthic record from the Atlantic Ocean exists covering both events, limiting global coverage of this intriguing period in Cenozoic climate evolution. Here, we present the first early to middle Miocene high-resolution from the Atlantic basin. These records, from Site 1264 on the Walvis Ridge, span a 5.5 Myr long interval (13.24-18.90 ma) in high temporal resolution ( 4 kyr) and are tuned to eccentricity. The d18O record shows a sudden (high-latitude) warming/deglaciation on Antarctica at 17.1 Ma, a rapid cooling/glaciation of Antarctica at 13.8 Ma, and high-amplitude ( 1‰) variability on astronomical time-scales throughout this interval. Together with other records from this time interval located in the Pacific, which show similar features, the data strongly suggests a highly dynamic global climate system. We find cooling steps in d18O at 14.7, 14.2 and 13.8 Ma, suggesting concurrent cooling in the Pacific and Atlantic deep waters during the MMCT. The benthic foraminiferal stable isotope records reveal that the dominant astronomical frequencies present at ODP Site 1264 during the early to middle Miocene interval are the 405 kyr and 110 kyr eccentricity periodicities. This is a contrast to other early to middle Miocene records from drill-sites in the Pacific and South China Sea, which show a strong expression of obliquity in particular between 14.2 and 14.7 Ma.

  7. The Early Miocene Critical Zone at Karungu, Western Kenya: An Equatorial, Open Habitat with Few Primate Remains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukens, William E.; Lehmann, Thomas; Peppe, Daniel J.; Fox, David L.; Driese, Steven G.; McNulty, Kieran P.

    2017-10-01

    Early Miocene outcrops near Karungu, Western Kenya, preserve a range of fluvio-lacustrine, lowland landscapes that contain abundant fossils of terrestrial and aquatic vertebrates. Primates are notably rare among these remains, although nearby early Miocene strata on Rusinga Island contain a rich assemblage of fossilized catarrhines and strepsirrhines. To explore possible environmental controls on the occurrence of early Miocene primates, we performed a deep-time Critical Zone (DTCZ) reconstruction focused on floodplain paleosols at the Ngira locality in Karungu. We specifically focused on a single stratigraphic unit (NG15), which preserves moderately developed paleosols that contain a microvertebrate fossil assemblage. Although similarities between deposits at Karungu and Rusinga Island are commonly assumed, physical sedimentary processes, vegetative cover, soil hydrology, and some aspects of climate state are notably different between the two areas. Estimates of paleoclimate parameters using paleosol B horizon elemental chemistry and morphologic properties are consistent with seasonal, dry subhumid conditions, occasional waterlogging, and herbaceous vegetation. The reconstructed small mammal community indicates periodic waterlogging and open-canopy conditions. Based on the presence of herbaceous root traces, abundant microcharcoal, and pedogenic carbonates with high stable carbon isotope ratios, we interpret NG15 to have formed under a warm, seasonally dry, open riparian woodland to wooded grassland, in which at least a subset of the vegetation was likely C4 biomass. Our results, coupled with previous paleoenvironmental interpretations for deposits on Rusinga Island, demonstrate that there was considerable environmental heterogeneity ranging from open to closed habitats in the early Miocene. We hypothesize that the relative paucity of primates at Karungu was driven by their environmental preference for locally abundant closed canopy vegetation, which was likely

  8. A new genus and species of tettigarctid cicada from the early Miocene of New Zealand: Paratettigarctazealandica (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Tettigarctidae).

    PubMed

    Kaulfuss, Uwe; Moulds, Max

    2015-01-01

    A new genus and species of primitive cicada (Hemiptera: Tettigarctidae) is described from the early Miocene of southern New Zealand. Paratettigarctazealandica gen. et sp. n. is the first cicada (Cicadoidea) fossil from New Zealand and exhibits wing venation patterns typical for the subfamily Tettigarctinae. It differs from other fossil taxa and the extant genus Tettigarcta in the early divergence of CuA2 from the nodal line in the forewing, its parallel-sided subcostal cell, the early bifurcation of vein M and long apical cells of the hindwing, and in wing pigmentation patterns.

  9. A new genus and species of tettigarctid cicada from the early Miocene of New Zealand: Paratettigarcta zealandica (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Tettigarctidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kaulfuss, Uwe; Moulds, Max

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new genus and species of primitive cicada (Hemiptera: Tettigarctidae) is described from the early Miocene of southern New Zealand. Paratettigarcta zealandica gen. et sp. n. is the first cicada (Cicadoidea) fossil from New Zealand and exhibits wing venation patterns typical for the subfamily Tettigarctinae. It differs from other fossil taxa and the extant genus Tettigarcta in the early divergence of CuA2 from the nodal line in the forewing, its parallel-sided subcostal cell, the early bifurcation of vein M and long apical cells of the hindwing, and in wing pigmentation patterns. PMID:25829843

  10. Antarctic Miocene Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashworth, A. C.; Lewis, A. R.

    2013-12-01

    Fossils from Antarctic Miocene terrestrial deposits, coupled with stratigraphic, geochemical and paleontological data from marine boreholes, provide new insights into the climatic history of the continent. During the Miocene, ice caps coalesced to form ice sheets and vegetated surfaces gave way to barren expanses. The cryospheric changes especially have global climatic implications. The fossil data consists of diatoms, pollen and spores, and macroscopic remains of plants, ostracods, insects, molluscs and a fish. Plant fossils include wood and leaves of Nothofagus (southern beech), seeds of several vascular plants, including Ranunculus (buttercup), Hippuris (mare's-tail) and Myriophyllum (watermilfoil), megaspores of Isoetes (quillwort), and moss species. The insect chitin consists of larval head capsules of Chironomidae (midges) and exoskeletal parts of Coleoptera (beetles). The molluscs include freshwater gastropods and bivalves. The majority of these taxa are likely descendants of taxa that had survived on the continent from the Paleogene or earlier. Even though early Miocene glaciations may have been large, the climate was never cold enough to cause the extinction of the biota, which probably survived in coastal refugia. Early Miocene (c. 20 Ma) macrofossils from the McMurdo Dry Valleys (77°S) support palynological interpretations from the Cape Roberts and ANDRILL marine records that the upland vegetation was a shrub tundra. Mean summer temperature (MST) in the uplands was c. 6°C and possibly higher at the coast. The climate was wet, supporting mires and lakes. By the mid-Miocene, even though the climate continued to be wet. MST was c. 4°C which was too cold to support Nothofagus and most vascular plant species. Stratigraphic evidence indicates that the time between the Early and Mid-Miocene was a time of repeated ice advances and retreats of small glaciers originating from ice caps. At c. 14 Ma there appears to have been a modal shift in climate to

  11. Study of fossil wood from the Middle-Late Miocene sediments of Dhemaji and Lakhimpur districts of Assam, India and its palaeoecological and palaeophytogeographical implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrotra, R. C.; Bera, S. K.; Basumatary, S. K.; Srivastava, G.

    2011-08-01

    In order to reconstruct the palaeoclimate, a number of fossil wood pieces were collected and investigated from two new fossil localities situated in the Dhemaji and Lakhimpur districts of Assam. They belong to the Tipam Group considered to be of Middle-Late Miocene in age and show affinities with Gluta (Anacardiaceae), Bischofia (Euphorbiaceae), Bauhinia, Cynometra, Copaifera-Detarium-Sindora, Millettia-Pongamia, and Afzelia-Intsia (Fabaceae). The flora also records a new species of Bauhinia named Bauhinia miocenica sp. nov. The assemblage indicates a warm and humid climate in the region during the deposition of the sediments. The occurrence of some southeast Asian elements in the fossil flora indicates that an exchange of floral elements took place between India and southeast Asia during the Miocene.

  12. Miocene biochronology and paleoceanography of the North Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keller, G.

    1981-01-01

    Biostratigraphic correlation based on microfossil datum levels, directly or indirectly tied to the paleomagnetic time scale, provides a high resolution time control for the Miocene in the equatorial and middle latitude North Pacific. Faunal changes and abundance fluctuations of planktic foraminiferal species combined with the oxygen Pacific. Faunal changes and abundance fluctuations of planktic foraminiferal species combined with the oxygen isotope record of foraminifers, reveal the paleoclimatic and paleoceanographic history. The planktic foraminiferal assemblage change in the early Miocene, extinction of Oligocene fauna and rise of a highly diverse Neogene fauna, appears to be related to increased water mass stratification in the world oceans presumably resulting from the establishment of circum-Antarctic circulation. An increase in the siliceous productivity in the eastern equatorial Pacific region between 20 and 18 Ma suggests that the vertical and horizontal circulation was intensified at that time. Climates cooled rapidly during the middle Miocene between 14 and 13 Ma suggesting the growth of a major east Antarctic ice sheet. Paleoclimatic conditions remained generally cool, although oscillating, during the late Miocene. In the late early to middle Miocene faunal provincialism developed between low and middle latitudes, and by late Miocene time a distinct provincialism similar to the present was established. ?? 1981.

  13. Sea-level and climate forcing of the Sr isotope composition of marginal basins in the late Miocene Mediterranean Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schildgen, T. F.; Cosentino, D.; Frijia, G.; Castorina, F.; Dudas, F. O.; Iadanza, A.; Cipollari, P.; Caruso, A.; Bowring, S. A.; Strecker, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    Sr isotope records from marginal marine basins track the mixing between sea water and local continental runoff. Because changes in sea level determine the amount of mixing between global marine and continental water, and climate affects the amount of continental runoff, both sea-level and climate changes can potentially be recorded in marine fossil Sr isotope composition. Our 128 new 87Sr/86Sr analyses on 73 oyster, foraminifera, and coral samples from eight late Miocene stratigraphic sections in southern Turkey, Crete, and Sicily show that 87Sr/86Sr in Mediterranean marginal basins started to depart from global ocean values several million years before the Messinian Salinity Crisis (MSC), with sub-basin 87Sr/86Sr commonly dropping 0.000100 below contemporaneous global ocean values. The marked departure coincided with tectonic uplift and basin shallowing along the margins of the Mediterranean Basin. In contrast, centrally-located basins within the Mediterranean (e.g., Cyprus, Sicily, Crete) only record departures during the MSC. Besides this general trend, our 57 new 87Sr/86Sr analyses from the astronomically tuned Lower Evaporite unit deposited during the MSC in the central Apennines (Italy) allow us to explore in detail the effect of sea-level and humidity changes on 87Sr/86Sr . Most of the variation in 87Sr/86Sr that we observe can be explained by changes in eustatic sea level, with greatest departures from global ocean values (with differences up to 0.000150) occurring during sea-level lowstands, which were characterized by relatively arid conditions in the Mediterranean. However, in a few cases, the greatest 87Sr/86Sr departures (up to 0.000300) occur during sea-level highstands, which are marked by more humid conditions. Because the correlations between peaks in Sr departures and highstands (humid conditions) occur only after episodes of prolonged aridity, variations of residence time of continental water (particularly groundwater) could have affected its Sr

  14. Stable Carbon Isotope Enrichment Before Late Miocene and Its Iimplication for Landscape Change in the Amazon Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. I.; Kim, D.; Hyeong, K.; Chan Min, Y.

    2016-12-01

    The appearance and development of C4 plants in the Late Miocene is well-established by various lines of evidence including stable carbon isotope data, yet the stable carbon isotope change before the global vegetation change has not been reported. Prior to the C4 plant expansion, the ecosystem may have been composed of C3 plants. Here we present the content and stable carbon isotope record of black carbon (BC) in a 470-cm-long piston core retrieved from the northeastern equatorial Pacific. Although suitable age dating method is lacking for the studied core, correlation of clay mineral composition, BC content, and stable carbon isotope data with a nearby well-studied core (Kim et al., submitted) at the same latitude suggests that the studied core contains sediment older than 15 Ma (330 cm in depth) and possibly back to 25 Ma, much prior to the major diversification of C4 plants. The older sediment was derived from Southern Hemisphere. The δ13C value of BC in the oldest sediment shows a relatively high value ( -22.7 ‰ on average), similar to that of C4 expansion event, and then decreases with time till reaching normal δ13C value of C3-dominated environment (-25.3 ‰ on average) around 13 Ma. This relatively high δ13C value reflects the presence of specific ecosystem, likely Pebas wetland that dominated western Amazonia before 17 Ma, and decreasing δ13C value suggests subsequent gradual development of closed-forest ecosystem. The BC content shows an abrupt increase around 400 cm, suggesting a significant aridity event in South America. Uplift of the North Andean region at 23 Ma seems to be the likely cause of such aridity event. From these observations, we argue that by comparing with the well-studied core data environmental record provided by BC data can be used for approximate age dating of deep-sea core sediment lacking appropriate dating tools, and that carbon isotope data before C4 development event may also provide information about specific regional

  15. Mid-Late Miocene deformation of the northern Kuqa fold-and-thrust belt (southern Chinese Tian Shan): An apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Jian; Tian, Yuntao; Qiu, Nansheng

    2017-01-01

    The Kuqa fold-and-thrust belt developed in response to Cenozoic southward shortening between the Chinese Tian Shan and the Tarim Basin. This study aims to constrain the timing of the Late Cenozoic deformation by determining the onset time of enhanced rock cooling using apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He thermochronometry. Eight sedimentary samples were collected from Triassic to Cretaceous strata exposed along a 17 km N-S transect, cross-cutting the northern Kuqa fold-and-thrust belt. Single-grain AHe ages from these samples mostly cluster around 8-16 Ma and are younger than their depositional ages. Older AHe ages show a positive relationship with [eU], a proxy for radiation damage. Modelling of the observed age-eU relationships suggest a phase of enhanced cooling and erosion initiated at Mid-Late Miocene time (10-20 Ma) in the northern Kuqa fold-and-thrust belt. This result is consistent with a coeval abrupt increase of sedimentation rate in the foreland Kuqa depression, south of the study area, indicating a Mid-Late Miocene phase of shortening in the northern Kuqa fold-and-thrust belt.

  16. Postprandial dysmetabolism: Too early or too late?

    PubMed

    Pappas, Christos; Kandaraki, Eleni A; Tsirona, Sofia; Kountouras, Dimitrios; Kassi, Georgia; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2016-07-01

    Postprandial dysmetabolism is a postprandial state characterized by abnormal metabolism of glucose and lipids and, more specifically, of elevated levels of glucose and triglyceride (TG) containing lipoproteins. Since there is evidence that postprandial dysmetabolism is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, due to macro- and microvascular complications, as well as with conditions such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), it is recommended that clinicians be alert for early detection and management of this condition. Management consists of a holistic approach including dietary modification, exercise and use of hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic medication aiming to decrease the postprandial values of circulating glucose and triglycerides. This review aims to explain glucose and lipid homeostasis and the impact of postprandial dysmetabolism on the cardiovascular system as well as to offer suggestions with regard to the therapeutic approach for this entity. However, more trials are required to prevent or reverse early and not too late the actual tissue damage due to postprandial dysmetabolism.

  17. Can Pallars i Llobateres: A new hominoid-bearing locality from the late Miocene of the Vallès-Penedès Basin (NE Iberian Peninsula).

    PubMed

    Alba, David M; Casanovas-Vilar, Isaac; Furió, Marc; García-Paredes, Israel; Angelone, Chiara; Jovells-Vaqué, Sílvia; Luján, Àngel H; Almécija, Sergio; Moyà-Solà, Salvador

    2018-05-18

    In the Iberian Peninsula, Miocene apes (Hominoidea) are generally rare and mostly restricted to the Vallès-Penedès Basin. Here we report a new hominoid maxillary fragment with M 2 from this basin. It was surface-collected in March 2017 from the site of Can Pallars i Llobateres (CPL, Sant Quirze del Vallès), where fossil apes had not been previously recorded. The locality of provenance (CPL-M), which has delivered no further fossil remains, is located very close (ca. 50 m) to previously known CPL outcrops, and not very far (ca. 500 m in NW direction) from the classical hominoid-bearing locality of Can Poncic 1. Here we describe the new fossil and, based on the size and proportions of the M 2 , justify its taxonomic attribution to Hispanopithecus cf. laietanus, a species previously recorded from several Vallesian sites of the Vallès-Penedès Basin. Based on the associated mammalian fauna from CPL, we also provide a biochronological dating and a paleoenvironmental reconstruction for the site. The associated fauna enables an unambiguous correlation to the Cricetulodon hartenbergeri - Progonomys hispanicus interval local subzone, with an estimated age of 9.98-9.73 Ma (late Vallesian, MN10). Therefore, CPL-M is roughly coeval with the Hispanopithecus laietanus-bearing localities of Can Llobateres 1 and Can Feu 1, and minimally older than those of La Tarumba 1 and Can Llobateres 2. In contrast, CPL-M is younger than the early Vallesian (MN9) localities of Can Poncic 1 (the type locality of Hispanopithecus crusafonti) as well as Polinyà 2 (Gabarró) and Estació Depuradora d'Aigües Residuals-Riu Ripoll 13, where Hispanopithecus sp. is recorded. The associated fauna from CPL indicates a densely forested and humid paleoenvironment with nearby freshwater. This supports the view that Hispanopithecus might have been restricted to dense wetland forests soon before its extinction during the late Vallesian, due to progressive climatic deterioration. Coupled with the

  18. Discovery of Miocene adakitic dacite from the Eastern Pontides Belt (NE Turkey) and a revised geodynamic model for the late Cenozoic evolution of the Eastern Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyuboglu, Yener; Santosh, M.; Yi, Keewook; Bektaş, Osman; Kwon, Sanghoon

    2012-08-01

    The Cenozoic magmatic record within the ca. 500 km long eastern Pontides orogen, located within the Alpine metallogenic belt, is critical to evaluate the tectonic history and geodynamic evolution of the eastern Mediterranean region. In this paper we report for the first time late Miocene adakitic rocks from the southeastern part of the eastern Pontides belt and present results from geochemical and Sr-Nd isotopic studies as well as zircon U-Pb geochronology. The Tavdagi dacite that we investigate in this study is exposed as round or ellipsoidal shaped bodies, sills, and dikes in the southeastern part of the belt. Zircons in the dacite show euhedral crystal morphology with oscillatory zoning and high Th/U values (up to 1.69) typical of magmatic origin. Zircon LA-ICPMS analysis yielded a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 7.86 ± 0.15 Ma. SHRIMP analyses of zircons with typical magmatic zoning from another sample yielded a weighted mean 206Pb/238U age of 8.79 ± 0.19 Ma. Both ages are identical and constrain the timing of dacitic magmatism as late Miocene. The Miocene Tavdagi dacite shows adakitic affinity with high SiO2 (68.95-71.41 wt.%), Al2O3 (14.88-16.02 wt.%), Na2O (3.27-4.12 wt.%), Sr (331.4-462.1 ppm), Sr/Y (85-103.7), LaN/YbN (34.3-50.9) and low Y (3.2-5 ppm) values. Their initial 143Nd/144Nd (0.512723-0.512736) and 87Sr/86Sr (0.70484-0.70494) ratios are, respectively, lower and higher than those of normal oceanic crust. The geological, geochemical and isotopic data suggest that the adakitic magmatism was generated by partial melting of the mafic lower crust in the southeastern part of the eastern Pontide belt during the late Miocene. Based on the results presented in this study and a synthesis of the geological and tectonic information on the region, we propose that the entire northern edge of the eastern Pontides-Lesser Caucasus-Elbruz magmatic arc was an active continental margin during the Cenozoic. We identify a migration of the Cenozoic magmatism towards

  19. Early Miocene rapid exhumation in southern Tibet: Insights from P-T-t-D-magmatism path of Yardoi dome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jia-Min; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Rubatto, Daniela; Liu, Kai; Zhang, Jin-Jiang; Liu, Xiao-Chi

    2018-04-01

    Reconstructing the evolution of Gneiss domes within orogenic belts poses challenges because domes can form in a variety of geodynamic settings and by multiple doming mechanisms. For the North Himalayan gneiss domes (NHGD), it is debated whether they formed during shortening, extension or collapse of the plateau, and what is the spatial and temporal relationship of magmatism, metamorphism and deformation. This study investigates the Yardoi dome in southern Tibet using field mapping, petrography, phase equilibria modelling and new monazite ages. The resulting P-T-time-deformation-magmatism path for the first time reveals the spatial and temporal relationship of metamorphism, deformation and magmatism in the Yardoi dome: a) the dome mantle recorded prograde loading to kyanite-grade Barrovian metamorphic conditions of 650 ± 30 °C and 9 ± 1 kbar (M2) in the Early Miocene (18-17 Ma); b) the main top-to-the-north deformation fabric (D2) formed syn- to post-peak-metamorphism; c) the emplacement of leucorgranites related to doming is syn-metamorphism at 19-17 Ma. The link between the detachment shear zone in the Yardoi dome and the South Tibetan detachment system (STDS) is confirmed. By comparing with orogen-scale tectonic processes in the Himalaya, we suggest that north-south extension in a convergent geodynamic setting during Early Miocene accounts for formation of the Yardoi dome. In a wider tectonic context, the Early Miocene rapid exhumation of deep crustal rocks was contemporaneous with the rapid uplift of southern Tibet and the Himalayan orogen.

  20. Oldest known cranium of a juvenile New World monkey (Early Miocene, Patagonia, Argentina): implications for the taxonomy and the molar eruption pattern of early platyrrhines.

    PubMed

    Perry, Jonathan M G; Kay, Richard F; Vizcaíno, Sergio F; Bargo, M Susana

    2014-09-01

    A juvenile cranium of Homunculus patagonicus Ameghino, 1891a from the late Early Miocene of Santa Cruz Province (Argentina) provides the first evidence of developing cranial anatomy for any fossil platyrrhine. The specimen preserves the rostral part of the cranium with deciduous and permanent alveoli and teeth. The dental eruption sequence in the new specimen and a reassessment of eruption patterns in living and fossil platyrrhines suggest that the ancestral platyrrhine pattern of tooth replacement was for the permanent incisors to erupt before M(1), not an accelerated molar eruption (before the incisors) as recently proposed. Two genera and species of Santacrucian monkeys are now generally recognized: H. patagonicus Ameghino, 1891a and Killikaike blakei Tejedor et al., 2006. Taxonomic allocation of Santacrucian monkeys to these species encounters two obstacles: 1) the (now lost) holotype and a recently proposed neotype of H. patagonicus are mandibles from different localities and different geologic members of the Santa Cruz Formation, separated by approximately 0.7 million years, whereas the holotype of K. blakei is a rostral part of a cranium without a mandible; 2) no Santacrucian monkey with associated cranium and mandible has ever been found. Bearing in mind these uncertainties, our examination of the new specimen as well as other cranial specimens of Santacrucian monkeys establishes the overall dental and cranial similarity between the holotype of Killikaike blakei, adult cranial material previously referred to H. patagonicus, and the new juvenile specimen. This leads us to conclude that Killikaike blakei is a junior subjective synonym of H. patagonicus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A long-living species of the hydrophiloid beetles: Helophorus sibiricus from the early Miocene deposits of Kartashevo (Siberia, Russia)

    PubMed Central

    Fikáček, Martin; Prokin, Alexander; Angus, Robert B.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The recent hydrophiloid species Helophorus (Gephelophorus) sibiricus (Motschulsky, 1860) is recorded from the early Miocene deposits of Kartashevo assigned to the Ombinsk Formation. A detailed comparison with recent specimens allowed a confident identification of the fossil specimen, which is therefore the oldest record of a recent species for the Hydrophiloidea. The paleodistribution as well as recent distribution of the species is summarized, and the relevance of the fossil is discussed. In addition, the complex geological settings of the Kartashevo area are briefly summarized. PMID:22259280

  2. Elevation-induced climate change as a dominant factor causing the late Miocene C(4) plant expansion in the Himalayan foreland.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haibin; Guo, Zhengtang; Guiot, Joël; Hatté, Christine; Peng, Changhui; Yu, Yanyan; Ge, Junyi; Li, Qin; Sun, Aizhi; Zhao, Deai

    2014-05-01

    During the late Miocene, a dramatic global expansion of C4 plant distribution occurred with broad spatial and temporal variations. Although the event is well documented, whether subsequent expansions were caused by a decreased atmospheric CO2 concentration or climate change is a contentious issue. In this study, we used an improved inverse vegetation modeling approach that accounts for the physiological responses of C3 and C4 plants to quantitatively reconstruct the paleoclimate in the Siwalik of Nepal based on pollen and carbon isotope data. We also studied the sensitivity of the C3 and C4 plants to changes in the climate and the atmospheric CO2 concentration. We suggest that the expansion of the C4 plant distribution during the late Miocene may have been primarily triggered by regional aridification and temperature increases. The expansion was unlikely caused by reduced CO2 levels alone. Our findings suggest that this abrupt ecological shift mainly resulted from climate changes related to the decreased elevation of the Himalayan foreland. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The antiquity of riverine adaptations in Iniidae (Cetacea, Odontoceti) documented by a humerus from the late Miocene of the Ituzaingó Formation, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gutstein, Carolina Simon; Cozzuol, Mario Alberto; Pyenson, Nicholas D

    2014-06-01

    "River dolphins" are a paraphyletic group of toothed whales (Odontoceti) that represent independent secondary invasions of freshwater habitats. Different "river dolphin" lineages display suites of convergent morphological specializations that commonly reflect adaptations to riverine and freshwater environments, such as longirostry, reduced orbits, and wide, paddle-like flippers. One lineage, the Iniidae, is presently endemic to South America, and includes several extinct Neogene taxa along with their sole extant genus, Inia (the Amazon River dolphin). We report here a humerus recovered from the late Miocene deposits of the Ituzaingó Formation in the Paraná Basin of Argentina. The specimen exhibits diagnostic features of the family Iniidae, including a scapular-sternal joint of the humerus, which is a unique anatomical connection among mammals. This joint permits enhanced parasagittal adduction of the flipper as a control surface, relative to other odontocetes, providing Inia with a high degree of maneuverability in its structurally complex and heterogenous riverine habitat. This unique anatomical connection, here documented from the late Miocene (∼9 million years-6.5 million years old), not only provides the oldest diagnostic record for Iniidae, but it also indicates a similar habitat use for this lineage, a finding coincident with the current paleoenvironmental interpretation for the Ituzaingó Formation. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Life in the fluvial hinterland of the late Sarmatian Sea (middle Miocene): a rare terrestrial fossil site in the Styrian Basin (Austria)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doubrawa, Monika; Gross, Martin; Harzhauser, Mathias

    2018-02-01

    This paper describes the section and fossil content of a former gravel pit in the Eastern Styrian Basin (SE Austria), which exposes sediments of a fluvial system, ranging from within channel to overbank environments. A predominately terrestrial gastropod fauna of 15 species so far, was recovered from a palaeosol formed in a moist and vegetated, floodplain or abandoned channel. Up-section, a shallow freshwater pond/lake developed within the floodplain, settled by fishes, molluscs and ostracods. By integrating regional geological and biostratigraphical data derived from the terrestrial gastropod fauna as well as from the other recovered biota, these strata are of late middle Miocene (late Sarmatian s.str.) age. Hence, this fossil site provides a rare insight into the terrestrial habitats in the hinterland of the Sarmatian Sea and their biota, which are otherwise barely known in Central Europe.

  5. Large volume submarine ignimbrites in the Shikoku Basin: An example for explosive volcanism in the Western Pacific during the Late Miocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutterolf, Steffen; Schindlbeck, Julie C.; Scudder, Rachel P.; Murray, Richard W.; Pickering, Kevin T.; Freundt, Armin; Labanieh, Shasa; Heydolph, Ken; Saito, Sanny; Naruse, Hajime; Underwood, Michael B.; Wu, Huaichun

    2014-05-01

    IODP Expedition 322, an interval of Late Miocene (7.6 to ˜9.1 Ma) tuffaceous and volcaniclastic sandstones was discovered in the Shikoku Basin (Site C0011B), Nankai region. This interval consists of bioturbated silty claystone including four 1-7 m thick interbeds of tuffaceous sandstones (TST) containing 57-82% (by volume) pyroclasts. We use major and trace element glass compositions, as well as radiogenic isotope compositions, to show that the tuffaceous sandstones beds derived from single eruptive events, and that the majority (TST 1, 2, 3a) came from different eruptions from a similar source region, which we have identified to be the Japanese mainland, 350 km away. In particular, diagnostic trace element ratios (e.g., Th/La, Sm/La, Rb/Hf, Th/Nb, and U/Th) and isotopic data indicate a marked contribution from a mantle source beneath continental crust, which is most consistent with a Japanese mainland source and likely excludes the Izu-Bonin island arc and back arc as a source region for the younger TST beds. Nevertheless, some of the chemical data measured on the oldest sandstone bed (TST 3b, Unit IIb) show affinity to or can clearly be attributed to an Izu-Bonin composition. While we cannot completely exclude the possibility that all TST beds derived from unknown and exotic Izu-Bonin source(s), the collected lines of evidence are most consistent with an origin from the paleo-Honshu arc for TST 1 through 3a. We therefore suggest the former collision zone between the Izu-Bonin arc and Honshu paleo-arc as the most likely region where the eruptive products entered the ocean, also concurrent with nearby (˜200 km) possible Miocene source areas for the tuffaceous sandstones at the paleo-NE-Honshu arc. Estimating the distribution area of the tuffaceous sandstones in the Miocene between this source region and the ˜350 km distant Expedition 322, using bathymetric constraints, we calculate that the sandstone beds represent minimum erupted magma volumes between ˜1 and

  6. Facies associations, depositional environments and stratigraphic framework of the Early Miocene-Pleistocene successions of the Mukah-Balingian Area, Sarawak, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murtaza, Muhammad; Rahman, Abdul Hadi Abdul; Sum, Chow Weng; Konjing, Zainey

    2018-02-01

    Thirty-five stratigraphic section exposed along the Mukah-Selangau road in the Mukah-Balingian area have been studied. Sedimentological and palynological data have been integrated to gain a better insight into the depositional architecture of the area. Broadly, the Mukah-Balingian area is dominated by fluvial, floodplain and estuarine related coal-bearing deposits. The Balingian, Begrih and Liang formations have been described and interpreted in terms of seven facies association. These are: FA1 - Fluvial-dominated channel facies association; FA2 - Tide-influenced channel facies association; FA3 - Tide-dominated channel facies association; FA4 - Floodplain facies association; FA5 - Estuarine central basin-mud flats facies association; FA6 - Tidal flat facies association and FA7 - Coastal swamps and marshes facies association. The Balingian Formation is characterised by the transgressive phase in the base, followed by a regressive phase in the upper part. On the basis of the occurrence of Florscheutzia trilobata with Florscheutzia levipoli, the Early to Middle Miocene age has been assigned to the Balingian Formation. The distinct facies pattern and foraminifera species found from the samples taken from the Begrih outcrop imply deposition in the intertidal flats having pronounced fluvio-tidal interactions along the paleo-margin. Foraminiferal data combined with the pronounced occurrence of Stenochlaena laurifolia suggest at least the Late Miocene age for the Begrih Formation. The internal stratigraphic architecture of the Liang Formation is a function of a combination of sea level, stable tectonic and autogenic control. Based on stratigraphic position, the Middle Pliocene to Pleistocene age for the Liang Formation is probable. The Balingian, Begrih and Liang formations display deposits of multiple regressive-transgressive cycles while the sediments were derived from the uplifted Penian high and Rajang group.

  7. Paleogeographic implications of Late Miocene lacustrine and nonmarine evaporite deposits in the Lake Mead region: Immediate precursors to the Colorado River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Faulds, James E.; Schreiber, Charlotte; Langenheim, Victoria; Hinz, Nicholas H.; Shaw, Tom; Heizler, Matthew T.; Perkins, Michael E; El Tabakh, Mohammed; Kunk, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Thick late Miocene nonmarine evaporite (mainly halite and gypsum) and related lacustrine limestone deposits compose the upper basin fill in half grabens within the Lake Mead region of the Basin and Range Province directly west of the Colorado Plateau in southern Nevada and northwestern Arizona. Regional relations and geochronologic data indicate that these deposits are late synextensional to postextensional (ca. 12–5 Ma), with major extension bracketed between ca. 16 and 9 Ma and the abrupt western margin of the Colorado Plateau established by ca. 9 Ma. Significant accommodation space in the half grabens allowed for deposition of late Miocene lacustrine and evaporite sediments. Concurrently, waning extension promoted integration of initially isolated basins, progressive enlargement of drainage nets, and development of broad, low gradient plains and shallow water bodies with extensive clastic, carbonate, and/or evaporite sedimentation. The continued subsidence of basins under restricted conditions also allowed for the preservation of particularly thick, localized evaporite sequences prior to development of the through-going Colorado River.The spatial and temporal patterns of deposition indicate increasing amounts of freshwater input during the late Miocene (ca. 12–6 Ma) immediately preceding arrival of the Colorado River between ca. 5.6 and 4.9 Ma. In axial basins along and proximal to the present course of the Colorado River, evaporite deposition (mainly gypsum) transitioned to lacustrine limestone progressively from east to west, beginning ca. 12–11 Ma in the Grand Wash Trough in the east and shortly after ca. 5.6 Ma in the western Lake Mead region. In several satellite basins to both the north and south of the axial basins, evaporite deposition was more extensive, with thick halite (>200 m to 2.5 km thick) accumulating in the Hualapai, Overton Arm, and northern Detrital basins. Gravity and magnetic lows suggest that thick halite may also lie within the

  8. Paleontology, paleoclimatology and paleoecology of the late middle miocene Musselshell Creek flora, Clearwater County Idaho. A preliminary study of a new fossil flora

    SciTech Connect

    Baghai, N.L.; Jorstad, R.B.

    The Musselshell Creek flora (12.0-10.5 Ma) of northern Idaho is used to reconstruct paleoclimatic and paleoecologic parameters of the Pacific Northwest during the late Middle Miocene. Other megafossil and microfossil floral records spanning 12.0-6.4 Ma are unknown from this region. The Musselshell Creek fossil flora, previously undescribed, is preserved in lacustrine clays and sediments that accumulated in a narrow valley surrounded by rugged terrain. Dominant taxa include dicotyledons and conifers. Most of the leaves are preserved as impressions or compressions. Some fossil leaves retained their original pigmentation, cellular anatomy, and organic constituents. Other fossils include excellent remains of pollen andmore » spores, dispersed leaf cuticle, pyritized wood, and disarticulated fish bones. A destructive statistical analysis of one block of sediment, approximately 30 cm x 45 cm (1.5 sq. ft) recovered 14 orders, 23 families, and 34 genera of spermatophyte plant fossils. These floral elements are compared with two other earlier Miocene floras which were similarly sampled. Common megafossil genera include Quercus, Zizy-phoides, Taxodium, Alnus, Castanea, Magnolia, Acer, Ex-bucklandia, Sequoia, Populus, and Betula. The rare occurrence of Ginkgo leaves is a first record of this taxon in the Idaho Miocene. Additional plant taxa, are represented by palynomorphs. Common pollen taxa are Pinus, Abies, Carya, Quercus, and Tilia. Most of the megafossil and microfossil flora assemblage is characteristic of a streambank to floodplain environment that existed in a warm to cool temperate climate similar to the modern Mid-Atlantic coast of the United States. 47 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.« less

  9. The vertebral remains of the late Miocene great ape Hispanopithecus laietanus from Can Llobateres 2 (Vallès-Penedès Basin, NE Iberian Peninsula).

    PubMed

    Susanna, Ivette; Alba, David M; Almécija, Sergio; Moyà-Solà, Salvador

    2014-08-01

    Here we describe the vertebral fragments from the partial skeleton IPS18800 of the fossil great ape Hispanopithecus laietanus (Hominidae: Dryopithecinae) from the late Miocene (9.6 Ma) of Can Llobateres 2 (Vallès-Penedès Basin, Catalonia, Spain). The eight specimens (IPS18800.5-IPS18800.12) include a fragment of thoracic vertebral body, three partial bodies and four neural arch fragments of lumbar vertebrae. Despite the retention of primitive features (moderately long lumbar vertebral bodies with slightly concave ventrolateral sides), these specimens display a suite of derived, modern hominoid-like features: thoracic vertebrae with dorsally-situated costal foveae; lumbar vertebrae with non-ventrally-oriented transverse processes originating from a robust pedicle, caudally-long laminae with caudally-oriented spinous process, elliptical end-plates, and moderately stout bodies reduced in length and with no ventral keel. These features, functionally related to orthograde behaviors, are indicative of a broad and shallow thorax with a moderately short and stiff lumbar region in Hispanopithecus. Despite its large body mass (ca. 39-40 kg), its vertebral morphology is more comparable to that of hylobatids and Ateles than to extant great apes. This is confirmed by our morphometric analyses, also indicating that Hispanopithecus most closely resembles Pierolapithecus and Morotopithecus among Miocene apes, whereas Proconsul and Nacholapithecus resemble pronograde monkeys. Only in a few features (craniocaudally short and transversely wide pedicles, transverse processes situated on the pedicle, and slight ventral wedging), Hispanopithecus is more derived towards the extant great ape condition than other Miocene apes. Overall, the vertebral morphology of Hispanopithecus supports previous inferences of an orthograde body plan with suspensory and climbing adaptations. However, given similarities with Ateles and the retention of a longer and more flexible spine than in extant

  10. Paleoclimatic and paleoecological reconstruction of early Miocene terrestrial equatorial deposits, Rusinga and Mfangano Islands, Lake Victoria, Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, L. A.; Peppe, D. J.; McNulty, K. P.; Driese, S. G.; Lutz, J.; Nightingale, S.; Maxbauer, D. P.; Horner, W. H.; DiPietro, L. M.; Lehmann, T.; Dunsworth, H. M.; Harcourt-Smith, W. E.; Ogondo, J.

    2012-12-01

    Biological responses to climatic shifts are often studied to inform us on future anthropogenic-driven climate change. However, few of these climatic shifts occur over time scales appropriate to modern change and few occur with biota similar to modern. The Miocene Climatic Optimum is an ideal interval to study because of its rapid duration and because it occurred during the rise and proliferation of apes. The sediments on Rusinga and Mfangano Islands, Lake Victoria, Kenya were deposited between 18 and 20 Ma and record a changing equatorial climate just prior to the Miocene Climate Optimum. This location also offers an opportunity to use multiple proxies to constrain climate and landscape, including paleosol geochemistry, paleobotany and paleontology. Additionally, due to the rich fossil preservation on the islands, climatic shifts are framed within the context of early caterrhine evolution. Here, we report a climate shift recorded through three time slices spanning two formations over ~2 myr. The oldest unit, the Wayando Formation, records an arid, probably open ecosystem with pedogenic calcite rhizoliths, a high groundwater table, poorly-formed paleosols and permineralized sedges. The middle time slice, the Grit Member-Fossil Bed Member contact of the Hiwegi Formation, shows evidence of a local saline lake, with desiccation features, satin-spar after gypsum deposits and salt hoppers. Paleobotanical and sedimentological data from roughly contemporaneous strata indicate a warm, highly seasonal environment that supported a mixture of woodland and forested elements across the landscape. The youngest unit, which is within the Kibanga Member of the Hiwegi Formation, displays demonstrable evidence for a closed-canopy multistoried forest with the presence of tree-stump casts and permineralized root systems within a red-brown paleosol. Within the same paleosol horizon, the dental remains of the catarrhines Proconsul and Dendropithecus have been discovered in situ. This

  11. A major Early Miocene thermal pulse due to subduction segmentation and rollback in the western Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spakman, W.; Van Hinsbergen, D. J.; Vissers, R.

    2012-12-01

    Geological studies have shown that Eo-Oligocene subduction related high-pressure, low-temperature metasediments and peridotites of the Alboran region (Spain, Morocco) and the Kabylides (Algeria) experienced a major Early Miocene (~21 Ma) thermal pulse requiring asthenospheric temperatures at ~60 km depth. Despite earlier propositions, the cause of this thermal pulse is still controversial while also the paleogeographic origin of the Alboran and Kabylides units is debated. Here, we relate the thermal pulse to segmentation of the West Alpine-Tethyan slab under the SE Iberian margin (Baleares-Sardinia). We restore the Alboran rocks farther east than previously assumed, to close to the Balearic Islands, adjacent to Sardinia. We identify three major lithosphere faults, the NW-SE trending North Balearic Transform Zone (NBTZ) and the ~W-E trending Emile Baudot and North African transforms that accommodated the Miocene subduction evolution of slab segmentation, rollback, and migration of Alboran and Kabylides rocks to their current positions. The heat pulse occurred S-SE of the Baleares where slab segmentation along the NBTZ triggered radially outgrowing S-SW rollback opening a slab window that facilitated local ascent of asthenosphere below the rapidly extending Alboran-Kabylides accretionary prism. Subsequent slab rollback carried the Kabylides and Alboran domains to their present positions. Our new reconstruction is in line with tomographically imaged mantle structure and focuses attention on the crucial role of evolving subduction segmentation driving HT-metamorphism and subsequent extension, fragmentation, and dispersion of geological terrains.

  12. The significance of marine microfossils for paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the Solimões Formation (Miocene), western Amazonia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linhares, Ana Paula; Gaia, Valber do Carmo de Souza; Ramos, Maria Inês Feijó

    2017-11-01

    Micropalaeontological studies of borehole cores 1AS-7D-AM and 1AS-8-AM, from Atalaia do Norte, Amazonas state, Brazil, support previous evidence for Miocene marine ingressions in Western Amazonia. Three marine incursion events are recorded: the first in the Early/early Middle Miocene (in both cores), the second in the late Middle/early Late Miocene (1AS-8-AM), and the third in the Late Miocene (1AS-7D-AM). The first event is characterized by exclusively mangrove taxa, and the last two present a mixture of marine, fresh, and brackish water taxa. However, at the end of the third event an increase of fluvial influence is demonstrated by the predominance of freshwater taxa. These marine incursions reached the study area through narrow and geographically limited connections, controlled by the tectonic setting, at a time between the Early/early Middle Miocene and late Middle/Late Miocene. Thereafter, fluvial conditions were reestablished before Pliocene times.

  13. "How Early Is Early?" or "How Late Is Late?": Thinking through Some Issues in Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mercieca, Daniela; Mercieca, Duncan P.

    2014-01-01

    Early intervention comes in-between the lives of children, families and teachers. This article uses part of a report written by an educational psychologist about a little girl to question the nature of intervention through Rancière's writings. As children and parents are seen as put into the position of inadequacy, they require such…

  14. Lineage-Specific Responses of Tooth Shape in Murine Rodents (Murinae, Rodentia) to Late Miocene Dietary Change in the Siwaliks of Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Yuri; Jacobs, Louis L.; Flynn, Lawrence J.

    2013-01-01

    Past ecological responses of mammals to climate change are recognized in the fossil record by adaptive significance of morphological variations. To understand the role of dietary behavior on functional adaptations of dental morphology in rodent evolution, we examine evolutionary change of tooth shape in late Miocene Siwalik murine rodents, which experienced a dietary shift toward C4 diets during late Miocene ecological change indicated by carbon isotopic evidence. Geometric morphometric analysis in the outline of upper first molars captures dichotomous lineages of Siwalik murines, in agreement with phylogenetic hypotheses of previous studies (two distinct clades: the Karnimata and Progonomys clades), and indicates lineage-specific functional responses to mechanical properties of their diets. Tooth shapes of the two clades are similar at their sympatric origin but deviate from each other with decreasing overlap through time. Shape change in the Karnimata clade is associated with greater efficiency of propalinal chewing for tough diets than in the Progonomys clade. Larger body mass in Karnimata may be related to exploitation of lower-quality food items, such as grasses, than in smaller-bodied Progonomys. The functional and ecophysiological aspects of Karnimata exploiting C4 grasses are concordant with their isotopic dietary preference relative to Progonomys. Lineage-specific selection was differentially greater in Karnimata, and a faster rate of shape change toward derived Karnimata facilitated inclusion of C4 grasses in the diet. Sympatric speciation in these clades is most plausibly explained by interspecific competition on resource utilization between the two, based on comparisons of our results with the carbon isotope data. Interspecific competition with Karnimata may have suppressed morphological innovation of the Progonomys clade. Pairwise analyses of morphological and carbon isotope data can uncover ecological causes of sympatric speciation and define

  15. Lineage-specific responses of tooth shape in murine rodents (murinae, rodentia) to late Miocene dietary change in the Siwaliks of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yuri; Jacobs, Louis L; Flynn, Lawrence J

    2013-01-01

    Past ecological responses of mammals to climate change are recognized in the fossil record by adaptive significance of morphological variations. To understand the role of dietary behavior on functional adaptations of dental morphology in rodent evolution, we examine evolutionary change of tooth shape in late Miocene Siwalik murine rodents, which experienced a dietary shift toward C4 diets during late Miocene ecological change indicated by carbon isotopic evidence. Geometric morphometric analysis in the outline of upper first molars captures dichotomous lineages of Siwalik murines, in agreement with phylogenetic hypotheses of previous studies (two distinct clades: the Karnimata and Progonomys clades), and indicates lineage-specific functional responses to mechanical properties of their diets. Tooth shapes of the two clades are similar at their sympatric origin but deviate from each other with decreasing overlap through time. Shape change in the Karnimata clade is associated with greater efficiency of propalinal chewing for tough diets than in the Progonomys clade. Larger body mass in Karnimata may be related to exploitation of lower-quality food items, such as grasses, than in smaller-bodied Progonomys. The functional and ecophysiological aspects of Karnimata exploiting C4 grasses are concordant with their isotopic dietary preference relative to Progonomys. Lineage-specific selection was differentially greater in Karnimata, and a faster rate of shape change toward derived Karnimata facilitated inclusion of C4 grasses in the diet. Sympatric speciation in these clades is most plausibly explained by interspecific competition on resource utilization between the two, based on comparisons of our results with the carbon isotope data. Interspecific competition with Karnimata may have suppressed morphological innovation of the Progonomys clade. Pairwise analyses of morphological and carbon isotope data can uncover ecological causes of sympatric speciation and define

  16. The Oligo-/Miocene Qom Formation (Iran): evidence for an early Burdigalian restriction of the Tethyan Seaway and closure of its Iranian gateways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuter, M.; Piller, W. E.; Harzhauser, M.; Mandic, O.; Berning, B.; Rögl, F.; Kroh, A.; Aubry, M.-P.; Wielandt-Schuster, U.; Hamedani, A.

    2009-04-01

    In the central Iranian Esfahan-Sirjan and Qom basins sedimentation of the Oligo-/Miocene Qom Formation took place on extensive mixed carbonate-siliciclastic ramps. During this time, both basins were positioned at the Eurasian margin of the Tethyan Seaway, which connected the western and eastern regions of the Tethys Ocean at least until the late Burdigalian. During the so-called Terminal Tethyan Event the Tethyan Seaway was then closed due to the collision of the African/Arabian and Iranian/Eurasian plates. Facies analysis of the sedimentary record of both basins indicates paleoenvironments ranging from terrestrial to open marine settings, including mangrove, restricted inner shelf lagoon, seagrass meadow, reefal, and deeper offshore environments. Recognition of eight depositional sequences and elaboration of an integrated biostratigraphic framework (calcareous nannoplankton, planktic and larger benthic foraminifers, gastropods, and pectinids) allow us to construct a basin-spanning stratigraphy. The assignment of the recognized sea-level lowstands to the Ru 3 to Bur 3 lowstands of the global sea-level curve enables a comparison with time-equivalent sections from the Zagros Basin, which was part of the African/Arabian Plate on the opposing southern margin of the Tethyan Seaway. The so calibrated sections display restrictions of the Tethyan Seaway and interruption of the south Iranian gateways between the Qom Basin and the Proto-Indopacific in relation to ongoing plate collision during the early Burdigalian.

  17. Cognitive advantages and disadvantages in early and late bilinguals.

    PubMed

    Pelham, Sabra D; Abrams, Lise

    2014-03-01

    Previous research has documented advantages and disadvantages of early bilinguals, defined as learning a 2nd language by school age and using both languages since that time. Relative to monolinguals, early bilinguals manifest deficits in lexical access but benefits in executive function. We investigated whether becoming bilingual after childhood (late bilinguals) can produce the cognitive advantages and disadvantages typical of early bilinguals. Participants were 30 monolingual English speakers, 30 late English-Spanish bilinguals, and 30 early Spanish-English bilinguals who completed a picture naming task (lexical access) and an attentional network task (executive function). Late and early bilinguals manifested equivalent cognitive effects in both tasks, demonstrating lexical access deficits and executive function benefits. These findings provide support for the hypothesis that cognitive effects associated with bilingualism arise as the result of proficient, habitual use of 2 languages and not of developmental changes associated with becoming bilingual during childhood.

  18. Miocene Antarctic Terrestrial Realm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashworth, A. C.; Lewis, A.; Marchant, D. R.

    2009-12-01

    The discovery of several locations in the Transantarctic Mountains that contain macrofossils and pollen is transforming our understanding of late Cenozoic Antarctica. The most southerly location is on the Beardmore Glacier (85.1°S) about 500 km from the South Pole. The environment was an active glacial margin in which plants, insects and freshwater mollusks inhabited the sand and gravel bars and small lakes on an outwash plain. In addition to leaves and wood of dwarf Nothofagus (Southern Beech) shrubs, achenes of Ranunculus (Buttercup), in situ cushion growth forms of mosses and a vascular plant, the assemblages contains various exoskeletal parts of carabid and curculionid beetles and a cyclorrhaphan fly, the shells of freshwater bivalve and gastropod species and a fish tooth. Initially the deposits were assigned a Pliocene age (3.5 Ma) but a mid- to early Miocene age is more probable (c. 14 - 25 Ma) based on correlation of fossil pollen from the deposits with 39Ar/40Ar dated pollen assemblages from the McMurdo Dry Valleys locations. The oldest location within the Dry Valleys also involved an active ice margin but was part of a valley system that was completely deglaciated for intervals long enough for thick paleosols to develop. The Friis Hills fossil deposits of the Taylor Valley region (77.8°S) are at least 19.76 Ma based on the 39Ar/40Ar age of a volcanic ash bed. The valley floor during the non-glacial phases had poorly-drained soils and the extensive development of mossy mires. Wood and leaves of Nothofagus are abundant in lacustrine deposits. The silts of shallow fluvial channels contain abundant megaspores and spiky leaves of the aquatic lycopod Isoetes (Quillwort). Fossils of beetles are also present in these deposits. During the glacial phases, proglacial lakes were surrounded by dwarfed, deciduous Nothofagus shrubs. The youngest fossils recovered from the Dry Valleys are from the Olympus Range (77.5°S) with an age of 14.07 Ma. The environment was an

  19. Formation of early-middle Miocene red beds in the South China Sea: element geochemistry and mineralogy analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyu, X.; Liu, Z.

    2017-12-01

    The formation of oceanic red beds that usually present oxic and oligotrophic conditions with low sedimentation rate has been used to trace depositional paleoenvironment and paleoclimate change. Red beds overlying oceanic basalts were drilled at two adjacent Sites U1433 and U1434 of IODP Expedition 349 in the Southwest Subbasin of the South China Sea. The occurrence of early-middle Miocene red beds may indicate that at that time there was oxic and quiet marine environment in the deep South China Sea. To understand their formation of red-color, local depositional condition, and potential paleoceanographic significance, major elements (XRF), trace and rare earth elements (ICP-MS), Fe chemical speciation (modified sequential iron extraction procedure), and Fe oxic minerals (CBD and DRS) were analyzed. Geochemical and mineralogical data reveal that hematite and goethite are responsible for the reddish color and red beds were deposited under highly oxic, oligotrophic conditions with a little later hydrothermal influence in the South China Sea. Our results indicate that: (1) after treatment using the CBD procedure, the red samples presented a change in color to greenish, showing the iron oxides being responsible for the sediment color; (2) enriched Mn, depleted U, S enrichment factors, and negative Ce anomaly show that the water mass was pre-oxidized before transported to the study location; (3) low primary productivity was inferred from the lower P, Ba enrichment factors in red beds compared to non-red beds; (4) the excess Mo influx at the bottom may come from the later hydrothermal input; (5) the diverse Ca enrichment factors and correlations between Fe and Al suggest different allogenic sources for red beds at our two sites. We conclude that the red beds at Sites U1433 and U1434 despite their diverse sources both developed in externally oxidized water mass and low primary productivity conditions, and partially altered by hydrothermal fluids after their pelagic

  20. Depositional architecture and evolution of the Late Miocene slope channel-fan-system in the northeastern shelf-margin of South China Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Jing; Lin, Changsong; Zhang, Zhongtao; Tian, Hongxun; Tao, Ze; Liu, Hanyao

    2016-04-01

    varies from the upper slope to the slope base transitional to basin plain. The basal erosion and the unidirectionally migrating characters of the slope channels were supposed to be the result of the interaction of bottom currents and gravity flows. The intensive development of the channel-fan systems over the shelf slope might be related to the Dongsha Tectonic uplift which may resulted in stepped slope and concomitantly intensified gravity flow in the study area in Late Miocene.

  1. Fossil Mice and Rats Show Isotopic Evidence of Niche Partitioning and Change in Dental Ecomorphology Related to Dietary Shift in Late Miocene of Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Kimura, Yuri; Jacobs, Louis L.; Cerling, Thure E.; Uno, Kevin T.; Ferguson, Kurt M.; Flynn, Lawrence J.; Patnaik, Rajeev

    2013-01-01

    Stable carbon isotope analysis in tooth enamel is a well-established approach to infer C3 and C4 dietary composition in fossil mammals. The bulk of past work has been conducted on large herbivorous mammals. One important finding is that their dietary habits of fossil large mammals track the late Miocene ecological shift from C3 forest and woodland to C4 savannah. However, few studies on carbon isotopes of fossil small mammals exist due to limitations imposed by the size of rodent teeth, and the isotopic ecological and dietary behaviors of small mammals to climate change remain unknown. Here we evaluate the impact of ecological change on small mammals by fine-scale comparisons of carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) with dental morphology of murine rodents, spanning 13.8 to ∼2.0 Ma, across the C3 to C4 vegetation shift in the Miocene Siwalik sequence of Pakistan. We applied in-situ laser ablation GC-IRMS to lower first molars and measured two grazing indices on upper first molars. Murine rodents yield a distinct, but related, record of past ecological conditions from large herbivorous mammals, reflecting available foods in their much smaller home ranges. In general, larger murine species show more positive δ13C values and have higher grazing indices than smaller species inhabiting the same area at any given age. Two clades of murine rodents experienced different rates of morphological change. In the faster-evolving clade, the timing and trend of morphological innovations are closely tied to consumption of C4 diet during the vegetation shift. This study provides quantitative evidence of linkages among diet, niche partitioning, and dental morphology at a more detailed level than previously possible. PMID:23936324

  2. Fossil mice and rats show isotopic evidence of niche partitioning and change in dental ecomorphology related to dietary shift in Late Miocene of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Yuri; Jacobs, Louis L; Cerling, Thure E; Uno, Kevin T; Ferguson, Kurt M; Flynn, Lawrence J; Patnaik, Rajeev

    2013-01-01

    Stable carbon isotope analysis in tooth enamel is a well-established approach to infer C3 and C4 dietary composition in fossil mammals. The bulk of past work has been conducted on large herbivorous mammals. One important finding is that their dietary habits of fossil large mammals track the late Miocene ecological shift from C3 forest and woodland to C4 savannah. However, few studies on carbon isotopes of fossil small mammals exist due to limitations imposed by the size of rodent teeth, and the isotopic ecological and dietary behaviors of small mammals to climate change remain unknown. Here we evaluate the impact of ecological change on small mammals by fine-scale comparisons of carbon isotope ratios (δ(13)C) with dental morphology of murine rodents, spanning 13.8 to ∼2.0 Ma, across the C3 to C4 vegetation shift in the Miocene Siwalik sequence of Pakistan. We applied in-situ laser ablation GC-IRMS to lower first molars and measured two grazing indices on upper first molars. Murine rodents yield a distinct, but related, record of past ecological conditions from large herbivorous mammals, reflecting available foods in their much smaller home ranges. In general, larger murine species show more positive δ(13)C values and have higher grazing indices than smaller species inhabiting the same area at any given age. Two clades of murine rodents experienced different rates of morphological change. In the faster-evolving clade, the timing and trend of morphological innovations are closely tied to consumption of C4 diet during the vegetation shift. This study provides quantitative evidence of linkages among diet, niche partitioning, and dental morphology at a more detailed level than previously possible.

  3. Centennial- to decadal scale environmental shifts in and around Lake Pannon (Vienna Basin) related to a major Late Miocene lake level rise

    PubMed Central

    Harzhauser, Mathias; Kern, Andrea; Soliman, Ali; Minati, Klaus; Piller, Werner E.; Danielopol, Dan L.; Zuschin, Martin

    2010-01-01

    A detailed ultra-high-resolution analysis of a 37-cm-long core of Upper Miocene lake sediments of the long-lived Lake Pannon has been performed. Despite a general stable climate at c. 11–9 Ma, several high-frequency oscillations of the paleoenvironments and depositional environments are revealed by the analysis over a short time span of less than 1000 years. Shifts of the lake level, associated with one major 3rd order flooding are reflected by all organisms by a cascade of environmental changes on a decadal scale. Within a few decades, the pollen record documents shifting vegetation zones due to the landward migration of the coast; the dinoflagellate assemblages switch towards “offshore-type” due to the increasing distance to the shore; the benthos is affected by low oxygen conditions due to the deepening. This general trend is interrupted by smaller scale cycles, which lack this tight interconnection. Especially, the pollen data document a clear cyclicity that is expressed by iterative low pollen concentration events. These “negative” cycles are partly reflected by dinoflagellate blooms suggesting a common trigger-mechanism and a connection between terrestrial environments and surface waters of Lake Pannon. The benthic fauna of the core, however, does not reflect these surface water cycles. This forcing mechanism is not understood yet but periodic climatic fluctuations are favoured as hypothesis instead of further lake level changes. Short phases of low precipitation, reducing pollen production and suppressing effective transport by local streams, might be a plausible mechanism. This study is the first hint towards solar activity related high-frequency climate changes during the Vallesian (Late Miocene) around Lake Pannon and should encourage further ultra-high-resolution analyses in the area. PMID:21179376

  4. ENSO in a warming world: interannual climate variability in the early Miocene Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, Bethany; Wilson, Gary; Lee, Daphne

    2016-04-01

    The El Niño - Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is the dominant source of interannual variability in the modern-day climate system. ENSO is a quasi-periodic cycle with a recurrence interval of 2-8 years. A major question in modern climatology is how ENSO will respond to increased climatic warmth. ENSO-like (2-8 year) cycles have been detected in many palaeoclimate records for the Holocene. However, the temporal resolution of pre-Quaternary palaeoclimate archives is generally too coarse to investigate ENSO-scale variability. We present a 100-kyr record of ENSO-like variability during the second half of the Oligocene/Miocene Mi-1 event, a period of increasing global temperatures and Antarctic deglaciation (~23.032-2.93 Ma). This record is drawn from an annually laminated lacustrine diatomite from southern New Zealand, a region strongly affected by ENSO in the present day. The diatomite consists of seasonal alternations of light (diatom bloom) and dark (low diatom productivity) layers. Each light-dark couplet represents one year's sedimentation. Light-dark couplet thickness is characterised by ENSO-scale variability. We use high-resolution (sub-annual) measurements of colour spectra to detect couplet thickness variability. Wavelet analysis indicates that absolute values are modulated by orbital cycles. However, when orbital effects are taken into account, ENSO-like variability occurs throughout the entire depositional period, with no clear increase or reduction in relation to Antarctic deglaciation and increasing global warmth.

  5. Mineralogy, chemistry and biological contingents of an early-middle Miocene Antarctic paleosol and its relevance as a Martian analogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahaney, William C.; Dohm, James M.; Schwartz, Stephane; Findling, Nathaniel; Hart, Kris M.; Conway, Susan J.; Allen, Christopher C. R.; Miyamoto, Hideaki; Fairén, Alberto G.

    2014-12-01

    Fossil mesofauna and bacteria recovered from a paleosol in a moraine situated adjacent to the inland ice, Antarctica, and dating to the earliest glacial event in the Antarctic Dry Valleys opens several questions. The most important relates to understanding of the mineralogy and chemistry of the weathered substrate habitat in which Coleoptera apparently thrived at some point in the Early/Middle Miocene and perhaps earlier. Here, Coleoptera remains are only located in one of six horizons in a paleosol formed in moraine deposited during the alpine glacial event (>15 Ma). A tendency for quartz to decrease upward in the section may be a detrital effect or a product of dissolution in the early stage of profile morphogenesis when climate was presumably milder and the depositing glacier of temperate type. Discontinuous distributions of smectite, laumontite, and hexahydrite may have provided nutrients and water to mesofauna and bacteria during the early stage of biotic colonization of the profile. Because the mesofauna were members of burrowing Coleoptera species, future work should assess the degree to which the organisms occupied other sites in the Dry Valleys in the past. Whereas there is no reasonable expectations of finding Coleoptera/insect remains on Mars, the chemistry and mineralogy of the paleosol is within a life expectancy window for the presence of microorganisms, principally bacteria and fungi. Thus, parameters discussed here within this Antarctic paleosol could provide an analogue to identifying similar fossil or life-bearing weathered regolith on Mars.

  6. So Close, yet So Far Away: Early vs. Late Dropouts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Yanli; Cragg, Kristina M.

    2013-01-01

    While some students drop out early in their academic career, others drop out close to completion. What similarities and differences exist between these early and late dropouts? Using a sample 3,520 first-time, full-time (FTFT) students seeking a bachelor's degree at a state university, this study employs multinomial logistic regression to model…

  7. Evidence for Water-Mass Changes on the Tasmanian Slope during the Early Miocene (19-16.5 Ma): Stable Isotope and Mg/Ca Records from ODP Leg 189 Site 1168

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekar, S. F.; Marchitto, T. M.; Lynch-Steiglitz, J.

    2002-12-01

    High-resolution stable isotope (4-10 k.y. resolution) and moderately low-resolution Mg/Ca ratio records were constructed for the late early Miocene (19-16.5 Ma) from ODP Leg 189 Site 1168, located on the southwest slope of Tasmania. These records evaluated paleoceanographic changes that took place during isotopic excursions Mi1b (18.2-17.8 Ma) and Mi2 (16.5 Ma), and the First Climatic Optimum (17.7-16.7 Ma), a time of increased global warmth. Evidence exists that supports the idea for the development of warm saline deep waters (WSDW) originating from the eastern end of the Tethys Sea during the early Miocene. However, questions remain regarding the extent and strength of the WSDW and the possible role it played in the warming that took place during the First Climatic Optimum. Site 1168 is ideally located on the lower slope (estimates place it in lower bathyal waters during the early Miocene) to evaluate the potential penetration of WSDW and into the Southern Ocean. Large fluctuations in the isotope and Mg/Ca ratio records from Site 1168 suggest changes in the water masses that bathed the Tasmanian slope during the early Miocene. Temperature estimates based on Mg/Ca ratios contain a surprisingly high range, from 4° to 10° C. Low temperatures (4°-6° C) are associated with high carbon isotope values (>1.4‰ ) and are interpreted represent Southern Component Waters (SCW). The high carbon isotope values also suggest a proximal source for SCW. High water temperatures (7°-10° C) indicate a warm-water mass and are interpreted to be due to the penetration of WSDW into this area, replacing SCW at various times. Large high-frequency isotopic excursions (low oxygen and carbon isotope values) occurred between 18.7 and 18.4 Ma and were originally thought to be due to either localized effects (e.g., disassociation of hydrates) or possible diagensis. However, a recently published high-resolution isotopic record from the Southern Ocean (Site 1090) also contains large

  8. Quantifying incision rates since the early Miocene: novelties, potentialities and limitations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartégou, A.; Braucher, R.; Blard, P. H.; Bourlès, D. L.; Zimmermann, L.; Tibari, B.; Voinchet, P.; Bahain, J. J.; Sorriaux, P.; Leanni, L.; Team, A.

    2017-12-01

    The rates and chronologies of valley incision are closely modulated by the tectonic uplift of active mountain ranges and were controlled by repeated climate changes during the Quaternary. The Pyrenees are a continental collision between the Iberian and Eurasian plates induced a double vergence orogen, which has been considered as a mature mountain range in spite of significant seismicity and evidence of neotectonics. Nevertheless, recent studies indicate that the range may have never reached a steady state. One option for resolving this controversy is to quantify the incision rates since the Miocene by reconstructing the vertical movement of geometric markers. However, the few available ages from the Pyrenean terrace systems do not exceed the middle Pleistocene. To enlarge the time span of this dataset, we studied alluvium-filled horizontal epiphreatic passages in limestone karstic networks, which represent former valley floors. They record the transient position of former local base levels during the process of valley deepening. We used various suitable geochronological methods (26Al/10Be, 10Be/21Ne, ESR and OSL burial durations on quartz) on intrakarstic alluvial deposits from three valleys of the central and eastern Pyrenees, as well as on a recent analogue. In the Pyrenean context, under particular conditions, these geochronometers allow us to document incision processes since 16-13 Ma, and to study influences of external forcing and eustatism. In comparison with other studies, it appears that incision rates are higher in the central Pyrenees and for the Spanish slope. However, the density of horizontal levels on an altimetric range, the geodynamical and paleoclimatic contexts, the reorganization of the drainage networks can make the filling stories of the networks more complex than expected. Indeed, these radiometric approaches may be limited when some formations are reworked inside and/or outside the karst. The validity of dosimetric methods in a mountainous

  9. Early versus Late Parenteral Nutrition in Critically Ill Children.

    PubMed

    Fivez, Tom; Kerklaan, Dorian; Mesotten, Dieter; Verbruggen, Sascha; Wouters, Pieter J; Vanhorebeek, Ilse; Debaveye, Yves; Vlasselaers, Dirk; Desmet, Lars; Casaer, Michael P; Garcia Guerra, Gonzalo; Hanot, Jan; Joffe, Ari; Tibboel, Dick; Joosten, Koen; Van den Berghe, Greet

    2016-03-24

    Recent trials have questioned the benefit of early parenteral nutrition in adults. The effect of early parenteral nutrition on clinical outcomes in critically ill children is unclear. We conducted a multicenter, randomized, controlled trial involving 1440 critically ill children to investigate whether withholding parenteral nutrition for 1 week (i.e., providing late parenteral nutrition) in the pediatric intensive care unit (ICU) is clinically superior to providing early parenteral nutrition. Fluid loading was similar in the two groups. The two primary end points were new infection acquired during the ICU stay and the adjusted duration of ICU dependency, as assessed by the number of days in the ICU and as time to discharge alive from ICU. For the 723 patients receiving early parenteral nutrition, parenteral nutrition was initiated within 24 hours after ICU admission, whereas for the 717 patients receiving late parenteral nutrition, parenteral nutrition was not provided until the morning of the 8th day in the ICU. In both groups, enteral nutrition was attempted early and intravenous micronutrients were provided. Although mortality was similar in the two groups, the percentage of patients with a new infection was 10.7% in the group receiving late parenteral nutrition, as compared with 18.5% in the group receiving early parenteral nutrition (adjusted odds ratio, 0.48; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.35 to 0.66). The mean (±SE) duration of ICU stay was 6.5±0.4 days in the group receiving late parenteral nutrition, as compared with 9.2±0.8 days in the group receiving early parenteral nutrition; there was also a higher likelihood of an earlier live discharge from the ICU at any time in the late-parenteral-nutrition group (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.11 to 1.37). Late parenteral nutrition was associated with a shorter duration of mechanical ventilatory support than was early parenteral nutrition (P=0.001), as well as a smaller proportion of patients

  10. New species of Rotundomys (Cricetinae) from the Late Miocene of Spain and its bearing on the phylogeny of Cricetulodon and Rotundomys.

    PubMed

    López-Antoñanzas, Raquel; Peláez-Campomanes, Pablo; Álvarez-Sierra, Ángeles

    2014-01-01

    The material of Rotundomys (Rodentia, Cricetinae) from the Late Miocene fossiliferous complex of Cerro de los Batallones (Madrid, Spain) is described and compared with all species currently placed in the genera Rotundomys and Cricetulodon. Both the morphology and size variation encompassed in the collection of specimens from Batallones suggest they belong to a single taxon different from the other known species of these genera. A new species Rotundomys intimus sp. nov. is, therefore, named for it. A cladistic analysis, which is the first ever published concernig these taxa, has been conducted to clear up the phylogenetic position of the new species. Our results suggest that Rotundomys intimus sp. nov. inserts between R. mundi and R. sabatieri as a relatively primitive taxon inside the clade Rotundomys. The new taxon is more derived than R. mundi in having a transversal connection between the metalophulid and the anterolophulid on some m1 but more primitive than R. sabatieri and the most evolved species of Rotundomys (R. montisrotuni +R.bressanus) in its less developed lophodonty showing distinct cusps, shallower valleys, and the presence of a subdivided anteroloph on the M1. The species of Cricetulodon do not form a monophyletic group. As a member of Rotundomys, Rotundomys intimus sp. nov. is more derived than all of these taxa in its greater lophodonty and the complete loss of the anterior protolophule, mesolophs, and mesolophids.

  11. Paleomagnetic study of late Miocene through Pleistocene igneous rocks from the southwestern USA: Results from the historic collections of the U.S. Geological Survey Menlo Park laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mankinen, Edward A.

    2008-01-01

    Seventy sites from the southwestern United States provide paleomagnetic results that meet certain minimum criteria and can be considered for the Time‐Averaged Field Initiative (TAFI). The virtual geomagnetic poles for these 70 units are circularly distributed, and their mean is nearly coincident with the rotational axis. When other published data for the southwestern United States are included (N = 146), the virtual geomagnetic poles are again circularly distributed, but their mean is significantly displaced from the rotational axis. Whichever of these data sets is used, the mean poles for normal‐ and reversed‐polarity data differ by ∼170° and are not antipodal at greater than 95% confidence. When the data are separated into specific age groups, the 95% confidence limits about the mean poles for the Brunhes, Matuyama, combined Gauss/Gilbert, and late Miocene intervals all include the rotational axis. Angular dispersion about these four mean poles increases systematically with increasing age and is consistent with paleosecular variation Model “G.”

  12. Late-Miocene thrust fault-related folding in the northern Tibetan Plateau: Insight from paleomagnetic and structural analyses of the Kumkol basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Haijian; Fu, Bihong; Shi, Pilong; Xue, Guoliang; Li, Haibing

    2018-05-01

    Constraints on the timing and style of the Tibetan Plateau growth help spur new understanding of the tectonic evolution of the northern Tibetan Plateau and its relation to the India-Asia continental collision. In this regard, records of tectonic deformation with accurate ages are urgently needed, especially in regions without relevant studies. The Kumkol basin, located between two major intermontane basins (the Hoh Xil and Qaidam basins), may hold clues to how these major basins evolve during the Cenozoic. However, little has been known about the exact ages of the strata and tectonic deformation of the basin. Herein, detailed paleomagnetic and structural studies are conducted on the southern Baiquanhe section in the central Kumkol basin, northern Tibetan Plateau. The magnetostratigraphic study indicates that the southern Baiquanhe section spans a time interval of 8.2-4.2 Ma. Well-preserved growth strata date to 7.5 Ma, providing evidence for a significant thrust fault-related folding. This thrust-related folding has also been identified in the Tian Shan foreland and in the northern Tibetan Plateau, most likely implying a pulsed basinward deformation during the late Miocene.

  13. New Species of Rotundomys (Cricetinae) from the Late Miocene of Spain and Its Bearing on the Phylogeny of Cricetulodon and Rotundomys

    PubMed Central

    López-Antoñanzas, Raquel; Peláez-Campomanes, Pablo; Álvarez-Sierra, Ángeles

    2014-01-01

    The material of Rotundomys (Rodentia, Cricetinae) from the Late Miocene fossiliferous complex of Cerro de los Batallones (Madrid, Spain) is described and compared with all species currently placed in the genera Rotundomys and Cricetulodon. Both the morphology and size variation encompassed in the collection of specimens from Batallones suggest they belong to a single taxon different from the other known species of these genera. A new species Rotundomys intimus sp. nov. is, therefore, named for it. A cladistic analysis, which is the first ever published concernig these taxa, has been conducted to clear up the phylogenetic position of the new species. Our results suggest that Rotundomys intimus sp. nov. inserts between R. mundi and R. sabatieri as a relatively primitive taxon inside the clade Rotundomys. The new taxon is more derived than R. mundi in having a transversal connection between the metalophulid and the anterolophulid on some m1 but more primitive than R. sabatieri and the most evolved species of Rotundomys (R. montisrotuni +R.bressanus) in its less developed lophodonty showing distinct cusps, shallower valleys, and the presence of a subdivided anteroloph on the M1. The species of Cricetulodon do not form a monophyletic group. As a member of Rotundomys, Rotundomys intimus sp. nov. is more derived than all of these taxa in its greater lophodonty and the complete loss of the anterior protolophule, mesolophs, and mesolophids. PMID:25389967

  14. A Cost-effectiveness Analysis of Early vs Late Tracheostomy.

    PubMed

    Liu, C Carrie; Rudmik, Luke

    2016-10-01

    The timing of tracheostomy in critically ill patients requiring mechanical ventilation is controversial. An important consideration that is currently missing in the literature is an evaluation of the economic impact of an early tracheostomy strategy vs a late tracheostomy strategy. To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of the early tracheostomy strategy vs the late tracheostomy strategy. This economic analysis was performed using a decision tree model with a 90-day time horizon. The economic perspective was that of the US health care third-party payer. The primary outcome was the incremental cost per tracheostomy avoided. Probabilities were obtained from meta-analyses of randomized clinical trials. Costs were obtained from the published literature and the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project database. A multivariate probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed to account for uncertainty surrounding mean values used in the reference case. The reference case demonstrated that the cost of the late tracheostomy strategy was $45 943.81 for 0.36 of effectiveness. The cost of the early tracheostomy strategy was $31 979.12 for 0.19 of effectiveness. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for the late tracheostomy strategy compared with the early tracheostomy strategy was $82 145.24 per tracheostomy avoided. With a willingness-to-pay threshold of $50 000, the early tracheostomy strategy is cost-effective with 56% certainty. The adaptation of an early vs a late tracheostomy strategy depends on the priorities of the decision-maker. Up to a willingness-to-pay threshold of $80 000 per tracheostomy avoided, the early tracheostomy strategy has a higher probability of being the more cost-effective intervention.

  15. Scaldiporia vandokkumi, a new pontoporiid (Mammalia, Cetacea, Odontoceti) from the Late Miocene to earliest Pliocene of the Westerschelde estuary (The Netherlands)

    PubMed Central

    Louwye, Stephen; Lambert, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Background The family Pontoporiidae (Cetacea, Odontoceti, Inioidea) is currently represented in our oceans by just one species of diminutive dolphin (Pontoporia blainvillei, franciscana). Although P. blainvillei is limited to coastal waters of the South Atlantic along Brazil, Uruguay and Argentina, multiple Miocene and Pliocene fossils indicate the past presence of members of the family in the South Atlantic, South Paciifc and North Atlantic oceans. Our comprehension of the origin and diversity of this clade and of the relationships of its members with other inioids is hampered by the fact that part of the described fossil specimens, especially from the North Atlantic realm, are cranial fragments often associated to limited stratigraphic information. Methods Based on an almost complete fossil cranium of pontoporiid from the Westerschelde estuary, The Netherlands, whose preservation allows for detailed morphological observations, we describe a new genus and species. The latter is compared to other pontoporiids, as well as a few non-pontoporiid inioids. A phylogenetic analysis is performed to investigate the relationship of S. vandokkumi with the best-known extinct and extant inioids. Palynological analysis of the sediment associated to the holotype is used to assess its geological age. Results and discussion The new genus and species Scaldiporia vandokkumi is characterized among others by greatly thickened premaxillary eminences reaching the level of the antorbital notch. Palynologically dated from the late Tortonian—earliest Zanclean (7.6–5 Ma, Late Miocene—earliest Pliocene), this new pontoporiid confirms the surprising past diversity of marine inioids in the North Atlantic area. Finally the content of the pontoporiid subfamily Brachydelphininae is briefly discussed. PMID:29109917

  16. Geochronology of the Baye Mn oxide deposit, southern Yunnan Plateau: Implications for the late Miocene to Pleistocene paleoclimatic conditions and topographic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Xiao-Dong; Li, Jian-Wei; Vasconcelos, Paulo M.; Cohen, Benjamin E.; Kusky, Timothy M.

    2014-08-01

    the past 3 million years. The incision rate calculated from minimum exposed ages at sites B-D is 33 ± 2 m Myr-1 for the time period of 2.91-1.25 Ma, which is consistent with the slow incision of streams on the ridges over the Yunnan Plateau since the early Pleistocene. Three Mn oxide pebbles contained in the alluvial deposits overlying the saprolite-dominated weathering profiles at the two highest sites provided additional information on the timing of weathering. Four grains from two pebbles yield plateau ages of 6.32 ± 0.19 to 5.27 ± 0.10 Ma, whereas the other two grains from the third pebble indicate the minimum formation ages of 8.2 ± 0.4 and 9.3 ± 0.3 Ma. These ages confirm the existence of older weathering profiles, now dismantled, in the region. Manganese oxide 40Ar/39Ar ages of the Baye deposit, when combined with results from other localities, indicate that lateritic weathering and supergene Mn enrichment and, by inference, warm and humid climates conducive to intense weathering have prevailed over the Plateau since the middle to late Miocene. The climatic conditions inferred from the weathering geochronology are consistent with multiple independent marine and terrestrial sedimentary and paleontological records, confirming that supergene Mn oxides can be used as a useful proxy for past climate. Age clusters of Mn oxides at 2.9-2.4, 1.2-0.8, and 0.6-0.4 Ma are broadly coincident with and thus likely reflect intensification events of the Indian Summer Monsoon that brings moisture and abundant precipitation to the Yunnan Plateau. These clusters also coincide with the periods of significant surface uplift in the Yunnan Plateau, demonstrating a causal link between topographic evolution, plateau uplift, and intensification of the monsoonal climate.

  17. Two-stage growth of the Late Miocene Minna Bluff Volcanic Complex, Ross Embayment, Antarctica: implications for ice-sheet and volcanic histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilch, T. I.; McIntosh, W. C.; Panter, K. S.; Dunbar, N. W.; Smellie, J.; Fargo, A. J.; Ross, J. I.; Antibus, J. V.; Scanlan, M. K.

    2011-12-01

    Minna Bluff, a 45km long, 5km wide Late Miocene alkaline volcanic peninsula that extends SE into the Ross Ice Shelf, is a major obstruction to ice flow from the south into the McMurdo Sound region. Interpretations of the abundant paleoclimate and glacial history archives, including the ANDRILL records, need to account for the effects of paleogeography on past ice-flow configurations and sediment transport. Mapping and 40Ar/39Ar dating of volcanic sequences indicate that Minna Bluff was constructed between 12 and 4 Ma. The volcanic complex first emerged as an isolated island in the Ross Sea at about 12 Ma. The edifice, here named Minna Hook Island, was constructed between 12 and 8 Ma. During this first stage of growth, regional ice was able to flow through a ~40 km gap between the island and mainland. The second stage of volcanism built the main arm of Minna Bluff, now called McIntosh Cliffs, between 8 and 4 Ma. The second stage resulted in the eruption of exclusively subaerial cinder cones and lava flows. By approximately 5 Ma the peninsula had fully emerged above sea level, fully obstructing ice flow. Evidence for volcano-ice interaction is common in Minna Hook stratigraphic sequences. Well exposed cliff sections exhibit alternations between rocks erupted in subaerial and subaqueous conditions; these sequences are interpreted to represent syneruptive interactions between lava flows and glacial ice and provide evidence for periodic glaciations between 12 and 8 Ma. The lack of coherent horizontal passage zones between subglacial and subaerial lithofacies and the alternating nature of the deposits suggest that the eruptions did not occur in a large stable ice sheet but instead occurred in a more ephemeral local ice cap or rapidly drained ice sheet. At least two widespread, undulating glacial unconformities mantled by glacial and fluvial sediments are exposed near the base of the Minna Hook sequences. These unconformities record broad scale Antarctic Ice Sheet events

  18. Immediate, early and late seizures after primary intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Qian, Cheng; Löppönen, Pekka; Tetri, Sami; Huhtakangas, Juha; Juvela, Seppo; Turtiainen, Hanna-Maria E; Bode, Michaela K; Hillbom, Matti

    2014-05-01

    Seizures after primary intracerebral hemorrhage (PICH) are significant and treatable complications, but the factors predicting immediate, early and late seizures are poorly known. We investigated characteristics and outcome with special reference to occurrence and timing of a first seizure among consecutive subjects with PICH. A population-based study was conducted in Northern Ostrobothnia, Finland, in 1993-2008 that included all patients with a first-ever primary ICH without any prior diagnosis of epilepsy. Immediate (<24h after admission), early (1-14 days) and late (>2 weeks) seizures were considered separately. Out of a total of 935 ICH patients, 51 had immediate, 21 early and 58 late seizures. The patients with seizures were significantly younger than the others and more often had a subcortical hematoma location (p<0.05). Lifestyle factors did not differ between the groups. The risk factors for immediate seizures in multivariable analysis were a low Glasgow coma scale score (GCS) on admission, subcortical location and age inversely (p<0.01). The only independent risk factor for early seizures was subcortical location (p<0.001), whereas subcortical location (p<0.001), age inversely (p<0.01) and hematoma evacuation (p<0.05) independently predicted late seizures. Immediate and early seizures predicted infectious complications (p<0.05). Patients with subcortical hematoma and of younger age are at risk for immediate seizures after primary ICH irrespective of hematoma size. Patients with immediate and early seizures more often had infectious complications. Surgery increases the risk of a late seizure after ICH. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Late Miocene Rise of C4 Vegetation in Eastern Africa Documented by Terrestrial Plant Waxes in Marine Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, K. T.; Polissar, P. J.; Jackson, K.; deMenocal, P. B.

    2015-12-01

    C4 plants are predominantly grasses and they account for ~20% of global net primary productivity, serve as important sources of food, and are the dominant plant type in non-forested tropical ecosystems. Yet the reasons behind their rise to such a globally significant component of the terrestrial biosphere within the last 10 million years are not well understood. In eastern Africa, the expansion of C4 grasslands led to long-term changes in faunal distributions and resulted in major dietary shifts in mammalian lineages. Potential mechanisms leading to the rise of C4 plants include a decrease in atmospheric CO2, ecosystem perturbations by fire or large herbivores, and increased aridity or seasonality of precipitation. Improvement of the temporal and spatial coverage of vegetation records in the Late Neogene of East Africa may help elucidate the mechanisms responsible for regional and global C4 grassland expansion. It will also improve our ability to assess the relationship between vegetation change and mammalian evolution. To evaluate the evolution of C4 grasslands in East Africa, we measured carbon isotope ratios of n-alkanes from four DSDP cores stretching from the Red Sea (19.1° N) to the Somali Basin (2.4° S) that range in age from ~24 Ma to 0.5 Ma. Carbon isotope data from Somali Basin sites 235 and 241 indicate the appearance of C4 vegetation by ca. 10 Ma, followed by a relatively steady increase through the late Pleistocene. Odd numbered n-alkane homologues (C29 ­to C35) exhibit up to a 10‰ increase in δ13C. We also established end member molecular distributions of n-alkanes and tracked changes in their proportional contributions through time. Changes in molecular distribution are broadly synchronous with increases in carbon isotope ratios, suggesting that n-alkane distributions reflect changes in C3 and C4 vegetation types.

  20. New tropical carcharhinids (chondrichthyes, carcharhiniformes) from the late Eocene early Oligocene of Balochistan, Pakistan: Paleoenvironmental and paleogeographic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adnet, S.; Antoine, P.-O.; Hassan Baqri, S. R.; Crochet, J.-Y.; Marivaux, L.; Welcomme, J.-L.; Métais, G.

    2007-04-01

    New selachians (sharks and rays) have been collected from several late Eocene and early Oligocene marine localities in the Bugti Hills (Balochistan, Pakistan). Two new species of Requiem sharks (close to the Recent "Bull shark") are described : Carcharhinus balochensis and Carcharhinus perseus. The rest of the fauna is notable for the strong representation of Carcharhiniformes. These selachian faunas represent a unique tropical association for the Oligocene period and one of the first modern tropical selachian faunas, with modern taxa such as the two new species of "Bull sharks", Negaprion sp. and one of the first occurrences of Sphyrna sp. Moreover, these faunas permit paleoenvironmental interpretation of adjacent land masses. The relatively modern aspect of these faunas, compared with other contemporaneous and younger selachian associations from Atlantic and Mediterranean seas, suggests biogeographic isolation of selachian communities living in eastern and western parts of the Tethys before its final closure during the early-middle Miocene.

  1. Miocene non-marine diatoms from the western Cordillera basins of northern Peru

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fourtanier, E.; Gasse, F.; Bellier, O.; Bonhomme, M.G.; Robles, I.

    1993-01-01

    Diatom assemblages are documented from diatomite layers of two Miocene fluvio-lacustrine units from the basins of the western Cordillera of northern Peru: the Namora Formation and the Cajabamba Formation. Emphasis is given to taxa of particular stratigraphic interest. The diatom assemblages indicate for the Namora Formation the occurrence of swampy conditions with very dilute, low alkalinity water. The diatom assemblages of the Cajabamba Formation reflect the occurrence of fresh, slightly alkaline, eutrophic lakes with deep water in some samples, and swampy conditions with relatively high salt content in other samples. The Namora formation is late Miocene in age based on the diatom assemblages and radiometric analyses. The diatom layers of the Cajabamba Formation are dated as late middle to early late Miocene. -from Authors

  2. Early school attainment in late-preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Peacock, Philip J; Henderson, John; Odd, David; Emond, Alan

    2012-02-01

    To investigate whether infants born late-preterm have poorer school attainment compared to those born at term. This study used data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Key stage one (KS1) school assessment results were obtained from local education authorities. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the effect of gestation, that is, late-preterm (32-36 weeks) versus term (37-41 weeks), on success in KS1 teacher assessments. Regression models were adjusted for potential confounders, including maternal education and markers of socioeconomic status. There were 12 089 term infants and 734 late-preterm infants. 71% of late-preterm children were successful in KS1 assessments compared to 79% of those born at term (OR 0.64 (95% CI 0.53 to 0.78); p<0.001). This difference persisted on adjusting for potential confounders (OR 0.74 (95% CI 0.59 to 0.92); p=0.007). Children born late-preterm are less likely to be successful in early school assessments than those born at term. This group of vulnerable children warrants closer surveillance for early identification of potential educational failure.

  3. Early glaciation already during the Early Miocene in the Amundsen Sea, Southern Pacific: Indications from the distribution of sedimentary sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uenzelmann-Neben, Gabriele; Gohl, Karsten

    2014-09-01

    The distribution and internal architecture of seismostratigraphic sequences observed on the Antarctic continental slope and rise are results of sediment transport and deposition by bottom currents and ice sheets. Analysis of seismic reflection data allows to reconstruct sediment input and sediment transport patterns and to infer past changes in climate and oceanography. We observe four seismostratigraphic units which show distinct differences in location and shape of their depocentres and which accumulated at variable sedimentation rates. We used an age-depth model based on DSDP Leg 35 Site 324 for the Plio/Pleistocene and a correlation with seismic reflection characteristics from the Ross and Bellingshausen Seas, which unfortunately has large uncertainties. For the period before 21 Ma, we interpret low energy input of detritus via a palaeo-delta originating in an area of the Amundsen Sea shelf, where a palaeo-ice stream trough (Pine Island Trough East, PITE) is located today, and deposition of this material on the continental rise under sea ice coverage. For the period 21-14.1 Ma we postulate glacial erosion for the hinterland of this part of West Antarctica, which resulted in a larger depocentre and an increase in mass transport deposits. Warming during the Mid Miocene Climatic Optimum resulted in a polythermal ice sheet and led to a higher sediment supply along a broad front but with a focus via two palaeo-ice stream troughs, PITE and Abbot Trough (AT). Most of the glaciogenic debris was transported onto the eastern Amundsen Sea rise where it was shaped into levee-drifts by a re-circulating bottom current. A reduced sediment accumulation in the deep-sea subsequent to the onset of climatic cooling after 14 Ma indicates a reduced sediment supply probably in response to a colder and drier ice sheet. A dynamic ice sheet since 4 Ma delivered material offshore mainly via AT and Pine Island Trough West (PITW). Interaction of this glaciogenic detritus with a west

  4. Late Miocene extension partitioning in the eastern Betics: from W- to E-directed extension between the Sorbas and Vera basins (SE Spain).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giaconia, Flavio; Booth-Rea, Guillermo; Martínez-Martínez, Jose Miguel; Azañon, Jose Miguel

    2014-05-01

    Late Miocene westward-directed extension in the Betics produced elongated core-complexes like Sierra Nevada and the Sierra de Filabres, tilted-block domains and associated basins. This extension represents the superficial manifestation of the rupture of the Tethyan slab and associated edge delamination along a lithospheric transform fault beneath the northern branch of the Gibraltar Arc orogenic system. However, crustal thinning at the eastern Betics occurs progressively towards the east suggesting an eastward-directed extension, probably related to the late Miocene opening of the Algero-Balearic basin. In order to define the kinematics and timing of such a heterogeneous extension at the eastern Betics we have carefully mapped a key area at the transition between the Sorbas and Vera basins. Field data indicate that extension in the area started at the southern margin of the Vera basin during the Serravallian (13.8 Ma) and continued until the Tortonian (approximately 8 Ma). This extension was characterized by a set of NE- to E-directed normal faults to the east, in the Vera basin, and a set of SW-directed normal faults to the west, towards the Sorbas basin. This opposite-directed extension is segmented by E-W to WNW-ESE strike-slip faults like the North Cabrera dextral transfer fault that accommodates NE- to E-directed extension to the north and SW-directed extension to the south. This structure resulted in westward tilted blocks that lead to Serravallian-Tortonian depocenters deepening towards the east at the Vera basin along the northern side of Sierra Cabrera. Meanwhile, at the western termination of Sierra Cabrera, westward-directed extension migrated SW-ward forming the Sorbas basin during the Tortonian (approximately 9-7.24 Ma). This extension was characterized by a listric fan of SW-directed normal faults highly segmented by E-W to NE-SW transfer. This extensional system produced tiled-blocks defining a Tortonian depocenter at the eastern margin of the Sorbas

  5. The risks for late adolescence of early adolescent marijuana use.

    PubMed Central

    Brook, J S; Balka, E B; Whiteman, M

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to assess the relation of early adolescent marijuana use to late adolescent problem behaviors, drug-related attitudes, drug problems, and sibling and peer problem behavior. METHODS: African American (n = 627) and Puerto Rican (n = 555) youths completed questionnaires in their classrooms initially and were individually interviewed 5 years later. Logistic regression analysis estimated increases in the risk of behaviors or attitudes in late adolescence associated with more frequent marijuana use in early adolescence. RESULTS: Early adolescent marijuana use increased the risk in late adolescence of not graduating from high school; delinquency; having multiple sexual partners; not always using condoms; perceiving drugs as not harmful; having problems with cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana; and having more friends who exhibit deviant behavior. These relations were maintained with controls for age, sex, ethnicity, and, when available, earlier psychosocial measures. CONCLUSIONS: Early adolescent marijuana use is related to later adolescent problems that limit the acquisition of skills necessary for employment and heighten the risks of contracting HIV and abusing legal and illegal substances. Hence, assessments of and treatments for adolescent marijuana use need to be incorporated in clinical practice. PMID:10511838

  6. Individual to Community-Level Faunal Responses to Environmental Change from a Marine Fossil Record of Early Miocene Global Warming

    PubMed Central

    Belanger, Christina L.

    2012-01-01

    Modern climate change has a strong potential to shift earth systems and biological communities into novel states that have no present-day analog, leaving ecologists with no observational basis to predict the likely biotic effects. Fossil records contain long time-series of past environmental changes outside the range of modern observation, which are vital for predicting future ecological responses, and are capable of (a) providing detailed information on rates of ecological change, (b) illuminating the environmental drivers of those changes, and (c) recording the effects of environmental change on individual physiological rates. Outcrops of Early Miocene Newport Member of the Astoria Formation (Oregon) provide one such time series. This record of benthic foraminiferal and molluscan community change from continental shelf depths spans a past interval environmental change (∼20.3-16.7 mya) during which the region warmed 2.1–4.5°C, surface productivity and benthic organic carbon flux increased, and benthic oxygenation decreased, perhaps driven by intensified upwelling as on the modern Oregon coast. The Newport Member record shows that (a) ecological responses to natural environmental change can be abrupt, (b) productivity can be the primary driver of faunal change during global warming, (c) molluscs had a threshold response to productivity change while foraminifera changed gradually, and (d) changes in bivalve body size and growth rates parallel changes in taxonomic composition at the community level, indicating that, either directly or indirectly through some other biological parameter, the physiological tolerances of species do influence community change. Ecological studies in modern and fossil records that consider multiple ecological levels, environmental parameters, and taxonomic groups can provide critical information for predicting future ecological change and evaluating species vulnerability. PMID:22558424

  7. Discordant Early Miocene palaeomagnetic directions at the vicinity of the North Aegean Trough: tectonic or palaeofield feature?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontopoulou, D.; Valet, J. P.; Zananiri, I.; Voidomatis, P.

    2017-12-01

    The North Aegean Trough (N.A.T) is a major tectonic feature of North Aegean Sea. This is a large NE-SW transcurrent lineament that is interpreted as the continuation of the North Anatolian Fault, with a prominent dextral strike-slip motion. IAn intense igneous activity has developed along the N.A.T to its north through the presence of abundant plutonism and volcanism from Early Oligocene to Pliocene. A considerable amount of palaeomagnetic data display a systematic pattern of clockwise rotations with angles varying between 20°-40° since the Early Oligocene. In order to document the impact of the N.A.T to regional rotations, early Miocene lava flows have been extensively sampled in the islands of Samothrace and Lemnos located to the north and south of N.A.T, respectively. Two sets of directions have been defined from the palaeomagnetic studies. The first one corresponds to the expected North-East declinations with positive inclinations or to reversed South-West declinations with negative inclinations that were previously interpreted as a dextral rotations of this area. The second set, exhibits discordant and apparently erratic directions despite quite acceptable demagnetization behaviour and magnetic characteristics. In order to constrain further these directions we performed new samplings. The new measurements which include Thellier absolute palaeointensity experiments reveal that the intermediate directions are associated with low field values for Samothrace with a transitional field recorded between 21 and 17 Ma. The presence of single magnetization component and the variability of the lavas do not favor the possibility of self-reversal mechanisms. The consistency of the directions within each flow but also between lava flows of comparable ages in the two islands and the presence of normal and reverse polarities point to records of transitional directions. In both islands, the intermediate virtual geomagnetic poles exhibit a preference for equatorial latitudes

  8. Correlation and zonation of miocene strata along the atlantic margin of North America using diatoms and silicoflagellates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abbott, W.H.

    1978-01-01

    Six Atlantic Miocene siliceous microfossil zones are proposed based on onshore and offshore samples from the United States Atlantic Margin. Diatoms and silicoflagellates are used to establish the zones. These zones are from oldest to youngest: 1. Zone I Actinoptychus heliopelta Concurrent Range Zone - Early Miocene 2. Zone II Delphineis ovata Partial Range Zone - late Early to early Middle Miocene 3. Zone III Delphineis ovata/Delphineis penelliptica Concurrent Range Zone - early Middle Miocene 4. Zone IV Delphineis penelliptica Partial Range Zone - Middle Miocene 5. Zone V Delphineis penelliptica/Coscinodiscus plicatus Concurrent Range Zone - Middle Miocene 6. Zone VI Coscinodiscus plicatus Partial Range Zone - Middle Miocene. The six zones are easily traced along the Southern and Middle Atlantic Seaboard, but the older three are found for the most part between Cape Hatteras and New Jersey. There is some suggestion of sea-level change during Zone IV. Using rare planktonic diatoms that are index species from other regions and the zonal markers established in this study, correlation can be made with the Standard Foraminiferal Zones, the North Pacific Diatom Zones and with DSDP core 391A in the Blake-Bahama Basin. ?? 1978.

  9. Early intervention for late-onset ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Fujisawa, Daisuke; Mitsubuchi, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Shirou; Iwai, Masanori; Nakamura, Kimitoshi; Hoshide, Ryuji; Harada, Nawomi; Yoshino, Makoto; Endo, Fumio

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a family with late-onset ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD). Several family members had died from OTCD, and the c.221G>A, p.Lys221Lys mutation was detected at the 3' end of exon 6 of OTC in the X-chromosome of some members. We provided genetic counseling on pregnancy, delivery, and neonate management to a 4th-generation female carrier and decided on metabolic management of her child from birth. Two male patients were diagnosed with late-onset OTCD on the basis of blood amino acid and genetic analysis, and they received arginine supplementation from the asymptomatic, early neonatal period. These children grew and developed normally, without decompensation. Patients with late-onset OTCD can and should be diagnosed and treated in the early neonatal period, especially those from families already diagnosed with late-onset OTCD, and family members must be provided with genetic counseling. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  10. Where Is ELSA? The Early to Late Shift in Aging

    PubMed Central

    Buchler, Norbou; Dobbins, Ian G.; Cabeza, Roberto

    2012-01-01

    Studies of cognitive and neural aging have recently provided evidence of a shift from an early- to late-onset cognitive control strategy, linked with temporally extended activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC). It has been uncertain, however, whether this age-related shift is unique to PFC and executive control tasks or whether the functional location might vary depending on the particular cognitive processes that are altered. The present study tested whether an early-to-late shift in aging (ELSA) might emerge in the medial temporal lobes (MTL) during a protracted context memory task comprising both anticipatory cue (retrieval preparation) and retrieval probe (retrieval completion) phases. First, we found reduced MTL activity in older adults during the early retrieval preparation phase coupled with increased MTL activity during the late retrieval completion phase. Second, we found that functional connectivity between MTL and PFC regions was higher during retrieval preparation in young adults but higher during retrieval completion in older adults, suggesting an important interactive relationship between the ELSA pattern in MTL and PFC. Taken together, these results critically suggest that aging results in temporally lagged activity even in regions not typically associated with cognitive control, such as the MTL. PMID:22114083

  11. How do you manage early or late clock-ins? .

    PubMed

    Marlowe, Cathy L

    2013-08-01

    My current practice has historically been very strict with hourly employees. The workday is 8:30 a.m. to 5 p.m. for most employees. They are to clock in and out at exactly those times unless overtime has been approved. (Staff working with late patients are exempt.) My business manager is constantly fighting over clock-ins 15 to 20 minutes early or late, with similar clock-outs. Staff may have a stop to make and would like to make up those 15 minutes. We do grant paid time off in an initial minimum block of 30 minutes to assist with some of this. ... The issue is not overtime, as we're well aware that we have to pay for it when appropriate. It's simply to streamline our policy and make it fair. ... I'm looking for practice policies that deal with employee variances from the 8 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. clock-ins. For example, someone wants to come in 30 minutes early in order to leave 30 minutes early for an appointment. Or someone comes in 22 minutes late due to traffic and wants either to make it up or to take the minimal half-hour paid-time-off time.

  12. Broadening the interpretive framework of deepwater deposits: 3D characterization of outcrop scale bedforms within supercritical dominated slope deposits of the Fish Creek-Vallecito Basin, Late-Miocene Gulf of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, L. M.; Steel, R.; Olariu, C.

    2017-12-01

    Study of seafloor bathymetry, numerical and physical modeling, and direct observation of turbidity currents increasingly suggests that sediment gravity flows over moderately steep basin slopes commonly reach Froude supercritical states. However, interpretation of supercritical features in deepwater outcrops remains limited in both quantity and scope, leaving stratigraphic qualities of supercritical deposits poorly understood. Slope turbidites on along steep margins of the early Gulf of California are exposed in seismic scale outcrops of the Late Miocene Lycium Member in the Fish Creek-Vallecito Basin of south-central California where they build 100s m-thick slopes. Measured sections, bedding orientation, and facies descriptions collected both for strike- and dip-oriented sections are combined with photogrammetric to characterize selected bedforms in three-dimensions. Analysis shows upflow accreting stacks of 10s of beds into a variety of bedforms with wavelengths and widths tens to hundreds of meters in scale and heights of 5-15 m. Beds have low-angle sinusoidal to sigmoidal down dip geometries and lens or lobate strike geometries. Bedding facies are dominated by 5-50 cm thick, normally graded, laminated sandstones capped by 1-3 cm bioturbated muds. Sandstones transition into interbedded sandstones and silty mudstones or 1-2 m thick silty mudstones. In places, Present also are incisional, steeply dipping backsets of 0.5-3 m-thick boulder-rich, amalgamated, structureless sandtones with abundant soft sediment deformation. that can transition downflow into arching, thinning, normally-graded sandstones. These bedforms are interpreted here as large-scale, long-lived supercritical deposits that represent preserved antidune and possibly cyclic steps bedforms or as-yet undefined bedforms incorporating by not bound by hydraulic jumps. This characterization provides new understanding of the nature of supercritical deposits and an important framework criteria for recognizing

  13. Late Cretaceous-Early Palaeogene tectonic development of SE Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morley, C. K.

    2012-10-01

    The Late Cretaceous-Early Palaeogene history of the continental core of SE Asia (Sundaland) marks the time prior to collision of India with Asia when SE Asia, from the Tethys in the west to the Palaeo-Pacific in the east, lay in the upper plate of subduction zones. In Myanmar and Sumatra, subduction was interrupted in the Aptian-Albian by a phase of arc accretion (Woyla and Mawgyi arcs) and in Java, eastern Borneo and Western Sulawesi by collision of continental fragments rifted from northern Australia. Subsequent resumption of subduction in the Myanmar-Thailand sector explains: 1) early creation of oceanic crust in the Andaman Sea in a supra-subduction zone setting ~ 95 Ma, 2) the belt of granite plutons of Late Cretaceous-Early Palaeogene age (starting ~ 88 Ma) in western Thailand and central Myanmar, and 3) amphibolite grade metamorphism between 70 and 80 Ma seen in gneissic outcrops in western and central Thailand, and 4) accretionary prism development in the Western Belt of Myanmar, until glancing collision with the NE corner of Greater India promoted ophiolite obduction, deformation and exhumation of marine sediments in the early Palaeogene. The Ranong strike-slip fault and other less well documented faults, were episodically active during the Late Cretaceous-Palaeogene time. N to NW directed subduction of the Palaeo-Pacific ocean below Southern China, Vietnam and Borneo created a major magmatic arc, associated with rift basins, metamorphic core complexes and strike-slip deformation which continued into the Late Cretaceous. The origin and timing of termination of subduction has recently been explained by collision of a large Luconia continental fragment either during the Late Cretaceous or Palaeogene. Evidence for such a collision is absent from the South China Sea well and seismic reflection record and here collision is discounted. Instead relocation of the subducting margin further west, possibly in response of back-arc extension (which created the Proto

  14. Integrated Sr isotope variations and global environmental changes through the Late Permian to early Late Triassic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Haijun; Wignall, Paul B.; Tong, Jinnan; Song, Huyue; Chen, Jing; Chu, Daoliang; Tian, Li; Luo, Mao; Zong, Keqing; Chen, Yanlong; Lai, Xulong; Zhang, Kexin; Wang, Hongmei

    2015-08-01

    New 87Sr/86Sr data based on 127 well-preserved and well-dated conodont samples from South China were measured using a new technique (LA-MC-ICPMS) based on single conodont albid crown analysis. These reveal a spectacular climb in seawater 87Sr/86Sr ratios during the Early Triassic that was the most rapid of the Phanerozoic. The rapid increase began in Bed 25 of the Meishan section (GSSP of the Permian-Triassic boundary, PTB), and coincided closely with the latest Permian extinction. Modeling results indicate that the accelerated rise of 87Sr/86Sr ratios can be ascribed to a rapid increase (>2.8×) of riverine flux of Sr caused by intensified weathering. This phenomenon could in turn be related to an intensification of warming-driven runoff and vegetation die-off. Continued rise of 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the Early Triassic indicates that continental weathering rates were enhanced >1.9 times compared to those of the Late Permian. Continental weathering rates began to decline in the middle-late Spathian, which may have played a role in the decrease of oceanic anoxia and recovery of marine benthos. The 87Sr/86Sr values decline gradually into the Middle Triassic to an equilibrium values around 1.2 times those of the Late Permian level, suggesting that vegetation coverage did not attain pre-extinction levels thereby allowing higher runoff.

  15. Geochemical constraints on the provenance and depositional environment of the Messinian sediments, onshore Nile Delta, Egypt: Implications for the late Miocene paleogeography of the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leila, Mahmoud; Moscariello, Andrea; Šegvić, Branimir

    2018-07-01

    setting and their source rocks were originated in a continental collision tectonic setting that lasted from Late Cretaceous to Oligo-Miocene time. This is confirmed by the Nb/Ta, Zr/Sm ratios coupled with the pronounced Nb, Ta, P, Ti anomalies and enrichments in Pb and U relative to primitive mantle typical of subduction zone environment. The petrographical and geochemical results suggest the MSC Abu Madi sediments to have been eroded and recycled from the older pre-MSC Qawasim sediments by gravity-flow processes and fluvial channels prior to redeposition as incised-valley-fills during the late stage of the MSC. The geochemical paleoenvironmental indicators such as C-value, Sr/Cu and Sr/Ba confirm arid-dry climatic conditions during the onset of the MSC consistent with the Mediterranean desiccation. These indicators also depict a transition from freshwater to relatively normal salinity conditions during the late stage of the MSC. Geochemical results presented in this study support the retrogradational depositional infill of the Messinian incised valleys in the Nile Delta, thus confirming an incipient rise in the Mediterranean Sea level prior to the major Zanclean flooding.

  16. Early and Late Acute Kidney Injury in Severely Burned Patients

    PubMed Central

    Witkowski, Wojciech; Kawecki, Marek; Surowiecka-Pastewka, Agnieszka; Klimm, Wojciech; Szamotulska, Katarzyna; Niemczyk, Stanisław

    2016-01-01

    Background This study evaluated factors influencing early and late occurrence of AKI in severely burned patients and assessed the relationship between time of occurrence of AKI and mortality of AKI patients. Material/Methods Renal function was evaluated at 3 time points: at admission, at the critical point or middle point of hospitalization, and at the endpoint for which death or a discharge from the center was considered. AKI criteria were: decrease in GFR of less than 60 ml/min at admission, decrease in GFR of more than 75% compared to baseline, and decrease in the daily diuresis of less than 500 ml/24 h. Results At admission, 15.1% of the patients had eGFR <60 ml/min. AKI occurred in 38.5% of cases. The occurrence of AKI was associated with: elderly age (p<0.001), female sex (p=0.017), overweight and obesity (p=0.055); extent and depth of burns, respiratory failure, low protein concentration (for all p<0.001), low blood pressure (p=0.014), and high WBC (p=0.010). Early AKI was detected in 28% of patients. Mortality was 100% with the initial GFR ≥60, 100% with the initial GFR <60 and early deterioration of renal function, 80% with the initial GFR <60 and late worsening, and 60% with the initial GFR <60 and no worsening. Late AKI was observed in 10% of patients and mortality in this group was 79.2%. Mortality in the entire group with AKI was 88.0% versus 24.5%. Conclusions The frequent occurrence of AKI, especially early, worsens the prognosis for survival. Assessment of renal function should be included in the prognostic scales for burned patients. PMID:27746455

  17. Post-collisional magmatism in the Late Miocene Rodna-Bârgău district (East Carpathians, Romania): Geochemical constraints and petrogenetic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedele, Lorenzo; Seghedi, Ioan; Chung, Sun-Lin; Laiena, Fabio; Lin, Te-Hsien; Morra, Vincenzo; Lustrino, Michele

    2016-12-01

    Post-collisional magmatism in the Late Miocene Rodna-Bârgău subvolcanic district (East Carpathians) gave rise to a wide variety of rock compositions, allowing recognition of four groups of calcalkaline rocks with distinctive petrography, mineral chemistry, whole-rock geochemistry and Sr-Nd-Hf isotope features. New U-Pb zircon datings, together with literature data, indicate that the emplacement of the four rock groups was basically contemporaneous in the 11.5-8 Ma time span. The low potassium group (LKG) includes the most abundant lithotypes of the area, ranging from basaltic andesite to dacite, characterized by K-poor tschermakitic amphibole, weak enrichment in LILE and LREE, relatively low 87Sr/86Sr, coupled with relatively high 143Nd/144Nd and 176Hf/177Hf. The high potassium group (HKG) includes amphibole-bearing microgabbro, amphibole andesite and amphibole- and biotite dacite, with K-richer magnesio-hastingsite to hastingsite amphibole, more marked enrichments in incompatible elements, higher 87Sr/86Sr and lower 143Nd/144Nd and 176Hf/177Hf. These two main rock groups seem to have originated from similar juxtaposed mantle sources, with the HKG possibly related to slightly more enriched domains (with higher H2O reflected by the higher modal amphibole) with respect to LKG (with higher plagioclase/amphibole ratios). The evolution of the two rock series involved also open-system processes, taking place mainly in the upper crust for the HKG, in the lower crust for LKG magmas. In addition, limited occurrences of generally younger strongly evolved peraluminous rhyolites and microgranites (Acid group) and sialic-dominated "leucocratic" andesites and dacites (LAD group) were also recognized to the opposite outermost areas of the district. These two latter rock groups were generated by the melting of a basic metamorphic crustal source (respectively in hydrous and anhydrous conditions), favored by the heat released by mantle melts from the adjoining central area. The

  18. Late Miocene extension in coastal Sonora, México: Implications for the evolution of dextral shear in the proto-Gulf of California oblique rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darin, M. H.; Bennett, S. E. K.; Dorsey, R. J.; Oskin, M. E.; Iriondo, A.

    2016-12-01

    The timing, kinematics, and processes responsible for the rapid transition from subduction to oblique rifting and the localization of the Pacific-North America plate boundary in the Gulf of California are not well understood. Well exposed volcanic rocks deposited between 15 and 10 Ma in the Sierra Bacha (coastal Sonora, México) preserve a record of late Miocene deformation on the eastern rifted margin of the Gulf of California and offer new insights into the timing and kinematic evolution of oblique rifting. Detailed geologic mapping, fault kinematic analysis, U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology, and paleomagnetic data reveal that the > 2 km-thick composite volcanic section is cut by a series of southwest-dipping, domino-style normal faults and uniformly tilted down-to-the-northeast. Palinspastic cross-section restoration suggests that the region experienced ca. 55-60% northeast-southwest-directed extension between 11.7 and 10-9 Ma. Fault kinematic data reflect relatively minor dextral transtension either following or during the later stages of extension. Paleomagnetic results indicating modest clockwise vertical-axis block rotation suggest that dextral shear was concentrated in the southwest of the study area near the modern coastline. These results support an emerging model in which dextral strain was not ubiquitous across Sonora and did not initiate immediately following the 12.5 Ma transition from subduction to oblique rifting. Instead, strain east of the Baja California microplate at this latitude evolved from extension-dominated transtension prior to 8 Ma to dextral shear-dominated transtension by 7-6 Ma. The onset of dextral shear in coastal Sonora likely resulted from an increase in rift obliquity due to a change in relative plate motion direction at 8 Ma. The increase in rift obliquity and resultant onset of significant strike-slip faulting played a crucial role in facilitating subsequent plate boundary localization and marine incursion in the northern Gulf

  19. Chronostratigraphic framework for the late Miocene interval of IODP Exp. 355 Site U1457: timing of the C3-C4 transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tauxe, L.; Feakins, S. J.; Liddy, H.; Kulhanek, D. K.; Scardia, G.; Routledge, C.

    2017-12-01

    Combining magnetostratigraphic, biostratigraphic, and isotopic data for the Late Miocene interval of U1457 provides a tight temporal framework for the C3-C4 isotopic transition first documented by Quade et al. (1989) in northern Pakistan. We have re-evaluated the chronological constraints for the shifts recorded in Pakistan, Nepal and India. Records include those from Rhotas (Behrensmeyer et al., 2007), Jalalpur (Johnson et al., 1982, Quade and Cerling, 1995) from Pakistan, Jawalamukhti and Haripur Kola (NW India) in Voegeli et al. (2017) with magnetostratigraphic control from Meigs et al. (1995), and Sangode et al. (1996) and records from Nepal summarized by Quade et al. (1995) with magnetostratigraphic control documented by Ojha et al. (2009). An age for the C3-C4 transition at ca. 7.0 Ma is consistent with all records in hand suggesting that it is possible that the transition occurred simultaneously in the Indian subcontinent Ma (although differences are allowed but not demanded by the data). We also updated the magnetic and nannofossil stratigraphies for IODP Expedition 355, Site U1457, revising the calibration of certain nannofossil datums. These data, combined with geochemical proxy data sensitive to the C3-C4 transition (d13C values of C35 n-alkanes (per mil relative to PD Belemnite) which shows a transition at 648 mcd, lead to the tentative conclusion that the C3-C4 transition recorded at Site U1457 occurred within C3Ar, or also at ca. 7; it is apparently synchronous with the records on the Indian subcontinent. A.K. Behrensmeyer, J. Quade, T. E. Cerling , J. Kappelman, I. A. Khan, P. Copeland, L. Roe, J. Hicks, P. Stubblefield, B. J. Willis, C. Latorre, Geol. Soc. Am. Bull 119 1486-1505 (2007). F. M. Gradstein, J. G. Ogg, M. D. Schmitz, G. M. Ogg, (2012). N. M. Johnson, N. D. Opdyke, G. D. Johnson, E. H. Lindsay, R. A. K. Tahirkheli, Paleogeo. Paleoclim. and Paleoecol. 37 17-42 (1982). A.J. Meigs, D. W. Burbank, R. A. Beck, Geology 23 423-426 (1995). Ojha

  20. New beaked whales from the late Miocene of Peru and evidence for convergent evolution in stem and crown Ziphiidae (Cetacea, Odontoceti).

    PubMed

    Bianucci, Giovanni; Di Celma, Claudio; Urbina, Mario; Lambert, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    The Ziphiidae (beaked whales) represent a large group of open-ocean odontocetes (toothed cetaceans), whose elusive and deep diving behavior prevents direct observation in their natural habitat. Despite their generally large body size, broad geographical distribution, and high species number, ziphiids thus remain poorly known. Furthermore, the evolutionary processes that have led to their extreme adaptations and impressive extant diversity are still poorly understood. Here we report new fossil beaked whales from the late Miocene of the Pisco Formation (southern Peru). The best preserved remains here described are referred to two new genera and species, the Messinian Chavinziphius maxillocristatus and the Tortonian Chimuziphius coloradensis, based on skull remains from two marine vertebrate-rich localities: Cerro Los Quesos and Cerro Colorado, respectively. C. maxillocristatus is medium sized retains a complete set of functional lower teeth, and bears robust rostral maxillary crests similar to those of the extant Berardius. By contrast, C. coloradensis is small and characterized by large triangular nasals and moderately thickened premaxillae that dorsally close the mesorostral groove. Both species confirm the high past diversity of Ziphiidae, the richest cetacean family in terms of the number of genera and species. Our new phylogenetic and biogeographical analyses depart markedly from earlier studies in dividing beaked whales into two major clades: the Messapicetus clade, which, along with other stem ziphiids, once dominated the southeastern Pacific and North Atlantic; and crown Ziphiidae, the majority of which are found in deep-water regions of the Southern Ocean, with possible subsequent dispersal both globally (Mesoplodon and Ziphius) and to the cooler waters of the northern oceans (Berardius and Hyperoodon). Despite this relatively clear separation, both lineages seem to follow similar evolutionary trends, including (1) a progressive reduction of dentition; (2

  1. New beaked whales from the late Miocene of Peru and evidence for convergent evolution in stem and crown Ziphiidae (Cetacea, Odontoceti)

    PubMed Central

    Urbina, Mario; Lambert, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    The Ziphiidae (beaked whales) represent a large group of open-ocean odontocetes (toothed cetaceans), whose elusive and deep diving behavior prevents direct observation in their natural habitat. Despite their generally large body size, broad geographical distribution, and high species number, ziphiids thus remain poorly known. Furthermore, the evolutionary processes that have led to their extreme adaptations and impressive extant diversity are still poorly understood. Here we report new fossil beaked whales from the late Miocene of the Pisco Formation (southern Peru). The best preserved remains here described are referred to two new genera and species, the Messinian Chavinziphius maxillocristatus and the Tortonian Chimuziphius coloradensis, based on skull remains from two marine vertebrate-rich localities: Cerro Los Quesos and Cerro Colorado, respectively. C. maxillocristatus is medium sized retains a complete set of functional lower teeth, and bears robust rostral maxillary crests similar to those of the extant Berardius. By contrast, C. coloradensis is small and characterized by large triangular nasals and moderately thickened premaxillae that dorsally close the mesorostral groove. Both species confirm the high past diversity of Ziphiidae, the richest cetacean family in terms of the number of genera and species. Our new phylogenetic and biogeographical analyses depart markedly from earlier studies in dividing beaked whales into two major clades: the Messapicetus clade, which, along with other stem ziphiids, once dominated the southeastern Pacific and North Atlantic; and crown Ziphiidae, the majority of which are found in deep-water regions of the Southern Ocean, with possible subsequent dispersal both globally (Mesoplodon and Ziphius) and to the cooler waters of the northern oceans (Berardius and Hyperoodon). Despite this relatively clear separation, both lineages seem to follow similar evolutionary trends, including (1) a progressive reduction of dentition; (2

  2. Environmental change during the Late Berriasian - Early Valanginian: a prelude to the late Early Valanginian carbon-isotope event?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales, Chloé; Schnyder, Johann; Spangenberg, Jorge; Adatte, Thierry; Westermann, Stephane; Föllmi, Karl

    2010-05-01

    The Valanginian period is well known for a positive excursion in marine and terrestrial δ13C records, which has been interpreted as the consequence of a major perturbation in the global carbon cycle (Lini et al., 1992; Erba et al., 2004). In contrast to the positive δ13C excursions of the Early Aptian and latest Cenomanian, marine organic-rich sediments have only been recognized from a few localities (van de Schootbrugge et al., 2003; Reboulet et al., 2003; Gröcke et al., 2005; Westermann et al., in press). The δ13C excursion began in the late Early Valanginian (campylotoxus ammonite zone) and gradually ended during the Late Valanginian. It is associated with a phase of widespread carbonate-platform drowning on the shelf (Föllmi et al., 1994) and a decline in calcareous nannofossils in the pelagic realm (Erba et al., 2004). As a triggering mechanism, numerous authors invoke the formation of the Parañà-Etendeka flood basalt. The correlation of this episode with the Valanginian δ13C event depends, however, on the absolute ages attributed to the Valanginian stage. The recent geological timescale by Ogg et al. (2008) shows that the major eruptional phase occurred during the Late Valanginian. This may imply that the late Early Valanginian δ13C event resulted from a combination of different factors. Important paleoenvironmental change occurred already in the latest Berriasian and earliest Valanginian, prior to the positive δ13C excursion. An increase in nutrient input near the onset of the δ13C excursion (campylotoxus ammonite zone), which may be considered as a trigger of the carbon cycle perturbation, has been identified in different studies, (Hennig, 2003; Duchamp-Alphonse et al., 2007; Bornemann & Mutterlose, 2008). Heterozoan faunal associations became dominant since the Early Valanginian on the northern Tethyan Helvetic platform and may indicate the beginning of sea-water eutrophication (Föllmi et al., 2007). Clay assemblages in the Tethys and Western

  3. Correlation of Miocene strata on the submarine St. Croix Ridge and onland St. Croix, US Virgin Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Salis, Katharina; Speed, Robert

    1995-03-01

    The nannofossils of an hydraulic piston core from the steep scarp between the St. Croix Ridge and Virgin Islands Basin were restudied. Formerly thought to represent a Pliocene debris flow, we interpret it as an early Miocene (NN1/2) hemipelagic deposit. We correlate the seismic unit sampled by piston core with the Kingshill-Jealousy Formation present on St. Croix. These sediments likely belong to an extensive, thick, deep marine cover of the St. Croix Ridge, deposited on a metamorphic—igneous basement between early Eocene and early Miocene time. Faulting did not evidently affect this sediment cover until the late Neogene.

  4. Comparison of early versus late onset familial Mediterranean fever.

    PubMed

    Yasar Bilge, Nazife Sule; Sari, Ismail; Solmaz, Dilek; Senel, Soner; Emmungil, Hakan; Kilic, Levent; Yilmaz Oner, Sibel; Yildiz, Fatih; Yilmaz, Sedat; Ersozlu Bozkirli, Duygu; Aydin Tufan, Muge; Yilmaz, Sema; Yazisiz, Veli; Pehlivan, Yavuz; Bes, Cemal; Yildirim Cetin, Gozde; Erten, Sukran; Gonullu, Emel; Sahin, Fezan; Akar, Servet; Aksu, Kenan; Kalyoncu, Umut; Direskeneli, Haner; Erken, Eren; Sayarlioglu, Mehmet; Cınar, Muhammed; Kasifoglu, Timucin

    2018-04-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most common autoinflammatory disease. One of the common characteristics of this disease is its young age predominance. Nearly 90% of patients experience disease flares during early adult age periods. Currently there are limited data for the comparison of early versus late onset FMF and therefore the primary aim of this study was to investigate these two subsets with regard to their certain demographic, clinical and genetic differences. Early (≤ 20 years, Group 1) and late (> 20 years, Group 2) onset FMF patients were identified from the national FMF registry that involves 2246 patients from 15 adult rheumatology clinics located in different geographical areas of Turkey. Of the 2246 patients, 1633 (72.7%) were aged ≤ 20 years old (Group 1) and the remaining 613 were older than 20 years (Group 2). Delay in diagnosis was longer in Group 1 and fever, peritonitis, pleuritis, erysipelas-like erythema (ELE), arthritis, family history of FMF and amyloidosis were more common in Group 1. On the other hand, sex distribution, rates of amyloidosis, vasculitis and kidney failure were not different between the groups. Among patients with available genotypes, homozygous and heterozygous M694V mutations were significantly higher and heterozygous E148Q mutation was significantly lower in Group 1 compared to Group 2. Patients with FMF whose symptoms start before 20 years of age seem to have severe symptoms and M694V mutation may be responsible for the early expression of the disease. © 2018 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  5. Miocene tectono-stratigraphic history of La Mision basin, northwestern Baja California: implications for early tectonic development of southern California continental borderland

    SciTech Connect

    Ashby, J.R.; Minch, J.

    1988-03-01

    The middle Miocene La Mision basin in northwestern Baja California, Mexico, provides a rare opportunity to study an onshore portion of the southern California continental borderland. Stratigraphy, geometry of dispersal, and a variety of lithotypes within the volcanic and volcaniclastic sediments of the Rosarito Beach Formation provide clues to the nature of early tectonic evolution of this area during the Miocene. The elongated, trough-shaped La Mision basin formed in response to peninsular basement uplifts and the formation of volcanic highlands west of the present coastline. Lithologies and depositional environments represented within the basin sediments include: subaerial basalt flows and airfallmore » tuffs, submarine muddy- and sandy-matrix mudflow breccias, lapilli tuffs, crystal tuffs, tuffaceous sandstones,d diatomites, and conglomerates. The environments of deposition range from fluvatile to intertidal to shallow marine. Early basin infilling is characterized by sediments and basalts, with a western source terrane, that were deposited against the faulted seacliffs. progressive infilling against the seacliff resulted in the formation of an extensive eastward-sloping basaltic platform extending eastward to the foothill coastal belt of the Peninsular Ranges. Marine transgression and subsequent regression are recorded by diverse marine volcaniclastic lithologies. Abundant fossils, K-Ar dates, and paleomagnetic data obtained from the La Mision basin allow precise correlation with other areas in the continental borderland and provide conclusive evidence that this block of the borderland was formed and in its present position by 16-14 Ma.« less

  6. Characteristics of early versus late implant failure: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Manor, Yifat; Oubaid, Saheer; Mardinger, Ofer; Chaushu, Gavriel; Nissan, Joseph

    2009-12-01

    Implant failures can be divided into early and late according to the timing of failure. The purpose of this study was to characterize and compare both types. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in 194 patients (98 men and 96 women) who presented after dental implant failures during a 6-year period (2000 to 2006). The patient served as the unit of analysis. A history of at least 1 failed and removed dental implant served as the inclusion criterion. Patients were excluded from this study whenever their files had missing data. The collected data included a patient's characteristics, failure characteristics, and the anatomic status of the alveolar ridge after failure. Late failures were associated with moderate to severe bone loss, a larger number of failed implants per patient, a higher incidence in men, and mostly in posterior areas. Early failures were associated with minimal bone loss, occurred more in women, at a younger age, and in most cases the implants were intended to support single crowns. Meticulous follow-up is needed to reveal and treat failing or ailing implants. Once established as hopeless, they should be removed as soon as possible to prevent further bone loss.

  7. Early versus late initiation of epidural analgesia for labour.

    PubMed

    Sng, Ban Leong; Leong, Wan Ling; Zeng, Yanzhi; Siddiqui, Fahad Javaid; Assam, Pryseley N; Lim, Yvonne; Chan, Edwin S Y; Sia, Alex T

    2014-10-09

    Pain during childbirth is arguably the most severe pain some women may experience in their lifetime. Epidural analgesia is an effective form of pain relief during labour. Many women have concerns regarding its safety. Furthermore, epidural services and anaesthetic support may not be available consistently across all centres. Observational data suggest that early initiation of epidural may be associated with an increased risk of caesarean section, but the same findings were not seen in recent randomised controlled trials. More recent guidelines suggest that in the absence of a medical contraindication, maternal request is a sufficient medical indication for pain relief during labour. The choice of analgesic technique, agent, and dosage is based on many factors, including patient preference, medical status, and contraindications. There is no systematically reviewed evidence on the maternal and foetal outcomes and safety of this practice. This systematic review aimed to summarise the effectiveness and safety of early initiation versus late initiation of epidural analgesia in women. We considered the obstetric and fetal outcomes relevant to women and side effects of the treatments, including risk of caesarean section, instrumental birth and time to birth. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (12 February 2014), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2014, Issue 1), MEDLINE (January 1966 to February 2014), Embase (January 1980 to February 2014) and reference lists of retrieved studies. We included all randomised controlled trials involving women undergoing epidural labour analgesia that compared early initiation versus late initiation of epidural labour analgesia. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, extracted the data and assessed the trial quality. Data were checked for accuracy. We included nine studies with a total of 15,752 women.The overall risk of bias of

  8. The development of phonological skills in late and early talkers

    PubMed Central

    KEHOE, Margaret; CHAPLIN, Elisa; MUDRY, Pauline; FRIEND, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between phonological and lexical development in a group of French-speaking children (n=30), aged 29 months. The participants were divided into three sub-groups based on the number of words in their expressive vocabulary : low vocabulary (below the 15th percentile) (<< late-talkers >>) ; average-sized vocabulary (40-60th percentile) (<< middle group >>) and advanced vocabulary (above the 90th percentile) (<< precocious >> or “early talkers”). The phonological abilities (e.g., phonemic inventory, percentage of correct consonants, and phonological processes) of the three groups were compared. The comparison was based on analyses of spontaneous language samples. Most findings were consistent with previous results found in English-speaking children, indicating that the phonological abilities of late talkers are less well developed than those of children with average-sized vocabularies which in turn are less well-developed than those of children with advanced vocabularies. Nevertheless, several phonological measures were not related to vocabulary size, in particular those concerning syllable-final position. These findings differ from those obtained in English. The article finally discusses the clinical implications of the findings for children with delayed language development. PMID:26924855

  9. Juxtapapillary duodenal diverticula early and late clinical and therapeutical implications.

    PubMed

    Straja, D; Marincaş, M; Alecu, M; Boroghina, G; Simion, L; Stanescu, A; Drilea, E; Brătucu, E

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify the early and late implications of JPDD for biliary pathology, as well as for endoscopic therapy and classical surgery dealing mainly with lithiasis. This paper is based on a retrospective study comprising a number of 675 ERCP performed on 601 patients between 1997-2007, out of which 399 cases were followed by therapeutic measures. A total of 79 procedures were performed on 65 cases with JPDD. The main criteria were: gender, age, indications regarding the performance of ERCP+/-ES, complications that occurred while carrying out these procedures. In all the cases examined (601) the percentage of JPDD reported was of 10.81%. The rate of complications in the sphincterotomized patients without JPDD was 5.75% and the rate in the sphincterotomized patients with JPDD was 14.89%. In conclusion, the paper discusses the clinical and therapeutic implications of JPDD in biliary pathology. It has been found that JPDD is an important etiological cause for the late diseases occurring after cholelithiasis surgery. JPDD also leads to immediate therapeutic implications such as: difficult cannulation and high incidence of ERCP+/-ES complications.

  10. Viscous cosmology for early- and late-time universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, Iver; Grøn, Øyvind; de Haro, Jaume; Odintsov, Sergei D.; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.

    From a hydrodynamicist’s point of view the inclusion of viscosity concepts in the macroscopic theory of the cosmic fluid would appear most natural, as an ideal fluid is after all an abstraction (exluding special cases such as superconductivity). Making use of modern observational results for the Hubble parameter plus standard Friedmann formalism, we may extrapolate the description of the universe back in time up to the inflationary era, or we may go to the opposite extreme and analyze the probable ultimate fate of the universe. In this review, we discuss a variety of topics in cosmology when it is enlarged in order to contain a bulk viscosity. Various forms of this viscosity, when expressed in terms of the fluid density or the Hubble parameter, are discussed. Furthermore, we consider homogeneous as well as inhomogeneous equations of state. We investigate viscous cosmology in the early universe, examining the viscosity effects on the various inflationary observables. Additionally, we study viscous cosmology in the late universe, containing current acceleration and the possible future singularities, and we investigate how one may even unify inflationary and late-time acceleration. Finally, we analyze the viscosity-induced crossing through the quintessence-phantom divide, we examine the realization of viscosity-driven cosmological bounces, and we briefly discuss how the Cardy-Verlinde formula is affected by viscosity.

  11. X-ray fluorescence results from IODP Expedition 355 sediments in Laxmi Basin, eastern Arabian Sea: Insights into late Miocene and Pleistocene carbonate production and burial and possible variations in monsoon intensit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, M. G.; Kulhanek, D. K.; Lyle, M. W.; Hahn, A.

    2017-12-01

    Variations in CaCO3 accumulation on the seafloor depend on a number of factors, including productivity of carbonate-producing organisms in the overlying water column, input of siliciclastic material from nearby continents, and changes in ocean chemistry. These factors are affected by variations in tectonics and climate. Here we use X-ray fluorescence (XRF) core scanning data to develop high-resolution chemical profiles calibrated with discrete samples to examine changes in carbonate production and burial in the eastern Arabian Sea. International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 355 cored two sites in the Indus Fan in Laxmi Basin. We scanned the Pleistocene composite sections from both sites at 2 cm resolution ( 150-300 year sampling resolution) using the Avaatech XRF core scanner at the IODP Gulf Coast Repository. In addition, we scanned a hemipelagic interval dated to the late Miocene ( 8 to 6 Ma) that spans the late Miocene climate transition to drier conditions globally, as documented by an expansion in C4 plants. The 2 cm scanning resolution represents 500 years between samples for the upper Miocene section. We used carbonate measurements on discrete samples to calibrate the XRF data, supplemented by analysis using a quantitative benchtop XRF at the University of Bremen. We find large variability in carbonate content in the Pleistocene and upper Miocene, varying from 15-80 wt%, with higher carbonate content correlating with lighter colored sediment. The aluminosilicate composition varies in part because of carbonate dilution but also because of changes in the source of clays and turbidites through the section. We also explore the use of chemical ratios to better understand the variations through the section. Changes in Ca/Fe (biogenic/terrestrial component) and Rb/Zr (fine/coarse grained) match well with visual observation of sediment composition in the cores. We can combine these with the oxygen isotope-derived age model for the Pleistocene section to

  12. Mid Miocene Terrestrial Ecosystems: Information from Mammalian Herbivore Communities.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janis, C. M.; Damuth, J.; Theodor, J. M.

    2001-05-01

    In present day ecosystems the numbers and proportions of different kinds of ecologically distinct ungulates (hoofed mammals) provide an indicator of the nature of the vegetation in the habitat. Different vegetation types (such as forest, savanna, or grassland) are characteristically associated with different arrays of ungulates, with species exhibiting differences in diet, body size, and type of digestive fermentation system. These biological attributes can also be inferred for fossil ungulate species, the first two from quantitative assessment of skull and dental anatomy, and the last from phylogenetic affinity. Thus fossil ungulate communities may be used as indicators of the vegetation types of the habitats in which they lived. Vegetation types, in turn, are determined largely by a number of physical environmental factors. Typical ungulate communities of the late early to early middle Miocene (17 - 15 Ma) from the Great Plains of North America contained a diversity of browsing (leaf-eating) and grazing (grass-eating) species, with proportions of dietary types and a diversity of body sizes indicative of a woodland savanna habitat. Paleobotanical evidence also indicates a woodland savanna type of vegetation. However, these communities included a much larger number of ungulate species than can be found in any present-day community. The "excess" ungulate species were primarily browsers. Throughout the rest of the middle Miocene both species numbers and the proportion of browsers in ungulate communities appear to have declined steadily. During this decline in browser species the numbers of grazer species remained relatively constant. Within-community species numbers comparable to the present day were attained by the late Miocene. We suggest that the early Miocene browser-rich communities, and their subsequent decline, carry an important paleoenvironmental signal. In particular, communities "over rich" in browsers may reflect higher levels of primary productivity in

  13. Plate tectonic model for the oligo-miocene evolution of the western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Curtis R.

    1980-10-01

    This paper outlines a plate tectonic model for the Oligo-Miocene evolution of the western Mediterranean which incorporates recent data from several tectonic domains (Corsica, Sardinia, the Kabylies, Balearic promontory, Iberia, Algero-Provençal Basin and Tunisian Atlas). Following late Mesozoic anticlockwise rotation of the Iberian peninsula (including the Balearic promontory and Sardinia), late Eocene collision occurred between the Kabylies and Balearic promontory forming a NE-trending suture with NW-tectonic polarity. As a result of continued convergence between the African and European plates, a polarity flip occurred and a southward-facing trench formed south of the Kabylie—Balearic promontory suture. During late Oligocene time an E-W-trending arc and marginal basin developed behind the southward-facing trench in the area of the present-day Gulf of Lion. Opening of this basin moved the Corsica—Sardinia—Calabria—Petit Kabylie—Menorca plate southward, relative to the African plate. Early Miocene back-arc spreading in the area between the Balearic promontory and Grand Kabylie emplaced the latter in northern Algeria and formed the South Balearic Basin. Coeval with early Miocene back-arc basin development, the N-S-extension in the Gulf of Lion marginal basin changed to a more NW-SE direction causing short-lived extension in the area of the present-day Valencia trough and a 30° anticlockwise rotation of the Corsica-Sardinia-Calabria—Petit Kabylie plate away from the European plate. Early—middle Miocene deformation along the western Italian and northeastern African continental margins resulted from this rotation. During the early late Miocene (Tortonian), spreading within a sphenochasm to the southwest of Sardinia resulted in the emplacement of Petit Kabylie in northeastern Algeria.

  14. Late cenozoic fluvial stratigraphy of the New Jersey piedmont: A record of glacioeustasy, planation, and incision on a low-relief passive margin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanford, S.D.; Ashley, G.M.; Brenner, G.J.

    2001-01-01

    Late Cenozoic fluvial deposits and erosional landforms in the New Jersey Piedmont record two episodes of valley incision, one in the Late Miocene and one in the Early Pleistocene, separated by periods of planation and fluvial deposition. The upland erosion surface and a fluvial gravel are the remnants of a low-relief Late Miocene landscape. Late Miocene incision was followed by deposition of a fluvial plain and cutting of straths in the Pliocene. Early Pleistocene incision produced the present valleys, which contain Middle to Late Pleistocene fluvial deposits. The two incisions correspond to permanent glacioeustatic lowering during expansion of the Antarctic ice sheet in the Middle to Late Miocene and development of Northern Hemisphere ice sheets in the Late Pliocene. Bordering Coastal Plain marine deposits indicate that the upland erosion surface was formed during a rising sea-level trend between the Late Oligocene and Middle Miocene. The Pliocene plain and straths formed during a period of rising sea level in the Early Pliocene. The stratigraphic record indicates that the oldest preserved landforms are no older than Late Miocene, that landscape planation in coastal regions of low-relief passive margins can be achieved in <20 m.yr., and that these surfaces can be incised and dissected in <5 m.yr.

  15. Early Permian Pangea `B' to Late Permian Pangea `A'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muttoni, Giovanni; Kent, Dennis V.; Garzanti, Eduardo; Brack, Peter; Abrahamsen, Niels; Gaetani, Maurizio

    2003-10-01

    The pre-drift Wegenerian model of Pangea is almost universally accepted, but debate exists on its pre-Jurassic configuration since Ted Irving introduced Pangea 'B' by placing Gondwana farther to the east by ˜3000 km with respect to Laurasia on the basis of paleomagnetic data. New paleomagnetic data from radiometrically dated Early Permian volcanic rocks from parts of Adria that are tectonically coherent with Africa (Gondwana), integrated with published coeval data from Gondwana and Laurasia, again only from igneous rocks, fully support a Pangea 'B' configuration in the Early Permian. The use of paleomagnetic data strictly from igneous rocks excludes artifacts from sedimentary inclination error as a contributing explanation for Pangea 'B'. The ultimate option to reject Pangea 'B' is to abandon the geocentric axial dipole hypothesis by introducing a significant non-dipole (zonal octupole) component in the Late Paleozoic time-averaged geomagnetic field. We demonstrate, however, by using a dataset consisting entirely of paleomagnetic directions with low inclinations from sampling sites confined to one hemisphere from Gondwana as well as Laurasia that the effects of a zonal octupole field contribution would not explain away the paleomagnetic evidence for Pangea 'B' in the Early Permian. We therefore regard the paleomagnetic evidence for an Early Permian Pangea 'B' as robust. The transformation from Pangea 'B' to Pangea 'A' took place during the Permian because Late Permian paleomagnetic data allow a Pangea 'A' configuration. We therefore review geological evidence from the literature in support of an intra-Pangea dextral megashear system. The transformation occurred after the cooling of the Variscan mega-suture and lasted ˜20 Myr. In this interval, the Neotethys Ocean opened between India/Arabia and the Cimmerian microcontinents in the east, while widespread lithospheric wrenching and magmatism took place in the west around the Adriatic promontory. The general

  16. Late Pleistocene climate drivers of early human migration.

    PubMed

    Timmermann, Axel; Friedrich, Tobias

    2016-10-06

    On the basis of fossil and archaeological data it has been hypothesized that the exodus of Homo sapiens out of Africa and into Eurasia between ~50-120 thousand years ago occurred in several orbitally paced migration episodes. Crossing vegetated pluvial corridors from northeastern Africa into the Arabian Peninsula and the Levant and expanding further into Eurasia, Australia and the Americas, early H. sapiens experienced massive time-varying climate and sea level conditions on a variety of timescales. Hitherto it has remained difficult to quantify the effect of glacial- and millennial-scale climate variability on early human dispersal and evolution. Here we present results from a numerical human dispersal model, which is forced by spatiotemporal estimates of climate and sea level changes over the past 125 thousand years. The model simulates the overall dispersal of H. sapiens in close agreement with archaeological and fossil data and features prominent glacial migration waves across the Arabian Peninsula and the Levant region around 106-94, 89-73, 59-47 and 45-29 thousand years ago. The findings document that orbital-scale global climate swings played a key role in shaping Late Pleistocene global population distributions, whereas millennial-scale abrupt climate changes, associated with Dansgaard-Oeschger events, had a more limited regional effect.

  17. Late Pleistocene climate drivers of early human migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmermann, Axel; Friedrich, Tobias

    2016-10-01

    On the basis of fossil and archaeological data it has been hypothesized that the exodus of Homo sapiens out of Africa and into Eurasia between ~50-120 thousand years ago occurred in several orbitally paced migration episodes. Crossing vegetated pluvial corridors from northeastern Africa into the Arabian Peninsula and the Levant and expanding further into Eurasia, Australia and the Americas, early H. sapiens experienced massive time-varying climate and sea level conditions on a variety of timescales. Hitherto it has remained difficult to quantify the effect of glacial- and millennial-scale climate variability on early human dispersal and evolution. Here we present results from a numerical human dispersal model, which is forced by spatiotemporal estimates of climate and sea level changes over the past 125 thousand years. The model simulates the overall dispersal of H. sapiens in close agreement with archaeological and fossil data and features prominent glacial migration waves across the Arabian Peninsula and the Levant region around 106-94, 89-73, 59-47 and 45-29 thousand years ago. The findings document that orbital-scale global climate swings played a key role in shaping Late Pleistocene global population distributions, whereas millennial-scale abrupt climate changes, associated with Dansgaard-Oeschger events, had a more limited regional effect.

  18. Late effects of early growth hormone treatment in Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Myrelid, Å; Bergman, S; Elfvik Strömberg, M; Jonsson, B; Nyberg, F; Gustafsson, J; Annerén, G

    2010-05-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is associated with short stature and psychomotor delay. We have previously shown that growth hormone (GH) treatment during infancy and childhood normalizes growth velocity and improves fine motor skill performance in DS. The aim of this study was to investigate late effects of early GH treatment on growth and psychomotor development in the DS subjects from the previous trial. Twelve of 15 adolescents with DS (3 F) from the GH group and 10 of 15 controls (5 F) participated in this follow-up study. Fifteen other subjects with DS (6 F) were included as controls in anthropometric analyses. Cognitive function was assessed with the Leiter International Performance Scale-Revised (Leiter-R) and selected subtests of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Third edition (WISC-III). The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, Second edition (BOT-2), was used to assess general motor ability. Although early GH treatment had no effect on final height, the treated subjects had a greater head circumference standard deviation score (SDS) than the controls (-1.6 SDS vs. -2.2 SDS). The adolescents previously treated with GH had scores above those of the controls in all subtests of Leiter-R and WISC-III, but no difference in Brief IQ-score was seen between the groups. The age-adjusted motor performance of all subjects was below -2 SD, but the GH-treated subjects performed better than the controls in all but one subtest. The combined finding of a greater head circumference SDS and better psychomotor performance indicates that DS subjects may benefit from early GH treatment.

  19. Late Tharsis formation and implications for early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouley, Sylvain; Baratoux, David; Matsuyama, Isamu; Forget, Francois; Séjourné, Antoine; Turbet, Martin; Costard, Francois

    2016-03-01

    The Tharsis region is the largest volcanic complex on Mars and in the Solar System. Young lava flows cover its surface (from the Amazonian period, less than 3 billion years ago) but its growth started during the Noachian era (more than 3.7 billion years ago). Its position has induced a reorientation of the planet with respect to its spin axis (true polar wander, TPW), which is responsible for the present equatorial position of the volcanic province. It has been suggested that the Tharsis load on the lithosphere influenced the orientation of the Noachian/Early Hesperian (more than 3.5 billion years ago) valley networks and therefore that most of the topography of Tharsis was completed before fluvial incision. Here we calculate the rotational figure of Mars (that is, its equilibrium shape) and its surface topography before Tharsis formed, when the spin axis of the planet was controlled by the difference in elevation between the northern and southern hemispheres (hemispheric dichotomy). We show that the observed directions of valley networks are also consistent with topographic gradients in this configuration and thus do not require the presence of the Tharsis load. Furthermore, the distribution of the valleys along a small circle tilted with respect to the equator is found to correspond to a southern-hemisphere latitudinal band in the pre-TPW geographical frame. Preferential accumulation of ice or water in a south tropical band is predicted by climate model simulations of early Mars applied to the pre-TPW topography. A late growth of Tharsis, contemporaneous with valley incision, has several implications for the early geological history of Mars, including the existence of glacial environments near the locations of the pre-TPW poles of rotation, and a possible link between volcanic outgassing from Tharsis and the stability of liquid water at the surface of Mars.

  20. Late Tharsis formation and implications for early Mars.

    PubMed

    Bouley, Sylvain; Baratoux, David; Matsuyama, Isamu; Forget, Francois; Séjourné, Antoine; Turbet, Martin; Costard, Francois

    2016-03-17

    The Tharsis region is the largest volcanic complex on Mars and in the Solar System. Young lava flows cover its surface (from the Amazonian period, less than 3 billion years ago) but its growth started during the Noachian era (more than 3.7 billion years ago). Its position has induced a reorientation of the planet with respect to its spin axis (true polar wander, TPW), which is responsible for the present equatorial position of the volcanic province. It has been suggested that the Tharsis load on the lithosphere influenced the orientation of the Noachian/Early Hesperian (more than 3.5 billion years ago) valley networks and therefore that most of the topography of Tharsis was completed before fluvial incision. Here we calculate the rotational figure of Mars (that is, its equilibrium shape) and its surface topography before Tharsis formed, when the spin axis of the planet was controlled by the difference in elevation between the northern and southern hemispheres (hemispheric dichotomy). We show that the observed directions of valley networks are also consistent with topographic gradients in this configuration and thus do not require the presence of the Tharsis load. Furthermore, the distribution of the valleys along a small circle tilted with respect to the equator is found to correspond to a southern-hemisphere latitudinal band in the pre-TPW geographical frame. Preferential accumulation of ice or water in a south tropical band is predicted by climate model simulations of early Mars applied to the pre-TPW topography. A late growth of Tharsis, contemporaneous with valley incision, has several implications for the early geological history of Mars, including the existence of glacial environments near the locations of the pre-TPW poles of rotation, and a possible link between volcanic outgassing from Tharsis and the stability of liquid water at the surface of Mars.

  1. Baltica from the Late Precambrian to the Early Ordovician

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torsvik, T. H.; Cocks, L. R.

    2004-05-01

    Current thinking supports the existence of the Rodinia supercontinent which consolidated at perhaps 1100 to 1000 million years ago and most probably disintegrated somewhere before 800 Ma. Within the Rodinian collage, Baltica was adjacent to, and probably welded to, Laurentia, with the modern eastern (Uralian) part of Baltica conjugate with the north of Laurentia. Laurentia was in turn attached to the South American terranes of Rio Plata and Amazonia, and possibly also West Africa. Baltica became an independent terrane when it split off from Laurentia, leaving a widening Iapetus Ocean between the two. When this rifting actually commenced is a matter of dispute due to very conflicting palaeomagnetic data from both Laurentia and Baltica; however, we favor that the southern part of the Iapetus, between Laurentia and South America, opened first at about 570 Ma and that this rifting spread gradually northwards until Baltica separated from Laurentia at approximately 550 Ma, near the end of Precambrian time at 543 Ma. New palaeomagnetic and geochronological data from the 616-610 Ma Egersund Dykes (SW Baltica) place Baltica at the south pole whereas subsequent Late Precambrian to Early Cambrian poles places Baltica at lower latitudes. During the late and middle Vendian, the NW margin of Baltica changed from an extensional tectonic regime to an active margin (Timanian Orogeny) in which microcontinental blocks in the Timan-Pechora, northern Ural and Novaya Zemlya areas were united with Baltica at 550-560 Ma. Largely between Middle Cambrian and Middle Ordovician times, the whole large terrane of Baltica underwent a very substantial rotation of about 120°, the maximum rate of this rotation occurred in late Cambrian and early Ordovician times. Much of the craton of Baltica appears to have been submerged under shelf seas for long parts of this time, which lasted from 544 to 490 Ma. As a consequence the olenid trilobite fauna represent a fauna living largely in niches which were

  2. Vascular Effects of Early versus Late Postmenopausal Treatment with Estradiol.

    PubMed

    Hodis, Howard N; Mack, Wendy J; Henderson, Victor W; Shoupe, Donna; Budoff, Matthew J; Hwang-Levine, Juliana; Li, Yanjie; Feng, Mei; Dustin, Laurie; Kono, Naoko; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Selzer, Robert H; Azen, Stanley P

    2016-03-31

    Data suggest that estrogen-containing hormone therapy is associated with beneficial effects with regard to cardiovascular disease when the therapy is initiated temporally close to menopause but not when it is initiated later. However, the hypothesis that the cardiovascular effects of postmenopausal hormone therapy vary with the timing of therapy initiation (the hormone-timing hypothesis) has not been tested. A total of 643 healthy postmenopausal women were stratified according to time since menopause (<6 years [early postmenopause] or ≥10 years [late postmenopause]) and were randomly assigned to receive either oral 17β-estradiol (1 mg per day, plus progesterone [45 mg] vaginal gel administered sequentially [i.e., once daily for 10 days of each 30-day cycle] for women with a uterus) or placebo (plus sequential placebo vaginal gel for women with a uterus). The primary outcome was the rate of change in carotid-artery intima-media thickness (CIMT), which was measured every 6 months. Secondary outcomes included an assessment of coronary atherosclerosis by cardiac computed tomography (CT), which was performed when participants completed the randomly assigned regimen. After a median of 5 years, the effect of estradiol, with or without progesterone, on CIMT progression differed between the early and late postmenopause strata (P=0.007 for the interaction). Among women who were less than 6 years past menopause at the time of randomization, the mean CIMT increased by 0.0078 mm per year in the placebo group versus 0.0044 mm per year in the estradiol group (P=0.008). Among women who were 10 or more years past menopause at the time of randomization, the rates of CIMT progression in the placebo and estradiol groups were similar (0.0088 and 0.0100 mm per year, respectively; P=0.29). CT measures of coronary-artery calcium, total stenosis, and plaque did not differ significantly between the placebo group and the estradiol group in either postmenopause stratum. Oral estradiol

  3. Emergence and early survival of early versus late seral species in Great Basin restoration in two different soil types

    Treesearch

    Shauna M. Uselman; Keirith A. Snyder; Elizabeth A. Leger; Sara E. Duke

    2015-01-01

    Comparing emergence and survival probabilities, early seral natives generally outperformed late seral natives when growing with exotics and had earlier emergence timing, although results differed among functional groups and soil types. In contrast, survival probabilities did not differ between the early and late seral mixes when growing without exotics. Within each...

  4. Predictors of early and late stroke following cardiac surgery

    PubMed Central

    Whitlock, Richard; Healey, Jeff S.; Connolly, Stuart J.; Wang, Julie; Danter, Matthew R.; Tu, Jack V.; Novick, Richard; Fremes, Stephen; Teoh, Kevin; Khera, Vikas; Yusuf, Salim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Much is known about the short-term risks of stroke following cardiac surgery. We examined the rate and predictors of long-term stroke in a cohort of patients who underwent cardiac surgery. Methods: We obtained linked data for patients who underwent cardiac surgery in the province of Ontario between 1996 and 2006. We analyzed the incidence of stroke and death up to 2 years postoperatively. Results: Of 108 711 patients, 1.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.7%–1.9%) had a stroke perioperatively, and 3.6% (95% CI 3.5%–3.7%) had a stroke within the ensuing 2 years. The strongest predictors of both early and late stroke were advanced age (≥ 65 year; adjusted hazard ratio [HR] for all stroke 1.9, 95% CI 1.8–2.0), a history of stroke or transient ischemic attack (adjusted HR 2.1, 95% CI 1.9–2.3), peripheral vascular disease (adjusted HR 1.6, 95% CI 1.5–1.7), combined coronary bypass grafting and valve surgery (adjusted HR 1.7, 95% CI 1.5–1.8) and valve surgery alone (adjusted HR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2–1.5). Preoperative need for dialysis (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.1, 95% CI 1.6–2.8) and new-onset postoperative atrial fibrillation (adjusted OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.3–1.6) were predictors of only early stroke. A CHADS2 score of 2 or higher was associated with an increased risk of stroke or death compared with a score of 0 or 1 (19.9% v. 9.3% among patients with a history of atrial fibrillation, 16.8% v. 7.8% among those with new-onset postoperative atrial fibrillation and 14.8% v. 5.8% among those without this condition). Interpretation: Patients who had cardiac surgery were at highest risk of stroke in the early postoperative period and had continued risk over the ensuing 2 years, with similar risk factors over these periods. New-onset postoperative atrial fibrillation was a predictor of only early stroke. The CHADS2 score predicted stroke risk among patients with and without atrial fibrillation. PMID:25047983

  5. Personality differences in early versus late suicide attempters.

    PubMed

    Lewitzka, Ute; Denzin, Sebastian; Sauer, Cathrin; Bauer, Michael; Jabs, Burkhard

    2016-08-09

    Suicidality is an individual behaviour caused by a complex framework of internal and external factors. The predictive values of personality traits for a suicide attempt have been demonstrated, especially in conjunction with Cloninger's TCI and impulsivity. Two issues remain unsolved, namely whether these traits alter over time after a suicide attempt, and how they may be influenced by depressive symptoms. We studied two patient cohorts: one sample of 81 patients after a suicide attempt no longer than 3 months previously (SA early) and another sample of 32 patients whose attempt had taken place more than 6 months previously (SA late). We carried out structured interviews with these subjects addressing diagnosis (MINI), suicidality (Scale for suicide ideation), depression (HAMD-17), temperament and character inventory (TCI), and impulsivity (BIS-10). Data analysis was done using SPSS 16.0. Our two groups did not differ significantly in sociodemographics or suicidality. However, patients in the SA early group were significantly more depressed (p < 0.001), and scored lower in reward dependence (p < 0.001) and persistence (p = 0.005) but higher in harm avoidance (p < 0.001); they did not differ significantly in impulsivity (p < 0.01). Reward dependence, persistence, and harm avoidance remained significantly different between the two groups after controlling for depressive symptoms. Our findings suggest that some personality traits vary after a suicide attempt. Further investigations are necessary to verify our results, ideally in longitudinal studies with larger, carefully-described cohorts. It would be also clinically important to investigate the influence of therapeutic strategies on the variability of personality traits and their impact on suicidal behavior.

  6. Late Tharsis tectonic activity and implications for Early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouley, S.; Baratoux, D.; Paulien, N.; Missenard, Y.; Saint-Bezar, B.

    2017-12-01

    Constraining the timing of Tharsis volcanism is critical to understanding the planet's evolution including its climate, surface environment and mantle dynamics. The tectonic history of the Tharsis bulge was previously documented from the distribution and ages of related tectonic features [1]. Here we revisit the ages of 7493 Tharsis-related tectonic features based on their relationship with stratigraphic units defined in the new geological map [2]. Conversely to previous tectonic mapping [1], which suggested that Tharsis growth was nearly achieved during the Noachian, we find a protracted growth of Tharsis during the Hesperian. Faulting at Tempe Terra, Claritas and Coracis Fossae and Thaumasia Planum confirms that tectonic deformation started during the Noachian. Accumulated tectonic deformation was maximum in the Early Hesperian for compressional strain (Solis, Lunae and Ascuris Planum) and extended over time from Noachian to Amazonian for extensional strain (Noctis Labyrinthus and Fossae, Sinai Planum and Tractus, Ulysses and Fortuna fossae, Alba Patera). This new scenario is consistent with a protracted growth of Tharsis dome during the Hesperian and with the timing a large Tharsis-driven true polar wander post-dating the incision of Late Noachian/Hesperian valley networks[3]. References:[1] Anderson et al. JGR-Planets 106, E9, 20,563-20,585 (2001).[2] Tanaka, K.L. et al. Geologic map of Mars (2014). [3] Bouley et al. Nature doi:10.1038 (2016)

  7. Early versus late repair of bile duct injuries.

    PubMed

    Mercado, Miguel Angel

    2006-11-01

    Biliary injuries associated with laparoscopic cholecystectomy occur at a constant rate of 0.3% to 0.6%. The spectrum of injures ranges from small leaks of bile to complete section of the main ducts requiring bilioenteric reconstruction. The goal of biliary reconstruction is to obtain a high-quality bilioenteric anastomosis that will not malfunction for a long time. No prospective, controlled, randomized trial (evidence level 1) has been conducted that shows whether an early repair is better than a late one. The timing of the operative procedure should be individualized. A complete examination of the patient should be performed to identify the type of injury and coexistent comorbidities. For septic patients and those with multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, the repair should be delayed. Maneuvers to drain the bile ducts can be performed to relieve jaundice and cholangitis in these patients. For these cases, the surgery should be delayed. If a stable patient is found, without comorbidities, the operation can be scheduled earlier. Subhepatic drains should not be left for a long period because of the risk for intestinal fistulization. If needed, they should be changed for transhepatic stents. High-quality bilioenteric anastomoses are performed with fine absorbable sutures for healthy ducts (nonscarred, noninflamed, nonischemic) in a wide opening, with anastomosis of a (tension-free) defunctionalized jejunal limb. Individualization of the patient is the best rule.

  8. Early and Late Onset Side Effects of Photodynamic Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Borgia, Francesco; Giuffrida, Roberta; Caradonna, Emanuela; Guarneri, Fabrizio; Cannavò, Serafinella P.

    2018-01-01

    Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) is a non-invasive treatment successfully used for neoplastic, inflammatory and infectious skin diseases. One of its strengths is represented by the high safety profile, even in elderly and/or immuno-depressed subjects. PDT, however, may induce early and late onset side effects. Erythema, pain, burns, edema, itching, desquamation, and pustular formation, often in association with each other, are frequently observed in course of exposure to the light source and in the hours/days immediately after the therapy. In particular, pain is a clinically relevant short-term complication that also reduces long-term patient satisfaction. Rare complications are urticaria, contact dermatitis at the site of application of the photosensitizer, and erosive pustular dermatosis. Debated is the relationship between PDT and carcinogenesis: the eruptive appearance of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in previously treated areas has been correlated to a condition of local and/or systemic immunosuppression or to the selection of PDT-resistant SCC. Here we review the literature, with particular emphasis to the pathogenic hypotheses underlying these observations. PMID:29382133

  9. Middle Miocene vertebrates from the Amazonian Madre de Dios Subandean Zone, Perú

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoine, Pierre-Olivier; Roddaz, Martin; Brichau, Stéphanie; Tejada-Lara, Julia; Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo; Altamirano, Ali; Louterbach, Mélanie; Lambs, Luc; Otto, Thierry; Brusset, Stéphane

    2013-03-01

    A new middle Miocene vertebrate fauna from Peruvian Amazonia is described. It yields the marsupials Sipalocyon sp. (Hathliacynidae) and Marmosa (Micoureus) cf. laventica (Didelphidae), as well as an unidentified glyptodontine xenarthran and the rodents Guiomys sp. (Caviidae), “Scleromys” sp., cf. quadrangulatus-schurmanni-colombianus (Dinomyidae), an unidentified acaremyid, and cf. Microsteiromys sp. (Erethizontidae). Apatite Fission Track provides a detrital age (17.1 ± 2.4 Ma) for the locality, slightly older than its inferred biochronological age (Colloncuran-early Laventan South American Land Mammal Ages: ˜15.6-13.0 Ma). Put together, both the mammalian assemblage and lithology of the fossil-bearing level point to a mixture of tropical rainforest environment and more open habitats under a monsoonal-like tropical climate. The fully fluvial origin of the concerned sedimentary sequence suggests that the Amazonian Madre de Dios Subandean Zone was not part of the Pebas mega-wetland System by middle Miocene times. This new assemblage seems to reveal a previously undocumented “spatiotemporal transition” between the late early Miocene assemblages from high latitudes (Patagonia and Southern Chile) and the late middle Miocene faunas of low latitudes (Colombia, Perú, Venezuela, and ?Brazil).

  10. Towards an Accurate Orbital Calibration of Late Miocene Climate Events: Insights From a High-Resolution Chemo- and Magnetostratigraphy (8-6 Ma) from Equatorial Pacific IODP Sites U1337 and U1338

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drury, A. J.; Westerhold, T.; Frederichs, T.; Wilkens, R.; Channell, J. E. T.; Evans, H. F.; Hodell, D. A.; John, C. M.; Lyle, M. W.; Roehl, U.; Tian, J.

    2015-12-01

    In the 8-6 Ma interval, the late Miocene is characterised by a long-term -0.3 ‰ reduction in benthic foraminiferal δ18O and distinctive short-term δ18O cycles, possibly related to dynamic Antarctic ice sheet variability. In addition, the late Miocene carbon isotope shift (LMCIS) marks a permanent long-term -1 ‰ shift in oceanic δ13CDIC, which is the largest, long-term perturbation in the global marine carbon cycle since the mid Miocene Monterey excursion. Accurate age control is crucial to investigate the origin of the δ18O cyclicity and determine the precise onset of the LMCIS. The current Geological Time Scale in the 8-6 Ma interval is constructed using astronomical tuning of sedimentary cycles in Mediterranean outcrops. However, outside of the Mediterranean, a comparable high-resolution chemo-, magneto-, and cyclostratigraphy at a single DSDP/ODP/IODP site does not exist. Generating an accurate astronomically-calibrated chemo- and magneto-stratigraphy in the 8-6 Ma interval became possible with retrieval of equatorial Pacific IODP Sites U1337 and U1338, as both sites have sedimentation rates ~2 cm/kyr, high biogenic carbonate content, and magnetic polarity stratigraphies. Here we present high-resolution correlation of Sites U1337 and U1338 using Milankovitch-related cycles in core images and X-ray fluorescence core scanning data. By combining inclination and declination data from ~400 new discrete samples with shipboard measurements, we are able to identify 14 polarity reversals at Site U1337 from the young end of Chron C3An.1n (~6.03 Ma) to the onset of Chron C4n.2n (~8.11 Ma). New high-resolution (<1.5 kyr) stable isotope records from Site U1337 correlate highly with Site U1338 records, enabling construction of a high-resolution stack. Initial orbital tuning of the U1337-U1338 records show that the δ18O cyclicity is obliquity driven, indicating high-latitude climate forcing. The LMCIS starts ~7.55 Ma and is anchored in Chron C4n.1n, which is

  11. Early to middle Miocene climate evolution: New insights from IODP Sites U1335, U1337 and U1338 (eastern equatorial Pacific Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochhann, Karlos G. D.; Holbourn, Ann; Kuhnt, Wolfgang; Lyle, Mitch; Raffi, Isabella; Channell, James E.; Andersen, Nils

    2015-04-01

    The lower to middle Miocene (~20 to 13 Ma) carbonate-rich sedimentary successions recovered at Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Sites U1335, U1337 and U1338 allow unsurpassed resolution over the Climatic Optimum (16.9-14.7 Ma) and the transition into a colder climate mode after 13.9 Ma with re-establishment of permanent Antarctic ice sheets. High-resolution (1-10 kyr) stable carbon (δ13C) and oxygen (δ18O) isotopes of well-preserved epibenthic foraminifera (Cibicidoides mundulus and Planulina wuellerstorfi) from these three sites show that the Climatic Optimum was characterized by high-amplitude climate variations and intense perturbations of the carbon cycle. Episodes of peak warmth coincided with transient shoaling of the carbonate compensation depth and enhanced carbonate dissolution in the deep ocean. The U1335 and U1337 records additionally reveal that the rapid global warming and/or polar ice melting event, marking the onset of the Climatic Optimum at ~16.9 Ma, was coupled to a massive increase in carbonate dissolution, indicated by sharp drops in carbonate percentages and accumulation rates and by the fragmentation or complete dissolution of planktonic foraminifers. After ~14.7 Ma, stepwise global cooling, culminating with extensive ice growth over Antarctica at ~13.8 Ma, coincide with enhanced opal and benthic foraminiferal accumulation rates, suggesting that increased siliceous productivity and organic carbon burial may have contributed to CO2 drawdown. Integration of age models derived from orbitally-tuned, high-resolution isotopes, biostratigraphic data and magnetic reversals allows further constraints on the temporal sequence of events and helps unravel the drivers of early to middle Miocene climate variations.

  12. Correlating carbon and oxygen isotope events in early to middle Miocene shallow marine carbonates in the Mediterranean region using orbitally tuned chemostratigraphy and lithostratigraphy

    PubMed Central

    Piller, Werner E.; Reuter, Markus; Harzhauser, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    Abstract During the Miocene prominent oxygen isotope events (Mi‐events) reflect major changes in glaciation, while carbonate isotope maxima (CM‐events) reflect changes in organic carbon burial, particularly during the Monterey carbon isotope excursion. However, despite their importance to the global climate history they have never been recorded in shallow marine carbonate successions. The Decontra section on the Maiella Platform (central Apennines, Italy), however, allows to resolve them for the first time in such a setting during the early to middle Miocene. The present study improves the stratigraphic resolution of parts of the Decontra section via orbital tuning of high‐resolution gamma ray (GR) and magnetic susceptibility data to the 405 kyr eccentricity metronome. The tuning allows, within the established biostratigraphic, sequence stratigraphic, and isotope stratigraphic frameworks, a precise correlation of the Decontra section with pelagic records of the Mediterranean region, as well as the global paleoclimatic record and the global sea level curve. Spectral series analyses of GR data further indicate that the 405 kyr orbital cycle is particularly well preserved during the Monterey Event. Since GR is a direct proxy for authigenic uranium precipitation during increased burial of organic carbon in the Decontra section, it follows the same long‐term orbital pacing as observed in the carbon isotope records. The 405 kyr GR beat is thus correlated with the carbon isotope maxima observed during the Monterey Event. Finally, the Mi‐events can now be recognized in the δ18O record and coincide with plankton‐rich, siliceous, or phosphatic horizons in the lithology of the section. PMID:27546980

  13. Correlating carbon and oxygen isotope events in early to middle Miocene shallow marine carbonates in the Mediterranean region using orbitally tuned chemostratigraphy and lithostratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auer, Gerald; Piller, Werner E.; Reuter, Markus; Harzhauser, Mathias

    2015-04-01

    During the Miocene prominent oxygen isotope events (Mi-events) reflect major changes in glaciation, while carbonate isotope maxima (CM-events) reflect changes in organic carbon burial, particularly during the Monterey carbon isotope excursion. However, despite their importance to the global climate history they have never been recorded in shallow marine carbonate successions. The Decontra section on the Maiella Platform (central Apennines, Italy), however, allows to resolve them for the first time in such a setting during the early to middle Miocene. The present study improves the stratigraphic resolution of parts of the Decontra section via orbital tuning of high-resolution gamma ray (GR) and magnetic susceptibility data to the 405 kyr eccentricity metronome. The tuning allows, within the established biostratigraphic, sequence stratigraphic, and isotope stratigraphic frameworks, a precise correlation of the Decontra section with pelagic records of the Mediterranean region, as well as the global paleoclimatic record and the global sea level curve. Spectral series analyses of GR data further indicate that the 405 kyr orbital cycle is particularly well preserved during the Monterey Event. Since GR is a direct proxy for authigenic uranium precipitation during increased burial of organic carbon in the Decontra section, it follows the same long-term orbital pacing as observed in the carbon isotope records. The 405 kyr GR beat is thus correlated with the carbon isotope maxima observed during the Monterey Event. Finally, the Mi-events can now be recognized in the δ18O record and coincide with plankton-rich, siliceous, or phosphatic horizons in the lithology of the section.

  14. Decreasing Irradiated Rat Lung Volume Changes Dose-Limiting Toxicity From Early to Late Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Veen, Sonja J. van der; Faber, Hette; Ghobadi, Ghazaleh

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Technological developments in radiation therapy result in smaller irradiated volumes of normal tissue. Because the risk of radiation therapy-induced toxicity generally depends on irradiated volume, changing volume could change the dose-limiting toxicity of a treatment. Recently, in our rat model, we found that early radiation-induced lung dysfunction (RILD) was closely related to irradiated volume dependent vascular remodeling besides inflammation. The exact relationship between early and late RILD is still unknown. Therefore, in this preclinical study we investigated the dose-volume relationship of late RILD, assessed its dependence on early and late pathologies and studied if decreasing irradiated volume changed themore » dose-limiting toxicity. Methods and Materials: A volume of 25%, 32%, 50%, 63%, 88%, or 100% of the rat lung was irradiated using protons. Until 26 weeks after irradiation, respiratory rates were measured. Macrovascular remodeling, pulmonary inflammation, and fibrosis were assessed at 26 weeks after irradiation. For all endpoints dose-volume response curves were made. These results were compared to our previously published early lung effects. Results: Early vascular remodeling and inflammation correlated significantly with early RILD. Late RILD correlated with inflammation and fibrosis, but not with vascular remodeling. In contrast to the early effects, late vascular remodeling, inflammation and fibrosis showed a primarily dose but not volume dependence. Comparison of respiratory rate increases early and late after irradiation for the different dose-distributions indicated that with decreasing irradiated volumes, the dose-limiting toxicity changed from early to late RILD. Conclusions: In our rat model, different pathologies underlie early and late RILD with different dose-volume dependencies. Consequently, the dose-limiting toxicity changed from early to late dysfunction when the irradiated volume was reduced. In patients, early and

  15. Evolution of the Northern Nicaragua Rise during the Oligocene Miocene: Drowning by environmental factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutti, Maria; Droxler, André W.; Cunningham, Andrew D.

    2005-04-01

    Possible causes to explain platform drowning have been hotly debated by carbonate sedimentologists for more than a decade now. In this paper, we present multiple evidence to explain the drowning of a carbonate megabank that covered most of the modern Northern Nicaragua Rise (NNR) during an interval spanning from late Oligocene to early Miocene by the interaction of several environmental factors. The recovery during ODP Leg 165 of late Oligocene to middle Miocene sedimentary sequences in the sub-seafloor of the modern channels and basin, Pedro Channel and Walton Basin, respectively, that dissect the NNR (Site 1000) and south of the rise in the Colombian Basin (Site 999), combined with information from dredged rock samples, allows us to explore in more detail the timing and possible mechanisms responsible for the drowning of the megabank and its relationship to Miocene climate change. The modern system of isolated banks and shelves dissected by a series of intervening seaways and basins on the NNR has evolved from a continuous, shallow-water carbonate “megabank” that extended from the Honduras/Nicaraguan mainland to the modern island of Jamaica. Available information suggests that this megabank broke apart and partially drowned in the late part of the late Oligocene at around 27 Ma and finally foundered during the late early Miocene around 20 Ma, resulting in limited neritic coral growth in the areas where the modern isolated carbonate banks and shelves are occurring today. Available information also suggests that the southern and central parts of Pedro Channel were already a deep-water area before the major episode of platform drowning, and its formation predates the initiation of the Caribbean Current. However, after the partial drowning of the megabank, the channel has become a major pathway for the Caribbean Current. Stratigraphic units identified in deep-water carbonates sampled at ODP Sites 999 and 1000 help to constrain the environmental setting leading to

  16. 77 FR 65245 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Late Roman and Early...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice 8069] Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Late Roman and Early Byzantine Treasures From The British Museum'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby... objects to be included in the exhibition ``Late Roman and Early Byzantine Treasures From The British...

  17. Spiroplasma infection causes either early or late male killing in Drosophila, depending on maternal host age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kageyama, Daisuke; Anbutsu, Hisashi; Shimada, Masakazu; Fukatsu, Takema

    2007-04-01

    Symbiont-induced male-killing phenotypes have been found in a variety of insects. Conventionally, these phenotypes have been divided into two categories according to the timing of action: early male killing at embryonic stages and late male killing at late larval stages. In Drosophila species, endosymbiotic bacteria of the genus Spiroplasma have been known to cause early male killing. Here, we report that a spiroplasma strain normally causing early male killing also induces late male killing depending on the maternal host age: male-specific mortality of larvae and pupae was more frequently observed in the offspring of young females. As the lowest spiroplasma density and occasional male production were also associated with newly emerged females, we proposed the density-dependent hypothesis for the expression of early and late male-killing phenotypes. Our finding suggested that (1) early and late male-killing phenotypes can be caused by the same symbiont and probably by the same mechanism; (2) late male killing may occur as an attenuated expression of early male killing; (3) expression of early and late male-killing phenotypes may be dependent on the symbiont density, and thus, could potentially be affected by the host immunity and regulation; and (4) early male killing and late male killing could be alternative strategies adopted by microbial reproductive manipulators.

  18. A late eocene-early Oligocene transgressive event in the Golfo San Jorge basin: Palynological results and stratigraphic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paredes, José M.; Foix, Nicolás; Guerstein, G. Raquel; Guler, María V.; Irigoyen, Martín; Moscoso, Pablo; Giordano, Sergio

    2015-11-01

    A new Cenozoic dataset in the subsurface of the South Flank of the Golfo San Jorge Basin (Santa Cruz province) allowed to identify a non-previously recognized transgressive event of late Eocene to early Oligocene age. Below of a marine succession containing a dinoflagellate cyst assemblage that characterizes the C/G palynological zone of the Chenque Formation (early Miocene), a 80-110 m thick marine succession contains a palynological assemblage integrated by Gelatia inflata, Diphyes colligerum and Reticulatosphaera actinocoronata supporting the occurrence of a marine incursion in the basin during the Eocene-Oligocene transition (EOT). The new lithostratigraphic unit - here defined as El Huemul Formation - covers in sharp contact to the Sarmiento Formation, and become thinner from East to West; the unit has been identified in about 1800 well logs covering up to 3500 km2, and its subsurface distribution exceed the boundaries of the study area. The El Huemul Formation consists of a thin lag of glauconitic sandstones with fining-upward log motif, followed by a mudstone-dominated succession that coarsening-upward to sandstones, evidencing a full T-R cycle. Preservation of the El Huemul Formation in the subsurface of the South Flank has been favored by the reactivation of WNW-ESE late Cretaceous normal faults, and by the generation of N-S striking normal faults of Paleocene-Eocene age. Flexural loading associated to igneous intrusions of Paleocene?- middle Eocene age also promoted the increase of subsidence in the South Flank of the basin prior to the transgression.

  19. Northern Hemisphere Glaciation during the Globally Warm Early Late Pliocene

    PubMed Central

    De Schepper, Stijn; Groeneveld, Jeroen; Naafs, B. David A; Van Renterghem, Cédéric; Hennissen, Jan; Head, Martin J.; Louwye, Stephen; Fabian, Karl

    2013-01-01

    The early Late Pliocene (3.6 to ∼3.0 million years ago) is the last extended interval in Earth's history when atmospheric CO2 concentrations were comparable to today's and global climate was warmer. Yet a severe global glaciation during marine isotope stage (MIS) M2 interrupted this phase of global warmth ∼3.30 million years ago, and is seen as a premature attempt of the climate system to establish an ice-age world. Here we propose a conceptual model for the glaciation and deglaciation of MIS M2 based on geochemical and palynological records from five marine sediment cores along a Caribbean to eastern North Atlantic transect. Our records show that increased Pacific-to-Atlantic flow via the Central American Seaway weakened the North Atlantic Current and attendant northward heat transport prior to MIS M2. The consequent cooling of the northern high latitude oceans permitted expansion of the continental ice sheets during MIS M2, despite near-modern atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Sea level drop during this glaciation halted the inflow of Pacific water to the Atlantic via the Central American Seaway, allowing the build-up of a Caribbean Warm Pool. Once this warm pool was large enough, the Gulf Stream–North Atlantic Current system was reinvigorated, leading to significant northward heat transport that terminated the glaciation. Before and after MIS M2, heat transport via the North Atlantic Current was crucial in maintaining warm climates comparable to those predicted for the end of this century. PMID:24349081

  20. A new hadrosauroid dinosaur from the early late cretaceous of Shanxi Province, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Run-Fu; You, Hai-Lu; Xu, Shi-Chao; Wang, Suo-Zhu; Yi, Jian; Xie, Li-Juan; Jia, Lei; Li, Ya-Xian

    2013-01-01

    The origin of hadrosaurid dinosaurs is far from clear, mainly due to the paucity of their early Late Cretaceous close relatives. Compared to numerous Early Cretaceous basal hadrosauroids, which are mainly from Eastern Asia, only six early Late Cretaceous (pre-Campanian) basal hadrosauroids have been found: three from Asia and three from North America. Here we describe a new hadrosauroid dinosaur, Yunganglong datongensis gen. et sp. nov., from the early Late Cretaceous Zhumapu Formation of Shanxi Province in northern China. The new taxon is represented by an associated but disarticulated partial adult skeleton including the caudodorsal part of the skull. Cladistic analysis and comparative studies show that Yunganglong represents one of the most basal Late Cretaceous hadrosauroids and is diagnosed by a unique combination of features in its skull and femur. The discovery of Yunganglong adds another record of basal Hadrosauroidea in the early Late Cretaceous, and helps to elucidate the origin and evolution of Hadrosauridae.

  1. Comment on "Geochemistry of the Early Miocene volcanic succession of Northland, New Zealand, and implications for the evolution of subduction in the Southwest Pacific" by M.A. Booden, I.E.M. Smith, P.M. Black and J.L. Mauk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schellart, W. P.

    2012-01-01

    In a recent paper Booden et al. (2011) present new geochemical and petrological data of Early Miocene volcanics from the Northland region (Northland volcanic belt) in New Zealand, and interpret these data to support a particular regional tectonic model. This tectonic model involves Early Miocene westward subduction of Cretaceous Pacific oceanic lithosphere below the Northland volcanic belt and the authors interpret the volcanic belt as a continental magmatic arc. Although the new data are not in disagreement with such a tectonic model, they provide more support for an alternative interpretation that involves a northeast-dipping subduction zone. Furthermore, geometric and plate kinematic data show that the west-dipping subduction model is unviable, geological and geophysical data contradict the model, while geodynamic arguments indicate that the model is implausible. Here it will be shown that a subduction model, involving a northeast-dipping southwestward retreating slab (made of the Late Cretaceous-Paleocene South Loyalty backarc basin lithosphere) that subsequently detaches, is in agreement with the local geology, geophysics and geochemistry, is geometrically, kinematically and geodynamically viable, and fits within the regional Southwest Pacific tectonic framework.

  2. Possible linkage between supernovae, increased terrestrial lightning, and wildfire activity in the Late Miocene and Early Pleistocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, B. C.; Feulner, G.; Melott, A. L.; Kirsten, T.; von Bloh, W.

    2017-12-01

    Radioisotopes from deep-sea deposits show that Earth was affected by nearby supernovae about 2.5 and 8 million years ago. Recent modelling work shows that high-energy particles from these events resulted in greatly enhanced ionization of the troposphere. This could have led to an increase in wildfires via more frequent lightning. Here we show that published data on global fire activity from charcoal records reveal a marked increase in wildfires around the times of the supernova explosions. We use a dynamic global vegetation model to assess the impact of increased lightning frequency on vegetation patterns, finding a patchy global decrease in tree cover. Regionally, vegetation changes are particularly pronounced in western North America, the Mediterranean, Central Asia, Northern Indochina, subtropical South America, Africa and Australia, and notably East Africa, in agreement with empirical evidence for a global shift towards savannas during the Pleistocene. Our results demonstrate that moderately nearby supernovae have the potential to affect life on Earth even if they are too distant to initiate a mass extinction. Finally, we note that the shift from forest to savannah biomes in the East African Rift Valley region has been tentatively linked to hominin evolution in this region.

  3. Variations in the Nd isotope composition of Late Miocene to Early Pliocene glacially derived sediments in Prydz Bay, East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabson, M.; Pierce, E. L.; Dale, C. L.; Williams, T.; Hemming, S. R.; van de Flierdt, T.; Cook, C.; Goldstein, S. L.

    2010-12-01

    Michelle Mabson (Howard University), Elizabeth Pierce (Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University), Cathleen Doherty (Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia University), Trevor Williams (Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory), Sidney Hemming (Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory), Tina van de Flierdt (Imperial College London), Carys Cook (Imperial College London), Steve Goldstein (Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory) Since initiation of major ice sheets on Antarctica at about 34 Ma, Antarctica has been a major player in global climate change. Understanding the response of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet to major climate changes through the Cenozoic has fundamental importance to both Earth Sciences and Society. Previous study of Nd isotope composition of sediments at Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 1166 within Prydz Bay found evidence for variations of the Nd isotope composition between -15 to -30 epsilon units through this pre-glacial to glacial record (van de Flierdt et al., 2008, GRL). The Nd isotope composition of sediments provides an estimate for the average continental crust formation age of the sources. The sources around Prydz Bay have a wide range of formation ages, from Archean to Phanerozoic, so the areas which were being preferentially eroded can be inferred. This study seeks to contribute evidence for the local variations in provenance of sediments by extending the record of Nd isotope variations to ODP Site 739 in Prydz Bay. ODP Site 1165 has an unconformity that spans ~30-3 Ma. This part of the record is much more complete in ODP site 739, located about 200 km from the coast of Prydz Bay, probably more protected from ice stream erosion in the Prydz Channel. Because of its location we can conclude that the sediment deposited into this area is derived from the Lambert Glacier, and thus the variations in epsilon Nd will allow testing whether changes in the extent of this ice stream could lead to variations in the provenance of sediment carried by this ice. Recently Williams et al. (2010, EPSL) published evidence for dramatic changes in the sources of glacially derived sediments at ODP Site 1165, further offshore from Prydz Bay, at 7, 4.8 and 3.5 Ma. Their interpretation was based on the Ar-Ar ages of detrital hornblende grains, but samples taken across the 4.8 Ma event also showed an intriguing variation of the Nd isotope composition. The older part of the event includes a significant fraction of exotic Ar-Ar ages, but with epsilon Nd similar to the background values, while the younger part of the event shows a significant decrease in epsilon Nd but Ar-Ar of local origin. The specific goal of this study is to test the hypothesis that the shift to lower epsilon Nd in the 4.8 Ma ice rafting event is due to dynamical changes in the Prydz Bay sector of the East Antarctic ice sheet. Alternatively, the Lambert glacier may have retreated far enough to allow other sources in this sector to dominate the sediment composition in core 1165.

  4. Childhood abuse and late-life depression: Mediating effects of psychosocial factors for early- and late-onset depression.

    PubMed

    Wielaard, Ilse; Hoyer, Mathijs; Rhebergen, Didi; Stek, Max L; Comijs, Hannie C

    2018-03-01

    Childhood abuse makes people vulnerable to developing depression, even in late life. Psychosocial factors that are common in late life, such as loneliness or lack of a partner, may explain this association. Our aim was to investigate whether the association between childhood abuse and depression in older adults can be explained by psychosocial factors. Cross-sectional data were derived from the Netherlands Study of Depression in Older Persons (aged 60-93), including 132 without lifetime depression, 242 persons with an early-onset depression (<60 years), and 125 with a late-onset (≥60 years) depression. Childhood abuse (yes/no) and a frequency-based childhood abuse index were included. Multinomial regression and multivariable mediation analyses were used to examine the association between childhood abuse and the onset of depression, and the influence of loneliness, social network, and partner status. Multinomial regression analyses showed a significant association between childhood abuse and the childhood abuse index with early- and late-onset depression. Multivariable mediation analyses showed that the association between childhood abuse and early-onset depression was partly mediated by social network size and loneliness. This was particularly present for emotional neglect and psychological abuse, but not for physical and sexual abuse. No psychosocial mediators were found for the association between childhood abuse and late-onset depression. A smaller social network and feelings of loneliness mediate the association between childhood abuse and early-onset depression in older adults. Our findings show the importance of detecting childhood abuse as well as the age at depression onset and mapping of relevant psychosocial factors in the treatment of late-life depression. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Meal frequencies in early adolescence predict meal frequencies in late adolescence and early adulthood.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Holstein, Bjørn E; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Rasmussen, Mette

    2013-05-04

    Health and risk behaviours tend to be maintained from adolescence into adulthood. There is little knowledge on whether meal frequencies in adolescence are maintained into adulthood. We investigated whether breakfast, lunch and evening meal frequencies in early adolescence predicted meal frequencies in late adolescence and in early adulthood. Further, the modifying effect of gender and adolescent family structure were investigated. National representative sample of 15-year-olds in Denmark with 4 and 12 year follow-up studies with measurement of breakfast, lunch and evening meal frequencies. A total of 561 persons completed questionnaires at age 15 years (baseline 1990, n=847, response rate 84.6%), age 19 years (n=729, response rate 73.2%) and age 27 years (n=614, response rate 61.6%). Low meal frequencies at age 15 years was a significant predictor for having low meal frequencies at age 19 years (odds ratio (OR, 95% CI)) varying between 2.11, 1.33-3.34 and 7.48, 3.64-15.41). Also, low meal frequencies at age 19 years predicted low meal frequencies at age 27 years (OR varying between 2.26, 1.30-3.91 and 4.38, 2.36-8.13). Significant predictions over the full study period were seen for low breakfast frequency and low lunch frequency (OR varying between 1.78, 1.13-2.81 and 2.58, 1.31-5.07). Analyses stratified by gender showed the same patterns (OR varying between 1.88, 1.13-3.14 and 8.30, 2.85-24.16). However, the observed predictions were not statistical significant among men between age 15 and 27 years. Analyses stratified by adolescent family structure revealed different lunch predictions in strata. Having low meal frequencies in early adolescence predicted low meal frequencies in late adolescence and early adulthood. We propose that promotion of regular meals become a prioritised issue within health education.

  6. Generic Difference Between Early and Late Stages of BATSE Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitrofanov, Igor G.; Litvak, Maxim L.; Anfimov, Dimitrij S.; Sanin, Anton B.; Briggs, Michael S.; Paciesas, William S.; Pendleton, Geoffrey N.; Preece, Robert D.; Meegan, Charles A.

    2001-01-01

    The early and late stages of gamma-ray bursts are studied in a statistical analysis of the large sample of long BATSE events. The primary peak is used as the boundary between the early and late stages of emission. Significant differences are found between the stages: the early stage is shorter, it has harder emission, and it becomes a smaller fraction of the total burst duration for burst groups of decreasing intensity.

  7. General Differences between Early and Late Stages of BATSE Gamma-Ray Bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitrofanov, I. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Anfimov, D. S.; Sanin, A. B.; Briggs, M. S.; Paciesas, W. S.; Pendleton, G. N.; Preece, R. D.; Meegan, C. A.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The early and late stages of gamma-ray bursts are studied in a statistical analysis of the large sample of long BATSE events. The primary peak is used as the boundary between the early and late stages of emission. Significant differences are found between the stages: the early stage is shorter, it has harder emission, and it becomes a smaller fraction of the total burst duration for burst groups of decreasing intensity.

  8. Lake Chad sedimentation and environments during the late Miocene and Pliocene: New evidence from mineralogy and chemistry of the Bol core sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussa, Abderamane; Novello, Alice; Lebatard, Anne-Elisabeth; Decarreau, Alain; Fontaine, Claude; Barboni, Doris; Sylvestre, Florence; Bourlès, Didier L.; Paillès, Christine; Buchet, Guillaume; Duringer, Philippe; Ghienne, Jean-François; Maley, Jean; Mazur, Jean-Charles; Roquin, Claude; Schuster, Mathieu; Vignaud, Patrick; Brunet, Michel

    2016-06-01

    This study presents mineralogical and geochemical data from a borehole drilled near the locality of Bol (13°27‧N, 14°44‧E), in the eastern archipelago of the modern Lake Chad (Chad). Samples were taken from a ∼200 m long core section forming a unique sub-continuous record for Central Africa. Among these samples, 25 are dated between 6.4 and 2.4 Ma. Dominant minerals are clays (66% average) mixed with varying amounts of silt and diatomite. The clay fraction consists of Fe-beidellite (87% average), kaolinite, and traces of illite. Clay minerals originate from the erosion of the vertisols that surrounded the paleolake Chad. Sedimentological data indicate that a permanent lake (or recurrent lakes) existed from 6.7 until 2.4 Ma in the vicinity of Bol. By comparison with modern latitudinal distribution of vertisols in Africa the climate was Sudanian-like. Changes in the sedimentation rate suggest a succession of wetter and dryer periods during at least six million years in the region during the critical time period covering the Miocene-Pliocene transition.

  9. Gaze holding deficits discriminate early from late onset cerebellar degeneration.

    PubMed

    Tarnutzer, Alexander A; Weber, K P; Schuknecht, B; Straumann, D; Marti, S; Bertolini, G

    2015-08-01

    The vestibulo-cerebellum calibrates the output of the inherently leaky brainstem neural velocity-to-position integrator to provide stable gaze holding. In healthy humans small-amplitude centrifugal nystagmus is present at extreme gaze-angles, with a non-linear relationship between eye-drift velocity and eye eccentricity. In cerebellar degeneration this calibration is impaired, resulting in pathological gaze-evoked nystagmus (GEN). For cerebellar dysfunction, increased eye drift may be present at any gaze angle (reflecting pure scaling of eye drift found in controls) or restricted to far-lateral gaze (reflecting changes in shape of the non-linear relationship) and resulting eyed-drift patterns could be related to specific disorders. We recorded horizontal eye positions in 21 patients with cerebellar neurodegeneration (gaze-angle = ±40°) and clinically confirmed GEN. Eye-drift velocity, linearity and symmetry of drift were determined. MR-images were assessed for cerebellar atrophy. In our patients, the relation between eye-drift velocity and gaze eccentricity was non-linear, yielding (compared to controls) significant GEN at gaze-eccentricities ≥20°. Pure scaling was most frequently observed (n = 10/18), followed by pure shape-changing (n = 4/18) and a mixed pattern (n = 4/18). Pure shape-changing patients were significantly (p = 0.001) younger at disease-onset compared to pure scaling patients. Atrophy centered around the superior/dorsal vermis, flocculus/paraflocculus and dentate nucleus and did not correlate with the specific drift behaviors observed. Eye drift in cerebellar degeneration varies in magnitude; however, it retains its non-linear properties. With different drift patterns being linked to age at disease-onset, we propose that the gaze-holding pattern (scaling vs. shape-changing) may discriminate early- from late-onset cerebellar degeneration. Whether this allows a distinction among specific cerebellar disorders remains to be determined.

  10. Associations of Early and Late Gestational Weight Gain with Infant Birth Size.

    PubMed

    Wander, Pandora L; Sitlani, Colleen M; Badon, Sylvia E; Siscovick, David S; Williams, Michelle A; Enquobahrie, Daniel A

    2015-11-01

    Associations of gestational weight gain (GWG) during specific periods of pregnancy with infant birth size have been inconsistent. Infant sex-specific differences in these associations are unknown Information on GWG (kg) [total, early (<20 weeks gestation), and late (≥20 weeks gestation)] and indices of infant birth size including birthweight (BW), ponderal index (PI), crown-heel length (CHL), and head circumference (HC) was collected from 3,621 pregnant women. We calculated adjusted mean differences and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) relating total, early and late GWG to infant birth size using multivariable linear regression procedures. We used stratified analyses and interaction terms to test whether associations differed by infant sex. One-kg increases in total, early or late GWG were associated with BW increases of 17.2 g (95 % CI 13.8-18.9), 14.1 g (95 % CI 10.3-18.0), and 21.0 g (95 % CI 16.7-25.4), respectively. Early GWG-BW and late GWG-BW associations were different (p = 0.026). Sex-stratified total GWG-BW associations were similar to overall results. There were sex-specific differences in early GWG-BW and late GWG-BW associations. Among females, early GWG-BW (12.0 g, 95 % CI 6.7-17.2) and late GWG-BW (24.2 g, 95 % CI 18.2-30.3) associations differed (p = 0.0042); the corresponding associations did not differ among males. Total, early, and late GWG were associated with CHL and HC, but not with PI. Associations did not differ for early or late GWG. For comparable GWG, late-GWG-related BW increase is greater than early-GWG-related BW increase, particularly among female infants.

  11. Foraminiferal biostratigraphy, paleoenvironmental history, and rates of sedimentation within subsurface Miocene of southern Alabama and adjoining state and Federal Waters Areas

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.C.

    1989-03-01

    Miocene sedimentary rocks of the study area consist of a predominantly regressive sequence of clay and quartzose sand deposited on a carbonate platform which dips toward the southwest at 50-100 ft/mi. This clastic wedge ranges in thickness from 1000 ft in central Mobile and Baldwin Counties to a maximum of about 5800 ft in the northeastern portion of the Main Pass area. Analysis of planktonic and benthic foraminifera has resulted in a refined biostratigraphic zonation of these rocks, which indicates that basal Miocene transgressive shale assignable to the Amphistegina B interval zone immediately overlies the upper Oligocene regional carbonate platform.more » Thus, both lower and lower middle Miocene sedimentary rocks are absent throughout the area of investigation. Biostratigraphic analysis of the middle and upper Miocene rocks has resulted in a series of cross sections illustrating the dramatic thickening southwestward into the federal offshore continental shelf and showing the relationships of producing intervals in the Cibicides carstensi and Discorbis ''12'' interval zones. Paleoenvironmental interpretations are illustrated on a series of maps constructed for selected regional biostratigraphic zones. These maps have outlined previously unrecognized late middle and early late Miocene deltaic sedimentation in the southeastern Mobile County and Chandeleur-Viosca Knoll (north) areas. Study of sedimentation rates, which range from less than 25 up to 1370 ft/m.y., further aids in understanding the deltaic and coastal shelf sedimentation of the Miocene within Alabama and adjoining state and federal waters areas.« less

  12. The impact of early bilingualism on controlling a language learned late: an ERP study

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Clara D.; Strijkers, Kristof; Santesteban, Mikel; Escera, Carles; Hartsuiker, Robert J.; Costa, Albert

    2013-01-01

    This study asks whether early bilingual speakers who have already developed a language control mechanism to handle two languages control a dominant and a late acquired language in the same way as late bilingual speakers. We therefore, compared event-related potentials in a language switching task in two groups of participants switching between a dominant (L1) and a weak late acquired language (L3). Early bilingual late learners of an L3 showed a different ERP pattern (larger N2 mean amplitude) as late bilingual late learners of an L3. Even though the relative strength of languages was similar in both groups (a dominant and a weak late acquired language), they controlled their language output in a different manner. Moreover, the N2 was similar in two groups of early bilinguals tested in languages of different strength. We conclude that early bilingual learners of an L3 do not control languages in the same way as late bilingual L3 learners –who have not achieved native-like proficiency in their L2– do. This difference might explain some of the advantages early bilinguals have when learning new languages. PMID:24204355

  13. Ecosystem reconstructions for the hinterland of the Atlantic Coastal Plain during the late Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum (IODP Expedition 313)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prader, Sabine; Kotthoff, Ulrich; McCarthy, Francine; Greenwood, David

    2016-04-01

    During IODP Expedition 313, cores from three Sites (313-M0027, M0028, and M0029) from the New Jersey shallow shelf (water depth approximately 35 m) were retrieved in 2009. We have investigated the palynology of sediment cores from Site M0027, 45 km off the present-day coast of New Jersey in order to reconstruct environmental and climate change in the region during the second half of the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum (MMCO) and the subsequent transition to cooler conditions (ca. 15 to 13 million years before present). Transport-caused bias of the pollen assemblages was identified via the analysis of the terrestrial/marine palynomorph ratio and these results were considered when interpreting palaeo-vegetation from the pollen data. Pollen preservation in the interval analyzed herein was generally very good. Pollen grains were analyzed via both light and scanning electron microscopy. In the analyzed samples, angiosperm tree pollen grains were most abundant and probably formed the main vegetation zone in the lowland during the MMCO. The pollen-based results point to the presence of a deciduous-evergreen mixed forest that was characterised by e.g. Quercus, Carya, Liquidambar, Juglans, Pterocarya, Tilia, Engelhardia. Frequent conifer pollen grains indicate that highland forests with e.g. Pinus, Cathaya, and Picea were present the hinterland of the New Jersey shelf. Typical wetland elements like Nyssa and Taxodium as well as herbal taxa like Polygonum and Polygala were generally rare. The pollen-based climate reconstructions for the hinterland oft the New Jersey shallow shelf document a warm temperate climate without winterfrost and relatively high precipitation through the year during this time. Our results imply that the vegetation and regional climate in the hinterland of the New Jersey shelf did not react as sensitively to the cooling phase following the MMCO as other regions in North America or Europe.

  14. A Study of Specialty Clones’ Yield Performance in Early and Late Harvests

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Technical Abstract: A study was conducted on specialty potato breeding lines to examine yield components in an early and late harvest. Upon first examination it was apparent that the early water cutoff had a large effect on total yield. In the early trial only one clone achieved 600 cwt/A of total...

  15. Tropical sea surface temperature variability near the Oligocene - Miocene boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Pagani, M.

    2010-12-01

    The Oligocene/Miocene (O-M) boundary is characterized by a period of rapid and intense glaciation labeled Mi-1 at ~ 23.1 Ma. An abrupt 1.5‰ increase in the benthic foraminifera oxygen isotope composition that characterizes Mi-1 may indicate a (1) significant deep-water temperature decrease; (2) major ice-sheet expansion, or the combination of both. Current coarse Mg/Ca-based temperature estimations for the early Miocene suggests that deep-ocean temperatures were ~2°C warmer than Today [1, 2]. However, Mg/Ca based temperatures can also be influenced by changes in the carbonate ion concentration, vital effects, and diagenesis. In particular, recent evidence from mid-ocean ridge flank carbonate veins shows dramatic seawater Mg/Ca ratio changes during the Neogene (Mg/Ca from ~2.2 to 5.3, [3]), which further challenges the application of Mg/Ca thermometry. Owing to poor temperature constraints, current ice volume estimations for the late Oligocene/early Miocene range from 125% of the present-day East Antarctic Ice Sheet (EAIS) to a nearly complete collapse of the Antarctic glaciers [4]. Here we present tropical sea surface temperatures (SSTs) records based on TEX86 and alkenone UK37 near the O-M boundary. Sediment samples from Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Site 926 in the Ceara Rise (tropical Atlantic) and Site 1148 in the South China Sea (tropical Pacific) were subject to lipid extraction, separation, gas chromatography, and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. TEX86-based SST indicates that the tropics were ~3-4°C warmer than today and relatively stable during Mi-1. This suggests that ice-sheet dynamics, rather than temperature, might be responsible for the observed oxygen isotope changes during the O-M boundary. Further, O-M boundary averaged temperatures recorded at site 926 is ~ 0.5°C higher relative to the late Eocene from site 925 (a nearby site [5]). Given late Oligocene benthic δ18O that suggests at least 1‰ enrichment relative to the late

  16. Miocene actinommid Radiolaria from the equatorial Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blueford, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Actinommids (spumellarian Radiolaria) are a group of microfossils in which taxonomy and phylogeny hitherto have been based on features of morphology that change with the growth of individuals. To make Miocene actinommids from the equatorial Pacific useful in biostratigraphy, paleocenography, and paleoecology, ontogenetically invariant morphological features can be analyzed by methods of numerical taxonomy to group the specimens into genera, which are further subdivided into species by visual comparison. According to these criteria, 31 species, 18 of which are new, are recognized in the Late Miocene section of DSDP Sites 77 and 289, and an informal revision of actinommid higher taxa is tentatively proposed.

  17. Changes in coral-reef structure through the Miocene in the Mediterranean province: Adaptive versus environmental influence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomar, Luis; Hallock, Pamela

    2007-10-01

    Well-documented Mediterranean examples of Miocene carbonate platforms, with complete exposures from shallow-water to basinal facies, provide evidence for temporal changes in reef-building capacity of zooxanthellate corals. In pre-late Tortonian platforms, small coralgal patches and mounds occur from platform top to the toe of slope, but they did not build to sea level. In contrast, barrier reefs with unequivocal reef-crest structures that reached sea level are documented in late Tortonian-early Messinian platforms. We suggest that a change in both calcification rates and bathymetric zonation was the result of coevolution of corals and Symbiodinium zooxanthellae, coeval to global cooling and, at least at a regional scale, a geochemical change that supported widespread aragonite precipitation through the late Miocene.

  18. Cognitive Advantages and Disadvantages in Early and Late Bilinguals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pelham, Sabra D.; Abrams, Lise

    2014-01-01

    Previous research has documented advantages and disadvantages of early bilinguals, defined as learning a 2nd language by school age and using both languages since that time. Relative to monolinguals, early bilinguals manifest deficits in lexical access but benefits in executive function. We investigated whether becoming bilingual "after"…

  19. The emergence of modern type rain forests and mangroves and their traces in the palaeobotanical record during the Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohr, Barbara; Coiffard, Clément

    2014-05-01

    probably diversifying at mid latitudes. Later on, they slowly became restricted to lower latitudes as seen today. This fluctuation appears to be linked to climate change and are still reflected by the regional diversity of these groups, which reflect rather well rain forest evolution. When tracing the fossil record of rain forest plants we clearly see a pattern that suggests the onset of this type of environment during the late Late Cretaceous and spread during the early Tertiary with phases of retreat during the Oligocene and from the mid-Miocene onwards.

  20. The economic and clinical burden of early versus late initiation of celecoxib among patients with osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Shelbaya, Ahmed; Solem, Caitlyn T; Walker, Chris; Wan, Yin; Johnson, Courtney; Cappelleri, Joseph C

    2018-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics associated with early versus late initiation of celecoxib treatment after osteoarthritis (OA) diagnosis and whether economic and safety outcomes differ between patients with early versus late initiation of celecoxib. Methods Adults (≥18 years) with a confirmed OA diagnosis (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Edition, Clinical Modifications code: 715.XX), ≥12 months of continuous pre- and post-index enrollment, and ≥1 post-index claim for celecoxib were included from the MarketScan® Commercial Claims and Encounter Database (2009–2013). Index date was defined as initial OA diagnosis. Patients were categorized as initiating celecoxib early (within 6 months of index date) or late (≥6 months after index date). Logistic regressions were used to assess characteristics associated with early versus late celecoxib initiation. Key outcomes included health care resource utilization (HCRU) and costs post-index, and adverse event incidence post-celecoxib initiation. Unadjusted and adjusted comparisons (using generalized linear models with a gamma distribution for costs and Poisson distribution for event and resource utilization) were made between early and late celecoxib initiators. Results Of the 62,434 OA patients identified, 27,402 were early and 35,032 were late initiators. Post-index hospital admissions and length of stay did not differ statistically between early versus late initiators after controlling for pre-index event rates and covariates, but early patients had significantly fewer outpatient (incidence rate ratio [IRR]: 0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.95, 0.97) and emergency room visits (IRR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.84, 0.95). After adjustment for key covariates, early initiators (versus late initiators) had lower all-cause (US$12,909 versus US$13,781, P<0.001) and OA-related (US$4,988 versus US$5,178, P=0.015) costs per person-year. Early initiators had no statistically significant

  1. Ca-rich carbonates associated with ultrabasic-ultramafic melts: Carbonatite or limestone xenoliths? A case study from the late Miocene Morron de Villamayor volcano (Calatrava Volcanic Field, central Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lustrino, Michele; Prelević, Dejan; Agostini, Samuele; Gaeta, Mario; Di Rocco, Tommaso; Stagno, Vincenzo; Capizzi, Luca Samuele

    2016-07-01

    The volcanic products of the late Miocene Morron de Villamayor volcano (Calatrava Volcanic Field, central Spain) are known for being one of the few outcrops of leucitites in the entire circum-Mediterranean area. These rocks are important because aragonite of mantle origin has been reported as inclusion in olivine macrocrysts. We use petrographic observations, mineral compositions, as well as oxygen and carbon isotope ratios coupled with experimental petrology to understand the origin of carbonate phase in these olivine-phyric rocks. Groundmass and macrocryst olivines range from δ18OVSMOW of +4.8‰, typical of mantle olivine values, to +7.4‰, indicating contamination by sedimentary carbonate. Carbonates are characterized by heavy oxygen isotope compositions (δ18OVSMOW >+24‰), and relatively light carbon isotopes (δ13CPDB <-11‰), resembling skarn values, and distinct from typical mantle carbonatite compositions. Petrography, mineral compositions such as low Mg# of clinopyroxene and biotite, low Ca# and low incompatible element abundance of the carbonate, and isotopic ratios of O and C, do not support a mantle origin for the carbonate. Rather, the carbonate inclusions found in the olivine macrocrysts are interpreted as basement limestone fragments entrapped by the rising crystallizing magma. Comparison with experimental carbonatitic and silicate-carbonatitic melts indicates that low-degree partial melts of a carbonated peridotite must have a dolomitic rather than the aragonitic/calcitic composition as those found trapped in the Morron de Villamayor olivine macrocrysts.

  2. EARLY VERSUS LATE MRI IN ASPHYXIATED NEWBORNS TREATED WITH HYPOTHERMIA

    PubMed Central

    Wintermark, Pia; Hansen, Anne; Soul, Janet; Labrecque, Michelle; Robertson, Richard L.; Warfield, Simon K.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The purposes of this feasibility study are to assess: (1) the potential utility of early brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in asphyxiated newborns treated with hypothermia; (2) whether early MRI predicts later brain injury observed in these newborns after hypothermia is completed; and (3) whether early MRI indicators of brain injury in these newborns represent reversible changes. Patients and Methods All consecutive asphyxiated term newborns meeting the criteria for therapeutic hypothermia were enrolled prospectively. Each of them underwent 1–2 “early” MRI scans while receiving hypothermia, on day of life (DOL) 1 and DOL 2–3, and also 1–2 “late” MRI scans on DOL 8–13 and at 1 month of age. Results Thirty-seven MRI scans were obtained in twelve asphyxiated neonates treated with induced hypothermia. Four newborns did develop MRI evidence of brain injury, already visible on early MRI scans. The remaining eight newborns did not develop significant MRI evidence of brain injury on any of the MRI scans. In addition, two patients displayed unexpected findings on early MRIs, leading to early termination of hypothermia treatment. Conclusions MRI scans obtained on DOL 2–3 during hypothermia seem to predict later brain injuries in asphyxiated newborns in this feasibility study. Brain injuries identified during this early time appear to represent irreversible changes. Early MRI scans might also be useful to demonstrate unexpected findings not related to hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, which could potentially be exacerbated by induced hypothermia. Additional studies with larger numbers of patients will be useful to more definitively confirm these results. PMID:20688865

  3. Miocene vegetation shift and climate change: Evidence from the Siwalik of Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Gaurav; Paudayal, Khum N.; Utescher, Torsten; Mehrotra, R. C.

    2018-02-01

    We reconstruct climate and vegetation applying the Coexistence Approach (CA) methodology on two palaeofloras recovered from the Lower (middle Miocene; 13-11 Ma) and Middle Siwalik (late Miocene; 9.5-6.8 Ma) sediments of Surai Khola section, Nepal. The reconstructed mean annual temperature (MAT) and cold month mean temperature (CMT) show an increasing trend, while warm month mean temperature (WMT) remains nearly the same during the period. The reconstructed precipitation data indicates that the summer monsoon precipitation was nearly the same during the middle and late Miocene, while the winter season precipitation significantly decreased in the late Miocene. The overall precipitation infers increased rainfall seasonality during the late Miocene. The vegetation during the middle Miocene was dominated by wet evergreen taxa, whereas deciduous ones increased significantly during the late Miocene. The reconstructed climate data indicates that high temperature and significantly low precipitation during the winter season (dry season) in the late Miocene might have enhanced forest fire which favoured the expansion of C4 plants over C3 plants during the period. This idea gets further support not only from a recent forest fire in northern India that was caused by the weakening of winter precipitation, but also from the burnt wood recovered from the late Miocene Siwalik sediments of northern India.

  4. Sequence stratigraphy of the ANDRILL Southern McMurdo Sound (SMS) project drillcore, Antarctica: an expanded, near-field record of Antarctic Early to Middle Miocene climate and relative sea-level change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fielding, C. R.; Browne, G. H.; Field, B.; Florindo, F.; Harwood, D. M.; Krissek, L. A.; Levy, R. H.; Panter, K.; Passchier, S.; Pekar, S. F.; SMS Science Team

    2008-12-01

    Present understanding of Antarctic climate change during the Early to Middle Miocene, including definition of major cycles of glacial expansion and contraction, relies in large part on stable isotope proxy records from Ocean Drilling Program cores. Here, we present a sequence stratigraphic analysis of the Southern McMurdo Sound drillcore (AND-2A), which was acquired during the Austral Spring of 2007. This core offers a hitherto unavailable ice-proximal stratigraphic archive of the Early to Middle Miocene from a high-accommodation Antarctic continental margin setting, and provides clear evidence of repeated fluctuations in climate, ice expansion/contraction and attendant sea-level change over the period 20-14 Ma, with a more fragmentary record of the post-14 Ma period. A succession of seventy sequences is recognized, each bounded by a significant facies dislocation (sequence boundary), composed internally of deposits of glacimarine to open shallow marine environments, and each typically dominated by the transgressive systems tract. From changes in facies abundances and sequence character, a series of long-term (m.y.) changes in climate and relative sea-level is identified. The lithostratigraphy can be correlated confidently to glacial events Mi1b and Mi2, to the Miocene Climatic Optimum, and to the global eustatic sea-level curve. SMS provides a detailed, direct, ice-proximal reference point from which to evaluate stable isotope proxy records for Neogene Antarctic paleoclimate.

  5. Extracting a Detailed Magnetostratigraphy From Weakly Magnetized, Oligocene to Early Miocene Sediment Drifts Recovered at IODP Site U1406 (Newfoundland Margin, Northwest Atlantic Ocean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Peer, Tim E.; Xuan, Chuang; Lippert, Peter C.; Liebrand, Diederik; Agnini, Claudia; Wilson, Paul A.

    2017-11-01

    Fine-grained magnetic particles in deep-sea sediments often statistically align with the ambient magnetic field during (and shortly after) deposition and can therefore record geomagnetic reversals. Correlation of these reversals to a geomagnetic polarity time scale is an important geochronological tool that facilitates precise stratigraphic correlation and dating of geological records globally. Sediments often carry a remanence strong enough for confident identification of polarity reversals, but in some cases a low signal-to-noise ratio prevents the construction of a reliable and robust magnetostratigraphy. Here we implement a data-filtering protocol, which can be integrated with the UPmag software package, to automatically reduce the maximum angular deviation and statistically mask noisy data and outliers deemed unsuitable for magnetostratigraphic interpretation. This protocol thus extracts a clearer signal from weakly magnetized sediments recovered at Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 342 Site U1406 (Newfoundland margin, northwest Atlantic Ocean). The resulting magnetostratigraphy, in combination with shipboard and shore-based biostratigraphy, provides an age model for the study interval from IODP Site U1406 between Chrons C6Ar and C9n (˜21-27 Ma). We identify rarely observed geomagnetic directional changes within Chrons C6Br, C7r, and C7Ar, and perhaps within Subchron C8n.1n. Our magnetostratigraphy dates three intervals of unusual stratigraphic behavior within the sediment drifts at IODP Site U1406 on the Newfoundland margin. These lithostratigraphic changes are broadly concurrent with the coldest climatic phases of the middle Oligocene to early Miocene and we hypothesize that they reflect changes in bottom water circulation.

  6. Sandstone petrology and geochemistry of the Oligocene-Early Miocene Panjgur Formation, Makran accretionary wedge, southwest Pakistan: Implications for provenance, weathering and tectonic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kassi, Akhtar Muhammad; Grigsby, Jeffry D.; Khan, Abdul Salam; Kasi, Aimal Khan

    2015-06-01

    The Oligocene-Early Miocene Panjgur Formation is comprised of submarine fan and abyssal plain turbidites deposited within the Makran subduction complex. Sandstones of the formation are litharenite to feldspathic litharenite. Petrographic data indicates a quartzose-recycled provenance dominated by plutonic and metamorphic fragments. Major elements concentrations reveal a moderate level of mineralogical maturity and high values of Chemical Proxy of Alteration (CPA; 88.29) coupled with a high Th/U ratio (9.37), which reveals intense weathering in the source area. The Zr, Nb, Y, and Th concentrations are comparable to upper continental crust (UCC) values and trends in Th/Cr, Th/Co, and Cr/Zr ratios support contribution from a felsic source. However, enrichment in Ni and Cr, reinforced by trends in Ni/Co, Cr/V, V/Ni and Y/Ni ratios, reveals mixing of the felsic source with mafic/ultramafic source terrains. Tectonic discrimination plots suggest continental arc to active continental margin setting. This study supports the Katawaz-delta-Panjgur submarine fan model and upholds the initial southward transport of predominantly felsic detritus from the Himalayan orogenic belt controlled by the Chaman-Ornach Nal transform fault system. This study further adds that the Bela-Muslimbagh ophiolites, associated mélanges and the West Pakistan Fold-Thrust Belt, from the east, and the Chagai-Raskoh volcanic arc, from the west, were also concurrently shedding mafic/ultramafic detritus to the basin, and that the depositional system in the Makran region turned westward, roughly parallel to the present active margin of the Makran accretionary wedge.

  7. Late Miocene-Pleistocene evolution of a Rio Grande rift subbasin, Sunshine Valley-Costilla Plain, San Luis Basin, New Mexico and Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruleman, C.A.; Thompson, R.A.; Shroba, R.R.; Anderson, M.; Drenth, B.J.; Rotzien, J.; Lyon, J.

    2013-01-01

    The Sunshine Valley-Costilla Plain, a structural subbasin of the greater San Luis Basin of the northern Rio Grande rift, is bounded to the north and south by the San Luis Hills and the Red River fault zone, respectively. Surficial mapping, neotectonic investigations, geochronology, and geophysics demonstrate that the structural, volcanic, and geomorphic evolution of the basin involves the intermingling of climatic cycles and spatially and temporally varying tectonic activity of the Rio Grande rift system. Tectonic activity has transferred between range-bounding and intrabasin faults creating relict landforms of higher tectonic-activity rates along the mountain-piedmont junction. Pliocene–Pleistocene average long-term slip rates along the southern Sangre de Cristo fault zone range between 0.1 and 0.2 mm/year with late Pleistocene slip rates approximately half (0.06 mm/year) of the longer Quaternary slip rate. During the late Pleistocene, climatic influences have been dominant over tectonic influences on mountain-front geomorphic processes. Geomorphic evidence suggests that this once-closed subbasin was integrated into the Rio Grande prior to the integration of the once-closed northern San Luis Basin, north of the San Luis Hills, Colorado; however, deep canyon incision, north of the Red River and south of the San Luis Hills, initiated relatively coeval to the integration of the northern San Luis Basin.Long-term projections of slip rates applied to a 1.6 km basin depth defined from geophysical modeling suggests that rifting initiated within this subbasin between 20 and 10 Ma. Geologic mapping and geophysical interpretations reveal a complex network of northwest-, northeast-, and north-south–trending faults. Northwest- and northeast-trending faults show dual polarity and are crosscut by north-south– trending faults. This structural model possibly provides an analog for how some intracontinental rift structures evolve through time.

  8. An analysis of the differences between early and late preeclampsia with severe hypertension.

    PubMed

    Li, X L; Guo, P L; Xue, Y; Gou, W L; Tong, M; Chen, Q

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia is clinically divided into early onset and late onset preeclampsia based on the gestational age at delivery. Although the diagnostic criteria are the same in each subgroup of preeclampsia, it has been suggested that the maternal and perinatal mortalities of early onset and late onset preeclampsia are different. However, studies that compare clinical parameters or laboratory biomarkers between early onset and late onset preeclampsia are limited. Data on 177 women with early or late preeclampsia with severe hypertension were collected from a University Teaching Hospital from January 2010 to January 2011 and analysed. Data included all the clinical parameters and laboratory biomarkers of liver and renal function. 63 women and 114 women were diagnosed with early and late preeclampsia with severe hypertension, respectively. There was no difference in the maternal age and the incidence of clinical symptoms including edema, vision disturbance, severe headache and stillbirth between two groups. There was a decrease in alkaline phosphatase levels in early preeclampsia with severe hypertension but other markers of liver function were not altered. However, renal function including blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and uric acid were significantly higher in early preeclampsia with severe hypertension. Umbilical artery systolic velocity/diastolic velocity ratio was significantly higher in early preeclampsia with severe hypertension. Our data demonstrates that the laboratory biomarkers of renal function differ between early and late preeclampsia with severe hypertension. The severity of renal dysfunction correlated with the time of delivery in preeclampsia with severe hypertension. Copyright © 2015 International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Early and Late Recurrent Epistaxis Admissions: Patterns of Incidence and Risk Factors.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Oded; Shoffel-Havakuk, Hagit; Warman, Meir; Tzelnick, Sharon; Haimovich, Yaara; Kohlberg, Gavriel D; Halperin, Doron; Lahav, Yonatan

    2017-09-01

    Objective Epistaxis is a common complaint, yet few studies have focused on the incidence and risk factors of recurrent epistaxis. Our objective was to determine the patterns of incidence and risk factors for recurrent epistaxis admission (REA). Study Design Case series with chart review. Settings Single academic center. Subjects and Methods The medical records of patients admitted for epistaxis between 1999 and 2015 were reviewed. The follow-up period was defined as 3 years following initial admission. REAs were categorized as early (30 days) and late (31 days to 3 years) following initial admission. Logistic regression was used to identify potential predictors of REAs. Results A total of 653 patients were included. Eighty-six patients (14%) had REAs: 48 (7.5%) early and 38 (6.5%) late. Nonlinear incidence curve was demonstrated for both early and late REAs. Based on logistic regression, prior nasal surgery and anemia were independent risk factors for early REAs. According to multivariate analysis, thrombocytopenia was significantly associated with late REAs. Conclusion Early and late REAs demonstrate different risk predictors. Knowledge of such risk factors may help in risk stratification for this selected group of patients. All patients at risk should be advised on possible preventive measures. Patients at risk for early REA may benefit from a more proactive approach.

  10. Early and late menarche are associated with oligomenorrhea and predict metabolic syndrome 26 years later.

    PubMed

    Glueck, Charles J; Morrison, John A; Wang, Ping; Woo, Jessica G

    2013-11-01

    We determined whether simple, clinical information on late and early menarche could help identify adult women with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and oligomenorrhea. We carried out a 26-year prospective follow-up of 272 suburban schoolgirls from ages 5-22 to 30-46. Early menarche (≤10 years, 5.2% of girls) and late menarche (≥16 years, 6.7% of girls) were both associated with oligomenorrhea (≥42 days) in adulthood, 29% and 11%, vs. 5% for normal menarche (11-15 years), p=.004. Early menarche was characterized by high childhood BMI (LS mean±SE: 21.2 ±1.0 kg/m2) and by high childhood and adult MetS (15%, 36%). Girls with late menarche had the lowest childhood BMI (18.1±1.0), no childhood MetS, and the highest adult MetS (47%). Increasing age at menarche was associated with uniformly decreasing childhood BMI and MetS, but with a U-shaped pattern of BMI (p = .05), MetS (p=.008), and oligomenorrhea (p=.02) in adulthood. Change to MetS from median ages 13 to 38 was associated with early-late menarche (OR=3.11, 95% CI 1.37-7.07, p=.007). MetS in adulthood was associated with childhood MetS (OR=8.03, 95% CI 2.57-25.08, p=.0003) and with early-late menarche (OR =3.43, 95% CI 1.44-8.15, p=.005). Menarche age had a curvilinear ('U' shaped) relationship with MetS and oligomenorrhea in adulthood. Late menarche and early menarche are risk factors for adult oligomenorrhea, MetS, and cardiometabolic abnormalities. Girls with early (≤ age 10) and with late menarche (≥ 16) represent a group at high risk for adult cardiometabolic abnormalities and oligomenorrhea that is easily identifiable by physicians. © 2013.

  11. Atg1 kinase regulates early and late steps during autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Kijanska, Monika; Peter, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The notion that phosphorylation constitutes a major mechanism to induce autophagy was established 15 years ago when a conserved Atg1/ULK kinase family was identified as an essential component of the autophagy machinery. The key observation was that starved atg1Δ cells lack autophagosomes in the cytosol and fail to accumulate autophagic bodies in the vacuole. Although many studies have revealed important details of Atg1 activation and function, a cohesive model for how Atg1 regulates the autophagic machinery is lacking. Our recent findings identified conserved steps of temporal and spatial regulation of Atg1/ULK1 kinase at both the PAS and autophagosomal membranes, suggesting that Atg1 not only promotes autophagy induction, but may also facilitate late stages of autophagosome biogenesis. PMID:23108207

  12. Early and Late Language Start at Private Schools in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cepik, Saban; Sarandi, Hedayat

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the interaction effect of age in L2 attainment. It explores whether success in foreign language learning at early childhood grades varies depending on age. It also addresses the beliefs of foreign language teachers regarding the variables under review. Eighty-three 11 year-old language learners who started learning English at…

  13. Adaptive neuroplastic responses in early and late hemispherectomized monkeys.

    PubMed

    Burke, Mark W; Kupers, Ron; Ptito, Maurice

    2012-01-01

    Behavioural recovery in children who undergo medically required hemispherectomy showcase the remarkable ability of the cerebral cortex to adapt and reorganize following insult early in life. Case study data suggest that lesions sustained early in childhood lead to better recovery compared to those that occur later in life. In these children, it is possible that neural reorganization had begun prior to surgery but was masked by the dysfunctional hemisphere. The degree of neural reorganization has been difficult to study systematically in human infants. Here we present a 20-year culmination of data on our nonhuman primate model (Chlorocebus sabeus) of early-life hemispherectomy in which behavioral recovery is interpreted in light of plastic processes that lead to the anatomical reorganization of the early-damaged brain. The model presented here suggests that significant functional recovery occurs after the removal of one hemisphere in monkeys with no preexisting neurological dysfunctions. Human and primate studies suggest a critical role for subcortical and brainstem structures as well as corticospinal tracts in the neuroanatomical reorganization which result in the remarkable behavioral recovery following hemispherectomy. The non-human primate model presented here offers a unique opportunity for studying the behavioral and functional neuroanatomical reorganization that underlies developmental plasticity.

  14. Selection is stronger in early-versus-late stages of divergence in a Neotropical livebearing fish.

    PubMed

    Ingley, Spencer J; Johnson, Jerald B

    2016-03-01

    How selection acts to drive trait evolution at different stages of divergence is of fundamental importance in our understanding of the origins of biodiversity. Yet, most studies have focused on a single point along an evolutionary trajectory. Here, we provide a case study evaluating the strength of divergent selection acting on life-history traits at early-versus-late stages of divergence in Brachyrhaphis fishes. We find that the difference in selection is stronger in the early-diverged population than the late-diverged population, and that trait differences acquired early are maintained over time. © 2016 The Author(s).

  15. Late Miocene to present-day exhumation and uplift of the Internal Zone of the Rif chain: Insights from low temperature thermochronometry and basin analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romagny, A.; Ph. Münch; Cornée, J.-J.; Corsini, M.; Azdimousa, A.; Melinte-Dobrinescu, M. C.; Drinia, H.; Bonno, M.; Arnaud, N.; Monié, P.; Quillévéré, F.; Ben Moussa, A.

    2014-07-01

    and vertical movements. Pliocene deposits of the Rifian coast represent the passive infilling of palaeo-rias between 5.33 and 3.8 Ma. The whole coastal area was uplifted at slow average rates (0.01-0.03 mm/y) in relation with a northeastward tilting of 0.2-0.3° since the Lower-Pliocene. A late Pliocene to present extensional tectonics associated to uplift has been identified all along the coastal ranges of the Internal Zone of the Rif chain. This extension was coeval with the major late Pliocene to Pleistocene extensional episode of the Alboran Sea and appears to be still active nowadays. No significant late Messinian uplift was evidenced, thus calling into question the geodynamic models relating the closure of the marine gateways and the MSC to slab roll back.

  16. Miocene seismic stratigraphy and structural evolution of the North and South Padre Island and OCS areas, offshore south Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Ghamdi, Ali Mohammed

    A seismic stratigraphy and structural study was undertaken to explain the Miocene tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the North and South Padre Island and OCS areas (offshore south Texas). Three linear, elongated growth-fault systems, trending northeast-southwest, occurred in this area: Clemente-Tomas, Corsair, and Wanda. The Clemente-Tomas and the Corsair systems were controlled by late Oligocene-early Miocene overpressured shale uplifted by an influx of clastic sediments. Salt withdrawal helped expand the Corsair fault during the late Oligocene-early Miocene, whereas salt withdrawal formed the Wanda fault system. Nine salt structures (eight diapirs and one sheet), active throughout the Miocene, occurred beneath the present-day shelf edge and in the South Padre Island East Addition. Two types of overpressured shale (overpressured shale ridges and overpressured stratified shale) are present. Seven major depocenters: four controlled by fault expansion and sediment influx, and three by sediment influx and salt withdrawal. The depocenters caused by fault expansion propagate to the northeast, whereas those related to salt withdrawal remain in the same location. Sedimentation in the depocenters was active during the early to middle Miocene. Three sediment fairways, entering the study area from the southwest, west, and northwest, appear to connect the sediment depocenters controlled by salt withdrawal and fault expansion. All sediment fairways propagated first to depocenters associated with salt withdrawal and then to upper slope areas. Lower Miocene time-structure maps of the area show ragged structural relief caused by sedimentation and shale and salt uplifts. Using well-log, seismic reflection, and paleontologic data to support the seismic stratigraphy, five cross-sections were constructed. Large-scale sedimentation occurred at the regressive sea level during the Oligocene beneath the present-day shoreline, forcing the uplift of predeposited marine sediments (shale

  17. Oligocene-miocene mammalian fossils from Hongyazi Basin and its bearing on tectonics of Danghe Nanshan in northern Tibetan plateau.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Wang, Xiaoming; Xie, Guangpu; Yin, An

    2013-01-01

    A shortage of Cenozoic vertebrate fossils in the Tibetan Plateau has been an obstacle in our understanding of biological evolution in response to changes in tectonism, topography, and environment. This is especially true for Paleogene records, so far known by only two sites along the northern rim of the Plateau. We report a Hongyazi Basin in northern Tibetan Plateau that produces at least three mammalian faunas that span Oligocene through late Miocene. Located at the foothills of the Danghe Nanshan and presently connected to the northern margin of the Suganhu Basin through the Greater Haltang River, the intermountain basin is controlled by the tectonics of the Danghe Nanshan to the north and Chahan'ebotu Mountain to the south, making the basin sediments well suited for inferring the evolutionary history of these two mountain ranges. At the bottom of the local section, the Oligocene Haltang Fauna is best compared to the early Oligocene Desmatolagus-Karakoromys decessus assemblage in the Dingdanggou Fauna in Tabenbuluk Basin. The Middle Miocene Ebotu Fauna from the middle Hongyazi section shares many taxa with the late Middle Miocene Tunggur mammal assemblage in Inner Mongolia, such as Heterosminthus orientalis, Megacricetodon sinensis, Democricetodon lindsayi, and Alloptox gobiensis. Toward the top of the section, the Hongyazi Fauna includes late Miocene elements typical of Hipparion faunas of North China. All three faunas are of typical North China-Central Asian characteristics, suggesting a lack of geographic barriers for faunal differentiation through the late Miocene. Sedimentary packages producing these faunas are arrayed from north to south in progressively younger strata, consistent with a compressive regime to accommodate shortening between Danghe Nanshan and Chahan'ebotu Mountain by thrust faults and folds. With additional constraints from vertebrate fossils along the northern flanks of the Danghe Nanshan, an eastward propagation of the Danghe Nanshan is

  18. Oligocene-Miocene Mammalian Fossils from Hongyazi Basin and Its Bearing on Tectonics of Danghe Nanshan in Northern Tibetan Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiang; Wang, Xiaoming; Xie, Guangpu; Yin, An

    2013-01-01

    A shortage of Cenozoic vertebrate fossils in the Tibetan Plateau has been an obstacle in our understanding of biological evolution in response to changes in tectonism, topography, and environment. This is especially true for Paleogene records, so far known by only two sites along the northern rim of the Plateau. We report a Hongyazi Basin in northern Tibetan Plateau that produces at least three mammalian faunas that span Oligocene through late Miocene. Located at the foothills of the Danghe Nanshan and presently connected to the northern margin of the Suganhu Basin through the Greater Haltang River, the intermountain basin is controlled by the tectonics of the Danghe Nanshan to the north and Chahan’ebotu Mountain to the south, making the basin sediments well suited for inferring the evolutionary history of these two mountain ranges. At the bottom of the local section, the Oligocene Haltang Fauna is best compared to the early Oligocene Desmatolagus-Karakoromys decessus assemblage in the Dingdanggou Fauna in Tabenbuluk Basin. The Middle Miocene Ebotu Fauna from the middle Hongyazi section shares many taxa with the late Middle Miocene Tunggur mammal assemblage in Inner Mongolia, such as Heterosminthus orientalis, Megacricetodon sinensis, Democricetodon lindsayi, and Alloptox gobiensis. Toward the top of the section, the Hongyazi Fauna includes late Miocene elements typical of Hipparion faunas of North China. All three faunas are of typical North China-Central Asian characteristics, suggesting a lack of geographic barriers for faunal differentiation through the late Miocene. Sedimentary packages producing these faunas are arrayed from north to south in progressively younger strata, consistent with a compressive regime to accommodate shortening between Danghe Nanshan and Chahan’ebotu Mountain by thrust faults and folds. With additional constraints from vertebrate fossils along the northern flanks of the Danghe Nanshan, an eastward propagation of the Danghe Nanshan

  19. Hominin teeth from the early Late Pleistocene site of Xujiayao, Northern China.

    PubMed

    Xing, Song; Martinón-Torres, María; Bermúdez de Castro, Jose María; Wu, Xiujie; Liu, Wu

    2015-02-01

    It is generally accepted that from the late Middle to the early Late Pleistocene (∼340-90 ka BP), Neanderthals were occupying Europe and Western Asia, whereas anatomically modern humans were present in the African continent. In contrast, the paucity of hominin fossil evidence from East Asia from this period impedes a complete evolutionary picture of the genus Homo, as well as assessment of the possible contribution of or interaction with Asian hominins in the evolution of Homo sapiens and Homo neanderthalensis. Here we present a comparative study of a hominin dental sample recovered from the Xujiayao site, in Northern China, attributed to the early Late Pleistocene (MIS 5 to 4). Our dental study reveals a mosaic of primitive and derived dental features for the Xujiayao hominins that can be summarized as follows: i) they are different from archaic and recent modern humans, ii) they present some features that are common but not exclusive to the Neanderthal lineage, and iii) they retain some primitive conformations classically found in East Asian Early and Middle Pleistocene hominins despite their young geological age. Thus, our study evinces the existence in China of a population of unclear taxonomic status with regard to other contemporary populations such as H. sapiens and H. neanderthalensis. The morphological and metric studies of the Xujiayao teeth expand the variability known for early Late Pleistocene hominin fossils and suggest the possibility that a primitive hominin lineage may have survived late into the Late Pleistocene in China. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Preventability of early vs. late readmissions in an academic medical center

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Kelly L.; Dike, Ogechi; Doctoroff, Lauren; Jupiter, Marisa; Vanka, Anita

    2017-01-01

    Background It is unclear if the 30-day unplanned hospital readmission rate is a plausible accountability metric. Objective Compare preventability of hospital readmissions, between an early period [0–7 days post-discharge] and a late period [8–30 days post-discharge]. Compare causes of readmission, and frequency of markers of clinical instability 24h prior to discharge between early and late readmissions. Design, setting, patients 120 patient readmissions in an academic medical center between 1/1/2009-12/31/2010 Measures Sum-score based on a standard algorithm that assesses preventability of each readmission based on blinded hospitalist review; average causation score for seven types of adverse events; rates of markers of clinical instability within 24h prior to discharge. Results Readmissions were significantly more preventable in the early compared to the late period [median preventability sum score 8.5 vs. 8.0, p = 0.03]. There were significantly more management errors as causative events for the readmission in the early compared to the late period [mean causation score [scale 1–6, 6 most causal] 2.0 vs. 1.5, p = 0.04], and these errors were significantly more preventable in the early compared to the late period [mean preventability score 1.9 vs 1.5, p = 0.03]. Patients readmitted in the early period were significantly more likely to have mental status changes documented 24h prior to hospital discharge than patients readmitted in the late period [12% vs. 0%, p = 0.01]. Conclusions Readmissions occurring in the early period were significantly more preventable. Early readmissions were associated with more management errors, and mental status changes 24h prior to discharge. Seven-day readmissions may be a better accountability measure. PMID:28622384

  1. Late stages of accumulation and early evolution of the planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vityazev, Andrey V.; Perchernikova, G. V.

    1991-01-01

    Recently developed solutions of problems are discussed that were traditionally considered fundamental in classical solar system cosmogony: determination of planetary orbit distribution patterns, values for mean eccentricity and orbital inclinations of the planets, and rotation periods and rotation axis inclinations of the planets. Two important cosmochemical aspects of accumulation are examined: the time scale for gas loss from the terrestrial planet zone, and the composition of the planets in terms of isotope data. It was concluded that the early beginning of planet differentiation is a function of the heating of protoplanets during collisions with large (thousands of kilometers) bodies. Energetics, heat mass transfer processes, and characteristic time scales of these processes at the early stages of planet evolution are considered.

  2. Age and stratigraphic context of Pliopithecus and associated fauna from Miocene sedimentary strata at Damiao, Inner Mongolia, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaakinen, Anu; Abdul Aziz, Hayfaa; Passey, Benjamin H.; Zhang, Zhaoqun; Liu, Liping; Salminen, Johanna; Wang, Lihua; Krijgsman, Wout; Fortelius, Mikael

    2015-03-01

    Since the discovery of mammalian fossils in Central Inner Mongolia in the beginning of the 20th century, this area has produced a rich and diverse record of Miocene faunas. Nevertheless, the stratigraphy has remained poorly constrained owing to scattered faunal horizons and lack of continuous vertical exposures. Consequently, most age estimates of these Miocene sites are based on paleontological evidence alone, with very few sites having been dated independently. Our field investigations in Damiao, in Siziwang Qi, Inner Mongolia have yielded more than 30 new fossiliferous localities from three horizons, including a pliopithecid fauna. This study presents the litho-, bio- and magnetostratigraphy of the Damiao area and provides age estimates for the three fossil-bearing horizons. The sedimentary sequence is interpreted as the remains of a fluvial system comprising channels, subaerially exposed floodplains and floodbasin environments. The two local stratigraphic sections measured and sampled for paleomagnetic analysis coincide with species-rich vertebrate fossil localities. The paleomagnetic results and faunal evidence suggest a correlation of lowermost fossil horizon (DM16) producing relatively rich small mammal assemblage to the early Miocene chron C6Ar or C6An.1r, roughly in 20-21 Ma age range. The pliopithecid locality level (DM01) represents latest middle Miocene and has an age estimate of about 12.1 Ma while the youngest localities (DM02) with cervoids and abundant and diverse small mammal fauna represents the earliest late Miocene with an age estimate of about 11.6 Ma. Our magnetostratigraphic results confirm that the Damiao strata constitute one of the best sequences in Inner Mongolia with early, middle and late Miocene mammalian faunas in stratigraphic superposition. The results also provide constraints on the paleoenvironmental evolution and bioevents of the area. The occurrence of pliopithecid primates in the middle Miocene of Inner Mongolia suggests humid

  3. CONSEQUENCES OF REPEATED ETHANOL EXPOSURE DURING EARLY OR LATE ADOLESCENCE ON CONDITIONED TASTE AVERSIONS IN RATS

    PubMed Central

    Saalfield, Jessica; Spear, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol use is prevalent during adolescence, yet little is known about possible long-lasting consequences.. Recent evidence suggests that adolescents are less sensitive than adults to ethanol’s aversive effects, an insensitivity that may be retained into adulthood after repeated adolescent ethanol exposure. This study assessed whether intermittent ethanol exposure during early or late adolescence (early-AIE or late-AIE, respectively) would affect ethanol conditioned taste aversions 2 days (CTA1) and >3 weeks (CTA2) post-exposure using supersaccharin and saline as conditioning stimuli (CS), respectively. Pair-housed male Sprague-Dawley rats received 4 g/kg i.g. ethanol (25%) or water every 48 hours from postnatal day (P) 25–45 (early AIE) or P45–65 (late AIE), or were left non-manipulated (NM). During conditioning, 30 min home cage access to the CS was followed by 0, 1, 1.5, 2 or 2.5 g/kg ethanol i.p., with testing 2 days later. Attenuated CTA relative to controls was seen among early and late AIE animals at both CTA1 and CTA2, an effect particularly pronounced at CTA1 after late AIE. Thus, adolescent exposure to ethanol was found to induce an insensitivity to ethanol CTA seen soon after exposure and lasting into adulthood, and evident with ethanol exposures not only early but also later in adolescence. PMID:25698309

  4. Consequences of repeated ethanol exposure during early or late adolescence on conditioned taste aversions in rats.

    PubMed

    Saalfield, Jessica; Spear, Linda

    2015-12-01

    Alcohol use is prevalent during adolescence, yet little is known about possible long-lasting consequences. Recent evidence suggests that adolescents are less sensitive than adults to ethanol's aversive effects, an insensitivity that may be retained into adulthood after repeated adolescent ethanol exposure. This study assessed whether intermittent ethanol exposure during early or late adolescence (early-AIE or late-AIE, respectively) would affect ethanol conditioned taste aversions 2 days (CTA1) and >3 weeks (CTA2) post-exposure using supersaccharin and saline as conditioning stimuli (CS), respectively. Pair-housed male Sprague-Dawley rats received 4g/kg i.g. ethanol (25%) or water every 48 h from postnatal day (P) 25-45 (early AIE) or P45-65 (late AIE), or were left non-manipulated (NM). During conditioning, 30 min home cage access to the CS was followed by 0, 1, 1.5, 2 or 2.5g/kg ethanol i.p., with testing 2 days later. Attenuated CTA relative to controls was seen among early and late AIE animals at both CTA1 and CTA2, an effect particularly pronounced at CTA1 after late AIE. Thus, adolescent exposure to ethanol was found to induce an insensitivity to ethanol CTA seen soon after exposure and lasting into adulthood, and evident with ethanol exposures not only early but also later in adolescence. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. A New Hadrosauroid Dinosaur from the Early Late Cretaceous of Shanxi Province, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Run-Fu; You, Hai-Lu; Xu, Shi-Chao; Wang, Suo-Zhu; Yi, Jian; Xie, Li-Juan; Jia, Lei; Li, Ya-Xian

    2013-01-01

    Background The origin of hadrosaurid dinosaurs is far from clear, mainly due to the paucity of their early Late Cretaceous close relatives. Compared to numerous Early Cretaceous basal hadrosauroids, which are mainly from Eastern Asia, only six early Late Cretaceous (pre-Campanian) basal hadrosauroids have been found: three from Asia and three from North America. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we describe a new hadrosauroid dinosaur, Yunganglong datongensis gen. et sp. nov., from the early Late Cretaceous Zhumapu Formation of Shanxi Province in northern China. The new taxon is represented by an associated but disarticulated partial adult skeleton including the caudodorsal part of the skull. Cladistic analysis and comparative studies show that Yunganglong represents one of the most basal Late Cretaceous hadrosauroids and is diagnosed by a unique combination of features in its skull and femur. Conclusions/Significance The discovery of Yunganglong adds another record of basal Hadrosauroidea in the early Late Cretaceous, and helps to elucidate the origin and evolution of Hadrosauridae. PMID:24204734

  6. A greigite-based magnetostratigraphic time frame for the Late Miocene to Recent DSDP Leg 42B cores from the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Baak, Christiaan; Vasiliev, Iuliana; Palcu, Dan; Dekkers, Mark; Krijgsman, Wout

    2016-05-01

    Throughout the Late Neogene, the Black Sea experienced large paleoenvironmental changes, switching between (anoxic) marine conditions when connected to the Mediterranean Sea and (oxic) freshwater conditions at times of isolation. We create a magnetostratigraphic time frame for three sites drilled during Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Leg 42B to the Black Sea (drilled in 1975). At the time, magnetostratigraphic dating was impossible because of the presence of the little understood iron sulfide mineral greigite (in sediments a precursor to pyrite) as magnetic carrier. Our rock-magnetic results indicate that only anoxic conditions result in poor magnetic signal, likely as a result of pyrite formation in the water column rather than in the sediment. The magnetostratigraphic results indicate that Hole 379A, drilled in the basin center, has a continuous sedimentary record dating back to 1.3 Ma. Hole 380/380A is subdivided into three consistent intervals, 0-700 mbsf, 700-860 mbsf and 860-1075 mbsf. The top unit covers the Pleistocene but the magnetostratigraphy is likely compromised by the presence of mass transport deposits. The middle unit spans between 4.3 and 6.1 Ma and records continuous deposition at ~10 cm/kyr. The lower unit lacks the independent age constraints to correlate the obtained magnetostratigraphy. Hole 381 is drilled on the Bosporus slope and as a result, hiatuses are common. A correlation to the nearby Hole 380/380A is proposed, but indicates deposits cannot straightforwardly be traced across the slope. Our improved age model does not support the original interpretation based on these cores of a desiccation of the Black Sea during the Messinian salinity crisis.

  7. Early human symbolic behavior in the Late Pleistocene of Wallacea.

    PubMed

    Brumm, Adam; Langley, Michelle C; Moore, Mark W; Hakim, Budianto; Ramli, Muhammad; Sumantri, Iwan; Burhan, Basran; Saiful, Andi Muhammad; Siagian, Linda; Suryatman; Sardi, Ratno; Jusdi, Andi; Abdullah; Mubarak, Andi Pampang; Hasliana; Hasrianti; Oktaviana, Adhi Agus; Adhityatama, Shinatria; van den Bergh, Gerrit D; Aubert, Maxime; Zhao, Jian-Xin; Huntley, Jillian; Li, Bo; Roberts, Richard G; Saptomo, E Wahyu; Perston, Yinika; Grün, Rainer

    2017-04-18

    Wallacea, the zone of oceanic islands separating the continental regions of Southeast Asia and Australia, has yielded sparse evidence for the symbolic culture of early modern humans. Here we report evidence for symbolic activity 30,000-22,000 y ago at Leang Bulu Bettue, a cave and rock-shelter site on the Wallacean island of Sulawesi. We describe hitherto undocumented practices of personal ornamentation and portable art, alongside evidence for pigment processing and use in deposits that are the same age as dated rock art in the surrounding karst region. Previously, assemblages of multiple and diverse types of Pleistocene "symbolic" artifacts were entirely unknown from this region. The Leang Bulu Bettue assemblage provides insight into the complexity and diversification of modern human culture during a key period in the global dispersal of our species. It also shows that early inhabitants of Sulawesi fashioned ornaments from body parts of endemic animals, suggesting modern humans integrated exotic faunas and other novel resources into their symbolic world as they colonized the biogeographically unique regions southeast of continental Eurasia.

  8. Early human symbolic behavior in the Late Pleistocene of Wallacea

    PubMed Central

    Brumm, Adam; Hakim, Budianto; Ramli, Muhammad; Sumantri, Iwan; Burhan, Basran; Saiful, Andi Muhammad; Siagian, Linda; Suryatman; Sardi, Ratno; Jusdi, Andi; Abdullah; Mubarak, Andi Pampang; Hasliana; Hasrianti; Oktaviana, Adhi Agus; Adhityatama, Shinatria; van den Bergh, Gerrit D.; Aubert, Maxime; Zhao, Jian-xin; Huntley, Jillian; Li, Bo; Roberts, Richard G.; Saptomo, E. Wahyu; Perston, Yinika; Grün, Rainer

    2017-01-01

    Wallacea, the zone of oceanic islands separating the continental regions of Southeast Asia and Australia, has yielded sparse evidence for the symbolic culture of early modern humans. Here we report evidence for symbolic activity 30,000–22,000 y ago at Leang Bulu Bettue, a cave and rock-shelter site on the Wallacean island of Sulawesi. We describe hitherto undocumented practices of personal ornamentation and portable art, alongside evidence for pigment processing and use in deposits that are the same age as dated rock art in the surrounding karst region. Previously, assemblages of multiple and diverse types of Pleistocene “symbolic” artifacts were entirely unknown from this region. The Leang Bulu Bettue assemblage provides insight into the complexity and diversification of modern human culture during a key period in the global dispersal of our species. It also shows that early inhabitants of Sulawesi fashioned ornaments from body parts of endemic animals, suggesting modern humans integrated exotic faunas and other novel resources into their symbolic world as they colonized the biogeographically unique regions southeast of continental Eurasia. PMID:28373568

  9. Clinical Features of Early and Late Postoperative Hypothyroidism After Lobectomy.

    PubMed

    Park, Suyeon; Jeon, Min Ji; Song, Eyun; Oh, Hye-Seon; Kim, Mijin; Kwon, Hyemi; Kim, Tae Yong; Hong, Suck Joon; Shong, Young Kee; Kim, Won Bae; Sung, Tae-Yon; Kim, Won Gu

    2017-04-01

    Lobectomy is preferred in thyroid cancer to decrease surgical complications and avoid lifelong thyroid-hormone replacement. However, postoperative hypothyroidism, requiring thyroid-hormone replacement, may occur. We aimed to identify the incidence and risk factors of postoperative hypothyroidism to develop a surveillance strategy after lobectomy for papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC). This historical cohort study involved 335 patients with PTMC treated by lobectomy. Postoperative thyroid functions were measured regularly, and patients were prescribed levothyroxine according to specific criteria. Patients not satisfying hormone-replacement criteria were closely followed up. Postoperative hypothyroidism occurred in 215 patients (64.2%) including 5 (1.5%) with overt hypothyroidism and 210 (62.7%) with subclinical hypothyroidism. Forty patients (11.9%) were required thyroid hormone replacement. One hundred nineteen patients (33.5%) experienced temporary hypothyroidism and spontaneously recovered to euthyroid state. High preoperative thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was the most important factor predicting postoperative hypothyroidism and failure of recover from hypothyroidism (odds ratio [OR], 2.82 and 1.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.07 to 3.95 and 1.22 to 2.63; P < 0.001 and 0.002, respectively). Of the 215 patients eventually developing postoperative hypothyroidism, 70 (32.6%) developed hypothyroidism after the first postoperative year. Postoperative 1-year TSH levels were able to differentiate patients developing late hypothyroidism or euthyroidism (OR, 2.29; 95% CI, 1.68 to 3.26; P < 0.001). Preoperative and postoperative TSH levels might be predictive for patients who develop postlobectomy hypothyroidism and identify those requiring long-term surveillance for hypothyroidism. Additionally, mild postoperative hypothyroidism cases should be followed up without immediate levothyroxine replacement with the expectation of spontaneous recovery. Copyright

  10. Palaeotectonic implications of increased late Eocene-early Oligocene volcanism from South Pacific DSDP sites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennett, J.P.; Von Der Borch, C.; Baker, P.A.; Barton, C.E.; Boersma, A.; Cauler, J.P.; Dudley, W.C.; Gardner, J.V.; Jenkins, D.G.; Lohman, W.H.; Martini, E.; Merrill, R.B.; Morin, R.; Nelson, Campbell S.; Robert, C.; Srinivasan, M.S.; Stein, R.; Takeuchi, A.; Murphy, M.G.

    1985-01-01

    Late Eocene-early Oligocene (42-35 Myr) sediments cored at two DSDP sites in the south-west Pacific contain evidence of a pronounced increase in local volcanic activity, particularly in close association with the Eocene-Oligocene boundary. This pulse of volcanism is coeval with that in New Zealand and resulted from the development of an Indo- Australian / Pacific Plate boundary through the region during the late Eocene. The late Eocene / earliest Oligocene was marked by widespread volcanism and tectonism throughout the Pacific and elsewhere, and by one of the most important episodes of Cenozoic climatic cooling. ?? 1985 Nature Publishing Group.

  11. Correlates and prevalence of hypogonadism in patients with early- and late-onset type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Zhang, M; Liu, X; Cui, W; Rampersad, S; Li, F; Lin, Z; Yang, P; Li, H; Sheng, C; Cheng, X; Qu, S

    2017-07-01

    This study aims to compare the prevalence of hypogonadism between male patients with early-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and late-onset type 2 diabetes. A total of 122 male patients with early-onset T2DM (diagnosis age ≤40 years) and 100 male patients with late-onset T2DM (diagnosis age >40 years) were recruited from our in-patient department between 1 January 2013 and 28 December 2015. Serum FSH, LH, testosterone, lipid profile, uric acid, HbA1c, and beta-cell function were determined in blood samples. The diagnosis of hypogonadism was based on the levels of LH, FSH, and total testosterone. The mean onset age was 29.86 ± 6.31 and 54.47 ± 9.97 years old in the early-onset group and late-onset group, respectively. Compared with late-onset T2DM, those with early-onset T2DM had a higher proportion of new-onset diabetes, were more likely to be obese, and had worse glycemic control, lipid control, and lower sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). The prevalence of hypogonadism was much higher in the early-onset group than in the late-onset group (48.0% vs. 26.7%, p < 0.05). The rate of secondary hypogonadism in the early-onset group and late-onset group were 44.3% and 25.0%, respectively (p < 0.05). Obesity, waist circumference, and SHBG were significantly associated with serum total testosterone level in all, early-onset, and late-onset T2DM. Both all and early-onset T2DM groups had positive correlations between total testosterone and fasting C-peptide, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and uric acid. Our results indicate that in a population of admission to a large urban hospital in China, the prevalence of hypogonadism was higher in the patients with early-onset T2DM than that of late-onset T2DM. This prevalence might be attributable to greater obesity, worse lipid control, and lower SHBG levels in those patients. © 2017 American Society of Andrology and European Academy of Andrology.

  12. Boldness and aggressiveness in early and late hatched three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Gomez, M L; Huntingford, F A

    2012-08-01

    Levels of boldness and the degree of aggressiveness were compared in juvenile three-spined sticklebacks Gasterosteus aculeatus that had hatched early and late in the breeding season. The most striking result found in this study was that early hatched individuals were bolder when exploring a novel environment than were late-hatched individuals. No differences in levels of aggression between early and late hatchlings were found, but a relationship between boldness and aggressiveness was present regardless of hatching date. The implications of these findings are discussed in the light of research on individual variation in behaviour and the development of behavioural syndromes. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Fish Biology © 2012 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  13. Accuracy of different diagnostic tests for early, delayed and late prosthetic joint infection.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Sampedro, M; Fariñas-Alvarez, C; Garces-Zarzalejo, C; Alonso-Aguirre, M A; Salas-Venero, C; Martínez-Martínez, L; Fariñas, M C

    2017-08-25

    A combination of laboratory, histopathological and microbiological tests for diagnosis of prosthetic joint infection (PJI) have been strongly recommended. This study aims to characterize the accuracy of individual or group tests, such as culture of sonicate fluid, synovial fluid and peri-implant tissue, C-reactive protein (CRP) and histopathology for detection of early, delayed and late PJI. A prospective study of patients undergoing hip or knee arthroplasty from February 2009 to February 2014 was performed in a Spanish tertiary health care hospital. The diagnostic accuracy of the different methods was evaluated constructing receiver-operating-characteristic (ROC) curve areas. One hundred thirty consecutive patients were included: 18 (13.8%) early PJI, 35 (27%) delayed PJI and 77 (59.2%) late PJI. For individual parameters, the area under the ROC curve for peri-implant tissue culture was larger for early (0.917) than for delayed (0.829) and late PJI (0.778), p = 0.033. There was a significantly larger difference for ROC area in the synovial fluid culture for delayed (0.803) than for early (0.781) and late infections (0.679), p = 0.039. The comparison of the areas under the ROC curves for the two microbiological tests showed that sonicate fluid was significantly different from peri-implant tissue in delayed (0.951 vs 0.829, p = 0.005) and late PJI (0.901 vs 0.778, p = 0.000). The conjunction of preoperative parameters, synovial fluid culture and CRP, improved the accuracy for late PJI (p = 0.01). The conjunction of histopathology and sonicate fluid culture increased the area under ROC curve of sonication in early (0.917 vs 1.000); p = 0.06 and late cases (0.901 vs 0.999); p < 0.001. For early PJI, sonicate fluid and peri-implant tissue cultures achieve the same best sensitivity. For delayed and late PJI, sonicate fluid culture is the most sensitive individual diagnostic method. By combining histopathology and peri-implant tissue, all early, 97% of

  14. Discrete β-adrenergic mechanisms regulate early and late erythropoiesis in erythropoietin-resistant anemia.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Shirin; Mosier, Michael J; Szilagyi, Andrea; Gamelli, Richard L; Muthumalaiappan, Kuzhali

    2017-10-01

    Anemia of critical illness is resistant to exogenous erythropoietin. Packed red blood cells transfusions is the only treatment option, and despite related cost and morbidity, there is a need for alternate strategies. Erythrocyte development can be divided into erythropoietin-dependent and erythropoietin-independent stages. We have shown previously that erythropoietin-dependent development is intact in burn patients and the erythropoietin-independent early commitment stage, which is regulated by β1/β2-adrenergic mechanisms, is compromised. Utilizing the scald burn injury model, we studied erythropoietin-independent late maturation stages and the effect of β1/β2, β-2, or β-3 blockade in burn mediated erythropoietin-resistant anemia. Burn mice were randomized to receive daily injections of propranolol (nonselective β1/β2 antagonist), nadolol (long-acting β1/β2 antagonist), butoxamine (selective β2 antagonist), or SR59230A (selective β3 antagonist) for 6 days after burn. Total bone marrow cells were characterized as nonerythroid cells, early and late erythroblasts, nucleated orthochromatic erythroblasts and enucleated reticulocyte subsets using CD71, Ter119, and Syto-16 by flow cytometry. Multipotential progenitors were probed for MafB expressing cells. Although propranolol improved early and late erythroblasts, only butoxamine and selective β3-antagonist administrations were positively reflected in the peripheral blood hemoglobin and red blood cells count. While burn impeded early commitment and late maturation stages, β1/β2 antagonism increased the early erythroblasts through commitment stages via β2 specific MafB regulation. β3 antagonism was more effective in improving overall red blood cells through late maturation stages. The study unfolds novel β2 and β3 adrenergic mechanisms orchestrating erythropoietin resistant anemia after burn, which impedes both the early commitment stage and the late maturation stages, respectively. Copyright © 2017

  15. Hippocampal Morphology and Distinguishing Late-Onset From Early-Onset Elderly Depression

    PubMed Central

    Ballmaier, Martina; Narr, Katherine L.; Toga, Arthur W.; Elderkin-Thompson, Virginia; Thompson, Paul M.; Hamilton, Liberty; Haroon, Ebrahim; Pham, Daniel; Heinz, Andreas; Kumar, Anand

    2010-01-01

    Objective Despite evidence for hippocampal abnormalities in elderly depression, it is unknown whether these changes are regionally specific. This study used three-dimensional mapping techniques to identify regional hippocampal abnormalities in early- and late-onset depression. Neuropsychological correlates of hippocampal morphology were also investigated. Method With high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging, hippocampal morphology was compared among elderly patients with early- (N=24) and late-onset (N=22) depression and comparison subjects (N=34). Regional structural abnormalities were identified by comparing distances, measured from homologous hippocampal surface points to the central core of each individual’s hippocampal surface model, between groups. Results Hippocampal volumes differed between depressed patients and comparison subjects but not between patients with early- and late-onset depression. However, statistical mapping results showed that regional surface contractions were significantly pronounced in late-compared to early-onset depression in the anterior of the subiculum and lateral posterior of the CA1 subfield in the left hemisphere. Significant shape differences were observed bilaterally in anterior CA1–CA3 subfields and the subiculum in patients in relation to comparison subjects. These results were similar when each disease group was separately compared to comparison subjects. Hippocampal surface contractions significantly correlated with memory measures among late- but not early-onset depressed patients or comparison subjects. Conclusions More pronounced regional volume deficits and their associations with memory in late-onset depression may suggest that these patients are more likely to develop cognitive impairment over time than individuals with early-onset depression. Mapping regional hippocampal abnormalities and their cognitive correlates may help guide research in defining risk profiles and treatment strategies. PMID:17986679

  16. Mid-Miocene C4 expansion on the Chinese Loess Plateau under an enhanced Asian summer monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Jibao; Liu, Zhonghui; An, Zhisheng; Liu, Weiguo; Zhou, Weijian; Qiang, Xiaoke; Lu, Fengyan

    2018-06-01

    Atmospheric CO2 starvation, aridity, fire and warm season precipitation have all been proposed as major contributors to C4 plant expansion during the Late Miocene. However, the driving factors responsible for the distribution of C4 plants in the early and mid-Miocene still remain enigmatic. Here we report pedogenic carbon and oxygen isotope data (δ13Cpedo, δ18Opedo), along with magnetic susceptibility (MS) results, from the Zhuang Lang drilling core on the Chinese Loess Plateau (CLP). Elevated δ13Cpedo values (>-5‰) signal a prominent C4 expansion and substantially increased δ18Opedo and MS values indicate enhanced Asian summer monsoon (ASM) precipitation. Both of these conditions are observed during the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum (MMCO), 14.5-17 million years ago. The marked increase in C4 plants, associated with warm temperatures and increased precipitation, strongly suggests the control of an enhanced ASM on C4 expansion on the CLP during the MMCO. This finding contrasts with the late-Miocene C4 expansion associated with cooling and drying conditions observed in low latitudes and argues for regionally specific control of C4 plant distribution/expansion.

  17. Understanding the murky history of the Coral Triangle: Miocene corals and reef habitats in East Kalimantan (Indonesia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santodomingo, Nadiezhda; Renema, Willem; Johnson, Kenneth G.

    2016-09-01

    Studies on ancient coral communities living in marginal conditions, including low light, high turbidity, extreme temperatures, or high nutrients, are important to understand the current structure of reefs and how they could potentially respond to global changes. The main goal of this study was to document the rich and well-preserved fossil coral fauna preserved in Miocene exposures of the Kutai Basin in East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Our collections include almost forty thousand specimens collected from 47 outcrops. Seventy-nine genera and 234 species have been identified. Three different coral assemblages were found corresponding to small patch reefs that developed under the influence of high siliciclastic inputs from the Mahakam Delta. Coral assemblages vary in richness, structure, and composition. Platy coral assemblages were common until the Serravallian (Middle Miocene), while branching coral assemblages became dominant in the Tortonian (Late Miocene). By the late Tortonian massive coral assemblages dominated, similar to modern-style coral framework. Our results suggest that challenging habitats, such as the Miocene turbid habitats of East Kalimantan, might have played an important role during the early diversification of the Coral Triangle by hosting a pool of resilient species more likely to survive the environmental changes that have affected this region since the Cenozoic. Further research that integrates fossil and recent turbid habitats may provide a glimpse into the dynamics and future of coral reefs as "typical" clear-water reefs continue to decline in most regions.

  18. Voluminous low δ18O magmas in the late Miocene Heise volcanic field, Idaho: Implications for the fate of Yellowstone hotspot calderas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bindeman, I.N.; Watts, K.E.; Schmitt, A.K.; Morgan, L.A.; Shanks, P.W.C.

    2007-01-01

    We report oxygen isotope compositions of phenocrysts and U-Pb ages of zircons in four large caldera-forming ignimbrites and post-caldera lavas of the Heise volcanic field, a nested caldera complex in the Snake River Plain, that preceded volcanism in Yellowstone. Early eruption of three normal δ18O voluminous ignimbrites with δ18Oquartz = 6.4‰ and δ18Ozircon = 4.8‰ started at Heise at 6.6 Ma, and was followed by a 2‰–3‰ δ18O depletion in the subsequent 4.45 Ma Kilgore caldera cycle that includes the 1800 km3 Kilgore ignimbrite, and post-Kilgore intracaldera lavas with δ18Oquartz = 4.3‰ and δ18Ozircon = 1.5‰. The Kilgore ignimbrite represents the largest known low-δ18O magma in the Snake River Plain and worldwide. The post-Kilgore low δ18O volcanism likely represents the waning stages of silicic magmatism at Heise, prior to the reinitiation of normal δ18O silicic volcanism 100 km to the northeast at Yellowstone. The occurrence of low δ18O magmas at Heise and Yellowstone hallmarks a mature stage of individual volcanic cycles in each caldera complex. Sudden shifts in δ18O of silicic magmas erupted from the same nested caldera complexes argue against any inheritance of the low δ18O signature from mantle or crustal sources. Instead, δ18O age trends indicate progressive remelting of low δ18O hydrothermally altered intracaldera rocks of previous eruptions. This trend may be generally applicable to older caldera complexes in the Snake River Plain that are poorly exposed.

  19. Facies analysis of the Balta Formation: Evidence for a large late Miocene fluvio-deltaic system in the East Carpathian Foreland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matoshko, Anton; Matoshko, Andrei; de Leeuw, Arjan; Stoica, Marius

    2016-08-01

    Deposits of the Balta Fm are preserved in a large arcuate sediment body that covers about 60,000 km2 and is up to 350 m thick. The Balta Fm spans ca. 5 Ma as constrained by underlying Tortonian (Bessarabian) and overlying Messinian (early Pontian) Paratethys strata. It contains frequent terrestrial mammal fossils and fresh- as well as brackish-water (Paratethys) molluscs and ostracods. Over the past 140 years our understanding of the sedimentary architecture of the formation and its origins has remained in its infancy, which has limited insight into the evolution of the East Carpathian Foreland. Here, we provide the first modern sedimentary facies analysis of the Balta Fm, which is integrated with an extensive review of previously published local literature. It is supported with micropalaeontological results and a wealth of historical borehole information. We show that the Balta Fm has a tripartite vertical division. Its lowermost part is clay dominated and consists of subordinate delta front sand bodies interspersed between muds. The middle unit contains separate delta plain channels or channel belts encased in thick muds. These are overlain by a unit with amalgamated delta plain channel deposits with only minor amounts of associated mud. The abundance of upper flow regime sedimentary structures in channel sands, the absence of peats (or coals) and the presence of calcareous nodules suggest a strongly seasonal and relatively dry climate with a flashy discharge regime. Deposition of the Balta Fm in an area previously characterized by distal shelf and prodelta environments indicates large-scale progradation triggered by high sediment volume from the uplifting Carpathian Orogen and enhanced by a general lowering of Paratethys sea-level. The tripartite internal architecture of the Balta Fm indicates that progradation continued during deposition. Its wedge-shaped geometry suggests that tectonic activity in the Carpathians generated a 300 km wide foreland basin that

  20. New Data on mid-Miocene Rhyolite Volcanism in Eastern Oregon Extend Early, co-CRBG Rhyolite Flare up and Constrain Storage Sites of Grande Ronde Flood Basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streck, M. J.; Ferns, M. L.; McIntosh, W. C.

    2015-12-01

    The classical view of relating mid-Miocene rhyolites of the tri-state area of Oregon, Nevada, and Idaho to the flood basalts of the Columbia River Basalt was that a mantle plume impinging along the Oregon-Idaho border first causes eruption of the flood basalts but shortly thereafter causes generation of rhyolites at the McDermitt volcanic field from which then hot-spot track rhyolites developed progressively younging towards Yellowstone. More recent work reveals rhyolites as old as found at McDermitt (~16.5 Ma) to occur along a wide E-W tangent along the Oregon-Nevada-Idaho border. And now, our data extend such early rhyolites (>16 Ma) to several locations further north within and in the periphery of the Lake Owyhee Volcanic Field (LOVF) adding to the geographically orphaned old age of 16.7 Ma of the Silver City Rhyolite, Idaho. Hence, the rhyolite flare-up associated with flood basalt magmatism occurred within a circular area of ~400 km centered 100 km NNE of McDermitt. Consequently, no south-to-north progression exists in the onset of rhyolite volcanism; instead, rhyolites started up at the same time over this large area. Province-wide rhyolite volcanism was strongest between ~16.4 and 15.4 Ma coincident with eruptions of the most voluminous member of the CRBG - the Grande Ronde Basalt (GRB). Field evidence for such bimodal volcanism consists of intercalated local GRB units with the Dinner Creek Tuff and Littlefield Rhyolite in the Malheur River Gorge corridor. GRB eruption sites exist and were likely fed from reservoirs residing below or near rhyolitic chambers. Presently, we have petrological evidence for pinning down GRB storages sites to areas from where rhyolites of the Dinner Creek Tuff and lava flows of the Littlefield Rhyolite erupted. In summary, input of GRG and other CRBG magmas were driving co-CRBG rhyolite volcanism which in turn may have influenced whether flood basalt magmas erupted locally or travelled in dikes to more distally located areas.

  1. A late Pleistocene human presence at Huaca Prieta, Peru, and early Pacific Coastal adaptations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillehay, Tom D.; Bonavia, Duccio; Goodbred, Steve L.; Pino, Mario; Vásquez, Victor; Tham, Teresa Rosales

    2012-05-01

    Archaeological excavations in deep pre-mound levels at Huaca Prieta in northern Peru have yielded new evidence of late Pleistocene cultural deposits that shed insights into the early human occupation of the Pacific coast of South America. Radiocarbon dates place this occupation between ~ 14,200 and 13,300 cal yr BP. The cultural evidence shares certain basic technological and subsistence traits, including maritime resources and simple flake tools, with previously discovered late Pleistocene sites along the Pacific coast of Peru and Chile. The results help to expand our knowledge of early maritime societies and human adaption to changing coastal environments.

  2. [Intrauterine devices in the immediate, early and late postabortion period].

    PubMed

    Nun, S

    1971-01-01

    2146 cases of IUD insertions after hospitalization for abortion at a hospital in Chile were studied. In 1514 cases the IUDs were inserted immediately after abortion, in 430 cases between 1-5 days after the operation, and in 202 cases between 5-40 days after. It is concluded that immediate or early insertion results in a somewhat lower retention rate, but offers the advantage of making it possible to treat a greater number of patients, many of whom would not return later to have the IUD inserted. The incidence of removal for medical causes was very low and immediate insertion was found to be harmless. The medical causes of removal were the usual ones of bleeding, pain, and infection; the most frequent cause of interruption of use was expulsion, which tends to occur during the 1st few months of use and among younger women. The probability of failure due to pregnancy was somewhat higher than in the case of insertion during the intermenstrual period. Cases of voluntary removal tend to increase after prolonged use, and a study to analyze the actual reasons for this fact is necessary.

  3. Miocene flooding events of western Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Jaramillo, Carlos; Romero, Ingrid; D'Apolito, Carlos; Bayona, German; Duarte, Edward; Louwye, Stephen; Escobar, Jaime; Luque, Javier; Carrillo-Briceño, Jorge D; Zapata, Vladimir; Mora, Alejandro; Schouten, Stefan; Zavada, Michael; Harrington, Guy; Ortiz, John; Wesselingh, Frank P

    2017-05-01

    There is a considerable controversy about whether western Amazonia was ever covered by marine waters during the Miocene [23 to 5 Ma (million years ago)]. We investigated the possible occurrence of Miocene marine incursions in the Llanos and Amazonas/Solimões basins, using sedimentological and palynological data from two sediment cores taken in eastern Colombia and northwestern Brazil together with seismic information. We observed two distinct marine intervals in the Llanos Basin, an early Miocene that lasted ~0.9 My (million years) (18.1 to 17.2 Ma) and a middle Miocene that lasted ~3.7 My (16.1 to 12.4 Ma). These two marine intervals are also seen in Amazonas/Solimões Basin (northwestern Amazonia) but were much shorter in duration, ~0.2 My (18.0 to 17.8 Ma) and ~0.4 My (14.1 to 13.7 Ma), respectively. Our results indicate that shallow marine waters covered the region at least twice during the Miocene, but the events were short-lived, rather than a continuous full-marine occupancy of Amazonian landscape over millions of years.

  4. Miocene flooding events of western Amazonia

    PubMed Central

    Jaramillo, Carlos; Romero, Ingrid; D’Apolito, Carlos; Bayona, German; Duarte, Edward; Louwye, Stephen; Escobar, Jaime; Luque, Javier; Carrillo-Briceño, Jorge D.; Zapata, Vladimir; Mora, Alejandro; Schouten, Stefan; Zavada, Michael; Harrington, Guy; Ortiz, John; Wesselingh, Frank P.

    2017-01-01

    There is a considerable controversy about whether western Amazonia was ever covered by marine waters during the Miocene [23 to 5 Ma (million years ago)]. We investigated the possible occurrence of Miocene marine incursions in the Llanos and Amazonas/Solimões basins, using sedimentological and palynological data from two sediment cores taken in eastern Colombia and northwestern Brazil together with seismic information. We observed two distinct marine intervals in the Llanos Basin, an early Miocene that lasted ~0.9 My (million years) (18.1 to 17.2 Ma) and a middle Miocene that lasted ~3.7 My (16.1 to 12.4 Ma). These two marine intervals are also seen in Amazonas/Solimões Basin (northwestern Amazonia) but were much shorter in duration, ~0.2 My (18.0 to 17.8 Ma) and ~0.4 My (14.1 to 13.7 Ma), respectively. Our results indicate that shallow marine waters covered the region at least twice during the Miocene, but the events were short-lived, rather than a continuous full-marine occupancy of Amazonian landscape over millions of years. PMID:28508052

  5. Cardiorenal benefits of early versus late cyclosporine to sirolimus conversion in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Sereno, José; Romão, Ana M.; Parada, Belmiro; Lopes, Patrícia; Carvalho, Eugénia; Teixeira, Frederico; Reis, Flávio

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the cardiorenal effects of early versus late cyclosporine (CsA) to sirolimus (SRL) conversion, using a novel animal model that mimics these protocols used in the clinical practice, and focusing on blood pressure, heart rate (HR), biochemical data and heart and kidney lipid peroxidation. Materials and Methods: The study had five groups. Six male Wistar rats in each group were used during a 9-week study protocol: control, CsA (5 mg/kg/day), SRL (1 mg/kg/day); early conversion and late conversion. Cardiorenal evaluation was assessed by biochemical data, blood pressure, HR, and heart and kidney lipid peroxidation. Results: As expected, CsA promoted cardiorenal impairment, viewed by development of hypertension, tachycardia, increased urea, creatine kinase, and glucose levels, as well as heart and kidney oxidative stress. SRL, as expected, promoted less cardiorenal side effects, namely those related with nephrotoxicity. In agreement, both early and late conversions from CsA to SRL produced less side-effects, namely those related to the CsA-induced nephrotoxicity. Conclusions: In our model, both early and late CsA to SRL conversion promoted amelioration of the CsA -induced cardiorenal damage. However, early substitution seems to produce more benefits, in particular due to higher improvement of the cardiac profile. PMID:22629089

  6. Tectonic and Climatic Implications of Late Miocene to Pleistocene (5.8-1.8 Ma) Paleo-Erosion Rates from the Rio Iruya Canyon, Northwest Argentina (23°S)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, G. B.; Amidon, W. H.; Luna, L. V.; Burbank, D. W.

    2015-12-01

    One fundamental hypothesis that underpins tectonic geomorphology is that climate can modify the pattern and magnitude of erosion in orogenic landscapes and in turn control deformation. While conceptually appealing, empirical evidence is often ambiguous owing to the inherent spatial coupling between present-day tectonic and precipitation maxima and/or the long-term blurring of climate signals by thermochronologic techniques. Although cosmogenic nuclides provide considerable insight into centennial to millennial scale tectonic-erosion-climate linkages, extracting long-term records of erosion from older sedimentary deposits has proved challenging. If successful, such records have the potential to reveal long-term relationships between erosion, uplift, and climate, which should integrate over time to match long term exhumation rates obtained from low temperature thermochronology. Here we utilize a unique field setting along a 100-m deep, young canyon (~100 years old) along the Rio Iruya in northwestern Argentina to create a high-resolution (~100 kyr) terrestrial record of paleo-erosion rates in the eastern Cordillera spanning the late Miocene to Pleistocene (5.8-1.8 Mya). In total, 49 cosmogenic 10Be samples were analyzed along with detailed magnetostratigraphy, U-Pb tephra ages, detrital zircon, and quartz trace elements to yield a detailed paleo-erosion rate, chronology, and provenance record for the Rio Iruya section. Apparent erosion rates occur in three different regimes: from 5.8-4.0 Ma rates are high with little variability, from 4.0- 2.3 Ma rates oscillate by a factor of 5 on a ~400 kyr timescale, and from 2.3-1.8 Ma they are again high without clear oscillations. These three regimes correspond to changes in provenance recorded by detrital zircons and quartz chemistry, and suggest that during the late Pliocene the eastern Cordillera was responding strongly to the 400 kyr eccentricity paced orbital frequency. This unique finding is both perplexing and

  7. On the Miocene Cyprideis species flock (Ostracoda; Crustacea) of Western Amazonia (Solimões Formation): Refining taxonomy on species level.

    PubMed

    Gross, Martin; Ramos, Maria Ines F; Piller, Werner E

    2014-12-18

    The Miocene mega-wetland of western Amazonia holds a diverse, largely endemic ostracod fauna. Among them, especially the genus Cyprideis experienced a remarkable radiation. Micropalaeontologic investigations of a 400 m long sediment core (~62 km SW Benjamin Constant, Amazonia, Brazil) permitted a taxonomic revision of about two-thirds of hitherto described Cyprideis species. We evaluate the diagnostic value of shell characters and provide an extensive illustration of the intraspecific variability of species. Based on comparative morphology, the 20 recorded Cyprideis species are arranged in groups and subgroups. The "smooth" group comprises C. amazonica, C. kotzianae, C. kroemmelbeini, C. machadoi, C. multiradiata, C. olivencai, C. paralela and C. simplex; the "ornate" group C. curucae nom. nov., C. cyrtoma, C. aff. graciosa, C. inversa, C. ituiae n. sp., C. matorae n. sp., C. minipunctata, C. munoztorresi nom. nov., C. pebasae, C. reticulopunctata, C. schedogymnos and C. sulcosigmoidalis. Five species have been revalidated, two renamed, two synonymised and two are new descriptions. Along with 10 further formally established species, for which a review is pending, Cyprideis keeps at least 30 endemic species in that region during Miocene times. Up to 12 Cyprideis species have been found to occur sympatrically, representing >90% of the entire ostracod fauna. Ostracod index species enable a biostratigraphic allocation of the well succession to the Cyprideis minipunctata to Cyprideis cyrtoma biozones, corresponding to a late Middle to early Late Miocene age (late Serravallian-early Tortonian).

  8. On the Miocene Cyprideis species flock (Ostracoda; Crustacea) of Western Amazonia (Solimões Formation): Refining taxonomy on species level

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Martin; Ramos, Maria Ines F.; Piller, Werner E.

    2016-01-01

    The Miocene mega-wetland of western Amazonia holds a diverse, largely endemic ostracod fauna. Among them, especially the genus Cyprideis experienced a remarkable radiation. Micropalaeontologic investigations of a 400 m long sediment core (~62 km SW Benjamin Constant, Amazonia, Brazil) permitted a taxonomic revision of about two-thirds of hitherto described Cyprideis species. We evaluate the diagnostic value of shell characters and provide an extensive illustration of the intraspecific variability of species. Based on comparative morphology, the 20 recorded Cyprideis species are arranged in groups and subgroups. The “smooth” group comprises C. amazonica, C. kotzianae, C. kroemmelbeini, C. machadoi, C. multiradiata, C. olivencai, C. paralela and C. simplex; the “ornate” group C. curucae nom. nov., C. cyrtoma, C. aff. graciosa, C. inversa, C. ituiae n. sp., C. matorae n. sp., C. minipunctata, C. munoztorresi nom. nov., C. pebasae, C. reticulopunctata, C. schedogymnos and C. sulcosigmoidalis. Five species have been revalidated, two renamed, two synonymised and two are new descriptions. Along with 10 further formally established species, for which a review is pending, Cyprideis keeps at least 30 endemic species in that region during Miocene times. Up to 12 Cyprideis species have been found to occur sympatrically, representing >90 % of the entire ostracod fauna. Ostracod index species enable a biostratigraphic allocation of the well succession to the Cyprideis minipunctata to Cyprideis cyrtoma biozones, corresponding to a late Middle to early Late Miocene age (late Serravallian–early Tortonian). PMID:25543674

  9. Biological determinants of spontaneous late preterm and early term birth: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Brown, H K; Speechley, K N; Macnab, J; Natale, R; Campbell, M K

    2015-03-01

    Our aim was to examine the association between biological determinants of preterm birth (infection and inflammation, placental ischaemia and other hypoxia, diabetes mellitus, other) and spontaneous late preterm (34-36 weeks) and early term (37-38 weeks) birth. Retrospective cohort study. City of London and Middlesex County, Canada. Singleton live births, delivered at 34-41 weeks to London-Middlesex mothers following spontaneous labour. Data were obtained from a city-wide perinatal database on births between 2002 and 2011 (n = 17,678). Multivariable analyses used multinomial logistic regression. The outcome of interest was the occurrence of late preterm (34-36 weeks) and early term (37-38 weeks) birth, compared with full term birth (39-41 weeks). After controlling for covariates, there were associations between infection and inflammation and late preterm birth (aOR = 2.07, 95% CI 1.65, 2.60); between placental ischaemia and other hypoxia and late preterm (aOR = 2.21, 95% CI 1.88, 2.61) and early term (aOR = 1.25, 95% CI 1.13, 1.39) birth; between diabetes mellitus and late preterm (aOR = 3.89, 95% CI 2.90, 5.21) and early term (aOR = 2.66, 95% CI 2.19, 3.23) birth; and between other biological determinants (polyhydramnios, oligohydramnios) and late preterm (aOR = 2.81, 95% CI 1.70, 4.64) and early term (aOR = 1.89, 95% CI 1.32, 2.70) birth. Our findings show that delivery following spontaneous labour even close to full term may be a result of pathological processes. Because these biological determinants of preterm birth contribute to an adverse intrauterine environment, they have important implications for fetal and neonatal health. © 2014 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  10. The use of early summer mosquito surveillance to predict late summer West Nile virus activity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsberg, Howard S.; Rochlin, Ilia; Campbell, Scott R.

    2010-01-01

    Utility of early-season mosquito surveillance to predict West Nile virus activity in late summer was assessed in Suffolk County, NY. Dry ice-baited CDC miniature light traps paired with gravid traps were set weekly. Maximum-likelihood estimates of WNV positivity, minimum infection rates, and % positive pools were generally well correlated. However, positivity in gravid traps was not correlated with positivity in CDC light traps. The best early-season predictors of WNV activity in late summer (estimated using maximum-likelihood estimates of Culex positivity in August and September) were early date of first positive pool, low numbers of mosquitoes in July, and low numbers of mosquito species in July. These results suggest that early-season entomological samples can be used to predict WNV activity later in the summer, when most human cases are acquired. Additional research is needed to establish which surveillance variables are most predictive and to characterize the reliability of the predictions.

  11. Qualitative Assessment of Speech Perception Performance of Early and Late Cochlear Implantees.

    PubMed

    Kant, Anjali R; Pathak, Sonal

    2015-09-01

    The present study aims to provide a qualitative description and comparison of speech perception performance using model based tests like multisyllabic lexical neighborhood test (MLNT) and lexical neighborhood test (LNT), in early and late implanted (prelingual) hearing impaired children using cochlear implants. The subjects comprised of cochlear implantees; Group I (early implantees)-n = 15, 3-6 years of age; mean age at implantation-3½ years. Group II (late implantees)-n = 15, 7-13 years of age; mean age at implantation-5 years. The tests were presented in a sound treated room at 70 dBSPL. The children were instructed to repeat the words on hearing them. Responses were scored as percentage of words correctly repeated. Their means were computed. The late implantees achieved higher scores for words on MLNT than those on LNT. This may imply that late implantees are making use of length cues in order to aid them in speech perception. The major phonological process used by early implantees was deletion and by the late implantees was substitution. One needs to wait until the child achieves a score of 20 % on LNT before assessing other aspects of his/her speech perception abilities. There appears to be a need to use speech perception tests which are based on theoretical empirical models, in order to enable us to give a descriptive analysis of post implant speech perception performance.

  12. Effects of early and late harvest on agronomic performance and stability of late blight resistant (R-gene free) potato genotypes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To assess the effectiveness of genotype resistance to potato late blight, foliar blight development, area under disease progress curves (AUDPC) and tuber blight were quantified. Late blight resistant potato genotypes (R-gene free) were assessed for yield performance and stability at early (90 days) ...

  13. Early versus late GD-DTPA MRI enhancement in experimental glioblastomas.

    PubMed

    Farace, Paolo; Tambalo, Stefano; Fiorini, Silvia; Merigo, Flavia; Daducci, Alessandro; Nicolato, Elena; Conti, Giamaica; Degrassi, Anna; Sbarbati, Andrea; Marzola, Pasquina

    2011-03-01

    To compare early versus late enhancement in two glioblastoma models characterized by different infiltrative/edematous patterns. Three weeks after inoculation into nude mice of U87MG and U251 cells, T1-weighted images were acquired early (10.5 min), intermediate (21 min) and late (30.5 min) after a bolus injection of Gd-DTPA at 300 μ mol/kg dosage. EARLY(TH) and LATE(TH) were the corresponding volumes with an enhancement higher than a threshold TH, defined by the mean (μ) and standard deviation (σ) on a contralateral healthy area. ADD(TH) was the enhancing volume found in LATE(TH) but not in EARLY(TH). T2 imaging of both tumors was performed, and T2 mapping of U251. In all tumors, LATE(TH) was significantly higher than EARLY(TH) for TH ranging from μ+σ to μ+5σ. The ADD(TH) /EARLY(TH) ratio was not significantly different when U251 and U87MG tumors were compared. In the U87MG tumors, some enhancement was observed outside the regularly demarcated T2-hyperintense area. In the U251 tumors, irregularly T2 demarcated, a large portion of ADD(μ+3σ) had normal T2 values. At histology, U251 showed a higher infiltrative pattern than U87MG. In these models, the increase over time in the enhancing volume did not depend on the different infiltrative/edematous patterns and was not closely related with edema. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Brain Structure Changes Visualized in Early- and Late-Onset Blind Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Leporé, Natasha; Voss, Patrice; Lepore, Franco; Chou, Yi-Yu; Fortin, Madeleine; Gougoux, Frédéric; Lee, Agatha D.; Brun, Caroline; Lassonde, Maryse; Madsen, Sarah K.; Toga, Arthur W.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2009-01-01

    We examine 3D patterns of volume differences in the brain associated with blindness, in subjects grouped according to early and late onset. Using tensor-based morphometry, we map volume reductions and gains in 16 early-onset (EB) and 16 late-onset (LB) blind adults (onset <5 and >14 years old, respectively) relative to 16 matched sighted controls. Each subject’s structural MRI was fluidly registered to a common template. Anatomical differences between groups were mapped based on statistical analysis of the resulting deformation fields revealing profound deficits in primary and secondary visual cortices for both blind groups. Regions outside the occipital lobe showed significant hypertrophy, suggesting widespread compensatory adaptations. EBs but not LBs showed deficits in the splenium and hypertrophy in the isthmus. Gains in the isthmus and non-occipital white matter were more widespread in the EBs. These differences may reflect regional alterations in late neurodevelopmental processes, such as myelination, that continue into adulthood. PMID:19643183

  15. Palinspastic reconstruction of southeastern California and southwestern Arizona for the middle Miocene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, Stephen M.

    1992-01-01

    A paleogeographic reconstruction of southeastern California and southwestern Arizona at 10 Ma was made based on available geologic and geophysical data. Clockwise rotation of 39 deg was reconstructed in the eastern Transverse Ranges, consistent with paleomagnetic data from late Miocene volcanic rocks, and with slip estimates for left-lateral faults within the eastern Transverse Ranges and NW-trending right lateral faults in the Mojave Desert. This domain of rotated rocks is bounded by the Pinto Mountain fault on the north. In the absence of evidence for rotation of the San Bernardino Mountains or for significant right slip faults within the San Bernardino Mountains, the model requires that the late Miocene Pinto Mountain fault become a thrust fault gaining displacement to the west. The Squaw Peak thrust system of Meisling and Weldon may be a western continuation of this fault system. The Sheep Hole fault bounds the rotating domain on the east. East of this fault an array of NW-trending right slip faults and south-trending extensional transfer zones has produced a basin and range physiography while accumulating up to 14 km of right slip. This maximum is significantly less than the 37.5 km of right slip required in this region by a recent reconstruction of the central Mojave Desert. Geologic relations along the southern boundary of the rotating domain are poorly known, but this boundary is interpreted to involve a series of curved strike slip faults and non-coaxial extension, bounded on the southeast by the Mammoth Wash and related faults in the eastern Chocolate Mountains. Available constraints on timing suggest that Quaternary movement on the Pinto Mountain and nearby faults is unrelated to the rotation of the eastern Transverse Ranges, and was preceded by a hiatus during part of Pliocene time which followed the deformation producing the rotation. The reconstructed Clemens Well fault in the Orocopia Mountains, proposed as a major early Miocene strand of the San

  16. Disease evolution in late-onset and early-onset systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Aljohani, R; Gladman, D D; Su, J; Urowitz, M B

    2017-10-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to compare clinical features, disease activity, and outcome in late-onset versus early-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) over 5 years of follow up Method Patients with SLE since 1970 were followed prospectively according to standard protocol and tracked on a computerized database. Patients entering the cohort within one year of diagnosis constitute the inception cohort. Patients with late-onset (age at diagnosis ≥50) disease were identified and matched 1:2 based on gender and first clinic visit (±5) years with patients with early-onset disease (age at diagnosis 18-40 years). Results A total of 86 patients with late-onset disease (84.9% female, 81.4% Caucasian, mean age at SLE diagnosis ± SD 58.05 ± 7.30) and 169 patients with early-onset disease (86.4% female, 71% Caucasian, mean age at SLE diagnosis ± SD 27.80 ± 5.90) were identified. At enrollment, late-onset SLE patients had a lower total number of American College of Rheumatology (ACR) criteria, with less renal and neurologic manifestations. Mean SLE Di