Science.gov

Sample records for early learning standards

  1. Early Learning Foundations. Indiana's Early Learning Development Framework Aligned to the Indiana Academic Standards, 2014

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The "Foundations" (English/language arts, mathematics, social emotional skills, approaches to play and learning, science, social studies, creative arts, and physical health and growth) are Indiana's early learning development framework and are aligned to the 2014 Indiana Academic Standards. This framework provides core elements that…

  2. Rethinking Early Learning and Development Standards in the Ugandan Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ejuu, Godfrey

    2013-01-01

    Concerns that the African child is being tailored to be a "global child," alongside other homogenizing and dominating projections, such as early learning and development standards (ELDS), have increased. African communities need to be assured that global standards and global indicators will not further homogenize nations and thereby risk…

  3. Family Concepts in Early Learning and Development Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Bridget A.; Sanchez, Claudia; Lee, Angela M.; Casillas, Nicole; Hansen, Caitlynn

    2016-01-01

    This exploratory study investigated the use of concepts related to families, parents, and the home in 51 state-level early learning and development standards documents. Guidelines from six national family involvement, engagement, and school-partnership models were used to create the Family Involvement Models Analysis Chart (FIMAC), which served as…

  4. The Source of Child Care Center Preschool Learning and Program Standards: Implications for Potential Early Learning Challenge Fund Grantees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Debra J.; Sansanelli, Rachel A.

    2010-01-01

    The proposed federal Early Learning Challenge Fund (ELCF) aims to improve the quality of early care and education programs by promoting the integration of more stringent program and early learning standards than are typically found in child care centers. ELCF grantees also must outline their plans for professional development and technical…

  5. Recommendations for Implementing the New Illinois Early Learning and Development Standards to Affect Classroom Practices for Social and Emotional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinsser, Katherine M.; Dusenbury, Linda

    2015-01-01

    The state of Illinois in the central United States has long been a trendsetter both in the development of learning standards and in addressing social and emotional learning in education settings. With a recent revision to the state's early learning standards, published in 2013, the Illinois State Board of Education (ISBE) fully aligned its…

  6. Inside the Content: The Breadth and Depth of Early Learning Standards. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott-Little, Catherine; Kagan, Sharon Lynn; Frelow, Victoria Stebbins

    2005-01-01

    This executive summary describes a study that analyzes the content of early learning standards, operationally defined as documents that articulate expectations for children's development and learning during the preschool period (ages three to five years). Standards from 36 states were collected and analyzed to address the following research…

  7. Foregrounding Silences in the South African National Early Learning Standards for Birth to Four Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebrahim, Hasina Banu

    2014-01-01

    The development of standards in early childhood is associated with governments wanting to assert their influence on what young children should know and be able to do before they enter formal schooling. In South Africa the National Early Learning and Development Standards (NELDS), released in 2009, attempts to assert influence in the context of…

  8. Wisconsin Model Early Learning Standards Alignment with Wisconsin Common Core State Standards for English Language Arts and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Department of Public Instruction, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Wisconsin's adoption of the Common Core State Standards provides an excellent opportunity for Wisconsin school districts and communities to define expectations from birth through preparation for college and work. By aligning the existing Wisconsin Model Early Learning Standards with the Wisconsin Common Core State Standards, expectations can be…

  9. Addressing Early Learning Standards for All Children within Blended Preschool Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grisham-Brown, Jennifer; Pretti-Frontczak, Kristie; Hawkins, Sarah R.; Winchell, Brooke N.

    2009-01-01

    Preschool teachers working in blended classrooms are faced with identifying which children need intensive instruction as well as being responsible for directly linking individualized learning outcomes with state or federal early learning standards. The series of studies presented were designed to illustrate how teachers working in blended…

  10. Early Learning and Development Standards in East Asia and the Pacific: Experiences from Eight Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miyahara, Junko; Meyers, Cliff

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyses how countries in UNICEF's East Asia and Pacific Region (EAPR) have engaged in the Early Learning and Development Standards (ELDS) process. ELDS has been developed by the governments of Cambodia, China, Fiji, Lao PDR, Mongolia, Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam over the last 3 years with technical and financial support from…

  11. Resources on Social and Emotional Development and Early Learning Standards. CEELO FastFacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors-Tadros, L.

    2013-01-01

    In this "FastFacts," a state's Department of Education requests information from the Center on Enhancing Early Learning Outcomes (CEELO) on how the research defines skills in social-emotional development, approaches to learning, and executive function, to inform planned revisions to the early childhood indicators of progress for children…

  12. Arizona Early Childhood Education Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arizona State Dept. of Education, Phoenix.

    In an effort to provide a sound basis for educational accountability for preschool programs, the Arizona Early Childhood Education (ECE) Standards were developed as a framework for literacy-based programs for 3- and 4-year-olds and to provide parents with a basic understanding of indicators of early learning. These standards, to be adopted by…

  13. Adapting the Mullen Scales of Early Learning for a Standardized Measure of Development in Children with Rett Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarkson, Tessa; LeBlanc, Jocelyn; DeGregorio, Geneva; Vogel-Farley, Vanessa; Barnes, Katherine; Kaufmann, Walter E.; Nelson, Charles A.

    2017-01-01

    Rett Syndrome (RTT) is characterized by severe impairment in fine motor (FM) and expressive language (EL) function, making accurate evaluations of development difficult with standardized assessments. In this study, the administration and scoring of the Mullen Scales of Early Learning (MSEL) were adapted to eliminate the confounding effects of FM…

  14. Using Early Learning Standards to Provide High-Quality Education for All Children: The Early Learning Guidelines Toolkit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Roseanne L.; Curby, Timothy W.; Coleman, Hardin; Melo, Kristan

    2016-01-01

    Today with the rise in the number of 3- to 6-year-old children enrolled in center-based early childhood programs, and a focus on program quality, it becomes imperative for educators to have a better understanding of the role research plays in establishing high-quality programs as these programs provide much of the foundation that supports early…

  15. The Common Core State Standards and Early Language Learning: Let's Do This!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haxhi, Jessica

    2014-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards (CCSS) are here to stay--for awhile at least--and students will be tested on their ability to meet these standards. In order for students to succeed--in order for them to be College and Career Ready--they will need the support of educators working together to give them practice in meeting these standards. World…

  16. Using early standardized language measures to predict later language and early reading outcomes in children at high risk for language-learning impairments.

    PubMed

    Flax, Judy F; Realpe-Bonilla, Teresa; Roesler, Cynthia; Choudhury, Naseem; Benasich, April

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the profiles of children with a family history (FH+) of language-learning impairments (LLI) and a control group of children with no reported family history of LLI (FH-) and identify which language constructs (receptive or expressive) and which ages (2 or 3 years) are related to expressive and receptive language abilities, phonological awareness, and reading abilities at ages 5 and 7 years. Participants included 99 children (40 FH+ and 59 FH-) who received a standardized neuropsychological battery at 2, 3, 5, and 7 years of age. As a group, the FH+ children had significantly lower scores on all language measures at 2 and 3 years, on selected language and phonological awareness measures at 5 years, and on phonological awareness and nonword reading at 7 years. Language comprehension at 3 years was the best predictor of later language and early reading for both groups. These results support past work suggesting that children with a positive family history of LLI are at greater risk for future language and reading problems through their preschool and early school-age years. Furthermore, language comprehension in the early years is a strong predictor of future language-learning status.

  17. Distributed Learning Metadata Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClelland, Marilyn

    2004-01-01

    Significant economies can be achieved in distributed learning systems architected with a focus on interoperability and reuse. The key building blocks of an efficient distributed learning architecture are the use of standards and XML technologies. The goal of plug and play capability among various components of a distributed learning system…

  18. The Influence of Foreign Language Learning during Early Childhood on Standardized Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Tommetta

    2010-01-01

    Increasing standardized test scores in reading and math is of high importance to the California Department of Education to meet requirements mandated by the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) act of 2001. More research is needed to understand the best ways to improve tests scores to meet concerns of the NCLB act. The purpose of the study was to evaluate…

  19. Engaging Young Children in Mathematics: Standards for Early Childhood Mathematics Education. Studies in Mathematical Thinking and Learning Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Douglas H., Ed.; DiBiase, Ann-Marie, Ed.; Sarama, Julie, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This book brings together the combined wisdom of a diverse group of experts involved with early childhood mathematics. The book originates from the landmark 2000 Conference on Standards for Pre-kindergarten and Kindergarten Mathematics Education, attended by representatives from almost every state developing standards for young children's…

  20. Wyoming Early Childhood Readiness Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming State Dept. of Education, Cheyenne.

    Because children entering kindergarten come with a variety of preschool and home experiences, and accordingly, with varying levels of school readiness, the Wyoming Early Childhood Readiness Standards have been developed to provide a more consistent definition of school readiness. The goal for the Standards is to provide early childhood educators…

  1. Preventing Early Learning Failure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sornson, Bob, Ed.

    Noting that thousands of young children with the capacity to experience school success do not because they are unprepared for school learning activities, have experienced physical or emotional setbacks that cause them to be at risk for early learning failure, have never experienced limits on their behavior, or have mild sensory or motor deficits,…

  2. Illinois Early Learning Project Tip Sheets: Physical Development and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    The Illinois Early Learning Project (IEL) is funded by the Illinois State Board of Education to provide information resources on early learning and training related to implementing the Illinois Early Learning Standards for parents and for early childhood personnel in all settings. The IEL tip sheets offer suggestions to parents and early childhood…

  3. Illinois Early Learning Project Tip Sheets: Parenting and Family Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    The Illinois Early Learning Project (IEL) is funded by the Illinois State Board of Education to provide information resources on early learning and training related to implementing the Illinois Early Learning Standards for parents and for early childhood personnel in all settings. The IEL tip sheets offer suggestions to parents and early childhood…

  4. Standards, Teaching, Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Mike

    2009-01-01

    Standards are the criteria we use to judge competence, and the incarnation of some version of the issue of standards has woven in and out of education policy for the last thirty years. Unfortunately, much of the discussion has been ideological, rigid, and cast in either/or terms. In this essay, I use examples from basic writing and freshman…

  5. 75 FR 20830 - Early Learning

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... meetings and written submissions, is seeking input from State agencies responsible for early learning and... intervention service providers and other providers of services to young children), students, technical... receive all written submissions of comments on the four early learning topics on or before 5 p.m...

  6. Value-Added Early Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dichter, Harriet

    2011-01-01

    Elected state leaders often prioritize economic prosperity and competitiveness, which provides an important opportunity too rarely taken for investing in early education. In 2003, Pennsylvania recognized the connection between early education and the economy, and smartly embraced early learning as part of its economic prosperity and…

  7. Exploring Pre-K Age 4 Learning Standards and Their Role in Early Childhood Education: Research and Policy Implications. Research Report. ETS RR-16-14

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Bruin-Parecki, Andrea; Slutzky, Carly

    2016-01-01

    Currently in the United States, 50 states, 5 territories, and the District of Columbia have established prekindergarten (pre-K) age 4 learning standards that are intended to outline skills and knowledge that set children on a path to success in kindergarten and upcoming grades. These standards are emphasized as a centralizing force in early…

  8. Identifying Learning Preferences Early.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiff, Judith C.

    The Picture Learning Style Inventory was administered to 42 first graders and 46 second graders attending two public schools in a Southern university community. The inventory consists of 13 individual picture booklets, each illustrating a different element of learning style (environmental, emotional, sociological, and physical). The inventory is…

  9. Supporting Early Learning Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Himes, James A. [D-CT-4

    2014-02-03

    House - 06/13/2014 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  10. Early Learning Innovation Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Himes, James A. [D-CT-4

    2009-10-29

    House - 12/08/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. Early Learning Alignment Act

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Altmire, Jason [D-PA-4

    2010-09-29

    House - 11/18/2010 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  12. Early Childhood Educator and Administrator Surveys on the Use of Assessments and Standards in Early Childhood Settings. REL 2014-019

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irwin, Clare W.; O'Dwyer, Laura; Cook, Kyle DeMeo

    2014-01-01

    The Early Childhood Educator Survey and the Early Childhood Administrator Survey allow users to collect consistent data on the use of child assessments and learning standards in early childhood learning settings. Each survey includes modules on educator/administrator background information, assessment use, and learning standards implementation.…

  13. Early Learning Theories Made Visible

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beloglovsky, Miriam; Daly, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Go beyond reading about early learning theories and see what they look like in action in modern programs and teacher practices. With classroom vignettes and colorful photographs, this book makes the works of Jean Piaget, Erik Erikson, Lev Vygotsky, Abraham Maslow, John Dewey, Howard Gardner, and Louise Derman-Sparks visible, accessible, and easier…

  14. Early Career Teacher Professional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Ann; Gore, Jennifer; Thomas, Kaye

    2006-01-01

    Becoming a teacher requires not only the development of a professional identity but the construction of professional knowledge and practice through continued professional learning. This study tracked a sample group of 16 early career teachers through their first year of teaching. The participants were encouraged to write about their experiences in…

  15. Early Learning and Educational Technology Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing the growth of technology use in early learning settings, the U.S. Department of Education and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services collaborated in the development of the "Early Learning and Educational Technology Policy Brief" to promote developmentally appropriate use of technology in homes and early learning…

  16. Rethinking Professional Standards to Promote Professional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forde, Christine; McMahon, Margery Anne; Hamilton, Gillian; Murray, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    This article explores some of the key issues that emerged in the revision of the professional standards in Scottish education. The revision of the professional standards was part of a wider project to build teacher professional learning in ways that had an impact on practice and on pupil learning. The article begins by examining the international…

  17. Early Childhood Systems: Transforming Early Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kagan, Sharon Lynn, Ed.; Kauertz, Kristie, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    In this seminal volume, leading authorities strategize about how to create early childhood systems that transcend politics and economics to serve the needs of all young children. The authors offer different interpretations of the nature of early childhood systems, discuss the elements necessary to support their development, and examine how…

  18. Close Early Learning Gaps with Rigorous DAP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Christopher P.; Mowry, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Rigorous DAP (developmentally appropriate practices) is a set of 11 principles of instruction intended to help close early childhood learning gaps. Academically rigorous learning environments create the conditions for children to learn at high levels. While academic rigor focuses on one dimension of education--academic--DAP considers the whole…

  19. Predictable Locations Aid Early Object Name Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benitez, Viridiana L.; Smith, Linda B.

    2012-01-01

    Expectancy-based localized attention has been shown to promote the formation and retrieval of multisensory memories in adults. Three experiments show that these processes also characterize attention and learning in 16- to 18-month old infants and, moreover, that these processes may play a critical role in supporting early object name learning. The…

  20. Mobile Learning and Early Age Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peled, Shir; Schocken, Shimon

    2014-01-01

    The ability to develop engaging simulations and constructive learning experiences using mobile devices is unprecedented, presenting a disruption in educational practices of historical proportions. In this paper we describe some of the unique virtues that mobile learning hold for early age mathematics education. In particular, we describe how…

  1. Early Foreign Language Learning: The Biological Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peltzer-Karpf, Annemarie

    A discussion of the biological and developmental issues in early second language learning first looks at psycholinguistic research on brain growth patterns and the relationship of first and second language learning. Focus is on three phenomena observed in the self-organization of living systems: selection of input data; organization of specialized…

  2. Early Identification of Ineffective Cooperative Learning Teams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsiung, C .M.; Luo, L. F.; Chung, H. C.

    2014-01-01

    Cooperative learning has many pedagogical benefits. However, if the cooperative learning teams become ineffective, these benefits are lost. Accordingly, this study developed a computer-aided assessment method for identifying ineffective teams at their early stage of dysfunction by using the Mahalanobis distance metric to examine the difference…

  3. Learning Partnerships in Rural Early Childhood Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombe, Kennece; Lubawy, Joy

    A study examined six aspects of learning communities in early childhood settings in rural New South Wales (Australia). These aspects are reflection, individual development, diversity, conversation, caring, and shared responsibility. Surveys of 15 directors of early childhood programs indicated that the reflective component of the learning…

  4. Subitizing and Early Mathematics Standards: A Winning Combination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conderman, Greg; Jung, Myoungwhon; Hartman, Paula

    2014-01-01

    In early childhood and primary (PreK-2) grades, subitizing is a critical skill that helps children meet early mathematics standards. Discover ways teachers can infuse this critical skill into their math curriculum.

  5. Predictable Locations Aid Early Object Name Learning

    PubMed Central

    Benitez, Viridiana L.; Smith, Linda B.

    2012-01-01

    Expectancy-based localized attention has been shown to promote the formation and retrieval of multisensory memories in adults. Three experiments show that these processes also characterize attention and learning in 16- to 18- month old infants and, moreover, that these processes may play a critical role in supporting early object name learning. The three experiments show that infants learn names for objects when those objects have predictable rather than varied locations, that infants who anticipate the location of named objects better learn those object names, and that infants integrate experiences that are separated in time but share a common location. Taken together, these results suggest that localized attention, cued attention, and spatial indexing are an inter-related set of processes in young children that aid in the early building of coherent object representations. The relevance of the experimental results and spatial attention for everyday word learning are discussed. PMID:22989872

  6. Early Intervention Paraprofessional Standards: Development and Field Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banerjee, Rashida; Chopra, Ritu V.; DiPalma, Geraldine

    2017-01-01

    Personnel standards are the foundations for how states and nations approve a program, engage in systemic assessment, and provide effective professional development to its early childhood professionals. However, despite the extensive use of paraprofessionals in early intervention/early childhood special education programs, there is a lack of…

  7. Spatial Thinking Concepts in Early Grade-Level Geography Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthamatten, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Research in the cognition and learning sciences has demonstrated that the human brain contains basic structures whose functions are to perform a variety of specific spatial reasoning tasks and that children are capable of learning basic spatial concepts at an early age. There has been a call from within geography to recognize research on spatial…

  8. The Early Years: Development, Learning and Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulton-Lewis, Gillian, Ed.; Catherwood, Di, Ed.

    Designed for teachers, students, caregivers, and health professionals who work with children from birth to age 8, this book provides a review of recent research and theories of development and learning in the early childhood years, with an emphasis on implications for effective teaching. Where appropriate, the book takes an Australian perspective,…

  9. Assessing Vocabulary Learning in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Jessica L.; Teale, William H.; Paciga, Kathleen A.

    2014-01-01

    There is widespread agreement with in the field of early childhood education that vocabulary is important to literacy achievement and that reading aloud can support vocabulary growth. However, there are unexplored and significant problems with the ways we assess young children's vocabulary learning from read-alouds. This paper critically reviews…

  10. Technical Report: Kindergarten Early Learning Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley-Ayers, Shannon; Jung, Kwanghee; Quinn, Jorie

    2014-01-01

    The Kindergarten Early Learning Scale (KELS) was developed as a concise observational assessment for young children. It examines three domains including (1) Math/Science, (2) Social Emotional/Social Studies, and (3) Language and Literacy, with a total of 10 items across the domains. Scores reported for each of the 10 items are based upon…

  11. New Standards Put the Spotlight on Professional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizell, Hayes; Hord, Shirley; Killion, Joellen; Hirsh, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    Learning Forward introduces new Standards for Professional Learning. This is the third iteration of standards outlining the characteristics of professional learning that lead to effective teaching practices, supportive leadership, and improved student results. The standards are not a prescription for how education leaders and public officials…

  12. Early Childhood Special Education and Early Intervention Personnel Preparation Standards of the Division for Early Childhood: Field Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochran, Deborah C.; Gallagher, Peggy A.; Stayton, Vicki D.; Dinnebeil, Laurie A.; Lifter, Karin; Chandler, Lynette K.; Christensen, Kimberly A.

    2012-01-01

    Results of the field validation survey of the revised initial and new advanced Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) Division for Early Childhood (DEC) early childhood special education (ECSE)/early intervention (EI) personnel standards are presented. Personnel standards are used as part of educational accountability systems and in teacher…

  13. Early Childhood Standards of Quality for Prekindergarten through Second Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan State Board of Education, Lansing.

    Recognizing the value and need for quality early childhood education programs for children ages four through eight years, the Michigan State Board of Education appointed an ad hoc committee to develop standards of quality. Based on the draft developed by this committee, this standards guide is designed to assist administrators, teachers, and…

  14. Four Steps for Becoming Familiar with Early Music Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Jinyoung; Robinson, Helen Mele

    2010-01-01

    Music has a profound impact on children's lives, yet it is often overlooked in early childhood classrooms. Music instruction enhances children's spatial-temporal reasoning skills--skills that are crucial to learning math and science. For children who received formal music lessons, there was a positive long-lasting correlation with IQ and academic…

  15. Evaluation of Standardized Instruments for Use in Universal Screening of Very Early School-Age Children: Suitability, Technical Adequacy, and Usability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Sandra; Fulbrook, Paul; Mainwaring-Mägi, Debra

    2018-01-01

    Universal screening of very early school-age children (age 4-7 years) is important for early identification of learning problems that may require enhanced learning opportunity. In this context, use of standardized instruments is critical to obtain valid, reliable, and comparable assessment outcomes. A wide variety of standardized instruments is…

  16. Common Core Science Standards: Implications for Students with Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scruggs, Thomas E.; Brigham, Frederick J.; Mastropieri, Margo A.

    2013-01-01

    The Common Core Science Standards represent a new effort to increase science learning for all students. These standards include a focus on English and language arts aspects of science learning, and three dimensions of science standards, including practices of science, crosscutting concepts of science, and disciplinary core ideas in the various…

  17. Assessment and Program Accountability in Early Childhood Education: Lessons Learned in Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boat, Mary; Zorn, Debbie; Austin, James T.

    2005-01-01

    Ensuring that children, especially those from disadvantaged backgrounds, start school ready to learn is an important goal. This paper presents lessons learned from the state of Ohio's multi-year program to develop a standards-based assessment system for programs delivering state-funded early childhood education (ECE) through programs receiving…

  18. Global Standards for Enhancing Quality in Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Florence; Polly, Drew; Jokiaho, Annika; May, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    The quality of online courses offered has been a topic of discussion in the recent years, and efforts have been taken to establish standards for developing online courses. In this study, the authors review 12 online learning standard documents and examine the standards included in each of these documents. The largest number of standards were in…

  19. Lessons Learned and Technical Standards: A Logical Marriage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Paul; Vaughan, William W.; Garcia, Danny; Gill, Maninderpal S. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A comprehensive database of lessons learned that corresponds with relevant technical standards would be a boon to technical personnel and standards developers. The authors discuss the emergence of one such database within NASA, and show how and why the incorporation of lessons learned into technical standards databases can be an indispensable tool for government and industry. Passed down from parent to child, teacher to pupil, and from senior to junior employees, lessons learned have been the basis for our accomplishments throughout the ages. Government and industry, too, have long recognized the need to systematically document And utilize the knowledge gained from past experiences in order to avoid the repetition of failures and mishaps. The use of lessons learned is a principle component of any organizational culture committed to continuous improvement. They have formed the foundation for discoveries, inventions, improvements, textbooks, and technical standards. Technical standards are a very logical way to communicate these lessons. Using the time-honored tradition of passing on lessons learned while utilizing the newest in information technology, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has launched an intensive effort to link lessons learned with specific technical standards through various Internet databases. This article will discuss the importance of lessons learned to engineers, the difficulty in finding relevant lessons learned while engaged in an engineering project, and the new NASA project that can help alleviate this difficulty. The article will conclude with recommendations for more expanded cross-sectoral uses of lessons learned with reference to technical standards.

  20. Visits to Cultural Learning Places in the Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mudiappa, Michael; Kluczniok, Katharina

    2015-01-01

    Studies show the important role of the home learning environment in early childhood for later school success. This article focuses on a particular aspect of the home learning environment: visits to cultural learning places (e.g. museums) as a component of the quality of the home learning environment. Therefore the educational concept of…

  1. Learning Disabilities and Achieving High-Quality Education Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartland, Debi; Strosnider, Roberta

    2017-01-01

    This is an official document of the National Joint Committee on Learning Disabilities (NJCLD), of which Council for Learning Disabilities is a long-standing, active member. With this position paper, NJCLD advocates for the implementation of high-quality education standards (HQES) for students with learning disabilities (LD) and outlines the…

  2. Effects of Learning about Historical Gender Discrimination on Early Adolescents' Occupational Judgments and Aspirations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pahlke, Erin; Bigler, Rebecca S.; Green, Vanessa A.

    2010-01-01

    To examine the consequences of learning about gender discrimination, early adolescents (n = 121, aged 10-14) were randomly assigned to receive either (a) standard biographical lessons about historical figures (standard condition) or (b) nearly identical lessons that included information about gender discrimination (discrimination condition).…

  3. Council for the Advancement of Standards Learning and Developmental Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The Council for the Advancement of Standards in Higher Education (CAS) promotes standards to enhance opportunities for student learning and development from higher education programs and services. Responding to the increased shift in attention being paid by educators and their stakeholders from higher education inputs (i.e., standards and…

  4. Lessons Learned on Quality (of) Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerlich, Rainer; Gerlich, Ralf

    2011-08-01

    Standards are used to describe and ensure the quality of products, services and processes throughout almost all branches of industry, including the field of software engineering. Contractors and suppliers are obligated by their customers and certification authorities to follow a certain set of standards during development. For example, a customer can easier actively participate in and control the contractor's process when enforcing a standard process..However, as with any requirement, a standard may also impede the contractor or supplier in assuring actual quality of the product in the sense of fitness for the purpose intended by the customer.This is the case when a standard defines specific quality assurance activities requiring a considerable amount of effort while other more efficient but equivalent or even superior approaches are blocked. Then improvement of the ratio between cost and quality exceeding miniscule advances is heavily impeded.While in some parts being too specific in defining the mechanisms of the enforced process, standards are sometimes too weak in defining the principles or goals on control of product quality.Therefore this paper addresses the following issues: (1) Which conclusions can be drawn on the quality and efficiency of a standard? (2) If and how is it possible to improve or evolve a standard? (3) How well does a standard guide a user towards high quality of the end product?One conclusion is that the analyzed standards do interfere with technological innovation, though the standards leave a lot of freedom for concretization and are understood as technology-independent.Another conclusion is that standards are not only a matter of quality but also a matter of competitiveness of the industry depending on resulting costs and time-to- market. When the costs induced by a standard are not adequate to the achievable quality, industry encounters a significant disadvantage.

  5. Alberta Learning: Early Development Instrument Pilot Project Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meaney, Wanda; Harris-Lorenze, Elayne

    The Early Development Instrument (EDI) was designed by McMaster University to measure the outcomes of childrens early years as they influence their readiness to learn at school. The EDI was piloted in several Canadian cities in recent years through two national initiatives. Building on these initiatives, Alberta Learning piloted the EDI as a…

  6. Traces of an Early Learned Second Language in Discontinued Bilingualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadat, Jasmin; Pureza, Rita; Alario, F.-Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Can an early learned second language influence speech production after living many years in an exclusively monolingual environment? To address this issue, we investigated the consequences of discontinued early bilingualism in heritage speakers who moved abroad and switched language dominance from the second to the primary learned language. We used…

  7. English Learners (ELs) and Early Learning. Fast Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) and Office of Early Learning (OEL) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) and early learning into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. The topics for this report include: (1) State-funded preschool programs with highest percentage of ELs: Fall 2013; (2)…

  8. Meeting the Early Learning Challenge: Supporting English Language Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    The Race to The Top-Early Learning Challenge (RTT-ELC) is designed to improve the quality of early learning and development and close the achievement gap for children with high needs. The Departments of Education and Health and Human Services define high needs to include children who are English learners, often referred to as English Language…

  9. Early Learning Canada: Workshop Leader Guide [and] Participant Resource [and] Trainer Manual. Learning & Reading Partners Adult Learning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Estey, Nancy; MacIsaac, Maitland; Rendell, Sandra

    Based on the understanding that the capacity to learn is optimized in the early years, Early Learning Canada (ELC) is a community workshop program for parents and adults who work with children from birth to age 6 and their families to facilitate life-long learning. This workshop leader guide explains the ELC principles, examines learning styles…

  10. Comparison of Virginia's 2009 Mathematics Standards of Learning with the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Department of Education, 2011

    2011-01-01

    This first draft of the "Comparison of Virginia's 2009 Mathematics Standards of Learning (SOL) with the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) for Mathematics" provides a side-by-side overview demonstrating how the 2009 Mathematics SOL are aligned to the CCSS. The comparison was made using Virginia's complete standards program for supporting…

  11. Highlighting in Early Childhood: Learning Biases through Attentional Shifting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burling, Joseph M.; Yoshida, Hanako

    2017-01-01

    The literature on human and animal learning suggests that individuals attend to and act on cues differently based on the order in which they were learned. Recent studies have proposed that one specific type of learning outcome, the highlighting effect, can serve as a framework for understanding a number of early cognitive milestones. However,…

  12. A Learning Progressions Approach to Early Algebra Research and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonger, Nicole L.; Stephens, Ana; Blanton, Maria; Knuth, Eric

    2015-01-01

    We detail a learning progressions approach to early algebra research and how existing work around learning progressions and trajectories in mathematics and science education has informed our development of a four-component theoretical framework consisting of: a curricular progression of learning goals across big algebraic ideas; an instructional…

  13. The Learning Behaviors Scale: National Standardization in Trinidad and Tobago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Jessica L.; McDermott, Paul A.; Watkins, Marley W.; Drogalis, Anna Rhoad; Worrell, Frank C.; Hall, Tracey E.

    2018-01-01

    This study reports on the national standardization and validation of the Learning Behaviors Scale (LBS) for use in Trinidad and Tobago. The LBS is a teacher rating scale centering on observable behaviors relevant to identifying childhood approaches to classroom learning. Teachers observed a stratified sample of 900 students across the islands'…

  14. Can Performance-Related Learning Outcomes Have Standards?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockmann, Michaela; Clarke, Linda; Winch, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explain the distinction between educational standards and learning outcomes and to indicate the problems that potentially arise when a learning outcomes approach is applied to a qualification meta-framework like the European Qualification Framework, or indeed to national qualification frameworks.…

  15. Inspecting Cases against Revans' "Gold Standard" of Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Verna J.

    2004-01-01

    A purposive sampling and analysis of ten case histories of action learning in the US suggests that applications tend to be partial, hierarchical, and leader controlled, thus running counter in several significant ways to the gold standard of Revans' action learning theory and egalitarian rules of engagement. Using critical markers to inspect the…

  16. Brain-Based Learning and Standards-Based Elementary Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Konecki, Loretta R.; Schiller, Ellen

    This paper explains how brain-based learning has become an area of interest to elementary school science teachers, focusing on the possible relationships between, and implications of, research on brain-based learning to the teaching of science education standards. After describing research on the brain, the paper looks at three implications from…

  17. Gender and Early Learning Environments. Research on Women and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irby, Beverly, Ed.; Brown, Genevieve H., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    The Research on Women and Education SIG of the American Educational Research Association presents the third book in its series, Gender and Early Learning Environments. Finding after the publication of Gender and Schooling in the Early Years, the second book in the series, that there was and is a paucity of published literature on early childhood…

  18. Early clinical experience: do students learn what we expect?

    PubMed

    Helmich, Esther; Bolhuis, Sanneke; Laan, Roland; Koopmans, Raymond

    2011-07-01

    Early clinical experience is thought to contribute to the professional development of medical students, but little is known about the kind of learning processes that actually take place. Learning in practice is highly informal and may be difficult to direct by predefined learning outcomes. Learning in medical practice includes a socialisation process in which some learning outcomes may be valued, but others neglected or discouraged. This study describes students' learning goals (prior to a Year 1 nursing attachment) and learning outcomes (after the attachment) in relation to institutional educational goals, and evaluates associations between learning outcomes, student characteristics and place of attachment. A questionnaire containing open-ended questions about learning goals and learning outcomes was administered to all Year 1 medical students (n = 347) before and directly after a 4-week nursing attachment in either a hospital or a nursing home. Two confirmatory focus group interviews were conducted and data were analysed using qualitative and quantitative content analyses. Students' learning goals corresponded with educational goals with a main emphasis on communication and empathy. Other learning goals included gaining insight into the organisation of health care and learning to deal with emotions. Self-reported learning outcomes were the same, but students additionally mentioned reflection on professional behaviour and their own future development. Women and younger students mentioned communication and empathy more often than men and older students. Individual learning goals, with the exception of communicating and empathising with patients, did not predict learning outcomes. Students' learning goals closely match educational goals, which are adequately met in early nursing attachments in both hospitals and nursing homes. Learning to deal with emotions was under-represented as a learning goal and learning outcome, which may indicate that emotional aspects

  19. Standards for Instructional Supervision: Enhancing Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Stephen P., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    The standards in this book will enhance teaching and learning. The list of the book's contributors reads like a "Who's Who" in the field of instructional supervision. These standards are practical, specific, and flexible, so that schools and districts can adapt them to their own contexts and goals. Each set also includes activities for…

  20. Theatre Arts Standards of Learning for Virginia Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The Theatre Arts Standards of Learning identify the essential content and skills required in the theatre arts curriculum for the middle school and core high school courses in Virginia's public schools. The standards are designed to be cumulative and progress in complexity by course from the middle school through the secondary level. Throughout…

  1. Models of Teaching: Connecting Student Learning with Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dell'Olio, Jeanine M.; Donk, Tony

    2007-01-01

    "Models of Teaching: Connecting Student Learning with Standards" features classic and contemporary models of teaching appropriate to elementary and secondary settings. Authors Jeanine M. Dell'Olio and Tony Donk use detailed case studies to discuss 10 models of teaching and demonstrate how the models can incorporate state content standards and…

  2. Using Learning Analytics to Enhance Student Learning in Online Courses Based on Quality Matters Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Florence; Ndoye, Abdou; Wilkins, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Quality Matters is recognized as a rigorous set of standards that guide the designer or instructor to design quality online courses. We explore how Quality Matters standards guide the identification and analysis of learning analytics data to monitor and improve online learning. Descriptive data were collected for frequency of use, time spent, and…

  3. Standards and Mastery Learning: Aligning Teaching and Assessment So All Children Can Learn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentile, J. Ronald; Lalley, James P.

    This book describes the concept of mastery learning in the classroom and the various foundations upon which it is built. Five chapters discuss: (1) "Understanding Mastery Learning" (e.g., the learning/memory base, the measurement base, theoretical bases, and the brain base); (2) "Examining the Standards: Math, Science, Social Studies, and English…

  4. Learning Partnerships in Rural Early Childhood Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombe, Kennece; Lubawy, Joy

    2002-01-01

    A study examined the value of six theoretical aspects of learning communities in rural New South Wales (Australia) preschools. Surveys of nine preschool directors indicated that they recognized the value of shared decision making, reflection, and delegating power, and that open communication was necessary for developing a learning environment…

  5. Early Learning and Development: Cultural-Historical Concepts in Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleer, Marilyn

    2010-01-01

    "Early Learning and Development" provides a unique synthesis of cultural-historical theory from Vygotsky, Elkonin and Leontiev in the 20th century to the ground-breaking research of scholars such as Siraj-Blatchford, Kratsova and Hedegaard today. It demonstrates how development and learning are culturally embedded and institutionally defined, and…

  6. iPads: Improving Numeracy Learning in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Peta

    2013-01-01

    The concept of mobile technologies is now an emergency theme in educational research, yet the playing of these edutainment applications and their impact on early childhood learning needs to be fully explored. This study highlights current research and explores how iPads improve student learning. It also examines how the introduction of iPads,…

  7. A New Tool to Facilitate Learning Reading for Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puspitasari, Cita; Subiyanto

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new android application for early childhood learning reading. The description includes a design, development, and an evaluation experiment of an educational game for learning reading on android. Before developing the game, Unified Modeling Language (UML) diagrams, interfaces, animation, narrative or audio were designed.…

  8. Formula for Success: Engaging Families in Early Math Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Global Family Research Project, 2017

    2017-01-01

    Early math ability is one of the best predictors of children's later success in school. Because children's learning begins in the home, families are fundamental in shaping children's interest and skills in math. The experience of learning and doing math, however, looks different from the instruction that was offered when most adults were in…

  9. Early Education of the Language-Learning Handicapped Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easter Seal Treatment Center of Montgomery County, Rockville, MD.

    The brochure descrbies a demonstration program on the early education of the language learning handicapped preschool child. Discussed are symptoms of the language learning problem (such as misunderstanding what is said), a remedial approach based on specific disability intervention, the Easter Seal Treatment Center, project objectives (such as the…

  10. Digital Discourses in Early Childhood Educator Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Emily Brown

    2017-01-01

    Active, dialogic participation is a necessary component of high quality teacher professional learning (Dunst, Bruder, & Hamby, 2015). However, logistical problems arise when implementing cooperative learning opportunities for early childhood educators, as preschool teachers are habitually separated from peers both institutionally and…

  11. Overview: Measuring Early Learning Quality and Outcomes (MELQO)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookings Institution, 2017

    2017-01-01

    The Measuring Early Learning Quality and Outcomes (MELQO) initiative began in 2014 in anticipation of a new global emphasis on early childhood development (ECD). Led by UNESCO, the World Bank, the Center for Universal Education at the Brookings Institution, and UNICEF, the initiative aims to promote feasible, accurate and useful measurement of…

  12. Learning with Technology for Pre-Service Early Childhood Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Anne; Scotellaro, Grazia

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an innovative pilot project at the University of Canberra aimed at providing pre-service early childhood teachers with the skills, confidence and ideological change required to include technology-enhanced learning as part of the early childhood curriculum. The impact of the project was evaluated through participant…

  13. Beyond Subprime Learning: Accelerating Progress in Early Education. Policy Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornfreund, Laura; McCann, Clare; Williams, Conor; Guernsey, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Earlier this year, in "Subprime Learning: Early Education in America since the Great Recession," the current state of early education in the U.S. was surveyed by examining progress over the last five years . It was found that while the public, political, and research consensus is stronger than ever, the field remains in dire need of…

  14. Learning to Teach in the Early Years Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaise, Mindy; Nuttal, Joce

    2011-01-01

    "Learning to Teach in the Early Years Classroom" helps teacher education students understand the complexities of teaching in early years' classrooms. It integrates research and theory with practice through vignettes, based on authentic classroom case studies, in order to show students how educators make decisions and achieve expected outcomes.…

  15. Building a Community of Learning through Early Residential Fieldwork

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Cathy; Larsen, Carl; Parry, Damian

    2014-01-01

    The positioning of residential fieldwork early in students' higher education is an established way of attempting to build and engage them in a community of learning. In the study reported here, the benefits of such early residential fieldwork were investigated using Krausse and Coates's seven scales of engagement. These scales consider a number of…

  16. Early Boost and Slow Consolidation in Motor Skill Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hotermans, Christophe; Peigneux, Philippe; de Noordhout, Alain Maertens; Moonen, Gustave; Maquet, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Motor skill learning is a dynamic process that continues covertly after training has ended and eventually leads to delayed increments in performance. Current theories suggest that this off-line improvement takes time and appears only after several hours. Here we show an early transient and short-lived boost in performance, emerging as early as…

  17. NASA's Lessons Learned and Technical Standards: A Logical Marriage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Paul; Vaughan, William W.; Garcia, Danny; Weinstein, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Lessons Learned have been the basis for our accomplishments throughout the ages. They have been passed down from father to son, mother to daughter, teacher to pupil, and older to younger worker. Lessons Learned have also been the basis for NASA's accomplishments for more than forty years. Both government and industry have long recognized the need to systematically document and utilize the knowledge gained from past experiences in order to avoid the repetition of failures and mishaps. Lessons Learned have formed the foundation for discoveries, inventions, improvements, textbooks, and Technical Standards.

  18. Learning a Music Instrument in Early Childhood: What Can We Learn from Professional Musicians' Childhood Memories?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Wyverne

    2008-01-01

    Professional early childhood educators are often asked for advice about whether or when a young child should learn to play a music instrument. Many educators who do not have a background in music education may not be confident in providing such advice. A range of overseas research has supported learning a music instrument in the early childhood…

  19. Leadership of Learning in Early Years Practice: A Professional Learning Resource [Includes DVD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallet, Elaine

    2014-01-01

    This book focuses upon effective pedagogical leadership and practice in the leadership of learning within early years settings and children's centres. The book and accompanying DVD, containing real-life examples of early years leaders, provides a framework for reflective thinking and learning for those leading practice and working with children,…

  20. Perceptual learning as improved probabilistic inference in early sensory areas.

    PubMed

    Bejjanki, Vikranth R; Beck, Jeffrey M; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Pouget, Alexandre

    2011-05-01

    Extensive training on simple tasks such as fine orientation discrimination results in large improvements in performance, a form of learning known as perceptual learning. Previous models have argued that perceptual learning is due to either sharpening and amplification of tuning curves in early visual areas or to improved probabilistic inference in later visual areas (at the decision stage). However, early theories are inconsistent with the conclusions of psychophysical experiments manipulating external noise, whereas late theories cannot explain the changes in neural responses that have been reported in cortical areas V1 and V4. Here we show that we can capture both the neurophysiological and behavioral aspects of perceptual learning by altering only the feedforward connectivity in a recurrent network of spiking neurons so as to improve probabilistic inference in early visual areas. The resulting network shows modest changes in tuning curves, in line with neurophysiological reports, along with a marked reduction in the amplitude of pairwise noise correlations.

  1. Two Processes in Early Bimanual Motor Skill Learning

    PubMed Central

    Yeganeh Doost, Maral; Orban de Xivry, Jean-Jacques; Bihin, Benoît; Vandermeeren, Yves

    2017-01-01

    Most daily activities are bimanual and their efficient performance requires learning and retention of bimanual coordination. Despite in-depth knowledge of the various stages of motor skill learning in general, how new bimanual coordination control policies are established is still unclear. We designed a new cooperative bimanual task in which subjects had to move a cursor across a complex path (a circuit) as fast and as accurately as possible through coordinated bimanual movements. By looking at the transfer of the skill between different circuits and by looking at training with varying circuits, we identified two processes in early bimanual motor learning. Loss of performance due to the switch in circuit after 15 min of training amounted to 20%, which suggests that a significant portion of improvements in bimanual performance is specific to the used circuit (circuit-specific skill). In contrast, the loss of performance due to the switch in circuit was 5% after 4 min of training. This suggests that learning the new bimanual coordination control policy dominates early in the training and is independent of the used circuit. Finally, switching between two circuits throughout training did not affect the early stage of learning (i.e., the first few minutes), but did affect the later stage. Together, these results suggest that early bimanual motor skill learning includes two different processes. Learning the new bimanual coordination control policy predominates in the first minutes whereas circuit-specific skill improvements unfold later in parallel with further improvements in the bimanual coordination control policy. PMID:29326573

  2. Learning in Early Childhood: Experiences, Relationships and "Learning to Be"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tayler, Collette

    2015-01-01

    Learning in the earliest stage of life--the infancy, toddlerhood and preschool period--is relational and rapid. Child-initiated and adult-mediated conversations, playful interactions and learning through active involvement are integral to young children making sense of their environments and to their development over time. The child's experience…

  3. Supporting State Systems of Early Learning Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Himes, James A. [D-CT-4

    2011-11-02

    House - 11/18/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Early Childhood, Elementary, and Secondary Education. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  4. Early onset marijuana use is associated with learning inefficiencies.

    PubMed

    Schuster, Randi Melissa; Hoeppner, Susanne S; Evins, A Eden; Gilman, Jodi M

    2016-05-01

    Verbal memory difficulties are the most widely reported and persistent cognitive deficit associated with early onset marijuana use. Yet, it is not known what memory stages are most impaired in those with early marijuana use. Forty-eight young adults, aged 18-25, who used marijuana at least once per week and 48 matched nonusing controls (CON) completed the California Verbal Learning Test, Second Edition (CVLT-II). Marijuana users were stratified by age of initial use: early onset users (EMJ), who started using marijuana at or before age 16 (n = 27), and late onset marijuana user group (LMJ), who started using marijuana after age 16 (n = 21). Outcome variables included trial immediate recall, total learning, clustering strategies (semantic clustering, serial clustering, ratio of semantic to serial clustering, and total number of strategies used), delayed recall, and percent retention. Learning improved with repetition, with no group effect on the learning slope. EMJ learned fewer words overall than LMJ or CON. There was no difference between LMJ and CON in total number of words learned. Reduced overall learning mediated the effect on reduced delayed recall among EMJ, but not CON or LMJ. Learning improved with greater use of semantic versus serial encoding, but this did not vary between groups. EMJ was not related to delayed recall after adjusting for encoding. Young adults reporting early onset marijuana use had learning weaknesses, which accounted for the association between early onset marijuana use and delayed recall. No amnestic effect of marijuana use was observed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Early Onset Marijuana Use Is Associated with Learning Inefficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Schuster, Randi Melissa; Hoeppner, Susanne S.; Evins, A. Eden; Gilman, Jodi M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Verbal memory difficulties are the most widely reported and persistent cognitive deficit associated with early-onset marijuana use. Yet, it is not known what memory stages are most impaired in those with early marijuana use. Method Forty-eight young adults, aged 18–25, who used marijuana at least once per week and 48 matched non-using controls (CON) completed the California Verbal Learning Test, Second Edition (CVLT-II). Marijuana users were stratified by age of initial use: ‘early onset’ users (EMJ), who started using marijuana at or before age 16 (n = 27), and ‘late onset’ marijuana user group (LMJ), who started using marijuana after age 16 (n = 21). Outcome variables included trial immediate recall, total learning, clustering strategies (semantic clustering, serial clustering, ratio of semantic to serial clustering, and total number of strategies used), delayed recall, and percent retention. Results Learning improved with repetition, with no group effect on the learning slope. EMJ learned fewer words overall than LMJ or CON. There was no difference between LMJ and CON in total number of words learned. Reduced overall learning mediated the effect on reduced delayed recall among EMJ, but not CON or LMJ. Learning improved with greater use of semantic versus serial encoding, but this did not vary between groups. EMJ was not related to delayed recall after adjusting for encoding. Conclusions Young adults reporting early onset marijuana use had learning weaknesses, which accounted for the association between early onset marijuana use and delayed recall. No amnestic effect of marijuana use was observed. PMID:26986749

  6. Joy in Learning: Making It Happen in Early Childhood Classes. NEA Early Childhood Education Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burton, Leon H.

    A premise of this book for teachers of young children is that all learning should be challenging, interesting, and enjoyable. Chapters include: (1) A Philosophy for Early Education (concerning the nature of young children, learning contexts, societal expectations); (2) Child Development (concerning independence, self-esteem, cooperative…

  7. Start Early to Build a Healthy Future: The Research Linking Early Learning and Health. Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Brooke; Hanson, Ann; Raden, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Every child deserves a fair chance. A chance to learn, grow, explore possibilities, persevere and achieve his or her potential. The Ounce of Prevention Fund believes that no child's potential should be limited by poor health. Good health in early childhood is an essential component of school readiness. The benefits of health and learning are…

  8. Lifewide Learning for Early Reading Development.

    PubMed

    Dowd, Amy Jo; Friedlander, Elliott; Jonason, Christine; Leer, Jane; Sorensen, Lisa Zook; Guajardo, Jarrett; D'Sa, Nikhit; Pava, Clara; Pisani, Lauren

    2017-03-01

    The authors examine the relationships between children's reading abilities and the enabling environment for learning in the context of Save the Children's Literacy Boost program. They conceptualize the enabling environment at a micro level, with two components: the home literacy environment, represented by reading materials/habits at home, and the community learning environment (community reading activities). Using longitudinal reading scores of 6,874 students in 424 schools in 12 sites across Africa and Asia, there was 1) a modest but consistent relationship between students' home literacy environments and reading scores, and 2) a strong relationship between reading gains and participation in community reading activities, suggesting that interventions should consider both home and community learning environments and their differential influences on interventions across different low-resource settings. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Standards for Foreign Language Learning in the 21st Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, Yonkers, NY.

    This book sets forth and explain a multitude of standards for foreign language education focusing on the "five Cs": communication in languages other than English; gaining knowledge and understanding of other cultures; connecting with other disciplines and acquiring information; learning to compare and develop insights into the nature of…

  10. Got Standards? Don't Give up on Engaged Learning!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helm, Judy

    2008-01-01

    Engagement and integration increase when children have an opportunity to investigate something of great interest to them and have a say in what they learn about the topic. Helm explains how to use webs to introduce required concepts and skills and integrate standards in the project approach. She walks readers through five steps to making an…

  11. Computer Technology Standards of Learning for Virginia's Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Department of Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Computer/Technology Standards of Learning identify and define the progressive development of essential knowledge and skills necessary for students to access, evaluate, use, and create information using technology. They provide a framework for technology literacy and demonstrate a progression from physical manipulation skills for the use of…

  12. State-Based Curriculum-Making: The Illinois Learning Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westbury, Ian

    2016-01-01

    This case study of the development of the "Illinois Learning Standards" of 1997 parallels a study of the development of the Norwegian compulsory school curriculum of 1997, "Laereplanverket 1997." The pair of case studies is designed to explore the administration of state-based curriculum-making and, in particular, the use of…

  13. Lessons Learned from Becoming an Independent Standards Board.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Board, John C.

    This paper discusses lessons learned from becoming an independent standards board. It begins by explaining that teachers lacked adequate academic preparation during the two World Wars and shortly thereafter. At the end of World War II, public education had to deal with poor pay, little job security, inadequate pensions, and inadequate and…

  14. A Natural Fit: Problem-based Learning and Technology Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sage, Sara M.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the use of problem-based learning to meet technology standards. Highlights include technology as a tool for locating and organizing information; the Wolf Wars problem for elementary and secondary school students that provides resources, including Web sites, for information; Web-based problems; and technology as assessment and as a…

  15. Fine Arts Standards of Learning for Virginia Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The Fine Arts Standards of Learning in this publication represent a major development in public education in Virginia, emphasizing the importance of instruction in the fine arts (dance arts, music, theatre arts, and visual arts) as an important part of Virginia's efforts to provide challenging educational programs in the public schools. Knowledge…

  16. The Social Outcomes of Learning Mathematics: Standard, Unintended or Visionary?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ernest, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Mathematics is a fundamental part of human knowledge and one of the central planks of the modern technological revolution. But in our enthusiasm to promote its benefits too rarely do we stop to question our intended aims of teaching mathematics and the outcomes of learning mathematics in school. In this paper the standard aims of school…

  17. Literacy and FLES. Connecting to the Common Core Learning Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martino, Al; Barnett, Harriet

    2013-01-01

    At present, Whole Language (WL) teachers DO teach reading as a part of their curriculum. However, the new common core learning standards set the stage for Foreign Language in Elementary Schools (FLES) teachers to take a more active role, if not lead the way in developing important reading skills in children. Although this new challenge may at…

  18. Water: The Ideal Early Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosse, Susan J.

    2008-01-01

    Bathtubs and swimming pools provide the ideal learning environment for people with special needs. For young preschool children, the activities that take place through water can help them develop physical fitness, facilitate motor development, reinforce perceptual-motor ability, encourage social development, and enhance self-esteem and confidence.…

  19. Visual variability affects early verb learning.

    PubMed

    Twomey, Katherine E; Lush, Lauren; Pearce, Ruth; Horst, Jessica S

    2014-09-01

    Research demonstrates that within-category visual variability facilitates noun learning; however, the effect of visual variability on verb learning is unknown. We habituated 24-month-old children to a novel verb paired with an animated star-shaped actor. Across multiple trials, children saw either a single action from an action category (identical actions condition, for example, travelling while repeatedly changing into a circle shape) or multiple actions from that action category (variable actions condition, for example, travelling while changing into a circle shape, then a square shape, then a triangle shape). Four test trials followed habituation. One paired the habituated verb with a new action from the habituated category (e.g., 'dacking' + pentagon shape) and one with a completely novel action (e.g., 'dacking' + leg movement). The others paired a new verb with a new same-category action (e.g., 'keefing' + pentagon shape), or a completely novel category action (e.g., 'keefing' + leg movement). Although all children discriminated novel verb/action pairs, children in the identical actions condition discriminated trials that included the completely novel verb, while children in the variable actions condition discriminated the out-of-category action. These data suggest that - as in noun learning - visual variability affects verb learning and children's ability to form action categories. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  20. Early Language Learning: Complexity and Mixed Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enever, Janet, Ed.; Lindgren, Eva, Ed.

    2017-01-01

    This is the first collection of research studies to explore the potential for mixed methods to shed light on foreign or second language learning by young learners in instructed contexts. It brings together recent studies undertaken in Cameroon, China, Croatia, Ethiopia, France, Germany, Italy, Kenya, Mexico, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Tanzania and…

  1. Parents Resourcing Children's Early Development and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, Sue; Nixon, Helen; Pudney, Valerie; Jurvansuu, Sari

    2009-01-01

    Parents deal with a complex web of choices when seeking and using knowledge and resources related to their young children's literacy development. Information concerning children's learning and development comes in many forms and is produced by an increasingly diverse range of players including governments, non-government organizations and…

  2. [Associative Learning between Orientation and Color in Early Visual Areas].

    PubMed

    Amano, Kaoru; Shibata, Kazuhisa; Kawato, Mitsuo; Sasaki, Yuka; Watanabe, Takeo

    2017-08-01

    Associative learning is an essential neural phenomenon where the contingency of different items increases after training. Although associative learning has been found to occur in many brain regions, there is no clear evidence that associative learning of visual features occurs in early visual areas. Here, we developed an associative decoded functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) neurofeedback (A-DecNef) to determine whether associative learning of color and orientation can be induced in early visual areas. During the three days' training, A-DecNef induced fMRI signal patterns that corresponded to a specific target color (red) mostly in early visual areas while a vertical achromatic grating was simultaneously, physically presented to participants. Consequently, participants' perception of "red" was significantly more frequently than that of "green" in an achromatic vertical grating. This effect was also observed 3 to 5 months after training. These results suggest that long-term associative learning of two different visual features such as color and orientation, was induced most likely in early visual areas. This newly extended technique that induces associative learning may be used as an important tool for understanding and modifying brain function, since associations are fundamental and ubiquitous with respect to brain function.

  3. Highlighting in Early Childhood: Learning Biases Through Attentional Shifting.

    PubMed

    Burling, Joseph M; Yoshida, Hanako

    2017-02-01

    The literature on human and animal learning suggests that individuals attend to and act on cues differently based on the order in which they were learned. Recent studies have proposed that one specific type of learning outcome, the highlighting effect, can serve as a framework for understanding a number of early cognitive milestones. However, little is known how this learning effect itself emerges among children, whose memory and attention are much more limited compared to adults. Two experiments were conducted using different versions of the general highlighting paradigm: Experiment 1 tested 3 to 6 year olds with a newly developed image-based version of the paradigm, which was designed specifically to test young children. Experiment 2 tested the validity of an image-based implementation of the highlighting paradigm with adult participants. The results from Experiment 1 provide evidence for the highlighting effect among children 3-6 years old, and they suggest age-related differences in dividing attention among multiple cues during learning. Experiment 2 replicated results from previous studies by showing robust biases for both image-based and text-based versions of the highlighting task. This study suggests that sensitivity to learning order emerges early through the process of cued attention, and the role of the highlighting effect in early language learning is discussed. Copyright © 2016 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  4. Accomplishing PETE Learning Standards and Program Accreditation through Teacher Candidates' Technology-Based Service Learning Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbone, Anne; Mercier, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Teacher candidates' use of technology is a component of physical education teacher education (PETE) program learning goals and accreditation standards. The methods presented in this article can help teacher candidates to learn about and apply technology as an instructional tool prior to and during field or clinical experiences. The goal in…

  5. Learning by Experience in a Standardized Testing Culture: Investigation of a Middle School Experiential Learning Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scogin, Stephen C.; Kruger, Christopher J.; Jekkals, Regan E.; Steinfeldt, Chelsea

    2017-01-01

    Standardized testing pressure sometimes discourages schools from broadly implementing experiential learning opportunities. However, some K-12 schools are challenging the trend with greater commitment to learning by experience. STREAM (science, technology, reading, engineering, arts, mathematics) school is a project-based program providing students…

  6. Designs for Living and Learning: Transforming Early Childhood Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Deb; Carter, Margie

    While the early childhood field has formed standards to help in recognizing quality programs for children, practitioners seldom use values to guide in selection of materials or to help plan early childhood environments. This book draws on a variety of educational approaches, including Waldorf, Montessori, and Reggio Emilia, to outline hundreds of…

  7. Idaho's Blueprint for Early Learning: "The Essential Elements."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeler, Myrl, Ed.

    Designed to provide information related to quality early care and education services for providers, policy makers, and clients in Idaho, This "blueprint" outlines the nine essential elements for best practices in early care and education settings. The document is presented in three parts. Part 1 delineates standards and indicators in…

  8. 78 FR 13294 - Enhanced Prudential Standards and Early Remediation Requirements for Foreign Banking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... Prudential Standards and Early Remediation Requirements for Foreign Banking Organizations and Foreign Nonbank... under section 165 of the Dodd-Frank Act and the early remediation requirements established under section... Prudential Standards and Early Remediation Requirements for Foreign Banking Organizations and Foreign Nonbank...

  9. Early Language Learning and Literacy: Neuroscience Implications for Education

    PubMed Central

    Kuhl, Patricia K.

    2011-01-01

    The last decade has produced an explosion in neuroscience research examining young children’s early processing of language that has implications for education. Noninvasive, safe functional brain measurements have now been proven feasible for use with children starting at birth. In the arena of language, the neural signatures of learning can be documented at a remarkably early point in development, and these early measures predict performance in children’s language and pre-reading abilities in the second, third, and fifth year of life, a finding with theoretical and educational import. There is evidence that children’s early mastery of language requires learning in a social context, and this finding also has important implications for education. Evidence relating socio-economic status (SES) to brain function for language suggests that SES should be considered a proxy for the opportunity to learn and that the complexity of language input is a significant factor in developing brain areas related to language. The data indicate that the opportunity to learn from complex stimuli and events are vital early in life, and that success in school begins in infancy. PMID:21892359

  10. Early boost and slow consolidation in motor skill learning.

    PubMed

    Hotermans, Christophe; Peigneux, Philippe; Maertens de Noordhout, Alain; Moonen, Gustave; Maquet, Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Motorskill learning is a dynamic process that continues covertly after training has ended and eventually leads to delayed increments in performance. Current theories suggest that this off-line improvement takes time and appears only after several hours. Here we show an early transient and short-lived boost in performance, emerging as early as 5-30 min after training but no longer observed 4 h later. This early boost is predictive of the performance achieved 48 h later, suggesting its functional relevance for memory processes.

  11. Accounting Early for Life Long Learning: The AcE Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University Coll. Worcester (England). Centre for Research in Early Childhood Education.

    Building upon the work of the Effective Early Learning (EEL) Project in raising the quality of early learning for young children in the United Kingdom, the 3-year Accounting Early for Life Long Learning Project (AcE Project) focuses on enhancing in 3- to 6-year-olds those attitudes and dispositions that are important to life-long learning. This…

  12. Workjobs: Activity-Centered Learning for Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorton, Mary Baratta

    Based on the idea that through active involvement with the materials the child would draw out the generalizations within the material, a teacher's method of activity-centered learning for early childhood education is presented. The first section of the book deals with the development of language through workjobs, emphasizing perception, matching,…

  13. Assessing the Quality of Early Years Learning Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Glenda; Gardner, John

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a means of evaluating early years classrooms from the perspective of the child's experience. Nine key themes, such as motivation and independence, are identified as representing significant aspects of a high-quality environment for learning. The manner in which these manifest themselves in relation to the three elements of…

  14. Report to the Legislature: Child Welfare and Early Learning Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Department of Early Learning, 2015

    2015-01-01

    House Bill 2519, sponsored by Representative Tana Senn, was passed during the 2014 legislative session and signed into law by Governor Jay Inslee. HB 2519 directs the Department of Early Learning (DEL) and the Department of Social and Health Services (DSHS) to jointly develop recommendations on methods to "better partner to ensure children…

  15. Agency in Early Childhood Learning and Development in Cameroon

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nsamenang, A. Bame

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on agency, as a natural disposition in children to be active and participative. Africa's parenting attitudes and education in African family traditions encourage and foster children's responsible agency in family life, cultural and economic activities, and their own developmental learning from an early, especially within the…

  16. Assessing the Impact of Early Learning Programs in Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gove, Amber; Brunette, Tracy; Bulat, Jennae; Carrol, Bidemi; Henny, Catherine; Macon, Wykia; Nderu, Evangeline; Sitabkhan, Yasmin

    2017-01-01

    We present results from early learning programs in six African countries: Ethiopia, Kenya, Liberia, Malawi, Tanzania, and Uganda. In partnership with ministries of education, RTI International has worked within government systems to support the design and deployment of locally contextualized materials, training, and assessment tools, with the goal…

  17. Children at Play: Learning Gender in the Early Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    This captivating book illuminates our understanding of how young children develop gender identities. A two year longitudinal research project on children's own understandings of gender casts new light on how 3 and 4 year old newcomers in early years classes learn rules for gendered behaviour from older children, in their imaginative and…

  18. Promoting Meaningful Learning: Innovations in Educating Early Childhood Professionals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yelland, Nicola J., Ed.

    Grounded in active learning, inquiry, and problem solving embedded in a social and cultural context, this book presents a collection of ideas illustrating innovative practices for educating early childhood professionals in university and other contexts. The book is presented in three parts. Part 1, "Listening to Student Voices," is…

  19. A Collaborative Inquiry into Museum and Library Early Learning Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirinides, Phil; Fink, Ryan; DuBois, Tesla

    2016-01-01

    As states, cities, and communities take a more active role in ensuring that all children have access to high quality experiences and opportunities to learn, many are looking to museums and libraries as part of the early childhood education system. Museums and libraries can play a critical role in these efforts, and there is clear momentum and…

  20. Learning in the Early Grades: Parents and Teachers Talk.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavitt, Midge, Ed.

    This booklet contains four articles, from the perspective of both parents and teachers, concerned with learning in the early grades. "From Kindergarten to Grade One: Making the Transition" (J. Ward), is a teacher's narrative on the importance of creating a child-centered classroom and an integrated, play-based curriculum. This article…

  1. A Study of Early Learning Services in Museums and Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sirinides, P.; Fink, R.; DuBois, T.

    2017-01-01

    Museums and libraries can play a role in providing opportunities for early learning, and there is clear momentum and infrastructure already in place to help make this happen. Researchers conducted a mixed-methods descriptive study to generate new evidence about the availability of services for young children in museums and libraries, and the…

  2. Never Too Early to Learn: Antibias Education for Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooven, Jennifer; Runkle, Katherine; Strouse, Laurie; Woods, Misty; Frankenberg, Erica

    2018-01-01

    Four early childhood educators, along with a university researcher, describe their efforts to implement an antiracist, antibias curriculum in a daycare and preschool setting. Even very young children can learn important lessons about race, diversity, and equity, they argue, and teachers should not shy away from addressing these issues at staff…

  3. Learning with Nature and Learning from Others: Nature as Setting and Resource for Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacQuarrie, Sarah; Nugent, Clare; Warden, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Nature-based learning is an increasingly popular type of early childhood education. Despite this, children's experiences--in particular, their form and function within different settings and how they are viewed by practitioners--are relatively unknown. Accordingly, the use of nature as a setting and a resource for learning was researched. A…

  4. Informal Science Learning through Inquiry: Effects on Preschool Students' Achievement in Early Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samsudin, Mohd Ali; Haniza, Noor Hasyimah; Ismail, Juliah; Abd-Talib, Corrienna

    2015-01-01

    This study was undertaken to explore the effects of informal science learning outside the classroom on preschool students' achievement in the Early Science learning topic (plant-related topics that presented concepts about tree leaves, height and roots) using an inquiry method. A sample of 64 preschool students was selected using purposive…

  5. Learning Languages: The Journal of the National Network for Early Language Learning, 1998-1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbusch, Marcia H., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    These three journals include articles on issues related to language learning. The fall 1998 journal presents: "Attention! Are You Seeking a Position with Excellent Long-Term Benefits? Be an Advocate!" (Mary Lynn Redmond); "National Town Meeting Energizes Support for Early Language Learning" (Marcia Harmon Rosenbusch);…

  6. When Service Learning Meets the Project Approach: Incorporating Service Learning in an Early Childhood Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chun, Eul Jung; Hertzog, Nancy B.; Gaffney, Janet S.; Dymond, Stacy K.

    2012-01-01

    The researchers described in this case study how Service Learning was incorporated within the context of an early childhood program where the teachers used the Project Approach. The Service Learning project was embedded in an investigation about water and was designed to help tsunami victims in Asia. Participants included two teachers and 12…

  7. Reduction in the retinotopic early visual cortex with normal aging and magnitude of perceptual learning.

    PubMed

    Chang, Li-Hung; Yotsumoto, Yuko; Salat, David H; Andersen, George J; Watanabe, Takeo; Sasaki, Yuka

    2015-01-01

    Although normal aging is known to reduce cortical structures globally, the effects of aging on local structures and functions of early visual cortex are less understood. Here, using standard retinotopic mapping and magnetic resonance imaging morphologic analyses, we investigated whether aging affects areal size of the early visual cortex, which were retinotopically localized, and whether those morphologic measures were associated with individual performance on visual perceptual learning. First, significant age-associated reduction was found in the areal size of V1, V2, and V3. Second, individual ability of visual perceptual learning was significantly correlated with areal size of V3 in older adults. These results demonstrate that aging changes local structures of the early visual cortex, and the degree of change may be associated with individual visual plasticity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Race to the Top--Early Learning Challenge: An Analysis of Impact on IDEIA, Part C Early Intervention Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohjanen, Sharon L.

    2016-01-01

    Infants and toddlers who live in poverty are more likely to experience developmental delays or disabilities and less likely to access early intervention (EI) services. The federal initiative Race to the Top--Early Learning Challenge (RTT-ELC) was designed to increase access to high quality early learning programs for children at risk for…

  9. System 80+{trademark} standard design incorporates radiation protection lessons learned

    SciT

    Crom, T.D.; Naugle, C.L.; Turk, R.S.

    1995-03-01

    Many lessons have been learned from the current generation of nuclear plants in the area of radiation protection. The following paper will outline how the lessons learned have been incorporated into the design and operational philosophy of the System 80+{trademark} Standard Design currently under development by ABB Combustion Engineering (ABB-CE) with support from Duke Engineering and Services, Inc. and Stone and Webster Engineering Corporation in the Balance-of-Plant design. The System 80+{trademark} Standard Design is a complete nuclear power plant for national and international markets, designed in direct response to utility needs for the 1990`s, and scheduled for Nuclear Regulatory Commissionmore » (NRC) Design Certification under the new standardization rule (10 CFR Part 52). System 80+{trademark} is a natural extension of System 80{sup R} technology, an evolutionary change based on proven Nuclear Steam Supply System (NSSS) in operation at Palo Verde in Arizona and under construction at Yonggwang in the Republic of Korea. The System 80+{trademark} Containment and much of the Balance of Plant design is based upon Duke Power Company`s Cherokee Plant, which was partially constructed in the late 1970`s, but, was later canceled (due to rapid declined in electrical load growth). The System 80+{trademark} Standard Design meets the requirements given in the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Advanced Light Water Reactor (ALWR) Requirements Document. One of these requirements is to limit the occupational exposure to 100 person-rem/yr. This paper illustrates how this goal can be achieved through the incorporation of lessons learned, innovative design, and the implementation of a common sense approach to operation and maintenances practices.« less

  10. Connecting Emergent Curriculum and Standards in the Early Childhood Classroom: Strengthening Content and Teaching Practice. Early Childhood Education Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Sydney L.; Copeland, Sherry M.

    2010-01-01

    The most pressing challenge in early childhood education today is to find a way to meet the standards within a developmentally appropriate approach. In this book, two active early childhood educators provide teachers with resources to bring content alive and document it in every-day, action-based pre-K and Kindergarten classrooms. The book…

  11. Speaker variability augments phonological processing in early word learning

    PubMed Central

    Rost, Gwyneth C.; McMurray, Bob

    2010-01-01

    Infants in the early stages of word learning have difficulty learning lexical neighbors (i.e., word pairs that differ by a single phoneme), despite the ability to discriminate the same contrast in a purely auditory task. While prior work has focused on top-down explanations for this failure (e.g. task demands, lexical competition), none has examined if bottom-up acoustic-phonetic factors play a role. We hypothesized that lexical neighbor learning could be improved by incorporating greater acoustic variability in the words being learned, as this may buttress still developing phonetic categories, and help infants identify the relevant contrastive dimension. Infants were exposed to pictures accompanied by labels spoken by either a single or multiple speakers. At test, infants in the single-speaker condition failed to recognize the difference between the two words, while infants who heard multiple speakers discriminated between them. PMID:19143806

  12. Vermont Core Standards and Self-Assessment Tool for Center-Based Early Childhood Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermont State Agency of Human Services, Waterbury.

    In response to the desire to create for child development services a unified system which shares common standards for quality and respects the diversity and uniqueness of individuals and of programs, a committee of the Early Childhood Work Group collected and compared all the different standards now in force for the early childhood programs in the…

  13. 39 CFR 3007.33 - Standard for decision for early termination of non-public status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Standard for decision for early termination of non-public status. 3007.33 Section 3007.33 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL TREATMENT OF NON-PUBLIC MATERIALS PROVIDED BY THE POSTAL SERVICE § 3007.33 Standard for decision for early...

  14. 39 CFR 3007.33 - Standard for decision for early termination of non-public status.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for decision for early termination of non-public status. 3007.33 Section 3007.33 Postal Service POSTAL REGULATORY COMMISSION PERSONNEL TREATMENT OF NON-PUBLIC MATERIALS PROVIDED BY THE POSTAL SERVICE § 3007.33 Standard for decision for early...

  15. 77 FR 13513 - Enhanced Prudential Standards and Early Remediation Requirements for Covered Companies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ... Prudential Standards and Early Remediation Requirements for Covered Companies AGENCY: Board of Governors of... remediation requirements established under section 166 of the Act. Due to the range and complexity of the... method. \\1\\ See Enhanced Prudential Standards and Early Remediation Requirements for Covered Companies...

  16. Narrative assessment: making mathematics learning visible in early childhood settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthony, Glenda; McLachlan, Claire; Lim Fock Poh, Rachel

    2015-09-01

    Narratives that capture children's learning as they go about their day-to-day activities are promoted as a powerful assessment tool within early childhood settings. However, in the New Zealand context, there is increasing concern that learning stories—the preferred form of narrative assessment—currently downplay domain knowledge. In this paper, we draw on data from 13 teacher interviews and samples of 18 children's learning stories to examine how mathematics is made visible within learning stories. Despite appreciating that mathematics is embedded in a range of everyday activities within the centres, we found that the nature of a particular activity appeared to influence `how' and `what' the teachers chose to document as mathematics learning. Many of the teachers expressed a preference to document and analyse mathematics learning that occurred within explicit mathematics activities rather than within play that involves mathematics. Our concern is that this restricted documentation of mathematical activity could potentially limit opportunities for mathematics learning both in the centre and home settings.

  17. Early Foundations for Mathematics Learning and Their Relations to Learning Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Geary, David C

    2013-02-01

    Children's quantitative competencies upon entry into school can have lifelong consequences. Children who start behind generally stay behind, and mathematical skills at school completion influence employment prospects and wages in adulthood. I review the current debate over whether early quantitative learning is supported by (a) an inherent system for representing approximate magnitudes, (b) an attentional-control system that enables explicit processing of quantitative symbols, such as Arabic numerals, or (c) the logical problem-solving abilities that facilitate learning of the relations among numerals. Studies of children with mathematical learning disabilities and difficulties have suggested that each of these competencies may be involved, but to different degrees and at different points in the learning process. Clarifying how and when these competencies facilitate early quantitative learning and developing interventions to address their impact on children have the potential to yield substantial benefits for individuals and for society.

  18. The Development of the Learning Object Standard Using a Pedagogic Approach: A Comparative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yahya, Yazrina; Jenkins, John; Yusoff, Mohammed

    Education is moving towards revenue generation from such channels as electronic learning, distance learning and virtual education. Hence learning technology standards are critical to the sector's success. Existing learning technology standards have focused on various topics such as metadata, question and test interoperability and others. However,…

  19. Early Life Manipulations Alter Learning and Memory in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kosten, Therese A; Kim, Jeansok J; Lee, Hongjoo J.

    2012-01-01

    Much research shows early life manipulations have enduring behavioral, neural, and hormonal effects. However, findings of learning and memory performance vary widely across studies. We reviewed studies in which pre-weaning rat pups were exposed to stressors and tested on learning and memory tasks in adulthood. Tasks were classified as aversive conditioning, inhibitory learning, or spatial/relational memory. Variables of duration, type, and timing of neonatal manipulation and sex and strain of animals were examined to determine if any predict enhanced or impaired performance. Brief separations enhanced and prolonged separations impaired performance on spatial/relational tasks. Performance was impaired in aversive conditioning and enhanced in inhibitory learning tasks regardless of manipulation duration. Opposing effects on performance for spatial/relational memory also depended upon timing of manipulation. Enhanced performance was likely if the manipulation occurred during postnatal week 3 but performance was impaired if it was confined to the first two postnatal weeks. Thus, the relationship between early life experiences and adulthood learning and memory performance is multifaceted and decidedly task-dependent. PMID:22819985

  20. A Playbook for Data: Real-Life Scenario Demonstrates Learning Forward's Data Standard in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsh, Stephanie; Hord, Shirley

    2012-01-01

    This article is an excerpt from "A Playbook for Professional Learning: Putting the Standards Into Action" (Learning Forward, 2012). Written by Learning Forward Executive Director Stephanie Hirsh and Scholar Laureate Shirley Hord, "A Playbook for Professional Learning" provides those who work in professional learning with readily accessible…

  1. Culture and the Brain: Making the Most of Learning in the Early Childhood Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas-Fair, Ursula

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews the impetus for higher quality, culturally appropriate early learning experiences. It investigates the economic costs of low quality learning and the absence of early learning programs as well. The article identifies and explores the tenets of brain-based learning and its connection to culture. Finally, the article describes…

  2. Dorsolateral Striatum Engagement Interferes with Early Discrimination Learning.

    PubMed

    Bergstrom, Hadley C; Lipkin, Anna M; Lieberman, Abby G; Pinard, Courtney R; Gunduz-Cinar, Ozge; Brockway, Emma T; Taylor, William W; Nonaka, Mio; Bukalo, Olena; Wills, Tiffany A; Rubio, F Javier; Li, Xuan; Pickens, Charles L; Winder, Danny G; Holmes, Andrew

    2018-05-22

    In current models, learning the relationship between environmental stimuli and the outcomes of actions involves both stimulus-driven and goal-directed systems, mediated in part by the DLS and DMS, respectively. However, though these models emphasize the importance of the DLS in governing actions after extensive experience has accumulated, there is growing evidence of DLS engagement from the onset of training. Here, we used in vivo photosilencing to reveal that DLS recruitment interferes with early touchscreen discrimination learning. We also show that the direct output pathway of the DLS is preferentially recruited and causally involved in early learning and find that silencing the normal contribution of the DLS produces plasticity-related alterations in a PL-DMS circuit. These data provide further evidence suggesting that the DLS is recruited in the construction of stimulus-elicited actions that ultimately automate behavior and liberate cognitive resources for other demands, but with a cost to performance at the outset of learning. Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Data Standardization for Carbon Cycle Modeling: Lessons Learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Y.; Liu, S.; Cook, R. B.; Post, W. M.; Huntzinger, D. N.; Schwalm, C.; Schaefer, K. M.; Jacobson, A. R.; Michalak, A. M.

    2012-12-01

    Terrestrial biogeochemistry modeling is a crucial component of carbon cycle research and provides unique capabilities to understand terrestrial ecosystems. The Multi-scale Synthesis and Terrestrial Model Intercomparison Project (MsTMIP) aims to identify key differences in model formulation that drive observed differences in model predictions of biospheric carbon exchange. To do so, the MsTMIP framework provides standardized prescribed environmental driver data and a standard model protocol to facilitate comparisons of modeling results from nearly 30 teams. Model performance is then evaluated against a variety of carbon-cycle related observations (remote sensing, atmospheric, and flux tower-based observations) using quantitative performance measures and metrics in an integrated evaluation framework. As part of this effort, we have harmonized highly diverse and heterogeneous environmental driver data, model outputs, and observational benchmark data sets to facilitate use and analysis by the MsTMIP team. In this presentation, we will describe the lessons learned from this data-intensive carbon cycle research. The data harmonization activity itself can be made more efficient with the consideration of proper tools, version control, workflow management, and collaboration within the whole team. The adoption of on-demand and interoperable protocols (e.g. OPeNDAP and Open Geospatial Consortium) makes data visualization and distribution more flexible. Users can customize and download data in specific spatial extent, temporal period, and different resolutions. The effort to properly organize data in an open and standard format (e.g. Climate & Forecast compatible netCDF) allows the data to be analysed by a dispersed set of researchers more efficiently, and maximizes the longevity and utilization of the data. The lessons learned from this specific experience can benefit efforts by the broader community to leverage diverse data resources more efficiently in scientific research.

  4. A neurocomputational theory of how explicit learning bootstraps early procedural learning.

    PubMed

    Paul, Erick J; Ashby, F Gregory

    2013-01-01

    It is widely accepted that human learning and memory is mediated by multiple memory systems that are each best suited to different requirements and demands. Within the domain of categorization, at least two systems are thought to facilitate learning: an explicit (declarative) system depending largely on the prefrontal cortex, and a procedural (non-declarative) system depending on the basal ganglia. Substantial evidence suggests that each system is optimally suited to learn particular categorization tasks. However, it remains unknown precisely how these systems interact to produce optimal learning and behavior. In order to investigate this issue, the present research evaluated the progression of learning through simulation of categorization tasks using COVIS, a well-known model of human category learning that includes both explicit and procedural learning systems. Specifically, the model's parameter space was thoroughly explored in procedurally learned categorization tasks across a variety of conditions and architectures to identify plausible interaction architectures. The simulation results support the hypothesis that one-way interaction between the systems occurs such that the explicit system "bootstraps" learning early on in the procedural system. Thus, the procedural system initially learns a suboptimal strategy employed by the explicit system and later refines its strategy. This bootstrapping could be from cortical-striatal projections that originate in premotor or motor regions of cortex, or possibly by the explicit system's control of motor responses through basal ganglia-mediated loops.

  5. Comparison of Virginia's 2010 English Standards of Learning with the Common Core State Standards for English and Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Department of Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The "Comparison of Virginia's 2010 English Standards of Learning (SOL) with the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) for English Language Arts and Literacy (ELAL)" provides a side-by-side overview demonstrating how the 2010 English SOL are aligned to the CCSS for ELAL. The comparison was made using Virginia's complete standards program for…

  6. Children's Participation Rights in Early Childhood Education and Care: The Case of Early Literacy Learning and Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunphy, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This position article argues that educators' knowledge of young children's perspectives on aspects of early learning, including literacy learning, and subsequent interpretations of the ways that these perspectives can inform and shape pedagogy are key to promoting children's participation rights in early childhood education and care. Drawing on…

  7. The equivalence of learning paths in early science instruction: effect of direct instruction and discovery learning.

    PubMed

    Klahr, David; Nigam, Milena

    2004-10-01

    In a study with 112 third- and fourth-grade children, we measured the relative effectiveness of discovery learning and direct instruction at two points in the learning process: (a) during the initial acquisition of the basic cognitive objective (a procedure for designing and interpreting simple, unconfounded experiments) and (b) during the subsequent transfer and application of this basic skill to more diffuse and authentic reasoning associated with the evaluation of science-fair posters. We found not only that many more children learned from direct instruction than from discovery learning, but also that when asked to make broader, richer scientific judgments, the many children who learned about experimental design from direct instruction performed as well as those few children who discovered the method on their own. These results challenge predictions derived from the presumed superiority of discovery approaches in teaching young children basic procedures for early scientific investigations.

  8. The Renaissance. Grade 7 Model Lesson for Standard 7.8. World History and Geography: Medieval and Early Modern Times. California History-Social Science Course Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zachlod, Michelle, Ed.

    California State Standard 7.8 is delineated in the following manner: "Students analyze the origins, accomplishments, and diffusion of the Renaissance," in terms of the way in which the revival of classical learning and the arts affected a new interest in humanism; the importance of Florence in the early stages of the Renaissance and the…

  9. Impact of Gadget Based Learning of Grammar in English at Standard II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singaravelu, G.

    2014-01-01

    The study enlightens the impact of Gadget Based Learning of English Grammar at standard II. Objectives of the study is to find out the learning problems of the students of standard II in Learning English Grammar in Shri Vani Vilas Middle School and to find whether there is any significant difference in achievement mean score between pre test of…

  10. Learning to trust: trust and attachment in early psychosis.

    PubMed

    Fett, A-K J; Shergill, S S; Korver-Nieberg, N; Yakub, F; Gromann, P M; Krabbendam, L

    2016-05-01

    Distrust and social dysfunction are characteristic in psychosis and may arise from attachment insecurity, which is elevated in the disorder. The relationship between trust and attachment in the early stages of psychosis is unknown, yet could help to understand interpersonal difficulties and disease progression. This study aimed to investigate whether trust is reduced in patients with early psychosis and whether this is accounted for by attachment avoidance and attachment anxiety. We used two trust games with a cooperative and unfair partner in a sample of 39 adolescents with early psychosis and 100 healthy controls. Patients had higher levels of attachment anxiety, but the groups did not differ in attachment avoidance. Basic trust was lower in patients than controls, as indicated by lower initial investments. During cooperation patients increased their trust towards levels of controls, i.e. they were able to learn and to override initial suspiciousness. Patients decreased their trust less than controls during unfair interactions. Anxious attachment was associated with higher basic trust and higher trust during unfair interactions and predicted trust independent of group status. Discussion Patients showed decreased basic trust but were able to learn from the trustworthy behaviour of their counterpart. Worries about the acceptance by others and low self-esteem are associated with psychosis and attachment anxiety and may explain behaviour that is focused on conciliation, rather than self-protection.

  11. Job-Embedded Professional Learning Essential to Improving Teaching and Learning in Early Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacchiano, Debra; Klein, Rebecca; Hawley, Marsha Shigeyo

    2016-01-01

    Improving classroom teaching improves children's learning outcomes. In pursuit of those goals, the early education field has made substantial investments aimed at increasing the quality of classroom environments and teacher-child interactions. Yet, in publicly funded programs across the country, the quality of instruction remains low and…

  12. Learning from Children: Learning from Caroline Pratt (1867-1954). Early Progressives in Early Years Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drummond, Mary Jane

    2014-01-01

    This review of Caroline Pratt's life and work in early years education includes an account of how a six-year-old boy taught a woman in her thirties what she needed to know in order to open a school--in 1914--that continues to this day, a school that was, in the founder's own words, fitted to the child and not the other way around. It finds a clear…

  13. Differential Training Facilitates Early Consolidation in Motor Learning

    PubMed Central

    Henz, Diana; Schöllhorn, Wolfgang I.

    2016-01-01

    Current research demonstrates increased learning rates in differential learning (DL) compared to repetitive training. To date, little is known on the underlying neurophysiological processes in DL that contribute to superior performance over repetitive practice. In the present study, we measured electroencephalographic (EEG) brain activation patterns after DL and repetitive badminton serve training. Twenty-four semi-professional badminton players performed badminton serves in a DL and repetitive training schedule in a within-subjects design. EEG activity was recorded from 19 electrodes according to the 10–20 system before and immediately after each 20-min exercise. Increased theta activity was obtained in contralateral parieto-occipital regions after DL. Further, increased posterior alpha activity was obtained in DL compared to repetitive training. Results indicate different underlying neuronal processes in DL and repetitive training with a higher involvement of parieto-occipital areas in DL. We argue that DL facilitates early consolidation in motor learning indicated by post-training increases in theta and alpha activity. Further, brain activation patterns indicate somatosensory working memory processes where attentional resources are allocated in processing of somatosensory information in DL. Reinforcing a somatosensory memory trace might explain increased motor learning rates in DL. Finally, this memory trace is more stable against interference from internal and external disturbances that afford executively controlled processing such as attentional processes. PMID:27818627

  14. Weaving the tapestry of learning: simulation, standardized patients, and virtual communities.

    PubMed

    Holland, Brian; Landry, Karen; Mountain, Angela; Middlebrooks, Mary Alice; Heim, Deborah; Missildine, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    Using situated cognition learning theory, nursing faculty developed simulated clinical learning experiences integrating virtual communities and standardized patients. These learning experiences provide authenticity and realism not easily achieved using the individual techniques in isolation. The authors describe the process of weaving these strategies into a rich learning experience for students.

  15. "A Doubt is at Best an Unsafe Standard": Measuring Sugar in the Early Bureau of Standards.

    PubMed

    Singerman, David

    2007-01-01

    In 1900, measuring the purity of sugar was a problem with serious economic consequences, and Congress created the Bureau of Standards in part to create accurate standards for saccharimetry. To direct the Polarimetry Section, Director Stratton hired the young chemist Frederick Bates, who went on to make significant contributions to the discipline of sugar chemistry. This paper explores four of Bates's greatest accomplishments: identifying the error caused by clarifying lead acetate, inventing the remarkable quartz-compensating saccharimeter with adjustable sensibility, discovering the significant error in the prevailing Ventzke saccharimetric scale, and reviving the International Commission for Uniform Methods of Sugar Analysis to unify the international community of chemists after the tensions of World War One. It also shows how accomplishments in saccharimetry reflected the growing importance and confidence of the Bureau of Standards, and how its scientific success smoothed the operation of American commerce.

  16. Lexically-based learning and early grammatical development.

    PubMed

    Lieven, E V; Pine, J M; Baldwin, G

    1997-02-01

    Pine & Lieven (1993) suggest that a lexically-based positional analysis can account for the structure of a considerable proportion of children's early multiword corpora. The present study tests this claim on a second, larger sample of eleven children aged between 1;0 and 3;0 from a different social background, and extends the analysis to later in development. Results indicate that the positional analysis can account for a mean of 60% of all the children's multiword utterances and that the great majority of all other utterances are defined as frozen by the analysis. Alternative explanations of the data based on hypothesizing underlying syntactic or semantic relations are investigated through analyses of pronoun case marking and of verbs with prototypical agent-patient roles. Neither supports the view that the children's utterances are being produced on the basis of general underlying rules and categories. The implications of widespread distributional learning in early language development are discussed.

  17. Professional Development for Early Childhood Educators: Efforts to Improve Math and Science Learning Opportunities in Early Childhood Classrooms.

    PubMed

    Piasta, Shayne B; Logan, Jessica A R; Pelatti, Christina Yeager; Capps, Janet L; Petrill, Stephen A

    2015-05-01

    Because recent initiatives highlight the need to better support preschool-aged children's math and science learning, the present study investigated the impact of professional development in these domains for early childhood educators. Sixty-five educators were randomly assigned to experience 10.5 days (64 hours) of training on math and science or on an alternative topic. Educators' provision of math and science learning opportunities were documented, as were the fall-to-spring math and science learning gains of children ( n = 385) enrolled in their classrooms. Professional development significantly impacted provision of science, but not math, learning opportunities. Professional development did not directly impact children's math or science learning, although science learning was indirectly affected via the increase in science learning opportunities. Both math and science learning opportunities were positively associated with children's learning. Results suggest that substantive efforts are necessary to ensure that children have opportunities to learn math and science from a young age.

  18. Race to the Top - Early Learning Challenge: 2014 Annual Performance Report. Wisconsin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Race to the Top - Early Learning Challenge, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This Race to the Top - Early Learning Challenge (RTT-ELC) annual performance report for the year 2014 describes Wisconsin's accomplishments, lessons learned, challenges, and strategies Wisconsin will implement to address those challenges. During the second year of the Race to the Top - Early Learning Challenge (RTT-ELC) in Wisconsin, there have…

  19. Race to the Top - Early Learning Challenge: 2014 Annual Performance Report. Delaware

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Race to the Top - Early Learning Challenge, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This Race to the Top - Early Learning Challenge (RTT-ELC) annual performance report for the year 2014 describes Delaware's accomplishments, lessons learned, challenges, and strategies Delaware will implement to address those challenges. At the end of Year Three of the Early Learning Challenge Grant, Delaware continues to make significant progress…

  20. Second-Language Learning in Early Childhood: Some Thoughts for Practitioners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Barry

    There is much that can be done in early childhood education programs to foster second language learning in young children. The research literature on early childhood bilingualism clearly indicates that children can learn two languages simultaneously without apparent effort, without cognitive strain or interference in learning either language…

  1. SELF (Supports for Early Learning Foundations): A Non-Directed Model Demonstration Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Holly

    This final report describes achievements and activities of Project SELF (Supports for Early Learning Foundations), a federally funded project in New Mexico which developed, evaluated, and replicated an innovative model that provides strategies for early interventionists and families to support early learning foundations. The project identified…

  2. Learning abilities and disabilities: generalist genes in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Davis, Oliver S P; Haworth, Claire M A; Plomin, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The new view of cognitive neuropsychology that considers not just case studies of rare severe disorders but also common disorders, as well as normal variation and quantitative traits, is more amenable to recent advances in molecular genetics, such as genome-wide association studies, and advances in quantitative genetics, such as multivariate genetic analysis. A surprising finding emerging from multivariate quantitative genetic studies across diverse learning abilities is that most genetic influences are shared: they are "generalist", rather than "specialist". We exploited widespread access to inexpensive and fast Internet connections in the United Kingdom to assess over 5000 pairs of 12-year-old twins from the Twins Early Development Study (TEDS) on four distinct batteries: reading, mathematics, general cognitive ability (g) and, for the first time, language. Genetic correlations remain high among all of the measured abilities, with language as highly correlated genetically with g as reading and mathematics. Despite developmental upheaval, generalist genes remain important into early adolescence, suggesting optimal strategies for molecular genetic studies seeking to identify the genes of small effect that influence learning abilities and disabilities.

  3. Learning and Teaching Early Math: The Learning Trajectories Approach, 2nd Edition. Studies in Mathematical Thinking and Learning Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Douglas H.; Sarama, Julie

    2014-01-01

    In this important book for pre- and in-service teachers, early math experts Douglas Clements and Julie Sarama show how "learning trajectories" help diagnose a child's level of mathematical understanding and provide guidance for teaching. By focusing on the inherent delight and curiosity behind young children's mathematical reasoning,…

  4. Native language change during early stages of second language learning.

    PubMed

    Bice, Kinsey; Kroll, Judith F

    2015-11-11

    Research on proficient bilinguals has demonstrated that both languages are always active, even when only one is required. The coactivation of the two languages creates both competition and convergence, facilitating the processing of cognate words, but slowing lexical access when there is a requirement to engage control mechanisms to select the target language. Critically, these consequences are evident in the native language (L1) as well as in the second language (L2). The present study questioned whether L1 changes can be detected at early stages of L2 learning and how they are modulated by L2 proficiency. Native English speakers learning Spanish performed an English (L1) lexical decision task that included cognates while event-related potentials were recorded. They also performed verbal fluency, working memory, and inhibitory control tasks. A group of matched monolinguals performed the same tasks in English only. The results revealed that intermediate learners demonstrate a reduced N400 for cognates compared with noncognates in English (L1), and an emerging effect is visually present in beginning learners as well; however, no behavioral cognate effect was present for either group. In addition, slower reaction times in English (L1) are related to a larger cognate N400 magnitude in English (L1) and Spanish (L2), and to better inhibitory control for learners but not for monolinguals. The results suggest that contrary to the claim that L2 affects L1 only when L2 speakers are highly proficient, L2 learning begins to impact L1 early in the development of the L2 skill.

  5. Jump-Starting Early Childhood Education at Home: Early Learning, Parent Motivation, and Public Policy.

    PubMed

    Maloney, Erin A; Converse, Benjamin A; Gibbs, Chloe R; Levine, Susan C; Beilock, Sian L

    2015-11-01

    By the time children begin formal schooling, their experiences at home have already contributed to large variations in their math and language development, and once school begins, academic achievement continues to depend strongly on influences outside of school. It is thus essential that educational reform strategies involve primary caregivers. Specifically, programs and policies should promote and support aspects of caregiver-child interaction that have been empirically demonstrated to boost early learning and should seek to impede "motivational sinkholes" that threaten to undermine caregivers' desires to engage their children effectively. This article draws on cognitive and behavioral science to detail simple, low-cost, and effective tools caregivers can employ to prepare their children for educational success and then describes conditions that can protect and facilitate caregivers' motivation to use those tools. Policy recommendations throughout focus on using existing infrastructure to more deeply engage caregivers in effective early childhood education at home. © The Author(s) 2015.

  6. Portfolios for Prior Learning Assessment: Caught between Diversity and Standardization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweygers, Annelies; Soetewey, Kim; Meeus, Wil; Struyf, Elke; Pieters, Bert

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, procedures have been established in Flanders for "Prior Learning Assessment" (PLA) outside the formal learning circuit, of which the portfolio is a regular component. In order to maximize the possibilities of acknowledgement of prior learning assessment, the Flemish government is looking for a set of common criteria and…

  7. Setting the New Standard with Mobile Computing in Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shih, Yuhsun Edward; Mills, Dennis

    2007-01-01

    Mobile learning represents exciting new frontiers in education and pedagogy. With the features of "wearable" computing and multimedia content delivery via mobile technologies, mobile learning becomes feasible and offers new benefits to instructors and learners. How do mobile technologies influence our teaching and learning in traditional…

  8. Return of the Pig: Standards for Learning Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulcher, Keston H.; Smith, Kristen L.; Sanchez, Elizabeth R. H.; Ames, Allison J.; Meixner, Cara

    2017-01-01

    Higher education has made impressive progress concerning student learning outcomes assessment practices. Yet--despite the assumption that better assessment would lead to better student learning--few examples of demonstrable student learning improvement exist at the academic degree or university levels. In 2014 Fulcher, Good, Coleman, and Smith…

  9. Professional learning communities (PLCs) for early childhood science education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eum, Jungwon

    beliefs toward science teaching. Face-to-face group teachers' comfort with planning and doing different science activities increased significantly after the workshop and after the combination of workshop and face-to-face PLC. This study contributes to the research about various forms of professional development and their process and outcome in early childhood science education and informs early childhood professional communities of creative ways to improve science teaching and learning.

  10. Grade Expectations for Vermont's Framework of Standards and Learning Opportunities, Summer 2004 (Arts)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermont Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    In the fall of 1996, the State Board of Education adopted Vermont's Framework of Standards and Learning Opportunities. Over the years, the aim has been to make the standards more useful as guides to curriculum development. In 2000, the standards were formally revised and again adopted by the State Board. In 2004, another chapter in the standards,…

  11. The Role of the Library Media Specialist in Standards-Based Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corey, Linda

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the role of the school library media specialist in standards-based learning. Topics include standards-based assessment; information literacy standards; collaboration with classroom teachers; benchmarks and indicators for student performance; leadership in a standards-based climate; and the use of technology to support curriculum and…

  12. Development of Learning Models Based on Problem Solving and Meaningful Learning Standards by Expert Validity for Animal Development Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lufri, L.; Fitri, R.; Yogica, R.

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to produce a learning model based on problem solving and meaningful learning standards by expert assessment or validation for the course of Animal Development. This research is a development research that produce the product in the form of learning model, which consist of sub product, namely: the syntax of learning model and student worksheets. All of these products are standardized through expert validation. The research data is the level of validity of all sub products obtained using questionnaire, filled by validators from various field of expertise (field of study, learning strategy, Bahasa). Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. The result of the research shows that the problem solving and meaningful learning model has been produced. Sub products declared appropriate by expert include the syntax of learning model and student worksheet.

  13. Machine Learning Seismic Wave Discrimination: Application to Earthquake Early Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zefeng; Meier, Men-Andrin; Hauksson, Egill; Zhan, Zhongwen; Andrews, Jennifer

    2018-05-01

    Performance of earthquake early warning systems suffers from false alerts caused by local impulsive noise from natural or anthropogenic sources. To mitigate this problem, we train a generative adversarial network (GAN) to learn the characteristics of first-arrival earthquake P waves, using 300,000 waveforms recorded in southern California and Japan. We apply the GAN critic as an automatic feature extractor and train a Random Forest classifier with about 700,000 earthquake and noise waveforms. We show that the discriminator can recognize 99.2% of the earthquake P waves and 98.4% of the noise signals. This state-of-the-art performance is expected to reduce significantly the number of false triggers from local impulsive noise. Our study demonstrates that GANs can discover a compact and effective representation of seismic waves, which has the potential for wide applications in seismology.

  14. Invisible to Visible: Mapping the Continuum of Literacy Learning Experiences in an Early Years Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kervin, Lisa; Turbill, Jan; Harden-Thew, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    The face of early childhood education continues to change. In Australia, the national early childhood guidelines, "Early Years Learning Framework" (2009) and the "National Quality Framework" have articulated and defined the work of early years' educators in a range of areas, including literacy. Both frameworks state that their…

  15. Full Day Early Learning Kindergarten Program Team: Perspectives from the Principal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shahbazi, Sara; Salinitri, Geri

    2016-01-01

    The Full Day Early Learning Kindergarten (FDK) Program has expanded the role of the principal and has altered the teaching dynamics of the classroom with the introduction of an early years team. The early years team consists of a certified teacher with the Ontario College of Teachers and a registered early childhood educator from the College of…

  16. Assessing MBA Student Teamwork under the AACSB Assurance of Learning Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Procino, Matthew C.

    2012-01-01

    Since the 2003 release of the AACSB's Assurance of Learning standards, outcomes assessment has been a required practice for business schools wishing to receive their endorsement. While most accredited institutions had been dabbling with the measurement of student learning, the new standards raised the bar considerably. It is now necessary to…

  17. History and Social Studies Standards of Learning for Virginia Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Education, Richmond.

    In 1995, the Virginia Board of Education published Virginia state Standards of Learning in English, mathematics, science, and history and social science for kindergarten through grade 12. The Standards of Learning provide a framework for instructional programs designed to raise the academic achievement of all Virginia public school students. The…

  18. Comparison of Standardized Test Scores from Traditional Classrooms and Those Using Problem-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Needham, Martha Elaine

    2010-01-01

    This research compares differences between standardized test scores in problem-based learning (PBL) classrooms and a traditional classroom for 6th grade students using a mixed-method, quasi-experimental and qualitative design. The research shows that problem-based learning is as effective as traditional teaching methods on standardized tests. The…

  19. VA State Profile. Virginia: Standards of Learning (SOL) End-of-Course Exams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center on Education Policy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides information about Virginia's Standards of Learning (SOL) End-of-Course Exams. The purpose of the end-of-course assessments is to measure the achievement of students on the Standards of Learning adopted by the Virginia Board of Education for specific high school courses, and to ensure that students graduating from Virginia…

  20. Issues of E-Learning Standards and Identity Management for Mobility and Collaboration in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alves, Paulo; Uhomoibhi, James

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This paper seeks to investigate and report on the status of identity management systems and e-learning standards across Europe for promoting mobility, collaboration and the sharing of contents and services in higher education institutions. Design/methodology/approach: The present research work examines existing e-learning standards and…

  1. Napping facilitates word learning in early lexical development.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Klára; Myers, Kyle; Foster, Russell; Plunkett, Kim

    2015-10-01

    Little is known about the role that night-time sleep and daytime naps play in early cognitive development. Our aim was to investigate how napping affects word learning in 16-month-olds. Thirty-four typically developing infants were assigned randomly to nap and wake groups. After teaching two novel object-word pairs to infants, we tested their initial performance with an intermodal preferential looking task in which infants are expected to increase their target looking time compared to a distracter after hearing its auditory label. A second test session followed after approximately a 2-h delay. The delay contained sleep for the nap group or no sleep for the wake group. Looking behaviour was measured with an automatic eye-tracker. Vocabulary size was assessed using the Oxford Communicative Development Inventory. A significant interaction between group and session was found in preferential looking towards the target picture. The performance of the nap group increased after the nap, whereas that of the wake group did not change. The gain in performance correlated positively with the expressive vocabulary size in the nap group. These results indicate that daytime napping helps consolidate word learning in infancy. © 2015 European Sleep Research Society.

  2. Incorporating the Common Core's Problem Solving Standard for Mathematical Practice into an Early Elementary Inclusive Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Mathematics curriculum designers and policy decision makers are beginning to recognize the importance of problem solving, even at the earliest stages of mathematics learning. The Common Core includes sense making and perseverance in solving problems in its standards for mathematical practice for students at all grade levels. Incorporating problem…

  3. An Ecological Footprint for an Early Learning Centre: Identifying Opportunities for Early Childhood Sustainability Education through Interdisciplinary Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNichol, Heidi; Davis, Julie Margaret; O'Brien, Katherine R.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, engineers and educators worked together to adapt and apply the ecological footprint (EF) methodology to an early learning centre in Brisbane, Australia. Results were analysed to determine how environmental impact can be reduced at the study site and more generally across early childhood settings. It was found that food, transport…

  4. 10 CFR 2.110 - Filing and administrative action on submittals for standard design approval or early review of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... standard design approval or early review of site suitability issues. 2.110 Section 2.110 Energy NUCLEAR... or early review of site suitability issues. (a)(1) A submittal for a standard design approval under... provisions of appendix Q to parts 50 of this chapter, a submittal for early review of site suitability issues...

  5. 10 CFR 2.110 - Filing and administrative action on submittals for standard design approval or early review of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... standard design approval or early review of site suitability issues. 2.110 Section 2.110 Energy NUCLEAR... or early review of site suitability issues. (a)(1) A submittal for a standard design approval under... provisions of appendix Q to parts 50 of this chapter, a submittal for early review of site suitability issues...

  6. Standard operating procedures for serum and plasma collection: early detection research network consensus statement standard operating procedure integration working group.

    PubMed

    Tuck, Melissa K; Chan, Daniel W; Chia, David; Godwin, Andrew K; Grizzle, William E; Krueger, Karl E; Rom, William; Sanda, Martin; Sorbara, Lynn; Stass, Sanford; Wang, Wendy; Brenner, Dean E

    2009-01-01

    Specimen collection is an integral component of clinical research. Specimens from subjects with various stages of cancers or other conditions, as well as those without disease, are critical tools in the hunt for biomarkers, predictors, or tests that will detect serious diseases earlier or more readily than currently possible. Analytic methodologies evolve quickly. Access to high-quality specimens, collected and handled in standardized ways that minimize potential bias or confounding factors, is key to the "bench to bedside" aim of translational research. It is essential that standard operating procedures, "the how" of creating the repositories, be defined prospectively when designing clinical trials. Small differences in the processing or handling of a specimen can have dramatic effects in analytical reliability and reproducibility, especially when multiplex methods are used. A representative working group, Standard Operating Procedures Internal Working Group (SOPIWG), comprised of members from across Early Detection Research Network (EDRN) was formed to develop standard operating procedures (SOPs) for various types of specimens collected and managed for our biomarker discovery and validation work. This report presents our consensus on SOPs for the collection, processing, handling, and storage of serum and plasma for biomarker discovery and validation.

  7. Early ICU Standardized Rehabilitation Therapy for the Critically Inijured Burn Patient

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    strength assessments) post-enrollment. Functional testing with Short Physical Performance Battery ( SPPB ) and Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL... testing will determine if standardized early rehab improves functional performance quality of life and employment status. Accomplishments Year #1

  8. Standard Setting: A Systematic Approach to Interpreting Student Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeMars, Christine E.; Sundre, Donna L.; Wise, Steven L.

    2002-01-01

    Describes workshops designed to set standards for freshman technological literacy at James Madison University (Virginia). Results indicated that about 30% of incoming freshmen could meet the standards set initially; by the end of the year, an additional 50-60% could meet them. Provides recommendations for standard setting in a general education…

  9. 78 FR 53991 - Applications for New Awards; Race to the Top-Early Learning Challenge

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-30

    ... gaps for Children with High Needs.\\1\\ This program focuses on improving early learning and development... disadvantaged children in each age group of infants, toddlers, and preschoolers who are enrolled in high-quality... implement an integrated system of high-quality Early Learning and Development Programs and services. \\1...

  10. Reflective Processes: A Qualitative Study Exploring Early Learning Student Teacher Mentoring Experiences in Student Teaching Practicums

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Michelle M.

    2013-01-01

    This doctoral thesis explored mentoring in early learning teacher preparation programs. This study explored the reflective processes embedded in the work between student teachers and their mentors during early learning student teacher experiences at Washington State community and technical colleges. Schon's (1987a) concepts of…

  11. Feature Biases in Early Word Learning: Network Distinctiveness Predicts Age of Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelthaler, Tomas; Hills, Thomas T.

    2017-01-01

    Do properties of a word's features influence the order of its acquisition in early word learning? Combining the principles of mutual exclusivity and shape bias, the present work takes a network analysis approach to understanding how feature distinctiveness predicts the order of early word learning. Distance networks were built from nouns with edge…

  12. Parent Engagement in Early Learning: Strategies for Working with Families. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Julie

    2016-01-01

    This updated second edition of "Parent-Friendly Early Learning" brings to life real scenarios that care providers face in today's world. We know parent engagement is important for a child's success, but how do you turn parent-provider relationships into partnerships? "Parent Engagement in Early Learning" will help you: (1)…

  13. Parent Engagement in Early Learning: Strategies for Working with Families, Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Julie

    2016-01-01

    This updated second edition of Parent ­Friendly Early Learning brings to life real scenarios that care providers face in today's world. We know parent engagement is important for a child's success, but how do you turn parent ­provider relationships into partnerships? Parent Engagement in Early Learning will help you: (1) Improve parent-­teacher…

  14. Building Early Learning Leaders: New Jersey's PreK-3rd Leadership Training. A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Cynthia; Costanza, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    New Jersey school administrators are finding themselves in need of the supports necessary to build on the state's existing model preschools toward a broader vision of early learning, including making strong connections to the early learning system. Clearly, changing the educational mindset and building the related capacity of front-line leaders is…

  15. Classroom Challenges in Developing an Intercultural Early Learning Program for Refugee Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dachyshyn, Darcey; Kirova, Anna

    2011-01-01

    The project described here was aimed at piloting an intercultural, multilingual, early learning program that was genuinely responsive to the circumstances and early learning needs of preschool refugee children and parents from three ethnocultural communities--Somali, Sudanese, and Kurdish--in a large city in Western Canada. We discuss the unique…

  16. The Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development's International Early Learning Study: What Happened Next

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Peter; Urban, Mathias

    2017-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide an update on what has happened over recent months with the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's proposal for an International Early Learning Study, and review responses to the proposed International Early Learning Study, including the concerns that have been raised about this new venture in…

  17. Solid-State Lighting. Early Lessons Learned on the Way to Market

    SciT

    Sandahl, L. J.; Cort, K. A.; Gordon, K. L.

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of issues and lessons learned during the early stages of solid-state lighting market introduction in the U.S., which also summarizes early actions taken to avoid potential problems anticipated based on lessons learned from the market introduction of compact fluorescent lamps.

  18. The Development of Early Literacy in Steiner- and Standard-Educated Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Anna J.; Carroll, Julia M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is evidence that children who are taught to read later in childhood (age 6-7) make faster progress in early literacy than those who are taught at a younger age (4-5 years), as is current practice in the UK. Aims: Steiner-educated children begin learning how to read at age 7, and have better reading-related skills at the onset of…

  19. Long-term fluctuation of standard automatic perimetry, pulsar perimetry and frequency-doubling technology in early glaucoma diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Hernandez, M; de la Rosa, M Gonzalez; de la Vega, R Rodriguez; Hernandez-Vidal, A

    2007-01-01

    Analyze the stability and accuracy of 3 perimetric techniques. A total of 104 stable eyes (65 subjects) with ocular hypertension and early glaucoma [group G, mean defect = 1.08 dB, SD = 2.0, in standard TOP automatic perimetry (SAP)] were examined 5 times during 18 months using: (a) SAP; (b) Pulsar temporal modulation perimetry (T30W), and (c) frequency-doubling technology (FDT N30). Ninety eyes from 90 normal controls were compared with the first set of examinations of group G. The learning effect was minimal in the 3 techniques but higher in Pulsar (1.0 src, p < 0.05) than in SAP and FDT (0.4 dB). Long-term fluctuation (F) was significantly higher in FDT (3.1 dB, SD = 1.4, p < 0.0001) than in SAP (2.3 dB, SD = 1.1) and in Pulsar (1.9 src, SD = 0.7). Pulsar and FDT reduce F when increasing the number of examinations. F seems equivalent in SAP and FDT and lower in Pulsar, considering small-scale differences of the 3 perimeters. A slight learning effect would be expected on FDT and SAP in patients with previous experience with SAP. The stability and sensitivity of Pulsar is greater than on the other 2 systems. For early diagnosis of glaucoma it is essential to prove the reproducibility and coincidence of perimetric results. (c) 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Effect of promoting self-esteem by participatory learning process on emotional intelligence among early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Munsawaengsub, Chokchai; Yimklib, Somkid; Nanthamongkolchai, Sutham; Apinanthavech, Suporn

    2009-12-01

    To study the effect of promoting self-esteem by participatory learning program on emotional intelligence among early adolescents. The quasi-experimental study was conducted in grade 9 students from two schools in Bangbuathong district, Nonthaburi province. Each experimental and comparative group consisted of 34 students with the lowest score of emotional intelligence. The instruments were questionnaires, Program to Develop Emotional Intelligence and Handbook of Emotional Intelligence Development. The experimental group attended 8 participatory learning activities in 4 weeks to Develop Emotional Intelligence while the comparative group received the handbook for self study. Assessment the effectiveness of program was done by pre-test and post-test immediately and 4 weeks apart concerning the emotional intelligence. Implementation and evaluation was done during May 24-August 12, 2005. Data were analyzed by frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, Chi-square, independent sample t-test and paired sample t-test. Before program implementation, both groups had no statistical difference in mean score of emotional intelligence. After intervention, the experimental group had higher mean score of emotional intelligence both immediately and 4 weeks later with statistical significant (p = 0.001 and < 0.001). At 4 weeks after experiment, the mean score in experimental group was higher than the mean score at immediate after experiment with statistical significance (p < 0.001). The program to promote self-esteem by participatory learning process could enhance the emotional intelligence in early-adolescent. This program could be modified and implemented for early adolescent in the community.

  1. Personalized Opportunities To Learn (POTL): Achieving to High Standards for All Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gervais, J. Donna; Baker, Mona

    This paper describes Maine's high standards for all students and a model for personalizing instruction and assessment to fit student needs, thus providing fair opportunities for all children to achieve the standards. Maine's academic standards, the Learning Results, are structured in three levels: broad performance goals for all students (guiding…

  2. Implementation of Early Childhood Development Education Service Standard Guidelines on Physical Facilities in Public and Private Early Childhood Education Centres Kakamega County, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitati, Emmily M.; Ndirangu, Mwangi; Kennedy, Bota; Rapongo, George S.

    2016-01-01

    In 2006, the Kenyan Ministry of Education (MoE) developed an early childhood development education (ECDE) service standard guidelines to guide the ECDE stakeholders in provision of early childhood education (ECE) programmes. The study sought to investigate the implementation of the ECDE service standard guidelines on provision of physical…

  3. Power and Identity in Immigrant Parents' Involvement in Early Years Mathematics Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takeuchi, Miwa Aoki

    2018-01-01

    This study examined immigrant parents' involvement in early years mathematics learning, focusing on learning of multiplication in in- and out-of-school settings. Ethnographic interviews and workshops were conducted in an urban city in Japan, to examine out-of-school practices of immigrant families. Drawing from sociocultural theory of learning and…

  4. Exploring Staff Perceptions: Early Childhood Teacher Educators Examine Online Teaching and Learning Challenges and Dilemmas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Julie; Lennox, Sandra; Walker, Sue; Walsh, Kerryann

    2007-01-01

    Early Childhood teacher educators at Queensland University of Technology (QUT) have been engaging with online teaching and learning since the mid 1990s. On campus students have lectures and tutorials supported by information and communication technologies via QUT's home grown learning management system, Online Learning and Teaching (OLT). We…

  5. Consensus standards for introductory e-learning courses in human participants research ethics

    PubMed Central

    Williams, John R; Sprumont, Dominique; Hirtle, Marie; Adebamowo, Clement; Braunschweiger, Paul; Bull, Susan; Burri, Christian; Czarkowski, Marek; Te Fan, Chien; Franck, Caroline; Gefenas, Eugenjius; Geissbuhler, Antoine; Klingmann, Ingrid; Kouyaté, Bocar; Kraehenbhul, Jean-Pierre; Kruger, Mariana; Moodley, Keymanthri; Ntoumi, Francine; Nyirenda, Thomas; Pym, Alexander; Silverman, Henry; Tenorio, Sara

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the results of a workshop held in January 2013 to begin the process of establishing standards for e-learning programmes in the ethics of research involving human participants that could serve as the basis of their evaluation by individuals and groups who want to use, recommend or accredit such programmes. The standards that were drafted at the workshop cover the following topics: designer/provider qualifications, learning goals, learning objectives, content, methods, assessment of participants and assessment of the course. The authors invite comments on the draft standards and eventual endorsement of a final version by all stakeholders. PMID:23959838

  6. Embracing Change: Adapting and Evolving Your Distance Learning Library Services to Meet the New ACRL Distance Learning Library Services Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcum, Brad

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the update and revision of the current Association of College and Research Libraries (ACRL) Distance Learning Standards that has been proposed and submitted to the ACRL Standards Committee. An in-depth analysis of the update is included, along with some comparisons between the old and new. Practical advice detailing…

  7. Early testimonial learning: monitoring speech acts and speakers.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Elizabeth; Suarez, Sarah; Koenig, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Testimony provides children with a rich source of knowledge about the world and the people in it. However, testimony is not guaranteed to be veridical, and speakers vary greatly in both knowledge and intent. In this chapter, we argue that children encounter two primary types of conflicts when learning from speakers: conflicts of knowledge and conflicts of interest. We review recent research on children's selective trust in testimony and propose two distinct mechanisms supporting early epistemic vigilance in response to the conflicts associated with speakers. The first section of the chapter focuses on the mechanism of coherence checking, which occurs during the process of message comprehension and facilitates children's comparison of information communicated through testimony to their prior knowledge, alerting them to inaccurate, inconsistent, irrational, and implausible messages. The second section focuses on source-monitoring processes. When children lack relevant prior knowledge with which to evaluate testimonial messages, they monitor speakers themselves for evidence of competence and morality, attending to cues such as confidence, consensus, access to information, prosocial and antisocial behavior, and group membership. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Learning from parents' stories about what works in early intervention.

    PubMed

    Pighini, Maria J; Goelman, Hillel; Buchanan, Marla; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly; Brynelsen, Dana

    2014-08-01

    Using a multiple case study approach, this ethnography examined the experiences of parents of children deemed at risk for developmental delays or disabilities who had received early intervention (EI) services (birth to age 3 years) in a large urban location in Western Canada. Participants (11 adult parents and 7 children) were drawn from six families. Methods of data collection included focus groups (FG), face-to-face interviews and file reviews. Member check and expert reviews were conducted throughout data collection and data analyses as part of the validation process in this ethnography. Qualitative content analyses followed by thematic analyses highlighted the implementation of family-centred practices (FCP) as a main theme. Parents identified how EI professionals using FCP embraced collaborative practices. FCP resulted in parents leading the EI process for their children. More specifically, EI professionals shared strategies and information to support parents in gaining a deeper understanding of their children's individual developmental characteristics. Parents expressed how empowering this level of understanding was for them as they learned to articulate what were their children's needs for developmental, health and educational services. Recommendations for future research include inquiring about parents' experiences for families of diverse constellations and/or residing in smaller urban or rural communities. © 2013 International Union of Psychological Science.

  9. Perceptual Learning Selectively Refines Orientation Representations in Early Visual Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Jehee, Janneke F.M.; Ling, Sam; Swisher, Jascha D.; van Bergen, Ruben S.; Tong, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Although practice has long been known to improve perceptual performance, the neural basis of this improvement in humans remains unclear. Using fMRI in conjunction with a novel signal detection-based analysis, we show that extensive practice selectively enhances the neural representation of trained orientations in the human visual cortex. Twelve observers practiced discriminating small changes in the orientation of a laterally presented grating over 20 or more daily one-hour training sessions. Training on average led to a two-fold improvement in discrimination sensitivity, specific to the trained orientation and the trained location, with minimal improvement found for untrained orthogonal orientations or for orientations presented in the untrained hemifield. We measured the strength of orientation-selective responses in individual voxels in early visual areas (V1–V4) using signal detection measures, both pre- and post-training. Although the overall amplitude of the BOLD response was no greater after training, practice nonetheless specifically enhanced the neural representation of the trained orientation at the trained location. This training-specific enhancement of orientation-selective responses was observed in the primary visual cortex (V1) as well as higher extrastriate visual areas V2–V4, and moreover, reliably predicted individual differences in the behavioral effects of perceptual learning. These results demonstrate that extensive training can lead to targeted functional reorganization of the human visual cortex, refining the cortical representation of behaviorally relevant information. PMID:23175828

  10. Perceptual learning selectively refines orientation representations in early visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Jehee, Janneke F M; Ling, Sam; Swisher, Jascha D; van Bergen, Ruben S; Tong, Frank

    2012-11-21

    Although practice has long been known to improve perceptual performance, the neural basis of this improvement in humans remains unclear. Using fMRI in conjunction with a novel signal detection-based analysis, we show that extensive practice selectively enhances the neural representation of trained orientations in the human visual cortex. Twelve observers practiced discriminating small changes in the orientation of a laterally presented grating over 20 or more daily 1 h training sessions. Training on average led to a twofold improvement in discrimination sensitivity, specific to the trained orientation and the trained location, with minimal improvement found for untrained orthogonal orientations or for orientations presented in the untrained hemifield. We measured the strength of orientation-selective responses in individual voxels in early visual areas (V1-V4) using signal detection measures, both before and after training. Although the overall amplitude of the BOLD response was no greater after training, practice nonetheless specifically enhanced the neural representation of the trained orientation at the trained location. This training-specific enhancement of orientation-selective responses was observed in the primary visual cortex (V1) as well as higher extrastriate visual areas V2-V4, and moreover, reliably predicted individual differences in the behavioral effects of perceptual learning. These results demonstrate that extensive training can lead to targeted functional reorganization of the human visual cortex, refining the cortical representation of behaviorally relevant information.

  11. Standardized Symptom Measurement of Individuals with Early Lyme Disease Over Time.

    PubMed

    Bechtold, Kathleen T; Rebman, Alison W; Crowder, Lauren A; Johnson-Greene, Doug; Aucott, John N

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the Lyme disease (LD) literature is challenging given the lack of consistent methodology and standardized measurement of symptoms and the impact on functioning. This prospective study incorporates well-validated measures to capture the symptom picture of individuals with early LD from time of diagnosis through 6-months post-treatment. One hundred seven patients with confirmed early LD and 26 healthy controls were evaluated using standardized instruments for pain, fatigue, depressive symptoms, functional impact, and cognitive functioning. Prior to antibiotic treatment, patients experience notable symptoms of fatigue and pain statistically higher than controls. After treatment, there are no group differences, suggesting that symptoms resolve and that there are no residual cognitive impairments at the level of group analysis. However, using subgroup analyses, some individuals experience persistent symptoms that lead to functional decline and these individuals can be identified immediately post-completion of standard antibiotic treatment using well-validated symptom measures. Overall, the findings suggest that ideally-treated early LD patients recover well and experience symptom resolution over time, though a small subgroup continue to suffer with symptoms that lead to functional decline. The authors discuss use of standardized instruments for identification of individuals who warrant further clinical follow-up. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Principal's Preparation Program: Managing the Learning Environment Using ELCC Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tubbs, J. Eric; Heard, Michael S.; Epps, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    School principals need to be well prepared to manage school facilities assigned to their care. Educational leadership programs can make best use of the Educational Leadership Constituent Council (ELCC) Standards to develop a course of study to address school facility management issues. Every standard has its facility implications that lead to…

  13. Cost-Effectiveness of Early Versus Standard Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-Infected Adults in Haiti

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Serena P.; Bang, Heejung; Severe, Patrice; Jean Juste, Marc Antoine; Ambroise, Alex; Edwards, Alison; Hippolyte, Jessica; Fitzgerald, Daniel W.; McGreevy, Jolion; Riviere, Cynthia; Marcelin, Serge; Secours, Rode; Johnson, Warren D.; Pape, Jean W.; Schackman, Bruce R.

    2011-01-01

    Background In a randomized clinical trial of early versus standard antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected adults with a CD4 cell count between 200 and 350 cells/mm3 in Haiti, early ART decreased mortality by 75%. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of early versus standard ART in this trial. Methods and Findings Trial data included use of ART and other medications, laboratory tests, outpatient visits, radiographic studies, procedures, and hospital services. Medication, laboratory, radiograph, labor, and overhead costs were from the study clinic, and hospital and procedure costs were from local providers. We evaluated cost per year of life saved (YLS), including patient and caregiver costs, with a median of 21 months and maximum of 36 months of follow-up, and with costs and life expectancy discounted at 3% per annum. Between 2005 and 2008, 816 participants were enrolled and followed for a median of 21 months. Mean total costs per patient during the trial were US$1,381 for early ART and US$1,033 for standard ART. After excluding research-related laboratory tests without clinical benefit, costs were US$1,158 (early ART) and US$979 (standard ART). Early ART patients had higher mean costs for ART (US$398 versus US$81) but lower costs for non-ART medications, CD4 cell counts, clinically indicated tests, and radiographs (US$275 versus US$384). The cost-effectiveness ratio after a maximum of 3 years for early versus standard ART was US$3,975/YLS (95% CI US$2,129/YLS–US$9,979/YLS) including research-related tests, and US$2,050/YLS excluding research-related tests (95% CI US$722/YLS–US$5,537/YLS). Conclusions Initiating ART in HIV-infected adults with a CD4 cell count between 200 and 350 cells/mm3 in Haiti, consistent with World Health Organization advice, was cost-effective (US$/YLS <3 times gross domestic product per capita) after a maximum of 3 years, after excluding research-related laboratory tests. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00120510 Please see

  14. Early hospital mortality prediction of intensive care unit patients using an ensemble learning approach.

    PubMed

    Awad, Aya; Bader-El-Den, Mohamed; McNicholas, James; Briggs, Jim

    2017-12-01

    Mortality prediction of hospitalized patients is an important problem. Over the past few decades, several severity scoring systems and machine learning mortality prediction models have been developed for predicting hospital mortality. By contrast, early mortality prediction for intensive care unit patients remains an open challenge. Most research has focused on severity of illness scoring systems or data mining (DM) models designed for risk estimation at least 24 or 48h after ICU admission. This study highlights the main data challenges in early mortality prediction in ICU patients and introduces a new machine learning based framework for Early Mortality Prediction for Intensive Care Unit patients (EMPICU). The proposed method is evaluated on the Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring in Intensive Care II (MIMIC-II) database. Mortality prediction models are developed for patients at the age of 16 or above in Medical ICU (MICU), Surgical ICU (SICU) or Cardiac Surgery Recovery Unit (CSRU). We employ the ensemble learning Random Forest (RF), the predictive Decision Trees (DT), the probabilistic Naive Bayes (NB) and the rule-based Projective Adaptive Resonance Theory (PART) models. The primary outcome was hospital mortality. The explanatory variables included demographic, physiological, vital signs and laboratory test variables. Performance measures were calculated using cross-validated area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) to minimize bias. 11,722 patients with single ICU stays are considered. Only patients at the age of 16 years old and above in Medical ICU (MICU), Surgical ICU (SICU) or Cardiac Surgery Recovery Unit (CSRU) are considered in this study. The proposed EMPICU framework outperformed standard scoring systems (SOFA, SAPS-I, APACHE-II, NEWS and qSOFA) in terms of AUROC and time (i.e. at 6h compared to 48h or more after admission). The results show that although there are many values missing in the first few hour of ICU admission

  15. Value of Play as An Early Learning Instrument in Bangladesh Context: A Socio-Cultural Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowdhury, Nurun Nahar; Rivalland, Corine

    2012-01-01

    In early childhood education the dominant discourse of play-based pedagogy is greatly influenced by a western play approach. This paper examines how play is valued as early learning in Bangladesh. It reports on a qualitative study that explored the understandings of four parents and four early childhood educators in semi-rural Bangladesh. Findings…

  16. Equal Access to Early Learning. Cantigny Conference Report (Chicago, Illinois, June 5-7, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Black Child Development Inst., Inc., Washington, DC.

    Despite a growing acknowledgement that the United States needs to invest more in the early care and education needs of children, the country lacks a common vision for a comprehensive approach to an early childhood care and education system. The Equal Access to Early Learning Conference, sponsored by the National Black Child Development Institute…

  17. Making the Case for Early Identification and Intervention for Young Children at Risk for Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steele, Marcee M.

    2004-01-01

    The early identification of children with learning disabilities (LD) is difficult but can be accomplished. Observation of key behaviors which are indicators of LD by preschool and kindergarten teachers can assist in this process. This early identification facilitates the use of intervention strategies to provide a positive early experience for…

  18. NASA Technical Standards Program and Implications for Lessons Learned and Technical Standard Integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Paul S.; Garcia, Danny; Vaughan, William W.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Agency consists of fourteen Facilities throughout the United States. They are organized to support the Agency's principal Enterprises: (1) Space Science, (2) Earth Science, (3) Aerospace Technology, (4) Human Exploration and Development of Space, and (5) Biological and Physical Research. Technical Standards are important to the activities of each Enterprise and have been an integral part in the development and operation of NASA Programs and Projects since the Agency was established in 1959. However, for years each Center was responsible for its own standards development and selection of non-NASA technical standards that met the needs of Programs and Projects for which they were responsible. There were few Agencywide applicable Technical Standards, mainly those in area of safety. Department of Defense Standards and Specifications were the foundation and main source for Technical Standards used by the Agency. This process existed until about 1997 when NASA embarked on a Program to convert NASA's Center-developed Technical Standards into Agencywide endorsed NASA Preferred Technical Standards. In addition, action was taken regarding the formal adoption of non-NASA Technical Standards (DOD, SAE, ASTM, ASME, IEEE, etc.) as NASA Preferred Technical Standards.

  19. Lessons Learned and Technical Standards: A Logical Marriage for Future Space Systems Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Paul S.; Garcia, Danny; Vaughan, William W.; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A comprehensive database of engineering lessons learned that corresponds with relevant technical standards will be a valuable asset to those engaged in studies on future space vehicle developments, especially for structures, materials, propulsion, control, operations and associated elements. In addition, this will enable the capturing of technology developments applicable to the design, development, and operation of future space vehicles as planned in the Space Launch Initiative. Using the time-honored tradition of passing on lessons learned while utilizing the newest information technology, NASA has launched an intensive effort to link lessons learned acquired through various Internet databases with applicable technical standards. This paper will discuss the importance of lessons learned, the difficulty in finding relevant lessons learned while engaged in a space vehicle development, and the new NASA effort to relate them to technical standards that can help alleviate this difficulty.

  20. Assessment of Learning in Business Education: Standardized or Homegrown?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Djoundourian, Salpie S.

    2017-01-01

    The author gives an overview of typical learning outcomes in business education and assessment instruments that help measure and test these outcomes. Using data from a recently accredited program the author investigated the determinants of performance on assessment exams to help identify and evaluate differences between homegrown and standardized…

  1. Building Benches and Learning Math Standards on Zia Pueblo

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Anthony M.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about a hands-on, community-supported project that he initiated with a group of middle school students on Zia Pueblo, in which students used measurement and numeracy skills to build benches for the school grounds. He talks about the theoretical framework of this project and the lessons he learned from this project.

  2. Grade Expectations for Vermont's Framework of Standards and Learning Opportunities, Spring 2004 (Mathematics, Reading and Writing)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermont Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This document, "Grade Expectations for Vermont's Framework of Standards and Learning Opportunities" (hereafter "Vermont's Grade Expectations"), is an important companion to "Vermont's Framework." These Grade Expectations (GEs) serve the same purposes as "Vermont's Framework," but articulate learning…

  3. Learning from Experience: A Collection of Service-Learning Projects Linking Academic Standards to Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babcock, Barbara, Ed.

    Service-learning projects combine community service with student learning in a practical way that enhances academic knowledge and improves community environments and fellowship. This compilation is designed to show the service-learning process in action. The collection presents outstanding examples of successful service-learning projects as…

  4. Professional Development for Early Childhood Educators: Efforts to Improve Math and Science Learning Opportunities in Early Childhood Classrooms

    PubMed Central

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Pelatti, Christina Yeager; Capps, Janet L.; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2014-01-01

    Because recent initiatives highlight the need to better support preschool-aged children’s math and science learning, the present study investigated the impact of professional development in these domains for early childhood educators. Sixty-five educators were randomly assigned to experience 10.5 days (64 hours) of training on math and science or on an alternative topic. Educators’ provision of math and science learning opportunities were documented, as were the fall-to-spring math and science learning gains of children (n = 385) enrolled in their classrooms. Professional development significantly impacted provision of science, but not math, learning opportunities. Professional development did not directly impact children’s math or science learning, although science learning was indirectly affected via the increase in science learning opportunities. Both math and science learning opportunities were positively associated with children’s learning. Results suggest that substantive efforts are necessary to ensure that children have opportunities to learn math and science from a young age. PMID:26257434

  5. Early deprivation disruption of associative learning is a developmental pathway to depression and social problems.

    PubMed

    Sheridan, Margaret A; McLaughlin, Katie A; Winter, Warren; Fox, Nathan; Zeanah, Charles; Nelson, Charles A

    2018-06-07

    Exposure to psychosocial deprivation is associated with elevations in numerous forms of impairment throughout the life-course. Disruptions in associative learning may be a key mechanism through which adversity, particularly psychosocial deprivation, increases risk for impairment. Existing data consistent with this claim come entirely from correlational studies. Here, we present the first experimental evidence relating psychosocial deprivation and disruptions in multiple forms of associative learning. Using data from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project, we demonstrate that randomized placement into a family caregiving environment during the infant/toddler period as compared to prolonged institutional care normalizes two forms of associative learning in early adolescence: reward responsivity and implicit motor learning. These forms of associative learning significantly mediate the effect of institutional rearing on depressive symptoms and peer relationships. In sum, we provide evidence for a novel pathway linking early experience to psychopathology and peer relationships through basic associative learning mechanisms.

  6. Student Collaboration and Standards-Based Music Learning: A Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cangro, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This article is a review of relevant literature on collaborative, standards-based music learning. The review is organized as follows: (a) historical perspective, (b) collaborative music learning, (c) collaboration and creating, (d) collaboration and performing, (e) collaboration and responding, and (f) conclusions. In an effort to bridge the gap…

  7. A Standard-Based Model for Adaptive E-Learning Platform for Mauritian Academic Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanaksabee, P.; Odit, M. P.; Ramdoyal, A.

    2011-01-01

    The key aim of this paper is to introduce a standard-based model for adaptive e-learning platform for Mauritian academic institutions and to investigate the conditions and tools required to implement this model. The main forces of the system are that it allows collaborative learning, communication among user, and reduce considerable paper work.…

  8. Crosswalk Analysis of Deeper Learning Skills to Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conley, David T.

    2011-01-01

    The Educational Policy Improvement Center (EPIC) conducted a crosswalk between the Deeper Learning Skills (DLS) and the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). The purpose of the crosswalk was to understand the ways in which strategies for deeper learning relate to the CCSS. This comparison was not solely or simply an alignment study, although some…

  9. Micro-Credentials for Impact: Holding Professional Learning to High Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crow, Tracy

    2017-01-01

    This paper seeks to chart a course for leveraging a micro-credentialing system to enable more educators to achieve the potential of professional learning. The paper uses the Standards for Professional Learning as a frame to provide guidance to everyone involved in micro-credentials to ensure that learners experience the research-based elements of…

  10. Meet the Promise of Content Standards: Tapping Technology to Enhance Professional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killion, Joellen

    2013-01-01

    More stakeholders are turning to technology to advance the professional learning required to support new standards and evaluation systems. Yet how technology is used will determine its potential to influence educator practice and results for students. This brief outlines how technology can enhance professional learning, offers examples of how…

  11. Making the Grade: A Report on Standards in Work-Based Learning for Young People.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Maria

    The reasons for the deterioration of the inspection grades awarded for work-based learning (WBL) provision in England were examined. The main data collection activities were as follows: (1) a statistical analysis of the Training Standards Council (TSC) and Adult Learning Inspectorate (ALI) inspection grades in 1998-2001; (2) a qualitative review…

  12. Career Development and Occupational Studies: A Supplement to the Adult Education Resource Guide and Learning Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peavey, Kay S.; Krieger, Alan

    This publication focuses on New York's learning standards for career development and occupational studies (CDOS) in adult education: career development, integrated learning, universal foundation skills, and career majors. A section on the adult learner provides information on engaging learners to increase motivation. The next section focuses on…

  13. Construction and Standardization of Verbal Learning Disabilities Checklist for School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sood, Vishal

    2013-01-01

    For identifying children with four major kinds of verbal learning disabilities viz. reading disability, speech and language comprehension disability, writing disability and mathematics disability, the present task was undertaken to construct and standardize verbal learning disabilities checklist. This checklist was developed by keeping in view the…

  14. Using Standardized Psychometric Tests to Identify Learning Disabilities in Students with Sensorineural Hearing Impairments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikora, Darryn M.; Plapinger, Donald S.

    1994-01-01

    The use of standardized psychoeducational diagnostic instruments to identify learning disabilities was evaluated with 19 students (ages 7 to 13) with sensorineural hearing impairments. Students with hearing impairment were found to demonstrate learning disabilities with a frequency similar to that found in students with normal hearing, suggesting…

  15. Statistical Learning Is Related to Early Literacy-Related Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Mercedes; Kaschak, Michael P.; Jones, John L.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that statistical learning, or the ability to use statistical information to learn the structure of one's environment, plays a role in young children's acquisition of linguistic knowledge. Although most research on statistical learning has focused on language acquisition processes, such as the segmentation of words from…

  16. Multivariate Genetic Analysis of Learning and Early Reading Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byrne, Brian; Wadsworth, Sally; Boehme, Kristi; Talk, Andrew C.; Coventry, William L.; Olson, Richard K.; Samuelsson, Stefan; Corley, Robin

    2013-01-01

    The genetic factor structure of a range of learning measures was explored in twin children, recruited in preschool and followed to Grade 2 ("N"?=?2,084). Measures of orthographic learning and word reading were included in the analyses to determine how these patterned with the learning processes. An exploratory factor analysis of the…

  17. Spatial learning and memory is preserved in rats after early development in a microgravity environment.

    PubMed

    Temple, Meredith D; Kosik, Kenneth S; Steward, Oswald

    2002-09-01

    This study evaluated the cognitive mapping abilities of rats that spent part of their early development in a microgravity environment. Litters of male and female Sprague-Dawley rat pups were launched into space aboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration space shuttle Columbia on postnatal day 8 or 14 and remained in space for 16 days. These animals were designated as FLT groups. Two age-matched control groups remained on Earth: those in standard vivarium housing (VIV) and those in housing identical to that aboard the shuttle (AGC). On return to Earth, animals were tested in three different tasks that measure spatial learning ability, the Morris water maze (MWM), and a modified version of the radial arm maze (RAM). Animals were also tested in an open field apparatus to measure general activity and exploratory activity. Performance and search strategies were evaluated in each of these tasks using an automated tracking system. Despite the dramatic differences in early experience, there were remarkably few differences between the FLT groups and their Earth-bound controls in these tasks. FLT animals learned the MWM and RAM as quickly as did controls. Evaluation of search patterns suggested subtle differences in patterns of exploration and in the strategies used to solve the tasks during the first few days of testing, but these differences normalized rapidly. Together, these data suggest that development in an environment without gravity has minimal long-term impact on spatial learning and memory abilities. Any differences due to development in microgravity are quickly reversed after return to earth normal gravity.

  18. Spatial learning and memory is preserved in rats after early development in a microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Temple, Meredith D.; Kosik, Kenneth S.; Steward, Oswald

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated the cognitive mapping abilities of rats that spent part of their early development in a microgravity environment. Litters of male and female Sprague-Dawley rat pups were launched into space aboard the National Aeronautics and Space Administration space shuttle Columbia on postnatal day 8 or 14 and remained in space for 16 days. These animals were designated as FLT groups. Two age-matched control groups remained on Earth: those in standard vivarium housing (VIV) and those in housing identical to that aboard the shuttle (AGC). On return to Earth, animals were tested in three different tasks that measure spatial learning ability, the Morris water maze (MWM), and a modified version of the radial arm maze (RAM). Animals were also tested in an open field apparatus to measure general activity and exploratory activity. Performance and search strategies were evaluated in each of these tasks using an automated tracking system. Despite the dramatic differences in early experience, there were remarkably few differences between the FLT groups and their Earth-bound controls in these tasks. FLT animals learned the MWM and RAM as quickly as did controls. Evaluation of search patterns suggested subtle differences in patterns of exploration and in the strategies used to solve the tasks during the first few days of testing, but these differences normalized rapidly. Together, these data suggest that development in an environment without gravity has minimal long-term impact on spatial learning and memory abilities. Any differences due to development in microgravity are quickly reversed after return to earth normal gravity.

  19. Early heart rate responses to standardized trauma-related pictures predict posttraumatic stress disorder – a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Suendermann, Oliver; Ehlers, Anke; Boellinghaus, Inga; Gamer, Matthias; Glucksman, Edward

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Trauma survivors with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) report heightened physiological responses to a wide range of stimuli. It has been suggested that associative learning and stimulus generalization play a key role in the development of these symptoms. Some studies have found that trauma survivors with PTSD show greater physiological responses to individualized trauma reminders in the initial weeks after trauma than those without PTSD. This study investigated whether heart rate and skin conductance responses (HRR, SCR) to standardized trauma-related pictures at 1 month after the trauma predict chronic PTSD. METHOD Survivors of motor vehicle accidents or physical assaults (N=166) watched standardized trauma-related, generally threatening and neutral pictures at 1 month post- trauma while their HRR and SCR were recorded. PTSD symptoms were assessed with structured clinical interviews at 1 and 6 months; self-reports of fear responses and dissociation during trauma were obtained soon after the trauma. RESULTS At 1 month, trauma survivors with PTSD showed greater HRR to trauma-related pictures than those without PTSD, but not to general threat or neutral pictures. HRR to trauma-related pictures predicted PTSD severity at 1 and 6 months, and were related to fear and dissociation during trauma. SCR was not related to PTSD. CONCLUSION HRR to standardized trauma reminders at 1 month after the trauma differentiate between trauma survivors with and without PTSD, and predict chronic PTSD. Results are consistent with a role of associative learning in PTSD and suggest that early stimulus generalization may be an indicator of risk for chronic PTSD. PMID:20124426

  20. Solid-State Lighting: Early Lessons Learned on the Way to Market

    SciT

    Sandahl, Linda J.; Cort, Katherine A.; Gordon, Kelly L.

    2013-12-31

    The purpose of this report is to document early challenges and lessons learned in the solid-state lighting (SSL) market development as part of the DOE’s SSL Program efforts to continually evaluate market progress in this area. This report summarizes early actions taken by DOE and others to avoid potential problems anticipated based on lessons learned from the market introduction of compact fluorescent lamps and identifies issues, challenges, and new lessons that have been learned in the early stages of the SSL market introduction. This study identifies and characterizes12 key lessons that have been distilled from DOE SSL program results.

  1. Oral health content of early education and child care regulations and standards.

    PubMed

    Kranz, Ashley M; Rozier, R Gary

    2011-01-01

    Almost two out of every three US children younger than five receive child care from someone other than their parents. Health promotion in early education and child care (EECC) programs can improve the general health of children and families, but little is known about the role of these programs in oral health. We identified U.S. EECC program guidelines and assessed their oral health recommendations for infants and toddlers. State licensing regulations were obtained from the National Resource Center for Health and Safety in Child Care's online database. Professional standards were identified through a search of PubMed, early childhood organizations' websites, and early childhood literature. All EECC guidelines were reviewed for key terms related to oral health promotion in children and summarized by domains. Thirty-six states include oral health in their licensing regulations, but recommendations are limited and most often address the storage of toothbrushes. Eleven sets of standards were identified, four of which make recommendations about oral health. Standards from the American Academy of Pediatrics/American Public Health Association (AAP/APHA) and the Office of Head Start (OHS) provide the most comprehensive oral health recommendations regarding screening and referral, classroom activities, and education. Detailed guidelines for oral health practices exist but they exhibit large variation in number and content. States can use the comprehensive standards from the AAP/APHA and OHS to inform and strengthen the oral health content of their licensing regulations. Research is needed to determine compliance with regulations and standards, and their effect on oral health.

  2. Oral Health Content of Early Education and Child Care Regulations and Standards

    PubMed Central

    Kranz, Ashley M.; Rozier, R. Gary

    2012-01-01

    Objective Almost two out of every three U.S. children younger than five receive child care from someone other than their parents. Health promotion in early education and child care (EECC) programs can improve the general health of children and families, but little is known about the role of these programs in oral health. We identified U.S. EECC program guidelines and assessed their oral health recommendations for infants and toddlers. Methods State licensing regulations were obtained from the National Resource Center for Health and Safety in Child Care’s online database. Professional standards were identified through a search of PubMed, early childhood organizations’ websites, and early childhood literature. All EECC guidelines were reviewed for key terms related to oral health promotion in children and summarized by domains. Results Thirty-six states include oral health in their licensing regulations, but recommendations are limited and most often address the storage of toothbrushes. Eleven sets of standards were identified, four of which make recommendations about oral health. Standards from the American Academy of Pediatrics/American Public Health Association (AAP/APHA) and the Office of Head Start (OHS) provide the most comprehensive oral health recommendations regarding screening and referral, classroom activities and education. Conclusions Detailed guidelines for oral health practices exist but they exhibit large variation in number and content. States can use the comprehensive standards from the AAP/APHA and OHS to inform and strengthen the oral health content of their licensing regulations. Research is needed to determine compliance with regulations and standards, and their effect on oral health. PMID:21070244

  3. Using variability to guide dimensional weighting: Associative mechanisms in early word learning

    PubMed Central

    Apfelbaum, Keith S.; McMurray, Bob

    2013-01-01

    At 14 months, children appear to struggle to apply their fairly well developed speech perception abilities to learning similar sounding words (e.g. bih/dih; Stager & Werker, 1997). However, variability in non-phonetic aspects of the training stimuli seems to aid word learning at this age. Extant theories of early word learning cannot account for this benefit of variability. We offer a simple explanation for this range of effects based on associative learning. Simulations suggest that if infants encode both non-contrastive information (e.g. cues to speaker voice) and meaningful linguistic cues (e.g. place of articulation or voicing), then associative learning mechanisms predict these variability effects in early word learning. Crucially, this means that despite the importance of task variables in predicting performance, this body of work shows that phonological categories are still developing in this age, and that the structure of non-informative cues has critical influences on word learning abilities. PMID:21609356

  4. ITS standards : lessons learned from deployment : raising ITS standards IQ with a public sector workshop

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    2000-01-01

    This document contains information about a Public Sector Workshop held in Minnesota that focused on increasing the awareness of Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) standards. It gives an overview of how the workshop proceeded, which topics were ...

  5. Early-Life Stress Triggers Juvenile Zebra Finches to Switch Social Learning Strategies.

    PubMed

    Farine, Damien R; Spencer, Karen A; Boogert, Neeltje J

    2015-08-17

    Stress during early life can cause disease and cognitive impairment in humans and non-humans alike. However, stress and other environmental factors can also program developmental pathways. We investigate whether differential exposure to developmental stress can drive divergent social learning strategies between siblings. In many species, juveniles acquire essential foraging skills by copying others: they can copy peers (horizontal social learning), learn from their parents (vertical social learning), or learn from other adults (oblique social learning). However, whether juveniles' learning strategies are condition dependent largely remains a mystery. We found that juvenile zebra finches living in flocks socially learned novel foraging skills exclusively from adults. By experimentally manipulating developmental stress, we further show that social learning targets are phenotypically plastic. While control juveniles learned foraging skills from their parents, their siblings, exposed as nestlings to experimentally elevated stress hormone levels, learned exclusively from unrelated adults. Thus, early-life conditions triggered individuals to switch strategies from vertical to oblique social learning. This switch could arise from stress-induced differences in developmental rate, cognitive and physical state, or the use of stress as an environmental cue. Acquisition of alternative social learning strategies may impact juveniles' fit to their environment and ultimately change their developmental trajectories. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. Learning History in Early Childhood: Teaching Methods and Children's Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skjaeveland, Yngve

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the teaching of history in early childhood education and care centres and children's understanding of history. Based on interviews with eight Norwegian early childhood education and care teachers and on interpretative phenomenological analysis, the article shows how the early childhood education and care centres teach…

  7. Adherence to Standards in the Development of E-Learning Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novacek, Paul F.

    2016-01-01

    Consistent user interface standards are necessary with the development of e-learning courseware, as they are the glue that binds the users' experience with their expectations. For example, the user controls for video playback were standardized many years ago, and we all benefit knowing a right-facing triangle signifies a play function, while dual…

  8. The Textual Representation of Professionalism: Problematising Professional Standards for Teachers in the UK Lifelong Learning Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tummons, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    The problematisation of the professional standards for teachers in the UK lifelong learning sector tends to focus on the discourses that the standards embody: discourses that are posited as being based on a restricted or technicist model of professionalism, that fail sufficiently to recognise the lived experiences of teachers within the sector…

  9. Virginia Standards of Learning Assessments. Grade 8 Released Test Items, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept.of Education, Richmond. Div. of Assessment and Reporting.

    Beginning in Spring 1998, Virginia students participated in the Standards of Learning (SOL) assessments designed to test student knowledge of the content and skills specified in the state's standards. This document contains questions that approximately 79,000 students in grade 8 were required to answer as part of the SOL assessments. These…

  10. Virginia Standards of Learning Assessments. Grade 5 Released Test Items, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept.of Education, Richmond. Div. of Assessment and Reporting.

    Beginning in Spring 1998, Virginia students participated in the Standards of Learning (SOL) assessments designed to test student knowledge of the content and skills specified in the state's standards. This document contains questions that approximately 80,000 students in grade 5 were required to answer as part of the SOL assessments. These…

  11. Virginia Standards of Learning Assessments. Grade 3 Released Test Items, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept.of Education, Richmond. Div. of Assessment and Reporting.

    Beginning in Spring 1998, Virginia students participated in the Standards of Learning (SOL) Assessments designed to test student knowledge of the content and skills specified in the state's standards. This document contains questions that approximately 83,000 students in grade 3 were required to answer as part of the SOL assessments. These…

  12. Developing K-16 Student Standards for Language Learning: A Critical Examination of the Case of Esperanto

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fonseca-Greber, Bonnie; Reagan, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    In light of the ongoing attention to standards-based education in U.S. schools and the concern over how to effectively develop literacy skills in a first, let alone a second, language, this article reports on the drafting of the K-16 Student Standards for Learning Esperanto in the United States. Esperanto is ideally suited to aid children in the…

  13. Instrumental learning and cognitive flexibility processes are impaired in children exposed to early life stress.

    PubMed

    Harms, Madeline B; Shannon Bowen, Katherine E; Hanson, Jamie L; Pollak, Seth D

    2017-10-19

    Children who experience severe early life stress show persistent deficits in many aspects of cognitive and social adaptation. Early stress might be associated with these broad changes in functioning because it impairs general learning mechanisms. To explore this possibility, we examined whether individuals who experienced abusive caregiving in childhood had difficulties with instrumental learning and/or cognitive flexibility as adolescents. Fifty-three 14-17-year-old adolescents (31 exposed to high levels of childhood stress, 22 control) completed an fMRI task that required them to first learn associations in the environment and then update those pairings. Adolescents with histories of early life stress eventually learned to pair stimuli with both positive and negative outcomes, but did so more slowly than their peers. Furthermore, these stress-exposed adolescents showed markedly impaired cognitive flexibility; they were less able than their peers to update those pairings when the contingencies changed. These learning problems were reflected in abnormal activity in learning- and attention-related brain circuitry. Both altered patterns of learning and neural activation were associated with the severity of lifetime stress that the adolescents had experienced. Taken together, the results of this experiment suggest that basic learning processes are impaired in adolescents exposed to early life stress. These general learning mechanisms may help explain the emergence of social problems observed in these individuals. © 2017 The Authors. Developmental Science Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Professional Development for Early Childhood Educators: Efforts to Improve Math and Science Learning Opportunities in Early Childhood Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piasta, Shayne B.; Logan, Jessica A. R.; Pelatti, Christina Yeager; Capps, Janet L.; Petrill, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Because recent initiatives highlight the need to better support preschool-aged children's math and science learning, the present study investigated the impact of professional development in these domains for early childhood educators. Sixty-five educators were randomly assigned to experience 10.5 days (64 hr) of training on math and science or on…

  15. Towards a Standards-Based Approach to E-Learning Personalization Using Reusable Learning Objects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conlan, Owen; Dagger, Declan; Wade, Vincent

    E-Learning systems that produce personalized course offerings for the learner are often expensive, both from a time and financial perspective, to develop and maintain. Learning content personalized to a learners' cognitive preferences has been shown to produce more effective learning, however many approaches to realizing this form of…

  16. Early Literacy and Assessment for Learning (K-3) Series: Little Book Insert: Little Honu's Journey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noto, Lee

    2005-01-01

    This illustrated children's story accompanies "Exploring Comprehension through Retelling: A Teacher's Story", part of the Early Literacy and Assessment for Learning (K-3) Series (ED490189). It describes a baby turtle's adventures on his journey to the ocean.

  17. The Combined Influence of Air Pollution and Home Learning Environment on Early Cognitive Skills in Children

    PubMed Central

    Stingone, Jeanette A.

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive skills are one component of school readiness that reflect a child’s neurodevelopment and are influenced by environmental and social factors. Most studies assess the impact of these factors individually, without taking into consideration the complex interactions of multiple factors. The objective of this study was to examine the joint association of markers of environmental pollution and of social factors on early cognitive skills in an urban cohort of children. For this, we chose isophorone in ambient air as a marker of industrial air pollution. Low quality home learning environments was chosen as a marker of the social factors contributing to cognitive development. Using a subpopulation from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (N = 4050), isophorone exposure was assigned using the 2002 National Air Toxics Assessment. Home learning environment was assessed with a modified version of the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) Inventory, and standardized math assessment scores were used as a measure of early cognitive skills. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the effect of both exposures on math scores. After adjustment for confounders, children living in areas with ambient isophorone in the upper quintile of exposure (>0.49 ng/m3) had math scores that were 1.63 points lower than their less exposed peers [95% CI: −2.91, −0.34], and children with lower HOME scores (at or below 9 out of 12) had math scores that were 1.20 points lower than children with better HOME scores [95% CI: −2.30, −0.10]. In adjusted models accounting for identified confounders and both exposures of interest, both high isophorone exposure and low HOME score remained independently associated with math scores [−1.48, 95% CI: −2.79, −0.18; −1.05, 95% CI: −2.15, 0.05, respectively]. There was no statistical evidence of interaction between the two exposures, although children with both higher isophorone exposure and a low

  18. The Combined Influence of Air Pollution and Home Learning Environment on Early Cognitive Skills in Children.

    PubMed

    Lett, Lanair A; Stingone, Jeanette A; Claudio, Luz

    2017-10-26

    Cognitive skills are one component of school readiness that reflect a child's neurodevelopment and are influenced by environmental and social factors. Most studies assess the impact of these factors individually, without taking into consideration the complex interactions of multiple factors. The objective of this study was to examine the joint association of markers of environmental pollution and of social factors on early cognitive skills in an urban cohort of children. For this, we chose isophorone in ambient air as a marker of industrial air pollution. Low quality home learning environments was chosen as a marker of the social factors contributing to cognitive development. Using a subpopulation from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (N = 4050), isophorone exposure was assigned using the 2002 National Air Toxics Assessment. Home learning environment was assessed with a modified version of the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) Inventory, and standardized math assessment scores were used as a measure of early cognitive skills. Multiple linear regression was used to estimate the effect of both exposures on math scores. After adjustment for confounders, children living in areas with ambient isophorone in the upper quintile of exposure (>0.49 ng/m³) had math scores that were 1.63 points lower than their less exposed peers [95% CI: -2.91, -0.34], and children with lower HOME scores (at or below 9 out of 12) had math scores that were 1.20 points lower than children with better HOME scores [95% CI: -2.30, -0.10]. In adjusted models accounting for identified confounders and both exposures of interest, both high isophorone exposure and low HOME score remained independently associated with math scores [-1.48, 95% CI: -2.79, -0.18; -1.05, 95% CI: -2.15, 0.05, respectively]. There was no statistical evidence of interaction between the two exposures, although children with both higher isophorone exposure and a low HOME score had a

  19. Early adversity and learning: implications for typical and atypical behavioral development.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Jamie L; van den Bos, Wouter; Roeber, Barbara J; Rudolph, Karen D; Davidson, Richard J; Pollak, Seth D

    2017-07-01

    Children who experience early adversity often develop emotion regulatory problems, but little is known about the mechanisms that mediate this relation. We tested whether general associative learning processes contribute to associations between adversity, in the form of child maltreatment, and negative behavioral outcomes. Eighty-one participants between 12 and 17 years of age were recruited for this study and completed a probabilistic learning Task. Forty-one of these participants had been exposed to physical abuse, a form of early adversity. Forty additional participants without any known history of maltreatment served as a comparison group. All participants (and their parents) also completed portions of the Youth Life Stress Interview to understand adolescent's behavior. We calculated measures of associative learning, and also constructed mathematical models of learning. We found that adolescents exposed to high levels of adversity early in their lives had lower levels of associative learning than comparison adolescents. In addition, we found that impaired associative learning partially explained the higher levels of behavioral problems among youth who suffered early adversity. Using mathematical models, we also found that two components of learning were specifically affected in children exposed to adversity: choice variability and biases in their beliefs about the likelihood of rewards in the environment. Participants who had been exposed to early adversity were less able than their peers to correctly learn which stimuli were likely to result in reward, even after repeated feedback. These individuals also used information about known rewards in their environments less often. In addition, individuals exposed to adversity made decisions early in the learning process as if rewards were less consistent and occurred more at random. These data suggest one mechanism through which early life experience shapes behavioral development. © 2017 Association for Child and

  20. Early adversity and learning: implications for typical and atypical behavioral development

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Jamie L.; van den Bos, Wouter; Roeber, Barbara J.; Rudolph, Karen D.; Davidson, Richard J.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2017-01-01

    Background Children who experience early adversity often develop emotion regulatory problems, but little is known about the mechanisms that mediate this relation. We tested whether general associative learning processes contribute to associations between adversity, in the form of child maltreatment, and negative behavioral outcomes. Methods Eighty-one participants between 12 and 17 years of age were recruited for this study and completed a probabilistic learning Task. Forty-one of these participants had been exposed to physical abuse, a form of early adversity. Forty additional participants without any known history of maltreatment served as a comparison group. All participants (and their parents) also completed portions of the Youth Life Stress Interview to understand adolescent’s behavior. We calculated measures of associative learning, and also constructed mathematical models of learning. Results We found that adolescents exposed to high levels of adversity early in their lives had lower levels of associative learning than comparison adolescents. In addition, we found that impaired associative learning partially explained the higher levels of behavioral problems among youth who suffered early adversity. Using mathematical models, we also found that two components of learning were specifically affected in children exposed to adversity: choice variability and biases in their beliefs about the likelihood of rewards in the environment. Conclusions Participants who had been exposed to early adversity were less able than their peers to correctly learn which stimuli were likely to result in reward, even after repeated feedback. These individuals also used information about known rewards in their environments less often. In addition, individuals exposed to adversity made decisions early in the learning process as if rewards were less consistent and occurred more at random. These data suggest one mechanism through which early life experience shapes behavioral

  1. Understanding the Early Career Benefits of Learning Abroad Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potts, Davina

    2015-01-01

    European and U.S. institutions have promoted the value of a learning abroad experience for many years. As Australian higher education institutions have adopted policies and strategies to increase participation in learning abroad, with employability as a central argument, it is important to study this claim. This article examines the links between…

  2. Critical Learning Periods and Programs of Early Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magill, Richard A.

    In an effort to clarify understanding of the concept of critical learning periods, this paper discusses problems that people concerned with the motor development of children have had determining relationships between critical periods and learning, and a "readiness model" is offered as a solution that could enhance understanding of critical…

  3. The prevalence of synaesthesia depends on early language learning.

    PubMed

    Watson, Marcus R; Chromý, Jan; Crawford, Lyle; Eagleman, David M; Enns, James T; Akins, Kathleen A

    2017-02-01

    According to one theory, synaesthesia develops, or is preserved, because it helps children learn. If so, it should be more common among adults who faced greater childhood learning challenges. In the largest survey of synaesthesia to date, the incidence of synaesthesia was compared among native speakers of languages with transparent (easier) and opaque (more difficult) orthographies. Contrary to our prediction, native speakers of Czech (transparent) were more likely to be synaesthetes than native speakers of English (opaque). However, exploratory analyses suggested that this was because more Czechs learned non-native second languages, which was strongly associated with synaesthesia, consistent with the learning hypothesis. Furthermore, the incidence of synaesthesia among speakers of opaque languages was double that among speakers of transparent languages other than Czech, also consistent with the learning hypothesis. These findings contribute to an emerging understanding of synaesthetic development as a complex and lengthy process with multiple causal influences. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Race to the Top - Early Learning Challenge: 2014 Annual Performance Report Kentucky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Race to the Top - Early Learning Challenge, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This Race to the Top - Early Learning Challenge (RTT-ELC) annual performance report for the year 2014 describes Kentucky's accomplishments, lessons learned, challenges, and strategies Kentucky will implement to address those challenges. In December of 2013, Kentucky received notice that they would join 19 other States as a winner of the Race to…

  5. Race to the Top - Early Learning Challenge: 2015 Annual Performance Report. Maryland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Race to the Top - Early Learning Challenge, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This Race to the Top - Early Learning Challenge (RTT-ELC) annual performance report for the year 2015 describes Maryland's accomplishments, lessons learned, challenges, and strategies Maryland will implement to address those challenges. Maryland's remarkable progress in increasing participation in their tiered quality rating and improvement…

  6. Race to the Top - Early Learning Challenge: 2015 Annual Performance Report. New Jersey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Race to the Top - Early Learning Challenge, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This Race to the Top - Early Learning Challenge (RTT-ELC) annual performance report for the year 2015 describes New Jersey's accomplishments, lessons learned, challenges, and strategies New Jersey will implement to address those challenges. New Jersey's remarkable progress in increasing participation in their tiered quality rating and improvement…

  7. Race to the Top - Early Learning Challenge: 2015 Annual Performance Report. Vermont

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Race to the Top - Early Learning Challenge, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This Race to the Top - Early Learning Challenge (RTT-ELC) annual performance report for the year 2015 describes Vermont's accomplishments, lessons learned, challenges, and strategies Vermont will implement to address those challenges. Vermont's remarkable progress in increasing participation in their tiered quality rating and improvement system,…

  8. Race to the Top - Early Learning Challenge: 2015 Annual Performance Report. Pennsylvania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Race to the Top - Early Learning Challenge, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This Race to the Top - Early Learning Challenge (RTT-ELC) annual performance report for the year 2015 describes Pennsylvania's accomplishments, lessons learned, challenges, and strategies Pennsylvania will implement to address those challenges. Pennsylvania's remarkable progress in increasing participation in their tiered quality rating and…

  9. Race to the Top - Early Learning Challenge: 2015 Annual Performance Report. Minnesota

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Race to the Top - Early Learning Challenge, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This Race to the Top - Early Learning Challenge (RTT-ELC) annual performance report for the year 2015 describes Minnesota's accomplishments, lessons learned, challenges, and strategies Minnesota will implement to address those challenges. Minnesota's remarkable progress in increasing participation in their tiered quality rating and improvement…

  10. The Nature of Professional Learning Communities in New Zealand Early Childhood Education: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherrington, Sue; Thornton, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Professional learning communities are receiving increasing attention within the schooling sector but empirical research into their development and use within early childhood education contexts is rare. This paper reports initial findings of an exploratory study into the development of professional learning communities in New Zealand's early…

  11. Learning through English Language in Early Childhood Education: A Case of English Medium Schools in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mwalongo, Leopard Jacob

    2016-01-01

    In China the English medium schools are now mushrooming and many parents send their children at very early age. These schools enroll children of pre-school to school age to learn through English as foreign language regardless of their proficiency in the first language. Therefore the study aims at examining the learning English language as a…

  12. Race to the Top - Early Learning Challenge: 2015 Annual Performance Report. New Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Race to the Top - Early Learning Challenge, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This Race to the Top - Early Learning Challenge (RTT-ELC) annual performance report for the year 2015 describes New Mexico's accomplishments, lessons learned, challenges, and strategies New Mexico will implement to address those challenges. New Mexico is pleased to report that at the end of Year Three of the RTT-ELC grant, the State continues to…

  13. Early-Career Academics' Perceptions of Teaching and Learning in Hong Kong: Implications for Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Keith; McNaught, Carmel; Wong, Kin-Chi; Li, Yi-Ching

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses early-career academics' development at a university in Hong Kong. Reflecting the impact of local context, the paper explores cultural and structural influences that can impinge on teaching and learning strategies for new academics. Barriers such as student learning behaviour and publication pressure may discourage new…

  14. Effect of Formative and Ability Test Results on Early Learning of Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadir, Abdul; Ardi, Muhammad; Nurhayati, B.; Dirawan, Gufran Darma

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship of formative tests to early learning ability of students in the science learning style. This research used an experimental method with a 2 x 2 factorial design. The participants comprised all the students in class VII of the Islamic Junior High School State of Kolaka, a total of 343…

  15. Contributions of Early Work-Based Learning: A Case Study of First Year Pharmacy Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ting, Kang Nee; Wong, Kok Thong; Thang, Siew Ming

    2009-01-01

    Generally work-based learning opportunities are only offered to students in their penultimate year of undergraduate study. Little is known about the benefits and shortcomings of such experiential learning for students in the early stages of their undergraduate education. This is a mixed method study investigating first year undergraduate pharmacy…

  16. Universal Design for Learning: Cognitive Theory into Practice for Facilitating Comprehension in Early Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, Susan Trostle; Dalton, Elizabeth M.

    2012-01-01

    Addressing the unique needs of children of all ages and abilities, Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is gaining momentum in schools and preschools around the nation and the globe. This article explores Universal Design for Learning and its promising applications to a variety of reading and language arts experiences in the Early Childhood…

  17. Predictive Coding Accelerates Word Recognition and Learning in the Early Stages of Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ylinen, Sari; Bosseler, Alexis; Junttila, Katja; Huotilainen, Minna

    2017-01-01

    The ability to predict future events in the environment and learn from them is a fundamental component of adaptive behavior across species. Here we propose that inferring predictions facilitates speech processing and word learning in the early stages of language development. Twelve- and 24-month olds' electrophysiological brain responses to heard…

  18. Categorical Structure among Shared Features in Networks of Early-Learned Nouns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hills, Thomas T.; Maouene, Mounir; Maouene, Josita; Sheya, Adam; Smith, Linda

    2009-01-01

    The shared features that characterize the noun categories that young children learn first are a formative basis of the human category system. To investigate the potential categorical information contained in the features of early-learned nouns, we examine the graph-theoretic properties of noun-feature networks. The networks are built from the…

  19. Lessons learned from evaluations of California's statewide school nutrition standards.

    PubMed

    Woodward-Lopez, Gail; Gosliner, Wendi; Samuels, Sarah E; Craypo, Lisa; Kao, Janice; Crawford, Patricia B

    2010-11-01

    We assessed the impact of legislation that established nutrition standards for foods and beverages that compete with reimbursable school meals in California. We used documentation of available foods and beverages, sales accounts, and surveys of and interviews with students and food service workers to conduct 3 studies measuring pre- and postlegislation food and beverage availability, sales, and student consumption at 99 schools. Availability of nutrition standard-compliant foods and beverages increased. Availability of noncompliant items decreased, with the biggest reductions in sodas and other sweetened beverages, regular chips, and candy. At-school consumption of some noncompliant foods dropped; at-home consumption of selected noncompliant foods did not increase. Food and beverage sales decreased at most venues, and food service à la carte revenue losses were usually offset by increased meal program participation. Increased food service expenditures outpaced revenue increases. Regulation of competitive foods improved school food environments and student nutritional intake. Improvements were modest, partly because many compliant items are fat- and sugar-modified products of low nutritional value. Additional policies and actions are needed to achieve more substantive improvements in school nutrition environments and student nutrition and health.

  20. Statistical Learning is Related to Early Literacy-Related Skills

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Mercedes; Kaschak, Michael P.; Jones, John L.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that statistical learning, or the ability to use statistical information to learn the structure of one’s environment, plays a role in young children’s acquisition of linguistic knowledge. Although most research on statistical learning has focused on language acquisition processes, such as the segmentation of words from fluent speech and the learning of syntactic structure, some recent studies have explored the extent to which individual differences in statistical learning are related to literacy-relevant knowledge and skills. The present study extends on this literature by investigating the relations between two measures of statistical learning and multiple measures of skills that are critical to the development of literacy—oral language, vocabulary knowledge, and phonological processing—within a single model. Our sample included a total of 553 typically developing children from prekindergarten through second grade. Structural equation modeling revealed that statistical learning accounted for a unique portion of the variance in these literacy-related skills. Practical implications for instruction and assessment are discussed. PMID:26478658

  1. The early universe history from contraction-deformation of the Standard Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gromov, N. A.

    2017-03-01

    The elementary particles evolution in the early Universe from Plank time up to several milliseconds is presented. The developed theory is based on the high-temperature (high-energy) limit of the Standard Model which is generated by the contractions of its gauge groups. At the infinite temperature all particles lose masses. Only massless neutral -bosons, massless Z-quarks, neutrinos and photons are survived in this limit. The weak interactions become long-range and are mediated by neutral currents, quarks have only one color degree of freedom.

  2. The Importance of Teaching and Learning Nature of Science in the Early Childhood Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akerson, Valarie L.; Buck, Gayle A.; Donnelly, Lisa A.; Nargund-Joshi, Vanashri; Weiland, Ingrid S.

    2011-01-01

    Though research has shown that students do not have adequate understandings of nature of science (NOS) by the time they exit high school, there is also evidence that they have not received NOS instruction that would enable them to develop such understandings. How early is "too early" to teach and learn NOS? Are students, particularly young…

  3. Children's Early Approaches to Learning and Academic Trajectories through Fifth Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li-Grining, Christine P.; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Maldonado-Carreno, Carolina; Haas, Kelly

    2010-01-01

    Children's early approaches to learning (ATL) enhance their adaptation to the demands they experience with the start of formal schooling. The current study uses individual growth modeling to investigate whether children's early ATL, which includes persistence, emotion regulation, and attentiveness, explain individual differences in their academic…

  4. Meeting Basic Learning Needs through Programmes of Early Childhood Care and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Consultative Group on Early Childhood Care and Development, Haydenville, MA.

    Noting that early childhood development is the foundation for basic education across the life span, the first chapter of this report discusses the benefits of early interventions for individuals and society and justifies the basis for programs which aim at meeting the basic learning needs of young children. It also suggests several questions which…

  5. Home and Preschool Learning Environments and Their Relations to the Development of Early Numeracy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anders, Yvonne; Rossbach, Hans-Gunther; Weinert, Sabine; Ebert, Susanne; Kuger, Susanne; Lehrl, Simone; von Maurice, Jutta

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the influence of the quality of home and preschool learning environments on the development of early numeracy skills in Germany, drawing on a sample of 532 children in 97 preschools. Latent growth curve models were used to investigate early numeracy skills and their development from the first (average age: 3 years) to the third…

  6. Mental Health Problems in Early Childhood Can Impair Learning and Behavior for Life. Working Paper #6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Significant mental health problems can and do occur in young children. In some cases, these problems can have serious consequences for early learning, social competence, and lifelong health. Furthermore, the foundations of many mental health problems that endure through adulthood are established early in life through the interaction of genetic…

  7. Incorporating Early Learning Strategies in the School Improvement Grants (SIG) Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connors-Tadros, Lori; Dunn, Lenay; Martella, Jana; McCauley, Carlas

    2015-01-01

    The Center on Enhancing Early Learning Outcomes (CEELO) and the Center on School Turnaround (CST) collaborated to develop case studies of three selected schools receiving SIG funds that have, with the support of their districts, promoted the use of early childhood programming (PK-3) as a key strategy in their schools' turnaround models. The goal…

  8. Our Inquiry, Our Practice: Undertaking, Supporting, and Learning from Early Childhood Teacher Research(ers)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Gail, Ed.; Henderson, Barbara, Ed.; Meier, Daniel R., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Through "teacher research", teachers engage in the systematic study of their own practice to answer questions they have about teaching and learning, and their own effectiveness. This book explores what teacher research in the early childhood setting looks like, why it is important to the field of early childhood education, and how…

  9. Interrogating "Belonging" in Belonging, Being and Becoming: The Early Years Learning Framework for Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sumsion, Jennifer; Wong, Sandie

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors interrogate the use of "belonging" in "Belonging, Being and Becoming: the Early Years Learning Framework for Australia" (EYLF), Australia's first national curriculum for early childhood education and care settings and, from the authors' interrogation, possibilities are offered for thinking about and…

  10. A Universal Good: Expanding Voluntary, Early Learning Opportunities for Illinois' Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, Sean

    This report was written to stimulate discussion about the potential and need for expanding access to voluntary, high-quality early childhood care and education programs in Illinois. The report compiles 13 short articles pertaining to early learning as follows: (1) "Ready to Succeed: Preparing Children for School, and for Life"; (2)…

  11. Education and Learning in the Early Middle Ages: New Perspectives and Old Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contreni, John J.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses various scholarly views of education and learning in the early middle ages and identifies some problems confronting scholars investigating this period. Points out new perspectives relative to the role of education during this time. Asserts that future study of early medieval education will benefit from focusing on the minds of masters…

  12. Student Teacher Views of Text in Early Learning Environments: Images from Sweden and New Zealand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellgren, Elisabeth; Margrain, Valerie

    2015-01-01

    A total of 659 photographs of text in early childhood environments were gathered by student teachers in New Zealand and Sweden, replicating an earlier Swedish study [Gustafsson, K., & Mellgren, E. (2002)." Using text in pre-school: A Learning Environment." "Early Child Development and Care", 172(6), 603-624]. The findings…

  13. Exploring Educators' Perspectives: How Does Learning through "Happiness" Promote Quality Early Childhood Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikegami, Kiiko; Agbenyega, Joseph Seyram

    2014-01-01

    The quality of early childhood education has dominated current debates in the ways educators develop and implement learning programs for children yet conceptions of quality vary contextually and culturally. This qualitative case study explored the insider perspectives of six early childhood educators in Sapporo, Japan regarding their conceptions…

  14. Designing Informal Learning Experiences for Early Career Academics Using a Knowledge Ecosystem Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Faye; Partridge, Helen; Bruce, Christine; Hemmings, Brian

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a "knowledge ecosystem" model of how early career academics experience using information to learn while building their social networks for developmental purposes. Developed using grounded theory methodology, the model offers a way of conceptualising how to empower early career academics through (1) agency…

  15. Early Learning: Birth to Third Grade Continuum. Annotated Bibliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hite, Jenny

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that persistent achievement gaps among children begin as early as 18 months, years before most publicly funded prekindergarten programs offer enrollment. Early childhood development necessitates more than access to pre-K at age four. Proper brain development requires adequate nutrition, access to quality healthcare, and…

  16. Preparing Students for College: Lessons Learned from the Early College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmunds, Julie A.; Arshavsky, Nina; Lewis, Karla; Thrift, Beth; Unlu, Fatih; Furey, Jane

    2017-01-01

    This article utilizes mixed methods--a lottery-based experimental design supplemented by qualitative data--to examine college readiness within an innovative high school setting: early college high schools. Early colleges are small schools that merge the high school and college experiences and are targeted at students underrepresented in college.…

  17. Development of an E-learning System for the Endoscopic Diagnosis of Early Gastric Cancer: An International Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Yao, K; Uedo, N; Muto, M; Ishikawa, H; Cardona, H J; Filho, E C Castro; Pittayanon, R; Olano, C; Yao, F; Parra-Blanco, A; Ho, S H; Avendano, A G; Piscoya, A; Fedorov, E; Bialek, A P; Mitrakov, A; Caro, L; Gonen, C; Dolwani, S; Farca, A; Cuaresma, L F; Bonilla, J J; Kasetsermwiriya, W; Ragunath, K; Kim, S E; Marini, M; Li, H; Cimmino, D G; Piskorz, M M; Iacopini, F; So, J B; Yamazaki, K; Kim, G H; Ang, T L; Milhomem-Cardoso, D M; Waldbaum, C A; Carvajal, W A Piedra; Hayward, C M; Singh, R; Banerjee, R; Anagnostopoulos, G K; Takahashi, Y

    2016-07-01

    In many countries, gastric cancer is not diagnosed until an advanced stage. An Internet-based e-learning system to improve the ability of endoscopists to diagnose gastric cancer at an early stage was developed and was evaluated for its effectiveness. The study was designed as a randomized controlled trial. After receiving a pre-test, participants were randomly allocated to either an e-learning or non-e-learning group. Only those in the e-learning group gained access to the e-learning system. Two months after the pre-test, both groups received a post-test. The primary endpoint was the difference between the two groups regarding the rate of improvement of their test results. 515 endoscopists from 35 countries were assessed for eligibility, and 332 were enrolled in the study, with 166 allocated to each group. Of these, 151 participants in the e-learning group and 144 in the non-e-learning group were included in the analysis. The mean improvement rate (standard deviation) in the e-learning and non-e-learning groups was 1·24 (0·26) and 1·00 (0·16), respectively (P<0·001). This global study clearly demonstrated the efficacy of an e-learning system to expand knowledge and provide invaluable experience regarding the endoscopic detection of early gastric cancer (R000012039). Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Early Learning and Early Identification Follow-Up Study: Transition from the Early to the Later Childhood Grades, 1990-93.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcon, Rebecca A.

    As follow-up to an in-depth study of the District of Columbia's early learning programs and their impact, this study provided data on the transition of previously studied children from primary education to upper elementary grades. Academic progress of the original group of pre-kindergarten and Head Start children was studied during years 5 and 6…

  19. Measures of follow-up in early hearing detection and intervention programs: a need for standardization.

    PubMed

    Mason, Craig A; Gaffney, Marcus; Green, Denise R; Grosse, Scott D

    2008-06-01

    To demonstrate the need for standardized data definitions and reporting for early hearing detection and intervention (EHDI) programs collecting information on newborn hearing screening and follow-up, and types of information best collected in a standardized manner. A hypothetical birth cohort was used to show the potential effects of nonstandardized definitions and data classifications on rates of hearing screening, audiologic follow-up, and hearing loss. The true screening rate in this cohort was 92.4%. The calculated rate was between 90.0% and 96.5%, depending on the measure used. Among children documented as screened and referred for follow-up, 61.0% received this testing. Only 49.0% were documented to have been tested. Despite a true prevalence of 3.7 per 1,000 births, only 1.5 per 1,000 children were documented with a hearing loss. Ensuring that children receive recommended follow-up is challenging. Without complete reporting by audiologists to EHDI programs, accurate calculation of performance measures is impossible. Lack of documentation can lead to the overstatement of "loss to follow-up." Also, standardization of measures is essential for programs to evaluate how many children receive recommended services and assess progress toward national goals. A new survey has been implemented to collect more detailed and standardized information about recommended services.

  20. ERPs recorded during early second language exposure predict syntactic learning.

    PubMed

    Batterink, Laura; Neville, Helen J

    2014-09-01

    Millions of adults worldwide are faced with the task of learning a second language (L2). Understanding the neural mechanisms that support this learning process is an important area of scientific inquiry. However, most previous studies on the neural mechanisms underlying L2 acquisition have focused on characterizing the results of learning, relying upon end-state outcome measures in which learning is assessed after it has occurred, rather than on the learning process itself. In this study, we adopted a novel and more direct approach to investigate neural mechanisms engaged during L2 learning, in which we recorded ERPs from beginning adult learners as they were exposed to an unfamiliar L2 for the first time. Learners' proficiency in the L2 was then assessed behaviorally using a grammaticality judgment task, and ERP data acquired during initial L2 exposure were sorted as a function of performance on this task. High-proficiency learners showed a larger N100 effect to open-class content words compared with closed-class function words, whereas low-proficiency learners did not show a significant N100 difference between open- and closed-class words. In contrast, amplitude of the N400 word category effect correlated with learners' L2 comprehension, rather than predicting syntactic learning. Taken together, these results indicate that learners who spontaneously direct greater attention to open- rather than closed-class words when processing L2 input show better syntactic learning, suggesting a link between selective attention to open-class content words and acquisition of basic morphosyntactic rules. These findings highlight the importance of selective attention mechanisms for L2 acquisition.

  1. Early life programming of innate fear and fear learning in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Carl W; Meredith, John P; Spicer, Clare H; Mason, Rob; Marsden, Charles A

    2009-03-02

    The early rearing environment can impact on emotional reactivity and learning later in life. In this study the effects of neonatal maternal separation (MS) on innate fear and fear learning were assessed in the adult female rat. Pups were subjected to MS (360 min), brief handling (H; 15 min), or animal facility rearing (AFR) on post-natal days 2-14. In the first experiment, innate fear was tested in the open field. No differences between the early rearing groups were observed in unconditioned fear. In the second experiment, separate cohorts were used in a 3-day fear learning paradigm which tested the acquisition (Day 1), expression and extinction (both Day 2) of conditioning to an auditory cue; extinction recall was determined as well (Day 3). Contextual fear conditioning was also assessed prior to cue presentations on Days 2 and 3. Whereas MS attenuated the acquisition and expression of fear conditioning to the cue, H potentiated extinction learning. Cue-induced fear was reduced on Day 3, compared to Day 2, indicating that the recall of extinction learning was evident; however, no early rearing group differences in extinction recall were observed. Similarly, while contextual fear was decreased on Day 3, compared to Day 2, there were no differences between the early rearing groups on either day tested. The present findings of altered cue-conditioned fear learning, in the absence of innate fear changes, lend further support for the important role of the early rearing environment in mediating cognition in adulthood.

  2. Conceptual basis for prescriptive growth standards from conception to early childhood: present and future.

    PubMed

    Uauy, R; Casanello, P; Krause, B; Kuzanovic, J P; Corvalan, C

    2013-09-01

    Healthy growth in utero and after birth is fundamental for lifelong health and wellbeing. The World Health Organization (WHO) recently published standards for healthy growth from birth to 6 years of age; analogous standards for healthy fetal growth are not currently available. Current fetal growth charts in use are not true standards, since they are based on cross-sectional measurements of attained size under conditions that do not accurately reflect normal growth. In most cases, the pregnant populations and environments studied are far from ideal; thus the data are unlikely to reflect optimal fetal growth. A true standard should reflect how fetuses and newborns 'should' grow under ideal environmental conditions. The development of prescriptive intrauterine and newborn growth standards derived from the INTERGROWTH-21(st) Project provides the data that will allow us for the first time to establish what is 'normal' fetal growth. The INTERGROWTH-21(st) study centres provide the data set obtained under pre-established standardised criteria, and details of the methods used are also published. Multicentre study with sites in all major geographical regions of the world using a standard evaluation protocol. These standards will assess risk of abnormal size at birth and serve to evaluate potentially effective interventions to promote optimal growth beyond securing survival. The new normative standards have the potential to impact perinatal and neonatal survival and beyond, particularly in developing countries where fetal growth restriction is most prevalent. They will help us identify intrauterine growth restriction at earlier stages of development, when preventive or corrective strategies might be more effective than at present. These growth standards will take us one step closer to effective action in preventing and potentially reversing abnormal intrauterine growth. Achieving 'optimal' fetal growth requires that we act not only during pregnancy but that we optimize the

  3. Lessons Learned From Evaluations of California's Statewide School Nutrition Standards

    PubMed Central

    Gosliner, Wendi; Samuels, Sarah E.; Craypo, Lisa; Kao, Janice; Crawford, Patricia B.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We assessed the impact of legislation that established nutrition standards for foods and beverages that compete with reimbursable school meals in California. Methods. We used documentation of available foods and beverages, sales accounts, and surveys of and interviews with students and food service workers to conduct 3 studies measuring pre- and postlegislation food and beverage availability, sales, and student consumption at 99 schools. Results. Availability of nutrition standard–compliant foods and beverages increased. Availability of noncompliant items decreased, with the biggest reductions in sodas and other sweetened beverages, regular chips, and candy. At-school consumption of some noncompliant foods dropped; at-home consumption of selected noncompliant foods did not increase. Food and beverage sales decreased at most venues, and food service à la carte revenue losses were usually offset by increased meal program participation. Increased food service expenditures outpaced revenue increases. Conclusions. Regulation of competitive foods improved school food environments and student nutritional intake. Improvements were modest, partly because many compliant items are fat- and sugar-modified products of low nutritional value. Additional policies and actions are needed to achieve more substantive improvements in school nutrition environments and student nutrition and health. PMID:20864696

  4. Consensus standards for introductory e-learning courses in human participants research ethics.

    PubMed

    Williams, John R; Sprumont, Dominique; Hirtle, Marie; Adebamowo, Clement; Braunschweiger, Paul; Bull, Susan; Burri, Christian; Czarkowski, Marek; Fan, Chien Te; Franck, Caroline; Gefenas, Eugenjius; Geissbuhler, Antoine; Klingmann, Ingrid; Kouyaté, Bocar; Kraehenbhul, Jean-Pierre; Kruger, Mariana; Moodley, Keymanthri; Ntoumi, Francine; Nyirenda, Thomas; Pym, Alexander; Silverman, Henry; Tenorio, Sara

    2014-06-01

    This paper reports the results of a workshop held in January 2013 to begin the process of establishing standards for e-learning programmes in the ethics of research involving human participants that could serve as the basis of their evaluation by individuals and groups who want to use, recommend or accredit such programmes. The standards that were drafted at the workshop cover the following topics: designer/provider qualifications, learning goals, learning objectives, content, methods, assessment of participants and assessment of the course. The authors invite comments on the draft standards and eventual endorsement of a final version by all stakeholders. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Early stage hot spot analysis through standard cell base random pattern generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Joong-Won; Song, Jaewan; Kim, Jeong-Lim; Park, Seongyul; Yang, Seung-Hune; Lee, Sooryong; Kang, Hokyu; Madkour, Kareem; ElManhawy, Wael; Lee, SeungJo; Kwan, Joe

    2017-04-01

    Due to limited availability of DRC clean patterns during the process and RET recipe development, OPC recipes are not tested with high pattern coverage. Various kinds of pattern can help OPC engineer to detect sensitive patterns to lithographic effects. Random pattern generation is needed to secure robust OPC recipe. However, simple random patterns without considering real product layout style can't cover patterning hotspot in production levels. It is not effective to use them for OPC optimization thus it is important to generate random patterns similar to real product patterns. This paper presents a strategy for generating random patterns based on design architecture information and preventing hotspot in early process development stage through a tool called Layout Schema Generator (LSG). Using LSG, we generate standard cell based on random patterns reflecting real design cell structure - fin pitch, gate pitch and cell height. The output standard cells from LSG are applied to an analysis methodology to assess their hotspot severity by assigning a score according to their optical image parameters - NILS, MEEF, %PV band and thus potential hotspots can be defined by determining their ranking. This flow is demonstrated on Samsung 7nm technology optimizing OPC recipe and early enough in the process avoiding using problematic patterns.

  6. The Impact on Higher Education of Standards for Foreign Language Learning: Preparing for the 21st Century. ACTFL White Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Dorothy

    The emergence of uniform standards for foreign language learning at the elementary and secondary level will soon substantially affect the teaching and learning of foreign languages at the post-secondary level. This groundswell for some sort of standard pre-dates the establishment of the standards themselves. It has become common for students who…

  7. Supporting Creativity and Imagination in the Early Years. Supporting Early Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duffy, Bernadette

    2006-01-01

    Learning through the arts has the potential to stimulate open ended activity that encourages discovery, exploration, experimentation and invention, thus contributing to children's development in all areas of learning and helping to make the curriculum meaningful to them. In this book, the author draws on her extensive experience of promoting young…

  8. Learning in Complex Environments: The Effects of Background Speech on Early Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMillan, Brianna T. M.; Saffran, Jenny R.

    2016-01-01

    Although most studies of language learning take place in quiet laboratory settings, everyday language learning occurs under noisy conditions. The current research investigated the effects of background speech on word learning. Both younger (22- to 24-month-olds; n = 40) and older (28- to 30-month-olds; n = 40) toddlers successfully learned novel…

  9. Applying Learning Analytics for the Early Prediction of Students' Academic Performance in Blended Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Owen H. T.; Huang, Anna Y. Q.; Huang, Jeff C. H.; Lin, Albert J. Q.; Ogata, Hiroaki; Yang, Stephen J. H.

    2018-01-01

    Blended learning combines online digital resources with traditional classroom activities and enables students to attain higher learning performance through well-defined interactive strategies involving online and traditional learning activities. Learning analytics is a conceptual framework and is a part of our Precision education used to analyze…

  10. Association of Polar Early Career Scientists: a model for experiential learning in professional development for students and early career researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, A. C.; Hindshaw, R. S.; Fugmann, G.; Mariash, H.

    2016-12-01

    The Association of Polar Early Career Scientists was established by early career researchers during the 2007-2008 International Polar Year as an organization for early career researchers in the polar and cryospheric sciences. APECS works to promote early career researchers through soft-skills training in both research and outreach activities, through advocating for including early career researchers in all levels of the scientific process and scientific management, and through supporting a world-wide network of researchers in varied fields. APECS is lead by early career researchers; this self-driven model has proved to be an effective means for developing the leadership, management, and communication skills that are essential in the sciences, and has shown to be sustainable even in a community where frequent turn-over is inherent to the members. Since its inception, APECS has reached over 5,500 members in more than 80 countries, and we have placed more than 50 early career researchers on working groups and steering committees with organizations around the world in the last two years alone. The close partnerships that APECS has with national and international organizations exposes members to both academic and alternative career paths, including those at the science-policy interface. This paper describes APECS's approach to experiential learning in professional development and the best practices identified over our nearly ten years as an organization.

  11. A Meta-Analysis of the Relationship between Learning Outcomes and Parental Involvement during Early Childhood Education and Early Elementary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ma, Xin; Shen, Jianping; Krenn, Huilan Y.; Hu, Shanshan; Yuan, Jing

    2016-01-01

    This meta-analysis examined the relationship between learning outcomes of children and educational involvement of parents during a unique period of early childhood education and early elementary education based on 100 independent effect sizes from 46 studies. Learning outcomes are academic achievement, and frameworks of parental involvement…

  12. It All Adds Up: Learning Early Math through Play and Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramani, Geetha B.; Eason, Sarah H.

    2015-01-01

    Playing and learning mathematics do not have to be mutually exclusive activities, especially in kindergarten. Play and games can give young children opportunities to learn and develop foundational math skills that are aligned with Common Core standards for mathematics through age-appropriate, fun, and engaging activities.

  13. Pediatric residents' learning styles and temperaments and their relationships to standardized test scores.

    PubMed

    Tuli, Sanjeev Y; Thompson, Lindsay A; Saliba, Heidi; Black, Erik W; Ryan, Kathleen A; Kelly, Maria N; Novak, Maureen; Mellott, Jane; Tuli, Sonal S

    2011-12-01

    Board certification is an important professional qualification and a prerequisite for credentialing, and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) assesses board certification rates as a component of residency program effectiveness. To date, research has shown that preresidency measures, including National Board of Medical Examiners scores, Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Medical Society membership, or medical school grades poorly predict postresidency board examination scores. However, learning styles and temperament have been identified as factors that 5 affect test-taking performance. The purpose of this study is to characterize the learning styles and temperaments of pediatric residents and to evaluate their relationships to yearly in-service and postresidency board examination scores. This cross-sectional study analyzed the learning styles and temperaments of current and past pediatric residents by administration of 3 validated tools: the Kolb Learning Style Inventory, the Keirsey Temperament Sorter, and the Felder-Silverman Learning Style test. These results were compared with known, normative, general and medical population data and evaluated for correlation to in-service examination and postresidency board examination scores. The predominant learning style for pediatric residents was converging 44% (33 of 75 residents) and the predominant temperament was guardian 61% (34 of 56 residents). The learning style and temperament distribution of the residents was significantly different from published population data (P  =  .002 and .04, respectively). Learning styles, with one exception, were found to be unrelated to standardized test scores. The predominant learning style and temperament of pediatric residents is significantly different than that of the populations of general and medical trainees. However, learning styles and temperament do not predict outcomes on standardized in-service and board examinations in pediatric residents.

  14. Pediatric Residents' Learning Styles and Temperaments and Their Relationships to Standardized Test Scores

    PubMed Central

    Tuli, Sanjeev Y.; Thompson, Lindsay A.; Saliba, Heidi; Black, Erik W.; Ryan, Kathleen A.; Kelly, Maria N.; Novak, Maureen; Mellott, Jane; Tuli, Sonal S.

    2011-01-01

    Background Board certification is an important professional qualification and a prerequisite for credentialing, and the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) assesses board certification rates as a component of residency program effectiveness. To date, research has shown that preresidency measures, including National Board of Medical Examiners scores, Alpha Omega Alpha Honor Medical Society membership, or medical school grades poorly predict postresidency board examination scores. However, learning styles and temperament have been identified as factors that 5 affect test-taking performance. The purpose of this study is to characterize the learning styles and temperaments of pediatric residents and to evaluate their relationships to yearly in-service and postresidency board examination scores. Methods This cross-sectional study analyzed the learning styles and temperaments of current and past pediatric residents by administration of 3 validated tools: the Kolb Learning Style Inventory, the Keirsey Temperament Sorter, and the Felder-Silverman Learning Style test. These results were compared with known, normative, general and medical population data and evaluated for correlation to in-service examination and postresidency board examination scores. Results The predominant learning style for pediatric residents was converging 44% (33 of 75 residents) and the predominant temperament was guardian 61% (34 of 56 residents). The learning style and temperament distribution of the residents was significantly different from published population data (P  =  .002 and .04, respectively). Learning styles, with one exception, were found to be unrelated to standardized test scores. Conclusions The predominant learning style and temperament of pediatric residents is significantly different than that of the populations of general and medical trainees. However, learning styles and temperament do not predict outcomes on standardized in-service and board

  15. The Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development's International Early Learning Study: Opening for Debate and Contestation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Peter; Dahlberg, Gunilla; Grieshaber, Susan; Mantovani, Susanna; May, Helen; Pence, Alan; Rayna, Sylvie; Swadener, Beth Blue; Vandenbroeck, Michel

    2016-01-01

    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development is initiating the International Early Learning Study, a cross-national assessment of early learning outcomes involving the testing of 5-year-old children in participating countries. The authors use this colloquium to inform members of the early childhood community about this project and to…

  16. Matched Comparison Group Design Standards in Systematic Reviews of Early Childhood Interventions.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jaime; Avellar, Sarah A; Deke, John; Gleason, Philip

    2017-06-01

    Systematic reviews assess the quality of research on program effectiveness to help decision makers faced with many intervention options. Study quality standards specify criteria that studies must meet, including accounting for baseline differences between intervention and comparison groups. We explore two issues related to systematic review standards: covariate choice and choice of estimation method. To help systematic reviews develop/refine quality standards and support researchers in using nonexperimental designs to estimate program effects, we address two questions: (1) How well do variables that systematic reviews typically require studies to account for explain variation in key child and family outcomes? (2) What methods should studies use to account for preexisting differences between intervention and comparison groups? We examined correlations between baseline characteristics and key outcomes using Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort data to address Question 1. For Question 2, we used simulations to compare two methods-matching and regression adjustment-to account for preexisting differences between intervention and comparison groups. A broad range of potential baseline variables explained relatively little of the variation in child and family outcomes. This suggests the potential for bias even after accounting for these variables, highlighting the need for systematic reviews to provide appropriate cautions about interpreting the results of moderately rated, nonexperimental studies. Our simulations showed that regression adjustment can yield unbiased estimates if all relevant covariates are used, even when the model is misspecified, and preexisting differences between the intervention and the comparison groups exist.

  17. From Early Starters to Late Finishers? A Longitudinal Study of Early Foreign Language Learning in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jaekel, Nils; Schurig, Michael; Florian, Merle; Ritter, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Foreign language education has now been implemented at the elementary school level across Europe, and early foreign language education has gained traction following language policies set by the European Commission. The long-term effects of an early start, however, have not received ample scientific scrutiny. The present study assessed early…

  18. Prevalence and influences of preschoolers' sedentary behaviors in early learning centers: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Tucker, Patricia; Vanderloo, Leigh M; Burke, Shauna M; Irwin, Jennifer D; Johnson, Andrew M

    2015-09-18

    Recent research has highlighted the need for increased evidence regarding the sedentary activity levels of preschoolers. Given the large proportion of time this population spends in various early learning facilities, the exploration of sedentary behaviors within this particular environment should be a priority. The purpose of the study was two-fold: (1) to compare sedentary time of preschoolers in three different early learning environments (i.e., full-day kindergarten [FDK], center-, and home-based childcare); and (2) to assess which characteristics (i.e., staff behaviors, sedentary environment, fixed play environment, portable play environment, sedentary opportunities) of these early learning environments influence preschoolers' sedentary time. Data collection occurred between September 2011 and June 2012. Preschoolers' sedentary time was measured using Actical(™) accelerometers at a 15 s epoch. The Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation (EPAO) tool was used to assess the sedentary environment of participating early learning classrooms, and those subscales (n = 5) that were evidence-informed as potentially influencing sedentary time in early learning centers were explored in the current study. A linear mixed model ANCOVA was carried out to determine the differences in sedentary time based on type of early learning environment while direct entry regression analyses were performed to describe the relationships between sedentary time and the five sedentary-specific EPAO subscale. Preschoolers (n = 218) from 28 early learning programs (i.e., 8 FDK, 9 centre-, and 8 home-based childcare facilities) participated. Accelerometry data revealed that preschoolers attending centre-based childcare engaged in the highest rate of sedentary time (41.62 mins/hr, SD = 3.78) compared to preschoolers in home-based childcare (40.72 mins/hr, SD = 6.34) and FDK (39.68 mins/hr, SD = 3.43). The models for FDK, center-based childcare, and home-based childcare, comprised each

  19. Early Spanish Grammatical Gender Bootstrapping: Learning Nouns through Adjectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arias-Trejo, Natalia; Alva, Elda Alicia

    2013-01-01

    Research has demonstrated that children use different strategies to infer a referent. One of these strategies is to use inflectional morphology. We present evidence that toddlers learning Spanish are capable of using gender word inflections to infer word reference. Thirty-month-olds were tested in a preferential looking experiment. Participants…

  20. A Connected Space for Early Experiential Learning in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Yong; Hunt, Jean Ann

    2016-01-01

    Carefully constructed field-based experiences in teacher education programs have been recognized as one of the essential conditions for effective teacher learning. Most college/university-based teacher education programs, however, are still dominated by the epistemology that academic knowledge is the authoritative source of knowledge about…

  1. Examining the role of social cues in early word learning.

    PubMed

    Briganti, Alicia M; Cohen, Leslie B

    2011-02-01

    Infants watched a video of an adult pointing towards two different objects while hearing novel labels. Analyses indicated that 14- and 18-month-olds looked longer at the target object, but only 18-month-olds showed word learning. The results suggest that different types of social cues are available at different ages. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Play: Ten Power Boosts for Children's Early Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice

    2007-01-01

    Play is children's work. Alice Honig enumerates from the heart 10 ways in which children learn through play, including building dexterity; social skills; cognitive and language skills; number and time concepts; spatial understanding; reasoning of cause and effect; clarification of pretend versus real; sensory and aesthetic appreciation; extended…

  3. Engaging First Graders in Transformational Early Childhood Emergent Learning Themes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pendergrass, Amanda Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative case study was to encourage learners to care for others and make a difference in the world through Reggio Emilia-inspired teaching and learning practice that promoted transformational education. Students were anticipated to take an active role in helping to develop the transformational educational curriculum.…

  4. Early School Experiences: Gender Differences in Mathematics Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leder, Gilah C.

    This study of gender differences in mathematics learning examined two 4-year-olds who attended a Melbourne, Australia preschool. The study traces the experiences of the students, one female and one male, during their first formal exposure to mathematics in kindergarten. Of particular concern was how the preschoolers interacted with their teacher,…

  5. Early Results in Capella's Prior Learning Assessment Experimental Site Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Jillian

    2017-01-01

    In July 2014, the U.S. Department of Education announced a new round of experimental sites focusing on competency-based education. Capella University was selected to participate in three of the Department of Education's competency-based education (CBE) experiments and began by implementing the prior learning assessment experiment, which allows…

  6. Think Summer: Early Planning, Teacher Support Boost Summer Learning Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    A fundamental problem that continues to plague educators is the achievement gap between low-income and higher-income students. In the ongoing search for solutions, one of the more promising approaches is expanding opportunities for learning, particularly in the summer. This article describes a project funded by The Wallace Foundation that offers…

  7. Evidence of Early Strategies in Learning to Walk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snapp-Childs, Winona; Corbetta, Daniela

    2009-01-01

    Learning to walk is a dynamic process requiring the fine coordination, assembly, and balancing of many body segments at once. For the young walker, coordinating all these behavioral levels may be quite daunting. In this study, we examine the whole-body strategies to which infants resort to produce their first independent steps and progress over…

  8. Different Approaches to the Study of Early Perceptual Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhatt, Ramesh S.; Quinn, Paul C.

    2011-01-01

    Bhatt and Quinn (2011) review evidence indicating that learning plays a powerful role in the development of perceptual organization, and provide a theoretical framework for studying this process. The fact that prominent researchers in diverse areas of cognitive development and adult cognition have commented on this paper (Aslin, 2011; Goldstone,…

  9. Early Years Practitioners' Views on Early Personal, Social and Emotional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubrey, Carol; Ward, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Current policy guidance stresses the need for early identification of obstacles to learning and appropriate intervention. New standards for learning (Early Years Foundation Stage) place personal, social and emotional development (PSED) as central to learning and development. This paper reports a survey and follow-up interviews with early years…

  10. Using standardized patients in enhancing undergraduate students' learning experience in mental health nursing.

    PubMed

    Goh, Yong-Shian; Selvarajan, Sunil; Chng, Mui-Lee; Tan, Chee-Shiong; Yobas, Piyanee

    2016-10-01

    Conducting mental status examination and suicide risk assessment is an important skill required of nurses when they are in the clinical setting. With nursing students often expressing the anxiety and lack of confidence in doing so, the use of standardized patients provide an excellent opportunity to practice and become proficient with this skill in a simulated environment. To explore the learning experience of undergraduate nursing students using standardized patients while practising their mental status examination and suicide risk assessment skills in mental health nursing module. A pre- and post-test, single group quasi experimental design was used in this study. A standard didactic tutorial session and a standardized patient session was conducted to evaluate the learning experience of undergraduate nursing students learning mental status examination and suicide risk assessment. Outcome measures for this study include Student Satisfaction and Self-Confidence in learning scale. Qualitative comments in the form of open-ended questions were also collected in this study. A University offering nursing program from undergraduate to postgraduate level. A convenience sample of Year 2 undergraduate nursing students undertaking the mental health nursing module was included in this study. The use of standardized patient session had significantly increased students' satisfaction and confidence level before they are posted to a mental health setting for their clinical attachment. There was a significant difference on students' self-confidence level for those who have taken care of a patient with mental illness after adjusting for pre-test on score in learning. Qualitative feedback obtained from students showed a positive outlook towards the use of standardized patient as an effective tool in augmenting didactic learning into practical skills. Using standardized patient in mental health nursing education enhanced the integration of didactic content into clinical setting

  11. Early Career Academics Learning the Game in Whackademia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKay, Loraine; Monk, Sue

    2017-01-01

    The initial years as an early career academic (ECA) are challenging times as those new to the academy attempt to balance the three aspects of their role: teaching, research and service, while also coming to terms with both overt and hidden expectations. Formal mentoring arrangements for ECAs are threatened by competing demands on time.…

  12. The Effectiveness of Early Foreign Language Learning in the Netherlands

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Bot, Kees

    2014-01-01

    This article reports on a number of projects on early English teaching in the Netherlands. The focus of these projects has been on the impact of English on the development of the mother tongue and the development of skills in the foreign language. Overall the results show that there is no negative effect on the mother tongue and that the gains in…

  13. The Corporeality of Learning: Confucian Education in Early Modern Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsujimoto, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    The intellectual foundation of early modern Japan was provided by Confucianism--a system of knowledge set forth in Chinese classical writings. In order to gain access to this knowledge, the Japanese applied reading markers to modify the original Chinese to fit the peculiarities of Japanese grammar and pronunciation. Confucian education started by…

  14. From Driver Safety to Lifelong Learning: Some Early Research Contributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapper, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Although Arthur Cropley is best known today for his work on creativity and education, in the early part of his career he made substantial contributions to the understanding of driving behavior and traffic safety that had important implications for public policy and legislation. He also helped develop an approach to attitude measurement, combining…

  15. A Checklist for Readiness Evaluation of Learning and Teaching Area of AACSB Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kundu, Goutam Kumar; Bairi, Jayachandra

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to introduce the concept of a checklist, focusing on the detailed analysis of requirements of the AACSB International--the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business (AACSB) standards related to the learning and teaching area--for evaluation of implementation readiness in a business school setting.…

  16. The Effects of Personalized Practice Software on Learning Math Standards in the Third through Fifth Grades

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Angela Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of "MathFacts in a Flash" software in helping students learn math standards. In each of their classes, the third-, fourth-, and fifth-grade students in a small private Roman Catholic school from the Pacific Northwest were randomly assigned either to a control group that used…

  17. Virginia "Standards of Learning" Assessments. Technical Report: 2003-2004 Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Department of Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to inform users and other interested parties about the development, content and technical characteristics of the Virginia Standards of Learning (SOL) assessments. It provides information for the 2003 "SOL" cycle that comprises the fall 2003 and spring 2004 administrations. The report is divided into three…

  18. A Vision for Teaching, Leading, and Learning: Core Teaching and Leadership Standards for Vermont Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vermont Agency of Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to serve as a resource for educators, leaders, districts, professional organizations, teacher education programs, and others. As each set of standards included here emphasizes the skills and knowledge needed for 21st century teaching and learning, they form the basis for teacher preparation, licensure, and…

  19. The Collegiate Learning Assessment: Setting Standards for Performance at a College or University. Technical Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardison, Chaitra M.; Vilamovska, Anna-Marie

    2009-01-01

    The Collegiate Learning Assessment (CLA) is a measure of how much students' critical thinking improves after attending college or university. This report illustrates how institutions can set their own standards on the CLA using a method that is appropriate for the CLA's unique characteristics. The authors examined evidence of reliability and…

  20. History on Trial: Evaluating Learning Outcomes through Audit and Accreditation in a National Standards Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brawley, Sean; Clark, Jennifer; Dixon, Chris; Ford, Lisa; Nielsen, Erik; Ross, Shawn; Upton, Stuart

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses a trial audit of history programs undertaken in 2011-­2012 to explore issues surrounding the attainment of Threshold Learning Outcomes (TLOs) in an emerging Australian national standards environment for the discipline of history. The audit sought to ascertain whether an accreditation process managed by the discipline under the…

  1. Living Traditions--A Teacher's Guide: Teaching Local History Using State and National Learning Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skelding, Mark; Kemple, Martin; Kiefer, Joseph

    This guide is designed to take teachers through a step-by-step process for developing an integrated, standards-based curriculum that focuses on the stories, history, folkways, and agrarian traditions of the local community. Such a place-based curriculum helps students to become culturally literate, makes learning relevant and engaging, draws on…

  2. Standards of Learning Objectives for Virginia Public Schools: Theatre Arts, Oral Communication, Journalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Dept. of Education, Richmond.

    The Standards of Learning Objectives for Virginia Public Schools in the areas of theatre arts, oral communication, and journalism explicitly stated in this guide reflect the scope and depth of these elective subjects and identify some appropriate ends for instruction. The guide outlines the program goals, objectives, guidelines, and SOL objectives…

  3. Negotiating Control and Protecting the Private: History Teachers and the Virginia Standards of Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ann Marie

    This study investigated what Virginia high school social studies teachers thought about the new Standards of Learning (SOL) mandates. The grounded theory ethnographic study collected data through interviews with five teachers, observations of social studies department meetings and classes, and school system and SOL program documents. Findings show…

  4. Helping Children Learn Mathematics through Multiple Intelligences and Standards for School Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Thomasenia Lott

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics 2000 process-oriented standards of problem solving, reasoning and proof, communication, connections, and representation as providing a framework for using the multiple intelligences that children bring to mathematics learning. Presents ideas for mathematics lessons and activities to…

  5. Why Do We Teach? Adult Learning Theory in Professional Standards as a Basis for Curriculum Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilstrap, Donald L.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview of adult learning theory in relation to teaching philosophies among librarians belonging to ACRL, using Hadley's Educational Orientation Questionnaire. Although not significant as a predictor, there was a nonlinear and negative correlation between librarians' familiarity with the ACRL Standards and their adult…

  6. Implementing College and Career Standards in Math Methods Course for Early Childhood and Elementary Education Teacher Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Joohi

    2016-01-01

    This study is purposed to measure the efficacy of implementing College and Career Readiness Standards (CCRS) math standards into math methods courses for early childhood and elementary education teacher candidates at an urban university located in the Dallas and Fort Worth metroplex area. A total of 161 college seniors (teacher candidates)…

  7. An Examination of the Relationship between a Child's Developmental Age and Early Literacy Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Christine E.; Senseny, Karlen

    2016-01-01

    American students typically attend kindergarten at the chronological age (CA) of five and currently with the implementation of Common Core State Standards, there are expectations that children learn how to read in order to meet these academic standards, despite whether or not they are developmentally ready. This mixed methods study examined age…

  8. Face-name association learning in early Alzheimer's disease: a comparison of learning methods and their underlying mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Bier, Nathalie; Van Der Linden, Martial; Gagnon, Lise; Desrosiers, Johanne; Adam, Stephane; Louveaux, Stephanie; Saint-Mleux, Julie

    2008-06-01

    This study compared the efficacy of five learning methods in the acquisition of face-name associations in early dementia of Alzheimer type (AD). The contribution of error production and implicit memory to the efficacy of each method was also examined. Fifteen participants with early AD and 15 matched controls were exposed to five learning methods: spaced retrieval, vanishing cues, errorless, and two trial-and-error methods, one with explicit and one with implicit memory task instructions. Under each method, participants had to learn a list of five face-name associations, followed by free recall, cued recall and recognition. Delayed recall was also assessed. For AD, results showed that all methods were efficient but there were no significant differences between them. The number of errors produced during the learning phases varied between the five methods but did not influence learning. There were no significant differences between implicit and explicit memory task instructions on test performances. For the control group, there were no differences between the five methods. Finally, no significant correlations were found between the performance of the AD participants in free recall and their cognitive profile, but generally, the best performers had better remaining episodic memory. Also, case study analyses showed that spaced retrieval was the method for which the greatest number of participants (four) obtained results as good as the controls. This study suggests that the five methods are effective for new learning of face-name associations in AD. It appears that early AD patients can learn, even in the context of error production and explicit memory conditions.

  9. New Dental Accreditation Standard on Critical Thinking: A Call for Learning Models, Outcomes, Assessments.

    PubMed

    Johnsen, David C; Williams, John N; Baughman, Pauletta Gay; Roesch, Darren M; Feldman, Cecile A

    2015-10-01

    This opinion article applauds the recent introduction of a new dental accreditation standard addressing critical thinking and problem-solving, but expresses a need for additional means for dental schools to demonstrate they are meeting the new standard because articulated outcomes, learning models, and assessments of competence are still being developed. Validated, research-based learning models are needed to define reference points against which schools can design and assess the education they provide to their students. This article presents one possible learning model for this purpose and calls for national experts from within and outside dental education to develop models that will help schools define outcomes and assess performance in educating their students to become practitioners who are effective critical thinkers and problem-solvers.

  10. Needed: A Standard Information Processing Model of Learning and Learning Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carifio, James

    One strategy to prevent confusion as new paradigms emerge is to have professionals in the area develop and use a standard model of the phenomenon in question. The development and use of standard models in physics, genetics, archaeology, and cosmology have been very productive. The cognitive revolution in psychology and education has produced a…

  11. Family functioning and early learning practices in immigrant homes.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sunyoung; Fuller, Bruce; Galindo, Claudia

    2012-01-01

    Poverty-related developmental-risk theories dominate accounts of uneven levels of household functioning and effects on children. But immigrant parents may sustain norms and practices-stemming from heritage culture, selective migration, and social support-that buffer economic exigencies. Comparable levels of social-emotional functioning in homes of foreign-born Latino mothers were observed relative to native-born Whites, despite sharp social-class disparities, but learning activities were much weaker, drawing on a national sample of mothers with children aging from 9 to 48months (n=5,300). Asian-heritage mothers reported weaker social functioning-greater martial conflict and depression-yet stronger learning practices. Mothers' migration history, ethnicity, and social support helped to explain levels of functioning, after taking into account multiple indicators of class and poverty. © 2012 The Authors. Child Development © 2012 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  12. Selective effects of explanation on learning during early childhood.

    PubMed

    Legare, Cristine H; Lombrozo, Tania

    2014-10-01

    Two studies examined the specificity of effects of explanation on learning by prompting 3- to 6-year-old children to explain a mechanical toy and comparing what they learned about the toy's causal and non-causal properties with children who only observed the toy, both with and without accompanying verbalization. In Study 1, children were experimentally assigned to either explain or observe the mechanical toy. In Study 2, children were classified according to whether the content of their response to an undirected prompt involved explanation. Dependent measures included whether children understood the toy's functional-mechanical relationships, remembered perceptual features of the toy, effectively reconstructed the toy, and (for Study 2) generalized the function of the toy when constructing a new one. Results demonstrate that across age groups, explanation promotes causal learning and generalization but does not improve (and in younger children can even impair) memory for causally irrelevant perceptual details. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A real-time standard parts inspection based on deep learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kuan; Li, XuDong; Jiang, Hongzhi; Zhao, Huijie

    2017-10-01

    Since standard parts are necessary components in mechanical structure like bogie and connector. These mechanical structures will be shattered or loosen if standard parts are lost. So real-time standard parts inspection systems are essential to guarantee their safety. Researchers would like to take inspection systems based on deep learning because it works well in image with complex backgrounds which is common in standard parts inspection situation. A typical inspection detection system contains two basic components: feature extractors and object classifiers. For the object classifier, Region Proposal Network (RPN) is one of the most essential architectures in most state-of-art object detection systems. However, in the basic RPN architecture, the proposals of Region of Interest (ROI) have fixed sizes (9 anchors for each pixel), they are effective but they waste much computing resources and time. In standard parts detection situations, standard parts have given size, thus we can manually choose sizes of anchors based on the ground-truths through machine learning. The experiments prove that we could use 2 anchors to achieve almost the same accuracy and recall rate. Basically, our standard parts detection system could reach 15fps on NVIDIA GTX1080 (GPU), while achieving detection accuracy 90.01% mAP.

  14. A deep learning method for early screening of lung cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kunpeng; Jiang, Huiqin; Ma, Ling; Gao, Jianbo; Yang, Xiaopeng

    2018-04-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths among men. In this paper, we propose a pulmonary nodule detection method for early screening of lung cancer based on the improved AlexNet model. In order to maintain the same image quality as the existing B/S architecture PACS system, we convert the original CT image into JPEG format image by analyzing the DICOM file firstly. Secondly, in view of the large size and complex background of CT chest images, we design the convolution neural network on basis of AlexNet model and sparse convolution structure. At last we train our models on the software named DIGITS which is provided by NVIDIA. The main contribution of this paper is to apply the convolutional neural network for the early screening of lung cancer and improve the screening accuracy by combining the AlexNet model with the sparse convolution structure. We make a series of experiments on the chest CT images using the proposed method, of which the sensitivity and specificity indicates that the method presented in this paper can effectively improve the accuracy of early screening of lung cancer and it has certain clinical significance at the same time.

  15. [Compliance with current standards for the early detection of neonatal hearing loss].

    PubMed

    Rojas-Godoy, Andrea L; Gómez-Gómez, Olga; Rivas-Muñoz, Fabio A

    2014-01-01

    Assessing compliance with the section "Assessment of hearing" stipulated in the Technical Standard to Detect Alteration in children aged less than 10 years-old in Bogota. This was a cross-sectional study which involved reviewing the medical records of all children born between July 1st and December 31st 2010 in two healthcare institutions in Bogota. Records were selected in which any of the following risk factors appeared: neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia involving phototherapy, neonatal exposure to ototoxic substances and/or <1.500 gr low birth weight. It was also ascertained whether children had been referred to an auditory evoked potential test as the prescribed screening test for neonatal hearing, as stipulated in mandatory Colombian technical standards for detecting abnormal growth and developmental in children aged less than ten years-old. Neither of the two institutions was making the aforementioned referral test. The results indicated significant difficulties in adherence to the protocol for the early detection of hearing loss regarding pertinent/current neonatal Colombian regulations.

  16. Episodic representations support early semantic learning: evidence from midazolam induced amnesia.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Paul; Hirshman, Elliot; Zamani, Shane; Hsu, John; Berrigan, Michael

    2006-07-01

    Current controversy exists regarding the role of episodic representations in the formation of long-term semantic memories. Using the drug midazolam to induce temporary amnesia we tested participants' memories for newly learned facts in a semantic cue condition or an episodic and semantic cue condition. Following midazolam administration, memory performance was superior in the episodic and semantic condition, suggesting early semantic learning is supported by episodic representations.

  17. Clinical imprinting: the impact of early clinical learning on career long professional development in nursing.

    PubMed

    Andrew, Nicola

    2013-05-01

    The literature recognises a relationship between clinical experience and a successful undergraduate experience in nursing; however what constitutes an effective approach remains the subject of debate, particularly in relation to first year of learning. There is evidence from a biological standpoint that early experience impacts on the behavioural development of animals, described by Konrad Lorenz (1903-1989) as 'imprinting'. The concept of imprinting has resonance for nursing. In this article the importance of 'getting it right at the beginning' is explored and what, if anything, Lorenz's theory tells us about the impact of early clinical learning on subsequent professional development. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Teacher Responses to Learning Cycle Science Lessons for Early Childhood Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraemer, Emily N.

    Three learning cycle science lessons were developed for preschoolers in an early childhood children's center in Costa Mesa, California. The lessons were field tested by both novice and experienced teachers with children ranging from three to five years old. Teachers were then interviewed informally to collect feedback on the structure and flow the lessons. The feedback was encouraging remarks towards the use of learning cycle science lessons for early childhood educators. Adjustments were made to the lessons based on teacher feedback. The lessons and their implications for preschool education are discussed.

  19. Bumble-bee learning selects for both early and long flowering in food-deceptive plants

    PubMed Central

    Internicola, Antonina I.; Harder, Lawrence D.

    2012-01-01

    Most rewardless orchids engage in generalized food-deception, exhibiting floral traits typical of rewarding species and exploiting the instinctive foraging of pollinators. Generalized food-deceptive (GFD) orchids compete poorly with rewarding species for pollinator services, which may be overcome by flowering early in the growing season when relatively more pollinators are naive and fewer competing plant species are flowering, and/or flowering for extended periods to enhance the chance of pollinator visits. We tested these hypotheses by manipulating flowering time and duration in a natural population of Calypso bulbosa and quantifying pollinator visitation based on pollen removal. Both early and long flowering increased bumble-bee visitation compared with late and brief flowering, respectively. To identify the cause of reduced visitation during late flowering, we tested whether negative experience with C. bulbosa (avoidance learning) and positive experience with a rewarding species, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, (associative learning) by captive bumble-bees could reduce C. bulbosa's competitiveness. Avoidance learning explained the higher visitation of early- compared with late-flowering C. bulbosa. The resulting pollinator-mediated selection for early flowering may commonly affect GFD orchids, explaining their tendency to flower earlier than rewarding orchids. For dissimilar deceptive and rewarding sympatric species, associative learning may additionally favour early flowering by GFD species. PMID:22090384

  20. Bumble-bee learning selects for both early and long flowering in food-deceptive plants.

    PubMed

    Internicola, Antonina I; Harder, Lawrence D

    2012-04-22

    Most rewardless orchids engage in generalized food-deception, exhibiting floral traits typical of rewarding species and exploiting the instinctive foraging of pollinators. Generalized food-deceptive (GFD) orchids compete poorly with rewarding species for pollinator services, which may be overcome by flowering early in the growing season when relatively more pollinators are naive and fewer competing plant species are flowering, and/or flowering for extended periods to enhance the chance of pollinator visits. We tested these hypotheses by manipulating flowering time and duration in a natural population of Calypso bulbosa and quantifying pollinator visitation based on pollen removal. Both early and long flowering increased bumble-bee visitation compared with late and brief flowering, respectively. To identify the cause of reduced visitation during late flowering, we tested whether negative experience with C. bulbosa (avoidance learning) and positive experience with a rewarding species, Arctostaphylos uva-ursi, (associative learning) by captive bumble-bees could reduce C. bulbosa's competitiveness. Avoidance learning explained the higher visitation of early- compared with late-flowering C. bulbosa. The resulting pollinator-mediated selection for early flowering may commonly affect GFD orchids, explaining their tendency to flower earlier than rewarding orchids. For dissimilar deceptive and rewarding sympatric species, associative learning may additionally favour early flowering by GFD species.

  1. E-Learning Content Design Standards Based on Interactive Digital Concepts Maps in the Light of Meaningful and Constructivist Learning Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afify, Mohammed Kamal

    2018-01-01

    The present study aims to identify standards of interactive digital concepts maps design and their measurement indicators as a tool to develop, organize and administer e-learning content in the light of Meaningful Learning Theory and Constructivist Learning Theory. To achieve the objective of the research, the author prepared a list of E-learning…

  2. Randomised clinical trial of early specialist palliative care plus standard care versus standard care alone in patients with advanced cancer: The Danish Palliative Care Trial.

    PubMed

    Groenvold, Mogens; Petersen, Morten Aagaard; Damkier, Anette; Neergaard, Mette Asbjoern; Nielsen, Jan Bjoern; Pedersen, Lise; Sjøgren, Per; Strömgren, Annette Sand; Vejlgaard, Tove Bahn; Gluud, Christian; Lindschou, Jane; Fayers, Peter; Higginson, Irene J; Johnsen, Anna Thit

    2017-10-01

    Beneficial effects of early palliative care have been found in advanced cancer, but the evidence is not unequivocal. To investigate the effect of early specialist palliative care among advanced cancer patients identified in oncology departments. The Danish Palliative Care Trial (DanPaCT) (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01348048) is a multicentre randomised clinical trial comparing early referral to a specialist palliative care team plus standard care versus standard care alone. The planned sample size was 300. At five oncology departments, consecutive patients with advanced cancer were screened for palliative needs. Patients with scores exceeding a predefined threshold for problems with physical, emotional or role function, or nausea/vomiting, pain, dyspnoea or lack of appetite according to the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire (EORTC QLQ-C30) were eligible. The primary outcome was the change in each patient's primary need (the most severe of the seven QLQ-C30 scales) at 3- and 8-week follow-up (0-100 scale). Five sensitivity analyses were conducted. Secondary outcomes were change in the seven QLQ-C30 scales and survival. Totally 145 patients were randomised to early specialist palliative care versus 152 to standard care. Early specialist palliative care showed no effect on the primary outcome of change in primary need (-4.9 points (95% confidence interval -11.3 to +1.5 points); p = 0.14). The sensitivity analyses showed similar results. Analyses of the secondary outcomes, including survival, also showed no differences, maybe with the exception of nausea/vomiting where early specialist palliative care might have had a beneficial effect. We did not observe beneficial or harmful effects of early specialist palliative care, but important beneficial effects cannot be excluded.

  3. Signature Pedagogy in Early Years Education: A Role for COTS Game-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, David; Robertson, Derek; Hudson, Alison; Shimi, Jill

    2012-01-01

    In this article we look at the links between early years pedagogy and the use of digital game-based learning. Early years education is a distinctive phase of the education system in many countries, generally covering the age range from 3-6 or 7 years. In the United Kingdom, it tends to bridge preschool and the first two years in primary school.…

  4. Start Early to Build a Healthy Future: The Research Linking Early Learning and Health. Full Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Brooke; Hanson, Ann; Raden, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Every child deserves a fair chance. A chance to learn, grow, explore possibilities, persevere and achieve his or her potential. Yet many children in America, particularly children who live in poverty or are racial or ethnic minorities, face inequitable conditions that reduce their chances of leading healthy lives. These conditions lead to…

  5. Machine Learning Techniques for Prediction of Early Childhood Obesity.

    PubMed

    Dugan, T M; Mukhopadhyay, S; Carroll, A; Downs, S

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to predict childhood obesity after age two, using only data collected prior to the second birthday by a clinical decision support system called CHICA. Analyses of six different machine learning methods: RandomTree, RandomForest, J48, ID3, Naïve Bayes, and Bayes trained on CHICA data show that an accurate, sensitive model can be created. Of the methods analyzed, the ID3 model trained on the CHICA dataset proved the best overall performance with accuracy of 85% and sensitivity of 89%. Additionally, the ID3 model had a positive predictive value of 84% and a negative predictive value of 88%. The structure of the tree also gives insight into the strongest predictors of future obesity in children. Many of the strongest predictors seen in the ID3 modeling of the CHICA dataset have been independently validated in the literature as correlated with obesity, thereby supporting the validity of the model. This study demonstrated that data from a production clinical decision support system can be used to build an accurate machine learning model to predict obesity in children after age two.

  6. Teaching the Standards Is Developmentally Appropriate Practice: Strategies for Incorporating the Sociopolitical Dimension of DAP in Early Childhood Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldstein, Lisa S.

    2008-01-01

    Many early childhood practitioners in the U.S. are experiencing tension between their desire to offer students developmentally appropriate learning experiences and their obligation to teach the academic knowledge and skills mandated by their states. However, careful examination of the DAP guidelines' definition of culturally appropriate practice…

  7. Comparing multifocal VEP and standard automated perimetry in high-risk ocular hypertension and early glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Fortune, Brad; Demirel, Shaban; Zhang, Xian; Hood, Donald C; Patterson, Emily; Jamil, Annisa; Mansberger, Steven L; Cioffi, George A; Johnson, Chris A

    2007-03-01

    To compare the diagnostic performance of multifocal visual evoked potential (mfVEP) and standard automated perimetry (SAP), in eyes with high-risk ocular hypertension or early glaucoma. Both eyes of 185 individuals with high-risk ocular hypertension or early glaucoma were evaluated. Subjects ranged in age from 37 to 87 (mean +/- SD: 61 +/- 11 years). Pattern-reversal mfVEPs were obtained by using VERIS (Electro-Diagnostic Imaging, San Mateo, CA) with a four-electrode array and were analyzed with custom software. SAP visual fields (SITA-standard; Carl Zeiss Meditec, Inc., Dublin, CA) were obtained within 22.3 +/- 27.0 days of the mfVEP. Stereo disc photographs and Heidelberg Retina Tomograph (HRT) images were obtained during one visit, which was within 24.8 +/- 50.4 days of the mfVEP and 33.1 +/- 62.9 days of the SAP visual field. Abnormalities on the mfVEP were defined by using a variety of cluster criteria: SAP with pattern standard deviation (PSD) P

  8. Nebraska Early Learning Guidelines for Ages Birth to 3: Nurturing the Development and Learning of Infants and Toddlers through Responsive Caregiving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This resource provides information to assist parents, family members, early childhood teachers, caregivers, and other adults in promoting the learning and development of young children ages birth to three. It is a companion to the Nebraska Early Learning Guidelines for Ages 3 to 5, and uses the same format and domains of development. This…

  9. Improving Hospital-Wide Early Resource Allocation through Machine Learning.

    PubMed

    Gartner, Daniel; Padman, Rema

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to evaluate the extent to which early determination of diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) can be used for better allocation of scarce hospital resources. When elective patients seek admission, the true DRG, currently determined only at discharge, is unknown. We approach the problem of early DRG determination in three stages: (1) test how much a Naïve Bayes classifier can improve classification accuracy as compared to a hospital's current approach; (2) develop a statistical program that makes admission and scheduling decisions based on the patients' clincial pathways and scarce hospital resources; and (3) feed the DRG as classified by the Naïve Bayes classifier and the hospitals' baseline approach into the model (which we evaluate in simulation). Our results reveal that the DRG grouper performs poorly in classifying the DRG correctly before admission while the Naïve Bayes approach substantially improves the classification task. The results from the connection of the classification method with the mathematical program also reveal that resource allocation decisions can be more effective and efficient with the hybrid approach.

  10. The Investigation of the Relationship between Teachers' Beliefs towards Learning and Beliefs towards the Standard Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinay, Ismail; Karatas, Kasim

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between teachers' beliefs toward learning and beliefs toward standard tests. During the study, correlational survey research model, one of the research models, is adopted. As data collection tool; "Belief Scale Towards Learning" and "Beliefs About Standardized Tests…

  11. Evaluation of Arabic Language Learning Program for Non-Native Speakers in Saudi Electronic University According to Total Quality Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alowaydhi, Wafa Hafez

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed at standardizing the program of learning Arabic for non-native speakers in Saudi Electronic University according to certain standards of total quality. To achieve its purpose, the study adopted the descriptive analytical method. The author prepared a measurement tool for evaluating the electronic learning programs in light…

  12. Early warnings, weak signals and learning from healthcare disasters.

    PubMed

    Macrae, Carl

    2014-06-01

    In the wake of healthcare disasters, such as the appalling failures of care uncovered in Mid Staffordshire, inquiries and investigations often point to a litany of early warnings and weak signals that were missed, misunderstood or discounted by the professionals and organisations charged with monitoring the safety and quality of care. Some of the most urgent challenges facing those responsible for improving and regulating patient safety are therefore how to identify, interpret, integrate and act on the early warnings and weak signals of emerging risks-before those risks contribute to a disastrous failure of care. These challenges are fundamentally organisational and cultural: they relate to what information is routinely noticed, communicated and attended to within and between healthcare organisations-and, most critically, what is assumed and ignored. Analysing these organisational and cultural challenges suggests three practical ways that healthcare organisations and their regulators can improve safety and address emerging risks. First, engage in practices that actively produce and amplify fleeting signs of ignorance. Second, work to continually define and update a set of specific fears of failure. And third, routinely uncover and publicly circulate knowledge on the sources of systemic risks to patient safety and the improvements required to address them. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  13. Teachers' Experiences with Integrating Play-Based Learning into Standards-Driven Curriculum: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nugent, Mary Beth Anderson

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to describe kindergarten teachers' experiences with integrating play-based learning into standards-based academic curriculum in a school district in South Carolina. Play-based learning experiences were defined as instances which allow children to engage in active, social learning experiences in…

  14. Learning Methodology for Early Child Education Education (Paud) in the Recognition of Legal Capitals based on Android

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siswanto, Didik

    2017-12-01

    School as a place to study require a medium of learning. Instructional media containinginformation about the lessons that will be used by teachers to convey a lesson. School early childhood education Al-Kindy Pekanbaru interms of learning the letter hijaiyah still use conventional learning media. But with the conventionalmedia is not very attractive to use, so the need for an exciting learning medium that can make childrenbecome interested in learningThe purpose of this study was to create a Media Learning Introduction Letter Hijaiyahmultimedia form and benefit from the introduction of letters Hijaiyah Learning Media is a renewal of themedium of learning in School early childhood education Al-Kindy Pekanbaru.In this study the authors tried to make the learning application that contains the basicknowledge of letters hijaiyah dsertai with animation, audio and explanation how to read the letters inorder to complete the learning media letters hijaiyah more interactive.

  15. Learning from gesture: How early does it happen?

    PubMed

    Novack, Miriam A; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Woodward, Amanda L

    2015-09-01

    Iconic gesture is a rich source of information for conveying ideas to learners. However, in order to learn from iconic gesture, a learner must be able to interpret its iconic form-a nontrivial task for young children. Our study explores how young children interpret iconic gesture and whether they can use it to infer a previously unknown action. In Study 1, 2- and 3-year-old children were shown iconic gestures that illustrated how to operate a novel toy to achieve a target action. Children in both age groups successfully figured out the target action more often after seeing an iconic gesture demonstration than after seeing no demonstration. However, the 2-year-olds (but not the 3-year-olds) figured out fewer target actions after seeing an iconic gesture demonstration than after seeing a demonstration of an incomplete-action and, in this sense, were not yet experts at interpreting gesture. Nevertheless, both age groups seemed to understand that gesture could convey information that can be used to guide their own actions, and that gesture is thus not movement for its own sake. That is, the children in both groups produced the action displayed in gesture on the object itself, rather than producing the action in the air (in other words, they rarely imitated the experimenter's gesture as it was performed). Study 2 compared 2-year-olds' performance following iconic vs. point gesture demonstrations. Iconic gestures led children to discover more target actions than point gestures, suggesting that iconic gesture does more than just focus a learner's attention, it conveys substantive information about how to solve the problem, information that is accessible to children as young as 2. The ability to learn from iconic gesture is thus in place by toddlerhood and, although still fragile, allows children to process gesture, not as meaningless movement, but as an intentional communicative representation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Learning from gesture: How early does it happen?

    PubMed Central

    Novack, Miriam A.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan; Woodward, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    Iconic gesture is a rich source of information for conveying ideas to learners. However, in order to learn from iconic gesture, a learner must be able to interpret its iconic form--a nontrivial task for young children. Our study explores how young children interpret iconic gesture and whether they can use it to infer a previously unknown action. In Study 1, 2- and 3-year-old children were shown iconic gestures that illustrated how to operate a novel toy to achieve a target action. Children in both age groups successfully figured out the target action more often after seeing an iconic gesture demonstration than after seeing no demonstration. However, the 2-year-olds (but not the 3-year-olds) figured out fewer target actions after seeing an iconic gesture demonstration than after seeing a demonstration of an incomplete-action and, in this sense, were not yet experts at interpreting gesture. Nevertheless, both age groups seemed to understand that gesture could convey information that can be used to guide their own actions, and that gesture is thus not movement for its own sake. That is, the children in both groups produced the action displayed in gesture on the object itself, rather than producing the action in the air (in other words, they rarely imitated the experimenter’s gesture as it was performed). Study 2 compared 2-year-olds’ performance following iconic vs. point gesture demonstrations. Iconic gestures led children to discover more target actions than point gestures, suggesting that iconic gesture does more than just focus a learner’s attention--,it conveys substantive information about how to solve the problem, information that is accessible to children as young as 2. The ability to learn from iconic gesture is thus in place by toddlerhood and, although still fragile, allows children to process gesture, not as meaningless movement, but as an intentional communicative representation. PMID:26036925

  17. Standardization of computer-assisted semen analysis using an e-learning application.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, J; Behr, M; Bollwein, H; Beyerbach, M; Waberski, D

    2011-08-01

    Computer-assisted semen analysis (CASA) is primarily used to obtain accurate and objective kinetic sperm measurements. Additionally, AI centers use computer-assessed sperm concentration in the sample as a basis for calculating the number of insemination doses available from a given ejaculate. The reliability of data is often limited and results can vary even when the same CASA systems with identical settings are used. The objective of the present study was to develop a computer-based training module for standardized measurements with a CASA system and to evaluate its training effect on the quality of the assessment of sperm motility and concentration. A digital versatile disc (DVD) has been produced showing the standardization of sample preparation and analysis with the CASA system SpermVision™ version 3.0 (Minitube, Verona, WI, USA) in words, pictures, and videos, as well as the most probable sources of error. Eight test persons educated in spermatology, but with different levels of experience with the CASA system, prepared and assessed 10 aliquots from one prediluted bull ejaculate using the same CASA system and laboratory equipment before and after electronic learning (e-learning). After using the e-learning application, the coefficient of variation was reduced on average for the sperm concentration from 26.1% to 11.3% (P ≤ 0.01), and for motility from 5.8% to 3.1% (P ≤ 0.05). For five test persons, the difference in the coefficient of variation before and after use of the e-learning application was significant (P ≤ 0.05). Individual deviations of means from the group mean before e-learning were reduced compared with individual deviations from the group mean after e-learning. According to a survey, the e-learning application was highly accepted by users. In conclusion, e-learning presents an effective, efficient, and accepted tool for improvement of the precision of CASA measurements. This study provides a model for the standardization of other

  18. Getting a Handle on the Standards. From the College and Career Ready Standards to Teaching and Learning in the Classroom: A Series of Resources for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Barbara; Tobiason, Glory; Chang, Sandy; Heritage, Margaret; Herman, Joan

    2015-01-01

    This resource is part of a series produced by the Center for Standards and Assessment Implementation (CSAI) to assist teachers and those who support teachers to plan teaching and learning from College and Career Ready Standards (CCRS) for all students, including students with disabilities, English learners, academically at-risk students, students…

  19. The Social Experience of Early Childhood for Children with Learning Disabilities: Inclusion, Competence and Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nind, Melanie; Flewitt, Rosie; Payler, Jane

    2010-01-01

    This paper tells of the social experiences of three four-year-old children with learning disabilities as they negotiate their daily lives in their homes and early education settings in England. We apply a social model of childhood disability to the relatively unexplored territory of young children and use vignettes drawn from video observation to…

  20. Early Adversity and Learning: Implications for Typical and Atypical Behavioral Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Jamie L.; van den Bos, Wouter; Roeber, Barbara J.; Rudolph, Karen D.; Davidson, Richard J.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Children who experience early adversity often develop emotion regulatory problems, but little is known about the mechanisms that mediate this relation. We tested whether general associative learning processes contribute to associations between adversity, in the form of child maltreatment, and negative behavioral outcomes. Methods:…

  1. Socio-Economic Status, Parenting Practices and Early Learning at French Kindergartens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tazouti, Youssef; Jarlégan, Annette

    2014-01-01

    The present research tests the hypothesis that parental values and educational practices are intermediary variables between the socio-economic status (SES) of families and early learning in children. Our empirical study was based on 299 parents with children in their final year at eight French kindergartens. We constructed an explanatory…

  2. Early Learning in Preschool: Meaningful and Inclusive for All? Exploring Perspectives of Migrant Parents and Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Laere, Katrien; Vandenbroeck, Michel

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decades, increasing attention has been paid in research and policies to the importance of children's early learning in preschool as a foundation for later life. This is considered especially beneficial for children living in disadvantaged societal conditions and those at risk of school failure. However, the perspectives of those most…

  3. "From Bricks to Clicks": Hybrid Commercial Spaces in the Landscape of Early Literacy and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Helen

    2011-01-01

    In their quest for resources to support children's early literacy learning and development, parents encounter and traverse different spaces in which discourses and artifacts are produced and circulated. This paper uses conceptual tools from the field of geosemiotics to examine some commercial spaces designed for parents and children that…

  4. Learning and Teaching Positive Guidance Skills: Lessons from Early Childhood Practicum Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarland, Laura; Saunders, Rachel; Allen, Sydnye

    2008-01-01

    Empirical studies of early childhood educators' experiences with learning and implementing positive guidance skills are absent from the extant literature. This study explored this topic with 63 junior and senior level university students who were involved in concurrent instructional lecture and practicum experiences. Participants defined…

  5. Toward a New Way of Learning -- Promoting Inquiry and Reflection in Palestinian Early Childhood Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khales, Buad; Meier, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The article describes the integration of inquiry, reflective practice, and child-centered teaching approaches in preservice teacher education at the early childhood level. The article reviews relevant literature on the forms and functions of inquiry and reflection as a form of professional development and teacher learning and also describes the…

  6. California's Early Learning & Development System: A Review of Funding Streams and Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Kate; Perez, Giannina S.

    2010-01-01

    California's public early learning and development programs and related services are funded through a range of federal, state and local sources. The purpose and scope of these funding streams vary broadly: some sources are dedicated primarily to serving children, birth to age five, and their families, while others can also be utilized for…

  7. The Challenges and Possibilities of a Narrative Learning Approach in the Finnish Early Childhood Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hakkarainen, Pentti

    2008-01-01

    Finnish curriculum guidelines for early education emphasise play and creative activities as significant factors in healthy child development. Constructivist theory loosely frames the guidelines, but the recommended approach lacks precise developmental goals. Since 1996, we have carried out a narrative learning project with vertically integrated…

  8. Mixed-Age Grouping in Early Childhood--Creating the Outdoor Learning Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rouse, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Children attending centre-based early childhood care and education programmes across Australia are most likely to be grouped according to age and development. While multi- or mixed-age grouping has been seen to have positive benefits on young children's learning and pro-social behaviours, this approach is not usually adopted in the organisation of…

  9. Differential Effects of Home and Preschool Learning Environments on Early Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmerse, Daniel; Anders, Yvonne; Flöter, Manja; Wieduwilt, Nadine; Roßbach, Hans-Günther; Tietze, Wolfgang

    2018-01-01

    The present study is based on longitudinal data from a German early childhood education and care (ECEC) governmental initiative assessing children's grammatical and vocabulary development between 2;6 and 4;0 years (N = 1,331), quality of the home learning environment and quality of the preschool setting. Results showed that the quality of the home…

  10. Foods and Families Learning Package: An Educational Supplement to Early Childhood News.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Mills, Inc., Minneapolis, Minn.

    This resource guide for the early childhood professional contains creative art activities, active learning experiences, interactive bulletin boards, teacher-made materials, simple cooking projects, inviting fingerplays, songs, and music. The activities are planned to stimulate children's curiosity and senses. Through experiencing these activities,…

  11. Environmental Influences on Preschoolers' Physical Activity Levels in Various Early-Learning Facilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanderloo, Leigh M.; Tucker, Patricia; Johnson, Andrew M.; Burke, Shauna M.; Irwin, Jennifer D.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study aimed to: (a) compare the physical activity (PA) levels (i.e., moderate-to-vigorous PA [MVPA] and total PA [TPA]) of preschoolers in 3 different early-learning environments (center-based childcare, home-based childcare, and full-day kindergarten [FDK]); and (b) assess which characteristics (e.g., play equipment, policies, etc.)…

  12. The Crucible of Classroom Practice: Alchemy and Early Professional Learning in Secondary English Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gannon, Susanne

    2012-01-01

    This paper explores the metaphor of the classroom as a "crucible" for early professional learning where beginning teachers forge professional identities in complex, unpredictable, paradoxical, affectively and physically potent contexts of practice. It works into the dissonances and contradictions of the micro-narratives embedded in the…

  13. "Teacher, There's an Elephant in the Room!" An Inquiry Approach to Preschoolers' Early Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kampmann, Jennifer Anne; Bowne, Mary Teresa

    2011-01-01

    Children need sound language and literacy skills to communicate with others and actively participate in a classroom learning community. When an early childhood classroom offers a language- and literacy-rich environment, children have numerous opportunities to practice language and literacy in a social setting. A language-rich classroom includes an…

  14. Co-Located Single Display Collaborative Learning for Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Florencia; Nussbaum, Miguel; Weitz, Juan F.; Lopez, Ximena; Mena, Javiera; Torres, Alex

    2013-01-01

    The benefits of collaborative learning are well documented. However, most of the research has been done with children beyond the ages of early childhood. This could be due to the common and erroneous belief that young children have not developed the capacity to work collaboratively toward a given aim. In this paper we show how small group…

  15. Designs for Living and Learning: Transforming Early Childhood Environments, Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Margie; Curtis, Deb

    2015-01-01

    You likely have dreams for your early childhood environment that are greater than rating scales, regulations, and room arrangements. "Designs for Living and Learning" has been a favorite resource among educators and caregivers for more than a decade, and this new edition is packed with even more ideas that can be used as you create…

  16. Early Learning Experience and Adolescent Anxiety: A Cross-Cultural Comparison between Japan and England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Essau, Cecilia A.; Ishikawa, Shin-ichi; Sasagawa, Satoko

    2011-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to compare the frequency of anxiety symptoms among adolescents in Japan and England, and to examine the association between early learning experiences and anxiety symptoms. A total of 299 adolescents (147 from England and 152 from Japan), aged 12 to 17 years were investigated. Results showed that adolescents in…

  17. Concurrent Data Elicitation Procedures, Processes, and the Early Stages of L2 Learning: A Critical Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leow, Ronald P.; Grey, Sarah; Marijuan, Silvia; Moorman, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    Given the current methodological interest in eliciting direct data on the cognitive processes L2 learners employ as they interact with L2 data during the early stages of the learning process, this article takes a critical and comparative look at three concurrent data elicitation procedures currently employed in the SLA literature: Think aloud (TA)…

  18. Early Childhood Teachers' Perspectives on Social-Emotional Competence and Learning in Urban Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphries, Marisha L.; Williams, Brittney V.; May, Tanginia

    2018-01-01

    The promotion of social-emotional competence and implementation of social-emotional learning programs have increased substantially in schools; however, little is known about teachers' perceptions of such programs. This qualitative study explored early childhood (3 to 8 years old) teachers' perceptions of classroom-based social-emotional learning…

  19. The Genetic and Environmental Origins of Learning Abilities and Disabilities in the Early School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovas, Yulia; Haworth, Claire M. A.; Dale, Philip S.; Plomin, Robert

    2007-01-01

    Despite the importance of learning abilities and disabilities in education and child development, little is known about their genetic and environmental origins in the early school years. We report results for English (which includes reading, writing, and speaking), mathematics, and science as well as general cognitive ability in a large and…

  20. Fathers' and Mothers' Home Learning Environments and Children's Early Academic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foster, Tricia D.; Froyen, Laura C.; Skibbe, Lori E.; Bowles, Ryan P.; Decker, Kalli B.

    2016-01-01

    The home learning environment (HLE) that children experience early on is highly predictive of their later academic competencies; however, the bulk of this work is operationalized from mothers' perspectives. This study investigates the HLE provided by both mothers and fathers to their preschoolers (n = 767), with consideration for how parents'…

  1. Applying Technology to Inquiry-Based Learning in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Feng; Kinzie, Mable B.; McGuire, Patrick; Pan, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Children naturally explore and learn about their environments through inquiry, and computer technologies offer an accessible vehicle for extending the domain and range of this inquiry. Over the past decade, a growing number of interactive games and educational software packages have been implemented in early childhood education and addressed a…

  2. French Nursery Schools and German Kindergartens: Effects of Individual and Contextual Variables on Early Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tazouti, Youssef; Viriot-Goeldel, Caroline; Matter, Cornelie; Geiger-Jaillet, Anemone; Carol, Rita; Deviterne, Dominique

    2011-01-01

    The present article investigates the effects of individual and contextual variables on children's early learning in French nursery schools and German kindergartens. Our study of 552 children at preschools in France (299 children from French nursery schools) and Germany (253 children from German kindergartens) measured skills that facilitate the…

  3. Efficacy Trial of the Second Step Early Learning (SSEL) Curriculum: Preliminary Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upshur, Carole C.; Heyman, Miriam; Wenz-Gross, Melodie

    2017-01-01

    A classroom randomized trial (n = 31 classrooms) was conducted using the Second Step Early Learning (SSEL) curriculum compared to usual curricula. Head Start and community preschool classrooms enrolling low income children were randomly assigned to deliver SSEL (n = 16) or usual curricula (n = 15). Data are reported for four year olds…

  4. Exploring the Learning of Mathematics Word Problems by African Immigrant Early Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahofa, Ernest; Adendorff, Stanley; Kwenda, Chiwimbiso

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the learning of mathematics word problems by African immigrant early learners in the Western Cape Province of South Africa (SA). Phenomenology was used as the philosophical underpinning for this study and also informed the research method. Purposive sampling methods were used to select 10 African immigrant…

  5. Effects on Reading of an Early Intervention Program for Children at Risk of Learning Difficulties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    González-Valenzuela, María-José; Martín-Ruiz, Isaías

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to analyze the effects on reading of an early oral and written language intervention program for Spanish children at risk of learning difficulties. The goal of this classroom-based program was to prioritize a systematic approach to reading and writing and to foster phonological knowledge and the development of oral language…

  6. Investigating Analytic Tools for e-Book Design in Early Literacy Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roskos, Kathleen; Brueck, Jeremy; Widman, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    Toward the goal of better e-book design to support early literacy learning, this study investigates analytic tools for examining design qualities of e-books for young children. Three research-based analytic tools related to e-book design were applied to a mixed genre collection of 50 e-books from popular online sites. Tool performance varied…

  7. 2013-2014 Office of Early Learning Annual Report: Moving in the Right Direction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    While fiscal year 2012-2013 was a year of transition for the Office of Early Learning (OEL), fiscal year 2013-2014 proved to be a year when new leadership, organizational structure, direction and vision coalesced, producing results that demonstrated the office was moving in the right direction. The first day of the fiscal year--July 1, 2013--was…

  8. Social Class, Habitus, and Language Learning: The Case of Korean Early Study-Abroad Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Hyunjung

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I draw on Bourdieu's (1984, 1991) notion of "habitus" in order to explore the relationship between social class, language learning, and language teaching in the context of the global economy. To illustrate my points, I use "Early Study Abroad" (ESA), the transnational educational migration that Korean…

  9. Introducing Online Training in an Early Childhood Professional Development System: Lessons Learned in One State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone-MacDonald, Angi; Douglass, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Online educational opportunities provide improved access to high quality professional development for the early education and care workforce. Online and technology mediated learning can create sustainable education and development opportunities for states when face-to-face training is financially prohibitive. This study examined one state's…

  10. Early Years Teachers' Epistemic Beliefs and Beliefs about Children's Moral Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, S.; Brownlee, J.; Whiteford, C.; Cobb-Moore, C.; Johansson, E.; Ailwood, J.; Boulton-Lewis, G.

    2012-01-01

    There is strong political and social interest in values education both internationally and across Australia. Investment in young children is recognised as important for the development of moral values for a cohesive society; however, little is known about early years teachers' beliefs about moral values teaching and learning. The aim of the…

  11. Infants of the Knowledge Economy: The Ambition of the Australian Government's Early Years Learning Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheeseman, Sandra; Sumsion, Jennifer; Press, Frances

    2014-01-01

    Shifts in global education policy to formalise curricula and make explicit learning outcomes for ever younger children have become popular for a number of countries responding to changes in global market economics. Human capital discourses, broadly aimed at shaping national prosperity, have entered the early childhood education and care policy…

  12. Brain Development and Early Learning: Research on Brain Development. Quality Matters. Volume 1, Winter 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edie, David; Schmid, Deborah

    2007-01-01

    For decades researchers have been aware of the extraordinary development of a child's brain during the first five years of life. Recent advances in neuroscience have helped crystallize earlier findings, bringing new clarity and understanding to the field of early childhood brain development. Children are born ready to learn. They cultivate 85…

  13. Symbolic Representation in Early Years Learning: The Acquisition of Complex Notions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veraksa, Aleksander; Veraksa, Nikolay

    2016-01-01

    This article defines the concepts related to symbolic and sign representations, cognition and learning in the early years. The first study experiment of teaching 33 preschool children (19 boys and 14 girls; M = 68, 5 months) the notion of rainbow phenomenon proved the equal effectiveness of the use of both sign and symbolic tools. The second study…

  14. The Role of Computer Technology in Supporting Children's Learning in Jordanian Early Years Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkhawaldeh, Mustafa; Hyassat, Mizyed; Al-Zboon, Eman; Ahmad, Jamal

    2017-01-01

    The current research investigated early years teachers' perspectives regarding the role of computer technology in supporting children's learning in Jordanian kindergartens. Thirty semistructured interviews were conducted with preschool teachers. The sample of kindergartens in this study was purposefully selected from the targeted population of…

  15. Organizational Principles and Content of Early Foreign Language Learning in the USA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biletska, Iryna

    2015-01-01

    According to the results of leading American scientists that convincingly demonstrate the effectiveness and necessity of early foreign language learning the features of teaching foreign languages at elementary level in the United States have been analyzed. It has been found out that the US government is working on the improvement of foreign…

  16. 77 FR 36958 - Proposed Requirements-Race to the Top-Early Learning Challenge; Phase 2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 34 CFR Chapter II DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Subtitle... Requirements--Race to the Top--Early Learning Challenge; Phase 2 AGENCY: Department of Education and Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Proposed requirements. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Education and...

  17. Nature and the Outdoor Learning Environment: The Forgotten Resource in Early Childhood Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Allen

    2015-01-01

    Longitudinal studies now confirm the economic, academic, and social importance of high-quality early childhood education. At the same time, a substantial body of research indicates that an outdoor learning and play environment with diverse natural elements advances and enriches all of the domains relevant to the development, health, and well-being…

  18. The Race to the Top--Early Learning Challenge Year Two Progress Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The human brain develops rapidly in the first five years of life. High-quality early learning experiences can have a profound and lasting positive effect on young children during these years, setting the stage for success in kindergarten and beyond. This is especially true for young children with high needs who are from low-income families; who…

  19. A Neurocomputational Account of Taxonomic Responding and Fast Mapping in Early Word Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayor, Julien; Plunkett, Kim

    2010-01-01

    We present a neurocomputational model with self-organizing maps that accounts for the emergence of taxonomic responding and fast mapping in early word learning, as well as a rapid increase in the rate of acquisition of words observed in late infancy. The quality and efficiency of generalization of word-object associations is directly related to…

  20. A Dynamic Learning Concept in Early Years' Education: A Possible Way to Prevent Schoolification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broström, Stig

    2017-01-01

    In early childhood education and care, Nordic social pedagogy approach is challenged by a learning orientation that often results in unproductive "either/or" thinking. Therefore, based on the two approaches and by analysing several dimensions of Froebel's ideas and prevailing social-historical activity (play) theory, the author deduces…

  1. Silenced Voices: Learning about Early Childhood Programs in the South East Asian Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacNaughton, Glenda

    1996-01-01

    Explores political, cultural, historical, and economic dynamics of the Asian region. Suggests how English-speaking Australians might begin the process of learning about early childhood programs in Asia. Addresses political and practical challenges that monolingual, English-speaking Australians face when involved in cross-cultural exchanges with…

  2. Exploring Partnerships in Early Childhood Teacher Education through Scenario-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorin, Reesa

    2013-01-01

    Belonging to "a family, a cultural group, a neighbourhood and a wider community" (Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations [DEEWR], 2009, p. 7) is integral to children's early development and learning. Acknowledging families as "children's first and most influential educators" (DEEWR, 2009, p. 7), DEEWR notes…

  3. Community-Based Learning to Support South African Early Group Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casper, Virginia; Lamb-Parker, Faith

    2012-01-01

    The Developing Families Project-South Africa (DFP-SA) is a community-based model of education and training for the care, support and education of vulnerable children birth-to-three and their caregivers, guardians and families in rural and peri-urban townships. The approach fosters interactive learning among community members about early care and…

  4. 78 FR 38957 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Race to the Top-Early Learning...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... Department of Defense and Full- Year Continuing Appropriations Act, 2011, and the Department of Education... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION [Docket No. ED-2013-ICCD-0085] Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Race to the Top--Early Learning Challenge Annual Performance Report AGENCY: Office of...

  5. A Lens on Learning: Early Vision Screening Can Set Children on the Path to Achievement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, Susan

    2002-01-01

    Discusses student learning difficulties linked to visual disorders such as dyslexia and amblyopia, problems associated with current school vision-screening procedures, and recommendations to improve preschool and in-school vision-screening practices with an emphasis on early, regular, and comprehensive eye examinations. (PKP)

  6. Early Child Contingency Learning and Detection: Research Evidence and Implications for Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunst, Carl J.; Trivette, Carol M.; Raab, Melinda; Masiello, Tracy L.

    2008-01-01

    The types of contingency experiences infants and young children are typically exposed to are examined with a focus on the implications for early childhood intervention with young children who have developmental disabilities and delays. Studies of response-contingent child learning, the manner in which contingencies are not under direct child…

  7. Developmental changes in automatic rule-learning mechanisms across early childhood.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Jutta L; Friederici, Angela D; Männel, Claudia

    2018-06-27

    Infants' ability to learn complex linguistic regularities from early on has been revealed by electrophysiological studies indicating that 3-month-olds, but not adults, can automatically detect non-adjacent dependencies between syllables. While different ERP responses in adults and infants suggest that both linguistic rule learning and its link to basic auditory processing undergo developmental changes, systematic investigations of the developmental trajectories are scarce. In the present study, we assessed 2- and 4-year-olds' ERP indicators of pitch discrimination and linguistic rule learning in a syllable-based oddball design. To test for the relation between auditory discrimination and rule learning, ERP responses to pitch changes were used as predictor for potential linguistic rule-learning effects. Results revealed that 2-year-olds, but not 4-year-olds, showed ERP markers of rule learning. Although, 2-year-olds' rule learning was not dependent on differences in pitch perception, 4-year-old children demonstrated a dependency, such that those children who showed more pronounced responses to pitch changes still showed an effect of rule learning. These results narrow down the developmental decline of the ability for automatic linguistic rule learning to the age between 2 and 4 years, and, moreover, point towards a strong modification of this change by auditory processes. At an age when the ability of automatic linguistic rule learning phases out, rule learning can still be observed in children with enhanced auditory responses. The observed interrelations are plausible causes for age-of-acquisition effects and inter-individual differences in language learning. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Brain signatures of early lexical and morphological learning of a new language.

    PubMed

    Havas, Viktória; Laine, Matti; Rodríguez Fornells, Antoni

    2017-07-01

    Morphology is an important part of language processing but little is known about how adult second language learners acquire morphological rules. Using a word-picture associative learning task, we have previously shown that a brief exposure to novel words with embedded morphological structure (suffix for natural gender) is enough for language learners to acquire the hidden morphological rule. Here we used this paradigm to study the brain signatures of early morphological learning in a novel language in adults. Behavioural measures indicated successful lexical (word stem) and morphological (gender suffix) learning. A day after the learning phase, event-related brain potentials registered during a recognition memory task revealed enhanced N400 and P600 components for stem and suffix violations, respectively. An additional effect observed with combined suffix and stem violations was an enhancement of an early N2 component, most probably related to conflict-detection processes. Successful morphological learning was also evident in the ERP responses to the subsequent rule-generalization task with new stems, where violation of the morphological rule was associated with an early (250-400ms) and late positivity (750-900ms). Overall, these findings tend to converge with lexical and morphosyntactic violation effects observed in L1 processing, suggesting that even after a short exposure, adult language learners can acquire both novel words and novel morphological rules. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Early Arithmetic, Reading, and Learning Indicators (EARLI)☆

    PubMed Central

    Norwalk, Kate E.; DiPerna, James Clyde; Lei, Pui-Wa

    2015-01-01

    Despite growing interest in early intervention, there are few measures available to monitor the progress of early academic skills in preschoolers. The Early Arithmetic, Reading, and Learning Indicators (EARLI; DiPerna, Morgan, & Lei, 2007) were developed as brief assessments of critical early literacy and numeracy skills. The purpose of the current study was to examine the factor structure of the EARLI probes via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) in a sample of Head Start preschoolers (N = 289). A two-factor model with correlated error terms and a bifactor model provided comparable fit to the data, although there were some structural problems with the latter model. The utility of the bifactor model for explaining the structure of early academic skills as well as the utility of the EARLI probes as measures of literacy and numeracy skills in preschool are discussed. PMID:24495496

  10. Recommendation of standardized health learning contents using archetypes and semantic web technologies.

    PubMed

    Legaz-García, María del Carmen; Martínez-Costa, Catalina; Menárguez-Tortosa, Marcos; Fernández-Breis, Jesualdo Tomás

    2012-01-01

    Linking Electronic Healthcare Records (EHR) content to educational materials has been considered a key international recommendation to enable clinical engagement and to promote patient safety. This would suggest citizens to access reliable information available on the web and to guide them properly. In this paper, we describe an approach in that direction, based on the use of dual model EHR standards and standardized educational contents. The recommendation method will be based on the semantic coverage of the learning content repository for a particular archetype, which will be calculated by applying semantic web technologies like ontologies and semantic annotations.

  11. Standard and modified administrations of the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills with learning disabled students.

    PubMed

    Estes, R E; Baum, D L; Bray, N M

    1986-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of junior high school learning disabled students on standard and modified administrations of selected subtests from the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills. No significant differences were noted for correlations between types of administration and teachers' ratings on any of the subtest comparisons. Grade placements for Vocabulary and Reading Comprehension using the modified administration were significantly higher than those using the standard administration and more closely aligned with teachers' ratings. Math Concept and Math Problem-solving grade-placement scores did not differ by type of administration; teachers' ratings were higher than those produced by either testing format.

  12. Learning to remember: The early ontogeny of episodic memory☆

    PubMed Central

    Mullally, Sinéad L.; Maguire, Eleanor A.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 60 years the neural correlates of human episodic memory have been the focus of intense neuroscientific scrutiny. By contrast, neuroscience has paid substantially less attention to understanding the emergence of this neurocognitive system. In this review we consider how the study of memory development has evolved. In doing so, we concentrate primarily on the first postnatal year because it is within this time window that the most dramatic shifts in scientific opinion have occurred. Moreover, this time frame includes the critical age (∼9 months) at which human infants purportedly first begin to demonstrate rudimentary hippocampal-dependent memory. We review the evidence for and against this assertion, note the lack of direct neurocognitive data speaking to this issue, and question how demonstrations of exuberant relational learning and memory in infants as young as 3-months old can be accommodated within extant models. Finally, we discuss whether current impasses in the infant memory literature could be leveraged by making greater use of neuroimaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which have been deployed so successfully in adults. PMID:24480487

  13. Experience of nursing students with standardized patients in simulation-based learning: Q-methodology study.

    PubMed

    Ha, Eun-Ho

    2018-04-23

    Standardized patients (SPs) boost self-confidence, improve problem solving, enhance critical thinking, and advance clinical judgment of nursing students. The aim of this study was to examine nursing students' experience with SPs in simulation-based learning. Q-methodology was used. Department of nursing in Seoul, South Korea. Fourth-year undergraduate nursing students (n = 47). A total of 47 fourth-year undergraduate nursing students ranked 42 Q statements about experiences with SPs into a normal distribution grid. The following three viewpoints were obtained: 1) SPs are helpful for patient care (patient-centered view), 2) SPs roles are important for nursing student learning (SPs roles-centered view), and 3) SPs can promote competency of nursing students (student-centered view). These results indicate that SPs may improve nursing students' confidence and nursing competency. Professors should reflect these three viewpoints in simulation-based learning to effectively engage SPs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Families' Perceptions of Early Childhood Educators' Fostering Conversations and Connections by Sharing Children's Learning through Pedagogical Documentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Bronwyn; Duff, Katia

    2016-01-01

    "Belonging, Being and Becoming: The Early Years Learning Framework for Australia" emphasises that families have an important role in their children's learning and it recognises that their earliest development is influenced through these relationships and adds that partnerships can be fostered with families by early childhood educators…

  15. (Re)Affirming Identities: Implementing a Play-Based Approach to Learning in the Early Years of Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Andrea; Paatsch, Louise

    2018-01-01

    Learning through play has traditionally been a central tenet in early childhood education, however, in recent times primary schools have begun to consider the benefits of introducing a play-based approach into early years classrooms to support young children's learning, especially in the areas of language and literacy. This study focuses on the…

  16. Sensitivity and specificity of automated detection of early repolarization in standard 12-lead electrocardiography.

    PubMed

    Kenttä, Tuomas; Porthan, Kimmo; Tikkanen, Jani T; Väänänen, Heikki; Oikarinen, Lasse; Viitasalo, Matti; Karanko, Hannu; Laaksonen, Maarit; Huikuri, Heikki V

    2015-07-01

    Early repolarization (ER) is defined as an elevation of the QRS-ST junction in at least two inferior or lateral leads of the standard 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG). Our purpose was to create an algorithm for the automated detection and classification of ER. A total of 6,047 electrocardiograms were manually graded for ER by two experienced readers. The automated detection of ER was based on quantification of the characteristic slurring or notching in ER-positive leads. The ER detection algorithm was tested and its results were compared with manual grading, which served as the reference. Readers graded 183 ECGs (3.0%) as ER positive, of which the algorithm detected 176 recordings, resulting in sensitivity of 96.2%. Of the 5,864 ER-negative recordings, the algorithm classified 5,281 as negative, resulting in 90.1% specificity. Positive and negative predictive values for the algorithm were 23.2% and 99.9%, respectively, and its accuracy was 90.2%. Inferior ER was correctly detected in 84.6% and lateral ER in 98.6% of the cases. As the automatic algorithm has high sensitivity, it could be used as a prescreening tool for ER; only the electrocardiograms graded positive by the algorithm would be reviewed manually. This would reduce the need for manual labor by 90%. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Do written mandatory accreditation standards for residential care positively model learning organizations? Textual and critical discourse analysis.

    PubMed

    Bell, Erica; Robinson, Andrew; See, Catherine

    2013-11-01

    Unprecedented global population ageing accompanied by increasing complexity of aged care present major challenges of quality in aged care. In the business literature, Senge's theory of adaptive learning organisations offers a model of organisational quality. However, while accreditation of national standards is an increasing mechanism for achieving quality in aged care, there are anecdotal concerns it creates a 'minimum standards compliance mentality' and no evidence about whether it reinforces learning organisations. The research question was 'Do mandatory national accreditation standards for residential aged care, as they are written, positively model learning organisations?'. Automatic text analysis was combined with critical discourse analysis to analyse the presence of learning concepts from Senge's learning organisation theory in an exhaustive sample of national accreditation standards from 7 countries. The two stages of analysis were: (1) quantitative mapping of the presence of learning organisation concepts in standards using Bayesian-based textual analytics software and (2) qualitative critical discourse analysis to further examine how the language of standards so identified may be modelling learning organisation concepts. The learning concepts 'training', 'development', 'knowledge', and 'systems' are present with relative frequencies of 19%, 11%, 10%, and 10% respectively in the 1944 instances, in paragraph-sized text blocks, considered. Concepts such as 'team', 'integration', 'learning', 'change' and 'innovation' occur with 7%, 6%, 5%, 5%, and 1% relative frequencies respectively. Learning concepts tend to co-occur with negative rather than positive sentiment language in the 3176 instances in text blocks containing sentiment language. Critical discourse analysis suggested that standards generally use the language of organisational change and learning in limited ways that appear to model 'learning averse' communities of practice and organisational

  18. Deep Learning Role in Early Diagnosis of Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Reda, Islam; Khalil, Ashraf; Elmogy, Mohammed; Abou El-Fetouh, Ahmed; Shalaby, Ahmed; Abou El-Ghar, Mohamed; Elmaghraby, Adel; Ghazal, Mohammed; El-Baz, Ayman

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a computer-aided diagnostic system for early diagnosis of prostate cancer. The presented system integrates both clinical biomarkers (prostate-specific antigen) and extracted features from diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging collected at multiple b values. The presented system performs 3 major processing steps. First, prostate delineation using a hybrid approach that combines a level-set model with nonnegative matrix factorization. Second, estimation and normalization of diffusion parameters, which are the apparent diffusion coefficients of the delineated prostate volumes at different b values followed by refinement of those apparent diffusion coefficients using a generalized Gaussian Markov random field model. Then, construction of the cumulative distribution functions of the processed apparent diffusion coefficients at multiple b values. In parallel, a K-nearest neighbor classifier is employed to transform the prostate-specific antigen results into diagnostic probabilities. Finally, those prostate-specific antigen–based probabilities are integrated with the initial diagnostic probabilities obtained using stacked nonnegativity constraint sparse autoencoders that employ apparent diffusion coefficient–cumulative distribution functions for better diagnostic accuracy. Experiments conducted on 18 diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging data sets achieved 94.4% diagnosis accuracy (sensitivity = 88.9% and specificity = 100%), which indicate the promising results of the presented computer-aided diagnostic system. PMID:29804518

  19. Early neurophysiological indices of second language morphosyntax learning.

    PubMed

    Hanna, Jeff; Shtyrov, Yury; Williams, John; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2016-02-01

    Humans show variable degrees of success in acquiring a second language (L2). In many cases, morphological and syntactic knowledge remain deficient, although some learners succeed in reaching nativelike levels, even if they begin acquiring their L2 relatively late. In this study, we use psycholinguistic, online language proficiency tests and a neurophysiological index of syntactic processing, the syntactic mismatch negativity (sMMN) to local agreement violations, to compare behavioural and neurophysiological markers of grammar processing between native speakers (NS) of English and non-native speakers (NNS). Variable grammar proficiency was measured by psycholinguistic tests. When NS heard ungrammatical word sequences lacking agreement between subject and verb (e.g. *we kicks), the MMN was enhanced compared with syntactically legal sentences (e.g. he kicks). More proficient NNS also showed this difference, but less proficient NNS did not. The main cortical sources of the MMN responses were localised in bilateral superior temporal areas, where, crucially, source strength of grammar-related neuronal activity correlated significantly with grammatical proficiency of individual L2 speakers as revealed by the psycholinguistic tests. As our results show similar, early MMN indices to morpho-syntactic agreement violations among both native speakers and non-native speakers with high grammar proficiency, they appear consistent with the use of similar brain mechanisms for at least certain aspects of L1 and L2 grammars. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  20. Early neurophysiological indices of second language morphosyntax learning

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Jeff; Shtyrov, Yury; Williams, John; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2016-01-01

    Humans show variable degrees of success in acquiring a second language (L2). In many cases, morphological and syntactic knowledge remain deficient, although some learners succeed in reaching nativelike levels, even if they begin acquiring their L2 relatively late. In this study, we use psycholinguistic, online language proficiency tests and a neurophysiological index of syntactic processing, the syntactic mismatch negativity (sMMN) to local agreement violations, to compare behavioural and neurophysiological markers of grammar processing between native speakers (NS) of English and non-native speakers (NNS). Variable grammar proficiency was measured by psycholinguistic tests. When NS heard ungrammatical word sequences lacking agreement between subject and verb (e.g. *we kicks), the MMN was enhanced compared with syntactically legal sentences (e.g. he kicks). More proficient NNS also showed this difference, but less proficient NNS did not. The main cortical sources of the MMN responses were localised in bilateral superior temporal areas, where, crucially, source strength of grammar-related neuronal activity correlated significantly with grammatical proficiency of individual L2 speakers as revealed by the psycholinguistic tests. As our results show similar, early MMN indices to morpho-syntactic agreement violations among both native speakers and non-native speakers with high grammar proficiency, they appear consistent with the use of similar brain mechanisms for at least certain aspects of L1 and L2 grammars. PMID:26752451

  1. Associative Learning during Early Adulthood Enhances Later Memory Retention in Honeybees

    PubMed Central

    Arenas, Andrés; Fernández, Vanesa M.; Farina, Walter M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Cognitive experiences during the early stages of life play an important role in shaping the future behavior in mammals but also in insects, in which precocious learning can directly modify behaviors later in life depending on both the timing and the rearing environment. However, whether olfactory associative learning acquired early in the adult stage of insects affect memorizing of new learning events has not been studied yet. Methodology Groups of adult honeybee workers that experienced an odor paired with a sucrose solution 5 to 8 days or 9 to 12 days after emergence were previously exposed to (i) a rewarded experience through the offering of scented food, or (ii) a non-rewarded experience with a pure volatile compound in the rearing environment. Principal Findings Early rewarded experiences (either at 1–4 or 5–8 days of adult age) enhanced retention performance in 9–12-day-conditioned bees when they were tested at 17 days of age. The highest retention levels at this age, which could not be improved with prior rewarded experiences, were found for memories established at 5–8 days of adult age. Associative memories acquired at 9–12 days of age showed a weak effect on retention for some pure pre-exposed volatile compounds; whereas the sole exposure of an odor at any younger age did not promote long-term effects on learning performance. Conclusions The associative learning events that occurred a few days after adult emergence improved memorizing in middle-aged bees. In addition, both the timing and the nature of early sensory inputs interact to enhance retention of new learning events acquired later in life, an important matter in the social life of honeybees. PMID:19956575

  2. Beyond naïve cue combination: salience and social cues in early word learning.

    PubMed

    Yurovsky, Daniel; Frank, Michael C

    2017-03-01

    Children learn their earliest words through social interaction, but it is unknown how much they rely on social information. Some theories argue that word learning is fundamentally social from its outset, with even the youngest infants understanding intentions and using them to infer a social partner's target of reference. In contrast, other theories argue that early word learning is largely a perceptual process in which young children map words onto salient objects. One way of unifying these accounts is to model word learning as weighted cue combination, in which children attend to many potential cues to reference, but only gradually learn the correct weight to assign each cue. We tested four predictions of this kind of naïve cue combination account, using an eye-tracking paradigm that combines social word teaching and two-alternative forced-choice testing. None of the predictions were supported. We thus propose an alternative unifying account: children are sensitive to social information early, but their ability to gather and deploy this information is constrained by domain-general cognitive processes. Developmental changes in children's use of social cues emerge not from learning the predictive power of social cues, but from the gradual development of attention, memory, and speed of information processing. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Acquiring skill at medical image inspection: learning localized in early visual processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowden, Paul T.; Davies, Ian R. L.; Roling, Penny; Watt, Simon J.

    1997-04-01

    Acquisition of the skill of medical image inspection could be due to changes in visual search processes, 'low-level' sensory learning, and higher level 'conceptual learning.' Here, we report two studies that investigate the extent to which learning in medical image inspection involves low- level learning. Early in the visual processing pathway cells are selective for direction of luminance contrast. We exploit this in the present studies by using transfer across direction of contrast as a 'marker' to indicate the level of processing at which learning occurs. In both studies twelve observers trained for four days at detecting features in x- ray images (experiment one equals discs in the Nijmegen phantom, experiment two equals micro-calcification clusters in digitized mammograms). Half the observers examined negative luminance contrast versions of the images and the remainder examined positive contrast versions. On the fifth day, observers swapped to inspect their respective opposite contrast images. In both experiments leaning occurred across sessions. In experiment one, learning did not transfer across direction of luminance contrast, while in experiment two there was only partial transfer. These findings are consistent with the contention that some of the leaning was localized early in the visual processing pathway. The implications of these results for current medical image inspection training schedules are discussed.

  4. Predictive coding accelerates word recognition and learning in the early stages of language development.

    PubMed

    Ylinen, Sari; Bosseler, Alexis; Junttila, Katja; Huotilainen, Minna

    2017-11-01

    The ability to predict future events in the environment and learn from them is a fundamental component of adaptive behavior across species. Here we propose that inferring predictions facilitates speech processing and word learning in the early stages of language development. Twelve- and 24-month olds' electrophysiological brain responses to heard syllables are faster and more robust when the preceding word context predicts the ending of a familiar word. For unfamiliar, novel word forms, however, word-expectancy violation generates a prediction error response, the strength of which significantly correlates with children's vocabulary scores at 12 months. These results suggest that predictive coding may accelerate word recognition and support early learning of novel words, including not only the learning of heard word forms but also their mapping to meanings. Prediction error may mediate learning via attention, since infants' attention allocation to the entire learning situation in natural environments could account for the link between prediction error and the understanding of word meanings. On the whole, the present results on predictive coding support the view that principles of brain function reported across domains in humans and non-human animals apply to language and its development in the infant brain. A video abstract of this article can be viewed at: http://hy.fi/unitube/video/e1cbb495-41d8-462e-8660-0864a1abd02c. [Correction added on 27 January 2017, after first online publication: The video abstract link was added.]. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Beyond Naïve Cue Combination: Salience and Social Cues in Early Word Learning

    PubMed Central

    Yurovsky, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Children learn their earliest words through social interaction, but it is unknown how much they rely on social information. Some theories argue that word learning is fundamentally social from its outset, with even the youngest infants understanding intentions and using them to infer a social partner’s target of reference. In contrast, other theories argue that early word learning is largely a perceptual process in which young children map words onto salient objects. One way of unifying these accounts is to model word learning as weighted cue-combination, in which children attend to many potential cues to reference, but only gradually learn the correct weight to assign each cue. We tested four predictions of this kind of naïve cue-combination account, using an eye-tracking paradigm that combines social word-teaching and two-alternative forced-choice testing. None of the predictions were supported. We thus propose an alternative unifying account: children are sensitive to social information early, but their ability to gather and deploy this information is constrained by domain-general cognitive processes. Developmental changes in children’s use of social cues emerge not from learning the predictive power of social cues, but from the gradual development of attention, memory, and speed of information processing. PMID:26575408

  6. Early life manipulations of vasopressin-family peptides alter vocal learning.

    PubMed

    Baran, Nicole M; Peck, Samantha C; Kim, Tabitha H; Goldstein, Michael H; Adkins-Regan, Elizabeth

    2017-07-26

    Vocal learning from social partners is crucial for the successful development of communication in a wide range of species. Social interactions organize attention and enhance motivation to learn species-typical behaviour. However, the neurobiological mechanisms connecting social motivation and vocal learning are unknown. Using zebra finches ( Taeniopygia guttata ), a ubiquitous model for vocal learning, we show that manipulations of nonapeptide hormones in the vasopressin family (arginine vasotocin, AVT) early in development can promote or disrupt both song and social motivation. Young male zebra finches, like human infants, are socially gregarious and require interactive feedback from adult tutors to learn mature vocal forms. To investigate the role of social motivational mechanisms in song learning, in two studies, we injected hatchling males with AVT or Manning compound (MC, a nonapeptide receptor antagonist) on days 2-8 post-hatching and recorded song at maturity. In both studies, MC males produced a worse match to tutor song than controls. In study 2, which experimentally controlled for tutor and genetic factors, AVT males also learned song significantly better compared with controls. Furthermore, song similarity correlated with several measures of social motivation throughout development. These findings provide the first evidence that nonapeptides are critical to the development of vocal learning. © 2017 The Author(s).

  7. Move to Learn, Learn to Move: Prioritizing Physical Activity in Early Childhood Education Programming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lu, Chunlei; Montague, Brandi

    2016-01-01

    The global childhood trend towards obesity and unhealthy lifestyles is a growing concern. Childcare settings have been identified as the most influential factors for children's physical activity, and physical activity habits are better formed and maintained if started in early childhood. As a result, early childhood education environments are in…

  8. Early learning effect of residents for laparoscopic sigmoid resection.

    PubMed

    Bosker, Robbert; Groen, Henk; Hoff, Christiaan; Totte, Eric; Ploeg, Rutger; Pierie, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of learning the laparoscopic sigmoid resection procedure on resident surgeons; establish a minimum number of cases before a resident surgeon could be expected to achieve proficiency with the procedure; and examine if an analysis could be used to measure and support the clinical evaluation of the surgeon's competence with the procedure. Retrospective analysis of data which was prospective entered in the database. From 2003 to 2007 all patients who underwent a laparoscopic sigmoid resection carried out by senior residents, who completed the procedure as the primary surgeon proctored by an experienced surgeon, were included in the study. A cumulative sum control chart (CUSUM) analysis was used evaluate performance. The procedure was defined as a failure if major intra-operative complications occurred such as intra abdominal organ injury, bleeding, or anastomotic leakage; if an inadequate number of lymph nodes (<12 nodes) were removed; or if conversion to an open surgical procedure was required. Thirteen residents performed 169 laparoscopic sigmoid resections in the period evaluated. A significant majority of the resident surgeons were able to consistently perform the procedure without failure after 11 cases and determined to be competent. One resident was not determined to be competent and the CUSUM score supported these findings. We concluded that at least 11 cases are required for most residents to obtain necessary competence with the laparoscopic sigmoid resection procedure. Evaluation with the CUSUM analysis can be used to measure and support the clinical evaluation of the resident surgeon's competence with the procedure. Copyright © 2013 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Early Standard Electroencephalogram Abnormalities Predict Mortality in Septic Intensive Care Unit Patients.

    PubMed

    Azabou, Eric; Magalhaes, Eric; Braconnier, Antoine; Yahiaoui, Lyria; Moneger, Guy; Heming, Nicholas; Annane, Djillali; Mantz, Jean; Chrétien, Fabrice; Durand, Marie-Christine; Lofaso, Frédéric; Porcher, Raphael; Sharshar, Tarek

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis is associated with increased mortality, delirium and long-term cognitive impairment in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities occurring at the acute stage of sepsis may correlate with severity of brain dysfunction. Predictive value of early standard EEG abnormalities for mortality in ICU septic patients remains to be assessed. In this prospective, single center, observational study, standard EEG was performed, analyzed and classified according to both Synek and Young EEG scales, in consecutive patients acutely admitted in ICU for sepsis. Delirium, coma and the level of sedation were assessed at the time of EEG recording; and duration of sedation, occurrence of in-ICU delirium or death were assessed during follow-up. Adjusted analyses were carried out using multiple logistic regression. One hundred ten patients were included, mean age 63.8 (±18.1) years, median SAPS-II score 38 (29-55). At the time of EEG recording, 46 patients (42%) were sedated and 22 (20%) suffered from delirium. Overall, 54 patients (49%) developed delirium, of which 32 (29%) in the days after EEG recording. 23 (21%) patients died in the ICU. Absence of EEG reactivity was observed in 27 patients (25%), periodic discharges (PDs) in 21 (19%) and electrographic seizures (ESZ) in 17 (15%). ICU mortality was independently associated with a delta-predominant background (OR: 3.36; 95% CI [1.08 to 10.4]), absence of EEG reactivity (OR: 4.44; 95% CI [1.37-14.3], PDs (OR: 3.24; 95% CI [1.03 to 10.2]), Synek grade ≥ 3 (OR: 5.35; 95% CI [1.66-17.2]) and Young grade > 1 (OR: 3.44; 95% CI [1.09-10.8]) after adjustment to Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS-II) at admission and level of sedation. Delirium at the time of EEG was associated with ESZ in non-sedated patients (32% vs 10%, p = 0.037); with Synek grade ≥ 3 (36% vs 7%, p< 0.05) and Young grade > 1 (36% vs 17%, p< 0.001). Occurrence of delirium in the days after EEG was associated with a delta

  10. Early Standard Electroencephalogram Abnormalities Predict Mortality in Septic Intensive Care Unit Patients

    PubMed Central

    Azabou, Eric; Magalhaes, Eric; Braconnier, Antoine; Yahiaoui, Lyria; Moneger, Guy; Heming, Nicholas; Annane, Djillali; Mantz, Jean; Chrétien, Fabrice; Durand, Marie-Christine; Lofaso, Frédéric; Porcher, Raphael; Sharshar, Tarek

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Sepsis is associated with increased mortality, delirium and long-term cognitive impairment in intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Electroencephalogram (EEG) abnormalities occurring at the acute stage of sepsis may correlate with severity of brain dysfunction. Predictive value of early standard EEG abnormalities for mortality in ICU septic patients remains to be assessed. Methods In this prospective, single center, observational study, standard EEG was performed, analyzed and classified according to both Synek and Young EEG scales, in consecutive patients acutely admitted in ICU for sepsis. Delirium, coma and the level of sedation were assessed at the time of EEG recording; and duration of sedation, occurrence of in-ICU delirium or death were assessed during follow-up. Adjusted analyses were carried out using multiple logistic regression. Results One hundred ten patients were included, mean age 63.8 (±18.1) years, median SAPS-II score 38 (29–55). At the time of EEG recording, 46 patients (42%) were sedated and 22 (20%) suffered from delirium. Overall, 54 patients (49%) developed delirium, of which 32 (29%) in the days after EEG recording. 23 (21%) patients died in the ICU. Absence of EEG reactivity was observed in 27 patients (25%), periodic discharges (PDs) in 21 (19%) and electrographic seizures (ESZ) in 17 (15%). ICU mortality was independently associated with a delta-predominant background (OR: 3.36; 95% CI [1.08 to 10.4]), absence of EEG reactivity (OR: 4.44; 95% CI [1.37–14.3], PDs (OR: 3.24; 95% CI [1.03 to 10.2]), Synek grade ≥ 3 (OR: 5.35; 95% CI [1.66–17.2]) and Young grade > 1 (OR: 3.44; 95% CI [1.09–10.8]) after adjustment to Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS-II) at admission and level of sedation. Delirium at the time of EEG was associated with ESZ in non-sedated patients (32% vs 10%, p = 0.037); with Synek grade ≥ 3 (36% vs 7%, p< 0.05) and Young grade > 1 (36% vs 17%, p< 0.001). Occurrence of delirium in the days after

  11. Preservice Early Childhood Teachers' Learning of Science in a Methods Course: Examining the Predictive Ability of an Intentional Learning Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saçkes, Mesut; Trundle, Kathy Cabe

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the predictive ability of an intentional learning model in the change of preservice early childhood teachers' conceptual understanding of lunar phases. Fifty-two preservice early childhood teachers who were enrolled in an early childhood science methods course participated in the study. Results indicated that the use…

  12. The Significance of the Poetic in Early Childhood Education: Stanley Cavell and Lucy Sprague Mitchell on Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    This paper begins with a discussion of Stanley Cavell's philosophy of language learning. Young people learn more than the meaning of words when acquiring language: they learn about (the quality of) our form of life. If we--as early childhood educators--see language teaching as something like handing some inert thing to a child, then we unduly…

  13. Report on Lessons Learned from the NP 2010 Early Site Permit Program FINAL REPORT

    SciT

    None, None

    2008-03-26

    This report provides a summary of lessons learned from the demonstration of the licensing process for three Early Site Permit (ESP) applications supported as part of the Department of Energy’s (DOE) Nuclear Power 2010 (NP 2010) program. The ESP process was established by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to enable completion of the site evaluation component of nuclear power plant licensing under 10 CFR Part 52 before a utility makes a decision to build a plant. Early Site Permits are valid for 10 to 20 years and can be renewed for an additional 10 to 20 years. NRC review ofmore » an ESP application addresses site safety issues, environmental protection issues, and plans for coping with emergencies. Successful completion of the ESP process will establish that a site is suitable for possible future construction and operation of a nuclear power plant. Most importantly, an ESP resolves significant site-related safety and environmental issues early in the decision process and helps achieve acceptance by the public. DOE competitively selected Dominion Nuclear Energy North Anna, LLC (Dominion); System Energy Resources, Inc. (an Entergy subsidiary); and Exelon Generation Company, LLC (Exelon) in 2002 to demonstrate the ESP process and provided cost-shared support through the NP 2010 program. Dominion pursued an ESP for the North Anna site in Virginia; System Energy Resources, Inc. pursued an ESP for the Grand Gulf site in Mississippi; and Exelon pursued an ESP for the Clinton site in Illinois. After successfully demonstrating the process, the NRC issued an ESP for Clinton on March 17, 2007; Grand Gulf on April 5, 2007; and North Anna on November 27, 2007. As with all successful projects, there are lessons to be learned from the NP 2010 early site permitting demonstration that can help improve future implementation guidance documents and regulatory review standards. In general, these lessons pertain to the effectiveness of the regulatory process, experience

  14. The Head Start Child Development and Early Learning Framework: Promoting Positive Outcomes in Early Childhood Programs Serving Children 3-5 Years Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Head Start, US Department of Health and Human Services, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report presents a revision of the Head Start Child Outcomes Framework (2000), renamed The Head Start Child Development and Learning Framework: Promoting Positive Outcomes in Early Childhood Programs Serving Children 3-5 Years Old. The Framework outlines the essential areas of development and learning that are to be used by Head Start programs…

  15. Virginia Standards of Learning (Grades 6 through 12) That Are Covered When Students Attend Live Performances of Shakespeare's Plays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookshire, Cathy A.

    This paper outlines Standards of Learning for grades 6-12 students in Virginia that are covered when they attend live performances of William Shakespeare's plays. The paper details separate standards for each grade in English, subdivided into standards which fulfill requirements in Oral Language, Reading/Literature, Writing, and Research, along…

  16. Multi-Domain Transfer Learning for Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Bo; Liu, Mingxia; Shen, Dinggang; Li, Zuoyong; Zhang, Daoqiang

    2017-04-01

    Recently, transfer learning has been successfully applied in early diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) based on multi-domain data. However, most of existing methods only use data from a single auxiliary domain, and thus cannot utilize the intrinsic useful correlation information from multiple domains. Accordingly, in this paper, we consider the joint learning of tasks in multi-auxiliary domains and the target domain, and propose a novel Multi-Domain Transfer Learning (MDTL) framework for early diagnosis of AD. Specifically, the proposed MDTL framework consists of two key components: 1) a multi-domain transfer feature selection (MDTFS) model that selects the most informative feature subset from multi-domain data, and 2) a multi-domain transfer classification (MDTC) model that can identify disease status for early AD detection. We evaluate our method on 807 subjects from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database using baseline magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. The experimental results show that the proposed MDTL method can effectively utilize multi-auxiliary domain data for improving the learning performance in the target domain, compared with several state-of-the-art methods.

  17. Multi-Domain Transfer Learning for Early Diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Bo; Liu, Mingxia; Li, Zuoyong

    2017-01-01

    Recently, transfer learning has been successfully applied in early diagnosis of Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) based on multi-domain data. However, most of existing methods only use data from a single auxiliary domain, and thus cannot utilize the intrinsic useful correlation information from multiple domains. Accordingly, in this paper, we consider the joint learning of tasks in multi-auxiliary domains and the target domain, and propose a novel Multi-Domain Transfer Learning (MDTL) framework for early diagnosis of AD. Specifically, the proposed MDTL framework consists of two key components: 1) a multi-domain transfer feature selection (MDTFS) model that selects the most informative feature subset from multi-domain data, and 2) a multidomain transfer classification (MDTC) model that can identify disease status for early AD detection. We evaluate our method on 807 subjects from the Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database using baseline magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. The experimental results show that the proposed MDTL method can effectively utilize multi-auxiliary domain data for improving the learning performance in the target domain, compared with several state-of-the-art methods. PMID:27928657

  18. Enhancing early child care quality and learning for toddlers at risk: the responsive early childhood program.

    PubMed

    Landry, Susan H; Zucker, Tricia A; Taylor, Heather B; Swank, Paul R; Williams, Jeffrey M; Assel, Michael; Crawford, April; Huang, Weihua; Clancy-Menchetti, Jeanine; Lonigan, Christopher J; Phillips, Beth M; Eisenberg, Nancy; Spinrad, Tracy L; de Villiers, Jill; de Villiers, Peter; Barnes, Marcia; Starkey, Prentice; Klein, Alice

    2014-02-01

    Despite reports of positive effects of high-quality child care, few experimental studies have examined the process of improving low-quality center-based care for toddler-age children. In this article, we report intervention effects on child care teachers' behaviors and children's social, emotional, behavioral, early literacy, language, and math outcomes as well as the teacher-child relationship. The intervention targeted the use of a set of responsive teacher practices, derived from attachment and sociocultural theories, and a comprehensive curriculum. Sixty-five childcare classrooms serving low-income 2- and 3-year-old children were randomized into 3 conditions: business-as-usual control, Responsive Early Childhood Curriculum (RECC), and RECC plus explicit social-emotional classroom activities (RECC+). Classroom observations showed greater gains for RECC and RECC+ teachers' responsive practices including helping children manage their behavior, establishing a predictable schedule, and use of cognitively stimulating activities (e.g., shared book reading) compared with controls; however, teacher behaviors did not differ for focal areas such as sensitivity and positive discipline supports. Child assessments demonstrated that children in the interventions outperformed controls in areas of social and emotional development, although children's performance in control and intervention groups was similar for cognitive skills (language, literacy, and math). Results support the positive impact of responsive teachers and environments providing appropriate support for toddlers' social and emotional development. Possible explanations for the absence of systematic differences in children's cognitive skills are considered, including implications for practice and future research targeting low-income toddlers.

  19. Conceptual Foundations and Components of a Contextual Intervention to Promote Student Engagement during Early Adolescence: The Supporting Early Adolescent Learning and Social Success (SEALS) Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Thomas W.; Hamm, Jill V.; Lane, Kathleen L.; Lee, David; Sutherland, Kevin S.; Hall, Cristin M.; Murray, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Decades of research indicate that many early adolescents are at risk for developing significant school adjustment problems in the academic, behavioral, and social domains during the transition to middle school. The Supporting Early Adolescent Learning and Social Success (SEALS) model has been developed as a professional development and…

  20. The Role of Motive Objects in Early Childhood Teacher Development Concerning Children's Digital Play and Play-Based Learning in Early Childhood Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nuttall, Joce; Edwards, Susan; Mantilla, Ana; Grieshaber, Sue; Wood, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Digital technologies are increasingly accepted as a viable aspect of early childhood curriculum. However, teacher uptake of digital technologies in early childhood education and their use with young children in play-based approaches to learning have not been strong. Traditional approaches to the problem of teacher uptake of digital technologies in…

  1. Early handling effect on female rat spatial and non-spatial learning and memory.

    PubMed

    Plescia, Fulvio; Marino, Rosa A M; Navarra, Michele; Gambino, Giuditta; Brancato, Anna; Sardo, Pierangelo; Cannizzaro, Carla

    2014-03-01

    This study aims at providing an insight into early handling procedures on learning and memory performance in adult female rats. Early handling procedures were started on post-natal day 2 until 21, and consisted in 15 min, daily separations of the dams from their litters. Assessment of declarative memory was carried out in the novel-object recognition task; spatial learning, reference- and working memory were evaluated in the Morris water maze (MWM). Our results indicate that early handling induced an enhancement in: (1) declarative memory, in the object recognition task, both at 1h and 24h intervals; (2) reference memory in the probe test and working memory and behavioral flexibility in the "single-trial and four-trial place learning paradigm" of the MWM. Short-term separation by increasing maternal care causes a dampening in HPA axis response in the pups. A modulated activation of the stress response may help to protect brain structures, involved in cognitive function. In conclusion, this study shows the long-term effects of a brief maternal separation in enhancing object recognition-, spatial reference- and working memory in female rats, remarking the impact of early environmental experiences and the consequent maternal care on the behavioral adaptive mechanisms in adulthood. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. 10 CFR 2.110 - Filing and administrative action on submittals for standard design approval or early review of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., Office of New Reactors, or Director, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, as appropriate shall publish... Nuclear Reactor Regulation, as appropriate shall publish in the Federal Register a determination as to... standard design approval or early review of site suitability issues. 2.110 Section 2.110 Energy NUCLEAR...

  3. 10 CFR 2.110 - Filing and administrative action on submittals for standard design approval or early review of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, as appropriate shall publish in the Federal Register a notice of... Director, Office of New Reactors or Director, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, as appropriate shall... standard design approval or early review of site suitability issues. 2.110 Section 2.110 Energy NUCLEAR...

  4. 10 CFR 2.110 - Filing and administrative action on submittals for standard design approval or early review of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, as appropriate shall publish in the Federal Register a notice of... Director, Office of New Reactors or Director, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation, as appropriate shall... standard design approval or early review of site suitability issues. 2.110 Section 2.110 Energy NUCLEAR...

  5. The role of food experiences during early childhood in food pleasure learning.

    PubMed

    Nicklaus, Sophie

    2016-09-01

    Infants are born equipped to ingest nutrients, but have to learn what to eat. This must occur early, because the mode of feeding evolves dramatically, from "tube" feeding in utero to eating family foods. Eating habits established during early years contribute to the development of subsequent eating habits. Therefore, it is fundamental to understand the most important early periods (between birth and 2 years, i.e. onset of food neophobia) for the development of eating habits and the drivers of this development. The role of pleasure in eating is central, especially during childhood when cognitive drivers of food choices may be less prominent than later in life. It is not easy to define and measure pleasure of eating in early childhood. However, it is possible to identify the characteristics of the eating experience which contribute to drive infant's eating and to shape preferences (food sensory properties; food rewarding properties; social context of eating). The learning processes involve repeated exposure (including to a variety of flavours), association with post-absorptive consequences and with contextual signals (including family members). The important early periods for learning food pleasure start being well identified. Beyond the first flavour discoveries during the prenatal and lactation periods (through the infant's exposure to flavours from foods of the mother's diet), the most important phase may be the beginning of complementary feeding. Infants discover the sensory (texture, taste and flavour) and nutritional properties (energy density) of the foods that will ultimately compose their adult diet; parents are still in charge of providing appropriate foods, timing, context for eating. Inter-individual differences in food pleasure learning, related to temperamental dimensions, or to sensory sensitivity also have to be taken into account. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Word learning in deaf children with cochlear implants: effects of early auditory experience.

    PubMed

    Houston, Derek M; Stewart, Jessica; Moberly, Aaron; Hollich, George; Miyamoto, Richard T

    2012-05-01

    Word-learning skills were tested in normal-hearing 12- to 40-month-olds and in deaf 22- to 40-month-olds 12 to 18 months after cochlear implantation. Using the Intermodal Preferential Looking Paradigm (IPLP), children were tested for their ability to learn two novel-word/novel-object pairings. Normal-hearing children demonstrated learning on this task at approximately 18 months of age and older. For deaf children, performance on this task was significantly correlated with early auditory experience: Children whose cochlear implants were switched on by 14 months of age or who had relatively more hearing before implantation demonstrated learning in this task, but later implanted profoundly deaf children did not. Performance on this task also correlated with later measures of vocabulary size. Taken together, these findings suggest that early auditory experience facilitates word learning and that the IPLP may be useful for identifying children who may be at high risk for poor vocabulary development. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Word learning in deaf children with cochlear implants: effects of early auditory experience

    PubMed Central

    Houston, Derek M.; Stewart, Jessica; Moberly, Aaron; Hollich, George; Miyamoto, Richard T.

    2013-01-01

    Word-learning skills were tested in normal-hearing 12- to 40-month-olds and in deaf 22- to 40-month-olds 12 to 18 months after cochlear implantation. Using the Intermodal Preferential Looking Paradigm (IPLP), children were tested for their ability to learn two novel-word/novel-object pairings. Normal-hearing children demonstrated learning on this task at approximately 18 months of age and older. For deaf children, performance on this task was significantly correlated with early auditory experience: Children whose cochlear implants were switched on by 14 months of age or who had relatively more hearing before implantation demonstrated learning in this task, but later implanted profoundly deaf children did not. Performance on this task also correlated with later measures of vocabulary size. Taken together, these findings suggest that early auditory experience facilitates word learning and that the IPLP may be useful for identifying children who may be at high risk for poor vocabulary development. PMID:22490184

  8. Functional asymmetries in early learning during right, left, and bimanual performance in right-handed subjects.

    PubMed

    Aznárez-Sanado, Maite; Fernández-Seara, Maria A; Loayza, Francis R; Pastor, Maria A

    2013-03-01

    To elucidate differences in activity and connectivity during early learning due to the performing hand. Twenty right-handed subjects were recruited. The neural correlates of explicit visuospatial learning executed with the right, the left hand, and bimanually were investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Connectivity analyses were carried out using the psychophysiological interactions model, considering right and left anterior putamen as index regions. A common neural network was found for the three tasks during learning. Main activity increases were located in posterior cingulate cortex, supplementary motor area, parietal cortex, anterior putamen, and cerebellum (IV-V), whereas activity decrements were observed in prefrontal regions. However, the left hand task showed a greater recruitment of left hippocampal areas when compared with the other tasks. In addition, enhanced connectivity between the right anterior putamen and motor cortical and cerebellar regions was found for the left hand when compared with the right hand task. An additional recruitment of brain regions and increased striato-cortical and striato-cerebellar functional connections is needed when early learning is performed with the nondominant hand. In addition, access to brain resources during learning may be directed by the dominant hand in the bimanual task. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Investigating and Learning Lessons from Early Experiences of Implementing ePrescribing Systems into NHS Hospitals: A Questionnaire Study

    PubMed Central

    Cresswell, Kathrin; Coleman, Jamie; Slee, Ann; Williams, Robin; Sheikh, Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Background ePrescribing systems have significant potential to improve the safety and efficiency of healthcare, but they need to be carefully selected and implemented to maximise benefits. Implementations in English hospitals are in the early stages and there is a lack of standards guiding the procurement, functional specifications, and expected benefits. We sought to provide an updated overview of the current picture in relation to implementation of ePrescribing systems, explore existing strategies, and identify early lessons learned. Methods A descriptive questionnaire-based study, which included closed and free text questions and involved both quantitative and qualitative analysis of the data generated. Results We obtained responses from 85 of 108 NHS staff (78.7% response rate). At least 6% (n = 10) of the 168 English NHS Trusts have already implemented ePrescribing systems, 2% (n = 4) have no plans of implementing, and 34% (n = 55) are planning to implement with intended rapid implementation timelines driven by high expectations surrounding improved safety and efficiency of care. The majority are unclear as to which system to choose, but integration with existing systems and sophisticated decision support functionality are important decisive factors. Participants highlighted the need for increased guidance in relation to implementation strategy, system choice and standards, as well as the need for top-level management support to adequately resource the project. Although some early benefits were reported by hospitals that had already implemented, the hoped for benefits relating to improved efficiency and cost-savings remain elusive due to a lack of system maturity. Conclusions Whilst few have begun implementation, there is considerable interest in ePrescribing systems with ambitious timelines amongst those hospitals that are planning implementations. In order to ensure maximum chances of realising benefits, there is a need for increased guidance in

  10. Early results after laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: effect of the learning curve

    PubMed Central

    Andrew, Christopher G.; Hanna, Wael; Look, Didier; McLean, Alexander P.H.; Christou, Nicolas V.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction This study was performed to evaluate the safety and short-term efficacy of laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) for morbid obesity and to describe the relation between learning curve and short-term outcomes. Methods We collected a prospective database on the first 201 consecutive patients who underwent LRYGB by a single university-based, experienced bariatric surgeon over 24 months. We divided patients into 3 consecutive groups of 67 patients for analysis (Group 1, Group 2 and Group 3). Results The mean patient age was 37 (standard deviation [SD] 9) years; mean body mass index (BMI) was 49.2 (SD 8.3) kg/m2. BMI was similar in Groups 1 and 2 (mean 47.1, SD 5.9 and mean 48.7, SD 8.9 kg/m2) but increased in Group 3 (mean 52, SD 9.7 kg/m2, p < 0.01). Operative time decreased from 145 (SD 30) minutes in Group 1 to 114 (SD 24) minutes in Group 2 (p < 0.01) and was maintained at 119 (SD 23) minutes in Group 3. Early and late complication rates were 14.9% and 12.4%, respectively. Leak rates decreased from 6.0% in the first group to 1.5% in Groups 2 and 3, but they did not reach statistical significance. Anastomotic stricture rates decreased from 11.9% in Group 1 to 3.0% in Group 2 (p < 0.01). Overall excess weight loss for the entire series was 31.5% (SD 11.9%), 54.5% (SD 14.1%), 77.1% (SD 18.5%) and 82.1% (SD 17.5%) at 3, 6, 12 and 18 months, respectively. Conclusion LRYGB can be performed with acceptable morbidity and short-term results during the learning curve. In our series, operative time and anastomotic stricture rates decreased with experience, despite an increase in mean BMI. PMID:17234071

  11. EHLS at School: school-age follow-up of the Early Home Learning Study cluster randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Westrupp, Elizabeth M; Bennett, Clair; Cullinane, Meabh; Hackworth, Naomi J; Berthelsen, Donna; Reilly, Sheena; Mensah, Fiona K; Gold, Lisa; Bennetts, Shannon K; Levickis, Penny; Nicholson, Jan M

    2018-05-02

    Targeted interventions during early childhood can assist families in providing strong foundations that promote children's health and wellbeing across the life course. There is growing recognition that longer follow-up times are necessary to assess intervention outcomes, as effects may change as children develop. The Early Home Learning Study, or 'EHLS', comprised two cluster randomized controlled superiority trials of a brief parenting intervention, smalltalk, aimed at supporting parents to strengthen the early childhood home learning environment of infants (6-12 months) or toddlers (12-36 months). Results showed sustained improvements in parent-child interactions and the home environment at the 32 week follow-up for the toddler but not the infant trial. The current study will therefore follow up the EHLS toddler cohort to primary school age, with the aim of addressing a gap in literature concerning long-term effects of early childhood interventions focused on improving school readiness and later developmental outcomes. 'EHLS at School' is a school-aged follow-up study of the toddler cluster randomized controlled trial (n = 1226). Data will be collected by parent-, child- and teacher-report questionnaires, recorded observations of parent-child interactions, and direct child assessment when children are aged 7.5 years old. Data linkage will provide additional data on child health and academic functioning at ages 5, 8 and 10 years. Child outcomes will be compared for families allocated to standard/usual care (control) versus those allocated to the smalltalk program (group program only or group program with additional home coaching). Findings from The Early Home Learning Study provided evidence of the benefits of the smalltalk intervention delivered via facilitated playgroups for parents of toddlers. The EHLS at School Study aims to examine the long-term outcomes of this initiative to determine whether improvements in the quality of the parent

  12. How to Avoid a Learning Curve in Stapedotomy: A Standardized Surgical Technique.

    PubMed

    Kwok, Pingling; Gleich, Otto; Dalles, Katharina; Mayr, Elisabeth; Jacob, Peter; Strutz, Jürgen

    2017-08-01

    To evaluate, whether a learning curve for beginners in stapedotomy can be avoided by using a prosthesis with thermal memory-shape attachment in combination with a standardized laser-assisted surgical technique. Retrospective case review. Tertiary referral center. Fifty-eight ears were operated by three experienced surgeons and compared with a group of 12 cases operated by a beginner in stapedotomy. Stapedotomy. Difference of pure-tone audiometry thresholds measured before and after surgery. The average postoperative gain for air conduction in the frequencies below 2 kHz was 20 to 25 dB and decreased for the higher frequencies. Using the Mann-Whitney-U test for comparing mean gain between experienced and inexperienced surgeons showed no significant difference (p = 0.281 at 4 kHz and p > 0.7 for the other frequencies). A Spearman rank correlation of the postoperative gain for air- and bone-conduction thresholds was obtained at each test frequency for the first 12 patients consecutively treated with a thermal memory-shape attachment prosthesis by two experienced and one inexperienced surgeon. This analysis does not support the hypothesis of a "learning effect" that should be associated with an improved outcome for successively treated patients. It is possible to avoid a learning curve in stapes surgery by applying a thermal memory-shape prosthesis in a standardized laser-assisted surgical procedure.

  13. Can binary early warning scores perform as well as standard early warning scores for discriminating a patient's risk of cardiac arrest, death or unanticipated intensive care unit admission?

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Stuart; Kovacs, Caroline; Briggs, Jim; Meredith, Paul; Schmidt, Paul E; Featherstone, Peter I; Prytherch, David R; Smith, Gary B

    2015-08-01

    Although the weightings to be summed in an early warning score (EWS) calculation are small, calculation and other errors occur frequently, potentially impacting on hospital efficiency and patient care. Use of a simpler EWS has the potential to reduce errors. We truncated 36 published 'standard' EWSs so that, for each component, only two scores were possible: 0 when the standard EWS scored 0 and 1 when the standard EWS scored greater than 0. Using 1564,153 vital signs observation sets from 68,576 patient care episodes, we compared the discrimination (measured using the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve--AUROC) of each standard EWS and its truncated 'binary' equivalent. The binary EWSs had lower AUROCs than the standard EWSs in most cases, although for some the difference was not significant. One system, the binary form of the National Early Warning System (NEWS), had significantly better discrimination than all standard EWSs, except for NEWS. Overall, Binary NEWS at a trigger value of 3 would detect as many adverse outcomes as are detected by NEWS using a trigger of 5, but would require a 15% higher triggering rate. The performance of Binary NEWS is only exceeded by that of standard NEWS. It may be that Binary NEWS, as a simplified system, can be used with fewer errors. However, its introduction could lead to significant increases in workload for ward and rapid response team staff. The balance between fewer errors and a potentially greater workload needs further investigation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Posttraining transcranial magnetic stimulation of striate cortex disrupts consolidation early in visual skill learning.

    PubMed

    De Weerd, Peter; Reithler, Joel; van de Ven, Vincent; Been, Marin; Jacobs, Christianne; Sack, Alexander T

    2012-02-08

    Practice-induced improvements in skilled performance reflect "offline " consolidation processes extending beyond daily training sessions. According to visual learning theories, an early, fast learning phase driven by high-level areas is followed by a late, asymptotic learning phase driven by low-level, retinotopic areas when higher resolution is required. Thus, low-level areas would not contribute to learning and offline consolidation until late learning. Recent studies have challenged this notion, demonstrating modified responses to trained stimuli in primary visual cortex (V1) and offline activity after very limited training. However, the behavioral relevance of modified V1 activity for offline consolidation of visual skill memory in V1 after early training sessions remains unclear. Here, we used neuronavigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) directed to a trained retinotopic V1 location to test for behaviorally relevant consolidation in human low-level visual cortex. Applying TMS to the trained V1 location within 45 min of the first or second training session strongly interfered with learning, as measured by impaired performance the next day. The interference was conditional on task context and occurred only when training in the location targeted by TMS was followed by training in a second location before TMS. In this condition, high-level areas may become coupled to the second location and uncoupled from the previously trained low-level representation, thereby rendering consolidation vulnerable to interference. Our data show that, during the earliest phases of skill learning in the lowest-level visual areas, a behaviorally relevant form of consolidation exists of which the robustness is controlled by high-level, contextual factors.

  15. Predictive information processing is a fundamental learning mechanism present in early development: evidence from infants.

    PubMed

    Trainor, Laurel J

    2012-02-01

    Evidence is presented that predictive coding is fundamental to brain function and present in early infancy. Indeed, mismatch responses to unexpected auditory stimuli are among the earliest robust cortical event-related potential responses, and have been measured in young infants in response to many types of deviation, including in pitch, timing, and melodic pattern. Furthermore, mismatch responses change quickly with specific experience, suggesting that predictive coding reflects a powerful, early-developing learning mechanism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Learning Languages: The Journal of the National Network for Early Language Learning, 1996-1997.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning Languages: The Journal of the National Network for Early Language Learning, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This document consists of the three issues of the journal "Learning Languages" published during volume year 2. These issues contain the following major articles: "Minneapolis and Brittany: Children Bridge Geographical and Social Differences Through Technology" (Janine Onffroy Shelley); "Student Reasons for Studying…

  17. Early Verb Learning: How Do Children Learn How to Compare Events?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Childers, Jane B.; Parrish, Rebecca; Olson, Christina V.; Burch, Clare; Fung, Gavin; McIntyre, Kevin P.

    2016-01-01

    An important problem verb learners must solve is how to extend verbs. Children could use cross-situational information to guide their extensions; however, comparing events is difficult. In 2 studies, researchers tested whether children benefit from initially seeing a pair of similar events ("progressive alignment") while learning new…

  18. Brain structural substrates of cognitive procedural learning in alcoholic patients early in abstinence.

    PubMed

    Ritz, Ludivine; Segobin, Shailendra; Le Berre, Anne Pascale; Lannuzel, Coralie; Boudehent, Céline; Vabret, François; Eustache, Francis; Pitel, Anne Lise; Beaunieux, Hélène

    2014-08-01

    Procedural learning allows for the acquisition of new behavioral skills. Previous studies have shown that chronic alcoholism is characterized by impaired cognitive procedural learning and brain abnormalities affecting regions that are involved in the automation of new cognitive procedures in healthy individuals. The goal of the present study was to investigate the brain structural substrates of cognitive procedural learning in alcoholic patients (ALs) early in abstinence. Thirty-one ALs and 31 control participants (NCs) performed the Tower of Toronto task (4 daily learning sessions, each comprising 10 trials) to assess cognitive procedural learning. We also assessed episodic and working memory, executive functions, and visuospatial abilities. ALs underwent 1.5T structural magnetic resonance imaging. The initial cognitive phase was longer in the AL group than in the NC group, whereas the autonomous phase was shorter. In ALs, the longer cognitive phase was predicted by poorer planning and visuospatial working memory abilities, and by smaller gray matter (GM) volumes in the angular gyrus and caudate nucleus. ALs' planning abilities correlated with smaller GM volume in the angular gyrus. Cognitive procedural learning was impaired in ALs, with a delayed transition from the cognitive to the autonomous phase. This slowdown in the automation of the cognitive procedure was related to lower planning abilities, which may have hampered the initial generation of the procedure to be learned. In agreement with this neuropsychological finding, a persistent relationship was found between learning performance and the GM volumes of the angular gyrus and caudate nucleus, which are usually regarded as markers of planning and initial learning of the cognitive procedure. Copyright © 2014 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  19. Brain structural substrates of cognitive procedural learning in alcoholic patients early in abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Ritz, Ludivine; Segobin, Shailendra; Le Berre, Anne Pascale; Lannuzel, Coralie; Boudehent, Céline; Vabret, François; Eustache, Francis; Pitel, Anne Lise; Beaunieux, Hélène

    2014-01-01

    Background Procedural learning allows for the acquisition of new behavioral skills. Previous studies have shown that chronic alcoholism is characterized by impaired cognitive procedural learning and brain abnormalities affecting regions that are involved in the automation of new cognitive procedures in healthy individuals. The goal of the present study was to investigate the brain structural substrates of cognitive procedural learning in alcoholic patients (ALs) early in abstinence. Methods Thirty-one ALs and 31 control participants (NCs) performed the Tower of Toronto task (4 daily learning sessions, each comprising 10 trials) to assess cognitive procedural learning. We also assessed episodic and working memory, executive functions, and visuospatial abilities. ALs underwent 1.5T structural magnetic resonance imaging. Results The initial cognitive phase was longer in the AL group than in the NC group, whereas the autonomous phase was shorter. In ALs, the longer cognitive phase was predicted by poorer planning and visuospatial working memory abilities, and by smaller gray matter (GM) volumes in the angular gyrus and caudate nucleus. ALs’ planning abilities correlated with smaller GM volume in the angular gyrus. Conclusions Cognitive procedural learning was impaired in ALs, with a delayed transition from the cognitive to the autonomous phase. This slowdown in the automation of the cognitive procedure was related to lower planning abilities, which may have hampered the initial generation of the procedure to be learned. In agreement with this neuropsychological finding, a persistent relationship was found between learning performance and the GM volumes of the angular gyrus and caudate nucleus, which are usually regarded as markers of planning and initial learning of the cognitive procedure. PMID:25156613

  20. Using standardized patients versus video cases for representing clinical problems in problem-based learning

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The quality of problem representation is critical for developing students’ problem-solving abilities in problem-based learning (PBL). This study investigates preclinical students’ experience with standardized patients (SPs) as a problem representation method compared to using video cases in PBL. Methods: A cohort of 99 second-year preclinical students from Inje University College of Medicine (IUCM) responded to a Likert scale questionnaire on their learning experiences after they had experienced both video cases and SPs in PBL. The questionnaire consisted of 14 items with eight subcategories: problem identification, hypothesis generation, motivation, collaborative learning, reflective thinking, authenticity, patient-doctor communication, and attitude toward patients. Results: The results reveal that using SPs led to the preclinical students having significantly positive experiences in boosting patient-doctor communication skills; the perceived authenticity of their clinical situations; development of proper attitudes toward patients; and motivation, reflective thinking, and collaborative learning when compared to using video cases. The SPs also provided more challenges than the video cases during problem identification and hypotheses generation. Conclusion: SPs are more effective than video cases in delivering higher levels of authenticity in clinical problems for PBL. The interaction with SPs engages preclinical students in deeper thinking and discussion; growth of communication skills; development of proper attitudes toward patients; and motivation. Considering the higher cost of SPs compared with video cases, SPs could be used most advantageously during the preclinical period in the IUCM curriculum. PMID:26923094