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Sample records for early life insults

  1. Early-Life Toxic Insults and Onset of Sporadic Neurodegenerative Diseases-an Overview of Experimental Studies.

    PubMed

    Tartaglione, Anna Maria; Venerosi, Aldina; Calamandrei, Gemma

    2016-01-01

    The developmental origin of health and disease hypothesis states that adverse fetal and early childhood exposures can predispose to obesity, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) in adult life. Early exposure to environmental chemicals interferes with developmental programming and induces subclinical alterations that may hesitate in pathophysiology and behavioral deficits at a later life stage. The mechanisms by which perinatal insults lead to altered programming and to disease later in life are still undefined. The long latency between exposure and onset of disease, the difficulty of reconstructing early exposures, and the wealth of factors which the individual is exposed to during the life course make extremely difficult to prove the developmental origin of NDDs in clinical and epidemiological studies. An overview of animal studies assessing the long-term effects of perinatal exposure to different chemicals (heavy metals and pesticides) supports the link between exposure and hallmarks of neurodegeneration at the adult stage. Furthermore, models of maternal immune activation show that brain inflammation in early life may enhance adult vulnerability to environmental toxins, thus supporting the multiple hit hypothesis for NDDs' etiology. The study of prospective animal cohorts may help to unraveling the complex pathophysiology of sporadic NDDs. In vivo models could be a powerful tool to clarify the mechanisms through which different kinds of insults predispose to cell loss in the adult age, to establish a cause-effect relationship between "omic" signatures and disease/dysfunction later in life, and to identify peripheral biomarkers of exposure, effects, and susceptibility, for translation to prospective epidemiological studies.

  2. Children's Executive Functions: Are They Poorer after Very Early Brain Insult

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Vicki; Spencer-Smith, Megan; Coleman, Lee; Anderson, Peter; Williams, Jackie; Greenham, Mardee; Leventer, Richard J.; Jacobs, Rani

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally early brain insult (EBI) has been considered to have better outcome than later injury, consistent with the notion that the young brain is flexible and able to reorganize. Recent research findings question this view, suggesting that EBI might lead to poorer outcome than brain insult at any other age. Exploring this early vulnerability…

  3. 1H NMR Spectroscopy-Based Metabolomic Assessment of Uremic Toxicity, with Toxicological Outcomes, in Male Rats Following an Acute, Mid-Life Insult from Ochratoxin A

    PubMed Central

    Mantle, Peter G.; Nicholls, Andrew W.; Shockcor, John P.

    2011-01-01

    Overt response to a single 6.25 mg dose of ochratoxin A (OTA) by oral gavage to 15 months male rats was progressive loss of weight during the following four days. Lost weight was restored within one month and animals had a normal life-span without OTA-related terminal disease. Decline in plasma OTA concentration only commenced four days after dosing, while urinary excretion of OTA and ochratoxin alpha was ongoing. During a temporary period of acute polyuria, a linear relationship between urine output and creatinine concentration persisted. Elimination of other common urinary solutes relative to creatinine was generally maintained during the polyuria phase, except that phosphate excretion increased temporarily. 1H NMR metabolomic analysis of urine revealed a progressive cyclic shift in the group principal components data cluster from before dosing, throughout the acute insult phase, and returning almost completely to normality when tested six months later. Renal insult by OTA was detected by 1H NMR within a day of dosing, as the most sensitive early indicator. Notable biomarkers were trimethylamine N-oxide and an aromatic urinary profile dominated by phenylacetylglycine. Tolerance of such a large acute insult by OTA, assessed by rat natural lifetime outcomes, adds a new dimension to toxicology of this xenobiotic. PMID:22069722

  4. Early Life Stages

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Childhood should be viewed as a sequence of lifestages, from birth through infancy and adolescence. When assessing early life risks, consideration is given to risks resulting from fetal exposure via the pregnant mother, as well as postnatal exposures.

  5. Early Life Exposures and Cancer

    Cancer.gov

    Early-life events and exposures have important consequences for cancer development later in life, however, epidemiological studies of early-life factors and cancer development later in life have had significant methodological challenges.

  6. A developmental perspective on early-life exposure to neurotoxicants.

    PubMed

    Bellinger, David C; Matthews-Bellinger, Julia A; Kordas, Katarzyna

    2016-09-01

    Studies of early-life neurotoxicant exposure have not been designed, analyzed, or interpreted in the context of a fully developmental perspective. The goal of this paper is to describe the key principles of a developmental perspective and to use examples from the literature to illustrate the relevance of these principles to early-life neurotoxicant exposures. Four principles are discussed: 1) the effects of early-life neurotoxicant exposure depend on a child's developmental context; 2) deficits caused by early-life exposure initiate developmental cascades that can lead to pathologies that differ from those observed initially; 3) early-life neurotoxicant exposure has intra-familial and intergenerational impacts; 4) the impacts of early-life neurotoxicant exposure influence a child's ability to respond to future insults. The first principle is supported by considerable evidence, but the other three have received much less attention. Incorporating a developmental perspective in studies of early-life neurotoxicant exposures requires prospective collection of data on a larger array of covariates than usually considered, using analytical approaches that acknowledge the transactional processes between a child and the environment and the phenomenon of developmental cascades. Consideration of early-life neurotoxicant exposure within a developmental perspective reveals that many issues remain to be explicated if we are to achieve a deep understanding of the societal health burden associated with early-life neurotoxicant exposures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Childhood Brain Insult: Can Age at Insult Help Us Predict Outcome?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Vicki; Spencer-Smith, Megan; Leventer, Rick; Coleman, Lee; Anderson, Peter; Williams, Jackie; Greenham, Mardee; Jacobs, Rani

    2009-01-01

    Until recently, the impact of early brain insult (EBI) has been considered to be less significant than for later brain injuries, consistent with the notion that the young brain is more flexible and able to reorganize in the context of brain insult. This study aimed to evaluate this notion by comparing cognitive and behavioural outcomes for…

  8. Children of Misfortune: Early Adversity and Cumulative Inequality in Perceived Life Trajectories1

    PubMed Central

    Schafer, Markus H.; Ferraro, Kenneth F.; Mustillo, Sarah A.

    2011-01-01

    Adversity early in life may alter pathways of aging, but what interpretive processes can soften the blow of early insults? Drawing from cumulative inequality theory, the authors analyze trajectories of life evaluations and then consider whether early adversity offsets favorable expectations for the future. Results reveal that early adversity contributes to more negative views of the past but rising expectations for the future. Early adversity also has enduring effects on life evaluations, offsetting the influence of buoyant expectations. The findings draw attention to the limits of human agency under the constraints of early adversity—a process described as biographical structuration. PMID:21648247

  9. Sex and strain modify antioxidant response to early life ozone exposure in rats.

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the US, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the 3rd leading cause of death. In women, its impact continues to increase. Oxidant insults like cigarette smoke and air pollution, especially during critical periods of early life, appear to further increase risk of COPD...

  10. Early life nutrition, epigenetics and programming of later life disease.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Mark H

    2014-06-02

    The global pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is often causally linked to marked changes in diet and lifestyle; namely marked increases in dietary intakes of high energy diets and concomitant reductions in physical activity levels. However, less attention has been paid to the role of developmental plasticity and alterations in phenotypic outcomes resulting from altered environmental conditions during the early life period. Human and experimental animal studies have highlighted the link between alterations in the early life environment and increased risk of obesity and metabolic disorders in later life. This link is conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. In particular, the nutritional environment in which the fetus or infant develops influences the risk of metabolic disorders in offspring. The late onset of such diseases in response to earlier transient experiences has led to the suggestion that developmental programming may have an epigenetic component, as epigenetic marks such as DNA methylation or histone tail modifications could provide a persistent memory of earlier nutritional states. Moreover, evidence exists, at least from animal models, that such epigenetic programming should be viewed as a transgenerational phenomenon. However, the mechanisms by which early environmental insults can have long-term effects on offspring are relatively unclear. Thus far, these mechanisms include permanent structural changes to the organ caused by suboptimal levels of an important factor during a critical developmental period, changes in gene expression caused by epigenetic modifications (including DNA methylation, histone modification, and microRNA) and permanent changes in cellular ageing. A better understanding of the epigenetic basis of developmental programming and how these effects may be

  11. Infantile colic, regurgitation, and constipation: an early traumatic insult in the development of functional gastrointestinal disorders in children?

    PubMed

    Indrio, Flavia; Di Mauro, Antonio; Riezzo, Giuseppe; Cavallo, Luciano; Francavilla, Ruggiero

    2015-06-01

    Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are defined as a variable combination of chronic or recurrent gastrointestinal symptoms not explained by structural or biochemical abnormalities. Infantile colic, gastroesophageal reflux, and constipation are the most common FGIDs that lead to referral to a pediatrician during the first 6 months of life and are often responsible for hospitalization, feeding changes, use of drugs, parental anxiety, and loss of parental working days with relevant social consequences. We performed a retrospective study on patients referred for recurrent abdominal pain from January 2002 trough December 2009 to our Pediatric Gastroenterology Outpatient Unit. The population studied was matched with healthy control without history of recurrent abdominal pain, enrolled among pediatricians practicing primary health care. History of infantile colic, regurgitation, and functional constipation was detected respectively in 26.41, 25.31, and 30.16% of children diagnosed with FGIDs compared to 11.34, 12.85, and 11.76% of healthy children. According to our data, children with a history of gastrointestinal infantile distress have a higher prevalence of FGIDs years later.

  12. The Early Years: "Life" Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2013-01-01

    Talking about death as part of a life cycle is often ignored or spoken about in hushed tones in early childhood. Books with "life cycle" in the title often do not include the death of the living organism in the information about the cycle. The concept of a complete life cycle does not appear in "A Framework for K-12 Science…

  13. Developmental Origins of Chronic Kidney Disease: Should We Focus on Early Life?

    PubMed Central

    Tain, You-Lin; Hsu, Chien-Ning

    2017-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is becoming a global burden, despite recent advances in management. CKD can begin in early life by so-called “developmental programming” or “developmental origins of health and disease” (DOHaD). Early-life insults cause structural and functional changes in the developing kidney, which is called renal programming. Epidemiological and experimental evidence supports the proposition that early-life adverse events lead to renal programming and make subjects vulnerable to developing CKD and its comorbidities in later life. In addition to low nephron endowment, several mechanisms have been proposed for renal programming. The DOHaD concept opens a new window to offset the programming process in early life to prevent the development of adult kidney disease, namely reprogramming. Here, we review the key themes on the developmental origins of CKD. We have particularly focused on the following areas: evidence from human studies support fetal programming of kidney disease; insight from animal models of renal programming; hypothetical mechanisms of renal programming; alterations of renal transcriptome in response to early-life insults; and the application of reprogramming interventions to prevent the programming of kidney disease. PMID:28208659

  14. Early-Life Stress Is Associated with Gender-Based Vulnerability to Epileptogenesis in Rat Pups

    PubMed Central

    Desgent, Sébastien; Duss, Sandra; Sanon, Nathalie T.; Lema, Pablo; Lévesque, Maxime; Hébert, David; Rébillard, Rose-Marie; Bibeau, Karine; Brochu, Michèle; Carmant, Lionel

    2012-01-01

    During development, the risk of developing mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) increases when the developing brain is exposed to more than one insult in early life. Early life insults include abnormalities of cortical development, hypoxic-ischemic injury and prolonged febrile seizures. To study epileptogenesis, we have developed a two-hit model of MTLE characterized by two early-life insults: a freeze lesion-induced cortical malformation at post-natal day 1 (P1), and a prolonged hyperthermic seizure (HS) at P10. As early life stressors lead to sexual dimorphism in both acute response and long-term outcome, we hypothesized that our model could lead to gender-based differences in acute stress response and long-term risk of developing MTLE. Male and female pups underwent a freeze-lesion induced cortical microgyrus at P1 and were exposed to HS at P10. Animals were monitored by video-EEG from P90 to P120. Pre and post-procedure plasma corticosterone levels were used to measure stress response at P1 and P10. To confirm the role of sex steroids, androgenized female pups received daily testosterone injections to the mother pre-natally and post-natally for nine days while undergoing both insults. We demonstrated that after both insults females did not develop MTLE while all males did. This correlated with a rise in corticosterone levels at P1 following the lesion in males only. Interestingly, all androgenized females showed a similar rise in corticosterone at P1, and also developed MTLE. Moreover, we found that the cortical lesion significantly decreased the latency to generalized convulsion during hyperthermia at P10 in both genders. The cortical dysplasia volumes at adulthood were also similar between male and female individuals. Our data demonstrate sexual dimorphism in long-term vulnerability to develop epilepsy in the lesion + hyperthermia animal model of MTLE and suggest that the response to early-life stress at P1 contributes significantly to epileptogenesis in a

  15. Early Life Nutrition and Energy Balance Disorders in Offspring in Later Life

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Clare M.; Gray, Clint; Li, Minglan; Segovia, Stephanie A.; Vickers, Mark H.

    2015-01-01

    The global pandemic of obesity and type 2 diabetes is often causally linked to changes in diet and lifestyle; namely increased intake of calorically dense foods and concomitant reductions in physical activity. Epidemiological studies in humans and controlled animal intervention studies have now shown that nutritional programming in early periods of life is a phenomenon that affects metabolic and physiological functions throughout life. This link is conceptualised as the developmental programming hypothesis whereby environmental influences during critical periods of developmental plasticity can elicit lifelong effects on the health and well-being of the offspring. The mechanisms by which early environmental insults can have long-term effects on offspring remain poorly defined. However there is evidence from intervention studies which indicate altered wiring of the hypothalamic circuits that regulate energy balance and epigenetic effects including altered DNA methylation of key adipokines including leptin. Studies that elucidate the mechanisms behind these associations will have a positive impact on the health of future populations and adopting a life course perspective will allow identification of phenotype and markers of risk earlier, with the possibility of nutritional and other lifestyle interventions that have obvious implications for prevention of non-communicable diseases. PMID:26402696

  16. Predicting Later-Life Outcomes of Early-Life Exposures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: In utero exposure of the fetus to a stressor can lead to disease in later life. Epigenetic mechanisms are likely mediators of later-life expression of early-life events.Objectives: We examined the current state of understanding of later-life diseases resulting from ea...

  17. Is Housing a Health Insult?

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Emma; Beer, Andrew; Lester, Laurence; Pevalin, David; Whitehead, Christine; Bentley, Rebecca

    2017-01-01

    In seeking to understand the relationship between housing and health, research attention is often focussed on separate components of people’s whole housing ‘bundles’. We propose in this paper that such conceptual and methodological abstraction of elements of the housing and health relationship limits our ability to understand the scale of the accumulated effect of housing on health and thereby contributes to the under-recognition of adequate housing as a social policy tool and powerful health intervention. In this paper, we propose and describe an index to capture the means by which housing bundles influence health. We conceptualise the index as reflecting accumulated housing “insults to health”—an Index of Housing Insults (IHI). We apply the index to a sample of 1000 low-income households in Australia. The analysis shows a graded association between housing insults and health on all outcome measures. Further, after controlling for possible confounders, the IHI is shown to provide additional predictive power to the explanation of levels of mental health, general health and clinical depression beyond more traditional proxy measures. Overall, this paper reinforces the need to look not just at separate housing components but to embrace a broader understanding of the relationship between housing and health. PMID:28587139

  18. Some Insults are Easier to Detect: The Embodied Insult Detection Effect

    PubMed Central

    Wellsby, Michele; Siakaluk, Paul D.; Pexman, Penny M.; Owen, William J.

    2010-01-01

    In the present research we examined the effects of bodily experience on processing of insults in a series of semantic categorization tasks we call insult detection tasks (i.e., participants decided whether presented stimuli were insults or not). Two types of insults were used: more embodied insults (e.g., asswipe, ugly), and less embodied insults (e.g., cheapskate, twit), as well as non-insults. In Experiments 1 and 2 the non-insults did not form a single, coherent category (e.g., airbase, polka), whereas in Experiment 3 all the non-insults were compliments (e.g., eyeful, honest). Regardless of type of non-insult used, we observed facilitatory embodied insult effects such that more embodied insults were responded to faster and recalled more often than less embodied insults. In Experiment 4 we used a larger set of insults as stimuli, which allowed hierarchical multiple regression analyses. These analyses revealed that bodily experience ratings accounted for a significant amount of unique response latency, response error, and recall variability for responses to insults, even with several other predictor variables (e.g., frequency, offensiveness, imageability) included in the analyses: responses were faster and more accurate, and there was greater recall for relatively more embodied insults. These results demonstrate that conceptual knowledge of insults is grounded in knowledge gained through bodily experience. PMID:21738511

  19. Beating and insulting children as a risk for adult cancer, cardiac disease and asthma.

    PubMed

    Hyland, Michael E; Alkhalaf, Ahmed M; Whalley, Ben

    2013-12-01

    The use of physical punishment for children is associated with poor psychological and behavioral outcomes, but the causal pathway is controversial, and the effects on later physical health unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of asthma, cancer, and cardiac patients (150 in each category, 75 male) recruited from outpatient clinics and 250 healthy controls (125 male). All participants were 40-60 years old and citizens of Saudi Arabia, where the use of beating and insults is an acceptable parenting style. Demographic data and recalled frequency of beatings and insults as a child were assessed on an 8-point scale. Beating and insults were highly correlated (ρ = 0.846). Propensity score matching was used to control for demographic differences between the disease and healthy groups. After controlling for differences, more frequent beating (once or more per month) and insults were associated with a significantly increased risk for cancer (RR = 1.7), cardiac disease (RR = 1.3) and asthma (RR = 1.6), with evidence of increased risk for cancer and asthma with beating frequency of once every 6 months or more. Our results show that a threatening parenting style of beating and insults is associated with increased risk for somatic disease, possibly because this form of parenting induces stress. Our findings are consistent with previous research showing that child abuse and other early life stressors adversely affect adult somatic health, but provide evidence that the pathogenic effects occur also with chronic minor stress. A stress-inducing parenting style, even when normative, has long term adverse health consequences.

  20. The Early History of Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nisbet, E. G.; Fowler, C. M. R.

    2003-12-01

    The youth of the Earth is strange to us. Many of the most fundamental constraints on life may have been different, especially the oxidation state of the surface. Should we suddenly land on its Hadean or early Archean surface by some sci-fi accident, we would not recognize our home. Above, the sky may have been green or some other unworldly color, and above that the weak young Sun might have been unrecognizable to someone trying to identify it from its spectrum. Below, seismology would show a hot, comparatively low-viscosity interior, possibly with a magma ocean in the deeper part of the upper mantle (Drake and Righter, 2002; Nisbet and Walker, 1982), and a core that, though present, was perhaps rather smaller than today. The continents may have been small islands in an icy sea, mostly frozen with some leads of open water, ( Sleep et al., 2001). Into these icy oceans, huge protruding Hawaii-like volcanoes would have poured out vast far-spreading floods of komatiite lavas in immense eruptions that may have created sudden local hypercane storms to disrupt the nearby icebergs. And meteorites would rain down.Or perhaps it was not so strange, nor so violent. The child is father to the man; young Earth was mother to Old Earth. Earth had hydrogen, silicate rock below and on the surface abundant carbon, which her ancient self retains today. Moreover, Earth was oxygen-rich, as today. Today, a tiny part of the oxygen is free, as air; then the oxygen would have been in the mantle while the surface oxygen was used to handcuff the hydrogen as dihydrogen monoxide. Oxygen dihydride is dense, unlikely to fly off to space, and at the poles, rock-forming. Of all the geochemical features that make Earth unique, the initial degassing (Genesis 2 : b) and then the sustained presence of liquid water is the defining oddity of this planet. Early Earth probably also kept much of its carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur as oxide or hydride. And, after the most cataclysmic events had passed, ˜4.5 Ga

  1. Respiratory physiology during early life.

    PubMed

    Stocks, J

    1999-08-01

    Despite the rapid adaptation to extrauterine life, the respiratory system of an infant is not simply a miniaturized version of that of an adult, since the rapid somatic growth that occurs during the first year of life is accompanied by major developmental changes in respiratory physiology. The highly compliant chest wall of the infant results in relatively low transpulmonary pressures at end expiration with increased tendency of the small peripheral airways to close during tidal breathing. This not only impairs gas exchange and ventilation-perfusion balance, particularly in dependent parts of the lung, but, together with the small absolute size of the airways, renders the infant and young child particularly susceptible to airway obstruction. Premature airways are highly compliant structures compared with those of mature newborns or adults. This increased compliance can cause airway collapse, resulting in increased airways resistance, flow limitation, poor gas exchange and increased work of breathing. Although there is clear evidence that airway reactivity is present from birth, its role in wheezing lower respiratory tract illnesses in young infants may be overshadowed by pre-existing abnormalities of airway geometry and lung mechanics, or by pathological changes such as airway oedema and mucus hypersecretion. Attempts to assess age-related changes in airway reactivity or response to aerosol therapy in the very young is confounded by changes in breathing patterns and the fact that infants are preferential nose breathers. There is increasing evidence that pre-existing abnormalities of respiratory function, associated with adverse events during foetal life (including maternal smoking during pregnancy), and familial predisposition to wheezing are important determinants of wheezing illnesses during the first years of life. This emphasizes the need to identify and minimize any factors that threaten the normal development of the lung during this critical period if

  2. Osteoporosis in survivors of early life starvation.

    PubMed

    Weisz, George M; Albury, William R

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide evidence for the association of early life nutritional deprivation and adult osteoporosis, in order to suggest that a history of such deprivation may be an indicator of increased risk of osteoporosis in later life. The 'fetal programming' of a range of metabolic and cardiovascular disorders in adults was first proposed in the 1990s and more recently extended to disorders of bone metabolism. Localised famines during World War II left populations in whom the long-term effects of maternal, fetal and infantile nutritional deprivation were studied. These studies supported the original concept of 'fetal programming' but did not consider bone metabolism. The present paper offers clinical data from another cohort of World War II famine survivors - those from the Holocaust. The data presented here, specifically addressing the issue of osteoporosis, report on 11 Holocaust survivors in Australia (five females, six males) who were exposed to starvation in early life. The cases show, in addition to other metabolic disorders associated with early life starvation, various levels of osteoporosis, often with premature onset. The cohort studied is too small to support firm conclusions, but the evidence suggests that the risk of adult osteoporosis in both males and females is increased by severe starvation early in life - not just in the period from gestation to infancy but also in childhood and young adulthood. It is recommended that epidemiological research on this issue be undertaken, to assist planning for the future health needs of immigrants to Australia coming from famine affected backgrounds. Pending such research, it would be prudent for primary care health workers to be alert to the prima facie association between early life starvation and adult osteoporosis, and to take this factor into account along with other indicators when assessing a patient's risk of osteoporosis in later life.

  3. Early evolution without a tree of life.

    PubMed

    Martin, William F

    2011-06-30

    Life is a chemical reaction. Three major transitions in early evolution are considered without recourse to a tree of life. The origin of prokaryotes required a steady supply of energy and electrons, probably in the form of molecular hydrogen stemming from serpentinization. Microbial genome evolution is not a treelike process because of lateral gene transfer and the endosymbiotic origins of organelles. The lack of true intermediates in the prokaryote-to-eukaryote transition has a bioenergetic cause.

  4. EARLY CRANIOFACIAL DEVELOPMENT: LIFE AMONG THE SIGNALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Early Craniofacial Development: Life Among the Signals. Sid Hunter and Keith Ward. Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, US EPA, RTP, NC, 27711

    Haloacetic acids (HAA) are chemicals formed during drinking water disinfection and present in finished tap water. Exposure o...

  5. The Changing Life Space of Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Reed, Ed.; Richards, Maryse, H., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Eight papers are presented that describe the daily experience of White American children in grades 5 through 9. Each paper examines a segment of daily activity (e.g., schoolwork, talking, sports) and the associated affective states for 401 participants to provide a picture of the life space of early adolescence. (SLD)

  6. Early Life Stress, Mood, and Anxiety Disorders.

    PubMed

    Syed, Shariful A; Nemeroff, Charles B

    2017-02-01

    Early life stress has been shown to exert profound short- and long-term effects on human physiology both in the central nervous system and peripherally. Early life stress has demonstrated clear association with many psychiatric disorders including major depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and bipolar disorder. The Diagnostic and Statistics Manuel of Mental Disorders (DSM) diagnostic categorical system has served as a necessary framework for clinical service, delivery, and research, however has not been completely matching the neurobiological research perspective. Early life stress presents a complex dynamic featuring a wide spectrum of physiologic alterations: from epigenetic alterations, inflammatory changes, to dysregulation of the hypothalamic pituitary axis and has further added to the challenge of identifying biomarkers associated with psychiatric disorders. The National Institute of Mental Health's proposed Research Domain Criteria initiative incorporates a dimensional approach to assess discrete domains and constructs of behavioral function that are subserved by identifiable neural circuits. The current neurobiology of early life stress is reviewed in accordance with dimensional organization of Research Domain Criteria matrix and how the findings as a whole fit within the Research Domain Criteria frameworks.

  7. Ablation of proliferating neural stem cells during early life is sufficient to reduce adult hippocampal neurogenesis.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Mary; Krish, Varsha S; Kirshenbaum, Greer S; Atsak, Piray; Lass, Tamara J; Lieberman, Sophie R; Leonardo, E David; Dranovsky, Alex

    2018-05-09

    Environmental exposures during early life, but not during adolescence or adulthood, lead to persistent reductions in neurogenesis in the adult hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG). The mechanisms by which early life exposures lead to long-term deficits in neurogenesis remain unclear. Here, we investigated whether targeted ablation of dividing neural stem cells during early life is sufficient to produce long-term decreases in DG neurogenesis. Having previously found that the stem cell lineage is resistant to long-term effects of transient ablation of dividing stem cells during adolescence or adulthood (Kirshenbaum et al., 2014), we used a similar pharmacogenetic approach to target dividing neural stem cells for elimination during early life periods sensitive to environmental insults. We then assessed the Nestin stem cell lineage in adulthood. We found that the adult neural stem cell reservoir was depleted following ablation during the first postnatal week, when stem cells were highly proliferative, but not during the third postnatal week, when stem cells were more quiescent. Remarkably, ablating proliferating stem cells during either the first or third postnatal week led to reduced adult neurogenesis out of proportion to the changes in the stem cell pool, indicating a disruption of the stem cell function or niche following stem cell ablation in early life. These results highlight the first three postnatal weeks as a series of sensitive periods during which elimination of dividing stem cells leads to lasting alterations in adult DG neurogenesis and stem cell function. These findings contribute to our understanding of the relationship between DG development and adult neurogenesis, as well as suggest a possible mechanism by which early life experiences may lead to lasting deficits in adult hippocampal neurogenesis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Development of Life on Early Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; Wentworth, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    Exploration of Mars has begun to unveil the history of the planet. Combinations of remote sensing, in situ compositional measurements and photographic observations have shown Mars had a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution encompassed conditions that were suitable for supporting life. A habitable planet must have water, carbon and energy sources along with a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 My of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of (i) Water- as shown by carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001, well-dated at 3.9 Gy, (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon, water and a likely thicker atmosphere from extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H20, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic pattern in the crust [1]. The question arises: "Why would life not develop from these favorable conditions on Mars in its first 600 My?" During this period, environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would favor the formation of early life. (Even if life developed elsewhere on Earth, Venus, or on other bodies-it was transported to Mars where surface conditions were suitable for life to evolve). The commonly stated requirement that life would need hundreds of millions of year to get started is only an assumption; we know of no evidence that requires such a long interval for the development of life, if the proper habitable

  9. The habitat and nature of early life.

    PubMed

    Nisbet, E G; Sleep, N H

    2001-02-22

    Earth is over 4,500 million years old. Massive bombardment of the planet took place for the first 500-700 million years, and the largest impacts would have been capable of sterilizing the planet. Probably until 4,000 million years ago or later, occasional impacts might have heated the ocean over 100 degrees C. Life on Earth dates from before about 3,800 million years ago, and is likely to have gone through one or more hot-ocean 'bottlenecks'. Only hyperthermophiles (organisms optimally living in water at 80-110 degrees C) would have survived. It is possible that early life diversified near hydrothermal vents, but hypotheses that life first occupied other pre-bottleneck habitats are tenable (including transfer from Mars on ejecta from impacts there). Early hyperthermophile life, probably near hydrothermal systems, may have been non-photosynthetic, and many housekeeping proteins and biochemical processes may have an original hydrothermal heritage. The development of anoxygenic and then oxygenic photosynthesis would have allowed life to escape the hydrothermal setting. By about 3,500 million years ago, most of the principal biochemical pathways that sustain the modern biosphere had evolved, and were global in scope.

  10. Early evolution without a tree of life

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Life is a chemical reaction. Three major transitions in early evolution are considered without recourse to a tree of life. The origin of prokaryotes required a steady supply of energy and electrons, probably in the form of molecular hydrogen stemming from serpentinization. Microbial genome evolution is not a treelike process because of lateral gene transfer and the endosymbiotic origins of organelles. The lack of true intermediates in the prokaryote-to-eukaryote transition has a bioenergetic cause. This article was reviewed by Dan Graur, W. Ford Doolittle, Eugene V. Koonin and Christophe Malaterre. PMID:21714942

  11. Early-Life Nutritional Programming of Cognition-The Fundamental Role of Epigenetic Mechanisms in Mediating the Relation between Early-Life Environment and Learning and Memory Process.

    PubMed

    Moody, Laura; Chen, Hong; Pan, Yuan-Xiang

    2017-03-01

    The perinatal period is a window of heightened plasticity that lays the groundwork for future anatomic, physiologic, and behavioral outcomes. During this time, maternal diet plays a pivotal role in the maturation of vital organs and the establishment of neuronal connections. However, when perinatal nutrition is either lacking in specific micro- and macronutrients or overloaded with excess calories, the consequences can be devastating and long lasting. The brain is particularly sensitive to perinatal insults, with several neurologic and psychiatric disorders having been linked to a poor in utero environment. Diseases characterized by learning and memory impairments, such as autism, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer disease, are hypothesized to be attributed in part to environmental factors, and evidence suggests that the etiology of these conditions may date back to very early life. In this review, we discuss the role of the early-life diet in shaping cognitive outcomes in offspring. We explore the endocrine and immune mechanisms responsible for these phenotypes and discuss how these systemic factors converge to change the brain's epigenetic landscape and regulate learning and memory across the lifespan. Through understanding the maternal programming of cognition, critical steps may be taken toward preventing and treating diseases that compromise learning and memory. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Life Detection on the Early Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runnegar, B.

    2004-01-01

    Finding evidence for first the existence, and then the nature of life on the early Earth or early Mars requires both the recognition of subtle biosignatures and the elimination of false positives. The history of the search for fossils in increasingly older Precambrian strata illustrates these difficulties very clearly, and new observational and theoretical approaches are both needed and being developed. At the microscopic level of investigation, three-dimensional morphological characterization coupled with in situ chemical (isotopic, elemental, structural) analysis is the desirable first step. Geological context is paramount, as has been demonstrated by the controversies over AH84001, the Greenland graphites, and the Apex chert microfossils . At larger scales, the nature of sedimentary bedforms and the structures they display becomes crucial, and here the methods of condensed matter physics prove most useful in discriminating between biological and non-biological constructions. Ultimately, a combination of geochemical, morphological, and contextural evidence may be required for certain life detection on the early Earth or elsewhere.

  13. DNA methylation dynamics during early plant life.

    PubMed

    Bouyer, Daniel; Kramdi, Amira; Kassam, Mohamed; Heese, Maren; Schnittger, Arp; Roudier, François; Colot, Vincent

    2017-09-25

    Cytosine methylation is crucial for gene regulation and silencing of transposable elements in mammals and plants. While this epigenetic mark is extensively reprogrammed in the germline and early embryos of mammals, the extent to which DNA methylation is reset between generations in plants remains largely unknown. Using Arabidopsis as a model, we uncovered distinct DNA methylation dynamics over transposable element sequences during the early stages of plant development. Specifically, transposable elements and their relics show invariably high methylation at CG sites but increasing methylation at CHG and CHH sites. This non-CG methylation culminates in mature embryos, where it reaches saturation for a large fraction of methylated CHH sites, compared to the typical 10-20% methylation level observed in seedlings or adult plants. Moreover, the increase in CHH methylation during embryogenesis matches the hypomethylated state in the early endosperm. Finally, we show that interfering with the embryo-to-seedling transition results in the persistence of high CHH methylation levels after germination, specifically over sequences that are targeted by the RNA-directed DNA methylation (RdDM) machinery. Our findings indicate the absence of extensive resetting of DNA methylation patterns during early plant life and point instead to an important role of RdDM in reinforcing DNA methylation of transposable element sequences in every cell of the mature embryo. Furthermore, we provide evidence that this elevated RdDM activity is a specific property of embryogenesis.

  14. Systemic Prenatal Insults Disrupt Telencephalon Development

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Shenandoah

    2006-01-01

    Infants born prematurely are prone to chronic neurologic deficits including cerebral palsy (CP), epilepsy, cognitive delay, behavioral problems, and neurosensory impairments. In affected children, imaging and neuropathological findings demonstrate significant damage to white matter. The extent of cortical damage has been less obvious. Advances in the understanding of telencephalon development provide insights into how systemic intrauterine insults affect the developing white matter, subplate and cortex, and lead to multiple neurologic impairments. In addition to white matter oligodendrocytes and axons, other elements at risk for perinatal brain injury include subplate neurons, GABAergic neurons migrating through white matter and subplate, and afferents of maturing neurotransmitter systems. Common insults including hypoxia-ischemia and infection often affect the developing brain differently than the mature brain, and insults precipitate a cascade of damage to multiple neural lineages. Insights from development can identify potential targets for therapies to repair the damaged neonatal brain before it has matured. PMID:16061421

  15. The early Earth atmosphere and early life catalysts.

    PubMed

    Ramírez Jiménez, Sandra Ignacia

    2014-01-01

    Homochirality is a property of living systems on Earth. The time, the place, and the way in which it appeared are uncertain. In a prebiotic scenario two situations are of interest: either an initial small bias for handedness of some biomolecules arouse and progressed with life, or an initial slight excess led to the actual complete dominance of the known chiral molecules. A definitive answer can probably never be given, neither from the fields of physics and chemistry nor biology. Some arguments can be advanced to understand if homochirality is necessary for the initiation of a prebiotic homochiral polymer chemistry, if this homochirality is suggesting a unique origin of life, or if a chiral template such as a mineral surface is always required to result in an enantiomeric excess. A general description of the early Earth scenario will be presented in this chapter, followed by a general description of some clays, and their role as substrates to allow the concentration and amplification of some of the building blocks of life.

  16. The developing hypopharyngeal microbiota in early life.

    PubMed

    Mortensen, Martin Steen; Brejnrod, Asker Daniel; Roggenbuck, Michael; Abu Al-Soud, Waleed; Balle, Christina; Krogfelt, Karen Angeliki; Stokholm, Jakob; Thorsen, Jonathan; Waage, Johannes; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Bisgaard, Hans; Sørensen, Søren Johannes

    2016-12-30

    The airways of healthy humans harbor a distinct microbial community. Perturbations in the microbial community have been associated with disease, yet little is known about the formation and development of a healthy airway microbiota in early life. Our goal was to understand the establishment of the airway microbiota within the first 3 months of life. We investigated the hypopharyngeal microbiota in the unselected COPSAC 2010 cohort of 700 infants, using 16S rRNA gene sequencing of hypopharyngeal aspirates from 1 week, 1 month, and 3 months of age. Our analysis shows that majority of the hypopharyngeal microbiota of healthy infants belong to each individual's core microbiota and we demonstrate five distinct community pneumotypes. Four of these pneumotypes are dominated by the genera Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Moraxella, and Corynebacterium, respectively. Furthermore, we show temporal pneumotype changes suggesting a rapid development towards maturation of the hypopharyngeal microbiota and a significant effect from older siblings. Despite an overall common trajectory towards maturation, individual infants' microbiota are more similar to their own, than to others, over time. Our findings demonstrate a consolidation of the population of indigenous bacteria in healthy airways and indicate distinct trajectories in the early development of the hypopharyngeal microbiota.

  17. Early Archaean collapse basins, a habitat for early bacterial life.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nijman, W.

    For a better definition of the sedimentary environment in which early life may have flourished during the early Archaean, understanding of the basin geometry in terms of shape, depth, and fill is a prerequisite. The basin fill is the easiest to approach, namely from the well exposed, low-grade metamorphic 3.4 - 3.5 Ga rock successions in the greenstone belts of the east Pilbara (Coppin Gap Greenstone Belt and North Pole Dome) in West Australia and of the Barberton Greenstone Belt (Buck Ridge volcano-sedimentary complex) in South Africa. They consist of mafic to ultramafic volcanic rocks, largely pillow basalts, with distinct intercalations of intermediate to felsic intrusive and volcanic rocks and of silicious sediments. The, partly volcaniclastic, silicious sediments of the Buck Ridge and North Pole volcano-sedimentary complexes form a regressive-transgressive sequence. They were deposited close to base level, and experienced occasional emersion. Both North Pole Chert and the chert of the Kittys Gap volcano-sedimentary complex in the Coppin Gap Greenstone Belt preserve the flat-and-channel architecture of a shallow tidal environment. Thickness and facies distribution appear to be genetically linked to systems, i.e. arrays, of syn-depositionally active, extensional faults. Structures at the rear, front and bottoms of these fault arrays, and the fault vergence from the basin margin towards the centre characterize the basins as due to surficial crustal collapse. Observations in the Pilbara craton point to a non-linear plan view and persistence for the basin-defining fault patterns over up to 50 Ma, during which several of these fault arrays became superposed. The faults linked high-crustal level felsic intrusions within the overall mafic rock suite via porphyry pipes, black chert veins and inferred hydrothermal circulations with the overlying felsic lavas, and more importantly, with the cherty sediments. Where such veins surfaced, high-energy breccias, and in the

  18. Early Adolescent Affect Predicts Later Life Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Kansky, Jessica; Allen, Joseph P; Diener, Ed

    2016-07-01

    Subjective well-being as a predictor for later behavior and health has highlighted its relationship to health, work performance, and social relationships. However, the majority of such studies neglect the developmental nature of well-being in contributing to important changes across the transition to adulthood. To examine the potential role of subjective well-being as a long-term predictor of critical life outcomes, we examined indicators of positive and negative affect at age 14 as predictors of relationship, adjustment, self-worth, and career outcomes a decade later at ages 23 to 25, controlling for family income and gender. We utilised multi-informant methods including reports from the target participant, close friends, and romantic partners in a demographically diverse community sample of 184 participants. Early adolescent positive affect predicted fewer relationship problems (less self-reported and partner-reported conflict, and greater friendship attachment as rated by close peers) and healthy adjustment to adulthood (lower levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness). It also predicted positive work functioning (higher levels of career satisfaction and job competence) and increased self-worth. Negative affect did not significantly predict any of these important life outcomes. In addition to predicting desirable mean levels of later outcomes, early positive affect predicted beneficial changes across time in many outcomes. The findings extend early research on the beneficial outcomes of subjective well-being by having an earlier assessment of well-being, including informant reports in measuring a large variety of outcome variables, and by extending the findings to a lower socioeconomic group of a diverse and younger sample. The results highlight the importance of considering positive affect as an important component of subjective well-being distinct from negative affect. © 2016 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  19. Early Adolescent Affect Predicts Later Life Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kansky, Jessica; Allen, Joseph P.; Diener, Ed

    2016-01-01

    Background Subjective well-being as a predictor for later behavior and health has highlighted its relationship to health, work performance, and social relationships. However, the majority of such studies neglect the developmental nature of well-being in contributing to important changes across the transition to adulthood. Methods To examine the potential role of subjective well-being as a long-term predictor of critical life outcomes, we examined indicators of positive and negative affect at age 14 as a predictor of relationship, adjustment, self worth, and career outcomes a decade later at ages 23 to 25, controlling for family income and gender. We utilized multi-informant methods including reports from the target participant, close friends, and romantic partners in a demographically diverse community sample of 184 participants. Results Early adolescent positive affect predicted less relationship problems (less self-reported and partner-reported conflict, greater friendship attachment as rated by close peers), healthy adjustment to adulthood (lower levels of depression, anxiety, and loneliness). It also predicted positive work functioning (higher levels of career satisfaction and job competence) and increased self-worth. Negative affect did not significantly predict any of these important life outcomes. In addition to predicting desirable mean levels of later outcomes, early positive affect predicted beneficial changes across time in many outcomes. Conclusions The findings extend early research on the beneficial outcomes of subjective well-being by having an earlier assessment of well-being, including informant reports in measuring a large variety of outcome variables, and by extending the findings to a lower socioeconomic group of a diverse and younger sample. The results highlight the importance of considering positive affect as an important component of subjective well-being distinct from negative affect. PMID:27075545

  20. Falls, sarcopenia and growth in early life

    PubMed Central

    Sayer, Avan Aihie; Syddall, Holly E; Martin, Helen J; Dennison, Elaine M; Anderson, Frazer H; Cooper, Cyrus

    2007-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that people with poor early growth have an increased risk of sarcopenia. Sarcopenia is an important risk factor for falls but it is not known whether poor early growth is related to falls. We investigated this in the Hertfordshire Cohort Study where 2148 participants completed a falls history. Grip strength was used as a marker of sarcopenia. Birth weight, weight at one year and conditional infant growth were analysed in relation to falls history. The prevalence of any fall in the last year was 14.3% for men and 22.5% for women. Falls in the last year were inversely related to adult grip strength, height and walking speed in men and women as well as to lower conditional infant growth in men (OR 1.27 [95% CI 1.04, 1.56] per SD decrease in conditional infant growth, p=0.02). This association was attenuated after adjustment for grip strength. Our findings support an association between poor early growth and falls in older men which appears to be mediated partly through sarcopenia. The lack of relationship with birth weight suggests that postnatal rather than prenatal influences on muscle growth and development may be important for risk of falls in later life. PMID:16905644

  1. Preventing Obesity Across Generations: Evidence for Early Life Intervention.

    PubMed

    Haire-Joshu, Debra; Tabak, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    To prevent the intergenerational transfer of obesity and end the current epidemic, interventions are needed across the early life stages, from preconception to prenatal to infancy through the age of 2 years. The foundation for obesity is laid in early life by actions and interactions passed from parent to child that have long-lasting biologic and behavioral consequences. The purpose of this paper is to examine the best evidence about (a) factors in parents and offspring that promote obesity during the early life stages, (b) the social determinants and dimensions of obesity in early life, (c) promising and effective interventions for preventing obesity in early life, and (d) opportunities for future research into strategies to disrupt the intergenerational cycle of obesity that begins early in life. The pathway for halting the intergenerational obesity epidemic requires the discovery and development of evidence-based interventions that can act across multiple dimensions of influence on early life.

  2. Preventing Obesity Across Generations: Evidence for Early Life Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Haire-Joshu, Debra; Tabak, Rachel

    2017-01-01

    To prevent the intergenerational transfer of obesity and end the current epidemic, interventions are needed across the early life stages, from preconception to prenatal to infancy through the age of 2 years. The foundation for obesity is laid in early life by actions and interactions passed from parent to child that have long-lasting biologic and behavioral consequences. The purpose of this paper is to examine the best evidence about (a) factors in parents and offspring that promote obesity during the early life stages, (b) the social determinants and dimensions of obesity in early life, (c) promising and effective interventions for preventing obesity in early life, and (d) opportunities for future research into strategies to disrupt the intergenerational cycle of obesity that begins early in life. The pathway for halting the intergenerational obesity epidemic requires the discovery and development of evidence-based interventions that can act across multiple dimensions of influence on early life. PMID:26989828

  3. A critical review: early life nutrition and prenatal programming for adult disease.

    PubMed

    Carolan-Olah, Mary; Duarte-Gardea, Maria; Lechuga, Julia

    2015-12-01

    To present the evidence in relation to early life nutrition and foetal programming for adult disease. Epigenetics is a new and growing area of study investigating the impact of the intrauterine environment on the lifelong health of individuals. Discursive paper. Searches were conducted in a range of electronic health databases. Hand searches located additional articles for review. Maternal search terms included: pregnancy; nutrition; diet; obesity; over nutrition; under nutrition. Offspring related search terms included: macrosomia; intrauterine growth restriction; epigenetics; foetal programming; childhood obesity; adolescent obesity; adolescent type 2 diabetes. Results indicate that foetal programming for adult disease occurs in response to particular insults during vulnerable developmental periods. Four main areas of foetal exposure were identified in this review: (1) under nutrition; (2) over nutrition; (3) gestational diabetes mellitus; and (4) infant catch-up growth. Numerous studies also described the trans-generational nature of foetal programming. Overall, foetal exposure to excess or insufficient nutrition during vulnerable developmental periods appears to result in a lifelong predisposition to obesity and adult disease, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiac disease. For the infant who has been undernourished during early life, a predisposition to renal disease also occurs. Pregnancy is a time when women are engaged in health systems and are receptive to health messages. These factors suggest that pregnancy may be an optimal time for dietary education and intervention. There is a particular need for education on healthy diet and for interventions which aim to limit over consumption of calories. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The importance of early life in childhood obesity and related diseases: a report from the 2014 Gravida Strategic Summit.

    PubMed

    Macaulay, E C; Donovan, E L; Leask, M P; Bloomfield, F H; Vickers, M H; Dearden, P K; Baker, P N

    2014-12-01

    Obesity and its related non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as type 2 diabetes, heart disease and cancer, impose huge burdens on society, particularly the healthcare system. Until recently, public health and policy were primarily focused on secondary prevention and treatment of NCDs. However, epidemiological and experimental evidence indicates that early-life exposures influence the risk of childhood obesity and related diseases later in life, and has now focused attention on the health of both mother and child. During pregnancy and the early neonatal period, individuals respond to their environment by establishing anatomical, physiological and biochemical trajectories that shape their future health. This period of developmental plasticity provides an early window of opportunity to mitigate the environmental insults that may increase an individual's sensitivity to, or risk of, developing obesity or related diseases later in life. Although much investigation has already occurred in the area of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease research, the science itself is still in its infancy. It remains for researchers to tackle the important outstanding questions and translate their knowledge into workable solutions for the public good. The challenge, however, is to decide which areas to focus on. With these opportunities and challenges in mind, the 2014 Gravida Summit convened to examine how its early-life research program can determine which areas of research into mechanisms, biomarkers and interventions could contribute to the international research strategy to fight childhood obesity and its related diseases.

  5. Early-life nutritional effects on the female reproductive system.

    PubMed

    Chan, K A; Tsoulis, M W; Sloboda, D M

    2015-02-01

    There is now considerable epidemiological and experimental evidence indicating that early-life environmental conditions, including nutrition, affect subsequent development in later life. These conditions induce highly integrated responses in endocrine-related homeostasis, resulting in persistent changes in the developmental trajectory producing an altered adult phenotype. Early-life events trigger processes that prepare the individual for particular circumstances that are anticipated in the postnatal environment. However, where the intrauterine and postnatal environments differ markedly, such modifications to the developmental trajectory may prove maladaptive in later life. Reproductive maturation and function are similarly influenced by early-life events. This should not be surprising, because the primordial follicle pool is established early in life and is thus vulnerable to early-life events. Results of clinical and experimental studies have indicated that early-life adversity is associated with a decline in ovarian follicular reserve, changes in ovulation rates, and altered age at onset of puberty. However, the underlying mechanisms regulating the relationship between the early-life developmental environment and postnatal reproductive development and function are unclear. This review examines the evidence linking early-life nutrition and effects on the female reproductive system, bringing together clinical observations in humans and experimental data from targeted animal models. © 2015 Society for Endocrinology.

  6. Developmental origins of cardiovascular disease: Impact of early life stress in humans and rodents.

    PubMed

    Murphy, M O; Cohn, D M; Loria, A S

    2017-03-01

    The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesizes that environmental insults during childhood programs the individual to develop chronic disease in adulthood. Emerging epidemiological data strongly supports that early life stress (ELS) given by the exposure to adverse childhood experiences is regarded as an independent risk factor capable of predicting future risk of cardiovascular disease. Experimental animal models utilizing chronic behavioral stress during postnatal life, specifically maternal separation (MatSep) provides a suitable tool to elucidate molecular mechanisms by which ELS increases the risk to develop cardiovascular disease, including hypertension. The purpose of this review is to highlight current epidemiological studies linking ELS to the development of cardiovascular disease and to discuss the potential molecular mechanisms identified from animal studies. Overall, this review reveals the need for future investigations to further clarify the molecular mechanisms of ELS in order to develop more personalized therapeutics to mitigate the long-term consequences of chronic behavioral stress including cardiovascular and heart disease in adulthood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Early-Life Origins of Life-Cycle Well-Being: Research and Policy Implications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, Janet; Rossin-Slater, Maya

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence across different disciplines suggests that early-life conditions can have consequences on individual outcomes throughout the life cycle. Relative to other developed countries, the United States fares poorly on standard indicators of early-life health, and this disadvantage may have profound consequences not only for population…

  8. Development of the Life Story in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Kristina L.; Pillemer, David B.

    2018-01-01

    Life span developmental psychology proposes that the ability to create a coherent life narrative does not develop until early adolescence. Using a novel methodology, 10-, 12-, and 14-year-old participants were asked to tell their life stories aloud to a researcher. Later, participants separated their transcribed narratives into self-identified…

  9. Early-life nutrition modulates the epigenetic state of specific rDNA genetic variants in mice.

    PubMed

    Holland, Michelle L; Lowe, Robert; Caton, Paul W; Gemma, Carolina; Carbajosa, Guillermo; Danson, Amy F; Carpenter, Asha A M; Loche, Elena; Ozanne, Susan E; Rakyan, Vardhman K

    2016-07-29

    A suboptimal early-life environment, due to poor nutrition or stress during pregnancy, can influence lifelong phenotypes in the progeny. Epigenetic factors are thought to be key mediators of these effects. We show that protein restriction in mice from conception until weaning induces a linear correlation between growth restriction and DNA methylation at ribosomal DNA (rDNA). This epigenetic response remains into adulthood and is restricted to rDNA copies associated with a specific genetic variant within the promoter. Related effects are also found in models of maternal high-fat or obesogenic diets. Our work identifies environmentally induced epigenetic dynamics that are dependent on underlying genetic variation and establishes rDNA as a genomic target of nutritional insults. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. Chemical defense of early life stages of benthic marine invertebrates.

    PubMed

    Lindquist, Niels

    2002-10-01

    Accurate knowledge of factors affecting the survival of early life stages of marine invertebrates is critically important for understanding their population dynamics and the evolution of their diverse reproductive and life-history characteristics. Chemical defense is an important determinant of survival for adult stages of many sessile benthic invertebrates, yet relatively little consideration has been given to chemical defenses at the early life stages. This review examines the taxonomic breadth of early life-stage chemical defense in relation to various life-history and reproductive characteristics, as well as possible constraints on the expression of chemical defense at certain life stages. Data on the localization of defensive secondary metabolites in larvae and the fitness-related consequences of consuming even a small amount of toxic secondary metabolites underpin proposals regarding the potential for Müllerian and Batesian mimicry to occur among marine larvae. The involvement of microbial symbionts in the chemical defense of early life stages illustrates its complexity for some species. As our knowledge of chemical defenses in early life stages grows, we will be able to more rigorously examine connections among phylogeny, chemical defenses, and the evolution of reproductive and life-history characteristics among marine invertebrates.

  11. Good daily habits during the early stages of life determine success throughout life.

    PubMed

    Kohyama, Jun

    2016-01-01

    This paper assesses hypothesis that sufficient sleep duration and proper circadian rhythms during the early stages of life are indispensable to a successful life. Successful life was defined according to the famous cohort studies of Mischel's and Dunedin. To assess the hypothesis, neuronal elements presumably affecting early daily habits and successful life are reviewed. The effect of sufficient sleep duration and proper circadian rhythms during early stages of life on the development of the prefrontal cortex has been found to be the key issue to verify the hypothesis. Socioeconomic status is found to be another issue to be studied.

  12. Early-life inflammation with LPS delays fear extinction in adult rodents.

    PubMed

    Doenni, V M; Song, C M; Hill, M N; Pittman, Q J

    2017-07-01

    A large body of evidence has been brought forward connecting developmental immune activation to abnormal fear and anxiety levels. Anxiety disorders have extremely high lifetime prevalence, yet susceptibility factors that contribute to their emergence are poorly understood. In this research we investigated whether an inflammatory insult early in life can alter the response to fear conditioning in adulthood. Fear learning and extinction are important and adaptive behaviors, mediated largely by the amygdala and its interconnectivity with cortico-limbic circuits. Male and female rat pups were given LPS (100μg/kg i.p.) or saline at postnatal day 14; LPS activated cFos expression in the central amygdala 2.5h after exposure, but not the basal or lateral nuclei. When tested in adulthood, acquisition of an auditory cued or contextual learned fear memory was largely unaffected as was the extinction of fear to a conditioned context. However, we detected a deficit in auditory fear extinction in male and female rats that experienced early-life inflammation, such that there is a significant delay in fear extinction processes resulting in more sustained fear behaviors in response to a conditioned cue. This response was specific to extinction training and did not persist into extinction recall. The effect could not be explained by differences in pain threshold (unaltered) or in baseline anxiety, which was elevated in adolescent females only and unaltered in adolescent males and adult males and females. This research provides further evidence for the involvement of the immune system during development in the shaping of fear and anxiety related behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Conway's Game of Life: Early Personal Recollections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wainwright, Robert

    When the October 1970 issue of Scientific American arrived, I had no idea the extent to which Martin Gardner's article in that issue would affect my life. As long as I can remember, my custom would be to seek out the Mathematical Games column in search for Gardner's latest topic with the usual reader challenges. My first reaction to that particular article introducing a new pastime titled "The fantastic combinations of John Conway's new solitaire game 'life''' was only mildly interesting. A couple of days later, still curious about the outcome of random patterns, I located an old checkerboard and a small jarful of pennies to investigate this new game.

  14. Early Motherhood and Subsequent Life Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boden, Joseph M.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John

    2008-01-01

    Background: Early motherhood has been linked with a number of adverse outcomes, including mental health difficulties and barriers to completing educational qualifications and workforce participation. The present study examined the extent to which these linkages could be explained by the influence of social, family, and background factors that were…

  15. Early-Life Socioeconomic Status and Adult Physiological Functioning: A Life Course Examination of Biosocial Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang Claire; Gerken, Karen; Schorpp, Kristen; Boen, Courtney; Harris, Kathleen Mullan

    2017-01-01

    A growing literature has demonstrated a link between early-life socioeconomic conditions and adult health at a singular point in life. No research exists, however, that specifies the life course patterns of socioeconomic status (SES) in relation to the underlying biological processes that determine health. Using an innovative life course research design consisting of four nationally representative longitudinal datasets that collectively cover the human life span from early adolescence to old age (Add Health, MIDUS, NSHAP, and HRS), we address this scientific gap and assess how SES pathways from childhood into adulthood are associated with biophysiological outcomes in different adult life stages. For each dataset, we constructed standardized composite measures of early-life SES and adult SES and harmonized biophysiological measurements of immune and metabolic functioning. We found that the relative importance of early-life SES and adult SES varied across young, mid, and late adulthood, such that early-life SES sets a life course trajectory of socioeconomic well-being and operates through adult SES to influence health as adults age. We also documented evidence of the detrimental health effects of downward mobility and persistent socioeconomic disadvantage. These findings are the first to specify the life course patterns of SES that matter for underlying biophysiological functioning in different stages of adulthood. The study thus contributes new knowledge critical for improving population health by identifying the particular points in the life course at which interventions might be most effective in preventing disease and premature mortality.

  16. The influence of living conditions in early life on life satisfaction in old age.

    PubMed

    Deindl, Christian

    2013-03-01

    This article examines the influence of living conditions in early life on life satisfaction in old age in eleven Western European countries. It combines the influence of individual conditions, for example housing and family background, with country characteristics in the decade of birth. Using pooled data from the second and third wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, multilevel models show that early life living conditions have an influence on life satisfaction in old age. Furthermore, interaction effects between current and past living conditions show that adverse living conditions strengthen the effect of early life on life satisfaction in later life and therefore are an indication of cumulative inequality over the life course. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The positive and negative consequences of stressors during early life.

    PubMed

    Monaghan, Pat; Haussmann, Mark F

    2015-11-01

    We discuss the long-term effects of stress exposure in pre- and early postnal life. We present an evolutionary framework within which such effects can be viewed, and describe how the outcomes might vary with species life histories. We focus on stressors that induce increases in glucocorticoid hormones and discuss the advantages of an experimental approach. We describe a number of studies demonstrating how exposure to these hormones in early life can influence stress responsiveness and have substantial long-term, negative consequences for adult longevity. We also describe how early life exposure to mild levels of stressors can have beneficial effects on resilience to stress in later life, and discuss how the balance of costs and benefits is likely dependent on the nature of the adult environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Early Life Crises of Habitable Planets

    Pierrehumbert, Raymond

    2018-05-11

    There are a number of crises that a potentially habitable planet must avoid or surmount if its potential is to be realized. These include the runaway greenhouse, loss of atmosphere by chemical or physical processes, and long-lasting global glaciation. In this lecture I will present research on the climate dynamics governing such processes, with particular emphasis on the lessons to be learned from the cases of Early Mars and the Neoproterozoic Snowball Earth.

  19. Early-life origins of life-cycle well-being: research and policy implications.

    PubMed

    Currie, Janet; Rossin-Slater, Maya

    2015-01-01

    Mounting evidence across different disciplines suggests that early-life conditions can have consequences on individual outcomes throughout the life cycle. Relative to other developed countries, the United States fares poorly on standard indicators of early-life health, and this disadvantage may have profound consequences not only for population well-being, but also for economic growth and competitiveness in a global economy. In this paper, we first discuss the research on the strength of the link between early-life health and adult outcomes, and then provide an evidence-based review of the effectiveness of existing U.S. policies targeting the early-life environment. We conclude that there is a robust and economically meaningful relationship between early-life conditions and well-being throughout the life cycle, as measured by adult health, educational attainment, labor market attachment, and other indicators of socioeconomic status. However, there is some variation in the degree to which current policies in the United States are effective in improving early-life conditions. Among existing programs, some of the most effective are the Special Supplemental Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), home visiting with nurse practitioners, and high-quality, center-based early-childhood care and education. In contrast, the evidence on other policies such as prenatal care and family leave is more mixed and limited.

  20. Early-life disruption of amphibian microbiota decreases later-life resistance to parasites.

    PubMed

    Knutie, Sarah A; Wilkinson, Christina L; Kohl, Kevin D; Rohr, Jason R

    2017-07-20

    Changes in the early-life microbiota of hosts might affect infectious disease risk throughout life, if such disruptions during formative times alter immune system development. Here, we test whether an early-life disruption of host-associated microbiota affects later-life resistance to infections by manipulating the microbiota of tadpoles and challenging them with parasitic gut worms as adults. We find that tadpole bacterial diversity is negatively correlated with parasite establishment in adult frogs: adult frogs that had reduced bacterial diversity as tadpoles have three times more worms than adults without their microbiota manipulated as tadpoles. In contrast, adult bacterial diversity during parasite exposure is not correlated with parasite establishment in adult frogs. Thus, in this experimental setup, an early-life disruption of the microbiota has lasting reductions on host resistance to infections, which is possibly mediated by its effects on immune system development. Our results support the idea that preventing early-life disruption of host-associated microbiota might confer protection against diseases later in life.Early-life microbiota alterations can affect infection susceptibility later in life, in animal models. Here, Knutie et al. show that manipulating the microbiota of tadpoles leads to increased susceptibility to parasitic infection in adult frogs, in the absence of substantial changes in the adults' microbiota.

  1. The Intestinal Microbiome in Early Life: Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Arrieta, Marie-Claire; Stiemsma, Leah T.; Amenyogbe, Nelly; Brown, Eric M.; Finlay, Brett

    2014-01-01

    Human microbial colonization begins at birth and continues to develop and modulate in species abundance for about 3 years, until the microbiota becomes adult-like. During the same time period, children experience significant developmental changes that influence their health status as well as their immune system. An ever-expanding number of articles associate several diseases with early-life imbalances of the gut microbiota, also referred to as gut microbial dysbiosis. Whether early-life dysbiosis precedes and plays a role in disease pathogenesis, or simply originates from the disease process itself is a question that is beginning to be answered in a few diseases, including IBD, obesity, and asthma. This review describes the gut microbiome structure and function during the formative first years of life, as well as the environmental factors that determine its composition. It also aims to discuss the recent advances in understanding the role of the early-life gut microbiota in the development of immune-mediated, metabolic, and neurological diseases. A greater understanding of how the early-life gut microbiota impacts our immune development could potentially lead to novel microbial-derived therapies that target disease prevention at an early age. PMID:25250028

  2. Whole cow's milk in early life.

    PubMed

    Thorsdottir, Inga; Thorisdottir, Asa V

    2011-01-01

    Cow's milk is a major food for young children. Whole cow's milk is known to be detrimental to infants, mainly due to its low iron content. The negative association with iron status led to recommending the introduction of formula feeding in infancy during the weaning period or when breastfeeding ceased. More recently, the literature suggests that consuming whole cow's milk in infancy has unfortunate effects on growth, especially weight acceleration and development of overweight in childhood. These issues are discussed in the following chapter. Other suggested reasons for the avoidance of whole cow's milk in infancy are touched upon, such as milk protein allergy and high renal solute load. The hypothesis about early cow's milk introduction in the pathology of certain diseases, mainly through the peptide β-casomorphin-7, is briefly reviewed, showing that there is no clear evidence for the suggested associations. The chapter gives a recent example of introducing formula at 6 months of age instead of whole cow's milk in infants' diet in Iceland. Several aspects of consuming whole cow's milk in infancy can be found in recent reviews. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Paleolakes and life on early Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, M. A.; Wharton, Robert A., Jr.; Mckay, C. P.

    1991-01-01

    Two distinct directions have begun to elucidate key parameters in the search for extinct life on Mars. Carbonate sediments, deposited about 10,000 years ago in association with biological activity, have been sampled from the paleolake beds of Lake Vanda and Meirs in the McMurdo Dry Valleys in Antarctica. These samples are being analyzed for simple biological signatures that remain in cold and dry paleolake sediments, namely microfossils, percent carbonate, and total organic carbon. Our second initiative is the study of Colour Lake, in the Canadian Arctic, that periodically maintains a perennial ice cover. Physical measurements started this year will be used to determine one end point for ice covered lake environments and will be compared to continuous measurements from Antarctic lakes started in November 1985. Interestingly, Colour Lake also supports benthic mat communities, but the low pH precludes carbonate deposition. This research will broaden our knowledge base for what conditions are necessary for ice covered lake formation and what biological signatures will remain in paleolake deposits.

  4. Methylxanthines during pregnancy and early postnatal life.

    PubMed

    Adén, Ulrika

    2011-01-01

    World-wide, many fetuses and infants are exposed to methylxanthines via maternal consumption of coffee and other beverages containing these substances. Methylxanthines (caffeine, theophylline and aminophylline) are also commonly used as a medication for apnea of prematurity.The metabolism of methylxanthines is impaired in pregnant women, fetuses and neonates, leading to accumulating levels thereof. Methylxanthines readily passes the placenta barrier and enters all tissues and thus may affect the fetus/newborn at any time during pregnancy or postnatal life, given that the effector systems are mature.At clinically relevant doses, the major effector system for methylxanthines is adenosine receptors. Animal studies suggest that adenosine receptors in the cardiovascular, respiratory and immune system are developed at birth, but that cerebral adenosine receptors are not fully functional. Furthermore animal studies have shown protective positive effects of methylxanthines in situations of hypoxia/ischemia in neonates. Similarly, a positive long-term effect on lung function and CNS development was found in human preterm infants treated with high doses of caffeine for apneas. There is now evidence that the overall benefits from methylxanthine therapy for apnea of prematurity outweigh potential short-term risks.On the other hand it is important to note that experimental studies have indicated that long-term effects of caffeine during pregnancy and postnatally may include altered behavior and altered respiratory control in the offspring, although there is currently no human data to support this.Some epidemiology studies have reported negative effects on pregnancy and perinatal outcomes related to maternal ingestion of high doses of caffeine, but the results are inconclusive. The evidence base for adverse effects of caffeine in first third of pregnancy are stronger than for later parts of pregnancy and there is currently insufficient evidence to advise women to restrict

  5. Exogenous determinants of early-life conditions, and mortality later in life.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Gerard J; Doblhammer, Gabriele; Christensen, Kaare

    2009-05-01

    We analyze causal effects of conditions early in life on the individual mortality rate later in life. Conditions early in life are captured by transitory features of the macro-environment around birth, notably the state of the business cycle around birth, but also food price deviations, weather indicators, and demographic indicators. We argue that these features can only affect high-age mortality by way of the individual early-life conditions. Moreover, they are exogenous from the individual point of view, which is a methodological advantage compared to the use of unique characteristics of the newborn individual or his or her family or household as early-life indicators. We collected national annual time-series data on the above-mentioned indicators, and we combine these to the individual data records from the Danish Twin Registry covering births in 1873-1906. The empirical analyses (mostly based on the estimation of duration models) indicate a significant negative causal effect of economic conditions early in life on individual mortality rates at higher ages. If the national economic performance in the year of birth exceeds its trend value (i.e., if the business cycle is favorable) then the mortality rate later in life is lower. The implied effect on the median lifetime of those who survive until age 35 is about 10 months. A systematic empirical exploration of all macro-indicators reveals that economic conditions in the first years after birth also affect mortality rates later in life.

  6. The origin and early evolution of life on earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oro, J.; Miller, Stanley L.; Lazcano, Antonio

    1990-01-01

    Results of the studies that have provided insights into the cosmic and primitive earth environments are reviewed with emphasis on those environments in which life is thought to have originated. The evidence bearing on the antiquity of life on the earth and the prebiotic significance of organic compounds found in interstellar clouds and in primitive solar-system bodies such as comets, dark asteroids, and carbonaceous chondrites are assessed. The environmental models of the Hadean and early Archean earth are discussed, as well as the prebiotic formation of organic monomers and polymers essential to life. The processes that may have led to the appearance in the Archean of the first cells are considered, and possible effects of these processes on the early steps of biological evolution are analyzed. The significance of these results to the study of the distribution of life in the universe is evaluated.

  7. Early life influences on cognitive impairment among oldest old Chinese.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhenmei; Gu, Danan; Hayward, Mark D

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the effects of early life socioeconomic conditions on the risk of cognitive impairment among oldest old persons in China. We also examine whether adult socioeconomic status mediates the association between early life socioeconomic status and cognitive impairment in old age. Data derived from two waves (1998-2000) of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey. We estimated logistic and multinomial regression models of cognitive impairment for a nationwide sample of people aged 80 to 105 (N = 8,444). Among both men and women, urban residence in early life as well as education was associated with lower odds of cognitive impairment at baseline. We found modest support for a protective effect of advantaged childhood background on the odds of cognitive impairment onset during the 2-year follow-up, especially among women. Our findings suggest that socioeconomic environment throughout the life course, early life in particular, can influence the risk of cognitive impairment in old age. Not only can public policy that targets illiteracy, hunger, and poverty improve the lives of tens of thousands of children, but ultimately such investments will pay significant dividends many decades later in enhancing the cognitive well-being of older persons.

  8. Commentary: On the Importance of Early Life Cognitive Abilities in Shaping Later Life Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hofer, Scott M; Clouston, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Early life cognitive ability is likely to be dynamically related to life course factors including educational attainment, occupational outcomes, health behaviors, activities, health, and subsequent cognitive health. Disentangling the selective and causal processes contributing to cognitive functioning across the lifespan is challenging and requires long-term investments in longitudinal data. We discuss results from several analyses using data from the Individual Development and Adaptation longitudinal research program (Bergman, 2000; Magnusson, 1988) that provide fresh insights into the relation of early life cognition, particularly high levels of cognitive capabilities, to educational achievement, emotional adjustment, and career success. These papers and the longitudinal data provide a remarkable window into the development and impacts of cognition, and high cognitive functioning, on a variety of important life outcomes that we hope will continue to inform us about additional outcomes in middle life, transition to retirement, and cognition and health in later years and to robustly examine how the early years matter across the whole lifespan.

  9. Effects of early life factors on the health and quality of life of older adults.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Fikriye; N Tekin, Rukiye

    2018-01-01

    Few studies on the effects of early life factors on the health and quality of life of adults have been conducted in Turkey. We aimed to investigate the effects of early life factors on the health and quality of life of older adults. We administered a questionnaire to 350 adults, aged 50-89 years, living in Cankaya, Ankara. The questionnaire covered sociodemographic characteristics, early life characteristics, health status, and the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Ageing scale. Data were analyzed using χ 2 tests, independent samples t-tests, one-way anova, and binary logistic regression analysis. The analyses showed that the most important risk factors for chronic disease were being ≥65 years (odds ratio (OR) = 2.34), having a chronic health problem before 18 years of age (OR = 2.48), experiencing prolonged hospitalization or bed rest before 18 years of age (OR = 2.65), and experiencing parental unconcern during early life (OR = 2.13) (P < 0.05). In addition, having a high school education or less includes people who have primary or secondary or high school diploma (OR = 1.65), having lived in a village (OR = 1.65), having a low family economic status (OR = 2.40), and having experienced one negative event (OR = 1.41) or two or more negative events (OR = 1.39) during their early lives were identified as important risk factors for low quality of life (P < 0.05). Early life factors are among the important determinants of the health and quality of life of older adults in Turkey. © 2017 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  10. The status of live viral vaccination in early life.

    PubMed

    Gans, Hayley A

    2013-05-17

    The need for neonatal vaccines is supported by the high disease burden during the first year of life particularly in the first month. Two-thirds of childhood deaths are attributable to infectious diseases of which viruses represent key pathogens. Many infectious diseases have the highest incidence, severity and mortality in the first months of life, and therefore early life vaccination would provide significant protection and life savings. For some childhood viral diseases successful vaccines exist, such as against measles, mumps, rubella, varicella, influenza poliovirus, and rotavirus, but their use in the first year particularly at birth is not yet practiced. Vaccines against other key pathogens continue to elude scientists such as against respiratory syncytial virus. The obstacles for early and neonatal vaccination are complex and include host factors, such as a developing immune system and the interference of passively acquired antibodies, as well vaccine-specific issues, such as optimal route of administration, titer and dosing requirements. Importantly, additional host and infrastructure barriers also present obstacles to neonatal vaccination in the developing world where morbidity and mortality rates are highest. This review will highlight the current live viral vaccines and their use in the first year of life, focusing on efficacy and entertaining the barriers that exist. It is important to understand the successes of current vaccines and use this knowledge to determine strategies that are successful in young infants and for the development of new vaccines for use in early life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Intraoperative Secondary Insults During Orthopedic Surgery in Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Algarra, Nelson N; Lele, Abhijit V; Prathep, Sumidtra; Souter, Michael J; Vavilala, Monica S; Qiu, Qian; Sharma, Deepak

    2017-07-01

    Secondary insults worsen outcomes after traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, data on intraoperative secondary insults are sparse. The primary aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of intraoperative secondary insults during orthopedic surgery after moderate-severe TBI. We also examined the impact of intraoperative secondary insults on postoperative head computed tomographic scan, intracranial pressure (ICP), and escalation of care within 24 hours of surgery. We reviewed medical records of TBI patients 18 years and above with Glasgow Coma Scale score <13 who underwent single orthopedic surgery within 2 weeks of TBI. Secondary insults examined were: systemic hypotension (systolic blood pressure<90 mm Hg), intracranial hypertension (ICP>20 mm Hg), cerebral hypotension (cerebral perfusion pressure<50 mm Hg), hypercarbia (end-tidal CO2>40 mm Hg), hypocarbia (end-tidal CO2<30 mm Hg in absence of intracranial hypertension), hyperglycemia (glucose>200 mg/dL), hypoglycemia (glucose<60 mg/dL), and hyperthermia (temperature >38°C). A total of 78 patients (41 [18 to 81] y, 68% male) met the inclusion criteria. The most common intraoperative secondary insults were systemic hypotension (60%), intracranial hypertension and cerebral hypotension (50% and 45%, respectively, in patients with ICP monitoring), hypercarbia (32%), and hypocarbia (29%). Intraoperative secondary insults were associated with worsening of head computed tomography, postoperative decrease of Glasgow Coma Scale score by ≥2, and escalation of care. After Bonferroni correction, association between cerebral hypotension and postoperative escalation of care remained significant (P<0.001). Intraoperative secondary insults were common during orthopedic surgery in patients with TBI and were associated with postoperative escalation of care. Strategies to minimize intraoperative secondary insults are needed.

  12. Cumulative early life adversity predicts longevity in wild baboons

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Jenny; Archie, Elizabeth A.; Altmann, Jeanne; Alberts, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    In humans and other animals, harsh circumstances in early life predict morbidity and mortality in adulthood. Multiple adverse conditions are thought to be especially toxic, but this hypothesis has rarely been tested in a prospective, longitudinal framework, especially in long-lived mammals. Here we use prospective data on 196 wild female baboons to show that cumulative early adversity predicts natural adult lifespan. Females who experience ≥3 sources of early adversity die a median of 10 years earlier than females who experience ≤1 adverse circumstances (median lifespan is 18.5 years). Females who experience the most adversity are also socially isolated in adulthood, suggesting that social processes partially explain the link between early adversity and adult survival. Our results provide powerful evidence for the developmental origins of health and disease and indicate that close ties between early adversity and survival arise even in the absence of health habit and health care-related explanations. PMID:27091302

  13. Early life trauma exposure and stress sensitivity in young children.

    PubMed

    Grasso, Damion J; Ford, Julian D; Briggs-Gowan, Margaret J

    2013-01-01

    The current study replicates and extends work with adults that highlights the relationship between trauma exposure and distress in response to subsequent, nontraumatic life stressors. The sample included 213 2-4-year-old children in which 64.3% had a history of potential trauma exposure. Children were categorized into 4 groups based on trauma history and current life stress. In a multivariate analysis of variance, trauma-exposed children with current life stressors had elevated internalizing and externalizing problems compared with trauma-exposed children without current stress and nontrauma-exposed children with and without current stressors. The trauma-exposed groups with or without current stressors did not differ on posttraumatic stress disorder symptom severity. Accounting for number of traumatic events did not change these results. These findings suggest that early life trauma exposure may sensitize young children and place them at risk for internalizing or externalizing problems when exposed to subsequent, nontraumatic life stressors.

  14. Child Development, Early Childhood Education and Family Life: A Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Beverly, Comp.

    This bibliographical listing of approximately 2500 books on child development, early childhood education and family life was compiled as a resource for parents and students. Books are listed alphabetically by author and are grouped according to the following categories: child development; observation of children; adolescence; language…

  15. Early Stages of the Evolution of Life: a Cybernetic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melkikh, Alexey V.; Seleznev, Vladimir D.

    2008-08-01

    Early stages of the evolution of life are considered in terms of control theory. A model is proposed for the transport of substances in a protocell possessing the property of robustness with regard to changes in the environmental concentration of a substance.

  16. Early stages of the evolution of life: a cybernetic approach.

    PubMed

    Melkikh, Alexey V; Seleznev, Vladimir D

    2008-08-01

    Early stages of the evolution of life are considered in terms of control theory. A model is proposed for the transport of substances in a protocell possessing the property of robustness with regard to changes in the environmental concentration of a substance.

  17. Ammonia and urea handling by early life stages of fishes.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Alex M; Wright, Patricia A; Wood, Chris M

    2017-11-01

    Nitrogen metabolism in fishes has been a focus of comparative physiologists for nearly a century. In this Review, we focus specifically on early life stages of fishes, which have received considerable attention in more recent work. Nitrogen metabolism and excretion in early life differs fundamentally from that of juvenile and adult fishes because of (1) the presence of a chorion capsule in embryos that imposes a limitation on effective ammonia excretion, (2) an amino acid-based metabolism that generates a substantial ammonia load, and (3) the lack of a functional gill, which is the primary site of nitrogen excretion in juvenile and adult fishes. Recent findings have shed considerable light on the mechanisms by which these constraints are overcome in early life. Perhaps most importantly, the discovery of Rhesus (Rh) glycoproteins as ammonia transporters and their expression in ion-transporting cells on the skin of larval fishes has transformed our understanding of ammonia excretion by fishes in general. The emergence of larval zebrafish as a model species, together with genetic knockdown techniques, has similarly advanced our understanding of ammonia and urea metabolism and excretion by larval fishes. It has also now been demonstrated that ammonia excretion is one of the primary functions of the developing gill in rainbow trout larvae, leading to new hypotheses regarding the physiological demands driving gill development in larval fishes. Here, we highlight and discuss the dramatic changes in nitrogen handling that occur over early life development in fishes. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. TOXICITY OF AHR AGONISTS TO FISH EARLY LIFE STAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fish early life stages are exceptionally sensitive to the lethal toxicity of chemicals that act as arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists. Toxicity characterizations based on 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, generally the most potent AhR agonist, support the toxicity equiva...

  19. MAMMARY GLAND DEVELOPMENT: EARLY LIFE EFFECTS FROM THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mammary Gland Development: Early Life Effects from the Environment

    S.E. Fenton. Reproductive Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Laboratory, ORD, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711.

    As signs of precocious puberty in girls reach ...

  20. Family Quality of Life Following Early Identification of Deafness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Carla W.; Wegner, Jane R.; Turnbull, Ann P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Family members' perceptions of their quality of life were examined following early identification of deafness in children. Method: A questionnaire was used to solicit ratings of satisfaction from the family members of 207 children who were deaf and younger than 6 years of age. Results: Results indicated that families were generally…

  1. Imprinting: When Early Life Memories Make Food Smell Bad.

    PubMed

    Rayes, Diego; Alkema, Mark J

    2016-05-09

    A recent study has found that pathogen exposure early in the life of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans leads to a long-lasting aversion that requires distinct sets of neurons for the formation and retrieval of the imprinted memory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Precedents of perceived social support: personality and early life experiences.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, T; Kijima, N; Watanabe, K; Takezaki, Y; Tanaka, E

    1999-12-01

    In order to examine the effects of personality and early life experiences on perceived social support, a total of 97 young Japanese women were investigated. Current interpersonal relationships were measured by an interview modified from Henderson et al.'s Interview Schedule for Social Interaction (ISSI). Personality was measured by Cloninger et al.'s Temperament and Character Inventory. Early life experiences at home and outside of home were also identified in the interview. The number of sources of perceived support was correlated with self-directness, while satisfaction with perceived support was correlated with novelty seeking and with low harm avoidance. No early life experiences--early loss of a parent, perceived parenting, childhood abuse experiences, experiences of being bullied and/or other life events--showed significant correlations with the number or satisfaction of supportive people. The quantity and quality of perception of social support differ in their link to personality, and perceived social support may, to some extent, be explainable in terms of personality.

  3. New insights into a hot environment for early life.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jianghong

    2017-06-01

    Investigating the physical-chemical setting of early life is a challenging task. In this contribution, the author attempted to introduce a provocative concept from cosmology - cosmic microwave background (CMB), which is the residual thermal radiation from a hot early Universe - to the field. For this purpose, the author revisited a recently deduced biomarker, the 1,6-anhydro bond of sugars in bacteria. In vitro, the 1,6-anhydro bond of sugars reflects and captures residual thermal radiation in thermochemical processes and therefore is somewhat analogous to CMB. In vivo, the formation process of the 1,6-anhydro bond of sugars on the peptidoglycan of prokaryotic cell wall is parallel to in vitro processes, suggesting that the 1,6-anhydro bond is an ideal CMB-like analogue that suggests a hot setting for early life. The CMB-like 1,6-anhydro bond is involved in the life cycle of viruses and the metabolism of eukaryotes, underlying this notion. From a novel perspective, the application of the concept of the CMB to microbial ecology may give new insights into a hot environment, such as hydrothermal vents, supporting early life and providing hypotheses to test in molecular palaeontology. © 2017 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Attic still life southsoutheast looking northnorthwest. Shows an early toilet, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Attic still life south-southeast looking north-northwest. Shows an early toilet, what is possibly the original front door, and a lead lined reservoir. Also shows the attic framing. - Samuel P. Grindle House, 13 School Street, Castine, Hancock County, ME

  5. Social anxiety and negative early life events in university students.

    PubMed

    Binelli, Cynthia; Ortiz, Ana; Muñiz, Armando; Gelabert, Estel; Ferraz, Liliana; S Filho, Alaor; Crippa, José Alexandre S; Nardi, Antonio E; Subirà, Susana; Martín-Santos, Rocío

    2012-06-01

    There is substantial evidence regarding the impact of negative life events during childhood on the aetiology of psychiatric disorders. We examined the association between negative early life events and social anxiety in a sample of 571 Spanish University students. In a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2007, we collected data through a semistructured questionnaire of sociodemographic variables, personal and family psychiatric history, and substance abuse. We assessed the five early negative life events: (i) the loss of someone close, (ii) emotional abuse, (iii) physical abuse, (iv) family violence, and (v) sexual abuse. All participants completed the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale. Mean (SD) age was 21 (4.5), 75% female, LSAS score was 40 (DP = 22), 14.2% had a psychiatric family history and 50.6% had negative life events during childhood. Linear regression analyses, after controlling for age, gender, and family psychiatric history, showed a positive association between family violence and social score (p = 0.03). None of the remaining stressors produced a significant increase in LSAS score (p > 0.05). University students with high levels of social anxiety presented higher prevalence of negative early life events. Thus, childhood family violence could be a risk factor for social anxiety in such a population.

  6. Probiotics in early life: a preventative and treatment approach.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, Ashkan; Villa, Christopher R; Comelli, Elena M

    2016-04-01

    Microbial colonization of the infant gut plays a key role in immunological and metabolic pathways impacting human health. Since the maturation of the gut microbiota coincides with early life development, failure to develop a health compatible microbiota composition may result in pathology and disease in later life. Probiotics are live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host. Maternal transfer of microorganisms is possible during pregnancy and lactation, and the mother's diet and microbiota can influence that of her offspring. Furthermore, pre-term birth, Caesarean section birth, formula feeding, antibiotic use, and malnutrition have been linked to dysbiosis, which in turn is associated with several pathologies such as necrotizing enterocolitis, inflammatory bowel diseases, antibiotic associated diarrhea, colic, and allergies. Thus, early life should represent a preferred stage of life for probiotic interventions. In this context, they could be regarded as a means to 'program' the individual for health maintenance, in order to prevent pathologies associated with dysbiosis. In order to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the benefits of probiotic administration, pre-clinical studies have been conducted and found an array of positive results such as improved microbial composition, intestinal maturation, decreased pathogenic load and infections, and improved immune response. Moreover, specific probiotic strains administered during the perinatal period have shown promise in attenuating severity of necrotizing enterocolitis. The mechanisms elucidated suggest that probiotic interventions in early life can be envisaged for disease prevention in both healthy offspring and offspring at risk of chronic disease.

  7. Early life factors in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Winsloe, Chivon; Earl, Susie; Dennison, Elaine M; Cooper, Cyrus; Harvey, Nicholas C

    2009-12-01

    Osteoporosis is a major public health burden through associated fragility fractures. Bone mass, a composite of bone size and volumetric density, increases through early life and childhood to a peak in early adulthood. The peak bone mass attained is a strong predictor of future risk of osteoporosis. Evidence is accruing that environmental factors in utero and in early infancy may permanently modify the postnatal pattern of skeletal growth to peak and thus influence risk of osteoporosis in later life. This article describes the latest data in this exciting area of research, including novel epigenetic and translation work, which should help to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and give rise to potential public health interventions to reduce the burden of osteoporotic fracture in future generations.

  8. Early Mars: A Warm Wet Niche for Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.

    2010-01-01

    Exploration of Mars has begun to unveil the history of the planet. Combinations of remote sensing, in situ compositional measurements and photographic observations have shown Mars had a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution had conditions that were suitable for supporting life. A habitable planet must have water, carbon and energy sources along with a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 Ma of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of: (i) Water-as shown by carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001, well-dated at approx.3.9 Ga, (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon, water and a likely thicker atmosphere from extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H2O, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic patterns in the crust [1]. The question arises: "Why would life not develop from these favorable conditions on Mars in its first 600 Ma?" During this period, environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would favor the formation of early life. (Even if life developed elsewhere on Earth, Venus, or on other bodies-it was transported to Mars where surface conditions were suitable for life to evolve)

  9. Early Life Conditions, Adverse Life Events, and Chewing Ability at Middle and Later Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Watt, Richard G.; Tsakos, Georgios

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to determine the extent to which early life conditions and adverse life events impact chewing ability in middle and later adulthood. Methods. Secondary analyses were conducted based on data from waves 2 and 3 of the Survey of Health, Ageing, and Retirement in Europe (SHARE), collected in the years 2006 to 2009 and encompassing information on current chewing ability and the life history of persons aged 50 years or older from 13 European countries. Logistic regression models were estimated with sequential inclusion of explanatory variables representing living conditions in childhood and adverse life events. Results. After controlling for current determinants of chewing ability at age 50 years or older, certain childhood and later life course socioeconomic, behavioral, and cognitive factors became evident as correlates of chewing ability at age 50 years or older. Specifically, childhood financial hardship was identified as an early life predictor of chewing ability at age 50 years or older (odds ratio = 1.58; 95% confidence interval = 1.22, 2.06). Conclusions. Findings suggest a potential enduring impact of early life conditions and adverse life events on oral health in middle and later adulthood and are relevant for public health decision-makers who design strategies for optimal oral health. PMID:24625140

  10. On the possibility of life on early Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oberbeck, V. R.; Fogleman, G.

    1990-01-01

    Prebiotic reactants, liquid water, and temperatures low enough for organic compounds to be stable are requirements for the origination of life as we know it. Prebiotic reactants and sufficiently low temperatures were present on Mars before liquid water vanished. Early in this time period, however, large planetesimal impacts may have periodically sterilized Mars, pyrolyzed organic compounds, and interrupted chemical origination of life. However, the calculated time interval between such impacts on Mars was larger just before liquid water vanished 3.8 Gyr (billion years) ago than it was on earth just before life originated. Therefore, there should have been sufficient time for life to originate on Mars. Ideal sites to search for microfossils are in the heavily cratered terrain of Upper Noachian age. Craters and channels in this terrain may have been the sites of ancient lakes and streams that could have provided habitats for the first microorganisms.

  11. Effects of early life stress on amygdala and striatal development

    PubMed Central

    Fareri, Dominic S.; Tottenham, Nim

    2016-01-01

    Species-expected caregiving early in life is critical for the normative development and regulation of emotional behavior, the ability to effectively evaluate affective stimuli in the environment, and the ability to sustain social relationships. Severe psychosocial stressors early in life (early life stress; ELS) in the form of the absence of species expected caregiving (i.e., caregiver deprivation), can drastically impact one’s social and emotional success, leading to the onset of internalizing illness later in life. Development of the amygdala and striatum, two key regions supporting affective valuation and learning, is significantly affected by ELS, and their altered developmental trajectories have important implications for cognitive, behavioral and socioemotional development. However, an understanding of the impact of ELS on the development of functional interactions between these regions and subsequent behavioral effects is lacking. In this review, we highlight the roles of the amygdala and striatum in affective valuation and learning in maturity and across development. We discuss their function separately as well as their interaction. We highlight evidence across species characterizing how ELS induced changes in the development of the amygdala and striatum mediate subsequent behavioral changes associated with internalizing illness, positing a particular import of the effect of ELS on their interaction. PMID:27174149

  12. Diversity of the gut microbiota and eczema in early life.

    PubMed

    Forno, Erick; Onderdonk, Andrew B; McCracken, John; Litonjua, Augusto A; Laskey, Daniel; Delaney, Mary L; Dubois, Andrea M; Gold, Diane R; Ryan, Louise M; Weiss, Scott T; Celedón, Juan C

    2008-09-22

    A modest number of prospective studies of the composition of the intestinal microbiota and eczema in early life have yielded conflicting results. To examine the relationship between the bacterial diversity of the gut and the development of eczema in early life by methods other than stool culture. Fecal samples were collected from 21 infants at 1 and 4 months of life. Nine infants were diagnosed with eczema by the age of 6 months (cases) and 12 infants were not (controls). After conducting denaturating gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of stool samples, we compared the microbial diversity of cases and controls using the number of electrophoretic bands and the Shannon index of diversity (H') as indicators. Control subjects had significantly greater fecal microbial diversity than children with eczema at ages 1 (mean H' for controls = 0.75 vs. 0.53 for cases, P = 0.01) and 4 months (mean H' for controls = 0.92 vs. 0.59 for cases, P = 0.02). The increase in diversity from 1 to 4 months of age was significant in controls (P = 0.04) but not in children who developed eczema by 6 months of age (P = 0.32). Our findings suggest that reduced microbial diversity is associated with the development of eczema in early life.

  13. Effects of early life stress on amygdala and striatal development.

    PubMed

    Fareri, Dominic S; Tottenham, Nim

    2016-06-01

    Species-expected caregiving early in life is critical for the normative development and regulation of emotional behavior, the ability to effectively evaluate affective stimuli in the environment, and the ability to sustain social relationships. Severe psychosocial stressors early in life (early life stress; ELS) in the form of the absence of species expected caregiving (i.e., caregiver deprivation), can drastically impact one's social and emotional success, leading to the onset of internalizing illness later in life. Development of the amygdala and striatum, two key regions supporting affective valuation and learning, is significantly affected by ELS, and their altered developmental trajectories have important implications for cognitive, behavioral and socioemotional development. However, an understanding of the impact of ELS on the development of functional interactions between these regions and subsequent behavioral effects is lacking. In this review, we highlight the roles of the amygdala and striatum in affective valuation and learning in maturity and across development. We discuss their function separately as well as their interaction. We highlight evidence across species characterizing how ELS induced changes in the development of the amygdala and striatum mediate subsequent behavioral changes associated with internalizing illness, positing a particular import of the effect of ELS on their interaction. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Early-life family structure and microbially induced cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Blaser, Martin J; Nomura, Abraham; Lee, James; Stemmerman, Grant N; Perez-Perez, Guillermo I

    2007-01-01

    Cancer may follow exposure to an environmental agent after many decades. The bacterium Helicobacter pylori, known to be acquired early in life, increases risk for gastric adenocarcinoma, but other factors are also important. In this study, we considered whether early-life family structure affects the risk of later developing gastric cancer among H. pylori+ men. We examined a long-term cohort of Japanese-American men followed for 28 y, and performed a nested case-control study among those carrying H. pylori or the subset carrying the most virulent cagA+ H. pylori strains to address whether family structure predicted cancer development. We found that among the men who were H. pylori+ and/or cagA+ (it is possible to be cagA+ and H. pylori- if the H. pylori test is falsely negative), belonging to a large sibship or higher birth order was associated with a significantly increased risk of developing gastric adenocarcinoma late in life. For those with cagA+ strains, the risk of developing gastric cancer was more than twice as high (odds ratio 2.2; 95% confidence interval 1.2-4.0) among those in a sibship of seven or more individuals than in a sibship of between one and three persons. These results provide evidence that early-life social environment plays a significant role in risk of microbially induced malignancies expressing five to eight decades later, and these findings lead to new models to explain these interactions.

  15. The origin and early evolution of life on Earth.

    PubMed

    Oró, J; Miller, S L; Lazcano, A

    1990-01-01

    We do not have a detailed knowledge of the processes that led to the appearance of life on Earth. In this review we bring together some of the most important results that have provided insights into the cosmic and primitive Earth environments, particularly those environments in which life is thought to have originated. To do so, we first discuss the evidence bearing on the antiquity of life on our planet and the prebiotic significance of organic compounds found in interstellar clouds and in primitive solar system bodies such as comets, dark asteroids, and carbonaceous chondrites. This is followed by a discussion on the environmental models of the Hadean and early Archean Earth, as well as on the prebiotic formation of organic monomers and polymers essential to life. We then consider the processes that may have led to the appearance in the Archean of the first cells, and how these processes may have affected the early steps of biological evolution. Finally, the significance of these results to the study of the distribution of life in the Universe is discussed.

  16. Conditions on Early Mars Might Have Fostered Rapid and Early Development of Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, Everett K.; McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keprta, Kathie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; Wentworth, Susan J.

    2007-01-01

    The exploration of Mars during the past decades has begun to unveil the history of the planet. The combinations of remote sensing, in situ geochemical compositional measurements and photographic observations from both above and on the surface have shown Mars to have a dynamic and active geologic evolution. Mars geologic evolution clearly had conditions that were suitable for supporting life. For a planet to be able to be habitable, it must have water, carbon sources, energy sources and a dynamic geologic past. Mars meets all of these requirements. The first 600 My of Martian history were ripe for life to develop because of the abundance of (i) Water-carved canyons and oceans or lakes with the early presence of near surface water shown by precipitated carbonates in ALH84001 well-dated at approx.3.9 Gy., (ii) Energy from the original accretional processes, a molten core which generated a strong magnetic field leaving a permanent record in the early crust, early active volcanism continuing throughout Martian history, and, and continuing impact processes, (iii) Carbon and water from possibly extensive volcanic outgassing (i.e. H2O, CO2, CH4, CO, O2, N2, H2S, SO2, etc.) and (iv) some crustal tectonics as revealed by faulting and possible plate movement reflected by the magnetic pattern in the crust. The question arises: "Why would life not evolve from these favorable conditions on early Mars in its first 600 My?" During this period, it seems likely that environmental near-surface conditions on Mars were more favorable to life than at any later time. Standing bodies of water, precipitation and flowing surface water, and possibly abundant hydrothermal energy would all favor the formation of early life. Even if life developed elsewhere (on Earth, Venus, or on other solar systems) and was transported to Mars, the surface conditions were likely very hospitable for that introduced life to multiply and evolve.

  17. Reproductive and early life stages pathology - Histopathology workshop report

    Bruno, D.W.; Nowak, B.; Elliott, Diane G.

    2006-01-01

    Pathology occurring during reproduction and larval development represents an important part of the life cycle of fish, and the diseases that affect eggs and larvae often result in significant losses. However, mortality during this period is frequently ignored or poorly researched as the temptation is to replace the losses rather than investigate the causes. A histopathology workshop organised at the newly refurnished laboratory within the Danish Veterinary School was an opportunity to discuss the pathology of selected diseases associated with Reproductive and Early Life Stages Pathology. Several people also kindly provided reference slides.

  18. Searching for Life on Early Mars: Lessons from the Pilbara

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, J. D. A.; Stoker, C. R.

    2016-01-01

    Stromatolites in the Pilbara region of Western Australia constitute the earliest outcrop-scale evidence of life on Earth (Figure 1). The stromatolites in the 3.4 Ga Strelley Pool Formation (SPF) provide an important analog for searching for fossil evidence of early life on Mars, as Noachian aged sediments on Mars were formed under similar environmental conditions. Stromatolites represent possibly the best evidence that could be collected by a rover because they form recognizable macroscopic structures and are often associated with chemical and microscopic evidence.

  19. The Porto Alegre Early Life Nutrition and Health Study.

    PubMed

    Chaffee, Benjamin Wilk; Vítolo, Márcia Regina; Feldens, Carlos Alberto

    2014-12-01

    Early childhood caries is a persistent worldwide problem. The etiologic contribution of feeding practices has been less frequently investigated in prospective studies of young children. The Porto Alegre Early Life Nutrition and Health Study has followed a birth cohort of 715 mother-child pairs, recruited from municipal health centers, originally involved in a cluster-randomized controlled trial of healthcare worker training. The birth cohort links prospectively collected socio-demographic, infant feeding, and general and oral health information. To date, oral health data, including caries status and oral health-related quality of life, have been collected for 458 children at the age of 2-3 years. Studies are underway to investigate possible determinants and consequences of oral health among these children.

  20. The microbiome in early life: implications for health outcomes.

    PubMed

    Tamburini, Sabrina; Shen, Nan; Wu, Han Chih; Clemente, Jose C

    2016-07-07

    Recent studies have characterized how host genetics, prenatal environment and delivery mode can shape the newborn microbiome at birth. Following this, postnatal factors, such as antibiotic treatment, diet or environmental exposure, further modulate the development of the infant's microbiome and immune system, and exposure to a variety of microbial organisms during early life has long been hypothesized to exert a protective effect in the newborn. Furthermore, epidemiological studies have shown that factors that alter bacterial communities in infants during childhood increase the risk for several diseases, highlighting the importance of understanding early-life microbiome composition. In this review, we describe how prenatal and postnatal factors shape the development of both the microbiome and the immune system. We also discuss the prospects of microbiome-mediated therapeutics and the need for more effective approaches that can reconfigure bacterial communities from pathogenic to homeostatic configurations.

  1. Early life adversity potentiates the effects of later life stress on cumulative physiological dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Dich, Nadya; Hansen, Åse Marie; Avlund, Kirsten; Lund, Rikke; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Bruunsgaard, Helle; Rod, Naja Hulvej

    2015-01-01

    Previous research indicates that early life adversity may heighten stress reactivity and impair mechanisms for adaptive coping, suggesting that experience of stress in early life may also potentiate adults' physiological vulnerability to stress in later life. The study tested this hypothesis by investigating whether the experience of stressful events and circumstances (SEC) in childhood or adolescence amplified the effect of adulthood SEC on physiological dysregulation (allostatic load, AL) in later midlife. Observational data were used in the present study. Physiological functioning was measured in later midlife (participants' age ranged from 49 to 63 years). Both childhood/adolescence and adulthood SEC were reported retrospectively on the same occasion. Participants were 5309 Danish men and women from Copenhagen Aging and Midlife Biobank (CAMB). SEC included socioeconomic and family factors. The AL index was based on nine cardiovascular, metabolic, and immune biomarkers. Experience of SEC in both early life and adulthood independently predicted higher AL. In men, experience of SEC in early life also potentiated the effect of SEC in adulthood on AL. The results provide further insight into the mechanisms behind the "biological embedding" of childhood stress.

  2. Early-life gut microbiome and egg allergy.

    PubMed

    Fazlollahi, M; Chun, Y; Grishin, A; Wood, R A; Burks, A W; Dawson, P; Jones, S M; Leung, D Y M; Sampson, H A; Sicherer, S H; Bunyavanich, S

    2018-07-01

    Gut microbiota may play a role in egg allergy. We sought to examine the association between early-life gut microbiota and egg allergy. We studied 141 children with egg allergy and controls from the multicenter Consortium of Food Allergy Research study. At enrollment (age 3 to 16 months), fecal samples were collected, and clinical evaluation, egg-specific IgE measurement, and egg skin prick test were performed. Gut microbiome was profiled by 16S rRNA sequencing. Analyses for the primary outcome of egg allergy at enrollment, and the secondary outcomes of egg sensitization at enrollment and resolution of egg allergy by age 8 years, were performed using Quantitative Insights into Microbial Ecology, Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States, and Statistical Analysis of Metagenomic Profiles. Compared to controls, increased alpha diversity and distinct taxa (PERMANOVA P = 5.0 × 10 -4 ) characterized the early-life gut microbiome of children with egg allergy. Genera from the Lachnospiraceae, Streptococcaceae, and Leuconostocaceae families were differentially abundant in children with egg allergy. Predicted metagenome functional analyses showed differential purine metabolism by the gut microbiota of egg-allergic subjects (Kruskal-Wallis P adj  = 0.021). Greater gut microbiome diversity and genera from Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae were associated with egg sensitization (PERMANOVA P = 5.0 × 10 -4 ). Among those with egg allergy, there was no association between early-life gut microbiota and egg allergy resolution by age 8 years. The distinct early-life gut microbiota in egg-allergic and egg-sensitized children identified by our study may point to targets for preventive or therapeutic intervention. © 2018 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  3. Bioaccumulation of lipophilic substances in fish early life stages

    SciT

    Petersen, G.I.; Kristensen, P.

    1998-07-01

    Accumulation of {sup 14}C-labeled polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, naphthalene, phenanthrene, pyrene, and benzo(a)pyrene and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners PCB 31 and PCB 105 with a log octanol/water partition coefficient (K{sub ow}) range from 3.37 to 6.5 was investigated in eggs and larvae of zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio), and in larvae of cod (Gadus morhua), herring (Clupea harengus), and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). Significant differences in the uptake and elimination rate constants between eggs and larvae of zebra fish were seen. The low rate of uptake and the lower elimination rate of eggs did, however, lead to bioconcentration factors (BCFs) comparable to thosemore » for larvae. As biotransformation of xenobiotics in embryonic and larval stages was indicated to be insignificant compared to juvenile/adult stages, body burdens of readily biotransformed chemicals may be higher in fish early life stages. Because weight and lipid content did not differ much between the investigated species, the main reason for the variability in BCFs between marine species and freshwater species was considered to be caused by differences in exposure temperatures that affect the degree of biotransformation. Due to the smaller size of larvae and thus an increased total surface of the membranes per unit fish weight, steady-state conditions were reached at a faster r/ate in early life stages than in juvenile/adult life stages. The lipid-normalized bioconcentration factors (BCF{sub L}) were linearly related to K{sub ow} but BCF{sub L} was, in general, higher than K{sub ow}, indicating that octanol is not a suitable surrogate for fish lipids. Differences in bioconcentration kinetics between larvae and juvenile/adult life stages are considered to be the main reason for the higher sensitivity, with respect to external effect concentrations, generally obtained for early life stages of fish.« less

  4. Sudden Unexpected Death in Fetal Life Through Early Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Kinney, Hannah C.; Willinger, Marian

    2016-01-01

    In March 2015, the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development held a workshop entitled “Sudden Unexpected Death in Fetal Life Through Early Childhood: New Opportunities.” Its objective was to advance efforts to understand and ultimately prevent sudden deaths in early life, by considering their pathogenesis as a potential continuum with some commonalities in biological origins or pathways. A second objective of this meeting was to highlight current issues surrounding the classification of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), and the implications of variations in the use of the term “SIDS” in forensic practice, and pediatric care and research. The proceedings reflected the most current knowledge and understanding of the origins and biology of vulnerability to sudden unexpected death, and its environmental triggers. Participants were encouraged to consider the application of new technologies and “omics” approaches to accelerate research. The major advances in delineating the intrinsic vulnerabilities to sudden death in early life have come from epidemiologic, neural, cardiac, metabolic, genetic, and physiologic research, with some commonalities among cases of unexplained stillbirth, SIDS, and sudden unexplained death in childhood observed. It was emphasized that investigations of sudden unexpected death are inconsistent, varying by jurisdiction, as are the education, certification practices, and experience of death certifiers. In addition, there is no practical consensus on the use of “SIDS” as a determination in cause of death. Major clinical, forensic, and scientific areas are identified for future research. PMID:27230764

  5. Early-life chemical exposures and risk of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    De Long, Nicole E; Holloway, Alison C

    2017-01-01

    The global prevalence of obesity has been increasing at a staggering pace, with few indications of any decline, and is now one of the major public health challenges worldwide. While obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) have historically thought to be largely driven by increased caloric intake and lack of exercise, this is insufficient to account for the observed changes in disease trends. There is now increasing evidence to suggest that exposure to synthetic chemicals in our environment may also play a key role in the etiology and pathophysiology of metabolic diseases. Importantly, exposures occurring in early life (in utero and early childhood) may have a more profound effect on life-long risk of obesity and MetS. This narrative review explores the evidence linking early-life exposure to a suite of chemicals that are common contaminants associated with food production (pesticides; imidacloprid, chlorpyrifos, and glyphosate) and processing (acrylamide), in addition to chemicals ubiquitously found in our household goods (brominated flame retardants) and drinking water (heavy metals) and changes in key pathways important for the development of MetS and obesity.

  6. African ancestry, early life exposures, and respiratory morbidity in early childhood.

    PubMed

    Kumar, R; Tsai, H-J; Hong, X; Gignoux, C; Pearson, C; Ortiz, K; Fu, M; Pongracic, J A; Burchard, E G; Bauchner, H; Wang, X

    2012-02-01

    Racial disparities persist in early childhood wheezing and cannot be completely explained by known risk factors. To evaluate the associations of genetic ancestry and self-identified race with early childhood recurrent wheezing, accounting for socio-economic status (SES) and early life exposures. We studied 1034 children in an urban, multi-racial, prospective birth cohort. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of genetic ancestry as opposed to self-identified race with recurrent wheezing (>3 episodes). Sequential models accounted for demographic, socio-economic factors and early life risk factors. Genetic ancestry, estimated using 150 ancestry informative markers, was expressed in deciles. Approximately 6.1% of subjects (mean age 3.1 years) experienced recurrent wheezing. After accounting for SES and demographic factors, African ancestry (OR: 1.16, 95% CI: 1.02-1.31) was significantly associated with recurrent wheezing. By self-reported race, hispanic subjects had a borderline decrease in risk of wheeze compared with African Americans (OR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.19-1.00), whereas white subjects (OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.14-1.57) did not have. After further adjustment for known confounders and early life exposures, both African (OR: 1.19, 95% CI: 1.05-1.34) and European ancestry (OR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.74-0.94) retained a significant association with recurrent wheezing, as compared with self-identified race (OR(whites) : 0.31, 95% CI: 0.09-1.14; OR(hispanic) : 0.47, 95% CI: 0.20-1.08). There were no significant interactions between ancestry and early life factors on recurrent wheezing. In contrast to self-identified race, African ancestry remained a significant, independent predictor of early childhood wheezing after accounting for early life and other known risk factors associated with lung function changes and asthma. Genetic ancestry may be a powerful way to evaluate wheezing disparities and a proxy for differentially distributed genetic and

  7. African ancestry, early life exposures, and respiratory morbidity in early childhood

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, R.; Tsai, H.-J.; Hong, X.; Gignoux, C.; Pearson, C.; Ortiz, K.; Fu, M.; Pongracic, J. A.; Burchard, E. G.; Bauchner, H.; Wang, X.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Racial disparities persist in early childhood wheezing and cannot be completely explained by known risk factors. Objective To evaluate the associations of genetic ancestry and self-identified race with early childhood recurrent wheezing, accounting for socio-economic status (SES) and early life exposures. Methods We studied 1034 children in an urban, multi-racial, prospective birth cohort. Multivariate logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of genetic ancestry as opposed to self-identified race with recurrent wheezing (>3 episodes). Sequential models accounted for demographic, socio-economic factors and early life risk factors. Genetic ancestry, estimated using 150 ancestry informative markers, was expressed in deciles. Results Approximately 6.1% of subjects (mean age 3.1 years) experienced recurrent wheezing. After accounting for SES and demographic factors, African ancestry (OR: 1.16, 95% CI: 1.02–1.31) was significantly associated with recurrent wheezing. By self-reported race, hispanic subjects had a borderline decrease in risk of wheeze compared with African Americans (OR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.19–1.00), whereas white subjects (OR: 0.46, 95% CI: 0.14–1.57) did not have. After further adjustment for known confounders and early life exposures, both African (OR: 1.19, 95% CI: 1.05–1.34) and European ancestry (OR: 0.84, 95% CI: 0.74–0.94) retained a significant association with recurrent wheezing, as compared with self-identified race (ORwhites: 0.31, 95% CI: 0.09–1.14; ORhispanic: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.20–1.08). There were no significant interactions between ancestry and early life factors on recurrent wheezing. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance In contrast to self-identified race, African ancestry remained a significant, independent predictor of early childhood wheezing after accounting for early life and other known risk factors associated with lung function changes and asthma. Genetic ancestry may be a powerful way to

  8. EARLY LIFE RISKS, ANTISOCIAL TENDENCIES, AND PRETEEN DELINQUENCY.

    PubMed

    Staff, Jeremy; Whichard, Corey; Siennick, Sonja; Maggs, Jennifer

    2015-11-01

    Early age-of-onset delinquency and substance use confer a major risk for continued criminality, alcohol and drug abuse, and other serious difficulties throughout the life course. Our objective is to examine the developmental roots of preteen delinquency and substance use. Using nationally representative longitudinal data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study ( n = 13,221), we examine the influence of early childhood developmental and family risks on latent pathways of antisocial tendencies from ages 3 to 7, and the influence of those pathways on property crime and substance use by age 11. We identified a normative, non-antisocial pathway; a pathway marked by oppositional behavior and fighting; a pathway marked by impulsivity and inattention; and a rare pathway characterized by a wide range of antisocial tendencies. Children with developmental and family risks that emerged by age 3-specifically difficult infant temperament, low cognitive ability, weak parental closeness, and disadvantaged family background-face increased odds of antisocial tendencies. There is minimal overlap between the risk factors for early antisocial tendencies and those for preteen delinquency. Children on an antisocial pathway are more likely to engage in preteen delinquency and substance use by age 11, even after accounting for early life risk factors.

  9. EARLY LIFE RISKS, ANTISOCIAL TENDENCIES, AND PRETEEN DELINQUENCY*

    PubMed Central

    Staff, Jeremy; Whichard, Corey; Siennick, Sonja; Maggs, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Early age-of-onset delinquency and substance use confer a major risk for continued criminality, alcohol and drug abuse, and other serious difficulties throughout the life course. Our objective is to examine the developmental roots of preteen delinquency and substance use. Using nationally representative longitudinal data from the UK Millennium Cohort Study (n = 13,221), we examine the influence of early childhood developmental and family risks on latent pathways of antisocial tendencies from ages 3 to 7, and the influence of those pathways on property crime and substance use by age 11. We identified a normative, non-antisocial pathway; a pathway marked by oppositional behavior and fighting; a pathway marked by impulsivity and inattention; and a rare pathway characterized by a wide range of antisocial tendencies. Children with developmental and family risks that emerged by age 3—specifically difficult infant temperament, low cognitive ability, weak parental closeness, and disadvantaged family background—face increased odds of antisocial tendencies. There is minimal overlap between the risk factors for early antisocial tendencies and those for preteen delinquency. Children on an antisocial pathway are more likely to engage in preteen delinquency and substance use by age 11, even after accounting for early life risk factors. PMID:26900167

  10. Early Life on Earth: the Ancient Fossil Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westall, F.

    2004-07-01

    The evidence for early life and its initial evolution on Earth is lin= ked intimately with the geological evolution of the early Earth. The environment of the early Earth would be considered extreme by modern standards: hot (50-80=B0C), volcanically and hydrothermally active, a= noxic, high UV flux, and a high flux of extraterrestrial impacts. Habitats = for life were more limited until continent-building processes resulted in= the formation of stable cratons with wide, shallow, continental platforms= in the Mid-Late Archaean. Unfortunately there are no records of the first appearance of life and the earliest isotopic indications of the exist= ence of organisms fractionating carbon in ~3.8 Ga rocks from the Isua greenst= one belt in Greenland are tenuous. Well-preserved microfossils and micro= bial mats (in the form of tabular and domical stromatolites) occur in 3.5-= 3.3 Ga, Early Archaean, sedimentary formations from the Barberton (South Afri= ca) and Pilbara (Australia) greenstone belts. They document life forms that = show a relatively advanced level of evolution. Microfossil morphology inclu= des filamentous, coccoid, rod and vibroid shapes. Colonial microorganism= s formed biofilms and microbial mats at the surfaces of volcaniclastic = and chemical sediments, some of which created (small) macroscopic microbi= alites such as stromatolites. Anoxygenic photosynthesis may already have developed. Carbon, nitrogen and sulphur isotopes ratios are in the r= ange of those for organisms with anaerobic metabolisms, such as methanogenesi= s, sulphate reduction and photosynthesis. Life was apparently distribute= d widely in shallow-water to littoral environments, including exposed, evaporitic basins and regions of hydrothermal activity. Biomass in t= he early Archaean was restricted owing to the limited amount of energy t= hat could be produced by anaerobic metabolisms. Microfossils resembling o= xygenic photosynthesisers, such as cyanobacteria, probably first occurred in

  11. Environmental insults: critical triggers for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bing; Pamphlett, Roger

    2017-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterised by a rapid loss of lower and upper motor neurons. As a complex disease, the ageing process and complicated gene-environment interactions are involved in the majority of cases. Significant advances have been made in unravelling the genetic susceptibility to ALS with massively parallel sequencing technologies, while environmental insults remain a suspected but largely unexplored source of risk. Several studies applying the strategy of Mendelian randomisation have strengthened the link between environmental insults and ALS, but none so far has proved conclusive. We propose a new ALS model which links the current knowledge of genetic factors, ageing and environmental insults. This model provides a mechanism as to how ALS is initiated, with environmental insults playing a critical role. The available evidence has suggested that inherited defect(s) could cause mitochondrial dysfunction, which would establish the primary susceptibility to ALS. Further study of the underlying mechanism may shed light on ALS pathogenesis. Environmental insults are a critical trigger for ALS, particularly in the aged individuals with other toxicant susceptible genes. The identification of ALS triggers could lead to preventive strategies for those individuals at risk.

  12. The Long-term Impact of Early Life Pain On Adult Responses to Anxiety and Stress: Historical Perspectives and Empirical Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Victoria, Nicole C.; Murphy, Anne Z.

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 1 in 6 infants are born prematurely each year. Typically, these infants spend 25 days in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) where they experience 10–18 painful and inflammatory procedures each day. Remarkably, pre-emptive analgesics and/or anesthesia are administered less than 25% of the time. Unalleviated pain during the perinatal period is associated with permanent decreases in pain sensitivity, blunted cortisol responses and high rates of neuropsychiatric disorders. To date, the mechanism(s) by which these long-term changes in stress and pain behavior occur, and whether such alterations can be prevented by appropriate analgesia at the time of insult, remains unclear. Work in our lab using a rodent model of early life pain suggests that inflammatory pain experienced on the day of birth blunts adult responses to stress- and pain-provoking stimuli, and dysregulates the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis in part through a permanent upregulation in central endogenous opioid tone. This review focuses on the long-term impact of neonatal inflammatory pain on adult anxiety- and stress-related responses, and underlying neuroanatomical changes in the context of endogenous pain control and the HPA axis. These two systems are in a state of exaggerated developmental plasticity early in postnatal life, and work in concert to respond to noxious or aversive stimuli. We present empirical evidence from animal and clinical studies, and discuss historical perspectives underlying the lack of analgesia/anesthetic use for early life pain in the modern NICU. PMID:26210872

  13. Early Childhood Education Teachers: Life History, Life Course, and the Problem of Family-Work Balance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullough, Robert V., Jr.

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to the wider education literature, rather little is known about the lives of early childhood education (ECE) teachers and the impact of those lives on their practice. Drawing on surveys completed by Head Start assistant and lead teachers, teacher lifelines, and interviews, and through the lens of life-course theory, the author portrays…

  14. Fluoride Exposure in Early Life as the Possible Root Cause of Disease In Later Life.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Tetsuo; Rawls, H Ralph

    2018-05-15

    Fluoride, one of the most celebrated ingredients for the prevention of dental caries in the 20th century, has also been controversial for its use in dentifrices and other applications. In the current review, we have concentrated primarily on early-life exposure to fluoride and how it may affect the various organs. The most recent controversial aspects of fluoride are related to toxicity of the developing brain and how it may possibly result in the decrease of intelligence quotient (IQ), autism, and calcification of the pineal gland. In addition, it has been reported to have possible effects on bone and thyroid glands. If nutritional stress is applied during a critical period of growth and development, the organ(s) and/or body will never recover once they pass through the critical period. For example, if animals are force-fed during experiments, they will simply get fat but never reach the normal size. Although early-life fluoride exposure causing fluorosis is well reported in the literature, the dental profession considers it primarily as an esthetic rather than a serious systemic problem. In the current review, we wanted to raise the possibility of future disease as a result of early-life exposure to fluoride. It is not currently known how fluoride will become a cause of future disease. Studies of other nutritional factors have shown that the effects of early nutritional stress are a cause of disease in later life.

  15. Prevention of overweight and obesity in early life.

    PubMed

    Lanigan, Julie

    2018-05-29

    Childhood obesity is a serious challenge for public health. The problem begins early with most excess childhood weight gained before starting school. In 2016, the WHO estimated that 41 million children under 5 were overweight or obese. Once established, obesity is difficult to reverse, likely to persist into adult life and is associated with increased risk of CVD, type 2 diabetes and certain cancers. Preventing obesity is therefore of high importance. However, its development is multi-factorial and prevention is a complex challenge. Modifiable lifestyle behaviours such as diet and physical activity are the most well-known determinants of obesity. More recently, early-life factors have emerged as key influencers of obesity in childhood. Understanding risk factors and how they interact is important to inform interventions that aim to prevent obesity in early childhood. Available evidence supports multi-component interventions as effective in obesity prevention. However, relatively few interventions are available in the UK and only one, TrimTots, has been evaluated in randomised controlled trials and shown to be effective at reducing obesity risk in preschool children (age 1-5 years). BMI was lower in children immediately after completing TrimTots compared with waiting list controls and this effect was sustained at long-term follow-up, 2 years after completion. Developing and evaluating complex interventions for obesity prevention is a challenge for clinicians and researchers. In addition, parents encounter barriers engaging with interventions. This review considers early-life risk factors for obesity, highlights evidence for preventative interventions and discusses barriers and facilitators to their success.

  16. Early life exposures and the risk of adult glioma.

    PubMed

    Anic, Gabriella M; Madden, Melissa H; Sincich, Kelly; Thompson, Reid C; Nabors, L Burton; Olson, Jeffrey J; LaRocca, Renato V; Browning, James E; Pan, Edward; Egan, Kathleen M

    2013-09-01

    Exposure to common infections in early life may stimulate immune development and reduce the risk for developing cancer. Birth order and family size are proxies for the timing of exposure to childhood infections with several studies showing a reduced risk of glioma associated with a higher order of birth (and presumed younger age at infection). The aim of this study was to examine whether birth order, family size, and other early life exposures are associated with the risk of glioma in adults using data collected in a large clinic-based US case-control study including 889 glioma cases and 903 community controls. A structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on family structure, childhood exposures and other potential risk factors. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between early life factors and glioma risk. Persons having any siblings were at significantly lower risk for glioma when compared to those reporting no siblings (OR=0.64; 95% CI 0.44-0.93; p=0.020). Compared to first-borns, individuals with older siblings had a significantly lower risk (OR=0.75; 95% CI 0.61-0.91; p=0.004). Birth weight, having been breast fed in infancy, and season of birth were not associated with glioma risk. The current findings lend further support to a growing body of evidence that early exposure to childhood infections reduces the risk of glioma onset in children and adults.

  17. Universal biology and the statistical mechanics of early life.

    PubMed

    Goldenfeld, Nigel; Biancalani, Tommaso; Jafarpour, Farshid

    2017-12-28

    All known life on the Earth exhibits at least two non-trivial common features: the canonical genetic code and biological homochirality, both of which emerged prior to the Last Universal Common Ancestor state. This article describes recent efforts to provide a narrative of this epoch using tools from statistical mechanics. During the emergence of self-replicating life far from equilibrium in a period of chemical evolution, minimal models of autocatalysis show that homochirality would have necessarily co-evolved along with the efficiency of early-life self-replicators. Dynamical system models of the evolution of the genetic code must explain its universality and its highly refined error-minimization properties. These have both been accounted for in a scenario where life arose from a collective, networked phase where there was no notion of species and perhaps even individuality itself. We show how this phase ultimately terminated during an event sometimes known as the Darwinian transition, leading to the present epoch of tree-like vertical descent of organismal lineages. These examples illustrate concrete examples of universal biology: the quest for a fundamental understanding of the basic properties of living systems, independent of precise instantiation in chemistry or other media.This article is part of the themed issue 'Reconceptualizing the origins of life'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  18. Universal biology and the statistical mechanics of early life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldenfeld, Nigel; Biancalani, Tommaso; Jafarpour, Farshid

    2017-11-01

    All known life on the Earth exhibits at least two non-trivial common features: the canonical genetic code and biological homochirality, both of which emerged prior to the Last Universal Common Ancestor state. This article describes recent efforts to provide a narrative of this epoch using tools from statistical mechanics. During the emergence of self-replicating life far from equilibrium in a period of chemical evolution, minimal models of autocatalysis show that homochirality would have necessarily co-evolved along with the efficiency of early-life self-replicators. Dynamical system models of the evolution of the genetic code must explain its universality and its highly refined error-minimization properties. These have both been accounted for in a scenario where life arose from a collective, networked phase where there was no notion of species and perhaps even individuality itself. We show how this phase ultimately terminated during an event sometimes known as the Darwinian transition, leading to the present epoch of tree-like vertical descent of organismal lineages. These examples illustrate concrete examples of universal biology: the quest for a fundamental understanding of the basic properties of living systems, independent of precise instantiation in chemistry or other media. This article is part of the themed issue 'Reconceptualizing the origins of life'.

  19. Early-Life Intelligence Predicts Midlife Biological Age

    PubMed Central

    Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W.; Harrington, Honalee; Houts, Renate; Israel, Salomon; Levine, Morgan E.; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Early-life intelligence has been shown to predict multiple causes of death in populations around the world. This finding suggests that intelligence might influence mortality through its effects on a general process of physiological deterioration (i.e., individual variation in “biological age”). We examined whether intelligence could predict measures of aging at midlife before the onset of most age-related disease. Methods: We tested whether intelligence assessed in early childhood, middle childhood, and midlife predicted midlife biological age in members of the Dunedin Study, a population-representative birth cohort. Results: Lower intelligence predicted more advanced biological age at midlife as captured by perceived facial age, a 10-biomarker algorithm based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), and Framingham heart age (r = 0.1–0.2). Correlations between intelligence and telomere length were less consistent. The associations between intelligence and biological age were not explained by differences in childhood health or parental socioeconomic status, and intelligence remained a significant predictor of biological age even when intelligence was assessed before Study members began their formal schooling. Discussion: These results suggest that accelerated aging may serve as one of the factors linking low early-life intelligence to increased rates of morbidity and mortality. PMID:26014827

  20. Early-Life Intelligence Predicts Midlife Biological Age.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Jonathan D; Caspi, Avshalom; Belsky, Daniel W; Harrington, Honalee; Houts, Renate; Israel, Salomon; Levine, Morgan E; Sugden, Karen; Williams, Benjamin; Poulton, Richie; Moffitt, Terrie E

    2016-11-01

    Early-life intelligence has been shown to predict multiple causes of death in populations around the world. This finding suggests that intelligence might influence mortality through its effects on a general process of physiological deterioration (i.e., individual variation in "biological age"). We examined whether intelligence could predict measures of aging at midlife before the onset of most age-related disease. We tested whether intelligence assessed in early childhood, middle childhood, and midlife predicted midlife biological age in members of the Dunedin Study, a population-representative birth cohort. Lower intelligence predicted more advanced biological age at midlife as captured by perceived facial age, a 10-biomarker algorithm based on data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), and Framingham heart age (r = 0.1-0.2). Correlations between intelligence and telomere length were less consistent. The associations between intelligence and biological age were not explained by differences in childhood health or parental socioeconomic status, and intelligence remained a significant predictor of biological age even when intelligence was assessed before Study members began their formal schooling. These results suggest that accelerated aging may serve as one of the factors linking low early-life intelligence to increased rates of morbidity and mortality. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Biomarkers as tracers for life on early earth and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simoneit, B. R.; Summons, R. E.; Jahnke, L. L.

    1998-01-01

    Biomarkers in geological samples are products derived from biochemical (natural product) precursors by reductive and oxidative processes (e.g., cholestanes from cholesterol). Generally, lipids, pigments and biomembranes are preserved best over longer geological times and labile compounds such as amino acids, sugars, etc. are useful biomarkers for recent times. Thus, the detailed characterization of biomarker compositions permits the assessment of the major contributing species of extinct and/or extant life. In the case of the early Earth, work has progressed to elucidate molecular structure and carbon isotropic signals preserved in ancient sedimentary rocks. In addition, the combination of bacterial biochemistry with the organic geochemistry of contemporary and ancient hydrothermal ecosystems permits the modeling of the nature, behavior and preservation potential of primitive microbial communities. This approach uses combined molecular and isotopic analyses to characterize lipids produced by cultured bacteria (representative of ancient strains) and to test a variety of culture conditions which affect their biosynthesis. On considering Mars, the biomarkers from lipids and biopolymers would be expected to be preserved best if life flourished there during its early history (3.5-4 x 10(9) yr ago). Both oxidized and reduced products would be expected. This is based on the inferred occurrence of hydrothermal activity during that time with the concomitant preservation of biochemically-derived organic matter. Both known biomarkers (i.e., as elucidated for early terrestrial samples and for primitive terrestrial microbiota) and novel, potentially unknown compounds should be characterized.

  2. Early Environmental Origins of Neurodegenerative Disease in Later Life

    PubMed Central

    Landrigan, Philip J.; Sonawane, Babasaheb; Butler, Robert N.; Trasande, Leonardo; Callan, Richard; Droller, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Parkinson disease (PD) and Alzheimer disease (AD), the two most common neurodegenerative disorders in American adults, are of purely genetic origin in a minority of cases and appear in most instances to arise through interactions among genetic and environmental factors. In this article we hypothesize that environmental exposures in early life may be of particular etiologic importance and review evidence for the early environmental origins of neurodegeneration. For PD the first recognized environmental cause, MPTP (1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine), was identified in epidemiologic studies of drug abusers. Chemicals experimentally linked to PD include the insecticide rotenone and the herbicides paraquat and maneb; interaction has been observed between paraquat and maneb. In epidemiologic studies, manganese has been linked to parkinsonism. In dementia, lead is associated with increased risk in chronically exposed workers. Exposures of children in early life to lead, polychlorinated biphenyls, and methylmercury have been followed by persistent decrements in intelligence that may presage dementia. To discover new environmental causes of AD and PD, and to characterize relevant gene–environment interactions, we recommend that a large, prospective genetic and epidemiologic study be undertaken that will follow thousands of children from conception (or before) to old age. Additional approaches to etiologic discovery include establishing incidence registries for AD and PD, conducting targeted investigations in high-risk populations, and improving testing of the potential neurologic toxicity of chemicals. PMID:16140633

  3. Environmental determinants of allergy and asthma in early life.

    PubMed

    Burbank, Allison J; Sood, Amika K; Kesic, Matthew J; Peden, David B; Hernandez, Michelle L

    2017-07-01

    Allergic disease prevalence has increased significantly in recent decades. Primary prevention efforts are being guided by study of the exposome (or collective environmental exposures beginning during the prenatal period) to identify modifiable factors that affect allergic disease risk. In this review we explore the evidence supporting a relationship between key components of the external exposome in the prenatal and early-life periods and their effect on atopy development focused on microbial, allergen, and air pollution exposures. The abundance and diversity of microbial exposures during the first months and years of life have been linked with risk of allergic sensitization and disease. Indoor environmental allergen exposure during early life can also affect disease development, depending on the allergen type, dose, and timing of exposure. Recent evidence supports the role of ambient air pollution in allergic disease inception. The lack of clarity in the literature surrounding the relationship between environment and atopy reflects the complex interplay between cumulative environmental factors and genetic susceptibility, such that no one factor dictates disease development in all subjects. Understanding the effect of the summation of environmental exposures throughout a child's development is needed to identify cost-effective interventions that reduce atopy risk in children. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Early Life Stress, Depression And Parkinson's Disease: A New Approach.

    PubMed

    Dallé, Ernest; Mabandla, Musa V

    2018-03-19

    This review aims to shed light on the relationship that involves exposure to early life stress, depression and Parkinson's disease (PD). A systematic literature search was conducted in Pubmed, MEDLINE, EBSCOHost and Google Scholar and relevant data were submitted to a meta-analysis . Early life stress may contribute to the development of depression and patients with depression are at risk of developing PD later in life. Depression is a common non-motor symptom preceding motor symptoms in PD. Stimulation of regions contiguous to the substantia nigra as well as dopamine (DA) agonists have been shown to be able to attenuate depression. Therefore, since PD causes depletion of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, depression, rather than being just a simple mood disorder, may be part of the pathophysiological process that leads to PD. It is plausible that the mesocortical and mesolimbic dopaminergic pathways that mediate mood, emotion, and/or cognitive function may also play a key role in depression associated with PD. Here, we propose that a medication designed to address a deficiency in serotonin is more likely to influence motor symptoms of PD associated with depression. This review highlights the effects of an antidepressant, Fluvoxamine maleate, in an animal model that combines depressive-like symptoms and Parkinsonism.

  5. Innate Immunity to Respiratory Infection in Early Life

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, Laura; Culley, Fiona J.

    2017-01-01

    Early life is a period of particular susceptibility to respiratory infections and symptoms are frequently more severe in infants than in adults. The neonatal immune system is generally held to be deficient in most compartments; responses to innate stimuli are weak, antigen-presenting cells have poor immunostimulatory activity and adaptive lymphocyte responses are limited, leading to poor immune memory and ineffective vaccine responses. For mucosal surfaces such as the lung, which is continuously exposed to airborne antigen and to potential pathogenic invasion, the ability to discriminate between harmless and potentially dangerous antigens is essential, to prevent inflammation that could lead to loss of gaseous exchange and damage to the developing lung tissue. We have only recently begun to define the differences in respiratory immunity in early life and its environmental and developmental influences. The innate immune system may be of relatively greater importance than the adaptive immune system in the neonatal and infant period than later in life, as it does not require specific antigenic experience. A better understanding of what constitutes protective innate immunity in the respiratory tract in this age group and the factors that influence its development should allow us to predict why certain infants are vulnerable to severe respiratory infections, design treatments to accelerate the development of protective immunity, and design age specific adjuvants to better boost immunity to infection in the lung. PMID:29184555

  6. Philosophical Approaches towards Sciences of Life in Early Cybernetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montagnini, Leone

    2008-07-01

    The article focuses on the different conceptual and philosophical approaches towards the sciences of life operating in the backstage of Early Cybernetics. After a short reconstruction of the main steps characterizing the origins of Cybernetics, from 1940 until 1948, the paper examines the complementary conceptual views between Norbert Wiener and John von Neumann, as a "fuzzy thinking" versus a "logical thinking", and the marked difference between the "methodological individualism" shared by both of them versus the "methodological collectivism" of most of the numerous scientists of life and society attending the Macy Conferences on Cybernetics. The main thesis sustained here is that these different approaches, quite invisible to the participants, were different, maybe even opposite, but they could provoke clashes, as well as cooperate in a synergic way.

  7. Early life linguistic ability, late life cognitive function, and neuropathology: findings from the Nun Study.

    PubMed

    Riley, Kathryn P; Snowdon, David A; Desrosiers, Mark F; Markesbery, William R

    2005-03-01

    The relationships between early life variables, cognitive function, and neuropathology were examined in participants in the Nun Study who were between the ages of 75 and 95. Our early life variable was idea density, which is a measure of linguistic ability, derived from autobiographies written at a mean age of 22 years. Six discrete categories of cognitive function, including mild cognitive impairments, were evaluated, using the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) battery of cognitive tests. Neuropathologic data included Braak staging, neurofibrillary tangle and senile plaque counts, brain weight, degree of cerebral atrophy, severity of atherosclerosis, and the presence of brain infarcts. Early-life idea density was significantly related to the categories of late-life cognitive function, including mild cognitive impairments: low idea density was associated with greater impairment. Low idea density also was significantly associated with lower brain weight, higher degree of cerebral atrophy, more severe neurofibrillary pathology, and the likelihood of meeting neuropathologic criteria for Alzheimer's disease.

  8. The composition of the gut microbiota throughout life, with an emphasis on early life

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez, Juan Miguel; Murphy, Kiera; Stanton, Catherine; Ross, R. Paul; Kober, Olivia I.; Juge, Nathalie; Avershina, Ekaterina; Rudi, Knut; Narbad, Arjan; Jenmalm, Maria C.; Marchesi, Julian R.; Collado, Maria Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota has become a relevant aspect of human health. Microbial colonization runs in parallel with immune system maturation and plays a role in intestinal physiology and regulation. Increasing evidence on early microbial contact suggest that human intestinal microbiota is seeded before birth. Maternal microbiota forms the first microbial inoculum, and from birth, the microbial diversity increases and converges toward an adult-like microbiota by the end of the first 3–5 years of life. Perinatal factors such as mode of delivery, diet, genetics, and intestinal mucin glycosylation all contribute to influence microbial colonization. Once established, the composition of the gut microbiota is relatively stable throughout adult life, but can be altered as a result of bacterial infections, antibiotic treatment, lifestyle, surgical, and a long-term change in diet. Shifts in this complex microbial system have been reported to increase the risk of disease. Therefore, an adequate establishment of microbiota and its maintenance throughout life would reduce the risk of disease in early and late life. This review discusses recent studies on the early colonization and factors influencing this process which impact on health. PMID:25651996

  9. Assessing Susceptibility from Early-Life Exposure to Carcinogens

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Hugh A.; Cogliano, V. James; Flowers, Lynn; Valcovic, Larry; Setzer, R. Woodrow; Woodruff, Tracey J.

    2005-01-01

    Cancer risk assessment methods currently assume that children and adults are equally susceptible to exposure to chemicals. We reviewed available scientific literature to determine whether this was scientifically supported. We identified more than 50 chemicals causing cancer after perinatal exposure. Human data are extremely limited, with radiation exposures showing increased early susceptibility at some tumor sites. Twenty-seven rodent studies for 18 chemicals had sufficient data after postnatal and adult exposures to quantitatively estimate potential increased susceptibility from early-life exposure, calculated as the ratio of juvenile to adult cancer potencies for three study types: acute dosing, repeated dosing, and lifetime dosing. Twelve of the chemicals act through a mutagenic mode of action. For these, the geometric mean ratio was 11 for lifetime exposures and 8.7 for repeat exposures, with a ratio of 10 for these studies combined. The geometric mean ratio for acute studies is 1.5, which was influenced by tissue-specific results [geometric mean ratios for kidney, leukemia, liver, lymph, mammary, nerve, reticular tissue, thymic lymphoma, and uterus/vagina > 1 (range, 1.6–8.1); forestomach, harderian gland, ovaries, and thyroid < 1 (range, 0.033–0.45)]. Chemicals causing cancer through other modes of action indicate some increased susceptibility from postnatal exposure (geometric mean ratio is 3.4 for lifetime exposure, 2.2 for repeat exposure). Early exposures to compounds with endocrine activity sometimes produce different tumors after exposures at different ages. These analyses suggest increased susceptibility to cancer from early-life exposure, particularly for chemicals acting through a mutagenic mode of action. PMID:16140616

  10. Life satisfaction of women in early stages of fertility treatment.

    PubMed

    Ben Shlomo, Shirley; Pascal, Mor; Taubman Ben-Ari, Orit; Azuri, Yoseph; Horowtz, Eran

    2017-01-01

    As many women perceive motherhood to be a central component of identity that enhances life satisfaction, difficulties conceiving may lead to stress. This study examined women in the early stages of fertility treatment to ascertain the relations of perceived stress, cognitive appraisal, and self-mastery to the life satisfaction of women embarking on fertility treatment and whether the associations were the same for women who were already mothers versus those who were not. Women were recruited for the study over a period of 18 months, from January 2013 to June 2014. The final sample was composed of 145 women; of these, 67 had 1 or 2 children and 78 had no children. No significant differences were found in perceived stress and life satisfaction between women with and without children. However, in the sample as a whole, higher levels of self-mastery and lower levels of stress were associated with greater life satisfaction. Moreover, the associations between self-mastery and cognitive appraisals of threat and self-efficacy were mediated by perceived stress. The findings highlight the importance of developing interventions at fertility clinics that begin at the very first point of contact to promote the psychological well-being of women being treated for infertility.

  11. Planetary Perspective on Life on Early Mars and the Early Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sleep, Norman H.; Zahnle, Kevin

    1996-01-01

    Impacts of asteroids and comets posed a major hazard to the continuous existence of early life on Mars as on the Earth. The chief danger was presented by globally distributed ejecta, which for very large impacts takes the form of transient thick rock vapor atmospheres; both planets suffered such impacts repeatedly. The exposed surface on both planets was sterilized when it was quickly heated to the temperature of condensed rock vapor by radiation and rock rain. Shallow water bodies were quickly evaporated and sterilized. Any surviving life must have been either in deep water or well below the surface.

  12. Early life adversity influences stress response association with smoking relapse.

    PubMed

    al'Absi, Mustafa; Lemieux, Andrine; Westra, Ruth; Allen, Sharon

    2017-11-01

    We examined the hypothesis that stress-related blunting of cortisol in smokers is particularly pronounced in those with a history of severe life adversity. The two aims of this study were first to examine hormonal, craving, and withdrawal symptoms during ad libitum smoking and after the first 24 h of abstinence in smokers who experienced high or low levels of adversity. Second, we sought to examine the relationship between adversity and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) hormones to predict relapse during the first month of a smoking cessation attempt. Hormonal and self-report measures were collected from 103 smokers (49 women) during ad libitum smoking and after the first 24 h of abstinence. HPA hormones were measured during baseline rest and in response to acute stress in both conditions. All smokers were interested in smoking cessation, and we prospectively used stress response measures to predict relapse during the first 4 weeks of the smoking cessation attempt. The results showed that high adversity was associated with higher distress and smoking withdrawal symptoms. High level of early life adversity was associated with elevated HPA activity, which was found in both salivary and plasma cortisol. Enhanced adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stress response was evident in high-adversity but not in low-adversity relapsers. This study demonstrated that early life adversity is associated with stress-related HPA responses. The study also demonstrated that, among smokers who experienced a high level of life adversity, heightened ACTH and cortisol responses were linked with increased risk for smoking relapse.

  13. Early-Life Origins of the Race Gap in Men's Mortality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warner, David F.; Hayward, Mark D.

    2006-01-01

    Using a life course framework, we examine the early life origins of the race gap in men's all-cause mortality. Using the National Longitudinal Survey of Older Men (1966-1990), we evaluate major social pathways by which early life conditions differentiate the mortality experiences of blacks and whites. Our findings indicate that early life…

  14. Could the early environment of Mars have supported the development of life?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Christopher P.; Stoker, Carol R.

    1990-01-01

    The environment of Mars and its correlation to the origin of life on earth are examined. Evidence of liquid water and nitrogen on early Mars is discussed. The similarities between the early Mars and early earth environments are described.

  15. Adding Insult to Imagery? Art Education and Censorship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweeny, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    The "Adding Insult to Imagery? Artistic Responses to Censorship and Mass-Media" exhibition opened in January 16, 2006, Kipp Gallery on the Indiana University of Pennsylvania campus. Eleven gallery-based works, 9 videos, and 10 web-based artworks comprised the show; each dealt with the relationship between censorship and mass mediated…

  16. Early life mortality and height in Indian states

    PubMed Central

    Coffey, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Height is a marker for health, cognitive ability and economic productivity. Recent research on the determinants of height suggests that postneonatal mortality predicts height because it is a measure of the early life disease environment to which a cohort is exposed. This article advances the literature on the determinants of height by examining the role of early life mortality, including neonatal mortality, in India, a large developing country with a very short population. It uses state level variation in neonatal mortality, postneonatal mortality, and pre-adult mortality to predict the heights of adults born between 1970 and 1983, and neonatal and postneonatal mortality to predict the heights of children born between 1995 and 2005. In contrast to what is found in the literature on developed countries, I find that state level variation in neonatal mortality is a strong predictor of adult and child heights. This may be due to state level variation in, and overall poor levels of, pre-natal nutrition in India. PMID:25499239

  17. Early Life Experiences and Exercise Associate with Canine Anxieties.

    PubMed

    Tiira, Katriina; Lohi, Hannes

    2015-01-01

    Personality and anxiety disorders across species are affected by genetic and environmental factors. Shyness-boldness personality continuum exists across species, including the domestic dog, with a large within- and across-breed variation. Domestic dogs are also diagnosed for several anxiety-related behavioral conditions, such as generalized anxiety disorders, phobias, and separation anxiety. Genetic and environmental factors contributing to personality and anxiety are largely unknown. We collected questionnaire data from a Finnish family dog population (N = 3264) in order to study the associating environmental factors for canine fearfulness, noise sensitivity, and separation anxiety. Early life experiences and exercise were found to associate with anxiety prevalence. We found that fearful dogs had less socialization experiences (p = 0.002) and lower quality of maternal care (p < 0.0001) during puppyhood. Surprisingly, the largest environmental factor associating with noise sensitivity (p < 0.0001) and separation anxiety (p = 0.007) was the amount of daily exercise; dogs with noise sensitivity and separation anxiety had less daily exercise. Our findings suggest that dogs share many of the same environmental factors that contribute to anxiety in other species as well, such as humans and rodents. Our study highlights the importance of early life experiences, especially the quality of maternal care and daily exercise for the welfare and management of the dogs, and reveals important confounding factors to be considered in the genetic characterization of canine anxiety.

  18. Early Life Manipulations Alter Learning and Memory in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kosten, Therese A; Kim, Jeansok J; Lee, Hongjoo J.

    2012-01-01

    Much research shows early life manipulations have enduring behavioral, neural, and hormonal effects. However, findings of learning and memory performance vary widely across studies. We reviewed studies in which pre-weaning rat pups were exposed to stressors and tested on learning and memory tasks in adulthood. Tasks were classified as aversive conditioning, inhibitory learning, or spatial/relational memory. Variables of duration, type, and timing of neonatal manipulation and sex and strain of animals were examined to determine if any predict enhanced or impaired performance. Brief separations enhanced and prolonged separations impaired performance on spatial/relational tasks. Performance was impaired in aversive conditioning and enhanced in inhibitory learning tasks regardless of manipulation duration. Opposing effects on performance for spatial/relational memory also depended upon timing of manipulation. Enhanced performance was likely if the manipulation occurred during postnatal week 3 but performance was impaired if it was confined to the first two postnatal weeks. Thus, the relationship between early life experiences and adulthood learning and memory performance is multifaceted and decidedly task-dependent. PMID:22819985

  19. Early-life origins of schizotypal traits in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Lahti, Jari; Raïkkönen, Katri; Sovio, Ulla; Miettunen, Jouko; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Pouta, Anneli; Taanila, Anja; Joukamaa, Matti; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Veijola, Juha

    2009-08-01

    Although schizotypal traits, such as anhedonia and aberrant perceptions, may increase the risk for schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, little is known about early-life characteristics that predict more pronounced schizotypal traits. To examine whether birth size or several other early-life factors that have been previously linked with schizophrenia predict schizotypal traits in adulthood. Participants of the Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort Study (n = 4976) completed a questionnaire on positive and negative schizotypal traits at the age of 31 years. Lower placental weight, lower birth weight and smaller head circumference at 12 months predicted elevated positive schizotypal traits in women after adjusting for several confounders (P<0.02). Moreover, higher gestational age, lower childhood family socioeconomic status, undesirability of pregnancy, winter/autumn birth, higher birth order and maternal smoking during pregnancy predicted some augmented schizotypal traits in women, some in men and some in both genders. The results point to similarities in the aetiology of schitzotypal traits and schizophrenia-spectrum disorders.

  20. Gut microbial functional maturation and succession during human early life.

    PubMed

    Cerdó, Tomás; Ruiz, Alicia; Acuña, Inmaculada; Jáuregui, Ruy; Jehmlich, Nico; Haange, Sven-Bastian; von Bergen, Martin; Suárez, Antonio; Campoy, Cristina

    2018-04-24

    The evolutional trajectory of gut microbial colonization from birth has been shown to prime for health later in life. Here, we combined cultivation-independent 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metaproteomics to investigate the functional maturation of gut microbiota in faecal samples from full-term healthy infants collected at 6 and 18 months of age. Phylogenetic analysis of the metaproteomes showed that Bifidobacterium provided the highest number of distinct protein groups. Considerable divergences between taxa abundance and protein phylogeny were observed at all taxonomic ranks. Age had a profound effect on early microbiota where compositional and functional diversity of less dissimilar communities increased with time. Comparisons of the relative abundances of proteins revealed the transition of taxon-associated saccharolytic and fermentation strategies from milk and mucin-derived monosaccharide catabolism feeding acetate/propanoate synthesis to complex food-derived hexoses fuelling butanoate production. Furthermore, co-occurrence network analysis uncovered two anti-correlated modules of functional taxa. A low-connected Bifidobacteriaceae-centred guild of facultative anaerobes was succeeded by a rich club of obligate anaerobes densely interconnected around Lachnospiraceae, underpinning their pivotal roles in microbial ecosystem assemblies. Our findings establish a framework to visualize whole microbial community metabolism and ecosystem succession dynamics, proposing opportunities for microbiota-targeted health-promoting strategies early in life. © 2018 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. IL-18 cleavage triggers cardiac inflammation and fibrosis upon β-adrenergic insult.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Han; Li, Hao; Wang, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Jian-Shu; Shen, Jing; An, Xiang-Bo; Zhang, Cong-Cong; Wu, Ji-Min; Song, Yao; Wang, Xin-Yu; Yu, Hai-Yi; Deng, Xiang-Ning; Li, Zi-Jian; Xu, Ming; Lu, Zhi-Zhen; Du, Jie; Gao, Wei; Zhang, Ai-Hua; Feng, Yue; Zhang, You-Yi

    2018-01-01

    Rapid over-activation of β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) upon stress leads to cardiac inflammation, a prevailing factor that underlies heart injury. However, mechanisms by which acute β-AR stimulation induce cardiac inflammation still remain unknown. Here, we set out to identify the crucial role of inflammasome/interleukin (IL)-18 in initiating and maintaining cardiac inflammatory cascades upon β-AR insult. Male C57BL/6 mice were injected with a single dose of β-AR agonist, isoproterenol (ISO, 5 mg/kg body weight) or saline subcutaneously. Cytokine array profiling demonstrated that chemokines dominated the initial cytokines upregulation specifically within the heart upon β-AR insult, which promoted early macrophage infiltration. Further investigation revealed that the rapid inflammasome-dependent activation of IL-18, but not IL-1β, was the critical up-stream regulator for elevated chemokine expression in the myocardium upon ISO induced β1-AR-ROS signalling. Indeed, a positive correlation was observed between the serum levels of norepinephrine and IL-18 in patients with chest pain. Genetic deletion of IL-18 or the up-stream inflammasome component NLRP3 significantly attenuated ISO-induced chemokine expression and macrophage infiltration. In addition, IL-18 neutralizing antibodies selectively abated ISO-induced chemokines, proinflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules but not growth factors. Moreover, blocking IL-18 early after ISO treatment effectively attenuated cardiac inflammation and fibrosis. Inflammasome-dependent activation of IL-18 within the myocardium upon acute β-AR over-activation triggers cytokine cascades, macrophage infiltration and pathological cardiac remodelling. Blocking IL-18 at the early stage of β-AR insult can successfully prevent inflammatory responses and cardiac injuries. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Stressful life events and neuroticism as predictors of late-life versus early-life depression.

    PubMed

    Weber, Kerstin; Giannakopoulos, Panteleimon; Herrmann, François R; Bartolomei, Javier; Digiorgio, Sergio; Ortiz Chicherio, Nadia; Delaloye, Christophe; Ghisletta, Paolo; Lecerf, Thierry; De Ribaupierre, Anik; Canuto, Alessandra

    2013-12-01

    The occurrence of depression in younger adults is related to the combination of long-standing factors such as personality traits (neuroticism) and more acute factors such as the subjective impact of stressful life events. Whether an increase in physical illnesses changes these associations in old age depression remains a matter of debate. We compared 79 outpatients with major depression and 102 never-depressed controls; subjects included both young (mean age: 35 years) and older (mean age: 70 years) adults. Assessments included the Social Readjustment Rating Scale, NEO Personality Inventory and Cumulative Illness Rating Scale. Logistic regression models analyzed the association between depression and subjective impact of stressful life events while controlling for neuroticism and physical illness. Patients and controls experienced the same number of stressful life events in the past 12 months. However, in contrast to the controls, patients associated the events with a subjective negative emotional impact. Negative stress impact and levels of neuroticism, but not physical illness, significantly predicted depression in young age. In old age, negative stress impact was weakly associated with depression. In this age group, depressive illness was also determined by physical illness burden and neuroticism. Our data suggest that the subjective impact of life stressors, although rated as of the same magnitude, plays a less important role in accounting for depression in older age compared to young age. They also indicate an increasing weight of physical illness burden in the prediction of depression occurrence in old age. © 2013 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2013 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  3. Body size in early life and risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Shawon, Md Shajedur Rahman; Eriksson, Mikael; Li, Jingmei

    2017-07-21

    Body size in early life is inversely associated with adult breast cancer (BC) risk, but it is unclear whether the associations differ by tumor characteristics. In a pooled analysis of two Swedish population-based studies consisting of 6731 invasive BC cases and 28,705 age-matched cancer-free controls, we examined the associations between body size in early life and BC risk. Self-reported body sizes at ages 7 and 18 years were collected by a validated nine-level pictogram (aggregated into three categories: small, medium and large). Odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated from multivariable logistic regression models in case-control analyses, adjusting for study, age at diagnosis, age at menarche, number of children, hormone replacement therapy, and family history of BC. Body size change between ages 7 and 18 were also examined in relation to BC risk. Case-only analyses were performed to test whether the associations differed by tumor characteristics. Medium or large body size at age 7 and 18 was associated with a statistically significant decreased BC risk compared to small body size (pooled OR (95% CI): comparing large to small, 0.78 (0.70-0.86), P trend <0.001 and 0.72 (0.64-0.80), P trend <0.001, respectively). The majority of the women (~85%) did not change body size categories between age 7 and 18 . Women who remained medium or large between ages 7 and 18 had significantly decreased BC risk compared to those who remained small. A reduction in body size between ages 7 and 18 was also found to be inversely associated with BC risk (0.90 (0.81-1.00)). No significant association was found between body size at age 7 and tumor characteristics. Body size at age 18 was found to be inversely associated with tumor size (P trend  = 0.006), but not estrogen receptor status and lymph node involvement. For all analyses, the overall inferences did not change appreciably after further adjustment for adult body mass index. Our data

  4. Biodemography of Exceptional Longevity: Early-life and Mid-life predictors of Human Longevity

    PubMed Central

    Gavrilov, Leonid A.; Gavrilova, Natalia S.

    2011-01-01

    Effects of early-life and middle-life conditions on exceptional longevity are explored in this study using two matched case-control studies. The first study compares 198 validated centenarians born in the United States in 1890-1893 to their shorter-lived siblings. Family histories of centenarians were reconstructed and exceptional longevity validated using early U.S. censuses, Social Security Administration Death Master File, state death indexes, online genealogies and other supplementary data resources. Siblings born to young mothers (<25 years) had significantly higher chances to live to 100 compared to siblings born to older mothers (odds ratio = 2.03, 95% CI = 1.33 - 3.11, P = 0.001) while paternal age and birth order were not associated with exceptional longevity. The second study explores whether people living to 100 and beyond are any different in physical characteristics at young age from their shorter-lived peers. A random representative sample of 240 men born in 1887 and survived to age 100 was selected from the US Social Security Administration database and linked to the US WWI civil draft registration cards collected in 1917 when these men were 30 years old. These validated centenarians were then compared to randomly selected controls matched by calendar year of birth, race and place of draft registration in 1917. It was found that ‘stout’ body build (being in the heaviest 15% of population) was negatively associated with survival to age 100 years. Farmer occupation and large number of children (4+) at age 30 increased the chances of exceptional longevity. Detailed description of dataset development, data cleaning procedure and validation of exceptional longevity is provided for both studies. These results demonstrate that matched case-control design is a useful approach in exploring effects of early-life conditions and middle-life characteristics on exceptional longevity. PMID:22582891

  5. Epigenetics, obesity and early-life cadmium or lead exposure

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sarah S; Skaar, David A; Jirtle, Randy L; Hoyo, Cathrine

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a complex and multifactorial disease, which likely comprises multiple subtypes. Emerging data have linked chemical exposures to obesity. As organismal response to environmental exposures includes altered gene expression, identifying the regulatory epigenetic changes involved would be key to understanding the path from exposure to phenotype and provide new tools for exposure detection and risk assessment. In this report, we summarize published data linking early-life exposure to the heavy metals, cadmium and lead, to obesity. We also discuss potential mechanisms, as well as the need for complete coverage in epigenetic screening to fully identify alterations. The keys to understanding how metal exposure contributes to obesity are improved assessment of exposure and comprehensive establishment of epigenetic profiles that may serve as markers for exposures. PMID:27981852

  6. Intergenerational neural mediators of early-life anxious temperament.

    PubMed

    Fox, Andrew S; Oler, Jonathan A; Shackman, Alexander J; Shelton, Steven E; Raveendran, Muthuswamy; McKay, D Reese; Converse, Alexander K; Alexander, Andrew; Davidson, Richard J; Blangero, John; Rogers, Jeffrey; Kalin, Ned H

    2015-07-21

    Understanding the heritability of neural systems linked to psychopathology is not sufficient to implicate them as intergenerational neural mediators. By closely examining how individual differences in neural phenotypes and psychopathology cosegregate as they fall through the family tree, we can identify the brain systems that underlie the parent-to-child transmission of psychopathology. Although research has identified genes and neural circuits that contribute to the risk of developing anxiety and depression, the specific neural systems that mediate the inborn risk for these debilitating disorders remain unknown. In a sample of 592 young rhesus monkeys that are part of an extended multigenerational pedigree, we demonstrate that metabolism within a tripartite prefrontal-limbic-midbrain circuit mediates some of the inborn risk for developing anxiety and depression. Importantly, although brain volume is highly heritable early in life, it is brain metabolism-not brain structure-that is the critical intermediary between genetics and the childhood risk to develop stress-related psychopathology.

  7. Early Life on Earth and the Search for Extraterrestrial Biosignatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oehler, Dorothy Z.; House, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    In the last 2 years, scientists within the ARES Directorate at JSC have applied the technology of Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS) to individual organic structures preserved in Archean (approximately 3 billion years old) sediments on Earth. These organic structures are among the oldest on Earth that may be microfossils - structurally preserved remnants of ancient microbes. The SIMS work was done to determine the microfossils' stable carbon isotopic composition (delta C-13 values). This is the first time that such ancient, potential microfossils have been successfully analyzed for their individual delta C-13 values. The results support the interpretation that these structures are remnants of early life on Earth and that they may represent planktonic organisms that were widely distributed in the Earth's earliest oceans. This study has been accepted for publication in the journal Geology.

  8. Epigenetics, obesity and early-life cadmium or lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Park, Sarah S; Skaar, David A; Jirtle, Randy L; Hoyo, Cathrine

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a complex and multifactorial disease, which likely comprises multiple subtypes. Emerging data have linked chemical exposures to obesity. As organismal response to environmental exposures includes altered gene expression, identifying the regulatory epigenetic changes involved would be key to understanding the path from exposure to phenotype and provide new tools for exposure detection and risk assessment. In this report, we summarize published data linking early-life exposure to the heavy metals, cadmium and lead, to obesity. We also discuss potential mechanisms, as well as the need for complete coverage in epigenetic screening to fully identify alterations. The keys to understanding how metal exposure contributes to obesity are improved assessment of exposure and comprehensive establishment of epigenetic profiles that may serve as markers for exposures.

  9. Mineral remains of early life on Earth? On Mars?

    Iberall, Robbins E.; Iberall, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    The oldest sedimentary rocks on Earth, the 3.8-Ga Isua Iron-Formation in southwestern Greenland, are metamorphosed past the point where organic-walled fossils would remain. Acid residues and thin sections of these rocks reveal ferric microstructures that have filamentous, hollow rod, and spherical shapes not characteristic of crystalline minerals. Instead, they resemble ferric-coated remains of bacteria. Because there are no earlier sedimentary rocks to study on Earth, it may be necessary to expand the search elsewhere in the solar system for clues to any biotic precursors or other types of early life. A study of morphologies of iron oxide minerals collected in the southern highlands during a Mars sample return mission may therefore help to fill in important gaps in the history of Earth's earliest biosphere. -from Authors

  10. Early-life inflammation, immune response and ageing.

    PubMed

    Khan, Imroze; Agashe, Deepa; Rolff, Jens

    2017-03-15

    Age-related diseases are often attributed to immunopathology, which results in self-damage caused by an inappropriate inflammatory response. Immunopathology associated with early-life inflammation also appears to cause faster ageing, although we lack direct experimental evidence for this association. To understand the interactions between ageing, inflammation and immunopathology, we used the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor as a study organism. We hypothesized that phenoloxidase, an important immune effector in insect defence, may impose substantial immunopathological costs by causing tissue damage to Malpighian tubules (MTs; functionally equivalent to the human kidney), in turn accelerating ageing. In support of this hypothesis, we found that RNAi knockdown of phenoloxidase (PO) transcripts in young adults possibly reduced inflammation-induced autoreactive tissue damage to MTs, and increased adult lifespan. Our work thus suggests a causative link between immunopathological costs of early-life inflammation and faster ageing. We also reasoned that if natural selection weakens with age, older individuals should display increased immunopathological costs associated with an immune response. Indeed, we found that while old infected individuals cleared infection faster than young individuals, possibly they also displayed exacerbated immunopathological costs (larger decline in MT function) and higher post-infection mortality. RNAi-mediated knockdown of PO response partially rescued MTs function in older beetles and resulted in increased lifespan after infection. Taken together, our data are consistent with a direct role of immunopathological consequences of immune response during ageing in insects. Our work is also the first report that highlights the pervasive role of tissue damage under diverse contexts of ageing and immune response. © 2017 The Author(s).

  11. Early life residence, fish consumption and risk of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Haraldsdottir, Alfheidur; Steingrimsdottir, Laufey; Valdimarsdottir, Unnur A.; Aspelund, Thor; Tryggvadottir, Laufey; Harris, Tamara B.; Launer, Lenore J.; Mucci, Lorelei A.; Giovannucci, Edward L.; Adami, Hans-Olov; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Torfadottir, Johanna E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Little is known about fish intake throughout the life course and the risk of breast cancer. Methods We used data on the first residence of 9,340 women born 1908–1935 in the Reykjavik Study as well as food frequency data for different periods of life from a subgroup of the cohort entering the AGES-Reykjavik Study (n = 2,882). Results During a mean follow-up of 27.3 years, 744 women were diagnosed with breast cancer in the Reykjavik Study. An inverse association of breast cancer was observed among women who lived through the puberty period in coastal villages, compared with women residing in the capital area (HR = 0.78, 95% CI: 0.61, 0.99). In the subgroup analysis of this Icelandic population, generally characterized by high fish intake, we found an indication of lower risk of breast cancer among women with high fish consumption (more than 4 portions per week) in adolescence (HR 0.71, 95% CI, 0.44, 1.13) and midlife (HR 0.46, 95% CI, 0.22, 0.97), compared with low consumers (2 portions per week or less). No association was found for fish liver oil consumption in any time period which could be due to lack of a reference group with low omega-3 fatty acids intake in the study group. Conclusion Our findings suggest that very high fish consumption in early to midlife may be associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer. Impact Very high fish consumption in early adulthood to midlife may be associated with decreased risk of breast cancer. PMID:27765796

  12. Early Human Testing Initiative Phase 1 Regenerative Life Support Systems

    1995-08-08

    Early Human Testing (EHT) Initiative Phase 1 Regenerative Life Support Systems Laboratory (RLSSL). Nigel Packham activities in the Variable Pressure Growth Chamber which he lived inside for 15 days. A crowd of well-wishers outside the test chamber, at the console are John Lewis, Ed Mohr and Marybeth Edeen (15577). Packham exiting the chamber (15578-81). Packham is the focus of television cameras and reporters (15582-3). Don Henninger interviewed by reporters (15584). Packham is presented with a jacket after his stay in the chamber (15585). Packham inside the wheat growth chamber checking the condition of the plants (15586-7, 15597). Packham exercising on a recumbant bicycle (15588, 15592). Packham, through the window into the growth chamber, displays a handful of wheat plants to console monitor Dan Barta (15589-90). Group portrait of the team conducting the Early Human Testing Initiative Phase 1 Regenerative Life Support Systems test and include, front row, from left: Jeff Dominick and Don Overton and back row, from left, unidentified member, Marybeth Edeen, Nigel Packham, John Lewis, Ed Mohr, Dan Barta and Tim Monk (15591). Harry Halford prepares to send a package through the airlock to Packham (15593). Packham displays a handful of wheat plants (15594). Packham fixes himself a bowl of cereal (15595) and retrieves a carton of milk from the refrigerator (15596). Packham retrieves a package from the airlock (15598). Packham packs up trash in plastic bag (15599-600) and sends it back through the airlock (15601). Packham gets a cup of water (15602) and heats it in the microwave (15603).

  13. Proinflammatory T Cell Status Associated with Early Life Adversity.

    PubMed

    Elwenspoek, Martha M C; Hengesch, Xenia; Leenen, Fleur A D; Schritz, Anna; Sias, Krystel; Schaan, Violetta K; Mériaux, Sophie B; Schmitz, Stephanie; Bonnemberger, Fanny; Schächinger, Hartmut; Vögele, Claus; Turner, Jonathan D; Muller, Claude P

    2017-12-15

    Early life adversity (ELA) has been associated with an increased risk for diseases in which the immune system plays a critical role. The ELA immune phenotype is characterized by inflammation, impaired cellular immunity, and immunosenescence. However, data on cell-specific immune effects are largely absent. Additionally, stress systems and health behaviors are altered in ELA, which may contribute to the generation of the ELA immune phenotype. The present investigation tested cell-specific immune differences in relationship to the ELA immune phenotype, altered stress parameters, and health behaviors in individuals with ELA ( n = 42) and those without a history of ELA (control, n = 73). Relative number and activation status (CD25, CD69, HLA-DR, CD11a, CD11b) of monocytes, NK cells, B cells, T cells, and their main subsets were assessed by flow cytometry. ELA was associated with significantly reduced numbers of CD69 + CD8 + T cells ( p = 0.022), increased numbers of HLA-DR + CD4 and HLA-DR + CD8 T cells ( p < 0.001), as well as increased numbers of CD25 + CD8 + T cells ( p = 0.036). ELA also showed a trend toward higher numbers of CCR4 + CXCR3 - CCR6 + CD4 T cells. Taken together, our data suggest an elevated state of immune activation in ELA, in which particularly T cells are affected. Although several aspects of the ELA immune phenotype were related to increased activation markers, neither stress nor health-risk behaviors explained the observed group differences. Thus, the state of immune activation in ELA does not seem to be secondary to alterations in the stress system or health-risk behaviors, but rather a primary effect of early life programming on immune cells. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  14. Early life adversity and adult biological risk profiles.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Esther M; Karlamangla, Arun S; Gruenewald, Tara L; Koretz, Brandon; Seeman, Teresa E

    2015-01-01

    To determine whether there is a relationship between early life adversity (ELA) and biological parameters known to predict health risks and to examine the extent to which circumstances in midlife mediate this relationship. We analyzed data on 1180 respondents from the biomarker subsample of the second wave of the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States. ELA assessments were based on childhood socioeconomic disadvantage (i.e., on welfare, perceived low income, and less educated parents) and other stressors (e.g., parental death, parental divorce, and parental physical abuse). The outcome variable was cumulative allostatic load (AL), a marker of biological risk. We also incorporate information on adult circumstances, including than following: education, social relationships, and health behaviors. Childhood socioeconomic adversity and physical abuse were associated with increased AL (B = 0.094, standard error = 0.041, and B = 0.263, standard error = 0.091 respectively), with nonsignificant associations for parental divorce and death with AL. Adult education mediated the relationship between socioeconomic ELA and cumulative AL to the point of nonsignificance, with this factor alone explaining nearly 40% of the relationship. The association between childhood physical abuse and AL remained even after adjusting for adult educational attainments, social relationships, and health behaviors. These associations were most pronounced for secondary stress systems, including inflammation, cardiovascular function, and lipid metabolism. The physiological consequences of early life socioeconomic adversity are attenuated by achieving high levels of schooling later on. The adverse consequences of childhood physical abuse, on the other hand, persist in multivariable-adjusted analysis.

  15. Early-life inflammation, immune response and ageing

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Age-related diseases are often attributed to immunopathology, which results in self-damage caused by an inappropriate inflammatory response. Immunopathology associated with early-life inflammation also appears to cause faster ageing, although we lack direct experimental evidence for this association. To understand the interactions between ageing, inflammation and immunopathology, we used the mealworm beetle Tenebrio molitor as a study organism. We hypothesized that phenoloxidase, an important immune effector in insect defence, may impose substantial immunopathological costs by causing tissue damage to Malpighian tubules (MTs; functionally equivalent to the human kidney), in turn accelerating ageing. In support of this hypothesis, we found that RNAi knockdown of phenoloxidase (PO) transcripts in young adults possibly reduced inflammation-induced autoreactive tissue damage to MTs, and increased adult lifespan. Our work thus suggests a causative link between immunopathological costs of early-life inflammation and faster ageing. We also reasoned that if natural selection weakens with age, older individuals should display increased immunopathological costs associated with an immune response. Indeed, we found that while old infected individuals cleared infection faster than young individuals, possibly they also displayed exacerbated immunopathological costs (larger decline in MT function) and higher post-infection mortality. RNAi-mediated knockdown of PO response partially rescued MTs function in older beetles and resulted in increased lifespan after infection. Taken together, our data are consistent with a direct role of immunopathological consequences of immune response during ageing in insects. Our work is also the first report that highlights the pervasive role of tissue damage under diverse contexts of ageing and immune response. PMID:28275145

  16. Early-Life Food Nutrition, Microbiota Maturation and Immune Development Shape Life-Long Health.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiaoli; Du, Lina; Shi, Ronghua; Chen, Zhidong; Zhou, Yiming; Li, Zongjie

    2018-06-06

    The current knowledge about early-life nutrition and environmental factors that affect the interaction between the symbiotic microbiota and the host immune system has demonstrated novel regulatory target for treating allergic diseases, autoimmune disorders and metabolic syndrome. Various kinds of food nutrients (such as dietary fiber, starch, polyphenols and proteins) can provide energy resources for both intestinal microbiota and the host. The indigestible food components are fermented by the indigenous gut microbiota to produce diverse metabolites, including short-chain fatty acids, bile acids and trimethylamine-N-oxide, which can regulate the host metabolized physiology, immunity homeostasis and health state. Therefore it is commonly believed early-life perturbation of the microbial community structure and the dietary nutrition interference on the child mucosal immunity contribute to the whole life susceptibility to chronic diseases. In all, the combined interrelationship between food ingredients nutrition, intestinal microbiota configurations and host system immunity provides new therapeutic targets to treat various kinds of pathogenic inflammations and chronic diseases.

  17. Accounting Early for Life Long Learning: The AcE Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University Coll. Worcester (England). Centre for Research in Early Childhood Education.

    Building upon the work of the Effective Early Learning (EEL) Project in raising the quality of early learning for young children in the United Kingdom, the 3-year Accounting Early for Life Long Learning Project (AcE Project) focuses on enhancing in 3- to 6-year-olds those attitudes and dispositions that are important to life-long learning. This…

  18. Promoting Career Development and Life Design in the Early Years of a Person's Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maree, Jacobus G.

    2018-01-01

    The article discusses the changing world of work and the attendant uncertainty and loss of work-life identity. Little research has been done on career development and life design in the early years of a person's life, especially in developing countries characterized by disadvantage. The underlying theoretical models of career development are…

  19. Predicting Negative Life Outcomes from Early Aggressive-Disruptive Behavior Trajectories: Gender Differences in Maladaptation across Life Domains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradshaw, Catherine P.; Schaeffer, Cindy M.; Petras, Hanno; Ialongo, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Transactional theories of development suggest that displaying high levels of antisocial behavior early in life and persistently over time causes disruption in multiple life domains, which in turn places individuals at risk for negative life outcomes. We used longitudinal data from 1,137 primarily African American urban youth (49.1% female) to…

  20. Linguistic ability in early life and cognitive function and Alzheimer's disease in late life. Findings from the Nun Study.

    PubMed

    Snowdon, D A; Kemper, S J; Mortimer, J A; Greiner, L H; Wekstein, D R; Markesbery, W R

    1996-02-21

    To determine if linguistic ability in early life is associated with cognitive function and Alzheimer's disease in late life. Two measures of linguistic ability in early life, idea density and grammatical complexity, were derived from autobiographies written at a mean age of 22 years. Approximately 58 years later, the women who wrote these autobiographies participated in an assessment of cognitive function, and those who subsequently died were evaluated neuropathologically. Convents in the United States participating in the Nun Study; primarily convents in the Milwaukee, Wis, area. Cognitive function was investigated in 93 participants who were aged 75 to 95 years at the time of their assessments, and Alzheimer's disease was investigated in the 14 participants who died at 79 to 96 years of age. Seven neuropsychological tests and neuropathologically confirmed Alzheimer's disease. Low idea density and low grammatical complexity in autobiographies written in early life were associated with low cognitive test scores in late life. Low idea density in early life had stronger and more consistent associations with poor cognitive function than did low grammatical complexity. Among the 14 sisters who died, neuropathologically confirmed Alzheimer's disease was present in all of those with low idea density in early life and in none of those with high idea density. Low linguistic ability in early life was a strong predictor of poor cognitive function and Alzheimer's disease in late life.

  1. The die is cast - Arsenic exposure in early life and disease susceptibility

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Early life exposure to arsenic in humans and mice produces similar patterns of disease in later life. Given the long interval between exposure and effect, epigenetic effects of early life exposure to arsenic may account for development and progression of disease in bo...

  2. The effect of early-life education on later-life mortality.

    PubMed

    Black, Dan A; Hsu, Yu-Chieh; Taylor, Lowell J

    2015-12-01

    Many studies link cross-state variation in compulsory schooling laws to early-life educational attainment, thereby providing a plausible way to investigate the causal impact of education on various lifetime outcomes. We use this strategy to estimate the effect of education on older-age mortality of individuals born in the early twentieth century U.S. Our key innovation is to combine U.S. Census data and the complete Vital Statistics records to form precise mortality estimates by sex, birth cohort, and birth state. In turn we find that virtually all of the variation in these mortality rates is captured by cohort effects and state effects alone, making it impossible to reliably tease out any additional impact due to changing educational attainment induced by state-level changes in compulsory schooling. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Illinois Early Learning Project Tip Sheets: Parenting and Family Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    The Illinois Early Learning Project (IEL) is funded by the Illinois State Board of Education to provide information resources on early learning and training related to implementing the Illinois Early Learning Standards for parents and for early childhood personnel in all settings. The IEL tip sheets offer suggestions to parents and early childhood…

  4. Determinants of early-life lung function in African infants

    PubMed Central

    Willemse, Lauren; Visagie, Ane; Czövek, Dorottya; Nduru, Polite; Vanker, Aneesa; Stein, Dan J; Koen, Nastassja; Sly, Peter D; Hantos, Zoltán; Hall, Graham L; Zar, Heather J

    2017-01-01

    Background Low lung function in early life is associated with later respiratory illness. There is limited data on lung function in African infants despite a high prevalence of respiratory disease. Aim To assess the determinants of early lung function in African infants. Method Infants enrolled in a South African birth cohort, the Drakenstein child health study, had lung function measured at 6–10 weeks of age. Measurements, made with the infant breathing via a facemask during natural sleep, included tidal breathing, sulfur hexafluoride multiple breath washout and the forced oscillation technique. Information on antenatal and early postnatal exposures was collected using questionnaires and urine cotinine. Household benzene exposure was measured antenatally. Results Successful tests were obtained in 645/675 (95%) infants, median (IQR) age of 51 (46–58) days. Infant size, age and male gender were associated with larger tidal volume. Infants whose mothers smoked had lower tidal volumes (−1.6 mL (95% CI −3.0 to −0.1), p=0.04) and higher lung clearance index (0.1 turnovers (95% CI 0.01 to 0.3), p=0.03) compared with infants unexposed to tobacco smoke. Infants exposed to alcohol in utero or household benzene had lower time to peak tidal expiratory flow over total expiratory time ratios, 10% (95% CI −15.4% to −3.7%), p=0.002) and 3.0% (95% CI −5.2% to −0.7%, p=0.01) lower respectively compared with unexposed infants. HIV-exposed infants had higher tidal volumes (1.7 mL (95% CI 0.06 to 3.3) p=0.04) compared with infants whose mothers were HIV negative. Conclusion We identified several factors including infant size, sex, maternal smoking, maternal alcohol, maternal HIV and household benzene associated with altered early lung function, many of which are factors amenable to public health interventions. Long-term study of lung function and respiratory disease in these children is a priority to develop strategies to strengthen child health. PMID:27856821

  5. Enhanced oscillatory activity in the hippocampal-prefrontal network is related to short-term memory function after early-life seizures

    PubMed Central

    Kleen, Jonathan K.; Wu, Edie X.; Holmes, Gregory L.; Scott, Rod C.; Lenck-Santini, Pierre-Pascal

    2011-01-01

    Neurological insults during development are associated with later impairments in learning and memory. Although remedial training can help restore cognitive function, the neural mechanisms of this recovery in memory systems are largely unknown. To examine this issue we measured electrophysiological oscillatory activity in the hippocampus (both CA3 and CA1) and prefrontal cortex of adult rats that had experienced repeated seizures in the first weeks of life, while they were remedially trained on a delayed-nonmatch-to-sample memory task. Seizure-exposed rats showed initial difficulties learning the task but performed similar to control rats after extra training. Whole-session analyses illustrated enhanced theta power in all three structures while seizure rats learned response tasks prior to the memory task. Whilst performing the memory task, dynamic oscillation patterns revealed that prefrontal cortex theta power was increased among seizure-exposed rats. This enhancement appeared after the first memory training steps using short delays and plateaued at the most difficult steps which included both short and long delays. Further, seizure rats showed enhanced CA1-prefrontal theta coherence in correct trials compared to incorrect trials when long delays were imposed, suggesting increased hippocampal-prefrontal synchrony for the task in this group when memory demand was high. Seizure-exposed rats also showed heightened gamma power and coherence among all three structures during the trials. Our results demonstrate the first evidence of hippocampal-prefrontal enhancements following seizures in early development. Dynamic compensatory changes in this network and interconnected circuits may underpin cognitive rehabilitation following other neurological insults to higher cognitive systems. PMID:22031886

  6. The Relationship Between Early Life Events, Parental Attachment, and Psychopathic Tendencies in Adolescent Detainees.

    PubMed

    Christian, Erica J; Meltzer, Christine L; Thede, Linda L; Kosson, David S

    2017-04-01

    Despite increasing interest in understanding psychopathic traits in youth, the role of early environmental factors in the development of psychopathic traits is not well understood. No prior studies have directly examined the relationship between early life events and psychopathic traits. We examined links between life events in the first 4 years of life and indices of the core affective and interpersonal components of psychopathy. Additionally, we examined relationships between early life events, psychopathic traits, and attachment to parents among 206 adjudicated adolescents. Results indicated that the total number of early life events was positively correlated with indices of the affective component of psychopathy. Moreover, psychopathic traits moderated the relationship between the number of early life events and later reports of attachment to parents. Findings suggest that early environmental factors could have important implications for the development of psychopathic traits and may impact attachment to parents for youth with psychopathic traits.

  7. Premorbid (early life) IQ and later mortality risk: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Batty, G David; Deary, Ian J; Gottfredson, Linda S

    2007-04-01

    Studies of middle-aged and particularly older-aged adults found that those with higher scores on tests of IQ (cognitive function) had lower rates of later mortality. Interpretation of such findings potentially is hampered by the problem of reverse causality: such somatic diseases as diabetes or hypertension, common in older adults, can decrease cognitive function. Studies that provide extended follow-up of the health experience of individuals who had their (premorbid) IQ assessed in childhood and/or early adulthood minimize this concern. The purpose of the present report is to systematically locate, evaluate, and interpret the findings of all such studies. We systematically identified individual-level studies linking premorbid IQ with later mortality by using four approaches: search of electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PSYCHINFO); scrutiny of the reference sections of identified reports; search of our own files; and contact with researchers in the field. Study quality was assessed by using predefined criteria. Nine cohort studies met the inclusion criteria. Overall, study quality was moderate. All reports showed an inverse IQ-mortality relation; i.e., higher IQ scores were associated with decreased mortality risk. The nature of this relation (i.e., dose-response or threshold) and whether it differs by sex was unclear. The IQ-mortality association did not appear to be explained by reverse causality or selection bias. Confounding by other early-life factors also did not seem to explain the association, although some studies were not well characterized in this regard. Adult socioeconomic position appeared to mediate the IQ-mortality association in some studies, but this was not a universal finding. In all studies, higher IQ in the first two decades of life was related to lower rates of total mortality in middle to late adulthood. Some plausible mechanistic pathways exist, but further examination is required. The precise nature of the IQ-mortality relation

  8. Early-life gut microbiome composition and milk allergy resolution.

    PubMed

    Bunyavanich, Supinda; Shen, Nan; Grishin, Alexander; Wood, Robert; Burks, Wesley; Dawson, Peter; Jones, Stacie M; Leung, Donald Y M; Sampson, Hugh; Sicherer, Scott; Clemente, Jose C

    2016-10-01

    Gut microbiota may play a role in the natural history of cow's milk allergy. We sought to examine the association between early-life gut microbiota and the resolution of cow's milk allergy. We studied 226 children with milk allergy who were enrolled at infancy in the Consortium of Food Allergy observational study of food allergy. Fecal samples were collected at age 3 to 16 months, and the children were followed longitudinally with clinical evaluation, milk-specific IgE levels, and milk skin prick test performed at enrollment, 6 months, 12 months, and yearly thereafter up until age 8 years. Gut microbiome was profiled by 16s rRNA sequencing and microbiome analyses performed using Quantitative Insights into Microbial Ecology (QIIME), Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States (PICRUSt), and Statistical Analysis of Metagenomic Profiles (STAMP). Milk allergy resolved by age 8 years in 128 (56.6%) of the 226 children. Gut microbiome composition at age 3 to 6 months was associated with milk allergy resolution by age 8 years (PERMANOVA P = .047), with enrichment of Clostridia and Firmicutes in the infant gut microbiome of subjects whose milk allergy resolved. Metagenome functional prediction supported decreased fatty acid metabolism in the gut microbiome of subjects whose milk allergy resolved (η 2  = 0.43; ANOVA P = .034). Early infancy is a window during which gut microbiota may shape food allergy outcomes in childhood. Bacterial taxa within Clostridia and Firmicutes could be studied as probiotic candidates for milk allergy therapy. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Early-life gut microbiome composition and milk allergy resolution

    PubMed Central

    Bunyavanich, Supinda; Shen, Nan; Grishin, Alexander; Wood, Robert; Burks, Wesley; Dawson, Peter; Jones, Stacie M.; Leung, Donald; Sampson, Hugh; Sicherer, Scott; Clemente, Jose C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Gut microbiota may play a role in the natural history of cow’s milk allergy Objective To examine the association between early life gut microbiota and the resolution of cow’s milk allergy Methods We studied 226 children with milk allergy who were enrolled at infancy in the Consortium of Food Allergy (CoFAR) observational study of food allergy. Fecal samples were collected at age 3–16 months, and the children were followed longitudinally with clinical evaluation, milk-specific IgE levels, and milk skin prick test performed at enrollment, 6 months, 12 months, and yearly thereafter up until age 8 years. Gut microbiome was profiled by 16s rRNA sequencing and microbiome analyses performed using QIIME (Quantitative Insights into Microbial Ecology), PICRUSt (Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States), and STAMP (Statistical Analysis of Metagenomic Profiles). Results Milk allergy resolved by age 8 years in 128 (56.6%) of the 226 children. Gut microbiome composition at age 3–6 months was associated with milk allergy resolution by age 8 years (PERMANOVA P = 0.047), with enrichment of Clostridia and Firmicutes in the infant gut microbiome of subjects whose milk allergy resolved. Metagenome functional prediction supported decreased fatty acid metabolism in the gut microbiome of subjects whose milk allergy resolved (η2 = 0.43, ANOVA P = 0.034). Conclusions Early infancy is a window during which gut microbiota may shape food allergy outcomes in childhood. Bacterial taxa within Clostridia and Firmicutes could be studied as probiotic candidates for milk allergy therapy. PMID:27292825

  10. Early Life Stress, FKBP5 Polymorphisms, and Quantitative Glycemic Traits.

    PubMed

    Suarez, Anna; Lahti, Jari; Kajantie, Eero; Eriksson, Johan G; Räikkönen, Katri

    2017-06-01

    Early life stress (ELS) has been shown to influence health later in life. Functioning of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, regulated partly by FKBP5 gene, may moderate these effects. We examined whether FKBP5 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) interact with ELS on Type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and quantitative glycemic traits. A total of 1728 Helsinki Birth Cohort Study participants born from 1934 to 1944 were genotyped for FKBP5 SNPs (rs1360780, rs9394309, rs9470080) and were administered a 2-hour (75 g) oral glucose tolerance test and a questionnaire on physician-diagnosed and medication use for chronic diseases at a mean age of 61.5 years. Of the participants, 273 had been exposed to ELS, operationalized as separation from their parents, at a mean age of 4.7 years due to evacuations during World War II. ELS interacted with FKBP5 SNPs in the analyses of fasting (rs1360780, p = .015), 30-minute (rs1360780, p = .031; rs9394309, p = .041) and incremental insulin (rs1360780, p = .032; rs9394309, p = .028; rs9470080, p = .043), insulin area under the curve (rs1360780, p = .044), and impaired fasting glucose (rs9470080, p = .049); among carriers of at least one copy of minor allele, but not among major allele homozygotes, insulin values were higher, as were the odds for impaired fasting glucose if they had been separated compared with if they had not. Corresponding associations were found with a haplotype formed by minor alleles in all three SNPs for fasting, 30-minute, and incremental insulin (p < .05). FKBP5 polymorphisms in combination with ELS exposure predict higher insulin and glucose values in midlife. Our findings support the role for hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysregulation in health-related metabolic outcomes.

  11. Acute Doxorubicin Insult in the Mouse Ovary Is Cell- and Follicle-Type Dependent

    PubMed Central

    Roti Roti, Elon C.; Leisman, Scott K.; Abbott, David H.; Salih, Sana M.

    2012-01-01

    Primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) is one of the many unintended consequences of chemotherapy faced by the growing number of female cancer survivors. While ovarian repercussions of chemotherapy have long been recognized, the acute insult phase and primary sites of damage are not well-studied, hampering efforts to design effective intervention therapies to protect the ovary. Utilizing doxorubicin (DXR) as a model chemotherapy agent, we defined the acute timeline for drug accumulation, induced DNA damage, and subsequent cellular and follicular demise in the mouse ovary. DXR accumulated first in the core ovarian stroma cells, then redistributed outwards into the cortex and follicles in a time-dependent manner, without further increase in total ovarian drug levels after four hours post-injection. Consistent with early drug accumulation and intimate interactions with the blood supply, stroma cell-enriched populations exhibited an earlier DNA damage response (measurable at 2 hours) than granulosa cells (measurable at 4 hours), as quantified by the comet assay. Granulosa cell-enriched populations were more sensitive however, responding with greater levels of DNA damage. The oocyte DNA damage response was delayed, and not measurable above background until 10–12 hours post-DXR injection. By 8 hours post-DXR injection and prior to the oocyte DNA damage response, the number of primary, secondary, and antral follicles exhibiting TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling)-positive granulosa cells plateaued, indicating late-stage apoptosis and suggesting damage to the oocytes is subsequent to somatic cell failure. Primordial follicles accumulate significant DXR by 4 hours post-injection, but do not exhibit TUNEL-positive granulosa cells until 48 hours post-injection, indicating delayed demise. Taken together, the data suggest effective intervention therapies designed to protect the ovary from chemotherapy accumulation and induced insult in the ovary

  12. Life and the solar uv environment on the early Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bérces, A.; Kovács, G.; Rontó, G.; Lammer, H.; Kargl, G.; Kömle, N.; Bauer, S.

    2003-04-01

    The solar UV radiation environment on planetary surfaces and within their atmospheres is of importance in a wide range of scientific disciplines. Solar UV radiation is the driving force of chemical and organic evolution and serves also as a constraint in biological evolution. Studies of the solar UV environment of the early Earth 2.0 Gyr to 3.8 Gyr ago suggest that the terrestrial atmosphere was essentially anoxic, resulting in an ozone column abundance insufficient for protecting the planetary surface in the UV-B and the UV-C ranges. Since, short wavelength solar UV radiation in the UV-B ind UV-C range penetrated through the unprotected atmosphere to the surface on early Earth, associated biological consequences may be expected. For DNA-based terrestrial solar UV dosimetry, bacteriophage T7, isolated phage-DNA ind polycrystalline Uracil samples have been used. The effect of solar UV radiation can be measured by detecting the biological-structural consequences of the damage induced by UV photons. We show model calculations for the Biological Effective Dose (BED) rate of Uracil and bacteriophage T7, for various ozone concentrations representing early atmospheric conditions on Earth up to a UV protecting ozone layer comparable to present times. Further, we discuss experimental data which show the photo-reverse effect of Uracil molecules caused by short UV wavelengths. These photoreversion effect highly depend on the wavelength of the radiation. Shorter wavelength UV radiation of about 200 nm is strongly effective in monomerisation, while the longer wavelengths prefer the production of dimerisation. We could demonstrate experimentally, for the case of an Uracil thin-layer that the photo-reaction process of the nucleotides can be both, dimerization and the reverse process: monomerization. These results are important for the study of solar UV exposure on organisms in the terrestrial environment more than 2 Gyr ago where Earth had no UV protecting ozone layer as well as

  13. Attentional avoidance of fearful facial expressions following early life stress is associated with impaired social functioning.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, Kathryn L; Kircanski, Katharina; Colich, Natalie L; Gotlib, Ian H

    2016-10-01

    Early life stress is associated with poorer social functioning. Attentional biases in response to threat-related cues, linked to both early experience and psychopathology, may explain this association. To date, however, no study has examined attentional biases to fearful facial expressions as a function of early life stress or examined these biases as a potential mediator of the relation between early life stress and social problems. In a sample of 154 children (ages 9-13 years) we examined the associations among interpersonal early life stressors (i.e., birth through age 6 years), attentional biases to emotional facial expressions using a dot-probe task, and social functioning on the Child Behavior Checklist. High levels of early life stress were associated with both greater levels of social problems and an attentional bias away from fearful facial expressions, even after accounting for stressors occurring in later childhood. No biases were found for happy or sad facial expressions as a function of early life stress. Finally, attentional biases to fearful faces mediated the association between early life stress and social problems. Attentional avoidance of fearful facial expressions, evidenced by a bias away from these stimuli, may be a developmental response to early adversity and link the experience of early life stress to poorer social functioning. © 2016 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  14. Early Life Socioeconomic Circumstance and Late Life Brain Hyperintensities – A Population Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Alison D.; McNeil, Christopher J.; Salarirad, Sima; Whalley, Lawrence J.; Staff, Roger T.

    2014-01-01

    Context There have been many reports confirming the association between lower childhood socioeconomic circumstance and cardiovascular disease but evidence for links with cerebrovascular disease is contradictory. Hyperintensities on brain magnetic resonance imaging are associated with vascular risk factors, cognitive decline, dementia and death. However, the relationship between childhood socioeconomic circumstance and these lesions is unclear. Objective To test the hypothesis that childhood socioeconomic circumstance is associated with late life hyperintensity burden and that neither adult socioeconomic circumstance nor change in socioeconomic circumstance during life influence this effect. Design Cohort study Setting Community Participants 227 community dwelling members of the 1936 Aberdeen Birth Cohort aged 68 years, who were free from dementia. Main Outcome Measures Relationship between early life socioeconomic circumstance (paternal occupation) and abundance of late life brain hyperintensities. Results We find significant negative correlations between childhood socioeconomic circumstance and white matter hyperintensities (ρ = −0.18, P<0.01), and periventricular hyperintensities (ρ = −0.15, P<0.05), between educational attainment and white matter hyperintensities (ρ = −0.15, P<0.05) and periventricular hyperintensities (ρ = −0.17, P<0.05), and between childhood intelligence and periventricular hyperintensities (ρ = −0.14, P<0.05). The relationship is strongest for childhood socioeconomic circumstance and regional white matter hyperintensities, where there is a step change in increased burden from paternal occupation grades equivalent to a shift from “white collar” to “blue collar” paternal occupation. Significant correlations were also found between hypertension and hyperintensity burden in all brain regions (ρ = 0.15–0.24, P<0.05). In models that include hypertension, the magnitude of the effect of childhood

  15. The effects of early life adversity on the immune system.

    PubMed

    Elwenspoek, Martha M C; Kuehn, Annette; Muller, Claude P; Turner, Jonathan D

    2017-08-01

    Early life adversity (ELA) is associated with a higher risk for diseases in adulthood. Although the pathophysiological effects of ELA are varied, there may be a unifying role for the immune system in all of the long-term pathologies such as chronic inflammatory disorders (autoimmune diseases, allergy, and asthma). Recently, significant efforts have been made to elucidate the long-term effects ELA has on immune function, as well as the mechanisms underlying these immune changes. In this review, we focus on data from human studies investigating immune parameters in relation to post-natal adverse experiences. We describe the current understanding of the 'ELA immune phenotype', characterized by inflammation, impairment of the cellular immune system, and immunosenescence. However, at present, data addressing specific immune functions are limited and there is a need for high-quality, well powered, longitudinal studies to unravel cause from effect. Besides the immune system, also the stress system and health behaviors are altered in ELA. We discuss probable underlying mechanisms based on epigenetic programming that could explain the ELA immune phenotype and whether this is a direct effect of immune programming or an indirect consequence of changes in behavior or stress reactivity. Understanding the underlying mechanisms will help define effective strategies to prevent or counteract negative ELA-associated outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Life satisfaction and maladaptive behaviors in early adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Michael D; Otis, Kristin L; Huebner, E Scott; Hills, Kimberly J

    2014-12-01

    This study explored the directionality of the relations between global life satisfaction (LS) and internalizing and externalizing behaviors using a sample of regular education students who were initially enrolled in Grade 7 (n = 470). Self-report measures of internalizing and externalizing behaviors and LS were administered on 2 occasions, 6 months apart, to students from a Southeastern U.S. middle school. Short-term longitudinal analyses revealed that neither externalizing behaviors nor internalizing behaviors at Time 1 predicted LS at Time 2. However, LS at Time 1 predicted externalizing behaviors at Time 2. LS at Time 1 also predicted internalizing behaviors at Time 2, but the results were moderated by student gender. At higher levels of LS, boys reported lower levels of internalizing behaviors at Time 2. The overall results suggested that lower levels of LS are an antecedent of increased maladaptive behaviors among early adolescents. Alternatively, higher levels of LS may be a protective factor against subsequent externalizing behaviors among boys and girls and internalizing behaviors among boys. Furthermore, the results provide further support for the discriminant validity of positive and negative measures of mental health and suggest that LS measures may provide useful information for comprehensive adolescent health screening and monitoring systems. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Toxicity of TFM lampricide to early life stages of walleye

    Seelye, J.G.; Marking, L.L.; King, E.L.; Hanson, L.H.; Bills, T.D.

    1987-01-01

    The authors studied the effects of the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) on gametes, newly fertilized eggs, eyed eggs, larvae, and swim-up fry of the walleye Stizostedion vitreum . When gametes from sexually mature walleyes were stripped into solutions of TFM, no effects were observed during the fertilization process at concentrations up to 3.0 mg/L - three times the concentration lethal to 99.9% of larval sea lampreys Petromyzon marinus held 12 h (LC99.9) under the same test conditions. Newly fertilized eggs likewise were unaffected during water hardening by concentrations of TFM that were lethal to sea lamprey ammocoetes. Eyed eggs, sac fry, and swim-up fry yielded LC25 values that were 2.5 to 5 times greater than the 12-h LC99.9 for sea lamprey ammocoetes. The data thus indicated that all of the early life stages of walleyes tested were considerably more resistant than sea lamprey ammocoetes to TFM, and that it is unlikely they would be adversely affected by standard stream treatments to kill sea lamprey ammocoetes.

  18. The long-term impact of early life pain on adult responses to anxiety and stress: Historical perspectives and empirical evidence.

    PubMed

    Victoria, Nicole C; Murphy, Anne Z

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 1 in 6 infants are born prematurely each year. Typically, these infants spend 25 days in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) where they experience 10-18 painful and inflammatory procedures each day. Remarkably, pre-emptive analgesics and/or anesthesia are administered less than 25% of the time. Unalleviated pain during the perinatal period is associated with permanent decreases in pain sensitivity, blunted cortisol responses and high rates of neuropsychiatric disorders. To date, the mechanism(s) by which these long-term changes in stress and pain behavior occur, and whether such alterations can be prevented by appropriate analgesia at the time of insult, remains unclear. Work in our lab using a rodent model of early life pain suggests that inflammatory pain experienced on the day of birth blunts adult responses to stress- and pain-provoking stimuli, and dysregulates the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis in part through a permanent upregulation in central endogenous opioid tone. This review focuses on the long-term impact of neonatal inflammatory pain on adult anxiety- and stress-related responses, and underlying neuroanatomical changes in the context of endogenous pain control and the HPA axis. These two systems are in a state of exaggerated developmental plasticity early in postnatal life, and work in concert to respond to noxious or aversive stimuli. We present empirical evidence from animal and clinical studies, and discuss historical perspectives underlying the lack of analgesia/anesthetic use for early life pain in the modern NICU. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Methyltransferases mediate cell memory of a genotoxic insult.

    PubMed

    Rugo, R E; Mutamba, J T; Mohan, K N; Yee, T; Chaillet, J R; Greenberger, J S; Engelward, B P

    2011-02-10

    Characterization of the direct effects of DNA-damaging agents shows how DNA lesions lead to specific mutations. Yet, serum from Hiroshima survivors, Chernobyl liquidators and radiotherapy patients can induce a clastogenic effect on naive cells, showing indirect induction of genomic instability that persists years after exposure. Such indirect effects are not restricted to ionizing radiation, as chemical genotoxins also induce heritable and transmissible genomic instability phenotypes. Although such indirect induction of genomic instability is well described, the underlying mechanism has remained enigmatic. Here, we show that mouse embryonic stem cells exposed to γ-radiation bear the effects of the insult for weeks. Specifically, conditioned media from the progeny of exposed cells can induce DNA damage and homologous recombination in naive cells. Notably, cells exposed to conditioned media also elicit a genome-destabilizing effect on their neighbouring cells, thus demonstrating transmission of genomic instability. Moreover, we show that the underlying basis for the memory of an insult is completely dependent on two of the major DNA cytosine methyltransferases, Dnmt1 and Dnmt3a. Targeted disruption of these genes in exposed cells completely eliminates transmission of genomic instability. Furthermore, transient inactivation of Dnmt1, using a tet-suppressible allele, clears the memory of the insult, thus protecting neighbouring cells from indirect induction of genomic instability. We have thus demonstrated that a single exposure can lead to long-term, genome-destabilizing effects that spread from cell to cell, and we provide a specific molecular mechanism for these persistent bystander effects. Collectively, our results impact the current understanding of risks from toxin exposures and suggest modes of intervention for suppressing genomic instability in people exposed to carcinogenic genotoxins.

  20. Early-life stress origins of gastrointestinal disease: animal models, intestinal pathophysiology, and translational implications.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Calvin S; Medland, Julia E; Moeser, Adam J

    2015-12-15

    Early-life stress and adversity are major risk factors in the onset and severity of gastrointestinal (GI) disease in humans later in life. The mechanisms by which early-life stress leads to increased GI disease susceptibility in adult life remain poorly understood. Animal models of early-life stress have provided a foundation from which to gain a more fundamental understanding of this important GI disease paradigm. This review focuses on animal models of early-life stress-induced GI disease, with a specific emphasis on translational aspects of each model to specific human GI disease states. Early postnatal development of major GI systems and the consequences of stress on their development are discussed in detail. Relevant translational differences between species and models are highlighted. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Early-life stress origins of gastrointestinal disease: animal models, intestinal pathophysiology, and translational implications

    PubMed Central

    Pohl, Calvin S.; Medland, Julia E.

    2015-01-01

    Early-life stress and adversity are major risk factors in the onset and severity of gastrointestinal (GI) disease in humans later in life. The mechanisms by which early-life stress leads to increased GI disease susceptibility in adult life remain poorly understood. Animal models of early-life stress have provided a foundation from which to gain a more fundamental understanding of this important GI disease paradigm. This review focuses on animal models of early-life stress-induced GI disease, with a specific emphasis on translational aspects of each model to specific human GI disease states. Early postnatal development of major GI systems and the consequences of stress on their development are discussed in detail. Relevant translational differences between species and models are highlighted. PMID:26451004

  2. Early-Life Stress, HPA Axis Adaptation, and Mechanisms Contributing to Later Health Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Maniam, Jayanthi; Antoniadis, Christopher; Morris, Margaret J.

    2014-01-01

    Stress activates the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis, which then modulates the degree of adaptation and response to a later stressor. It is known that early-life stress can impact on later health but less is known about how early-life stress impairs HPA axis activity, contributing to maladaptation of the stress–response system. Early-life stress exposure (either prenatally or in the early postnatal period) can impact developmental pathways resulting in lasting structural and regulatory changes that predispose to adulthood disease. Epidemiological, clinical, and experimental studies have demonstrated that early-life stress produces long term hyper-responsiveness to stress with exaggerated circulating glucocorticoids, and enhanced anxiety and depression-like behaviors. Recently, evidence has emerged on early-life stress-induced metabolic derangements, for example hyperinsulinemia and altered insulin sensitivity on exposure to a high energy diet later in life. This draws our attention to the contribution of later environment to disease vulnerability. Early-life stress can alter the expression of genes in peripheral tissues, such as the glucocorticoid receptor and 11-beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD1). We propose that interactions between altered HPA axis activity and liver 11β-HSD1 modulates both tissue and circulating glucocorticoid availability, with adverse metabolic consequences. This review discusses the potential mechanisms underlying early-life stress-induced maladaptation of the HPA axis, and its subsequent effects on energy utilization and expenditure. The effects of positive later environments as a means of ameliorating early-life stress-induced health deficits, and proposed mechanisms underpinning the interaction between early-life stress and subsequent detrimental environmental exposures on metabolic risk will be outlined. Limitations in current methodology linking early-life stress and later health outcomes will also be

  3. The Serotonin Transporter and Early Life Stress: Translational Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Houwing, Danielle J.; Buwalda, Bauke; van der Zee, Eddy A.; de Boer, Sietse F.; Olivier, Jocelien D. A.

    2017-01-01

    The interaction between the serotonin transporter (SERT) linked polymorphic region (5-HTTLPR) and adverse early life stressing (ELS) events is associated with enhanced stress susceptibility and risk to develop mental disorders like major depression, anxiety, and aggressiveness. In particular, human short allele carriers are at increased risk. This 5-HTTLPR polymorphism is absent in the rodent SERT gene, but heterozygous SERT knockout rodents (SERT+/−) show several similarities to the human S-allele carrier, therefore creating an animal model of the human situation. Many rodent studies investigated ELS interactions in SERT knockout rodents combined with ELS. However, underlying neuromolecular mechanisms of the (mal)adaptive responses to adversity displayed by SERT rodents remain to be elucidated. Here, we provide a comprehensive review including studies describing mechanisms underlying SERT variation × ELS interactions in rodents. Alterations at the level of translation and transcription but also epigenetic alterations considerably contribute to underlying mechanisms of SERT variation × ELS interactions. In particular, SERT+/− rodents exposed to adverse early rearing environment may be of high translational and predictive value to the more stress sensitive human short-allele carrier, considering the similarity in neurochemical alterations. Therefore, SERT+/− rodents are highly relevant in research that aims to unravel the complex psychopathology of mental disorders. So far, most studies fail to show solid evidence for increased vulnerability to develop affective-like behavior after ELS in SERT+/− rodents. Several reasons may underlie these failures, e.g., (1) stressors used might not be optimal or severe enough to induce maladaptations, (2) effects in females are not sufficiently studied, and (3) few studies include both behavioral manifestations and molecular correlates of ELS-induced effects in SERT+/− rodents. Of course, one should not exclude the

  4. Global Research Trends on Early-Life Feeding Practices and Early Childhood Caries: a Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ashley

    2014-01-01

    Objective Describe the epidemiologic literature related to early-life feeding practices and early childhood caries (ECC) with regard to publication attributes and trends in these attributes over time. Methods Systematic literature review including electronic and manual searches (in BIOSIS, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, LILACS, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and WHOLIS), covering the years 1990–2013. Attributes of publications meeting a priori inclusion criteria were abstracted and organized by global region and trends over time. Attributes included country of origin and study design of included publications and age and caries prevalence of the populations studied. Results 244 publications drawn from 196 independent study populations were included. The number of publications and the countries represented increased over time, although some world regions remained underrepresented. Most publications were cross sectional (75%); while this percentage remained fairly constant over time, the percentage of studies to account for confounding factors increased. Publications varied with respect to the caries experience and age range of children included in each study. Conclusions Publication productivity regarding feeding practices and ECC research has grown, but this growth has not been evenly distributed globally. Individual publication attributes (i.e. methods and context) can differ significantly and should be considered when interpreting and synthesizing the literature. PMID:25328911

  5. Early life socioeconomic position and immune response to persistent infections among elderly Latinos.

    PubMed

    Meier, Helen C S; Haan, Mary N; Mendes de Leon, Carlos F; Simanek, Amanda M; Dowd, Jennifer B; Aiello, Allison E

    2016-10-01

    Persistent infections, such as cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1), Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), and Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii), are common in the U.S. but their prevalence varies by socioeconomic status. It is unclear if early or later life socioeconomic position (SEP) is a more salient driver of disparities in immune control of these infections. Using data from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging, we examined whether early or later life SEP was the strongest predictor of immune control later in life by contrasting two life course models, the critical period model and the chain of risk model. Early life SEP was measured as a latent variable, derived from parental education and occupation, and food availability. Indicators for SEP in later life included education level and occupation. Individuals were categorized by immune response to each pathogen (seronegative, low, medium and high) with increasing immune response representing poorer immune control. Cumulative immune response was estimated using a latent profile analysis with higher total immune response representing poorer immune control. Structural equation models were used to examine direct, indirect and total effects of early life SEP on each infection and cumulative immune response, controlling for age and gender. The direct effect of early life SEP on immune response was not statistically significant for the infections or cumulative immune response. Higher early life SEP was associated with lower immune response for T. gondii, H. pylori and cumulative immune response through pathways mediated by later life SEP. For CMV, higher early life SEP was both directly associated and partially mediated by later life SEP. No association was found between SEP and HSV-1. Findings from this study support a chain of risk model, whereby early life SEP acts through later life SEP to affect immune response to persistent infections in older age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  6. No laughing matter: How the presence of laughing witnesses changes the perception of insults.

    PubMed

    Otten, Marte; Mann, Liesbeth; van Berkum, Jos J A; Jonas, Kai J

    2017-04-01

    Insults always sting, but the context in which they are delivered can make the effects even worse. Here we test how the brain processes insults, and whether and how the neurocognitive processing of insults is changed by the presence of a laughing crowd. Event-related potentials showed that insults, compared to compliments, evoked an increase in N400 amplitude (indicating increased lexical-semantic processing) and LPP amplitude (indicating emotional processing) when presented in isolation. When insults were perceived in the presence of a laughing crowd, the difference in N400 amplitude disappeared, while the difference in LPP activation increased. These results show that even without laughter, verbal insults receive additional neural processing over compliments, both at the lexical-semantic and emotional level. The presence of a laughing crowd has a direct effect on the neurocognitive processing of insults, leading to stronger and more elongated emotional processing.

  7. Is Infantile Colic an Early Life Expression of Childhood Migraine?

    PubMed Central

    TABRIZI, Manijeh; BADELI, Hamidreza; HASSANZADEH RAD, Afagh; AMINZADEH, Vahid; SHOKUHIFARD, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Objective Migraine is the mosyndrome and infantile colic is a common cause of infantile cry. The pathogenesis of migraine and colic has not been well established and different factors may cause them. There is an association between infantile colic and the occurrence of childhood migraine. We aimed to assess whether infantile colic could be noted as an early life expression of childhood migraine or not. Materials & Methods This retrospective case-control study was conducted on 5-15-year-old childrenin Rasht, Iran during 2015-2016. Forty-one cases were children with migraine with or without aura. Overall, 123 Control participants were children with the same age referred to the pediatric clinic for routine care. Data were gathered by a checklist including age, sex, birth weight, family history of migraine, the occurrence of colic and type of feeding during infancy. Data were reported by descriptive statistics and analyzed by Fisher exact test using SPSS ver. 19 Results Overall, 164 children with the mean age of 8.36± 2.53 yr were enrolled. Seventeen (41.46%) children with migraine vs. 44 (35.7%) children in control group had the positive history of infantile colic and Fisher exact test noted significant relation between migraine and colic. Thirty-three children with infantile colic (46.57%) had the positive family history of migraine, which was significantly higher than 27 children without colic (29.7%). There was a significant relation between infantile feeding and migraine. Conclusion There is a probable relation between colic and migraine, therefore, migraine and colic as 2 pain syndromes may have a common pathophysiology and further investigations on this common pathophysiology is justified. PMID:28883875

  8. Learning about Life and Death in Early Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slaughter, Virginia; Lyons, Michelle

    2003-01-01

    Inagaki and Hatano (2002) have argued that young children initially understand biological phenomena in terms of vitalism, a mode of construal in which "life" or "life-force" is the central causal-explanatory concept. This study investigated the development of vitalistic reasoning in young children's concepts of life, the human body and death.…

  9. Application of Diversity Indices to Quantify Early Life-History Diversity for Chinook Salmon

    SciT

    Johnson, Gary E.; Sather, Nichole K.; Skalski, John R.

    2014-03-01

    We developed an index of early life history diversity (ELHD) for Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) Early life history diversity is the variation in morphological and behavioral traits expressed within and among populations by individual juvenile salmon during their downstream migration. A standard quantitative method does not exist for this prominent concept in salmon biology.

  10. 40 CFR 797.1600 - Fish early life stage toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the test solution concentrations. The test terminates following 60 days of post-hatch exposure (for an... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fish early life stage toxicity test... Fish early life stage toxicity test. (a) Purpose. This guideline is intended to be used for assessing...

  11. 40 CFR 797.1600 - Fish early life stage toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the test solution concentrations. The test terminates following 60 days of post-hatch exposure (for an... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fish early life stage toxicity test... Fish early life stage toxicity test. (a) Purpose. This guideline is intended to be used for assessing...

  12. Disproportionate Exposure to Early-Life Adversity and Sexual Orientation Disparities in Psychiatric Morbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Katie A.; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Xuan, Ziming; Conron, Kerith J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) populations exhibit elevated rates of psychiatric disorders compared to heterosexuals, and these disparities emerge early in the life course. We examined the role of exposure to early-life victimization and adversity--including physical and sexual abuse, homelessness, and intimate partner violence--in…

  13. Life Satisfaction in Early Adolescence: Personal, Neighborhood, School, Family, and Peer Influences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberle, Eva; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A.; Zumbo, Bruno D.

    2011-01-01

    Drawing from an ecological assets framework as well as research and theory on positive youth development, this study examined the relationship of early adolescents' satisfaction with life to trait optimism and assets representing the social contexts in which early adolescents spend most of their time. Self-reports of satisfaction with life,…

  14. Trans-Agency Early-Life Exposures and Cancer Working Group

    Cancer.gov

    The Trans-Agency Early-Life Exposures and Cancer Working Group promotes integration of early-life events and exposures into public health cancer research, control, prevention, and policy strategies to reduce the cancer burden in the United States and globally.

  15. Dietary factors during early life program bone formation in female rats

    Nutritional status during intrauterine and early postnatal life impacts the risk of chronic diseases; however, evidence for an association between early life dietary factors and bone health in adults is limited. Soy protein isolate (SPI) may be one such dietary factor that promotes bone accretion du...

  16. Association of early- and adult-life socioeconomic circumstances with muscle strength in older age.

    PubMed

    Cheval, Boris; Boisgontier, Matthieu P; Orsholits, Dan; Sieber, Stefan; Guessous, Idris; Gabriel, Rainer; Stringhini, Silvia; Blane, David; van der Linden, Bernadette W A; Kliegel, Matthias; Burton-Jeangros, Claudine; Courvoisier, Delphine S; Cullati, Stéphane

    2018-05-01

    socioeconomic circumstances (SEC) during a person's lifespan influence a wide range of health outcomes. However, solid evidence of the association of early- and adult-life SEC with health trajectories in ageing is still lacking. This study assessed whether early-life SEC are associated with muscle strength in later life-a biomarker of health-and whether this relationship is caused by adult-life SEC and health behaviours. we used data from the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe, a 12-year population-based cohort study with repeated measurement in six waves (2004-15) and retrospective collection of life-course data. Participants' grip strength was assessed by using a handheld dynamometer. Confounder-adjusted logistic mixed-effect models were used to examine the associations of early- and adult-life SEC with the risk of low muscle strength (LMS) in older age. a total of 24,179 participants (96,375 observations) aged 50-96 living in 14 European countries were included in the analyses. Risk of LMS was increased with disadvantaged relative to advantaged early-life SEC. The association between risk of LMS and disadvantaged early-life SEC gradually decreased when adjusting for adult-life SEC for both sexes and with unhealthy behaviours for women. After adjusting for these factors, all associations between risk of LMS and early-life SEC remained significant for women. early-life SEC are associated with muscle strength after adjusting for adult-life SEC and behavioural lifestyle factors, especially in women, which suggests that early life may represent a sensitive period for future health.

  17. Sex differences in the consequences of early-life exposure to epidemiological stress--a life-history approach.

    PubMed

    Störmer, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to infectious disease in early life has been suggested to have a negative effect on later-life survival,possibly through the induction of inflammatory responses. Although a life-course perspective emphasizes the importance of both survival and reproduction for individual fitness, to date, no studies have investigated whether early-life exposure to infectious disease has an impact on reproduction as it has been suggested for later survival. To address this question, I have used family reconstitution data from a historical (18th and 19th century) human population in the Krummhörn (Germany) comparing survival and reproduction between an exposed and a non-exposed group. The exposed group comprised those exposed to a high-infectious disease load during prenatal and early postnatal development. The results show a marked sex difference in the impact of early-life exposure to infectious disease. Exposed females show no effect on their life expectancy but significantly reduced fertility (number of children). For exposed males, however, the effect on survival is opponent over time: mortality is increased during childhood but decreased in late adulthood. Above that, exposed males reproduce earlier and have a smaller proportion of surviving children. This study does not support former studies indicating a negative association between early-life disease load and later survival. I argue that due to differences in male and female life strategies, males in general are more vulnerable especially early in life. Hence, adverse environmental conditions may have a stronger effect on male survivability and reproductive performance.

  18. Modeling old-age wealth with endogenous early-life outcomes: The case of Mexico

    PubMed Central

    DeGraff, Deborah S.; Wong, Rebeca

    2014-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature on the life course and aging by examining the association between early-life outcomes and late-life well being, using data from the Mexican Health and Aging Study. Empirical research in this area has been challenged by the potential endogeneity of the early-life outcomes of interest, an issue which most studies ignore or downplay. Our contribution takes two forms: (1) we examine in detail the potential importance of two key life-cycle outcomes, age at marriage (a measure of family formation) and years of educational attainment (a measure of human capital investment) for old-age wealth, and (2) we illustrate the empirical value of past context variables that could help model the association between early-life outcomes and late-life well being. Our illustrative approach, matching macro-level historical policy and census variables to individual records to use as instruments in modeling the endogeneity of early-life behaviors, yields a statistically identified two-stage model of old-age wealth with minimum bias. We use simulations to show that the results for the model of wealth in old age are meaningfully different when comparing the approach that accounts for endogeneity with an approach that assumes exogeneity of early-life outcomes. Furthermore, our results suggest that in the Mexican case, models which ignore the potential endogeneity of early-life outcomes are likely to under-estimate the effects of such variables on old-age wealth. PMID:25170434

  19. Early-Life Diet Affects Host Microbiota and Later-Life Defenses Against Parasites in Frogs.

    PubMed

    Knutie, Sarah A; Shea, Lauren A; Kupselaitis, Marinna; Wilkinson, Christina L; Kohl, Kevin D; Rohr, Jason R

    2017-10-01

    Food resources can affect the health of organisms by altering their symbiotic microbiota and affecting energy reserves for host defenses against parasites. Different diets can vary in their macronutrient content and therefore they might favor certain bacterial communities of the host and affect the development and maintenance of the immune system, such as the inflammatory or antibody responses. Thus, testing the effect of diet, especially for animals with wide diet breadths, on host-associated microbiota and defenses against parasites might be important in determining infection and disease risk. Here, we test whether the early-life diet of Cuban tree frogs (Osteopilus septentrionalis) affects early- and later-life microbiota as well as later-life defenses against skin-penetrating, gut worms (Aplectana hamatospicula). We fed tadpoles two ecologically common diets: a diet of conspecifics or a diet of algae (Arthrospira sp.). We then: (1) characterized the gut microbiota of tadpoles and adults; and (2) challenged adult frogs with parasitic worms and measured host resistance (including the antibody-mediated immune response) and tolerance of infections. Tadpole diet affected bacterial communities in the guts of tadpoles but did not have enduring effects on the bacterial communities of adults. In contrast, tadpole diet had enduring effects on host resistance and tolerance of infections in adult frogs. Frogs that were fed a conspecific-based diet as tadpoles were more resistant to worm penetration compared with frogs that were fed an alga-based diet as tadpoles, but less resistant to worm establishment, which may be related to their suppressed antibody response during worm establishment. Furthermore, frogs that were fed a conspecific-based diet as tadpoles were more tolerant to the effect of parasite abundance on host mass during worm establishment. Overall, our study demonstrates that the diet of Cuban tree frog tadpoles affects the gut microbiota and defenses against

  20. The die is cast: arsenic exposure in early life and disease susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Thomas, David J

    2013-12-16

    Early life exposure to arsenic in humans and mice produces similar patterns of disease in later life. Given the long interval between exposure and effect, epigenetic effects of early life exposure to arsenic may account for the development and progression of disease in both species. Mode of action and dosimetric studies in the mouse may help assess the role of age at exposure as a factor in susceptibility to the toxic and carcinogenic effects of arsenic in humans.

  1. Life expectancy and the value of early detection.

    PubMed

    Howard, David H

    2005-09-01

    This paper presents a model of the benefits and costs of early detection of asymptomatic disease as they vary by age. The benefits of early detection tend toward zero as the risk of death from competing causes increases. Costs per detected case also decline with age, assuming that disease incidence rises with age, but are always strictly positive. On balance, there is always an age limit beyond which the costs associated with early detection outweigh the benefits. Application of the model to prostate cancer screening suggests that early detection above age 70 or so is not cost-effective.

  2. Early Life Stress Differentially Modulates Distinct Forms of Brain Plasticity in Young and Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Reichardt, Wilfried; Clark, Kristin; Geiger, Julia; Gross, Claus M.; Heyer, Andrea; Neagu, Valentin; Bhatia, Harsharan; Atas, Hasan C.; Fiebich, Bernd L.; Bischofberger, Josef; Haas, Carola A.; Normann, Claus

    2012-01-01

    Background Early life trauma is an important risk factor for many psychiatric and somatic disorders in adulthood. As a growing body of evidence suggests that brain plasticity is disturbed in affective disorders, we examined the short-term and remote effects of early life stress on different forms of brain plasticity. Methodology/Principal Findings Mice were subjected to early deprivation by individually separating pups from their dam in the first two weeks after birth. Distinct forms of brain plasticity were assessed in the hippocampus by longitudinal MR volumetry, immunohistochemistry of neurogenesis, and whole-cell patch-clamp measurements of synaptic plasticity. Depression-related behavior was assessed by the forced swimming test in adult animals. Neuropeptides and their receptors were determined by real-time PCR and immunoassay. Early maternal deprivation caused a loss of hippocampal volume, which returned to normal in adulthood. Adult neurogenesis was unaffected by early life stress. Long-term synaptic potentiation, however, was normal immediately after the end of the stress protocol but was impaired in adult animals. In the forced swimming test, adult animals that had been subjected to early life stress showed increased immobility time. Levels of substance P were increased both in young and adult animals after early deprivation. Conclusion Hippocampal volume was affected by early life stress but recovered in adulthood which corresponded to normal adult neurogenesis. Synaptic plasticity, however, exhibited a delayed impairment. The modulation of synaptic plasticity by early life stress might contribute to affective dysfunction in adulthood. PMID:23071534

  3. Life, Labor, and, Song in New England during the Early Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, John W., Ed.; Scott, John A., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    Singing the tunes in this collection will help students understand many of the realities of life during the early years of the United States. From hearth and home to the perils of the sea, and from factory life to Presidential elections, this journal offers a selection of 19 songs to introduce the life and labor of New England people during the…

  4. Conditions for the emergence of life on the early Earth: summary and reflections

    PubMed Central

    Jortner, Joshua

    2006-01-01

    This review attempts to situate the emergence of life on the early Earth within the scientific issues of the operational and mechanistic description of life, the conditions and constraints of prebiotic chemistry, together with bottom-up molecular fabrication and biomolecular nanofabrication and top-down miniaturization approaches to the origin of terrestrial life. PMID:17008225

  5. Supra- and Sub-Baseline Phosphocreatine Recovery in Developing Brain after Transient Hypoxia-Ischaemia: Relation to Baseline Energetics, Insult Severity and Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwata, Osuke; Iwata, Sachiko; Bainbridge, Alan; De Vita, Enrico; Matsuishi, Toyojiro; Cady, Ernest B.; Robertson, Nicola J.

    2008-01-01

    Following hypoxia-ischaemia (HI), an early biomarker of insult severity is desirable to target neuroprotective therapies to patients most likely to benefit; currently there are no biomarkers within the "latent phase" period before the establishment of secondary energy failure. Brief transient phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery overshoot (measured…

  6. Promoting School and Life Success through Early Childhood Family Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swick, Kevin J.

    2009-01-01

    Early childhood family literacy programs have great potential to positively influence children and families. This article presents the core values and key components of high quality early childhood family literacy programs. The benefits and cost effectiveness of these programs are also discussed.

  7. Early feeding and early life housing conditions influence the response towards a noninfectious lung challenge in broilers.

    PubMed

    Simon, K; de Vries Reilingh, G; Bolhuis, J E; Kemp, B; Lammers, A

    2015-09-01

    Early life conditions such as feed and water availability immediately post hatch (PH) and housing conditions may influence immune development and therefore immune reactivity later in life. The current study addressed the consequences of a combination of these 2 early life conditions for immune reactivity, i.e., the specific antibody response towards a non-infectious lung challenge. Broiler chicks received feed and water either immediately p.h. or with a 72 h delay and were either reared in a floor or a cage system. At 4 weeks of age, chicks received either an intra-tracheally administered Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/Human Serum Albumin (HUSA) challenge or a placebo, and antibody titers were measured up to day 14 after administration of the challenge. Chicks housed on the floor and which had a delayed access to feed p.h. showed the highest antibody titers against HuSA. These chicks also showed the strongest sickness response and poorest performance in response to the challenge, indicating that chicks with delayed access to feed might be more sensitive to an environment with higher antigenic pressure. In conclusion, results from the present study show that early life feeding strategy and housing conditions influence a chick's response to an immune challenge later in life. These 2 early life factors should therefore be taken into account when striving for a balance between disease resistance and performance in poultry. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  8. Word play, ritual insult, and volleyball in Peru.

    PubMed

    Perez, Justin

    2011-01-01

    Many gay men in the popular sectors of Lima, Peru participate in vóley callejero, or street volleyball. The ethnographic data presented in this article describes verbal and corporal mechanisms through which gay identity emerges within the particular context of the street volleyball game, ultimately highlighting the contextual nature of identity. The volleyball players are not just hitting a ball back and forth, they are engaging in a meaningful activity that illuminates intersections of language, sexuality, and identity. Through the manipulation of the street into a volleyball court, the volleyball players create a space conducive to the articulation of particular verbal and embodied practices that index gay identity. The challenge to the regulations of "proper" volleyball through the practice of ritual insulting and the cultivation of gay volleyball technique are playful reconfigurations of gendered practices prominent in the sites where fieldwork was carried out.

  9. Early-Life State-of-Residence Characteristics and Later Life Hypertension, Diabetes, and Ischemic Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Rehkopf, David H; Eisen, Ellen A; Modrek, Sepideh; Mokyr Horner, Elizabeth; Goldstein, Benjamin; Costello, Sadie; Cantley, Linda F; Slade, Martin D; Cullen, Mark R

    2015-08-01

    We examined how state characteristics in early life are associated with individual chronic disease later in life. We assessed early-life state of residence using the first 3 digits of social security numbers from blue- and white-collar workers from a US manufacturing company. Longitudinal data were available from 1997 to 2012, with 305 936 person-years of observation. Disease was assessed using medical claims. We modeled associations using pooled logistic regression with inverse probability of censoring weights. We found small but statistically significant associations between early-state-of-residence characteristics and later life hypertension, diabetes, and ischemic heart disease. The most consistent associations were with income inequality, percentage non-White, and education. These associations were similar after statistically controlling for individual socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and current state characteristics. Characteristics of the state in which an individual lives early in life are associated with prevalence of chronic disease later in life, with a strength of association equivalent to genetic associations found for these same health outcomes.

  10. Early Life Family Conflict, Social Interactions, and Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness in Adulthood.

    PubMed

    John-Henderson, Neha A; Kamarck, Thomas W; Muldoon, Matthew F; Manuck, Stephen B

    2016-04-01

    Conflict in early life family environments is known to affect psychosocial functioning and coping styles into adulthood and is reported to negatively affect access to psychosocial resources that are critical to the management of stress. However, it remains unknown whether early life family conflict similarly affects subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adulthood. We predicted that family conflict in early life would be associated with greater mean intima-media thickness (IMT), a subclinical marker of CVD risk, in adulthood. Data were collected in a community sample of 503 adults (47.4 % male, mean [standard deviation] age = 42.8 [7.3] years). Associations between family conflict in early life with IMT (assessed using B-mode ultrasound) in adulthood were examined using regression analysis. We also tested for indirect effects of early life family conflict on mean IMT through ecological momentary assessment reports of social interactions, diversity of social roles, and perceived social support. Linear regression analyses adjusted for demographics and physiological risk factors showed conflict in early life associated with greater mean IMT (β = 0.08, t(447) = 2.13, p = .034, R = 0.46). Early life conflict was significantly related to diversity of social roles, perceived social support, and ecological momentary assessment reports of pleasant and social conflict interactions. Significant indirect effects of early life conflict on mean IMT were observed through fewer pleasant social interactions and more frequent social conflict interactions in adulthood (β = 0.001 [95% confidence interval = 0.0001-0.0014] and β = 0.001 [95% confidence interval = 0.0002-0.0015], respectively). These findings provide initial evidence that family conflict in early life heightens CVD risk in adulthood, in part by shaping the quality of adulthood social interactions.

  11. Early life family conflict, Social interactions and Carotid Artery Intima-Media Thickness in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    John-Henderson, Neha A.; Kamarck, Thomas W.; Muldoon, Matthew F.; Manuck, Stephen B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Conflict in early life family environments is known to affect psychosocial functioning and coping styles into adulthood and is reported to negatively affect access to psychosocial resources that are critical to the management of stress. However, it remains unknown whether early life family conflict similarly affects subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) in adulthood. We predicted that family conflict in early life would be associated with greater mean Intima-Media thickness (IMT), a subclinical marker of CVD risk, in adulthood. Methods Data were collected in a community sample of 503 adults (47.4 % male, mean age: 42.8 years [SD=7.3]). Associations between family conflict in early life with IMT (assessed using B-mode ultrasound) in adulthood were examined using regression analysis. We also tested for indirect effects of early life family conflict on mean IMT through ecological momentary assessment (EMA) reports of social interactions, diversity of social roles, and perceived social support. Results Linear regression analyses adjusted for demographics and physiological risk factors showed conflict in early life associated with greater mean IMT (β=0.08, t(447)=2.13, p=0.034, R2=0.46). Early life conflict was significantly related to diversity of social roles, perceived social support, and EMA reports of pleasant and social conflict interactions. Significant indirect effects of early life conflict on mean IMT were observed through fewer pleasant social interactions and more frequent social conflict interactions in adulthood (β = 0.001, 95% CI, 0.0001–0.0014 and β=0.001, 95% CI, 0.0002–0.0015, respectively). Conclusions These findings provide initial evidence that family conflict in early life heightens CVD risk in adulthood, in part by shaping the quality of adulthood social interactions. PMID:26809109

  12. FKBP5 genotype interacts with early life trauma to predict heavy drinking in college students.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, Richard; Armeli, Stephen; Scott, Denise M; Kranzler, Henry R; Tennen, Howard; Covault, Jonathan

    2016-09-01

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is debilitating and costly. Identification and better understanding of risk factors influencing the development of AUD remain a research priority. Although early life exposure to trauma increases the risk of adulthood psychiatric disorders, including AUD, many individuals exposed to early life trauma do not develop psychopathology. Underlying genetic factors may contribute to differential sensitivity to trauma experienced in childhood. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is susceptible to long-lasting changes in function following childhood trauma. Functional genetic variation within FKBP5, a gene encoding a modulator of HPA axis function, is associated with the development of psychiatric symptoms in adulthood, particularly among individuals exposed to trauma early in life. In the current study, we examined interactions between self-reported early life trauma, past-year life stress, past-year trauma, and a single nucleotide polymorphism (rs1360780) in FKBP5 on heavy alcohol consumption in a sample of 1,845 college students from two university settings. Although we found no effect of early life trauma on heavy drinking in rs1360780*T-allele carriers, rs1360780*C homozygotes exposed to early life trauma had a lower probability of heavy drinking compared to rs1360780*C homozygotes not exposed to early life trauma (P < 0.01). The absence of an interaction between either current life stress or past-year trauma, and FKBP5 genotype on heavy drinking suggests that there exists a developmental period of susceptibility to stress that is moderated by FKBP5 genotype. These findings implicate interactive effects of early life trauma and FKBP5 genetic variation on heavy drinking. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Endocrine Disruptors and the Breast: Early Life Effects and Later Life Disease

    PubMed Central

    Macon, Madisa B.

    2013-01-01

    Breast cancer risk has both heritable and environment/lifestyle components. The heritable component is a small contribution (5–27 %), leaving the majority of risk to environment (e.g., applied chemicals, food residues, occupational hazards, pharmaceuticals, stress) and lifestyle (e.g., physical activity, cosmetics, water source, alcohol, smoking). However, these factors are not well-defined, primarily due to the enormous number of factors to be considered. In both humans and rodent models, environmental factors that act as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) have been shown to disrupt normal mammary development and lead to adverse lifelong consequences, especially when exposures occur during early life. EDCs can act directly or indirectly on mammary tissue to increase sensitivity to chemical carcinogens or enhance development of hyperplasia, beaded ducts, or tumors. Protective effects have also been reported. The mechanisms for these changes are not well understood. Environmental agents may also act as carcinogens in adult rodent models, directly causing or promoting tumor development, typically in more than one organ. Many of the environmental agents that act as EDCs and are known to affect the breast are discussed. Understanding the mechanism(s) of action for these compounds will be critical to prevent their effects on the breast in the future. PMID:23417729

  14. Endocrine disruptors and the breast: early life effects and later life disease.

    PubMed

    Macon, Madisa B; Fenton, Suzanne E

    2013-03-01

    Breast cancer risk has both heritable and environment/lifestyle components. The heritable component is a small contribution (5-27 %), leaving the majority of risk to environment (e.g., applied chemicals, food residues, occupational hazards, pharmaceuticals, stress) and lifestyle (e.g., physical activity, cosmetics, water source, alcohol, smoking). However, these factors are not well-defined, primarily due to the enormous number of factors to be considered. In both humans and rodent models, environmental factors that act as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) have been shown to disrupt normal mammary development and lead to adverse lifelong consequences, especially when exposures occur during early life. EDCs can act directly or indirectly on mammary tissue to increase sensitivity to chemical carcinogens or enhance development of hyperplasia, beaded ducts, or tumors. Protective effects have also been reported. The mechanisms for these changes are not well understood. Environmental agents may also act as carcinogens in adult rodent models, directly causing or promoting tumor development, typically in more than one organ. Many of the environmental agents that act as EDCs and are known to affect the breast are discussed. Understanding the mechanism(s) of action for these compounds will be critical to prevent their effects on the breast in the future.

  15. Keivy Paraschists (Archean-Early Proterozoic): Nanobacteria and Life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astafieva, M. M.; Balaganskii, V. V.

    2018-05-01

    Nanobacteria, buried in situ, were discovered in the Early Precambrian paraschists (Keivy, Kola Peninsula). It is suggested that occurrence of nanobacteria indicates that a biological factor played a role in the formation of enclosing rocks.

  16. Effects of early-life malnutrition on neurodevelopment and neuropsychiatric disorders and the potential mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xintian; Zhao, Xinzhi; Li, Juxue; He, Lin; Xu, Mingqing

    2018-04-20

    Lines of evidence have demonstrated that early-life malnutrition is highly correlated with neurodevelopment and adulthood neuropsychiatric disorders, while some findings are conflicting with each other. In addition, the biological mechanisms are less investigated. We systematically reviewed the evidence linking early-life nutrition status with neurodevelopment and clinical observations in human and animal models. We summarized the effects of special nutritious on neuropsychiatric disorders and explored the underlying potential mechanisms. The further understanding of the biological regulation of early-life nutritional status on neurodevelopment might shed light on precision nutrition at an integrative systems biology framework. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Fragmentation and Unpredictability of Early-Life Experience in Mental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Baram, Tallie Z.; Solodkin, Ana; Davis, Elysia P.; Stern, Hal; Obenaus, Andre; Sandman, Curt A.; Small, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    Maternal sensory signals in early life play a crucial role in programming the structure and function of the developing brain, promoting vulnerability or resilience to emotional and cognitive disorders. In rodent models of early-life stress, fragmentation and unpredictability of maternally derived sensory signals provoke persistent cognitive and emotional dysfunction in offspring. Similar variability and inconsistency of maternal signals during both gestation and early postnatal human life may influence development of emotional and cognitive functions, including those that underlie later depression and anxiety. PMID:22885631

  18. Searching for Life: Early Earth, Mars and Beyond

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DesMarais, David J.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    We might be entering a golden age for exploring life throughout time and space. Rapid gene sequencing will better define our most distant ancestors. The earliest geologic evidence of life is now 3.8 billion years old. Organic matter and submicron-sized morphologies have been preserved in the martian crust for billions of years. Several new missions to Mars are planned, with a high priority on the search for life, past or present. The recent discovery of large extrasolar planets has heightened interest in spacecraft to detect small, earth-like planets. A recent workshop discussed strategies for life detection on such planets. There is much to anticipate in the near future.

  19. Strategic Public Health Concerns Resulting From Cognitive Insult on the Modern Battlefield and Cognitive Readiness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    Faculty In Partial Fulfillment of the Graduation Requirements Advisor: John Kelliher, PhD and James Wright, PhD Maxwell Air Force Base ...physical end of the insult spectrum is TBI. This insult is generally caused by some type of trauma in the CNS and is seen frequently in military...insult to the integrity of the environment of the CNS leaves the soldier susceptible to infection if the wound is not immediately cared for in a

  20. Effect of sexual coercion proclivity, insult and fantasy on emotional reactivity and appeal of sexual aggression.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Lindsey A; Gorzalka, Boris B

    2012-08-01

    Fifty-nine heterosexual university males were assessed for Sexual Coercion Proclivity (SCP) and randomly assigned to one of three conditions: Insult/nonsexually coercive fantasy material; no insult/sexually coercive fantasy material; or, insult/sexually coercive fantasy material. Although not differing in terms of anger or anxiety, the high SCP became more frustrated than the low group, particularly when exposed to both insult and sexually coercive (SC) fantasy material. Changes in negative affect predicted anticipated likelihood of engaging in SC among the low SCP group and anticipated enjoyment of SC in the high SCP group. Acculturation accounted for differences observed between Caucasian and Chinese men.

  1. Early-life Origins of Lifecycle Well-being: Research and Policy Implications

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Janet; Rossin-Slater, Maya

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence across different disciplines suggests that early-life conditions can have consequences on individual outcomes throughout the lifecycle. Relative to other developed countries, the United States fares poorly on standard indicators of early-life health, and this disadvantage may have profound consequences not only for population well-being, but also for economic growth and competitiveness in a global economy. In this paper, we first discuss the research on the strength of the link between early-life health and adult outcomes, and then provide an evidence-based review of the effectiveness of existing U.S. policies targeting the early-life environment. We conclude that there is a robust and economically meaningful relationship between early-life conditions and well-being throughout the lifecycle, as measured by adult health, educational attainment, labor market attachment, and other indicators of socio-economic status. However, there is some variation in the degree to which current policies in the U.S. are effective in improving early-life conditions. Among existing programs, some of the most effective are the Special Supplemental Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC), home visiting with nurse practitioners, and high-quality, center-based early childhood care and education. In contrast, the evidence on other policies such as prenatal care and family leave is more mixed and limited. PMID:25558491

  2. Early-Life Persistent Vitamin D Deficiency Alters Cardiopulmonary Responses to Particulate Matter-Enhanced Atmospheric Smog in Adult Mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study demonstrates that early-life persistent vitamin D deficiency alters the cardiopulmonary response to smog in mice and may increase risk of adverse effects. Early life nutritional deficiencies can lead to increased cardiovascular susceptibility to environme...

  3. The role of early-life educational quality and literacy in explaining racial disparities in cognition in late life.

    PubMed

    Sisco, Shannon; Gross, Alden L; Shih, Regina A; Sachs, Bonnie C; Glymour, M Maria; Bangen, Katherine J; Benitez, Andreana; Skinner, Jeannine; Schneider, Brooke C; Manly, Jennifer J

    2015-07-01

    Racial disparities in late-life cognition persist even after accounting for educational attainment. We examined whether early-life educational quality and literacy in later life help explain these disparities. We used longitudinal data from the Washington Heights-Inwood Columbia Aging Project (WHICAP). Educational quality (percent white students; urban/rural school; combined grades in classroom) was operationalized using canonical correlation analysis. Late-life literacy (reading comprehension and ability, writing) was operationalized using confirmatory factor analysis. We examined whether these factors attenuated race-related differences in late-life cognition. The sample consisted of 1,679 U.S.-born, non-Hispanic, community-living adults aged 65-102 (71% black, 29% white; 70% women). Accounting for educational quality and literacy reduced disparities by 29% for general cognitive functioning, 26% for memory, and 32% for executive functioning but did not predict differences in rate of cognitive change. Early-life educational quality and literacy in late life explain a substantial portion of race-related disparities in late-life cognitive function. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. The Role of Early-Life Educational Quality and Literacy in Explaining Racial Disparities in Cognition in Late Life

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Alden L.; Shih, Regina A.; Sachs, Bonnie C.; Glymour, M. Maria; Bangen, Katherine J.; Benitez, Andreana; Skinner, Jeannine; Schneider, Brooke C.; Manly, Jennifer J.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. Racial disparities in late-life cognition persist even after accounting for educational attainment. We examined whether early-life educational quality and literacy in later life help explain these disparities. Method. We used longitudinal data from the Washington Heights-Inwood Columbia Aging Project (WHICAP). Educational quality (percent white students; urban/rural school; combined grades in classroom) was operationalized using canonical correlation analysis. Late-life literacy (reading comprehension and ability, writing) was operationalized using confirmatory factor analysis. We examined whether these factors attenuated race-related differences in late-life cognition. Results. The sample consisted of 1,679U.S.-born, non-Hispanic, community-living adults aged 65–102 (71% black, 29% white; 70% women). Accounting for educational quality and literacy reduced disparities by 29% for general cognitive functioning, 26% for memory, and 32% for executive functioning but did not predict differences in rate of cognitive change. Discussion. Early-life educational quality and literacy in late life explain a substantial portion of race-related disparities in late-life cognitive function. PMID:24584038

  5. The Early Life Of A Gamma-ray Burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, P. T.; Willingale, D.

    2006-09-01

    We present results for 100 gamma-ray bursts observed promptly by the Swift satellite. Combining the early gamma-ray and X-ray data from the BAT and XRT, we show that although individual GRBs can display complex light curves, including a variety of decay phases and flares, their early emission can be described by a relatively simple combination of central engine activity and the interaction of a relativistic jet with the surrounding environment. We also discuss the later fading, which in the optical/IR has traditionally been explained as a jet-break. The Swift data reveal many bursts have a relatively early break in their X-ray light curves contradicting the standard jet break model derived from optical data. We discuss the implications of this for GRB jet models and for using GRBs as standard candles.

  6. Early Life Exposure to Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia Primes Increased Susceptibility to Hypoxia-Induced Weakness in Rat Sternohyoid Muscle during Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Fiona B.; Dempsey, Eugene M.; O'Halloran, Ken D.

    2016-01-01

    Intermittent hypoxia is a feature of apnea of prematurity (AOP), chronic lung disease, and sleep apnea. Despite the clinical relevance, the long-term effects of hypoxic exposure in early life on respiratory control are not well defined. We recently reported that exposure to chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) during postnatal development (pCIH) causes upper airway muscle weakness in both sexes, which persists for several weeks. We sought to examine if there are persistent sex-dependent effects of pCIH on respiratory muscle function into adulthood and/or increased susceptibility to re-exposure to CIH in adulthood in animals previously exposed to CIH during postnatal development. We hypothesized that pCIH would cause long-lasting muscle impairment and increased susceptibility to subsequent hypoxia. Within 24 h of delivery, pups and their respective dams were exposed to CIH: 90 s of hypoxia reaching 5% O2 at nadir; once every 5 min, 8 h per day for 3 weeks. Sham groups were exposed to normoxia in parallel. Three groups were studied: sham; pCIH; and pCIH combined with adult CIH (p+aCIH), where a subset of the pCIH-exposed pups were re-exposed to the same CIH paradigm beginning at 13 weeks. Following gas exposures, sternohyoid and diaphragm muscle isometric contractile and endurance properties were examined ex vivo. There was no apparent lasting effect of pCIH on respiratory muscle function in adults. However, in both males and females, re-exposure to CIH in adulthood in pCIH-exposed animals caused sternohyoid (but not diaphragm) weakness. Exposure to this paradigm of CIH in adulthood alone had no effect on muscle function. Persistent susceptibility in pCIH-exposed airway dilator muscle to subsequent hypoxic insult may have implications for the control of airway patency in adult humans exposed to intermittent hypoxic stress during early life. PMID:26973537

  7. Nonmarine stromatolites and the search for early life on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Awramik, S. M.

    1991-01-01

    The available evidence permits one to conclude that streams flowed and lakes developed on Mars sometime in the remote past. The lessons learned from the Earth's earliest fossil record suggest that stromatolites might have formed on Mars, speculating that: (1) biopoesis occurred on Mars during its earliest history; (2) life evolved and diversified; (3) life inhabited aqueous environments; and (4) sunlight was an important environmental resource. The most likely place to find stromatolites and possibly microbial fossils on Mars would be in ancient lake and stream deposits. If thermal spring deposits can be identified, then they too are sites for biogeological investigations. Other aspects of this study are presented.

  8. Early life stress confers lifelong stress susceptibility in mice via ventral tegmental area OTX2.

    PubMed

    Peña, Catherine J; Kronman, Hope G; Walker, Deena M; Cates, Hannah M; Bagot, Rosemary C; Purushothaman, Immanuel; Issler, Orna; Loh, Yong-Hwee Eddie; Leong, Tin; Kiraly, Drew D; Goodman, Emma; Neve, Rachael L; Shen, Li; Nestler, Eric J

    2017-06-16

    Early life stress increases risk for depression. Here we establish a "two-hit" stress model in mice wherein stress at a specific postnatal period increases susceptibility to adult social defeat stress and causes long-lasting transcriptional alterations that prime the ventral tegmental area (VTA)-a brain reward region-to be in a depression-like state. We identify a role for the developmental transcription factor orthodenticle homeobox 2 ( Otx2 ) as an upstream mediator of these enduring effects. Transient juvenile-but not adult-knockdown of Otx2 in VTA mimics early life stress by increasing stress susceptibility, whereas its overexpression reverses the effects of early life stress. This work establishes a mechanism by which early life stress encodes lifelong susceptibility to stress via long-lasting transcriptional programming in VTA mediated by Otx2 . Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. Is epigenetics an important link between early life events and adult disease?

    Epigenetic mechanisms provide one potential explanation for how environmental influences in early life cause long-term changes in chronic disease susceptibility. Whereas epigenetic dysregulation is increasingly implicated in various rare developmental syndromes and cancer, the role of epigenetics in...

  10. Examination of age-related epigenetic changes following early-life exposure to dichloroacetic acid

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent studies have shown that transient early-life exposure to dichloroacetic acid (DCA), a pyruvate analog and metabolic reprogramming agent, increases liver cancer incidence in older mice. This carcinogenic effect is not associated with direct mutagenicity, persistent cytotoxi...

  11. Early life adversity and telomere length: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ridout, K K; Levandowski, M; Ridout, S J; Gantz, L; Goonan, K; Palermo, D; Price, L H; Tyrka, A R

    2018-04-01

    Early adversity, in the form of abuse, neglect, socioeconomic status and other adverse experiences, is associated with poor physical and mental health outcomes. To understand the biologic mechanisms underlying these associations, studies have evaluated the relationship between early adversity and telomere length, a marker of cellular senescence. Such results have varied in regard to the size and significance of this relationship. Using meta-analytic techniques, we aimed to clarify the relationship between early adversity and telomere length while exploring factors affecting the association, including adversity type, timing and study design. A comprehensive search in July 2016 of PubMed/MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Web of Science identified 2462 studies. Multiple reviewers appraised studies for inclusion or exclusion using a priori criteria; 3.9% met inclusion criteria. Data were extracted into a structured form; the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale assessed study quality, validity and bias. Forty-one studies (N=30 773) met inclusion criteria. Early adversity and telomere length were significantly associated (Cohen's d effect size=-0.35; 95% CI, -0.46 to -0.24; P<0.0001). Sensitivity analyses revealed no outlier effects. Adversity type and timing significantly impacted the association with telomere length (P<0.0001 and P=0.0025, respectively). Subgroup and meta-regression analyses revealed that medication use, medical or psychiatric conditions, case-control vs longitudinal study design, methodological factors, age and smoking significantly affected the relationship. Comprehensive evaluations of adversity demonstrated more extensive telomere length changes. These results suggest that early adversity may have long-lasting physiological consequences contributing to disease risk and biological aging.

  12. Contemporary divergence in early life history in grayling (Thymallus thymallus).

    PubMed

    Thomassen, Gaute; Barson, Nicola J; Haugen, Thrond O; Vøllestad, L Asbjørn

    2011-12-13

    Following colonization of new habitats and subsequent selection, adaptation to environmental conditions might be expected to be rapid. In a mountain lake in Norway, Lesjaskogsvatnet, more than 20 distinct spawning demes of grayling have been established since the lake was colonized, some 20-25 generations ago. The demes spawn in tributaries consistently exhibiting either colder or warmer temperature conditions during spawning in spring and subsequent early development during early summer. In order to explore the degree of temperature-related divergence in early development, a multi-temperature common-garden experiment was performed on embryos from four different demes experiencing different spring temperatures. Early developmental characters were measured to test if individuals from the four demes respond differently to the treatment temperatures. There was clear evidence of among-deme differences (genotype - environment interactions) in larval growth and yolk-to-body-size conversion efficiency. Under the cold treatment regime, larval growth rates were highest for individuals belonging to cold streams. Individuals from warm streams had the highest yolk-consumption rate under cold conditions. As a consequence, yolk-to-body-mass conversion efficiency was highest for cold-deme individuals under cold conditions. As we observed response parallelism between individuals from demes belonging to similar thermal groups for these traits, some of the differentiation seems likely to result from local adaptation The observed differences in length at age during early larval development most likely have a genetic component, even though both directional and random processes are likely to have influenced evolutionary change in the demes under study.

  13. Memory deficits with intact cognitive control in the methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) exposure model of neurodevelopmental insult.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Kally C; Perica, Maria I; Fenton, André A

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive impairments are amongst the most debilitating deficits of schizophrenia and the best predictor of functional outcome. Schizophrenia is hypothesized to have a neurodevelopmental origin, making animal models of neurodevelopmental insult important for testing predictions that early insults will impair cognitive function. Rats exposed to methylazoxymethanol acetate (MAM) at gestational day 17 display morphological, physiological and behavioral abnormalities relevant to schizophrenia. Here we investigate the cognitive abilities of adult MAM rats. We examined brain activity in MAM rats by histochemically assessing cytochrome oxidase enzyme activity, a metabolic marker of neuronal activity. To assess cognition, we used a hippocampus-dependent two-frame active place avoidance paradigm to examine learning and spatial memory, as well as cognitive control and flexibility using the same environment and evaluating the same set of behaviors. We confirmed that adult MAM rats have altered hippocampal morphology and brain function, and that they are hyperactive in an open field. The latter likely indicates MAM rats have a sensorimotor gating deficit that is common to many animal models used for schizophrenia research. On first inspection, cognitive control seems impaired in MAM rats, indicated by more errors during the two-frame active place avoidance task. Because MAM rats are hyperactive throughout place avoidance training, we considered the possibility that the hyperlocomotion may account for the apparent cognitive deficits. These deficits were reduced on the basis of measures of cognitive performance that account for motor activity differences. However, though other aspects of memory are intact, the ability of MAM rats to express trial-to-trial memory is delayed compared to control rats. These findings suggest that spatial learning and cognitive abilities are largely intact, that the most prominent cognitive deficit is specific to acquiring memory in the MAM

  14. Effect of Early- and Adult-Life Socioeconomic Circumstances on Physical Inactivity.

    PubMed

    Cheval, Boris; Sieber, Stefan; Guessous, Idris; Orsholits, Dan; Courvoisier, Delphine S; Kliegel, Matthias; Stringhini, Silvia; Swinnen, Stephan P; Burton-Jeangros, Claudine; Cullati, Stéphane; Boisgontier, Matthieu P

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the associations between early- and adult-life socioeconomic circumstances and physical inactivity (level and evolution) in aging using large-scale longitudinal data. This study used the Survey of Health Ageing and Retirement in Europe, a 10-yr population-based cohort study with repeated measurements in five waves, every 2 yr between 2004 and 2013. Self-reported physical inactivity (waves 1, 2, 4, and 5), household income (waves 1, 2, 4, and 5), educational attainment (wave of the first measurement occasion), and early-life socioeconomic circumstance (wave 3) were collected in 22,846 individuals 50 to 95 yr of age. Risk of physical inactivity was increased for women with the most disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances (odds ratio [OR], 1.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.20-1.86). With aging, the risk of physical inactivity increased for both sexes and was strongest for those with the most disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances (OR, 1.04 (95% CI, 1.02-1.06) for women; OR, 1.02 (95% CI, 1.00-1.05) for men), with the former effect being more robust than the latter one. The association between early-life socioeconomic circumstances and physical inactivity was mediated by adult-life socioeconomic circumstances, with education being the strongest mediator. Early-life socioeconomic circumstances predicted high levels of physical inactivity at older ages, but this effect was mediated by socioeconomic indicators in adult life. This finding has implications for public health policies, which should continue to promote education to reduce physical inactivity in people at older ages and to ensure optimal healthy aging trajectories, especially among women with disadvantaged early-life socioeconomic circumstances.

  15. Alternatives to the fish early life-stage test: Developing a conceptual model for early fish development

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chronic fish toxicity is a key parameter for hazard classification and environmental risk assessment of chemicals, and the OECD 210 fish early life-stage (FELS) test is the primary guideline test used for various international regulatory programs. There exists a need to develop ...

  16. Early-Life Nutritional Programming of Health and Disease in The Gambia.

    PubMed

    Moore, Sophie E

    2017-01-01

    Exposures during early life are increasingly being recognised as factors that play an important role in the aetiology of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The "Developmental Origins of Health and Disease" (DOHaD) hypothesis asserts that adverse early-life exposures - most notably unbalanced nutrition - leads to an increased risk for a range of NCDs and that disease risk is highest when there is a "mismatch" between the early- and later-life environments. Thus, the DOHaD hypothesis would predict highest risk in settings undergoing a rapid nutrition transition. We investigated the link between early-life nutritional exposures and long-term health in rural Gambia, West Africa. Using demographic data dating back to the 1940s, the follow-up of randomised controlled trials of nutritional supplementation in pregnancy, and the "experiment of nature" that seasonality in this region provides, we investigated the DOHaD hypothesis in a population with high rates of maternal and infant under-nutrition, a high burden from infectious disease, and an emerging risk of NCDs. Key Messages: Our work in rural Gambia suggests that in populations with high rates of under-nutrition in early life, the immune system may be sensitive to nutritional deficiencies early in life, resulting in a greater susceptibility to infection-related morbidity and mortality. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. The OBELIX project: early life exposure to endocrine disruptors and obesity.

    PubMed

    Legler, Juliette; Hamers, Timo; van Eck van der Sluijs-van de Bor, Margot; Schoeters, Greet; van der Ven, Leo; Eggesbo, Merete; Koppe, Janna; Feinberg, Max; Trnovec, Tomas

    2011-12-01

    The hypothesis of whether early life exposure (both pre- and early postnatal) to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may be a risk factor for obesity and related metabolic diseases later in life will be tested in the European research project OBELIX (OBesogenic Endocrine disrupting chemicals: LInking prenatal eXposure to the development of obesity later in life). OBELIX is a 4-y project that started in May 2009 and which has the following 5 main objectives: 1) to assess early life exposure in humans to major classes of EDCs identified as potential inducers of obesity (ie, dioxin-like compounds, non-dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorine pesticides, brominated flame retardants, phthalates, and perfluorinated compounds) by using mother-child cohorts from 4 European regions with different food-contaminant exposure patterns; 2) to relate early life exposure to EDCs with clinical markers, novel biomarkers, and health-effect data related to obesity; 3) to perform hazard characterization of early life exposure to EDCs for the development of obesity later in life by using a mouse model; 4) to determine mechanisms of action of obesogenic EDCs on developmental programming with in vivo and in vitro genomics and epigenetic analyses; and 5) to perform risk assessments of prenatal exposure to obesogenic EDCs in food by integrating maternal exposure through food-contaminant exposure and health-effect data in children and hazard data in animal studies.

  18. Early-late life trade-offs and the evolution of ageing in the wild.

    PubMed

    Lemaître, Jean-François; Berger, Vérane; Bonenfant, Christophe; Douhard, Mathieu; Gamelon, Marlène; Plard, Floriane; Gaillard, Jean-Michel

    2015-05-07

    Empirical evidence for declines in fitness components (survival and reproductive performance) with age has recently accumulated in wild populations, highlighting that the process of senescence is nearly ubiquitous in the living world. Senescence patterns are highly variable among species and current evolutionary theories of ageing propose that such variation can be accounted for by differences in allocation to growth and reproduction during early life. Here, we compiled 26 studies of free-ranging vertebrate populations that explicitly tested for a trade-off between performance in early and late life. Our review brings overall support for the presence of early-late life trade-offs, suggesting that the limitation of available resources leads individuals to trade somatic maintenance later in life for high allocation to reproduction early in life. We discuss our results in the light of two closely related theories of ageing-the disposable soma and the antagonistic pleiotropy theories-and propose that the principle of energy allocation roots the ageing process in the evolution of life-history strategies. Finally, we outline research topics that should be investigated in future studies, including the importance of natal environmental conditions in the study of trade-offs between early- and late-life performance and the evolution of sex-differences in ageing patterns. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Early Care, Education, and Family Life in Rural Fiji: Experiences and Reflections

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Janis

    2005-01-01

    As a member of a delegation of educators, physicians, and lay people to rural Fiji the author shares her experiences and reflections of early care, education, and family life on a small, remote island. She discusses her visits to the village and boarding school, and her interactions with teachers, children, and parents in the early childhood…

  20. Mental Health Problems in Early Childhood Can Impair Learning and Behavior for Life. Working Paper #6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Significant mental health problems can and do occur in young children. In some cases, these problems can have serious consequences for early learning, social competence, and lifelong health. Furthermore, the foundations of many mental health problems that endure through adulthood are established early in life through the interaction of genetic…

  1. Staging Life in an Early Warm ‘Seltzer’ Ocean

    DOE PAGES

    Schoonen, Martin; Smirnov, Alexander

    2016-12-01

    A period as short as 20 million years within the first 100 million years after the formation of the Moon may have set the stage for the origin of life. This atmosphere contained more carbon dioxide than any other period afterwards. The carbon dioxide sustained greenhouse conditions, accelerated the weathering of a primitive crust and may have led to conditions conducive to the formation of the building blocks of life. The conversion of CO 2 as well as N 2 may have been facilitated by clays, zeolites, sulfides and metal alloys formed as the crust reacted with a warm ‘seltzer’more » ocean. We used geochemical modeling to constrain the conditions favorable for the formation of these potential mineral catalysts.« less

  2. Staging Life in an Early Warm ‘Seltzer’ Ocean

    SciT

    Schoonen, Martin; Smirnov, Alexander

    A period as short as 20 million years within the first 100 million years after the formation of the Moon may have set the stage for the origin of life. This atmosphere contained more carbon dioxide than any other period afterwards. The carbon dioxide sustained greenhouse conditions, accelerated the weathering of a primitive crust and may have led to conditions conducive to the formation of the building blocks of life. The conversion of CO 2 as well as N 2 may have been facilitated by clays, zeolites, sulfides and metal alloys formed as the crust reacted with a warm ‘seltzer’more » ocean. We used geochemical modeling to constrain the conditions favorable for the formation of these potential mineral catalysts.« less

  3. Mechanistic insight into neurotoxicity induced by developmental insults

    SciT

    Tamm, Christoffer; Ceccatelli, Sandra

    Epidemiological and/or experimental studies have shown that unfavorable prenatal environmental factors, such as stress or exposure to certain neurotoxic environmental contaminants, may have adverse consequences for neurodevelopment. Alterations in neurogenesis can have harmful effects not only for the developing nervous system, but also for the adult brain where neurogenesis is believed to play a role in learning, memory, and even in depression. Many recent advances in the understanding of the complex process of nervous system development can be integrated into the field of neurotoxicology. In the past 15 years we have been using cultured neural stem or progenitor cells tomore » investigate the effects of neurotoxic stimuli on cell survival, proliferation and differentiation, with special focus on heritable effects. This is an overview of the work performed by our group in the attempt to elucidate the mechanisms of developmental neurotoxicity and possibly provide relevant information for the understanding of the etiopathogenesis of complex brain disorders. - Highlights: • The developing nervous system is highly sensitive to toxic insults. • Neural stem cells are relevant models for mechanistic studies as well as for identifying heritable effects due to epigenetic changes. • Depending on the dose, the outcome of exposure to neurotoxicants ranges from altered proliferation and differentiation to cell death. • The elucidation of neurotoxicity mechanisms is relevant for understanding the etiopathogenesis of developmental and adult nervous system disorders.« less

  4. Central diabetes insipidus in children with acute brain insult.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yun-Hsuan; Lin, Jainn-Jim; Hsia, Shao-Hsuan; Wu, Chang-Teng; Wang, Huei-Shyong; Hung, Po-Cheng; Chou, Min-Liang; Hsieh, Meng-Ying; Lin, Kuang-Lin

    2011-12-01

    Central diabetes insipidus occurs in patients with overwhelming central nervous system injuries, and may be associated with brain death. The clinical picture of children with acquired central diabetes insipidus after acute brain insult is seldom reported. We retrospectively reviewed cases dating from January 2000-February 2008 at a tertiary pediatric intensive care unit. Fifty-four patients (28 girls, 26 boys), aged 3 months to 18 years, were enrolled. Etiologies included severe central nervous system infection (35.2%), hypoxic-ischemic events (31.5%), head injury (18.5%), and vascular lesions (14.8%). In 39 (72.2%) patients, diabetes insipidus was diagnosed during the first 2 days after acute central nervous system injury, and 40 (74.0%) developed maximum serum sodium concentrations of >160 mEq/L. In 16, sequential cerebral salt wasting syndrome developed after their initial diabetes insipidus presentation. Overall mortality at 2 months after admission was 77.8%. Our results demonstrate that patients who develop central diabetes insipidus after acute central nervous system injury manifest high mortality. Development of central diabetes insipidus within the first 2 days and a maximum plasma sodium >160 mEq/L were significant predictors of outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Predictive Models of Cognitive Outcomes of Developmental Insults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Yupo; Bouaynaya, Nidhal; Chowdhury, Parimal; Leszczynska, Danuta; Patterson, Tucker A.; Tarasenko, Olga

    2010-04-01

    Representatives of Arkansas medical, research and educational institutions have gathered over the past four years to discuss the relationship between functional developmental perturbations and their neurological consequences. We wish to track the effect on the nervous system by developmental perturbations over time and across species. Except for perturbations, the sequence of events that occur during neural development was found to be remarkably conserved across mammalian species. The tracking includes consequences on anatomical regions and behavioral changes. The ultimate goal is to develop a predictive model of long-term genotypic and phenotypic outcomes that includes developmental insults. Such a model can subsequently be fostered into an educated intervention for therapeutic purposes. Several datasets were identified to test plausible hypotheses, ranging from evoked potential datasets to sleep-disorder datasets. An initial model may be mathematical and conceptual. However, we expect to see rapid progress as large-scale gene expression studies in the mammalian brain permit genome-wide searches to discover genes that are uniquely expressed in brain circuits and regions. These genes ultimately control behavior. By using a validated model we endeavor to make useful predictions.

  6. Therapeutic properties of green tea against environmental insults

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Lixia; Mo, Huanbiao; Zhao, Ling; Gao, Weimin; Wang, Shu; Cromie, Meghan M; Lu, Chuanwen; Wang, Jia-Sheng; Shen, Chwan-Li

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides, smoke, mycotoxins, polychlorinated biphenyls, and arsenic are the most common environmental toxins and toxicants to humans. These toxins and toxicants may impact on human health at the molecular (DNA, RNA, or protein), organelle (mitochondria, lysosome, or membranes), cellular (growth inhibition or cell death), tissue, organ, and systemic levels. Formation of reactive radicals, lipid peroxidation, inflammation, genotoxicity, hepatotoxicity, embryotoxicity, neurological alterations, apoptosis, and carcinogenic events are some of the mechanisms mediating the toxic effects of the environmental toxins and toxicants. Green tea, the non-oxidized and non-fermented form of tea that contains several polyphenols, including green tea catechins, exhibits protective effects against these environmental toxins and toxicants in preclinical studies and to a much-limited extent, in clinical trials. The protective effects are collectively mediated by antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagenic, hepato- and neuroprotective, and anti-carcinogenic activities. In addition, green tea modulates signaling pathway including NFκB and ERK pathways, preserves mitochondrial membrane potential, inhibits caspase-3 activity, down-regulates pro-apoptotic proteins, and induces the phase II detoxifying pathway. The bioavailability and metabolism of green tea and its protective effects against environmental insults induced by pesticides, smoke, mycotoxins, polychlorinated biphenyls, and arsenic are reviewed in this paper. Future studies with emphasis on clinical trials should identify biomarkers of green tea intake, examine the mechanisms of action of green tea polyphenols, and investigate potential interactions of green tea with other toxicant-modulating dietary factors. PMID:27723473

  7. Family Quality of Life: A Key Outcome in Early Childhood Intervention Services--A Scoping Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bhopti, Anoo; Brown, Ted; Lentin, Primrose

    2016-01-01

    A scoping review was conducted to identify factors influencing the quality of life of families of children with disability. The review also explored the scales used to measure family quality of life (FQOL) as an outcome in early childhood intervention services (ECIS). Multiple databases were searched from 2000 to 2013 to include studies pertinent…

  8. Early Life Adversity as a Predictor of Sense of Purpose during Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Patrick L.; Turiano, Nicholas A.; Burrow, Anthony L.

    2018-01-01

    Feeling a sense of purpose in life appears to hold consistent benefits for positive aging and well-being. As such, it is important to consider the potential factors that promote or hinder the development of purposefulness over the lifespan. For instance, it remains unclear whether early life experiences, particularly adverse ones, may hold lasting…

  9. Early-life estrogen exposure and uterine pathogenesis: ?A model for gene-environment interactions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aberrant cellular differentiation early in life can contribute to increased cancer risk later in life. In a classic model of this effect, female mice exposed on postnatal day (PND) 1-5 to the synthetic estrogen diethylstilbestrol (DES) have a high incidence of uterine carcinoma. ...

  10. Latent carcinogenicity of early-life exposure to dichloroacetic acid in mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    AbstractEnvironmental exposures occurring early in life may have an important influence on cancer risk later in life. Here we investigated carryover effects of young-adult exposure to dichloroacetic acid (DCA), a small molecule analog of pyruvate and low-level environmental cont...

  11. Metabolic Disruption Early in Life is Associated With Latent Carcinogenic Activity of Dichloroacetic Acid in Mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Early-life environmental factors can influence later-life susceptibility to cancer. Recent evidence suggests that metabolic pathways may mediate this type of latency effect. Previously, we reported that short-term exposure to dichloroacetic acid (DCA) increased liver cancer in mi...

  12. Early-Life Effects on Adult Physical Activity: Concepts, Relevance, and Experimental Approaches.

    PubMed

    Garland, Theodore; Cadney, Marcell D; Waterland, Robert A

    Locomotion is a defining characteristic of animal life and plays a crucial role in most behaviors. Locomotion involves physical activity, which can have far-reaching effects on physiology and neurobiology, both acutely and chronically. In human populations and in laboratory rodents, higher levels of physical activity are generally associated with positive health outcomes, although excessive exercise can have adverse consequences. Whether and how such relationships occur in wild animals is unknown. Behavioral variation among individuals arises from genetic and environmental factors and their interactions as well as from developmental programming (persistent effects of early-life environment). Although tremendous progress has been made in identifying genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in behavior, early-life effects are not well understood. Early-life effects can in some cases persist across multiple generations following a single exposure and, in principle, may constrain or facilitate the rate of evolution at multiple levels of biological organization. Understanding the mechanisms of such transgenerational effects (e.g., exposure to stress hormones in utero, inherited epigenetic alterations) may prove crucial to explaining unexpected and/or sex-specific responses to selection as well as limits to adaptation. One area receiving increased attention is early-life effects on adult physical activity. Correlational data from epidemiological studies suggest that early-life nutritional stress can (adversely) affect adult human activity levels and associated physiological traits (e.g., body composition, metabolic health). The few existing studies of laboratory rodents demonstrate that both maternal and early-life exercise can affect adult levels of physical activity and related phenotypes. Going forward, rodents offer many opportunities for experimental studies of (multigenerational) early-life effects, including studies that use maternal

  13. Epigenetic Regulation of Autism-Associated Genes by Environmental Insults: Novel Associations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    TITLE: Epigenetic Regulation of Autism -Associated Genes by Environmental Insults: Novel Associations PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Daryl Spinner Ph.D...SUBTITL Epigenetic regulation of Autism -associated genes by environmental insults: Novel associations 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER...environmental-induced cases of autism . Accordingly, we established mouse embryonic cortical cultures of neurons and astrocytes, and exposed them to commonly

  14. Early Life Growth Predicts Pubertal Development in South African Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lundeen, Elizabeth A; Norris, Shane A; Martorell, Reynaldo; Suchdev, Parminder S; Mehta, Neil K; Richter, Linda M; Stein, Aryeh D

    2016-03-01

    Given global trends toward earlier onset of puberty and the adverse psychosocial consequences of early puberty, it is important to understand the childhood predictors of pubertal timing and tempo. We examined the association between early growth and the timing and tempo of puberty in adolescents in South Africa. We analyzed prospectively collected data from 1060 boys and 1135 girls participating in the Birth-to-Twenty cohort in Soweto, South Africa. Height-for-age z scores (HAZs) and body mass index-for-age z scores (BMIZs) were calculated based on height (centimeters) and body mass index (kilograms per meter squared) at ages 5 y and 8 y. The development of genitals, breasts, and pubic hair was recorded annually from 9 to 16 y of age with the use of the Tanner sexual maturation scale (SMS). We used latent class growth analysis to identify pubertal trajectory classes and also characterized children as fast or slow developers based on the SMS score at 12 y of age. We used multinomial logistic regression to estimate associations of HAZ and BMIZ at ages 5 and 8 y with pubertal development. We identified 3 classes for pubic hair development (for both girls and boys) and 4 classes for breast (for girls) and genital (for boys) development. In girls, both HAZ and BMIZ at age 5 y were positively associated with pubic hair development [relative risk ratio (RRR): 1.57, P < 0.001 and RRR: 1.51, P < 0.01, respectively], as was BMI at age 8 y (RRR: 2.06, P = 0.03); similar findings were observed for breast development. In boys, HAZ and BMIZ at age 5 y were positively associated with pubic hair development (RRR: 1.78, P < 0.001 and RRR: 1.43, P < 0.01, respectively); HAZ at age 5 y was associated with development of genitals (RRR: 2.19, P < 0.01). In boys and girls, both height and body mass index in early childhood predicted the trajectory of pubertal development. This may provide a tool to identify children at risk of early pubertal onset.

  15. Positive emotions in early life and longevity: findings from the nun study.

    PubMed

    Danner, D D; Snowdon, D A; Friesen, W V

    2001-05-01

    Handwritten autobiographies from 180 Catholic nuns, composed when participants were a mean age of 22 years, were scored for emotional content and related to survival during ages 75 to 95. A strong inverse association was found between positive emotional content in these writings and risk of mortality in late life (p < .001). As the quartile ranking of positive emotion in early life increased, there was a stepwise decrease in risk of mortality resulting in a 2.5-fold difference between the lowest and highest quartiles. Positive emotional content in early-life autobiographies was strongly associated with longevity 6 decades later. Underlying mechanisms of balanced emotional states are discussed.

  16. Early-life influences on obesity: from preconception to adolescence.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, Mark L; Krawetz, Stephen A; Rizzo, Nico S; Dominguez-Bello, Maria Gloria; Szymanski, Linda M; Barkin, Shari; Yatkine, Ann; Waterland, Robert A; Mennella, Julie A; Desai, Mina; Ross, Michael G; Krebs, Nancy F; Young, Bridget E; Wardle, Jane; Wrann, Christiane D; Kral, John G

    2015-07-01

    The double burden of under- and overnutrition profoundly affects human health globally. According to the World Health Organization, obesity and diabetes rates have almost doubled worldwide since 1980, and, in 2011, more than 40 million children under 5 years of age were overweight. Ecologic factors, parental genetics and fitness, and the intrauterine environment significantly influence the likelihood of offspring developing the dysmetabolic diathesis of obesity. This report examines the effects of these factors, including preconception, intrauterine and postnatal energy balance affecting programming of transgenerational transmission, and development of chronic diseases later in life-in particular, diabesity and its comorbidities. © 2015 New York Academy of Sciences.

  17. Propagandizing the Healthy, Bolshevik Life in the Early USSR.

    PubMed

    Starks, Tricia A

    2017-11-01

    This essay outlines the problems facing Soviet health authorities at the inception of the People's Commissariat of Public Health in 1918 and the innovative methods employed in sanitary enlightenment propaganda in Russia throughout the 1920s. Beset by funding issues and supply problems, the emissaries of health chose the cheapest means of health improvement (propaganda) with the most cost-effective method (prevention), and crowed of great successes even as large portions of the nation still suffered from lack of contact with sanitary authorities. Targeting Soviet citizens at every stage and space of life, the envoys of public health spread the message of prophylaxis.

  18. Early-life stress and reproductive cost: A two-hit developmental model of accelerated aging?

    PubMed

    Shalev, Idan; Belsky, Jay

    2016-05-01

    Two seemingly independent bodies of research suggest a two-hit model of accelerated aging, one highlighting early-life stress and the other reproduction. The first, informed by developmental models of early-life stress, highlights reduced longevity effects of early adversity on telomere erosion, whereas the second, informed by evolutionary theories of aging, highlights such effects with regard to reproductive cost (in females). The fact that both early-life adversity and reproductive effort are associated with shorter telomeres and increased oxidative stress raises the prospect, consistent with life-history theory, that these two theoretical frameworks currently informing much research are tapping into the same evolutionary-developmental process of increased senescence and reduced longevity. Here we propose a mechanistic view of a two-hit model of accelerated aging in human females through (a) early-life adversity and (b) early reproduction, via a process of telomere erosion, while highlighting mediating biological embedding mechanisms that might link these two developmental aging processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Impact of early life adversity on EMG stress reactivity of the trapezius muscle.

    PubMed

    Luijcks, Rosan; Vossen, Catherine J; Roggeveen, Suzanne; van Os, Jim; Hermens, Hermie J; Lousberg, Richel

    2016-09-01

    Human and animal research indicates that exposure to early life adversity increases stress sensitivity later in life. While behavioral markers of adversity-induced stress sensitivity have been suggested, physiological markers remain to be elucidated. It is known that trapezius muscle activity increases during stressful situations. The present study examined to what degree early life adverse events experienced during early childhood (0-11 years) and adolescence (12-17 years) moderate experimentally induced electromyographic (EMG) stress activity of the trapezius muscles, in an experimental setting. In a general population sample (n = 115), an anticipatory stress effect was generated by presenting a single unpredictable and uncontrollable electrical painful stimulus at t = 3 minutes. Subjects were unaware of the precise moment of stimulus delivery and its intensity level. Linear and nonlinear time courses in EMG activity were modeled using multilevel analysis. The study protocol included 2 experimental sessions (t = 0 and t = 6 months) allowing for examination of reliability.Results show that EMG stress reactivity during the stress paradigm was consistently stronger in people with higher levels of early life adverse events; early childhood adversity had a stronger moderating effect than adolescent adversity. The impact of early life adversity on EMG stress reactivity may represent a reliable facet that can be used in both clinical and nonclinical studies.

  20. Impact of early life adversity on EMG stress reactivity of the trapezius muscle

    PubMed Central

    Luijcks, Rosan; Vossen, Catherine J.; Roggeveen, Suzanne; van Os, Jim; Hermens, Hermie J.; Lousberg, Richel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Human and animal research indicates that exposure to early life adversity increases stress sensitivity later in life. While behavioral markers of adversity-induced stress sensitivity have been suggested, physiological markers remain to be elucidated. It is known that trapezius muscle activity increases during stressful situations. The present study examined to what degree early life adverse events experienced during early childhood (0–11 years) and adolescence (12–17 years) moderate experimentally induced electromyographic (EMG) stress activity of the trapezius muscles, in an experimental setting. In a general population sample (n = 115), an anticipatory stress effect was generated by presenting a single unpredictable and uncontrollable electrical painful stimulus at t = 3 minutes. Subjects were unaware of the precise moment of stimulus delivery and its intensity level. Linear and nonlinear time courses in EMG activity were modeled using multilevel analysis. The study protocol included 2 experimental sessions (t = 0 and t = 6 months) allowing for examination of reliability. Results show that EMG stress reactivity during the stress paradigm was consistently stronger in people with higher levels of early life adverse events; early childhood adversity had a stronger moderating effect than adolescent adversity. The impact of early life adversity on EMG stress reactivity may represent a reliable facet that can be used in both clinical and nonclinical studies. PMID:27684800

  1. The Nun study: clinically silent AD, neuronal hypertrophy, and linguistic skills in early life.

    PubMed

    Iacono, D; Markesbery, W R; Gross, M; Pletnikova, O; Rudow, G; Zandi, P; Troncoso, J C

    2009-09-01

    It is common to find substantial Alzheimer disease (AD) lesions, i.e., neuritic beta-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, in the autopsied brains of elderly subjects with normal cognition assessed shortly before death. We have termed this status asymptomatic AD (ASYMAD). We assessed the morphologic substrate of ASYMAD compared to mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in subjects from the Nun Study. In addition, possible correlations between linguistic abilities in early life and the presence of AD pathology with and without clinical manifestations in late life were considered. Design-based stereology was used to measure the volumes of neuronal cell bodies, nuclei, and nucleoli in the CA1 region of hippocampus (CA1). Four groups of subjects were compared: ASYMAD (n = 10), MCI (n = 5), AD (n = 10), and age-matched controls (n = 13). Linguistic ability assessed in early life was compared among all groups. A significant hypertrophy of the cell bodies (+44.9%), nuclei (+59.7%), and nucleoli (+80.2%) in the CA1 neurons was found in ASYMAD compared with MCI. Similar differences were observed with controls. Furthermore, significant higher idea density scores in early life were observed in controls and ASYMAD group compared to MCI and AD groups. 1) Neuronal hypertrophy may constitute an early cellular response to Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology or reflect compensatory mechanisms that prevent cognitive impairment despite substantial AD lesions; 2) higher idea density scores in early life are associated with intact cognition in late life despite the presence of AD lesions.

  2. Early life stress paradigms in rodents: potential animal models of depression?

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Mathias V; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Meijer, Onno C

    2011-03-01

    While human depressive illness is indeed uniquely human, many of its symptoms may be modeled in rodents. Based on human etiology, the assumption has been made that depression-like behavior in rats and mice can be modulated by some of the powerful early life programming effects that are known to occur after manipulations in the first weeks of life. Here we review the evidence that is available in literature for early life manipulation as risk factors for the development of depression-like symptoms such as anhedonia, passive coping strategies, and neuroendocrine changes. Early life paradigms that were evaluated include early handling, separation, and deprivation protocols, as well as enriched and impoverished environments. We have also included a small number of stress-related pharmacological models. We find that for most early life paradigms per se, the actual validity for depression is limited. A number of models have not been tested with respect to classical depression-like behaviors, while in many cases, the outcome of such experiments is variable and depends on strain and additional factors. Because programming effects confer vulnerability rather than disease, a number of paradigms hold promise for usefulness in depression research, in combination with the proper genetic background and adult life challenges.

  3. Life satisfaction in early adolescence: personal, neighborhood, school, family, and peer influences.

    PubMed

    Oberle, Eva; Schonert-Reichl, Kimberly A; Zumbo, Bruno D

    2011-07-01

    Drawing from an ecological assets framework as well as research and theory on positive youth development, this study examined the relationship of early adolescents' satisfaction with life to trait optimism and assets representing the social contexts in which early adolescents spend most of their time. Self-reports of satisfaction with life, optimism, and ecological assets in the school (school connectedness), neighborhood (perceived neighborhood support), family (perceived parental support), and peer group (positive peer relationships) were assessed in a sample of 1,402 4th to 7th graders (47% female) from 25 public elementary schools. Multilevel modeling (MLM) was conducted to analyze the variability in life satisfaction both at the individual and the school level. As hypothesized, adding optimism and the dimensions representing the ecology of early adolescence to the model significantly reduced the variability in life satisfaction at both levels of analysis. Both personal (optimism) and all of the ecological assets significantly and positively predicted early adolescents' life satisfaction. The results suggest the theoretical and practical utility of an assets approach for understanding life satisfaction in early adolescence.

  4. An examination of sex differences in the effects of early-life opiate and alcohol exposure

    PubMed Central

    Terasaki, Laurne S.; Gomez, Julie; Schwarz, Jaclyn M.

    2016-01-01

    Early-life exposure to drugs and alcohol is one of the most preventable causes of developmental, behavioural and learning disorders in children. Thus a significant amount of basic, animal and human research has focused on understanding the behavioural consequences and the associated neural effects of exposure to drugs and alcohol during early brain development. Despite this, much of the previous research that has been done on this topic has used predominantly male subjects or rodents. While many of the findings from these male-specific studies may ultimately apply to females, the purpose of this review is to highlight the research that has also examined sex as a factor and found striking differences between the sexes in their response to early-life opiate and alcohol exposure. Finally, we will also provide a framework for scientists interested in examining sex as a factor in future experiments that specifically examine the consequences of early-life drug and alcohol exposure. PMID:26833841

  5. Enhanced transcription and translation in clay hydrogel and implications for early life evolution

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Dayong; Peng, Songming; Hartman, Mark R.; Gupton-Campolongo, Tiffany; Rice, Edward J.; Chang, Anna Kathryn; Gu, Zi; Lu, G. Q. (Max); Luo, Dan

    2013-01-01

    In most contemporary life forms, the confinement of cell membranes provides localized concentration and protection for biomolecules, leading to efficient biochemical reactions. Similarly, confinement may have also played an important role for prebiotic compartmentalization in early life evolution when the cell membrane had not yet formed. It remains an open question how biochemical reactions developed without the confinement of cell membranes. Here we mimic the confinement function of cells by creating a hydrogel made from geological clay minerals, which provides an efficient confinement environment for biomolecules. We also show that nucleic acids were concentrated in the clay hydrogel and were protected against nuclease, and that transcription and translation reactions were consistently enhanced. Taken together, our results support the importance of localized concentration and protection of biomolecules in early life evolution, and also implicate a clay hydrogel environment for biochemical reactions during early life evolution. PMID:24196527

  6. Understanding Early Decisions to Withdraw Life-Sustaining Therapy in Cardiac Arrest Survivors. A Qualitative Investigation.

    PubMed

    Dale, Craig M; Sinuff, Tasnim; Morrison, Laurie J; Golan, Eyal; Scales, Damon C

    2016-07-01

    Early withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy contributes to the majority of deaths following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), despite current recommendations for delayed neurological prognostication (≥72 h) after treatment with targeted temperature management. Little is known about clinicians' experiences of early withdrawal of life support decisions in patients with OHCA. To explore clinicians' experiences and perceptions of early withdrawal of life support decisions and barriers to guideline-concordant neurological prognostication in comatose survivors of OHCA treated with targeted temperature management. We conducted qualitative interviews with intensive care unit (ICU) physicians and nurses following withdrawal of life support in comatose patients with OHCA treated with targeted temperature management. The study was carried out across 18 academic and community hospitals participating in a multicenter, stepped-wedge, cluster-randomized controlled trial designed to improve quality-of-care processes for patients after OHCA in Ontario, Canada. We used a focused thematic analysis to capture barriers to guideline-concordant neurological prognostication and used these barriers to identify potentially modifiable issues. The core thematic finding was a high emotional burden of ICU family-team communication in which strong feelings inhibited information transfer and delayed decision making following OHCA. Four subthemes describing sources of communication strain were identified: (1) requests from family members to provide early outcome predictions, (2) incomplete family comprehension of critical care, (3) family requests for early withdrawal of life support based on their understanding of patients' preferences and values, and (4) family-team communication gaps related to prognostic uncertainty. Participants worried that gaps in timely and clear prognostic information contributed to surrogates' perceptions of a poor outcome and to inappropriately early decisions to

  7. Blood pressure in young adulthood and residential greenness in the early-life environment of twins.

    PubMed

    Bijnens, Esmée M; Nawrot, Tim S; Loos, Ruth Jf; Gielen, Marij; Vlietinck, Robert; Derom, Catherine; Zeegers, Maurice P

    2017-06-05

    Previous research shows that, besides risk factors in adult life, the early-life environment can influence blood pressure and hypertension in adults. However, the effects of residential traffic exposure and residential greenness in the early-life on blood pressure in young adulthood are currently unknown. Ambulatory (24-h) blood pressures of 278 twins (132 pairs) of the East Flanders Prospective Twins Study were obtained at the age of 18 to 25 years. Prenatal and adulthood residential addresses were geocoded and used to assign prenatal and postnatal traffic and greenness indicators. Mixed modelling was performed to investigate blood pressure in association with greenness while adjusting for potential confounding factors. Night-time systolic blood pressure was inversely associated with greenness at the residential address in twins living at the same address their entire life (non-movers, n = 97, 34.9%). An interquartile increase in residential greenness exposure (1000 m radius) was associated with a 3.59 mmHg (95% CI: -6.0 to -1.23; p = 0.005) lower adult night systolic blood pressure. Among twins who were living at a different address than their birth address at time of the measurement (n = 181, 65.1%), night-time blood pressure was inversely associated with residential surrounding greenness at adult age as well as with residential greenness in early-life. However after additional adjustment for residential greenness exposure in adulthood, only residential greenness exposure in early-life was significantly associated with night systolic blood pressure. While no significant effect of adult residential greenness with adult blood pressure was observed, while accounting for the early-life greenness exposure. Lower residential greenness in the early-life environment was independently associated with a higher adult blood pressure. This indicates that residential greenness has persistent effects on blood pressure.

  8. Microbial mats and the early evolution of life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Des Marais, D. J.

    1990-01-01

    Microbial mats have descended from perhaps the oldest and most widespread biological communities known. Mats harbor microbes that are crucial for studies of bacterial phylogeny and physiology. They illustrate how several oxygen-sensitive biochemical processes have adapted to oxygen, and they show how life adapted to dry land long before the rise of plants. The search for the earliest grazing protists and metazoa in stromatolites is aided by observations of mats: in them, organic compounds characteristic of ancient photosynthetic protists can be identified. Recent mat studies suggest that the 13C/12C increase observed over geological time in stromatolitic organic matter was driven at least in part by a long-term decline in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels.

  9. Archean microfossils: a reappraisal of early life on Earth.

    PubMed

    Altermann, Wladyslaw; Kazmierczak, Józef

    2003-11-01

    The oldest fossils found thus far on Earth are c. 3.49- and 3.46-billion-year-old filamentous and coccoidal microbial remains in rocks of the Pilbara craton, Western Australia, and c. 3.4-billion-year-old rocks from the Barberton region, South Africa. Their biogenicity was recently questioned and they were reinterpreted as contaminants, mineral artefacts or inorganic carbon aggregates. Morphological, geochemical and isotopic data imply, however, that life was relatively widespread and advanced in the Archean, between 3.5 and 2.5 billion years ago, with metabolic pathways analogous to those of recent prokaryotic organisms, including cyanobacteria, and probably even eukaryotes at the terminal Archean.

  10. Age Validation in the Long Life Family Study Through a Linkage to Early-Life Census Records

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. Studies of health and longevity require accurate age reporting. Age misreporting among older adults in the United States is common. Methods. Participants in the Long Life Family Study (LLFS) were matched to early-life census records. Age recorded in the census was used to evaluate age reporting in the LLFS. The study population was 99% non-Hispanic white. Results. About 88% of the participants were matched to 1910, 1920, or 1930 U.S. censuses. Match success depended on the participant’s education, place of birth, and the number of censuses available to be searched. Age at the time of the interview based on the reported date of birth and early-life census age were consistent for about 89% of the participants, and age consistency within 1 year was found for about 99% of the participants. Discussion. It is possible to match a high fraction of older study participants to their early-life census records when detailed information is available on participants’ family of origin. Such record linkage can provide an important source of information for evaluating age reporting among the oldest old participants. Our results are consistent with recent studies suggesting that age reporting among older whites in the United States appears to be quite good. PMID:23704206

  11. Upper thermal tolerances of early life stages of freshwater mussels

    Pandolfo, Tamara J.; Cope, W. Gregory; Arellano, Consuelo; Bringolf, Robert B.; Barnhart, M. Christopher; Hammer, E

    2010-01-01

    Freshwater mussels (order Unioniformes) fulfill an essential role in benthic aquatic communities, but also are among the most sensitive and rapidly declining faunal groups in North America. Rising water temperatures, caused by global climate change, industrial discharges, drought, or land development, could further challenge imperiled unionid communities. The aim of our study was to determine the upper thermal tolerances of the larval (glochidia) and juvenile life stages of freshwater mussels. Glochidia of 8 species of mussels were tested: Lampsilis siliquoidea, Potamilus alatus, Ligumia recta, Ellipsaria lineolata,Lasmigona complanata, Megalonaias nervosa, Alasmidonta varicosa, and Villosa delumbis. Seven of these species also were tested as juveniles. Survival trends were monitored while mussels held at 3 acclimation temperatures (17, 22, and 27°C) were exposed to a range of common and extreme water temperatures (20–42°C) in standard acute laboratory tests. The average median lethal temperature (LT50) among species in 24-h tests with glochidia was 31.6°C and ranged from 21.4 to 42.7°C. The mean LT50 in 96-h juvenile tests was 34.7°C and ranged from 32.5 to 38.8°C. Based on comparisons of LT50s, thermal tolerances differed among species for glochidia, but not for juveniles. Acclimation temperature did not affect thermal tolerance for either life stage. Our results indicate that freshwater mussels already might be living close to their upper thermal tolerances in some systems and, thus, might be at risk from rising environmental temperatures.

  12. Quality of life at the retirement transition: Life course pathways in an early 'baby boom' birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Wildman, Josephine M; Moffatt, Suzanne; Pearce, Mark

    2018-06-01

    Promoting quality of life (QoL) in later life is an important policy goal. However, studies using prospective data to explore the mechanisms by which earlier events influence QoL in older age are lacking. This study is the first to use prospective data to investigate pathways by which a range of measures of life-course socioeconomic status contribute to later-life QoL. The study uses data from the Newcastle Thousand Families Study cohort (N = 1142), an early 'baby-boom' birth cohort born in 1947 in Newcastle upon Tyne, an industrial city in north-east England. Using prospective survey data collected between birth and later adulthood (N = 393), a path analysis investigated the effects and relative contributions of a range of life-course socioeconomic factors to QoL at age 62-64 measured using the CASP-19 scale. Strong positive effects on later-life QoL were found for advantaged occupational status in mid-life and better self-reported health, employment and mortgage-freedom in later adulthood. Significant positive indirect effects on QoL were found from social class at birth and achieved education level, mediated through later-life socioeconomic advantage. Experiencing no adverse events by age five had a large total positive effect on QoL at age 62-64, comprising a direct effect and indirect effects, mediated through education, mid-life social class and later-life self-reported health. Results support a pathway model with the effects of factors in earlier life acting via later-life factors, and an accumulation model with earlier-life factors having large total, cumulative effects on later-life QoL. The presence of a direct effect of adverse childhood events by age five on QoL suggests a 'critical period' and indicates that policies across the life-course are needed to promote later-life QoL, with policies directed towards older adults perhaps too late to 'undo the damage' of earlier adverse events. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Depression is an independent determinant of life satisfaction early after stroke.

    PubMed

    Oosterveer, Daniëlla M; Mishre, Radha Rambaran; van Oort, Andrea; Bodde, Karin; Aerden, Leo A M

    2017-03-06

    Life satisfaction is reduced in stroke patients. However, as a rule, rehabilitation goals are not aimed at life satisfaction, but at activities and participation. In order to optimize life satisfaction in stroke patients, rehabilitation should take into account the determinants of life satisfaction. The aim of this study was therefore to determine what factors are independent determinants of life satisfaction in a large group of patients early after stroke. Stroke-surviving patients were examined by a specialized nurse 6 weeks after discharge from hospital or rehabilitation setting. A standardized history and several screening lists, including the Lisat-9, were completed. Step-wise regression was used to identify independent determinants of life satisfaction. A total of 284 stroke-surviving patients were included in the study. Of these, 117 answered all of the Lisat-9 questions. Most patients (66.5%) rated their life as a whole as "satisfying" or "very satisfying". More depressive symptoms were independently associated with lower life satisfaction (p < 0.001). Most stroke-surviving patients are satisfied with their life early after a stroke. The score on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale depression items is independently associated with life satisfaction. Physicians should therefore pay close attention to the mood of these patients.

  14. High early life mortality in free-ranging dogs is largely influenced by humans

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Manabi; Sen Majumder, Sreejani; Sau, Shubhra; Nandi, Anjan K.; Bhadra, Anindita

    2016-01-01

    Free-ranging dogs are a ubiquitous part of human habitations in many developing countries, leading a life of scavengers dependent on human wastes for survival. The effective management of free-ranging dogs calls for understanding of their population dynamics. Life expectancy at birth and early life mortality are important factors that shape life-histories of mammals. We carried out a five year-long census based study in seven locations of West Bengal, India, to understand the pattern of population growth and factors affecting early life mortality in free-ranging dogs. We observed high rates of mortality, with only ~19% of the 364 pups from 95 observed litters surviving till the reproductive age; 63% of total mortality being human influenced. While living near people increases resource availability for dogs, it also has deep adverse impacts on their population growth, making the dog-human relationship on streets highly complex. PMID:26804633

  15. Thyroid gland development in Rachycentron canadum during early life stages.

    PubMed

    Otero, Adriana P S; Rodrigues, Ricardo V; Sampaio, Luís A; Romano, Luis A; Tesser, Marcelo B

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the ontogeny of thyroid follicles in cobia Rachycentron canadum. Larvae were sampled daily (n=15 - 20) from hatching until 15 dah (days after hatching). Following, larvae were sampled every two days by 28 dah; a new sample was taken at 53 dah. The samples were dehydrated, embedded in Paraplast, and sections of 3 µm were dewaxed, rehydrated and stained with HE and PAS. A single follicle was already present 1 dah and three follicles were found 8 dah. The number of follicles increased up to 19 on 53 dah. The diameter of follicles and follicular cell height were lower 1 dah (6.83 ± 1.00 and 4.6 ± 0.01 µm), but increased from 8 dah (24.03 ± 0.46 µm e 6.43 ± 0.46 µm). From 8 dah, the presence of reabsorption vesicles was observed in the colloid and from the 19 dah some follicles did not present colloid. The early thyroid follicle appearance in cobia larvae as well as the high quantity of follicles without colloid and/or with vesicles even after the metamorphosis, might be the explanation of the fast growth of the cobia.

  16. Diagnostic significance of pancreas divisum in early life.

    PubMed

    Shukri, N; Wasa, M; Hasegawa, T; Okada, A

    2000-02-01

    Pancreas divisum (PD) is a congenital anomaly in which the ventral and dorsal pancreatic ducts fails to fuse in the early fetal period. This anomaly has been known to rarely cause recurrent pancreatitis and to require surgical intervention. With the recent advances in image diagnostic procedures, an increasing incidence of this anomaly has been recognized in the pediatric age group. Seven cases of PD were encountered in our institution between 1978 and 1998. Six were female and one was male, with a mean age of 8 years. All cases were diagnosed to have PD by endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERCP) or operative pancreatography. One case (14.3%) had PD associated with a bout of pancreatitis and was operated on by transduodenal papilloplasty, but recurrent bouts of pancreatitis led to the performance of longitudinal pancreaticojejunostomy (Puestow procedure). Six cases (85.7%) were found to have PD as an incidental finding during operation for congenital dilatation of the bile ducts (CDBD), however, 2 cases (33.3%) out of the 6 developed pancreatitis in a later stage and ERCP was effective in their follow-up assessment. One benefited from conservative treatment while the other needed transduodenal papilloplasty along with pancreatoductoplasty. Imaging procedures (ERCP or operative pancreatography) revealed complete PD in 3 cases (42.9%), and incomplete PD in 4 cases (57.1%), however, there was no clinically significant difference between the groups.

  17. Life as an early career researcher: interview with Catherine Martel.

    PubMed

    Martel, Catherine

    2016-03-01

    Catherine Martel speaks to Francesca Lake, Managing Commissioning Editor: Catherine Martel obtained her PhD from the Université de Montréal and pursued a postdoctoral fellowship first at Mount Sinai School of Medicine in New York (NY, USA), then at Washington University School of Medicine in St Louis (MO, USA), and obtained the Junior Investigator Award for Women from the Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology council of the American Heart Association. Her postdoctoral work is certainly groundbreaking and brings forward new considerations in the field: she discovered that the lymphatic vessel route, the network that runs in parallel with the blood vessels, is critical for removing cholesterol from multiple tissues, including the aortic wall. In 2013, she joined the Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology Early Career Committee, eager to bring a Canadian perspective to the group and get involved in council activities. Since 2014, she is an Assistant Professor at the Department of Medicine at the Université de Montréal, and a research scientist at the Montreal Heart Institute. Her research program now focuses on characterizing the physiopathologic role of the lymphatics in the initiation, progression and regression of atherosclerosis. Basic and translational research will allow her team to identify the causes of lymphatic dysfunction, and eventually target potential therapeutic strategies aiming at improving lymphatic function at the different levels of the atherothrombotic disease. You can follow her laboratory at @LaboMartel_ICM.

  18. Natural selection and sex differences in morbidity and mortality in early life.

    PubMed

    Wells, J C

    2000-01-07

    Both morbidity and mortality are consistently reported to be higher in males than in females in early life, but no explanation for these findings has been offered. This paper argues that the sex difference in early vulnerability can be attributed to the natural selection of optimal maternal strategies for maximizing lifetime reproductive success, as modelled previously by Trivers and Willard. These authors theorized that males and females offer different returns on parental investment depending on the state of the environment. Natural selection has therefore favoured maternal ability to manipulate offspring sex in response to environmental conditions in early life, as shown in variation in the sex ratio at birth. This argument can be extended to the whole period of parental investment until weaning. Male vulnerability in response to environmental stress in early life is predicted to have been favoured by natural selection. This vulnerability is most evident in the harsh conditions resulting from pre-term birth, but can also be seen in term infants, and manifests as greater morbidity and mortality persisting into early childhood. Malnutrition, interacting with infection after birth, is suggested as the fundamental trigger mechanism. The model suggests that whatever improvements are made in medical care, any environmental stress will always affect males more severely than females in early life. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  19. Evidence for early life in Earth's oldest hydrothermal vent precipitates.

    PubMed

    Dodd, Matthew S; Papineau, Dominic; Grenne, Tor; Slack, John F; Rittner, Martin; Pirajno, Franco; O'Neil, Jonathan; Little, Crispin T S

    2017-03-01

    Although it is not known when or where life on Earth began, some of the earliest habitable environments may have been submarine-hydrothermal vents. Here we describe putative fossilized microorganisms that are at least 3,770 million and possibly 4,280 million years old in ferruginous sedimentary rocks, interpreted as seafloor-hydrothermal vent-related precipitates, from the Nuvvuagittuq belt in Quebec, Canada. These structures occur as micrometre-scale haematite tubes and filaments with morphologies and mineral assemblages similar to those of filamentous microorganisms from modern hydrothermal vent precipitates and analogous microfossils in younger rocks. The Nuvvuagittuq rocks contain isotopically light carbon in carbonate and carbonaceous material, which occurs as graphitic inclusions in diagenetic carbonate rosettes, apatite blades intergrown among carbonate rosettes and magnetite-haematite granules, and is associated with carbonate in direct contact with the putative microfossils. Collectively, these observations are consistent with an oxidized biomass and provide evidence for biological activity in submarine-hydrothermal environments more than 3,770 million years ago.

  20. Stable carbon isotopes: possible clues to early life on Mars.

    PubMed

    Schidlowski, M

    1992-01-01

    Organic and inorganic carbon in terrestrial near-surface environments are characterized by a marked difference in their 13C/12C ratios which can be traced back in the Earth's sedimentary record over almost 4 billion years. There is no doubt that the bias in favour of 12C displayed by biogenic matter derives, for the most part, from the isotope-selecting properties of the carbon-fixing enzyme (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase) that is operative in the principal photosynthetic pathway and promotes most of the carbon transfer from the non-living to the living realm. Postulating a universality of biological principles in analogy to the proven universality of the laws of physics and chemistry, we may expect enzymatic reactions in exobiological systems to be beset with B similar kinetic fractionation effects. Hence, the retrieval from the oldest Martian sediments of isotopic fractionations between reduced and oxidized (carbonate) carbon may substantially constrain current conjectures on the possible existence of former life on Mars.

  1. Bayesian analysis of the astrobiological implications of life's early emergence on Earth.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, David S; Turner, Edwin L

    2012-01-10

    Life arose on Earth sometime in the first few hundred million years after the young planet had cooled to the point that it could support water-based organisms on its surface. The early emergence of life on Earth has been taken as evidence that the probability of abiogenesis is high, if starting from young Earth-like conditions. We revisit this argument quantitatively in a bayesian statistical framework. By constructing a simple model of the probability of abiogenesis, we calculate a bayesian estimate of its posterior probability, given the data that life emerged fairly early in Earth's history and that, billions of years later, curious creatures noted this fact and considered its implications. We find that, given only this very limited empirical information, the choice of bayesian prior for the abiogenesis probability parameter has a dominant influence on the computed posterior probability. Although terrestrial life's early emergence provides evidence that life might be abundant in the universe if early-Earth-like conditions are common, the evidence is inconclusive and indeed is consistent with an arbitrarily low intrinsic probability of abiogenesis for plausible uninformative priors. Finding a single case of life arising independently of our lineage (on Earth, elsewhere in the solar system, or on an extrasolar planet) would provide much stronger evidence that abiogenesis is not extremely rare in the universe.

  2. Cognitive functioning in healthy aging: the role of reserve and lifestyle factors early in life.

    PubMed

    Fritsch, Thomas; McClendon, McKee J; Smyth, Kathleen A; Lerner, Alan J; Friedland, Robert P; Larsen, Janet D

    2007-06-01

    According to the reserve perspective on cognitive aging, individuals are born with or can develop resources that help them resist normal and disease-related cognitive changes that occur in aging. The reserve perspective is becoming more sophisticated, but gaps in knowledge persist. In the present research, we considered three understudied questions about reserve: Is reserve primarily static (unchangeable) throughout the life course or dynamic (changeable, in terms of increases or decreases)? Can reserve be increased at any point in life, or are there optimal time periods--such as early life, midlife, or late life--to increase it? Does participation in different types of leisure and occupational activities in early life and midlife have different effects depending on specific domains of late-life cognitive functioning? Here we link early cognitive and activity data--gathered from archival sources--with cognitive data from older adults to examine these issues. 349 participants, all mid-1940s graduates of the same high school, underwent telephone cognitive screening. All participants provided access to adolescent IQ scores; we determined activity levels from yearbooks. We used path analysis to evaluate the complex relationships between early life, midlife, and late-life variables. Adolescent IQ had strong direct effects on global cognitive functioning, episodic memory, verbal fluency, and processing speed. Participants' high school mental activities had direct effects on verbal fluency, but physical and social activities did not predict any cognitive measure. Education had direct effects on global cognitive functioning, episodic memory, and, most strongly, processing speed, but other midlife factors (notably, occupational demands) were not significant predictors of late-life cognition. There were weak indirect effects of adolescent IQ on global cognitive functioning, episodic memory, and processing speed, working through high school mental activities and education

  3. Apoptosis-related genes induced in response to ketamine during early life stages of zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Félix, Luís M; Serafim, Cindy; Valentim, Ana M; Antunes, Luís M; Matos, Manuela; Coimbra, Ana M

    2017-09-05

    Increasing evidence supports that ketamine, a widely used anaesthetic, potentiates apoptosis during development through the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Defects in the apoptotic machinery can cause or contribute to the developmental abnormalities previously described in ketamine-exposed zebrafish. The involvement of the apoptotic machinery in ketamine-induced teratogenicity was addressed by assessing the apoptotic signals at 8 and 24 hpf following 20min exposure to ketamine at three stages of early zebrafish embryo development (256 cell, 50% epiboly and 1-4 somites stages). Exposure at the 256-cell stage to ketamine induced an up-regulation of casp8 and pcna at 8 hpf while changes in pcna at the mRNA level were observed at 24 hpf. After the 50% epiboly stage exposure, the mRNA levels of casp9 were increased at 8 and 24 hpf while aifm1 was affected at 24 hpf. Both tp53 and pcna expressions were increased at 8 hpf. After exposure during the 1-4 somites stage, no meaningful changes on transcript levels were observed. The distribution of apoptotic cells and the caspase-like enzymatic activities of caspase-3 and -9 were not affected by ketamine exposure. It is proposed that ketamine exposure at the 256-cell stage induced a cooperative mechanism between proliferation and cellular death while following exposure at the 50% epiboly, a p53-dependent and -independent caspase activation may occur. Finally, at the 1-4 somites stage, the defence mechanisms are already fully in place to protect against ketamine-insult. Thus, ketamine teratogenicity seems to be dependent on the functional mechanisms present in each developmental stage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Early-Life Social Origins of Later-Life Body Weight: The Role of Socioeconomic Status and Health Behaviors over the Life Course

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Ellis Scott; Richman, Aliza

    2014-01-01

    Using the 1957-2004 data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we apply structural equation modeling to examine gender-specific effects of family socioeconomic status (SES) at age 18 on body weight at age 65. We further explore SES and health behaviors over the life course as mechanisms linking family background and later-life body weight. We find that early-life socioeconomic disadvantage is related to higher body weight at age 65 and a steeper weight increase between midlife and late life. These adverse effects are stronger among women than men. Significant mediators of the effect of parents' SES include adolescent body mass (especially among women) as well as exercise and SES in midlife. Yet, consistent with the critical period mechanism, the effect of early-life SES on late-life body weight persists net of all mediating variables. This study expands current understanding of life-course mechanisms that contribute to obesity and increase biological vulnerability to social disadvantage. PMID:24767590

  5. Early-life income inequality and adolescent health and well-being.

    PubMed

    Elgar, Frank J; Gariépy, Geneviève; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Currie, Candace

    2017-02-01

    A prevailing hypothesis about the association between income inequality and poor health is that inequality intensifies social hierarchies, increases stress, erodes social and material resources that support health, and subsequently harms health. However, the evidence in support of this hypothesis is limited by cross-sectional, ecological studies and a scarcity of developmental studies. To address this limitation, we used pooled, multilevel data from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study to examine lagged, cumulative, and trajectory associations between early-life income inequality and adolescent health and well-being. Psychosomatic symptoms and life satisfaction were assessed in surveys of 11- to 15-year-olds in 40 countries between 1994 and 2014. We linked these data to national Gini indices of income inequality for every life year from 1979 to 2014. The results showed that exposure to income inequality from 0 to 4 years predicted psychosomatic symptoms and lower life satisfaction in females after controlling lifetime mean income inequality, national per capita income, family affluence, age, and cohort and period effects. The cumulative income inequality exposure in infancy and childhood (i.e., average Gini index from birth to age 10) related to lower life satisfaction in female adolescents but not to symptoms. Finally, individual trajectories in early-life inequality (i.e., linear slopes in Gini indices from birth to 10 years) related to fewer symptoms and higher life satisfaction in females, indicating that earlier exposures mattered more to predicting health and wellbeing. No such associations with early-life income inequality were found in males. These results help to establish the antecedent-consequence conditions in the association between income inequality and health and suggest that both the magnitude and timing of income inequality in early life have developmental consequences that manifest in reduced health and well-being in adolescent girls

  6. Life Expectancy Can Explain the Precocity-Longevity Hypothesis Association of Early Career Success and Early Death.

    PubMed

    McCann, Stewart J H

    2015-01-01

    The precocity-longevity hypothesis that those who reach career milestones earlier in life have shorter life spans was tested with the 430 men elected to serve in the House of Representatives for the 71st U.S. Congress in 1929-1930 who were alive throughout 1930. There was no tendency for those first serving at an earlier age to die sooner or those serving first at a later age to die later than expected based on individual life expectancy in 1930. Although age at first serving was correlated with death age, the correlation was not significant when expected death age was controlled. The results cast serious doubt on the contention of the precocity-longevity hypothesis that the developmental aspects of the prerequisites, concomitants, and consequences of early career achievement peaks actively enhance the conditions for an earlier death.

  7. Early life exposure to malaria and cognition in adulthood: evidence from Mexico.

    PubMed

    Venkataramani, Atheendar S

    2012-09-01

    This study examines the impact of early life malaria exposure on cognition in sample of Mexican adults, using the nationwide introduction of malaria eradication efforts to identify causal impacts. The core findings are that birth year exposure to malaria eradication was associated with increases in Raven Progressive Matrices test scores and consumption expenditures, but not schooling. Additionally, cohorts born after eradication both entered and exited school earlier than their pre-eradication counterparts. These effects were only seen for men and explanations for this are assessed. Collectively, these findings suggest that improvements in infant health help explain secular increases in cognitive test scores, that better cognition may link early life health to adulthood earnings, and that human capital investments through childhood and young adulthood respond sensitively to market returns to early life endowment shocks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Early-life enteric infections: relation between chronic systemic inflammation and poor cognition in children

    PubMed Central

    Murray-Kolb, Laura E.; Scharf, Rebecca J.; Pendergast, Laura L.; Lang, Dennis R.; Kolling, Glynis L.; Guerrant, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    The intestinal microbiota undergoes active remodeling in the first 6 to 18 months of life, during which time the characteristics of the adult microbiota are developed. This process is strongly influenced by the early diet and enteric pathogens. Enteric infections and malnutrition early in life may favor microbiota dysbiosis and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, resulting in intestinal barrier dysfunction and translocation of intestinal bacterial products, ultimately leading to low-grade, chronic, subclinical systemic inflammation. The leaky gut–derived low-grade systemic inflammation may have profound consequences on the gut–liver–brain axis, compromising normal growth, metabolism, and cognitive development. This review examines recent data suggesting that early-life enteric infections that lead to intestinal barrier disruption may shift the intestinal microbiota toward chronic systemic inflammation and subsequent impaired cognitive development. PMID:27142301

  9. Growth in early life and the development of obesity by age 9 years: are there critical periods and a role for an early life stressor?

    PubMed

    Giles, L C; Whitrow, M J; Rumbold, A R; Davies, C E; de Stavola, B; Pitcher, J B; Davies, M J; Moore, V M

    2013-04-01

    Rapid growth, possibly occurring in critical periods in early life, may be important for the development of obesity. It is unknown whether this is influenced by postnatal exposures such as age-relevant sources of stress. Frequent house moves may be one such stressor. We aimed to examine if there is a period of growth in early life critical for the development of child obesity by age 9 years and assess the role of house moves in modifying any relationships between early life growth and obesity at age 9 years. Prospective Australian birth cohort study. In all, 392 children with serial body size measurements from birth to age 9 years. Standardized body mass index (z-BMI) was available for six time points (spanning birth to 3½ years), and the total number of house moves between birth and 3½ years. The outcomes considered were z-BMI and % body fat (%BF) at age 9 years. Linear regression models were used to estimate the effects of serial measurements of z-BMI and number of house moves on the outcomes. Life-course plots showed that z-BMI at 3½ years was a statistically significant predictor of z-BMI at 9 years (β=0.80; standard error (s.e.), 0.04), whereas z-BMI at 9 months (β=-1.13; s.e., 0.40) and 3½ years (β=4.82; s.e., 0.42) were significant predictors of %BF at age 9 years. There were statistically significant interactions between the number of house moves and change in z-BMI between 9 and 12 months, such that ≥ 3 house moves in early life amplified the detrimental effects of earlier rapid growth on both body size and composition at age 9 years. In the absence of evidence for a single critical period, efforts to prevent overweight and obesity are required throughout childhood. In addition, modifiable postnatal stressors may exacerbate effects of early growth on obesity in later childhood.

  10. Toward Understanding How Early-Life Stress Reprograms Cognitive and Emotional Brain Networks.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yuncai; Baram, Tallie Z

    2016-01-01

    Vulnerability to emotional disorders including depression derives from interactions between genes and environment, especially during sensitive developmental periods. Adverse early-life experiences provoke the release and modify the expression of several stress mediators and neurotransmitters within specific brain regions. The interaction of these mediators with developing neurons and neuronal networks may lead to long-lasting structural and functional alterations associated with cognitive and emotional consequences. Although a vast body of work has linked quantitative and qualitative aspects of stress to adolescent and adult outcomes, a number of questions are unclear. What distinguishes 'normal' from pathologic or toxic stress? How are the effects of stress transformed into structural and functional changes in individual neurons and neuronal networks? Which ones are affected? We review these questions in the context of established and emerging studies. We introduce a novel concept regarding the origin of toxic early-life stress, stating that it may derive from specific patterns of environmental signals, especially those derived from the mother or caretaker. Fragmented and unpredictable patterns of maternal care behaviors induce a profound chronic stress. The aberrant patterns and rhythms of early-life sensory input might also directly and adversely influence the maturation of cognitive and emotional brain circuits, in analogy to visual and auditory brain systems. Thus, unpredictable, stress-provoking early-life experiences may influence adolescent cognitive and emotional outcomes by disrupting the maturation of the underlying brain networks. Comprehensive approaches and multiple levels of analysis are required to probe the protean consequences of early-life adversity on the developing brain. These involve integrated human and animal-model studies, and approaches ranging from in vivo imaging to novel neuroanatomical, molecular, epigenomic, and computational

  11. Examination of associations between early life victimisation and alcohol's harm from others.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Lauren M; Greenfield, Thomas K; Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J

    2018-03-01

    Study aims were to examine: (i) how physical and sexual victimisation in early life are associated with alcohol's harm from others; and (ii) whether respondents' current drinking is a mediator of the association between early life victimisation and alcohol's harm from others among men and women. Data were from national computer-assisted telephone interviews, using the landline sample (3335 men and 3520 women ages ≥18) from the 2010 US National Alcohol Survey. Harms from someone else's drinking included family/marital problems, financial troubles, assault and vandalism in the past 12 months. Victimisation was measured with severe physical abuse or sexual assault before age 18. Severe physical or sexual victimisation before age 18 was reported by 3.4% of men and 8.1% of women. Significantly more men (5.2%) than women (2.4%) reported assault by other drinkers, and significantly more women reported family/marital (5.3%) and financial problems (2.8%) than did men (2.6 and 1% respectively). Severe early life victimisation was robustly associated with a greater likelihood of experiencing past-year harms from other drinkers for both men and women. Men's drinking partially mediated associations between early life victimisation and recent assaults and vandalism by other drinkers. Early life victimisation may increase risk of harms from someone else's drinking. Health services and interventions that screen for histories of victimisation may help decrease risk of later harms from others' drinking. Reductions in drinking among men with histories of victimisation also could help reduce their exposure to such harms. [Kaplan LM, Greenfield TK, Karriker-Jaffe KJ. Examination of associations between early life victimisation and alcohol's harm from others. © 2017 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.

  12. Health-related quality of life in early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Groenvold, Mogens

    2010-09-01

    The treatment of primary breast cancer usually consists of surgery often followed by adjuvant therapy (radiotherapy, chemotherapy, hormonal treatment, etc.) to reduce the risk of recurrence. The cancer diagnosis and the treatments may have significant impact on the patients' quality of life. This thesis deals with scientific aspects and clinical results of a study aimed at assessing the impact of breast cancer (and its treatment) on the patients' quality of life. Studies such as this assessing the problems and symptoms experienced by the patients are often referred to as health-related quality of life (HRQL) research. HRQL research deals with subjective experiences and raises challenging, scientific questions. Therefore, much attention was directed towards methodological issues in this clinically motivated project. The study was a prospective, longitudinal, questionnaire-based investigation of women with newly diagnosed breast cancer registered in the Danish Breast Cancer Co-operative Group's DBCG 89 Program. The patients were sub-divided into low-risk and high-risk patients. High-risk patients were offered randomisation in one of three randomised adjuvant therapy trials involving chemotherapy, ovarian ablation, and endocrine therapy. After a literature study and interviews with breast cancer patients, a questionnaire was composed that included two widely used standard questionnaires (EORTC QLQ-C30 and Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) Scale) and a DBCG 89 Questionnaire developed for this study. A total of 1,898 eligible patients were invited by post to participate in the study involving six assessments over a 2-year period, and 1,713 patients (90%) completed the first questionnaire. Furthermore, a questionnaire was sent to 872 women selected at random from the general population; 608 (70%) responded. The multi-item scales of the two standard questionnaires were analysed for so-called differential item functioning (DIF) in order to investigate whether the

  13. A Review of the Relationship Between Socioeconomic Position and the Early-Life Predictors of Obesity.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Adrian J; Spence, Alison C; Laws, Rachel; Hesketh, Kylie D; Lioret, Sandrine; Campbell, Karen J

    2015-09-01

    A range of important early-life predictors of later obesity have been identified. Children of lower socioeconomic position (SEP) have a steeper weight gain trajectory from birth with a strong socioeconomic gradient in child and adult obesity prevalence. An assessment of the association between SEP and the early-life predictors of obesity has been lacking. The review involved a two-stage process: Part 1, using previously published systematic reviews, we developed a list of the potentially modifiable determinants of obesity observable in the pre-natal, peri-natal or post-natal (pre-school) periods; and part 2, conducting a literature review of evidence for socioeconomic patterning in the determinants identified in part 1. Strong evidence was found for an inverse relationship between SEP and (1) pre-natal risk factors (pre-pregnancy maternal body mass index (BMI), diabetes and pre-pregnancy diet), (2) antenatal/peri natal risk factors (smoking during pregnancy and low birth weight) and (3) early-life nutrition (including breastfeeding initiation and duration, early introduction of solids, maternal and infant diet quality, and some aspects of the home food environment), and television viewing in young children. Less strong evidence (because of a lack of studies for some factors) was found for paternal BMI, maternal weight gain during pregnancy, child sleep duration, high birth weight and lack of physical activity in young children. A strong socioeconomic gradient exists for the majority of the early-life predictors of obesity suggesting that the die is cast very early in life (even pre-conception). Lifestyle interventions targeting disadvantaged women at or before child-bearing age may therefore be particularly important in reducing inequality. Given the likely challenges of reaching this target population, it may be that during pregnancy and their child's early years are more feasible windows for engagement.

  14. Life course effects of early parental loss among very old African Americans.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Colleen L; Barer, Barbara M

    2002-03-01

    To analyze the life course effects of the early loss of one or both parents on very old Black Americans. Open-ended, semistructured interviews were used with a sample of 109 respondents aged 85 years and older. Correlations identified significant associations, and qualitative data illustrate life course trajectories of selected respondents. Those who lost a parent through death or desertion were less integrated into family and friendship groups in late life, and they had fewer social resources in general. Qualitative data describe three outcomes in the sample: those who grew up with both parents present, those who lost a parent but still reported a contented childhood, and those with disrupted families and negative effects. The respondents' open-ended commentary about their past lives and their current situation enhances understanding of connections between early life events and adaptation in old age.

  15. Early-Life Stressors, Personality Development, and Fast Life Strategies: An Evolutionary Perspective on Malevolent Personality Features.

    PubMed

    Csathó, Árpád; Birkás, Béla

    2018-01-01

    Life history theory posits that behavioral adaptation to various environmental (ecological and/or social) conditions encountered during childhood is regulated by a wide variety of different traits resulting in various behavioral strategies. Unpredictable and harsh conditions tend to produce fast life history strategies, characterized by early maturation, a higher number of sexual partners to whom one is less attached, and less parenting of offspring. Unpredictability and harshness not only affects dispositional social and emotional functioning, but may also promote the development of personality traits linked to higher rates of instability in social relationships or more self-interested behavior. Similarly, detrimental childhood experiences, such as poor parental care or high parent-child conflict, affect personality development and may create a more distrustful, malicious interpersonal style. The aim of this brief review is to survey and summarize findings on the impact of negative early-life experiences on the development of personality and fast life history strategies. By demonstrating that there are parallels in adaptations to adversity in these two domains, we hope to lend weight to current and future attempts to provide a comprehensive insight of personality traits and functions at the ultimate and proximate levels.

  16. Omega-3 fatty acids prevent early-life antibiotic exposure-induced gut microbiota dysbiosis and later-life obesity.

    PubMed

    Kaliannan, K; Wang, B; Li, X-Y; Bhan, A K; Kang, J X

    2016-06-01

    Early-life antibiotic exposure can disrupt the founding intestinal microbial community and lead to obesity later in life. Recent studies show that omega-3 fatty acids can reduce body weight gain and chronic inflammation through modulation of the gut microbiota. We hypothesize that increased tissue levels of omega-3 fatty acids may prevent antibiotic-induced alteration of gut microbiota and obesity later in life. Here, we utilize the fat-1 transgenic mouse model, which can endogenously produce omega-3 fatty acids and thereby eliminates confounding factors of diet, to show that elevated tissue levels of omega-3 fatty acids significantly reduce body weight gain and the severity of insulin resistance, fatty liver and dyslipidemia resulting from early-life exposure to azithromycin. These effects were associated with a reversal of antibiotic-induced dysbiosis of gut microbiota in fat-1 mice. These results demonstrate the beneficial effects of omega-3 fatty acids on antibiotic-induced gut dysbiosis and obesity, and suggest the potential utility of omega-3 supplementation as a safe and effective means for the prevention of obesity in children who are exposed to antibiotics.

  17. The role of the early-life environment in the development of allergic disease.

    PubMed

    Wegienka, Ganesa; Zoratti, Edward; Johnson, Christine Cole

    2015-02-01

    A consensus has been reached that the development of allergic disorders is strongly influenced by early life exposures. An overview of several prenatal and early life factors that have been investigated for their associations with development of childhood allergy is presented. Delivery mode, the gut microbiome, vitamin D, folate, breastfeeding, pets, antibiotics, environmental tobacco smoke, and airborne traffic pollutants are discussed. Although many studies suggest an effect, overall, no risk factors clearly increase or reduce the risk of allergic outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Influence of early childhood stress exposure and traumatic life events on pain perception].

    PubMed

    Tesarz, J; Gerhardt, A; Eich, W

    2018-06-05

    Adult pain perception is influenced substantially by interactions between mind, body, and social environment during early life. Early stress exposure and traumatic life events induce powerful psychophysical stress reactions that exert multiple neurofunctional processes. This has significant implications for pain perception and pain processing. As part of this review, the complex relationships between traumatic stress experiences and associated psychobiological mechanisms of chronic pain will be discussed. Based on selected studies, psychophysiological findings are presented and possible underlying mechanisms are discussed. The article concludes with a discussion of potential implications for treatment.

  19. The role of marriage in the causal pathway from economic conditions early in life to mortality.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Gerard J; Gupta, Sumedha

    2015-03-01

    This paper analyzes the interplay between early-life conditions and marital status, as determinants of adult mortality. We use individual data from Dutch registers (years 1815-2000), combined with business cycle conditions in childhood as indicators of early-life conditions. The empirical analysis estimates bivariate duration models of marriage and mortality, allowing for unobserved heterogeneity. Results show that conditions around birth and school going ages are important for marriage and mortality. Men typically enjoy a protective effect of marriage, whereas women suffer during childbearing ages. However, having been born under favorable economic conditions reduces female mortality during childbearing ages. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Early life socioeconomic status, chronic physiological stress and hippocampal N-acetyl aspartate concentrations.

    PubMed

    McLean, John; Krishnadas, Rajeev; Batty, G David; Burns, Harry; Deans, Kevin A; Ford, Ian; McConnachie, Alex; McGinty, Agnes; McLean, Jennifer S; Millar, Keith; Sattar, Naveed; Shiels, Paul G; Tannahill, Carol; Velupillai, Yoga N; Packard, Chris J; Condon, Barrie R; Hadley, Donald M; Cavanagh, Jonathan

    2012-12-01

    Early life socioeconomic deprivation has been associated with cognitive and behavioural changes that persist through towards adulthood. In this study, we investigated whether early life socioeconomic status is associated with changes in the hippocampus N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), using the non-invasive technique of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). We performed proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) of the hippocampus at 3T in 30 adult males, selected from the PSOBID cohort. We conducted multiple regression analysis to examine the relationship between early socioeconomic status (SES) and concentration of N-acetyl-aspartate in the hippocampus. We also examined whether the relationship between these variables was mediated by markers of chronic physiological stress. Greater socioeconomic deprivation was associated with lower hippocampal NAA concentrations bilaterally. The relationship between early life SES and hippocampal NAA concentrations was mediated by allostatic load index - a marker of chronic physiological stress. Greater early life socioeconomic deprivation was associated with lower concentrations of NAA reflecting lesser neuronal integrity. This relationship was mediated by greater physiological stress. Further work, to better understand the biological processes underlying the effects of poverty, physiological stress on hippocampal metabolites is necessary. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Does early-life family income influence later dental pain experience? A prospective 14-year study.

    PubMed

    Ghorbani, Z; Peres, M A; Liu, P; Mejia, G C; Armfield, J M; Peres, K G

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between early-life family income and dental pain experience from childhood to early adulthood. Data came from a 14-year prospective study (1991/1992-2005/2006) carried out in South Australia, which included children and adolescents aged 4-17 years (N = 9875) at baseline. The outcome was dental pain experience obtained at baseline, 14 years later in adulthood and at a middle point of time. The main explanatory variable was early-life family income collected at baseline. The prevalence of dental pain was 22.8% at baseline, 19.3% at 'middle time' and 39.3% at follow up. The proportion of people classified as 'poor' at baseline was 27.7%. Being poor early in life was significantly associated with dental pain at 14-year follow up (odds ratio = 1.45; 95% confidence interval = 1.27-1.66). Early-life relative poverty is associated with more frequent dental pain across the 14-year follow up and may be a key exposure variable for later dental conditions. © 2017 Australian Dental Association.

  2. Early-Life Nutritional Programming of Type 2 Diabetes: Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Vaiserman, Alexander M.

    2017-01-01

    Consistent evidence from both experimental and human studies suggest that inadequate nutrition in early life can contribute to risk of developing metabolic disorders including type 2 diabetes (T2D) in adult life. In human populations, most findings supporting a causative relationship between early-life malnutrition and subsequent risk of T2D were obtained from quasi-experimental studies (‘natural experiments’). Prenatal and/or early postnatal exposures to famine were demonstrated to be associated with higher risk of T2D in many cohorts around the world. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of epigenetic regulation of gene expression as a possible major contributor to the link between the early-life famine exposure and T2D in adulthood. Findings from these studies suggest that prenatal exposure to the famine may result in induction of persistent epigenetic changes that have adaptive significance in postnatal development but can predispose to metabolic disorders including T2D at the late stages of life. In this review, quasi-experimental data on the developmental programming of T2D are summarized and recent research findings on changes in DNA methylation that mediate these effects are discussed. PMID:28273874

  3. Early-Life Nutritional Programming of Type 2 Diabetes: Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Evidence.

    PubMed

    Vaiserman, Alexander M

    2017-03-05

    Consistent evidence from both experimental and human studies suggest that inadequate nutrition in early life can contribute to risk of developing metabolic disorders including type 2 diabetes (T2D) in adult life. In human populations, most findings supporting a causative relationship between early-life malnutrition and subsequent risk of T2D were obtained from quasi-experimental studies ('natural experiments'). Prenatal and/or early postnatal exposures to famine were demonstrated to be associated with higher risk of T2D in many cohorts around the world. Recent studies have highlighted the importance of epigenetic regulation of gene expression as a possible major contributor to the link between the early-life famine exposure and T2D in adulthood. Findings from these studies suggest that prenatal exposure to the famine may result in induction of persistent epigenetic changes that have adaptive significance in postnatal development but can predispose to metabolic disorders including T2D at the late stages of life. In this review, quasi-experimental data on the developmental programming of T2D are summarized and recent research findings on changes in DNA methylation that mediate these effects are discussed.

  4. Early life permethrin exposure leads to hypervitaminosis D, nitric oxide and catecholamines impairment.

    PubMed

    Fedeli, Donatella; Carloni, Manuel; Nasuti, Cinzia; Gambini, Anna; Scocco, Vitangelo; Gabbianelli, Rosita

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study is to gain more knowledge on the impact of early life pesticide exposure on premature aging. The effect of a low dose of the insecticide permethrin administered to rats during early life (1/50 LD50, from 6th to 21st day of life) was analyzed by measuring some metabolites in plasma and urine of 500-day-old animals. Significant differences in early life treated rats compared to the control group were found in the plasma levels of Ca(++), Na(+), 25-hydroxy-vitamin D, adrenaline, noradrenaline, nitric oxide, cholesterol and urea while in urine only Na(+) content was different. These results add information on the impact of permethrin during the neonatal period, supporting the evidence that early life environmental exposure to xenobiotics has long-term effects, inducing modifications in adulthood that can be revealed by the analysis of some macroelements, metabolites and catecholamines in plasma, when rats are 500 days old. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Early-Life Characteristics, Psychiatric History, and Cognition Trajectories in Later Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: Although considerable attention has been paid to the relationship between later-life depression and cognitive function, the relationship between a history of psychiatric problems and cognitive function is not very well documented. Few studies of relationships between childhood health, childhood disadvantage, and cognitive…

  6. Stable carbon isotope fractionation in the search for life on early Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothschild, L. J.; Desmarais, D.

    1989-01-01

    The utility of measurements of C-13/C-12 ratios in organic vs inorganic deposits for searching for signs of life on early Mars is considered. It is suggested that three assumptions are necessary. First, if there was life on Mars, it caused the fractionation of carbon isotopes in analogy with past biological activity on earth. Second, the fractionation would be detectable. Third, if a fractionation would be observed, there exist no abiotic explanations for the observed fractionation pattern.

  7. Long-Term Effects of Early-Life Otitis Media on Language Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zumach, Anne; Gerrits, Ellen; Chenault, Michelene; Anteunis, Lucien

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present study was to examine the long-term consequences of early-life otitis media (OM) and the associated hearing loss (HL) on language skills of school-aged children. Method: In a prospective study, the middle-ear status of 65 Dutch healthy-born children was documented every 3 months during their first 2 years of life;…

  8. The interplay of early-life stress, nutrition, and immune activation programs adult hippocampal structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Hoeijmakers, Lianne; Lucassen, Paul J.; Korosi, Aniko

    2015-01-01

    Early-life adversity increases the vulnerability to develop psychopathologies and cognitive decline later in life. This association is supported by clinical and preclinical studies. Remarkably, experiences of stress during this sensitive period, in the form of abuse or neglect but also early malnutrition or an early immune challenge elicit very similar long-term effects on brain structure and function. During early-life, both exogenous factors like nutrition and maternal care, as well as endogenous modulators, including stress hormones and mediator of immunological activity affect brain development. The interplay of these key elements and their underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. We discuss here the hypothesis that exposure to early-life adversity (specifically stress, under/malnutrition and infection) leads to life-long alterations in hippocampal-related cognitive functions, at least partly via changes in hippocampal neurogenesis. We further discuss how these different key elements of the early-life environment interact and affect one another and suggest that it is a synergistic action of these elements that shapes cognition throughout life. Finally, we consider different intervention studies aiming to prevent these early-life adversity induced consequences. The emerging evidence for the intriguing interplay of stress, nutrition, and immune activity in the early-life programming calls for a more in depth understanding of the interaction of these elements and the underlying mechanisms. This knowledge will help to develop intervention strategies that will converge on a more complete set of changes induced by early-life adversity. PMID:25620909

  9. Early-Life Parent-Child Relationships and Adult Children's Support of Unpartnered Parents in Later Life.

    PubMed

    Lin, I-Fen; Wu, Hsueh-Sheng

    2018-02-08

    The proportion of older adults who are unpartnered has increased significantly over the past 25 years. Unpartnered older adults often rely on their adult children for support. Most previous studies have focused on proximal factors associated with adult children's support of their parents, while few have examined distal factors, such as parent-child relationships formed during childhood. This study fills the gap by investigating the direct and indirect associations between early-life parent-child relationships and adult children's upward transfers to unpartnered parents. Data came from two supplements to the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, in which respondents were asked about their relationships with mothers and fathers before age 17 and their transfers of time and money to parents in 2013. Path models were estimated for unpartnered mother-adult child dyads and father-adult child dyads separately. For adult children of unpartnered mothers, psychological closeness has a direct, positive association with time transfer, while physical violence has an indirect association with time transfer through adult children's marital status. For adult children of unpartnered fathers, psychological closeness has neither a direct nor an indirect association with time or money transfer, but physical violence has a direct, negative association with time transfer. Early-life parent-child relationships play a pivotal role in influencing adult children's caregiving behavior, both directly and indirectly. Our findings suggest that by improving their relationships with children early in life, parents may be able to increase the amount of time transfer that they receive in late life. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. GENDER-SPECIFIC DIFFERENCES IN THE RESPONSE OF MATURING GAMETES TO TOXIC INSULT

    EPA Science Inventory

    GENDER-SPECIFIC DIFFERENCES IN THE RESPONSE OF MATURING GAMETES TO TOXIC INSULT

    Sally D. Perreault, U. S. Environmental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Reproductive Toxicology Division, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711

  11. Early life factors and dental caries in 5-year-old children in China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiangyu; Bernabé, Eduardo; Liu, Xuenan; Gallagher, Jennifer E; Zheng, Shuguo

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to explore the association between early life factors and dental caries among 5-year-old Chinese children. Data from 9722 preschool children who participated in the third National Oral Health Survey of China were analysed. Information on early life (birth weight, breastfeeding and age when toothbrushing started), child (sex, ethnicity, birth order and dental behaviours) and family factors (parental education, household income, place of residence, number of children in the family, respondent's age and relation to the child) were obtained from parental questionnaires. Children were also clinically examined to assess dental caries experience using the decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft) index. The association of early life factors with dmft was evaluated in negative binomial regression models. We found that birth weight was not associated with dental caries experience; children who were exclusively and predominantly formula-fed had lower dmft values than those exclusively breastfed; and children who started brushing later in life had higher dmft values than those who were brushing within the first year. Only one in seven of all children received regular toothbrushing twice per day, and only 34.7% had commenced toothbrushing by the age of 3 years. This study shows certain early life factors play a role in dental caries among Chinese preschool children and provides important insights to shape public health initiatives on the importance of introducing early toothbrushing. The early environment, especially the age when parents introduce toothbrushing to their children, can be an important factor to prevent childhood dental caries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The human early-life exposome (HELIX): project rationale and design.

    PubMed

    Vrijheid, Martine; Slama, Rémy; Robinson, Oliver; Chatzi, Leda; Coen, Muireann; van den Hazel, Peter; Thomsen, Cathrine; Wright, John; Athersuch, Toby J; Avellana, Narcis; Basagaña, Xavier; Brochot, Celine; Bucchini, Luca; Bustamante, Mariona; Carracedo, Angel; Casas, Maribel; Estivill, Xavier; Fairley, Lesley; van Gent, Diana; Gonzalez, Juan R; Granum, Berit; Gražulevičienė, Regina; Gutzkow, Kristine B; Julvez, Jordi; Keun, Hector C; Kogevinas, Manolis; McEachan, Rosemary R C; Meltzer, Helle Margrete; Sabidó, Eduard; Schwarze, Per E; Siroux, Valérie; Sunyer, Jordi; Want, Elizabeth J; Zeman, Florence; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J

    2014-06-01

    Developmental periods in early life may be particularly vulnerable to impacts of environmental exposures. Human research on this topic has generally focused on single exposure-health effect relationships. The "exposome" concept encompasses the totality of exposures from conception onward, complementing the genome. The Human Early-Life Exposome (HELIX) project is a new collaborative research project that aims to implement novel exposure assessment and biomarker methods to characterize early-life exposure to multiple environmental factors and associate these with omics biomarkers and child health outcomes, thus characterizing the "early-life exposome." Here we describe the general design of the project. In six existing birth cohort studies in Europe, HELIX will estimate prenatal and postnatal exposure to a broad range of chemical and physical exposures. Exposure models will be developed for the full cohorts totaling 32,000 mother-child pairs, and biomarkers will be measured in a subset of 1,200 mother-child pairs. Nested repeat-sampling panel studies (n = 150) will collect data on biomarker variability, use smartphones to assess mobility and physical activity, and perform personal exposure monitoring. Omics techniques will determine molecular profiles (metabolome, proteome, transcriptome, epigenome) associated with exposures. Statistical methods for multiple exposures will provide exposure-response estimates for fetal and child growth, obesity, neurodevelopment, and respiratory outcomes. A health impact assessment exercise will evaluate risks and benefits of combined exposures. HELIX is one of the first attempts to describe the early-life exposome of European populations and unravel its relation to omics markers and health in childhood. As proof of concept, it will form an important first step toward the life-course exposome.

  13. Hazards to Early Development: The Biological Embedding of Early Life Adversity.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Charles A

    2017-10-11

    The number of children under 18 years of age has increased worldwide over the past decade. This growth spurt is due, in part, to remarkable progress in child survival. Alas, surviving early hazards, like prematurity or infectious disease, does not guarantee that children's development will not be compromised by other hazards as they grow older. Throughout the world, children continue to be confronted with a large number of biological and psychosocial challenges that greatly limit their developmental potential. The focus of this article is how such adverse experiences impact the developing brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dual leucine zipper kinase-dependent PERK activation contributes to neuronal degeneration following insult

    PubMed Central

    Larhammar, Martin; Huntwork-Rodriguez, Sarah; Jiang, Zhiyu; Solanoy, Hilda; Sengupta Ghosh, Arundhati; Wang, Bei; Kaminker, Joshua S; Huang, Kevin; Eastham-Anderson, Jeffrey; Siu, Michael; Modrusan, Zora; Farley, Madeline M; Tessier-Lavigne, Marc; Lewcock, Joseph W; Watkins, Trent A

    2017-01-01

    The PKR-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) arm of the Integrated Stress Response (ISR) is implicated in neurodegenerative disease, although the regulators and consequences of PERK activation following neuronal injury are poorly understood. Here we show that PERK signaling is a component of the mouse MAP kinase neuronal stress response controlled by the Dual Leucine Zipper Kinase (DLK) and contributes to DLK-mediated neurodegeneration. We find that DLK-activating insults ranging from nerve injury to neurotrophin deprivation result in both c-Jun N-terminal Kinase (JNK) signaling and the PERK- and ISR-dependent upregulation of the Activating Transcription Factor 4 (ATF4). Disruption of PERK signaling delays neurodegeneration without reducing JNK signaling. Furthermore, DLK is both sufficient for PERK activation and necessary for engaging the ISR subsequent to JNK-mediated retrograde injury signaling. These findings identify DLK as a central regulator of not only JNK but also PERK stress signaling in neurons, with both pathways contributing to neurodegeneration. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.20725.001 PMID:28440222

  15. Early Archean serpentine mud volcanoes at Isua, Greenland, as a niche for early life

    PubMed Central

    Pons, Marie-Laure; Quitté, Ghylaine; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Rosing, Minik T.; Reynard, Bruno; Moynier, Frederic; Douchet, Chantal; Albarède, Francis

    2011-01-01

    The Isua Supracrustal Belt, Greenland, of Early Archean age (3.81–3.70 Ga) represents the oldest crustal segment on Earth. Its complex lithology comprises an ophiolite-like unit and volcanic rocks reminiscent of boninites, which tie Isua supracrustals to an island arc environment. We here present zinc (Zn) isotope compositions measured on serpentinites and other rocks from the Isua supracrustal sequence and on serpentinites from modern ophiolites, midocean ridges, and the Mariana forearc. In stark contrast to modern midocean ridge and ophiolite serpentinites, Zn in Isua and Mariana serpentinites is markedly depleted in heavy isotopes with respect to the igneous average. Based on recent results of Zn isotope fractionation between coexisting species in solution, the Isua serpentinites were permeated by carbonate-rich, high-pH hydrothermal solutions at medium temperature (100–300 °C). Zinc isotopes therefore stand out as a pH meter for fossil hydrothermal solutions. The geochemical features of the Isua fluids resemble the interstitial fluids sampled in the mud volcano serpentinites of the Mariana forearc. The reduced character and the high pH inferred for these fluids make Archean serpentine mud volcanoes a particularly favorable setting for the early stabilization of amino acids. PMID:22006301

  16. Early Archean serpentine mud volcanoes at Isua, Greenland, as a niche for early life.

    PubMed

    Pons, Marie-Laure; Quitté, Ghylaine; Fujii, Toshiyuki; Rosing, Minik T; Reynard, Bruno; Moynier, Frederic; Douchet, Chantal; Albarède, Francis

    2011-10-25

    The Isua Supracrustal Belt, Greenland, of Early Archean age (3.81-3.70 Ga) represents the oldest crustal segment on Earth. Its complex lithology comprises an ophiolite-like unit and volcanic rocks reminiscent of boninites, which tie Isua supracrustals to an island arc environment. We here present zinc (Zn) isotope compositions measured on serpentinites and other rocks from the Isua supracrustal sequence and on serpentinites from modern ophiolites, midocean ridges, and the Mariana forearc. In stark contrast to modern midocean ridge and ophiolite serpentinites, Zn in Isua and Mariana serpentinites is markedly depleted in heavy isotopes with respect to the igneous average. Based on recent results of Zn isotope fractionation between coexisting species in solution, the Isua serpentinites were permeated by carbonate-rich, high-pH hydrothermal solutions at medium temperature (100-300 °C). Zinc isotopes therefore stand out as a pH meter for fossil hydrothermal solutions. The geochemical features of the Isua fluids resemble the interstitial fluids sampled in the mud volcano serpentinites of the Mariana forearc. The reduced character and the high pH inferred for these fluids make Archean serpentine mud volcanoes a particularly favorable setting for the early stabilization of amino acids.

  17. Family Quality of Life for Families in Early Intervention in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mas, Joana M.; Baqués, Natasha; Balcells-Balcells, Anna; Dalmau, Mariona; Giné, Climent; Gràcia, Marta; Vilaseca, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Early intervention (EI) has been shown to be an essential resource for meeting the needs and priorities of children with intellectual and developmental disability and their families. The objective of this study was to examine (a) the perceived quality of life of families attending EI centers in Spain and (b) its relationship with characteristics…

  18. Mexican American Birthweight and Child Overweight: Unraveling a Possible Early Life Course Health Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton, Erin R.; Teitler, Julien O.; Reichman, Nancy E.

    2011-01-01

    Mexican American children have a weight distribution that categorizes them as relatively healthy at birth but relatively unhealthy by age 3. This early life course transition in health based on weight raises the question of whether Mexican American children "outgrow" the epidemiologic paradox of favorable birth outcomes despite social disadvantage…

  19. Barium distributions in teeth reveal early-life dietary transitions in primates.

    PubMed

    Austin, Christine; Smith, Tanya M; Bradman, Asa; Hinde, Katie; Joannes-Boyau, Renaud; Bishop, David; Hare, Dominic J; Doble, Philip; Eskenazi, Brenda; Arora, Manish

    2013-06-13

    Early-life dietary transitions reflect fundamental aspects of primate evolution and are important determinants of health in contemporary human populations. Weaning is critical to developmental and reproductive rates; early weaning can have detrimental health effects but enables shorter inter-birth intervals, which influences population growth. Uncovering early-life dietary history in fossils is hampered by the absence of prospectively validated biomarkers that are not modified during fossilization. Here we show that large dietary shifts in early life manifest as compositional variations in dental tissues. Teeth from human children and captive macaques, with prospectively recorded diet histories, demonstrate that barium (Ba) distributions accurately reflect dietary transitions from the introduction of mother's milk through the weaning process. We also document dietary transitions in a Middle Palaeolithic juvenile Neanderthal, which shows a pattern of exclusive breastfeeding for seven months, followed by seven months of supplementation. After this point, Ba levels in enamel returned to baseline prenatal levels, indicating an abrupt cessation of breastfeeding at 1.2 years of age. Integration of Ba spatial distributions and histological mapping of tooth formation enables novel studies of the evolution of human life history, dietary ontogeny in wild primates, and human health investigations through accurate reconstructions of breastfeeding history.

  20. DNA Methylation: A Mechanism for Embedding Early Life Experiences in the Genome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szyf, Moshe; Bick, Johanna

    2013-01-01

    Although epidemiological data provide evidence that early life experience plays a critical role in human development, the mechanism of how this works remains in question. Recent data from human and animal literature suggest that epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation, are involved not only in cellular differentiation but also in the…

  1. Reconceptualizing Early and Late Onset: A Life Course Analysis of Older Heroin Users

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boeri, Miriam Williams; Sterk, Claire E.; Elifson, Kirk W.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Researchers' knowledge regarding older users of illicit drugs is limited despite the increasing numbers of users. In this article, we apply a life course perspective to gain a further understanding of older adult drug use, specifically contrasting early- and late-onset heroin users. Design and Methods: We collected qualitative data from…

  2. Birthweight, early life body size and adult mammographic density: a review of epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Yochum, Laura; Tamimi, Rulla M; Hankinson, Susan E

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the association between birth weight and early life body size with adult mammographic density in the peer-reviewed literature. A comprehensive literature search was conducted through January, 2014. English language articles that assessed adult mammographic density (MD) in relation to early life body size (≤18 years old), or birthweight were included. Nine studies reported results for early life body size and %MD. Both exposure and outcome were assessed at different ages using multiple methods. In premenopausal women, findings were inconsistent; two studies reported significant, inverse associations, one reported a non-significant, inverse association, and two observed no association. Reasons for these inconsistencies were not obvious. In postmenopausal women, four of five studies supported an inverse association. Two of three studies that adjusted for menopausal status found significant, inverse associations. Birthweight and %MD was evaluated in nine studies. No association was seen in premenopausal women and two of three studies reported positive associations in postmenopausal women. Three of four studies that adjusted for menopausal status found no association. Early life body size and birthweight appear unrelated to %MD in premenopausal women while an inverse association in postmenopausal women is more likely. Although based on limited data, birthweight and %MD appear positively associated in postmenopausal women. Given the small number of studies, the multiple methods of data collection and analysis, other methodologic issues, and lack of consistency in results, additional research is needed to clarify this complex association and develop a better understanding of the underlying biologic mechanisms.

  3. Evaluation of hypothesized adverse outcome pathway linking thyroid peroxidase inhibition to fish early life stage toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival) using less resource-intensive methods. Development and characterization of adverse outcome pa...

  4. Barium distributions in teeth reveal early life dietary transitions in primates

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Christine; Smith, Tanya M.; Bradman, Asa; Hinde, Katie; Joannes-Boyau, Renaud; Bishop, David; Hare, Dominic J.; Doble, Philip; Eskenazi, Brenda; Arora, Manish

    2013-01-01

    Early life dietary transitions reflect fundamental aspects of primate evolution and are important determinants of health in contemporary human populations1,2. Weaning is critical to developmental and reproductive rates; early weaning can have detrimental health effects but enables shorter inter-birth intervals, which influences population growth3. Uncovering early life dietary history in fossils is hampered by the absence of prospectively-validated biomarkers that are not modified during fossilisation4. Here we show that major dietary shifts in early life manifest as compositional variations in dental tissues. Teeth from human children and captive macaques, with prospectively-recorded diet histories, demonstrate that barium (Ba) distributions accurately reflect dietary transitions from the introduction of mother’s milk and through the weaning process. We also document transitions in a Middle Palaeolithic juvenile Neanderthal, which shows a pattern of exclusive breastfeeding for seven months, followed by seven months of supplementation. After this point, Ba levels in enamel returned to baseline prenatal levels, suggesting an abrupt cessation of breastfeeding at 1.2 years of age. Integration of Ba spatial distributions and histological mapping of tooth formation enables novel studies of the evolution of human life history, dietary ontogeny in wild primates, and human health investigations through accurate reconstructions of breastfeeding history. PMID:23698370

  5. Early life determinants of frailty in old age: the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Haapanen, M J; Perälä, M M; Salonen, M K; Kajantie, E; Simonen, M; Pohjolainen, P; Eriksson, J G; von Bonsdorff, M B

    2018-04-12

    there is evidence suggesting that several chronic diseases have their origins in utero and that development taking place during sensitive periods may affect the aging process. We investigated whether early life determinants would be associated with frailty in old age. at a mean age of 71 years, 1,078 participants belonging to the Helsinki Birth Cohort Study were assessed for frailty according to the Fried frailty criteria. Early life measurements (birth weight, length, mother body mass index [BMI] and parity) were obtained from birth, child welfare and school health records. Multinomial regression analysis was used to assess the association between early life determinants and frailty in old age. weight, length and BMI at birth were all inversely associated with frailty in old age. A 1 kg increase in birth weight was associated with a lower relative risk ratio (RRR) of frailty (age and sex-adjusted RRR = 0.40, 95% CI: 0.19, 0.82) compared to non-frailty. Associations persisted after adjusting for several confounding factors. Compared to cohort members in the upper middle class, those who as adults worked as manual workers or belonged to the lower middle class, were at an increased risk of frailty. those who were small at birth were at an increased risk of developing frailty in old age, suggesting that frailty is at least partly programmed in early life. A less privileged socioeconomic status in adulthood was associated with an increased risk of frailty in old age.

  6. The effect of early-life stress on airway inflammation in adult mice.

    PubMed

    Vig, Rattanjeet; Gordon, John R; Thébaud, Bernard; Befus, A Dean; Vliagoftis, Harissios

    2010-01-01

    Neonatal stress induces permanent physiological changes that may influence the immune system. Early-life stress increases asthma disease severity in children. We investigated the effects of early-life stress on allergic airway inflammation using a murine model of asthma coupled to maternal separation as an early-life stress stimulus. Maternally separated (MS) and unseparated control (CON) mice were sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) beginning at day 31 after birth. Challenging mice with OVA increased airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and the number of inflammatory cells recovered in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), compared to saline-challenged mice. Challenging MS mice with OVA resulted in less total inflammatory cells, eosinophils, interferon-gamma, and interleukin-4 in BAL compared to CON mice. However, MS mice challenged with OVA exhibited AHR similar to CON mice challenged with OVA. In contrast, an enhanced stress protocol (MS+) involving removal of pups from their home cages following the removal of the dam resulted in inflammatory cell accumulation and cytokine levels in the BAL similar to CON mice and higher than MS mice. These findings indicate that the effect of early-life psychological factors on the development of airway inflammatory diseases such as asthma is very complex and depends on the quality of the psychological stress stimulus.

  7. Individuals' Life Structures in the Early Adulthood Period Based on Levinson's Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aktu, Yahya; Ilhan, Tahsin

    2017-01-01

    Early adulthood is one of the important milestones considered within lifelong development in the relevant literature. Adulthood is examined through various theories; however, universality of many of these is still being discussed. One of these theories is Levinson's theory of life structure. Thus, the current research aims to examine the extent to…

  8. Fish early life stage: Developing AOPs to support targeted reduction and replacement

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an interest in developing alternatives to the fish early-life stage (FELS) test (OECD test guideline 210), for predicting adverse chronic toxicity outcomes (e.g., impacts on growth and survival). Development and characterization of adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) related...

  9. Retinal vascular imaging in early life: insights into processes and risk of cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ling‐Jun; Ikram, Mohammad Kamran

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally. In recent years, studies have shown that the origins of CVD may be traced to vascular and metabolic processes in early life. Retinal vascular imaging is a new technology that allows detailed non‐invasive in vivo assessment and monitoring of the microvasculature. In this systematic review, we described the application of retinal vascular imaging in children and adolescents, and we examined the use of retinal vascular imaging in understanding CVD risk in early life. We reviewed all publications with quantitative retinal vascular assessment in two databases: PubMed and Scopus. Early life CVD risk factors were classified into four groups: birth risk factors, environmental risk factors, systemic risk factors and conditions linked to future CVD development. Retinal vascular changes were associated with lower birth weight, shorter gestational age, low‐fibre and high‐sugar diet, lesser physical activity, parental hypertension history, childhood hypertension, childhood overweight/obesity, childhood depression/anxiety and childhood type 1 diabetes mellitus. In summary, there is increasing evidence supporting the view that structural changes in the retinal microvasculature are associated with CVD risk factors in early life. Thus, the retina is a useful site for pre‐clinical assessment of microvascular processes that may underlie the future development of CVD in adulthood. PMID:26435039

  10. An experimental demonstration that early-life competitive disadvantage accelerates telomere loss

    PubMed Central

    Nettle, Daniel; Monaghan, Pat; Gillespie, Robert; Brilot, Ben; Bedford, Thomas; Bateson, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Adverse experiences in early life can exert powerful delayed effects on adult survival and health. Telomere attrition is a potentially important mechanism in such effects. One source of early-life adversity is the stress caused by competitive disadvantage. Although previous avian experiments suggest that competitive disadvantage may accelerate telomere attrition, they do not clearly isolate the effects of competitive disadvantage from other sources of variation. Here, we present data from an experiment in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) that used cross-fostering to expose siblings to divergent early experience. Birds were assigned either to competitive advantage (being larger than their brood competitors) or competitive disadvantage (being smaller than their brood competitors) between days 3 and 12 post-hatching. Disadvantage did not affect weight gain, but it increased telomere attrition, leading to shorter telomere length in disadvantaged birds by day 12. There were no effects of disadvantage on oxidative damage as measured by plasma lipid peroxidation. We thus found strong evidence that early-life competitive disadvantage can accelerate telomere loss. This could lead to faster age-related deterioration and poorer health in later life. PMID:25411450

  11. Maternal Early Life Experiences and Parenting: The Mediating Role of Cortisol and Executive Function

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Andrea; Jenkins, Jennifer M.; Steiner, Meir; Fleming, Alison S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Research suggests that early life adversity may affect subsequent parenting. Animal studies investigating mechanisms of transmission have focused on biological factors; whereas research in humans has emphasized cognitive and psychosocial factors. We hypothesized that neuropsychological and physiological factors would act as mediators…

  12. The Suckling Rat as a Model for Immunonutrition Studies in Early Life

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Cano, Francisco J.; Franch, Àngels; Castellote, Cristina; Castell, Margarida

    2012-01-01

    Diet plays a crucial role in maintaining optimal immune function. Research demonstrates the immunomodulatory properties and mechanisms of particular nutrients; however, these aspects are studied less in early life, when diet may exert an important role in the immune development of the neonate. Besides the limited data from epidemiological and human interventional trials in early life, animal models hold the key to increase the current knowledge about this interaction in this particular period. This paper reports the potential of the suckling rat as a model for immunonutrition studies in early life. In particular, it describes the main changes in the systemic and mucosal immune system development during rat suckling and allows some of these elements to be established as target biomarkers for studying the influence of particular nutrients. Different approaches to evaluate these immune effects, including the manipulation of the maternal diet during gestation and/or lactation or feeding the nutrient directly to the pups, are also described in detail. In summary, this paper provides investigators with useful tools for better designing experimental approaches focused on nutrition in early life for programming and immune development by using the suckling rat as a model. PMID:22899949

  13. Revisiting the Swaziland Supergroup: New Approaches to Examining Evidence for Early Life on Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, M. M.; Westall, F.

    2000-01-01

    The re-examination by SEM of 3.4 Ga fossiliferous carbonaceous cherts reveals fungal contaminants in addition to indigenous microfossils. Weathered volcanic flows associated with fossiliferous chert layers offer a promising area for further study of early life on Earth.

  14. Parent Attachment and Early Adolescents' Life Satisfaction: The Mediating Effect of Hope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiang, Xu; Huebner, E. Scott; Hills, Kimberly J.

    2013-01-01

    Research using an attachment theory framework has provided evidence that parent attachment is one of the crucial determinants of psychological adjustment in adolescents, including global life satisfaction (LS). This study investigated the interrelationships among parent attachment, hope, and LS during early adolescence, including the mediation…

  15. An experimental demonstration that early-life competitive disadvantage accelerates telomere loss.

    PubMed

    Nettle, Daniel; Monaghan, Pat; Gillespie, Robert; Brilot, Ben; Bedford, Thomas; Bateson, Melissa

    2015-01-07

    Adverse experiences in early life can exert powerful delayed effects on adult survival and health. Telomere attrition is a potentially important mechanism in such effects. One source of early-life adversity is the stress caused by competitive disadvantage. Although previous avian experiments suggest that competitive disadvantage may accelerate telomere attrition, they do not clearly isolate the effects of competitive disadvantage from other sources of variation. Here, we present data from an experiment in European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) that used cross-fostering to expose siblings to divergent early experience. Birds were assigned either to competitive advantage (being larger than their brood competitors) or competitive disadvantage (being smaller than their brood competitors) between days 3 and 12 post-hatching. Disadvantage did not affect weight gain, but it increased telomere attrition, leading to shorter telomere length in disadvantaged birds by day 12. There were no effects of disadvantage on oxidative damage as measured by plasma lipid peroxidation. We thus found strong evidence that early-life competitive disadvantage can accelerate telomere loss. This could lead to faster age-related deterioration and poorer health in later life.

  16. 40 CFR 797.1600 - Fish early life stage toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... dilution water or the test solution. (4) “Control” an exposure of test organisms to dilution water only or... (treatment) concentrations of a test substance and one control are required to conduct an early life stage... trays or cups for each test concentration and control (i.e., 30 per embryo cup with 2 replicates); (C...

  17. 40 CFR 797.1600 - Fish early life stage toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... dilution water or the test solution. (4) “Control” an exposure of test organisms to dilution water only or... (treatment) concentrations of a test substance and one control are required to conduct an early life stage... trays or cups for each test concentration and control (i.e., 30 per embryo cup with 2 replicates); (C...

  18. 40 CFR 797.1600 - Fish early life stage toxicity test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... dilution water or the test solution. (4) “Control” an exposure of test organisms to dilution water only or... (treatment) concentrations of a test substance and one control are required to conduct an early life stage... trays or cups for each test concentration and control (i.e., 30 per embryo cup with 2 replicates); (C...

  19. Early-life Socio-economic Status and Adult Health: The Role of Positive Affect.

    PubMed

    Murdock, Kyle W; LeRoy, Angie S; Fagundes, Christopher P

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop a further understanding of the relationship between early-life socio-economic status (SES) and adult health disparities. This was accomplished through evaluation of state indicators of positive and negative affect as mechanisms through which early-life SES was associated with susceptibility to a rhinovirus (i.e. the common cold). Analyses were conducted among 286 adults in a viral challenge study in which participants were exposed to a rhinovirus via nasal drops and cold symptoms were evaluated over a period of 5 days. Participant age, body mass index, sex, education, ethnicity, pre-challenge virus-specific antibody titres and subjective adult SES, along with virus type and season of participation, were included as covariates. Early-life SES was associated with cold incidence through state positive affect, but not state negative affect. In addition, contrast analysis indicated that the indirect effect through state positive affect was stronger than the indirect effect through state negative affect. Findings provide further support for early-life SES being an important variable associated with adult health, and that state self-reported positive affect may be an underlying mechanism associated with susceptibility to rhinoviruses. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Neighborhood Disadvantage, Stressful Life Events, and Adjustment among Mexican American Early Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roosa, Mark W.; Burrell, Ginger L.; Nair, Rajni L.; Coxe, Stefany; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Knight, George P.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined a stress process model in which stressful life events and association with delinquent peers mediated the relationship of neighborhood disadvantage to Mexican American early adolescents' mental health. The authors also proposed that child gender, child generation, and neighborhood informal social control would moderate the…

  1. Impaired Cognition in Rats with Cortical Dysplasia: Additional Impact of Early-Life Seizures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, Marcella M.; Lenck-Santini, Pierre-Pascal; Holmes, Gregory L.; Scott, Rod C.

    2011-01-01

    One of the most common and serious co-morbidities in patients with epilepsy is cognitive impairment. While early-life seizures are considered a major cause for cognitive impairment, it is not known whether it is the seizures, the underlying neurological substrate or a combination that has the largest impact on eventual learning and memory. Teasing…

  2. Work-Life Balance, Burnout, and Satisfaction of Early Career Pediatricians.

    PubMed

    Starmer, Amy J; Frintner, Mary Pat; Freed, Gary L

    2016-04-01

    Data describing factors associated with work-life balance, burnout, and career and life satisfaction for early career pediatricians are limited. We sought to identify personal and work factors related to these outcomes. We analyzed 2013 survey data of pediatricians who graduated residency between 2002 and 2004. Dependent variables included: (1) balance between personal and professional commitments, (2) current burnout in work, (3) career satisfaction, and (4) life satisfaction. Multivariable logistic regression examined associations of personal and work characteristics with each of the 4 dependent variables. A total of 93% of participants completed the survey (n = 840). A majority reported career (83%) and life (71%) satisfaction. Fewer reported current appropriate work-life balance (43%) or burnout (30%). In multivariable modeling, excellent/very good health, having support from physician colleagues, and adequate resources for patient care were all found to be associated with a lower prevalence of burnout and a higher likelihood of work-life balance and career and life satisfaction. Having children, race, and clinical specialty were not found to be significantly associated with any of the 4 outcome measures. Female gender was associated with a lower likelihood of balance and career satisfaction but did not have an association with burnout or life satisfaction. Burnout and struggles with work-life balance are common; dissatisfaction with life and career are a concern for some early career pediatricians. Efforts to minimize these outcomes should focus on encouragement of modifiable factors, including health supervision, peer support, and ensuring sufficient patient care resources. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  3. Comparative responses to endocrine disrupting compounds in early life stages of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar

    Duffy, Tara A.; Iwanowicz, Luke R.; McCormick, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are endangered anadromous fish that may be exposed to feminizing endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) during early development, potentially altering physiological capacities, survival and fitness. To assess differential life stage sensitivity to common EDCs, we carried out short-term (four day) exposures using three doses each of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), 17β-estradiol (E2), and nonylphenol (NP) on four early life stages; embryos, yolk-sac larvae, feeding fry and one year old smolts. Differential response was compared using vitellogenin (Vtg, a precursor egg protein) gene transcription. Smolts were also examined for impacts on plasma Vtg, cortisol, thyroid hormones (T4/T3) and hepatosomatic index (HSI). Compound-related mortality was not observed in any life stage, but Vtg mRNA was elevated in a dose-dependent manner in yolk-sac larvae, fry and smolts but not in embyos. The estrogens EE2 and E2 were consistently stronger inducers of Vtg than NP. Embryos responded significantly to the highest concentration of EE2 only, while older life stages responded to the highest doses of all three compounds, as well as intermediate doses of EE2 and E2. Maximal transcription was greater for fry among the three earliest life stages, suggesting fry may be the most responsive life stage in early development. Smolt plasma Vtg was also significantly increased, and this response was observed at lower doses of each compound than was detected by gene transcription suggesting this is a more sensitive indicator at this life stage. HSI was increased at the highest doses of EE2 and E2 and plasma T3 decreased at the highest dose of EE2. Our results indicate that all life stages after hatching are potentially sensitive to endocrine disruption by estrogenic compounds and that physiological responses were altered over a short window of exposure, indicating the potential for these compounds to impact fish in the wild.

  4. Antibiotic Use in Early Life, Rural Residence, and Allergic Diseases in Argentinean Children.

    PubMed

    Han, Yueh-Ying; Forno, Erick; Badellino, Héctor A; Celedón, Juan C

    Little is known about differential effects of antibiotic use on allergic diseases in rural versus urban environments. To examine whether area of residence in the first year of life modifies the relation between antibiotic use in early life and allergic diseases during childhood. Cross-sectional study of allergic diseases in 1517 children (ages 6-7 years) attending 101 schools in urban and rural areas of San Francisco (Córdoba, Argentina). Current asthma, wheeze, and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis were defined on the basis of responses to a validated questionnaire from the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood. Multivariate logistic regression was used for the analysis of antibiotic use and allergic diseases. After adjustment for paracetamol use, bronchiolitis, and other covariates, antibiotic use in the first year of life was associated with increased odds of current wheeze (odds ratio [OR], 1.8; 95% CI, 1.3-2.6) and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.3-2.7). After stratification by area of residence, antibiotic use was associated with current wheeze (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.5-4.0) and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (OR, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.3-3.4) among children who lived in an urban area in their first year of life, but not among those who lived in a rural area in their first year of life. Early-life antibiotic use is associated with current wheeze and allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in Argentinean children who lived in urban areas during their first year of life. Exposure to a rural environment early in life may protect against the adverse effects of antibiotics on atopic diseases in children. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The first thousand days - intestinal microbiology of early life: establishing a symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Wopereis, Harm; Oozeer, Raish; Knipping, Karen; Belzer, Clara; Knol, Jan

    2014-08-01

    The development of the intestinal microbiota in the first years of life is a dynamic process significantly influenced by early-life nutrition. Pioneer bacteria colonizing the infant intestinal tract and the gradual diversification to a stable climax ecosystem plays a crucial role in establishing host-microbe interactions essential for optimal symbiosis. This colonization process and establishment of symbiosis may profoundly influence health throughout life. Recent developments in microbiologic cultivation-independent methods allow a detailed view of the key players and factors involved in this process and may further elucidate their roles in a healthy gut and immune maturation. Aberrant patterns may lead to identifying key microbial signatures involved in developing immunologic diseases into adulthood, such as asthma and atopic diseases. The central role of early-life nutrition in the developmental human microbiota, immunity, and metabolism offers promising strategies for prevention and treatment of such diseases. This review provides an overview of the development of the intestinal microbiota, its bidirectional relationship with the immune system, and its role in impacting health and disease, with emphasis on allergy, in early life. © 2014 Danone Nutricia Research. Pediatric Allergy and Immunology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Korean Survivors of the Japanese "Comfort Women" System: Understanding the Lifelong Consequences of Early Life Trauma.

    PubMed

    Park, Jee Hoon; Lee, KyongWeon; Hand, Michelle D; Anderson, Keith A; Schleitwiler, Tess E

    2016-01-01

    Prior to and during World War II, thousands of girls and young women were abducted from Korea and forced into sexual slavery by the Japanese government. Termed comfort women, these girls and young women suffered extreme sexual, physical, and emotional abuse and trauma. Research on this group is not well-developed and people know little of the impact of this early life trauma on the lives of these women who are now in later life. Using snowball sampling, 16 older adult survivors of the comfort women system participated in semistructured qualitative interviews. Thematic analysis was conducted to gain an understanding of the trauma that these women suffered and how it impacted their lives. Results revealed the depths of the abuse these women suffered, including repeated rapes, physical beatings, humiliation, forced surgery and sterilization, and social exclusion. These early traumatic experiences appeared to reverberate throughout their lives in their family relations, their inability to marry and to conceive children, and their emotional and physical well-being throughout the life course and into later life. The experiences of these survivors illustrate the lasting impact of early-life trauma and can guide interventions with current survivors of sexual abuse or trafficking.

  7. Proinflammatory milieu in combat-related PTSD is independent of depression and early life stress.

    PubMed

    Lindqvist, Daniel; Wolkowitz, Owen M; Mellon, Synthia; Yehuda, Rachel; Flory, Janine D; Henn-Haase, Clare; Bierer, Linda M; Abu-Amara, Duna; Coy, Michelle; Neylan, Thomas C; Makotkine, Iouri; Reus, Victor I; Yan, Xiaodan; Taylor, Nicole M; Marmar, Charles R; Dhabhar, Firdaus S

    2014-11-01

    Chronic inflammation may be involved in combat-related post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and may help explain comorbid physical diseases. However, the extent to which combat exposure per se, depression, or early life trauma, all of which are associated with combat PTSD, may confound the relationship between PTSD and inflammation is unclear. We quantified interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, and C-reactive protein (CRP) in 51 combat-exposed males with PTSD and 51 combat-exposed males without PTSD, and assessed PTSD and depression severity as well as history of early life trauma. To decrease the possibility of Type I errors, we summed standardized scores of IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, IFNγ and CRP into a total "pro-inflammatory score". PTSD symptom severity was assessed with the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) rating scale. Subjects with PTSD had significantly higher pro-inflammatory scores compared to combat-exposed subjects without PTSD (p=0.006), and even after controlling for early life trauma, depression diagnosis and severity, body mass index, ethnicity, education, asthma/allergies, time since combat and the use of possibly confounding medications (p=0.002). Within the PTSD group, the pro-inflammatory score was not significantly correlated with depressive symptom severity, CAPS total score, or with the number of early life traumas. Combat-related PTSD in males is associated with higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, even after accounting for depression and early life trauma. These results, from one of the largest studies of inflammatory cytokines in PTSD to date, suggest that immune activation may be a core element of PTSD pathophysiology more so than a signature of combat exposure alone. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Early life experience alters behavior during social defeat: focus on serotonergic systems.

    PubMed

    Gardner, K L; Thrivikraman, K V; Lightman, S L; Plotsky, P M; Lowry, C A

    2005-01-01

    Early life experience can have prolonged effects on neuroendocrine, autonomic, and behavioral responses to stress. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of early life experience on behavior during social defeat, as well as on associated functional cellular responses in serotonergic and non-serotonergic neurons within the dorsal raphe nucleus, a structure which plays an important role in modulation of stress-related physiology and behavior. Male Long Evans rat pups were exposed to either normal animal facility rearing or 15 min or 180 min of maternal separation from postnatal days 2-14. As adults, these rats were exposed to a social defeat protocol. Differences in behavior were seen among the early life treatment groups during social defeat; rats exposed to 180 min of maternal separation from postnatal days 2-14 displayed more passive-submissive behaviors and less proactive coping behaviors. Analysis of the distribution of tryptophan hydroxylase and c-Fos-like immunoreactivity in control rats exposed to a novel cage and rats exposed to social defeat revealed that, independent of the early life experience, rats exposed to social defeat showed an increase in the number of c-Fos-like immunoreactive nuclei in serotonergic neurons in the middle and caudal parts of the dorsal dorsal raphe nucleus and caudal part of the ventral dorsal raphe nucleus, regions known to contain serotonergic neurons projecting to central autonomic and emotional motor control systems. This is the first study to show that the dorsomedial part of the mid-rostrocaudal dorsal raphe nucleus is engaged by a naturalistic stressor and supports the hypothesis that early life experience alters behavioral coping strategies during social conflict; furthermore, this study is consistent with the hypothesis that topographically organized subpopulations of serotonergic neurons principally within the mid-rostrocaudal and caudal part of the dorsal dorsal raphe nucleus modulate stress

  9. Kindling of Life Stress in Bipolar Disorder: Effects of Early Adversity.

    PubMed

    Shapero, Benjamin G; Weiss, Rachel B; Burke, Taylor A; Boland, Elaine M; Abramson, Lyn Y; Alloy, Lauren B

    2017-05-01

    Most theoretical frameworks regarding the role of life stress in bipolar disorders (BD) do not incorporate the possibility of a changing relationship between psychosocial context and episode initiation across the course of the disorder. The kindling hypothesis theorizes that over the longitudinal course of recurrent affective disorders, the relationship between major life stressors and episode initiation declines (Post, 1992). The present study aimed to test an extension of the kindling hypothesis in BD by examining the effect of early life adversity on the relationship between proximal life events and prospectively assessed mood episodes. Data from 145 bipolar participants (59.3% female, 75.2% Caucasian, and mean age of 20.19 years; SD = 1.75 years) were collected as part of the Temple-Wisconsin Longitudinal Investigation of Bipolar Spectrum Project (112 Bipolar II; 33 Cyclothymic disorder). Participants completed a self-report measure of early adversity at baseline and interview-assessed mood episodes and life events at regular 4-month follow-ups. Results indicate that early childhood adversity sensitized bipolar participants to the effects of recent stressors only for depressive episodes and not hypomanic episodes within BD. This was particularly the case with minor negative events. The current study extends prior research examining the kindling model in BD using a methodologically rigorous assessment of life stressors and mood episode occurrence. Clinicians should assess experiences of early adversity in individuals with BD as it may impact reactivity to developing depressive episodes in response to future stressors. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. [Quality of life in visual impaired children treated for Early Visual Stimulation].

    PubMed

    Messa, Alcione Aparecida; Nakanami, Célia Regina; Lopes, Marcia Caires Bestilleiro

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the quality of life in visually impaired children followed in the Early Visual Stimulation Ambulatory of Unifesp in two moments, before and after rehabilitational intervention of multiprofessional team. A CVFQ quality of life questionnaire was used. This instrument has a version for less than three years old children and another one for children older than three years (three to seven years) divided in six subscales: General health, General vision health, Competence, Personality, Family impact and Treatment. The correlation between the subscales on two moments was significant. There was a statistically significant difference in general vision health (p=0,029) and other important differences obtained in general health, family impact and quality of life general score. The questionnaire showed to be effective in order to measure the quality of life related to vision on families followed on this ambulatory. The multidisciplinary interventions provided visual function and familiar quality of life improvement. The quality of life related to vision in children followed in Early Visual Stimulation Ambulatory of Unifesp showed a significant improvement on general vision health.

  11. Effects of maternal history of depression and early life maltreatment on children's health-related quality of life.

    PubMed

    Dittrich, Katja; Fuchs, Anna; Bermpohl, Felix; Meyer, Justus; Führer, Daniel; Reichl, Corinna; Reck, Corinna; Kluczniok, Dorothea; Kaess, Michael; Hindi Attar, Catherine; Möhler, Eva; Bierbaum, Anna-Lena; Zietlow, Anna-Lena; Jaite, Charlotte; Winter, Sibylle Maria; Herpertz, Sabine C; Brunner, Romuald; Bödeker, Katja; Resch, Franz

    2018-01-01

    There is a well-established link between maternal depression and child mental health. Similar effects have been found for maternal history of early life maltreatment (ELM). However, studies investigating the relationship of children's quality of life and maternal depression are scarce and none have been conducted for the association with maternal ELM. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of maternal history of ELM and depression on children's health-related quality of life and to identify mediating factors accounting for these effects. Our study involved 194 mothers with and without history of depression and/or ELM and their children between five and 12 years. Children's health-related quality of life was assessed by maternal proxy- and child self-ratings using the KIDSCREEN. We considered maternal sensitivity and maternal parenting stress as potential mediators. We found an effect of maternal history of depression but not of maternal history of ELM on health-related quality of life. Maternal stress and sensitivity mediated the effects of maternal depression on child global health-related quality of life, as well as on the dimensions Autonomy & Parent Relation, School Environment (maternal and child rating), and Physical Wellbeing (child rating). Due to the cross-sectional design of the study, causal interpretations must be made with caution. Some scales yielded low internal consistency. Maternal impairments in areas of parenting which possibly developed during acute depression persist even after remission of acute affective symptoms. Interventions should target parenting stress and sensitivity in parents with prior depression. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Victims of Chinese famine in early life have increased risk of metabolic syndrome in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Yu, Caizheng; Wang, Jing; Wang, Fei; Han, Xu; Hu, Hua; Yuan, Jing; Miao, Xiaoping; Yao, Ping; Wei, Sheng; Wang, Youjie; Liang, Yuan; Zhang, Xiaomin; Guo, Huan; Pan, An; Zheng, Dan; Tang, Yuhan; Yang, Handong; Wu, Tangchun; He, Meian

    2018-02-05

    To investigate the association of exposure to the Chinese famine during early life with metabolic syndrome risk in adults. There were 7,915 participants from Dongfeng-Tongji cohort were included in the present study. Participants were classified as non-exposed group, fetal exposed group, early childhood-, mid childhood-, and late childhood-exposed groups, respectively. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to International Diabetes Foundation criteria (2005). Logistic regression model was used to explore the association between famine exposure in early life and metabolic syndrome risk in adults. The metabolic syndrome prevalence in non-, fetal-, early childhood-, mid childhood-, and late childhood- exposed groups were 25.2%, 26.9%, 30.3%, 32.7%, and 32.7%, respectively. Compared with non-exposed group, participants exposed to famine in the fetal (0.96, 95% CI: 0.77-1.20), early childhood (1.24, 95% CI: 1.01-1.52), mid childhood (1.39, 95% CI: 1.13-1.72), and late childhood (1.33, 95% CI: 1.08-1.63) had higher metabolic syndrome prevalence risk in adults after adjustment for potential confounders (P for trend < 0.0001). In gender-specific analyses, women exposed to famine in early childhood (1.26, 95% CI: 1.02-1.56), mid childhood (1.43, 95% CI: 1.14-1.78), and late childhood (1.47, 95% CI: 1.18-1.84) had higher metabolic syndrome prevalence risk than non-exposed women (P for trend < 0.0001). There was a famine-gender interaction on metabolic syndrome prevalence risk (P for interaction = 0.0001). Results in the present study indicated that exposure to famine in early life increases the risk of metabolic syndrome in adulthood, particularly in women. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of body size, nutrition and socioeconomic position in early life on the epigenome: a systematic review protocol.

    PubMed

    Maddock, Jane; Wulaningsih, Wahyu; Hardy, Rebecca

    2017-07-05

    Body size, nutrition and socioeconomic position (SEP) in early life have been associated with a range of later life health outcomes. Epigenetic regulation is one mechanism through which these early life factors may impact later life health. The aim of this review protocol is to outline procedures to document the influence of body size, nutrition and SEP in early life on the epigenome. MEDLINE, Embase and BIOSIS will be systematically searched using pre-defined keywords. Additional studies will be identified through manual searching of reference lists. Two independent researchers will assess the eligibility and quality of each study, with disagreements being resolved through discussion or a third reviewer. Studies will be included if they have epigenetic markers measured either at the same time as, or after, the early life exposure and, have a measure of body size, nutrition or SEP in early life (up to 12 years), are in the English language and are from a sample of community-dwelling participants. This protocol will be used to collate the evidence for the effect of early life factors on the epigenome. Findings will form a component of a wider research study examining epigenetic responses to exposures in early life and over the life course and its impact on healthy ageing using data from population-based cohort studies. PROSPERO CRD42016050193.

  14. Early Life Protein Intake: Food Sources, Correlates, and Tracking across the First 5 Years of Life.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Karen J; Abbott, Gavin; Zheng, Miaobing; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2017-08-01

    High consumption of protein has been associated with accelerated growth and adiposity in early childhood. To describe intake, food sources, correlates, and tracking of protein in young children. Secondary analysis of Melbourne Infant Feeding Activity and Nutrition Trial (InFANT). Dietary data were collected using three 24-hour dietary recalls at ages 9 and 18 months as well as 3.5 and 5 years. First-time mothers and their child (n=542) participated in an 18-month intervention to prevent childhood obesity and the cohort was followed-up with no intervention when children were aged 3.5 and 5 years. Protein intake, food sources, correlates, and tracking of protein. Child and maternal correlates of protein intake were identified using linear regression and tracking of protein intake was examined using Pearson correlations of residualized protein scores between time points. Mean protein (grams per day) intake was 29.7±11.0, 46.3±11.5, 54.2±13.8, and 60.0±14.8 at 9 and 18 months and 3.5 and 5 years, respectively. Protein intakes at all ages were two to three times greater than age-appropriate Australian recommendations. The primary source of protein at 9 months was breast/formula milk. At later ages, the principal sources were milk/milk products, breads/cereals, and meat/meat products. Earlier breastfeeding cessation, earlier introduction of solids, high dairy milk consumption (≥500 mL), and high maternal education were significant predictors of high protein intake at various times (P<0.05). Slight tracking was found for protein intakes at 9 months, 18 months, and 5 years (r=0.16 to 0.21; P<0.01). This study provides unique insights into food sources and correlates of young children's high protein intakes, and confirms that early protein intakes track slightly up to age 5 years. These finding have potential to inform nutrition interventions and strategies to address high protein intakes and protein-related obesity risk. Copyright © 2017 Academy of Nutrition and

  15. Getting serious about the early-life epilepsies: Lessons from the world of pediatric oncology.

    PubMed

    Berg, Anne T; Goldman, Stewart

    2018-05-01

    Early-life epilepsies represent a group of many individually rare and often complex developmental brain disorders associated with lifelong devastating consequences and high risk for early mortality. The quantity and quality of evidence needed to guide the evaluation and treatment to optimize outcomes of affected children is minimal; most children are treated within an evidence-free practice zone based solely on anecdote and lore. The remarkable advances in diagnostics and therapeutics are implemented haphazardly with no systematic effort to understand their effects and value. This stands in stark contrast to the evidence-rich practice of the Children's Oncology Group, where standard of care treatments are identified through rigorous, multicenter research studies, and the vast majority of patients are treated on protocols developed from that research. As a consequence, overall mortality for childhood cancers has declined from ∼90% in the 1950s to ∼20% today. The situations of these 2 rare disease specialties are contrasted, and some suggestions for moving early-life epilepsy onto a fast track for success are offered. Chief amongst these is that early-life epilepsy should be treated with the same urgency as pediatric cancer. The best diagnostics and evidence-based treatments should be used in a systematic fashion right from the start, not after the child and family have been subjected to the ravages of the disorder for months or years. This will require unity and cooperation among physicians, researchers, and institutions across state and national borders. © 2018 American Academy of Neurology.

  16. Early-life exposure to combustion-derived particulate matter causes pulmonary immunosuppression

    PubMed Central

    Saravia, Jordy; You, Dahui; Thevenot, Paul; Lee, Greg I.; Shrestha, Bishwas; Lomnicki, Slawo; Cormier, Stephania A.

    2013-01-01

    Elevated levels of combustion-derived particulate matter (CDPM) are a risk factor for the development of lung diseases such as asthma. Studies have shown that CDPM exacerbates asthma, inducing acute lung dysfunction and inflammation; however, the impact of CDPM exposure on early immunological responses to allergens remains unclear. To determine the effects of early-life CDPM exposure on allergic asthma development in infants, we exposed infant mice to CDPM and then induced a mouse model of asthma using house dust mite (HDM) allergen. Mice exposed to CDPM+HDM failed to develop a typical asthma phenotype including airway hyperresponsiveness, Th2-inflammation, Muc5ac expression, eosinophilia, and HDM-specific Ig compared to HDM-exposed mice. Although HDM-specific IgE was attenuated, total IgE was two-fold higher in CDPM+HDM mice compared to HDM-mice. We further demonstrate that CDPM exposure during early life induced an immunosuppressive environment in the lung, concurrent with increases in tolerogenic dendritic cells and Tregs, resulting in suppression of Th2 responses. Despite having early immunosuppression, these mice develop severe allergic inflammation when challenged with allergen as adults. These findings demonstrate a mechanism whereby CDPM exposure modulates adaptive immunity, inducing specific-antigen tolerance while amplifying total IgE, and leading to a predisposition to develop asthma upon rechallenge later in life. PMID:24172848

  17. Early life nutritional programming of health and disease in The Gambia.

    PubMed

    Moore, S E

    2016-04-01

    Exposures during the early life (periconceptional, prenatal and early postnatal) period are increasingly recognized as playing an important role in the aetiology of chronic non-communicable diseases (NCD), including coronary heart disease, stroke, hypertension, Type 2 diabetes and osteoporosis. The 'Developmental Origins of Health and Disease' (DOHaD) hypothesis states that these disorders originate through unbalanced nutrition early in life and risk is highest when there is a 'mismatch' between the early- and later-life environments. Thus, the DOHaD hypothesis would predict highest risk in countries where an excess of infants are born with low birth weight and where there is a rapid transition to nutritional adequacy or excess in adulthood. Here, I will review data from work conducted in rural Gambia, West Africa. Using demographic data dating back to the 1940s, the follow-up of randomized controlled trials of nutritional supplementation in pregnancy and the 'experiment of nature' that seasonality in this region provides, we have investigated the DOHaD hypothesis in a population with high rates of maternal and infant under-nutrition, a high burden from infectious disease, and an emerging risk of NCDs.

  18. Distribution of early life history stages of fishes in selected pools of the upper Mississippi River

    Holland, L.E.

    1986-01-01

    Effective management of the fishery resources of the Upper Mississippi River and successful mitigation of the loss of critical habitat depend in part on an understanding of the reproductive and early life history requirements of the affected fishes. However, little is known about the use of nursery areas by fishes in the river. Of the nearly 130 species identified in the adult ichthyofauna, only a few are represented proportionally in the available data on early life stages because study designs have not included consideration of the early stages, collection gears have not adequately sampled the young, and eggs and larvae of some species are difficult to sample by conventional approaches. For the species collected, information is available on seasonal variations in total densities, composition, and catch among different habitat types. However, the data are most accurate for species with buoyant early life stages, such as freshwater drum (Aplodinotus grunniens) and gizzard shad (Dorosoma cepedianum). Eggs and larvae of freshwater drum dominate collections made in the main channel, whereas other larval fishes are usually most abundant in backwater habitats. The species found there usually deposit eggs on the substrate or on vegetation. Habitat preferences (as indicated by relative abundance) often shift as development proceeds and physical and behavioral changes occur in the larvae. Only limited information is available on the distribution of larvae within habitats, but it is clear that variations within habitats are significant.

  19. Early parental loss and depression history: associations with recent life stress in major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Slavich, George M; Monroe, Scott M; Gotlib, Ian H

    2011-09-01

    Although exposure to early adversity and prior experiences with depression have both been associated with lower levels of precipitating life stress in depression, it is unclear whether these stress sensitization effects are similar for all types of stress or whether they are specific to stressors that may be particularly depressogenic, such as those involving interpersonal loss. To investigate this issue, we administered structured, interview-based measures of early adversity, depression history, and recent life stress to one hundred adults who were diagnosed with major depressive disorder. As predicted, individuals who experienced early parental loss or prolonged separation (i.e., lasting one year or longer) and persons with more lifetime episodes of depression became depressed following lower levels of life stress occurring in the etiologically-central time period of three months prior to onset of depression. Importantly, however, additional analyses revealed that these effects were unique to stressors involving interpersonal loss. These data highlight potential stressor-specific effects in stress sensitization and demonstrate for the first time that individuals exposed to early parental loss or separation, and persons with greater histories of MDD, may be selectively sensitized to stressors involving interpersonal loss. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Dietary protein intake and quality in early life: impact on growth and obesity.

    PubMed

    Lind, Mads V; Larnkjær, Anni; Mølgaard, Christian; Michaelsen, Kim F

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is an increasing problem and high-protein intake early in life seems to increase later risk of obesity. This review summarizes recent publications in the area including observational and intervention studies and publications on underlying mechanisms. Recent observational and randomized controlled trials confirmed that high-protein intake in early life seems to increase early weight gain and the risk of later overweight and obesity. Recent studies have looked at the effect of different sources of protein, and especially high-animal protein intake seems to have an effect on obesity. Specific amino acids, such as leucine, have also been implicated in increasing later obesity risk maybe via specific actions on insulin-like growth factor I. Furthermore, additional underlying mechanisms including epigenetics have been linked to long-term obesogenic programming. Finally, infants with catch-up growth or specific genotypes might be particularly vulnerable to high-protein intake. Recent studies confirm the associations between high-protein intake during the first 2 years and later obesity. Furthermore, knowledge of the mechanisms involved and the role of different dietary protein sources and amino acids has increased, but intervention studies are needed to confirm the mechanisms. Avoiding high-protein intake in early life holds promise as a preventive strategy for childhood obesity.

  1. Opportunities During Early Life for Cancer Prevention: Highlights From a Series of Virtual Meetings With Experts

    PubMed Central

    Holman, Dawn M.; Buchanan, Natasha D.

    2018-01-01

    Compelling evidence suggests that early life exposures can affect lifetime cancer risk. In 2014, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) Cancer Prevention Across the Lifespan Workgroup hosted a series of virtual meetings with select experts to discuss the state of the evidence linking factors during the prenatal period and early childhood to subsequent risk of both pediatric and adult cancers. In this article, we present the results from a qualitative analysis of the meeting transcripts and summarize themes that emerged from our discussions with meeting participants. Themes included the state of the evidence linking early life factors to cancer risk, research gaps and challenges, the level of evidence needed to support taking public health action, and the challenges of communicating complex, and sometimes conflicting, scientific findings to the public. Opportunities for collaboration among public health agencies and other stakeholders were identified during these discussions. Potential next steps for the CDC and its partners included advancing and building upon epidemiology and surveillance work, developing and using evidence from multiple sources to inform decision-making, disseminating and communicating research findings in a clear and effective way, and expanding collaborations with grantees and other partners. As the science on early life factors and cancer risk continues to evolve, there are opportunities for collaboration to translate science into actionable public health practice. PMID:27940972

  2. Early Life Experience and Gut Microbiome: The Brain-Gut-Microbiota Signaling System.

    PubMed

    Cong, Xiaomei; Henderson, Wendy A; Graf, Joerg; McGrath, Jacqueline M

    2015-10-01

    Over the past decades, advances in neonatal care have led to substantial increases in survival among preterm infants. With these gains, recent concerns have focused on increases in neurodevelopment morbidity related to the interplay between stressful early life experiences and the immature neuroimmune systems. This interplay between these complex mechanisms is often described as the brain-gut signaling system. The role of the gut microbiome and the brain-gut signaling system have been found to be remarkably related to both short- and long-term stress and health. Recent evidence supports that microbial species, ligands, and/or products within the developing intestine play a key role in early programming of the central nervous system and regulation of the intestinal innate immunity. The purpose of this state-of-the-science review is to explore the supporting evidence demonstrating the importance of the brain-gut-microbiota axis in regulation of early life experience. We also discuss the role of gut microbiome in modulating stress and pain responses in high-risk infants. A conceptual framework has been developed to illustrate the regulation mechanisms involved in early life experience. The science in this area is just beginning to be uncovered; having a fundamental understanding of these relationships will be important as new discoveries continue to change our thinking, leading potentially to changes in practice and targeted interventions.

  3. Instrumental learning and cognitive flexibility processes are impaired in children exposed to early life stress.

    PubMed

    Harms, Madeline B; Shannon Bowen, Katherine E; Hanson, Jamie L; Pollak, Seth D

    2017-10-19

    Children who experience severe early life stress show persistent deficits in many aspects of cognitive and social adaptation. Early stress might be associated with these broad changes in functioning because it impairs general learning mechanisms. To explore this possibility, we examined whether individuals who experienced abusive caregiving in childhood had difficulties with instrumental learning and/or cognitive flexibility as adolescents. Fifty-three 14-17-year-old adolescents (31 exposed to high levels of childhood stress, 22 control) completed an fMRI task that required them to first learn associations in the environment and then update those pairings. Adolescents with histories of early life stress eventually learned to pair stimuli with both positive and negative outcomes, but did so more slowly than their peers. Furthermore, these stress-exposed adolescents showed markedly impaired cognitive flexibility; they were less able than their peers to update those pairings when the contingencies changed. These learning problems were reflected in abnormal activity in learning- and attention-related brain circuitry. Both altered patterns of learning and neural activation were associated with the severity of lifetime stress that the adolescents had experienced. Taken together, the results of this experiment suggest that basic learning processes are impaired in adolescents exposed to early life stress. These general learning mechanisms may help explain the emergence of social problems observed in these individuals. © 2017 The Authors. Developmental Science Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. International Survey of Critically Ill Children with Acute Neurological Insults: The PANGEA study

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Ericka L.; Kochanek, Patrick M.; Tasker, Robert C.; Beca, John; Bell, Michael J.; Clark, Robert S. B.; Hutchison, Jamie; Vavilala, Monica S.; Fabio, Anthony; Angus, Derek C.; Watson, R. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Objective The international scope of critical neurological insults in children is unknown. Our objective was to assess the prevalence and outcomes of children admitted to pediatric intensive care units (PICUs) with acute neurological insults. Design Prospective study. Setting Multicenter (n=107 PICUs) and multinational (23 countries, 79% in North America and Europe). Patients Children aged 7d–17y admitted to the ICU with new traumatic brain injury, stroke, cardiac arrest, central nervous system infection or inflammation, status epilepticus, spinal cord injury, hydrocephalus, or brain mass. Interventions None. Measurements and main results We evaluated the prevalence and outcomes of children with pre-determined acute neurological insults. Child and center characteristics were recorded. Unfavorable outcome was defined as change in pre-post insult Pediatric Cerebral Performance Category (PCPC) score ≥ 2 or death at hospital discharge or 3 months, whichever came first. Screening data yielded overall prevalence of 16.2%. Of 924 children with acute neurological insults, cardiac arrest (23%) and traumatic brain injury (19%) were the most common. All-cause mortality at hospital discharge was 12%. Cardiac arrest subjects had highest mortality (24%), and TBI subjects had the most unfavorable outcomes (49%). The most common neurological insult was infection/inflammation in South America, Asia, and the single African site but cardiac arrest in the remaining regions. Conclusions Neurological insults are a significant pediatric international health issue. They are frequent and contribute substantial morbidity and mortality. These data suggest a need for an increased focus on acute critical neurological diseases in infants and children including additional research, enhanced availability of clinical resources, and the development of new therapies. PMID:28207570

  5. Conceptual Model for Quality of Life among Adults With Congenital or Early Deafness

    PubMed Central

    Kushalnagar, P; McKee, M; Smith, SR; Hopper, M; Kavin, D; Atcherson, SR

    2015-01-01

    Background A conceptual model of health-related quality of life (QoL) is needed to describe key themes that impact perceived QoL in adults with congenital or early deafness. Objective: To revise University of Washington Center for Disability Policy and Research's conceptual model of health promotion and QoL, with suggestions for applying the model to improving programs or services that target deaf adults with early deafness. Methods Purposive and theoretical sampling of 35 adults who were born or became deaf early was planned in a 1-year study. In-depth semi-structured interviews probed deaf adult participants' perceptions about quality of life as a deaf individual. Data saturation was reached at the 17th interview with 2 additional interviews for validation, resulting in a total sample of 19 deaf adults. Coding and thematic analysis were conducted to develop the conceptual model. Results Our conceptual model delineates the relationships between health status (self-acceptance, coping with limitations), intrinsic (functional communication skills, navigating barriers/self-advocacy, resilience) and extrinsic (acceptance by others, access to information, educating others) factors in their influence on deaf adult quality of life outcomes at home, college, work, and in the community. Conclusions Findings demonstrate the need for the programs and services to consider not only factors intrinsic to the deaf individual but also extrinsic factors in enhancing perceived quality of life outcomes among people with a range of functional hearing and language preferences, including American Sign Language. PMID:24947577

  6. Early-life sexual segregation: ontogeny of isotopic niche differentiation in the Antarctic fur seal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kernaléguen, L.; Arnould, J. P. Y.; Guinet, C.; Cazelles, B.; Richard, P.; Cherel, Y.

    2016-09-01

    Investigating the ontogeny of niche differentiation enables to determine at which life-stages sexual segregation arises, providing insights into the main factors driving resource partitioning. We investigated the ontogeny of foraging ecology in Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella), a highly dimorphic species with contrasting breeding strategies between sexes. Sequential δ13C and δ15N values of whiskers provided a longitudinal proxy of the foraging niche throughout the whole life of seals, from weaning, when size dimorphism is minimal to the age of 5. Females exhibited an early-life ontogenetic shift, from a total segregation during their first year at-sea, to a similar isotopic niche as breeding females as early as age 2. In contrast, males showed a progressive change in isotopic niche throughout their development such that 5-year-old males did not share the same niche as territorial bulls. Interestingly, males and females segregated straight after weaning with males appearing to feed in more southerly habitats than females. This spatial segregation was of similar amplitude as observed in breeding adults and was maintained throughout development. Such early-life niche differentiation is an unusual pattern and indicates size dimorphism and breeding constraints do not directly drive sexual segregation contrary to what has been assumed in otariid seals.

  7. Relationship of early-life stress and resilience to military adjustment in a young adulthood population.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kang; Im, Hyoungjune; Kim, Joohan; Choi, Kwang H; Jon, Duk-In; Hong, Hyunju; Hong, Narei; Lee, Eunjung; Seok, Jeong-Ho

    2013-11-01

    Early-life stress (ELS) may mediate adjustment problems while resilience may protect individuals against adjustment problems during military service. We investigated the relationship of ELS and resilience with adjustment problem factor scores in the Korea Military Personality Test (KMPT) in candidates for the military service. Four hundred and sixty-one candidates participated in this study. Vulnerability traits for military adjustment, ELS, and resilience were assessed using the KMPT, the Korean Early-Life Abuse Experience Questionnaire, and the Resilience Quotient Test, respectively. Data were analyzed using multiple linear regression analyses. The final model of the multiple linear regression analyses explained 30.2 % of the total variances of the sum of the adjustment problem factor scores of the KMPT. Neglect and exposure to domestic violence had a positive association with the total adjustment problem factor scores of the KMPT, but emotion control, impulse control, and optimism factor scores as well as education and occupational status were inversely associated with the total military adjustment problem score. ELS and resilience are important modulating factors in adjusting to military service. We suggest that neglect and exposure to domestic violence during early life may increase problem with adjustment, but capacity to control emotion and impulse as well as optimistic attitude may play protective roles in adjustment to military life. The screening procedures for ELS and the development of psychological interventions may be helpful for young adults to adjust to military service.

  8. Reproductive Toxicity of T Cells in Early Life: Abnormal Immune Development and Postnatal Diseases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Han-Xiao; Jiang, Aifang; Chen, Ting; Qu, Wen; Yan, Hui-Yi; Ping, Jie

    2017-01-01

    Immunity is a balanced status with adequate biological defenses to recognize and fight "non-self", as well as adequate tolerance to recognize "self". To maintain this immune homeostasis, a well-organized T cell immune network is required, which in part depends on the well-controlled development of alternative effector T cells, with different cytokine repertoires. Recent researches have pointed that developing fetal T cells network is a remarkably sensitive toxicological target for adverse factors in early life. Epidemiological and experimental studies showed an inseparable relationship between T cell developmental toxicity and immune diseases in adults. Considering that the inflammatory and immune disorders have become a growing health problem worldwide, increasing attention is now being paid to the T cell developmental toxicity. We propose that adverse factors may have programming effects on the crucial functions of immune system during early life which is critical for fetal T cell development and the establishment of the distinct T cell repertoires balance. The permanently disturbed intrathymic or peripheral T cell development may in turn lead to the immune disorders in later life. In this manuscript, we reviewed how adverse factors affected T cell development in early-life with the consequence of the immune dysfunction and immune diseases, and further elucidate the mechanisms. These mechanisms will be helpful in prevention and treatment of the increased prevalence of immune diseases by interfering those pathways. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Conceptual model for quality of life among adults with congenital or early deafness.

    PubMed

    Kushalnagar, Poorna; McKee, Michael; Smith, Scott R; Hopper, Melinda; Kavin, Denise; Atcherson, Samuel R

    2014-07-01

    A conceptual model of health-related quality of life (QoL) is needed to describe key themes that impact perceived QoL in adults with congenital or early deafness. To revise University of Washington Center for Disability Policy and Research's conceptual model of health promotion and QoL, with suggestions for applying the model to improving programs or services that target deaf adults with early deafness. Purposive and theoretical sampling of 35 adults who were born or became deaf early was planned in a 1-year study. In-depth semi-structured interviews probed deaf adult participants' perceptions about quality of life as a deaf individual. Data saturation was reached at the 17th interview with 2 additional interviews for validation, resulting in a total sample of 19 deaf adults. Coding and thematic analysis were conducted to develop the conceptual model. Our conceptual model delineates the relationships between health status (self-acceptance, coping with limitations), intrinsic (functional communication skills, navigating barriers/self-advocacy, resilience) and extrinsic (acceptance by others, access to information, educating others) factors in their influence on deaf adult quality of life outcomes at home, college, work, and in the community. Findings demonstrate the need for the programs and services to consider not only factors intrinsic to the deaf individual but also extrinsic factors in enhancing perceived quality of life outcomes among people with a range of functional hearing and language preferences, including American Sign Language. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Early life stress-induced alterations in rat brain structures measured with high resolution MRI.

    PubMed

    Sarabdjitsingh, R Angela; Loi, Manila; Joëls, Marian; Dijkhuizen, Rick M; van der Toorn, Annette

    2017-01-01

    Adverse experiences early in life impair cognitive function both in rodents and humans. In humans this increases the vulnerability to develop mental illnesses while in the rodent brain early life stress (ELS) abnormalities are associated with changes in synaptic plasticity, excitability and microstructure. Detailed information on the effects of ELS on rodent brain structural integrity at large and connectivity within the brain is currently lacking; this information is highly relevant for understanding the mechanism by which early life stress predisposes to mental illnesses. Here, we exposed rats to 24 hours of maternal deprivation (MD) at postnatal day 3, a paradigm known to increase corticosterone levels and thereby activate glucocorticoid receptors in the brain. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging we examined: i) volumetric changes and white/grey matter properties of the whole cerebrum and of specific brain areas; and ii) whether potential alterations could be normalized by blocking glucocorticoid receptors with mifepristone during the critical developmental window of early adolescence, i.e. between postnatal days 26 and 28. The results show that MD caused a volumetric reduction of the prefrontal cortex, particularly the ventromedial part, and the orbitofrontal cortex. Within the whole cerebrum, white (relative to grey) matter volume was decreased and region-specifically in prefrontal cortex and dorsomedial striatum following MD. A trend was found for the hippocampus. Grey matter fractions were not affected. Treatment with mifepristone did not normalize these changes. This study indicates that early life stress in rodents has long lasting consequences for the volume and structural integrity of the brain. However, changes were relatively modest and-unlike behavior- not mitigated by blockade of glucocorticoid receptors during a critical developmental period.

  11. Early-life antibiotic treatment enhances the pathogenicity of CD4+ T cells during intestinal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Scheer, Sebastian; Medina, Tiago S; Murison, Alex; Taves, Matthew D; Antignano, Frann; Chenery, Alistair; Soma, Kiran K; Perona-Wright, Georgia; Lupien, Mathieu; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H; De Carvalho, Daniel D; Zaph, Colby

    2017-04-01

    The incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) has steadily increased in recent decades-a phenomenon that cannot be explained by genetic mutations alone. Other factors, including the composition of the intestinal microbiome, are potentially important contributors to the increased occurrence of this group of diseases. Previous reports have shown a correlation between early-life antibiotic (Abx) treatment and an increased incidence of IBD. In this report, we investigated the effects of early-life Abx treatments on the pathogenicity of CD4 + T cells using an experimental T cell transfer model of IBD. Our results show that CD4 + T cells isolated from adult mice that had been treated with Abx during gestation and in early life induced a faster onset of IBD in Rag1 -deficient mice compared with CD4 + T cells of untreated mice. Ex vivo functional analyses of IBD-inducing CD4 + T cells did not show significant differences in their immunologic potential ex vivo, despite their in vivo phenotype. However, genome-wide gene-expression analysis revealed that these cells displayed dysregulated expression of genes associated with cell-cycle regulation, metabolism, and cellular stress. Analysis of Abx-treated CD4 + T cell donors showed systemically elevated levels of the stress hormone corticosterone throughout life compared with untreated donors. The cohousing of Abx-treated mice with untreated mice decreased serum corticosterone, and a consequent transfer of the cells from cohoused mice into Rag1 -deficient mice restored the onset and severity of disease to that of untreated animals. Thus, our results suggest that early-life Abx treatment results in a stress response with high levels of corticosterone that influences CD4 + T cell function. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  12. Manipulating rumen microbiome and fermentation through interventions during early life: a review

    PubMed Central

    Yáñez-Ruiz, David R.; Abecia, Leticia; Newbold, Charles J.

    2015-01-01

    The nutritional manipulations of the rumen microbiome to enhance productivity and health are rather limited by the resilience of the ecosystem once established in the mature rumen. Based on recent studies, it has been suggested that the microbial colonization that occurs soon after birth opens a possibility of manipulation with potential to produce lasting effects into adult life. This paper presents the state-of-the-art in relation to early life nutritional interventions by addressing three areas: the development of the rumen as an organ in regards to the nutrition of the new-born, the main factors that determine the microbial population that first colonizes and establishes in the rumen, and the key immunity players that contribute to shaping the commensal microbiota in the early stage of life to understand host-microbiome specificity. The development of the rumen epithelium and muscularization are differently affected by the nature of the diet and special care should be taken with regards to transition from liquid (milk) to solid feed. The rumen is quickly colonized by all type of microorganisms straight after birth and the colonization pattern may be influenced by several factors such as presence/absence of adult animals, the first solid diet provided, and the inclusion of compounds that prevent/facilitate the establishment of some microorganisms or the direct inoculation of specific strains. The results presented show how early life events may be related to the microbial community structure and/or the rumen activity in the animals post-weaning. This would create differences in adaptive capacity due to different early life experiences and leads to the idea of microbial programming. However, many elements need to be further studied such as: the most sensitive window of time for interventions, the best means to test long term effectiveness, the role of key microbial groups and host-immune regulations. PMID:26528276

  13. Reduced resistance to oxidative stress during reproduction as a cost of early-life stress.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Cédric; Spencer, Karen A

    2015-05-01

    Stress exposure during early-life development can have long-term consequences for a variety of biological functions including oxidative stress. The link between early-life stress and oxidative balance is beginning to be explored and previous studies have focused on this link in adult non-breeding or immature individuals. However, as oxidative stress is considered as the main physiological mechanism underlying the trade-off between self-maintenance and investment in reproduction, it is necessary to look at the consequences of early-life stress on oxidative status during reproduction. Here, we investigated the effects of exposure to pre- and/or post-natal stress on oxidative balance during reproduction under benign or stressful environmental conditions in an avian model species, the Japanese quail. We determined total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidant status (TOS) and resistance to a free-radical attack in individual exposed to pre-natal stress, post-natal stress or both and in control individuals exposed to none of the stressors. TAS levels decreased over time in all females that reproduced under stressful conditions. TOS decreased between the beginning and the end of reproductive period in pre-natal control females. In all females, resistance to a free-radical attack decreased over the reproductive event but this decrease was more pronounced in females from a pre-natal stress development. Our results suggest that pre-natal stress may be associated with a higher cost of reproduction in terms of oxidative stress. These results also confirm that early-life stress can be associated with both benefits and costs depending of the life-history stage or environmental context. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The importance of early life family factors in the association between cardiovascular risk factors and early cardiovascular mortality

    PubMed Central

    Kjøllesdal, Marte K R; Ariansen, Inger; Mortensen, Laust H; Næss, Øyvind

    2017-01-01

    Objective To explore the importance of early life factors shared by siblings, such as parental socioeconomic position, parental practices, housing and neighbourhood, for the association between cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and mortality from CVD, ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and cerebrovascular disease. Methods Norwegian health surveys (1974–2003) were linked with data from the Norwegian Family Based Life Course Study and the Cause of Death Registry. Participants with at least one full sibling among survey participants (n=2 71 643) were included. Data on CVD risk factors, body mass index (BMI), height, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and total cholesterol (TC) were stratified into ‘low’, ‘medium’ and ‘high’ risk, and smoking to ‘daily smoking’ and ‘not daily smoking’. Results Mean age of participants was 41 years, mean follow-up time was 19 years and during follow-up 2512 died from CVD. For each category of increased risk factor level, the per step HR of CVD mortality was increased by 1.91 (95% CI 1.78 to 2.05) for SBP, 1.67 (1.58 to 1.76) for TC, 1.44 (1.36 to 1.53) for BMI, 1.26 (1.18 to 1.35) for height and 2.89 (2.66 to 3.14) for smoking. In analyses where each sibship (groups of full siblings) had a group-specific baseline hazard, these associations were attenuated to 1.74, 1.51, 1.29, 1.18 and 2.63, respectively. The associations between risk factors and IHD mortality followed the same pattern. Conclusion Early life family factors explained a small part of the association between risk factors and mortality from CVD and IHD in a relatively young sample. PMID:28878947

  15. The importance of early life family factors in the association between cardiovascular risk factors and early cardiovascular mortality.

    PubMed

    Kjøllesdal, Marte K R; Ariansen, Inger; Mortensen, Laust H; Næss, Øyvind

    2017-01-01

    To explore the importance of early life factors shared by siblings, such as parental socioeconomic position, parental practices, housing and neighbourhood, for the association between cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and mortality from CVD, ischaemic heart disease (IHD) and cerebrovascular disease. Norwegian health surveys (1974-2003) were linked with data from the Norwegian Family Based Life Course Study and the Cause of Death Registry. Participants with at least one full sibling among survey participants (n=2 71 643) were included. Data on CVD risk factors, body mass index (BMI), height, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and total cholesterol (TC) were stratified into 'low', 'medium' and 'high' risk, and smoking to 'daily smoking' and 'not daily smoking'. Mean age of participants was 41 years, mean follow-up time was 19 years and during follow-up 2512 died from CVD. For each category of increased risk factor level, the per step HR of CVD mortality was increased by 1.91 (95% CI 1.78 to 2.05) for SBP, 1.67 (1.58 to 1.76) for TC, 1.44 (1.36 to 1.53) for BMI, 1.26 (1.18 to 1.35) for height and 2.89 (2.66 to 3.14) for smoking. In analyses where each sibship (groups of full siblings) had a group-specific baseline hazard, these associations were attenuated to 1.74, 1.51, 1.29, 1.18 and 2.63, respectively. The associations between risk factors and IHD mortality followed the same pattern. Early life family factors explained a small part of the association between risk factors and mortality from CVD and IHD in a relatively young sample.

  16. Alcoholism: A Multi-Systemic Cellular Insult to Organs.

    PubMed

    Dguzeh, Ucee; Haddad, Natasha C; Smith, Kathia T S; Johnson, John O; Doye, Angelia A; Gwathmey, Judith K; Haddad, Georges E

    2018-05-28

    Alcohol abuse can affect more than the heart and the liver. Many observers often do not appreciate the complex and differing aspects of alcohol's effects in pathophysiologies that have been reported in multiple organs. Chronic alcohol abuse is known to be associated with pathophysiological changes that often result in life-threatening clinical outcomes, e.g., breast and colon cancer, pancreatic disease, cirrhosis of the liver, diabetes, osteoporosis, arthritis, kidney disease, immune system dysfunction, hypertension, coronary artery disease, cardiomyopathy, and can be as far-reaching as to cause central nervous system disorders. In this review article, we will discuss the various organs impacted by alcohol abuse. The lack of clear guidelines on the amount and frequency of alcohol intake, complicated by personal demographics, make extrapolations to real-life practices at best difficult for public health policy-makers.

  17. Effects of early-life adversity on immune function are mediated by prenatal environment: Role of prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Raineki, Charlis; Bodnar, Tamara S; Holman, Parker J; Baglot, Samantha L; Lan, Ni; Weinberg, Joanne

    2017-11-01

    The contribution of the early postnatal environment to the pervasive effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is poorly understood. Moreover, PAE often carries increased risk of exposure to adversity/stress during early life. Dysregulation of immune function may play a role in how pre- and/or postnatal adversity/stress alters brain development. Here, we combine two animal models to examine whether PAE differentially increases vulnerability to immune dysregulation in response to early-life adversity. PAE and control litters were exposed to either limited bedding (postnatal day [PN] 8-12) to model early-life adversity or normal bedding, and maternal behavior and pup vocalizations were recorded. Peripheral (serum) and central (amygdala) immune (cytokines and C-reactive protein - CRP) responses of PAE animals to early-life adversity were evaluated at PN12. Insufficient bedding increased negative maternal behavior in both groups. Early-life adversity increased vocalization in all animals; however, PAE pups vocalized less than controls. Early-life adversity reduced serum TNF-α, KC/GRO, and IL-10 levels in control but not PAE animals. PAE increased serum CRP, and levels were even higher in pups exposed to adversity. Finally, PAE reduced KC/GRO and increased IL-10 levels in the amygdala. Our results indicate that PAE alters immune system development and both behavioral and immune responses to early-life adversity, which could have subsequent consequences for brain development and later life health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Do People Who Became Blind Early in Life Develop a Better Sense of Smell? A Psychophysical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuevas, Isabel; Plaza, Paula; Rombaux, Phillippe; Collignon, Olivier; De Volder, Anne G.; Renier, Laurent

    2010-01-01

    Using a set of psychophysical tests, we compared the olfactory abilities of 8 persons who became blind early in life and 16 sighted persons in a control group who were matched for age, sex, and handedness. The results indicated that those who became blind early in life developed compensatory perceptual mechanisms in the olfactory domain that…

  19. Early life programming of fear conditioning and extinction in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Carl W; Spicer, Clare H; Mason, Rob; Marsden, Charles A

    2009-12-28

    The early rearing environment programs corticolimbic function and neuroendocrine stress reactivity in adulthood. Although early environmental programming of innate fear has been previously examined, its impact on fear learning and memory later in life remains poorly understood. Here we examined the role of the early rearing environment in programming fear conditioning and extinction in adult male rats. Pups were subjected to maternal separation (MS; 360 min), brief handling (H; 15 min), or animal facility rearing (AFR) on post-natal days 2-14. As adults, animals were tested in a 3-day fear learning and memory paradigm which assessed the acquisition, expression and extinction of fear conditioning to an auditory cue; the recall of extinction was also assessed. In addition, contextual fear was assessed prior to cued extinction and its recall. We found that the acquisition of fear conditioning to the cue was modestly impaired by MS. However, no early rearing group differences were observed in cue-induced fear expression. In contrast, both the rate of extinction and extinction recall were attenuated by H. Finally, although contextual fear was reduced after extinction to the cue, no differences in context-induced fear were observed between the early rearing groups. These results add to a growing body of evidence supporting an important role for early environmental programming of fear conditioning and extinction. They also indicate that different early rearing conditions can program varying effects on distinct fear learning and memory processes in adulthood.

  20. External-environmental and internal-health early life predictors of adolescent development.

    PubMed

    Hartman, Sarah; Li, Zhi; Nettle, Daniel; Belsky, Jay

    2017-12-01

    A wealth of evidence documents associations between various aspects of the rearing environment and later development. Two evolutionary-inspired models advance explanations for why and how such early experiences shape later functioning: (a) the external-prediction model, which highlights the role of the early environment (e.g., parenting) in regulating children's development, and (b) the internal-prediction model, which emphasizes internal state (i.e., health) as the critical regulator. Thus, by using data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development, the current project draws from both models by investigating whether the effect of the early environment on later adolescent functioning is subject to an indirect effect by internal-health variables. Results showed a significant indirect effect of internal health on the relation between the early environment and adolescent behavior. Specifically, early environmental adversity during the first 5 years of life predicted lower quality health during childhood, which then led to problematic adolescent functioning and earlier age of menarche for girls. In addition, for girls, early adversity predicted lower quality health that forecasted earlier age of menarche leading to increased adolescent risk taking. The discussion highlights the importance of integrating both internal and external models to further understand the developmental processes that effect adolescent behavior.

  1. Stressful Life Events, ADHD Symptoms, and Brain Structure in Early Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Humphreys, Kathryn L; Watts, Emily L; Dennis, Emily L; King, Lucy S; Thompson, Paul M; Gotlib, Ian H

    2018-05-21

    Despite a growing understanding that early adversity in childhood broadly affects risk for psychopathology, the contribution of stressful life events to the development of symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is not clear. In the present study, we examined the association between number of stressful life events experienced and ADHD symptoms, assessed using the Attention Problems subscale of the Child Behavior Checklist, in a sample of 214 children (43% male) ages 9.11-13.98 years (M = 11.38, SD = 1.05). In addition, we examined whether the timing of the events (i.e., onset through age 5 years or after age 6 years) was associated with ADHD symptoms. Finally, we examined variation in brain structure to determine whether stressful life events were associated with volume in brain regions that were found to vary as a function of symptoms of ADHD. We found a small to moderate association between number of stressful life events and ADHD symptoms. Although the strength of the associations between number of events and ADHD symptoms did not differ as a function of the age of occurrence of stressful experiences, different brain regions were implicated in the association between stressors and ADHD symptoms in the two age periods during which stressful life events occurred. These findings support the hypothesis that early adversity is associated with ADHD symptoms, and provide insight into possible brain-based mediators of this association.

  2. Ascorbate protects endothelial barrier function during septic insult: Role of protein phosphatase type 2A.

    PubMed

    Han, Min; Pendem, Suresh; Teh, Suet Ling; Sukumaran, Dinesh K; Wu, Feng; Wilson, John X

    2010-01-01

    Endothelial barrier dysfunction contributes to morbidity in sepsis. We tested the hypothesis that raising the intracellular ascorbate concentration protects the endothelial barrier from septic insult by inhibiting protein phosphatase type 2A. Monolayer cultures of microvascular endothelial cells were incubated with ascorbate, dehydroascorbic acid (DHAA), the NADPH oxidase inhibitors apocynin and diphenyliodonium, or the PP2A inhibitor okadaic acid and then were exposed to septic insult (lipopolysaccharide and interferon-gamma). Under standard culture conditions that depleted intracellular ascorbate, septic insult stimulated oxidant production and PP2A activity, dephosphorylated phosphoserine and phosphothreonine residues in the tight junction-associated protein occludin, decreased the abundance of occludin at cell borders, and increased monolayer permeability to albumin. NADPH oxidase inhibitors prevented PP2A activation and monolayer leak, showing that these changes required reactive oxygen species. Okadaic acid, at a concentration that inhibited PP2A activity and monolayer leak, prevented occludin dephosphorylation and redistribution, implicating PP2A in the response of occludin to septic insult. Incubation with ascorbate or DHAA raised intracellular ascorbate concentrations and mitigated the effects of septic insult. In conclusion, ascorbate acts within microvascular endothelial cells to inhibit septic stimulation of oxidant production by NADPH oxidase and thereby prevents PP2A activation, PP2A-dependent dephosphorylation and redistribution of occludin, and disruption of the endothelial barrier. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Early-life bisphenol a exposure and child body mass index: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Braun, Joseph M; Lanphear, Bruce P; Calafat, Antonia M; Deria, Sirad; Khoury, Jane; Howe, Chanelle J; Venners, Scott A

    2014-11-01

    Early-life exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) may increase childhood obesity risk, but few prospective epidemiological studies have investigated this relationship. We sought to determine whether early-life exposure to BPA was associated with increased body mass index (BMI) at 2-5 years of age in 297 mother-child pairs from Cincinnati, Ohio (HOME Study). Urinary BPA concentrations were measured in samples collected from pregnant women during the second and third trimesters and their children at 1 and 2 years of age. BMI z-scores were calculated from weight/height measures conducted annually from 2 through 5 years of age. We used linear mixed models to estimate BMI differences or trajectories with increasing creatinine-normalized BPA concentrations. After confounder adjustment, each 10-fold increase in prenatal (β = -0.1; 95% CI: -0.5, 0.3) or early-childhood (β = -0.2; 95% CI: -0.6, 0.1) BPA concentrations was associated with a modest and nonsignificant reduction in child BMI. These inverse associations were suggestively stronger in girls than in boys [prenatal effect measure modification (EMM) p-value = 0.30, early-childhood EMM p-value = 0.05], but sex-specific associations were imprecise. Children in the highest early-childhood BPA tercile had lower BMI at 2 years (difference = -0.3; 95% CI: -0.6, 0.0) and larger increases in their BMI slope from 2 through 5 years (BMI increase per year = 0.12; 95% CI: 0.07, 0.18) than children in the lowest tercile (BMI increase per year = 0.07; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.13). All associations were attenuated without creatinine normalization. Prenatal and early-childhood BPA exposures were not associated with increased BMI at 2-5 years of age, but higher early-childhood BPA exposures were associated with accelerated growth during this period.

  4. Perinatal stress and early life programming of lung structure and function

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Rosalind J.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to environmental toxins during critical periods of prenatal and/or postnatal development may alter the normal course of lung morphogenesis and maturation, potentially resulting in changes that affect both structure and function of the respiratory system. Moreover, these early effects may persist into adult life magnifying the potential public health impact. Aberrant or excessive pro-inflammatory immune responses, occurring both locally and systemically, that result in inflammatory damage to the airway are a central determinant of lung structure-function changes throughout life. Disruption of neuroendocrine function in early development, specifically the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, may alter functional status of the immune system. Autonomic nervous system (ANS) function (sympathovagal imbalance) is another integral component of airway function and immunity in childhood. This overview discusses the evidence linking psychological factors to alterations in these interrelated physiological processes that may, in turn, influence childhood lung function and identifies gaps in our understanding. PMID:20080145

  5. Analysis of early life influences on cognitive development in childhood using multilevel ordinal models

    PubMed Central

    Li, Leah

    2012-01-01

    Summary Studies of cognitive development in children are often based on tests designed for specific ages. Examination of the changes of these scores over time may not be meaningful. This paper investigates the influence of early life factors on cognitive development using maths and reading test scores at ages 7, 11, and 16 years in a British birth cohort born in 1958. The distributions of these test scores differ between ages, for example, 20% participants scored the top mark in the reading test at 7 and the distribution of reading score at 16 is heavily skewed. In this paper, we group participants into 5 ordered categories, approximately 20% in each category according to their test scores at each age. Multilevel models for a repeated ordinal outcome are applied to relate the ordinal scale of maths and reading ability to early life factors. PMID:22661923

  6. Flexible nonlinear estimates of the association between height and mental ability in early life.

    PubMed

    Murasko, Jason E

    2014-01-01

    To estimate associations between early-life mental ability and height/height-growth in contemporary US children. Structured additive regression models are used to flexibly estimate the associations between height and mental ability at approximately 24 months of age. The sample is taken from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, a national study whose target population was children born in the US during 2001. A nonlinear association is indicated between height and mental ability at approximately 24 months of age. There is an increasing association between height and mental ability below the mean value of height, but a flat association thereafter. Annualized growth shows the same nonlinear association to ability when controlling for baseline length at 9 months. Restricted growth at lower values of the height distribution is associated with lower measured mental ability in contemporary US children during the first years of life. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Metabolic and metagenomic outcomes from early-life pulsed antibiotic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Nobel, Yael R.; Cox, Laura M.; Kirigin, Francis F.; Bokulich, Nicholas A.; Yamanishi, Shingo; Teitler, Isabel; Chung, Jennifer; Sohn, Jiho; Barber, Cecily M.; Goldfarb, David S.; Raju, Kartik; Abubucker, Sahar; Zhou, Yanjiao; Ruiz, Victoria E.; Li, Huilin; Mitreva, Makedonka; Alekseyenko, Alexander V.; Weinstock, George M.; Sodergren, Erica; Blaser, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian species have co-evolved with intestinal microbial communities that can shape development and adapt to environmental changes, including antibiotic perturbation or nutrient flux. In humans, especially children, microbiota disruption is common, yet the dynamic microbiome recovery from early-life antibiotics is still uncharacterized. Here we use a mouse model mimicking paediatric antibiotic use and find that therapeutic-dose pulsed antibiotic treatment (PAT) with a beta-lactam or macrolide alters both host and microbiota development. Early-life PAT accelerates total mass and bone growth, and causes progressive changes in gut microbiome diversity, population structure and metagenomic content, with microbiome effects dependent on the number of courses and class of antibiotic. Whereas control microbiota rapidly adapts to a change in diet, PAT slows the ecological progression, with delays lasting several months with previous macrolide exposure. This study identifies key markers of disturbance and recovery, which may help provide therapeutic targets for microbiota restoration following antibiotic treatment. PMID:26123276

  8. Metabolic and metagenomic outcomes from early-life pulsed antibiotic treatment.

    PubMed

    Nobel, Yael R; Cox, Laura M; Kirigin, Francis F; Bokulich, Nicholas A; Yamanishi, Shingo; Teitler, Isabel; Chung, Jennifer; Sohn, Jiho; Barber, Cecily M; Goldfarb, David S; Raju, Kartik; Abubucker, Sahar; Zhou, Yanjiao; Ruiz, Victoria E; Li, Huilin; Mitreva, Makedonka; Alekseyenko, Alexander V; Weinstock, George M; Sodergren, Erica; Blaser, Martin J

    2015-06-30

    Mammalian species have co-evolved with intestinal microbial communities that can shape development and adapt to environmental changes, including antibiotic perturbation or nutrient flux. In humans, especially children, microbiota disruption is common, yet the dynamic microbiome recovery from early-life antibiotics is still uncharacterized. Here we use a mouse model mimicking paediatric antibiotic use and find that therapeutic-dose pulsed antibiotic treatment (PAT) with a beta-lactam or macrolide alters both host and microbiota development. Early-life PAT accelerates total mass and bone growth, and causes progressive changes in gut microbiome diversity, population structure and metagenomic content, with microbiome effects dependent on the number of courses and class of antibiotic. Whereas control microbiota rapidly adapts to a change in diet, PAT slows the ecological progression, with delays lasting several months with previous macrolide exposure. This study identifies key markers of disturbance and recovery, which may help provide therapeutic targets for microbiota restoration following antibiotic treatment.

  9. Developmental rate and behavior of early life stages of bighead carp and silver carp

    Chapman, Duane C.; George, Amy E.

    2011-01-01

    The early life stages of Asian carp are well described by Yi and others (1988), but since these descriptions are represented by line drawings based only on live individuals and lacked temperature controls, further information on developmental time and stages is of use to expand understanding of early life stages of these species. Bighead carp and silver carp were cultured under two different temperature treatments to the one-chamber gas bladder stage, and a photographic guide is provided for bighead carp and silver carp embryonic and larval development, including notes about egg morphology and larval swimming behavior. Preliminary information on developmental time and hourly thermal units for each stage is also provided. Both carp species developed faster under warmer conditions. Developmental stages and behaviors are generally consistent with earlier works with the exception that strong vertical swimming immediately after hatching was documented in this report.

  10. Effects of Mineralocorticoid Receptor Overexpression on Anxiety and Memory after Early Life Stress in Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kanatsou, Sofia; Ter Horst, Judith P.; Harris, Anjanette P.; Seckl, Jonathan R.; Krugers, Harmen J.; Joëls, Marian

    2016-01-01

    Early-life stress (ELS) is a risk factor for the development of psychopathology, particularly in women. Human studies have shown that certain haplotypes of NR3C2, encoding the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), that result in gain of function, may protect against the consequences of stress exposure, including childhood trauma. Here, we tested the hypothesis that forebrain-specific overexpression of MR in female mice would ameliorate the effects of ELS on anxiety and memory in adulthood. We found that ELS increased anxiety, did not alter spatial discrimination and reduced contextual fear memory in adult female mice. Transgenic overexpression of MR did not alter anxiety but affected spatial memory performance and enhanced contextual fear memory formation. The effects of ELS on anxiety and contextual fear were not affected by transgenic overexpression of MR. Thus, MR overexpression in the forebrain does not represent a major resilience factor to early life adversity in female mice. PMID:26858618

  11. Influence of early life exposure, host genetics and diet on the mouse gut microbiome and metabolome

    SciT

    Snijders, Antoine M.; Langley, Sasha A.; Kim, Young-Mo

    Although the gut microbiome plays important roles in host physiology, health and disease1, we lack understanding of the complex interplay between host genetics and early life environment on the microbial and metabolic composition of the gut.We used the genetically diverse Collaborative Cross mouse system2 to discover that early life history impacts themicrobiome composition, whereas dietary changes have only a moderate effect. By contrast, the gut metabolome was shaped mostly by diet, with specific non-dietary metabolites explained by microbial metabolism. Quantitative trait analysis identified mouse genetic trait loci (QTL) that impact the abundances of specific microbes. Human orthologues of genes inmore » the mouse QTL are implicated in gastrointestinal cancer. Additionally, genes located in mouse QTL for Lactobacillales abundance are implicated in arthritis, rheumatic disease and diabetes. Furthermore, Lactobacillales abundance was predictive of higher host T-helper cell counts, suggesting an important link between Lactobacillales and host adaptive immunity.« less

  12. Detection of Apoptosis in Early Life Stages as a Tool to Evaluate Chemical Control of Invasive Species

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    ERDC/TN ANSRP-07-2 August 2007 Detection of Apoptosis in Early Life Stages as a Tool to Evaluate Chemical Control of Invasive Species by J...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Detection of Apoptosis in Early Life Stages as a Tool to Evaluate Chemical Control of Invasive Species 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...heralding apoptosis . Data analysis. An apoptotic index (API) was established by calculating the percentage of embryos in each life stage with

  13. Overexpression of Forebrain CRH During Early Life Increases Trauma Susceptibility in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Toth, Mate; Flandreau, Elizabeth I; Deslauriers, Jessica; Geyer, Mark A; Mansuy, Isabelle M; Merlo Pich, Emilio; Risbrough, Victoria B

    2016-01-01

    Although early-life stress is a significant risk factor for developing anxiety disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH) is disrupted in individuals with PTSD and early-life stress and hence may mediate the effects of early-life stress on PTSD risk. We hypothesized that CRH hyper-signaling in the forebrain during early development is sufficient to increase response to trauma in adulthood. To test this hypothesis, we induced transient, forebrain-specific, CRH overexpression during early-life (pre-puberty, CRHOEdev) in double-mutant mice (Camk2a-rtta2 × tetO-Crh) and tested their behavioral and gene expression responses to the predator stress model of PTSD in adulthood. In one cohort of CRHOEdev exposed and unexposed mice, avoidance and arousal behaviors were examined 7–15 days after exposure to predator stress. In another cohort, gene expression changes in Crhr1, Crhr2, and Fkbp51 in forebrain of CRHOEdev exposed and unexposed mice were examined 7 days after predator stress. CRHOEdev induced robust increases in startle reactivity and reductions in startle inhibition independently of predator stress in both male and female mice. Avoidance behaviors after predator stress were highly dependent on sex and CRHOEdev exposure. Whereas stressed females exhibited robust avoidance responses that were not altered by CRHOEdev, males developed significant avoidance only when exposed to both CRHOEdev and stress. Quantitative real-time-PCR analysis indicated that CRHOEdev unexposed males exhibit significant changes in Crhr2 expression in the amygdala and bed nucleus stria terminalis in response to stress, whereas males exposed to CRHOEdev did not. Similar to CRHOEdev males, females exhibited no significant Crhr2 gene expression changes in response to stress. Cortical Fkbp51 expression was also significantly reduced by stress and CRHOEdev exposure in males, but not in females. These

  14. Early life exposure to ambient air pollution and childhood asthma in China.

    PubMed

    Deng, Qihong; Lu, Chan; Norbäck, Dan; Bornehag, Carl-Gustaf; Zhang, Yinping; Liu, Weiwei; Yuan, Hong; Sundell, Jan

    2015-11-01

    Early life is suggested to be a critical time in determining subsequent asthma development, but the extent to which the effect of early-life exposure to ambient air pollution on childhood asthma is unclear. We investigated doctor-diagnosed asthma in preschool children due to exposure to ambient air pollution in utero and during the first year of life. In total 2490 children aged 3-6 years participated in a questionnaire study regarding doctor-diagnosed asthma between September 2011 and January 2012 in China. Children's exposure to critical air pollutants, sulfur dioxide (SO2) as proxy of industrial air pollution, nitrogen dioxide (NO2) as proxy of traffic pollution, and particulate matter≤10µm in diameter (PM10) as a mixture, was estimated from the concentrations measured at the ambient air quality monitoring stations by using an inverse distance weighted (IDW) method. Logistic regression analysis was employed to determine the relationship between early-life exposure and childhood asthma in terms of odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). Association between early-life exposure to air pollutants and childhood asthma was observed. SO2 and NO2 had significant associations with adjusted OR (95% CI) of 1.45 (1.02-2.07) and 1.74 (1.15-2.62) in utero and 1.62 (1.01-2.60) and 1.90 (1.20-3.00) during the first year for per 50 µg/m(3) and 15 µg/m(3) increase respectively. Exposure to the combined high level of SO2 and NO2 in China significantly elevated the asthmatic risk with adjusted OR (95% CI) of 1.76 (1.18-2.64) in utero and 1.85 (1.22-2.79) during the first year compared to the low level exposure. The associations were higher for males and the younger children aged 3-4 than females and the older children aged 5-6. Early-life exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with childhood asthma during which the level and source of air pollution play important roles. The high level and nature of combined industrial and traffic air pollution in China may

  15. Early-life house dust mite allergens, childhood mite sensitization, and respiratory outcomes.

    PubMed

    Casas, L; Sunyer, J; Tischer, C; Gehring, U; Wickman, M; Garcia-Esteban, R; Lehmann, I; Kull, I; Reich, A; Lau, S; Wijga, A; Antó, J M; Nawrot, T S; Heinrich, J; Keil, T; Torrent, M

    2015-07-01

    Exposure to indoor allergens during early life may play a role in the development of the immune system and inception of asthma. To describe the house dust mite (HDM) allergen concentrations in bedroom dust during early life and to evaluate its associations with HDM sensitization, wheezing, and asthma, from birth to school age, in 5 geographically spread European birth cohorts. We included 4334 children from INMA-Menorca (Spain), BAMSE (Sweden), LISAplus and MAS (Germany), and PIAMA-NHS (the Netherlands). Dust samples were collected from bedrooms during early life and analyzed for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Der p1) and Dermatophagoides farinae (Der f1). HDM concentrations were divided into four categories. Sensitization was determined by specific IgE. Wheezing and asthma information up to 8/10 years was collected through questionnaires. We performed mixed-effects logistic regression models and expressed associations as odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals. House dust mite concentrations varied across cohorts. Mean allergen concentrations were highest in INMA-Menorca (geometric mean (GM) Der p1 = 3.3 μg/g) and LISAplus (GM Der f1 = 2.1 μg/g) and lowest in BAMSE (GM Der p1 = 0.1 μg/g, Der f1 = 0.3 μg/g). Moderate and high HDM concentrations were significantly (P-values < 0.05) associated with 50-90% higher prevalence of HDM sensitization. No significant associations were observed with respiratory outcomes. Our study based on geographically spread regions, a large sample size, and a wide range of allergen concentration shows that HDM allergen concentrations vary across regions and that exposure during early life plays a role in the development of allergic sensitization but not in the development of respiratory outcomes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Perceived early-life maternal care and the cortisol response to repeated psychosocial stress.

    PubMed

    Engert, Veronika; Efanov, Simona I; Dedovic, Katarina; Duchesne, Annie; Dagher, Alain; Pruessner, Jens C

    2010-11-01

    In the past decade, a body of animal and human research has revealed a profound influence of early-life experiences, ranging from variations in parenting behaviour to severe adversity, on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis regulation in adulthood. In our own previous studies, we have shown how variations in early-life parental care influence the development of the hippocampus and modify the cortisol awakening response. In the present study, we investigated the influence of early-life maternal care on cortisol, heart rate and subjective psychological responses to the repeated administration of a psychosocial laboratory stressor in a population of 63 healthy young adults. Low, medium and high early-life maternal care groups were identified using the Parental Bonding Instrument. Controlling for the effect of sex, we found an inverted u-shaped relation between increasing levels of maternal care and cortisol stress responsivity. Specifically, overall and stress-induced cortisol levels went from below normal in the low maternal care, to normal in the medium care, back to below normal in the high maternal care groups. We found no group differences with respect to heart rate and subjective psychological stress measures. Whereas low and high maternal care groups exhibited similarly low endocrine stress responses, their psychological profiles were opposed with increased levels of depression and anxiety and decreased self-esteem in the low care group. Sex was unequally distributed among maternal care groups, whereby the number of men with low maternal care was too small to allow introducing sex as a second between-group variable. We discuss the potential significance of this dissociation between endocrine and psychological parameters with respect to stress vulnerability and resistance for each maternal care group.

  17. Early Life Factors and Adult Leisure Time Physical Inactivity Stability and Change.

    PubMed

    Pinto Pereira, Snehal M; Li, Leah; Power, Chris

    2015-09-01

    Physical inactivity has a high prevalence and associated disease burden. A better understanding of influences on sustaining and changing inactive lifestyles is needed. We aimed to establish whether leisure time inactivity was stable in midadulthood and whether early life factors were associated with inactivity patterns. In the 1958 British birth cohort (n = 12,271), leisure time inactivity (frequency, less than once a week) assessed at 33 and 50 yr was categorized as "never inactive," "persistently inactive," "deteriorating," or "improving." Early life factors (birth to 16 yr) were categorized into three (physical, social, and behavioral) domains. Using multinomial logistic regression, we assessed associations with inactivity persistence and change of factors within each early life domain and the three domains combined with and without adjustment for adult factors. Inactivity prevalence was similar at 33 and 50 yr (approximately 31%), but 17% deteriorated and 18% improved with age. In models adjusted for all domains simultaneously, factors associated with inactivity persistence versus never inactive were prepubertal stature (8% lower risk/height SD), poor hand control/coordination (17% higher risk/increase on four-point scale), cognition (16% lower/SD in ability) (physical); parental divorce (25% higher), class at birth (7% higher/reduction on four-point scale), minimal parental education (16% higher), household amenities (2% higher/increase in 19-point score (high = poor)) (social); and inactivity (22% higher/reduction in activity on four-point scale), low sports aptitude (47% higher), smoking (30% higher) (behavioral). All except stature, parental education, sports aptitude, and smoking were associated also with inactivity deterioration. Poor hand control/coordination was the only factor associated with improved status (13% lower/increase on four-point scale) versus persistently inactive. Adult leisure time inactivity is moderately stable. Early life factors are

  18. Perceived early-life maternal care and the cortisol response to repeated psychosocial stress

    PubMed Central

    Engert, Veronika; Efanov, Simona I.; Dedovic, Katarina; Duchesne, Annie; Dagher, Alain; Pruessner, Jens C.

    2010-01-01

    Background In the past decade, a body of animal and human research has revealed a profound influence of early-life experiences, ranging from variations in parenting behaviour to severe adversity, on hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis regulation in adulthood. In our own previous studies, we have shown how variations in early-life parental care influence the development of the hippocampus and modify the cortisol awakening response. Methods In the present study, we investigated the influence of early-life maternal care on cortisol, heart rate and subjective psychological responses to the repeated administration of a psychosocial laboratory stressor in a population of 63 healthy young adults. Low, medium and high early-life maternal care groups were identified using the Parental Bonding Instrument. Results Controlling for the effect of sex, we found an inverted u-shaped relation between increasing levels of maternal care and cortisol stress responsivity. Specifically, overall and stress-induced cortisol levels went from below normal in the low maternal care, to normal in the medium care, back to below normal in the high maternal care groups. We found no group differences with respect to heart rate and subjective psychological stress measures. Whereas low and high maternal care groups exhibited similarly low endocrine stress responses, their psychological profiles were opposed with increased levels of depression and anxiety and decreased self-esteem in the low care group. Limitations Sex was unequally distributed among maternal care groups, whereby the number of men with low maternal care was too small to allow introducing sex as a second between-group variable. Conclusion We discuss the potential significance of this dissociation between endocrine and psychological parameters with respect to stress vulnerability and resistance for each maternal care group. PMID:20964960

  19. Effect of Lactation on myocardial vulnerability to ischemic insult in rats

    PubMed Central

    Askari, Sahar; Imani, Alireza; Sadeghipour, Hamidreza; Faghihi, Mahdieh; Edalatyzadeh, Zohreh; Choopani, Samira; Karimi, Nasser; Fatima, Sulail

    2017-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of mortality and long-term disability worldwide. Various studies have suggested a protective effect of lactation in reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Objective This study was designed to assess the effects of pregnancy and lactation on the vulnerability of the myocardium to an ischemic insult. Methods Eighteen female rats were randomly divided into three groups: ischemia-reperfusion (IR), in which the hearts of virgin rats underwent IR (n = 6); lactating, in which the rats nursed their pups for 3 weeks and the maternal hearts were then submitted to IR (n = 6); and non-lactating, in which the pups were separated after birth and the maternal hearts were submitted to IR (n = 6). Outcome measures included heart rate (HR), left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), rate pressure product (RPP), ratio of the infarct size to the area at risk (IS/AAR %), and ventricular arrhythmias - premature ventricular contraction (PVC) and ventricular tachycardia (VT). Results The IS/AAR was markedly decreased in the lactating group when compared with the non-lactating group (13.2 ± 2.5 versus 39.7 ± 3.5, p < 0.001) and the IR group (13.2 ± 2.5 versus 34.0 ± 4.7, p < 0.05). The evaluation of IR-induced ventricular arrhythmias indicated that the number of compound PVCs during ischemia, and the number and duration of VTs during ischemia and in the first 5 minutes of reperfusion in the non-lactating group were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than those in the lactating and IR groups. Conclusion Lactation induced early-onset cardioprotective effects, while rats that were not allowed to nurse their pups were more susceptible to myocardial IR injury. PMID:28444063

  20. Development of early communication skills in the first two years of life.

    PubMed

    Beuker, Karin T; Rommelse, Nanda N J; Donders, Rogier; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2013-02-01

    The first two years of life is a crucially important period for the development of communication skills. In this study joint attention and language development were monthly assessed between 8 and 24 months of age in a sample of 23 typically developing children to establish the developmental trajectory of specific joint attention skills, to investigate the developmental interrelations of these different joint attention skills with vocabulary size, and to examine whether the order of development of following and directing attention influences the development of other early communication skills such as language. All joint attention skills emerged between 8 and 15 months of age and responsive joint attention skills tend to emerge before initiative joint attention. Early joint attention skills influenced later language development, but not the other way around. Children in whom directing attention with gaze alternation developed early (in age or order) showed a relatively larger early vocabulary growth. A fine grained mapping of the normal development of early communication skills can be helpful in the early detection of abnormalities in these skills. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Effect of Early Life Antibiotic Exposures on Diarrheal Rates Among Young Children in Vellore, India

    PubMed Central

    Westreich, Daniel; Becker-Dreps, Sylvia; Adair, Linda S.; Sandler, Robert S.; Sarkar, Rajiv; Kattula, Deepthi; Ward, Honorine D.; Meshnick, Steven R.; Kang, Gagandeep

    2015-01-01

    Background: Antibiotic treatment of childhood illnesses is common in India. In addition to contributing to antimicrobial resistance, antibiotics might result in increased susceptibility to diarrhea through interactions with the gastrointestinal microbiota. Breast milk, which enriches the microbiota early in life, may increase the resilience of the microbiota against perturbations by antibiotics. Methods: In a prospective observational cohort study, we assessed whether antibiotic exposures from birth to 6 months affected rates of diarrhea up to age 3 years among 465 children from Vellore, India. Adjusting for treatment indicators, we modeled diarrheal rates among children exposed and unexposed to antibiotics using negative binomial regression. We further assessed whether the effect of antibiotics on diarrheal rates was modified by exclusive breastfeeding at 6 months. Results: More than half of the children (n = 267, 57.4%) were given at least one course of antibiotics in the first 6 months of life. The adjusted relative incidence rate of diarrhea was 33% higher among children who received antibiotics under 6 months of age compared with those who did not (incidence rate ratio: 1.33, 95% confidence interval: 1.12, 1.57). Children who were exclusively breastfed until 6 months of age did not have increased diarrheal rates following antibiotic use. Conclusions: Antibiotic exposures early in life were associated with increased rates of diarrhea in early childhood. Exclusive breastfeeding might protect against this negative impact. PMID:25742244

  2. Early-life experience affects honey bee aggression and resilience to immune challenge

    PubMed Central

    Rittschof, Clare C.; Coombs, Chelsey B.; Frazier, Maryann; Grozinger, Christina M.; Robinson, Gene E.

    2015-01-01

    Early-life social experiences cause lasting changes in behavior and health for a variety of animals including humans, but it is not well understood how social information ‘‘gets under the skin’’ resulting in these effects. Adult honey bees (Apis mellifera) exhibit socially coordinated collective nest defense, providing a model for social modulation of aggressive behavior. Here we report for the first time that a honey bee’s early-life social environment has lasting effects on individual aggression: bees that experienced high-aggression environments during pre-adult stages showed increased aggression when they reached adulthood relative to siblings that experienced low-aggression environments, even though all bees were kept in a common environment during adulthood. Unlike other animals including humans however, high-aggression honey bees were more, rather than less, resilient to immune challenge, assessed as neonicotinoid pesticide susceptibility. Moreover, aggression was negatively correlated with ectoparasitic mite presence. In honey bees, early-life social experience has broad effects, but increased aggression is decoupled from negative health outcomes. Because honey bees and humans share aspects of their physiological response to aggressive social encounters, our findings represent a step towards identifying ways to improve individual resiliency. Pre-adult social experience may be crucial to the health of the ecologically threatened honey bee. PMID:26493190

  3. The effect of a low iron diet and early life methylmercury exposure in Daphnia pulex

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, Sherri L.; Doke, Dzigbodi A.; Gohlke, Julia M.

    2016-01-01

    Iron (Fe) deficiency increases risk for adverse health outcomes in humans; however little is known about the potential interaction with methylmercury (MeHg) exposure. Studies testing multiple stressor hypotheses are expensive and time consuming in mammalian model systems; therefore, determining relevance of alternative models is important. Daphnia pulex were fed standard or low-Fe diets of freshwater algae, Ankistrodesmus falcatus. MeHgCl (1600 ng/L) or vehicle was added to culture media for 24 h during early life, and the combinatorial effects of a low-Fe diet and MeHg exposure on lifespan, maturation time, and reproduction were evaluated. Lipid storage effects were measured using image analysis of Oil Red O staining and triacylglyceride quantification. Our results show a dose-dependent reduction in lifespan in D. pulex fed low Fe diets. Lipid analysis suggests an interactive effect of diet and MeHg exposure, with MeHg exposure increasing lipid storage in D. pulex fed a low-Fe diet. These findings suggest the effects of dietary iron intake and early life MeHg exposure in D. pulex may be mediated by changes in energetics that result in differential lipid storage. Therefore, lipid storage in D. pulex may be a useful screen for detecting long-term effects of multiple stressors early in life. PMID:26806633

  4. Impact of early life stress on the pathogenesis of mental disorders: relation to brain oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Schiavone, Stefania; Colaianna, Marilena; Curtis, Logos

    2015-01-01

    Stress is an inevitable part of human life and it is experienced even before birth. Stress to some extent could be considered normal and even necessary for the survival and the regular psychological development during childhood or adolescence. However, exposure to prolonged stress could become harmful and strongly impact mental health increasing the risk of developing psychiatric disorders. Recent studies have attempted to clarify how the human central nervous system (CNS) reacts to early life stress, focusing mainly on neurobiological modifications. Oxidative stress, defined as a disequilibrium between the oxidant generation and the antioxidant response, has been recently described as a candidate for most of the observed modifications. In this review, we will discuss how prolonged stressful events during childhood or adolescence (such as early maternal separation, parental divorce, physical violence, sexual or psychological abuses, or exposure to war events) can lead to increased oxidative stress in the CNS and enhance the risk to develop psychiatric diseases such as anxiety, depression, drug abuse or psychosis. Defining the sources of oxidative stress following exposure to early life stress might open new beneficial insights in therapeutic approaches to these mental disorders.

  5. Early-Life Nutrition and Neurodevelopment: Use of the Piglet as a Translational Model12

    PubMed Central

    Mudd, Austin T

    2017-01-01

    Optimal nutrition early in life is critical to ensure proper structural and functional development of infant organ systems. Although pediatric nutrition historically has emphasized research on the relation between nutrition, growth rates, and gastrointestinal maturation, efforts increasingly have focused on how nutrition influences neurodevelopment. The provision of human milk is considered the gold standard in pediatric nutrition; thus, there is interest in understanding how functional nutrients and bioactive components in milk may modulate developmental processes. The piglet has emerged as an important translational model for studying neurodevelopmental outcomes influenced by pediatric nutrition. Given the comparable nutritional requirements and strikingly similar brain developmental patterns between young pigs and humans, the piglet is being used increasingly in developmental nutritional neuroscience studies. The piglet primarily has been used to assess the effects of dietary fatty acids and their accretion in the brain throughout neurodevelopment. However, recent research indicates that other dietary components, including choline, iron, cholesterol, gangliosides, and sialic acid, among other compounds, also affect neurodevelopment in the pig model. Moreover, novel analytical techniques, including but not limited to MRI, behavioral assessments, and molecular quantification, allow for a more holistic understanding of how nutrition affects neurodevelopmental patterns. By combining early-life nutritional interventions with innovative analytical approaches, opportunities abound to quantify factors affecting neurodevelopmental trajectories in the neonate. This review discusses research using the translational pig model with primary emphasis on early-life nutrition interventions assessing neurodevelopment outcomes, while also discussing nutritionally-sensitive methods to characterize brain maturation. PMID:28096130

  6. Arsenic and Immune Response to Infection During Pregnancy and Early Life

    PubMed Central

    Attreed, Sarah E.; Navas-Acien, Ana

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of Review Arsenic, a known carcinogen and developmental toxicant, is a major threat to global health. While the contribution of arsenic exposure to chronic diseases and adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes is recognized, its ability to impair critical functions of humoral and cell-mediated immunity—including the specific mechanisms in humans—is not well understood. Arsenic has been shown to increase risk of infectious diseases that have significant health implications during pregnancy and early life. Here, we review the latest research on the mechanisms of arsenic-related immune response alterations that could underlie arsenic-associated increased risk of infection during the vulnerable periods of pregnancy and early life. Recent Findings The latest evidence points to alteration of antibody production and transplacental transfer as well as failure of T helper cells to produce IL-2 and proliferate. Summary Critical areas for future research include the effects of arsenic exposure during pregnancy and early life on immune responses to natural infection and the immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccines. PMID:28488132

  7. Arsenic and Immune Response to Infection During Pregnancy and Early Life.

    PubMed

    Attreed, Sarah E; Navas-Acien, Ana; Heaney, Christopher D

    2017-06-01

    Arsenic, a known carcinogen and developmental toxicant, is a major threat to global health. While the contribution of arsenic exposure to chronic diseases and adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes is recognized, its ability to impair critical functions of humoral and cell-mediated immunity-including the specific mechanisms in humans-is not well understood. Arsenic has been shown to increase risk of infectious diseases that have significant health implications during pregnancy and early life. Here, we review the latest research on the mechanisms of arsenic-related immune response alterations that could underlie arsenic-associated increased risk of infection during the vulnerable periods of pregnancy and early life. The latest evidence points to alteration of antibody production and transplacental transfer as well as failure of T helper cells to produce IL-2 and proliferate. Critical areas for future research include the effects of arsenic exposure during pregnancy and early life on immune responses to natural infection and the immunogenicity and efficacy of vaccines.

  8. Psychoneuroimmunology of Early-Life Stress: The Hidden Wounds of Childhood Trauma?

    PubMed Central

    Danese, Andrea; J Lewis, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    The brain and the immune system are not fully formed at birth, but rather continue to mature in response to the postnatal environment. The two-way interaction between the brain and the immune system makes it possible for childhood psychosocial stressors to affect immune system development, which in turn can affect brain development and its long-term functioning. Drawing from experimental animal models and observational human studies, we propose that the psychoneuroimmunology of early-life stress can offer an innovative framework to understand and treat psychopathology linked to childhood trauma. Early-life stress predicts later inflammation, and there are striking analogies between the neurobiological correlates of early-life stress and of inflammation. Furthermore, there are overlapping trans-diagnostic patterns of association of childhood trauma and inflammation with clinical outcomes. These findings suggest new strategies to remediate the effect of childhood trauma before the onset of clinical symptoms, such as anti-inflammatory interventions and potentiation of adaptive immunity. Similar strategies might be used to ameliorate the unfavorable treatment response described in psychiatric patients with a history of childhood trauma. PMID:27629365

  9. Early Life Origins of Metabolic Syndrome: The Role of Environmental Toxicants

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Guoying; Chen, Zhu; Bartell, Tami; Wang, Xiaobin

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) affects more than 47 million people in the U.S. Even more alarming, MetS, once regarded as an “adult problem”, has become increasingly common in children. To date, most related research and intervention efforts have occurred in the adult medicine arena, with limited understanding of the root causes and lengthy latency of MetS. This review highlights new science on the early life origins of MetS, with a particular focus on exposure to two groups of environmental toxicants: endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and metals during the prenatal and early postnatal periods, and their specific effects and important differences in the development of MetS. It also summarizes available data on epigenetic effects, including the role of EDCs in the androgen/estrogen pathways. Emerging evidence supports the link between exposures to environmental toxicants during early life and the development of MetS later in life. Additional research is needed to address important research gaps in this area, including prospective birth cohort studies to delineate temporal and dose-response relationships, important differences in the effects of various environmental toxicants and their joint effects on MetS, as well as epigenetic mechanisms underlying the effects of specific toxicants such as EDCs and metals. PMID:24883264

  10. Early Adversity and Developmental Outcomes: Interaction Between Genetics, Epigenetics, and Social Experiences Across the Life Span.

    PubMed

    Champagne, Frances A

    2010-09-01

    Longitudinal studies in humans demonstrate the association between prenatal and postnatal experiences of adversity and long-term changes in neurodevelopment. These studies raise the question of how experiences become incorporated at a biological level to induce persistent changes in functioning. Laboratory studies using animal models and recent analyses in human cohorts implicate epigenetic mechanisms as a possible route through which these environmental effects are achieved. In particular, there is evidence that changes in DNA methylation are associated with early life experiences with consequences for gene expression and behavior. Despite the potential stability of DNA methylation, it is apparent that this epigenetic mark can be dynamically modified through pharmacological targeting and behavioral experiences. Developmental plasticity may also be achieved through modification of the juvenile environment. Although these juvenile experiences may lead to common endpoints, there is evidence suggesting that the effects of early and later life experiences may be achieved by different molecular pathways. This review discusses evidence for the role of epigenetic mechanisms in shaping developmental trajectories in response to early life experience as well as the potential plasticity that can occur beyond the perinatal period. These studies have implications for approaches to intervention and suggest the importance of considering individual differences in genetic and epigenetic vulnerability in developing treatment strategies. © The Author(s) 2010.

  11. The developmental neurotoxicity of arsenic: cognitive and behavioral consequences of early life exposure.

    PubMed

    Tolins, Molly; Ruchirawat, Mathuros; Landrigan, Philip

    2014-01-01

    More than 200 million people worldwide are chronically exposed to arsenic. Arsenic is a known human carcinogen, and its carcinogenic and systemic toxicity have been extensively studied. By contrast, the developmental neurotoxicity of arsenic has been less well described. The aim of this review was to provide a comprehensive review of the developmental neurotoxicity of arsenic. We reviewed the published epidemiological and toxicological literature on the developmental neurotoxicity of arsenic. Arsenic is able to gain access to the developing brain and cause neurotoxic effects. Animal models link prenatal and early postnatal exposure to reduction in brain weight, reductions in numbers of glia and neurons, and alterations in neurotransmitter systems. Animal and in vitro studies both suggest that oxidative stress may be a mechanism of arsenic neurotoxicity. Fifteen epidemiological studies indicate that early life exposure is associated with deficits in intelligence and memory. These effects may occur at levels of exposure below current safety guidelines, and some neurocognitive consequences may become manifest only later in life. Sex, concomitant exposures, and timing of exposure appear to modify the developmental neurotoxicity of arsenic. Four epidemiological studies failed to show behavioral outcomes of arsenic exposure. The published literature indicates that arsenic is a human developmental neurotoxicant. Ongoing and future prospective birth cohort studies will allow more precise definition of the developmental consequences of arsenic exposure in early life. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Early Life Stress: Effects on the Regulation of Anxiety Expression in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Burkholder, Amanda R; Koss, Kalsea J; Hostinar, Camelia E; Johnson, Anna E; Gunnar, Megan R

    2016-11-01

    This study examined children's ( N = 79; 9-10 years) and adolescents' ( N = 82; 15-16 years) ability to regulate their emotion expressions of anxiety as they completed a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C). Approximately half in each age group were internationally adopted from institutional care ( N = 79) and half were non-adopted, age-matched peers ( N = 82). Institutional care was viewed as a form of early life stress. Coders who were reliable and blind to group status watched videos of the session to assess anxiety expressions using the Child and Adolescent Stress and Emotion Scale developed for this study. Children exhibited more expressions of anxiety than adolescents, and youth adopted from institutions showed more expressions of anxiety than their non-adopted counterparts. The role of early life stress on observed anxiety expressions remained significant after controlling for differences in age, physiological stress responses measured through salivary cortisol reactivity, and self-reports of stress during the TSST-C. This suggests possible deficits in the regulation of expressive behavior for youth with early life stress histories, which cannot be explained by experiencing the task as more stressful.

  13. Early Life Stress: Effects on the Regulation of Anxiety Expression in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Burkholder, Amanda R; Koss, Kalsea J.; Hostinar, Camelia E; Johnson, Anna E.; Gunnar, Megan R

    2017-01-01

    This study examined children’s (N = 79; 9–10 years) and adolescents’ (N = 82; 15–16 years) ability to regulate their emotion expressions of anxiety as they completed a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test for Children (TSST-C). Approximately half in each age group were internationally adopted from institutional care (N = 79) and half were non-adopted, age-matched peers (N = 82). Institutional care was viewed as a form of early life stress. Coders who were reliable and blind to group status watched videos of the session to assess anxiety expressions using the Child and Adolescent Stress and Emotion Scale developed for this study. Children exhibited more expressions of anxiety than adolescents, and youth adopted from institutions showed more expressions of anxiety than their non-adopted counterparts. The role of early life stress on observed anxiety expressions remained significant after controlling for differences in age, physiological stress responses measured through salivary cortisol reactivity, and self-reports of stress during the TSST-C. This suggests possible deficits in the regulation of expressive behavior for youth with early life stress histories, which cannot be explained by experiencing the task as more stressful. PMID:28584408

  14. Racial and gender discrimination, early life factors, and chronic physical health conditions in midlife.

    PubMed

    McDonald, Jasmine A; Terry, Mary Beth; Tehranifar, Parisa

    2014-01-01

    Most studies of perceived discrimination have been cross-sectional and focused primarily on mental rather than physical health conditions. We examined the associations of perceived racial and gender discrimination reported in adulthood with early life factors and self-reported physician diagnosis of chronic physical health conditions. We used data from a racially diverse birth cohort of U.S. women (n = 168; average age, 41 years) with prospectively collected early life data (e.g., parental socioeconomic factors) and adult reported data on perceived discrimination, physical health conditions, and relevant risk factors. We performed modified robust Poisson regression owing to the high prevalence of the outcomes. Fifty percent of participants reported racial and 39% reported gender discrimination. Early life factors did not have strong associations with perceived discrimination. In adjusted regression models, participants reporting at least three experiences of gender or racial discrimination had a 38% increased risk of having at least one physical health condition (relative risk, 1.38; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.87). Using standardized regression coefficients, the magnitude of the association of having physical health condition(s) was larger for perceived discrimination than for being overweight or obese. Our results suggest a substantial chronic disease burden associated with perceived discrimination, which may exceed the impact of established risk factors for poor physical health. Copyright © 2014 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Persistent behavioral effects following early life exposure to retinoic acid or valproic acid in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Jordan M.; Oliveri, Anthony N.; Karbhari, Nishika; Brooks, Roy A.J.; De La Rocha, Amberlene J.; Janardhan, Sheila; Levin, Edward D.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Moderate to severe dysregulation in retinoid signaling during early development is associated with a constellation of physical malformations and/or neural tube defects, including spina bifida. It is thought that more subtle dysregulation of this system, which might be achievable via dietary (i.e. hypervitaminosis A) or pharmacological (i.e. valproic acid) exposure in humans, will manifest on behavioral domains including sociability, without overt physical abnormalities. METHODS During early life, zebrafish were exposed to low doses of two chemicals that disrupt retinoid signaling. From 0-5 dpf, larvae were reared in aqueous solutions containing retinoic acid (0, 0.02, 0.2 or 2 nM) or valproic acid (0, 0.5, 5.0 or 50 uM). One cohort of zebrafish was assessed using a locomotor activity screen at 6-dpf; another was reared to adulthood and assessed using a neurobehavioral test battery (startle habituation, novel tank exploration, shoaling, and predator escape/avoidance). RESULTS There was no significant increase in the incidence of physical malformation among exposed fish compared to controls. Both retinoic acid and valproic acid exposures during development disrupted larval activity with persisting behavioral alterations later in life, primarily manifesting as decreased social affiliation. CONCLUSIONS Social behavior and some aspects of motor function were altered in exposed fish; the importance of examining emotional or psychological consequences of early life exposure to retinoid acting chemicals is discussed. PMID:26439099

  16. Personality and performance are affected by age and early life parameters in a small primate.

    PubMed

    Zablocki-Thomas, Pauline B; Herrel, Anthony; Hardy, Isabelle; Rabardel, Lucile; Perret, Martine; Aujard, Fabienne; Pouydebat, Emmanuelle

    2018-05-01

    A whole suite of parameters is likely to influence the behavior and performance of individuals as adults, including correlations between phenotypic traits or an individual's developmental context. Here, we ask the question whether behavior and physical performance traits are correlated and how early life parameters such as birth weight, litter size, and growth can influence these traits as measured during adulthood. We studied 486 captive gray mouse lemurs ( Microcebus murinus ) and measured two behavioral traits and two performance traits potentially involved in two functions: exploration behavior with pull strength and agitation score with bite force. We checked for the existence of behavioral consistency in behaviors and explored correlations between behavior, performance, morphology. We analyzed the effect of birth weight, growth, and litter size, while controlling for age, sex, and body weight. Behavior and performance were not correlated with one another, but were both influenced by age. Growth rate had a positive effect on adult morphology, and birth weight significantly affected emergence latency and bite force. Grip strength was not directly affected by early life traits, but bite performance and exploration behavior were impacted by birth weight. This study shows how early life parameters impact personality and performance.

  17. Racial and Gender Discrimination, Early Life Factors, and Chronic Physical Health Conditions in Midlife

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Jasmine A.; Terry, Mary Beth; Tehranifar, Parisa

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Most studies of perceived discrimination have been cross-sectional and focused primarily on mental rather than physical health conditions. We examined the associations of perceived racial and gender discrimination reported in adulthood with early life factors and self-reported physician-diagnosis of chronic physical health conditions. Methods We used data from a racially diverse birth cohort of U.S. women (N=168, average age=41 years) with prospectively collected early life data (e.g., parental socioeconomic factors) and adult reported data on perceived discrimination, physical health conditions, and relevant risk factors. We performed modified robust Poisson regression due to the high prevalence of the outcomes. Results Fifty-percent of participants reported racial and 39% reported gender discrimination. Early life factors did not have strong associations with perceived discrimination. In adjusted regression models, participants reporting at least three experiences of gender or racial discrimination had a 38% increased risk of having at least one physical health conditions (RR=1.38, 95% CI: 1.01-1.87). Using standardized regression coefficients, the magnitude of the association of having physical health conditions was larger for perceived discrimination than for being overweight or obese. Conclusion Our results suggest a substantial chronic disease burden associated with perceived discrimination, which may exceed the impact of established risk factors for poor physical health. PMID:24345610

  18. Global Effects of Early Life Stress on Neurons and Glial Cells.

    PubMed

    Duenas, Zulma; Caicedo-Mera, Juan Carlos; Torner, Luz

    2018-02-12

    Early life stress is considered a risk factor for the development of many diseases in both adolescence and adulthood. It has been reported that chronic stress (for instance, due to maternal separation during breast feeding), causes damage to the central nervous system at the level of neurons and glial cells, which are reflected in behavioral disturbances and susceptibility to the development of primarily emotional psychopathology. The aim of this review is to identify the overall state of the scientific literature that relates the information about the consequences of early life stress, contextualizing the mechanisms that may be altered, the behavioral consequences that have been studied and the possible dimorphic effects and its causes. At the end a short overview of pharmacological treatments that have been proposed to reduce the behavioral and neuroendocrine consequences caused by early life stress is presented. This review pretends to integrate general but relevant information based primarily on studies in animal models, which allow the experimental approach and the study of the mechanisms involved. A series of questions remains for reflection and surely will be answered in the near future. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  19. Orofacial pain and quality of life in early adolescents in India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sandeep; Badiyani, Bhumika K; Kumar, Amit; Dixit, Garima; Sharma, Prachi; Agrawal, Sugandha

    2016-08-18

    Orofacial pain may have an impact on quality of life. It may affect the overall well-being of an individual. To assess the prevalence of orofacial pain and its impact on quality of life in early adolescents in Indore city, India. This was a cross-sectional study which included a total of 800 children selected from various public and private schools located in Indore city, India. A questionnaire was developed which collected information on sociodemographic characteristics and previous dental visits. The severity of pain was assessed using Von Korff pain scale and quality of life using the General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ-12). The chi-square test and logistic regression analysis were performed. The overall prevalence of orofacial pain was found to be 17.9%. Toothache (10.1%) was found to be the most prevalent orofacial pain followed by temporomandibular joint pain (4.3%). The highest severity of pain (Grades 3 and 4) was reported for toothache followed by temporomandibular joint pain. The results of the logistic regression model showed that the prevalence of orofacial pain (odds ratio=7.18, p-value<0.0001a) was strongly associated with poor quality of life. The orofacial pain has a negative influence on the quality of life of adolescents. Effective policies should be created to improve the quality of life of adolescents focusing on oral health education and prevention of oral diseases.

  20. Detection of vulnerable neurons damaged by environmental insults in utero

    PubMed Central

    Torii, Masaaki; Chang, Yu-Wen; Ishii, Seiji; Waxman, Stephen G.; Kocsis, Jeffery D.; Rakic, Pasko; Hashimoto-Torii, Kazue

    2017-01-01

    Development of prognostic biomarkers for the detection of prenatally damaged neurons before manifestations of postnatal disorders is an essential step for prevention and treatment of susceptible individuals. We have developed a versatile fluorescence reporter system in mice enabling detection of Heat Shock Factor 1 activation in response to prenatal cellular damage caused by exposure to various harmful chemical or physical agents. Using an intrautero electroporation-mediated reporter assay and transgenic reporter mice, we are able to identify neurons that survive prenatal exposure to harmful agents but remain vulnerable in postnatal life. This system may provide a powerful tool for exploring the pathogenesis and treatment of multiple disorders caused by exposure to environmental stress before symptoms become manifested, exacerbated, and/or irreversible. PMID:28123061

  1. Early life risk factors that contribute to irritable bowel syndrome in adults: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chitkara, Denesh K; van Tilburg, Miranda A L; Blois-Martin, Nannette; Whitehead, William E

    2008-03-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common disorder that occurs in adults. The natural history of symptoms and risk factors that contribute to IBS may begin in childhood. The aim of this systematic review was to determine what early life factors contribute to the development of IBS in adolescents and adults. A computer-assisted search of the PubMed database from 1966 to 2007 was performed. The selection criteria were: (a) studies conducted in adolescents or adults with IBS that (b) investigate premorbid factors occurring specifically during the childhood period and are (c) associated with the outcomes of symptoms, quality of life, health-care utilization, and interferences with work or disability. Twenty-five articles met inclusion criteria. The studies were categorized into articles examining the persistence of childhood gastrointestinal symptoms into adulthood, affluent childhood socioeconomic status and adult IBS, infantile and childhood trauma associated with the development of adult IBS, and social learning of illness behavior as predictors of adult IBS. Pediatricians should be aware of potentially modifiable childhood risk factors and should consider interventions such as early symptom management of recurrent functional abdominal pain with cognitive therapies and parent education about social learning of illness behavior. Early treatment may have a long-term impact. Research examining the effect of affluent childhood socioeconomic status and early childhood trauma in the evolution of functional gastrointestinal disorders may help identify causative factors of IBS.

  2. Comparative responses to endocrine disrupting compounds in early life stages of Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar.

    PubMed

    Duffy, T A; Iwanowicz, L R; McCormick, S D

    2014-07-01

    Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) are endangered anadromous fish that may be exposed to feminizing endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) during early development, potentially altering physiological capacities, survival and fitness. To assess differential life stage sensitivity to common EDCs, we carried out short-term (4 day) exposures using three doses each of 17 α-ethinylestradiol (EE2), 17 β-estradiol (E2), and nonylphenol (NP) on four early life stages; embryos, yolk-sac larvae, feeding fry and 1 year old smolts. Differential response was compared using vitellogenin (Vtg, a precursor egg protein) gene transcription. Smolts were also examined for impacts on plasma Vtg, cortisol, thyroid hormones (T4/T3) and hepatosomatic index (HSI). Compound-related mortality was not observed in any life stage, but Vtg mRNA was elevated in a dose-dependent manner in yolk-sac larvae, fry and smolts but not in embryos. The estrogens EE2 and E2 were consistently stronger inducers of Vtg than NP. Embryos responded significantly to the highest concentration of EE2 only, while older life stages responded to the highest doses of all three compounds, as well as intermediate doses of EE2 and E2. Maximal transcription was greater for fry among the three earliest life stages, suggesting fry may be the most responsive life stage in early development. Smolt plasma Vtg was also significantly increased, and this response was observed at lower doses of each compound than was detected by gene transcription suggesting plasma Vtg is a more sensitive indicator at this life stage. HSI was increased at the highest doses of EE2 and E2, and plasma T3 was decreased at the highest dose of EE2. Our results indicate that all life stages are potentially sensitive to endocrine disruption by estrogenic compounds and that physiological responses were altered over a short window of exposure, indicating the potential for these compounds to impact fish in the wild. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  3. Increased amygdala reactivity following early life stress: a potential resilience enhancer role.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Toki, Shigeru; Siegle, Greg J; Takamura, Masahiro; Takaishi, Yoshiyuki; Yoshimura, Shinpei; Okada, Go; Matsumoto, Tomoya; Nakao, Takashi; Muranaka, Hiroyuki; Kaseda, Yumiko; Murakami, Tsuneji; Okamoto, Yasumasa; Yamawaki, Shigeto

    2017-01-18

    Amygdala hyper-reactivity is sometimes assumed to be a vulnerability factor that predates depression; however, in healthy people, who experience early life stress but do not become depressed, it may represent a resilience mechanism. We aimed to test these hypothesis examining whether increased amygdala activity in association with a history of early life stress (ELS) was negatively or positively associated with depressive symptoms and impact of negative life event stress in never-depressed adults. Twenty-four healthy participants completed an individually tailored negative mood induction task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) assessment along with evaluation of ELS. Mood change and amygdala reactivity were increased in never-depressed participants who reported ELS compared to participants who reported no ELS. Yet, increased amygdala reactivity lowered effects of ELS on depressive symptoms and negative life events stress. Amygdala reactivity also had positive functional connectivity with the bilateral DLPFC, motor cortex and striatum in people with ELS during sad memory recall. Increased amygdala activity in those with ELS was associated with decreased symptoms and increased neural features, consistent with emotion regulation, suggesting that preservation of robust amygdala reactions may reflect a stress buffering or resilience enhancing factor against depression and negative stressful events.

  4. Early life stages contribute strongly to local adaptation in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Postma, Froukje M; Ågren, Jon

    2016-07-05

    The magnitude and genetic basis of local adaptation is of fundamental interest in evolutionary biology. However, field experiments usually do not consider early life stages, and therefore may underestimate local adaptation and miss genetically based tradeoffs. We examined the contribution of differences in seedling establishment to adaptive differentiation and the genetic architecture of local adaptation using recombinant inbred lines (RIL) derived from a cross between two locally adapted populations (Italy and Sweden) of the annual plant Arabidopsis thaliana We planted freshly matured, dormant seeds (>180 000) representing >200 RILs at the native field sites of the parental genotypes, estimated the strength of selection during different life stages, mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) for fitness and its components, and quantified selection on seed dormancy. We found that selection during the seedling establishment phase contributed strongly to the fitness advantage of the local genotype at both sites. With one exception, local alleles of the eight distinct establishment QTL were favored. The major QTL for establishment and total fitness showed evidence of a fitness tradeoff and was located in the same region as the major seed dormancy QTL and the dormancy gene DELAY OF GERMINATION 1 (DOG1). RIL seed dormancy could explain variation in seedling establishment and fitness across the life cycle. Our results demonstrate that genetically based differences in traits affecting performance during early life stages can contribute strongly to adaptive differentiation and genetic tradeoffs, and should be considered for a full understanding of the ecology and genetics of local adaptation.

  5. Sibling cooperation in earwig families provides insights into the early evolution of social life.

    PubMed

    Falk, Joachim; Wong, Janine W Y; Kölliker, Mathias; Meunier, Joël

    2014-04-01

    The evolutionary transition from solitary to social life is driven by direct and indirect fitness benefits of social interactions. Understanding the conditions promoting the early evolution of social life therefore requires identification of these benefits in nonderived social systems, such as animal families where offspring are mobile and able to disperse and will survive independently. Family life is well known to provide benefits to offspring through parental care, but research on sibling interactions generally focused on fitness costs to offspring due to competitive behaviors. Here we show experimentally that sibling interactions also reflect cooperative behaviors in the form of food sharing in nonderived families of the European earwig, Forficula auricularia. Food ingested by individual offspring was transferred to their siblings through mouth-to-anus contacts and active allo-coprophagy. These transfers occurred in both the presence and the absence of the tending mothers, even though the direct contact with the mothers limited sibling food sharing. Neither food deprivation or relatedness influenced the total amount of transferred food, but relatedness affected frass release and the behavioral mechanisms mediating food sharing. Related offspring obtained food predominately through allo-coprophagy, whereas unrelated offspring obtained food through mouth-to-anus contacts. Overall, this study emphasizes that sibling cooperation may be a key process promoting the early evolution of social life.

  6. Does adversity early in life affect general population suicide rates? A cross-national study.

    PubMed

    Shah, Ajit; Bhandarkar, Ritesh

    2011-01-01

    Adversity early in life has been suggested as a protective factor for elderly suicides. However, studies examining this relationship in general population suicide rates are scarce. The relationship between general population suicide rates and four proxy measures of adversity earlier in life was examined using data from the World Health Organization and the United Nations data banks. General population suicide rates were negatively correlated with the percentage of children under the age of 5 years who were underweight, the percentage of children under the age of 5 years who were under height, the percentage of infants with low birth weight babies, and the percentage of the general population that was undernourished. The only independent predictor general population suicide rates in both sexes, on multiple regression analysis, was the Gini coefficient (a measure of income inequality). Income inequality may lead to low birth weight, undernourishment, underweight and under height because income inequality results in poor access to healthcare and nutrition. These adversities may increase child mortality rates and reduce life expectancy. Those surviving into adulthood in countries with greater adversity early in life may be at reduced risk of suicide because of selective survival of those at reduced risk of suicide due to constitutional or genetic factors and development of greater tolerance to hardship in adulthood. ‎

  7. Habitability and the Possibility of Extraterrestrial Life in the Early Telescope Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    Early telescopic observations of the Moon and planets prompted great interest in the already-existing debate about the possibility of life on the Moon and other worlds. New observations of the lunar surface, revealing an apparently Earth-like terrain and possibly the presence of bodies of water, were often considered in relation to their implications for the existence of lunar inhabitants. This depended upon establishing what constituted the fundamental requirements for life and the boundaries of habitability. The growing support for the heliocentric Copernican astronomy was also changing perceptions of the relationships between the Earth, the Moon, and the planets. Works such as Johannes Kepler’s Somnium and John Wilkins’ The Discovery of a World in the Moone presented views of extraterrestrial life that were shifting from the supernatural to the natural, in correspondence with the celestial bodies’ new positions in the cosmos. This paper considers how these and other works from the early telescope era reveal changes in the nature of astronomical speculation about extraterrestrial life and the conditions construed as “habitability,” and what significance that history has for us today in the new era of extrasolar planet discovery.

  8. Sex differences in early-life programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis in humans.

    PubMed

    Gifford, Robert M; Reynolds, Rebecca M

    2017-11-01

    Increasing evidence supports fetal glucocorticoid exposure with associated altered offspring hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity as a key mechanism linking early life events with later life disease. Alterations in HPA axis activity are linked to a range of cardiometabolic and psychiatric diseases. As many of these diseases manifest sex differences in presentation we review the evidence for programmed sex-differences in the HPA axis. Available literature suggests vulnerability of the female HPA axis to prenatal stressors with female offspring demonstrating increased HPA axis reactivity. This may be due to changes in placental glucocorticoid metabolism leading to increased fetal glucocorticoid exposure. We discuss the potential consequences of increased vulnerability of the female HPA axis for later life health and consider the underlying mechanisms. Further studies are needed to determine whether sex-differences in early-life programming of the HPA axis represent a pathway underpinning the sex-differences in common cardiometabolic and psychiatric diseases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The effects of parasites on the early life stages of a damselfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, D.; Blomberg, S. P.; Cribb, T. H.; McCormick, M. I.; Grutter, A. S.

    2012-12-01

    Early life history traits, such as larval growth, influence the success of coral reef fish in the transition from the larval to the juvenile life phase. Few studies, however, have examined the relationship between parasites and growth in the early life history stages of such fishes. This study examined how parasite prevalence (% infected) and load, and the relationship between parasite presence and fish growth, differed among life stages of the damselfish Pomacentrus amboinensis. Parasite prevalence decreased significantly between the larval stage, which was sampled immediately before settlement on the reef (97 %) and recently settled juveniles (60 %); prevalence was also high for 4-month-old juveniles (90 %), 7-month-old juveniles (100 %) and adult fish (100 %). Total numbers of parasites per fish decreased dramatically (fourfold) between larval and recently settled fish, and then increased in the older stages to levels similar to those observed in larvae, but they did so more gradually than did prevalence. One explanation for these patterns is that heavily infected larvae were preferentially removed from the population during or soon after settlement. Daily fish growth, determined from otolith increments, revealed that growth did not differ between parasitised and non-parasitised larval fish, whereas recently settled fish that were parasitised had faster growth; these parasitised recently settled fish also displayed faster growth prior to settlement. These data provide evidence that parasites may explain some of the variation in growth and survival observed among coral reef fishes after settlement and thereby have a greater impact on population dynamics than previously understood.

  10. Development of the cortisol circadian rhythm in the light of stress early in life.

    PubMed

    Simons, Sterre S H; Beijers, Roseriet; Cillessen, Antonius H N; de Weerth, Carolina

    2015-12-01

    The secretion of the stress hormone cortisol follows a diurnal circadian rhythm. There are indications that this rhythm is affected by stress early in life. This paper addresses the development of the cortisol circadian rhythm between 1 and 6 years of age, and the role of maternal stress and anxiety early in the child's life on this (developing) rhythm. Participants were 193 healthy mother-child dyads from a community sample. Self-reported maternal stress and anxiety and physiological stress (saliva cortisol), were assessed prenatally (gestational week 37). Postnatally, self-reported maternal stress and anxiety were measured at 3, 6, 12, 30, and 72 months. Saliva cortisol samples from the children were collected on two days (four times each day) at 12, 30, and 72 months of age. The total amount of cortisol during the day and the cortisol decline over the day were determined to indicate children's cortisol circadian rhythm. Multilevel analyses showed that the total amount of cortisol decreased between 1 and 6 years. Furthermore, more maternal pregnancy-specific stress was related to higher total amounts of cortisol in the child. Higher levels of early postnatal maternal anxiety were associated with flatter cortisol declines in children. Higher levels of early postnatal maternal daily hassles were associated with steeper child cortisol declines over the day. These results indicated developmental change in children's cortisol secretion from 1 to 6 years and associations between maternal stress and anxiety early in children's lives and children's cortisol circadian rhythm in early childhood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Intestinal microbiota composition after antibiotic treatment in early life: the INCA study.

    PubMed

    Rutten, N B M M; Rijkers, G T; Meijssen, C B; Crijns, C E; Oudshoorn, J H; van der Ent, C K; Vlieger, A M

    2015-12-09

    The acquisition and development of infant gut microbiota can be influenced by numerous factors, of which early antibiotic treatment is an important one. However, studies on the effects of antibiotic treatment in early life on clinical outcomes and establishment and development of the gut microbiota of term infants are limited. Disturbed microbiota composition is hypothesized to be an underlying mechanism of an aberrant development of the immune system. This study aims to investigate the potential clinical and microbial consequences of empiric antibiotic use in early life. 450 term born infants, of whom 150 are exposed to antibiotic treatment in early life and 300 are not (control group), are included in this observational cohort study with a one-year follow-up. Clinical outcomes, including coughing, wheezing, fever >38 °C, runny nose, glue ear, rash, diarrhea and >3 crying hours a day, are recorded daily by parents and examined by previously defined doctor's diagnosis. A blood sample is taken at closure to investigate the infant's vaccination response and sensitization for food and inhalant allergens. Fecal samples are obtained at eight time points during the first year of life. Potential differences in microbial profiles of infants treated with antibiotics versus healthy controls will be determined by use of 16S-23S rRNA gene analysis (IS-pro). Microbiota composition will be described by means of abundance, diversity and (dis)similarity. Diversity is calculated using the Shannon index. Dissimilarities between samples are calculated as the cosine distance between each pair of samples and analyzed with principal coordinate analysis. Clinical variables and possible associations are assessed by appropriate statistics. Both clinical quantitative and qualitative microbial effects of antibiotic treatment in early life may be demonstrated. These findings can be important, since there is evidence that manipulation of the infant microbiota by using pre- or probiotics can

  12. Does early-life income inequality predict self-reported health in later life? Evidence from the United States.

    PubMed

    Lillard, Dean R; Burkhauser, Richard V; Hahn, Markus H; Wilkins, Roger

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the association between adult health and the income inequality they experienced as children up to 80 years earlier. Our inequality data track shares of national income held by top percentiles from 1913 to 2009. We average those data over the same early-life years and merge them to individual data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics data for 1984-2009. Controlling for demographic and economic factors, we find both men and women are statistically more likely to report poorer health if income was more unequally distributed during the first years of their lives. The association is robust to alternative specifications of income inequality and time trends and remains significant even when we control for differences in overall childhood health. Our results constitute prima facie evidence that adults' health may be adversely affected by the income inequality they experienced as children. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. AGING AND ANIMAL MODELS OF SYSTEMIC INSULT: TRAUMA, BURN, AND SEPSIS

    PubMed Central

    Nomellini, Vanessa; Gomez, Christian R.; Gamelli, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    In the acute-care setting, it is widely accepted that elderly patients have increased morbidity and mortality compared with young healthy patients. The reasons for this, however, are largely unknown. Although animal modeling has helped improve treatment strategies for young patients, there are a scarce number of studies attempting to understand the mechanisms of systemic insults such as trauma, burn, and sepsis in aged individuals. This review aims to highlight the relevance of using animals to study the pathogenesis of these insults in the aged and, despite the deficiency of information, to summarize what is currently known in this field. PMID:18636047

  14. Long-Term Neurotoxic Effects of Early Life Exposure to Tetrachloroethylene-contaminated Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Aschengrau, Ann; Janulewicz, Patricia A.; White, Roberta F.; Vieira, Veronica M.; Gallagher, Lisa G.; Getz, Kelly D.; Webster, Thomas F.; Ozonoff, David M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Tetrachloroethene (PCE) is a common environmental and occupational contaminant and an acknowledged neurotoxicant. From 1968 through 1983 widespread contamination of public drinking water supplies with PCE occurred in the Cape Cod region of Massachusetts. The source of the contamination was a vinyl liner applied to the inner surface of water distribution pipes. Objectives A retrospective cohort study (“the Cape Cod Health Study”) was undertaken to examine possible health consequences of early life exposure to PCE-contaminated drinking water. This review describes the study methods and findings regarding the impact of prenatal and childhood exposure on neurological outcomes during early adulthood, including vision, neuropsychological functioning, brain structure, risky behaviors, and mental illness. The review also describes the strengths and challenges of conducting population-based epidemiological research in this unique setting. Methods Subjects were identified by cross-matching birth certificate and water system data. Information on health outcomes and confounding variables was collected from self-administered surveys (N= 1,689), neuropsychological tests (N=63), vision exam (N=63), and magnetic resonance imaging (N=42). Early life exposure to PCE was estimated using a leaching and transport model. The data analysis compared the occurrence of each health outcome among subjects with prenatal and early childhood PCE exposure to unexposed subjects while considering the impact of confounding variables. Results The study found evidence that early life exposure to PCE-contaminated drinking water has long-term neurotoxic effects. The strongest associations were seen with illicit drug use, bipolar disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Key strengths of the study were availability of historical data on affected water systems, a relatively high exposure prevalence and wide range of exposure levels, and little confounding. Challenges arose mainly from

  15. How to stomach an epigenetic insult: the gastric cancer epigenome.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, Nisha; Ushijima, Toshikazu; Tan, Patrick

    2017-08-01

    Gastric cancer is a deadly malignancy afflicting close to a million people worldwide. Patient survival is poor and largely due to late diagnosis and suboptimal therapies. Disease heterogeneity is a substantial obstacle, underscoring the need for precision treatment strategies. Studies have identified different subgroups of gastric cancer displaying not just genetic, but also distinct epigenetic hallmarks. Accumulating evidence suggests that epigenetic abnormalities in gastric cancer are not mere bystander events, but rather promote carcinogenesis through active mechanisms. Epigenetic aberrations, induced by pathogens such as Helicobacter pylori, are an early component of gastric carcinogenesis, probably preceding genetic abnormalities. This Review summarizes our current understanding of the gastric cancer epigenome, highlighting key advances in recent years in both tumours and pre-malignant lesions, made possible through targeted and genome-wide technologies. We focus on studies related to DNA methylation and histone modifications, linking these findings to potential therapeutic opportunities. Lessons learned from the gastric cancer epigenome might also prove relevant for other gastrointestinal cancers.

  16. Early life stress determines the effects of glucocorticoids and stress on hippocampal function: Electrophysiological and behavioral evidence respectively.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Anup G; Arp, Marit; Velzing, Els; Lesuis, Sylvie L; Schmidt, Mathias V; Holsboer, Florian; Joëls, Marian; Krugers, Harm J

    2018-05-01

    Exposure to early-life adversity may program brain function to prepare individuals for adaptation to matching environmental contexts. In this study we tested this hypothesis in more detail by examining the effects of early-life stress - induced by raising offspring with limited nesting and bedding material from postnatal days 2-9 - in various behavioral tasks and on synaptic function in adult mice. Early-life stress impaired adult performance in the hippocampal dependent low-arousing object-in-context recognition memory task. This effect was absent when animals were exposed to a single stressor before training. Early-life stress did not alter high-arousing context and auditory fear conditioning. Early-life stress-induced behavioral modifications were not associated with alterations in the dendritic architecture of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons or principal neurons of the basolateral amygdala. However, early-life stress reduced the ratio of NMDA to AMPA receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic currents and glutamate release probability specifically in hippocampal CA1 neurons, but not in the basolateral amygdala. These ex vivo effects in the hippocampus were abolished by acute glucocorticoid treatment. Our findings support that early-life stress can hamper object-in-context learning via pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms that affect hippocampal function but these effects are counteracted by acute stress or elevated glucocorticoid levels. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Early-life conditions and health at older ages: The mediating role of educational attainment, family and employment trajectories

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Objectives We examine to what extent the effect of early-life conditions (health and socioeconomic status) on health in later life is mediated by educational attainment and life-course trajectories (fertility, partnership, employment). Methods Using data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (N = 12,034), we apply, separately by gender, multichannel sequence analysis and cluster analysis to obtain groups of similar family and employment histories. The KHB method is used to disentangle direct and indirect effects of early-life conditions on health. Results Early-life-conditions indirectly impact on health in later life as result of their influence on education and family and employment trajectories. For example, between 22% and 42% of the effect of low parental socio-economic status at childhood on the three considered health outcomes at older age is explained by educational attainment for women. Even higher percentages are found for men (35% - 57%). On the contrary, the positive effect of poor health at childhood on poor health at older ages is not significantly mediated by education and life-course trajectories. Education captures most of the mediating effect of parental socio-economic status. More specifically, between 66% and 75% of the indirect effect of low parental socio-economic status at childhood on the three considered health outcomes at older age is explained by educational attainment for women. Again, higher percentages are found for men (86% - 93%). Early-life conditions, especially socioeconomic status, influence family and employment trajectories indirectly through their impact on education. We also find a persistent direct impact of early-life conditions on health at older ages. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that early-life experiences influence education and life-course trajectories and health in later life, suggesting that public investments in children are expected to produce long lasting effects on people’s lives

  18. Early-life conditions and health at older ages: The mediating role of educational attainment, family and employment trajectories.

    PubMed

    Arpino, Bruno; Gumà, Jordi; Julià, Albert

    2018-01-01

    We examine to what extent the effect of early-life conditions (health and socioeconomic status) on health in later life is mediated by educational attainment and life-course trajectories (fertility, partnership, employment). Using data from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (N = 12,034), we apply, separately by gender, multichannel sequence analysis and cluster analysis to obtain groups of similar family and employment histories. The KHB method is used to disentangle direct and indirect effects of early-life conditions on health. Early-life-conditions indirectly impact on health in later life as result of their influence on education and family and employment trajectories. For example, between 22% and 42% of the effect of low parental socio-economic status at childhood on the three considered health outcomes at older age is explained by educational attainment for women. Even higher percentages are found for men (35% - 57%). On the contrary, the positive effect of poor health at childhood on poor health at older ages is not significantly mediated by education and life-course trajectories. Education captures most of the mediating effect of parental socio-economic status. More specifically, between 66% and 75% of the indirect effect of low parental socio-economic status at childhood on the three considered health outcomes at older age is explained by educational attainment for women. Again, higher percentages are found for men (86% - 93%). Early-life conditions, especially socioeconomic status, influence family and employment trajectories indirectly through their impact on education. We also find a persistent direct impact of early-life conditions on health at older ages. Our findings demonstrate that early-life experiences influence education and life-course trajectories and health in later life, suggesting that public investments in children are expected to produce long lasting effects on people's lives throughout the different phases of their

  19. Stress exposure in early post-natal life reduces telomere length: an experimental demonstration in a long-lived seabird

    PubMed Central

    Herborn, Katherine A.; Heidinger, Britt J.; Boner, Winnie; Noguera, Jose C.; Adam, Aileen; Daunt, Francis; Monaghan, Pat

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to stressors early in life is associated with faster ageing and reduced longevity. One important mechanism that could underlie these late life effects is increased telomere loss. Telomere length in early post-natal life is an important predictor of subsequent lifespan, but the factors underpinning its variability are poorly understood. Recent human studies have linked stress exposure to increased telomere loss. These studies have of necessity been non-experimental and are consequently subjected to several confounding factors; also, being based on leucocyte populations, where cell composition is variable and some telomere restoration can occur, the extent to which these effects extend beyond the immune system has been questioned. In this study, we experimentally manipulated stress exposure early in post-natal life in nestling European shags (Phalacrocorax aristotelis) in the wild and examined the effect on telomere length in erythrocytes. Our results show that greater stress exposure during early post-natal life increases telomere loss at this life-history stage, and that such an effect is not confined to immune cells. The delayed effects of increased telomere attrition in early life could therefore give rise to a ‘time bomb’ that reduces longevity in the absence of any obvious phenotypic consequences early in life. PMID:24648221

  20. Time course for memory dysfunction in early-life and late-life major depression: a longitudinal study from the Juntendo University Mood Disorder Project.

    PubMed

    Maeshima, Hitoshi; Baba, Hajime; Nakano, Yoshiyuki; Satomura, Emi; Namekawa, Yuki; Takebayashi, Naoko; Nomoto, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Toshihito; Mimura, Masaru; Arai, Heii

    2013-10-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that patients with depression also have memory dysfunctions during depressive episodes. These dysfunctions partially remain immediately after remission from a depressive state; however, it is unclear whether these residual memory dysfunctions may disappear through long-term remission from depression. The present study compared patients during early-life (age<60) and late-life (age ≥ 60) depression while in their remitted stage with healthy controls to elucidate the impact of a long-term course on memory. Logical memory from the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised was administered to 67 patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) (47 patients with early-life depression and residual 20 patients with late-life depression) and 50 healthy controls. MDD patients received memory assessments at the time of their initial remission and at a follow-up three years after remission. At the time of initial remission, scores for logical memory were significantly lower in both patient groups compared to matched controls. At follow-up, memory dysfunction for early-life MDD patients disappeared, whereas scores in the late-life MDD group remained significantly lower than those of matched controls. All patients in the present study were on antidepressant medications. Our findings suggested that the progress of memory performance in late-life MDD patients may be different from early-life MDD patients. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Expression of glucocorticoid receptor and early growth response gene 1 during postnatal development of two inbred strains of mice exposed to early life stress.

    PubMed

    Navailles, Sylvia; Zimnisky, Ross; Schmauss, Claudia

    2010-07-01

    Early life stress can elicit profound changes in adult gene expression and behavior. One consequence of early life stress is a decreased expression of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) in the frontal cortex and hippocampus. However, neither the time of onset nor the mechanism(s) leading to decreased GR expression during postnatal development are known. The present study used two inbred strains of mice that differ in their behavioral responsiveness to stress (Balb/c and C57Bl/6), exposed them to an established paradigm of early life stress (infant maternal separation), and measured their expression of frontal cortical and hippocampal GRs and the putative transcriptional activator of the GR gene, early growth response gene (egr)-1, at defined stages of postnatal development. In both strains, real-time RT-PCR experiments revealed that decreased expression of GR in adolescence and adulthood is, in fact, preceded by increased GR expression during early life stress exposure. Thus, the early life stress-induced disruption of the normal stress-hyporesponsive period during infancy is accompanied by increased GR expression. Moreover, chronic treatment with the antidepressant drug fluoxetine during adolescence or adulthood reversed the effect of early life stress on adult GR mRNA expression. In contrast to the strain-independent effect of early life stress on GR expression, however, changes in egr-1 expression occurred only in Balb/c mice, and unlike the biphasic developmental changes in GR mRNA expression, egr-1 mRNA was decreased throughout postnatal development. Moreover, there was no consistent overlap of anatomic regions affected by decreased GR and egr-1 protein expression. Thus, in Balb/c mice, changes in GR and egr-1 expression can independently contribute to the phenotypes resulting from early life stress exposure. These findings illustrate that the impact of early life stress on gene expression changes is modulated by the genetic background and that the persistent

  2. Original Research: Metabolic alterations from early life thyroxine replacement therapy in male Ames dwarf mice are transient.

    PubMed

    Darcy, Justin; Fang, Yimin; Hill, Cristal M; McFadden, Sam; Sun, Liou Y; Bartke, Andrzej

    2016-10-01

    Ames dwarf mice are exceptionally long-lived due to a Prop1 loss of function mutation resulting in deficiency of growth hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone and prolactin. Deficiency in thyroid-stimulating hormone and growth hormone leads to greatly reduced levels of circulating thyroid hormones and insulin-like growth factor 1, as well as a reduction in insulin secretion. Early life growth hormone replacement therapy in Ames dwarf mice significantly shortens their longevity, while early life thyroxine (T4) replacement therapy does not. Possible mechanisms by which early life growth hormone replacement therapy shortens longevity include deleterious effects on glucose homeostasis and energy metabolism, which are long lasting. A mechanism explaining why early life T4 replacement therapy does not shorten longevity remains elusive. Here, we look for a possible explanation as to why early life T4 replacement therapy does not impact longevity of Ames dwarf mice. We found that early life T4 replacement therapy increased body weight and advanced the age of sexual maturation. We also find that early life T4 replacement therapy does not impact glucose tolerance or insulin sensitivity, and any deleterious effects on oxygen consumption, respiratory quotient and heat production are transient. Lastly, we find that early life T4 replacement therapy has long-lasting effects on bone mineral density and bone mineral content. We suggest that the transient effects on energy metabolism and lack of effects on glucose homeostasis are the reasons why there is no shortening of longevity after early life T4 replacement therapy in Ames dwarf mice. © 2016 by the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine.

  3. Early life risk factors and their cumulative effects as predictors of overweight in Spanish children.

    PubMed

    Iguacel, Isabel; Escartín, Laura; Fernández-Alvira, Juan M; Iglesia, Iris; Labayen, Idoia; Moreno, Luis A; Samper, María Pilar; Rodríguez, Gerardo

    2018-05-01

    To explore early life risk factors of overweight/obesity at age 6 years and their cumulative effects on overweight/obesity at ages 2, 4 and 6 years. Altogether 1031 Spanish children were evaluated at birth and during a 6-year follow-up. Early life risk factors included: parental overweight/obesity, parental origin/ethnicity, maternal smoking during pregnancy, gestational weight gain, gestational age, birth weight, caesarean section, breastfeeding practices and rapid infant weight gain collected via hospital records. Cumulative effects were assessed by adding up those early risk factors that significantly increased the risk of overweight/obesity. We conducted binary logistic regression models. Rapid infant weight gain (OR 2.29, 99% CI 1.54-3.42), maternal overweight/obesity (OR 1.93, 99% CI 1.27-2.92), paternal overweight/obesity (OR 2.17, 99% CI 1.44-3.28), Latin American/Roma origin (OR 3.20, 99% CI 1.60-6.39) and smoking during pregnancy (OR 1.61, 99% CI 1.01-2.59) remained significant after adjusting for confounders. A higher number of early life risk factors accumulated was associated with overweight/obesity at age 6 years but not at age 2 and 4 years. Rapid infant weight gain, parental overweight/obesity, maternal smoking and origin/ethnicity predict childhood overweight/obesity and present cumulative effects. Monitoring children with rapid weight gain and supporting a healthy parental weight are important for childhood obesity prevention.

  4. Early-Life Exposure to Perfluoroalkyl Substances and Childhood Metabolic Function.

    PubMed

    Fleisch, Abby F; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Mora, Ana M; Calafat, Antonia M; Ye, Xiaoyun; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike; Gillman, Matthew W; Oken, Emily; Sagiv, Sharon K

    2017-03-01

    Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are synthetic chemicals that may persist in the environment and in humans. There is a possible association between early-life PFAS exposure and metabolic dysfunction in later life, but data are limited. We studied 665 mother-child pairs in Project Viva, a Boston, Massachusetts-area cohort recruited 1999-2002. We quantified concentrations of PFASs [perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), and perfluorodecanoate (PFDeA)] in maternal plasma collected at the first prenatal visit (median, 9.6 weeks gestation) and in child plasma from the mid-childhood research visit (median, 7.7 years). We assessed leptin, adiponectin, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in mid-childhood. We fit covariate-adjusted linear regression models and conducted stratified analyses by child sex. Children with higher PFAS concentrations had lower HOMA-IR [e.g., -10.1% (95% CI: -17.3, -2.3) per interquartile range increment in PFOA]. This inverse association between child PFAS and HOMA-IR was more pronounced in females [e.g., PFOA: -15.6% (95% CI: -25.4, -4.6) vs. -6.1% (95% CI: -16.2, 5.2) for males]. Child PFAS plasma concentrations were not associated with leptin or adiponectin. Prenatal PFAS plasma concentrations were not associated with leptin, adiponectin, or HOMA-IR in offspring. We found no evidence for an adverse effect of early-life PFAS exposure on metabolic function in mid-childhood. In fact, children with higher PFAS concentrations had lower insulin resistance. Citation: Fleisch AF, Rifas-Shiman SL, Mora AM, Calafat AM, Ye X, Luttmann-Gibson H, Gillman MW, Oken E, Sagiv SK. 2017. Early-life exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances and childhood metabolic function. Environ Health Perspect 125:481-487; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP303.

  5. Early life rhinovirus wheezing, allergic sensitization, and asthma risk at adolescence.

    PubMed

    Rubner, Frederick J; Jackson, Daniel J; Evans, Michael D; Gangnon, Ronald E; Tisler, Christopher J; Pappas, Tressa E; Gern, James E; Lemanske, Robert F

    2017-02-01

    Early life rhinovirus (RV) wheezing illnesses and aeroallergen sensitization increase the risk of asthma at school age. Whether these remain risk factors for the persistence of asthma out to adolescence is not established. We sought to define the relationships among specific viral illnesses and the type and timing of aeroallergen sensitization with the persistence of asthma into adolescence. A total of 217 children were followed prospectively from birth to age 13 years. The etiology and timing of viral wheezing illnesses during the first 3 years of life were assessed along with patterns of allergen sensitization. The associations between viral wheezing illnesses, presence and pattern of aeroallergen sensitization, and asthma diagnosis at age 13 years were evaluated. When adjusted for all viral etiologies, wheezing with RV (odds ratio = 3.3; 95% CI, 1.5-7.1), but not respiratory syncytial virus (odds ratio = 1.0; 95% CI, 0.4-2.3), was associated with asthma at age 13 years. Age of aeroallergen sensitization also influenced asthma risk; 65% of children sensitized by age 1 year had asthma at age 13 years, compared with 40% of children not sensitized at age 1 year but sensitized by age 5 years, and 17% of children not sensitized at age 5 years. Early life aeroallergen sensitization and RV wheezing had additive effects on asthma risk at adolescence. In a high-risk birth cohort, the persistence of asthma at age 13 years was most strongly associated with outpatient wheezing illnesses with RV and aeroallergen sensitization in early life. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. DNA methylation at stress-related genes is associated with exposure to early life institutionalization.

    PubMed

    Non, Amy L; Hollister, Brittany M; Humphreys, Kathryn L; Childebayeva, Ainash; Esteves, Kyle; Zeanah, Charles H; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Charles A; Drury, Stacy S

    2016-09-01

    Differences in DNA methylation have been associated with early life adversity, suggesting that alterations in methylation function as one pathway through which adverse early environments are biologically embedded. This study examined associations between exposure to institutional care, quantified as the proportion of time in institutional care at specified follow-up assessment ages, and DNA methylation status in two stress-related genes: FKBP5 and SLC6A4. We analyzed data from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project, which is a prospective study in which children reared in institutional settings were randomly assigned (mean age 22 months) to either newly created foster care or care as usual (to remain in their current placement) and prospectively followed. A group of children from the same geographic area, with no history of institutionalized caregiving, were also recruited. DNA methylation status was determined in DNA extracted from buccal epithelial cells of children at age 12. An inverse association was identified such that more time spent in institutional care was associated with lower DNA methylation at specific CpG sites within both genes. These results suggest a lasting impact of early severe social deprivation on methylation patterns in these genes, and contribute to a growing literature linking early adversity and epigenetic variation in children. Am J Phys Anthropol 161:84-93, 2016.. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. DNA methylation at stress-related genes is associated with exposure to early life institutionalization

    PubMed Central

    Non, Amy L.; Hollister, Brittany M.; Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Childebayeva, Ainash; Esteves, Kyle; Zeanah, Charles H.; Fox, Nathan A.; Nelson, Charles A.; Drury, Stacy S.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Differences in DNA methylation have been associated with early life adversity, suggesting that alterations in methylation function as one pathway through which adverse early environments are biologically embedded. This study examined associations between exposure to institutional care, quantified as the percent time in institutional care at specified follow-up assessment ages, and DNA methylation status in two stress-related genes: FKBP5 and SLC6A4. Materials and Methods We analyzed data from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project, which is a prospective study in which children reared in institutional settings were randomly assigned (mean age 22 months) to either newly created foster care or care as usual (to remain in their current placement) and prospectively followed. A group of children from the same geographic area, with no history of institutionalized caregiving, were also recruited. DNA methylation status was determined in DNA extracted from buccal epithelial cells of children at age 12. Results An inverse association was identified such that more time spent in institutional care was associated with lower DNA methylation at specific CpG sites within both genes. Discussion These results suggest a lasting impact of early severe social deprivation on methylation patterns in these genes, and contribute to a growing literature linking early adversity and epigenetic variation in children. PMID:27218411

  8. Early life programming of innate fear and fear learning in adult female rats.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Carl W; Meredith, John P; Spicer, Clare H; Mason, Rob; Marsden, Charles A

    2009-03-02

    The early rearing environment can impact on emotional reactivity and learning later in life. In this study the effects of neonatal maternal separation (MS) on innate fear and fear learning were assessed in the adult female rat. Pups were subjected to MS (360 min), brief handling (H; 15 min), or animal facility rearing (AFR) on post-natal days 2-14. In the first experiment, innate fear was tested in the open field. No differences between the early rearing groups were observed in unconditioned fear. In the second experiment, separate cohorts were used in a 3-day fear learning paradigm which tested the acquisition (Day 1), expression and extinction (both Day 2) of conditioning to an auditory cue; extinction recall was determined as well (Day 3). Contextual fear conditioning was also assessed prior to cue presentations on Days 2 and 3. Whereas MS attenuated the acquisition and expression of fear conditioning to the cue, H potentiated extinction learning. Cue-induced fear was reduced on Day 3, compared to Day 2, indicating that the recall of extinction learning was evident; however, no early rearing group differences in extinction recall were observed. Similarly, while contextual fear was decreased on Day 3, compared to Day 2, there were no differences between the early rearing groups on either day tested. The present findings of altered cue-conditioned fear learning, in the absence of innate fear changes, lend further support for the important role of the early rearing environment in mediating cognition in adulthood.

  9. Early-life adversity-induced long-term epigenetic programming associated with early onset of chronic physical aggression: Studies in humans and animals.

    PubMed

    Chistiakov, Dimitry A; Chekhonin, Vladimir P

    2017-06-05

    To examine whether chronic physical aggression (CPA) in adulthood can be epigenetically programmed early in life due to exposure to early-life adversity. Literature search of public databases such as PubMed/MEDLINE and Scopus. Children/adolescents susceptible for CPA and exposed to early-life abuse fail to efficiently cope with stress that in turn results in the development of CPA later in life. This phenomenon was observed in humans and animal models of aggression. The susceptibility to aggression is a complex trait that is regulated by the interaction between environmental and genetic factors. Epigenetic mechanisms mediate this interaction. Subjects exposed to stress early in life exhibited long-term epigenetic programming that can influence their behaviour in adulthood. This programming affects expression of many genes not only in the brain but also in other systems such as neuroendocrine and immune. The propensity to adult CPA behaviour in subjects experienced to early-life adversity is mediated by epigenetic programming that involves long-term systemic epigenetic alterations in a whole genome.

  10. Early-Life Soy Exposure and Gender-Role Play Behavior in Children

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Julie L.; Edwards, Lloyd J.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Rogan, Walter J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Soy-based infant formula contains high levels of isoflavones. These estrogen-like compounds have been shown to induce changes in sexually dimorphic behaviors in animals exposed in early development. Objective: We examined gender-role play behavior in relation to soy-based and non-soy-based infant feeding methods among children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Methods: We studied 3,664 boys and 3,412 girls. Four exposure categories were created using data from questionnaires administered at 6 and 15 months postpartum: primarily breast, early formula (referent), early soy, and late soy. Gender-role play behavior was assessed using the Pre-School Activities Inventory (PSAI). Associations between infant feeding and PSAI scores at 42 months of age were assessed using linear regression. Post hoc analyses of PSAI scores at 30 and 57 months were also conducted. Results: Early-infancy soy use was reported for approximately 2% of participants. Mean [95% confidence interval (CI)] PSAI scores at 42 months were 62.3 (62.0, 62.6) and 36.9 (36.6, 37.2) for boys and girls, respectively. After adjustment, early soy (vs. early formula) feeding was associated with higher (less feminine) PSAI scores in girls (® = 2.66; 95% CI: 0.19, 5.12) but was not significantly associated with PSAI scores in boys. The association between soy exposure and PSAI scores in girls was substantially attenuated at 30 and 57 months. Conclusions: Although not consistent throughout childhood, early-life soy exposure was associated with less female-typical play behavior in girls at 42 months of age. Soy exposure was not significantly associated with play behavior in boys. PMID:21813368

  11. Early-life soy exposure and gender-role play behavior in children.

    PubMed

    Adgent, Margaret A; Daniels, Julie L; Edwards, Lloyd J; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Rogan, Walter J

    2011-12-01

    Soy-based infant formula contains high levels of isoflavones. These estrogen-like compounds have been shown to induce changes in sexually dimorphic behaviors in animals exposed in early development. We examined gender-role play behavior in relation to soy-based and non-soy-based infant feeding methods among children in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. We studied 3,664 boys and 3,412 girls. Four exposure categories were created using data from questionnaires administered at 6 and 15 months postpartum: primarily breast, early formula (referent), early soy, and late soy. Gender-role play behavior was assessed using the Pre-School Activities Inventory (PSAI). Associations between infant feeding and PSAI scores at 42 months of age were assessed using linear regression. Post hoc analyses of PSAI scores at 30 and 57 months were also conducted. Early-infancy soy use was reported for approximately 2% of participants. Mean [95% confidence interval (CI)] PSAI scores at 42 months were 62.3 (62.0, 62.6) and 36.9 (36.6, 37.2) for boys and girls, respectively. After adjustment, early soy (vs. early formula) feeding was associated with higher (less feminine) PSAI scores in girls (β = 2.66; 95% CI: 0.19, 5.12) but was not significantly associated with PSAI scores in boys. The association between soy exposure and PSAI scores in girls was substantially attenuated at 30 and 57 months. Although not consistent throughout childhood, early-life soy exposure was associated with less female-typical play behavior in girls at 42 months of age. Soy exposure was not significantly associated with play behavior in boys.

  12. Purpose in life and tobacco use among community-dwelling mothers of early adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ando, Shuntaro; Koike, Shinsuke; Fujikawa, Shinya; Kanata, Sho; Endo, Kaori; Nakanishi, Miharu; Hatch, Stephani L; Richards, Marcus; Kasai, Kiyoto; Hiraiwa-Hasegawa, Mariko; Nishida, Atsushi

    2018-01-01

    Objectives The rising prevalence of tobacco use and tobacco-attributable deaths among women is of worldwide concern. In particular, smoking prevention for mothers in early midlife is a significant international public health goal. A higher sense of purpose in life (PIL) is thought to reduce detrimental health behaviours. However, little is known about the association between a sense of PIL and tobacco use. This study investigates this association among community-dwelling mothers of early adolescents. Design This population-based cross-sectional study uses a self-reported questionnaire from the Tokyo Early Adolescence Survey, a large community-based survey conducted in Japan between 2012 and 2015. Setting Participants were randomly recruited from the resident registries of three municipalities in Tokyo, Japan. Participants A total of 4478 children and their primary parents participated. Responses from 4063 mothers with no missing data were analysed (mean age=42.0 years (SD=4.2)). Measures Participants’ tobacco use, including the number of cigarettes smoked per day, was documented using a questionnaire. PIL was assessed using a Purpose in Life scale derived from Ryff’s Psychological Well-Being Scale. Results Greater PIL was associated with a decreased likelihood of tobacco use, even when adjusted for confounders (OR=0.80, 95% CI 0.70 to 0.91). Multinomial logistic regression analyses revealed that PIL was inversely associated with tobacco consumption among mothers. These associations remained after controlling for psychological distress, socioeconomic factors and frequency of alcohol consumption among moderate to heavy smokers (OR=0.70, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.86), while attenuated among light smokers. Conclusions Increasing PIL may be a valuable intervention for reducing tobacco use among women in early midlife. This study can contribute to our understanding of the psychology of smoking behaviour and shed light on the targeted intervention to reduce tobacco use

  13. Sustainable poverty amelioration through early life education in a peri-urban community of Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Princess C.; Okechukwu, Emmanuel I.; Salako-Akande, Ajibike O.; Onyenwenyi, Anthonia O.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Daycare centres/nurseries have become popular because of the need for working mothers to leave young children with caregivers. However, the high poverty level (54% relative and 35% extreme poverty) makes it difficult for disadvantaged parents to pay the high fees charged by the centres. This study describes an attempt to economically empower mothers through the organisation of free early life education in a peri-urban community in Lagos. Objectives The aim of the study was to examine early life education for under-fives as a means of economic empowerment of mothers and sustainable poverty amelioration. Method The methodology included a non-randomised selection of 34 disadvantaged mothers by criteria, a prospective intervention utilising community resources to organise early childhood education, an in-depth interview of mothers, and observation of the outcomes over a 5-year period. Results The result of the study showed that no mother preferred keeping a child older than three years at home. Access to early childhood education gave mothers opportunity to undergo vocational training (1, 2.8%) and take up new/additional jobs (12, 35.3%). All mothers and 32 (80%) of the participating families more than doubled their income, earning up to twenty thousand Naira (approximately $182) per month from the first year of participation. Finally, selection criteria and periodic assessment of immunisation/growth monitoring records of participants’ children improved compliance with primary health care service utilisation. Conclusion Organisation of early childhood education had the potential for sustainable poverty amelioration through economic empowerment of mothers.

  14. Exposure to dust mite allergen and endotoxin in early life and asthma and atopy in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Celedón, Juan C.; Milton, Donald K.; Ramsey, Clare D.; Litonjua, Augusto A.; Ryan, Louise; Platts-Mills, Thomas A. E.; Gold, Diane R.

    2013-01-01

    Background There has been no longitudinal study of the relation between concurrent exposure to dust mite allergen and endotoxin in early life and asthma and atopy at school age. Objectives To examine the relation between exposure to dust mite allergen and endotoxin at age 2 to 3 months and asthma, wheeze, and atopy in high-risk children. Methods Birth cohort study of 440 children with parental history of atopy in the Boston metropolitan area. Results In multivariate analyses, early exposure to high levels of dust mite allergen (≥10 μg/g) was associated with increased risks of asthma at age 7 years (odds ratio [OR], 3.0; 95% CI, 1.1-7.9) and late-onset wheeze (OR, 5.0; 95% CI, 1.5-16.4). Exposure to endotoxin levels above the lowest quartile at age 2 to 3 months was associated with reduced odds of atopy at school age (OR, 0.5; 95% CI, 0.2-0.9). In contrast with its inverse association with atopy, endotoxin exposure in early life was associated with an increased risk of any wheeze between ages 1 and 7 years that did not change significantly with time (hazard ratio for each quartile increment in endotoxin levels, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.07-1.43). Conclusion Among children at risk of atopy, early exposure to high levels of dust mite allergen is associated with increased risks of asthma and late-onset wheeze. In these children, endotoxin exposure is associated with a reduced risk of atopy but an increased risk of wheeze. Clinical implications Early endotoxin exposure may be a protective factor against atopy but a risk factor for wheeze in high-risk children. PMID:17507083

  15. Neuron-derived orphan receptor 1 transduces survival signals in neuronal cells in response to hypoxia-induced apoptotic insults.

    PubMed

    Chio, Chung-Ching; Wei, Li; Chen, Tyng Guey; Lin, Chien-Min; Shieh, Ja-Ping; Yeh, Poh-Shiow; Chen, Ruei-Ming

    2016-06-01

    OBJECT Hypoxia can induce cell death or trigger adaptive mechanisms to guarantee cell survival. Neuron-derived orphan receptor 1 (NOR-1) works as an early-response protein in response to a variety of environmental stresses. In this study, the authors evaluated the roles of NOR-1 in hypoxia-induced neuronal insults. METHODS Neuro-2a cells were exposed to oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD). Cell viability, cell morphology, cas-pase-3 activity, DNA fragmentation, and cell apoptosis were assayed to determine the mechanisms of OGD-induced neuronal insults. RNA and protein analyses were carried out to evaluate the effects of OGD on expressions of NOR-1, cAMP response element-binding (CREB), and cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 2 (cIAP2) genes. Translations of these gene expressions were knocked down using RNA interference. Mice subjected to traumatic brain injury (TBI) and NOR-1 was immunodetected. RESULTS Exposure of neuro-2a cells to OGD decreased cell viability in a time-dependent manner. Additionally, OGD led to cell shrinkage, DNA fragmentation, and cell apoptosis. In parallel, treatment of neuro-2a cells with OGD time dependently increased cellular NOR-1 mRNA and protein expressions. Interestingly, administration of TBI also augmented NOR-1 levels in the impacted regions of mice. As to the mechanism, exposure to OGD increased nuclear levels of the transcription factor CREB protein. Downregulating CREB expression using RNA interference simultaneously inhibited OGD-induced NOR-1 mRNA expression. Also, levels of cIAP2 mRNA and protein in neuro-2a cells were augmented by OGD. After reducing cIAP2 translation, OGD-induced cell death was reduced. Sequentially, application of NOR-1 small interfering RNA to neuro-2a cells significantly inhibited OGD-induced cIAP2 mRNA expression and concurrently alleviated hypoxia-induced alterations in cell viability, caspase-3 activation, DNA damage, and cell apoptosis. CONCLUSIONS This study shows that NOR-1 can transduce survival

  16. Simple mechanisms of early life - simulation model on the origin of semi-cells.

    PubMed

    Klein, Adrian; Bock, Martin; Alt, Wolfgang

    2017-01-01

    The development of first cellular structures played an important role in the early evolution of life. Early evolution of life probably took place on a molecular level in a reactive environment. The iron-sulfur theory postulates the formation of cell-like structures on catalytic surfaces. Experiments show that H 2 S together with FeS and other metallic centers drive auto-catalytic surface reactions, in which organic molecules such as pyruvic and amino acids occur. It is questionable which mechanisms are needed to form cell-like structures under these conditions. To address this question, we implemented a model system featuring the fundamentals of molecular dynamics: heat, attraction, repulsion and formation of covalent bonds. Our basic model exhibits a series of essential processes: self-organization of lipid micelles and bilayers, formation of fluid filled cavities, flux of molecules along membranes, transport of energized groups towards sinks and whole colonies of cell-like structures on a larger scale. The results demonstrate that only a few features are sufficient for discovering hitherto non described phenomena of self-assembly and dynamics of cell-like structures as candidates for early evolving proto-cells. Significance statement The quest for a possible origin of life continues to be one of the most fascinating problems in biology. In one theoretical scenario, early life originated from a solution of reactive chemicals in the ancient deep sea, similar to conditions as to be found in thermal vents. Experiments have shown that a variety of organic molecules, the building blocks of life, form under these conditions. Based on such experiments, the iron-sulfur theory postulates the growth of cell-like structures at certain catalytic surfaces. For an explanation and proof of such a process we have developed a computer model simulating molecular assembly of lipid bilayers and formation of semi-cell cavities. The results demonstrate the possibility of cell-like self

  17. Early Life Stress, MAOA, and Gene-Environment Interactions Predict Behavioral Disinhibition in Children

    PubMed Central

    Enoch, Mary-Anne; Steer, Colin D.; Newman, Timothy K.; Gibson, Nerea; Goldman, David

    2009-01-01

    Several, but not all, studies have shown that the monoamine oxidase A functional promoter polymorphism (MAOA-LPR) interacts with childhood adversity to predict adolescent and adult antisocial behavior. However, it is not known whether MAOA-LPR interacts with early life (pre-birth – 3 years) stressors to influence behavior in pre-pubertal children. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, U.K., is a community-representative cohort study of children followed from pre-birth onwards. The impact of family adversity from pre-birth to age 3 years and stressful life events from 6 months to 7 years on behavioral disinhibition was determined in 7500 girls and boys. Behavioral disinhibition measures were: mother-reported hyperactivity and conduct disturbances (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) at ages 4 and 7 years. In both sexes, exposure to family adversity and stressful life events in the first three years of life predicted behavioral disinhibition at age 4, persisting until age 7. In girls, MAOA-LPR interacted with stressful life events experienced from 6 months to 3 ½ years to influence hyperactivity at ages 4 and 7. In boys, the interaction of MAOA-LPR with stressful life events between 1 ½ and 2 ½ years predicted hyperactivity at age 7 years. The low activity MAOA-LPR variant was associated with increased hyperactivity in girls and boys exposed to high stress. In contrast, there was no MAOA-LPR interaction with family adversity. In a general population sample of pre-pubertal children, exposure to common stressors from pre-birth to 3 years predicted behavioral disinhibition, and MAOA-LPR - stressful life event interactions specifically predicted hyperactivity. PMID:19804559

  18. Early life stress, MAOA, and gene-environment interactions predict behavioral disinhibition in children.

    PubMed

    Enoch, M-A; Steer, C D; Newman, T K; Gibson, N; Goldman, D

    2010-02-01

    Several, but not all, studies have shown that the monoamine oxidase A functional promoter polymorphism (MAOA-LPR) interacts with childhood adversity to predict adolescent and adult antisocial behavior. However, it is not known whether MAOA-LPR interacts with early life (pre-birth-3 years) stressors to influence behavior in prepubertal children. The Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children, UK, is a community-representative cohort study of children followed from pre-birth onwards. The impact of family adversity from pre-birth to age 3 years and stressful life events from 6 months to 7 years on behavioral disinhibition was determined in 7500 girls and boys. Behavioral disinhibition measures were: mother-reported hyperactivity and conduct disturbances (Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) at ages 4 and 7 years. In both sexes, exposure to family adversity and stressful life events in the first 3 years of life predicted behavioral disinhibition at age 4, persisting until age 7. In girls, MAOA-LPR interacted with stressful life events experienced from 6 months to 3.5 years to influence hyperactivity at ages 4 and 7. In boys, the interaction of MAOA-LPR with stressful life events between 1.5 and 2.5 years predicted hyperactivity at age 7 years. The low activity MAOA-LPR variant was associated with increased hyperactivity in girls and boys exposed to high stress. In contrast, there was no MAOA-LPR interaction with family adversity. In a general population sample of prepubertal children, exposure to common stressors from pre-birth to 3 years predicted behavioral disinhibition, and MAOA-LPR- stressful life event interactions specifically predicted hyperactivity.

  19. Understanding behavioral effects of early life stress using the reactive scope and allostatic load models

    PubMed Central

    HOWELL, BRITTANY R.; SANCHEZ, MAR M.

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms through which early life stress leads to psychopathology are thought to involve allostatic load, the “wear and tear” an organism is subjected to as a consequence of sustained elevated levels of glucocorticoids caused by repeated/prolonged stress activations. The allostatic load model described this phenomenon, but has been criticized as inadequate to explain alterations associated with early adverse experience in some systems, including behavior, which cannot be entirely explained from an energy balance perspective. The reactive scope model has been more recently proposed and focuses less on energy balance and more on dynamic ranges of physiological and behavioral mediators. In this review we examine the mechanisms underlying the behavioral consequences of early life stress in the context of both these models. We focus on adverse experiences that involve mother–infant relationship disruption, and dissect those mechanisms involving maternal care as a regulator of development of neural circuits that control emotional and social behaviors in the offspring. We also discuss the evolutionary purpose of the plasticity in behavioral development, which has a clear adaptive value in a changing environment. PMID:22018078

  20. MRI uncovers disrupted hippocampal microstructure that underlies memory impairments after early-life adversity.

    PubMed

    Molet, Jenny; Maras, Pamela M; Kinney-Lang, Eli; Harris, Neil G; Rashid, Faisal; Ivy, Autumn S; Solodkin, Ana; Obenaus, Andre; Baram, Tallie Z

    2016-12-01

    Memory and related cognitive functions are progressively impaired in a subgroup of individuals experiencing childhood adversity and stress. However, it is not possible to identify vulnerable individuals early, a crucial step for intervention. In this study, high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and intra-hippocampal diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were employed to examine for structural signatures of cognitive adolescent vulnerabilities in a rodent model of early-life adversity. These methods were complemented by neuroanatomical and functional assessments of hippocampal network integrity during adolescence, adulthood and middle-age. The high-resolution MRI identified selective loss of dorsal hippocampal volume, and intra-hippocampal DTI uncovered disruption of dendritic structure, consistent with disrupted local connectivity, already during late adolescence in adversity-experiencing rats. Memory deteriorated over time, and stunting of hippocampal dendritic trees was apparent on neuroanatomical analyses. Thus, disrupted hippocampal neuronal structure and connectivity, associated with cognitive impairments, are detectable via non-invasive imaging modalities in rats experiencing early-life adversity. These high-resolution imaging approaches may constitute promising tools for prediction and assessment of at-risk individuals in the clinic. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Early-Life Host–Microbiome Interphase: The Key Frontier for Immune Development

    PubMed Central

    Amenyogbe, Nelly; Kollmann, Tobias R.; Ben-Othman, Rym

    2017-01-01

    Human existence can be viewed as an “animal in a microbial world.” A healthy interaction of the human host with the microbes in and around us heavily relies on a well-functioning immune system. As development of both the microbiota and the host immune system undergo rapid changes in early life, it is not surprising that even minor alterations during this co-development can have profound consequences. Scrutiny of existing data regarding pre-, peri-, as well as early postnatal modulators of newborn microbiota indeed suggest strong associations with several immune-mediated diseases with onset far beyond the newborn period. We here summarize these data and extract overarching themes. This same effort in turn sets the stage to guide effective countermeasures, such as probiotic administration. The objective of our review is to highlight the interaction of host immune ontogeny with the developing microbiome in early life as a critical window of susceptibility for lifelong disease, as well as to identify the enormous potential to protect and promote lifelong health by specifically targeting this window of opportunity. PMID:28596951

  2. Predictors of work-related sensitisation, allergic rhinitis and asthma in early work life.

    PubMed

    Kellberger, Jessica; Peters-Weist, Astrid S; Heinrich, Sabine; Pfeiffer, Susanne; Vogelberg, Christian; Roller, Diana; Genuneit, Jon; Weinmayr, Gudrun; von Mutius, Erika; Heumann, Christian; Nowak, Dennis; Radon, Katja

    2014-09-01

    Although work-related asthma and allergies are a huge burden for society, investigation of occupational exposures in early work life using an unexposed reference group is rare. Thus, the present analyses aimed to assess the potential impact of occupational exposure and other risk factors on the prevalence of work-related sensitisation and incidence of allergic rhinitis/asthma using a population-based approach and taking into account an unexposed reference group. In SOLAR (Study on Occupational Allergy Risks) II, German participants of ISAAC (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood) phase II were followed from childhood (9-11 years) until early adulthood (19-24 years). Data on 1570 participants were available to fit predictive models. Occupational exposure was not statistically significantly associated with disease prevalence/incidence. Sensitisation in childhood, parental asthma, environmental tobacco smoke exposure during puberty, sex and study location were statistically significant predictors of outcome. Our results indicate that occupational exposure is of little relevance for work-related sensitisation prevalence and allergic rhinitis/asthma incidence in early work life, while other risk factors can be used to improve career guidance for adolescents. Further research on the role of a potential healthy hire effect and the impact of longer exposure duration is needed. ©ERS 2014.

  3. Exposure to the Chinese famine in early life and the risk of anaemia in adulthood.

    PubMed

    Shi, Zumin; Zhang, Cuilin; Zhou, Minghao; Zhen, Shiqi; Taylor, Anne W

    2013-10-01

    Famine exposure during the early stage of life is related to a number of adulthood diseases. The objective of this study was to examine the association of early life exposure to the famine in China (1959-1961) with the risk of anaemia in adulthood. We used the data of 2007 adults born between 1954 and 1964 in Jiangsu province from the 2002 Chinese National Nutrition and Health Survey. Anaemia was defined as haemoglobin concentration <12 g/dl in women and <13 g/dl in men. Prevalence of anaemia in adulthood in nonexposed, fetal-exposed, early-childhood, mid-childhood, and late-childhood exposed to famine groups were 26.0%, 33.8%, 28.1%, 28.2% and 29.7%, respectively. Overall, fetal-exposed to famine was associated with 37% increased risk of anaemia as compared with those non-exposed after adjusting for income, education, place of residence, smoking, alcohol drinking, job, hypertension and BMI; relative risk (95% confidence interval) (RR (95% CI)) was 1.37 (1.09, 1.71). In general, this association appeared to be stronger among men, those who were currently overweight or obese, or those of lower educational levels. Corresponding RR (95% CI) was 1.87 (1.21-2.87), 1.75 (1.20-2.56), and 2.07 (1.37-3.12), respectively. Fetal exposure to the Chinese famine was associated with an increased risk of anaemia in adulthood.

  4. The Potential Link between Gut Microbiota and IgE-Mediated Food Allergy in Early Life

    PubMed Central

    Molloy, John; Allen, Katrina; Collier, Fiona; Tang, Mimi L. K.; Ward, Alister C.; Vuillermin, Peter

    2013-01-01

    There has been a dramatic rise in the prevalence of IgE-mediated food allergy over recent decades, particularly among infants and young children. The cause of this increase is unknown but one putative factor is a change in the composition, richness and balance of the microbiota that colonize the human gut during early infancy. The coevolution of the human gastrointestinal tract and commensal microbiota has resulted in a symbiotic relationship in which gut microbiota play a vital role in early life immune development and function, as well as maintenance of gut wall epithelial integrity. Since IgE mediated food allergy is associated with immune dysregulation and impaired gut epithelial integrity there is substantial interest in the potential link between gut microbiota and food allergy. Although the exact link between gut microbiota and food allergy is yet to be established in humans, recent experimental evidence suggests that specific patterns of gut microbiota colonization may influence the risk and manifestations of food allergy. An understanding of the relationship between gut microbiota and food allergy has the potential to inform both the prevention and treatment of food allergy. In this paper we review the theory and evidence linking gut microbiota and IgE-mediated food allergy in early life. We then consider the implications and challenges for future research, including the techniques of measuring and analyzing gut microbiota, and the types of studies required to advance knowledge in the field. PMID:24351744

  5. IL-2 Enhances Gut Homing Potential of Human Naive Regulatory T Cells Early in Life.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Peter S; Lai, Catherine L; Hu, Mingjing; Santner-Nanan, Brigitte; Dahlstrom, Jane E; Lee, Cheng Hiang; Ajmal, Ayesha; Bullman, Amanda; Arbuckle, Susan; Al Saedi, Ahmed; Gacis, Lou; Nambiar, Reta; Williams, Andrew; Wong, Melanie; Campbell, Dianne E; Nanan, Ralph

    2018-06-15

    Recent evidence suggests early environmental factors are important for gut immune tolerance. Although the role of regulatory T (Treg) cells for gut immune homeostasis is well established, the development and tissue homing characteristics of Treg cells in children have not been studied in detail. In this article, we studied the development and homing characteristics of human peripheral blood Treg cell subsets and potential mechanisms inducing homing molecule expression in healthy children. We found contrasting patterns of circulating Treg cell gut and skin tropism, with abundant β7 integrin + Treg cells at birth and increasing cutaneous lymphocyte Ag (CLA + ) Treg cells later in life. β7 integrin + Treg cells were predominantly naive, suggesting acquisition of Treg cell gut tropism early in development. In vitro, IL-7 enhanced gut homing but reduced skin homing molecule expression in conventional T cells, whereas IL-2 induced a similar effect only in Treg cells. This effect was more pronounced in cord compared with adult blood. Our results suggest that early in life, naive Treg cells may be driven for gut tropism by their increased sensitivity to IL-2-induced β7 integrin upregulation, implicating a potential role of IL-2 in gut immune tolerance during this critical period of development. Copyright © 2018 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  6. Early life programming and the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Lynch, C; Chan, C S; Drake, A J

    2017-06-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease and can be considered the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. NAFLD represents a spectrum of disease, from the relatively benign simple steatosis to the more serious non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, which can progress to liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and end-stage liver failure, necessitating liver transplantation. Although the increasing prevalence of NAFLD in developed countries has substantial implications for public health, many of the precise mechanisms accounting for the development and progression of NAFLD are unclear. The environment in early life is an important determinant of cardiovascular disease risk in later life and studies suggest this also extends to NAFLD. Here we review data from animal models and human studies which suggest that fetal and early life exposure to maternal under- and overnutrition, excess glucocorticoids and environmental pollutants may confer an increased susceptibility to NAFLD development and progression in offspring and that such effects may be sex-specific. We also consider studies aimed at identifying potential dietary and pharmacological interventions aimed at reducing this risk. We suggest that further human epidemiological studies are needed to ensure that data from animal models are relevant to human health.

  7. Human transgenerational responses to early-life experience: potential impact on development, health and biomedical research

    PubMed Central

    Pembrey, Marcus; Saffery, Richard; Bygren, Lars Olov

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian experiments provide clear evidence of male line transgenerational effects on health and development from paternal or ancestral early-life exposures such as diet or stress. The few human observational studies to date suggest (male line) transgenerational effects exist that cannot easily be attributed to cultural and/or genetic inheritance. Here we summarise relevant studies, drawing attention to exposure sensitive periods in early life and sex differences in transmission and offspring outcomes. Thus, variation, or changes, in the parental/ancestral environment may influence phenotypic variation for better or worse in the next generation(s), and so contribute to common, non-communicable disease risk including sex differences. We argue that life-course epidemiology should be reframed to include exposures from previous generations, keeping an open mind as to the mechanisms that transmit this information to offspring. Finally, we discuss animal experiments, including the role of epigenetic inheritance and non-coding RNAs, in terms of what lessons can be learnt for designing and interpreting human studies. This review was developed initially as a position paper by the multidisciplinary Network in Epigenetic Epidemiology to encourage transgenerational research in human cohorts. PMID:25062846

  8. Preclinical Immunomodulation by the Probiotic Bifidobacterium breve M-16V in Early Life.

    PubMed

    Rigo-Adrover, Maria Del Mar; Franch, Àngels; Castell, Margarida; Pérez-Cano, Francisco José

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of supplementation with the probiotic Bifidobacterium breve M-16V on the maturation of the intestinal and circulating immune system during suckling. In order to achieve this purpose, neonatal Lewis rats were supplemented with the probiotic strain from the 6th to the 18th day of life. The animals were weighed during the study, and faecal samples were obtained and evaluated daily. On day 19, rats were euthanized and intestinal wash samples, mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells, splenocytes and intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) were obtained. The probiotic supplementation in early life did not modify the growth curve and did not enhance the systemic immune maturation. However, it increased the proportion of cells bearing TLR4 in the MLN and IEL, and enhanced the percentage of the integrin αEβ7+ and CD62L+ cells in the MLN and that of the integrin αEβ7+ cells in the IEL, suggesting an enhancement of the homing process of naïve T lymphocytes to the MLN, and the retention of activated lymphocytes in the intraepithelial compartment. Interestingly, B. breve M-16V enhanced the intestinal IgA synthesis. In conclusion, supplementation with the probiotic strain B. breve M-16V during suckling improves the development of mucosal immunity in early life.

  9. Preclinical Immunomodulation by the Probiotic Bifidobacterium breve M-16V in Early Life

    PubMed Central

    Rigo-Adrover, Maria del Mar; Franch, Àngels; Castell, Margarida; Pérez-Cano, Francisco José

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of supplementation with the probiotic Bifidobacterium breve M-16V on the maturation of the intestinal and circulating immune system during suckling. In order to achieve this purpose, neonatal Lewis rats were supplemented with the probiotic strain from the 6th to the 18th day of life. The animals were weighed during the study, and faecal samples were obtained and evaluated daily. On day 19, rats were euthanized and intestinal wash samples, mesenteric lymph node (MLN) cells, splenocytes and intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) were obtained. The probiotic supplementation in early life did not modify the growth curve and did not enhance the systemic immune maturation. However, it increased the proportion of cells bearing TLR4 in the MLN and IEL, and enhanced the percentage of the integrin αEβ7+ and CD62L+ cells in the MLN and that of the integrin αEβ7+ cells in the IEL, suggesting an enhancement of the homing process of naïve T lymphocytes to the MLN, and the retention of activated lymphocytes in the intraepithelial compartment. Interestingly, B. breve M-16V enhanced the intestinal IgA synthesis. In conclusion, supplementation with the probiotic strain B. breve M-16V during suckling improves the development of mucosal immunity in early life. PMID:27820846

  10. Evidence of an IFN-γ by early life stress interaction in the regulation of amygdala reactivity to emotional stimuli.

    PubMed

    Redlich, Ronny; Stacey, David; Opel, Nils; Grotegerd, Dominik; Dohm, Katharina; Kugel, Harald; Heindel, Walter; Arolt, Volker; Baune, Bernhard T; Dannlowski, Udo

    2015-12-01

    Since numerous studies have found that exposure to early life stress leads to increased peripheral inflammation and psychiatric disease, it is thought that peripheral immune activation precedes and possibly mediates the onset of stress-associated psychiatric disease. Despite early studies, IFNγ has received little attention relative to other inflammatory cytokines in the context of the pathophysiology of affective disorders. Neuroimaging endophenotypes have emerged recently as a promising means of elucidating these types of complex relationships including the modeling of the interaction between environmental factors and genetic predisposition. Here we investigate the GxE relationship between early-life stress and genetic variants of IFNγ on emotion processing. To investigate the impact of the relationship between genetic variants of IFNγ (rs1861494, rs2069718, rs2430561) and early life stress on emotion processing, a sample of healthy adults (n=409) undergoing an emotional faces paradigm in an fMRI study were genotyped and analysed. Information on early life stress was obtained via Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). A positive association between early life stress and amygdala reactivity was found. Specifically, the main effect of genotype of rs1861494 on amygdala reactivity indicates a higher neural response in C allele carriers compared to T homozygotes, while we did not find main effects of rs2069718 and rs2430561. Importantly, interaction analyses revealed a specific interaction between IFNγ genotype (rs1861494) and early life stress affecting amygdala reactivity to emotional faces, resulting from a positive association between CTQ scores and amygdala reactivity in C allele carriers while this association was absent in T homozygotes. Our findings indicate that firstly the genetic variant of IFNγ (rs1861494) is involved with the regulation of amygdala reactivity to emotional stimuli and secondly, that this genetic variant moderates effects of early life