Haak, Jill; Downer, Jason; Reeve, Ronald
Research Findings: This study investigated the relationships between behavior and attention problems and early language and literacy outcomes for 4-year-olds who experienced varied early home literacy environments. Participants were 1,364 children enrolled in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care…
Notten, Natascha; Becker, Birgit
Online reading behavior can be regarded as a ‘new’ form of cultural capital in today’s digital world. However, it is unclear whether ‘traditional’ mechanisms of cultural and social reproduction are also found in this domain, and whether they manifest uniformly across countries at different stages of development. This article analyzes whether the early home literacy environment has an impact on informational online reading behavior among adolescents and whether this association varies between countries with different levels of digitalization and educational expansion. Data from the 2009 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) were used for the empirical analyses. The results of regression models with country-fixed effects indicate a positive association between literacy activities in early childhood and informational online reading at age 15. This association was quite stable across countries. These findings are discussed in light of cultural and social reproduction theory and digital divide research. PMID:29276306
Blair, Leslie Asher, Ed.
This newsletter of the Southwest Educational Development Laboratory (SEDL)contains a collection of articles which discuss various aspects of early literacy. Articles in the newsletter are: "Introduction: Reading Instruction, a Key to the Future"; "Ensuring Early Literacy through Coherent Instruction" (Leslie Blair);…
Hart, Sara A.; Piasta, Shayne B.; Justice, Laura M.
The present study included 314 children who had been involved in Project STAR, and explored how two learning-related behaviors, interest in literacy and effortful control, moderated the impact of the literacy intervention on reading outcomes. Results indicated significant associations of both learning-related behaviors with reading, with the children with the highest literacy interest and effortful control in the intervention group showing the highest reading outcomes. These results indicate that accounting for a greater breadth of possible moderators of intervention impacts is an important area to explore. PMID:28216991
Gage, Nicholas A.; MacSuga-Gage, Ashley S.; Prykanowski, Debra; Coyne, Michael; Scott, Terrance M.
Effective behavior management is necessary to ensure students are engaged with instruction. Students cannot learn if they are not engaged. Although the relationship between effective behavior management and positive student behavior is well established, the relationship between behavior management and increased academic achievement, including…
School Renaissance Inst., Inc., Madison, WI.
This report describes the development and testing of a computerized early literacy diagnostic assessment for students in prekindergarten to grade 3 that can measure skills across a variety of preliteracy and reading domains. The STAR Early Literacy assessment was developed by a team of more than 50 people, including literacy experts,…
Aram, Dorit; Abiri, Shimrit; Elad, Lili
The present study aimed to extend understanding of preschoolers' early spelling using the Vygotskian ("Mind in society: the development of higher psychological processes," Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1978) paradigm of child development. We assessed the contribution of maternal spelling support in predicting children's word…
Kirby, John R.; Hogan, Brenda
A battery of reading-related and reading measures was used to select samples of good (N = 30) and poor readers (N = 19) in Grade 1. Parents of these children completed a questionnaire about current and preschool home literacy practices and socio-economic status (SES). The 2 groups were compared with t tests and in a discriminant analysis. The t…
Dickinson, David K., Ed.; Neuman, Susan B., Ed.
Current research increasingly highlights the role of early literacy in young children's development--and informs practices and policies that promote success among diverse learners. This handbook presents cutting-edge knowledge on all aspects of literacy learning in the early years. Volume 2 provides additional perspectives on important topics…
Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Foorman, Barbara
The purpose of this paper is to describe the efficacy of early literacy interventions and to discuss possible roles for volunteer tutors in helping prevent reading difficulties within the Response to Intervention process. First, we describe a landmark study that evaluated the impact of primary classroom instruction on reducing the proportion of students at risk for reading failure, and a more recent series of studies exploring the effects of individualizing classroom reading instruction based on students’ initial skills. Second, we review studies of more intensive early intervention to demonstrate how these interventions substantially reduce the proportion of students at risk. Third, we examine effective tutoring models that utilize volunteers. Finally, we discuss the potential role of community tutors in supporting primary classroom instruction and secondary interventions. PMID:25221452
Purpura, David J.; Hume, Laura E.; Sims, Darcey M.; Lonigan, Cristopher J.
The purpose of this study was to examine whether early literacy skills uniquely predict early numeracy skills development. During the first year of the study, 69 3- to 5-year-old preschoolers were assessed on the Preschool Early Numeracy Skills (PENS) test and the Test of Preschool Early Literacy Skills (TOPEL). Participants were assessed again a…
For infants and toddlers, education and care are "two sides of the same coin." The author briefly reviews current research on the importance of relationships to cognitive development and early language and literacy. Instructional strategies that are most appropriate to the early years include "intentionality" and "scaffolding." Intentionality…
Sometimes students will exhibit various aggressive behaviors in the preschool classroom. Early childhood educators need to have behavior management strategies to manage the students' negative behaviors within the classroom setting. This article will provide a rationale for embedding literacy instruction within behavior management strategies to…
Bus, A. G.; Out, D.
Even though the acquisition of early literacy skills obviously depends on stimuli and incentives in children's environment we may expect that genes define the constraints for acquiring some or all early literacy skills. Therefore behavior genetic analyses were carried out on twin data including 27 identical and 39 same sex dizygotic twins, 4 years…
Rath, Linda K.
Describes the curriculum of the public television program "Between the Lions" (BTL), a series modeling behaviors and skills that foster early literacy. Shows how BTL incorporates developmentally appropriate early literacy practices. Highlights teachers' comments illustrating how BTL is being used in different classrooms and how it…
Robinson, Laura Eisenberg
Information literacy is becoming more prominent in K-12 education and continues to be a vital part of university-level studies. In today's complex society, it's not enough to be able to read, write, and do math. People continuously need to identify and recognize their information needs, locate necessary resources, use the essential information…
McKenney, Susan; Bradley, Barbara
Against the backdrop of growing international concern for a narrowing view of early literacy, this study was initiated to determine how teachers of four-year-olds view their task of fostering early literacy. This paper reports on the first steps to design and validate an instrument which captures teachers' perceptions of early literacy content…
Kissel, Brian; Mraz, Maryann; Algozzine, Bob; Stover, Katie
In recent years, literacy coaches have emerged as an integral part of a school's literacy team. Although current research on literacy coaching examines the work of coaches at the elementary and middle/secondary school levels, little research exists on the roles and perspectives of early childhood literacy coaches. This study sought to fill that…
Abel, Carolyn Davidson; Abel, Charles Frederick
How did Cuba erase illiteracy in a single year? How did they combine both a phonics approach with the constructivist meaning-based model for teaching reading that we cannot seem to manage here in the states? This paper seeks to shed light on Cuba's impressive 1961 National Literacy Campaign and reflects upon implications for early literacy…
Bridges-Rhoads, Sarah; Van Cleave, Jessica
This paper was written in the midst of enquiry--provoked by the question of what happens when we write posthumanism, qualitative enquiry and early literacy together. Rather than offer a stable methodology that is the product of our experimentation, the paper functions as a map, a situated cartography that has multiple access points and is…
Froiland, John Mark; Powell, Douglas R.; Diamond, Karen E.; Son, Seung-Hee Claire
In response to growing research and policy interest in the developmental contexts of early literacy, this study examined relations between neighborhood socioeconomic well-being, home literacy (parent-child shared reading and number of books at home), and directly assessed early literacy outcomes among 551 Head Start students in the fall of…
McLachlan, Claire; Nicholson, Tom; Fielding-Barnsley, Ruth; Mercer, Louise; Ohi, Sarah
Literacy in Early Childhood and Primary Education provides a comprehensive introduction to literacy teaching and learning. The book explores the continuum of literacy learning and children's transitions from early childhood settings to junior primary classrooms and then to senior primary and beyond. Reader-friendly and accessible, this book equips…
Ryan, Sheri Ann
Because early literacy development occurs through social processes, parents need to be involved in the beginning stages of their children's reading. This thesis details the need for early literacy experiences and provides evidence that reading success begins at home. The thesis distinguishes illiteracy and aliteracy, defines literacy, discusses…
Razfar, Aria; Yang, Eunah
This article examines sociocultural research on early literacy development in the digital age. The last decade has witnessed a proliferation of informational technology that has fundamentally shifted how we think about language and literacy in the early childhood years. Despite these trends, narrow and reductive views of literacy continue to…
Fuller, Bruce; Dellagnelo, Lucia; Strath, Annelie; Barretto Bastos, Eni Santana; Holanda Maia, Mauricio; Lopes de Matos, Kelma Socorro; Luiza Portela, Adelia; Lerche Vieira, Sofia
A study of 140 first- and second-grade classrooms and 1,925 students in the Brazilian states of Bahia and Ceara examined teaching practices and teacher behaviors in the classroom and their effects on students' early literacy achievement, as well as the influences of student, home, teacher, and school characteristics on literacy scores. (SV)
Jung, Youngok; Zuniga, Stephen; Howes, Carollee; Jeon, Hyun-Joo; Parrish, Deborah; Quick, Heather; Manship, Karen; Hauser, Alison
Noting the lack of research on how early childhood education (ECE) programmes within family literacy programmes influence Latino children's early language and literacy development, this study examined key features of ECE programmes, specifically teacher-child interactions and child engagement in language and literacy activities and how these…
Luyee, Eunice Ong; Roselan, Fauzan Izzati; Anwardeen, Nor Hafizah; Mustapa, Fatin Hazirah Mohd
Early literacy skills are crucial in a child's learning process and awareness should be raised in order to ensure the quality of early literacy assessments. In this paper, the writers discuss the quality of early literacy assessment in Malaysia, LINUS 2.0 by looking at its validity and reliability. An established early literacy program is compared…
Samuelsson, Stefan; Byrne, Brian; Olson, Richard K.; Hulslander, Jacqueline; Wadsworth, Sally; Corley, Robin; Willcutt, Erik G.; DeFries, John C.
Genetic and environmental influences on early reading and spelling at the end of kindergarten and Grade 1 were compared across three twin samples tested in the United States, Australia, and Scandinavia. Proportions of variance due to genetic influences on kindergarten reading were estimated at 0.84 in Australia, 0.68 in the U.S., and 0.33 in…
Moss, Katie Marie
This study examined the relationship of family characteristics (i.e., SES and race), parent-child engagement, and interactive reading behaviors on preschooler's emergent literacy scores. This study used a structural equation model to examine variables that impact emergent literacy development by evaluating data from the Early Childhood…
Purpura, David J; Hume, Laura E; Sims, Darcey M; Lonigan, Christopher J
The purpose of this study was to examine whether early literacy skills uniquely predict early numeracy skills development. During the first year of the study, 69 3- to 5-year-old preschoolers were assessed on the Preschool Early Numeracy Skills (PENS) test and the Test of Preschool Early Literacy Skills (TOPEL). Participants were assessed again a year later on the PENS test and on the Applied Problems and Calculation subtests of the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement. Three mixed effect regressions were conducted using Time 2 PENS, Applied Problems, and Calculation as the dependent variables. Print Knowledge and Vocabulary accounted for unique variance in the prediction of Time 2 numeracy scores. Phonological Awareness did not uniquely predict any of the mathematics domains. The findings of this study identify an important link between early literacy and early numeracy development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fricke, Jonathan; Navsaria, Dipesh; Mahony, Karin
Reach Out and Read (ROR) improves children's development and kindergarten readiness by encouraging parents to routinely share books with their children. Primary care providers give age-appropriate books and anticipatory guidance on reading at each well-child visit. This study evaluated parent attitudes and behaviors of early literacy related to ROR participation in Wisconsin clinics. A survey of early literacy attitudes and behaviors was administered to parents of children ages 6 months to 5 years in 36 Wisconsin clinics. Ten clinics were established ROR sites (intervention group) and 26 clinics had applied to become ROR programs but had not yet initiated the program (control group). Parents at clinics with ROR programs were more likely to read with a child under the age of 6 months (OR=1.58, 95% CI, 1.05-2.38). Other literacy metrics trended toward improvement but none reached statistical significance. Paradoxically, the odds of parents reporting reading as a bedtime habit were decreased among those who participated in ROR. Our study finds mixed support of the effectiveness of ROR outside of academic settings. The apparent discrepancy between these results and those from national studies on ROR may be related to differences in respondent demographics and educational attainment or differences in program implementation and fidelity. We believe that the results will become clearer with future study as clinics are prospectively evaluated over time rather than being compared to non-ROR clinics in a cross-sectional snapshot.
Lee, Shoou-Yih D.; Tsai, Tzu-I; Tsai, Yi-Wen; Kuo, Ken N.
Extant health literacy research is unclear about the contribution of health literacy to health behaviors and is limited regarding women's health issues. The primary purpose of this study is to investigate the association between health literacy and five health behaviors (Pap smear screening, annual physical checkup, smoking, checking food…
Loughlin, Catherine E.; Ivener, Bonnie L.
A study of patterns of literacy behaviors in high level literacy environments with varying levels of access to the environment began with a study of the instruments involved. Goals were to: (1) examine the reliability of the Survey of Displayed Literacy Stimuli; (2) study the correlation between scores from the Survey of Displayed Literacy Stimuli…
Davidse, N. J.; De Jong, M. T.; Bus, A. G.
How can it be explained that early literacy and numeracy share variance? We specifically tested whether the correlation between four early literacy skills (rhyming, letter knowledge, emergent writing, and orthographic knowledge) and simple sums (non-symbolic and story condition) reduced after taking into account preschool attention control,…
Whitmore, Kathryn F.; Martens, Prisca; Goodman, Yetta M.; Owocki, Gretchen
This article is a synthesis of early literacy research organized according to critical lessons that delineate our shared knowledge base that we name a 'transactional perspective on early literacy development.' The critical lessons are grouped into three sets to present the continuum of methodological stances that interpretive researchers take as…
Blamey, Katrin; Beauchat, Katherine
Four evidence-based instructional approaches create an essential resource for any early literacy teacher or coach. Improve your teaching practices in all areas of early literacy. Use four proven instructional approaches--standards based, evidenced based, assessment based, and student based--to improve their teaching practice in all areas of early…
Swick, Kevin J.
Early childhood family literacy programs have great potential to positively influence children and families. This article presents the core values and key components of high quality early childhood family literacy programs. The benefits and cost effectiveness of these programs are also discussed.
Holliman, Andrew; Critten, Sarah; Lawrence, Tony; Harrison, Emily; Wood, Clare; Hughes, David
A growing literature has demonstrated that prosodic sensitivity is related to early literacy development; however, the precise nature of this relationship remains unclear. It has been speculated in recent theoretical models that the observed relationship between prosodic sensitivity and early literacy might be partially mediated by children's…
Foorman, Barbara; Dombek, Jennifer; Smith, Kevin
The objective of this article is to describe seven elements important to successful implementation of early literacy intervention. The seven elements are drawn from research as well as from the authors' recent randomized controlled trial of effective early literacy interventions in kindergarten through second grade in 55 schools across Florida.…
Guzzetti, Barbara J., Ed.
Living in an age of communication, literacy is an extremely integral part of our society. We are impacted by literature during our infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. "Literacy for the New Millennium" includes information from specialists in the field who discuss the influence of popular culture, media, and technology on…
Tichnor-Wagner, Ariel; Garwood, Justin D.; Bratsch-Hines, Mary; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne
Factors such as weak early literacy skills and living in poverty may put young students at risk for reading disabilities. While home literacy activities and access to literacy materials have been associated with positive reading outcomes for urban and suburban students, little is known about home literacy environments of rural early elementary…
Ogg, Julia; Volpe, Robert; Rogers, Maria
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between inattention, academic enabling behaviors (i.e., motivation, engagement, and interpersonal skills), and early literacy outcomes. Kindergarten students (N = 181; 55.2% male; 62% white) from two research sites (Southeastern U.S. and Eastern Canada) were assessed using the Letter Naming and Letter Sound Fluency AIMSweb Tests of Early Literacy (Shinn & Shinn, 2012) at three points across the school year. Their teachers provided information on the level of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms (ADHD Symptom Checklist-4; Gadow & Sprafkin, 2008) and academic enabling behaviors (Academic Competence Evaluation Scales; DiPerna & Elliott, 2000). Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to determine predictors of initial level and growth in early literacy. Specifically, a series of models were tested to determine if a multidimensional model of academic enablers (AEs) mediated the relationship. Engagement predicted students' initial levels of early literacy, suggesting that this is an important mediator to consider between inattention and early literacy skills. Motivation related positively to engagement. Inattention also predicted both motivation and interpersonal skills in the negative direction. These findings suggest that AEs play an important role in the relationship between inattention and early literacy. AEs provide malleable targets for intervention and should be considered when developing intervention for youth at risk for academic failure. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Letourneau, Nicole; Whitty, Pam; Watson, Barry; Phillips, Jennifer; Joschko, Justin; Gillis, Doris
Low levels of literacy in early childhood can have lasting effects on children's educational and intellectual development. Many countries have implemented newborn literacy programs designed to teach parents pre-literacy promoting activities to share with their children. We conducted 2 quasi-experimental studies using 1) a pre-test/post-test design and 2) a non-equivalent control group design to examine the effect of newborn literacy programs on parents' self-reported literacy intentions/behaviors, values toward literacy, and parent-child interactions. Parents were recruited from 3 provinces, 2 with newborn literacy programs (intervention) and 1 without (control). Parents in the intervention group completed prenatal and postnatal (after participation in program) questionnaires. Parents in the control group completed 1 questionnaire. Questionnaires were designed to capture parents' literacy intentions (prenatal), behaviors (postnatal), values, and parent-child interactions (postnatal). A total of 98 parents were included in study one and 174 were included in study two. Parents' self-reported prenatal intentions and values were higher than their postnatal behaviors and values. Parents in the intervention group exhibited higher literacy behaviors and values and greater enjoyment reading to their children than parents in the control group, though they also reported reading to their children less frequently. Parents in the intervention group had significantly higher Positive Interactive scores than controls. Overall, we found participation in newborn literacy programs positively impacted parenting behaviors and attitudes. Lower postnatal within-group scores (intentions and values versus behaviors and values) may have been the result of participants' high expectations. Given our findings, we recommend that these programs continue.
Fujisawa, Keiko K.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Kakihana, Shinichiro; Olson, Richard K.; DeFries, John C.; Byrne, Brian; Ando, Juko
This first Japanese twin study of early literacy development investigated the extent to which genetic and environmental factors influence individual differences in prereading skills in 238 pairs of twins at 42 months of age. Twin pairs were individually tested on measures of phonological awareness, kana letter name/sound knowledge, receptive vocabulary, visual perception, nonword repetition, and digit span. Results obtained from univariate behavioral-genetic analyses yielded little evidence for genetic influences, but substantial shared-environmental influences, for all measures. Phenotypic confirmatory factor analysis suggested three correlated factors: phonological awareness, letter name/sound knowledge, and general prereading skills. Multivariate behavioral genetic analyses confirmed relatively small genetic and substantial shared environmental influences on the factors. The correlations among the three factors were mostly attributable to shared environment. Thus, shared environmental influences play an important role in the early reading development of Japanese children. PMID:23997545
Pears, Katherine C; Kim, Hyoun K; Fisher, Philip A; Yoerger, Karen
Two hundred and nine children receiving early childhood special education services for developmental disabilities or delays who also had behavioral, social, or attentional difficulties were included in a study of an intervention to increase school readiness, including early literacy skills. Results showed that the intervention had a significant positive effect on children's literacy skills from baseline to the end of summer before the start of kindergarten (d=.14). The intervention also had significant indirect effects on teacher ratings of children's literacy skills during the fall of their kindergarten year (β=.09). Additionally, when scores were compared to standard benchmarks, a greater percentage of the children who received the intervention moved from being at risk for reading difficulties to having low risk. Overall, this study demonstrates that a school readiness intervention delivered prior to the start of kindergarten may help increase children's early literacy skills. Copyright © 2016 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lederberg, Amy R.; Miller, Elizabeth M.; Easterbrooks, Susan R.; Connor, Carol McDonald
The present study evaluated the efficacy of a new preschool early literacy intervention created specifically for deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children with functional hearing. Teachers implemented "Foundations for Literacy" with 25 DHH children in 2 schools (intervention group). One school used only spoken language, and the other used…
Lybolt, John; Armstrong, Jennifer; Techmanski, Kristin Evans; Gottfred, Catherine
For children from low-resource backgrounds, a literacy-rich preschool experience with a skilled and engaged teacher can offset risk factors and lay the groundwork for lifelong academic success. Now schools can ensure effective early literacy instruction with this field-tested, research-based curriculum for children 3 to 5 years of age. These 41…
Hardman, Margaret; Jones, Lynn
Evaluation of an early literacy initiative in which free books and literacy information were given to 40 caregivers of infants. Compared book-related activity in the home before and 2 months after the program. Results showed significant increases in book ownership and frequency of mothers and babies looking at children's books together. (SK)
Arellano, Elizabeth Michelle
This study examined the effectiveness of a targeted early literacy intervention among Spanish-speaking kindergarten English Learners (ELs). Using a Response to Intervention (RtI) framework, participants were screened in English to ensure a need for additional literacy support. Selected students were then screened in Spanish, and students with…
My paper looks at "signatures" in the form of "ciphers" (kao) and other personal marks made on population registers, town rules, and apostasy oaths in the early seventeenth century to provide some empirical evidence of very high literacy among village leaders. The essay also argues, using the same data, that literacy had…
Liang, Poh-Hwa; Johnson, James
Discusses technology with reference to children's play, including how technology mixes with the established connection between children's play and emergent literacy and advantages and disadvantages of the three-way intersection of technology, literacy, and play in early childhood education. Addresses play and computers, software, the Internet, and…
Makin, Laurie; Diaz, Criss Jones
Acknowledging that young children's early understandings about literacy occur within their cultural and linguistic communities, the book compiles articles challenging traditional views of literacy and suggesting positive new practices. Each chapter includes "reflection" and "followup" sections that reinforce the link between theory and practice,…
Hiebert, Elfrieda H., Ed.; Taylor, Barbara M., Ed.
Presenting descriptions of seven successful emergent literacy programs, this book demonstrates that early literacy intervention programs with a focus on accelerated learning and on authentic reading and writing tasks can prevent many first-grade children from failing to learn to read. Programs described in the book focus on story book reading and…
This paper presents a historical reflection on gender and literacy, with a view to informing the present teaching of literacy in early childhood. The relationship between gender, literacy and opportunity in the labour market is examined, given that despite girls' achievement in literacy, in comparison with boys', women continue to earn…
Carr, McKensie M; Greenhill, Lisa M
Each year the Association of American Veterinary Medical Colleges (AAVMC) conducts a survey after the close of the Veterinary Medical College Application Service (VMCAS) application. The survey provides a glimpse into applicant behavior surrounding the veterinary school application process. Additional survey questions probe into applicant financial behaviors, use of financial products and services, and pet ownership. This article examines the 2013 survey data from applicants who successfully completed the application, with a focus on applicant financial literacy and behaviors. Data from the study revealed a disconnect between applicants' perception of their ability to deal with day-to-day finances and their actual financial behaviors, particularly for first-generation college student applicants and applicants who are racially/ethnically underrepresented in veterinary medicine (URVM). Many applicants were not able to accurately report the average veterinary school graduate's student debt level, which suggests the potential need for better education about the costs associated with attending veterinary school.
Shanahan, Timothy; Lonigan, Christopher J.
This article summarizes "Developing Early Literacy: Report of the National Early Literacy Panel," which was published in 2008.That report provides an extensive meta-analysis of approximately 300 studies showing which early literacy measures correlate with later literacy achievement. It also provides a series of meta-analyses of a comprehensive…
Dubeck, Margaret M.; Jukes, Matthew C. H.; Okello, George
We report on a study that used observations, conversations, and formal interviews to explore literacy instruction in 24 lower-primary classrooms in coastal Kenya. Specifically, we report the ways literacy instruction is delivered and how that delivery aligns with practices understood to promote reading acquisition. We find (1) prioritization of…
Ogg, Julia; Volpe, Robert; Rogers, Maria
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between inattention, academic enabling behaviors (i.e., motivation, engagement, and interpersonal skills), and early literacy outcomes. Kindergarten students (N = 181; 55.2% male; 62% white) from two research sites (Southeastern U.S. and Eastern Canada) were assessed using the Letter Naming…
This article describes some implications of using a multiple literacies perspective in the construction and implementation of literacy curriculum, pedagogy, and assessment in early childhood and elementary classrooms. After briefly laying out a theoretical perspective in sections focusing on early literacy, academic learning, literacy beyond…
Neuman, Susan B.
In this article, the author talks about "Developing Early Literacy," the report of the National Early Literacy Panel. The panel, which consisted of nine experts, was convened by the National Institute for Literacy to synthesize the research on the development of literacy from birth through age 5. Over the eight years of their work, only 190…
Kaminski, Ruth A.; Powell-Smith, Kelly A.
Phonemic awareness has been consistently identified as an essential skill for as well as an important predictor of later reading achievement. Children who lack these early literacy skills at kindergarten entry are more likely to demonstrate both short- and long-term reading difficulties. Despite the importance of providing intervention early,…
Wolcott, Willa, Ed.
The late Margaret J. Early was a nationally renowned educator in the field of English education and reading, a past president of the National Council of Teachers of English, an author and an editor herself, and the recipient of many awards. The book Reflections on Teaching Literacy: Selected Speeches of Margaret J. Early, edited by Willa Wolcott,…
Baroody, Alison E.; Diamond, Karen E.
This study examines the relations among the classroom literacy environment, children's interest and engagement in literacy activities, and children's early reading skills in a sample of 167 children aged 4 and 5 years enrolled in 31 Head Start classrooms. Researchers rated the classroom literacy environment. Teachers reported on children's…
Part of social and emotional development is a child's emotional literacy. Numerous strategies exist for the development of children's emotional and social development, and for their emotional readiness for school. Teachers might arrange a classroom environment that is not overly structured or regimented. The environment should reflect who the…
Neuman, Susan B., Ed.; Dickinson, David K., Ed.
Building crucial bridges between theory, research, and practice, this volume brings together leading authorities on the literacy development of young children. The "Handbook" examines the full range of factors that shape learning in and out of the classroom, from basic developmental processes to family and sociocultural contexts,…
Simmons, Robert A; Cosgrove, Susan C; Romney, Martha C; Plumb, James D; Brawer, Rickie O; Gonzalez, Evelyn T; Fleisher, Linda G; Moore, Bradley S
Health literacy, the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand health information and services needed to make health decisions, is an essential element for early adults (aged 18-44 years) to make informed decisions about cancer. Low health literacy is one of the social determinants of health associated with cancer-related disparities. Over the past several years, a nonprofit organization, a university, and a cancer center in a major urban environment have developed and implemented health literacy programs within healthcare systems and in the community. Health system personnel received extensive health literacy training to reduce medical jargon and improve their patient education using plain language easy-to-understand written materials and teach-back, and also designed plain language written materials including visuals to provide more culturally and linguistically appropriate health education and enhance web-based information. Several sustainable health system policy changes occurred over time. At the community level, organizational assessments and peer leader training on health literacy have occurred to reduce communication barriers between consumers and providers. Some of these programs have been cancer specific, including consumer education in such areas as cervical cancer, skin cancer, and breast cancer that are targeted to early adults across the cancer spectrum from prevention to treatment to survivorship. An example of consumer-driven health education that was tested for health literacy using a comic book-style photonovel on breast cancer with an intergenerational family approach for Chinese Americans is provided. Key lessons learned from the health literacy initiatives and overall conclusions of the health literacy initiatives are also summarized. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Allan, Nicholas P; Joye, Shauna W; Lonigan, Christopher J
There is a significant negative relation between externalizing behavior and emergent literacy skills among preschool children. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of gender on the predictive relation of externalizing behavior and emergent literacy in a group of 178 preschool children (mean age = 48.50 months, SD = 3.66; 48% boys). Externalizing behaviors predicted emergent literacy over time. Distinct patterns of predictive associations dependent on gender were found. Girls with higher levels of externalizing behaviors experienced less change in their vocabulary skills compared with the vocabulary change shown by girls with lower levels of these problem behaviors. The results suggest that early identification programs that include externalizing behavior problems and their relation with emergent literacy development should account for potential gender differences. A theoretical framework in which girls with behavior problems receive less opportunity for vocabulary acquisition is presented.
A study was conducted to determine and compare the literacy beliefs, knowledge bases, and practices of early childhood educators who espouse emergent literacy and reading readiness philosophies; to explore the relationship among beliefs, knowledge bases, and practices; and to examine the degree to which beliefs, knowledge bases, and practices were…
Yin, H Shonna; Sanders, Lee M; Rothman, Russell L; Shustak, Rachel; Eden, Svetlana K; Shintani, Ayumi; Cerra, Maria E; Cruzatte, Evelyn F; Perrin, Eliana M
To examine the relationship between parent health literacy and "obesogenic" infant care behaviors. Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a cluster randomized controlled trial of a primary care-based early childhood obesity prevention program (Greenlight). English- and Spanish-speaking parents of 2-month-old children were enrolled (n = 844). The primary predictor variable was parent health literacy (Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults; adequate ≥ 23; low <23). Primary outcome variables involving self-reported obesogenic behaviors were: (1) feeding content (more formula than breast milk, sweet drinks, early solid food introduction), and feeding style-related behaviors (pressuring to finish, laissez-faire bottle propping/television [TV] watching while feeding, nonresponsiveness in letting child decide amount to eat); and (2) physical activity (tummy time, TV). Multivariate logistic regression analyses (binary, proportional odds models) performed adjusting for child sex, out-of-home care, Women, Infants, and Children program status, parent age, race/ethnicity, language, number of adults/children in home, income, and site. Eleven percent of parents were categorized as having low health literacy. Low health literacy significantly increased the odds of a parent reporting that they feed more formula than breast milk, (aOR = 2.0 [95% CI: 1.2-3.5]), immediately feed when their child cries (aOR = 1.8 [1.1-2.8]), bottle prop (aOR = 1.8 [1.002-3.1]), any infant TV watching (aOR = 1.8 [1.1-3.0]), and inadequate tummy time (<30 min/d), (aOR = 3.0 [1.5-5.8]). Low parent health literacy is associated with certain obesogenic infant care behaviors. These behaviors may be modifiable targets for low health literacy-focused interventions to help reduce childhood obesity. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Clausell, Arlene Midget
The research problem is: Many parents are not involved in their children's early literacy education. Some Head Start parents experience issues that keep them from teaching their children early literacy skills. The research questions were: What are the factors for parental involvement in the support of early literacy skill development for their…
Xu, Yaoying; Chin, Christopher; Reed, Evelyn; Hutchinson, Cynthia
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a federally funded early literacy project that aimed to promote the school readiness skills of preschool-age children from low income families. Through daily, explicit, and systematic instruction, the project targeted to improve preschoolers' oral language skills, phonological awareness,…
Literacy Teaching and Learning: An International Journal of Early Literacy, 1996
Developed as a vehicle of communication for the Reading Recovery Council of North America, this journal represents an international effort to connect researchers, teachers, and all those interested in early literacy. Articles in the first issue of this second volume are: "Oral Language: Assessment and Development in Reading Recovery in the…
Binder, Katherine S.; Snyder, Melissa A.; Ardoin, Scott P.; Morris, Robin K.
This study examined the reliability and validity of administering Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) to adult basic education (ABE) students. Ninety ABE participants were administered DIBELS measures, the Woodcock-Johnson III Broad Reading (WJ III BR) measures, and four orthographic ability tests. Since ABE students are a…
Klein, Adria F., Ed.; Swartz, Stanley L., Ed.
Developed as a vehicle of communication for the Reading Recovery Council of North America, this journal represents an international effort to connect researchers, teachers, and all those interested in early literacy. Articles in the special inaugural issue on Reading Recovery are: "Reading Recovery: An Overview" (Stanley L. Swartz and…
Grace, Donna J.; Brandt, Mary E.
Early childhood educators believe that schooling for young children should focus on developing the "whole child," socially, emotionally, physically, and academically. Teaching pre-reading skills and encouraging children to read are essential steps on the path of literacy development. A narrow and persistent attention to academics is…
Success in early literacy activities is associated with improved educational outcomes, including reduced dropout risk, in-grade retention, and special education referrals. When considering programs that will work for a particular school and context; cost-effectiveness analysis may provide useful information for decision makers. The study…
Gan, Yongcheng; Scardamalia, Marlene; Hong, Huang-Yao; Zhang, Jianwei
This study examined growth in graphical literacy for students contributing to an online, multimedia, communal environment as they advanced their understanding of biology, history and optics. Their science and history studies started early in Grade 3 and continued to the end of Grade 4; students did not receive instruction in graphics production,…
Lopuch, Jeremy Jon
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of diagnostic formative assessment feedback on early literacy skills. The participants were 12 first-grade general education teachers and 51 of their students who were assigned to the following treatments, diagnostic feedback and skills feedback (control) which lasted for 10 weeks. During the…
Huang, Francis L.; Invernizzi, Marcia A.
The authors investigated whether age at kindergarten entry was associated with early literacy achievement gaps and if these gaps persisted over time. Using the kindergarten age eligibility cutoff date, they created 2 groups of students who represented the oldest and youngest children in a cohort of students in high-poverty, low-performing schools.…
Santos, Rosa Milagros; Fettig, Angel; Shaffer, LaShorage
Early childhood educators know that home is a child's first learning environment. From birth, children are comforted by hearing and listening to their caregivers' voices. The language used by families supports young children's development of oral language skills. Exposure to print materials in the home also supports literacy development. Literacy…
Johnson, Helen L.
The present paper explores the connections between theory and research in language development and aesthetic education and their implications for early childhood classroom practice. The present paper posits that arts experiences make a unique and vital contribution to the child's development of language and literacy, as well as to the sense of…
Fujisawa, Keiko K.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Kakihana, Shinichiro; Olson, Richard K.; DeFries, John C.; Byrne, Brian; Ando, Juko
This first Japanese twin study of early literacy development investigated the extent to which genetic and environmental factors influence individual differences in prereading skills in 238 pairs of twins at 42 months of age. Twin pairs were individually tested on measures of phonological awareness, "kana" letter name/sound knowledge,…
Wang, Xiao-lei; Bernas, Ronan; Eberhard, Philippe
This study examined how Chinese and American Indian mothers support their young children's early literacy development in everyday interactions. Twenty mother-child dyads in each cultural community participated in the study. Analysis of videotaped interactions indicated that the mothers in the two communities differed greatly in the ways they…
Seligman, Hilary K.; Wallace, Andrea S.; DeWalt, Darren A.; Schillinger, Dean; Arnold, Connie L.; Shilliday, Betsy Bryant; Delgadillo, Adriana; Bengal, Nikki; Davis, Terry C.
Objective To describe a process for developing low-literacy health education materials that increase knowledge and activate patients toward healthier behaviors. Methods We developed a theoretically informed process for developing educational materials. This process included convening a multidisciplinary creative team, soliciting stakeholder input, identifying key concepts to be communicated, mapping concepts to a behavioral theory, creating a supporting behavioral intervention, designing and refining materials, and assessing efficacy. Results We describe the use of this process to develop a diabetes self-management guide. Conclusions Developing low-literacy health education materials that will activate patients toward healthier behaviors requires attention to factors beyond reading level. PMID:17931139
Iyer, Sai Nandini; Dawson, M Zachary; Sawyer, Mark I; Abdullah, Neelab; Saju, Leya; Needlman, Robert D
The Early Literacy Screener (ELS) is a brief screen for emergent literacy delays in 4- and 5-year-olds. Standard developmental screens may also flag these children. What is the value of adding the ELS? Parents of children aged 4 (n = 45) and 5 (n = 26) years completed the Ages and Stages Questionnaire-3 (ASQ-3), the Survey of Well-Being in Young Children (SWYC), and the ELS. Rates of positive agreement (PA), negative agreement (NA), and overall agreement (Cohen's κ) across the various screening tools were calculated. Early literacy delays were detected in 51% of those who passed the ASQ and 38% of those who passed the SWYC. For ELS versus ASQ, κ = 0.18, PA = 0.36 (95% CI = 0.23-0.51), and NA = 0.83 (95% CI = 0.66-0.92). For ELS versus SWYC, κ = 0.42, PA = 0.61 (95% CI = 0.45-0.75), and NA = 0.82 (95% CI = 0.65-0.92). The ELS adds value by flagging early literacy delays in many children who pass either the ASQ-3 or SWYC.
In these politically charged times of early literacy initiatives, position statements, and education reform, talk about play and literacy learning seems rather awkward, if not even a bit silly. As the realities of early literacy education set in, teachers, legislators, and parents grow ever more critical of what young children are doing as…
Lederberg, Amy R.; Miller, Elizabeth M.; Easterbrooks, Susan R.; Connor, Carol McDonald
The present study evaluated the efficacy of a new preschool early literacy intervention created specifically for deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children with functional hearing. Teachers implemented Foundations for Literacy with 25 DHH children in 2 schools (intervention group). One school used only spoken language, and the other used sign with and without spoken language. A “business as usual” comparison group included 33 DHH children who were matched on key characteristics with the intervention children but attended schools that did not implement Foundations for Literacy. Children’s hearing losses ranged from moderate to profound. Approximately half of the children had cochlear implants. All children had sufficient speech perception skills to identify referents of spoken words from closed sets of items. Teachers taught small groups of intervention children an hour a day, 4 days a week for the school year. From fall to spring, intervention children made significantly greater gains on tests of phonological awareness, letter–sound knowledge, and expressive vocabulary than did comparison children. In addition, intervention children showed significant increases in standard scores (based on hearing norms) on phonological awareness and vocabulary tests. This quasi-experimental study suggests that the intervention shows promise for improving early literacy skills of DHH children with functional hearing. PMID:25125456
Osborn, Chandra Y.; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K.; Bailey, Stacy Cooper; Wolf, Michael S.
Objective To examine the mechanisms linking health literacy to physical activity and self-reported health. Methods From 2005–2007, patients (N=330) with hypertension were recruited from safety net clinics. Path analytic models tested the pathways linking health literacy to physical activity and self-reported health. Results There were significant paths from health literacy to knowledge (r=0.22, P<0.001), knowledge to self-efficacy (r=0.13, P<0.01), self-efficacy to physical activity (r=0.17, P<0.01), and physical activity to health status (r=0.17, P<0.01). Conclusions Health education interventions should be literacy sensitive and aim to enhance patient health knowledge and self-efficacy to promote self-care behavior and desirable health outcomes. PMID:20950164
Sanders, Lee M; Perrin, Eliana M; Yin, H Shonna; Bronaugh, Andrea; Rothman, Russell L
Children who become overweight by age 2 years have significantly greater risks of long-term health problems, and children in low-income communities, where rates of low adult literacy are highest, are at increased risk of developing obesity. The objective of the Greenlight Intervention Study is to assess the effectiveness of a low-literacy, primary-care intervention on the reduction of early childhood obesity. At 4 primary-care pediatric residency training sites across the US, 865 infant-parent dyads were enrolled at the 2-month well-child checkup and are being followed through the 24-month well-child checkup. Two sites were randomly assigned to the intervention, and the other sites were assigned to an attention-control arm, implementing the American Academy of Pediatrics' The Injury Prevention Program. The intervention consists of an interactive educational toolkit, including low-literacy materials designed for use during well-child visits, and a clinician-centered curriculum for providing low-literacy guidance on obesity prevention. The study is powered to detect a 10% difference in the number of children overweight (BMI > 85%) at 24 months. Other outcome measures include observed physician-parent communication, as well as parent-reported information on child dietary intake, physical activity, and injury-prevention behaviors. The study is designed to inform evidence-based standards for early childhood obesity prevention, and more generally to inform optimal approaches for low-literacy messages and health literacy training in primary preventive care. This article describes the conceptual model, study design, intervention content, and baseline characteristics of the study population. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Perrin, Eliana M.; Yin, H. Shonna; Bronaugh, Andrea; Rothman, Russell L.
Children who become overweight by age 2 years have significantly greater risks of long-term health problems, and children in low-income communities, where rates of low adult literacy are highest, are at increased risk of developing obesity. The objective of the Greenlight Intervention Study is to assess the effectiveness of a low-literacy, primary-care intervention on the reduction of early childhood obesity. At 4 primary-care pediatric residency training sites across the US, 865 infant-parent dyads were enrolled at the 2-month well-child checkup and are being followed through the 24-month well-child checkup. Two sites were randomly assigned to the intervention, and the other sites were assigned to an attention-control arm, implementing the American Academy of Pediatrics' The Injury Prevention Program. The intervention consists of an interactive educational toolkit, including low-literacy materials designed for use during well-child visits, and a clinician-centered curriculum for providing low-literacy guidance on obesity prevention. The study is powered to detect a 10% difference in the number of children overweight (BMI > 85%) at 24 months. Other outcome measures include observed physician–parent communication, as well as parent-reported information on child dietary intake, physical activity, and injury-prevention behaviors. The study is designed to inform evidence-based standards for early childhood obesity prevention, and more generally to inform optimal approaches for low-literacy messages and health literacy training in primary preventive care. This article describes the conceptual model, study design, intervention content, and baseline characteristics of the study population. PMID:24819570
High, Pamela C.
"Early Brain and Child Development" as a strategic priority of the American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes that early literacy and language skills build a strong foundation for healthy development and academic success. Promoting early literacy in the context of pediatric primary care supports early brain development and positive,…
Boston Medical Center, MA. Doc4Kids Project.
Suggesting that very young children spend every waking minute getting ready for kindergarten, this videotape for caregivers and early childhood teachers shows how to support early literacy skill development by sharing stories, relationships, and books with infants, toddlers, and preschoolers in care and education settings. The 25-minute videotape…
Kidd, Joanna C.; Shum, Kathy Kar-Man; Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Au, Terry Kit-fong
Phonological processing skills predict early reading development, but what underlies developing phonological processing skills? Phonological representations of 140 native Cantonese-speaking Chinese children (age 4-10) were assessed with speech gating, mispronunciation detection, and nonword repetition tasks; their nonverbal IQ, reading, and…
Byrne, Brian; Olson, Richard K.; Samuelsson, Stefan; Wadsworth, Sally; Corley, Robin; DeFries, John C.; Willcutt, Erik
Prereading and early reading skills of preschool twin children in Australia, Scandinavia and the United States were explored in a genetically sensitive design (max. N=627 preschool pairs and 422 kindergarten pairs). Analyses indicated a strong genetic influence on preschool phonological awareness, rapid naming and verbal memory. Print awareness,…
Wiescholek, Sabrina; Hilkenmeier, Johanna; Greiner, Christian; Buhl, Heike M.
Home literacy environment (HLE) makes an important contribution to children's reading acquisition in early years. Even though some research on children's perception exists, children's reports about HLE have been neglected. The present study focuses on N = 281 six-year-old's reports about HLE and its influences on literacy enjoyment, frequency, and…
St. John, Edward P.; Bardzell, Jeffrey S.
This guide is designed to help school communities make good choices about early literacy intervention. The guide distinguishes between "reading" (a process of learning to decode and comprehend texts) and a broader concept of "literacy" that includes understanding of the value of language and reading (emergent literacy), the…
Weigel, Daniel J.; Martin, Sally S.; Lowman, Jennifer L.
Several challenges arise when researchers or practitioners attempt to assess the literacy skills of toddlers, including a lack of developmentally appropriate measures, toddlers' more limited communication ability, and how literacy is defined in the years before age three. This paper describes four new measures of early literacy development and…
Dynia, Jaclyn M.
The present study aimed to examine the quality of the classroom literacy environment in early childhood special education (ECSE) classrooms, as well as the relations between the classroom literacy environment and children's gains in print knowledge. To address these aims, the present study described the classroom literacy environments of 28…
Ross, Denise; Pinder, Glen; Coles-White, D'Jaris
Elementary charter schools increasingly serve students who are at-risk for reading challenges, giving them a critical role in establishing literacy for young children. This article examines the complexities of starting early childhood literacy programs in charter schools. Specifically, the first year of K-3 literacy programs in a new and a…
Dynia, Jaclyn M.; Schachter, Rachel E.; Piasta, Shayne B.; Justice, Laura M.; O'Connell, Ann A.; Yeager Pelatti, Christina
This study investigated the dimensionality of the physical literacy environment of early childhood education classrooms. Data on the classroom physical literacy environment were collected from 245 classrooms using the Classroom Literacy Observation Profile. A combination of confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis was used to identify five…
Lesaux, Nonie K.; Vukovic, Rose K.; Hertzman, Clyde; Siegel, Linda S.
Whereas the great majority of literacy research has been focused at the child level, this study examined the relationship between early literacy rates, developmental health of the population, and demographics in 23 school communities. The results showed that school-level literacy scores were related to the physical, social, and emotional maturity…
Monaghan, E. Jennifer
Offers a naturalistic picture of literacy in colonial North America by exploring family literacy in an early eighteenth-century urban New England setting. Uses the diaries and other writings of Cotton Mather (1663-1728) as sources on literacy within his family. Notes the importance of writing within the family. (SR)
Dynia, Jaclyn M.; Schachter, Rachel E.; Piasta, Shayne B.; Justice, Laura M.; O'Connell, Ann A.; Yeager Pelatti, Christina
This study investigated the dimensionality of the physical literacy environment of early childhood education classrooms. Data on the classroom physical literacy environment were collected from 245 classrooms using the Classroom Literacy Observation Profile. A combination of confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis was used to identify five…
Thatcher, Karen; Fletcher, Kathryn
The purpose of the current study was to examine therapists' perceptions about literacy in early intervention services. Little effort has been devoted to the incorporation of literacy into therapy services for very young children with special needs. In an attempt to understand how therapy providers view the role of literacy in their services, 168…
Johnston, Susan S.; McDonnell, Andrea P.; Hawken, Leanne S.
Emerging literacy has been defined as the "reading and writing knowledge and behavior of children who are not yet conventionally literate" (Justice & Kaderavek, 2002, p. 8). This article provides readers with strategies for meeting the emerging literacy needs of young children with disabilities. Ideas for creating a literacy-rich environment as…
Seligman, Hilary K.; Wallace, Andrea S.; DeWalt, Darren A.; Schillinger, Dean; Arnold, Connie L.; Shilliday, Betsy Bryant; Delgadillo, Adriana; Bengal, Nikki; Davis, Terry C.
Objective: To describe a process for developing low-literacy health education materials that increase knowledge and activate patients toward healthier behaviors. Methods: We developed a theoretically informed process for developing educational materials. This process included convening a multidisciplinary creative team, soliciting stakeholder…
Gischlar, Karen L.; Vesay, Joanne P.
Research has consistently demonstrated the importance of early literacy instruction, as these skills are the developmental precursors to conventional reading. In this study, 215 early childhood educators in two states responded to a survey regarding early literacy curricula and assessment. Results indicated that most teachers used either a…
Murphy, Jeanne Lovo; Hatton, Deborah; Erickson, Karen A.
Practices endorsed by 192 teachers of young children with visual impairments who completed an online early literacy survey included facilitating early attachment (70%), providing early literacy support to families (74%), and providing adaptations to increase accessibility (55%). Few teachers reported using assistive technology, providing…
Marston, Doug; Pickart, Mary; Reschly, Amy; Heistad, David; Muyskens, Paul; Tindal, Gerald
The importance of early literacy instruction and its role in later reading proficiency is well established; however, measures and procedures to screen and monitor proficiency in the area of early literacy are less well researched. The purpose of this study was to (a) examine the technical adequacy and validity of early curriculum-based literacy…
Levitt, Roberta; Red Owl, R. H.
Research has linked early literacy environments to the attitudes, behaviours and instructional values of reading teachers, but most prior research has addressed preservice or early inservice teachers. This mixed-methods, hypothesis-generating, "Q" methodology-based study explored the relationship between early literacy environments and…
This report outlines findings from Pearson and the National Literacy Trust's second annual early years literacy survey, conducted in May to July 2014. 1,012 parents of children aged 3 to 5 and 567 early years practitioners who work with this age group participated. Attainment data in the form of vocabulary abilities were available for a subsample…
Goodrich, J. Marc; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Farver, Jo Ann M.
Spanish-speaking language-minority (LM) children are at an elevated risk of struggling academically and display signs of that risk during early childhood. Therefore, high-quality research is needed to identify instructional techniques that promote the school readiness of Spanish-speaking LM children. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention that utilized an experimental curriculum and two professional development models for the development of English and Spanish early literacy skills among LM children. We also evaluated whether LM children's proficiency in one language moderated the effect of the intervention on early literacy skills in the other language, as well as whether the intervention was differentially effective for LM and monolingual English-speaking children. Five hundred twenty-six Spanish-speaking LM children and 447 monolingual English-speaking children enrolled in 26 preschool centers in Los Angeles, CA participated in this study. Results indicated that the intervention was effective for improving LM children's code-related but not language-related English early literacy skills. There were no effects of the intervention on children's Spanish early literacy skills. Proficiency in Spanish did not moderate the effect of the intervention for any English early literacy outcomes; however, proficiency in English significantly moderated the effect of the intervention for Spanish oral language skills, such that the effect of the intervention was stronger for children with higher proficiency in English than it was for children with lower proficiency in English. In general, there were not differential effects of the intervention for LM and monolingual children. Taken together, these findings indicate that high-quality, evidence-based instruction can improve the early literacy skills of LM children and that the same instructional techniques are effective for enhancing the early literacy skills of LM and monolingual
Korat, Ofra; Gitait, Aviva; Bergman Deitcher, Deborah; Mevarech, Zmira
We researched the efficacy of an early literacy programme in enhancing immigrant children's phonological awareness (PA) and print knowledge, including transferring learning to numeracy. Participants were 294 Ethiopian-born immigrant children in Israel at kindergarten age and one of their parents. Parent-child dyads were randomly selected to…
Han, Jeanie Nam; Vanderwood, Michael L.; Lee, Catherine Y.
This study examined the predictive validity of early literacy measures with first-grade Korean English language learners (ELLs) in the United States at varying levels of English proficiency. Participants were screened using Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) Phoneme Segmentation Fluency (PSF), DIBELS Nonsense Word Fluency…
Culatta, Richard; Culatta, Barbara; Frost, Meghan; Buzzell, Krista
Custom-made digital media are rich, varied, and motivational early literacy materials. An important component of Project SEEL (Systematic and Engaging Early Literacy Instruction) was the use of tailormade digital books and activities in the reading curriculum. Project SEEL team members created computerized materials in Spanish to relate to…
Reutzel, D. Ray
This article shares recent research findings in early literacy that every primary grade teacher has had questions about at one time or another ranging from handwriting to phonemic awareness, writing to concepts about print, and more. The article reports research that elaborates upon and extends early literacy research that was reported by the…
Barkon, Elisheva; Avinor, Eleanor
Investigates a possible link between academic difficulties and early literacy deprivation among the immigrant Ethiopian population in Israel. Findings suggest that such deprivation can affect the person after he becomes literate and multilingual and that literacy exposure in early childhood and first-language maintenance is important. (11…
Mooney, Kathleen C.
An abundance of research on early literacy intervention indicates that struggling, K-2 readers and writers can be effectively supported through the receipt of intervention services in school; however, research in the area has not yet addressed study of the unique, contextualized design and implementation of early literacy intervention in different…
Xu, Yaoying; De Arment, Serra
The early childhood literature has documented the impact of early literacy experience on children's later language and literacy development. The research also showed the achievement gap between children from lower socio-economic status and their peers from more economically advantaged backgrounds. To address this gap, the existing literature has…
Samiei, Shahin; Bush, Andrew J.; Sell, Marie; Imig, Doug
This study evaluated participation in the "Imagination Library" early childhood literacy enrichment program and children's pre-literacy and pre-numeracy skills at kindergarten entry in an urban school district. Previous studies have demonstrated that program participation is associated with greater early childhood reading practices.…
MacDonald, Colleen; Figueredo, Lauren
A history of poverty and low academic achievement in four urban schools pointed to the need to implement an early intervention focused on oral language and emergent literacy. The Kindergarten Early Literacy Tutoring (KELT) Program was designed to target senior (5 year old) kindergarten students most at-risk. The intervention consisted of an extra…
Schatschneider, Christopher; Lonigan, Christopher J.
Many of the methodological criticisms of the National Early Literacy Panel (NELP) report presented in this special issue of "Educational Researcher" are not specific to the NELP report but are in fact broad criticisms of much of the quantitative research on early literacy. This rejoinder demonstrates that these criticisms are off target and are…
Homan, Susan; King, James R.; Hogarty, Kris
Over the last 2 years, Accelerated Literacy Learning (ALL) has experimented with the small group model in early literacy intervention, with success comparable to that in one-to-one intervention. There can be little doubt that intervention provided to struggling readers is most effectively initiated at an early stage. The ALL program was conceived…
Gover, F. Jill
There is a great deal of concern about teenage suicide. This study obtained a prevalence rate of suicidal behaviors among non-psychiatric early adolescents (ages 11-16) and investigated personal and family variables that may characterize the young teenagers who report varying degrees of suicidal behavior. A self-report questionnaire was…
Drawing on the bilingual policies and biliteracy programmes of African nations, this paper discusses the context of literacy education in Nigeria and examines Nigerian early literacy teachers' attitudes to teaching literacy and literacy teaching practices as informed by the National Policy on Education, Primary English Language Curriculum and the…
Allen, Thomas E; Letteri, Amy; Choi, Song Hoa; Dang, Daqian
Brief review is provided of recent research on the impact of early visual language exposure on a variety of developmental outcomes, including literacy, cognition, and social adjustment. This body of work points to the great importance of giving young deaf children early exposure to a visual language as a critical precursor to the acquisition of literacy. Four analyses of data from the Visual Language and Visual Learning (VL2) Early Education Longitudinal Study are summarized. Each confirms findings from previously published laboratory findings and points to the positive effects of early sign language on, respectively, letter knowledge, social adaptability, sustained visual attention, and cognitive-behavioral milestones necessary for academic success. The article concludes with a consideration of the qualitative similarity hypothesis and a finding that the hypothesis is valid, but only if it can be presented as being modality independent.
Ozernov-Palchik, Ola; Wolf, Maryanne; Patel, Aniruddh D
A growing number of studies report links between nonlinguistic rhythmic abilities and certain linguistic abilities, particularly phonological skills. The current study investigated the relationship between nonlinguistic rhythmic processing, phonological abilities, and early literacy abilities in kindergarteners. A distinctive aspect of the current work was the exploration of whether processing of different types of rhythmic patterns is differentially related to kindergarteners' phonological and reading-related abilities. Specifically, we examined the processing of metrical versus nonmetrical rhythmic patterns, that is, patterns capable of being subdivided into equal temporal intervals or not (Povel & Essens, 1985). This is an important comparison because most music involves metrical sequences, in which rhythm often has an underlying temporal grid of isochronous units. In contrast, nonmetrical sequences are arguably more typical to speech rhythm, which is temporally structured but does not involve an underlying grid of equal temporal units. A rhythm discrimination app with metrical and nonmetrical patterns was administered to 74 kindergarteners in conjunction with cognitive and preliteracy measures. Findings support a relationship among rhythm perception, phonological awareness, and letter-sound knowledge (an essential precursor of reading). A mediation analysis revealed that the association between rhythm perception and letter-sound knowledge is mediated through phonological awareness. Furthermore, metrical perception accounted for unique variance in letter-sound knowledge above all other language and cognitive measures. These results point to a unique role for temporal regularity processing in the association between musical rhythm and literacy in young children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Meier, Daniel R.; Britsch, Susan J.
Preschool can be an opportunity to emphasize literacy teaching and learning and to develop the role of "literacy as community," rather than being only kindergarten preparation. The results of two studies view children's literacy development as a dynamic, developmental process involving language, thought, and social interaction. In…
Joseph, Laurice M.; Alber-Morgan, Sheila; Neef, Nancy
The purpose of this article is to discuss the application of behavior analytic procedures for advancing and evaluating methods for teaching literacy skills in the classroom. Particularly, applied behavior analysis has contributed substantially to examining the relationship between teacher behavior and student literacy performance. Teacher…
Parisod, Heidi; Axelin, Anna; Smed, Jouni; Salanterä, Sanna
Today's adolescents are used to a constant information flow, but many face difficulties in processing health-related information due to low health literacy. There is still need for deeper understanding on the determinants of health literacy in relation to adolescents to guide the development of health literacy instruments and interventions. The purpose of this study was to explore, from the perspective of early adolescents, the determinants of health literacy in the context of tobacco-related health communication. A qualitative descriptive study. Two schools located in the south of Finland. One school represented a typical Finnish public school with students following general curriculum and the other represented a Finnish public school with students with special educational needs. Purposively selected sample of 10-13-year-old early adolescents (n=39) from the two schools to obtain a varied group of early adolescents representing different kinds of literacy levels. We conducted 10 focus groups with early adolescents and analyzed the data using the theoretical thematic analysis method. We used a combination of the determinants presented in three adolescent-specific health literacy models as the theoretical framework of deductive analysis. The remaining data extracts were coded inductively. We sorted the codes under sub-themes that represented different determinants of health literacy. These were further divided between three themes: "personal", "external", and "mediating" determinants. Finally, we named the themes with an expression that embodied the early adolescents' views and experiences. Early adolescents' descriptions revealed that the list of determinants presented in the three adolescent-specific health literacy models is not comprehensive enough. Early adolescents brought up how their motives, self-efficacy, and role expectations determine their health literacy in addition to the other personal determinants presented in the previous models. Their descriptions
Dickinson, David K.; McCabe, Allyssa
Data from three studies investigating factors supporting literacy development of children from low-income families indicate: early levels of achievement are strongly linked to later success; kindergarten vocabulary is strongly reflective of the use of varied vocabulary during meal times; and teacher training in literacy is beneficial to classroom…
Costa, Leandro Oliveira; Carnoy, Martin
Beginning in 2007, the Literacy Program at the Right Age (Pacto pela Alfabetização na Idade Certa [PAIC]) in Brazil's Ceará state required municipal schools to implement a tiered, whole-school early-grade literacy intervention. This intervention was complemented by other policies to help municipalities improve student achievement. The present…
Hindman, Annemarie H.; Wasik, Barbara A.
This study examined 1 tool for evaluating Head Start teachers' knowledge about early language and literacy. Results indicated that teachers varied in their knowledge. Teachers with more knowledge had more education, as did teachers who received language and literacy professional development. Teachers with greater knowledge also demonstrated higher…
Crosby, Susan Ann; Rasinski, Timothy; Padak, Nancy; Yildirim, Kasim
Although parental involvement in children's literacy development has been recognized for its potential in helping children develop early literacy achievement, studies of the effectiveness and sustainability of school-based parent involvement programs are not numerous. This study examines the effectiveness and durability of a school-based…
Mongillo, Maria Boeke
Disciplinary literacy focuses on the specific ways a content area thinks, uses language, and shares information. While much of the literature on disciplinary literacy suggests it is an advanced language strategy to be taught to secondary students, early childhood classrooms may be the ideal environment in which to introduce this type of…
Guo, Ying; Sawyer, Brook E.; Justice, Laura M.; Kaderavek, Joan N.
The purpose of this study was to examine the quality of the literacy environment in inclusive early childhood special education (ECSE) classrooms ("N" = 54). The first aim was to describe the quality of the literacy environment in terms of structure (i.e., book materials and print/writing materials) and instruction (i.e., instructional…
Few studies have documented the literacy activities in an after-school setting of affluent early adolescents assigned to remedial reading. This may be because these students are not considered to be at risk of academic failure. The out-of-school literacy activities of 3 sixth-grade students were examined in this qualitative research. Multiple data…
Schroeder, Meadow; Mckeough, Anne; Graham, Susan; Stock, Hayli; Bisanz, Gay
Lifelong science literacy begins with attitudes and interests established early in childhood. The use of trade books (i.e., a literary work intended for sale to the general public) in North American school classrooms to support the development of science literacy invites an examination of the quality of science content disseminated to students. A…
Moulder, M. Amanda
This article discusses how archival documents reveal early nineteenth-century Cherokee purposes for English-language literacy. In spite of Euro-American efforts to depoliticize Cherokee women's roles, Cherokee female students adapted the literacy tools of an outsider patriarchal society to retain public, political power. Their writing served…
Naqvi, Rahat; Thorne, Keoma J; Pfitscher, Christina M; Nordstokke, David W; McKeough, Anne
Research has determined that dual language books have a positive effect on literacy achievement, motivation, and family involvement in children’s schooling. In this study we used quantitative methods to complement the largely qualitative extant research. We analyzed the early literacy skills of 105 kindergarten children (45 comparison, 60…
Iannone-Campbell, Charlene; Lattimore, Susan Lloyd
As early as preschool, children who struggle with emergent literacy skills can benefit from effective response to intervention. Don't wait until later grades when they've already fallen behind--improve their literacy skills now with this evidence-based Tier 2 RTI curriculum, ready for any pre-K educator to pick up and use right away. Created by…
Literacy Teaching and Learning: An International Journal of Early Reading and Writing, 1998
Developed as a vehicle of communication for the Reading Recovery Council of North America, this journal represents an international effort to connect researchers, teachers, and all those interested in early literacy. Articles in the first issue of this third volume are: "Relations between Children's Literacy Diets and Genre Development: You…
Reading, writing, and communicating, also known as literacy, are important cognitive skills to teach within society. Early literacy is knowledge about reading and writing before actually being able to read and write and is the foundation to future reading and writing skills (Ghoting & Martin-Diaz, 2006). The role of families in developing early…
Eldering, Lotty, Ed.; Leseman, Paul, Ed.
This collection of 20 papers addresses child development and early intervention issues related to literacy acquisition from a cross-cultural perspective. Titles of the papers are: (1) "Preparing Young Children for Literacy: Issues in Theory and Practice" (Lotty Eldering and Paul Leseman); (2) "Jomtien Revisited: A Plea for a…
Kuhlmeier, Valerie A.; Dunfield, Kristen A.; O’Neill, Amy C.
Prosocial behavior requires expenditure of personal resources for the benefit of others, a fact that creates a “problem” when considering the evolution of prosociality. Models that address this problem have been developed, with emphasis typically placed on reciprocity. One model considers the advantages of being selective in terms of one’s allocation of prosocial behavior so as to improve the chance that one will be benefitted in return. In this review paper, we first summarize this “partner choice” model and then focus on prosocial development in the preschool years, where we make the case for selective partner choice in early instances of human prosocial behavior. PMID:25120526
Moses, Annie M.; Golos, Debbie B.; Bennett, Colleen M.
Early childhood educators need access to research-based practices and materials to help all children learn to read. Some theorists have suggested that individuals learn to read through "dual coding" (i.e., a verbal code and a nonverbal code) and may benefit from more than one route to literacy (e.g., dual coding theory). Although deaf…
Parkinson, Julia; Meakin, John; Salinger, Terry
Student achievement in literacy has been a focal concern in the United States for many years. Improving teachers' knowledge and skill that leads to improved student achievement, particularly in the early grades, can place children on an improved trajectory that can have long-term impacts on life outcomes. Over the past decade, a large body of…
This paper explores local responses by Singapore pre-school teachers to the global trend towards English as the medium of instruction at the early childhood level of education. The paper reports research into how teachers have responded to the national literacy agenda, as outlined in the Curriculum Framework for Kindergartens in Singapore, using…
Kervin, Lisa; Turbill, Jan; Harden-Thew, Kathryn
The face of early childhood education continues to change. In Australia, the national early childhood guidelines, "Early Years Learning Framework" (2009) and the "National Quality Framework" have articulated and defined the work of early years' educators in a range of areas, including literacy. Both frameworks state that their…
Research that is dealing with financial literacy turns to be such an important thing to be conducted. It is due to the fact that financial literacy level of Indonesian society is still very low. A good financial literacy is necessary for every individual to manage his/her finances to achieve prosperity. To have a good level of financial literacy,…
This illustrated children's story accompanies "Exploring Comprehension through Retelling: A Teacher's Story", part of the Early Literacy and Assessment for Learning (K-3) Series (ED490189). It describes a baby turtle's adventures on his journey to the ocean.
Oakes, Susan; Virbick, Diane E.
Describes an early childhood literacy program called Begin with Books and provides ideas for starting up, finding, and administering similar programs in public libraries. Topics include corporate sponsors; staffing; partnering with community organizations; training; scheduling; and budget information. (LRW)
Im, Janice H.; Osborn, Carol A.; Sanchez, Sylvia Y.; Thorp, Eva K.
"Cradling Literacy" provides field-tested instructional materials for instructors to help early childhood teachers develop knowledge and skills in nurturing early language and literacy in young children from birth to 5 years. The research and strategies presented in the instructional manual center on how child, parent, and teacher can work…
Porter, Kathleen; Chen, Yvonnes; Estabrooks, Paul; Noel, Lauren; Bailey, Angela; Zoellner, Jamie
To assess differences, by health literacy status and behavioral condition, in participants' abilities to self-monitor behaviors accurately and recall key behavioral messages using data from a teach-back call. Cross-sectional. Rural, southwestern Virginia. Adults (n = 301). The majority were female (81.1%), 31.9% had a high school education or less, 66.1% earned < $25,000/y, and 32.9% were low health literate. First class session of 2 community-based behavioral interventions: SIPsmartER (reduce sugar-sweetened beverage intake) or MoveMore (increase physical activity). Reported accuracy of behavioral diary completion, proportion of behavioral messages recalled during the first round of teach-back, and rounds of teach-back. Descriptive statistics and generalized linear model. Low health literate participants were significantly less accurate in diary completion (P < .001), recalled fewer behavioral messages correctly (P < .001), and needed more rounds of teach-back (P < .001) than high health literate participants. Compared with SIPsmartER participants, MoveMore participants more accurately completed diaries (P = .001) but recalled a lower proportion of behavioral messages correctly (P < .001) and required more rounds of teach-back (P < .001). Health literacy status and behavioral target affect the ability to self-monitor and recall key concepts. Researchers should consider using teach-back early in the intervention to assess and reinforce participants' ability to self-monitor. Copyright © 2016 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Justice, Laura; Logan, Jessica; Kaderavek, Joan; Schmitt, Mary Beth; Tompkins, Virginia; Bartlett, Christopher
The purpose of this study was to empirically determine whether specific profiles characterize preschool-aged children with language impairment (LI) with respect to their early literacy skills (print awareness, name-writing ability, phonological awareness, alphabet knowledge); the primary interest was to determine if one or more profiles suggested vulnerability for future reading problems. Participants were 218 children enrolled in early childhood special education classrooms, 95% of whom received speech-language services. Children were administered an assessment of early literacy skills in the fall of the academic year. Based on results of latent profile analysis, four distinct literacy profiles were identified, with the single largest profile (55% of children) representing children with generally poor literacy skills across all areas examined. Children in the two low-risk categories had higher oral language skills than those in the high-risk and moderate-risk profiles. Across three of the four early literacy measures, children with language as their primary disability had higher scores than those with LI concomitant with other disabilities. These findings indicate that there are specific profiles of early literacy skills among children with LI, with about one half of children exhibiting a profile indicating potential susceptibility for future reading problems. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2013.
D'Agostino, Jerome V.; Rodgers, Emily; Mauck, Susan
The authors used nationally based, random sample data from three different years (2009-2010, 2011-2012, and 2014-2015) for nearly 20,000 first-grade students (n = 9,760, 3,657, and 3,121, respectively) to examine long-reported inadequacies of a commonly used early literacy assessment tool, the Observation Survey of Early Literacy Achievement…
Steiner, Lilly M.
This study examines a family literacy intervention conducted in two first-grade classrooms with culturally diverse student populations. In the treatment and control classrooms, six parents and a classroom teacher learned practices for building home-school partnerships. Data were analyzed to determine changes in home-literacy practices, increases…
Stone, Sandra J.
Emerging literacy is a developmental process which is closely tied to the child's developing cognitive processes. The interaction of memory and emerging literacy can be discussed in the context of Marie Clay's Reading Recovery model. Memory types, encoding and retrieval, strategy use, and executive control/expectancies are components of cognitive…
Brown, P. Margaret; Watson, Linda M.
This paper reviews and synthesizes research into the ways in which parents support their child across three major developmental domains in early childhood: early language, play and early literacy. We show how these domains are linked to each other and suggest that there is some evidence that interventions in all of them will promote mutual…
MacKay, Leslie D.; McIntosh, Kent
Low literacy is a challenge facing Indigenous communities across North America and is an identified barrier to school success. Early literacy intervention is an important target to reduce the discrepancies in literacy outcomes. The Moe the Mouse® Speech and Language Development Program (Gardner & Chesterman, 2006) is a cultural curriculum…
This position article argues that educators' knowledge of young children's perspectives on aspects of early learning, including literacy learning, and subsequent interpretations of the ways that these perspectives can inform and shape pedagogy are key to promoting children's participation rights in early childhood education and care. Drawing on…
Betts, Joseph; Pickart, Mary; Heistad, Dave
The assessment of early literacy and numeracy skills can provide useful and important information in pursuance of the goal to increase student academic achievement. At present, there have been promising results using curriculum-based measurement (CBM) for evaluating early literacy and early numeracy. There has been little research investigating…
Liu, Yong-Bing; Liu, Liu; Li, Yan-Fei; Chen, Yan-Li
Despite the large volume of research dedicated to health-related behavior change, chronic disease costs continue to rise, thus creating a major public health burden. Health literacy, the ability to seek, understand, and utilize health information, has been identified as an important factor in the course of chronic conditions. Little research has been conducted on the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in elderly Chinese. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in China. The subjects enrolled in this study were selected based on a stratified cluster random sampling design. Information involving >4500 older adults in 44 pension institutions in Urumqi, Changji, Karamay, and Shihezi of Xinjiang between September 2011 and June 2012 was collected. The Chinese Citizen Health Literacy Questionnaire (China Health Education Centre, 2008) and a Scale of the General Status were administered and the information was obtained through face-to-face inquiries by investigators. A total of 1452 respondents met the inclusion criteria. A total of 1452 questionnaires were issued and the valid response rate was 96.14% (1396 of 1452). Factors affecting health literacy and the relationship to health literacy were identified by one-way ANOVA and a multiple linear regression model. The average health literacy level of the elderly in nursing homes was relatively low (71.74 ± 28.35 points). There were significant differences in the health literacy score among the factors of age, gender, race, education level, household income, marital conditions, and former occupation (p < 0.001). The health literacy score was significantly associated with smoking, drinking, physical exercise, and health examination (p < 0.001). The elderly with higher health literacy scores were significantly less likely to have risky behaviors (smoking, regular drinking, and lack of physical
Jeynes, William H.
This study assessed the relationship between Bible literacy among secondary school students and their academic achievement and school behavior. One hundred and forty students in the 7th to 12th grade were randomly selected from a Christian school. Four measures of Bible knowledge were combined to obtain an overall measure of Bible literacy. They…
Henager, Robin; Cude, Brenda J.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between financial literacy and financial behaviors among various age groups. Financial literacy was measured in three ways: objective financial knowledge, subjective financial knowledge or confidence, and subjective financial management ability. The age groups were 18-24, 25-34, 35-44,…
Saunders, Laura; Kurbanoglu, Serap; Boustany, Joumana; Dogan, Guleda; Becker, Peter; Blumer, Eliane; Chowdhury, Sudatta; Dobreva, Milena; Gendina, Natalia; Grgic, Ivana Hebrang; Haddow, Gaby; Koltay, Tibor; Kortelainen, Terttu; Krakowska, Monika; Majid, Shaheen; Mezhova, Marina; Repanovici, Angela; Rudžioniene, Jurgita; Schneider, Rene; Terra, Ana Lucia; Todorova, Tania Y.
Librarians are expected to be expert searchers, and developing information literacy skills to navigate the vast world of information is a focus of most library and information science (LIS) programs. It is important to understand the information literacy and behaviors of LIS students to see if they are employing the skills they will need to assist…
Stephenson, Kathy A.; Parrila, Rauno K.; Georgiou, George K.; Kirby, John R.
We examined the effects of home literacy (shared book reading, teaching activities, and number of books), children's task-focused behavior, and parents' beliefs and expectations about their child's reading and academic ability on kindergarten children's (N = 61) phonological sensitivity and letter knowledge and on Grade 1 word reading. The results…
Vesay, Joanne P.; Gischlar, Karen L.
In this study, the investigators surveyed 215 early childhood educators throughout New Jersey and eastern Pennsylvania to determine teacher knowledge and training in early literacy instruction, with a focus on The 5 Big Ideas in Reading as identified by the National Reading Panel: phonological awareness, accuracy and fluency, alphabetic principle,…
Caspe, Margaret; Lopez, M. Elena
Positive early-literacy experiences--whether at home, in early-childhood programs, schools, or libraries--set children on a trajectory to become confident readers by the time they reach third grade, which is an important milestone on the pathway toward high school graduation. This review outlines seven practices that research shows families use to…
Wright, Tanya S.; Peltier, Marliese R.
The goal of this study was to examine the extent to which the content and recommendations in recently published early language and literacy methods textbooks may support early childhood teachers in learning to provide vocabulary instruction for young children. We completed a content analysis of 9 textbooks with coding at the sentence level.…
Farley, Kristin Sue; Piasta, Shayne; Dogucu, Mine; O'Connell, Ann
Research Findings: The present study assessed the extent to which early childhood educators utilized small-group literacy instruction and explored factors potentially associated with the use of this evidence-based practice. The classroom activities of 83 early childhood educators were observed in the fall and spring, and videos were coded to…
Jalongo, Mary Renck
Synthesizing information on language arts gleaned from research on emergent literacy, early childhood education, and special education, this book underscores what is being emphasized in early childhood teacher accreditation programs--responding to the increasingly diverse needs of young language learners in inclusive settings, working with parents…
Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Lake, Vickie E.; Greulich, Luana; Folsom, Jessica S.; Guidry, Lisa
This randomized-control trial examined the learning of preservice teachers taking an initial Early Literacy course in an early childhood education program and of the kindergarten or first grade students they tutored in their field experience. Preservice teachers were randomly assigned to one of two tutoring programs: Book Buddies and Tutor…
Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Goetz, Ernest T.; Hall, Robert J.; Payne, Tara; Taylor, Aaron B.; Kim, Minjung; McCormick, Anita S.
Early Reading First (ERF) was created to address problems related to language and development among economically disadvantaged and language-minority preschool children through quality classroom processes, professional development, and instruction. More than any previous initiative, ERF specifies what early literacy instruction should look like in…
Coats-Kitsopoulos, Gloria Jean
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS), the Reading Recovery Observation Survey (RROS) early reading sub-tests, and the reading achievement of Native American first-graders as measured by the Stanford 10. A causal-comparative correlation research design…
Spencer, Tamara Glupczynski; Falchi, Lorraine; Ghiso, Maria Paula
The current context of increased accountability and the proliferation of skills-based literacy mandates at the early childhood level pose particular tensions for multilingual children and educators. In this article, we draw on data from two ethnographic studies to examine how educators and children negotiate the constraints of early childhood…
A recent study of literacy practices in early childhood services prior to school entry (Makin, Hayden, Holland, Arthur, Beecher, Jones Diaz & McNaught, 1999) revealed that, for both parents and early childhood staff, school entry often looms as a threat to children's confidence and self-esteem rather than as an opportunity for individual…
Kim, Sun-Hee; Son, Youn-Jung
The Internet is a useful and accessible source for health-related information for modern healthcare consumers. Individuals with adequate eHealth literacy have an incentive to use the Internet to access health-related information, and they consider themselves capable of using Web-based knowledge for health. This cross-sectional study aimed to describe the relationship between eHealth literacy and health behaviors. A total of 230 adults aged 18 to 39 years and residing in South Korea participated in the study. The mean (SD) score for eHealth literacy was 25.52 (4.35) of a total possible score of 40. The main source of health information was the Internet. Using hierarchical linear regression, the results showed that eHealth literacy was the strongest predictor of health behaviors after adjusting for general characteristics. These findings indicate that eHealth literacy can be an important factor in promoting individual health behaviors. Further research on eHealth literacy and actual health behaviors including intention and self-reported health behaviors are required to explain the impact of eHealth literacy on overall health status.
Cadima, Joana; Gamelas, Ana M.; McClelland, Megan; Peixoto, Carla
Research Findings: This study examined concurrent associations between family sociodemographic risk, self-regulation, and early literacy and mathematics in young children from Azores, Portugal (N = 186). Family sociodemographic risk was indexed by low maternal education, low family income, and low occupational status. Behavioral aspects of…
Heider, Kelly L.
The rapid growth of information over the last 30 or 40 years has made it impossible for educators to prepare students for the future without teaching them how to be effective information managers. The American Library Association refers to those students who manage information effectively as "information literate." Information literacy instruction…
Freeman, Edward; Lynd-Balta, Eileen
Several core competencies related to information literacy have been identified by the Association of College and Research Libraries. Students must learn to gather relevant information and communicate their findings effectively. The collaborative activity described here, which could easily be adapted for other disciplines, introduces first-semester…
Roskos, Kathleen A., Ed.; Christie, James F., Ed.
Noting that an examination of play from diverse perspectives deepens understanding and opens up new avenues for research and educational practice, this book brings together studies, research syntheses, and critical commentaries that examine play-literacy relationships from cognitive, ecological, and cultural perspectives. Each set of chapters is…
Berenato, Carolyn; Severino, Lori
Colleges and universities can have an impact on the entire field of education when preparing teachers for one of the most challenging part of the job: teaching literacy. When teachers are properly trained and have a toolbox of strategies and teaching techniques to use, they can have a tremendous impact on student learning. In teacher preparation…
Regalado, Michael; Goldenberg, Claude; Appel, Eloise
Success in school and life are more dependent than ever before on literacy skills. Within the context of California's Proposition 10, the "Children and Families First Act," this report provides practical, and to the extent possible, evidence-based guidelines for considering strategies to promote children's development relevant to…
This article promotes literacy as a a powerful tool for learning new language. Although learners frequently think of comprehensible input as language that is heard, comprehensible input from print can also be accessed. Research has shown that reading has a powerful impact on language learning: much of the vocabulary that educated adults know has…
Mraz, Maryann; Kissel, Brian; Algozzine, Bob; Babb, Julie; Foxworth, Kimberly
Many believe that the key to translating research into successful practice lies in providing teachers with continuous professional development and ongoing coaching support. In this article, we provide an overview of the relevant coaching literature and describe 4 critical features of an evidence-based preschool literacy coaching model: the coach…
Han, Myae; Silva, Luisa; Vukelich, Carol; Buell, Martha; Hou, Likun
This study examined the early English language and literacy skill development of 179 children from 11 Head Start classrooms who participated in an added focus on language and literacy skill-building supported by Early Reading First programme. Of this sample, 118 children were Spanish-speaking English Language Learners (ELL). All children were…
Ehrich, John; Wolgemuth, Jennifer R.; Helmer, Janet; Oteng, Georges; Lea, Tess; Bartlett, Claire; Smith, Heather; Emmett, Sue
As part of an evaluation of a web-based early literacy intervention, ABRACADABRA, a small exploratory study was conducted over one term in three primary schools in the Northern Territory. Of particular concern was the relationship between attendance and the acquisition of early literacy skills of Indigenous and non-Indigenous children. Using the…
Literacy as a social practice has a fundamental role in children's lives especially in the early years context, in which social interactions are in the centre of knowledge achievement. Several pieces of research investigate the positive contribution of the arts in children's literacy development in the early years settings. However, most of them…
Vassy, Jason L; O'Brien, Kelsey E; Waxler, Jessica L; Park, Elyse R; Delahanty, Linda M; Florez, Jose C; Meigs, James B; Grant, Richard W
Type 2 diabetes genetic risk testing might motivate at-risk patients to adopt diabetes prevention behaviors. However, the influence of literacy and numeracy on patient response to diabetes genetic risk is unknown. The authors investigated the association of health literacy, genetic literacy, and health numeracy with patient responses to diabetes genetic risk. and Measurements Overweight patients at high phenotypic risk for type 2 diabetes were recruited for a clinical trial of diabetes genetic risk testing. At baseline, participants predicted how their motivation for lifestyle modification to prevent diabetes might change in response to hypothetical scenarios of receiving "high" and "low" genetic risk results. Responses were analyzed according to participants' health literacy, genetic literacy, and health numeracy. Two-thirds (67%) of participants (n = 175) reported very high motivation to prevent diabetes. Despite high health literacy (92% at high school level), many participants had limited health numeracy (30%) and genetic literacy (38%). Almost all (98%) reported that high-risk genetic results would increase their motivation for lifestyle modification. In contrast, response to low-risk genetic results varied. Higher levels of health literacy (P = 0.04), genetic literacy (P = 0.02), and health numeracy (P = 0.02) were associated with an anticipated decrease in motivation for lifestyle modification in response to low-risk results. While patients reported that high-risk genetic results would motivate them to adopt healthy lifestyle changes, response to low-risk results varied by patient numeracy and literacy. However, anticipated responses may not correlate with true behavior change. If future research justifies the clinical use of genetic testing to motivate behavior change, it may be important to assess how patient characteristics modify that motivational effect.
Mulder, Hanna; Verhagen, Josje; Van der Ven, Sanne H. G.; Slot, Pauline L.; Leseman, Paul P. M.
Previous work has shown that individual differences in executive function (EF) are predictive of academic skills in preschoolers, kindergartners, and older children. Across studies, EF is a stronger predictor of emergent mathematics than literacy. However, research on EF in children below age three is scarce, and it is currently unknown whether EF, as assessed in toddlerhood, predicts emergent academic skills a few years later. This longitudinal study investigates whether early EF, assessed at two years, predicts (emergent) academic skills, at five years. It examines, furthermore, whether early EF is a significantly stronger predictor of emergent mathematics than of emergent literacy, as has been found in previous work on older children. A sample of 552 children was assessed on various EF and EF-precursor tasks at two years. At age five, these children performed several emergent mathematics and literacy tasks. Structural Equation Modeling was used to investigate the relationships between early EF and academic skills, modeled as latent factors. Results showed that early EF at age two was a significant and relatively strong predictor of both emergent mathematics and literacy at age five, after controlling for receptive vocabulary, parental education, and home language. Predictive relations were significantly stronger for mathematics than literacy, but only when a verbal short-term memory measure was left out as an indicator to the latent early EF construct. These findings show that individual differences in emergent academic skills just prior to entry into the formal education system can be traced back to individual differences in early EF in toddlerhood. In addition, these results highlight the importance of task selection when assessing early EF as a predictor of later outcomes, and call for further studies to elucidate the mechanisms through which individual differences in early EF and precursors to EF come about. PMID:29075209
Mulder, Hanna; Verhagen, Josje; Van der Ven, Sanne H G; Slot, Pauline L; Leseman, Paul P M
Previous work has shown that individual differences in executive function (EF) are predictive of academic skills in preschoolers, kindergartners, and older children. Across studies, EF is a stronger predictor of emergent mathematics than literacy. However, research on EF in children below age three is scarce, and it is currently unknown whether EF, as assessed in toddlerhood, predicts emergent academic skills a few years later. This longitudinal study investigates whether early EF, assessed at two years, predicts (emergent) academic skills, at five years. It examines, furthermore, whether early EF is a significantly stronger predictor of emergent mathematics than of emergent literacy, as has been found in previous work on older children. A sample of 552 children was assessed on various EF and EF-precursor tasks at two years. At age five, these children performed several emergent mathematics and literacy tasks. Structural Equation Modeling was used to investigate the relationships between early EF and academic skills, modeled as latent factors. Results showed that early EF at age two was a significant and relatively strong predictor of both emergent mathematics and literacy at age five, after controlling for receptive vocabulary, parental education, and home language. Predictive relations were significantly stronger for mathematics than literacy, but only when a verbal short-term memory measure was left out as an indicator to the latent early EF construct. These findings show that individual differences in emergent academic skills just prior to entry into the formal education system can be traced back to individual differences in early EF in toddlerhood. In addition, these results highlight the importance of task selection when assessing early EF as a predictor of later outcomes, and call for further studies to elucidate the mechanisms through which individual differences in early EF and precursors to EF come about.
Justice, Laura; Logan, Jessica; Kaderavek, Joan; Schmitt, Mary Beth; Tompkins, Virginia; Bartlett, Christopher
The purpose of this study was to empirically determine whether specific profiles characterize preschool-aged children with language impairment (LI) with respect to their early literacy skills (print awareness, name-writing ability, phonological awareness, alphabet knowledge); the primary interest was to determine if one or more profiles suggested…
Thompson, Richard; Tabone, Jiyoung Kim; Litrownik, Alan J.; Briggs, Ernestine C.; Hussey, Jon M.; English, Diana J.; Dubowitz, Howard
Little is known about the early childhood indicators of adolescent risk. The link between trajectories of externalizing behavioral problems and early adolescent risk behavior was examined in a longitudinal sample of 875 child participants in the LONGSCAN studies. Five trajectory groups of children defined by externalizing behavior problems were…
Leung, Angela Yee Man; Cheung, Mike Kwun Ting; Chi, Iris
To test whether health literacy is associated with sunlight exposure behavior, we interviewed 648 Chinese adults aged 65 years or older. Using the information-motivation-behavioral skills model and structural equation modeling, we tested whether health literacy was associated with the complex relationships among knowledge about vitamin D, attitudes toward sunlight exposure, doctor recommendations regarding sunlight exposure, and sunlight exposure behavior. Health literacy was directly associated with sunlight exposure (β=.20, p<.01). Indirect relationships also existed between knowledge and sunlight exposure through health literacy (β=.46, p<.001) and between attitudes and sunlight exposure through health literacy (β=-.12, p<.05). The model had good fit (χ(2)/df=2.79; RMSEA=.053, p=.346; CFI=.95; TLI=.92). Health literacy should be considered when educating older adults about vitamin D supplements and sunlight exposure. Providing relevant knowledge or making doctor recommendations might not be effective. Training should focus on individuals with low health literacy who may be less likely to receive sunlight exposure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Terrell, Pamela; Watson, Maggie
As part of this clinical forum on curriculum-based intervention, the goal of this tutorial is to share research about the importance of language and literacy foundations in natural environments during emergent literacy skill development, from infancy through preschool. Following an overview of intervention models in schools by Powell (2018), best practices at home, in child care, and in preschool settings are discussed. Speech-language pathologists in these settings will be provided a toolbox of best emergent literacy practices. A review of published literature in speech-language pathology, early intervention, early childhood education, and literacy was completed. Subsequently, an overview of the impact of early home and preschool literacy experiences are described. Research-based implementation of best practice is supported with examples of shared book reading and child-led literacy embedded in play within the coaching model of early intervention. Finally, various aspects of emergent literacy skill development in the preschool years are discussed. These include phonemic awareness, print/alphabet awareness, oral language skills, and embedded/explicit literacy. Research indicates that rich home literacy environments and exposure to rich oral language provide an important foundation for the more structured literacy environments of school. Furthermore, there is a wealth of evidence to support a variety of direct and indirect intervention practices in the home, child care, and preschool contexts to support and enhance all aspects of oral and written literacy. Application of this "toolbox" of strategies should enable speech-language pathologists to address the prevention and intervention of literacy deficits within multiple environments during book and play activities. Additionally, clinicians will have techniques to share with parents, child care providers, and preschool teachers for evidence-based literacy instruction within all settings during typical daily
English Literacy Levels of the Early Care and Education Workforce: A Profile and Associations with Quality of Care. Who Leaves? Who Stays? A Longitudinal Study of the Early Care and Education Workforce in Alameda County, California.
Phillips, Deborah; Crowell, Nancy; Whitebook, Marcy; Bellm, Dan
Research on parents has shown the critical contribution that linguistic input plays in fostering early literacy, but there have been no systematic studies of the literacy of the early care and education workforce and its role in fostering quality early learning environments. This report examines the literacy levels of early childhood educators in…
Bingham, Gary E.; Culatta, Barbara; Hall-Kenyon, Kendra M.
This study examined teachers' implementation of an early literacy intervention, Systematic and Engaging Early Literacy (SEEL), on kindergarten children's development of early literacy skills. One hundred forty-nine kindergarten children (102 treatment) across six classrooms participated in this study. Results reveal that children who received SEEL…
Clasen, Line Engel; Jensen de López, Kristine
Several early literacy programmes have documented their effectiveness in enhancing children's early literacy and language development. Despite recent interest in implementing evidence-based programmes, only a few studies have set out to capture the implementation process of early literacy programmes as seen from the programme users' perspectives.…
Hagan-Burke, Shanna; Soares, Denise A.; Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Zhu, Leina; Davis, Heather S.; Kwok, Oi-man; Pollard-Durodola, Sharolyn D.; Saenz, Laura M.; Resendez, Nora M.
This study examined the relations between problem behaviors and early learning outcomes among 138 children in dual-language pre-K programs who were identified at the beginning of the school year to be at risk for difficulties in early language and literacy development. Children's expressive and receptive vocabulary, listening comprehension, and…
Hamilton, Lorna G.; Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E.; Hulme, Charles; Snowling, Margaret J.
The home literacy environment (HLE) predicts language and reading development in typically developing children; relatively little is known about its association with literacy development in children at family-risk of dyslexia. We assessed the HLE at age 4 years, precursor literacy skills at age 5, and literacy outcomes at age 6, in a sample of…
The incorporation of dialogic reading techniques in adult-child book reading has been effective in improving early literacy skills in children with language delays and those from at-risk populations. There is, however, limited research that examines the potential utility of dialogic reading strategies for children with disabilities such as Autism…
Lam, Elizabeth A.; McMaster, Kristen L.
The purpose of this review was to update previous reviews on factors related to students' responsiveness to early literacy intervention. The 14 studies in this synthesis used experimental designs, provided small-group or one-on-one reading interventions, and analyzed factors related to responsiveness to those interventions. Participants were…
In their quest for resources to support children's early literacy learning and development, parents encounter and traverse different spaces in which discourses and artifacts are produced and circulated. This paper uses conceptual tools from the field of geosemiotics to examine some commercial spaces designed for parents and children that…
Haughbrook, Rasheda; Hart, Sara A.; Schatschneider, Christopher; Taylor, Jeanette
Recent research suggests that the etiology of reading achievement can differ across environmental contexts. In the US, schools are commonly assigned grades (e.g. "A," "B") often interpreted to indicate school quality. This study explored differences in the etiology of early literacy skills for students based on these school…
Miltich Lyst, Aimee; Gabriel, Stacey; O'Shaughnessy, Tam E.; Meyers, Joel; Meyers, Barbara
This article underscores the potential advantages of qualitative methods to illustrate the depth and complexity of social validity. This investigation evaluates the social validity of Check and Connect with Early Literacy Support (CCEL), through the perspectives of teachers and caregivers whose children participated in the intervention. Teachers…
The purpose of the article is to describe Finnish media literacy policies and good media education practices in early childhood education and care. This article will focus on describing two central action lines related to the Children and Media Program, initiated by the Division for Cultural Policy of the Ministry of Education and Culture in 2004.…
As a growing number of young children across the country are using media and interactive technology on a daily basis, the conversation has shifted from whether technology is appropriate to use at all to how it should be used to best support children's early language and literacy development. A new brief released today, Integrating Technology in…
Jackson, Jane B.; Paratore, Jeanne R.; Chard, David J.; Garnick, Sheila
A study examined the degree to which eight teachers would faithfully implement an early literacy intervention plan. Teachers implemented the intervention with a high degree of fidelity and benefited from the community approach to intervention for struggling readers. Most children made substantial gains in phonemic blending and segmenting…
Venn, Elizabeth Claire; Jahn, Monica Dacy
Students will benefit from this unique preschool framework that integrates individually appropriate practices, literacy activities, play, and explicit instruction into content area lessons. Included are chapters on Oral language development; Phonological awareness; Early reading and writing; Print concepts; Instruction in content areas; and…
Skouge, James R.; Rao, Kavita; Boisvert, Precille C.
Practical applications of multimedia technologies that support early literacy are described and evaluated, including several variations of recorded books and stories, utilizing mainstream audio and video recording appropriate for libraries and schools. Special emphasis is given to the needs of children with disabilities and children who are…
Lucas, Adrienne M.; McEwan, Patrick J.; Ngware, Moses; Oketch, Moses
Primary school enrollments have increased rapidly in sub-Saharan Africa, spurring concerns about low levels of learning. We analyze field experiments in Kenya and Uganda that assessed whether the Reading to Learn intervention, implemented by the Aga Khan Foundation in both countries, improved early-grade literacy as measured by common assessments.…
McKenney, Susan; Voogt, Joke
Technology applications can make important contributions to improving learning outcomes in the domain of early literacy. However, to fully exploit the potential of educational technologies, teachers must have specific knowledge and skills. This study aimed to articulate the technological pedagogical content knowledge teachers need to make…
Chan, Man Ching Esther
The Early Literacy Knowledge and Skills (ELKS) instrument was informed by the work of Ferreiro and Teberosky based on the notion that young children could be differentiated according to levels of sophistication in their understanding of the rules of written language. As an initial step to evaluate the instrument for teaching purposes, the present…
Levin, Iris; Aram, Dorit
The present study compared the effects of different mediation routines provided to kindergartners from families of low socioeconomic status on the students' invented spelling attempts and on their gains obtained on spelling and other early literacy skills (letter naming, sounds of letters, word segmentation, and word decoding). The effects of the…
Mackiewicz, Sara Moore
The use of early literacy screening measures helps determine which students are at risk for future reading difficulties. However, there has been some recent concern related to the classification validity of screening measures (Hintze, Ryan, & Stoner, 2003; Nelson, 2008). Low classification validity results in the identification of a large number…
Bruns, Deborah A.; Pierce, Corey D.
Early literacy development is the gateway to reading and future academic success. Learning about sound-letter correspondence and basic decoding strategies are but two fundamental skills that have been found to support this later success. In addition, an emphasis on environmental print (e.g., McDonald's, Wal-Mart, Shell) and functional print (e.g.,…
Kirk, Stacie M.; Kirk, Erik P.
Background: The effects of increases in physical activity (PA) on early literacy skills in preschool children are not known. Methods: Fifty-four African-American preschool children from a low socioeconomic urban Head Start participated over 8 months. A 2-group, quasi-experimental design was used with one preschool site participating in the PA…
This study considers the issue of weak literacy development and early school leaving in Malta. In spite of a lack of a direct or indirect causal link between the two, in the case of Malta these issues seem to be almost exclusively specific to children attending the State school. Children from the Church and the Independent sectors are minimally…
Roskos, Kathleen; Brueck, Jeremy; Widman, Sarah
Toward the goal of better e-book design to support early literacy learning, this study investigates analytic tools for examining design qualities of e-books for young children. Three research-based analytic tools related to e-book design were applied to a mixed genre collection of 50 e-books from popular online sites. Tool performance varied…
Ogg, Julia A.; Sundman-Wheat, Ashley N.; Bateman, Lisa P.
Children who begin school with less developed early literacy skills often have a difficult time catching up to their peers, and children who are poor readers in the first few years of school continue struggling with reading when compared with their peers at later grades. Before school entry, schools may be limited in their regular access to…
The purpose of this study was to examine the existing research on early literacy and the types of approaches used in schools at the time of this writing. Although researchers could not agree on which types of reading programs are the most effective, there was a large amount of research supporting the work done in 2000 from the National Reading…
Arnold, Renea; Colburn, Nell
Flannelboards have been a storytime staple for years in school and public libraries. The flannelboard, or feltboard as it often is called, is a great tool to help children build early literacy skills. Reading research tells us that reading aloud is most effective when it is an interactive experience between the reader and the child. Flannelboard…
Weigel, Daniel J.; Martin, Sally S.
Much effort has been expended in developing intervention programs to help improve the early literacy and school readiness skills of young children. This article presents the results of a needs assessment project aimed at identifying priorities for community intervention programs aimed at ensuring that young children enter school ready to learn. A…
Toussaint, Karen A.; Tiger, Jeffrey H.
Despite the need for braille literacy, there has been little attempt to systematically evaluate braille-instruction programs. The current study evaluated an instructive procedure for teaching early braille-reading skills with 4 school-aged children with degenerative visual impairments. Following a series of pretests, braille instruction involved…
Early childhood educators often make assumptions about the nature of families' understandings and what they do at home to support their young children's literacy and numeracy development and learning. Sometimes educator's have a limited understanding of children's every day experiences at home or in their community and the potential for these to…
Nash, Kindel; Panther, Leah; Arce-Boardman, Alicia
This article features a culturally sustaining practice that many early literacy teachers can adapt and use: "la historia de mi nombre"/the story of my name. The practice is described in the context of a second-grade bi/multilingual class as the Latinx students are learning about their names through culturally authentic literature,…
Yalçintas Sezgin, Elif; Ulus, Leyla
Educational technology is commonly used. The use of technology at preschool education has an important role with a lot of effective methods so that children can learn. Preschool teachers use the technology to support children's development. Early literacy skills have gained more importance especially in the recent years. As a result, the use of…
At a time of increasing calls from policy makers for the use of "hard evidence" in driving decision-making at national and local levels in educational contexts, this article contributes to debates about evidence-based practice in early literacy research. It proposes that a reliance on studies designed to generate 'hard' evidence limits…
The purpose of this research-to-practice article is to describe the literacy and oral language professional development (PD) model that took place in a 3-year Early Reading First project in 9 Head Start and community-based school classrooms. Through our data-driven PD model, we provided 55 hr of training workshops for all classroom teaching staff…
Hunter, William C.; Elswick, Susan E.; Perkins, J. Helen; Heroux, JoDell R.; Harte, Helene
Parents and family members play an essential role in the literacy development of their children. Research indicates that children with disabilities enrolled in early childhood programs are likely to experience marginalization in terms of receiving educational services. This research emphasizes the importance of exposing students with disabilities…
Phadung, Muneeroh; Suksakulchai, Surachai; Kaewprapan, Wacheerapan
This study investigated the effects of using an interactive e-story for early literacy instruction on word recognition, story comprehension and story application. The study was conducted in two classrooms in the southern border provinces of Thailand with ethnic minority children at the kindergarten level. The samples consisted of 60 children who…
Voogt, Joke; McKenney, Susan
This study examines if and how five teacher education institutes are helping students to develop the technological pedagogical content knowledge needed to effectively use technology for early literacy. Focus group discussions were held with teacher educators in which their responses to expert recommendations were probed. Findings indicate that,…
Armstrong, Kathleen; Cusumano, Dale Lynn; Todd, Melissa; Cohen, Rachel
While it is clear that reading is critical to children's success throughout schooling and reading instruction research has dramatically increased over the past 2 decades, few early childhood providers have the necessary knowledge, skills and/or confidence to effectively implement evidence-based, emergent literacy strategies in their settings. This…
Roskos, Kathleen A.; Sullivan, Shannon; Simpson, Danielle; Zuzolo, Nicole
Using a theory of affordances, this study examines the introduction of e-books into the early literacy environment as resources that can increase children's opportunity for learning vocabulary. Added value was observed under conditions of (1) book browsing, (2) instruction, and (3) a print-only condition. A total of 33 4-year-olds (18 boys, 15…
Singh, Michael; Han, Jinghe; Woodrow, Christine
The potential of a sociocultural approach for empowering early childhood educators cannot be presumed, and its impact on leadership strategies and literacy teaching may be open to question. This paper reports on research into a professional learning program, the "Programa Futuro Infantil Hoy", developed and implemented by a team of…
Literacy Teaching and Learning: An International Journal of Early Reading and Writing, 1999
Developed as a vehicle of communication for the Reading Recovery Council of North America, this journal represents an international effort to connect researchers, teachers, and all those interested in early literacy. Articles in the first issue of this fourth volume are: "The Development of Literate Potential in Literature-Based and…
Abrami, Philip C.; Wade, C. Anne; Lysenko, Larysa; Marsh, Jonathon; Gioko, Anthony
The research explores the impact of interactive, multimedia literacy software (ABRA) on the reading skills of early elementary students in Kenya. Twelve grade two English teachers and their students from six schools were randomly divided in half: an experimental group (N = 180) where ABRA was part of their English Language instruction and a…
Echols, Julie M. Young
Reading proficiency is the goal of many local and national reading initiatives. A key component of these initiatives is accurate and reliable reading assessment. In this high-stakes testing arena, the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) has emerged as a preferred measure for identification of students at risk for reading…
Greenwood, Charles R.; Carta, Judith J.; Atwater, Jane; Goldstein, Howard; Kaminski, Ruth; McConnell, Scott
Preschool experience plays a role in children's development. However, for programs with language and early literacy goals, the question remains whether preschool instructional experiences are sufficiently effective to achieve these goals for all children. In a multisite study, the authors conducted a process-product description of preschool…
Giles, Rebecca M.; Tunks, Karyn
Teachers' assumptions about teaching and learning have a critical impact on pedagogical practices. This study was conducted to investigate the perceptions of early childhood educators regarding children's acquisition of literacy in an attempt to gain a picture of current instructional practices. Prekindergarten through second grade teachers…
Singletary, Joanna Lynn Bush
This study evaluated the relationship of environmental service-learning on environmental literacy in undergraduates. The subjects were 36 undergraduates at a small liberal arts university enrolled in an environmental biology course. To determine the role of environmental service-learning on college students' environmental knowledge, attitudes, behaviors, and environmental literacy, this study utilized concurrent mixed methods approach for qualitative and quantitative analysis. A quasi-experimental repeated measures approach was the design of the quantitative component of the study. Data were collected on attitude, behavior, and content knowledge aspects of environmental literacy as measured by the Environmental Literacy Survey (Kibert, 2000). Hypotheses were tested by independent samples ttests and repeated measures ANOVA. Repeated measures ANOVA conducted on participants' three subscales scores for the Environmental Literacy Survey (attitude, behavior, and knowledge) indicated that students who participated in environmental service-learning scored statistically significantly higher than those that did not initially participate in service-learning. Qualitative data collected in the form of journal reflections and portfolios were evaluated for themes of environmental attitudes or affective statements, environmentally positive behaviors and skills, and ecological content. Quantitative and qualitative data support the positive role of environmental service-learning in the development of environmental literacy in undergraduate students.
Mitsutake, Seigo; Shibata, Ai; Ishii, Kaori; Oka, Koichiro
In the rapidly developing use of the Internet in society, eHealth literacy-having the skills to utilize health information on the Internet-has become an important prerequisite for promoting healthy behavior. However, little is known about whether eHealth literacy is associated with health behavior in a representative sample of adult Internet users. The aim of this study was to examine the association between eHealth literacy and general health behavior (cigarette smoking, physical exercise, alcohol consumption, sleeping hours, eating breakfast, eating between meals, and balanced nutrition) among adult Internet users in Japan. The participants were recruited among registrants of a Japanese Internet research service company and asked to answer a cross-sectional Internet-based survey in 2012. The potential respondents (N=10,178) were randomly and blindly invited via email from the registrants in accordance with the set sample size and other attributes. eHealth literacy was assessed using the Japanese version of the eHealth Literacy Scale. The self-reported health behaviors investigated included never smoking cigarettes, physical exercise, alcohol consumption, sleeping hours, eating breakfast, not eating between meals, and balanced nutrition. We obtained details of sociodemographic attributes (sex, age, marital status, educational attainment, and household income level) and frequency of conducting Internet searches. To determine the association of each health behavior with eHealth literacy, we performed a logistic regression analysis; we adjusted for sociodemographic attributes and frequency of Internet searching as well as for other health behaviors that were statistically significant with respect to eHealth literacy in univariate analyses. We analyzed the data of 2115 adults (response rate: 24.04%, 2142/10,178; male: 49.74%, 1052/2115; age: mean 39.7, SD 10.9 years) who responded to the survey. Logistic regression analysis showed that individuals with high e
Sadaf, Ayesha; Johnson, Barbara L.
This study explored teachers' behavioral, normative, and control beliefs related to digital literacy integration into their classrooms. Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was used as a theoretical framework to collect and analyze data. Findings revealed that teachers' integration of digital literacy were related to their behavioral beliefs…
Gunn, Barbara; Feil, Ed; Seeley, John; Severson, Herb; Walker, Hill M.
This article reports the results of a pilot intervention to improve the social skills and literacy preparation of behaviorally at-risk Head Start children. Teachers in eight Head Start classrooms in two Oregon communities participated during the 2002-03 school year. Children in eight classrooms were screened and identified for participation using…
Spencer, Mercedes; Kaschak, Michael P.; Jones, John L.; Lonigan, Christopher J.
It has been demonstrated that statistical learning, or the ability to use statistical information to learn the structure of one’s environment, plays a role in young children’s acquisition of linguistic knowledge. Although most research on statistical learning has focused on language acquisition processes, such as the segmentation of words from fluent speech and the learning of syntactic structure, some recent studies have explored the extent to which individual differences in statistical learning are related to literacy-relevant knowledge and skills. The present study extends on this literature by investigating the relations between two measures of statistical learning and multiple measures of skills that are critical to the development of literacy—oral language, vocabulary knowledge, and phonological processing—within a single model. Our sample included a total of 553 typically developing children from prekindergarten through second grade. Structural equation modeling revealed that statistical learning accounted for a unique portion of the variance in these literacy-related skills. Practical implications for instruction and assessment are discussed. PMID:26478658
Seymour, Jane W; Frasso, Rosemary; Shofer, Frances S; Bennett, Ian M
Literacy is linked to a range of health outcomes, but its association with reproductive health in high-income countries is not well understood. We assessed the relationship between early-life literacy and childbearing across the reproductive lifecourse in the USA. A prospective cohort design was employed to assess early-life literacy and subsequent childbearing, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979. The US youth aged 14-22 years in 1979, including 6283 women, were surveyed annually through 1994 and biannually thereafter. Literacy was assessed in 1980 using the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery Reading Grade Level (RGL). Cumulative childbearing and grand multiparity (≥5 births) were assessed in 2010. Summary statistics, χ 2 , Kruskal-Wallis, test for trend and logistic regression, were used. Of 6283 women enrolled, 4025 (64%) had complete data and were included in the analyses. In 1980, these women were on average 18 years old and in 2010 they were 45. Median cumulative parity decreased for each RGL and ranged from 3.0 (<5th grade) to 2.0 (>12th grade) (p=0.001). Adjusting for race/ethnicity, poverty status, whether a woman had had a child in 1980, and age in 1980, odds of grand multiparity were 1.9 (95% CI 1.1 to 3.5) and 1.8 (95% CI 1.0 to 3.3), greater among women with <5th or 5-6th grade literacy compared with those ≥12th literacy. In the USA, early-life literacy is associated with total parity over a woman's lifecourse. Literacy is a powerful social determinant of reproductive health in this high-income nation just as it has been shown to be in low-income nations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Vagi, Robert L.; Collins, Clarin; Clark, Terri
Given the critical role that literacy plays in children's academic and personal development, policymakers have increasingly focused on policies related to early childhood literacy, particularly among poor and minority students. In this study, authors use a census of data from Arizona, a state with a large and growing population of traditionally…
Vinogradov, Patricia Egan
In this case study of adult English as a Second Language (ESL) educators, the researcher facilitated a six-week professional development activity around the topic of early literacy instruction. The four participants in the study circle were all LESLLA (low-educated second language and literacy acquisition) teachers whose students are adult…
Foorman, Barbara; Herrera, Sarah; Dombek, Jennifer; Schatschneider, Chris; Petscher, Yaacov
Understanding written language is crucial to academic success in all content areas. Ensuring a strong foundation in the components of written language--that is, the literacy skills of reading, writing, and oral language--is essential if students are to read with understanding and, thus, is a primary goal of early literacy instruction and of the…
Ren, Li; Hu, Guangwei
This article reports a case study of two Chinese-English bilingual families in Singapore and illustrates the importance of incorporating two hitherto disconnected fields of research--family language policy and family literacy practices--to an understanding of early language and literacy acquisition in the familial milieu. Specifically, this work…
Mendive, Susana; Lissi, María Rosa; Bakeman, Roger; Reyes, Adriana
Research Findings: To extend findings that are mainly based on North American studies with English speakers, we studied 989 Chilean mothers from households of low socioeconomic status and their prekindergarten children, posing 2 questions: (a) Do mothers' self-reported practices about literacy development predict early literacy outcomes over and…
In this article I argue that insufficient attention is paid to the explicit teaching of comprehension in South African literacy policies and practices. Like elsewhere, governments reinforce the existing curriculum gap by trying to solve the achievement gap in early literacy. I substantiate my claim through a critical analysis of a report…
Li, Hui; Rao, Nirmala; Tse, Shek Kam
This longitudinal study examined the relationship between pedagogical continuity in literacy education and early literacy development by comparing Chinese children in Hong Kong and Shenzhen. Stratified random sampling was used to select 24 preschool and Primary 1 classes in four communities catering to middle-class families in each city. The 24…
Shibata, Ai; Ishii, Kaori; Oka, Koichiro
Background In the rapidly developing use of the Internet in society, eHealth literacy—having the skills to utilize health information on the Internet—has become an important prerequisite for promoting healthy behavior. However, little is known about whether eHealth literacy is associated with health behavior in a representative sample of adult Internet users. Objective The aim of this study was to examine the association between eHealth literacy and general health behavior (cigarette smoking, physical exercise, alcohol consumption, sleeping hours, eating breakfast, eating between meals, and balanced nutrition) among adult Internet users in Japan. Methods The participants were recruited among registrants of a Japanese Internet research service company and asked to answer a cross-sectional Internet-based survey in 2012. The potential respondents (N=10,178) were randomly and blindly invited via email from the registrants in accordance with the set sample size and other attributes. eHealth literacy was assessed using the Japanese version of the eHealth Literacy Scale. The self-reported health behaviors investigated included never smoking cigarettes, physical exercise, alcohol consumption, sleeping hours, eating breakfast, not eating between meals, and balanced nutrition. We obtained details of sociodemographic attributes (sex, age, marital status, educational attainment, and household income level) and frequency of conducting Internet searches. To determine the association of each health behavior with eHealth literacy, we performed a logistic regression analysis; we adjusted for sociodemographic attributes and frequency of Internet searching as well as for other health behaviors that were statistically significant with respect to eHealth literacy in univariate analyses. Results We analyzed the data of 2115 adults (response rate: 24.04%, 2142/10,178; male: 49.74%, 1052/2115; age: mean 39.7, SD 10.9 years) who responded to the survey. Logistic regression analysis
Clark, Patricia; Kragler, Sherry
The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of incorporating writing materials in all areas of the preschool classroom on the early literacy development of young children from low-income families. The researchers worked with six teachers in three preschool classrooms to incorporate literacy materials--particularly those materials that…
Liu, Yong-Bing; Liu, Liu; Li, Yan-Fei; Chen, Yan-Li
Background: Despite the large volume of research dedicated to health-related behavior change, chronic disease costs continue to rise, thus creating a major public health burden. Health literacy, the ability to seek, understand, and utilize health information, has been identified as an important factor in the course of chronic conditions. Little research has been conducted on the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in elderly Chinese. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship between health literacy and health-related behaviors and health status in China. Methods: The subjects enrolled in this study were selected based on a stratified cluster random sampling design. Information involving >4500 older adults in 44 pension institutions in Urumqi, Changji, Karamay, and Shihezi of Xinjiang between September 2011 and June 2012 was collected. The Chinese Citizen Health Literacy Questionnaire (China Health Education Centre, 2008) and a Scale of the General Status were administered and the information was obtained through face-to-face inquiries by investigators. A total of 1452 respondents met the inclusion criteria. A total of 1452 questionnaires were issued and the valid response rate was 96.14% (1396 of 1452). Factors affecting health literacy and the relationship to health literacy were identified by one-way ANOVA and a multiple linear regression model. Results: The average health literacy level of the elderly in nursing homes was relatively low (71.74 ± 28.35 points). There were significant differences in the health literacy score among the factors of age, gender, race, education level, household income, marital conditions, and former occupation (p < 0.001). The health literacy score was significantly associated with smoking, drinking, physical exercise, and health examination (p < 0.001). The elderly with higher health literacy scores were significantly less likely to have risky behaviors (smoking, regular
Weinert, Daniel J; Palmer, Erin M
The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of an information literacy course on students' information gathering behavior. Two student groups, consisting of 69 (Group One) and 177 (Group Two) students, were compared in their performance on a literature review assignment. Group one did not have an information literacy course, while group two was the first class to receive a newly introduced course in information literacy. Assignment references served as the dependent variables and included the following categories: total number of references, number and percentage of peer reviewed journal references, number and percentage of non-peer reviewed journal references, number and percentage of website references, number and percentage of authority opinion references, and number and percentage of textbook references. Referenced websites were further divided into the following: .com, .org, .edu, .gov. for both total number and percent utilization.Independent T-tests were performed between the information literacy course status and each of the dependent variables. Descriptive data (prior education, cumulative GPA, average age of student groups) was similar for both groups. Independent T-test analysis revealed a strong association (p < .05) between increasing both the number and percentage of peer reviewed references and having the information literacy course. The introduction of an information literacy course did influence the information gathering behavior of students. Students showed an increased reliance on peer-reviewed references.
Kim, Yong-Chan; Lim, Ji Young; Park, Keeho
This study aimed to examine whether social capital (bonding and bridging social capital) attenuate the effect of low functional health literacy on health information resources, efficacy, and behaviors. In-person interviews were conducted with 1,000 residents in Seoul, Korea, in 2011. The authors found that respondents' functional health literacy had positive effects on the scope of health information sources and health information self-efficacy but not health information-seeking intention. Respondents' social capital had positive effects on the scope of health information sources, health information efficacy, and health information-seeking intention. The authors found (a) a significant moderation effect of bridging social capital on the relation between health literacy and health information self-efficacy and (b) a moderation effect of bonding social capital on the relation between health literacy and health information-seeking intention.
Snow, Pamela C; Eadie, Patricia A; Connell, Judy; Dalheim, Brenda; McCusker, Hugh J; Munro, John K
This study examined the impact of teacher professional development aimed at improving the capacity of primary teachers in disadvantaged schools to strengthen children's expressive and receptive oral language skills and early literacy success in the first 2 years of school. Fourteen low-SES schools in Victoria, Australia were randomly allocated to a research (n = 8) or control arm (n = 6), resulting in an initial sample of 1254 students, (n = 602 in research arm and n = 652 in control arm). The intervention comprised 6 days of teacher and principal professional development (delivered by language and literacy experts), school-based continuing contact with the research team and completion by one staff member of each research school of a postgraduate unit on early language and literacy. Schools in the control arm received standard teaching according to state auspiced curriculum guidelines. Full data were available on 979 students at follow-up (time 2). Students in the research arm performed significantly better on Test of Language Development: Primary (Fourth Edition) sub-tests (p ≤ .002) and the Reading Progress Test (F = 10.4(1); p = .001) than students in the control arm at time 2. Narrative scores were not significantly different at time 2, although students in research schools showed greater gains. Findings provide "proof of concept" for this approach, and are discussed with respect to implications for teacher professional development and pre-service education concerning the psycholinguistic competencies that underpin the transition to literacy.
Manocchi-Verrino, Carol J.
A call for a new perspective of science literacy has been marked as the impetus of change in science education, suggesting that a meaning-making approach to literacy and inquiry are central to learning science. This research study explored how science literacy evolved in a classroom where this reconceptualized view of science literacy guided curriculum design and instruction. The teacher/researcher incorporated Interactive Science Notebooks (ISNs) and Interactive Reading Organizers and Comprehension Strategies (IROCS) into instructional materials. In a class consisting of 20 mainstream and special education students, this 7-week study collected data using Likert scales, stimulated recall interviews, a teacher/researcher journal, and students¡¦ position papers. A systematic design framework was used for the three-phase analysis. Hyperresearch RTM software facilitated the identification of open codes, an axial code, and frequency graphs. In order to develop insight into the relationship between questions, methods, and curriculum design recent recommendations for quality research in science education were considered in the methodology. The hypothesis formulated from the data suggests that science literacy evolves on a continuum, and the degree to which science literacy evolves on the continuum seems to be contingent upon their uses of intertextual connections and inquiry behaviors. Several notable insights emerged from the data which were used to guide curriculum, instruction, and assessment that promotes the development of science literacy in the middle school classroom. The study suggests a possible correlation between the use of intertextual connections and inquiry behaviors, and the use of a continuum in measuring the emergence of science literacy.
Wohlwend, Karen E.
Karen Wohlwend provides a new framework for rethinking the boundaries between literacy and play, so that play itself is viewed as a literacy practice along with reading, writing, and design. Through a variety of theoretical lenses, the author presents a portrait of literacy play that connects three play groups: the girls and, importantly, boys,…
Halden, Amanda; Clark, Christina; Lewis, Fiona
In May 2011 "Nursery World" and the National Literacy Trust launched its language development survey to celebrate Hello; the national year of communication. The National Literacy Trust teamed up with "Nursery World" to carry out research into the sector's support for children's language and literacy development. Two hundred…
Bennett, Susan V.; Gunn, AnnMarie Alberton; Gayle-Evans, Guda; Barrera, Estanislado S.; Leung, Cynthia B.
Early childhood educators continue to see an increase in their culturally diverse student population. As our country continues to grow as a multicultural nation, it is imperative that our early childhood classrooms embrace this rich diversity and provide experiences that affirm all students, families and communities. We (teacher educators)…
Liao, Li-Ling; Lai, I-Ju; Chang, Li-Chun; Lee, Chia-Kuei
Unhealthy food advertising is an important contributor to childhood obesity. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the impact of a food advertising literacy program that incorporated components of health-promoting media literacy education on fifth-grade children. Participants were 140 fifth-graders (10 and 11 years old) from one school who were randomly divided into three groups. Experimental Group A received a food advertising literacy program, experimental Group B received a comparable knowledge-based nutrition education program and the control group did not receive any nutrition education. Repeated measures analysis of variance and multivariate analysis of covariance were used to test mean changes between pretest, posttest and follow-up on participants' nutritional knowledge, food advertising literacy and food purchasing behavior. Results showed that, as compared with Group B and the control groups, Group A showed higher nutritional knowledge, food advertising literacy and food purchasing behavior at post-intervention, but had no significant improvements in nutritional knowledge and food purchasing behavior at the 1-month follow-up. Although some improvements were observed, future studies should consider a long-term, settings-based approach that is closely connected with children's daily lives, as this might be helpful to solidify children's skills in recognizing, evaluating and understanding unhealthy food advertising. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Lonigan, Christopher J; Allan, Nicholas P; Lerner, Matthew D
The importance of the preschool period for becoming a skilled reader is highlighted by a significant body of evidence that preschool children's development in the areas of oral language, phonological awareness, and print knowledge is predictive of how well they will learn to read once they are exposed to formal reading instruction in elementary school. Although there are now a number of empirically supported instructional activities for helping children who are at -risk of later reading difficulties acquire these early literacy skills, limitations in instructional time and opportunities in most preschool settings requires the use of valid assessment procedures to ensure that instructional resources are utilized efficiently. In this paper, we discuss the degree to which informal, diagnostic, screening, and progress-monitoring assessments of preschool early literacy skills can inform instructional decisions by considering the strengths and weaknesses of each approach to assessment.
Cunningham, Anna J.; Carroll, Julia M.
Background: There is evidence that children who are taught to read later in childhood (age 6-7) make faster progress in early literacy than those who are taught at a younger age (4-5 years), as is current practice in the UK. Aims: Steiner-educated children begin learning how to read at age 7, and have better reading-related skills at the onset of…
Kirk, Stacie M; Kirk, Erik P
The effects of increases in physical activity (PA) on early literacy skills in preschool children are not known. Fifty-four African-American preschool children from a low socioeconomic urban Head Start participated over 8 months. A 2-group, quasi-experimental design was used with one preschool site participating in the PA intervention and a second site participating as the control site. The PA program was designed to promote 300 minutes/week of moderate to vigorous PA academic lessons. Academic achievement related to early literacy and phonological awareness in the areas of rhyming and alliteration were assessed at baseline, 4 and 8 months. Over 8 months, rhyming significantly (p < .01) improved in the PA group (173 ± 12%) compared with the controls (28 ± 8%) resulting in between group differences at 8 months (p < .01). Alliteration significantly (p < .01) improved in the PA group (52 ± 16%) compared with controls (13 ± 5%), resulting in between group differences at 8 months (p < .01). As minutes of exposure to moderate to vigorous PA increased, the change in picture naming (R(2) = .35, p < .05), alliteration (R(2) = .38, p < .05), and rhyming (R(2) = .42, p < .05), increased. A teacher-directed PA program is effective at increasing PA and improving early literacy. © 2016, American School Health Association.
Webb, Mi-Young; Lederberg, Amy R; Branum-Martin, Lee; McDonald Connor, Carol
Better understanding the mechanisms underlying developing literacy has promoted the development of more effective reading interventions for typically developing children. Such knowledge may facilitate effective instruction of deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children. Hence, the current study examined the multivariate associations among phonological awareness, alphabetic knowledge, word reading, and vocabulary skills in DHH children who have auditory access to speech. One hundred and sixty-seven DHH children (M age = 60.43 months) were assessed with a battery of early literacy measures. Forty-six percent used at least 1 cochlear implant; 54% were fitted with hearing aids. About a fourth of the sample was acquiring both spoken English and sign. Scores on standardized tests of phonological awareness and vocabulary averaged at least 1 standard deviation (SD) below the mean of the hearing norming sample. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that DHH children's early literacy skills were best characterized by a complex 3-factor model in which phonological awareness, alphabetic knowledge, and vocabulary formed 3 separate, but highly correlated constructs, with letter-sound knowledge and word reading skills relating to both phonological awareness and alphabetic knowledge. This supports the hypothesis that early reading of DHH children with functional hearing is qualitatively similar to that of hearing children. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Burne, Brian; Knafelc, Valerie; Melonis, Maureen; Heyn, Patricia C
The Individuals with Disabilities Act was implemented in 1975 to assure that all children aged 0-21 years old have access and the right to an equal education. However, young children with disabilities continue to need additional support to meet the reading readiness standards as outlined in The No Child Left Behind legislation (2004). Although all children benefit from readiness skills, it is essential for children with special needs. With the technology boom of the past decade, assistive technology (AT) has been used increasingly to enhance emerging literacy skills. In order to identify current trends in the use of AT as a means to enhance emergent literacy skills in young children with disabilities, a systematic review of the literature was undertaken. The findings from this review support the scarcity of empirical research demonstrating the benefit of AT to promote emergent literacy with young children with disabilities. We also found a need for evidence supporting education approaches for the proper use of AT in early childhood literacy as well as little family knowledge regarding the implementation and instructional use of AT.
Kuhl, Patricia K.
The last decade has produced an explosion in neuroscience research examining young children’s early processing of language that has implications for education. Noninvasive, safe functional brain measurements have now been proven feasible for use with children starting at birth. In the arena of language, the neural signatures of learning can be documented at a remarkably early point in development, and these early measures predict performance in children’s language and pre-reading abilities in the second, third, and fifth year of life, a finding with theoretical and educational import. There is evidence that children’s early mastery of language requires learning in a social context, and this finding also has important implications for education. Evidence relating socio-economic status (SES) to brain function for language suggests that SES should be considered a proxy for the opportunity to learn and that the complexity of language input is a significant factor in developing brain areas related to language. The data indicate that the opportunity to learn from complex stimuli and events are vital early in life, and that success in school begins in infancy. PMID:21892359
Past definitions of statistical literacy should be updated in order to account for the greatly amplified role that data now play in our lives. Experience working with high-school students in an innovative data science curriculum has shown that teaching statistical literacy, augmented by data literacy, can begin early.
Gilmore, Gwen; Truong, Thi My Dung; Reilly, Michelle
For preservice teachers in early childhood education, having a rich exposure to multiple forms of literacy in diverse communities is an essential dimension of their teacher education. In this study, 10 Australian preservice early childhood education students, in the first year of their course, visit two early childhood settings in a large city in…
Rafal, Gregor; Gatto, Amy; DeBate, Rita
Objective: Mental health literacy (MHL) is low in college-aged men potentially resulting in impaired mental wellbeing. This study assessed MHL, psychosocial determinants, and help-seeking behaviors among male university students. Participants: Male undergraduate and graduate students were surveyed in Spring 2017 (n = 1,242) at a large southeastern…
Herridge, Robin Lea
The purpose of this study was to explore the literacy instructional leadership behaviors of principals in two high poverty elementary schools in North Carolina who have experienced success with student growth in reading achievement over a three year period. This was a qualitative exploratory multiple case study. Data was gathered from 21…
Hung, Yu Hsin; Chang, Ray I.; Lin, Chun Fu
In recent decades, the rapid growth of technology has resulted in software being widely applied in various domains. Attitudes toward using software play an important role in every industry. This study aims to explore the software literacy of accounting students along with their personal traits, such as learning styles and user behavior. This was a…
Piasta, Shayne B; Wagner, Richard K
Alphabet knowledge is a hallmark of early literacy and facilitating its development has become a primary objective of pre-school instruction and intervention. However, little agreement exists about how to promote the development of alphabet knowledge effectively. A meta-analysis of the effects of instruction on alphabet outcomes demonstrated that instructional impacts differed by type of alphabet outcome examined and content of instruction provided. School-based instruction yielded larger effects than home-based instruction; small-group instruction yielded larger effects than individual tutoring programs. We found minimal evidence of transfer of alphabet instruction to early phonological, reading, or spelling skills. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Lonigan, Christopher J.; Allan, Darcey M.; Phillips, Beth M.
There is strong evidence that self-regulatory processes are linked to early academic skills both concurrently and longitudinally. The majority of extant longitudinal studies, however, have been conducted using autoregressive techniques that may not accurately model change across time. The purpose of this study was to examine the unique associations between two components of self-regulation, attention and executive functioning (EF), and growth in early literacy skills over the preschool year using latent-growth-curve analysis. The sample included 1,082 preschool children (M-age = 55.0 months, SD = 3.73). Children completed measures of vocabulary, syntax, phonological awareness, print knowledge, cognitive ability, and self-regulation, and children’s classroom teachers completed a behavior rating measure. To examine the independent relations of the self-regulatory skills and cognitive ability with children’s initial early literacy skills and growth across the preschool year, growth models in which the intercept and slope were simultaneously regressed on each of the predictor variables were examined. Because of the significant relation between intercept and slope for most outcomes, slope was regressed on intercept in the models to allow a determination of direct and indirect effects of the predictors on growth in children’s language and literacy skills across the preschool year. In general, both teacher-rated inattention and directly measured EF were uniquely associated with initial skills level; however, only teacher-rated inattention uniquely predicted growth in early literacy skills. These findings suggest that teacher-ratings of inattention may measure an aspect of self-regulation that is particularly associated with the acquisition of academic skills in early childhood. PMID:27854463
Day, Stephanie; Connor, Carol; McClelland, Megan
Classroom learning environments are an important source of influence on children's development, particularly with regard to literacy achievement and behavioral regulation, both which requires the coordination of task inhibition, attention, and working memory. Classroom observations were conducted in 18 schools and 51 first grade classrooms for 500 children. The non-instructional activities were recorded for each student in the classroom. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that children with weaker fall behavioral regulation were more likely to attend classrooms where more time was spent in disruptions and wasted instructional time over the course of the school year, such as waiting for the teacher to gather materials before beginning instruction. For literacy outcomes, children who were in classrooms where more time in disruptions, transitions, and waiting was observed showed weaker literacy skill gains in the spring compared to children in classrooms with lesser amounts of such unproductive non-instructional time and this effect was generally greater for students with initial weaker skills. These results also reveal that the classroom environment and the incoming characteristics of the students themselves influence students' development of behavioral regulation and literacy. PMID:26407837
Day, Stephanie L; Connor, Carol McDonald; McClelland, Megan M
Classroom learning environments are an important source of influence on children's development, particularly with regard to literacy achievement and behavioral regulation, both of which require the coordination of task inhibition, attention, and working memory. Classroom observations were conducted in 18 schools and 51 first grade classrooms for 500 children. The non-instructional activities were recorded for each student in the classroom. Hierarchical linear modeling revealed that children with weaker fall behavioral regulation were more likely to attend classrooms where more time was spent in disruptions and wasted instructional time over the course of the school year, such as waiting for the teacher to gather materials before beginning instruction. For literacy outcomes, children who were in classrooms where more time in disruptions, transitions, and waiting was observed showed weaker literacy skill gains in the spring compared to children in classrooms with lesser amounts of such unproductive non-instructional time and this effect was generally greater for students with initial weaker skills. These results also reveal that the classroom environment and the incoming characteristics of the students themselves influence students' development of behavioral regulation and literacy. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
LaMantia, Dana J.
The purpose of this study was to delve into the challenges of collaborative literacy instruction, literacy assessments, and the development of behavior plans in order to support Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) learners in an urban classroom setting. The DSM-IV states that the neuropsychiatry syndrome of ADHD affects approximately…
Lonigan, Christopher J.; Bloomfield, Brenlee G.; Anthony, Jason L.; Bacon, Kimberly D.; Samwel, Corine S.; Phillips, Beth M.
A study examined the overlap between behaviors associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders and emergent literacy skills in 44 children from middle-income families and 41 Head Start children. Attention problems were associated with literacy skills in both groups, however, the effect was strongest for the middle-income group.…
Frick, Paul J
Severe and persistent antisocial behavior is a prevalent, serious, and costly mental health problem. Individuals who are most likely to show persistent antisocial behavior through adolescence and into adulthood often show patterns of severe and varied conduct problems early in childhood. Treatments that intervene early in the development of these problems are most effective and least costly. Furthermore, there appear to be several common causal pathways that differ in their genetic, emotional, cognitive, and contextual characteristics. These pathways are differentiated by the level of callous-unemotional traits displayed by the individual. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yaden, David B., Jr.; Marx, Ronald W.; Cimetta, Adriana D.; Alkhadim, Ghadah S.; Cutshaw, Christina
For two decades, it has been recommended that assessment of literacy for preschool children be conducted in a child's primary language. However, only a few literacy assessments have been validated with a preschool, Spanish-speaking population. The purpose of the present study was to test the latent structure of the Phonological Awareness Literacy…
Lonigan, Christopher J; Goodrich, J Marc; Farver, JoAnn M
Despite acknowledgment that language-minority children come from a wide variety of home language backgrounds and have a wide range of proficiency in their first (L1) and second (L2) languages, it is unknown whether differences across language-minority children in relative and absolute levels of proficiency in L1 and L2 predict subsequent development of literacy-related skills. The purpose of this study was to identify subgroups of language-minority children and evaluate whether differences in level and rate of growth of early literacy skills differed across subgroups. Five-hundred and twenty-six children completed measures of Spanish and English language and early literacy skills at the beginning, middle, and end of the preschool year. Latent growth models indicated that children's early literacy skills were increasing over the course of the preschool year. Latent profile analysis indicated that language-minority children could be classified into nine distinct groups, each with unique patterns of absolute and relative levels of proficiency in L1 and L2. Results of three-step mixture models indicated that profiles were closely associated with level of early literacy skills at the beginning of the preschool year. Initial level of early literacy skills was positively associated with growth in code-related skills (i.e., print knowledge, phonological awareness) and inversely associated with growth in language skills. These findings suggest that language-minority children are a diverse group with regard to their L1 and L2 proficiencies and that growth in early literacy skills is most associated with level of proficiency in the same language. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Sharifirad, Gholamreza; Mostafavi, Firoozeh; Reisi, Mahnouush; Mahaki, Behzad; Javadzade, Homamodin; Heydarabadi, Akbar Babaei; Esfahani, Mahmoud Nasr
Background: Health literacy is one of the most important priorities for improving health care quality through enhancing patient-provider communication. Implementing health literacy strategies enable nurses to provide information and instructions for patients in a manner that is more commensurate and understandable. The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors affecting nurses’ intention to implement health literacy strategies in patient education based on theory of planned behavior. Methods: A cross-sectional study was done on 148 nurse practitioners of AL-Zahra educational hospital in Isfahan, Iran, using a descriptive-analytic method. Data collected via a standardized questionnaire based on theory of planned behavior constructed and analyzed by SPSS v.17 using ANOVA, Independent T-test, Pearson correlation and linear regression. Results: There was statistically significant correlation between using health literacy strategies and marriage status, attending in retraining courses, employment type, job history, and job status. Perceived behavioral control was the most powerful predictor of intention (β=0.417) and use health literacy strategies in patient education and behavior of nurses (β=0.33). Conclusion: According to the findings of this study, perceived behavioral control is a powerful determinant of nurses’ intention and behavior of using health literacy strategies in patient education. Hence we recommend nurse educators to pay special attention to the constructs of this theory mainly perceived behavioral control in retrain courses about patient education and health literacy strategies. PMID:25945078
Stonbraker, Samantha; Smaldone, Arlene; Luft, Heidi; Cushman, Linda F; Lerebours Nadal, Leonel; Halpern, Mina; Larson, Elaine
To determine the health literacy levels of persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) (PLWH) at a health clinic in the Dominican Republic (DR) and assess associations between health literacy, HIV-related knowledge, and health information behavior (how patients need, seek, receive, and use information). Cross-sectional, descriptive. Participants were 107 PLWH attending the Clinic. A theoretically based, 64-item survey assessing information behavior and HIV-related knowledge was administered in Spanish through individual interviews. Health literacy was assessed using the Short Assessment of Health Literacy-Spanish and English. On average, participants were 40.8 years old and had lived with HIV for 7.7 years. The majority (69.2%) had low health literacy. HIV-related knowledge and information behavior varied by health literacy level and uncertainty regarding a main indicator of disease progression, viral load, was demonstrated regardless of health literacy level. Participants with low health literacy were less likely to answer questions or answer questions correctly and many participants (39.2%) indicated viral transmission can occur through supernatural means. Findings demonstrate unmet information need and that information received may not always be understood. Methods to improve health education are needed to ensure patients receive health information in an understandable way. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Goodrich, J Marc; Lonigan, Christopher J
According to the common underlying proficiency model (Cummins, 1981), as children acquire academic knowledge and skills in their first language, they also acquire language-independent information about those skills that can be applied when learning a second language. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relevance of the common underlying proficiency model for the early literacy skills of Spanish-speaking language-minority children using confirmatory factor analysis. Eight hundred fifty-eight Spanish-speaking language-minority preschoolers (mean age = 60.83 months, 50.2% female) participated in this study. Results indicated that bifactor models that consisted of language-independent as well as language-specific early literacy factors provided the best fits to the data for children's phonological awareness and print knowledge skills. Correlated factors models that only included skills specific to Spanish and English provided the best fits to the data for children's oral language skills. Children's language-independent early literacy skills were significantly related across constructs and to language-specific aspects of early literacy. Language-specific aspects of early literacy skills were significantly related within but not across languages. These findings suggest that language-minority preschoolers have a common underlying proficiency for code-related skills but not language-related skills that may allow them to transfer knowledge across languages.
Langub, Lee Woodham; Lokey-Vega, Anissa
Digital literacy is an important aspect to consider within teacher education as a way to address twenty-first century learner needs, particularly in early childhood contexts where developmental concerns should be paramount in making instructional design decisions. This article is a design case of a graduate level early childhood education…
Gutierrez, Kris D.; Zepeda, Marlene; Castro, Dina C.
The authors examine the implications and limitations of the National Early Literacy Panel report on the early care of young children who are dual-language learners (DLLs).They examine the relevance of the report for DLLs, particularly the practice in this and other national synthesis reports of extrapolating implications for the education of young…
Allen, Thomas E.; Letteri, Amy; Choi, Song Hoa; Dang, Daqian
A brief review is provided of recent research on the impact of early visual language exposure on a variety of developmental outcomes, including literacy, cognition, and social adjustment. This body of work points to the great importance of giving young deaf children early exposure to a visual language as a critical precursor to the acquisition of…
Lee-Hammond, Libby; McConney, Andrew
This research, a collaboration of an international aid organisation, an institute of higher education, and an external evaluation consultant, assesses the early literacy, numeracy, and school attendance outcomes resulting from an early childhood development programme undertaken in several villages in the province of Makira, Solomon Islands. The…
Toussaint, Karen A; Tiger, Jeffrey H
Despite the need for braille literacy, there has been little attempt to systematically evaluate braille-instruction programs. The current study evaluated an instructive procedure for teaching early braille-reading skills with 4 school-aged children with degenerative visual impairments. Following a series of pretests, braille instruction involved providing a sample braille letter and teaching the selection of the corresponding printed letter from a comparison array. Concomitant with increases in the accuracy of this skill, we assessed and captured the formation of equivalence classes through tests of symmetry and transitivity among the printed letters, the corresponding braille letters, and their spoken names. PMID:21119894
Toussaint, Karen A; Tiger, Jeffrey H
Despite the need for braille literacy, there has been little attempt to systematically evaluate braille-instruction programs. The current study evaluated an instructive procedure for teaching early braille-reading skills with 4 school-aged children with degenerative visual impairments. Following a series of pretests, braille instruction involved providing a sample braille letter and teaching the selection of the corresponding printed letter from a comparison array. Concomitant with increases in the accuracy of this skill, we assessed and captured the formation of equivalence classes through tests of symmetry and transitivity among the printed letters, the corresponding braille letters, and their spoken names.
Breit-Smith, Allison; Cabell, Sonia Q; Justice, Laura M
The present article illustrates how the National Household Education Surveys (NHES; U.S. Department of Education, 2009) database might be used to address questions of relevance to researchers who are concerned with literacy development among young children. Following a general description of the NHES database, a study is provided that examines the extent to which parent-reported home literacy activities and child emergent literacy skills differ for children with (a) developmental disabilities versus those who are developing typically, (b) single disability versus multiple disabilities, and (c) speech-language disability only versus other types of disabilities. Four hundred and seventy-eight preschool-age children with disabilities and a typically developing matched sample (based on parent report) were identified in the 2005 administration of the Early Childhood Program Participation (ECPP) Survey in the NHES database. Parent responses to survey items were then compared between groups. After controlling for age and socioeconomic status, no significant differences were found in the frequency of home literacy activities for children with and without disabilities. Parents reported higher levels of emergent literacy skills for typically developing children relative to children with disabilities. These findings suggest the importance of considering the home literacy experiences and emergent literacy skills of young children with disabilities when making clinical recommendations.
Lee, Julia Ai Cheng; Otaiba, Stephanie Al
Socioeconomic status and gender are important demographic variables that strongly relate to academic achievement. This study examined the early literacy skills differences between 4 sociodemographic groups, namely, boys ineligible for free or reduced-price lunch (FRL), girls ineligible for FRL, boys eligible for FRL, and girls eligible for FRL. Data on kindergarteners (N = 462) were analysed using multiple-group confirmatory factory analysis. Early literacy skill differences between boys and girls are more nuanced than previously reported; subsidy status and gender interact. Both boys and girls from high-poverty households performed significantly lower than the girls from low-poverty households in alphabet knowledge, phonological awareness, and spelling. There were gender gaps, with a female advantage, among children from high-poverty households in alphabet knowledge and spelling and among children from low-poverty households in alphabet knowledge. These results highlight the importance of employing methodologically sound techniques to ascertain group differences in componential early literacy skills. PMID:25750582
Chrisler, Alison; Ling, Thomson
Given the importance of the early childhood period as a time when the foundation is laid for later language and literacy, it is important to determine what activities and experiences lead to positive language and literacy outcomes in early childhood. This Fact Sheet reviews fifteen experimentally-evaluated programs and intervention strategies that…
Haughbrook, Rasheda; Hart, Sara A; Schatschneider, Christopher; Taylor, Jeanette
Recent research suggests that the etiology of reading achievement can differ across environmental contexts. In the US, schools are commonly assigned grades (e.g. 'A', 'B') often interpreted to indicate school quality. This study explored differences in the etiology of early literacy skills for students based on these school grades. Participants included twins drawn from the Florida Twin Project on Reading (n = 1313 pairs) aged 4 to 10 years during the 2006-07 school year. Early literacy skills were assessed with DIBELS subtests: Oral Reading Fluency (ORF), Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF), Initial Sound Fluency (ISF), Letter Naming Fluency (LNF), and Phoneme Segmentation Fluency (PSF). School grade data were retrieved from the Florida Department of Education. Multi-group analyses were conducted separately for subsamples defined by 'A' or 'non-A' schools, controlling for school-level socioeconomic status. Results indicated significant etiological differences on pre-reading skills (ISF, LNF, and PSF), but not word-level reading skills (ORF and NWF). There was a consistent trend of greater environmental influences on pre-reading skills in non-A schools, arguably representing 'poorer' environmental contexts than the A schools. Importantly, this is the case outside of resources linked with school-level SES, indicating that something about the direct environment on pre-reading skills in the non-A school context is more variable than for A schools. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Computational models of reading posit that there are two pathways to word recognition, using sublexical phonology or morphological/orthographic information. They further theorize that everyone uses both pathways to some extent, but the division of labor between the pathways can vary. This review argues that the first language one was taught to read, and the instructional method by which one was taught, can have profound and long-lasting effects on how one reads, not only in one’s first language, but also in one’s second language. Readers who first learn a transparent orthography rely more heavily on the sublexical phonology pathway, and this seems relatively impervious to instruction. Readers who first learn a more opaque orthography rely more on morphological/orthographic information, but the degree to which they do so can be modulated by instructional method. Finally, readers who first learned to read a highly opaque morphosyllabic orthography use less sublexical phonology while reading in their second language than do other second language learners and this effect may be heightened if they were not also exposed to an orthography that codes for phonological units during early literacy acquisition. These effects of early literacy experiences on reading procedure are persistent despite increases in reading ability. PMID:26483714
George, Amanda M; Rohr, Linda E; Byrne, Jeannette
Physical literacy is the degree of fitness, behaviors, knowledge, and fundamental movement skills (agility, balance, and coordination) a child has to confidently participate in physical activity. Active video games (AVG), like the Nintendo Wii, have emerged as alternatives to traditional physical activity by providing a non-threatening environment to develop physical literacy. This study examined the impact of AVGs on children's (age 6⁻12, N = 15) physical literacy. For six weeks children played one of four pre-selected AVGs (minimum 20 min, twice per week). Pre and post measures of motivation, enjoyment, and physical literacy were completed. Results indicated a near significant improvement in aiming and catching ( p = 0.06). Manual dexterity significantly improved in males ( p = 0.001), and females felt significantly less pressured to engage in PA ( p = 0.008). Overall, there appears to be some positive impact of an AVG intervention on components of physical literacy.
Lewis, Barbara A; Avrich, Allison A; Freebairn, Lisa A; Hansen, Amy J; Sucheston, Lara E; Kuo, Iris; Taylor, H Gerry; Iyengar, Sudha K; Stein, Catherine M
To demonstrate that early childhood speech sound disorders (SSD) and later school-age reading, written expression, and spelling skills are influenced by shared endophenotypes that may be in part genetic. Children with SSD and their siblings were assessed at early childhood (ages 4-6 years) and followed at school age (7-12 years). The relationship of shared endophenotypes with early childhood SSD and school-age outcomes and the shared genetic influences on these outcomes were examined. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that oral motor skills, phonological awareness, phonological memory, vocabulary, and speeded naming have varying influences on reading decoding, spelling, spoken language, and written expression at school age. Genetic linkage studies demonstrated linkage for reading, spelling, and written expression measures to regions on chromosomes 1, 3, 6, and 15 that were previously linked to oral motor skills, articulation, phonological memory, and vocabulary at early childhood testing. Endophenotypes predict school-age literacy outcomes over and above that predicted by clinical diagnoses of SSD or language impairment. Findings suggest that these shared endophenotypes and common genetic influences affect early childhood SSD and later school-age reading, spelling, spoken language, and written expression skills.
Lewis, Barbara A.; Avrich, Allison A.; Freebairn, Lisa A.; Hansen, Amy J.; Sucheston, Lara E.; Kuo, Iris; Taylor, H. Gerry; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Stein, Catherine M.
Purpose To demonstrate that early childhood speech sound disorders (SSD) and later school-age reading, written expression, and spelling skills are influenced by shared endophenotypes that may be in part genetic. Method Children with SSD and their siblings were assessed at early childhood (ages 4–6 years) and followed at school age (7–12 years). The relationship of shared endophenotypes with early childhood SSD and school-age outcomes and the shared genetic influences on these outcomes were examined. Results Structural equation modeling demonstrated that oral motor skills, phonological awareness, phonological memory, vocabulary, and speeded naming have varying influences on reading decoding, spelling, spoken language, and written expression at school age. Genetic linkage studies demonstrated linkage for reading, spelling, and written expression measures to regions on chromosomes 1, 3, 6, and 15 that were previously linked to oral motor skills, articulation, phonological memory, and vocabulary at early childhood testing. Conclusions Endophenotypes predict school-age literacy outcomes over and above that predicted by clinical diagnoses of SSD or language impairment. Findings suggest that these shared endophenotypes and common genetic influences affect early childhood SSD and later school-age reading, spelling, spoken language, and written expression skills. PMID:21930616
Health Literacy is the set of skills that constitute the ability to perform reading and numerical tasks to function in the health care environment. People with functional illiteracy are unable to understand written documents and therefore sanitary information. To explore the effects of functional illiteracy on personal health care behaviors in Chile. Using the Chilean Social Characterization Survey of 2006, respondents were separated into those that had read a book in the last year and those that had not as a proxy variable for functional literacy. Using econometric models, the impact of this variable on having a Papanicolaou (PAP) smear done and consulting in primary health clinics rather than in emergency services, was explored. The survey is nationally representative, and 76% interviewees declared not having read a book in the last year. Probability of having a PAP smear done during the last three years was higher among women who had read a book with an OR of 1.19 (1.15-1.25). Likewise, the probability of consulting in emergency services rather than in primary health clinics was lower among those who had read a book with an OR of 0.85 (0.80-0.91). This study provides evidence of possible impacts of low functional literacy in health care behaviors in the Chilean population.
Poorman, Elisabeth; Gazmararian, Julie; Elon, Lisa; Parker, Ruth
Text4baby provides educational text messages to pregnant and postpartum women and targets underserved women. The primary purpose of this study is to examine the health behaviors and cell phone usage patterns of a text4baby target population and the associations with health literacy. Pregnant and postpartum women were recruited from two Women, Infant and Children clinics in Atlanta. Women were asked about their demographics, selected pregnancy or postpartum health behaviors, and cell phone usage patterns. Health literacy skills were measured with the English version of the Newest Vital Sign. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine health behaviors and cell usage patterns by health literacy classification, controlling for commonly accepted confounders. Four hundred sixty-eight women were recruited, and 445 completed the Newest Vital Sign. Of these, 22% had inadequate health literacy, 50% had intermediate health literacy, and 28% had adequate health literacy skills. Compared to adequate health literacy, limited literacy was independently associated with not taking a daily vitamin during pregnancy (OR 3.6, 95% CI: 1.6, 8.5) and never breastfeeding their infant (OR 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1, 1.8). The majority (69.4%) of respondents received nine or more text messages a day prior to enrollment, one in four participants (24.6%) had changed their number within the last six months, and 7.0% of study participants shared a cell phone. Controlling for potentially confounding factors, those with limited health literacy were more likely to share a cell phone than those with adequate health literacy (OR 2.57, 95% CI: 1.79, 3.69). Text4baby messages should be appropriate for low health literacy levels, especially as this population may have higher prevalence of targeted unhealthy behaviors. Text4baby and other mhealth programs targetting low health literacy populations should also be aware of the different ways that these populations use their cell phones, including: sharing
Folsom, Jessica Sidler; Smith, Kevin G.; Burk, Kymyona; Oakley, Nathan
Substantial research points to the importance of developing strong early literacy skills. However, according to the National Assessment of Educational Progress, between 2007 and 2013, no more than 55 percent of Mississippi grade 4 students were reading at or above the proficiency level that demonstrates solid academic performance for the grade…
Hindman, Annemarie H.; Cromley, Jennifer G.; Skibbe, Lori E.; Miller, Alison L.
This article reviews the mechanics of conventional and piecewise growth models to demonstrate the unique affordances of each technique for examining the nature and predictors of children's early literacy learning during the transition from preschool through first grade. Using the nationally representative Family and Child Experiences Survey…
Maher, Marguerite; Bellen, Linda
There is a growing awareness that some children transition into formal schooling more readily than others. Compelling evidence indicates that children familiar with the skills and knowledge associated with the dominant practices of literacy teaching in schools have an advantage. While families play a pivotal role in children's early literacy…
Powell, Douglas R.; Diamond, Karen E.; Koehler, Matthew J.
Use of a case-based hypermedia resource (HR) was examined in a Web-based early literacy coaching intervention with pre-kindergarten teachers of at-risk children. Web usage logs, written records of coach feedback to teachers on their instruction, and a teacher questionnaire were the primary data sources. Visits to the HR content pages were unevenly…
This article reviews the effectiveness of two projects: "NQT and Beyond; Developing Resilience in Learning and Teaching," and the underpinning conceptual framework (PLSP) in supporting early career teachers' (ECTs') development of their research literacy. Evidence of effective integration of research into practice is illustrated through…
Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Kainz, Kirsten; Hedrick, Amy; Ginsberg, Marnie; Amendum, Steve
This study evaluated whether the Targeted Reading Intervention (TRI), a classroom teacher professional development program delivered through webcam technology literacy coaching, could provide rural classroom teachers with the instructional skills to help struggling readers progress rapidly in early reading. Fifteen rural schools were randomly…
Olaussen, Bodil Stokke
Understanding that classroom discourse is important for reading comprehension and critical thinking is emerging. The aim of the present study was to analyze what teachers say and do, to promote discussion at a teacher-led station in the Early Years Literacy Program (EYLP). The EYLP is a program for reading instruction, organized at different…
Ford, Karen L.; Invernizzi, Marcia A.; Huang, Francis
This study explored the viability of using kindergarten measures of phonological awareness, alphabet knowledge, and orthographic knowledge, administered in English, to predict first grade reading achievement of Spanish-speaking English language learners. The primary research question was: Do kindergarten measures of early literacy skills in…
Roseth, Cary J.; Missall, Kristen N.; McConnell, Scott R.
Early literacy individual growth and development indicators (EL-IGDIs) assess preschoolers' expressive vocabulary development and phonological awareness. This study investigated longitudinal change in EL-IGDIs using a large (N=7355), internet-based sample of 36- to 60-month-old United States preschoolers without identified risks for later…
Lee, Libby; Wilks, Anne
This paper reports aspects of a large-scale project conducted in rural and remote regions of Australia. The study was designed to assess teaching and learning practices in early childhood programs with a particular focus on literacy, numeracy and the use of information and communication technologies. Programs had been specifically designed for use…
Munger, Kristen A.; LoFaro, Stephen A.; Kawryga, Erin A.; Sovocool, Elizabeth A.; Medina, Siani Y.
This study involved examination of the validity evidence of the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills-Next Edition (DIBELS Next) for a sample of 85 third-and fifth-grade students, in reference to the "simple view" of reading. Tests administered included DIBELS Next, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-IV (PPVT-IV), Group Reading…
Lee, Julia Ai Cheng; Al Otaiba, Stephanie
Socioeconomic status and gender are important demographic variables that strongly relate to academic achievement. This study examined the early literacy skills differences between 4 sociodemographic groups, namely, boys ineligible for free or reduced-price lunch (FRL), girls ineligible for FRL, boys eligible for FRL, and girls eligible for FRL.…
In this article, I synthesize extant research that documents how teachers foster and sustain children's diverse literacy practices within the early childhood classroom. Framing this review with Bakhtin's heteroglossia, I draw on theoretical and empirical scholarship in the fields of biliteracy, translanguaging, and culturally sustaining pedagogy.…
Lennox, Maria; Garvis, Susanne; Westerveld, Marleen
This paper explores teachers' and teacher assistants' self-efficacy of delivering PrepSTART, a classroom based, oral language and early literacy program for five-year-old students. In the current study, speech pathologists developed, provided training and monitored program implementation. Teachers and teacher assistants (n = 17) shared their…
Johnson, Anna D.; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Petrill, Stephen A.
The current study examines whether associations exist between household chaos and children's early reading skills, after controlling for a comprehensive battery of home literacy environment characteristics. Our sample included 455 kindergarten and first-grade children who are enrolled in the Western Reserve Reading Project. We go on to test…
Mihai, Alina; Butera, Gretchen; Friesen, Amber
Research Findings: This qualitative study examined how Head Start teachers thought about children's early literacy and how they enacted their thinking in a year-long curriculum reform effort. Data collected included interviews, observations, questionnaires, concept maps, and teachers' reflections on implementation. The results indicated that as…
Neuman, Susan B.; Wright, Tanya S.
This study examines the impact of 2 forms of professional development on prekindergarten teachers' early language and literacy practice: coursework and coaching. Participating teachers (N = 148) from 6 urban cities were randomly assigned to Group 1 (coursework), Group 2 (on-site coaching), or Group 3 (control group). Pre- and postassessments…
Kegel, Cornelia A. T.; Bus, Adriana G.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.
Not every child seems equally susceptible to the same parental, educational, or environmental influences even if cognitive level is similar. This study is the first randomized controlled trial to apply the differential susceptibility paradigm to education in relation to children's genotype and early literacy skills. A randomized pretest-posttest…
Wolgemuth, Jennifer; Savage, Robert; Helmer, Janet; Lea, Tess; Harper, Helen; Chalkiti, Kalotina; Bottrell, Christine; Abrami, Phil
The effectiveness of a web-based reading support tool, ABRACADABRA, to improve the literacy outcomes of Indigenous and non-Indigenous students was evaluated over one semester in several Northern Territory primary schools in 2009. ABRACADABRA is intended as a support for teachers in the early years of schooling, giving them a friendly, game and…
Sundman-Wheat, Ashley N.
This study examined the effects of a parent-led intervention focused on developing children's early literacy skills within the home setting. The lesson plans contain scripted steps for completing activities to teach letter names and phonological awareness skills. Archival data were analyzed from a study conducted with 26 families from three…
Lonigan, Christopher J.; Farver, JoAnn M.; Nakamoto, Jonathan; Eppe, Stefanie
This study utilized latent growth-curve analyses to determine if the early literacy skills of children who were Spanish-speaking language-minority (LM) followed a similar quantitative growth profile over a preschool year as that of a group of children from a comparable socioeconomic (SES) background but who were not LM. Participants, who ranged in…
Lonigan, Christopher J.; Shanahan, Timothy
This rejoinder provides responses to the conceptual concerns expressed in the nine critiques published in this issue of "Educational Researcher" of the 2008 National Early Literacy Panel report. It explains the necessity of adhering to clearly established study selection parameters in conducting trustworthy meta-analyses and the need to be…
Piasta, Shayne B.; Justice, Laura M.; O'Connell, Ann A.; Mauck, Susan A.; Weber-Mayrer, Melissa; Schachter, Rachel E.; Farley, Kristin S.; Spear, Caitlin F.
The current study investigated the effectiveness of large-scale, state-sponsored language and literacy professional development (PD) intended to improve early childhood educators' knowledge, beliefs, and practices. PD was offered in a real-world context and delivered at-scale across the state, implemented by an independent contractor. Educators (n…
Pratt, Amy S.; Justice, Laura M.; Perez, Ashanty; Duran, Lillian K.
Background: Children with language impairment (LI) often have lags in development of print knowledge, an important early-literacy skill. This study explores impacts of a print-focused intervention for Spanish-speaking children with LI in Southeastern Mexico. Aims: Aims were twofold. First, we sought to describe the print knowledge (print-concept…
Putman, Rebecca S.
Guided by Vygotsky's social learning theory, this study reports a 24-week investigation on whether regular use of Istation®, an integrated learning system used by approximately 4 million students in the United States, had an effect on the early literacy achievement of children in twelve kindergarten classrooms. A mixed-method, quasi-experimental…
Justice, Laura M.; Kaderavek, Joan N.; Fan, Xitao; Sofka, Amy; Hunt, Aileen
Purpose: This study examined the impact of teacher use of a print referencing style during classroom-based storybook reading sessions conducted over an academic year. Impacts on preschoolers' early literacy development were examined, focusing specifically on the domain of print knowledge. Method: This randomized, controlled trial examined the…
Background College students’ health behavior is a topic that deserves attention. Individual factors and eHealth literacy may affect an individual’s health behaviors. The integrative model of eHealth use (IMeHU) provides a parsimonious account of the connections among the digital divide, health care disparities, and the unequal distribution and use of communication technologies. However, few studies have explored the associations among individual factors, eHealth literacy, and health behaviors, and IMeHU has not been empirically investigated. Objective This study examines the associations among individual factors, eHealth literacy, and health behaviors using IMeHU. Methods The Health Behavior Scale is a 12-item instrument developed to measure college students’ eating, exercise, and sleep behaviors. The eHealth Literacy Scale is a 12-item instrument designed to measure college students’ functional, interactive, and critical eHealth literacy. A nationally representative sample of 525 valid college students in Taiwan was surveyed. A questionnaire was administered to collect background information about participants’ health status, degree of health concern, major, and the frequency with which they engaged in health-related discussions. This study used Amos 6.0 to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis to identify the best measurement models for the eHealth Literacy Scale and the Health Behavior Scale. We then conducted a multiple regression analysis to examine the associations among individual factors, eHealth literacy, and health behaviors. Additionally, causal steps approach was used to explore indirect (mediating) effects and Sobel tests were used to test the significance of the mediating effects. Results The study found that perceptions of better health status (t520=2.14-6.12, P<.001-.03) and greater concern for health (t520=2.58-6.95, P<.001-.003) influenced college students’ development of 3 dimensions of eHealth literacy and adoption of healthy eating
Hsu, WanChen; Chiang, ChiaHsun; Yang, ShuChing
College students' health behavior is a topic that deserves attention. Individual factors and eHealth literacy may affect an individual's health behaviors. The integrative model of eHealth use (IMeHU) provides a parsimonious account of the connections among the digital divide, health care disparities, and the unequal distribution and use of communication technologies. However, few studies have explored the associations among individual factors, eHealth literacy, and health behaviors, and IMeHU has not been empirically investigated. This study examines the associations among individual factors, eHealth literacy, and health behaviors using IMeHU. The Health Behavior Scale is a 12-item instrument developed to measure college students' eating, exercise, and sleep behaviors. The eHealth Literacy Scale is a 12-item instrument designed to measure college students' functional, interactive, and critical eHealth literacy. A nationally representative sample of 525 valid college students in Taiwan was surveyed. A questionnaire was administered to collect background information about participants' health status, degree of health concern, major, and the frequency with which they engaged in health-related discussions. This study used Amos 6.0 to conduct a confirmatory factor analysis to identify the best measurement models for the eHealth Literacy Scale and the Health Behavior Scale. We then conducted a multiple regression analysis to examine the associations among individual factors, eHealth literacy, and health behaviors. Additionally, causal steps approach was used to explore indirect (mediating) effects and Sobel tests were used to test the significance of the mediating effects. The study found that perceptions of better health status (t520=2.14-6.12, P<.001-.03) and greater concern for health (t520=2.58-6.95, P<.001-.003) influenced college students' development of 3 dimensions of eHealth literacy and adoption of healthy eating, exercise, and sleep behaviors. Moreover, e
Guntzviller, Lisa M; King, Andy J; Jensen, Jakob D; Davis, LaShara A
Public health goals have emphasized healthy nutrition and exercise behaviors, especially in underserved populations. According to social cognitive theory (SCT), self-efficacy and capability (e.g., health literacy) may interact to predict preventative behaviors. We surveyed 100 low-income, native Spanish-speakers living in the United States who were low in English proficiency and predominantly of Mexican heritage. Participants reported their nutritional and exercise self-efficacy, Spanish health literacy, and nutrition and physical activity behaviors. Consistent with SCT, the interaction of self-efficacy and health literacy significantly predicted fruit and vegetable consumption and weekly exercise, and marginally predicted avoidance of high fat foods. For all three interactions, higher health literacy levels strengthened the positive relationship between self-efficacy and health behaviors. The results offer support for the tenets of SCT and suggest-for low-income, Spanish-speaking adults-that a combination of behavioral confidence and literacy capability are necessary to enact appropriate health behaviors.
Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL), 2005
Rita is a Pacific island grade 2 teacher in a local village school. She has established a 90-minute daily literacy block in which she focuses on literacy-related activities. As she sits with her students during the literacy block, she realizes some of them are having difficulty comprehending text, and many are unable to retell the stories…
Kurth, Ruth J.
Researchers studying emerging literacy have begun building a theory of literacy development that links the processes of reading and writing. Their findings suggest that a child's emerging literacy is based on three factors: a functional expectation for print to make logical sense; an expectation of how language operates in alternate contexts; and…
Literacy has been a crucial aspect of education as a human right for over 50 years, but this basic right remains unassured for at least 700 million adults worldwide. In 1999, UNESCO acknowledged that schools are not making the expected contribution to increasing national literacy rates or providing individuals with the literacy skills they need.…
Greenwood, Charles R.; Carta, Judith J.; Atwater, Jane; Goldstein, Howard; Kaminski, Ruth; McConnell, Scott
Preschool experience plays a role in children's development. However, for programs with language and early literacy goals, the question remains whether or not preschool instructional experiences are sufficiently effective to achieve these goals for all children. In a multisite study, we conducted a process-product description of preschool instruction and children's growth and outcomes in typical programs (i.e., Pre-Kindergarten, Title 1, Head Start, Tuition-Based) using a Response to Intervention (RTI) perspective. Results indicated that (a) students in their preschool year prior to kindergarten made small gains, but students starting the year in lower Tier 2 and 3 performance levels did not close initial skills gaps, (b) variations were noted by program types with varying socio-demographics and instructional processes, and (c) the quality of instruction (Tier 1) received by all was low with room for improvement. Implications for future research on the application of the RTI approach and potential benefits are discussed. PMID:24899769
Suka, Machi; Odajima, Takeshi; Okamoto, Masako; Sumitani, Masahiko; Igarashi, Ataru; Ishikawa, Hirono; Kusama, Makiko; Yamamoto, Michiko; Nakayama, Takeo; Sugimori, Hiroki
To examine the relationship between health literacy (HL), health information access, health behavior, and health status in Japanese people. A questionnaire survey was conducted at six healthcare facilities in Japan. Eligible respondents aged 20-64 years (n=1218) were included. Path analysis with structural equation modeling was performed to test the hypothesis model linking HL to health information access, health behavior, and health status. The acceptable fitting model indicated that the pathways linking HL to health status consisted of two indirect paths; one intermediated by health information access and another intermediated by health behavior. Those with higher HL as measured by the 14-item Health Literacy Scale (HLS-14) were significantly more likely to get sufficient health information from multiple sources, less likely to have risky habits of smoking, regular drinking, and lack of exercise, and in turn, more likely to report good self-rated health. HL was significantly associated with health information access and health behavior in Japanese people. HL may play a key role in health promotion, even in highly educated countries like Japan. In order to enhance the effects of health promotion interventions, health professionals should aim at raising HL levels of their target population groups. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brewer, Robert Stephen
We designed the Kukui Cup challenge to foster energy conservation and increase energy literacy. Based on a review of the literature, the challenge combined a variety of elements into an overall game experience, including: real-time energy feedback, goals, commitments, competition, and prizes. We designed a software system called Makahiki to provide the online portion of the Kukui Cup challenge. Energy use was monitored by smart meters installed on each floor of the Hale Aloha residence halls on the University of Hawai'i at Manoa campus. In October 2011, we ran the UH Kukui Cup challenge for the over 1000 residents of the Hale Aloha towers. To evaluate the Kukui Cup challenge, I conducted three experiments: challenge participation, energy literacy, and energy use. Many residents participated in the challenge, as measured by points earned and actions completed through the challenge website. I measured the energy literacy of a random sample of Hale Aloha residents using an online energy literacy questionnaire administered before and after the challenge. I found that challenge participants' energy knowledge increased significantly compared to non-challenge participants. Positive self-reported energy behaviors increased after the challenge for both challenge participants and non-participants, leading to the possibility of passive participation by the non-challenge participants. I found that energy use varied substantially between and within lounges over time. Variations in energy use over time complicated the selection of a baseline of energy use to compare the levels during and after the challenge. The best team reduced its energy use during the challenge by 16%. However, team energy conservation did not appear to correlate to participation in the challenge, and there was no evidence of sustained energy conservation after the challenge. The problems inherent in assessing energy conservation using a baseline call into question this common practice. My research has
Bohanny, Walton; Wu, Shu-Fang Vivienne; Liu, Chieh-Yu; Yeh, Shu-Hui; Tsay, Shiow-Luan; Wang, Tsae-Jyy
The study purpose was to explore the relationships among health literacy, self-efficacy, and self-care behaviors of patients with type 2 diabetes. A cross-sectional study with a descriptive correlational design was conducted. Patients (N = 150) with type 2 diabetes were recruited from diabetes clinics in the Marshall Islands. Levels of health literacy, self-efficacy, and self-care behaviors were assessed by a questionnaire. Health literacy, receiving diabetes education, and employment status together explained 11.8% of the variance in self-efficacy (F((3,147)) = 7.58, p < .001). Patients who had higher health literacy, received more diabetes-related education, were currently employed and had better self-efficacy. Self-efficacy and marital status together explained 16.7% of the variance in self-care behaviors (F((2,148)) = 15.96, p < .001). Patients who had higher self-efficacy and who were married had better self-care behaviors. Strategies are needed to incorporate the concept of self-efficacy in the design of diabetes education to promote patients' self-care behaviors, with an emphasis on dealing with hyper- or hypoglycemia, following the diet plan, and checking blood sugar levels as recommended. Diabetes education material that requires a lower literacy level may be needed for older or unemployed adult populations. ©2013 The Author(s) ©2013 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.
Hayashi, Chikage; Maeuma, Rie; Yamada, Kazuko; Morioka, Ikuharu
Objectives In order to promote health in the community, collaborative activities with community organizations are, in addition to individual health guidance, considered to be effective. Health promotion volunteers (HPVs) are now gaining attention as one such community organization. The purposes of this research were to clarify the characteristics of health literacy, social capital, and health behavior acquired through experience by HPVs and to obtain findings with which to examine ways to foster HPVs.Methods An anonymous, self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted through the postal system in a town with 87 currently active HPVs, 158 former HPVs who served between April 2009 and March 2015, and 299 people with no experience as HPVs. The respondents were 54 active HPVs (response rate, 62.1%); 69 former HPVs (43.7%); and 136 people with no experience (45.5%). Participants were asked about their sociodemographic characteristics; activity status as an HPV; self-rated health; whether they had undergone a medical examination (recently) or not; health literacy; social capital; health behaviors; etc.Results Health literacy, social capital, and health behavior scores of active HPVs showed no significant difference among the three groups. Many of the active HPVs felt that the work was "of help to the local government." The number of participants who tried to encourage others and who self-rated their health statuses as healthy in the active HPV group were significantly higher compared with the former HPVs and the group with no experience.Conclusion In fostering HPVs, it is necessary to support them in order to ensure that they proactively engage in activities promoting health.
This study focuses on the role of interpersonal interaction in early literacy development in one public preschool school in Bangkok, Thailand. Specifically, it explores and analyses the nature of interpersonal interaction and collaborative activities the teachers employ in teaching literacy to children. The study involves observation of 82…
Pillinger, Claire; Wood, Clare
Previous studies have demonstrated the positive impact of shared reading (SR) and dialogic reading (DR) on young children's language and literacy development. This exploratory study compared the relative impact of parental DR and shared reading interventions on 4-year-old children's early literacy skills and parental attitudes to reading…
Pan, Jinger; Kong, Yan; Song, Shuang; McBride, Catherine; Liu, Hongyun; Shu, Hua
Previous research on the longitudinal prediction of literacy development has focused mainly on the relationship between early cognitive/language skills and late literacy skills. The present study aimed to test the reliability of a number of measures reported by parents as compared to measuring cognitive and language skills in predicting subsequent…
The PacifiCorp Foundation for Learning was at a turning point in August 2006. It had been five years since the corporate foundation had shifted its focus from general-purpose grantmaking to supporting individual and community learning, and its flagship Early Childhood Literacy Initiative--launched in 2003 to raise literacy rates in the communities…
Goldschmidt, Pete; Jung, Hyekyung
This evaluation focuses on the Seeds of Science/Roots of Reading: Effective Tools for Developing Literacy through Science in the Early Grades ("Seeds/Roots") model of science-literacy integration. The evaluation is based on a cluster randomized design of 100 teachers, half of which were in the treatment group. Multi-level models are employed to…
Spodek, Bernard, Ed.; Saracho, Olivia N., Ed.
As classrooms have become more culturally and linguistically diversified, the theories and methods of teaching reading to young children have changed. Early childhood educators must explore new methods of instruction in order to involve and expand the language abilities of young children and must provide engaging activities that will create more…
Widiyawati, W.; Fitriani, A.; Priyandoko, D.
This research aims to describe the high school student’s health literacy profile based on their knowledge, attitude, and behavior to health of respiration. This descriptive study involved 65 participants of senior high school students of Ciamis city. Research instruments for collecting data are test and questionnaires sheets. The data were analyzed using quantitative descriptive analysis. The results showed that student’s health literacy of respiration get mean 109.94, moderate category. Based on the above results, it can be concluded that student’s health literacy of respiration is enough because student’s health literacy are in the moderate category, but it needs to be improved by the classroom learning in accompanied by changing some of the lesser habits in maintaining respiratory health.
Jacobson, Ann F; Sumodi, Veronica; Albert, Nancy M; Butler, Robert S; DeJohn, Lori; Walker, Donna; Dion, Kelly; Tai, Hua-Li Lin; Ross, Donna M
More evidence is needed about factors that influence self-management behaviors in persons with heart failure. To test a correlational mediation model of the independent variables of health literacy, patient activation, and heart failure knowledge with heart failure self-management behaviors. The study used a prospective, cross-sectional, correlational design. Correlation and multiple regression were used to analyze associations among variables. Of 151 participants, 57% were male, and mean age was 68 years. Heart failure self-management behaviors was positively correlated with patient activation level (p = .0008), but not with health literacy or heart failure knowledge. Persons with heart failure may better manage their condition if sufficiently activated, regardless of their level of health literacy or knowledge of heart failure disease and management processes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Sisco, Shannon; Gross, Alden L; Shih, Regina A; Sachs, Bonnie C; Glymour, M Maria; Bangen, Katherine J; Benitez, Andreana; Skinner, Jeannine; Schneider, Brooke C; Manly, Jennifer J
Racial disparities in late-life cognition persist even after accounting for educational attainment. We examined whether early-life educational quality and literacy in later life help explain these disparities. We used longitudinal data from the Washington Heights-Inwood Columbia Aging Project (WHICAP). Educational quality (percent white students; urban/rural school; combined grades in classroom) was operationalized using canonical correlation analysis. Late-life literacy (reading comprehension and ability, writing) was operationalized using confirmatory factor analysis. We examined whether these factors attenuated race-related differences in late-life cognition. The sample consisted of 1,679 U.S.-born, non-Hispanic, community-living adults aged 65-102 (71% black, 29% white; 70% women). Accounting for educational quality and literacy reduced disparities by 29% for general cognitive functioning, 26% for memory, and 32% for executive functioning but did not predict differences in rate of cognitive change. Early-life educational quality and literacy in late life explain a substantial portion of race-related disparities in late-life cognitive function. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Gross, Alden L.; Shih, Regina A.; Sachs, Bonnie C.; Glymour, M. Maria; Bangen, Katherine J.; Benitez, Andreana; Skinner, Jeannine; Schneider, Brooke C.; Manly, Jennifer J.
Objectives. Racial disparities in late-life cognition persist even after accounting for educational attainment. We examined whether early-life educational quality and literacy in later life help explain these disparities. Method. We used longitudinal data from the Washington Heights-Inwood Columbia Aging Project (WHICAP). Educational quality (percent white students; urban/rural school; combined grades in classroom) was operationalized using canonical correlation analysis. Late-life literacy (reading comprehension and ability, writing) was operationalized using confirmatory factor analysis. We examined whether these factors attenuated race-related differences in late-life cognition. Results. The sample consisted of 1,679U.S.-born, non-Hispanic, community-living adults aged 65–102 (71% black, 29% white; 70% women). Accounting for educational quality and literacy reduced disparities by 29% for general cognitive functioning, 26% for memory, and 32% for executive functioning but did not predict differences in rate of cognitive change. Discussion. Early-life educational quality and literacy in late life explain a substantial portion of race-related disparities in late-life cognitive function. PMID:24584038
Abbas, A D; Abubakar, A M; Omeiza, B; Minoza, K
Resident doctors are key actors in patient management in all the federal training institutions in nigeria. Knowing the information-seeking behavior of this group of doctors and their level of computer knowledge would facilitate informed decision in providing them with the relevant sources of information as well as encouraging the practice of evidence-based medicine. This is to examine information-seeking behavior among resident doctors and analyze its relationship to computer ownership and literacy. A pretested self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain information from the resident doctors in the University of Maiduguri Teaching Hospital (UMTH) and the Federal Neuro-Psychiatry Hospital (FNPH). The data fields requested included the biodata, major source of medical information, level of computer literacy, and computer ownership. Other questions included were their familiarity with basic computer operations as well as versatility on the use of the Internet and possession of an active e-mail address. Out of 109 questionnaires distributed 100 were returned (91.7% response rate). Seventy three of the 100 respondents use printed material as their major source of medical information. Ninety three of the respondents own a laptop, a desktop or both, while 7 have no computers. Ninety-four respondents are computer literate while 6 are computer illiterates. Seventy-five respondents have an e-mail address while 25 do not have e-mail address. Seventy-five search the Internet for information while 25 do not know how to use the Internet. Despite the high computer ownership and literacy rate among resident doctors, the printed material remains their main source of medical information.
Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Lake, Vickie E; Greulich, Luana; Folsom, Jessica S; Guidry, Lisa
This randomized-control trial examined the learning of preservice teachers taking an initial Early Literacy course in an early childhood education program and of the kindergarten or first grade students they tutored in their field experience. Preservice teachers were randomly assigned to one of two tutoring programs: Book Buddies and Tutor Assisted Intensive Learning Strategies (TAILS), which provided identical meaning-focused instruction (shared book reading), but differed in the presentation of code-focused skills. TAILS used explicit, scripted lessons, and the Book Buddies required that code-focused instruction take place during shared book reading. Our research goal was to understand which tutoring program would be most effective in improving knowledge about reading, lead to broad and deep language and preparedness of the novice preservice teachers, and yield the most successful student reading outcomes. Findings indicate that all pre-service teachers demonstrated similar gains in knowledge, but preservice teachers in the TAILS program demonstrated broader and deeper application of knowledge and higher self-ratings of preparedness to teach reading. Students in both conditions made similar comprehension gains, but students tutored with TAILS showed significantly stronger decoding gains.
Wang, Xiao-lei; Bernas, Ronan; Eberhard, Philippe
Examined how Chinese and American Indian mothers (20 mother-child dyads from each culture) supported their young children's emergent literacy development during everyday interactions. Found that Chinese mothers tended to privilege print-based literacy interactions more than American Indian mothers. American Indian mothers tended to privilege…
Champagne, Frances A
In 1985, a brief report published in Behavioral Neuroscience established the link between neonatal handling and concentrations of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptors (GR) in the adult rat, suggesting a neurobiological basis for the attenuated stress reactivity observed in handled versus nonhandled offspring. To celebrate the 30th anniversary of Behavioral Neuroscience, this article explores the research that preceded and followed from this brief but significant publication. Changes in hippocampal GR induced by handling were determined to be the outcome of a cascade of cellular and molecular events involving thyroid hormones, serotonin turnover, and transcription factor binding to the Nr3c1 gene, leading to increased GR mRNA and protein. Though many hypotheses were proposed for the "handling effect," the role of handling-induced changes in maternal care, particularly pup licking/grooming (LG), generated a productive scientific framework for understanding the handling phenomenon. Indeed, LG has since been demonstrated to alter GR levels through the signaling pathways described for handling. Moreover, epigenetic mechanisms have been discovered to play a critical role in the effects of early life experience and particularly in the regulation of Nr3c1. Overall, the research avenues that have evolved from the initial finding of handling-induced changes in GR have broad applications to our understanding of plasticity, resilience, and the transmission of traits across generations. 2013 APA, all rights reserved
Robinson, Cendrine; Seaman, Elizabeth L; Montgomery, LaTrice; Winfrey, Adia
African-American children and adolescents experience an undue burden of disease for many health outcomes compared to their White peers. More research needs to be completed for this priority population to improve their health outcomes and ameliorate health disparities. Integrating hip hop music or hip hop dance into interventions may help engage African-American youth in health interventions and improve their health outcomes. We conducted a review of the literature to characterize hip hop interventions and determine their potential to improve health. We searched Web of Science, Scopus, PsycINFO, and EMBASE to identify studies that assessed hip hop interventions. To be included, studies had to (1) be focused on a psychosocial or physical health intervention that included hip hop and (2) present quantitative data assessing intervention outcomes. Twenty-three articles were identified as meeting all inclusion criteria and were coded by two reviewers. Articles were assessed with regards to sample characteristics, study design, analysis, intervention components, and results. Hip hop interventions have been developed to improve health literacy, health behavior, and mental health. The interventions were primarily targeted to African-American and Latino children and adolescents. Many of the health literacy and mental health studies used non-experimental study designs. Among the 12 (of 14) health behavior studies that used experimental designs, the association between hip hop interventions and positive health outcomes was inconsistent. The number of experimental hip hop intervention studies is limited. Future research is required to determine if hip hop interventions can promote health.
Duong, Tuyen-Van; Sørensen, Kristine; Pelikan, Jürgen M; Van den Broucke, Stephan; Lin, I-Feng; Lin, Ying-Chin; Huang, Hsiao-Ling; Chang, Peter Wushou
The role of health-related behaviors in the association between age and health literacy has not been well-elucidated. The present cross-sectional study evaluated the interactions between age and health-related behaviors in 942 women in Taiwan between February and October 2013. Women aged 18-78 years were randomly sampled and recruited from the national administrative system. Self-reported health literacy was measured by the European Health Literacy Survey Questionnaire (HLS-EU-Q47) in Mandarin, asking about sociodemographics and essential health-related behaviors (watching health-related television, community involvement). The interviews were conducted confidentially by well-trained interviewers after having participants' consent. In multiple linear regression models adjusted for education attainment, self-perceived social status, ability to pay for medication, and health-related behaviors, health literacy was significantly negatively related to age (unstandardized regression coefficient, B = -0.04; 95% confidence interval [CI] = (-0.07; 0.00); p = .03). The lower health literacy among older women was significantly modified by watching health-related television programs (from "rarely/not-at-all", B = -0.08 (-0.12, -0.04), p < .001 to "often"; B = 0.10 (0.07, 0.12); p < .001) and community involvement (from "rarely/not-at-all", B = -0.06 (-0.10, -0.03); p = .001 to "often", B = 0.06 (0.03, 0.08); p < .001). Specific health behaviors were protective of older women's health literacy and likely their health.
Arnold, Renea; Colburn, Nell
The authors think fun is a key word when it comes to early literacy. Learning to read is hard work for most children--and kids, like adults, enjoy things that bring them pleasure. So as professionals who work with young children, their job is to make sure that kids discover the joy of books. And one of the best ways to do that is by providing…
Crook, Brittani; Stephens, Keri K; Pastorek, Angie E; Mackert, Michael; Donovan, Erin E
Low health literacy remains an extremely common and problematic issue, given that individuals with lower health literacy are more likely to experience health challenges and negative health outcomes. In this study, we use the first three stages of the innovation-decision process found in the theory of diffusion of innovations (Rogers, 2003). We incorporate health literacy into a model explaining how perceived health knowledge, information sharing, attitudes, and behavior are related. Results show that health information sharing explains 33% of the variance in behavioral intentions, indicating that the communicative practice of sharing information can positively impact health outcomes. Further, individuals with high health literacy tend to share less information about heart health than those with lower health literacy. Findings also reveal that perceived heart-health knowledge operates differently than health literacy to predict health outcomes.
This paper investigated the predictive ability of expressive vocabulary size and lexical composition at age 2 on later language and literacy skills from ages 3 through 11. Multivariate analysis of covariance was performed to compare 16 language and literacy outcomes between children with large expressive vocabulary size at 24 months (N = 1,073)…
Hutinger, Patricia; Robinsosn, Linda; Schneider, Carol; Johanson, Joyce
This final report describes the activities and outcomes of the Interactive Technology Literacy Curriculum (ITLC) project. This federally funded 5-year model demonstration project was designed to advance the availability, quality, use and effectiveness of computer technology in addressing the acquisition of emergent literacy among young children…
Leckie, Alisa; Wall, Amanda
This study explored how pre-service teachers integrated literacy in middle level social studies. This study was conducted in the context of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and their focus on disciplinary literacy, the Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation (CAEP) Standards and their focus on rich clinical experiences, and…
The following article aims to present, from children's perspectives, the value of literacy and how they use it in their everyday lives. Through the use of ethnographic methodology, including observations, interviews and collection of artifacts, it seeks to examine how children rely on their literacy skills authentically, as they play and move…
Aram, Dorit; Meidan, Inbal Cohen; Deitcher, Deborah Bergman
The study characterized children's literacy, mothers' beliefs, and writing mediation of homeschooled compared to formally schooled kindergartners. Participants were 60 children (ages 4-6) and their mothers (30 in homeschooling). At the children's home, we assessed children's literacy, maternal beliefs, and video-recorded mother-child joint writing…
Kaestle, Christine E; Chen, Yvonnes; Estabrooks, Paul A; Zoellner, Jamie; Bigby, Brandon
The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the impact of media literacy for tobacco prevention for youth delivered through a community site. A randomized pretest-posttest evaluation design with matched-contact treatment and control conditions. The pilot study was delivered through the YMCA in a lower-income suburban and rural area of Southwest Virginia, a region long tied, both economically and culturally, to the tobacco industry. Children ages 8 to 14 (76% white, 58% female) participated in the study (n = 38). The intervention was an antismoking media literacy program (five 1-hour lessons) compared with a matched-contact creative writing control program. General media literacy, three domains of tobacco-specific media literacy ("authors and audiences," "messages and meanings," and "representation and reality"), tobacco attitudes, and future expectations were assessed. Multiple regression modeling assessed the impact of the intervention, controlling for pretest measures, age, and sex. General media literacy and tobacco-specific "authors and audiences" media literacy improved significantly for treatment compared with control (p < .05); results for other tobacco-specific media literacy measures and for tobacco attitudes were not significant. Future expectations of smoking increased significantly for treatment participants ages 10 and younger (p < .05). Mixed results indicated that improvements in media literacy are accompanied by an increase in future expectations to smoke for younger children.
Israelson, Madeleine Heins
As portable devices become increasingly available in elementary classrooms teachers are expected to use these new technologies to engage students in both traditional print-based literacy learning and digital literacies practices, such as multimodal composing. Teachers face the daunting task of integrating apps into their current research-based…
Aram, Dorit; Korat, Ofra; Hassunah-Arafat, Safieh
This longitudinal study assessed the literacy development of native Arabic-speaking children from kindergarten to the end of first grade, focusing on the role of home literacy activities (mother-child shared book reading and joint writing). The contribution of these activities in kindergarten to children's reading and writing at the end of…
Lee, Boh Young
The paper examines publication trends in the United States regarding literacy development in toddlerhood from 1990 to 2009, exploring what features or elements of toddlers' literacy development have been documented, and how they have been documented, over the last 20 years, to indicate areas for further exploration. Articles were carefully…
Wolgemuth, Jennifer R.; Abrami, Philip C.; Helmer, Janet; Savage, Robert; Harper, Helen; Lea, Tess
To address students' poor literacy outcomes, an intervention using a computer-based literacy tool, ABRACADABRA, was implemented in 6 Northern Australia primary schools. A pretest, posttest parallel group, single blind multisite randomized controlled trial was conducted with 308 students between the ages of 4 and 8 years old (M age = 5.8 years, SD…
Lee, Yau-Jiunn; Shin, Shyi-Jang; Wang, Ruey-Hsia; Lin, Kun-Der; Lee, Yu-Li; Wang, Yi-Hsien
To validate a hypothesized model exploring the influencing pathways of empowerment perceptions, health literacy, self-efficacy, and self-care behaviors to glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Overall, 295 patients with T2DM were recruited from five endocrine clinics in Taiwan through convenience sampling. Data regarding personal characteristics, empowerment perceptions, health literacy, self-efficacy, self-care behaviors, and HbA1c levels were collected. A structural equation modeling was used to validate the hypothesized model. Significant direct pathways were determined from empowerment perceptions to health literacy, from health literacy to self-efficacy, from self-efficacy to self-care behaviors, and from self-care behaviors to HbA1c levels. The empowerment perceptions and health literacy relatively influenced self-efficacy and self-care behaviors. Self-efficacy and self-care behaviors relatively influenced glycemic control in patients with T2DM. Modifying self-care behaviors have been demonstrated to be the most essential for improving glycemic control. To improve self-care behaviors, healthcare providers should target improving self-efficacy, and enhancing health literacy can be considered to be a potential strategy for improving self-efficacy. To enhance health literacy, healthcare providers could use an empowerment approach rather than an authoritative approach that emphasizes patient compliance in managing patients with T2DM. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bell, Patricia Ann
Reported in this document are observations of early childhood education in England, Israel, Seychelles, and China. Specifically, observations focus on (1) teacher behavior, including behavior toward individuals, small groups, and large groups or whole classes; (2) teacher demonstration behaviors; (3) teacher verbal and nonverbal behaviors, such as…
Jeynes, William H.
This study assessed the relationship between Bible literacy among secondary school students and their academic achievement and school behavior. A total of 160 students who attended either Christian or public schools in the 7th to 12th grade were randomly selected for the study sample. Three measures of Bible knowledge were combined to obtain an…
Flannery, Michael A.
This paper describes a popular, grassroots health crusade initiated by Samuel Thomson (1769–1843) in the early decades of the nineteenth century and the ways the Thomsonians exemplified the inherent contradictions within the larger context of their own sociopolitical environment. Premised upon a unique brand of frontier egalitarianism exemplified in the Tennessee war-hero Andrew Jackson (1767–1845), the age that bore Jackson's name was ostensibly anti-intellectual, venerating “intuitive wisdom” and “common sense” over book learning and formal education. Likewise, the Thomsonian movement eschewed schooling and science for an empirical embrace of nature's apothecary, a populist rhetoric that belied its own complex and extensive infrastructure of polemical literature. Thus, Thomsonians, in fact, relied upon a literate public to explain and disseminate their system of healing. This paper contributes to the historiography of literacy in the United States that goes beyond typical census-data, probate-record, or will-signature analyses to look at how a popular medical cult was both heir to and promoter of a functionally literate populace. PMID:12398251
Kim, Young-Suk; Otaiba, Stephanie Al; Sidler, Jessica Folsom; Gruelich, Luana
We had two primary purposes in the present study: (1) to examine unique child-level predictors of written composition which included language skills, literacy skills (e.g., reading and spelling), and attentiveness and (2) to examine whether instructional quality (quality in responsiveness and individualization, and quality in spelling and writing instruction) is uniquely related to written composition for first-grade children (N = 527). Children’s written composition was evaluated on substantive quality (ideas, organization, word choice, and sentence flow) and writing conventions (spelling, mechanics, and handwriting). Results revealed that for the substantive quality of writing, children’s grammatical knowledge, reading comprehension, letter writing automaticity, and attentiveness were uniquely related. Teachers’ responsiveness was also uniquely related to the substantive quality of written composition after accounting for child predictors and other instructional quality variables. For the writing conventions outcome, children’s spelling and attentiveness were uniquely related, but instructional quality was not. These results suggest the importance of paying attention to multiple component skills such as language, literacy, and behavioral factors as well as teachers’ responsiveness for writing development. PMID:24062600
Garwood, Justin D.; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne
Many children with behavior problems perform poorly academically and can disrupt regular classroom instruction. Although good classroom management strategies can benefit children with behavior problems, it is not clear whether these students need consistently good classroom management across the early elementary school years to improve their…
Park, Aesoon; Eckert, Tanya L.; Zaso, Michelle J.; Scott-Sheldon, Lori A. J.; Vanable, Peter A.; Carey, Kate B.; Ewart, Craig K.; Carey, Michael P.
Background: Health literacy is crucial to develop health-related knowledge, adopt healthy lifestyles, and benefit from health care services. However, research on the association between health literacy and adolescent health outcomes, particularly on their prospective associations, is rare. We assessed health literacy using 3 validated measures,…
Rafal, Gregor; Gatto, Amy; DeBate, Rita
Mental health literacy (MHL) is low in college-aged men potentially resulting in impaired mental wellbeing. This study assessed MHL, psychosocial determinants, and help-seeking behaviors among male university students. Male undergraduate and graduate students were surveyed in Spring 2017 (n = 1,242) at a large southeastern university in the United States. Preexisting validated scales for MHL, psychosocial determinants, and help-seeking intention were used in measurement and demographic variables were collected. T-tests and one-way ANOVA were performed to measure differences between groups. Participants showed low scores for all constructs with statistically significant differences between undergraduate and graduate students, as well as between races and major classifications. Undergraduate men had moderate MHL and low intentions to seek professional care. Interventions focusing on increasing mental health knowledge and improving beliefs can improve MHL among male college students. Further, interventions should be tailored for racial groups and major classifications.
Suri, Venkata Ratnadeep; Majid, Shaheen; Chang, Yun-Ke; Foo, Schubert
The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between five domain-specific skills of health literacy: Find Health Information (FHI), Appraise Health Information (AHI), Understand Health Information to act (UHI), Actively Manage One's Health (AMH), and E-health literacy (e-Heals), and health information seeking behaviors and three categories of health outcomes. A survey was implemented and data was collected from 1062 college going adults and analyzed using bivariate tests and multiple regression analysis. Among the five domain-specific Health Literacy skills, AHI and e-Heals were significantly associated with the use of traditional sources and the Internet for healthcare information respectively. Similarly and AMH and e-Heals were significantly associated with the use of traditional sources and the Internet for health lifestyle information respectively. Lastly AHI, AMH and e-Heals were significantly associated with the three categories of outcomes, and AFH was significantly associated with cognitive and instrumental outcomes, but not doctor-patient communication outcomes. Consumers' ability to use different health sources for both healthcare and health lifestyle information, and the three categories of health outcomes are associated with different domain-specific health literacy skills. Health literacy initiatives may be improved by focusing on clients to develop domain-specific skills that increase the likelihood of using health information sources and accrue benefits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Waller, Rebecca; Dishion, Thomas J.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Gardner, Frances; Wilson, Melvin N.; Hyde, Luke W.
Callous-unemotional (CU) behavior has been linked to behavior problems in children and adolescents. However, few studies have examined whether CU behavior in "early childhood" predicts behavior problems or CU behavior in "late childhood". This study examined whether indicators of CU behavior at ages 2-4 predicted aggression,…
Radesky, Jenny S; Christakis, Dimitri A
The authors review trends in adoption of new digital technologies (eg, mobile and interactive media) by families with young children (ages 0-8 years), continued use of television and video games, and the evidence for learning from digital versus hands-on play. The authors also discuss continued concerns about health and developmental/behavioral risks of excessive media use for child cognitive, language, literacy, and social-emotional development. This evidence is then applied to clinical care in terms of the screening questions providers can use, tools available to providers and parents, and changes in anticipatory guidance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Farver, Jo Ann M; Xu, Yiyuan; Lonigan, Christopher J; Eppe, Stefanie
This study examined children's early literacy skills in both English and Spanish at entry to preschool to investigate the pattern of association among these skills and their families' home language and literacy practices. The participants were 392 primarily Latino immigrant (85%) families and their children. Mothers completed questionnaires about their families and their home literacy environment (HLE), and children's emergent literacy skills were measured in English and Spanish at the outset of the preschool year. Project assistants interviewed mothers in their homes and tallied the presence of literacy-related materials. Results of structural equation modeling showed that the 3 preliteracy skills were significantly associated within and across English and Spanish, suggesting the possible transfer of these early preliteracy skills across languages. For the English language HLE, parents' literacy-related behaviors, sibling-child reading, and families' literacy resources were all associated with children's English oral language skills, and their English print knowledge was associated with their home resources. For the Spanish language HLE, only parents' literacy-related behaviors were related to children's Spanish oral language and print knowledge skills. There were no significant cross-linguistic relations between any aspect of the English HLE and children's Spanish preliteracy skills, whereas parents' literacy-related behaviors in Spanish were negatively associated with children's English oral language and phonological awareness skills. Given the importance of oral language and vocabulary in promoting children's literacy, these results indicate that parents can support this skill in both languages, but their relative impact seems to be within rather across language. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
military separation. Although hizh school graduation status is the primary single factor affecting attrition, age and previous employment stability...assignment like individual suitability and satisfaction do not significantly influence early attrition; the early attrition rate of nonhigh- school ...a recruit with a single previous employer. I I V IS BLANK vi * Various indicators of military job match had no significant impact on early attrition
Hyde, Luke W; Waller, Rebecca; Trentacosta, Christopher J; Shaw, Daniel S; Neiderhiser, Jenae M; Ganiban, Jody M; Reiss, David; Leve, Leslie D
Callous-unemotional behaviors in early childhood signal higher risk for trajectories of antisocial behavior and callous-unemotional traits that culminate in later diagnoses of conduct disorder, antisocial personality disorder, and psychopathy. Studies demonstrate high heritability of callous-unemotional traits, but little research has examined specific heritable pathways to early callous-unemotional behaviors. Studies also indicate that positive parenting protects against the development of callous-unemotional traits, but genetically informed designs have not been used to confirm that these relationships are not the product of gene-environment correlations. In a sample of adopted children and their biological and adoptive mothers, the authors tested novel heritable and nonheritable pathways to preschool callous-unemotional behaviors. In an adoption cohort of 561 families, history of severe antisocial behavior assessed in biological mothers and observations of adoptive mother positive reinforcement at 18 months were examined as predictors of callous-unemotional behaviors at 27 months. Despite limited or no contact with offspring, biological mother antisocial behavior predicted early callous-unemotional behaviors. Adoptive mother positive reinforcement protected against early callous-unemotional behaviors. High levels of adoptive mother positive reinforcement buffered the effects of heritable risk for callous-unemotional behaviors posed by biological mother antisocial behavior. The findings elucidate heritable and nonheritable pathways to early callous-unemotional behaviors. The results provide a specific heritable pathway to callous-unemotional behaviors and compelling evidence that parenting is an important nonheritable factor in the development of callous-unemotional behaviors. The finding that positive reinforcement buffered heritable risk for callous-unemotional behaviors has important translational implications for the prevention of trajectories to serious
Katz, Lilian G.; Ward, Evangeline H.
This booklet contains two essays on ethics for early childhood educators. The first essay discusses the meaning of a code of ethics, the importance of a code of ethics for working with preschool children, ethical conflicts in day care and preschool work, and steps which may be taken to help early childhood workers resolve these conflicts. Ethical…
Sheridan, Susan M; Knoche, Lisa L; Kupzyk, Kevin A; Edwards, Carolyn Pope; Marvin, Christine A
Language and literacy skills established during early childhood are critical for later school success. Parental engagement with children has been linked to a number of adaptive characteristics in preschoolers including language and literacy development, and family-school collaboration is an important contributor to school readiness. This study reports the results of a randomized trial of a parent engagement intervention designed to facilitate school readiness among disadvantaged preschool children, with a particular focus on language and literacy development. Participants included 217 children, 211 parents, and 29 Head Start teachers in 21 schools. Statistically significant differences in favor of the treatment group were observed between treatment and control participants in the rate of change over 2 academic years on teacher reports of children's language use (d=1.11), reading (d=1.25), and writing skills (d=0.93). Significant intervention effects on children's direct measures of expressive language were identified for a subgroup of cases where there were concerns about a child's development upon entry into preschool. Additionally, other child and family moderators revealed specific variables that influenced the treatment's effects. Copyright © 2011 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Knoche, Lisa L.; Kupzyk, Kevin A.; Edwards, Carolyn Pope; Marvin, Christine A.
Language and literacy skills established during early childhood are critical for later school success. Parental engagement with children has been linked to a number of adaptive characteristics in preschoolers including language and literacy development, and family-school collaboration is an important contributor to school readiness. This study reports the results of a randomized trial of a parent engagement intervention designed to facilitate school readiness among disadvantaged preschool children, with a particular focus on language and literacy development. Participants included 217 children, 211 parents, and 29 Head Start teachers in 21 schools. Statistically significant differences in favor of the treatment group were observed between treatment and control participants in the rate of change over 2 academic years on teacher reports of children’s language use (d = 1.11), reading (d = 1.25), and writing skills (d = .93). Significant intervention effects on children’s direct measures of expressive language were identified for a subgroup of cases where there were concerns about a child’s development upon entry into preschool. Additionally, other child and family moderators revealed specific variables that influenced the treatment’s effects. PMID:21640249
Beardslee, William R.; Bartlett, Jessica Dym; Ayoub, Catherine
The use of storytelling and discussion about difficult topics naturally lends itself to early skill development in both social-emotional and academic (i.e., emergent literacy) domains. In this article, the authors present initial information on the efficacy and feasibility of Tell Me A Story (TMAS), a program focused on supporting early childhood…
McKenzie, Sophie; Spence, Aaron; Nicholas, Maria
This paper explores the design, development and evaluation of an early childhood literacy iPad application, focusing on the English Alphabet, called "A to Z Safari" trialled in Australian classrooms. A to Z Safari was designed to assist students in the early years of schooling with learning the alphabet and building on their knowledge of…
Sonnenschein, Susan; Metzger, Shari R.; Dowling, Rebecca; Baker, Linda
The association between monolingual children's early language abilities and their later reading performance is well established. However, for English language learners, the pattern of associations between early language skills and later literacy is much less well understood for English language learners. This study examined language predictors of…
Clarke, Brandy L.; Knoche, Lisa L.; Abbott, Mary I.; Sheridan, Susan M.; Carta, Judith J.; Sjuts, Tara S.
The primary objective of this development study was to develop and pilot a three-tiered prevention model (universal, targeted, individualized) in early education for children at risk of reading difficulties. The aims of this study were to: (1) Define and develop a Pre-3T model to address the early literacy and language needs of young children in…
Wilson, Hope E.
Research has demonstrated mixed results regarding differences in social and emotional characteristics between gifted and typical populations. The purpose of this secondary analysis of data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study: Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) is to investigate the affective characteristics of early mathematics and literacy ability…
Bonacina, Silvia; Krizman, Jennifer; White-Schwoch, Travis; Kraus, Nina
The auditory system is extremely precise in processing the temporal information of perceptual events and using these cues to coordinate action. Synchronizing movement to a steady beat relies on this bidirectional connection between sensory and motor systems, and activates many of the auditory and cognitive processes used when reading. Here, we use Interactive Metronome, a clinical intervention technology requiring an individual to clap her hands in time with a steady beat, to investigate whether the links between literacy and synchronization skills, previously established in older children, are also evident in children who are learning to read. We tested 64 typically developing children (ages 5-7 years) on their synchronization abilities, neurophysiological responses to speech in noise, and literacy skills. We found that children who have lower variability in synchronizing have higher phase consistency, higher stability, and more accurate envelope encoding-all neurophysiological response components linked to language skills. Moreover, performing the same task with visual feedback reveals links with literacy skills, notably processing speed, phonological processing, word reading, spelling, morphology, and syntax. These results suggest that rhythm skills and literacy call on overlapping neural mechanisms, supporting the idea that rhythm training may boost literacy in part by engaging sensory-motor systems. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.
Islam, Md Mohaimenul; Touray, Musa; Yang, Hsuan-Chia; Poly, Tahmina Nasrin; Nguyen, Phung-Anh; Li, Yu-Chuan Jack; Syed Abdul, Shabbir
Web 2.0 has become a leading health communication platform and will continue to attract young users; therefore, the objective of this study was to understand the impact of Web 2.0 on health information seeking behavior among university students in Bangladesh. A random sample of adults (n = 199, mean 23.75 years, SD 2.87) participated in a cross-sectional, a survey that included the eHealth literacy scale (eHEALS) assessed use of Web 2.0 for health information. Collected data were analyzed using a descriptive statistical method and t-tests. Finally logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine associations between sociodemographic, social determinants, and use of Web 2.0 for seeking and sharing health information. Almost 74% of older Web 2.0 users (147/199, 73.9%) reported using popular Web 2.0 websites, such as Facebook and Twitter, to find and share health information. Current study support that current Web-based health information seeking and sharing behaviors influence health-related decision making.
Heath, Steve M.; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; Bloor, Kimberley E.; Boyle, Gemma L.; Fletcher, Janet; Hogben, John H.; Wigley, Charles A.; Yeong, Stephanie H. M.
Rationale Phonological awareness, letter knowledge, oral language (including sentence recall) and rapid automatised naming are acknowledged within-child predictors of literacy development. Separate research has identified family factors including socio-economic status, parents’ level of education and family history. However, both approaches have left unexplained significant amounts of variance in literacy outcomes. This longitudinal study sought to improve prospective classification accuracy for young children at risk of literacy failure by adding two new family measures (parents’ phonological awareness and parents’ perceived self-efficacy), and then combining the within-child and family factors. Method Pre-literacy skills were measured in 102 four year olds (46 girls and 56 boys) at the beginning of Preschool, and then at the beginning and end of Kindergarten, when rapid automatised naming was also measured. Family factors data were collected at the beginning of Preschool, and children’s literacy outcomes were measured at the end of Year 1 (age 6–7 years). Results Children from high-risk backgrounds showed poorer literacy outcomes than low-risk students, though three family factors (school socio-economic status, parents’ phonological awareness, and family history) typically accounted for less Year 1 variance than the within-child factors. Combining these family factors with the end of Kindergarten within-child factors provided the most accurate classification (i.e., sensitivity = .85; specificity = .90; overall correct = .88). Implications Our approach would identify at-risk children for intervention before they began to fail. Moreover, it would be cost-effective because although few at-risk children would be missed, allocation of unnecessary educational resources would be minimised. PMID:24751691
Heath, Steve M; Bishop, Dorothy V M; Bloor, Kimberley E; Boyle, Gemma L; Fletcher, Janet; Hogben, John H; Wigley, Charles A; Yeong, Stephanie H M
Phonological awareness, letter knowledge, oral language (including sentence recall) and rapid automatised naming are acknowledged within-child predictors of literacy development. Separate research has identified family factors including socio-economic status, parents' level of education and family history. However, both approaches have left unexplained significant amounts of variance in literacy outcomes. This longitudinal study sought to improve prospective classification accuracy for young children at risk of literacy failure by adding two new family measures (parents' phonological awareness and parents' perceived self-efficacy), and then combining the within-child and family factors. Pre-literacy skills were measured in 102 four year olds (46 girls and 56 boys) at the beginning of Preschool, and then at the beginning and end of Kindergarten, when rapid automatised naming was also measured. Family factors data were collected at the beginning of Preschool, and children's literacy outcomes were measured at the end of Year 1 (age 6-7 years). Children from high-risk backgrounds showed poorer literacy outcomes than low-risk students, though three family factors (school socio-economic status, parents' phonological awareness, and family history) typically accounted for less Year 1 variance than the within-child factors. Combining these family factors with the end of Kindergarten within-child factors provided the most accurate classification (i.e., sensitivity = .85; specificity = .90; overall correct = .88). Our approach would identify at-risk children for intervention before they began to fail. Moreover, it would be cost-effective because although few at-risk children would be missed, allocation of unnecessary educational resources would be minimised.
Johri, Mira; Subramanian, S V; Koné, Georges K; Dudeja, Sakshi; Chandra, Dinesh; Minoyan, Nanor; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Pahwa, Smriti
The global burden of child undernutrition is concentrated in South Asia, where gender inequality and female educational disadvantage are important factors. Maternal health literacy is linked to women's education and empowerment, can influence multiple malnutrition determinants, and is rapidly modifiable. This study investigated whether maternal health literacy is associated with child undernutrition in 2 resource-poor Indian populations. We conducted cross-sectional surveys in an urban and a rural site, interviewing 1 woman with a child aged 12-23 mo/household. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted independently for each site. The main exposure was maternal health literacy. We assessed respondents' ability to understand, appraise, and apply health-related information with the use of Indian health promotion materials. The main outcomes were severe stunting, severe underweight, and severe wasting. We classified children as having a severe nutritional deficiency if their z score was <-3 SDs from the WHO reference population for children of the same age and sex. Analyses controlled for potential confounding factors including parental education and household wealth. Rural and urban analyses included 1116 and 657 mother-child pairs, respectively. In each site, fully adjusted models showed that children of mothers with high health literacy had approximately half the likelihood of being severely stunted (rural adjusted OR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.33, 0.74; P = 0.001; urban adjusted OR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.94; P = 0.028) or severely underweight (rural adjusted OR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.38, 0.87; P = 0.009; urban adjusted OR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.91; P = 0.025) than children of mothers with low health literacy. Health literacy was not associated with severe wasting. In resource-poor rural and urban settings in India, maternal health literacy is associated with child nutritional status. Programs targeting health literacy may offer effective entry points for
Waller, Rebecca; Dishion, Thomas J.; Shaw, Daniel S.; Gardner, Frances; Wilson, Melvin N.; Hyde, Luke W.
Callous unemotional (CU) behavior has been linked to behavior problems in children and adolescents. However, few studies have examined whether CU behavior in early childhood predicts behavior problems or CU behavior in late childhood. This study examined whether indicators of CU behavior at ages 2–4 predicted aggression, rule-breaking, and CU behavior across informants at age 9.5. To test the unique predictive and convergent validity of CU behavior in early childhood, we accounted for stability in behavior problems and method effects to rule out the possibility that rater biases inflated the magnitude of any associations found. Cross-informant data were collected from a multi-ethnic, high-risk sample (N = 731; female = 49%) at ages 2–4 and again at age 9.5. From age 3, CU behavior uniquely predicted aggression and rule-breaking across informants. There were also unique associations between CU behavior assessed at ages 3 and 4 and CU behavior assessed at age 9.5. Findings demonstrate that early-childhood indicators of CU behavior account for unique variance in later childhood behavior problems and CU behavior, taking into account stability in behavior problems over time and method effects. Convergence with a traditional measure of CU behavior in late childhood provides support for the construct validity of a brief early childhood measure of CU behavior. PMID:27598253
Liao, Li-Ling; Lai, I.-Ju; Chang, Li-Chun; Lee, Chia-Kuei
Unhealthy food advertising is an important contributor to childhood obesity. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the impact of a food advertising literacy program that incorporated components of health-promoting media literacy education on fifth-grade children. Participants were 140 fifth-graders (10 and 11 years old) from one school…
Sun, Xinying; Yang, Shuaishuai; Fisher, Edwin B; Shi, Yuhui; Wang, Yanling; Zeng, Qingqi; Ji, Ying; Chang, Chun; Du, Weijing
This study aimed to explain the relationships among health literacy, health behavior, and health status, using a newly developed skills-based measure of health literacy regarding respiratory infectious diseases. This instrument was designed to measure individuals' reading, understanding, and calculating ability, as well as their oral communication and Internet-based information-seeking abilities. A pilot survey was conducted with 489 residents in Beijing, China, to test the reliability and validity of the new measure. Next, a larger study with 3,222 residents in three cities with multistage stratified cluster sampling was implemented to validate a latent variable model (goodness of fit index=0.918, root mean square residual=0.076). In this model higher educational attainment (β=0.356) and more health knowledge (β=0.306) were positively and directly associated with greater health literacy skill, while age was negatively associated with it (β=-0.341). Age (β=0.201) and health knowledge (β=0.246) had positive and direct relationship with health behavior, which was, in turn, positively associated with health status (β=0.209). The results illustrate the complex relationships among these constructs and should be considered when developing respiratory intervention strategies to promote health behavior and health status.
Fung, Annis L. C.
Despite the alarming rise of early adolescence aggression in Hong Kong, it is the pioneer evidence-based outcome study on Anger Coping Training (ACT) program for early adolescence with reactive aggression to develop their prosocial behaviors. This research program involved experimental and control groups with pre- and post-comparison using a …
Drawing from a four-year critical ethnographic study of young girls and their literacy practices inside and outside school, this article foregrounds a lived pedagogical moment when conflicting discourses about reading instruction collided in a critically focused second-grade classroom. Through my analyses I make the argument that the pervasiveness…
Stockall, Nancy; Dennis, Lindsay
Fathers and paternal role models make a unique contribution to children's development. There is some research to suggest that the types of play males engage in with children is typically more active and thus offers unique possibilities for embedding activities for language and literacy development. In this article, we offer suggestions for how…
Venn, Elizabeth Claire; Jahn, Monica Dacy
This book presents a preschool framework that integrates literacy activities into content area lessons while embedding instruction within adult-child social interactions and realistic, playful activities tailored to each child's individual needs. Chapter 1 of the book delineates the theory and rationale behind the framework, and outlines essential…
Wang, Ying; McBride, Catherine
This study assessed the effects of three intervention programs for Chinese literacy development in kindergartners: the copying (Copy) program; a combined program of copying and Pinyin knowledge (Copy + Pinyin); and a combined program of copying and morphological awareness (Copy + MA). Ninety-seven kindergarteners aged 5-7 years in mainland China…
Sim, Susan S. H.; Berthelsen, Donna; Walker, Susan; Nicholson, Jan M.; Fielding-Barnsley, Ruth
A pragmatic randomised controlled trial was used to investigate the effects of two forms of shared reading on children's language and literacy skills. Parents of 80 children in the preparatory year of school participated in an eight-week home reading intervention. Families were assigned to one of three groups: dialogic reading (DR), dialogic…
Literacy Teaching and Learning: An International Journal of Early Reading and Writing, 2003
This scholarly journal, an official publication of the Reading Recovery Council of North America, provides an interdisciplinary forum on issues related to the acquisition of language, literacy development, and instructional theory and practice. Articles in Volume 7, Numbers 1 and 2 (comprising volume 7) are: "The Why? What? When? And How? of…
Dombek, Jennifer L.; Foorman, Barbara R.; Garcia, Mishel; Smith, Kevin G.
While literacy interventions can be implemented in any grade, focusing on prevention and intervention in kindergarten through grade 2 is optimal because reading difficulties become expensive and challenging to remediate as students become older. The Individuals with Disabilities Act of 2004 allows districts to do just this, with 15 percent of…
Literacy practices and sociocultural contexts have greatly defined and influenced each other. The role language plays in mobilizing both revolution and progress is well delineated in Congchao Hua's article comparing language learning curriculum in China over three decades, from the 1970s to the 2000s. The universality of the social and political…
Local school districts are under pressure to have elementary reading teachers understand how phonics, during teacher-led small group literacy instruction, can help students who read below grade level. Elementary teachers need research-based strategies regarding which reading instructions of letter-sound components are necessary to help students…
Kalindi, Sylvia C.; McBride, Catherine; Dan, Lin
Considering the importance attached to writing as a life skill, this study investigated the nature and variability of adults' aid to Zambian second graders in the context of shared writing in Bemba (first language), and the relations between this support and students' literacy and cognitive-metalinguistic skills. Fifty-seven children and their…
Digital technology offers new possibilities for children to play, express themselves, learn, and communicate. A recent development in online practice is a shift toward youth engaged in computer programming online communities. Programming is argued to be the new literacy of the millennium. In this article, I examine the use of Scratch, an online…
Phillips, Beth M.; Morse, Erika E.
This paper presents findings from a stratified-random survey of family child care providers' backgrounds, caregiving environments, practices, attitudes, and knowledge related to language, literacy, and mathematics development for preschool children. Descriptive results are consistent with prior studies suggesting that home-based providers are…
Smaller class sizes in California were viewed as a way to improve K-3 education, especially in the area of literacy. The urgency to act prompted state leaders to adopt class-size reduction (CSR) without knowing for sure that it would work and without establishing a formal procedure for evaluating the program. This report looks at past research on…
Wohlwend, Karen E.
In this article, semiotic analysis of children's practices and designs with video game conventions considers how children use play and drawing as spatializing literacies that make room to import imagined technologies and user identities. Microanalysis of video data of classroom interactions collected during a three year ethnographic study of…
Published research shows that English speakers gain literacy skills up to the 7-year level more effectively when taught using a language experience approach rather than a word reading approach (reading common words plus phonic reading). It is suggested that this is because of the almost unique nature of English phonology, that is the strengthening…
Ostayan, Jennifer R.
This article examined student literacy assessments in light of students' levels of English language proficiency. The study supported the hypotheses that a student's level of language proficiency positively predicted their DIBELS Composite score at the beginning, middle, and end of kindergarten by utilizing a simple linear regression. An ANOVA…
Background: Otitis media (OM) or middle ear infection is a common childhood illness and is most frequent during the crucial first 3 years of life when speech and language categories are being established, which could potentially have a long-term effect on language and literacy skill development. Aims: The purpose of the current study was to…
Nordtveit, Bjorn Harald
This paper argues that many internationally financed literacy programs do not sufficiently take into consideration important daily life issues of the learners, including nutritional deficiencies that may hinder learning, or of children-parent-society interactions that may improve learning. As a result, many programs have become synonymous with…
Webb, Mi-Young; Lederberg, Amy R.; Branum-Martin, Lee; McDonald Connor, Carol
Better understanding the mechanisms underlying developing literacy has promoted the development of more effective reading interventions for typically developing children. Such knowledge may facilitate effective instruction of deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children. Hence, the current study examined the multivariate associations among phonological…
Harris, Judy; Botting, Nicola; Myers, Lucy; Dodd, Barbara
Although children with speech impairment are at increased risk for impaired literacy, many learn to read and spell without difficulty. Around half the children with speech impairment have delayed acquisition, making errors typical of a normally developing younger child (e.g. reducing consonant clusters so that "spoon" is pronounced as…
Young children explore their world through manipulatives, playing with "technology" that may or may not be digital. To this end, I offer an exploration into how the existing framework of the New Media Literacies (NMLs) paradigm set forth by Henry Jenkins (2006) in "Confronting the Challenges of Participatory Culture: Media Education…
Ford, Karen L.; Cabell, Sonia Q.; Konold, Timothy R.; Invernizzi, Marcia; Gartland, Lauren B.
This study explored heterogeneity in literacy development among 2,300 Hispanic children receiving English as a Second Language (ESL) services at the start of kindergarten. Two research questions guided this work: (1) Do Spanish-speaking English language learners receiving ESL services in the fall of kindergarten demonstrate homogeneous early…
Gaffney, Janet S.; Paynter, Susan Y.
A literacy intervention is designed to produce accelerated change, moving student achievement rapidly and providing for sustained performance over time. Adopting a complex intervention is a problem-solving process that requires understanding of the conceptual congruity of all aspects of the theory, intervention, and training underlying the…
Bruneau, Beverly J.
Describes the Literacy Pyramid (based on the United States Department of Agriculture food pyramid), a classification of eight instructional events, which is intended as a framework for teachers to think about the purpose of various instructional formats and about organizing time for language arts instruction. (SR)
Rodgers, Emily; D'Agostino, Jerome V.; Harmey, Sinéad J.; Kelly, Robert H.; Brownfield, Katherine
In this study, we used Reading Recovery as the context to examine the relationship between three types of contingent teaching (temporal, instructional, and domain contingency) and student outcomes in a one-to-one literacy tutoring setting. We first created a National Teacher Effectiveness Index for all Reading Recovery teachers in the country and…
Henderson, Sally J.; Jackson, Nancy Ewald
A case study documented the emergence of literacy in an extremely precocious reader between the ages of 2 years, 7 months and 3 years, 2 months. The case study examined the relation between the subject's oral language and reading development; the bases of his word identification; the relation between his reading and writing development; and…
Schoen, Robert; Landale, Nancy S.; Daniels, Kimberly; Cheng, Yen-Hsin Alice
Social background has historically been recognized as a major factor influencing family behavior, though recent work has largely emphasized racial/ethnic influences. Here we use 1994 - 1995 and 2001 - 2002 Add Health data to examine the cohabitation, first marriage, and first birth experience of young women. In a multi state life table context,…
Lee, Chia-Kuei; Liao, Li-Ling; Lai, I-Ju; Chang, Li-Chun
Unhealthy eating behaviors contribute to obesity and chronic illness. This study examined the relative contributions of a healthy-eater self-schema (a self-conception as a healthy eater) and nutrition literacy on healthy-eating behaviors and whether nutrition literacy was a mediator among Taiwanese college students. A total of 1216 undergraduate students from six universities in Taiwan participated in the study from April to June 2016. Healthy-eating behaviors, nutrition literacy, healthy-eater self-schema and known determinants of eating behaviors (e.g. nutrition-related information, health status, nutrition knowledge needs, sex, year in college and residence) were measured by a self-report questionnaire. A hierarchical multiple regression and mediation analysis were conducted with the known determinants of eating behaviors as covariates. Results showed that a healthy-eater self-schema and nutrition literacy explained 9% and 12% of the variance in healthy-eating behaviors, respectively, and both had unique effects on healthy-eating behaviors. The effect of a healthy-eater self-schema on healthy-eating behaviors was partially mediated through nutrition literacy. Findings suggest that both a healthy-eater self-schema and nutrition literacy should be considered when promoting healthy-eating behaviors. Additionally, nutrition literacy interventions should be tailored to the healthy-eater self-schema status and emphasize the personal relevance of being a healthy-eater to improve the intervention's effectiveness. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Guodong, Xie; Zhupeng, Zhang
While China has achieved considerable success in its efforts to raise literacy levels, it has been faced with the relapse of many newly literate adults into illiteracy. The consolidation of literacy skills through post-literacy programs is therefore of key importance to the country. This study examines the reasons why adult literates relapse and discusses the problems and modalities of post-literacy education, concluding with recommendations for future post-literacy policy.
Parkes, Alison; Waylen, Andrea; Sayal, Kapil; Heron, Jon; Henderson, Marion; Wight, Daniel; Macleod, John
Mental health and school adjustment problems are thought to distinguish early sexual behavior from normative timing (16-18 years), but little is known about how early sexual behavior originates from these problems in middle-childhood. Existing studies do not allow for co-occurring problems, differences in onset and persistence, and there is no information on middle-childhood school adjustment in relationship to early sexual activity. This study examined associations between several middle-childhood problems and early sexual behavior, using a subsample (N = 4,739, 53 % female, 98 % white, mean age 15 years 6 months) from a birth cohort study, the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children. Adolescents provided information at age 15 on early sexual behavior (oral sex and/or intercourse) and sexual risk-taking, and at age 13 on prior risk involvement (sexual behavior, antisocial behavior and substance use). Information on hyperactivity/inattention, conduct problems, depressive symptoms, peer relationship problems, school dislike and school performance was collected in middle-childhood at Time 1 (6-8 years) and Time 2 (10-11 years). In agreement with previous research, conduct problems predicted early sexual behavior, although this was found only for persistent early problems. In addition, Time 2 school dislike predicted early sexual behavior, while peer relationship problems were protective. Persistent early school dislike further characterized higher-risk groups (early sexual behavior preceded by age 13 risk, or accompanied by higher sexual risk-taking). The study establishes middle-childhood school dislike as a novel risk factor for early sexual behavior and higher-risk groups, and the importance of persistent conduct problems. Implications for the identification of children at risk and targeted intervention are discussed, as well as suggestions for further research.
Ambrose, Sophie E.; Eisenberg, Laurie S.
The goal of this study was to longitudinally examine relationships between early factors (child and mother) that may influence children's phonological awareness and reading skills 3 years later in a group of young children with cochlear implants (N = 16). Mothers and children were videotaped during two storybook interactions, and children's oral language skills were assessed using the “Reynell Developmental Language Scales, third edition.” Three years later, phonological awareness, reading skills, and language skills were assessed using the “Phonological Awareness Test,” the “Woodcock–Johnson-III Diagnostic Reading Battery,” and the “Oral Written Language Scales.” Variables included in the data analyses were child (age, age at implant, and language skills) and mother factors (facilitative language techniques) and children's phonological awareness and reading standard scores. Results indicate that children's early expressive oral language skills and mothers’ use of a higher level facilitative language technique (open-ended question) during storybook reading, although related, each contributed uniquely to children's literacy skills. Individual analyses revealed that the children with expressive standard scores below 70 at Time 1 also performed below average (<85) on phonological awareness and total reading tasks 3 years later. Guidelines for professionals are provided to support literacy skills in young children with cochlear implants. PMID:18417463
MacPherson, Laura; Reynolds, Elizabeth K; Daughters, Stacey B; Wang, Frances; Cassidy, Jude; Mayes, Linda C; Lejuez, C W
The goal of the current study was to examine the combined influence of positive reinforcement processes using a behavioral task measuring risk taking propensity (RTP) and negative reinforcement processes using a behavioral task measuring deficits in distress tolerance (DT) on a range of risk taking behaviors among early adolescents. Participants included a community sample of 230 early adolescents (aged 9-13) who completed two behavioral tasks assessing reinforcement processes as well as reported on past year risk behavior involvement as assessed by items from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System at a baseline and a 1-year follow-up assessment. Data indicated that at the Wave 2 assessment, RTP was positively related to number of risk-taking behaviors in the past year but only for those with low DT, with this finding persisting after controlling for the significant influence of male gender and higher sensation seeking. Results of the present study highlight the importance of considering both positive and negative reinforcement processes in combination when investigating vulnerability factors for early risk behavior engagement in youth.
Burgette, Jacqueline M; Preisser, John S; Weinberger, Morris; King, Rebecca S; Lee, Jessica Y; Rozier, R Gary
To examine the moderating effect of parents' health literacy (HL) on the effectiveness of North Carolina Early Head Start (EHS) in improving children's dental use. Parents of 479 children enrolled in EHS and 699 Medicaid-matched parent-child dyads were interviewed at baseline when children were approximately 10 months old and 24 months later. We used in-person computer-assisted, structured interviews to collect information on sociodemographic characteristics, dental use, and administer the Short Assessment of Health Literacy - Spanish and English (SAHL-S&E). This quasi-experimental study tested whether the interaction effect between EHS and parents' HL was associated with dental use. Logit (any use) and marginalized zero-inflated negative binomial count models (number of dental visits) included random effects to account for clustering and controlled for baseline dental use, dental need, survey language, and a propensity score covariate. Nineteen percent of parents in EHS had low literacy compared to 12 percent of parents in the non-EHS group (P < 0.01). The interaction term between EHS and parent's HL was not significant in the adjusted logit model (ratio of aORs 0.98, 95 percent CI: 0.43-2.20) or the adjusted count model (ratio of aRRs 0.88, 95 percent CI: 0.72-1.09). Parents in EHS had a higher prevalence of low HL compared to non-EHS parents. Parents' HL did not moderate the relationship between EHS and child dental use, suggesting that EHS results in similar improvements in dental use regardless of parent's HL levels. © 2018 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
O'Brien, Caitlin E; Mezrai, Nawel; Darmaillacq, Anne-Sophie; Dickel, Ludovic
Though a mollusc, the cuttlefish Sepia officinalis possesses a sophisticated brain, advanced sensory systems, and a large behavioral repertoire. Cuttlefish provide a unique perspective on animal behavior due to their phylogenic distance from more traditional (vertebrate) models. S. officinalis is well-suited to addressing questions of behavioral ontogeny. As embryos, they can perceive and learn from their environment and experience no direct parental care. A marked progression in learning and behavior is observed during late embryonic and early juvenile development. This improvement is concomitant with expansion and maturation of the vertical lobe, the cephalopod analog of the mammalian hippocampus. This review synthesizes existing knowledge regarding embryonic and juvenile development in this species in an effort to better understand cuttlefish behavior and animal behavior in general. It will serve as a guide to future researchers and encourage greater awareness of the utility of this species to behavioral science. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Zachrisson, Henrik D.; Dearing, Eric
The sociopolitical context of Norway includes low poverty rates and universal access to subsidized and regulated Early Childhood Education and Care (ECEC). In this context, the association between family income dynamics and changes in early child behavior problems was investigated, as well as whether high-quality ECEC buffers children from the…
Kempert, Sebastian; Götz, Regina; Blatter, Kristine; Tibken, Catharina; Artelt, Cordula; Schneider, Wolfgang; Stanat, Petra
Well-developed phonological awareness skills are a core prerequisite for early literacy development. Although effective phonological awareness training programs exist, children at risk often do not reach similar levels of phonological awareness after the intervention as children with normally developed skills. Based on theoretical considerations and first promising results the present study explores effects of an early musical training in combination with a conventional phonological training in children with weak phonological awareness skills. Using a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest control group design and measurements across a period of 2 years, we tested the effects of two interventions: a consecutive combination of a musical and a phonological training and a phonological training alone. The design made it possible to disentangle effects of the musical training alone as well the effects of its combination with the phonological training. The outcome measures of these groups were compared with the control group with multivariate analyses, controlling for a number of background variables. The sample included N = 424 German-speaking children aged 4–5 years at the beginning of the study. We found a positive relationship between musical abilities and phonological awareness. Yet, whereas the well-established phonological training produced the expected effects, adding a musical training did not contribute significantly to phonological awareness development. Training effects were partly dependent on the initial level of phonological awareness. Possible reasons for the lack of training effects in the musical part of the combination condition as well as practical implications for early literacy education are discussed. PMID:27899906
Cooke, Lucy; Llewellyn, Clare
Obesity has reached epidemic proportions and research into its prevention is increasingly focusing on the earliest stages of life. Avidity of appetite has been linked to a higher risk of obesity, but studies in infancy were scarce. The Gemini twin cohort was established to investigate genetic and environmental determinants of weight trajectories in early childhood with a focus on appetite and the home environment. Gemini families have been supplying questionnaire data at regular intervals, starting when the twins were 8 months old. Analyses of data on infant appetite and weight have provided a number of important findings. Firstly, a prospective study found that appetite in infancy drives weight gain more strongly than weight drives appetite, although the two processes do coexist. A further study using a subsample of twins discordant for appetite ruled out the possibility of familial confounding, suggesting a causal role for appetite in weight. Heritability estimates for appetitive traits were moderate to high (53-84%). Finally, multivariate analyses indicated that roughly one third of the genes related to weight are also related to appetite and vice versa. Environmental factors affecting appetite in infancy are understudied, but some potential strategies for minimizing over- or underconsumption by at-risk individuals are suggested. © 2016 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.
LaGasse, Linda L.; Conradt, Elisabeth; Karalunas, Sarah L.; Dansereau, Lynne M.; Butner, Jonathan E.; Shankaran, Seetha; Bada, Henrietta; Bauer, Charles R.; Whitaker, Toni M.; Lester, Barry M.
Developmental psychopathologists face the difficult task of identifying the environmental conditions that may contribute to early childhood behavior problems. Highly stressed caregivers can exacerbate behavior problems, while children with behavior problems may make parenting more difficult and increase caregiver stress. Unknown is: (1) how these transactions originate, (2) whether they persist over time to contribute to the development of problem behavior and (3) what role resilience factors, such as child executive functioning, may play in mitigating the development of problem behavior. In the present study, transactional relations between caregiving stress, executive functioning, and behavior problems were examined in a sample of 1,388 children with prenatal drug exposures at three developmental time points: early childhood (birth-age 5), middle childhood (ages 6 to 9), and early adolescence (ages 10 to 13). Transactional relations differed between caregiving stress and internalizing versus externalizing behavior. Targeting executive functioning in evidence-based interventions for children with prenatal substance exposure who present with internalizing problems and treating caregiving psychopathology, depression, and parenting stress in early childhood may be particularly important for children presenting with internalizing behavior. PMID:27427803
Perry, Nicole B; Swingler, Margaret M; Calkins, Susan D; Bell, Martha Ann
Current theoretical conceptualizations of regulatory development suggest that attention processes and emotion regulation processes share common neurophysiological underpinnings and behavioral antecedents such that emotion regulation abilities may build on early attentional skills. To further elucidate this proposed relationship, we tested whether early neurophysiological processes measured during an attention task in infancy predicted in-task attention behavior and whether infants' attention behavior was subsequently associated with their ability to regulate emotion during early childhood (N=388). Results indicated that greater electroencephalogram (EEG) power change (from baseline to task) at medial frontal locations (F3 and F4) during an attention task at 10months of age was associated with concurrent observed behavioral attention. Specifically, greater change in EEG power at the right frontal location (F4) was associated with more attention and greater EEG power at the left frontal location (F3) was associated with less attention, indicating a potential right hemisphere specialization for attention processes already present during the first year of life. In addition, after controlling for 5-month attention behavior, increased behavioral attention at 10months was negatively associated with children's observed frustration to emotional challenge at 3years of age. Finally, the indirect effects from 10-month EEG power change at F3 and F4 to 3-year emotion regulation via infants' 10-month behavioral attention were significant, suggesting that infants' attention behavior is one mechanism through which early neurophysiological activity is related to emotion regulation abilities during childhood. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Perry, Nicole B.; Swingler, Margaret M.; Calkins, Susan D.; Bell, Martha Ann
Current theoretical conceptualizations of regulatory development suggest that attention processes and emotion regulation processes share common neurophysiological underpinnings and behavioral antecedents such that emotion regulation abilities may build upon early attentional skills. To further elucidate this proposed relationship, we tested whether early neurophysiological processes measured during an attention task in infancy predicted in-task attention behavior, and whether infant's attention behavior was subsequently associated with their ability to regulate emotion in early childhood (N=388). Results indicated that, greater EEG power change (from baseline to task) at medial frontal locations (F3 and F4) during an attention task at 10 months were associated with concurrent observed behavioral attention. Specifically, greater change in EEG power at the right frontal location (F4) was associated with more attention, and greater EEG power at the left frontal location (F3) was associated with less attention, indicating a potential right hemisphere specialization for attention processes already present in the first year of life. In addition, after controlling for 5-month attention behavior, increased behavioral attention at 10-months was negatively associated with children's observed frustration to emotional challenge at age 3. Finally, the indirect effects from 10-month EEG power change at F3 and F4 to 3-year emotion regulation via infants' 10-month behavioral attention were significant, suggesting that infant's attention behavior is one mechanism through which early neurophysiological activity is related to emotion regulation abilities in childhood. PMID:26381926
Shin, Kyung Suk; Lee, Eun-Hyun
To examine the relationships of health literacy to diabetes self-care behaviors (diet, physical exercise, foot care and blood glucose monitoring) through empowerment controlling for diabetes education. Potential mechanisms of how health literacy links to health outcomes have not clearly elucidated. A cross-sectional study design was used. Participants were recruited from three community health centers in South Korea from September 2016 - April 2017 using a convenience sampling method. A total of 136 people with diabetes aged 60 and above were participated in this study. The main study variables of health literacy, empowerment and diabetes self-care activities were assessed using self-reported questionnaires. This study applied a simple mediation analysis with a single covariate using the PROCESS macro, with health literacy entered as an antecedent variable, empowerment as a mediator, diabetes self-care behaviors as outcome variables and diabetes education as a covariate. After controlling for diabetes education, the indirect effects of health literacy to self-care behaviors through empowerment were significant when the self-care behaviors were particularly diet and physical exercise. Whereas, the indirect effects were not significant when the self-care behaviors were foot care and blood glucose monitoring. This study indicates that the people with higher health literacy were more empowered and those with higher empowerment were more likely to eat healthy foods and exercise. In the light of these findings, a health literacy-tailored empowerment enhancing program may be important targets for interventions promoting diabetes self-care behaviors of diet and physical exercise. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Kulp, Marjean Taylor; Ciner, Elise; Maguire, Maureen; Moore, Bruce; Pentimonti, Jill; Pistilli, Maxwell; Cyert, Lynn; Candy, T Rowan; Quinn, Graham; Ying, Gui-Shuang
To compare early literacy of 4- and 5-year-old uncorrected hyperopic children with that of emmetropic children. Cross-sectional. Children attending preschool or kindergarten who had not previously worn refractive correction. Cycloplegic refraction was used to identify hyperopia (≥3.0 to ≤6.0 diopters [D] in most hyperopic meridian of at least 1 eye, astigmatism ≤1.5 D, anisometropia ≤1.0 D) or emmetropia (hyperopia ≤1.0 D; astigmatism, anisometropia, and myopia <1.0 D). Threshold visual acuity (VA) and cover testing ruled out amblyopia or strabismus. Accommodative response, binocular near VA, and near stereoacuity were measured. Trained examiners administered the Test of Preschool Early Literacy (TOPEL), composed of Print Knowledge, Definitional Vocabulary, and Phonological Awareness subtests. A total of 492 children (244 hyperopes and 248 emmetropes) participated (mean age, 58 months; mean ± standard deviation of the most hyperopic meridian, +3.78±0.81 D in hyperopes and +0.51±0.48 D in emmetropes). After adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, and parent/caregiver's education, the mean difference between hyperopes and emmetropes was -4.3 (P = 0.01) for TOPEL overall, -2.4 (P = 0.007) for Print Knowledge, -1.6 (P = 0.07) for Definitional Vocabulary, and -0.3 (P = 0.39) for Phonological Awareness. Greater deficits in TOPEL scores were observed in hyperopic children with ≥4.0 D than in emmetropes (-6.8, P = 0.01 for total score; -4.0, P = 0.003 for Print Knowledge). The largest deficits in TOPEL scores were observed in hyperopic children with binocular near VA of 20/40 or worse (-8.5, P = 0.002 for total score; -4.5, P = 0.001 for Print Knowledge; -3.1, P = 0.04 for Definitional Vocabulary) or near stereoacuity of 240 seconds of arc or worse (-8.6, P < 0.001 for total score; -5.3, P < 0.001 for Print Knowledge) compared with emmetropic children. Uncorrected hyperopia ≥4.0 D or hyperopia ≥3.0 to ≤6.0 D associated with reduced binocular near VA (20
Herman, Joan L.; Epstein, Scott; Leon, Seth; Dai, Yunyun; La Torre Matrundola, Deborah; Reber, Sarah; Choi, Kilchan
The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation invested in the Literacy Design Collaborative (LDC) as one strategy to support teachers' and students' transition to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in English language arts. This report provides an early look at the implementation of LDC in sixth-grade Advanced Reading classes in a large Florida…
Noel, Andrea M.
As of May 2014, all candidates for teacher certification in New York State must successfully complete the teacher performance assessment (edTPA). This article describes an assignment piloted in an early childhood literacy class as an embedded signature assessment and has three goals: to explain the context that led to the development of the…
Hintze, John M.; Ryan, Amanda L.; Stoner, Gary
The purpose of this study was to (a) examine the concurrent validity of the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) with the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP), and (b) explore the diagnostic accuracy of the DIBELS in predicting CTOPP performance using suggested and alternative cut-scores. Eighty-six students…
Rojas-Barahona, Cristian A.; Förster, Carla E.; Moreno-Ríos, Sergio; McClelland, Megan M.
Research Findings: The present study evaluated the impact of a working memory (WM) stimulation program on the development of WM and early literacy skills (ELS) in preschoolers from socioeconomically deprived rural and urban schools in Chile. The sample consisted of 268 children, 144 in the intervention group and 124 in the comparison group. The…
Research has established young children's increasing use of computers and other new technologies in the home. Yet, teaching about digital texts and digital practices most often appears as an addition to early literacy instruction in classrooms where "business-as-usual" maintains an emphasis on print and print-based texts. This article…
This program evaluation is a study of the effectiveness of a core reading program, Journeys, by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (HMH), on the early literacy skills and oral reading fluency (ORF) of kindergarten through second grade students in a rural elementary school. The scores of the students in the experimental group were compared to scores of…
Mayo, Karen E.
This paper describes a literacy-based thematic unit on forestry and conservation designed for field experiences in early childhood education. This unit responds to national and state initiatives and serves as a model for enacting reform of science instruction by equipping preservice teachers with the necessary strategies to foster science process…
Son, Seung-Hee Claire; Tineo, Maria F.
This study examined associations among low-income mothers' use of attention-getting utterances during shared book reading, preschoolers' verbal engagement and visual attention to reading, and their early literacy skills (N = 51). Mother-child shared book reading sessions were videotaped and coded for each utterance, including attention talk,…
Campbell, Stacey; Torr, Jane; Cologon, Kathy
Language-rich environments are key to overall quality in early childhood settings, including frequent child-staff interactions around picture books and dramatic play. In a language-rich environment, explicit teaching of literacy concepts, such as phonics, is embedded in authentic and meaningful situations where alphabet letters and sounds are…
Walker, Karen; Gooze, Rachel A.; Torres, Alicia
Early literacy skills are the foundation for school success. This is particularly important for groups of children at heightened risk of poor educational outcomes, such as English language learners and children from low-income families. Informed by a growing body of research and evaluation studies that point to the importance of home literacy…
Mulvaney, Matthew K; Mebert, Carolyn J
Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development (Research Triangle Institute, 2002), this study examined the impact of corporal punishment (CP) on children's behavior problems. Longitudinal analyses were specified that controlled for covarying contextual and parenting variables and that partialed child effects. The results indicate that parental CP uniquely contributes to negative behavioral adjustment in children at both 36 months and at 1st grade, with the effects at the earlier age more pronounced in children with difficult temperaments. Parents and mental health professionals who work to modify children's negative behavior should be aware of the unique impact that CP likely plays in triggering and maintaining children's behavior problems. Broad-based family policies that reduce the use of this parenting behavior would potentially increase children's mental health and decrease the incidence of children's behavior problems. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved
Schulz, Peter J; Nakamoto, Kent
Artificial intelligence can provide important support of patient health. However, limits to realized benefits can arise as patients assume an active role in their health decisions. Distinguishing the concepts of health literacy and patient empowerment, we analyze conditions that bias patient use of the Internet and limit access to and impact of artificial intelligence. Improving health literacy in the face of the Internet requires significant guidance. Patients must be directed toward the appropriate tools and also provided with key background knowledge enabling them to use the tools and capitalize on the artificial intelligence technology. Benefits of tools employing artificial intelligence to promote health cannot be realized without recognizing and addressing the patients' desires, expectations, and limitations that impact their Internet behavior. In order to benefit from artificial intelligence, patients need a substantial level of background knowledge and skill in information use-i.e., health literacy. It is critical that health professionals respond to patient search for information on the Internet, first by guiding their search to relevant, authoritative, and responsive sources, and second by educating patients about how to interpret the information they are likely to encounter. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Piper, Benjamin; Jepkemei, Evelyn; Kibukho, Kennedy
Children from low-income families are at risk of learning outcome difficulties, particularly in literacy. Various studies link poor literacy results with performance later in primary and secondary school, and suggest that poverty, literacy skills and weak instructional methods combine to drastically limit the educational opportunities for many…
Pizur-Barnekow, Kris; Doering, Jennifer; Cashin, Susan; Patrick, Timothy; Rhyner, Paula
"Functional health literacy," a component of health literacy, refers to the ability to read and interpret medical information. The Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA) measures the ability to read and interpret medical information. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess and compare levels of maternal functional…
Hansen, Hardaye Ramsaroop; Shneyderman, Yuliya; Belcastro, Philip A.
Background: There is a paucity of evidence associating health literacy metrics with adults' enhanced health knowledge, health status, health practices, or health behaviors. Purpose: Investigate whether health-literate undergraduates exhibit enhanced health knowledge, health status, health practices, or behaviors compared to non-health-literate…
Devraj, Radhika; Borrego, Matthew E; Vilay, A Mary; Pailden, Junvie; Horowitz, Bruce
AIM To determine the relationship between chronic kidney disease (CKD) awareness (CKD-A), self-management behaviors (CKD-SMB) knowledge, performance of CKD-SMBs, health literacy (HL) and kidney function. METHODS Participants were eligible patients attending an outpatient nephrology clinic. Participants were administered: Newest Vital Sign to measure HL, CKD self-management knowledge tool (CKD-SMKT) to assess knowledge, past performance of CKD-SMB, CKD-A. Estimated GFR (eGFR) was determined using the MDRD-4 equation. Duration of clinic participation and CKD cause were extracted from medical charts. RESULTS One-hundred-fifty patients participated in the study. eGFRs ranged from 17-152 mL/min per 1.73 m2. Majority (83%) of respondents had stage 3 or 4 CKD, low HL (63%), and were CKD aware (88%). Approximately 40% (10/25) of patients in stages 1 and 2 and 6.4% (8/125) in stages 3 and 4 were unaware of their CKD. CKD-A differed with stage (P < 0.001) but not by HL level, duration of clinic participation, or CKD cause. Majority of respondents (≥ 90%) correctly answered one or more CKD-SMKT items. Knowledge of one behavior, “controlling blood pressure” differed significantly by CKD-A. CKD-A was associated with past performance of two CKD-SMBs, “controlling blood pressure” (P = 0.02), and “keeping healthy body weight” (P = 0.01). Adjusted multivariate analyses between CKD-A and: (1) HL; and (2) CKD-SMB knowledge were non-significant. However, there was a significant relationship between CKD-A and kidney function after controlling for demographics, HL, and CKD-SMB (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION CKD-A is not associated with HL, or better CKD-SMBs. CKD-A is significantly associated with kidney function and substantially lower eGFR, suggesting the need for focused patient education in CKD stages 1. PMID:29359119
Shamuganathana, Sheila; Karpudewan, Mageswary
Existing studies report on the importance of instilling environmental literacy among students from an early stage of schooling to enable them to adopt more pro-environmental behaviors in the near future. This quasi-experimental study was designed to compare the level of environmental literacy among two groups of students: the experimental group (N…
Coughlan, Kelly A.
Kindergarten students (N = 95) in three schools and seven classrooms were observed for on-task versus off-task behavior during three literacy instruction opportunities; small group instruction, whole group instruction and the less structured library setting over the 2011-2012 school year. Students' early literacy skills were assessed before and…
Lyons, Michael D; Otis, Kristin L; Huebner, E Scott; Hills, Kimberly J
This study explored the directionality of the relations between global life satisfaction (LS) and internalizing and externalizing behaviors using a sample of regular education students who were initially enrolled in Grade 7 (n = 470). Self-report measures of internalizing and externalizing behaviors and LS were administered on 2 occasions, 6 months apart, to students from a Southeastern U.S. middle school. Short-term longitudinal analyses revealed that neither externalizing behaviors nor internalizing behaviors at Time 1 predicted LS at Time 2. However, LS at Time 1 predicted externalizing behaviors at Time 2. LS at Time 1 also predicted internalizing behaviors at Time 2, but the results were moderated by student gender. At higher levels of LS, boys reported lower levels of internalizing behaviors at Time 2. The overall results suggested that lower levels of LS are an antecedent of increased maladaptive behaviors among early adolescents. Alternatively, higher levels of LS may be a protective factor against subsequent externalizing behaviors among boys and girls and internalizing behaviors among boys. Furthermore, the results provide further support for the discriminant validity of positive and negative measures of mental health and suggest that LS measures may provide useful information for comprehensive adolescent health screening and monitoring systems. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Bindman, Samantha W.; Skibbe, Lori E.; Hindman, Annemarie H.; Aram, Dorit; Morrison, Frederick J.
The current study examines the nature and variability of parents' aid to preschoolers in the context of a shared writing task, as well as the relations between this support and children's literacy, vocabulary, and fine motor skills. In total, 135 preschool children (72 girls) and their parents (primarily mothers) in an ethnically diverse, middle-income community were observed while writing a semi-structured invitation for a pretend birthday party together. Children's phonological awareness, alphabet knowledge, word decoding, vocabulary, and fine motor skills were also assessed. Results revealed that parents provided variable, but generally low–level, support for children's approximation of sound-symbol correspondence in their writing (i.e., graphophonemic support), as well as for their production of letter forms (i.e., print support). Parents frequently accepted errors rather than asking for corrections (i.e., demand for precision). Further analysis of the parent-child dyads (n = 103) who wrote the child's name on the invitation showed that parents provided higher graphophonemic, but not print, support when writing the child's name than other words. Overall parental graphophonemic support was positively linked to children's decoding and fine motor skills, whereas print support and demand for precision were not related to any of the child outcomes. In sum, this study indicates that while parental support for preschoolers' writing may be minimal, it is uniquely linked to key literacy-related outcomes in preschool. PMID:25284957
Honigh-de Vlaming, Rianne; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; Bos-Oude Groeniger, Inge; Hooft van Huysduynen, Eveline J C; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Van't Veer, Pieter
To develop and evaluate the Loneliness Literacy Scale for the assessment of short-term outcomes of a loneliness prevention programme among Dutch elderly persons. Scale development was based on evidence from literature and experiences from local stakeholders and representatives of the target group. The scale was pre-tested among 303 elderly persons aged 65 years and over. Principal component analysis and internal consistency analysis were used to affirm the scale structure, reduce the number of items and assess the reliability of the constructs. Linear regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the association between the literacy constructs and loneliness. The four constructs "motivation", "self-efficacy", "perceived social support" and "subjective norm" derived from principal component analysis captured 56 % of the original variance. Cronbach's coefficient α was above 0.7 for each construct. The constructs "self-efficacy" and "perceived social support" were positively and "subjective norm" was negatively associated with loneliness. To our knowledge this is the first study developing a short-term indicator for loneliness prevention. The indicator contributes to the need of evaluating public health interventions more close to the intervention activities.
Bindman, Samantha W; Skibbe, Lori E; Hindman, Annemarie H; Aram, Dorit; Morrison, Frederick J
The current study examines the nature and variability of parents' aid to preschoolers in the context of a shared writing task, as well as the relations between this support and children's literacy, vocabulary, and fine motor skills. In total, 135 preschool children (72 girls) and their parents (primarily mothers) in an ethnically diverse, middle-income community were observed while writing a semi-structured invitation for a pretend birthday party together. Children's phonological awareness, alphabet knowledge, word decoding, vocabulary, and fine motor skills were also assessed. Results revealed that parents provided variable, but generally low-level, support for children's approximation of sound-symbol correspondence in their writing (i.e., graphophonemic support), as well as for their production of letter forms (i.e., print support). Parents frequently accepted errors rather than asking for corrections (i.e., demand for precision). Further analysis of the parent-child dyads ( n = 103) who wrote the child's name on the invitation showed that parents provided higher graphophonemic, but not print, support when writing the child's name than other words. Overall parental graphophonemic support was positively linked to children's decoding and fine motor skills, whereas print support and demand for precision were not related to any of the child outcomes. In sum, this study indicates that while parental support for preschoolers' writing may be minimal, it is uniquely linked to key literacy-related outcomes in preschool.
Petts, Richard J.
Using data on 1,134 single mothers from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this study examined trajectories of religious participation among single mothers and whether these trajectories were associated with early childhood behavior. The results suggested that single mothers experienced diverse patterns of religious participation…
Holmes, Gregory L.
Both clinical and laboratory studies demonstrate that seizures early in life can result in permanent behavioral abnormalities and enhance epileptogenicity. Understanding the critical periods of vulnerability of the developing nervous system to seizure-induced changes may provide insights into parallel or divergent processes in the development of…
Wang, Ming-Te; Dishion, Thomas J.; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.; Willett, John B.
Stage-environment fit theory was used to examine the reciprocal lagged relations between family management practices and early adolescent problem behavior during the middle school years. In addition, the potential moderating roles of family structure and of gender were explored. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to describe patterns of growth…
The aim of this study was to present results of our one year experience with Cognitive Behavioral Psychology Program, in order to contribute to the building of whole school approach and positive psychology preventive mental health problems model. Based on Penn Resilience program (PRP), we modify and create program for early adolescents: how to…
Durtschi, Jared A.; Fincham, Frank D.; Cui, Ming; Lorenz, Frederick O.; Conger, Rand D.
Marital processes in early marriage are important for understanding couples' future marital quality. Spouses' attributions about a partner's behavior have been linked to marital quality, yet the mechanisms underlying this association remain largely unknown. When we used couple data from the Family Transitions Project (N = 280 couples) across the…
Ciampa, Philip J.; Vaz, Lara M.E.; Blevins, Meridith; Sidat, Moshin; Rothman, Russell L.; Vermund, Sten H.; Vergara, Alfredo E.
Background Limited literacy skills are common in the United States (US) and are related to lower HIV knowledge and worse health behaviors and outcomes. The extent of these associations is unknown in countries like Mozambique, where no rigorously validated literacy and numeracy measures exist. Methods A validated measure of literacy and numeracy, the Wide Range Achievement Test, version 3 (WRAT-3) was translated into Portuguese, adapted for a Mozambican context, and administered to a cross-section of female heads-of-household during a provincially representative survey conducted from August 8 to September 25, 2010. Construct validity of each subscale was examined by testing associations with education, income, and possession of socioeconomic assets, stratified by Portuguese speaking ability. Multivariable regression models estimated the association among literacy/numeracy and HIV knowledge, self-reported HIV testing, and utilization of prenatal care. Results Data from 3,557 women were analyzed; 1,110 (37.9%) reported speaking Portuguese. Respondents’ mean age was 31.2; 44.6% lacked formal education, and 34.3% reported no income. Illiteracy was common (50.4% of Portuguese speakers, 93.7% of non-Portuguese speakers) and the mean numeracy score (10.4) corresponded to US kindergarten-level skills. Literacy or numeracy was associated (p<0.01) with education, income, age, and other socioeconomic assets. Literacy and numeracy skills were associated with HIV knowledge in adjusted models, but not with HIV testing or receipt of clinic-based prenatal care. Conclusion The adapted literacy and numeracy subscales are valid for use with rural Mozambican women. Limited literacy and numeracy skills were common and associated with lower HIV knowledge. Further study is needed to determine the extent to which addressing literacy/numeracy will lead to improved health outcomes. PMID:22745747
Birgisdóttir, Freyja; Gestsdóttir, Steinunn; Thorsdóttir, Fanney
Research Findings: Research suggests that behavioral self-regulation skills are critical for early school success, including success in literacy, but few studies have explored the relations that behavioral self-regulation may have with different components of early literacy development. The present study investigated the longitudinal contribution…
Leasure, A Renee; Delise, Donna; Clifton, Shari C; Pascucci, Mary Ann
To produce a healthcare provider who is competent in accessing health information, nursing faculty members, in tandem with medical librarians, play a crucial role in establishing the knowledge base for student competency in health information literacy. The time to prepare nursing students to meet the information challenges and opportunities of today's healthcare environment is not after graduation, but rather while they are in school. By incorporating health information literacy skill building throughout the curriculum, nursing faculty members can prepare their students to enter the workforce equipped with the skills they need to find, retrieve, appraise, and apply information to their clinical practice.
Tennant, Bethany; Stellefson, Michael; Dodd, Virginia; Chaney, Beth; Chaney, Don; Paige, Samantha; Alber, Julia
, P=.004). Finally, more education predicted greater use of Web 2.0 for health information, with college graduates (OR 2.57, Wald= 3.86, df =1, P=.049) and post graduates (OR 7.105, Wald= 4.278, df=1, P=.04) nearly 2 to 7 times more likely than non-high school graduates to use Web 2.0 for health information. Being younger and possessing more education was associated with greater eHealth literacy among baby boomers and older adults. Females and those highly educated, particularly at the post graduate level, reported greater use of Web 2.0 for health information. More in-depth surveys and interviews among more diverse groups of baby boomers and older adult populations will likely yield a better understanding regarding how current Web-based health information seeking and sharing behaviors influence health-related decision making.
Tennant, Bethany; Dodd, Virginia; Chaney, Beth; Chaney, Don; Paige, Samantha; Alber, Julia
information (OR 2.63, Wald= 8.09, df=1, P=.004). Finally, more education predicted greater use of Web 2.0 for health information, with college graduates (OR 2.57, Wald= 3.86, df =1, P=.049) and post graduates (OR 7.105, Wald= 4.278, df=1, P=.04) nearly 2 to 7 times more likely than non-high school graduates to use Web 2.0 for health information. Conclusions Being younger and possessing more education was associated with greater eHealth literacy among baby boomers and older adults. Females and those highly educated, particularly at the post graduate level, reported greater use of Web 2.0 for health information. More in-depth surveys and interviews among more diverse groups of baby boomers and older adult populations will likely yield a better understanding regarding how current Web-based health information seeking and sharing behaviors influence health-related decision making. PMID:25783036
Wang, Ming-Te; Dishion, Thomas J.; Stormshak, Elizabeth A.; Willett, John B.
Stage– environment fit theory was used to examine the reciprocal lagged relations between family management practices and early adolescent problem behavior during the middle school years. In addition, the potential moderating roles of family structure and of gender were explored. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to describe patterns of growth in family management practices and adolescents’ behavioral outcomes and to detect predictors of interindividual differences in initial status and rate of change. The sample comprised approximately 1,000 adolescents between ages 11 years and 15 years. The results indicated that adolescents’ antisocial behaviors and substance use increased and their positive behavioral engagement decreased over time. As adolescent age increased, parental knowledge of their adolescent’s activities decreased, as did parental rule making and support. The level and rate of change in family management and adolescent behavioral outcomes varied by family structure and by gender. Reciprocal longitudinal associations between parenting practices and adolescent problem behavior were found. Specifically, parenting practices predicted subsequent adolescent behavior, and adolescent behavior predicted subsequent parenting practices. In addition, parental warmth moderated the effects of parental knowledge and rule making on adolescent antisocial behavior and substance use over time. PMID:21688899
Degnan, Kathryn A.; Calkins, Susan D.; Keane, Susan P.; Hill-Soderlund, Ashley L.
Disruptive behavior, including aggression, defiance, and temper tantrums, typically peaks in early toddlerhood and decreases by school entry; however, some children do not show this normative decline. The current study examined disruptive behavior in 318 boys and girls at 2, 4, and 5 years of age and frustration reactivity, physiological…
Phillips, Kathleen J.; And Others
To determine the effect of attention to affective needs on the success of adult literacy programs, researchers analyzed data from 400 programs nominated by advisors to the National Adult Literacy Project (NALP), and selected a sample of 15 for the field research. The sample programs included three military, three prison, three English as a second…
Zoellner, Jamie M; Hedrick, Valisa E; You, Wen; Chen, Yvonnes; Davy, Brenda M; Porter, Kathleen J; Bailey, Angela; Lane, Hannah; Alexander, Ramine; Estabrooks, Paul A
Despite excessive consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), little is known about behavioral interventions to reduce SSB intake among adults, particularly in medically-underserved rural communities. This type 1 effectiveness-implementation hybrid RCT, conducted in 2012-2014, applied the RE-AIM framework and was designed to assess the effectiveness of a behavioral intervention targeting SSB consumption (SIPsmartER) when compared to an intervention targeting physical activity (MoveMore) and to determine if health literacy influenced retention, engagement or outcomes. Guided by the Theory of Planned Behavior and health literacy strategies, the 6 month multi-component intervention for both conditions included three small-group classes, one live teach-back call, and 11 interactive voice response calls. Validated measures were used to assess SSB consumption (primary outcome) and all secondary outcomes including physical activity behaviors, theory-based constructs, quality of life, media literacy, anthropometric, and biological outcomes. Targeting a medically-underserved rural region in southwest Virginia, 1056 adult participants were screened, 620 (59%) eligible, 301 (49%) enrolled and randomized, and 296 included in these 2015 analyses. Participants were 93% Caucasian, 81% female, 31 % ≤ high-school educated, 43% < $14,999 household income, and 33% low health literate. Retention rates (74%) and program engagement was not statistically different between conditions. Compared to MoveMore, SIPsmartER participants significantly decreased SSB kcals and BMI at 6 months. SIPsmartER participants significantly decreased SSB intake by 227 (95% CI = -326,-127, p < 0.001) kcals/day from baseline to 6 months when compared to the decrease of 53 (95% CI = -88,-17, p < 0.01) kcals/day among MoveMore participants (p < 0.001). SIPsmartER participants decreased BMI by 0.21 (95% CI = -0.35,-0.06; p < 0.01) kg/m(2) from baseline to 6 months when
Kim, Kyoung A; Kim, Yu Jin; Choi, Mona
It is important to know how well patients with type 2 diabetes understand and use health information available online in relation to health-promoting behaviors. Thus, the purposes of this study were to examine the association among electronic health literacy, perceived benefits, self-efficacy, and health-promoting behaviors in patients with type 2 diabetes, and to identify factors that affect health-promoting behaviors. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in a diabetes center in Seoul, South Korea. It was found that health-promoting behaviors were significantly correlated with electronic health literacy (r = 0.15, P < .05), perceived benefits (r = 0.15, P < .05), and self-efficacy (r = 0.47, P < .01). In the multiple linear regression analysis to identify the factors influencing health-promoting behaviors, electronic health literacy (β = .13, P = .040) and self-efficacy (β = .38, P < .001) were found to be significant factors, even after adjusting for general and disease-related characteristics. Strategies to improve health-promoting behaviors in patients with type 2 diabetes should focus on analyzing levels of electronic health literacy and deepening their understanding of online information accordingly.
Souto-Manning, Mariana; Dernikos, Bessie; Yu, Hae Min
In light of the historical failure of boys of color in US schools, this article sheds light onto the ways in which normative discourses of literacy and learning shape the experiences of immigrant boys and how they are perceived and defined as un/successful students. Findings indicate that although these boys--deemed to be "at-risk" or…
Brewer, Robert Stephen
We designed the Kukui Cup challenge to foster energy conservation and increase energy literacy. Based on a review of the literature, the challenge combined a variety of elements into an overall game experience, including: real-time energy feedback, goals, commitments, competition, and prizes. We designed a software system called Makahiki to…
The purpose of this project was to investigate how students' search strategies changed over the course of a semester-long information literacy class. Data collection included four different paper questionnaires corresponding to course content in the spring 2008 semester. Seventy-seven participants completed the questionnaires and course work in…
Parisod, Heidi; Pakarinen, Anni; Axelin, Anna; Danielsson-Ojala, Riitta; Smed, Jouni; Salanterä, Sanna
The purpose of this study was to explore the design of a health game that aims to both support tobacco-related health literacy and a tobacco-free life in early adolescence and to meet adolescents' expectations. Data were collected from adolescents using an open-ended questionnaire (n = 83) and focus groups (n = 39) to obtain their view of a health game used for tobacco-related health education. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis. A group of experts combined the adolescents' views with theoretical information on health literacy and designed and produced the first version of the game. Adolescents (session 1, n = 16; session 3, n = 10; and session 4, n = 44) and health promotion professionals (session 2, n = 3) participated in testing the game. Feedback from testing sessions 3 and 4 was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Adolescents pointed out that the health game needs to approach the topic of tobacco delicately and focus on the adolescents' perspective and on the positive sides of a tobacco-free life rather than only on the negative consequences of tobacco. The adolescents expected the game to be of high quality, stimulating, and intellectually challenging and to offer possibilities for individualization. Elements from the adolescents' view and theoretical modelling were embedded into the design of a game called Fume. Feedback on the game was promising, but some points were highlighted for further development. Investing especially in high-quality design features, such as graphics and versatile content, using humoristic or otherwise stimulating elements, and maintaining sufficiently challenging gameplay would promote the acceptability of theory-based health games among adolescents.
Paige, Samantha R; Alber, Julia M; Stellefson, Michael L; Krieger, Janice L
To examine how Transtheoretical Model (TTM)'s processes of change and mHealth literacy strategies are employed in mobile smoking cessation apps. A purposive sample of 100 iTunes apps were coded to assess descriptive (price, type, developer, user-rating) and engagement metrics, including processes of change and mHealth literacy strategies (plain language, usability, interactivity). One-way ANOVAs and independent samples t-tests examined associations between descriptive and engagement metrics. Over half of the apps included 7 (78%) processes of change. Fewer included self-liberation (36%) and reinforcement management (34%). Most apps incorporated plain language, but few integrated usability and interactivity strategies. Hypnotherapy and informational apps included more behavioral processes of change than apps incorporating a combination of features, including gaming, cigarette trackers, and motivational coaching (p<0.01). Apps included behavior change processes but rarely incorporated usability and interactivity features to promote patient engagement. Engagement metrics did not vary by app user-ratings, price-to-download, or developer, including for-profit organizations or government and educational institutions. Providers should acknowledge the popularity of smoking cessation apps as potential cessation aids and communicate their benefits and drawbacks to patients. Future efforts to improve smoking cessation apps should focus on enhancing the quality of tailored and interactive content. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Skwarchuk, Sheri-Lynn; Sowinski, Carla; LeFevre, Jo-Anne
The purpose of this study was to propose and test a model of children's home numeracy experience based on Sénéchal and LeFevre's home literacy model (Child Development, 73 (2002) 445-460). Parents of 183 children starting kindergarten in the fall (median child age=58 months) completed an early home learning experiences questionnaire. Most of the children whose parents completed the questionnaire were recruited for numeracy and literacy testing 1 year later (along with 32 children from the inner city). Confirmatory factor analyses were used to reduce survey items, and hierarchical regression analyses were used to predict the relation among parents' attitudes, academic expectations for their children, reports of formal and informal numeracy, and literacy home practices on children's test scores. Parental reports of formal home numeracy practices (e.g., practicing simple sums) predicted children's symbolic number system knowledge, whereas reports of informal exposure to games with numerical content (measured indirectly through parents' knowledge of children's games) predicted children's non-symbolic arithmetic, as did numeracy attitudes (e.g., parents' enjoyment of numeracy). The home literacy results replicated past findings; parental reports of formal literacy practices (e.g., helping their children to read words) predicted children's word reading, whereas reports of informal experiences (i.e., frequency of shared reading measured indirectly through parents' storybook knowledge) predicted children's vocabulary. These findings support a multifaceted model of children's early numeracy environment, with different types of early home experiences (formal and informal) predicting different numeracy outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mellor, Gary; St John, Winsome
This study investigated the relationship between fatigue and work safety behavior of fathers with new babies. A total of 241 fathers completed a questionnaire at 6 and 12 weeks postpartum with items on fatigue and safety behavior at work. Results revealed that fathers worked long hours, reported a moderate-to-high physical intensity of work, and experienced interrupted sleep averaging less than 6 hours. Fathers also reported moderate fatigue at both 6 and 12 weeks postbirth, which was inversely related to safety behavior. Both fatigue and sleep history made a small but statistically significant contribution to safety behavior results at 6 and 12 weeks postbirth. Findings suggest that working fathers with babies experience fatigue during early fatherhood and are unable to recover due to interrupted and poor sleep patterns. Managers should consider the potential for fatigue to compromise work safety and develop risk management strategies that target new fathers.
Observes the language and the literacy behaviors in evidence at a shopping center food court. Muses on the "functional literacy" of the writer's immigrant mother-in-law. Discusses the range and extent of the literacies possessed by an elementary school student who, at the start of the school year, did not consider himself to be either a…
Kearney, Kelly B; Brady, Michael P; Hall, Kalynn; Honsberger, Toby
Many adolescents with developmental disabilities do not learn the safety skills needed to maintain physical well-being in domestic and community environments. Literacy-based behavioral interventions (LBBIs) that combine print, pictures, and behavioral rehearsal are effective for promoting acquisition and maintenance of self-care skills, but have not been investigated as safety skill intervention. Also, LBBIs have primarily been implemented by teachers and other professionals. In this study, a peer partner was taught to deliver an LBBI story to students so they would learn to perform a basic first aid routine: cleaning and dressing a wound. Results showed that students' accuracy with the first aid routine increased after a peer delivered the LBBI instructional package, and maintained after the peer stopped delivering it. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of the LBBI instructional package for teaching first aid safety skills, and extends previous research showing the efficacy of peers in delivering this intervention.
Huang, Francis L.; Ford, Karen L.; Invernizzi, Marcia; Fan, Xitao
We investigated the latent factor structure of the "Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening for Kindergarteners" in Spanish ("PALS español K"). Participants included 590 Spanish-speaking, public-school kindergarteners from five states. Three theoretically-guided factor structures were measured and tested with one half of our…
This article describes the evaluation outcomes of an innovative, community based educational initiative to enhance and promote the awareness of literacy and numeracy in young children in two regional communities in Moorabool Shire, Victoria. With the support of committed educational and community partners (through the Moorabool Best Start…
Werfel, Krystal L.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare change in emergent literacy skills of preschool children with and without hearing loss over a 6-month period. Method: Participants included 19 children with hearing loss and 14 children with normal hearing. Children with hearing loss used amplification and spoken language. Participants completed…
Shamir, Haya; Feehan, Kathryn; Yoder, Erik
This study explores the efficacy of the Waterford Early Reading program (ERP) for teaching kindergarten and first grade students' early reading concepts. Students attended 3 elementary schools in Alabama. The treatment group used the software program whereas the control group did not use the software. Analyses revealed a significant treatment…
Lewis, Barbara A.; Avrich, Allison A.; Freebairn, Lisa A.; Hansen, Amy J.; Sucheston, Lara E.; Kuo, Iris; Taylor, H. Gerry; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Stein, Catherine M.
Purpose: To demonstrate that early childhood speech sound disorders (SSD) and later school-age reading, written expression, and spelling skills are influenced by shared endophenotypes that may be in part genetic. Method: Children with SSD and their siblings were assessed at early childhood (ages 4-6 years) and followed at school age (7-12 years).…
TOWE-GOODMAN, NISSA R.; STIFTER, CYNTHIA A.; COCCIA, MICHAEL A.; COX, MARTHA J.
The current study explored longitudinal associations between interparental aggression, the development of child attention skills, and early childhood behavior problems in a diverse sample of 636 families living in predominately low-income, nonmetropolitan communities. The results of latent-variable, cross-lagged longitudinal models revealed that maternal-reported interparental aggression in infancy predicted reduced observed attention skills in toddlerhood; no association was observed, however, between attention in infancy and interparental aggression during the toddler years. Further, reduced toddler attention and high interparental aggression were both associated with increased risk for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms and conduct problems at 3 years of age. Processes largely operated in similar ways regardless of child gender or low-income status, although a few differences were observed. Overall, the results suggest that interparental aggression undermines attention development, putting children’s early behavioral adjustment at risk. PMID:23786696
Skibbe, Lori E.; Connor, Carol McDonald; Morrison, Frederick J.; Jewkes, Abigail M.
The present study examined the influence of schooling during children’s first and second years of preschool for children who experienced different amounts of preschool (i.e., one or two years), but who were essentially the same chronological age. Children (n = 76) were tested in the fall and spring of the school year using measures of self-regulation, decoding, letter knowledge, and vocabulary. Using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM), preschool was not associated with children’s development of self-regulation in either year. For decoding and letter knowledge, children finishing their second year of preschool had higher scores, although both groups of children grew similarly during the school year. Thus, our results suggest that the first and second years of preschool are both systematically associated with decoding and letter knowledge gains, and the effects are cumulative (two years predicted greater gains overall than did one year of preschool). Finally, children’s chronological age, and not whether they experienced one versus two years of preschool, predicted children’s vocabulary and self-regulation outcomes. Implications for preschool curricula and instruction are discussed, including the increasing emphasis on literacy learning prior to kindergarten entry and the need to address self-regulation development along with academic learning. PMID:24068856
Hall, Kyle Wm; Zhang, Zhengcai; Kusalik, Peter G
The molecular-level details of mixed hydrate nucleation remain unclear despite the broad implications of this process for a variety of scientific domains. Through analysis of mixed hydrate nucleation in a prototypical CH 4 /H 2 S/H 2 O system, we demonstrate that high-level kinetic similarities between mixed hydrate systems and corresponding pure hydrate systems are not a reliable basis for estimating the composition of early stage mixed hydrate nuclei. Moreover, we show that solution compositions prior to and during nucleation are not necessarily effective proxies for the composition of early stage mixed hydrate nuclei. Rather, microscopic details, (e.g., guest-host interactions and previously neglected cage types) apparently play key roles in determining early stage behavior of mixed hydrates. This work thus provides key foundational concepts and insights for understanding mixed hydrate nucleation.
Neef, Nicole E; Schaadt, Gesa; Friederici, Angela D
Precise temporal coding of speech plays a pivotal role in sound processing throughout the central auditory system, which, in turn, influences literacy acquisition. The current study tests whether an electrophysiological measure of this precision predicts literacy skills. Complex auditory brainstem responses were analysed from 62 native German-speaking children aged 11-13years. We employed the cross-phaseogram approach to compute the quality of the electrophysiological stimulus contrast [da] and [ba]. Phase shifts were expected to vary with literacy. Receiver operating curves demonstrated a feasible sensitivity and specificity of the electrophysiological measure. A multiple regression analysis resulted in a significant prediction of literacy by delta cross-phase as well as phonological awareness. A further commonality analysis separated a unique variance that was explained by the physiological measure, from a unique variance that was explained by the behavioral measure, and common effects of both. Despite multicollinearities between literacy, phonological awareness, and subcortical differentiation of stop consonants, a combined assessment of behavior and physiology strongly increases the ability to predict literacy skills. The strong link between the neurophysiological signature of sound encoding and literacy outcome suggests that the delta cross-phase could indicate the risk of dyslexia and thereby complement subjective psychometric measures for early diagnoses. Copyright Â© 2016 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Halim, May Ling D; Ruble, Diane N; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S; Shrout, Patrick E; Amodio, David M
This study examined factors that predicted children's gender intergroup attitudes at age 5 and the implications of these attitudes for intergroup behavior. Ethnically diverse children from low-income backgrounds (N = 246; Mexican-, Chinese-, Dominican-, and African American) were assessed at ages 4 and 5. On average, children reported positive same-gender and negative other-gender attitudes. Positive same-gender attitudes were associated with knowledge of gender stereotypes. In contrast, positive other-gender attitudes were associated with flexibility in gender cognitions (stereotype flexibility, gender consistency). Other-gender attitudes predicted gender-biased behavior. These patterns were observed in all ethnic groups. These findings suggest that early learning about gender categories shape young children's gender attitudes and that these gender attitudes already have consequences for children's intergroup behavior at age 5. © 2016 The Authors. Child Development © 2016 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.
Halim, May Ling D.; Ruble, Diane N.; Tamis-LeMonda, Catherine S.; Shrout, Patrick E.; Amodio, David M.
This study examined factors that predicted children’s gender intergroup attitudes at age 5 and the implications of these attitudes for intergroup behavior. Ethnically-diverse children from low-income backgrounds (N=246, Mexican-, Chinese-, Dominican-, and African-American) were assessed at ages 4 and 5. On average, children reported positive same-gender and negative other-gender attitudes. Positive same-gender attitudes were associated with knowledge of gender stereotypes. In contrast, positive other-gender attitudes were associated with flexibility in gender cognitions (stereotype flexibility, gender consistency). Other-gender attitudes predicted gender-biased behavior. These patterns were observed in all ethnic groups. These findings suggest that early learning about gender categories shape young children’s gender attitudes, and that these gender attitudes already have consequences for children’s intergroup behavior at age 5. PMID:27759886
A multilevel intervention to increase physical activity and improve healthy eating and physical literacy among young children (ages 3-5) attending early childcare centres: the Healthy Start-Départ Santé cluster randomised controlled trial study protocol.
Bélanger, Mathieu; Humbert, Louise; Vatanparast, Hassan; Ward, Stéphanie; Muhajarine, Nazeem; Chow, Amanda Froehlich; Engler-Stringer, Rachel; Donovan, Denise; Carrier, Natalie; Leis, Anne
Development-II (physical literacy), and digital photography-assisted weighted plate waste (food intake). The multifaceted approach of Healthy Start-Départ Santé positions it well to improve the physical literacy and both dietary and physical activity behaviors of children attending early childcare centers. The results of this study will be of relevance given the overwhelming prevalence of overweight and obesity in children worldwide. NCT02375490 (ClinicalTrials.gov registry).