Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Lake, Vickie E.; Greulich, Luana; Folsom, Jessica S.; Guidry, Lisa
This randomized-control trial examined the learning of preservice teachers taking an initial Early Literacy course in an early childhood education program and of the kindergarten or first grade students they tutored in their field experience. Preservice teachers were randomly assigned to one of two tutoring programs: Book Buddies and Tutor…
Mraz, Maryann; Kissel, Brian; Algozzine, Bob; Babb, Julie; Foxworth, Kimberly
Many believe that the key to translating research into successful practice lies in providing teachers with continuous professional development and ongoing coaching support. In this article, we provide an overview of the relevant coaching literature and describe 4 critical features of an evidence-based preschool literacy coaching model: the coach…
Parkinson, Julia; Meakin, John; Salinger, Terry
Student achievement in literacy has been a focal concern in the United States for many years. Improving teachers' knowledge and skill that leads to improved student achievement, particularly in the early grades, can place children on an improved trajectory that can have long-term impacts on life outcomes. Over the past decade, a large body of…
Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Lake, Vickie E; Greulich, Luana; Folsom, Jessica S; Guidry, Lisa
This randomized-control trial examined the learning of preservice teachers taking an initial Early Literacy course in an early childhood education program and of the kindergarten or first grade students they tutored in their field experience. Preservice teachers were randomly assigned to one of two tutoring programs: Book Buddies and Tutor Assisted Intensive Learning Strategies (TAILS), which provided identical meaning-focused instruction (shared book reading), but differed in the presentation of code-focused skills. TAILS used explicit, scripted lessons, and the Book Buddies required that code-focused instruction take place during shared book reading. Our research goal was to understand which tutoring program would be most effective in improving knowledge about reading, lead to broad and deep language and preparedness of the novice preservice teachers, and yield the most successful student reading outcomes. Findings indicate that all pre-service teachers demonstrated similar gains in knowledge, but preservice teachers in the TAILS program demonstrated broader and deeper application of knowledge and higher self-ratings of preparedness to teach reading. Students in both conditions made similar comprehension gains, but students tutored with TAILS showed significantly stronger decoding gains.
The PacifiCorp Foundation for Learning was at a turning point in August 2006. It had been five years since the corporate foundation had shifted its focus from general-purpose grantmaking to supporting individual and community learning, and its flagship Early Childhood Literacy Initiative--launched in 2003 to raise literacy rates in the communities…
McKenney, Susan; Bradley, Barbara
Against the backdrop of growing international concern for a narrowing view of early literacy, this study was initiated to determine how teachers of four-year-olds view their task of fostering early literacy. This paper reports on the first steps to design and validate an instrument which captures teachers' perceptions of early literacy content…
Folsom, Jessica Sidler; Smith, Kevin G.; Burk, Kymyona; Oakley, Nathan
Substantial research points to the importance of developing strong early literacy skills. However, according to the National Assessment of Educational Progress, between 2007 and 2013, no more than 55 percent of Mississippi grade 4 students were reading at or above the proficiency level that demonstrates solid academic performance for the grade…
Maher, Marguerite; Bellen, Linda
There is a growing awareness that some children transition into formal schooling more readily than others. Compelling evidence indicates that children familiar with the skills and knowledge associated with the dominant practices of literacy teaching in schools have an advantage. While families play a pivotal role in children's early literacy…
Vines, Diane Welch
The National Adult Literacy Initiative calls for a collaborative effort among the public, private, voluntary, and military sectors to address more effectively illiteracy through adult education. One of the first points in the initiative calls for continued educational services funded by the federal government and administered by the states. Other…
Blair, Leslie Asher, Ed.
This newsletter of the Southwest Educational Development Laboratory (SEDL)contains a collection of articles which discuss various aspects of early literacy. Articles in the newsletter are: "Introduction: Reading Instruction, a Key to the Future"; "Ensuring Early Literacy through Coherent Instruction" (Leslie Blair);…
Arbreton, Amy J. A.; Goldsmith, Julie; Sheldon, Jessica
The James Irvine Foundation launched the Communities Organizing Resources to Advance Learning (CORAL) initiative in 1999 with the goal of improving the academic achievement of children in the lowest-performing schools in five California cities. In 2004, CORAL adopted a more targeted approach toward reaching this goal by integrating a regular…
Al Otaiba, Stephanie; Foorman, Barbara
The purpose of this paper is to describe the efficacy of early literacy interventions and to discuss possible roles for volunteer tutors in helping prevent reading difficulties within the Response to Intervention process. First, we describe a landmark study that evaluated the impact of primary classroom instruction on reducing the proportion of students at risk for reading failure, and a more recent series of studies exploring the effects of individualizing classroom reading instruction based on students’ initial skills. Second, we review studies of more intensive early intervention to demonstrate how these interventions substantially reduce the proportion of students at risk. Third, we examine effective tutoring models that utilize volunteers. Finally, we discuss the potential role of community tutors in supporting primary classroom instruction and secondary interventions. PMID:25221452
Werfel, Krystal L
The purpose of this study was to compare change in emergent literacy skills of preschool children with and without hearing loss over a 6-month period. Participants included 19 children with hearing loss and 14 children with normal hearing. Children with hearing loss used amplification and spoken language. Participants completed measures of oral language, phonological processing, and print knowledge twice at a 6-month interval. A series of repeated-measures analyses of variance were used to compare change across groups. Main effects of time were observed for all variables except phonological recoding. Main effects of group were observed for vocabulary, morphosyntax, phonological memory, and concepts of print. Interaction effects were observed for phonological awareness and concepts of print. Children with hearing loss performed more poorly than children with normal hearing on measures of oral language, phonological memory, and conceptual print knowledge. Two interaction effects were present. For phonological awareness and concepts of print, children with hearing loss demonstrated less positive change than children with normal hearing. Although children with hearing loss generally demonstrated a positive growth in emergent literacy skills, their initial performance was lower than that of children with normal hearing, and rates of change were not sufficient to catch up to the peers over time.
School Renaissance Inst., Inc., Madison, WI.
This report describes the development and testing of a computerized early literacy diagnostic assessment for students in prekindergarten to grade 3 that can measure skills across a variety of preliteracy and reading domains. The STAR Early Literacy assessment was developed by a team of more than 50 people, including literacy experts,…
Cárdenas-Hagan, Elsa; Carlson, Coleen D; Pollard-Durodola, Sharolyn D
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of initial first and second language proficiencies as well as the language of instruction that a student receives on the relationship between native language ability of students who are English language learners (ELLs) and their development of early literacy skills and the second language. This study investigated the development of early language and literacy skills among Spanish-speaking students in 2 large urban school districts, 1 middle-size urban district, and 1 border district. A total of 1,016 ELLs in kindergarten participated in the study. Students were administered a comprehensive battery of tests in English and Spanish, and classroom observations provided information regarding the Spanish or English language use of the teacher. Findings from this study suggest that Spanish-speaking students with high Spanish letter name and sound knowledge tend to show high levels of English letter name and sound knowledge. ELLs with low Spanish and English letter name and sound knowledge tend to show high levels of English letter name and sound knowledge when they are instructed in English. Letter name and sound identification skills are fairly highly positively correlated across languages in the beginning of the kindergarten year. In addition, phonological awareness skills appear to be the area with the most significant and direct transfer of knowledge, and language skills do not appear to be a factor in the development of phonological awareness. Finally, the relationship between oral language skills across languages was low, suggesting little relationship between oral language skills across languages at the beginning of the kindergarten year. Results from this study suggest that pedagogical decisions for ELLs should not only consider effective instructional literacy strategies but also acknowledge that the language of instruction for Spanish-speaking ELLs may produce varying results for different students.
Hardman, Margaret; Jones, Lynn
Evaluation of an early literacy initiative in which free books and literacy information were given to 40 caregivers of infants. Compared book-related activity in the home before and 2 months after the program. Results showed significant increases in book ownership and frequency of mothers and babies looking at children's books together. (SK)
Werfel, Krystal L.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare change in emergent literacy skills of preschool children with and without hearing loss over a 6-month period. Method: Participants included 19 children with hearing loss and 14 children with normal hearing. Children with hearing loss used amplification and spoken language. Participants completed…
Kirby, John R.; Hogan, Brenda
A battery of reading-related and reading measures was used to select samples of good (N = 30) and poor readers (N = 19) in Grade 1. Parents of these children completed a questionnaire about current and preschool home literacy practices and socio-economic status (SES). The 2 groups were compared with t tests and in a discriminant analysis. The t…
Dickinson, David K., Ed.; Neuman, Susan B., Ed.
Current research increasingly highlights the role of early literacy in young children's development--and informs practices and policies that promote success among diverse learners. This handbook presents cutting-edge knowledge on all aspects of literacy learning in the early years. Volume 2 provides additional perspectives on important topics…
In these politically charged times of early literacy initiatives, position statements, and education reform, talk about play and literacy learning seems rather awkward, if not even a bit silly. As the realities of early literacy education set in, teachers, legislators, and parents grow ever more critical of what young children are doing as…
Purpura, David J.; Hume, Laura E.; Sims, Darcey M.; Lonigan, Cristopher J.
The purpose of this study was to examine whether early literacy skills uniquely predict early numeracy skills development. During the first year of the study, 69 3- to 5-year-old preschoolers were assessed on the Preschool Early Numeracy Skills (PENS) test and the Test of Preschool Early Literacy Skills (TOPEL). Participants were assessed again a…
Simmons, Robert A; Cosgrove, Susan C; Romney, Martha C; Plumb, James D; Brawer, Rickie O; Gonzalez, Evelyn T; Fleisher, Linda G; Moore, Bradley S
Health literacy, the degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand health information and services needed to make health decisions, is an essential element for early adults (aged 18-44 years) to make informed decisions about cancer. Low health literacy is one of the social determinants of health associated with cancer-related disparities. Over the past several years, a nonprofit organization, a university, and a cancer center in a major urban environment have developed and implemented health literacy programs within healthcare systems and in the community. Health system personnel received extensive health literacy training to reduce medical jargon and improve their patient education using plain language easy-to-understand written materials and teach-back, and also designed plain language written materials including visuals to provide more culturally and linguistically appropriate health education and enhance web-based information. Several sustainable health system policy changes occurred over time. At the community level, organizational assessments and peer leader training on health literacy have occurred to reduce communication barriers between consumers and providers. Some of these programs have been cancer specific, including consumer education in such areas as cervical cancer, skin cancer, and breast cancer that are targeted to early adults across the cancer spectrum from prevention to treatment to survivorship. An example of consumer-driven health education that was tested for health literacy using a comic book-style photonovel on breast cancer with an intergenerational family approach for Chinese Americans is provided. Key lessons learned from the health literacy initiatives and overall conclusions of the health literacy initiatives are also summarized. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
For infants and toddlers, education and care are "two sides of the same coin." The author briefly reviews current research on the importance of relationships to cognitive development and early language and literacy. Instructional strategies that are most appropriate to the early years include "intentionality" and "scaffolding." Intentionality…
Robinson, Laura Eisenberg
Information literacy is becoming more prominent in K-12 education and continues to be a vital part of university-level studies. In today's complex society, it's not enough to be able to read, write, and do math. People continuously need to identify and recognize their information needs, locate necessary resources, use the essential information…
Homan, Susan; King, James R.; Hogarty, Kris
Over the last 2 years, Accelerated Literacy Learning (ALL) has experimented with the small group model in early literacy intervention, with success comparable to that in one-to-one intervention. There can be little doubt that intervention provided to struggling readers is most effectively initiated at an early stage. The ALL program was conceived…
This report focuses on 11 states' efforts to develop state-funded family literacy initiatives either through legislation or other actions. An introduction defines family literacy. Part I includes in-depth case studies on seven states that have either passed or attempted to pass state family literacy legislation. For each state (Kentucky,…
Kissel, Brian; Mraz, Maryann; Algozzine, Bob; Stover, Katie
In recent years, literacy coaches have emerged as an integral part of a school's literacy team. Although current research on literacy coaching examines the work of coaches at the elementary and middle/secondary school levels, little research exists on the roles and perspectives of early childhood literacy coaches. This study sought to fill that…
Abel, Carolyn Davidson; Abel, Charles Frederick
How did Cuba erase illiteracy in a single year? How did they combine both a phonics approach with the constructivist meaning-based model for teaching reading that we cannot seem to manage here in the states? This paper seeks to shed light on Cuba's impressive 1961 National Literacy Campaign and reflects upon implications for early literacy…
Bridges-Rhoads, Sarah; Van Cleave, Jessica
This paper was written in the midst of enquiry--provoked by the question of what happens when we write posthumanism, qualitative enquiry and early literacy together. Rather than offer a stable methodology that is the product of our experimentation, the paper functions as a map, a situated cartography that has multiple access points and is…
Froiland, John Mark; Powell, Douglas R.; Diamond, Karen E.; Son, Seung-Hee Claire
In response to growing research and policy interest in the developmental contexts of early literacy, this study examined relations between neighborhood socioeconomic well-being, home literacy (parent-child shared reading and number of books at home), and directly assessed early literacy outcomes among 551 Head Start students in the fall of…
McLachlan, Claire; Nicholson, Tom; Fielding-Barnsley, Ruth; Mercer, Louise; Ohi, Sarah
Literacy in Early Childhood and Primary Education provides a comprehensive introduction to literacy teaching and learning. The book explores the continuum of literacy learning and children's transitions from early childhood settings to junior primary classrooms and then to senior primary and beyond. Reader-friendly and accessible, this book equips…
Ryan, Sheri Ann
Because early literacy development occurs through social processes, parents need to be involved in the beginning stages of their children's reading. This thesis details the need for early literacy experiences and provides evidence that reading success begins at home. The thesis distinguishes illiteracy and aliteracy, defines literacy, discusses…
Razfar, Aria; Yang, Eunah
This article examines sociocultural research on early literacy development in the digital age. The last decade has witnessed a proliferation of informational technology that has fundamentally shifted how we think about language and literacy in the early childhood years. Despite these trends, narrow and reductive views of literacy continue to…
Jung, Youngok; Zuniga, Stephen; Howes, Carollee; Jeon, Hyun-Joo; Parrish, Deborah; Quick, Heather; Manship, Karen; Hauser, Alison
Noting the lack of research on how early childhood education (ECE) programmes within family literacy programmes influence Latino children's early language and literacy development, this study examined key features of ECE programmes, specifically teacher-child interactions and child engagement in language and literacy activities and how these…
Luyee, Eunice Ong; Roselan, Fauzan Izzati; Anwardeen, Nor Hafizah; Mustapa, Fatin Hazirah Mohd
Early literacy skills are crucial in a child's learning process and awareness should be raised in order to ensure the quality of early literacy assessments. In this paper, the writers discuss the quality of early literacy assessment in Malaysia, LINUS 2.0 by looking at its validity and reliability. An established early literacy program is compared…
The major purpose of the study was to look into change and continuity in the policy and practices of adult basic literacy initiatives in Ethiopia and to deduce lessons that can be drawn from the experiences for the future of adult basic literacy program in the country and elsewhere. Data was obtained through critical review of documents on the…
Purpura, David J; Hume, Laura E; Sims, Darcey M; Lonigan, Christopher J
The purpose of this study was to examine whether early literacy skills uniquely predict early numeracy skills development. During the first year of the study, 69 3- to 5-year-old preschoolers were assessed on the Preschool Early Numeracy Skills (PENS) test and the Test of Preschool Early Literacy Skills (TOPEL). Participants were assessed again a year later on the PENS test and on the Applied Problems and Calculation subtests of the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Achievement. Three mixed effect regressions were conducted using Time 2 PENS, Applied Problems, and Calculation as the dependent variables. Print Knowledge and Vocabulary accounted for unique variance in the prediction of Time 2 numeracy scores. Phonological Awareness did not uniquely predict any of the mathematics domains. The findings of this study identify an important link between early literacy and early numeracy development. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Davidse, N. J.; De Jong, M. T.; Bus, A. G.
How can it be explained that early literacy and numeracy share variance? We specifically tested whether the correlation between four early literacy skills (rhyming, letter knowledge, emergent writing, and orthographic knowledge) and simple sums (non-symbolic and story condition) reduced after taking into account preschool attention control,…
Whitmore, Kathryn F.; Martens, Prisca; Goodman, Yetta M.; Owocki, Gretchen
This article is a synthesis of early literacy research organized according to critical lessons that delineate our shared knowledge base that we name a 'transactional perspective on early literacy development.' The critical lessons are grouped into three sets to present the continuum of methodological stances that interpretive researchers take as…
Blamey, Katrin; Beauchat, Katherine
Four evidence-based instructional approaches create an essential resource for any early literacy teacher or coach. Improve your teaching practices in all areas of early literacy. Use four proven instructional approaches--standards based, evidenced based, assessment based, and student based--to improve their teaching practice in all areas of early…
Swick, Kevin J.
Early childhood family literacy programs have great potential to positively influence children and families. This article presents the core values and key components of high quality early childhood family literacy programs. The benefits and cost effectiveness of these programs are also discussed.
Holliman, Andrew; Critten, Sarah; Lawrence, Tony; Harrison, Emily; Wood, Clare; Hughes, David
A growing literature has demonstrated that prosodic sensitivity is related to early literacy development; however, the precise nature of this relationship remains unclear. It has been speculated in recent theoretical models that the observed relationship between prosodic sensitivity and early literacy might be partially mediated by children's…
Foorman, Barbara; Dombek, Jennifer; Smith, Kevin
The objective of this article is to describe seven elements important to successful implementation of early literacy intervention. The seven elements are drawn from research as well as from the authors' recent randomized controlled trial of effective early literacy interventions in kindergarten through second grade in 55 schools across Florida.…
Guzzetti, Barbara J., Ed.
Living in an age of communication, literacy is an extremely integral part of our society. We are impacted by literature during our infancy, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. "Literacy for the New Millennium" includes information from specialists in the field who discuss the influence of popular culture, media, and technology on…
Tichnor-Wagner, Ariel; Garwood, Justin D.; Bratsch-Hines, Mary; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne
Factors such as weak early literacy skills and living in poverty may put young students at risk for reading disabilities. While home literacy activities and access to literacy materials have been associated with positive reading outcomes for urban and suburban students, little is known about home literacy environments of rural early elementary…
Ogg, Julia; Volpe, Robert; Rogers, Maria
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between inattention, academic enabling behaviors (i.e., motivation, engagement, and interpersonal skills), and early literacy outcomes. Kindergarten students (N = 181; 55.2% male; 62% white) from two research sites (Southeastern U.S. and Eastern Canada) were assessed using the Letter Naming and Letter Sound Fluency AIMSweb Tests of Early Literacy (Shinn & Shinn, 2012) at three points across the school year. Their teachers provided information on the level of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms (ADHD Symptom Checklist-4; Gadow & Sprafkin, 2008) and academic enabling behaviors (Academic Competence Evaluation Scales; DiPerna & Elliott, 2000). Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to determine predictors of initial level and growth in early literacy. Specifically, a series of models were tested to determine if a multidimensional model of academic enablers (AEs) mediated the relationship. Engagement predicted students' initial levels of early literacy, suggesting that this is an important mediator to consider between inattention and early literacy skills. Motivation related positively to engagement. Inattention also predicted both motivation and interpersonal skills in the negative direction. These findings suggest that AEs play an important role in the relationship between inattention and early literacy. AEs provide malleable targets for intervention and should be considered when developing intervention for youth at risk for academic failure. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Fricke, Jonathan; Navsaria, Dipesh; Mahony, Karin
Reach Out and Read (ROR) improves children's development and kindergarten readiness by encouraging parents to routinely share books with their children. Primary care providers give age-appropriate books and anticipatory guidance on reading at each well-child visit. This study evaluated parent attitudes and behaviors of early literacy related to ROR participation in Wisconsin clinics. A survey of early literacy attitudes and behaviors was administered to parents of children ages 6 months to 5 years in 36 Wisconsin clinics. Ten clinics were established ROR sites (intervention group) and 26 clinics had applied to become ROR programs but had not yet initiated the program (control group). Parents at clinics with ROR programs were more likely to read with a child under the age of 6 months (OR=1.58, 95% CI, 1.05-2.38). Other literacy metrics trended toward improvement but none reached statistical significance. Paradoxically, the odds of parents reporting reading as a bedtime habit were decreased among those who participated in ROR. Our study finds mixed support of the effectiveness of ROR outside of academic settings. The apparent discrepancy between these results and those from national studies on ROR may be related to differences in respondent demographics and educational attainment or differences in program implementation and fidelity. We believe that the results will become clearer with future study as clinics are prospectively evaluated over time rather than being compared to non-ROR clinics in a cross-sectional snapshot.
Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012
Since 1999, Nebraska's Early Head Start Infant/Toddler Quality Initiative has supported Early Head Start (EHS) and community child care partnerships to improve the quality and professionalism of infant and toddler care. EHS programs apply to receive funding to establish partnerships with center-based or home-based child care.The initiative has…
Gonzalez, Jorge E.; Goetz, Ernest T.; Hall, Robert J.; Payne, Tara; Taylor, Aaron B.; Kim, Minjung; McCormick, Anita S.
Early Reading First (ERF) was created to address problems related to language and development among economically disadvantaged and language-minority preschool children through quality classroom processes, professional development, and instruction. More than any previous initiative, ERF specifies what early literacy instruction should look like in…
Bell, T. H.
Because the Reagan administration believes that the problem of illiteracy must be countered with strong action at all levels of government and education in concert with the private sector, President Reagan announced the Adult Literacy Initiative last September. The initiative, which is based on the premise that the private sector has a keen…
Parsons, Allison Ward; Parsons, Seth A.; Morewood, Aimee; Ankrum, Julie W.
In this article, we describe lessons learned from three separate literacy professional learning initiatives that took place in elementary schools in three different locations: high-poverty urban, medium-poverty rural, and low-poverty suburban. The professional learning initiatives were also diverse in scope: one was a three-year, school-wide…
Lederberg, Amy R.; Miller, Elizabeth M.; Easterbrooks, Susan R.; Connor, Carol McDonald
The present study evaluated the efficacy of a new preschool early literacy intervention created specifically for deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children with functional hearing. Teachers implemented "Foundations for Literacy" with 25 DHH children in 2 schools (intervention group). One school used only spoken language, and the other used…
Lybolt, John; Armstrong, Jennifer; Techmanski, Kristin Evans; Gottfred, Catherine
For children from low-resource backgrounds, a literacy-rich preschool experience with a skilled and engaged teacher can offset risk factors and lay the groundwork for lifelong academic success. Now schools can ensure effective early literacy instruction with this field-tested, research-based curriculum for children 3 to 5 years of age. These 41…
Arellano, Elizabeth Michelle
This study examined the effectiveness of a targeted early literacy intervention among Spanish-speaking kindergarten English Learners (ELs). Using a Response to Intervention (RtI) framework, participants were screened in English to ensure a need for additional literacy support. Selected students were then screened in Spanish, and students with…
My paper looks at "signatures" in the form of "ciphers" (kao) and other personal marks made on population registers, town rules, and apostasy oaths in the early seventeenth century to provide some empirical evidence of very high literacy among village leaders. The essay also argues, using the same data, that literacy had…
Liang, Poh-Hwa; Johnson, James
Discusses technology with reference to children's play, including how technology mixes with the established connection between children's play and emergent literacy and advantages and disadvantages of the three-way intersection of technology, literacy, and play in early childhood education. Addresses play and computers, software, the Internet, and…
Makin, Laurie; Diaz, Criss Jones
Acknowledging that young children's early understandings about literacy occur within their cultural and linguistic communities, the book compiles articles challenging traditional views of literacy and suggesting positive new practices. Each chapter includes "reflection" and "followup" sections that reinforce the link between theory and practice,…
Hiebert, Elfrieda H., Ed.; Taylor, Barbara M., Ed.
Presenting descriptions of seven successful emergent literacy programs, this book demonstrates that early literacy intervention programs with a focus on accelerated learning and on authentic reading and writing tasks can prevent many first-grade children from failing to learn to read. Programs described in the book focus on story book reading and…
Echols, Julie M. Young
Reading proficiency is the goal of many local and national reading initiatives. A key component of these initiatives is accurate and reliable reading assessment. In this high-stakes testing arena, the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) has emerged as a preferred measure for identification of students at risk for reading…
This paper presents a historical reflection on gender and literacy, with a view to informing the present teaching of literacy in early childhood. The relationship between gender, literacy and opportunity in the labour market is examined, given that despite girls' achievement in literacy, in comparison with boys', women continue to earn…
Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012
The Oklahoma Early Childhood Program uses public and private funds to enhance and expand high quality early care and education opportunities for children birth through age 3. The George Kaiser Family Foundation initiated the pilot in 2006 by matching state general revenue with private donations. Since that time, other private funders and providers…
Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012
Missouri's Early Head Start/Child Care Partnership Project expands access to Early Head Start (EHS) services for children birth to age 3 by developing partnerships between federal Head Start, EHS contractors, and child care providers. Head Start and EHS contractors that participate in the initiative provide services through community child care…
Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012
Maine has two initiatives that build on Early Head Start (EHS). The first initiative, Fund for a Healthy Maine, has since 2001 provided tobacco settlement money to existing Head Start and EHS programs to expand the number of children who receive full-day, full-year services. Local programs have the option of using these funds for EHS, depending on…
Shanahan, Timothy; Lonigan, Christopher J.
This article summarizes "Developing Early Literacy: Report of the National Early Literacy Panel," which was published in 2008.That report provides an extensive meta-analysis of approximately 300 studies showing which early literacy measures correlate with later literacy achievement. It also provides a series of meta-analyses of a comprehensive…
Sarmiento, Anthony R.
The literature shows that state federations of labor should be, and many are, actively involved in current state literacy initiatives. The United States must develop a coherent and comprehensive system of lifetime education. This will require a greater commitment of public and private resources to education and training. Too many employers are…
Dubeck, Margaret M.; Jukes, Matthew C. H.; Okello, George
We report on a study that used observations, conversations, and formal interviews to explore literacy instruction in 24 lower-primary classrooms in coastal Kenya. Specifically, we report the ways literacy instruction is delivered and how that delivery aligns with practices understood to promote reading acquisition. We find (1) prioritization of…
The purpose of the article is to describe Finnish media literacy policies and good media education practices in early childhood education and care. This article will focus on describing two central action lines related to the Children and Media Program, initiated by the Division for Cultural Policy of the Ministry of Education and Culture in 2004.…
Chan, Man Ching Esther
The Early Literacy Knowledge and Skills (ELKS) instrument was informed by the work of Ferreiro and Teberosky based on the notion that young children could be differentiated according to levels of sophistication in their understanding of the rules of written language. As an initial step to evaluate the instrument for teaching purposes, the present…
This article describes some implications of using a multiple literacies perspective in the construction and implementation of literacy curriculum, pedagogy, and assessment in early childhood and elementary classrooms. After briefly laying out a theoretical perspective in sections focusing on early literacy, academic learning, literacy beyond…
Neuman, Susan B.
In this article, the author talks about "Developing Early Literacy," the report of the National Early Literacy Panel. The panel, which consisted of nine experts, was convened by the National Institute for Literacy to synthesize the research on the development of literacy from birth through age 5. Over the eight years of their work, only 190…
Kaminski, Ruth A.; Powell-Smith, Kelly A.
Phonemic awareness has been consistently identified as an essential skill for as well as an important predictor of later reading achievement. Children who lack these early literacy skills at kindergarten entry are more likely to demonstrate both short- and long-term reading difficulties. Despite the importance of providing intervention early,…
Wolcott, Willa, Ed.
The late Margaret J. Early was a nationally renowned educator in the field of English education and reading, a past president of the National Council of Teachers of English, an author and an editor herself, and the recipient of many awards. The book Reflections on Teaching Literacy: Selected Speeches of Margaret J. Early, edited by Willa Wolcott,…
Baroody, Alison E.; Diamond, Karen E.
This study examines the relations among the classroom literacy environment, children's interest and engagement in literacy activities, and children's early reading skills in a sample of 167 children aged 4 and 5 years enrolled in 31 Head Start classrooms. Researchers rated the classroom literacy environment. Teachers reported on children's…
Haak, Jill; Downer, Jason; Reeve, Ronald
Research Findings: This study investigated the relationships between behavior and attention problems and early language and literacy outcomes for 4-year-olds who experienced varied early home literacy environments. Participants were 1,364 children enrolled in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care…
Part of social and emotional development is a child's emotional literacy. Numerous strategies exist for the development of children's emotional and social development, and for their emotional readiness for school. Teachers might arrange a classroom environment that is not overly structured or regimented. The environment should reflect who the…
Neuman, Susan B., Ed.; Dickinson, David K., Ed.
Building crucial bridges between theory, research, and practice, this volume brings together leading authorities on the literacy development of young children. The "Handbook" examines the full range of factors that shape learning in and out of the classroom, from basic developmental processes to family and sociocultural contexts,…
A study was conducted to determine and compare the literacy beliefs, knowledge bases, and practices of early childhood educators who espouse emergent literacy and reading readiness philosophies; to explore the relationship among beliefs, knowledge bases, and practices; and to examine the degree to which beliefs, knowledge bases, and practices were…
Clausell, Arlene Midget
The research problem is: Many parents are not involved in their children's early literacy education. Some Head Start parents experience issues that keep them from teaching their children early literacy skills. The research questions were: What are the factors for parental involvement in the support of early literacy skill development for their…
Xu, Yaoying; Chin, Christopher; Reed, Evelyn; Hutchinson, Cynthia
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a federally funded early literacy project that aimed to promote the school readiness skills of preschool-age children from low income families. Through daily, explicit, and systematic instruction, the project targeted to improve preschoolers' oral language skills, phonological awareness,…
Literacy Teaching and Learning: An International Journal of Early Literacy, 1996
Developed as a vehicle of communication for the Reading Recovery Council of North America, this journal represents an international effort to connect researchers, teachers, and all those interested in early literacy. Articles in the first issue of this second volume are: "Oral Language: Assessment and Development in Reading Recovery in the…
Binder, Katherine S.; Snyder, Melissa A.; Ardoin, Scott P.; Morris, Robin K.
This study examined the reliability and validity of administering Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) to adult basic education (ABE) students. Ninety ABE participants were administered DIBELS measures, the Woodcock-Johnson III Broad Reading (WJ III BR) measures, and four orthographic ability tests. Since ABE students are a…
Klein, Adria F., Ed.; Swartz, Stanley L., Ed.
Developed as a vehicle of communication for the Reading Recovery Council of North America, this journal represents an international effort to connect researchers, teachers, and all those interested in early literacy. Articles in the special inaugural issue on Reading Recovery are: "Reading Recovery: An Overview" (Stanley L. Swartz and…
Grace, Donna J.; Brandt, Mary E.
Early childhood educators believe that schooling for young children should focus on developing the "whole child," socially, emotionally, physically, and academically. Teaching pre-reading skills and encouraging children to read are essential steps on the path of literacy development. A narrow and persistent attention to academics is…
Rosenthal, Julie L.; Donnantuono, Marie; Lebron, Mary; Flynn, Christina
This paper reports the effects on children, teacher candidates, and classroom teachers of a PDS-based initial certification course in the teaching of literacy. In this course, teacher candidates work with individual struggling readers on a range of literacy tasks, and the classroom teacher and university faculty member serve as course…
Success in early literacy activities is associated with improved educational outcomes, including reduced dropout risk, in-grade retention, and special education referrals. When considering programs that will work for a particular school and context; cost-effectiveness analysis may provide useful information for decision makers. The study…
Gan, Yongcheng; Scardamalia, Marlene; Hong, Huang-Yao; Zhang, Jianwei
This study examined growth in graphical literacy for students contributing to an online, multimedia, communal environment as they advanced their understanding of biology, history and optics. Their science and history studies started early in Grade 3 and continued to the end of Grade 4; students did not receive instruction in graphics production,…
Lopuch, Jeremy Jon
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of diagnostic formative assessment feedback on early literacy skills. The participants were 12 first-grade general education teachers and 51 of their students who were assigned to the following treatments, diagnostic feedback and skills feedback (control) which lasted for 10 weeks. During the…
Huang, Francis L.; Invernizzi, Marcia A.
The authors investigated whether age at kindergarten entry was associated with early literacy achievement gaps and if these gaps persisted over time. Using the kindergarten age eligibility cutoff date, they created 2 groups of students who represented the oldest and youngest children in a cohort of students in high-poverty, low-performing schools.…
Santos, Rosa Milagros; Fettig, Angel; Shaffer, LaShorage
Early childhood educators know that home is a child's first learning environment. From birth, children are comforted by hearing and listening to their caregivers' voices. The language used by families supports young children's development of oral language skills. Exposure to print materials in the home also supports literacy development. Literacy…
Johnson, Helen L.
The present paper explores the connections between theory and research in language development and aesthetic education and their implications for early childhood classroom practice. The present paper posits that arts experiences make a unique and vital contribution to the child's development of language and literacy, as well as to the sense of…
Fujisawa, Keiko K.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Kakihana, Shinichiro; Olson, Richard K.; DeFries, John C.; Byrne, Brian; Ando, Juko
This first Japanese twin study of early literacy development investigated the extent to which genetic and environmental factors influence individual differences in prereading skills in 238 pairs of twins at 42 months of age. Twin pairs were individually tested on measures of phonological awareness, "kana" letter name/sound knowledge,…
Wang, Xiao-lei; Bernas, Ronan; Eberhard, Philippe
This study examined how Chinese and American Indian mothers support their young children's early literacy development in everyday interactions. Twenty mother-child dyads in each cultural community participated in the study. Analysis of videotaped interactions indicated that the mothers in the two communities differed greatly in the ways they…
Iyer, Sai Nandini; Dawson, M Zachary; Sawyer, Mark I; Abdullah, Neelab; Saju, Leya; Needlman, Robert D
The Early Literacy Screener (ELS) is a brief screen for emergent literacy delays in 4- and 5-year-olds. Standard developmental screens may also flag these children. What is the value of adding the ELS? Parents of children aged 4 (n = 45) and 5 (n = 26) years completed the Ages and Stages Questionnaire-3 (ASQ-3), the Survey of Well-Being in Young Children (SWYC), and the ELS. Rates of positive agreement (PA), negative agreement (NA), and overall agreement (Cohen's κ) across the various screening tools were calculated. Early literacy delays were detected in 51% of those who passed the ASQ and 38% of those who passed the SWYC. For ELS versus ASQ, κ = 0.18, PA = 0.36 (95% CI = 0.23-0.51), and NA = 0.83 (95% CI = 0.66-0.92). For ELS versus SWYC, κ = 0.42, PA = 0.61 (95% CI = 0.45-0.75), and NA = 0.82 (95% CI = 0.65-0.92). The ELS adds value by flagging early literacy delays in many children who pass either the ASQ-3 or SWYC.
Lederberg, Amy R.; Miller, Elizabeth M.; Easterbrooks, Susan R.; Connor, Carol McDonald
The present study evaluated the efficacy of a new preschool early literacy intervention created specifically for deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children with functional hearing. Teachers implemented Foundations for Literacy with 25 DHH children in 2 schools (intervention group). One school used only spoken language, and the other used sign with and without spoken language. A “business as usual” comparison group included 33 DHH children who were matched on key characteristics with the intervention children but attended schools that did not implement Foundations for Literacy. Children’s hearing losses ranged from moderate to profound. Approximately half of the children had cochlear implants. All children had sufficient speech perception skills to identify referents of spoken words from closed sets of items. Teachers taught small groups of intervention children an hour a day, 4 days a week for the school year. From fall to spring, intervention children made significantly greater gains on tests of phonological awareness, letter–sound knowledge, and expressive vocabulary than did comparison children. In addition, intervention children showed significant increases in standard scores (based on hearing norms) on phonological awareness and vocabulary tests. This quasi-experimental study suggests that the intervention shows promise for improving early literacy skills of DHH children with functional hearing. PMID:25125456
Long, Cynthia R; Ackerman, Deborah L; Hammerschlag, Richard; Delagran, Louise; Peterson, David H; Berlin, Michelle; Evans, Roni L
To present the varied approaches of 9 complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) institutions (all grantees of the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine) used to develop faculty expertise in research literacy and evidence-based practice (EBP) in order to integrate these concepts into CAM curricula. A survey to elicit information on the faculty development initiatives was administered via e-mail to the 9 program directors. All 9 completed the survey, and 8 grantees provided narrative summaries of faculty training outcomes. The grantees found the following strategies for implementing their programs most useful: assess needs, develop and adopt research literacy and EBP competencies, target early adopters and change leaders, employ best practices in teaching and education, provide meaningful incentives, capitalize on resources provided by grant partners, provide external training opportunities, and garner support from institutional leadership. Instructional approaches varied considerably across grantees. The most common were workshops, online resources, in-person short courses, and in-depth seminar series developed by the grantees. Many also sent faculty to intensive multiday extramural training programs. Program evaluation included measuring participation rates and satisfaction and the integration of research literacy and EBP learning objectives throughout the academic curricula. Most grantees measured longitudinal changes in beliefs, attitudes, opinions, and competencies with repeated faculty surveys. A common need across all 9 CAM grantee institutions was foundational training for faculty in research literacy and EBP. Therefore, each grantee institution developed and implemented a faculty development program. In developing the framework for their programs, grantees used strategies that were viewed critical for success, including making them multifaceted and unique to their specific institutional needs. These strategies, in conjunction with the
Harper, William; Cook, Sandy; Makoul, Gregory
Objective: To develop medical students' skills in interacting with individuals who have limited health literacy. Methods: Described are 2 novel approaches to health literacy curriculum design. Efforts at both schools have been implemented to improve medical student awareness of health literacy, as well as specific skills in clear communication and…
High, Pamela C.
"Early Brain and Child Development" as a strategic priority of the American Academy of Pediatrics recognizes that early literacy and language skills build a strong foundation for healthy development and academic success. Promoting early literacy in the context of pediatric primary care supports early brain development and positive,…
UNESCO International Bureau of Education, 2006
This document describes the rationale and the strategy of the new United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Initiative for literacy: LIFE. The Literacy Initiative for Empowerment (LIFE) is designed as a global strategic framework through which national governments, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), civil…
Boston Medical Center, MA. Doc4Kids Project.
Suggesting that very young children spend every waking minute getting ready for kindergarten, this videotape for caregivers and early childhood teachers shows how to support early literacy skill development by sharing stories, relationships, and books with infants, toddlers, and preschoolers in care and education settings. The 25-minute videotape…
Snow, Pamela C; Eadie, Patricia A; Connell, Judy; Dalheim, Brenda; McCusker, Hugh J; Munro, John K
This study examined the impact of teacher professional development aimed at improving the capacity of primary teachers in disadvantaged schools to strengthen children's expressive and receptive oral language skills and early literacy success in the first 2 years of school. Fourteen low-SES schools in Victoria, Australia were randomly allocated to a research (n = 8) or control arm (n = 6), resulting in an initial sample of 1254 students, (n = 602 in research arm and n = 652 in control arm). The intervention comprised 6 days of teacher and principal professional development (delivered by language and literacy experts), school-based continuing contact with the research team and completion by one staff member of each research school of a postgraduate unit on early language and literacy. Schools in the control arm received standard teaching according to state auspiced curriculum guidelines. Full data were available on 979 students at follow-up (time 2). Students in the research arm performed significantly better on Test of Language Development: Primary (Fourth Edition) sub-tests (p ≤ .002) and the Reading Progress Test (F = 10.4(1); p = .001) than students in the control arm at time 2. Narrative scores were not significantly different at time 2, although students in research schools showed greater gains. Findings provide "proof of concept" for this approach, and are discussed with respect to implications for teacher professional development and pre-service education concerning the psycholinguistic competencies that underpin the transition to literacy.
Kidd, Joanna C.; Shum, Kathy Kar-Man; Ho, Connie Suk-Han; Au, Terry Kit-fong
Phonological processing skills predict early reading development, but what underlies developing phonological processing skills? Phonological representations of 140 native Cantonese-speaking Chinese children (age 4-10) were assessed with speech gating, mispronunciation detection, and nonword repetition tasks; their nonverbal IQ, reading, and…
Byrne, Brian; Olson, Richard K.; Samuelsson, Stefan; Wadsworth, Sally; Corley, Robin; DeFries, John C.; Willcutt, Erik
Prereading and early reading skills of preschool twin children in Australia, Scandinavia and the United States were explored in a genetically sensitive design (max. N=627 preschool pairs and 422 kindergarten pairs). Analyses indicated a strong genetic influence on preschool phonological awareness, rapid naming and verbal memory. Print awareness,…
Wiescholek, Sabrina; Hilkenmeier, Johanna; Greiner, Christian; Buhl, Heike M.
Home literacy environment (HLE) makes an important contribution to children's reading acquisition in early years. Even though some research on children's perception exists, children's reports about HLE have been neglected. The present study focuses on N = 281 six-year-old's reports about HLE and its influences on literacy enjoyment, frequency, and…
St. John, Edward P.; Bardzell, Jeffrey S.
This guide is designed to help school communities make good choices about early literacy intervention. The guide distinguishes between "reading" (a process of learning to decode and comprehend texts) and a broader concept of "literacy" that includes understanding of the value of language and reading (emergent literacy), the…
Weigel, Daniel J.; Martin, Sally S.; Lowman, Jennifer L.
Several challenges arise when researchers or practitioners attempt to assess the literacy skills of toddlers, including a lack of developmentally appropriate measures, toddlers' more limited communication ability, and how literacy is defined in the years before age three. This paper describes four new measures of early literacy development and…
Dynia, Jaclyn M.
The present study aimed to examine the quality of the classroom literacy environment in early childhood special education (ECSE) classrooms, as well as the relations between the classroom literacy environment and children's gains in print knowledge. To address these aims, the present study described the classroom literacy environments of 28…
Ross, Denise; Pinder, Glen; Coles-White, D'Jaris
Elementary charter schools increasingly serve students who are at-risk for reading challenges, giving them a critical role in establishing literacy for young children. This article examines the complexities of starting early childhood literacy programs in charter schools. Specifically, the first year of K-3 literacy programs in a new and a…
Dynia, Jaclyn M.; Schachter, Rachel E.; Piasta, Shayne B.; Justice, Laura M.; O'Connell, Ann A.; Yeager Pelatti, Christina
This study investigated the dimensionality of the physical literacy environment of early childhood education classrooms. Data on the classroom physical literacy environment were collected from 245 classrooms using the Classroom Literacy Observation Profile. A combination of confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis was used to identify five…
Lesaux, Nonie K.; Vukovic, Rose K.; Hertzman, Clyde; Siegel, Linda S.
Whereas the great majority of literacy research has been focused at the child level, this study examined the relationship between early literacy rates, developmental health of the population, and demographics in 23 school communities. The results showed that school-level literacy scores were related to the physical, social, and emotional maturity…
Monaghan, E. Jennifer
Offers a naturalistic picture of literacy in colonial North America by exploring family literacy in an early eighteenth-century urban New England setting. Uses the diaries and other writings of Cotton Mather (1663-1728) as sources on literacy within his family. Notes the importance of writing within the family. (SR)
Dynia, Jaclyn M.; Schachter, Rachel E.; Piasta, Shayne B.; Justice, Laura M.; O'Connell, Ann A.; Yeager Pelatti, Christina
This study investigated the dimensionality of the physical literacy environment of early childhood education classrooms. Data on the classroom physical literacy environment were collected from 245 classrooms using the Classroom Literacy Observation Profile. A combination of confirmatory and exploratory factor analysis was used to identify five…
Thatcher, Karen; Fletcher, Kathryn
The purpose of the current study was to examine therapists' perceptions about literacy in early intervention services. Little effort has been devoted to the incorporation of literacy into therapy services for very young children with special needs. In an attempt to understand how therapy providers view the role of literacy in their services, 168…
Lonigan, Christopher J; Goodrich, J Marc; Farver, JoAnn M
Despite acknowledgment that language-minority children come from a wide variety of home language backgrounds and have a wide range of proficiency in their first (L1) and second (L2) languages, it is unknown whether differences across language-minority children in relative and absolute levels of proficiency in L1 and L2 predict subsequent development of literacy-related skills. The purpose of this study was to identify subgroups of language-minority children and evaluate whether differences in level and rate of growth of early literacy skills differed across subgroups. Five-hundred and twenty-six children completed measures of Spanish and English language and early literacy skills at the beginning, middle, and end of the preschool year. Latent growth models indicated that children's early literacy skills were increasing over the course of the preschool year. Latent profile analysis indicated that language-minority children could be classified into nine distinct groups, each with unique patterns of absolute and relative levels of proficiency in L1 and L2. Results of three-step mixture models indicated that profiles were closely associated with level of early literacy skills at the beginning of the preschool year. Initial level of early literacy skills was positively associated with growth in code-related skills (i.e., print knowledge, phonological awareness) and inversely associated with growth in language skills. These findings suggest that language-minority children are a diverse group with regard to their L1 and L2 proficiencies and that growth in early literacy skills is most associated with level of proficiency in the same language. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Gischlar, Karen L.; Vesay, Joanne P.
Research has consistently demonstrated the importance of early literacy instruction, as these skills are the developmental precursors to conventional reading. In this study, 215 early childhood educators in two states responded to a survey regarding early literacy curricula and assessment. Results indicated that most teachers used either a…
Murphy, Jeanne Lovo; Hatton, Deborah; Erickson, Karen A.
Practices endorsed by 192 teachers of young children with visual impairments who completed an online early literacy survey included facilitating early attachment (70%), providing early literacy support to families (74%), and providing adaptations to increase accessibility (55%). Few teachers reported using assistive technology, providing…
Marston, Doug; Pickart, Mary; Reschly, Amy; Heistad, David; Muyskens, Paul; Tindal, Gerald
The importance of early literacy instruction and its role in later reading proficiency is well established; however, measures and procedures to screen and monitor proficiency in the area of early literacy are less well researched. The purpose of this study was to (a) examine the technical adequacy and validity of early curriculum-based literacy…
Levitt, Roberta; Red Owl, R. H.
Research has linked early literacy environments to the attitudes, behaviours and instructional values of reading teachers, but most prior research has addressed preservice or early inservice teachers. This mixed-methods, hypothesis-generating, "Q" methodology-based study explored the relationship between early literacy environments and…
Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012
Since 2000, Maryland has provided state supplemental funds to Head Start and Early Head Start (EHS) programs to improve access. Local EHS programs may use funds, through child care partnerships, to extend the EHS day or year. Maryland's approach to building on EHS includes: (1) Increase the capacity of existing Head Start and EHS programs to…
Center for Law and Social Policy, Inc. (CLASP), 2012
Kansas Early Head Start (KEHS) provides comprehensive services following federal Head Start Program Performance Standards for pregnant women and eligible families with children from birth to age 4. KEHS was implemented in 1998 using Child Care and Development Block Grant (CCDBG) quality set-aside dollars augmented by a transfer of federal…
Lenski, Susan; Ganske, Kathy; Chambers, Sandy; Wold, Linda; Dobler, Elizabeth; Grisham, Dana L.; Scales, Roya; Smetana, Linda; Wolsey, Thomas Devere; Yoder, Karen K.; Young, Janet
The purpose of this article is to describe the first part of a three-phase study to learn what makes an effective elementary literacy initial licensure program. The first step was to identify how nine programs prioritized research-based literacy practices and to identify each program's unique features, which we called "signature aspects." Findings…
Ippolito, Jacy; Dobbs, Christina L.; Charner-Laird, Megin
This article describes an initiative designed to improve the content-area literacy skills of all students at a Massachusetts high school and to demonstrate the important role teacher leaders play in bridging the various elements of school improvement efforts. Meeting students' language and literacy needs within content-area classrooms is becoming…
This report outlines findings from Pearson and the National Literacy Trust's second annual early years literacy survey, conducted in May to July 2014. 1,012 parents of children aged 3 to 5 and 567 early years practitioners who work with this age group participated. Attainment data in the form of vocabulary abilities were available for a subsample…
Goodrich, J. Marc; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Farver, Jo Ann M.
Spanish-speaking language-minority (LM) children are at an elevated risk of struggling academically and display signs of that risk during early childhood. Therefore, high-quality research is needed to identify instructional techniques that promote the school readiness of Spanish-speaking LM children. The primary purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention that utilized an experimental curriculum and two professional development models for the development of English and Spanish early literacy skills among LM children. We also evaluated whether LM children's proficiency in one language moderated the effect of the intervention on early literacy skills in the other language, as well as whether the intervention was differentially effective for LM and monolingual English-speaking children. Five hundred twenty-six Spanish-speaking LM children and 447 monolingual English-speaking children enrolled in 26 preschool centers in Los Angeles, CA participated in this study. Results indicated that the intervention was effective for improving LM children's code-related but not language-related English early literacy skills. There were no effects of the intervention on children's Spanish early literacy skills. Proficiency in Spanish did not moderate the effect of the intervention for any English early literacy outcomes; however, proficiency in English significantly moderated the effect of the intervention for Spanish oral language skills, such that the effect of the intervention was stronger for children with higher proficiency in English than it was for children with lower proficiency in English. In general, there were not differential effects of the intervention for LM and monolingual children. Taken together, these findings indicate that high-quality, evidence-based instruction can improve the early literacy skills of LM children and that the same instructional techniques are effective for enhancing the early literacy skills of LM and monolingual
Korat, Ofra; Gitait, Aviva; Bergman Deitcher, Deborah; Mevarech, Zmira
We researched the efficacy of an early literacy programme in enhancing immigrant children's phonological awareness (PA) and print knowledge, including transferring learning to numeracy. Participants were 294 Ethiopian-born immigrant children in Israel at kindergarten age and one of their parents. Parent-child dyads were randomly selected to…
Udry, J. Richard; Billy, John O. G.
White males' initiation of coitus in early adolescence is dominated by motivational hormone effects and social attractiveness. White females' initiation of coitus is dominated by the effects of social controls. Black females' initiation of coitus is dominated by their level of pubertal development, an attractiveness variable. (Author/BJV)
Burgess, Jennifer; Fleet, Alma
This paper reports on the first phase of a case study that investigated how early childhood teachers experience organisational change. As one of three levels of quality improvement, State government-funded curriculum initiatives were developed with an aim to promote change. Three curriculum documents, one each focusing on literacy, pedagogy and…
Han, Jeanie Nam; Vanderwood, Michael L.; Lee, Catherine Y.
This study examined the predictive validity of early literacy measures with first-grade Korean English language learners (ELLs) in the United States at varying levels of English proficiency. Participants were screened using Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) Phoneme Segmentation Fluency (PSF), DIBELS Nonsense Word Fluency…
Culatta, Richard; Culatta, Barbara; Frost, Meghan; Buzzell, Krista
Custom-made digital media are rich, varied, and motivational early literacy materials. An important component of Project SEEL (Systematic and Engaging Early Literacy Instruction) was the use of tailormade digital books and activities in the reading curriculum. Project SEEL team members created computerized materials in Spanish to relate to…
Reutzel, D. Ray
This article shares recent research findings in early literacy that every primary grade teacher has had questions about at one time or another ranging from handwriting to phonemic awareness, writing to concepts about print, and more. The article reports research that elaborates upon and extends early literacy research that was reported by the…
Barkon, Elisheva; Avinor, Eleanor
Investigates a possible link between academic difficulties and early literacy deprivation among the immigrant Ethiopian population in Israel. Findings suggest that such deprivation can affect the person after he becomes literate and multilingual and that literacy exposure in early childhood and first-language maintenance is important. (11…
Mooney, Kathleen C.
An abundance of research on early literacy intervention indicates that struggling, K-2 readers and writers can be effectively supported through the receipt of intervention services in school; however, research in the area has not yet addressed study of the unique, contextualized design and implementation of early literacy intervention in different…
Xu, Yaoying; De Arment, Serra
The early childhood literature has documented the impact of early literacy experience on children's later language and literacy development. The research also showed the achievement gap between children from lower socio-economic status and their peers from more economically advantaged backgrounds. To address this gap, the existing literature has…
Samiei, Shahin; Bush, Andrew J.; Sell, Marie; Imig, Doug
This study evaluated participation in the "Imagination Library" early childhood literacy enrichment program and children's pre-literacy and pre-numeracy skills at kindergarten entry in an urban school district. Previous studies have demonstrated that program participation is associated with greater early childhood reading practices.…
Bus, A. G.; Out, D.
Even though the acquisition of early literacy skills obviously depends on stimuli and incentives in children's environment we may expect that genes define the constraints for acquiring some or all early literacy skills. Therefore behavior genetic analyses were carried out on twin data including 27 identical and 39 same sex dizygotic twins, 4 years…
MacDonald, Colleen; Figueredo, Lauren
A history of poverty and low academic achievement in four urban schools pointed to the need to implement an early intervention focused on oral language and emergent literacy. The Kindergarten Early Literacy Tutoring (KELT) Program was designed to target senior (5 year old) kindergarten students most at-risk. The intervention consisted of an extra…
Rath, Linda K.
Describes the curriculum of the public television program "Between the Lions" (BTL), a series modeling behaviors and skills that foster early literacy. Shows how BTL incorporates developmentally appropriate early literacy practices. Highlights teachers' comments illustrating how BTL is being used in different classrooms and how it…
Schatschneider, Christopher; Lonigan, Christopher J.
Many of the methodological criticisms of the National Early Literacy Panel (NELP) report presented in this special issue of "Educational Researcher" are not specific to the NELP report but are in fact broad criticisms of much of the quantitative research on early literacy. This rejoinder demonstrates that these criticisms are off target and are…
Fujisawa, Keiko K.; Wadsworth, Sally J.; Kakihana, Shinichiro; Olson, Richard K.; DeFries, John C.; Byrne, Brian; Ando, Juko
This first Japanese twin study of early literacy development investigated the extent to which genetic and environmental factors influence individual differences in prereading skills in 238 pairs of twins at 42 months of age. Twin pairs were individually tested on measures of phonological awareness, kana letter name/sound knowledge, receptive vocabulary, visual perception, nonword repetition, and digit span. Results obtained from univariate behavioral-genetic analyses yielded little evidence for genetic influences, but substantial shared-environmental influences, for all measures. Phenotypic confirmatory factor analysis suggested three correlated factors: phonological awareness, letter name/sound knowledge, and general prereading skills. Multivariate behavioral genetic analyses confirmed relatively small genetic and substantial shared environmental influences on the factors. The correlations among the three factors were mostly attributable to shared environment. Thus, shared environmental influences play an important role in the early reading development of Japanese children. PMID:23997545
Human Resources and Social Development Canada, 2007
Internal Audit Services conducted an Early Implementation Review of the Understanding the Early Years (UEY) Initiative in 2006-07. This review is intended to provide assurance to senior management that program delivery has been established appropriately in order to meet its objectives and highlight any areas that require focused management…
Drawing on the bilingual policies and biliteracy programmes of African nations, this paper discusses the context of literacy education in Nigeria and examines Nigerian early literacy teachers' attitudes to teaching literacy and literacy teaching practices as informed by the National Policy on Education, Primary English Language Curriculum and the…
Ozernov-Palchik, Ola; Wolf, Maryanne; Patel, Aniruddh D
A growing number of studies report links between nonlinguistic rhythmic abilities and certain linguistic abilities, particularly phonological skills. The current study investigated the relationship between nonlinguistic rhythmic processing, phonological abilities, and early literacy abilities in kindergarteners. A distinctive aspect of the current work was the exploration of whether processing of different types of rhythmic patterns is differentially related to kindergarteners' phonological and reading-related abilities. Specifically, we examined the processing of metrical versus nonmetrical rhythmic patterns, that is, patterns capable of being subdivided into equal temporal intervals or not (Povel & Essens, 1985). This is an important comparison because most music involves metrical sequences, in which rhythm often has an underlying temporal grid of isochronous units. In contrast, nonmetrical sequences are arguably more typical to speech rhythm, which is temporally structured but does not involve an underlying grid of equal temporal units. A rhythm discrimination app with metrical and nonmetrical patterns was administered to 74 kindergarteners in conjunction with cognitive and preliteracy measures. Findings support a relationship among rhythm perception, phonological awareness, and letter-sound knowledge (an essential precursor of reading). A mediation analysis revealed that the association between rhythm perception and letter-sound knowledge is mediated through phonological awareness. Furthermore, metrical perception accounted for unique variance in letter-sound knowledge above all other language and cognitive measures. These results point to a unique role for temporal regularity processing in the association between musical rhythm and literacy in young children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Meier, Daniel R.; Britsch, Susan J.
Preschool can be an opportunity to emphasize literacy teaching and learning and to develop the role of "literacy as community," rather than being only kindergarten preparation. The results of two studies view children's literacy development as a dynamic, developmental process involving language, thought, and social interaction. In…
Walsh, Chris L.; Ferguson, Susan E.; Taylor, Mary Lou
This document presents a model for implementing workplace literacy education that focuses on giving front-line workers or first-line workers basic skills instruction and an appreciation for lifelong learning. The introduction presents background information on the model, which was developed during a partnership between a technical college and an…
Beardslee, William R.; Bartlett, Jessica Dym; Ayoub, Catherine
The use of storytelling and discussion about difficult topics naturally lends itself to early skill development in both social-emotional and academic (i.e., emergent literacy) domains. In this article, the authors present initial information on the efficacy and feasibility of Tell Me A Story (TMAS), a program focused on supporting early childhood…
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) launched the Literacy Initiative for Empowerment (2006-2015)--LIFE--to tackle the literacy challenge. This is a collaborative effort to accelerate literacy efforts in thirty five of the world's most challenged countries and thereby to unlock progress to reach all of the…
Parisod, Heidi; Axelin, Anna; Smed, Jouni; Salanterä, Sanna
Today's adolescents are used to a constant information flow, but many face difficulties in processing health-related information due to low health literacy. There is still need for deeper understanding on the determinants of health literacy in relation to adolescents to guide the development of health literacy instruments and interventions. The purpose of this study was to explore, from the perspective of early adolescents, the determinants of health literacy in the context of tobacco-related health communication. A qualitative descriptive study. Two schools located in the south of Finland. One school represented a typical Finnish public school with students following general curriculum and the other represented a Finnish public school with students with special educational needs. Purposively selected sample of 10-13-year-old early adolescents (n=39) from the two schools to obtain a varied group of early adolescents representing different kinds of literacy levels. We conducted 10 focus groups with early adolescents and analyzed the data using the theoretical thematic analysis method. We used a combination of the determinants presented in three adolescent-specific health literacy models as the theoretical framework of deductive analysis. The remaining data extracts were coded inductively. We sorted the codes under sub-themes that represented different determinants of health literacy. These were further divided between three themes: "personal", "external", and "mediating" determinants. Finally, we named the themes with an expression that embodied the early adolescents' views and experiences. Early adolescents' descriptions revealed that the list of determinants presented in the three adolescent-specific health literacy models is not comprehensive enough. Early adolescents brought up how their motives, self-efficacy, and role expectations determine their health literacy in addition to the other personal determinants presented in the previous models. Their descriptions
Dickinson, David K.; McCabe, Allyssa
Data from three studies investigating factors supporting literacy development of children from low-income families indicate: early levels of achievement are strongly linked to later success; kindergarten vocabulary is strongly reflective of the use of varied vocabulary during meal times; and teacher training in literacy is beneficial to classroom…
Costa, Leandro Oliveira; Carnoy, Martin
Beginning in 2007, the Literacy Program at the Right Age (Pacto pela Alfabetização na Idade Certa [PAIC]) in Brazil's Ceará state required municipal schools to implement a tiered, whole-school early-grade literacy intervention. This intervention was complemented by other policies to help municipalities improve student achievement. The present…
Hindman, Annemarie H.; Wasik, Barbara A.
This study examined 1 tool for evaluating Head Start teachers' knowledge about early language and literacy. Results indicated that teachers varied in their knowledge. Teachers with more knowledge had more education, as did teachers who received language and literacy professional development. Teachers with greater knowledge also demonstrated higher…
Crosby, Susan Ann; Rasinski, Timothy; Padak, Nancy; Yildirim, Kasim
Although parental involvement in children's literacy development has been recognized for its potential in helping children develop early literacy achievement, studies of the effectiveness and sustainability of school-based parent involvement programs are not numerous. This study examines the effectiveness and durability of a school-based…
Mongillo, Maria Boeke
Disciplinary literacy focuses on the specific ways a content area thinks, uses language, and shares information. While much of the literature on disciplinary literacy suggests it is an advanced language strategy to be taught to secondary students, early childhood classrooms may be the ideal environment in which to introduce this type of…
Guo, Ying; Sawyer, Brook E.; Justice, Laura M.; Kaderavek, Joan N.
The purpose of this study was to examine the quality of the literacy environment in inclusive early childhood special education (ECSE) classrooms ("N" = 54). The first aim was to describe the quality of the literacy environment in terms of structure (i.e., book materials and print/writing materials) and instruction (i.e., instructional…
Few studies have documented the literacy activities in an after-school setting of affluent early adolescents assigned to remedial reading. This may be because these students are not considered to be at risk of academic failure. The out-of-school literacy activities of 3 sixth-grade students were examined in this qualitative research. Multiple data…
Schroeder, Meadow; Mckeough, Anne; Graham, Susan; Stock, Hayli; Bisanz, Gay
Lifelong science literacy begins with attitudes and interests established early in childhood. The use of trade books (i.e., a literary work intended for sale to the general public) in North American school classrooms to support the development of science literacy invites an examination of the quality of science content disseminated to students. A…
Moulder, M. Amanda
This article discusses how archival documents reveal early nineteenth-century Cherokee purposes for English-language literacy. In spite of Euro-American efforts to depoliticize Cherokee women's roles, Cherokee female students adapted the literacy tools of an outsider patriarchal society to retain public, political power. Their writing served…
Naqvi, Rahat; Thorne, Keoma J; Pfitscher, Christina M; Nordstokke, David W; McKeough, Anne
Research has determined that dual language books have a positive effect on literacy achievement, motivation, and family involvement in children’s schooling. In this study we used quantitative methods to complement the largely qualitative extant research. We analyzed the early literacy skills of 105 kindergarten children (45 comparison, 60…
Iannone-Campbell, Charlene; Lattimore, Susan Lloyd
As early as preschool, children who struggle with emergent literacy skills can benefit from effective response to intervention. Don't wait until later grades when they've already fallen behind--improve their literacy skills now with this evidence-based Tier 2 RTI curriculum, ready for any pre-K educator to pick up and use right away. Created by…
Literacy Teaching and Learning: An International Journal of Early Reading and Writing, 1998
Developed as a vehicle of communication for the Reading Recovery Council of North America, this journal represents an international effort to connect researchers, teachers, and all those interested in early literacy. Articles in the first issue of this third volume are: "Relations between Children's Literacy Diets and Genre Development: You…
Reading, writing, and communicating, also known as literacy, are important cognitive skills to teach within society. Early literacy is knowledge about reading and writing before actually being able to read and write and is the foundation to future reading and writing skills (Ghoting & Martin-Diaz, 2006). The role of families in developing early…
Fuller, Bruce; Dellagnelo, Lucia; Strath, Annelie; Barretto Bastos, Eni Santana; Holanda Maia, Mauricio; Lopes de Matos, Kelma Socorro; Luiza Portela, Adelia; Lerche Vieira, Sofia
A study of 140 first- and second-grade classrooms and 1,925 students in the Brazilian states of Bahia and Ceara examined teaching practices and teacher behaviors in the classroom and their effects on students' early literacy achievement, as well as the influences of student, home, teacher, and school characteristics on literacy scores. (SV)
Eldering, Lotty, Ed.; Leseman, Paul, Ed.
This collection of 20 papers addresses child development and early intervention issues related to literacy acquisition from a cross-cultural perspective. Titles of the papers are: (1) "Preparing Young Children for Literacy: Issues in Theory and Practice" (Lotty Eldering and Paul Leseman); (2) "Jomtien Revisited: A Plea for a…
Moses, Annie M.; Golos, Debbie B.; Bennett, Colleen M.
Early childhood educators need access to research-based practices and materials to help all children learn to read. Some theorists have suggested that individuals learn to read through "dual coding" (i.e., a verbal code and a nonverbal code) and may benefit from more than one route to literacy (e.g., dual coding theory). Although deaf…
This paper explores local responses by Singapore pre-school teachers to the global trend towards English as the medium of instruction at the early childhood level of education. The paper reports research into how teachers have responded to the national literacy agenda, as outlined in the Curriculum Framework for Kindergartens in Singapore, using…
Kervin, Lisa; Turbill, Jan; Harden-Thew, Kathryn
The face of early childhood education continues to change. In Australia, the national early childhood guidelines, "Early Years Learning Framework" (2009) and the "National Quality Framework" have articulated and defined the work of early years' educators in a range of areas, including literacy. Both frameworks state that their…
In the wake of a White Paper on Education Reform, published in 2014 by the Icelandic Ministry of Education, Science and Culture, the minister launched a national initiative to improve literacy education in Icelandic compulsory schools. The White Paper and the national initiative came as a reaction to the disappointing performance of 15-year-olds…
This illustrated children's story accompanies "Exploring Comprehension through Retelling: A Teacher's Story", part of the Early Literacy and Assessment for Learning (K-3) Series (ED490189). It describes a baby turtle's adventures on his journey to the ocean.
Oakes, Susan; Virbick, Diane E.
Describes an early childhood literacy program called Begin with Books and provides ideas for starting up, finding, and administering similar programs in public libraries. Topics include corporate sponsors; staffing; partnering with community organizations; training; scheduling; and budget information. (LRW)
Im, Janice H.; Osborn, Carol A.; Sanchez, Sylvia Y.; Thorp, Eva K.
"Cradling Literacy" provides field-tested instructional materials for instructors to help early childhood teachers develop knowledge and skills in nurturing early language and literacy in young children from birth to 5 years. The research and strategies presented in the instructional manual center on how child, parent, and teacher can work…
Haughbrook, Rasheda; Hart, Sara A; Schatschneider, Christopher; Taylor, Jeanette
Recent research suggests that the etiology of reading achievement can differ across environmental contexts. In the US, schools are commonly assigned grades (e.g. 'A', 'B') often interpreted to indicate school quality. This study explored differences in the etiology of early literacy skills for students based on these school grades. Participants included twins drawn from the Florida Twin Project on Reading (n = 1313 pairs) aged 4 to 10 years during the 2006-07 school year. Early literacy skills were assessed with DIBELS subtests: Oral Reading Fluency (ORF), Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF), Initial Sound Fluency (ISF), Letter Naming Fluency (LNF), and Phoneme Segmentation Fluency (PSF). School grade data were retrieved from the Florida Department of Education. Multi-group analyses were conducted separately for subsamples defined by 'A' or 'non-A' schools, controlling for school-level socioeconomic status. Results indicated significant etiological differences on pre-reading skills (ISF, LNF, and PSF), but not word-level reading skills (ORF and NWF). There was a consistent trend of greater environmental influences on pre-reading skills in non-A schools, arguably representing 'poorer' environmental contexts than the A schools. Importantly, this is the case outside of resources linked with school-level SES, indicating that something about the direct environment on pre-reading skills in the non-A school context is more variable than for A schools. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Justice, Laura; Logan, Jessica; Kaderavek, Joan; Schmitt, Mary Beth; Tompkins, Virginia; Bartlett, Christopher
The purpose of this study was to empirically determine whether specific profiles characterize preschool-aged children with language impairment (LI) with respect to their early literacy skills (print awareness, name-writing ability, phonological awareness, alphabet knowledge); the primary interest was to determine if one or more profiles suggested vulnerability for future reading problems. Participants were 218 children enrolled in early childhood special education classrooms, 95% of whom received speech-language services. Children were administered an assessment of early literacy skills in the fall of the academic year. Based on results of latent profile analysis, four distinct literacy profiles were identified, with the single largest profile (55% of children) representing children with generally poor literacy skills across all areas examined. Children in the two low-risk categories had higher oral language skills than those in the high-risk and moderate-risk profiles. Across three of the four early literacy measures, children with language as their primary disability had higher scores than those with LI concomitant with other disabilities. These findings indicate that there are specific profiles of early literacy skills among children with LI, with about one half of children exhibiting a profile indicating potential susceptibility for future reading problems. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2013.
D'Agostino, Jerome V.; Rodgers, Emily; Mauck, Susan
The authors used nationally based, random sample data from three different years (2009-2010, 2011-2012, and 2014-2015) for nearly 20,000 first-grade students (n = 9,760, 3,657, and 3,121, respectively) to examine long-reported inadequacies of a commonly used early literacy assessment tool, the Observation Survey of Early Literacy Achievement…
Oumudee, Nurlisa; Armeeroh, Masuenah; Nima, Niamina; Duerahing, Nurosanah
Background: Although antenatal care (ANC) coverage has been increasing in low- and middle-income countries, the adherence to the ANC initiation standards at gestational age <12 weeks was inadequate including Thailand. The study aimed to improve the rate of early ANC initiation by training the existing local health volunteers (LHVs) in 3 southernmost provinces of Thailand. Methods: A clustered nonrandomized intervention study was conducted from November 2012 to February 2014. One district of each province was selected to be the study intervention districts for that province. A total of 124 LHVs in the intervention districts participated in the knowledge–counseling intervention. It was organized as half-day workshop using 2 training modules each comprising a 30-minute lecture followed by counseling practice in pairs for 1 hour. Outcome was the rate of early ANC initiation among women giving birth, and its association with intervention, meeting an LHV, and months after training was analyzed. Results: Of 6677 women, 3178 and 3499 women were in the control and intervention groups, respectively. Rates of early ANC were significantly improved after the intervention (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 1.29, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.17-1.43, P < .001) and meeting an LHV (adjusted OR: 2.06, 95% CI: 1.86-2.29, P < .001), but lower at 6 months after training (adjusted OR: 0.76, 95% CI: 0.60-0.96, P = .002). Almost all women (99.7%) in the intervention group who met an LHV reported that they were encouraged to attend early ANC. Conclusion: Training LHVs in communities by knowledge–counseling intervention significantly improved early ANC initiation, but the magnitude of change was still limited. PMID:29657959
Steiner, Lilly M.
This study examines a family literacy intervention conducted in two first-grade classrooms with culturally diverse student populations. In the treatment and control classrooms, six parents and a classroom teacher learned practices for building home-school partnerships. Data were analyzed to determine changes in home-literacy practices, increases…
Stone, Sandra J.
Emerging literacy is a developmental process which is closely tied to the child's developing cognitive processes. The interaction of memory and emerging literacy can be discussed in the context of Marie Clay's Reading Recovery model. Memory types, encoding and retrieval, strategy use, and executive control/expectancies are components of cognitive…
Pati, Susmita; Feemster, Kristen A; Mohamad, Zeinab; Fiks, Alex; Grundmeier, Robert; Cnaan, Avital
To determine if maternal health literacy influences early infant immunization status. Longitudinal prospective cohort study of 506 Medicaid-eligible mother-infant dyads. Immunization status at age 3 and 7 months was assessed in relation to maternal health literacy measured at birth using the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (short version). Multivariable logistic regression quantified the effect of maternal health literacy on immunization status adjusting for the relevant covariates. The cohort consists of primarily African-American (87%), single (87%) mothers (mean age 23.4 years). Health literacy was inadequate or marginal among 24% of mothers. Immunizations were up-to-date among 73% of infants at age 3 months and 43% at 7 months. Maternal health literacy was not significantly associated with immunization status at either 3 or 7 months. In multivariable analysis, compared to infants who had delayed immunizations at 3 months, infants with up-to-date immunizations at 3 months were 11.3 times (95%CI 6.0-21.3) more likely to be up-to-date at 7 months. The only strong predictors of up-to-date immunization status at 3 months were maternal education (high school graduate or beyond) and attending a hospital-affiliated clinic. Though maternal health literacy is not associated with immunization status in this cohort, later immunization status is most strongly predicted by immunization status at 3 months. These results further support the importance of intervening from an early age to ensure that infants are fully protected against vaccine preventable diseases.
Pears, Katherine C; Kim, Hyoun K; Fisher, Philip A; Yoerger, Karen
Two hundred and nine children receiving early childhood special education services for developmental disabilities or delays who also had behavioral, social, or attentional difficulties were included in a study of an intervention to increase school readiness, including early literacy skills. Results showed that the intervention had a significant positive effect on children's literacy skills from baseline to the end of summer before the start of kindergarten (d=.14). The intervention also had significant indirect effects on teacher ratings of children's literacy skills during the fall of their kindergarten year (β=.09). Additionally, when scores were compared to standard benchmarks, a greater percentage of the children who received the intervention moved from being at risk for reading difficulties to having low risk. Overall, this study demonstrates that a school readiness intervention delivered prior to the start of kindergarten may help increase children's early literacy skills. Copyright © 2016 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Brown, P. Margaret; Watson, Linda M.
This paper reviews and synthesizes research into the ways in which parents support their child across three major developmental domains in early childhood: early language, play and early literacy. We show how these domains are linked to each other and suggest that there is some evidence that interventions in all of them will promote mutual…
MacKay, Leslie D.; McIntosh, Kent
Low literacy is a challenge facing Indigenous communities across North America and is an identified barrier to school success. Early literacy intervention is an important target to reduce the discrepancies in literacy outcomes. The Moe the Mouse® Speech and Language Development Program (Gardner & Chesterman, 2006) is a cultural curriculum…
Chu, Donna; Lee, Alice Y. L.
As more media organizations have engaged in media education, this paper investigates the goals and practices of these activities. This article coins media education initiatives by media organizations with the term "media-organization media literac"y (MOML). Four MOML projects in Hong Kong were selected for examination. Built on critical…
Waggoner, Michael D.
Environmental conditions that influence the development of religious literacy initiatives in preservice teacher education include parochialism and Christian privilege, the challenge of foreign traditions, the legacy of church-state separation, shifting bases of authority, the ethos of individualism, and the complexity of public education.…
The ubiquitousness of images in the digital era highlights the importance of individuals' visual communication skills in the 21st Century. We conducted a literature review of visual literacy initiatives in academic institutions to illustrate best practices for imparting these skills in students. The literature review identified five categories of…
Greenwood, Charles R.; Carta, Judith J.; Atwater, Jane; Goldstein, Howard; Kaminski, Ruth; McConnell, Scott
Preschool experience plays a role in children's development. However, for programs with language and early literacy goals, the question remains whether or not preschool instructional experiences are sufficiently effective to achieve these goals for all children. In a multisite study, we conducted a process-product description of preschool instruction and children's growth and outcomes in typical programs (i.e., Pre-Kindergarten, Title 1, Head Start, Tuition-Based) using a Response to Intervention (RTI) perspective. Results indicated that (a) students in their preschool year prior to kindergarten made small gains, but students starting the year in lower Tier 2 and 3 performance levels did not close initial skills gaps, (b) variations were noted by program types with varying socio-demographics and instructional processes, and (c) the quality of instruction (Tier 1) received by all was low with room for improvement. Implications for future research on the application of the RTI approach and potential benefits are discussed. PMID:24899769
This position article argues that educators' knowledge of young children's perspectives on aspects of early learning, including literacy learning, and subsequent interpretations of the ways that these perspectives can inform and shape pedagogy are key to promoting children's participation rights in early childhood education and care. Drawing on…
Mayo, Karen E.
This paper describes a literacy-based thematic unit on forestry and conservation designed for field experiences in early childhood education. This unit responds to national and state initiatives and serves as a model for enacting reform of science instruction by equipping preservice teachers with the necessary strategies to foster science process…
Betts, Joseph; Pickart, Mary; Heistad, Dave
The assessment of early literacy and numeracy skills can provide useful and important information in pursuance of the goal to increase student academic achievement. At present, there have been promising results using curriculum-based measurement (CBM) for evaluating early literacy and early numeracy. There has been little research investigating…
Letourneau, Nicole; Whitty, Pam; Watson, Barry; Phillips, Jennifer; Joschko, Justin; Gillis, Doris
Low levels of literacy in early childhood can have lasting effects on children's educational and intellectual development. Many countries have implemented newborn literacy programs designed to teach parents pre-literacy promoting activities to share with their children. We conducted 2 quasi-experimental studies using 1) a pre-test/post-test design and 2) a non-equivalent control group design to examine the effect of newborn literacy programs on parents' self-reported literacy intentions/behaviors, values toward literacy, and parent-child interactions. Parents were recruited from 3 provinces, 2 with newborn literacy programs (intervention) and 1 without (control). Parents in the intervention group completed prenatal and postnatal (after participation in program) questionnaires. Parents in the control group completed 1 questionnaire. Questionnaires were designed to capture parents' literacy intentions (prenatal), behaviors (postnatal), values, and parent-child interactions (postnatal). A total of 98 parents were included in study one and 174 were included in study two. Parents' self-reported prenatal intentions and values were higher than their postnatal behaviors and values. Parents in the intervention group exhibited higher literacy behaviors and values and greater enjoyment reading to their children than parents in the control group, though they also reported reading to their children less frequently. Parents in the intervention group had significantly higher Positive Interactive scores than controls. Overall, we found participation in newborn literacy programs positively impacted parenting behaviors and attitudes. Lower postnatal within-group scores (intentions and values versus behaviors and values) may have been the result of participants' high expectations. Given our findings, we recommend that these programs continue.
Vesay, Joanne P.; Gischlar, Karen L.
In this study, the investigators surveyed 215 early childhood educators throughout New Jersey and eastern Pennsylvania to determine teacher knowledge and training in early literacy instruction, with a focus on The 5 Big Ideas in Reading as identified by the National Reading Panel: phonological awareness, accuracy and fluency, alphabetic principle,…
Caspe, Margaret; Lopez, M. Elena
Positive early-literacy experiences--whether at home, in early-childhood programs, schools, or libraries--set children on a trajectory to become confident readers by the time they reach third grade, which is an important milestone on the pathway toward high school graduation. This review outlines seven practices that research shows families use to…
Wright, Tanya S.; Peltier, Marliese R.
The goal of this study was to examine the extent to which the content and recommendations in recently published early language and literacy methods textbooks may support early childhood teachers in learning to provide vocabulary instruction for young children. We completed a content analysis of 9 textbooks with coding at the sentence level.…
Farley, Kristin Sue; Piasta, Shayne; Dogucu, Mine; O'Connell, Ann
Research Findings: The present study assessed the extent to which early childhood educators utilized small-group literacy instruction and explored factors potentially associated with the use of this evidence-based practice. The classroom activities of 83 early childhood educators were observed in the fall and spring, and videos were coded to…
Jalongo, Mary Renck
Synthesizing information on language arts gleaned from research on emergent literacy, early childhood education, and special education, this book underscores what is being emphasized in early childhood teacher accreditation programs--responding to the increasingly diverse needs of young language learners in inclusive settings, working with parents…
Coats-Kitsopoulos, Gloria Jean
The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS), the Reading Recovery Observation Survey (RROS) early reading sub-tests, and the reading achievement of Native American first-graders as measured by the Stanford 10. A causal-comparative correlation research design…
Spencer, Tamara Glupczynski; Falchi, Lorraine; Ghiso, Maria Paula
The current context of increased accountability and the proliferation of skills-based literacy mandates at the early childhood level pose particular tensions for multilingual children and educators. In this article, we draw on data from two ethnographic studies to examine how educators and children negotiate the constraints of early childhood…
A recent study of literacy practices in early childhood services prior to school entry (Makin, Hayden, Holland, Arthur, Beecher, Jones Diaz & McNaught, 1999) revealed that, for both parents and early childhood staff, school entry often looms as a threat to children's confidence and self-esteem rather than as an opportunity for individual…
Heider, Kelly L.
The rapid growth of information over the last 30 or 40 years has made it impossible for educators to prepare students for the future without teaching them how to be effective information managers. The American Library Association refers to those students who manage information effectively as "information literate." Information literacy instruction…
Freeman, Edward; Lynd-Balta, Eileen
Several core competencies related to information literacy have been identified by the Association of College and Research Libraries. Students must learn to gather relevant information and communicate their findings effectively. The collaborative activity described here, which could easily be adapted for other disciplines, introduces first-semester…
Roskos, Kathleen A., Ed.; Christie, James F., Ed.
Noting that an examination of play from diverse perspectives deepens understanding and opens up new avenues for research and educational practice, this book brings together studies, research syntheses, and critical commentaries that examine play-literacy relationships from cognitive, ecological, and cultural perspectives. Each set of chapters is…
Berenato, Carolyn; Severino, Lori
Colleges and universities can have an impact on the entire field of education when preparing teachers for one of the most challenging part of the job: teaching literacy. When teachers are properly trained and have a toolbox of strategies and teaching techniques to use, they can have a tremendous impact on student learning. In teacher preparation…
Regalado, Michael; Goldenberg, Claude; Appel, Eloise
Success in school and life are more dependent than ever before on literacy skills. Within the context of California's Proposition 10, the "Children and Families First Act," this report provides practical, and to the extent possible, evidence-based guidelines for considering strategies to promote children's development relevant to…
This article promotes literacy as a a powerful tool for learning new language. Although learners frequently think of comprehensible input as language that is heard, comprehensible input from print can also be accessed. Research has shown that reading has a powerful impact on language learning: much of the vocabulary that educated adults know has…
El-Choueifati, Nisrine; Purcell, Alison; McCabe, Patricia; Heard, Robert; Munro, Natalie
Early childhood educators (ECEs) have an important role in promoting positive outcomes for children's language and literacy development. This paper reports the development of a new tool, The Interaction Communication and Literacy (ICL) Skills Audit, and pilots its reliability and validity. Intra- and inter-rater reliability was examined by three speech-language pathologists (SLPs). Five skill areas relating to ECE language and literacy practice were rated. The face and content validity of the ICL Skills Audit was examined by expert SLPs (n = 8) and expert ECEs (n = 4) via questionnaire. The overall intra-rater reliability for the ICL Skills Audit was excellent with percentage close agreement (PCA) of 91-94. Inter-rater agreement was PCA 68-80. Expert SLPs and ECEs agreed that the content was comprehensive and practical. Based on this preliminary study, the ICL Skills Audit appears to be a promising tool that can be used by SLPs and ECEs in collaboration to measure the skills of ECEs in the areas of language and literacy support. Future psychometric and outcome research on the revised ICL Skills Audit is warranted.
Han, Myae; Silva, Luisa; Vukelich, Carol; Buell, Martha; Hou, Likun
This study examined the early English language and literacy skill development of 179 children from 11 Head Start classrooms who participated in an added focus on language and literacy skill-building supported by Early Reading First programme. Of this sample, 118 children were Spanish-speaking English Language Learners (ELL). All children were…
Ehrich, John; Wolgemuth, Jennifer R.; Helmer, Janet; Oteng, Georges; Lea, Tess; Bartlett, Claire; Smith, Heather; Emmett, Sue
As part of an evaluation of a web-based early literacy intervention, ABRACADABRA, a small exploratory study was conducted over one term in three primary schools in the Northern Territory. Of particular concern was the relationship between attendance and the acquisition of early literacy skills of Indigenous and non-Indigenous children. Using the…
Literacy as a social practice has a fundamental role in children's lives especially in the early years context, in which social interactions are in the centre of knowledge achievement. Several pieces of research investigate the positive contribution of the arts in children's literacy development in the early years settings. However, most of them…
In September 1998, President Clinton and President Yeltsin issued a statement that our two countries would develop a system to share data from our respective early warning systems. The purpose of the initiative is to further reduce the risk of ballistic missile launches occurring in response to a misunderstanding about the data from such systems. The proposal includes a permanent center for sharing such data, located in Moscow, separate from but communicating with the strategic command-and-control centers of each country. It also includes development of a system of pre-launch notifications, which is expected to eventually provide notification of a broad class of launches, on a voluntary basis, including launches by all the countries that engage in missile and space activities. The status, progress, and prognosis for the work will be discussed. The presentation will address the experience gained from the operation of the Center for Y2K Strategic Stability in Colorado Springs (12/99 - 01/00), which tested many of our ideas for a joint center sharing both pre- launch and sensor data on worldwide launches. In addition, the potential of the initiative -- the first arms control effort involving active and continuing U.S.-Russian joint operations -- to provide a model for future arms control opportunities will be discussed.
Mulder, Hanna; Verhagen, Josje; Van der Ven, Sanne H. G.; Slot, Pauline L.; Leseman, Paul P. M.
Previous work has shown that individual differences in executive function (EF) are predictive of academic skills in preschoolers, kindergartners, and older children. Across studies, EF is a stronger predictor of emergent mathematics than literacy. However, research on EF in children below age three is scarce, and it is currently unknown whether EF, as assessed in toddlerhood, predicts emergent academic skills a few years later. This longitudinal study investigates whether early EF, assessed at two years, predicts (emergent) academic skills, at five years. It examines, furthermore, whether early EF is a significantly stronger predictor of emergent mathematics than of emergent literacy, as has been found in previous work on older children. A sample of 552 children was assessed on various EF and EF-precursor tasks at two years. At age five, these children performed several emergent mathematics and literacy tasks. Structural Equation Modeling was used to investigate the relationships between early EF and academic skills, modeled as latent factors. Results showed that early EF at age two was a significant and relatively strong predictor of both emergent mathematics and literacy at age five, after controlling for receptive vocabulary, parental education, and home language. Predictive relations were significantly stronger for mathematics than literacy, but only when a verbal short-term memory measure was left out as an indicator to the latent early EF construct. These findings show that individual differences in emergent academic skills just prior to entry into the formal education system can be traced back to individual differences in early EF in toddlerhood. In addition, these results highlight the importance of task selection when assessing early EF as a predictor of later outcomes, and call for further studies to elucidate the mechanisms through which individual differences in early EF and precursors to EF come about. PMID:29075209
Mulder, Hanna; Verhagen, Josje; Van der Ven, Sanne H G; Slot, Pauline L; Leseman, Paul P M
Previous work has shown that individual differences in executive function (EF) are predictive of academic skills in preschoolers, kindergartners, and older children. Across studies, EF is a stronger predictor of emergent mathematics than literacy. However, research on EF in children below age three is scarce, and it is currently unknown whether EF, as assessed in toddlerhood, predicts emergent academic skills a few years later. This longitudinal study investigates whether early EF, assessed at two years, predicts (emergent) academic skills, at five years. It examines, furthermore, whether early EF is a significantly stronger predictor of emergent mathematics than of emergent literacy, as has been found in previous work on older children. A sample of 552 children was assessed on various EF and EF-precursor tasks at two years. At age five, these children performed several emergent mathematics and literacy tasks. Structural Equation Modeling was used to investigate the relationships between early EF and academic skills, modeled as latent factors. Results showed that early EF at age two was a significant and relatively strong predictor of both emergent mathematics and literacy at age five, after controlling for receptive vocabulary, parental education, and home language. Predictive relations were significantly stronger for mathematics than literacy, but only when a verbal short-term memory measure was left out as an indicator to the latent early EF construct. These findings show that individual differences in emergent academic skills just prior to entry into the formal education system can be traced back to individual differences in early EF in toddlerhood. In addition, these results highlight the importance of task selection when assessing early EF as a predictor of later outcomes, and call for further studies to elucidate the mechanisms through which individual differences in early EF and precursors to EF come about.
Justice, Laura; Logan, Jessica; Kaderavek, Joan; Schmitt, Mary Beth; Tompkins, Virginia; Bartlett, Christopher
The purpose of this study was to empirically determine whether specific profiles characterize preschool-aged children with language impairment (LI) with respect to their early literacy skills (print awareness, name-writing ability, phonological awareness, alphabet knowledge); the primary interest was to determine if one or more profiles suggested…
Terrell, Pamela; Watson, Maggie
As part of this clinical forum on curriculum-based intervention, the goal of this tutorial is to share research about the importance of language and literacy foundations in natural environments during emergent literacy skill development, from infancy through preschool. Following an overview of intervention models in schools by Powell (2018), best practices at home, in child care, and in preschool settings are discussed. Speech-language pathologists in these settings will be provided a toolbox of best emergent literacy practices. A review of published literature in speech-language pathology, early intervention, early childhood education, and literacy was completed. Subsequently, an overview of the impact of early home and preschool literacy experiences are described. Research-based implementation of best practice is supported with examples of shared book reading and child-led literacy embedded in play within the coaching model of early intervention. Finally, various aspects of emergent literacy skill development in the preschool years are discussed. These include phonemic awareness, print/alphabet awareness, oral language skills, and embedded/explicit literacy. Research indicates that rich home literacy environments and exposure to rich oral language provide an important foundation for the more structured literacy environments of school. Furthermore, there is a wealth of evidence to support a variety of direct and indirect intervention practices in the home, child care, and preschool contexts to support and enhance all aspects of oral and written literacy. Application of this "toolbox" of strategies should enable speech-language pathologists to address the prevention and intervention of literacy deficits within multiple environments during book and play activities. Additionally, clinicians will have techniques to share with parents, child care providers, and preschool teachers for evidence-based literacy instruction within all settings during typical daily
Ippolito, Jacy, Ed.; Steele, Jennifer L., Ed.; Samson, Jennifer F., Ed.
"Adolescent Literacy" initially appeared as a special issue of the "Harvard Educational Review". It explores key issues and debates in the adolescent literacy crisis, the popular use of cognitive strategies, and disciplinary and content-area literacy. Also examined are alternative forms of literacy, afterschool interventions, new instruction…
English Literacy Levels of the Early Care and Education Workforce: A Profile and Associations with Quality of Care. Who Leaves? Who Stays? A Longitudinal Study of the Early Care and Education Workforce in Alameda County, California.
Phillips, Deborah; Crowell, Nancy; Whitebook, Marcy; Bellm, Dan
Research on parents has shown the critical contribution that linguistic input plays in fostering early literacy, but there have been no systematic studies of the literacy of the early care and education workforce and its role in fostering quality early learning environments. This report examines the literacy levels of early childhood educators in…
Bingham, Gary E.; Culatta, Barbara; Hall-Kenyon, Kendra M.
This study examined teachers' implementation of an early literacy intervention, Systematic and Engaging Early Literacy (SEEL), on kindergarten children's development of early literacy skills. One hundred forty-nine kindergarten children (102 treatment) across six classrooms participated in this study. Results reveal that children who received SEEL…
Clasen, Line Engel; Jensen de López, Kristine
Several early literacy programmes have documented their effectiveness in enhancing children's early literacy and language development. Despite recent interest in implementing evidence-based programmes, only a few studies have set out to capture the implementation process of early literacy programmes as seen from the programme users' perspectives.…
Hamilton, Lorna G.; Hayiou-Thomas, Marianna E.; Hulme, Charles; Snowling, Margaret J.
The home literacy environment (HLE) predicts language and reading development in typically developing children; relatively little is known about its association with literacy development in children at family-risk of dyslexia. We assessed the HLE at age 4 years, precursor literacy skills at age 5, and literacy outcomes at age 6, in a sample of…
The incorporation of dialogic reading techniques in adult-child book reading has been effective in improving early literacy skills in children with language delays and those from at-risk populations. There is, however, limited research that examines the potential utility of dialogic reading strategies for children with disabilities such as Autism…
Lam, Elizabeth A.; McMaster, Kristen L.
The purpose of this review was to update previous reviews on factors related to students' responsiveness to early literacy intervention. The 14 studies in this synthesis used experimental designs, provided small-group or one-on-one reading interventions, and analyzed factors related to responsiveness to those interventions. Participants were…
In their quest for resources to support children's early literacy learning and development, parents encounter and traverse different spaces in which discourses and artifacts are produced and circulated. This paper uses conceptual tools from the field of geosemiotics to examine some commercial spaces designed for parents and children that…
Haughbrook, Rasheda; Hart, Sara A.; Schatschneider, Christopher; Taylor, Jeanette
Recent research suggests that the etiology of reading achievement can differ across environmental contexts. In the US, schools are commonly assigned grades (e.g. "A," "B") often interpreted to indicate school quality. This study explored differences in the etiology of early literacy skills for students based on these school…
Miltich Lyst, Aimee; Gabriel, Stacey; O'Shaughnessy, Tam E.; Meyers, Joel; Meyers, Barbara
This article underscores the potential advantages of qualitative methods to illustrate the depth and complexity of social validity. This investigation evaluates the social validity of Check and Connect with Early Literacy Support (CCEL), through the perspectives of teachers and caregivers whose children participated in the intervention. Teachers…
As a growing number of young children across the country are using media and interactive technology on a daily basis, the conversation has shifted from whether technology is appropriate to use at all to how it should be used to best support children's early language and literacy development. A new brief released today, Integrating Technology in…
Jackson, Jane B.; Paratore, Jeanne R.; Chard, David J.; Garnick, Sheila
A study examined the degree to which eight teachers would faithfully implement an early literacy intervention plan. Teachers implemented the intervention with a high degree of fidelity and benefited from the community approach to intervention for struggling readers. Most children made substantial gains in phonemic blending and segmenting…
Venn, Elizabeth Claire; Jahn, Monica Dacy
Students will benefit from this unique preschool framework that integrates individually appropriate practices, literacy activities, play, and explicit instruction into content area lessons. Included are chapters on Oral language development; Phonological awareness; Early reading and writing; Print concepts; Instruction in content areas; and…
Skouge, James R.; Rao, Kavita; Boisvert, Precille C.
Practical applications of multimedia technologies that support early literacy are described and evaluated, including several variations of recorded books and stories, utilizing mainstream audio and video recording appropriate for libraries and schools. Special emphasis is given to the needs of children with disabilities and children who are…
Lucas, Adrienne M.; McEwan, Patrick J.; Ngware, Moses; Oketch, Moses
Primary school enrollments have increased rapidly in sub-Saharan Africa, spurring concerns about low levels of learning. We analyze field experiments in Kenya and Uganda that assessed whether the Reading to Learn intervention, implemented by the Aga Khan Foundation in both countries, improved early-grade literacy as measured by common assessments.…
McKenney, Susan; Voogt, Joke
Technology applications can make important contributions to improving learning outcomes in the domain of early literacy. However, to fully exploit the potential of educational technologies, teachers must have specific knowledge and skills. This study aimed to articulate the technological pedagogical content knowledge teachers need to make…
Levin, Iris; Aram, Dorit
The present study compared the effects of different mediation routines provided to kindergartners from families of low socioeconomic status on the students' invented spelling attempts and on their gains obtained on spelling and other early literacy skills (letter naming, sounds of letters, word segmentation, and word decoding). The effects of the…
Mackiewicz, Sara Moore
The use of early literacy screening measures helps determine which students are at risk for future reading difficulties. However, there has been some recent concern related to the classification validity of screening measures (Hintze, Ryan, & Stoner, 2003; Nelson, 2008). Low classification validity results in the identification of a large number…
Bruns, Deborah A.; Pierce, Corey D.
Early literacy development is the gateway to reading and future academic success. Learning about sound-letter correspondence and basic decoding strategies are but two fundamental skills that have been found to support this later success. In addition, an emphasis on environmental print (e.g., McDonald's, Wal-Mart, Shell) and functional print (e.g.,…
Ogg, Julia; Volpe, Robert; Rogers, Maria
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between inattention, academic enabling behaviors (i.e., motivation, engagement, and interpersonal skills), and early literacy outcomes. Kindergarten students (N = 181; 55.2% male; 62% white) from two research sites (Southeastern U.S. and Eastern Canada) were assessed using the Letter Naming…
Kirk, Stacie M.; Kirk, Erik P.
Background: The effects of increases in physical activity (PA) on early literacy skills in preschool children are not known. Methods: Fifty-four African-American preschool children from a low socioeconomic urban Head Start participated over 8 months. A 2-group, quasi-experimental design was used with one preschool site participating in the PA…
This study considers the issue of weak literacy development and early school leaving in Malta. In spite of a lack of a direct or indirect causal link between the two, in the case of Malta these issues seem to be almost exclusively specific to children attending the State school. Children from the Church and the Independent sectors are minimally…
Roskos, Kathleen; Brueck, Jeremy; Widman, Sarah
Toward the goal of better e-book design to support early literacy learning, this study investigates analytic tools for examining design qualities of e-books for young children. Three research-based analytic tools related to e-book design were applied to a mixed genre collection of 50 e-books from popular online sites. Tool performance varied…
Ogg, Julia A.; Sundman-Wheat, Ashley N.; Bateman, Lisa P.
Children who begin school with less developed early literacy skills often have a difficult time catching up to their peers, and children who are poor readers in the first few years of school continue struggling with reading when compared with their peers at later grades. Before school entry, schools may be limited in their regular access to…
The purpose of this study was to examine the existing research on early literacy and the types of approaches used in schools at the time of this writing. Although researchers could not agree on which types of reading programs are the most effective, there was a large amount of research supporting the work done in 2000 from the National Reading…
Arnold, Renea; Colburn, Nell
Flannelboards have been a storytime staple for years in school and public libraries. The flannelboard, or feltboard as it often is called, is a great tool to help children build early literacy skills. Reading research tells us that reading aloud is most effective when it is an interactive experience between the reader and the child. Flannelboard…
Weigel, Daniel J.; Martin, Sally S.
Much effort has been expended in developing intervention programs to help improve the early literacy and school readiness skills of young children. This article presents the results of a needs assessment project aimed at identifying priorities for community intervention programs aimed at ensuring that young children enter school ready to learn. A…
Toussaint, Karen A.; Tiger, Jeffrey H.
Despite the need for braille literacy, there has been little attempt to systematically evaluate braille-instruction programs. The current study evaluated an instructive procedure for teaching early braille-reading skills with 4 school-aged children with degenerative visual impairments. Following a series of pretests, braille instruction involved…
Early childhood educators often make assumptions about the nature of families' understandings and what they do at home to support their young children's literacy and numeracy development and learning. Sometimes educator's have a limited understanding of children's every day experiences at home or in their community and the potential for these to…
Nash, Kindel; Panther, Leah; Arce-Boardman, Alicia
This article features a culturally sustaining practice that many early literacy teachers can adapt and use: "la historia de mi nombre"/the story of my name. The practice is described in the context of a second-grade bi/multilingual class as the Latinx students are learning about their names through culturally authentic literature,…
Yalçintas Sezgin, Elif; Ulus, Leyla
Educational technology is commonly used. The use of technology at preschool education has an important role with a lot of effective methods so that children can learn. Preschool teachers use the technology to support children's development. Early literacy skills have gained more importance especially in the recent years. As a result, the use of…
At a time of increasing calls from policy makers for the use of "hard evidence" in driving decision-making at national and local levels in educational contexts, this article contributes to debates about evidence-based practice in early literacy research. It proposes that a reliance on studies designed to generate 'hard' evidence limits…
The purpose of this research-to-practice article is to describe the literacy and oral language professional development (PD) model that took place in a 3-year Early Reading First project in 9 Head Start and community-based school classrooms. Through our data-driven PD model, we provided 55 hr of training workshops for all classroom teaching staff…
Hunter, William C.; Elswick, Susan E.; Perkins, J. Helen; Heroux, JoDell R.; Harte, Helene
Parents and family members play an essential role in the literacy development of their children. Research indicates that children with disabilities enrolled in early childhood programs are likely to experience marginalization in terms of receiving educational services. This research emphasizes the importance of exposing students with disabilities…
Phadung, Muneeroh; Suksakulchai, Surachai; Kaewprapan, Wacheerapan
This study investigated the effects of using an interactive e-story for early literacy instruction on word recognition, story comprehension and story application. The study was conducted in two classrooms in the southern border provinces of Thailand with ethnic minority children at the kindergarten level. The samples consisted of 60 children who…
Voogt, Joke; McKenney, Susan
This study examines if and how five teacher education institutes are helping students to develop the technological pedagogical content knowledge needed to effectively use technology for early literacy. Focus group discussions were held with teacher educators in which their responses to expert recommendations were probed. Findings indicate that,…
Armstrong, Kathleen; Cusumano, Dale Lynn; Todd, Melissa; Cohen, Rachel
While it is clear that reading is critical to children's success throughout schooling and reading instruction research has dramatically increased over the past 2 decades, few early childhood providers have the necessary knowledge, skills and/or confidence to effectively implement evidence-based, emergent literacy strategies in their settings. This…
Roskos, Kathleen A.; Sullivan, Shannon; Simpson, Danielle; Zuzolo, Nicole
Using a theory of affordances, this study examines the introduction of e-books into the early literacy environment as resources that can increase children's opportunity for learning vocabulary. Added value was observed under conditions of (1) book browsing, (2) instruction, and (3) a print-only condition. A total of 33 4-year-olds (18 boys, 15…
Singh, Michael; Han, Jinghe; Woodrow, Christine
The potential of a sociocultural approach for empowering early childhood educators cannot be presumed, and its impact on leadership strategies and literacy teaching may be open to question. This paper reports on research into a professional learning program, the "Programa Futuro Infantil Hoy", developed and implemented by a team of…
Literacy Teaching and Learning: An International Journal of Early Reading and Writing, 1999
Developed as a vehicle of communication for the Reading Recovery Council of North America, this journal represents an international effort to connect researchers, teachers, and all those interested in early literacy. Articles in the first issue of this fourth volume are: "The Development of Literate Potential in Literature-Based and…
Abrami, Philip C.; Wade, C. Anne; Lysenko, Larysa; Marsh, Jonathon; Gioko, Anthony
The research explores the impact of interactive, multimedia literacy software (ABRA) on the reading skills of early elementary students in Kenya. Twelve grade two English teachers and their students from six schools were randomly divided in half: an experimental group (N = 180) where ABRA was part of their English Language instruction and a…
Greenwood, Charles R.; Carta, Judith J.; Atwater, Jane; Goldstein, Howard; Kaminski, Ruth; McConnell, Scott
Preschool experience plays a role in children's development. However, for programs with language and early literacy goals, the question remains whether preschool instructional experiences are sufficiently effective to achieve these goals for all children. In a multisite study, the authors conducted a process-product description of preschool…
Giles, Rebecca M.; Tunks, Karyn
Teachers' assumptions about teaching and learning have a critical impact on pedagogical practices. This study was conducted to investigate the perceptions of early childhood educators regarding children's acquisition of literacy in an attempt to gain a picture of current instructional practices. Prekindergarten through second grade teachers…
Berger, Andrea; Turk-Bicakci, Lori; Garet, Michael; Song, Mengli; Knudson, Joel; Haxton, Clarisse; Zeiser, Kristina; Hoshen, Gur; Ford, Jennifer; Stephan, Jennifer; Keating, Kaeli; Cassidy, Lauren
In 2002, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation launched the Early College High School Initiative (ECHSI) with the primary goal of increasing the opportunity for underserved students to earn a postsecondary credential. To achieve this goal, Early Colleges provide underserved students with exposure to, and support in, college while they are in…
Ruller, Margaret M.
The purpose of this qualitative study was to: (1) examine the profiles of teacher literacy leaders; (2) explore the empowerment of teacher literacy leaders through professional development and a distributed leadership model at the building level; (3) examine the impact of context on their leadership roles; and, (4) determine their potential…
Spencer, Mercedes; Kaschak, Michael P.; Jones, John L.; Lonigan, Christopher J.
It has been demonstrated that statistical learning, or the ability to use statistical information to learn the structure of one’s environment, plays a role in young children’s acquisition of linguistic knowledge. Although most research on statistical learning has focused on language acquisition processes, such as the segmentation of words from fluent speech and the learning of syntactic structure, some recent studies have explored the extent to which individual differences in statistical learning are related to literacy-relevant knowledge and skills. The present study extends on this literature by investigating the relations between two measures of statistical learning and multiple measures of skills that are critical to the development of literacy—oral language, vocabulary knowledge, and phonological processing—within a single model. Our sample included a total of 553 typically developing children from prekindergarten through second grade. Structural equation modeling revealed that statistical learning accounted for a unique portion of the variance in these literacy-related skills. Practical implications for instruction and assessment are discussed. PMID:26478658
Naccarella, Lucio; Biuso, Catuscia; Jennings, Amanda; Patsamanis, Harry
Evidence exists for the association between health literacy and heart health outcomes. Cardiac rehabilitation is critical for recovery from heart attack and reducing hospital readmissions. Despite this, <30% of people participate in a program. Significant patient, hospital and health system challenges exist to improve recovery through increased heart health literacy. This brief case study reflects and documents practice-based initiatives by Heart Foundation Victoria to improve access to recovery information for patients with low literacy levels. Three key initiatives, namely the Six Steps To Cardiac Recovery resource, the Love Your Heart book and the nurse ambassador program, were implemented informed by mixed methods that assessed need and capacity at the individual, organisational and systems levels. Key outcomes included increased access to recovery information for patients with low health literacy, nurse knowledge and confidence to engage with patients on recovery information, improved education of patients and improved availability and accessibility of information for patients in diverse formats. Given the challenges involved in addressing heart health literacy, multifaceted practice-based approaches are essential to improve access to recovery information for patients with low literacy levels. What is known about the topic? Significant challenges exist for patients with lower health literacy receiving recovery information after a heart attack in hospitals. What does this paper add? This case study provides insights into a practice-based initiative by Heart Foundation Victoria to improve access to recovery information for patients with low literacy levels. What are the implications for practitioners? Strategies to improve recovery through increased heart health literacy must address the needs of patients, nursing staff and the health system within hospitals. Such strategies need to be multifaceted and designed to build the capacity of nurses, heart patients and
Seymour, Jane W; Frasso, Rosemary; Shofer, Frances S; Bennett, Ian M
Literacy is linked to a range of health outcomes, but its association with reproductive health in high-income countries is not well understood. We assessed the relationship between early-life literacy and childbearing across the reproductive lifecourse in the USA. A prospective cohort design was employed to assess early-life literacy and subsequent childbearing, using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979. The US youth aged 14-22 years in 1979, including 6283 women, were surveyed annually through 1994 and biannually thereafter. Literacy was assessed in 1980 using the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery Reading Grade Level (RGL). Cumulative childbearing and grand multiparity (≥5 births) were assessed in 2010. Summary statistics, χ 2 , Kruskal-Wallis, test for trend and logistic regression, were used. Of 6283 women enrolled, 4025 (64%) had complete data and were included in the analyses. In 1980, these women were on average 18 years old and in 2010 they were 45. Median cumulative parity decreased for each RGL and ranged from 3.0 (<5th grade) to 2.0 (>12th grade) (p=0.001). Adjusting for race/ethnicity, poverty status, whether a woman had had a child in 1980, and age in 1980, odds of grand multiparity were 1.9 (95% CI 1.1 to 3.5) and 1.8 (95% CI 1.0 to 3.3), greater among women with <5th or 5-6th grade literacy compared with those ≥12th literacy. In the USA, early-life literacy is associated with total parity over a woman's lifecourse. Literacy is a powerful social determinant of reproductive health in this high-income nation just as it has been shown to be in low-income nations. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Vagi, Robert L.; Collins, Clarin; Clark, Terri
Given the critical role that literacy plays in children's academic and personal development, policymakers have increasingly focused on policies related to early childhood literacy, particularly among poor and minority students. In this study, authors use a census of data from Arizona, a state with a large and growing population of traditionally…
Vinogradov, Patricia Egan
In this case study of adult English as a Second Language (ESL) educators, the researcher facilitated a six-week professional development activity around the topic of early literacy instruction. The four participants in the study circle were all LESLLA (low-educated second language and literacy acquisition) teachers whose students are adult…
Foorman, Barbara; Herrera, Sarah; Dombek, Jennifer; Schatschneider, Chris; Petscher, Yaacov
Understanding written language is crucial to academic success in all content areas. Ensuring a strong foundation in the components of written language--that is, the literacy skills of reading, writing, and oral language--is essential if students are to read with understanding and, thus, is a primary goal of early literacy instruction and of the…
Ren, Li; Hu, Guangwei
This article reports a case study of two Chinese-English bilingual families in Singapore and illustrates the importance of incorporating two hitherto disconnected fields of research--family language policy and family literacy practices--to an understanding of early language and literacy acquisition in the familial milieu. Specifically, this work…
Mendive, Susana; Lissi, María Rosa; Bakeman, Roger; Reyes, Adriana
Research Findings: To extend findings that are mainly based on North American studies with English speakers, we studied 989 Chilean mothers from households of low socioeconomic status and their prekindergarten children, posing 2 questions: (a) Do mothers' self-reported practices about literacy development predict early literacy outcomes over and…
In this article I argue that insufficient attention is paid to the explicit teaching of comprehension in South African literacy policies and practices. Like elsewhere, governments reinforce the existing curriculum gap by trying to solve the achievement gap in early literacy. I substantiate my claim through a critical analysis of a report…
Li, Hui; Rao, Nirmala; Tse, Shek Kam
This longitudinal study examined the relationship between pedagogical continuity in literacy education and early literacy development by comparing Chinese children in Hong Kong and Shenzhen. Stratified random sampling was used to select 24 preschool and Primary 1 classes in four communities catering to middle-class families in each city. The 24…
Sanders, Lee M; Perrin, Eliana M; Yin, H Shonna; Bronaugh, Andrea; Rothman, Russell L
Children who become overweight by age 2 years have significantly greater risks of long-term health problems, and children in low-income communities, where rates of low adult literacy are highest, are at increased risk of developing obesity. The objective of the Greenlight Intervention Study is to assess the effectiveness of a low-literacy, primary-care intervention on the reduction of early childhood obesity. At 4 primary-care pediatric residency training sites across the US, 865 infant-parent dyads were enrolled at the 2-month well-child checkup and are being followed through the 24-month well-child checkup. Two sites were randomly assigned to the intervention, and the other sites were assigned to an attention-control arm, implementing the American Academy of Pediatrics' The Injury Prevention Program. The intervention consists of an interactive educational toolkit, including low-literacy materials designed for use during well-child visits, and a clinician-centered curriculum for providing low-literacy guidance on obesity prevention. The study is powered to detect a 10% difference in the number of children overweight (BMI > 85%) at 24 months. Other outcome measures include observed physician-parent communication, as well as parent-reported information on child dietary intake, physical activity, and injury-prevention behaviors. The study is designed to inform evidence-based standards for early childhood obesity prevention, and more generally to inform optimal approaches for low-literacy messages and health literacy training in primary preventive care. This article describes the conceptual model, study design, intervention content, and baseline characteristics of the study population. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Perrin, Eliana M.; Yin, H. Shonna; Bronaugh, Andrea; Rothman, Russell L.
Children who become overweight by age 2 years have significantly greater risks of long-term health problems, and children in low-income communities, where rates of low adult literacy are highest, are at increased risk of developing obesity. The objective of the Greenlight Intervention Study is to assess the effectiveness of a low-literacy, primary-care intervention on the reduction of early childhood obesity. At 4 primary-care pediatric residency training sites across the US, 865 infant-parent dyads were enrolled at the 2-month well-child checkup and are being followed through the 24-month well-child checkup. Two sites were randomly assigned to the intervention, and the other sites were assigned to an attention-control arm, implementing the American Academy of Pediatrics' The Injury Prevention Program. The intervention consists of an interactive educational toolkit, including low-literacy materials designed for use during well-child visits, and a clinician-centered curriculum for providing low-literacy guidance on obesity prevention. The study is powered to detect a 10% difference in the number of children overweight (BMI > 85%) at 24 months. Other outcome measures include observed physician–parent communication, as well as parent-reported information on child dietary intake, physical activity, and injury-prevention behaviors. The study is designed to inform evidence-based standards for early childhood obesity prevention, and more generally to inform optimal approaches for low-literacy messages and health literacy training in primary preventive care. This article describes the conceptual model, study design, intervention content, and baseline characteristics of the study population. PMID:24819570
Clark, Patricia; Kragler, Sherry
The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of incorporating writing materials in all areas of the preschool classroom on the early literacy development of young children from low-income families. The researchers worked with six teachers in three preschool classrooms to incorporate literacy materials--particularly those materials that…
Flannery, Michael A.
This paper describes a popular, grassroots health crusade initiated by Samuel Thomson (1769–1843) in the early decades of the nineteenth century and the ways the Thomsonians exemplified the inherent contradictions within the larger context of their own sociopolitical environment. Premised upon a unique brand of frontier egalitarianism exemplified in the Tennessee war-hero Andrew Jackson (1767–1845), the age that bore Jackson's name was ostensibly anti-intellectual, venerating “intuitive wisdom” and “common sense” over book learning and formal education. Likewise, the Thomsonian movement eschewed schooling and science for an empirical embrace of nature's apothecary, a populist rhetoric that belied its own complex and extensive infrastructure of polemical literature. Thus, Thomsonians, in fact, relied upon a literate public to explain and disseminate their system of healing. This paper contributes to the historiography of literacy in the United States that goes beyond typical census-data, probate-record, or will-signature analyses to look at how a popular medical cult was both heir to and promoter of a functionally literate populace. PMID:12398251
Farver, Jo Ann M.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Eppe, Stefanie
Ninety-four Spanish-speaking preschoolers (M age = 54.51 months, SD = 4.72; 43 girls) were randomly assigned to receive the High/Scope Curriculum (control n = 32) or the Literacy Express Preschool Curriculum in English-only (n = 31) or initially in Spanish transitioning to English (n = 31). Children's emergent literacy skills were assessed before…
Wohlwend, Karen E.
Karen Wohlwend provides a new framework for rethinking the boundaries between literacy and play, so that play itself is viewed as a literacy practice along with reading, writing, and design. Through a variety of theoretical lenses, the author presents a portrait of literacy play that connects three play groups: the girls and, importantly, boys,…
Halden, Amanda; Clark, Christina; Lewis, Fiona
In May 2011 "Nursery World" and the National Literacy Trust launched its language development survey to celebrate Hello; the national year of communication. The National Literacy Trust teamed up with "Nursery World" to carry out research into the sector's support for children's language and literacy development. Two hundred…
Bennett, Susan V.; Gunn, AnnMarie Alberton; Gayle-Evans, Guda; Barrera, Estanislado S.; Leung, Cynthia B.
Early childhood educators continue to see an increase in their culturally diverse student population. As our country continues to grow as a multicultural nation, it is imperative that our early childhood classrooms embrace this rich diversity and provide experiences that affirm all students, families and communities. We (teacher educators)…
Notten, Natascha; Becker, Birgit
Online reading behavior can be regarded as a ‘new’ form of cultural capital in today’s digital world. However, it is unclear whether ‘traditional’ mechanisms of cultural and social reproduction are also found in this domain, and whether they manifest uniformly across countries at different stages of development. This article analyzes whether the early home literacy environment has an impact on informational online reading behavior among adolescents and whether this association varies between countries with different levels of digitalization and educational expansion. Data from the 2009 Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) were used for the empirical analyses. The results of regression models with country-fixed effects indicate a positive association between literacy activities in early childhood and informational online reading at age 15. This association was quite stable across countries. These findings are discussed in light of cultural and social reproduction theory and digital divide research. PMID:29276306
Lonigan, Christopher J; Allan, Nicholas P; Lerner, Matthew D
The importance of the preschool period for becoming a skilled reader is highlighted by a significant body of evidence that preschool children's development in the areas of oral language, phonological awareness, and print knowledge is predictive of how well they will learn to read once they are exposed to formal reading instruction in elementary school. Although there are now a number of empirically supported instructional activities for helping children who are at -risk of later reading difficulties acquire these early literacy skills, limitations in instructional time and opportunities in most preschool settings requires the use of valid assessment procedures to ensure that instructional resources are utilized efficiently. In this paper, we discuss the degree to which informal, diagnostic, screening, and progress-monitoring assessments of preschool early literacy skills can inform instructional decisions by considering the strengths and weaknesses of each approach to assessment.
Cunningham, Anna J.; Carroll, Julia M.
Background: There is evidence that children who are taught to read later in childhood (age 6-7) make faster progress in early literacy than those who are taught at a younger age (4-5 years), as is current practice in the UK. Aims: Steiner-educated children begin learning how to read at age 7, and have better reading-related skills at the onset of…
Lonigan, Christopher J.; Allan, Darcey M.; Phillips, Beth M.
There is strong evidence that self-regulatory processes are linked to early academic skills both concurrently and longitudinally. The majority of extant longitudinal studies, however, have been conducted using autoregressive techniques that may not accurately model change across time. The purpose of this study was to examine the unique associations between two components of self-regulation, attention and executive functioning (EF), and growth in early literacy skills over the preschool year using latent-growth-curve analysis. The sample included 1,082 preschool children (M-age = 55.0 months, SD = 3.73). Children completed measures of vocabulary, syntax, phonological awareness, print knowledge, cognitive ability, and self-regulation, and children’s classroom teachers completed a behavior rating measure. To examine the independent relations of the self-regulatory skills and cognitive ability with children’s initial early literacy skills and growth across the preschool year, growth models in which the intercept and slope were simultaneously regressed on each of the predictor variables were examined. Because of the significant relation between intercept and slope for most outcomes, slope was regressed on intercept in the models to allow a determination of direct and indirect effects of the predictors on growth in children’s language and literacy skills across the preschool year. In general, both teacher-rated inattention and directly measured EF were uniquely associated with initial skills level; however, only teacher-rated inattention uniquely predicted growth in early literacy skills. These findings suggest that teacher-ratings of inattention may measure an aspect of self-regulation that is particularly associated with the acquisition of academic skills in early childhood. PMID:27854463
Kirk, Stacie M; Kirk, Erik P
The effects of increases in physical activity (PA) on early literacy skills in preschool children are not known. Fifty-four African-American preschool children from a low socioeconomic urban Head Start participated over 8 months. A 2-group, quasi-experimental design was used with one preschool site participating in the PA intervention and a second site participating as the control site. The PA program was designed to promote 300 minutes/week of moderate to vigorous PA academic lessons. Academic achievement related to early literacy and phonological awareness in the areas of rhyming and alliteration were assessed at baseline, 4 and 8 months. Over 8 months, rhyming significantly (p < .01) improved in the PA group (173 ± 12%) compared with the controls (28 ± 8%) resulting in between group differences at 8 months (p < .01). Alliteration significantly (p < .01) improved in the PA group (52 ± 16%) compared with controls (13 ± 5%), resulting in between group differences at 8 months (p < .01). As minutes of exposure to moderate to vigorous PA increased, the change in picture naming (R(2) = .35, p < .05), alliteration (R(2) = .38, p < .05), and rhyming (R(2) = .42, p < .05), increased. A teacher-directed PA program is effective at increasing PA and improving early literacy. © 2016, American School Health Association.
Webb, Mi-Young; Lederberg, Amy R; Branum-Martin, Lee; McDonald Connor, Carol
Better understanding the mechanisms underlying developing literacy has promoted the development of more effective reading interventions for typically developing children. Such knowledge may facilitate effective instruction of deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children. Hence, the current study examined the multivariate associations among phonological awareness, alphabetic knowledge, word reading, and vocabulary skills in DHH children who have auditory access to speech. One hundred and sixty-seven DHH children (M age = 60.43 months) were assessed with a battery of early literacy measures. Forty-six percent used at least 1 cochlear implant; 54% were fitted with hearing aids. About a fourth of the sample was acquiring both spoken English and sign. Scores on standardized tests of phonological awareness and vocabulary averaged at least 1 standard deviation (SD) below the mean of the hearing norming sample. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that DHH children's early literacy skills were best characterized by a complex 3-factor model in which phonological awareness, alphabetic knowledge, and vocabulary formed 3 separate, but highly correlated constructs, with letter-sound knowledge and word reading skills relating to both phonological awareness and alphabetic knowledge. This supports the hypothesis that early reading of DHH children with functional hearing is qualitatively similar to that of hearing children. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Burne, Brian; Knafelc, Valerie; Melonis, Maureen; Heyn, Patricia C
The Individuals with Disabilities Act was implemented in 1975 to assure that all children aged 0-21 years old have access and the right to an equal education. However, young children with disabilities continue to need additional support to meet the reading readiness standards as outlined in The No Child Left Behind legislation (2004). Although all children benefit from readiness skills, it is essential for children with special needs. With the technology boom of the past decade, assistive technology (AT) has been used increasingly to enhance emerging literacy skills. In order to identify current trends in the use of AT as a means to enhance emergent literacy skills in young children with disabilities, a systematic review of the literature was undertaken. The findings from this review support the scarcity of empirical research demonstrating the benefit of AT to promote emergent literacy with young children with disabilities. We also found a need for evidence supporting education approaches for the proper use of AT in early childhood literacy as well as little family knowledge regarding the implementation and instructional use of AT.
Kuhl, Patricia K.
The last decade has produced an explosion in neuroscience research examining young children’s early processing of language that has implications for education. Noninvasive, safe functional brain measurements have now been proven feasible for use with children starting at birth. In the arena of language, the neural signatures of learning can be documented at a remarkably early point in development, and these early measures predict performance in children’s language and pre-reading abilities in the second, third, and fifth year of life, a finding with theoretical and educational import. There is evidence that children’s early mastery of language requires learning in a social context, and this finding also has important implications for education. Evidence relating socio-economic status (SES) to brain function for language suggests that SES should be considered a proxy for the opportunity to learn and that the complexity of language input is a significant factor in developing brain areas related to language. The data indicate that the opportunity to learn from complex stimuli and events are vital early in life, and that success in school begins in infancy. PMID:21892359
Past definitions of statistical literacy should be updated in order to account for the greatly amplified role that data now play in our lives. Experience working with high-school students in an innovative data science curriculum has shown that teaching statistical literacy, augmented by data literacy, can begin early.
Gilmore, Gwen; Truong, Thi My Dung; Reilly, Michelle
For preservice teachers in early childhood education, having a rich exposure to multiple forms of literacy in diverse communities is an essential dimension of their teacher education. In this study, 10 Australian preservice early childhood education students, in the first year of their course, visit two early childhood settings in a large city in…
Piasta, Shayne B; Wagner, Richard K
Alphabet knowledge is a hallmark of early literacy and facilitating its development has become a primary objective of pre-school instruction and intervention. However, little agreement exists about how to promote the development of alphabet knowledge effectively. A meta-analysis of the effects of instruction on alphabet outcomes demonstrated that instructional impacts differed by type of alphabet outcome examined and content of instruction provided. School-based instruction yielded larger effects than home-based instruction; small-group instruction yielded larger effects than individual tutoring programs. We found minimal evidence of transfer of alphabet instruction to early phonological, reading, or spelling skills. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
This literature review provides an overview of the main lines of discussion and enquiry around social capital and adult learning and literacy. It was written as a background paper for "The Centre for Literacy's 2010 Summer Institute" on workplace literacy and essential skills (LES). The Institute focus was "what…
This article describes the evaluation outcomes of an innovative, community based educational initiative to enhance and promote the awareness of literacy and numeracy in young children in two regional communities in Moorabool Shire, Victoria. With the support of committed educational and community partners (through the Moorabool Best Start…
Lee, H Y; Lee, J; Henning-Smith, C; Choi, J
This study identifies whether, and how, human papillomavirus (HPV) literacy and predisposing, enabling, and need factors are associated with HPV vaccine initiation and completion among young adults in Minnesota. Cross-sectional survey design. Using a sample of 170 young adults (aged 18-26 years), we used logistic regression models to identify factors associated with HPV vaccination initiation and completion, including HPV literacy, adjusting for relevant predisposing, enabling, and need factors. Consistent with national estimates, we found relatively low rates of HPV vaccination initiation (46%) and completion (36%). Better HPV literacy was significantly associated with higher rates of both initiation and completion, as was being female and having an annual check-up. Being married/partnered was significantly associated with lower odds of HPV vaccination. Public health programs, policy-makers, and healthcare providers can use these results to increase HPV vaccination rates by making concerted efforts to improve HPV vaccination literacy through individual and public education campaigns and by improving access to annual check-ups. Copyright © 2017 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kempert, Sebastian; Götz, Regina; Blatter, Kristine; Tibken, Catharina; Artelt, Cordula; Schneider, Wolfgang; Stanat, Petra
Well-developed phonological awareness skills are a core prerequisite for early literacy development. Although effective phonological awareness training programs exist, children at risk often do not reach similar levels of phonological awareness after the intervention as children with normally developed skills. Based on theoretical considerations and first promising results the present study explores effects of an early musical training in combination with a conventional phonological training in children with weak phonological awareness skills. Using a quasi-experimental pretest-posttest control group design and measurements across a period of 2 years, we tested the effects of two interventions: a consecutive combination of a musical and a phonological training and a phonological training alone. The design made it possible to disentangle effects of the musical training alone as well the effects of its combination with the phonological training. The outcome measures of these groups were compared with the control group with multivariate analyses, controlling for a number of background variables. The sample included N = 424 German-speaking children aged 4–5 years at the beginning of the study. We found a positive relationship between musical abilities and phonological awareness. Yet, whereas the well-established phonological training produced the expected effects, adding a musical training did not contribute significantly to phonological awareness development. Training effects were partly dependent on the initial level of phonological awareness. Possible reasons for the lack of training effects in the musical part of the combination condition as well as practical implications for early literacy education are discussed. PMID:27899906
Yaden, David B., Jr.; Marx, Ronald W.; Cimetta, Adriana D.; Alkhadim, Ghadah S.; Cutshaw, Christina
For two decades, it has been recommended that assessment of literacy for preschool children be conducted in a child's primary language. However, only a few literacy assessments have been validated with a preschool, Spanish-speaking population. The purpose of the present study was to test the latent structure of the Phonological Awareness Literacy…
Goodrich, J Marc; Lonigan, Christopher J
According to the common underlying proficiency model (Cummins, 1981), as children acquire academic knowledge and skills in their first language, they also acquire language-independent information about those skills that can be applied when learning a second language. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relevance of the common underlying proficiency model for the early literacy skills of Spanish-speaking language-minority children using confirmatory factor analysis. Eight hundred fifty-eight Spanish-speaking language-minority preschoolers (mean age = 60.83 months, 50.2% female) participated in this study. Results indicated that bifactor models that consisted of language-independent as well as language-specific early literacy factors provided the best fits to the data for children's phonological awareness and print knowledge skills. Correlated factors models that only included skills specific to Spanish and English provided the best fits to the data for children's oral language skills. Children's language-independent early literacy skills were significantly related across constructs and to language-specific aspects of early literacy. Language-specific aspects of early literacy skills were significantly related within but not across languages. These findings suggest that language-minority preschoolers have a common underlying proficiency for code-related skills but not language-related skills that may allow them to transfer knowledge across languages.
Langub, Lee Woodham; Lokey-Vega, Anissa
Digital literacy is an important aspect to consider within teacher education as a way to address twenty-first century learner needs, particularly in early childhood contexts where developmental concerns should be paramount in making instructional design decisions. This article is a design case of a graduate level early childhood education…
Gutierrez, Kris D.; Zepeda, Marlene; Castro, Dina C.
The authors examine the implications and limitations of the National Early Literacy Panel report on the early care of young children who are dual-language learners (DLLs).They examine the relevance of the report for DLLs, particularly the practice in this and other national synthesis reports of extrapolating implications for the education of young…
Allen, Thomas E.; Letteri, Amy; Choi, Song Hoa; Dang, Daqian
A brief review is provided of recent research on the impact of early visual language exposure on a variety of developmental outcomes, including literacy, cognition, and social adjustment. This body of work points to the great importance of giving young deaf children early exposure to a visual language as a critical precursor to the acquisition of…
Lee-Hammond, Libby; McConney, Andrew
This research, a collaboration of an international aid organisation, an institute of higher education, and an external evaluation consultant, assesses the early literacy, numeracy, and school attendance outcomes resulting from an early childhood development programme undertaken in several villages in the province of Makira, Solomon Islands. The…
Toussaint, Karen A; Tiger, Jeffrey H
Despite the need for braille literacy, there has been little attempt to systematically evaluate braille-instruction programs. The current study evaluated an instructive procedure for teaching early braille-reading skills with 4 school-aged children with degenerative visual impairments. Following a series of pretests, braille instruction involved providing a sample braille letter and teaching the selection of the corresponding printed letter from a comparison array. Concomitant with increases in the accuracy of this skill, we assessed and captured the formation of equivalence classes through tests of symmetry and transitivity among the printed letters, the corresponding braille letters, and their spoken names. PMID:21119894
Toussaint, Karen A; Tiger, Jeffrey H
Despite the need for braille literacy, there has been little attempt to systematically evaluate braille-instruction programs. The current study evaluated an instructive procedure for teaching early braille-reading skills with 4 school-aged children with degenerative visual impairments. Following a series of pretests, braille instruction involved providing a sample braille letter and teaching the selection of the corresponding printed letter from a comparison array. Concomitant with increases in the accuracy of this skill, we assessed and captured the formation of equivalence classes through tests of symmetry and transitivity among the printed letters, the corresponding braille letters, and their spoken names.
Breit-Smith, Allison; Cabell, Sonia Q; Justice, Laura M
The present article illustrates how the National Household Education Surveys (NHES; U.S. Department of Education, 2009) database might be used to address questions of relevance to researchers who are concerned with literacy development among young children. Following a general description of the NHES database, a study is provided that examines the extent to which parent-reported home literacy activities and child emergent literacy skills differ for children with (a) developmental disabilities versus those who are developing typically, (b) single disability versus multiple disabilities, and (c) speech-language disability only versus other types of disabilities. Four hundred and seventy-eight preschool-age children with disabilities and a typically developing matched sample (based on parent report) were identified in the 2005 administration of the Early Childhood Program Participation (ECPP) Survey in the NHES database. Parent responses to survey items were then compared between groups. After controlling for age and socioeconomic status, no significant differences were found in the frequency of home literacy activities for children with and without disabilities. Parents reported higher levels of emergent literacy skills for typically developing children relative to children with disabilities. These findings suggest the importance of considering the home literacy experiences and emergent literacy skills of young children with disabilities when making clinical recommendations.
Lee, Julia Ai Cheng; Otaiba, Stephanie Al
Socioeconomic status and gender are important demographic variables that strongly relate to academic achievement. This study examined the early literacy skills differences between 4 sociodemographic groups, namely, boys ineligible for free or reduced-price lunch (FRL), girls ineligible for FRL, boys eligible for FRL, and girls eligible for FRL. Data on kindergarteners (N = 462) were analysed using multiple-group confirmatory factory analysis. Early literacy skill differences between boys and girls are more nuanced than previously reported; subsidy status and gender interact. Both boys and girls from high-poverty households performed significantly lower than the girls from low-poverty households in alphabet knowledge, phonological awareness, and spelling. There were gender gaps, with a female advantage, among children from high-poverty households in alphabet knowledge and spelling and among children from low-poverty households in alphabet knowledge. These results highlight the importance of employing methodologically sound techniques to ascertain group differences in componential early literacy skills. PMID:25750582
Marsh, Jackie; Hannon, Peter; Lewis, Margaret; Ritchie, Louise
This article reports a study that explored young children's digital literacy in the home. The aim of the study was to identify the range of digital literacy practices in which children are engaged in the home and to explore how these are embedded into family life and involve family members. Four children, two girls and two boys aged between 2 and…
Selmer, Sarah J.; Rye, James A.; Malone, Elizabeth; Fernandez, Danielle; Trebino, Kathryn
Statistical literacy is essential to scientific literacy, and the quest for such is best initiated in the elementary grades. The "Next Generation Science Standards and the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics" set forth practices (e.g., asking questions, using tools strategically to analyze and interpret data) and content (e.g.,…
Chrisler, Alison; Ling, Thomson
Given the importance of the early childhood period as a time when the foundation is laid for later language and literacy, it is important to determine what activities and experiences lead to positive language and literacy outcomes in early childhood. This Fact Sheet reviews fifteen experimentally-evaluated programs and intervention strategies that…
Computational models of reading posit that there are two pathways to word recognition, using sublexical phonology or morphological/orthographic information. They further theorize that everyone uses both pathways to some extent, but the division of labor between the pathways can vary. This review argues that the first language one was taught to read, and the instructional method by which one was taught, can have profound and long-lasting effects on how one reads, not only in one’s first language, but also in one’s second language. Readers who first learn a transparent orthography rely more heavily on the sublexical phonology pathway, and this seems relatively impervious to instruction. Readers who first learn a more opaque orthography rely more on morphological/orthographic information, but the degree to which they do so can be modulated by instructional method. Finally, readers who first learned to read a highly opaque morphosyllabic orthography use less sublexical phonology while reading in their second language than do other second language learners and this effect may be heightened if they were not also exposed to an orthography that codes for phonological units during early literacy acquisition. These effects of early literacy experiences on reading procedure are persistent despite increases in reading ability. PMID:26483714
Family literacy programs in North America and the United Kingdom have enjoyed widespread public and political support. Thousands of initiatives following a variety of models currently operate under the spectrum of family literacy programs. In this paper, the influence of learning theories, the research on children's early literacy development, and…
Ownby, Raymond L; Acevedo, Amarilis; Waldrop-Valverde, Drenna; Jacobs, Robin J; Caballero, Joshua; Davenport, Rosemary; Homs, Ana-Maria; Czaja, Sara J; Loewenstein, David
Current measures of health literacy have been criticized on a number of grounds, including use of a limited range of content, development on small and atypical patient groups, and poor psychometric characteristics. In this paper, we report the development and preliminary validation of a new computer-administered and -scored health literacy measure addressing these limitations. Items in the measure reflect a wide range of content related to health promotion and maintenance as well as care for diseases. The development process has focused on creating a measure that will be useful in both Spanish and English, while not requiring substantial time for clinician training and individual administration and scoring. The items incorporate several formats, including questions based on brief videos, which allow for the assessment of listening comprehension and the skills related to obtaining information on the Internet. In this paper, we report the interim analyses detailing the initial development and pilot testing of the items (phase 1 of the project) in groups of Spanish and English speakers. We then describe phase 2, which included a second round of testing of the items, in new groups of Spanish and English speakers, and evaluation of the new measure's reliability and validity in relation to other measures. Data are presented that show that four scales (general health literacy, numeracy, conceptual knowledge, and listening comprehension), developed through a process of item and factor analyses, have significant relations to existing measures of health literacy.
Lewis, Barbara A; Avrich, Allison A; Freebairn, Lisa A; Hansen, Amy J; Sucheston, Lara E; Kuo, Iris; Taylor, H Gerry; Iyengar, Sudha K; Stein, Catherine M
To demonstrate that early childhood speech sound disorders (SSD) and later school-age reading, written expression, and spelling skills are influenced by shared endophenotypes that may be in part genetic. Children with SSD and their siblings were assessed at early childhood (ages 4-6 years) and followed at school age (7-12 years). The relationship of shared endophenotypes with early childhood SSD and school-age outcomes and the shared genetic influences on these outcomes were examined. Structural equation modeling demonstrated that oral motor skills, phonological awareness, phonological memory, vocabulary, and speeded naming have varying influences on reading decoding, spelling, spoken language, and written expression at school age. Genetic linkage studies demonstrated linkage for reading, spelling, and written expression measures to regions on chromosomes 1, 3, 6, and 15 that were previously linked to oral motor skills, articulation, phonological memory, and vocabulary at early childhood testing. Endophenotypes predict school-age literacy outcomes over and above that predicted by clinical diagnoses of SSD or language impairment. Findings suggest that these shared endophenotypes and common genetic influences affect early childhood SSD and later school-age reading, spelling, spoken language, and written expression skills.
Lewis, Barbara A.; Avrich, Allison A.; Freebairn, Lisa A.; Hansen, Amy J.; Sucheston, Lara E.; Kuo, Iris; Taylor, H. Gerry; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Stein, Catherine M.
Purpose To demonstrate that early childhood speech sound disorders (SSD) and later school-age reading, written expression, and spelling skills are influenced by shared endophenotypes that may be in part genetic. Method Children with SSD and their siblings were assessed at early childhood (ages 4–6 years) and followed at school age (7–12 years). The relationship of shared endophenotypes with early childhood SSD and school-age outcomes and the shared genetic influences on these outcomes were examined. Results Structural equation modeling demonstrated that oral motor skills, phonological awareness, phonological memory, vocabulary, and speeded naming have varying influences on reading decoding, spelling, spoken language, and written expression at school age. Genetic linkage studies demonstrated linkage for reading, spelling, and written expression measures to regions on chromosomes 1, 3, 6, and 15 that were previously linked to oral motor skills, articulation, phonological memory, and vocabulary at early childhood testing. Conclusions Endophenotypes predict school-age literacy outcomes over and above that predicted by clinical diagnoses of SSD or language impairment. Findings suggest that these shared endophenotypes and common genetic influences affect early childhood SSD and later school-age reading, spelling, spoken language, and written expression skills. PMID:21930616
Hindman, Annemarie H.; Cromley, Jennifer G.; Skibbe, Lori E.; Miller, Alison L.
This article reviews the mechanics of conventional and piecewise growth models to demonstrate the unique affordances of each technique for examining the nature and predictors of children's early literacy learning during the transition from preschool through first grade. Using the nationally representative Family and Child Experiences Survey…
Powell, Douglas R.; Diamond, Karen E.; Koehler, Matthew J.
Use of a case-based hypermedia resource (HR) was examined in a Web-based early literacy coaching intervention with pre-kindergarten teachers of at-risk children. Web usage logs, written records of coach feedback to teachers on their instruction, and a teacher questionnaire were the primary data sources. Visits to the HR content pages were unevenly…
This article reviews the effectiveness of two projects: "NQT and Beyond; Developing Resilience in Learning and Teaching," and the underpinning conceptual framework (PLSP) in supporting early career teachers' (ECTs') development of their research literacy. Evidence of effective integration of research into practice is illustrated through…
Vernon-Feagans, Lynne; Kainz, Kirsten; Hedrick, Amy; Ginsberg, Marnie; Amendum, Steve
This study evaluated whether the Targeted Reading Intervention (TRI), a classroom teacher professional development program delivered through webcam technology literacy coaching, could provide rural classroom teachers with the instructional skills to help struggling readers progress rapidly in early reading. Fifteen rural schools were randomly…
Olaussen, Bodil Stokke
Understanding that classroom discourse is important for reading comprehension and critical thinking is emerging. The aim of the present study was to analyze what teachers say and do, to promote discussion at a teacher-led station in the Early Years Literacy Program (EYLP). The EYLP is a program for reading instruction, organized at different…
Ford, Karen L.; Invernizzi, Marcia A.; Huang, Francis
This study explored the viability of using kindergarten measures of phonological awareness, alphabet knowledge, and orthographic knowledge, administered in English, to predict first grade reading achievement of Spanish-speaking English language learners. The primary research question was: Do kindergarten measures of early literacy skills in…
Roseth, Cary J.; Missall, Kristen N.; McConnell, Scott R.
Early literacy individual growth and development indicators (EL-IGDIs) assess preschoolers' expressive vocabulary development and phonological awareness. This study investigated longitudinal change in EL-IGDIs using a large (N=7355), internet-based sample of 36- to 60-month-old United States preschoolers without identified risks for later…
Lee, Libby; Wilks, Anne
This paper reports aspects of a large-scale project conducted in rural and remote regions of Australia. The study was designed to assess teaching and learning practices in early childhood programs with a particular focus on literacy, numeracy and the use of information and communication technologies. Programs had been specifically designed for use…
Munger, Kristen A.; LoFaro, Stephen A.; Kawryga, Erin A.; Sovocool, Elizabeth A.; Medina, Siani Y.
This study involved examination of the validity evidence of the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills-Next Edition (DIBELS Next) for a sample of 85 third-and fifth-grade students, in reference to the "simple view" of reading. Tests administered included DIBELS Next, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test-IV (PPVT-IV), Group Reading…
Lee, Julia Ai Cheng; Al Otaiba, Stephanie
Socioeconomic status and gender are important demographic variables that strongly relate to academic achievement. This study examined the early literacy skills differences between 4 sociodemographic groups, namely, boys ineligible for free or reduced-price lunch (FRL), girls ineligible for FRL, boys eligible for FRL, and girls eligible for FRL.…
In this article, I synthesize extant research that documents how teachers foster and sustain children's diverse literacy practices within the early childhood classroom. Framing this review with Bakhtin's heteroglossia, I draw on theoretical and empirical scholarship in the fields of biliteracy, translanguaging, and culturally sustaining pedagogy.…
Lennox, Maria; Garvis, Susanne; Westerveld, Marleen
This paper explores teachers' and teacher assistants' self-efficacy of delivering PrepSTART, a classroom based, oral language and early literacy program for five-year-old students. In the current study, speech pathologists developed, provided training and monitored program implementation. Teachers and teacher assistants (n = 17) shared their…
Johnson, Anna D.; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Petrill, Stephen A.
The current study examines whether associations exist between household chaos and children's early reading skills, after controlling for a comprehensive battery of home literacy environment characteristics. Our sample included 455 kindergarten and first-grade children who are enrolled in the Western Reserve Reading Project. We go on to test…
Mihai, Alina; Butera, Gretchen; Friesen, Amber
Research Findings: This qualitative study examined how Head Start teachers thought about children's early literacy and how they enacted their thinking in a year-long curriculum reform effort. Data collected included interviews, observations, questionnaires, concept maps, and teachers' reflections on implementation. The results indicated that as…
Neuman, Susan B.; Wright, Tanya S.
This study examines the impact of 2 forms of professional development on prekindergarten teachers' early language and literacy practice: coursework and coaching. Participating teachers (N = 148) from 6 urban cities were randomly assigned to Group 1 (coursework), Group 2 (on-site coaching), or Group 3 (control group). Pre- and postassessments…
Kegel, Cornelia A. T.; Bus, Adriana G.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.
Not every child seems equally susceptible to the same parental, educational, or environmental influences even if cognitive level is similar. This study is the first randomized controlled trial to apply the differential susceptibility paradigm to education in relation to children's genotype and early literacy skills. A randomized pretest-posttest…
Wolgemuth, Jennifer; Savage, Robert; Helmer, Janet; Lea, Tess; Harper, Helen; Chalkiti, Kalotina; Bottrell, Christine; Abrami, Phil
The effectiveness of a web-based reading support tool, ABRACADABRA, to improve the literacy outcomes of Indigenous and non-Indigenous students was evaluated over one semester in several Northern Territory primary schools in 2009. ABRACADABRA is intended as a support for teachers in the early years of schooling, giving them a friendly, game and…
Sundman-Wheat, Ashley N.
This study examined the effects of a parent-led intervention focused on developing children's early literacy skills within the home setting. The lesson plans contain scripted steps for completing activities to teach letter names and phonological awareness skills. Archival data were analyzed from a study conducted with 26 families from three…
Lonigan, Christopher J.; Farver, JoAnn M.; Nakamoto, Jonathan; Eppe, Stefanie
This study utilized latent growth-curve analyses to determine if the early literacy skills of children who were Spanish-speaking language-minority (LM) followed a similar quantitative growth profile over a preschool year as that of a group of children from a comparable socioeconomic (SES) background but who were not LM. Participants, who ranged in…
Lonigan, Christopher J.; Shanahan, Timothy
This rejoinder provides responses to the conceptual concerns expressed in the nine critiques published in this issue of "Educational Researcher" of the 2008 National Early Literacy Panel report. It explains the necessity of adhering to clearly established study selection parameters in conducting trustworthy meta-analyses and the need to be…
Piasta, Shayne B.; Justice, Laura M.; O'Connell, Ann A.; Mauck, Susan A.; Weber-Mayrer, Melissa; Schachter, Rachel E.; Farley, Kristin S.; Spear, Caitlin F.
The current study investigated the effectiveness of large-scale, state-sponsored language and literacy professional development (PD) intended to improve early childhood educators' knowledge, beliefs, and practices. PD was offered in a real-world context and delivered at-scale across the state, implemented by an independent contractor. Educators (n…
Pratt, Amy S.; Justice, Laura M.; Perez, Ashanty; Duran, Lillian K.
Background: Children with language impairment (LI) often have lags in development of print knowledge, an important early-literacy skill. This study explores impacts of a print-focused intervention for Spanish-speaking children with LI in Southeastern Mexico. Aims: Aims were twofold. First, we sought to describe the print knowledge (print-concept…
Putman, Rebecca S.
Guided by Vygotsky's social learning theory, this study reports a 24-week investigation on whether regular use of Istation®, an integrated learning system used by approximately 4 million students in the United States, had an effect on the early literacy achievement of children in twelve kindergarten classrooms. A mixed-method, quasi-experimental…
Justice, Laura M.; Kaderavek, Joan N.; Fan, Xitao; Sofka, Amy; Hunt, Aileen
Purpose: This study examined the impact of teacher use of a print referencing style during classroom-based storybook reading sessions conducted over an academic year. Impacts on preschoolers' early literacy development were examined, focusing specifically on the domain of print knowledge. Method: This randomized, controlled trial examined the…
The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, along with Carnegie Corporation of New York, the Ford Foundation, and the W.K. Kellogg Foundation, is funding the Early College High School Initiative. The 13 partner organizations are creating or redesigning more than 250 pioneering small high schools. Jobs for the Future coordinates the Early College High…
Allen, Thomas E; Letteri, Amy; Choi, Song Hoa; Dang, Daqian
Brief review is provided of recent research on the impact of early visual language exposure on a variety of developmental outcomes, including literacy, cognition, and social adjustment. This body of work points to the great importance of giving young deaf children early exposure to a visual language as a critical precursor to the acquisition of literacy. Four analyses of data from the Visual Language and Visual Learning (VL2) Early Education Longitudinal Study are summarized. Each confirms findings from previously published laboratory findings and points to the positive effects of early sign language on, respectively, letter knowledge, social adaptability, sustained visual attention, and cognitive-behavioral milestones necessary for academic success. The article concludes with a consideration of the qualitative similarity hypothesis and a finding that the hypothesis is valid, but only if it can be presented as being modality independent.
Pacific Resources for Education and Learning (PREL), 2005
Rita is a Pacific island grade 2 teacher in a local village school. She has established a 90-minute daily literacy block in which she focuses on literacy-related activities. As she sits with her students during the literacy block, she realizes some of them are having difficulty comprehending text, and many are unable to retell the stories…
Kurth, Ruth J.
Researchers studying emerging literacy have begun building a theory of literacy development that links the processes of reading and writing. Their findings suggest that a child's emerging literacy is based on three factors: a functional expectation for print to make logical sense; an expectation of how language operates in alternate contexts; and…
Literacy has been a crucial aspect of education as a human right for over 50 years, but this basic right remains unassured for at least 700 million adults worldwide. In 1999, UNESCO acknowledged that schools are not making the expected contribution to increasing national literacy rates or providing individuals with the literacy skills they need.…
Johnston, Susan S.; McDonnell, Andrea P.; Hawken, Leanne S.
Emerging literacy has been defined as the "reading and writing knowledge and behavior of children who are not yet conventionally literate" (Justice & Kaderavek, 2002, p. 8). This article provides readers with strategies for meeting the emerging literacy needs of young children with disabilities. Ideas for creating a literacy-rich environment as…
Salasibew, Mihretab Melesse; Filteau, Suzanne; Marchant, Tanya
Although breastfeeding is almost universal in Ethiopia, only 52% newborns benefited from early initiation in 2011. Early initiation is one of the recommended interventions for saving newborn lives but its potential seems not yet realized for Ethiopian newborns and there is a need for continued efforts to increase coverage. To do so, it is also relevant to focus on consistent and accurate reporting of coverage in early initiation. WHO recommends the question "how long after birth did you first put [name] to the breast?" in order to assess coverage in early initiation. It is designed to measure the time after birth when the mother attempted to initiate breastfeeding regardless of whether breast milk had arrived or not. However, it is unclear how mothers perceive this question and what their responses of time refer to. In this study, we assessed Ethiopian mothers' perception about the question assessing early initiation. Cognitive interviews were conducted between April and May 2013 with eligible mothers in Basona and Debrebirhan woredas (districts), 120 km away from Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. A total of 49 mothers, most from Basona (n = 36) and the rest from Debrebirhan woredas (n = 13) were interviewed. No probes or follow on questions were required for mothers to understand what the WHO recommended question was about. However, further probing was needed to ascertain what maternal responses of time refer to. Accordingly, mothers' response about the timing of early initiation was related to the first time the newborn received breast milk rather than their first attempt to initiate breastfeeding. In addition, considerable probing was required to approximate and code responses of time based on the WHO coding format because some mothers were unable to assess time in minutes or hours. The existing question is not adequate to identify intended attempts of mothers to initiate breastfeeding. We recommend revising the question as "how long after birth did you first put
Komara, Carol; Simpson, Diana; Teasdale, Carla; Whalen, Gaye; Bell, Shay; Giovanetto, Laurie
To evaluate the effectiveness of an interventional protocol for the early initiation of breastfeeding that would remove barriers in the labor, delivery, recovery (LDR) unit. Descriptive design using 100 postpartum mothers who were interviewed before discharge at a large university hospital in the south-central United States. Descriptive statistics were used for analysis. The protocol was effective for initiating breastfeeding, and breastfeeding increased from 53% to 66%. When barriers to breastfeeding are reduced in the LDR setting, women will breastfeed. It is possible that reducing hospital barriers to breastfeeding in the LDR can also set the stage for sustained breastfeeding during hospitalization and for less supplementation with formula.
Sng, Ban Leong; Leong, Wan Ling; Zeng, Yanzhi; Siddiqui, Fahad Javaid; Assam, Pryseley N; Lim, Yvonne; Chan, Edwin S Y; Sia, Alex T
Pain during childbirth is arguably the most severe pain some women may experience in their lifetime. Epidural analgesia is an effective form of pain relief during labour. Many women have concerns regarding its safety. Furthermore, epidural services and anaesthetic support may not be available consistently across all centres. Observational data suggest that early initiation of epidural may be associated with an increased risk of caesarean section, but the same findings were not seen in recent randomised controlled trials. More recent guidelines suggest that in the absence of a medical contraindication, maternal request is a sufficient medical indication for pain relief during labour. The choice of analgesic technique, agent, and dosage is based on many factors, including patient preference, medical status, and contraindications. There is no systematically reviewed evidence on the maternal and foetal outcomes and safety of this practice. This systematic review aimed to summarise the effectiveness and safety of early initiation versus late initiation of epidural analgesia in women. We considered the obstetric and fetal outcomes relevant to women and side effects of the treatments, including risk of caesarean section, instrumental birth and time to birth. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (12 February 2014), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2014, Issue 1), MEDLINE (January 1966 to February 2014), Embase (January 1980 to February 2014) and reference lists of retrieved studies. We included all randomised controlled trials involving women undergoing epidural labour analgesia that compared early initiation versus late initiation of epidural labour analgesia. Two review authors independently assessed trials for inclusion, extracted the data and assessed the trial quality. Data were checked for accuracy. We included nine studies with a total of 15,752 women.The overall risk of bias of
This study focuses on the role of interpersonal interaction in early literacy development in one public preschool school in Bangkok, Thailand. Specifically, it explores and analyses the nature of interpersonal interaction and collaborative activities the teachers employ in teaching literacy to children. The study involves observation of 82…
Pillinger, Claire; Wood, Clare
Previous studies have demonstrated the positive impact of shared reading (SR) and dialogic reading (DR) on young children's language and literacy development. This exploratory study compared the relative impact of parental DR and shared reading interventions on 4-year-old children's early literacy skills and parental attitudes to reading…
Pan, Jinger; Kong, Yan; Song, Shuang; McBride, Catherine; Liu, Hongyun; Shu, Hua
Previous research on the longitudinal prediction of literacy development has focused mainly on the relationship between early cognitive/language skills and late literacy skills. The present study aimed to test the reliability of a number of measures reported by parents as compared to measuring cognitive and language skills in predicting subsequent…
Goldschmidt, Pete; Jung, Hyekyung
This evaluation focuses on the Seeds of Science/Roots of Reading: Effective Tools for Developing Literacy through Science in the Early Grades ("Seeds/Roots") model of science-literacy integration. The evaluation is based on a cluster randomized design of 100 teachers, half of which were in the treatment group. Multi-level models are employed to…
Spodek, Bernard, Ed.; Saracho, Olivia N., Ed.
As classrooms have become more culturally and linguistically diversified, the theories and methods of teaching reading to young children have changed. Early childhood educators must explore new methods of instruction in order to involve and expand the language abilities of young children and must provide engaging activities that will create more…
Kruse, Lydia G; Spencer, Trina D; Olszewski, Arnold; Goldstein, Howard
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a phonological awareness (PA) intervention, designed for Tier 2 instruction in a Response to Intervention (RTI) model, delivered to small groups of preschoolers. A multiple-baseline design across participants was used to evaluate the efficacy of the intervention on low-income preschool children's PA skills. A trained interventionist delivered small group sessions 3 to 4 days a week and ensured children received frequent opportunities to respond and contingent feedback. Participants received 28 to 36 lessons that lasted about 10 min each and focused on PA and alphabet knowledge. Initiation of intervention was staggered across 3 triads, and 7 children completed the study. The intervention produced consistent gains on weekly progress monitoring assessments of the primary outcome measure for first sound identification (First Sound Fluency). Most children also demonstrated gains on other measures of PA and alphabet knowledge. Results provide support for the application of a small group intervention consistent with an RTI framework and document the potential benefits of the intervention to learners who need early literacy instruction beyond the core curriculum.
Cleary, Ann; Delahunt, Brid; Fox, Claire; Maguire, Moira; O'Connor, Lorna; Ward, Jamie
The transition to Higher Education, while often exciting, is demanding for many students. Successful transition necessitates learning the conventions of scholarly conversation, including how to read and create work in an academic context. Knowledge of academic literacy practices is an important part of this process but these discourses and…
Levinsen, Karin Tweddell
In the globalized economies e-permeation has become a basic condition in our everyday lives. ICT can no longer be understood solely as artefacts and tools and computer-related literacy are no longer restricted to the ability to operate digital tools for specific purposes. The network society, and therefore also eLearning are characterized by…
Sisco, Shannon; Gross, Alden L; Shih, Regina A; Sachs, Bonnie C; Glymour, M Maria; Bangen, Katherine J; Benitez, Andreana; Skinner, Jeannine; Schneider, Brooke C; Manly, Jennifer J
Racial disparities in late-life cognition persist even after accounting for educational attainment. We examined whether early-life educational quality and literacy in later life help explain these disparities. We used longitudinal data from the Washington Heights-Inwood Columbia Aging Project (WHICAP). Educational quality (percent white students; urban/rural school; combined grades in classroom) was operationalized using canonical correlation analysis. Late-life literacy (reading comprehension and ability, writing) was operationalized using confirmatory factor analysis. We examined whether these factors attenuated race-related differences in late-life cognition. The sample consisted of 1,679 U.S.-born, non-Hispanic, community-living adults aged 65-102 (71% black, 29% white; 70% women). Accounting for educational quality and literacy reduced disparities by 29% for general cognitive functioning, 26% for memory, and 32% for executive functioning but did not predict differences in rate of cognitive change. Early-life educational quality and literacy in late life explain a substantial portion of race-related disparities in late-life cognitive function. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Gross, Alden L.; Shih, Regina A.; Sachs, Bonnie C.; Glymour, M. Maria; Bangen, Katherine J.; Benitez, Andreana; Skinner, Jeannine; Schneider, Brooke C.; Manly, Jennifer J.
Objectives. Racial disparities in late-life cognition persist even after accounting for educational attainment. We examined whether early-life educational quality and literacy in later life help explain these disparities. Method. We used longitudinal data from the Washington Heights-Inwood Columbia Aging Project (WHICAP). Educational quality (percent white students; urban/rural school; combined grades in classroom) was operationalized using canonical correlation analysis. Late-life literacy (reading comprehension and ability, writing) was operationalized using confirmatory factor analysis. We examined whether these factors attenuated race-related differences in late-life cognition. Results. The sample consisted of 1,679U.S.-born, non-Hispanic, community-living adults aged 65–102 (71% black, 29% white; 70% women). Accounting for educational quality and literacy reduced disparities by 29% for general cognitive functioning, 26% for memory, and 32% for executive functioning but did not predict differences in rate of cognitive change. Discussion. Early-life educational quality and literacy in late life explain a substantial portion of race-related disparities in late-life cognitive function. PMID:24584038
Wang, Xiao-lei; Bernas, Ronan; Eberhard, Philippe
Examined how Chinese and American Indian mothers (20 mother-child dyads from each culture) supported their young children's emergent literacy development during everyday interactions. Found that Chinese mothers tended to privilege print-based literacy interactions more than American Indian mothers. American Indian mothers tended to privilege…
Arnold, Renea; Colburn, Nell
The authors think fun is a key word when it comes to early literacy. Learning to read is hard work for most children--and kids, like adults, enjoy things that bring them pleasure. So as professionals who work with young children, their job is to make sure that kids discover the joy of books. And one of the best ways to do that is by providing…
Jackson, Kristina M; Rogers, Michelle L; Sartor, Carolyn E
Parental divorce/separation is among the most commonly endorsed adverse childhood events. It has been shown to increase subsequent risk of alcohol dependence and problems across adolescence and early adulthood, but its influence on early stages of alcohol involvement has only recently been explored. In the present study, we examined whether time to first full drink was accelerated among youth who experienced parental divorce/separation. To determine specificity of risk, models controlled for perceived stress as well as family history of alcoholism, current parental drinking, and internalizing and externalizing problems. Developmental specificity in terms of timing of both parental divorce and first drink was also examined. Participants were 931 middle-school students (488 girls, 443 boys) who were enrolled in a prospective study on drinking initiation and progression (52% female; 23% non-White, 11% Hispanic). Students indicated whether and at what age they had consumed a full drink of alcohol. Parental divorce/separation was coded from a parent-reported life-events inventory and was grouped based on age experienced (ages 0-5, ages 6-9, age 10+). Cox proportional hazard models showed increased risk for onset of drinking as a function of divorce/separation, even controlling for stress, parental alcohol involvement, and psychopathology. There was no evidence for developmental specificity of the divorce/separation effect based on when it occurred nor in timing of first drink. However, the effect of parental divorce/separation on initiation was magnified at higher levels of parental drinking. Given the rates of parental divorce/separation and its association with increased risk of early drinking, investigation of the mechanisms underlying this link is clearly warranted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Jackson, Kristina M.; Rogers, Michelle L.; Sartor, Carolyn E.
Parental divorce/separation is among the most commonly endorsed adverse childhood events and has been shown to increase subsequent risk of alcohol dependence and problems across adolescence and early adulthood, but its influence on early stages of alcohol involvement has only recently been explored. The present study examined whether time to first full drink was accelerated among youth who experienced parental divorce/separation. To determine specificity of risk, models controlled for perceived stress as well as family history of alcoholism, current parental drinking, and internalizing and externalizing problems. Developmental specificity in terms of timing of both parental divorce and first drink was also examined. Participants were 931 middle-school students who were enrolled in a prospective study on drinking initiation and progression (52% female; 23% non-White, 11% Hispanic). Students indicated whether and at what age they had consumed a full drink of alcohol. Parental divorce/separation was coded from a parent-reported life events inventory and was grouped based on age experienced (ages 0–5, ages 6–9, age 10+). Cox proportional-hazard models showed increased risk for onset of drinking as a function of divorce/separation, even controlling for stress, parental alcohol involvement, and psychopathology. There was no evidence for developmental specificity of the divorce/separation effect based on when it occurred nor in timing of first drink. However, the effect of parental divorce/separation on initiation was magnified at higher levels of parental drinking. Given the rates of parental divorce/separation and its association with increased risk of early drinking, investigation of the mechanisms underlying this link is clearly warranted. PMID:27322803
This paper investigated the predictive ability of expressive vocabulary size and lexical composition at age 2 on later language and literacy skills from ages 3 through 11. Multivariate analysis of covariance was performed to compare 16 language and literacy outcomes between children with large expressive vocabulary size at 24 months (N = 1,073)…
Hutinger, Patricia; Robinsosn, Linda; Schneider, Carol; Johanson, Joyce
This final report describes the activities and outcomes of the Interactive Technology Literacy Curriculum (ITLC) project. This federally funded 5-year model demonstration project was designed to advance the availability, quality, use and effectiveness of computer technology in addressing the acquisition of emergent literacy among young children…
Leckie, Alisa; Wall, Amanda
This study explored how pre-service teachers integrated literacy in middle level social studies. This study was conducted in the context of the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) and their focus on disciplinary literacy, the Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation (CAEP) Standards and their focus on rich clinical experiences, and…
The following article aims to present, from children's perspectives, the value of literacy and how they use it in their everyday lives. Through the use of ethnographic methodology, including observations, interviews and collection of artifacts, it seeks to examine how children rely on their literacy skills authentically, as they play and move…
Aram, Dorit; Meidan, Inbal Cohen; Deitcher, Deborah Bergman
The study characterized children's literacy, mothers' beliefs, and writing mediation of homeschooled compared to formally schooled kindergartners. Participants were 60 children (ages 4-6) and their mothers (30 in homeschooling). At the children's home, we assessed children's literacy, maternal beliefs, and video-recorded mother-child joint writing…
Kaestle, Christine E; Chen, Yvonnes; Estabrooks, Paul A; Zoellner, Jamie; Bigby, Brandon
The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the impact of media literacy for tobacco prevention for youth delivered through a community site. A randomized pretest-posttest evaluation design with matched-contact treatment and control conditions. The pilot study was delivered through the YMCA in a lower-income suburban and rural area of Southwest Virginia, a region long tied, both economically and culturally, to the tobacco industry. Children ages 8 to 14 (76% white, 58% female) participated in the study (n = 38). The intervention was an antismoking media literacy program (five 1-hour lessons) compared with a matched-contact creative writing control program. General media literacy, three domains of tobacco-specific media literacy ("authors and audiences," "messages and meanings," and "representation and reality"), tobacco attitudes, and future expectations were assessed. Multiple regression modeling assessed the impact of the intervention, controlling for pretest measures, age, and sex. General media literacy and tobacco-specific "authors and audiences" media literacy improved significantly for treatment compared with control (p < .05); results for other tobacco-specific media literacy measures and for tobacco attitudes were not significant. Future expectations of smoking increased significantly for treatment participants ages 10 and younger (p < .05). Mixed results indicated that improvements in media literacy are accompanied by an increase in future expectations to smoke for younger children.
Israelson, Madeleine Heins
As portable devices become increasingly available in elementary classrooms teachers are expected to use these new technologies to engage students in both traditional print-based literacy learning and digital literacies practices, such as multimodal composing. Teachers face the daunting task of integrating apps into their current research-based…
Aram, Dorit; Korat, Ofra; Hassunah-Arafat, Safieh
This longitudinal study assessed the literacy development of native Arabic-speaking children from kindergarten to the end of first grade, focusing on the role of home literacy activities (mother-child shared book reading and joint writing). The contribution of these activities in kindergarten to children's reading and writing at the end of…
Lee, Boh Young
The paper examines publication trends in the United States regarding literacy development in toddlerhood from 1990 to 2009, exploring what features or elements of toddlers' literacy development have been documented, and how they have been documented, over the last 20 years, to indicate areas for further exploration. Articles were carefully…
Wolgemuth, Jennifer R.; Abrami, Philip C.; Helmer, Janet; Savage, Robert; Harper, Helen; Lea, Tess
To address students' poor literacy outcomes, an intervention using a computer-based literacy tool, ABRACADABRA, was implemented in 6 Northern Australia primary schools. A pretest, posttest parallel group, single blind multisite randomized controlled trial was conducted with 308 students between the ages of 4 and 8 years old (M age = 5.8 years, SD…
Cox, Melissa J; Gabrielli, Joy; Janssen, Tim; Jackson, Kristina M
Youth are heavy consumers of media, and exposure to mature media content is associated with initiation and progression of substance use. Parental restriction of such content has been shown to be an effective mechanism to reduce negative consequences attributed to exposure to mature media content. This study assessed the influence of parental restriction of movie watching across Motion Picture Association of America rating categories on subsequent alcohol and marijuana initiation at 1- and 2-year follow-up. Using data from a longitudinal study of adolescent substance use (N = 1023), we used logistic regression analyses to determine the odds of alcohol and marijuana initiation across movie rating categories, within R-rated restriction categories in particular, and based on changes in parental restriction of movies over time. All analyses controlled for important parental, personality, and behavioral correlates of adolescent substance use. Results suggest that restriction of R-rated movies is protective of both alcohol and marijuana initiation. Important differences among parental restriction of R-rated movie categories emerged such that being allowed to watch them with adult supervision was protective of substance use, while those who reported watching R-rated films despite parental restrictions were at heightened risk for alcohol initiation. Changes in parental movie restrictions were not predictive of substance use initiation over the subsequent year. Implications of these findings for media literacy program prevention strategies are discussed.
Are, Chandrakanth; Dhir, Mashaal; Ravipati, Lavanya
Pancreaticoduodenectomy is one of the most challenging surgical procedures which requires the highest level of surgical expertise. This procedure has constantly evolved over the years through the meticulous efforts of a number of surgeons before reaching its current state. This review navigates through some of the early limitations and misconceptions and highlights the initial milestones which laid the foundation of this procedure. The current review also provides a few excerpts from the lives and illuminates on some of the seminal contributions of the three great surgeons: William Stewart Halsted, Walther Carl Eduard Kausch and Allen Oldfather Whipple. These surgeons pioneered the nascent stages of this procedure and paved the way for the modern day pancreaticoduodenectomy. © 2011 International Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary Association.
Early Human Testing (EHT) Initiative Phase 1 Regenerative Life Support Systems Laboratory (RLSSL). Nigel Packham activities in the Variable Pressure Growth Chamber which he lived inside for 15 days. A crowd of well-wishers outside the test chamber, at the console are John Lewis, Ed Mohr and Marybeth Edeen (15577). Packham exiting the chamber (15578-81). Packham is the focus of television cameras and reporters (15582-3). Don Henninger interviewed by reporters (15584). Packham is presented with a jacket after his stay in the chamber (15585). Packham inside the wheat growth chamber checking the condition of the plants (15586-7, 15597). Packham exercising on a recumbant bicycle (15588, 15592). Packham, through the window into the growth chamber, displays a handful of wheat plants to console monitor Dan Barta (15589-90). Group portrait of the team conducting the Early Human Testing Initiative Phase 1 Regenerative Life Support Systems test and include, front row, from left: Jeff Dominick and Don Overton and back row, from left, unidentified member, Marybeth Edeen, Nigel Packham, John Lewis, Ed Mohr, Dan Barta and Tim Monk (15591). Harry Halford prepares to send a package through the airlock to Packham (15593). Packham displays a handful of wheat plants (15594). Packham fixes himself a bowl of cereal (15595) and retrieves a carton of milk from the refrigerator (15596). Packham retrieves a package from the airlock (15598). Packham packs up trash in plastic bag (15599-600) and sends it back through the airlock (15601). Packham gets a cup of water (15602) and heats it in the microwave (15603).
Tennessee Univ., Knoxville. Center for Literacy Studies.
The Arizona Adult Literacy and Technology Resource Center and the University of Tennessee's Center for Literacy Studies undertook a collaborative project to explore the feasibility and effectiveness of regional sharing of resources and expertise in field of adult education and literacy education. The project's goals were as follows: involve a…
Hornick, P.; Townsend, E. R.; Clark, D.; Fountain, S. W.
Seventeen consecutive patients were referred for management of empyema between April 1991 and March 1992. Fourteen patients defined as having an 'early' empyema were initially treated by videothoracoscopy. The other three patients, defined as having a 'late' empyema proceeded directly to thoracotomy. Videothoracoscopy was successful in 10 out of the 14 patients. The mean postoperative stay was 7.8 days. At a mean follow-up at 16.7 months, these patients were rendered apyrexial with full lung expansion and no residual pleural collection. The postoperative results were at least equivalent to other conventional forms of treatment without an undue level of complications. In this series, thoracoscopy was found to be successful when symptoms had been present up to 31 days before presentation at the first hospital, and the mean length of treatment before referral to Harefield was 47 days. It is now our policy to videothoracoscope all patients with empyema thoracis, regardless of the length of referral. It may circumvent the need for a thoracotomy, it does not add any increased risk of complications, and does not appreciably increase the length of hospital stay should thoracotomy ultimately be required. PMID:8659973
Sheridan, Susan M; Knoche, Lisa L; Kupzyk, Kevin A; Edwards, Carolyn Pope; Marvin, Christine A
Language and literacy skills established during early childhood are critical for later school success. Parental engagement with children has been linked to a number of adaptive characteristics in preschoolers including language and literacy development, and family-school collaboration is an important contributor to school readiness. This study reports the results of a randomized trial of a parent engagement intervention designed to facilitate school readiness among disadvantaged preschool children, with a particular focus on language and literacy development. Participants included 217 children, 211 parents, and 29 Head Start teachers in 21 schools. Statistically significant differences in favor of the treatment group were observed between treatment and control participants in the rate of change over 2 academic years on teacher reports of children's language use (d=1.11), reading (d=1.25), and writing skills (d=0.93). Significant intervention effects on children's direct measures of expressive language were identified for a subgroup of cases where there were concerns about a child's development upon entry into preschool. Additionally, other child and family moderators revealed specific variables that influenced the treatment's effects. Copyright © 2011 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Knoche, Lisa L.; Kupzyk, Kevin A.; Edwards, Carolyn Pope; Marvin, Christine A.
Language and literacy skills established during early childhood are critical for later school success. Parental engagement with children has been linked to a number of adaptive characteristics in preschoolers including language and literacy development, and family-school collaboration is an important contributor to school readiness. This study reports the results of a randomized trial of a parent engagement intervention designed to facilitate school readiness among disadvantaged preschool children, with a particular focus on language and literacy development. Participants included 217 children, 211 parents, and 29 Head Start teachers in 21 schools. Statistically significant differences in favor of the treatment group were observed between treatment and control participants in the rate of change over 2 academic years on teacher reports of children’s language use (d = 1.11), reading (d = 1.25), and writing skills (d = .93). Significant intervention effects on children’s direct measures of expressive language were identified for a subgroup of cases where there were concerns about a child’s development upon entry into preschool. Additionally, other child and family moderators revealed specific variables that influenced the treatment’s effects. PMID:21640249
McKenzie, Sophie; Spence, Aaron; Nicholas, Maria
This paper explores the design, development and evaluation of an early childhood literacy iPad application, focusing on the English Alphabet, called "A to Z Safari" trialled in Australian classrooms. A to Z Safari was designed to assist students in the early years of schooling with learning the alphabet and building on their knowledge of…
Sonnenschein, Susan; Metzger, Shari R.; Dowling, Rebecca; Baker, Linda
The association between monolingual children's early language abilities and their later reading performance is well established. However, for English language learners, the pattern of associations between early language skills and later literacy is much less well understood for English language learners. This study examined language predictors of…
Clarke, Brandy L.; Knoche, Lisa L.; Abbott, Mary I.; Sheridan, Susan M.; Carta, Judith J.; Sjuts, Tara S.
The primary objective of this development study was to develop and pilot a three-tiered prevention model (universal, targeted, individualized) in early education for children at risk of reading difficulties. The aims of this study were to: (1) Define and develop a Pre-3T model to address the early literacy and language needs of young children in…
Wilson, Hope E.
Research has demonstrated mixed results regarding differences in social and emotional characteristics between gifted and typical populations. The purpose of this secondary analysis of data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study: Birth Cohort (ECLS-B) is to investigate the affective characteristics of early mathematics and literacy ability…
Bonacina, Silvia; Krizman, Jennifer; White-Schwoch, Travis; Kraus, Nina
The auditory system is extremely precise in processing the temporal information of perceptual events and using these cues to coordinate action. Synchronizing movement to a steady beat relies on this bidirectional connection between sensory and motor systems, and activates many of the auditory and cognitive processes used when reading. Here, we use Interactive Metronome, a clinical intervention technology requiring an individual to clap her hands in time with a steady beat, to investigate whether the links between literacy and synchronization skills, previously established in older children, are also evident in children who are learning to read. We tested 64 typically developing children (ages 5-7 years) on their synchronization abilities, neurophysiological responses to speech in noise, and literacy skills. We found that children who have lower variability in synchronizing have higher phase consistency, higher stability, and more accurate envelope encoding-all neurophysiological response components linked to language skills. Moreover, performing the same task with visual feedback reveals links with literacy skills, notably processing speed, phonological processing, word reading, spelling, morphology, and syntax. These results suggest that rhythm skills and literacy call on overlapping neural mechanisms, supporting the idea that rhythm training may boost literacy in part by engaging sensory-motor systems. © 2018 New York Academy of Sciences.
Heath, Steve M.; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.; Bloor, Kimberley E.; Boyle, Gemma L.; Fletcher, Janet; Hogben, John H.; Wigley, Charles A.; Yeong, Stephanie H. M.
Rationale Phonological awareness, letter knowledge, oral language (including sentence recall) and rapid automatised naming are acknowledged within-child predictors of literacy development. Separate research has identified family factors including socio-economic status, parents’ level of education and family history. However, both approaches have left unexplained significant amounts of variance in literacy outcomes. This longitudinal study sought to improve prospective classification accuracy for young children at risk of literacy failure by adding two new family measures (parents’ phonological awareness and parents’ perceived self-efficacy), and then combining the within-child and family factors. Method Pre-literacy skills were measured in 102 four year olds (46 girls and 56 boys) at the beginning of Preschool, and then at the beginning and end of Kindergarten, when rapid automatised naming was also measured. Family factors data were collected at the beginning of Preschool, and children’s literacy outcomes were measured at the end of Year 1 (age 6–7 years). Results Children from high-risk backgrounds showed poorer literacy outcomes than low-risk students, though three family factors (school socio-economic status, parents’ phonological awareness, and family history) typically accounted for less Year 1 variance than the within-child factors. Combining these family factors with the end of Kindergarten within-child factors provided the most accurate classification (i.e., sensitivity = .85; specificity = .90; overall correct = .88). Implications Our approach would identify at-risk children for intervention before they began to fail. Moreover, it would be cost-effective because although few at-risk children would be missed, allocation of unnecessary educational resources would be minimised. PMID:24751691
Heath, Steve M; Bishop, Dorothy V M; Bloor, Kimberley E; Boyle, Gemma L; Fletcher, Janet; Hogben, John H; Wigley, Charles A; Yeong, Stephanie H M
Phonological awareness, letter knowledge, oral language (including sentence recall) and rapid automatised naming are acknowledged within-child predictors of literacy development. Separate research has identified family factors including socio-economic status, parents' level of education and family history. However, both approaches have left unexplained significant amounts of variance in literacy outcomes. This longitudinal study sought to improve prospective classification accuracy for young children at risk of literacy failure by adding two new family measures (parents' phonological awareness and parents' perceived self-efficacy), and then combining the within-child and family factors. Pre-literacy skills were measured in 102 four year olds (46 girls and 56 boys) at the beginning of Preschool, and then at the beginning and end of Kindergarten, when rapid automatised naming was also measured. Family factors data were collected at the beginning of Preschool, and children's literacy outcomes were measured at the end of Year 1 (age 6-7 years). Children from high-risk backgrounds showed poorer literacy outcomes than low-risk students, though three family factors (school socio-economic status, parents' phonological awareness, and family history) typically accounted for less Year 1 variance than the within-child factors. Combining these family factors with the end of Kindergarten within-child factors provided the most accurate classification (i.e., sensitivity = .85; specificity = .90; overall correct = .88). Our approach would identify at-risk children for intervention before they began to fail. Moreover, it would be cost-effective because although few at-risk children would be missed, allocation of unnecessary educational resources would be minimised.
The Next Generation Science Standards and the Frameworks upon which they are built, built upon and synthesized a wide range of educational research and development that came before them. For the Earth sciences, this importantly includes a series of initiatives to define literacy within oceanography, atmospheric and climate sciences, and geology. Since the publication of the Frameworks, a similarly structured set of principles for energy literacy was also published. Each set of principles includes seven to nine Essential Principles or Big Ideas, all written at the commencement level. Each of these Principles is undergirded by several Fundamental Concepts. This set of idea sets yields 38 Essential Principles and 247 Fundamental Concepts. How do these relate to the content of NGSS? How can teachers, professional development providers and curriculum specialists make sense of this array of ideas and place it into a coherent conceptual framework? This presentation will answer these questions and more. Of course, there is substantial overlap amongst the sets of principles and with the ideas, practices and principles in NGSS. This presentation will provide and describe a framework that identifies these areas of overlap and contextualizes them within a framework that makes them more manageable for educators and learners. A set of five bigger ideas and a pair of overarching questions assembled with the Essential Principles and Earth & Space Science Disciplinary Core Ideas in the form of a 'Rainbow Chart' shows a consistency of thought across Earth science's sub-disciplines and helps educators navigate this somewhat overwhelming landscape of ideas. These questions and ideas are shown in the included figure and listed below. Overarching Questions: - How do we know what we know? - How does what we know inform our decision making? Bigger Ideas: - Earth is a system of systems. - The flow of energy drives the cycling of matter. - Life, including human life, influences and is
Johri, Mira; Subramanian, S V; Koné, Georges K; Dudeja, Sakshi; Chandra, Dinesh; Minoyan, Nanor; Sylvestre, Marie-Pierre; Pahwa, Smriti
The global burden of child undernutrition is concentrated in South Asia, where gender inequality and female educational disadvantage are important factors. Maternal health literacy is linked to women's education and empowerment, can influence multiple malnutrition determinants, and is rapidly modifiable. This study investigated whether maternal health literacy is associated with child undernutrition in 2 resource-poor Indian populations. We conducted cross-sectional surveys in an urban and a rural site, interviewing 1 woman with a child aged 12-23 mo/household. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted independently for each site. The main exposure was maternal health literacy. We assessed respondents' ability to understand, appraise, and apply health-related information with the use of Indian health promotion materials. The main outcomes were severe stunting, severe underweight, and severe wasting. We classified children as having a severe nutritional deficiency if their z score was <-3 SDs from the WHO reference population for children of the same age and sex. Analyses controlled for potential confounding factors including parental education and household wealth. Rural and urban analyses included 1116 and 657 mother-child pairs, respectively. In each site, fully adjusted models showed that children of mothers with high health literacy had approximately half the likelihood of being severely stunted (rural adjusted OR: 0.50; 95% CI: 0.33, 0.74; P = 0.001; urban adjusted OR: 0.58; 95% CI: 0.35, 0.94; P = 0.028) or severely underweight (rural adjusted OR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.38, 0.87; P = 0.009; urban adjusted OR: 0.48; 95% CI: 0.25, 0.91; P = 0.025) than children of mothers with low health literacy. Health literacy was not associated with severe wasting. In resource-poor rural and urban settings in India, maternal health literacy is associated with child nutritional status. Programs targeting health literacy may offer effective entry points for
Koh, Howard K.; Berwick, Donald M.; Clancy, Carolyn M.; Baur, Cynthia; Brach, Cindy; Harris, Linda M.; Zerhusen, Eileen G.
Health literacy is the capacity to understand basic health information and make appropriate health decisions. Tens of millions of Americans have limited health literacy—a fact that poses major challenges for the delivery of high-quality care. Despite its importance, health literacy has until recently been relegated to the sidelines of health care improvement efforts aimed at increasing access, improving quality, and better managing costs. Recent federal policy initiatives, including the Affordable Care Act of 2010, the Department of Health and Human Services’ National Action Plan to Improve Health Literacy, and the Plain Writing Act of 2010, have brought health literacy to a tipping point—that is, poised to make the transition from the margins to the mainstream. If public and private organizations make it a priority to become health literate, the nation’s health literacy can be advanced to the point at which it will play a major role in improving health care and health for all Americans. PMID:22262723
Copeman, Peter; Keightley, Polly
In 2013 the University of Canberra (UC) initiated a program of peer-assisted academic skills help, the Academic Skills Rovers program, with the goal of providing drop-in peer learning support to students at campus locations where they congregate to study. The Academic Skills Rovers were initially recruited from the teacher education discipline,…
Leavitt, Laura L.
This discussion is designed to expose the readers to a selection of educational reform initiatives that fall under the "21st Century Workforce" umbrella. The aims of these initiatives are quite harmonious with the overarching goals of librarianship and the opportunities for librarians to become involved and to demonstrate leadership in this arena…
Drawing from a four-year critical ethnographic study of young girls and their literacy practices inside and outside school, this article foregrounds a lived pedagogical moment when conflicting discourses about reading instruction collided in a critically focused second-grade classroom. Through my analyses I make the argument that the pervasiveness…
Stockall, Nancy; Dennis, Lindsay
Fathers and paternal role models make a unique contribution to children's development. There is some research to suggest that the types of play males engage in with children is typically more active and thus offers unique possibilities for embedding activities for language and literacy development. In this article, we offer suggestions for how…
Venn, Elizabeth Claire; Jahn, Monica Dacy
This book presents a preschool framework that integrates literacy activities into content area lessons while embedding instruction within adult-child social interactions and realistic, playful activities tailored to each child's individual needs. Chapter 1 of the book delineates the theory and rationale behind the framework, and outlines essential…
Wang, Ying; McBride, Catherine
This study assessed the effects of three intervention programs for Chinese literacy development in kindergartners: the copying (Copy) program; a combined program of copying and Pinyin knowledge (Copy + Pinyin); and a combined program of copying and morphological awareness (Copy + MA). Ninety-seven kindergarteners aged 5-7 years in mainland China…
Sim, Susan S. H.; Berthelsen, Donna; Walker, Susan; Nicholson, Jan M.; Fielding-Barnsley, Ruth
A pragmatic randomised controlled trial was used to investigate the effects of two forms of shared reading on children's language and literacy skills. Parents of 80 children in the preparatory year of school participated in an eight-week home reading intervention. Families were assigned to one of three groups: dialogic reading (DR), dialogic…
Literacy Teaching and Learning: An International Journal of Early Reading and Writing, 2003
This scholarly journal, an official publication of the Reading Recovery Council of North America, provides an interdisciplinary forum on issues related to the acquisition of language, literacy development, and instructional theory and practice. Articles in Volume 7, Numbers 1 and 2 (comprising volume 7) are: "The Why? What? When? And How? of…
Dombek, Jennifer L.; Foorman, Barbara R.; Garcia, Mishel; Smith, Kevin G.
While literacy interventions can be implemented in any grade, focusing on prevention and intervention in kindergarten through grade 2 is optimal because reading difficulties become expensive and challenging to remediate as students become older. The Individuals with Disabilities Act of 2004 allows districts to do just this, with 15 percent of…
Literacy practices and sociocultural contexts have greatly defined and influenced each other. The role language plays in mobilizing both revolution and progress is well delineated in Congchao Hua's article comparing language learning curriculum in China over three decades, from the 1970s to the 2000s. The universality of the social and political…
Local school districts are under pressure to have elementary reading teachers understand how phonics, during teacher-led small group literacy instruction, can help students who read below grade level. Elementary teachers need research-based strategies regarding which reading instructions of letter-sound components are necessary to help students…
Kalindi, Sylvia C.; McBride, Catherine; Dan, Lin
Considering the importance attached to writing as a life skill, this study investigated the nature and variability of adults' aid to Zambian second graders in the context of shared writing in Bemba (first language), and the relations between this support and students' literacy and cognitive-metalinguistic skills. Fifty-seven children and their…
Gunn, Barbara; Feil, Ed; Seeley, John; Severson, Herb; Walker, Hill M.
This article reports the results of a pilot intervention to improve the social skills and literacy preparation of behaviorally at-risk Head Start children. Teachers in eight Head Start classrooms in two Oregon communities participated during the 2002-03 school year. Children in eight classrooms were screened and identified for participation using…
Digital technology offers new possibilities for children to play, express themselves, learn, and communicate. A recent development in online practice is a shift toward youth engaged in computer programming online communities. Programming is argued to be the new literacy of the millennium. In this article, I examine the use of Scratch, an online…
Phillips, Beth M.; Morse, Erika E.
This paper presents findings from a stratified-random survey of family child care providers' backgrounds, caregiving environments, practices, attitudes, and knowledge related to language, literacy, and mathematics development for preschool children. Descriptive results are consistent with prior studies suggesting that home-based providers are…
Smaller class sizes in California were viewed as a way to improve K-3 education, especially in the area of literacy. The urgency to act prompted state leaders to adopt class-size reduction (CSR) without knowing for sure that it would work and without establishing a formal procedure for evaluating the program. This report looks at past research on…
Wohlwend, Karen E.
In this article, semiotic analysis of children's practices and designs with video game conventions considers how children use play and drawing as spatializing literacies that make room to import imagined technologies and user identities. Microanalysis of video data of classroom interactions collected during a three year ethnographic study of…
Published research shows that English speakers gain literacy skills up to the 7-year level more effectively when taught using a language experience approach rather than a word reading approach (reading common words plus phonic reading). It is suggested that this is because of the almost unique nature of English phonology, that is the strengthening…
Ostayan, Jennifer R.
This article examined student literacy assessments in light of students' levels of English language proficiency. The study supported the hypotheses that a student's level of language proficiency positively predicted their DIBELS Composite score at the beginning, middle, and end of kindergarten by utilizing a simple linear regression. An ANOVA…
Background: Otitis media (OM) or middle ear infection is a common childhood illness and is most frequent during the crucial first 3 years of life when speech and language categories are being established, which could potentially have a long-term effect on language and literacy skill development. Aims: The purpose of the current study was to…
Nordtveit, Bjorn Harald
This paper argues that many internationally financed literacy programs do not sufficiently take into consideration important daily life issues of the learners, including nutritional deficiencies that may hinder learning, or of children-parent-society interactions that may improve learning. As a result, many programs have become synonymous with…
Webb, Mi-Young; Lederberg, Amy R.; Branum-Martin, Lee; McDonald Connor, Carol
Better understanding the mechanisms underlying developing literacy has promoted the development of more effective reading interventions for typically developing children. Such knowledge may facilitate effective instruction of deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children. Hence, the current study examined the multivariate associations among phonological…
Harris, Judy; Botting, Nicola; Myers, Lucy; Dodd, Barbara
Although children with speech impairment are at increased risk for impaired literacy, many learn to read and spell without difficulty. Around half the children with speech impairment have delayed acquisition, making errors typical of a normally developing younger child (e.g. reducing consonant clusters so that "spoon" is pronounced as…
Young children explore their world through manipulatives, playing with "technology" that may or may not be digital. To this end, I offer an exploration into how the existing framework of the New Media Literacies (NMLs) paradigm set forth by Henry Jenkins (2006) in "Confronting the Challenges of Participatory Culture: Media Education…
Ford, Karen L.; Cabell, Sonia Q.; Konold, Timothy R.; Invernizzi, Marcia; Gartland, Lauren B.
This study explored heterogeneity in literacy development among 2,300 Hispanic children receiving English as a Second Language (ESL) services at the start of kindergarten. Two research questions guided this work: (1) Do Spanish-speaking English language learners receiving ESL services in the fall of kindergarten demonstrate homogeneous early…
Gaffney, Janet S.; Paynter, Susan Y.
A literacy intervention is designed to produce accelerated change, moving student achievement rapidly and providing for sustained performance over time. Adopting a complex intervention is a problem-solving process that requires understanding of the conceptual congruity of all aspects of the theory, intervention, and training underlying the…
Bruneau, Beverly J.
Describes the Literacy Pyramid (based on the United States Department of Agriculture food pyramid), a classification of eight instructional events, which is intended as a framework for teachers to think about the purpose of various instructional formats and about organizing time for language arts instruction. (SR)
Rodgers, Emily; D'Agostino, Jerome V.; Harmey, Sinéad J.; Kelly, Robert H.; Brownfield, Katherine
In this study, we used Reading Recovery as the context to examine the relationship between three types of contingent teaching (temporal, instructional, and domain contingency) and student outcomes in a one-to-one literacy tutoring setting. We first created a National Teacher Effectiveness Index for all Reading Recovery teachers in the country and…
Henderson, Sally J.; Jackson, Nancy Ewald
A case study documented the emergence of literacy in an extremely precocious reader between the ages of 2 years, 7 months and 3 years, 2 months. The case study examined the relation between the subject's oral language and reading development; the bases of his word identification; the relation between his reading and writing development; and…
Guodong, Xie; Zhupeng, Zhang
While China has achieved considerable success in its efforts to raise literacy levels, it has been faced with the relapse of many newly literate adults into illiteracy. The consolidation of literacy skills through post-literacy programs is therefore of key importance to the country. This study examines the reasons why adult literates relapse and discusses the problems and modalities of post-literacy education, concluding with recommendations for future post-literacy policy.
Ambrose, Sophie E.; Eisenberg, Laurie S.
The goal of this study was to longitudinally examine relationships between early factors (child and mother) that may influence children's phonological awareness and reading skills 3 years later in a group of young children with cochlear implants (N = 16). Mothers and children were videotaped during two storybook interactions, and children's oral language skills were assessed using the “Reynell Developmental Language Scales, third edition.” Three years later, phonological awareness, reading skills, and language skills were assessed using the “Phonological Awareness Test,” the “Woodcock–Johnson-III Diagnostic Reading Battery,” and the “Oral Written Language Scales.” Variables included in the data analyses were child (age, age at implant, and language skills) and mother factors (facilitative language techniques) and children's phonological awareness and reading standard scores. Results indicate that children's early expressive oral language skills and mothers’ use of a higher level facilitative language technique (open-ended question) during storybook reading, although related, each contributed uniquely to children's literacy skills. Individual analyses revealed that the children with expressive standard scores below 70 at Time 1 also performed below average (<85) on phonological awareness and total reading tasks 3 years later. Guidelines for professionals are provided to support literacy skills in young children with cochlear implants. PMID:18417463
This study examined how experienced early educators developed as change agents in the context of a leadership development program. Unlike in many other professions, experienced early educators lack opportunities to grow throughout their careers and access the supports they need to lead change in their classrooms, organizations, the profession, and…
Im, Janice; Merrill, Sarah; Osborn, Carol; Martens, Judith; Striniste, Nancy; Sanchez, Sylvia; Thorp, Eva
"Storying" captures our interest in the unfolding stories of lives--those of young children, parents, caregivers, teachers, and ourselves. The sharing and building of stories is a social experience--a way to establish early connections that are essential to young children's learning and development. Stories, and the building of stories, are at the…
Egan, Teresa; Katz, Irvin R.
When Educational Testing Service (ETS) was first approached by college librarians, professors, and administrators to develop an assessment of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) literacy, there was a resounding concern: incoming students could use technology for entertainment purposes, but many did not have the ICT literacy skills to do…
Illig, David C.
A survey of school districts was conducted to determine the initial progress and problems associated with the 1997 Class Size Reduction (CSR) Initiative. Data reveal that most school districts had enough space for smaller classes for at least two grade levels; small school districts were much less likely to report space constraints. The CSR did…
Mattos, Joseph C.
Educational research over the past 15 years shows that schools and school districts have, on a large scale, failed to translate reform goals into improved teacher practice and student learning. Although classroom teachers are central to successful school reform, research has rarely examined how teachers experience reform initiatives and how that…
Haine, D. B.; Kendall, L.; Yelton, S.
Climate Literacy: Integrating Modeling & Technology Experiences (CLIMATE) in NC Classrooms, an interdisciplinary, global climate change program for NC high school science teachers is administered by UNC Chapel Hill's Institute for the Environment (IE) with funding from NASA's Innovations in Climate Education (NICE) Program. Currently in its third year, this year-long program serves 24 teaching fellows annually and combines hands-on climate science investigations with experiential learning in fragile ecosystem environments to achieve the following program goals: increased teacher knowledge of climate change science and predicted impacts; increased teacher knowledge of modeling and technology resources, with an emphasis on those provided by NASA; and increased teacher confidence in using technology to address climate change education. A mixed-methods evaluation approach that includes external evaluation is providing quantitative and qualitative data about the extent to which program goals are being achieved. With regard to increases in teacher knowledge, teachers often self-report an increase in knowledge as a result of a program activity; this session will describe our strategies for assessing actual gains in teacher knowledge which include pre- and post-collaborative concept mapping and pre- and post-open response questionnaires. For each evaluation approach utilized, the process of analyzing these qualitative data will be discussed and results shared. For example, a collaborative concept mapping activity for assessment of learning as a result of the summer institute was utilized to assess gains in content knowledge. Working in small groups, teachers were asked to identify key vocabulary terms and show their relationship to one another via a concept map to answer these questions: What is global climate change? What is/are the: evidence? mechanisms? causes? consequences? Concept maps were constructed at the beginning (pre) and again at the end (post) of the Summer
Burgette, Jacqueline M; Preisser, John S; Weinberger, Morris; King, Rebecca S; Lee, Jessica Y; Rozier, R Gary
To examine the moderating effect of parents' health literacy (HL) on the effectiveness of North Carolina Early Head Start (EHS) in improving children's dental use. Parents of 479 children enrolled in EHS and 699 Medicaid-matched parent-child dyads were interviewed at baseline when children were approximately 10 months old and 24 months later. We used in-person computer-assisted, structured interviews to collect information on sociodemographic characteristics, dental use, and administer the Short Assessment of Health Literacy - Spanish and English (SAHL-S&E). This quasi-experimental study tested whether the interaction effect between EHS and parents' HL was associated with dental use. Logit (any use) and marginalized zero-inflated negative binomial count models (number of dental visits) included random effects to account for clustering and controlled for baseline dental use, dental need, survey language, and a propensity score covariate. Nineteen percent of parents in EHS had low literacy compared to 12 percent of parents in the non-EHS group (P < 0.01). The interaction term between EHS and parent's HL was not significant in the adjusted logit model (ratio of aORs 0.98, 95 percent CI: 0.43-2.20) or the adjusted count model (ratio of aRRs 0.88, 95 percent CI: 0.72-1.09). Parents in EHS had a higher prevalence of low HL compared to non-EHS parents. Parents' HL did not moderate the relationship between EHS and child dental use, suggesting that EHS results in similar improvements in dental use regardless of parent's HL levels. © 2018 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.
Parcesepe, Angela M; L'Engle, Kelly L; Martin, Sandra L; Green, Sherri; Suchindran, Chirayath; Mwarogo, Peter
Between 20 and 40 % of female sex workers (FSWs) began sex work before age 18. Little is known concerning whether early initiation of sex work impacts later experiences in adulthood, including violence victimization. This paper examines the relationship between early initiation of sex work and violence victimization during adulthood. The sample included 816 FSWs in Mombasa, Kenya, recruited from HIV prevention drop-in centers who were 18 years or older and moderate-risk drinkers. Early initiation was defined as beginning sex work at 17 or younger. Logistic regression modeled recent violence as a function of early initiation, adjusting for drop-in center, age, education, HIV status, supporting others, and childhood abuse. Twenty percent of the sample reported early initiation of sex work. Although both early initiators and other FSWs reported commonly experiencing recent violence, early initiators were significantly more likely to experience recent physical and sexual violence and verbal abuse from paying partners. Early initiation was not associated with physical or sexual violence from non-paying partners. Many FSWs begin sex work before age 18. Effective interventions focused on preventing this are needed. In addition, interventions are needed to prevent violence against all FSWs, in particular, those who initiated sex work during childhood or adolescence.
Pinto-Foltz, Melissa D.; Logsdon, M. Cynthia; Myers, John A.
The purpose of this school-based cluster-randomized trial was to determine the initial acceptability, feasibility, and efficacy of an existing community-based intervention, In Our Own Voice, in a sample of US adolescent girls aged 13–17 years (n=156). In Our Own Voice is a knowledge-contact intervention that provides knowledge about mental illness to improve mental health literacy and facilitates intergroup contact with persons with mental illness as a means to reduce mental illness stigma. This longitudinal study was set in two public high schools located in a southern urban community of the U.S. Outcomes included measures of mental illness stigma and mental health literacy. Findings support the acceptability and feasibility of the intervention for adolescents who enrolled in the study. Findings to support the efficacy of In Our Own Voice to reduce stigma and improve mental health literacy are mixed. The intervention did not reduce mental illness stigma or improve mental health literacy at one week follow up. The intervention did not reduce mental illness stigma at 4 and 8 weeks follow up. The intervention did improve mental health literacy at 4 and 8 weeks follow up. Previous studies have assessed the preliminary efficacy In Our Own Voice among young adults; rarely has In Our Own Voice been investigated longitudinally and with adolescents in the United States. This study provides initial data on the effects of In Our Own Voice for this population and can be used to further adapt the intervention for adolescents. PMID:21624729
Kulp, Marjean Taylor; Ciner, Elise; Maguire, Maureen; Moore, Bruce; Pentimonti, Jill; Pistilli, Maxwell; Cyert, Lynn; Candy, T Rowan; Quinn, Graham; Ying, Gui-Shuang
To compare early literacy of 4- and 5-year-old uncorrected hyperopic children with that of emmetropic children. Cross-sectional. Children attending preschool or kindergarten who had not previously worn refractive correction. Cycloplegic refraction was used to identify hyperopia (≥3.0 to ≤6.0 diopters [D] in most hyperopic meridian of at least 1 eye, astigmatism ≤1.5 D, anisometropia ≤1.0 D) or emmetropia (hyperopia ≤1.0 D; astigmatism, anisometropia, and myopia <1.0 D). Threshold visual acuity (VA) and cover testing ruled out amblyopia or strabismus. Accommodative response, binocular near VA, and near stereoacuity were measured. Trained examiners administered the Test of Preschool Early Literacy (TOPEL), composed of Print Knowledge, Definitional Vocabulary, and Phonological Awareness subtests. A total of 492 children (244 hyperopes and 248 emmetropes) participated (mean age, 58 months; mean ± standard deviation of the most hyperopic meridian, +3.78±0.81 D in hyperopes and +0.51±0.48 D in emmetropes). After adjustment for age, race/ethnicity, and parent/caregiver's education, the mean difference between hyperopes and emmetropes was -4.3 (P = 0.01) for TOPEL overall, -2.4 (P = 0.007) for Print Knowledge, -1.6 (P = 0.07) for Definitional Vocabulary, and -0.3 (P = 0.39) for Phonological Awareness. Greater deficits in TOPEL scores were observed in hyperopic children with ≥4.0 D than in emmetropes (-6.8, P = 0.01 for total score; -4.0, P = 0.003 for Print Knowledge). The largest deficits in TOPEL scores were observed in hyperopic children with binocular near VA of 20/40 or worse (-8.5, P = 0.002 for total score; -4.5, P = 0.001 for Print Knowledge; -3.1, P = 0.04 for Definitional Vocabulary) or near stereoacuity of 240 seconds of arc or worse (-8.6, P < 0.001 for total score; -5.3, P < 0.001 for Print Knowledge) compared with emmetropic children. Uncorrected hyperopia ≥4.0 D or hyperopia ≥3.0 to ≤6.0 D associated with reduced binocular near VA (20
Breunig, Gretchen Stahr; Bellm, Dan
Mentoring programs offer experienced caregivers and directors new encouragement to remain in the field by helping them learn to share their skills with others and grow in the profession. This report is the result of an information-gathering process among mentoring programs for early childhood educators in the United States. Following an…
Herman, Joan L.; Epstein, Scott; Leon, Seth; Dai, Yunyun; La Torre Matrundola, Deborah; Reber, Sarah; Choi, Kilchan
The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation invested in the Literacy Design Collaborative (LDC) as one strategy to support teachers' and students' transition to the Common Core State Standards (CCSS) in English language arts. This report provides an early look at the implementation of LDC in sixth-grade Advanced Reading classes in a large Florida…
Noel, Andrea M.
As of May 2014, all candidates for teacher certification in New York State must successfully complete the teacher performance assessment (edTPA). This article describes an assignment piloted in an early childhood literacy class as an embedded signature assessment and has three goals: to explain the context that led to the development of the…
Hintze, John M.; Ryan, Amanda L.; Stoner, Gary
The purpose of this study was to (a) examine the concurrent validity of the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) with the Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing (CTOPP), and (b) explore the diagnostic accuracy of the DIBELS in predicting CTOPP performance using suggested and alternative cut-scores. Eighty-six students…
Rojas-Barahona, Cristian A.; Förster, Carla E.; Moreno-Ríos, Sergio; McClelland, Megan M.
Research Findings: The present study evaluated the impact of a working memory (WM) stimulation program on the development of WM and early literacy skills (ELS) in preschoolers from socioeconomically deprived rural and urban schools in Chile. The sample consisted of 268 children, 144 in the intervention group and 124 in the comparison group. The…
Research has established young children's increasing use of computers and other new technologies in the home. Yet, teaching about digital texts and digital practices most often appears as an addition to early literacy instruction in classrooms where "business-as-usual" maintains an emphasis on print and print-based texts. This article…
This program evaluation is a study of the effectiveness of a core reading program, Journeys, by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt (HMH), on the early literacy skills and oral reading fluency (ORF) of kindergarten through second grade students in a rural elementary school. The scores of the students in the experimental group were compared to scores of…
Son, Seung-Hee Claire; Tineo, Maria F.
This study examined associations among low-income mothers' use of attention-getting utterances during shared book reading, preschoolers' verbal engagement and visual attention to reading, and their early literacy skills (N = 51). Mother-child shared book reading sessions were videotaped and coded for each utterance, including attention talk,…
Campbell, Stacey; Torr, Jane; Cologon, Kathy
Language-rich environments are key to overall quality in early childhood settings, including frequent child-staff interactions around picture books and dramatic play. In a language-rich environment, explicit teaching of literacy concepts, such as phonics, is embedded in authentic and meaningful situations where alphabet letters and sounds are…
Walker, Karen; Gooze, Rachel A.; Torres, Alicia
Early literacy skills are the foundation for school success. This is particularly important for groups of children at heightened risk of poor educational outcomes, such as English language learners and children from low-income families. Informed by a growing body of research and evaluation studies that point to the importance of home literacy…
CATALANO, RICHARD F.; MORRISON, DIANE M.; WELLS, ELIZABETH A.; GILLMORE, MARY R.; IRITANI, BONITA; HAWKINS, J. DAVID
The literature on family predictors of substance use for the general population is reviewed and compared to findings for three specific ethnic groups: black, white and Asian-Americans. Rates of substance use initiation are examined in a sample of 919 urban 5th-grade students. Ethnic differences on measures of family predictors are examined and significant ethnic differences are found on several of these factors. Finally, separate regressions for black, white and Asian American youths of family factors on the variety of substances initiated examine ethnic similarities and differences in predictors. The results demonstrate significant differences by ethnicity in family management practices, involvement in family activity, sibling deviance, parental disapproval of children's drinking and family structure. The regression equations identified unique as well as common predictors of the variety of substances initiated by the end of 5th grade. Implications of the results are discussed. PMID:1285743
Berger, Andrea; Adelman, Nancy; Cole, Susan
In 2002, the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation started the Early College High School Initiative (ECHSI). Through this initiative, more than 200 Early College Schools (ECSs) opened by fall 2009. All of the schools aim to provide underserved students access to college classes while in high school. This article will provide an overview of the first 6…
Mitchell, Christina M.; Whitesell, Nancy Rumbaugh; Spicer, Paul; Beals, Janette; Kaufman, Carol E.
Approximately 3 million teens are diagnosed with a sexually transmitted disease (STD) annually; STDs rates for American Indian young adults are among the highest of any racial/ethnic group. An important risk factor for STDs is early initiation of sex. In this study, we examined risk for early initiation with 474 American Indian youth ages 14-18,…
Kugler, Kari C.; Vasilenko, Sara A.; Butera, Nicole M.; Coffman, Donna L.
Although early sexual initiation has been linked to negative outcomes, it is unknown whether these effects are causal. In this study, we use propensity score methods to estimate the causal effect of early sexual initiation on young adult sexual risk behaviors and health outcomes using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to…
Allton, J. H.; Stansbery, E. K.; McNamara, K. M.; Meshik, A.; See, T. H.; Bastien, R.
A large surface, about 245 square centimeters, of highly polished aluminum 6061 T6 alloy was attached to the science canister thermal panel for the purpose of collecting solar wind noble gases. The analysis of this collector will be part of the Genesis Early Science results. The pre-launch configuration of the collector is shown. The collector sustained some damage during the recovery impact in Utah, September 8, 2004.
Lundgren, Jens D; Babiker, Abdel G; Gordin, Fred; Emery, Sean; Grund, Birgit; Sharma, Shweta; Avihingsanon, Anchalee; Cooper, David A; Fätkenheuer, Gerd; Llibre, Josep M; Molina, Jean-Michel; Munderi, Paula; Schechter, Mauro; Wood, Robin; Klingman, Karin L; Collins, Simon; Lane, H Clifford; Phillips, Andrew N; Neaton, James D
Data from randomized trials are lacking on the benefits and risks of initiating antiretroviral therapy in patients with asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection who have a CD4+ count of more than 350 cells per cubic millimeter. We randomly assigned HIV-positive adults who had a CD4+ count of more than 500 cells per cubic millimeter to start antiretroviral therapy immediately (immediate-initiation group) or to defer it until the CD4+ count decreased to 350 cells per cubic millimeter or until the development of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or another condition that dictated the use of antiretroviral therapy (deferred-initiation group). The primary composite end point was any serious AIDS-related event, serious non-AIDS-related event, or death from any cause. A total of 4685 patients were followed for a mean of 3.0 years. At study entry, the median HIV viral load was 12,759 copies per milliliter, and the median CD4+ count was 651 cells per cubic millimeter. On May 15, 2015, on the basis of an interim analysis, the data and safety monitoring board determined that the study question had been answered and recommended that patients in the deferred-initiation group be offered antiretroviral therapy. The primary end point occurred in 42 patients in the immediate-initiation group (1.8%; 0.60 events per 100 person-years), as compared with 96 patients in the deferred-initiation group (4.1%; 1.38 events per 100 person-years), for a hazard ratio of 0.43 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.30 to 0.62; P<0.001). Hazard ratios for serious AIDS-related and serious non-AIDS-related events were 0.28 (95% CI, 0.15 to 0.50; P<0.001) and 0.61 (95% CI, 0.38 to 0.97; P=0.04), respectively. More than two thirds of the primary end points (68%) occurred in patients with a CD4+ count of more than 500 cells per cubic millimeter. The risks of a grade 4 event were similar in the two groups, as were the risks of unscheduled hospital admissions. The initiation of
Piper, Benjamin; Jepkemei, Evelyn; Kibukho, Kennedy
Children from low-income families are at risk of learning outcome difficulties, particularly in literacy. Various studies link poor literacy results with performance later in primary and secondary school, and suggest that poverty, literacy skills and weak instructional methods combine to drastically limit the educational opportunities for many…
Pizur-Barnekow, Kris; Doering, Jennifer; Cashin, Susan; Patrick, Timothy; Rhyner, Paula
"Functional health literacy," a component of health literacy, refers to the ability to read and interpret medical information. The Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (S-TOFHLA) measures the ability to read and interpret medical information. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess and compare levels of maternal functional…
Spielberger, Julie; Goyette, Paul
This report summarizes findings from the first year of an implementation study of the Early Childhood Cluster Initiative (ECCI). ECCI is a prekindergarten program in ten elementary schools and a community child care center in Palm Beach County, based on the design of the High/Scope Perry Preschool model. The initiative is characterized by low…
Bindman, Samantha W.; Skibbe, Lori E.; Hindman, Annemarie H.; Aram, Dorit; Morrison, Frederick J.
The current study examines the nature and variability of parents' aid to preschoolers in the context of a shared writing task, as well as the relations between this support and children's literacy, vocabulary, and fine motor skills. In total, 135 preschool children (72 girls) and their parents (primarily mothers) in an ethnically diverse, middle-income community were observed while writing a semi-structured invitation for a pretend birthday party together. Children's phonological awareness, alphabet knowledge, word decoding, vocabulary, and fine motor skills were also assessed. Results revealed that parents provided variable, but generally low–level, support for children's approximation of sound-symbol correspondence in their writing (i.e., graphophonemic support), as well as for their production of letter forms (i.e., print support). Parents frequently accepted errors rather than asking for corrections (i.e., demand for precision). Further analysis of the parent-child dyads (n = 103) who wrote the child's name on the invitation showed that parents provided higher graphophonemic, but not print, support when writing the child's name than other words. Overall parental graphophonemic support was positively linked to children's decoding and fine motor skills, whereas print support and demand for precision were not related to any of the child outcomes. In sum, this study indicates that while parental support for preschoolers' writing may be minimal, it is uniquely linked to key literacy-related outcomes in preschool. PMID:25284957
Honigh-de Vlaming, Rianne; Haveman-Nies, Annemien; Bos-Oude Groeniger, Inge; Hooft van Huysduynen, Eveline J C; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; Van't Veer, Pieter
To develop and evaluate the Loneliness Literacy Scale for the assessment of short-term outcomes of a loneliness prevention programme among Dutch elderly persons. Scale development was based on evidence from literature and experiences from local stakeholders and representatives of the target group. The scale was pre-tested among 303 elderly persons aged 65 years and over. Principal component analysis and internal consistency analysis were used to affirm the scale structure, reduce the number of items and assess the reliability of the constructs. Linear regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the association between the literacy constructs and loneliness. The four constructs "motivation", "self-efficacy", "perceived social support" and "subjective norm" derived from principal component analysis captured 56 % of the original variance. Cronbach's coefficient α was above 0.7 for each construct. The constructs "self-efficacy" and "perceived social support" were positively and "subjective norm" was negatively associated with loneliness. To our knowledge this is the first study developing a short-term indicator for loneliness prevention. The indicator contributes to the need of evaluating public health interventions more close to the intervention activities.
Bindman, Samantha W; Skibbe, Lori E; Hindman, Annemarie H; Aram, Dorit; Morrison, Frederick J
The current study examines the nature and variability of parents' aid to preschoolers in the context of a shared writing task, as well as the relations between this support and children's literacy, vocabulary, and fine motor skills. In total, 135 preschool children (72 girls) and their parents (primarily mothers) in an ethnically diverse, middle-income community were observed while writing a semi-structured invitation for a pretend birthday party together. Children's phonological awareness, alphabet knowledge, word decoding, vocabulary, and fine motor skills were also assessed. Results revealed that parents provided variable, but generally low-level, support for children's approximation of sound-symbol correspondence in their writing (i.e., graphophonemic support), as well as for their production of letter forms (i.e., print support). Parents frequently accepted errors rather than asking for corrections (i.e., demand for precision). Further analysis of the parent-child dyads ( n = 103) who wrote the child's name on the invitation showed that parents provided higher graphophonemic, but not print, support when writing the child's name than other words. Overall parental graphophonemic support was positively linked to children's decoding and fine motor skills, whereas print support and demand for precision were not related to any of the child outcomes. In sum, this study indicates that while parental support for preschoolers' writing may be minimal, it is uniquely linked to key literacy-related outcomes in preschool.
Damm, Frederik; Mylonas, Elena; Cosson, Adrien; Yoshida, Kenichi; Della Valle, Véronique; Mouly, Enguerran; Diop, M'boyba; Scourzic, Laurianne; Shiraishi, Yuichi; Chiba, Kenichi; Tanaka, Hiroko; Miyano, Satoru; Kikushige, Yoshikane; Davi, Frederick; Lambert, Jérôme; Gautheret, Daniel; Merle-Béral, Hélène; Sutton, Laurent; Dessen, Philippe; Solary, Eric; Akashi, Koichi; Vainchenker, William; Mercher, Thomas; Droin, Nathalie; Ogawa, Seishi; Nguyen-Khac, Florence; Bernard, Olivier A
Appropriate cancer care requires a thorough understanding of the natural history of the disease, including the cell of origin, the pattern of clonal evolution, and the functional consequences of the mutations. Using deep sequencing of flow-sorted cell populations from patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), we established the presence of acquired mutations in multipotent hematopoietic progenitors. Mutations affected known lymphoid oncogenes, including BRAF, NOTCH1, and SF3B1. NFKBIE and EGR2 mutations were observed at unexpectedly high frequencies, 10.7% and 8.3% of 168 advanced-stage patients, respectively. EGR2 mutations were associated with a shorter time to treatment and poor overall survival. Analyses of BRAF and EGR2 mutations suggest that they result in deregulation of B-cell receptor (BCR) intracellular signaling. Our data propose disruption of hematopoietic and early B-cell differentiation through the deregulation of pre-BCR signaling as a phenotypic outcome of CLL mutations and show that CLL develops from a pre-leukemic phase. The origin and pathogenic mechanisms of CLL are not fully understood. The current work indicates that CLL develops from pre-leukemic multipotent hematopoietic progenitors carrying somatic mutations. It advocates for abnormalities in early B-cell differentiation as a phenotypic convergence of the diverse acquired mutations observed in CLL. ©2014 American Association for Cancer Research.
Aubele, J. C.
Geology and geophysics are frequently perceived by the student, teacher, or adult non-geologist as "difficult to understand"; however, most non-geologists of all ages appreciate geological landforms such as mountains, volcanoes and canyons, and are interested in phenomena such as earthquakes and natural resources. Most people are also interested in local connections and newsworthy programs and projects. Therefore, the EarthScope Project is a perfect opportunity to excite and educate the public about solid-Earth geoscience research and to increase the non-geologist's understanding of Earth's dynamic processes. As the EarthScope Project sweeps across the country, the general public must be made aware of the magnitude, scope, excitement, and achievements of this national initiative. However, EarthScope science is difficult for the non-scientist to understand. The project is large-scale and long-term, and its data sets consist of maps, structural graphics, 3D and 4D visualizations, and the integration of many different geophysical instruments, all elements that are difficult for the non-scientist to understand. Targeted programs for students, teachers, and visitors to the National Parks will disseminate EarthScope information; in addition, museums and other informal science education centers can also play an important role in translating scientific research for the general public. Research on learning in museums has shown that museums educate an audience that is self-selected and self-directed (non-captive), includes family/groups, multigenerational, and repeat visitors, and requires presentation of information for a variety of learning styles. Informal science centers have the following advantages in geoscience-related education: (1) graphics/display expertise; (2) flexibility in approach and programming; (3) ability to quickly produce exhibits, educational programming, and curricula themed to specific topics of interest; (4) inclusion of K-12 teachers in the
Molina-Sócola, F E; López-Herrero, F; Medina-Tapia, A; Rueda-Rueda, T; Contreras-Díaz, M; Sánchez-Vicente, J L
A 36 year-old male with a recent HIV diagnosis, presented with loss of vision of his left eye. Ophthalmoscopy revealed a unilateral yellowish placoid lesion in the macula. After fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography, optical coherence tomography angiography, syphilis serology, and cerebrospinal ﬂuid results, he was diagnosed with neurosyphilis and syphilitic posterior placoid chorioretinitis. Acute syphilitic posterior placoid chorioretinitis is a rare ocular manifestation of syphilis. All patients with characteristic clinical and angiographic ﬁndings of acute syphilitic posterior placoid chorioretinitis should be tested for a neurosyphilis and human immunodeﬁciency virus co-infection. Early treatment with intravenous penicillin is usually effective with good visual results. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Klenk, Jessicia A.; Pufpaff, Lisa A.
Research on literacy instruction for students with multiple disabilities is limited. Empirical research on braille instruction for students with multiple disabilities that include congenital blindness is virtually nonexistent. This case study offers initial insight into possible methods of early braille literacy instruction for a student with…
Shelbaya, Ahmed; Solem, Caitlyn T; Walker, Chris; Wan, Yin; Johnson, Courtney; Cappelleri, Joseph C
Objective This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics associated with early versus late initiation of celecoxib treatment after osteoarthritis (OA) diagnosis and whether economic and safety outcomes differ between patients with early versus late initiation of celecoxib. Methods Adults (≥18 years) with a confirmed OA diagnosis (International Classification of Diseases, 9th Edition, Clinical Modifications code: 715.XX), ≥12 months of continuous pre- and post-index enrollment, and ≥1 post-index claim for celecoxib were included from the MarketScan® Commercial Claims and Encounter Database (2009–2013). Index date was defined as initial OA diagnosis. Patients were categorized as initiating celecoxib early (within 6 months of index date) or late (≥6 months after index date). Logistic regressions were used to assess characteristics associated with early versus late celecoxib initiation. Key outcomes included health care resource utilization (HCRU) and costs post-index, and adverse event incidence post-celecoxib initiation. Unadjusted and adjusted comparisons (using generalized linear models with a gamma distribution for costs and Poisson distribution for event and resource utilization) were made between early and late celecoxib initiators. Results Of the 62,434 OA patients identified, 27,402 were early and 35,032 were late initiators. Post-index hospital admissions and length of stay did not differ statistically between early versus late initiators after controlling for pre-index event rates and covariates, but early patients had significantly fewer outpatient (incidence rate ratio [IRR]: 0.96; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.95, 0.97) and emergency room visits (IRR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.84, 0.95). After adjustment for key covariates, early initiators (versus late initiators) had lower all-cause (US$12,909 versus US$13,781, P<0.001) and OA-related (US$4,988 versus US$5,178, P=0.015) costs per person-year. Early initiators had no statistically significant
Jones, Stephen L.; Ashton, Carol M.; Kiehne, Lisa; Gigliotti, Elizabeth; Bell-Gordon, Charyl; Pinn, Teresa T.; Tran, Shirley K.; Nicolas, Juan C.; Rose, Alexis L.; Shirkey, Beverly A.; Disbot, Maureen; Masud, Faisal; Wray, Nelda P.
Duration of Initiative 48 months and currently ongoing. Setting The Houston Methodist Hospital System and affiliated hospitals (3 facilities with 2 hospital-run skilled nursing facilities in and around Houston), St. Joseph’s Regional Health Center (1 acute care hospital and 2 skilled nursing facilities in Bryan, Texas), Hospital Corporation of America (2 acute care facilities in Houston, 1 acute care facility in McAllen, Texas [Rio Grande Valley]), Kindred Healthcare (2 long term acute care facilities in Houston), Select Medical Specialty Hospitals (2 long term acute care facilities in Houston). Whom This Should Concern Hospital administrators, quality and safety officers, performance improvement and patient safety professionals, clinic managers, infection control and prevention staff, and other physicians, nurses, and clinical staff. PMID:26892701
Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; de Looze, Margaretha; Ma, Ping; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Farhat, Tilda; Ter Bogt, Tom F M; Ehlinger, Virginie; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Currie, Candace; Godeau, Emmanuelle
To examine the relationship between country-level age norms for sexual initiation timing and early sexual initiation (ESI) among adolescent boys and girls. Nationally representative data from 17 countries that participated in the 2006/2007 European Social Survey (ESS-3, n = 33,092) and the 2005/2006 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Study (HBSC, n = 27,702) were analyzed. Age norms were measured as the average country-level response to an item asking the age at which ESS respondents believed someone is too young to have sexual intercourse. HBSC respondents (aged 14-16 years) self-reported age at sexual initiation, which we defined as early (<15 years) or not early (≥15 years or no initiation). Control variables included age, family affluence, perceived socioeconomic status, family living arrangement, substance use, school attachment, and country-level legal age of consent. Multivariable three-level logistic models with random intercepts were run separately by sex. In multivariable analyses, higher overall age norms were associated with reduced likelihood of ESI among girls (AOR .60, 95% CI .45-.79); associations with ESI were stronger for parent cohort (ages 31-65 years) norms (AOR .37, 95% CI .23-.58) than for peer cohort (ages 15-20 years) norms (AOR .60, 95% CI .49-.74). For boys, overall norms were also significantly negatively associated with ESI (AOR .68, 95% CI .46-.99), as were parent cohort norms (AOR .66, 95% CI .45-.96). Peer cohort norms were not significantly related to boys' ESI. Macrolevel cultural norms may impact adolescents' sexual initiation timing. Research exploring the sexual health outcomes of early initiators in countries with contrasting age norms is warranted. Copyright © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.
Epstein, Marina; Bailey, Jennifer A.; Manhart, Lisa E.; Hill, Karl G.; Hawkins, J. David
A robust link between early sexual initiation and sexual risk-taking behavior is reported in previous studies. The relationship may not be causal, however, as the effect of common risk factors is often not considered. The current study examined whether early initiation is a key predictor of risky sexual behavior in the 20s and 30s, over and above co-occurring individual and environmental factors. Data were drawn from the Seattle Social Development Project, a longitudinal panel of 808 youth. Early predictors (ages 10–15) and sexual risk-taking (ages 21–24 and 30–33) were assessed prospectively. Early sexual initiation (before age 15) was entered into a series of probit regressions that also included family, neighborhood, peer, and individual risk factors. Although a positive bivariate relation between early sexual initiation and sexual risk-taking was observed at both ages, the link did not persist when co-occurring risk factors were included. Behavioral disinhibition and antisocial peer influences emerged as the strongest predictors of sexual risk over and above early sexual initiation. These results suggest that early sexual initiation must be considered in the context of common antecedents; public health policy aimed at delaying sexual intercourse alone is unlikely to substantially reduce sexual risk behavior in young adulthood. PMID:24423058
Parisod, Heidi; Pakarinen, Anni; Axelin, Anna; Danielsson-Ojala, Riitta; Smed, Jouni; Salanterä, Sanna
The purpose of this study was to explore the design of a health game that aims to both support tobacco-related health literacy and a tobacco-free life in early adolescence and to meet adolescents' expectations. Data were collected from adolescents using an open-ended questionnaire (n = 83) and focus groups (n = 39) to obtain their view of a health game used for tobacco-related health education. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis. A group of experts combined the adolescents' views with theoretical information on health literacy and designed and produced the first version of the game. Adolescents (session 1, n = 16; session 3, n = 10; and session 4, n = 44) and health promotion professionals (session 2, n = 3) participated in testing the game. Feedback from testing sessions 3 and 4 was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Adolescents pointed out that the health game needs to approach the topic of tobacco delicately and focus on the adolescents' perspective and on the positive sides of a tobacco-free life rather than only on the negative consequences of tobacco. The adolescents expected the game to be of high quality, stimulating, and intellectually challenging and to offer possibilities for individualization. Elements from the adolescents' view and theoretical modelling were embedded into the design of a game called Fume. Feedback on the game was promising, but some points were highlighted for further development. Investing especially in high-quality design features, such as graphics and versatile content, using humoristic or otherwise stimulating elements, and maintaining sufficiently challenging gameplay would promote the acceptability of theory-based health games among adolescents.
Skwarchuk, Sheri-Lynn; Sowinski, Carla; LeFevre, Jo-Anne
The purpose of this study was to propose and test a model of children's home numeracy experience based on Sénéchal and LeFevre's home literacy model (Child Development, 73 (2002) 445-460). Parents of 183 children starting kindergarten in the fall (median child age=58 months) completed an early home learning experiences questionnaire. Most of the children whose parents completed the questionnaire were recruited for numeracy and literacy testing 1 year later (along with 32 children from the inner city). Confirmatory factor analyses were used to reduce survey items, and hierarchical regression analyses were used to predict the relation among parents' attitudes, academic expectations for their children, reports of formal and informal numeracy, and literacy home practices on children's test scores. Parental reports of formal home numeracy practices (e.g., practicing simple sums) predicted children's symbolic number system knowledge, whereas reports of informal exposure to games with numerical content (measured indirectly through parents' knowledge of children's games) predicted children's non-symbolic arithmetic, as did numeracy attitudes (e.g., parents' enjoyment of numeracy). The home literacy results replicated past findings; parental reports of formal literacy practices (e.g., helping their children to read words) predicted children's word reading, whereas reports of informal experiences (i.e., frequency of shared reading measured indirectly through parents' storybook knowledge) predicted children's vocabulary. These findings support a multifaceted model of children's early numeracy environment, with different types of early home experiences (formal and informal) predicting different numeracy outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; de Looze, Margaretha; Ma, Ping; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Farhat, Tilda; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Ehlinger, Virginie; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Currie, Candace; Godeau, Emmanuelle
Purpose To examine the relationship between country-level age norms for sexual initiation timing and early sexual initiation (ESI) among adolescent boys and girls. Methods Nationally-representative data from 17 countries that participated in the 2006/07 European Social Survey (ESS-3, n=33,092) and the 2005/06 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Study (HBSC, n=27,702) were analyzed. Age norms were measured as the average country-level response to an item asking the age at which ESS respondents believed someone is too young to have sexual intercourse. HBSC respondents (aged 14-16) self-reported age at sexual initiation which we defined as early (<15 years) or not (≥15 years or no initiation). Control variables included age, family affluence, perceived socioeconomic status, family living arrangement, substance use, school attachment, and country-level legal age of consent. Multivariable three-level logistic models with random intercepts were run separately by sex. Results In multivariable analyses, higher overall age norms were associated with reduced likelihood of ESI among girls (AOR 0.60, 95% CI 0.45-0.79); associations with ESI were stronger for parent cohort (ages 31-65) norms (AOR 0.37, 95% CI 0.23-0.58) than for peer cohort (ages 15-20) norms (AOR 0.60, 95% CI 0.49-0.74). For boys, overall norms were also significantly negatively associated with ESI (AOR 0.68, 95% CI 0.46-0.99), as were parent cohort norms (AOR 0.66, 95% CI 0.45-0.96). Peer cohort norms were not significantly related to boys’ ESI. Conclusion Macro-level cultural norms may impact adolescents’ sexual initiation timing. Research exploring the sexual health outcomes of early initiators in countries with contrasting age norms is warranted. PMID:24508092
Huang, Francis L.; Ford, Karen L.; Invernizzi, Marcia; Fan, Xitao
We investigated the latent factor structure of the "Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening for Kindergarteners" in Spanish ("PALS español K"). Participants included 590 Spanish-speaking, public-school kindergarteners from five states. Three theoretically-guided factor structures were measured and tested with one half of our…
Shamir, Haya; Feehan, Kathryn; Yoder, Erik
This study explores the efficacy of the Waterford Early Reading program (ERP) for teaching kindergarten and first grade students' early reading concepts. Students attended 3 elementary schools in Alabama. The treatment group used the software program whereas the control group did not use the software. Analyses revealed a significant treatment…
Lewis, Barbara A.; Avrich, Allison A.; Freebairn, Lisa A.; Hansen, Amy J.; Sucheston, Lara E.; Kuo, Iris; Taylor, H. Gerry; Iyengar, Sudha K.; Stein, Catherine M.
Purpose: To demonstrate that early childhood speech sound disorders (SSD) and later school-age reading, written expression, and spelling skills are influenced by shared endophenotypes that may be in part genetic. Method: Children with SSD and their siblings were assessed at early childhood (ages 4-6 years) and followed at school age (7-12 years).…
Lewis, Anne; And Others
This booklet provides background information on literacy for television and radio broadcasters. It focuses first on the numbers of functionally illiterate persons in the United States and what those numbers mean. Central to understanding those numbers, as pointed out by the booklet, is the definition of illiteracy that is used, a definition that…
Berger, Andrea R.; Cole, Susan; Melton, Janet; Safran, Stephanie; Vogel, Tyler; Walton, Laura; Adelman, Nancy; Hall, Catherine; Keating, Kaelie Knowles; Murray, Samantha; Nielsen, Natalie; Schaffner, Monika
This is the first year-end report produced as part of the on-going evaluation of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation's Early College High School Initiative. The program provides funding and support for the establishment of Early College High Schools, which are organized to allow all enrolled students the opportunity to earn a high school diploma…
Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, 2009
This report presents the findings of the formative evaluation of the Understanding the Early Years (UEY) Initiative. The evaluation was conducted to examine issues of implementation and design, early progress in achieving immediate objectives, and issues related to accountability. The evaluation team was also asked to provide preliminary guidance…
Skibbe, Lori E.; Connor, Carol McDonald; Morrison, Frederick J.; Jewkes, Abigail M.
The present study examined the influence of schooling during children’s first and second years of preschool for children who experienced different amounts of preschool (i.e., one or two years), but who were essentially the same chronological age. Children (n = 76) were tested in the fall and spring of the school year using measures of self-regulation, decoding, letter knowledge, and vocabulary. Using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM), preschool was not associated with children’s development of self-regulation in either year. For decoding and letter knowledge, children finishing their second year of preschool had higher scores, although both groups of children grew similarly during the school year. Thus, our results suggest that the first and second years of preschool are both systematically associated with decoding and letter knowledge gains, and the effects are cumulative (two years predicted greater gains overall than did one year of preschool). Finally, children’s chronological age, and not whether they experienced one versus two years of preschool, predicted children’s vocabulary and self-regulation outcomes. Implications for preschool curricula and instruction are discussed, including the increasing emphasis on literacy learning prior to kindergarten entry and the need to address self-regulation development along with academic learning. PMID:24068856
Aram, Dorit; Abiri, Shimrit; Elad, Lili
The present study aimed to extend understanding of preschoolers' early spelling using the Vygotskian ("Mind in society: the development of higher psychological processes," Cambridge, Harvard University Press, 1978) paradigm of child development. We assessed the contribution of maternal spelling support in predicting children's word…
The Literacy Education Action (LEA) program was established in the fall of 1985 under the initiative of the president of the El Paso Community College (Texas). During 1985 and 1986, LEA concentrated on developing its own literacy tutoring program, including recruiting and training volunteers and community members with reading skills below the…
Critical scholarship frequently depicts literacy education as an "initiation into passivity." Disconnected from the lives of students and reduced to strategies for scoring points on tests, literacy becomes an exercise in the reproduction of a moral economy of discipline, compliance, and productivity. Yet people also recognize that the modern world…
Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Farhat, Tilda; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Godeau, Emmanuelle; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse
Although most people in developed countries experience sexual initiation during adolescence, little is known about inter-country variability in the psychosocial correlates of early initiation. Population-based samples of 15-year-olds (n = 6,111, 52% female) who participated in the Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children Study (Finland, Scotland,…
Ladd, Helen F.; Muschkin, Clara G.; Dodge, Kenneth A.
This study examines the community-wide effects of two statewide early childhood policy initiatives in North Carolina. One initiative provides funding to improve the quality of child care services at the county level for all children between the ages of 0 to 5, and the other provides funding for preschool slots for disadvantaged four-year-olds.…
Spielberger, Julie; Baker, Stephen; Winje, Carolyn
This report summarizes findings from the second year of an implementation study of the Early Childhood Cluster Initiative (ECCI). ECCI is a prekindergarten program in ten elementary schools and a community child care center in Palm Beach County, based on the design of the High/Scope Perry Preschool model. The initiative is characterized by low…
Spielberger, Julie; Baker, Stephen; Winje, Carolyn
This publication reports findings from the second year of an implementation study of the Early Childhood Cluster Initiative (ECCI). ECCI is a prekindergarten program in ten elementary schools and a community child care center in Palm Beach County, based on the design of the High/Scope Perry Preschool model. The initiative is characterized by low…
Geels, L M; Vink, J M; van Beek, J H D A; Willemsen, G; Bartels, M; Boomsma, D I
Early alcohol initiation is strongly associated with increased alcohol consumption and alcohol abuse/dependence in adulthood. The mechanisms that underlie this association are unclear. To examine whether there is a causal link between early alcohol initiation and later alcohol consumption. Survey data were collected from twin pairs (age range 18-80) included in the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR). A discordant twin design was used to examine the origin of the link between early alcohol initiation and adult alcohol consumption. Within monozygotic pairs (82-143 pairs), twins who started drinking early were compared to their brother/sister who started drinking later, on frequency of alcohol use, weekly alcohol consumption, number of alcohol intoxications, excessive drinking, alcohol abuse/-dependence, and hazardous drinking. By drawing comparisons within monozygotic pairs, we were able to control for the effects of genes/shared environment. Additional analyses examined the effects of age, sex, and in-/exclusion of lifelong abstainers. Within monozygotic twin pairs, the twin who had started drinking early did not differ significantly from his/her brother/sister with respect to future alcohol consumption. Results were independent of age, sex, and in-/exclusion of lifelong abstainers. Early alcohol initiation did not have significant causal effects on subsequent alcohol consumption in adulthood and may be an indicator of a predisposition for alcohol consumption. Campaigns aimed at raising the minimum age for alcohol initiation will possibly have only a limited effect on adult alcohol consumption.
Oh, Kook-Hwan; Hwang, Young-Hwan; Cho, Jung-Hwa; Kim, Mira; Ju, Kyung Don; Joo, Kwon Wook; Kim, Dong Ki; Kim, Yon Su; Ahn, Curie
Recent studies reported that early initiation of hemodialysis may increase mortality. However, studies that assessed the influence of early initiation of peritoneal dialysis (PD) yielded controversial results. In the present study, we evaluated the prognosis of early initiation of PD on the various outcomes of end stage renal failure patients by using propensity-score matching methods. Incident PD patients (n = 491) who started PD at SNU Hospital were enrolled. The patients were divided into 'early starters (n = 244)' and 'late starters (n = 247)' on the basis of the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) at the start of dialysis. The calculated propensity-score was used for one-to-one matching. After propensity-score-based matching (n = 136, for each group), no significant differences were observed in terms of all-cause mortality (P = 0.17), technique failure (P = 0.62), cardiovascular event (P = 0.96) and composite event (P = 0.86) between the early and late starters. Stratification analysis in the propensity-score quartiles (n = 491) exhibited no trend toward better or poorer survival in terms of all-cause mortality. In conclusion, early commencement of PD does not reduce the mortality risk and other outcomes. Although the recent guidelines suggest that initiation of dialysis at higher eGFR, physicians should not determine the time to initiate PD therapy simply rely on the eGFR alone. PMID:22323864
Waters, Peter M; Flynn, John M
The POSNA Quality, Safety and Value Initiative (QSVI) formally started with POSNA board approval in early 2011. The initial vision statement was: "To lead in defining our members' value based clinical care. To partner with hospital based and orthopedic organizational efforts to guarantee safe, high quality outcomes for our patients. To communicate our initiatives and results cooperatively with payer, credentialing, and compliance organizations to improve pediatric orthopedic care in North America."
Lonigan, Christopher J.; Burgess, Stephen R.; Anthony, Jason L.
Examined the joint and unique predictive significance of emergent literacy skills for later emergent literacy skills and reading in two samples of preschoolers. Structural equation modeling revealed significant developmental continuity of these skills, particularly for letter knowledge and phonological sensitivity from late preschool to early…
Goodrich, J. Marc; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Farver, JoAnn M.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cross-language transfer of the emergent literacy skills of preschoolers who were Spanish-speaking language minority children in the context of an experimental intervention study. Ninety-four children were randomly assigned to either a control condition (High/Scope preschool curriculum) or to receive small-group pull-out instruction (Literacy Express Preschool Curriculum) in English or initially in Spanish and transitioning to English. We examined whether children's initial skills in one language moderated the impact of the intervention on those same skills in the other language at posttest. Results demonstrated that, for children in the English-only intervention condition, initial Spanish receptive vocabulary and elision skills moderated the impact of the intervention on English receptive vocabulary and elision skills at posttest, respectively. For children in the transitional intervention condition, initial English definitional vocabulary and elision skills moderated the impact of the intervention on Spanish definitional vocabulary and elision skills at posttest, respectively. Results for the vocabulary interactions, as well as the elision interaction for the English-only intervention group comparisons, supported the notion of transfer of specific linguistic information across languages. Results for elision interaction for the transitional intervention group comparisons supported language-independent transfer. Implications for the theory of cross-language transfer of emergent literacy skills are discussed. PMID:24019555
Maddali, Manoj V; Dowdy, David W; Gupta, Amita; Shah, Maunank
Introduction Recent WHO guidance advocates for early antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation at higher CD4 counts to improve survival and reduce HIV transmission. We sought to quantify how the cost-effectiveness and epidemiological impact of early ART strategies in India are affected by attrition throughout the HIV care continuum. Methods We constructed a dynamic compartmental model replicating HIV transmission, disease progression and health system engagement among Indian adults. Our model of the Indian HIV epidemic compared implementation of early ART initiation (i.e. initiation above CD4 ≥350 cells/mm3) with delayed initiation at CD4 ≤350 cells/mm3; primary outcomes were incident cases, deaths, quality-adjusted-life-years (QALYs) and costs over 20 years. We assessed how costs and effects of early ART initiation were impacted by suboptimal engagement at each stage in the HIV care continuum. Results Assuming “idealistic” engagement in HIV care, early ART initiation is highly cost-effective ($442/QALY-gained) compared to delayed initiation at CD4 ≤350 cells/mm3 and could reduce new HIV infections to <15,000 per year within 20 years. However, when accounting for realistic gaps in care, early ART initiation loses nearly half of potential epidemiological benefits and is less cost-effective ($530/QALY-gained). We project 1,285,000 new HIV infections and 973,000 AIDS-related deaths with deferred ART initiation with current levels of care-engagement in India. Early ART initiation in this continuum resulted in 1,050,000 new HIV infections and 883,000 AIDS-related deaths, or 18% and 9% reductions (respectively), compared to current guidelines. Strengthening HIV screening increases benefits of earlier treatment modestly (1,001,000 new infections; 22% reduction), while improving retention in care has a larger modulatory impact (676,000 new infections; 47% reduction). Conclusions Early ART initiation is highly cost-effective in India but only has modest
Justice, Laura M; Kaderavek, Joan N; Fan, Xitao; Sofka, Amy; Hunt, Aileen
This study examined the impact of teacher use of a print referencing style during classroom-based storybook reading sessions conducted over an academic year. Impacts on preschoolers' early literacy development were examined, focusing specifically on the domain of print knowledge. This randomized, controlled trial examined the effects of a print referencing style on 106 preschool children attending 23 classrooms serving disadvantaged preschoolers. Following random assignment, teachers in 14 classrooms used a print referencing style during 120 large-group storybook reading sessions during a 30-week period. Teachers in 9 comparison classrooms read at the same frequency and with the same storybooks but used their normal style of reading. Children whose teachers used a print referencing style showed larger gains on 3 standardized measures of print knowledge: print concept knowledge, alphabet knowledge, and name writing, with medium-sized effects. The convergence of the present findings with those of previous efficacy studies indicates that print referencing intervention can be used confidently as an approach for facilitating print knowledge in preschool-age children. Speech-language pathologists can serve an important role in supporting preschool educators as they use this evidence-based technique with pupils in their classrooms.
Pratt, Amy S; Justice, Laura M; Perez, Ashanty; Duran, Lillian K
Children with language impairment (LI) often have lags in development of print knowledge, an important early-literacy skill. This study explores impacts of a print-focused intervention for Spanish-speaking children with LI in Southeastern Mexico. Aims were twofold. First, we sought to describe the print knowledge (print-concept knowledge, alphabet knowledge) of Spanish-speaking children with LI. Second, we determined the extent to which print-referencing intervention delivered by children's parents could improve print knowledge. Using a pre-test-post-test delayed treatment research design, 13 parent-child dyads were assigned to an intervention (n = 8) versus control (n = 5) condition. Children were drawn from a speech-language clinic and all were receiving services for LI. Caregivers in the intervention group implemented an 8-week home-reading programme following a systematic scope and sequence for improving children's print knowledge. Children showed individual differences in their print knowledge based on three baseline measures examining print-concept knowledge, alphabet knowledge and letter-sound knowledge. Those whose caregivers implemented the 8-week programme showed statistically and practically significant gains on two of the three measures over the intervention period. The results presented here may stimulate future research on the print knowledge of Spanish-speaking children with LI. Sources of individual differences are important to determine. Caregivers may use the intervention presented here as a potential avenue for improving children's print knowledge. © 2015 Royal College of Speech and Language Therapists.
Kayser, Lars; Karnoe, Astrid; Furstrand, Dorthe; Batterham, Roy; Christensen, Karl Bang; Elsworth, Gerald; Osborne, Richard H
For people to be able to access, understand, and benefit from the increasing digitalization of health services, it is critical that services are provided in a way that meets the user's needs, resources, and competence. The objective of the study was to develop a questionnaire that captures the 7-dimensional eHealth Literacy Framework (eHLF). Draft items were created in parallel in English and Danish. The items were generated from 450 statements collected during the conceptual development of eHLF. In all, 57 items (7 to 9 items per scale) were generated and adjusted after cognitive testing. Items were tested in 475 people recruited from settings in which the scale was intended to be used (community and health care settings) and including people with a range of chronic conditions. Measurement properties were assessed using approaches from item response theory (IRT) and classical test theory (CTT) such as confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and reliability using composite scale reliability (CSR); potential bias due to age and sex was evaluated using differential item functioning (DIF). CFA confirmed the presence of the 7 a priori dimensions of eHLF. Following item analysis, a 35-item 7-scale questionnaire was constructed, covering (1) using technology to process health information (5 items, CSR=.84), (2) understanding of health concepts and language (5 items, CSR=.75), (3) ability to actively engage with digital services (5 items, CSR=.86), (4) feel safe and in control (5 items, CSR=.87), (5) motivated to engage with digital services (5 items, CSR=.84), (6) access to digital services that work (6 items, CSR=.77), and (7) digital services that suit individual needs (4 items, CSR=.85). A 7-factor CFA model, using small-variance priors for cross-loadings and residual correlations, had a satisfactory fit (posterior productive P value: .27, 95% CI for the difference between the observed and replicated chi-square values: -63.7 to 133.8). The CFA showed that all items loaded
Karnoe, Astrid; Furstrand, Dorthe; Batterham, Roy; Christensen, Karl Bang; Elsworth, Gerald; Osborne, Richard H
Background For people to be able to access, understand, and benefit from the increasing digitalization of health services, it is critical that services are provided in a way that meets the user’s needs, resources, and competence. Objective The objective of the study was to develop a questionnaire that captures the 7-dimensional eHealth Literacy Framework (eHLF). Methods Draft items were created in parallel in English and Danish. The items were generated from 450 statements collected during the conceptual development of eHLF. In all, 57 items (7 to 9 items per scale) were generated and adjusted after cognitive testing. Items were tested in 475 people recruited from settings in which the scale was intended to be used (community and health care settings) and including people with a range of chronic conditions. Measurement properties were assessed using approaches from item response theory (IRT) and classical test theory (CTT) such as confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and reliability using composite scale reliability (CSR); potential bias due to age and sex was evaluated using differential item functioning (DIF). Results CFA confirmed the presence of the 7 a priori dimensions of eHLF. Following item analysis, a 35-item 7-scale questionnaire was constructed, covering (1) using technology to process health information (5 items, CSR=.84), (2) understanding of health concepts and language (5 items, CSR=.75), (3) ability to actively engage with digital services (5 items, CSR=.86), (4) feel safe and in control (5 items, CSR=.87), (5) motivated to engage with digital services (5 items, CSR=.84), (6) access to digital services that work (6 items, CSR=.77), and (7) digital services that suit individual needs (4 items, CSR=.85). A 7-factor CFA model, using small-variance priors for cross-loadings and residual correlations, had a satisfactory fit (posterior productive P value: .27, 95% CI for the difference between the observed and replicated chi-square values: −63.7 to 133
As part of the research for a dissertation on composition at Bryn Mawr College during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, hundreds of student essays and daily themes were read. Over and over students affirmed the essential worth and significance of events in their daily lives and of their college education in general. More often than not,…
Fowler, Susan A.; Yates, Tweety; Lewman, Beverly
Early childhood teachers are faced with many more choices and decisions regarding the development of their curriculum than ever before. The development of state standards for young children in prekindergarten (pre-K) programs not only provides guidance but also places demands on content that must be addressed. Finding the time to plan creative…
Girls' schools in the early modern era were largely run by nuns and can therefore be distinguished as Catholic institutions of learning. These schools flourished in the Catholic parts of Europe since the turn of the seventeenth century. Despite their focus on religious education, elementary skills such as reading, writing and sometimes arithmetic…
Justice, Laura M.; Sofka, Amy E.
Preschool teachers and early childhood professionals know that storybook reading is important, but they may not know how to maximize its benefits for later reading achievement. This indispensable guide presents research-based techniques for using reading aloud to intentionally and systematically build children's knowledge of print. Simple yet…
While nature journaling with elementary age children has recently increased in popularity, journaling with children of ages 2-6 is often overlooked. This article focuses specifically on why journaling is a valid practice in early childhood and the practitioner application of journaling techniques modified for the young child. Young children have…
Wohlwend, Karen E.
When children enter public kindergartens in the current atmosphere of high-stakes testing, they often encounter an emphasis on correctness that casts doubt on the integrity of their personally invented messages, prompting them to ask not "What did I write?" but "Is this right?" This ethnographic case study examines early writing by 23 kindergarten…
Beam, Sandra; Williams, Cheri
The purpose of this qualitative case study was to examine one kindergarten teacher's use of digital and multimodal technologies to mediate early writing instruction and explore the students' appropriation of that instruction to support their independent writing. Data sources included observations of writing instruction, as well as students'…
Barclay, Kathy; And Others
Describes ways in which teachers in a preschool center structure the environment and provide supportive interactions that give children in their care, the same advantages found in homes of early readers. Summarizes how the center replicates characteristics of such homes. Suggests involvement with books and other print-related materials. (BAC)
Harris, Kathleen I.; Kinley, Hannah L.; Cook, Angela
One of early childhood teachers' first questions of parents with regard to school readiness is whether the child knows the ABCs (Hyson & Tomlinson, 2014). Crucial pre-reading and writing skills, such as oral language, phonological awareness, print awareness, and alphabet letter recognition, are important to children's cognitive development…
Keilty, Megan; Harrison, Gina L.
Error analyses using a multidimensional measure were conducted on the misspellings of Kindergarten children speaking English as a first (EL1) and English as a second language (ESL) in order to detect any differences in early spelling ability between language groups. Oral vocabulary, syntactic knowledge, phonological processing, letter/word…
Gove, Amber, Ed.; Wetterberg, Anna, Ed.
This book highlights the experience of Liberia in both assessing and improving reading in primary schools. As a result of an Early Grade Reading Assessment, the Ministry of Education and partners, including the United States Agency for International Development, came together to identify and develop strategies for improving reading in schools.…
Schwartz, Robert M.
This study investigated the effectiveness and efficiency of the Reading Recovery early intervention. At-risk 1st-grade students were randomly assigned to receive the intervention during the 1st or 2nd half of the school year. High-average and low-average students from the same classrooms provided additional comparisons. Thirty-seven teachers from…
Casbergue, Renée M.
The Common Core State Standards have influenced curriculum for primary grades across the country, requiring more sophisticated responses to written text from children than ever before. Yet readiness for kindergarten is still often defined in terms of constrained print-related skills. As early as preschool, children can be introduced to more…
Slavin, Robert E.; Chambers, Bette
Evidence-based reform is transforming education at all levels, both in providing effective models for use in schools and in linking policy to effective practice on a broad scale. As early education moves from a concern with effects of preschool versus no preschool to focus on creating and evaluating effective preschool models capable of improving…
Beschorner, Beth; Hutchison, Amy
Considering the increased influence of digital technologies on daily life (Fallows, 2004) and young children's increased use of interactive technologies (Children Now, 2007), early childhood educators are beginning to think about the role of technology in their classrooms. Many preschool programs are beginning to purchase iPads, or similar…
Beschorner, Beth; Hutchison, Amy
Considering the increased influence of digital technologies on daily life (Fallows, 2004) and young children's increased use of interactive technologies ("Children Now," 2007), early childhood educators are beginning to think about the role of technology in their classrooms. Many preschool programs are beginning to purchase iPads, or…
Delgado, Enilda A.; Stoll, Laurie Cooper
Data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Birth Cohort are used to analyze the factors that lead to the reading readiness of children who participate in nonparental care the year prior to kindergarten (N = 4,550), with a specific focus on Latino children (N = 800). Stepwise multiple linear regression analysis demonstrates that reading…
Neuman, Susan B.
The purpose of this quasi-experimental study was to examine the influence of a book distribution program targeted at enhancing children's exposure to information books. The research examined whether a flood of information books in early childhood settings, placing libraries in a central role, could affect growth in language, content-related…
Segers, Eliane; Kleemans, Tijs; Verhoeven, Ludo
The home numeracy environment (i.e., parents' numeracy expectations and activities), is related to early numeracy in young children. As recent studies have shown that both cognitive and linguistic factors play an important role in predicting numeracy development, it may be assumed that rather than the home "numeracy" environment, the…
Skibbe, Lori E.; Phillips, Beth M.; Day, Stephanie L.; Brophy-Herb, Holly E.; Connor, Carol M.
Classmates' academic skill level (peer effects) is emerging as an important predictor of individual student achievement, particularly in the early grades. However, less is known about the influence of peer effects with regard to classmates' self-regulation skills and whether they are associated with students' academic gains. Examining this is the…
Brand, Susan Trostle; Dalton, Elizabeth M.
Addressing the unique needs of children of all ages and abilities, Universal Design for Learning (UDL) is gaining momentum in schools and preschools around the nation and the globe. This article explores Universal Design for Learning and its promising applications to a variety of reading and language arts experiences in the Early Childhood…
Shamir, Haya; Yoder, Erik; Feehan, Kathryn; Pocklington, David
While recent literature has pointed to the efficacy of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) in providing educational intervention at an early age, there is a lack of research exploring its use in a pre-kindergarten setting. The current study assessed the efficacy of CAI on students at the start of their academic careers. The Waterford Early…
Hayatbakhsh, Reza; Williams, Gail M; Bor, William; Najman, Jake M
Early age of cannabis use predicts subsequent illicit drug abuse and other psychosocial problems. Identification of factors associated with early cannabis use may contribute to the development of preventive interventions. This study aimed to examine the early life predictors of age of initiation to cannabis. Data were from Mater Hospital and University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy, a population-based prospective birth cohort study. Participants were a cohort of 3488 young adults who self-reported frequency and age of onset of cannabis use at the 21 year follow up. Of 3488 young adults, 48.9% (51.8% men and 46.4% women) reported having ever used cannabis. For those who had ever used cannabis, age of onset had mean and median of 15.8 and 16.0 years, respectively. In multivariate analysis child's gender, change in maternal marital status, quality of marital relationship, maternal cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption and maternal depression when the child was 5 years statistically significantly predicted age of initiation to cannabis use. The present study explores the impact of early childhood factors associated with age of onset of cannabis use. It is suggested that the family environment within which children are reared, including factors such as parents' marital circumstances, has a major influence on initiation to cannabis use in adolescence. Research is needed to disentangle the pathways of association between these early life factors and early initiation to use of cannabis. © 2012 Australasian Professional Society on Alcohol and other Drugs.