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Sample records for early luteal phase

  1. Luteal phase hyperprolactinemia.

    PubMed

    Falk, R J; Anderson, L

    1994-01-01

    To determine the incidence of both isolated and repetitive prolactin elevations in the luteal phase of otherwise normoprolactinemic women. To see if sporadic luteal-phase hyperprolactinemia is associated with progesterone deficiency, and to explore a possible physiological basis for sporadic hyperprolactinemia by TRH challenge. Hospital-based reproductive endocrinology/infertility service. Prospective measurement of luteal phase serum progesterone and prolactin in normoprolactinemic ovulatory women. TRH stimulation testing in volunteers with repetitive luteal phase hyperprolactinemia and normoprolactinemic controls. 133 sequentially selected infertile, ovulatory women with normal prolactin levels in the proliferative phase of the cycle. Measurement of serum progesterone and prolactin during the luteal phase, based on the day of the LH surge. TRH testing in the midluteal phase of the cycle in patients with two or more luteal phase prolactin elevations, and in five normoprolactinemic volunteers in both the preovulatory and midluteal phase. Of 133 subjects, 85 (64%) had no prolactin level exceeding 20 ng/mL in the luteal phase. Thirty-three (25%) had two or more elevated levels, and were considered to have repetitive luteal phase hyperprolactinemia (LPH). TRH testing in control subjects resulted in a greater prolactin response in the preovulatory phase. The group with LPH demonstrated an initial elevation of prolactin greater than that of the normoprolactinemic controls, but a subsequent drop to levels lower than both preovulatory and midluteal normoprolactinemic controls by 45 minutes. Sporadic luteal-phase hyperprolactinemia is a relatively common event (36% of 133 subjects in the present series). Of these 48 women, 33 (69%) had repetitive elevations, suggesting the elevation in these subjects to be more than a random event. The physiological validity of this observation is further demonstrated by an abnormal response to TRH stimulation, but the normal levels of

  2. Improving the luteal phase after ovarian stimulation: reviewing new options.

    PubMed

    Yding Andersen, C; Vilbour Andersen, K

    2014-05-01

    The human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) trigger used for final follicular maturation in connection with assisted reproduction treatment combines ovulation induction and early luteal-phase stimulation of the corpora lutea. The use of a gonadotrophin-releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa) for final follicular maturation has, however, for the first time allowed a separation of the ovulatory signal from the early luteal-phase support. This has generated new information that may improve the currently employed luteal-phase support. Thus, combined results from a number of randomized controlled trials using the GnRHa trigger suggest an association between the reproductive outcome after IVF treatment and the mid-luteal-phase serum progesterone concentration. It appears that a minimum mid-luteal progesterone threshold of approximately 80-100 nmol/l exists, which, when surpassed, results in reduced early pregnancy loss and an increased live birth rate. Further, the trade off between the HCG bolus and the subsequent risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome has resulted in a trend to reduce the HCG bolus from 10,000 IU to 6500-5000 IU, which augments the HCG/LH deficiency during the early/mid-luteal phase. The mid-luteal HCG/LH shortage results in an altered progesterone profile, showing the highest concentration during the early luteal phase, contrasting with the mid-luteal peak seen in the natural menstrual cycle. Copyright © 2014 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Sustained attention is favored by progesterone during early luteal phase and visuo-spatial memory by estrogens during ovulatory phase in young women.

    PubMed

    Solís-Ortiz, S; Corsi-Cabrera, M

    2008-08-01

    Studies examining the influence of the menstrual cycle on cognitive function have been highly contradictory. The maintenance of attention is key to successful information processing, however how it co-vary with other cognitive functions and mood in function of phases of the menstrual cycle is not well know. Therefore, neuropsychological performance of nine healthy women with regular menstrual cycles was assessed during ovulation (OVU), early luteal (EL), late luteal (LL) and menstrual (MEN) phases. Neuropsychological test scores of sustained attention, executive functions, manual coordination, visuo-spatial memory, verbal fluency, spatial ability, anxiety and depression were obtained and submitted to a principal components analysis (PCA). Five eigenvectors that accounted the 68.31% of the total variance were identified. Performance of the sustained attention was grouped in an independent eigenvector (component 1), and the scores on verbal fluency and visuo-spatial memory were grouped together in an eigenvector (component 5), which explained 17.69% and 12.03% of the total variance, respectively. The component 1 (p<0.034) and the component 5 (p<0.003) showed significant variations during the menstrual cycle. Sustained attention showed an increase in the EL phase, when the progesterone is high. Visuo-spatial memory was increased, while that verbal fluency was decreased during the OVU phase, when the estrogens levels are high. These results indicate that sustained attention is favored by early luteal phase progesterone and do not covaried with any other neuropsychological variables studied. The influence of the estrogens on visuo-spatial memory was corroborated, and covaried inversely with verbal fluency.

  4. Luteal phase support in intrauterine insemination cycles

    PubMed Central

    Gün, İsmet; Özdamar, Özkan; Yılmaz, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Intrauterine insemination (IUI) treatment aims to increase the rate of conception by increasing the chances that the maximum number of healthy sperm reach the site of fertilization. IUI with controlled ovarian stimulation is frequently used in assisted reproduction practice. Although widely used, the efficacy of luteal support in IUI remains controversial. In this article, we aimed to review what we know regarding luteal support in IUI cycles and to adjudicate about the clinical use and benefits of this treatment. Based on the study results available in the literature, it appears to be beneficial to supplement the luteal phase in gonadotropin-stimulated IUI cycles that yield more than one follicle. PMID:28913099

  5. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for analysis of endogenous steroids in the luteal phase and early pregnancy in dogs: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Holst, Bodil S; Kushnir, Mark M; Bergquist, Jonas

    2015-12-01

    Blood samples from dogs are often limited in volume, only allowing few steroids to be quantified with immunoassays. In addition, immunoassays may be compromised by interferences such as anti-reagent antibodies. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) can be used for the simultaneous quantitation of several steroids. This has not been described in dogs before. The aims were to use LC-MS/MS to study steroid profiles in early pregnancy and luteal phase in dogs, and to determine if differences exist between pregnant (P) and nonpregnant (NP) dogs. Nine female dogs were included, 4 during a NP luteal phase, 4 during a P luteal phase, and one during one NP and one P luteal phase. Blood samples were collected around the time of the LH surge (Day 0) and on Day 26. Serum was analyzed for 5 classes of steroids, including glucocorticoids, androgens, estrogens, pregnanes, and progestins, using LC-MS/MS methods. The concentration of progesterone was significantly higher on Day 26 in P than in NP bitches. Distribution of concentrations of glucocorticoids, androgens, estrogens, or pregnanes in P and NP dogs were not statistically different. The predominating glucocorticoid was cortisol, and dihydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) was the predominating androgen. Concentration of estrone was comparable to oestradiol, whereas concentrations of pregnenolone were higher than those of 17-OH pregnenolone. Only concentration of progesterone differed between P and NP bitches, being significantly higher on Day 26 in P than in NP bitches. LC-MS/MS offers interesting possibilities for studies of canine reproductive endocrinology. © 2015 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  6. The clinical relevance of luteal phase deficiency: a committee opinion.

    PubMed

    2012-11-01

    Luteal phase deficiency (LPD) has been described in healthy normally menstruating women and in association with other medical conditions. While progesterone is important for the process of implantation and early embryonic development, LPD, as an independent entity causing infertility, has not been proven. Copyright © 2012 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Luteal phase deficiency: abnormal gonadotropin and progesterone secretion patterns.

    PubMed

    Soules, M R; Clifton, D K; Cohen, N L; Bremner, W J; Steiner, R A

    1989-10-01

    Luteal phase deficiency (LPD) is a reproductive disorder associated with infertility and spontaneous abortion. This study was undertaken to determine whether LPD might be related to an abnormal pattern of gonadotropin secretion. We tested this hypothesis by evaluating the pattern of pulsatile LH secretion in both the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle in normal women (n = 21) and women with LPD (n = 20), which was diagnosed on the basis of two out of phase endometrial biopsies. In addition, we sought to determine whether changes in progesterone (P) pulse patterns could account for the decrease in average serum P levels in women with LPD. To this end, we examined the pulse patterns of P and compared these patterns between normal women and those with LPD. Frequent blood sampling was performed in both groups to determine their respective hormone secretion patterns. In the follicular phase, blood samples were obtained every 10 min for 12 h; in the luteal phase the samples were obtained every 10 min for 12 h; in the luteal LH, FSH, and P were assayed in each sample. Pulse detection was performed by an adaptive threshold method of pulse analysis. The LH pulse frequency was significantly higher in the women with LPD than in the normal women in the early follicular phase [P less than 0.05; LPD, 12.8 +/- 1.4 (+/- SE); normal, 8.2 +/- 0.7 pulses/12 h]. LH pulse frequency was similar in the early and late follicular phases in the women with LPD, whereas it was higher in the late follicular phase in normal women. Mean serum FSH levels were not different between groups in both the early and late follicular phases. In the luteal phase the P pulse amplitude and mean serum P level were significantly lower in the LPD group than in the normal women (P less than 0.01). We conclude that 1) a too rapid LH pulse pattern in the early follicular phase may lead to inadequate LH support of the corpus luteum and become manifest as LPD; 2) the mechanism for inadequate P

  8. Could aspiration of the Graafian follicle cause luteal phase deficiency?

    PubMed

    Feichtinger, W; Kemeter, P; Szalay, S; Beck, A; Janisch, H

    1982-02-01

    Luteal phase quality was evaluated in 32 patients wih nonstimulated cycles after laparoscopic oocyte recovery for in vitro fertilization. A luteal phase deficiency occurred in two cases (6.2%), the mean duration of the luteal phase was 13.5 +/- 1.3 days in 30 patients, and two patients developed amenorrhea of 23 and 43 days respectively after laparoscopy in spite of normal progesterone values 7 and 9 days after oocyte recovery. Six embryo transfers were performed after fertilization and regular cleavage of the obtained oocytes. No pregnancy resulted from the embryo transfers, although the patients had apparently normal luteal phases. In one patient there was a transient beta-subunit human chorionic gonadotropin (beta-hCG) elevation in serum. Luteal phase deficiency should not be main cause of a nonsuccessful embryo transfer. However, a prophylactic luteal phase support after oocyte recovery and embryo transfer in nonstimulated cycles is proposed.

  9. Current clinical irrelevance of luteal phase deficiency: a committee opinion.

    PubMed

    2015-04-01

    Luteal phase deficiency (LPD) has been described in healthy normally menstruating women and in association with other medical conditions. Although progesterone is important for the process of implantation and early embryonic development, LPD, as an independent entity causing infertility, has not been proven. This document replaces the document by the same name, last published in 2012 (Fertil Steril 2012;98:1112-7). Copyright © 2015 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Abnormal patterns of pulsatile luteinizing hormone in women with luteal phase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Soules, M R; Steiner, R A; Clifton, D K; Bremner, W J

    1984-05-01

    Luteal phase deficiency is usually a problem of inadequate progesterone production associated with inadequate ovarian follicular development. The hypothesis that luteal phase deficiency results from an abnormal secretion pattern of luteinizing hormone (LH) was tested in these women. To this end, the early follicular LH secretion pattern in four women with luteal phase deficiency was characterized and compared with patterns in normal women. Blood samples were obtained through indwelling catheters every ten minutes for eight hours (10 AM to 6 PM), and plasma levels of LH and FSH were measured. Luteinizing hormone and FSH secretion profiles were analyzed for pulse frequency, amplitude, and mean plasma level. A significantly greater LH pulse frequency in women with luteal phase deficiency was observed when compared with the frequency in normal controls (luteal phase deficiency, 10.5 pulses/eight hours; normal, 5.2 pulses/eight hours; P less than or equal to .05). The mean FSH concentration was less in the women with luteal phase deficiency, but the level was not significant. These data suggest that the abnormal LH secretion pattern observed in women with luteal phase deficiency is responsible for their inadequate luteal phase progesterone secretion and their infertility.

  11. Prospective evaluation of luteal phase length and natural fertility.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Natalie M; Pritchard, David A; Herring, Amy H; Steiner, Anne Z

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the impact of a short luteal phase on fecundity. Prospective time-to-pregnancy cohort study. Not applicable. Women trying to conceive, ages 30-44 years, without known infertility. Daily diaries, ovulation prediction testing, standardized pregnancy testing. Subsequent cycle fecundity. Included in the analysis were 1,635 cycles from 284 women. A short luteal phase (≤11 days including the day of ovulation) occurred in 18% of observed cycles. Mean luteal phase length was 14 days. Significantly more women with a short luteal phase were smokers. After adjustment for age, women with a short luteal phase had 0.82 times the odds of pregnancy in the subsequent cycle immediately following the short luteal phase compared with women without a short luteal phase. Women with a short luteal length in the first observed cycle had significantly lower fertility after the first 6 months of pregnancy attempt, but at 12 months there was no significant difference in cumulative probability of pregnancy. Although an isolated cycle with a short luteal phase may negatively affect short-term fertility, incidence of infertility at 12 months was not significantly higher among these women. NCT01028365. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Pathophysiology of luteal-phase deficiency in human reproduction.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, S T; Gibson, M

    1991-03-01

    There are numerous probable mechanisms for the clinical occurrence of a luteal-phase deficiency. Defects may occur in either the proliferative, luteal, or luteal-rescue stage of a menstrual cycle. In each of these three domains, alterations in the trophic stimulation or the response at either the ovarian or endometrial level further subdivide the etiologies for luteal-phase deficiency. Additional development of new concepts in the areas of intraovarian signaling, the possible role of growth factors, and the measurement of newly discovered luteal products will enable us to expand our thought process. With a better understanding of the pathophysiology of luteal-phase deficiency, it is anticipated that new treatments will be devised to address precisely a given specific etiologic factor.

  13. Characterization of hormonal profiles during the luteal phase in regularly menstruating women.

    PubMed

    Ecochard, Rene; Bouchard, Thomas; Leiva, Rene; Abdulla, Saman; Dupuis, Olivier; Duterque, Olivia; Garmier Billard, Marie; Boehringer, Hans; Genolini, Christophe

    2017-07-01

    To characterize the variability of hormonal profiles during the luteal phase in normal cycles. Observational study. Not applicable. Ninety-nine women contributing 266 menstrual cycles. The women collected first morning urine samples that were analyzed for estrone-3-glucuronide, pregnanediol-3-alpha-glucuronide (PDG), FSH, and LH. The women had serum P tests (twice per cycle) and underwent ultrasonography to identify the day of ovulation. The luteal phase was divided into three parts: the early luteal phase with increasing PDG (luteinization), the midluteal phase with PDG ≥10 μg/mg Cr (progestation), and the late luteal phase (luteolysis) when PDG fell below 10 μg/mg Cr. Long luteal phases begin with long luteinization processes. The early luteal phase is marked by low PDG and high LH levels. Long luteinization phases were correlated with low E1G and low PDG levels at day 3. The length of the early luteal phase is highly variable between cycles of the same woman. The duration and hormonal levels during the rest of the luteal phase were less correlated with other characteristics of the cycle. The study showed the presence of a prolonged pituitary activity during the luteinization process, which seems to be modulated by an interaction between P and LH. This supports a luteal phase model with three distinct processes: the first is a modulated luteinization process, whereas the second and the third are relatively less modulated processes of progestation and luteolysis. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Progesterone concentration, pregnancy and calving rate in Simmental dairy cows after oestrus synchronisation and hCG treatment during the early luteal phase.

    PubMed

    Šuluburić, Adam; Milanović, Svetlana; Vranješ-Đurić, Sanja; Jovanović, Ivan B; Barna, Tomislav; Stojić, Milica; Fratrić, Natalija; Szenci, Ottó; Gvozdić, Dragan

    2017-09-01

    Early embryonic development may be negatively affected by insufficient progesterone (P4) production. Therefore, the aim of our study was to increase P4 by gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and/or human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) treatments after inducing oestrus by prostaglandin (PG) treatment. Lactating Simmental dairy cows (n = 110), between 1 to 5 lactations, with an average milk production of 6,500 1/305 days, at 40-80 days postpartum were used and grouped as follows: (1) PG + GnRH treatment at AI (GnRH group), (2) PG + hCG treatment at day 7 after AI (hCG group), (3) PG + GnRH at AI + hCG treatment at day 7 after AI (GnRH/hCG group), and (4) spontaneous oestrus (C: control group). All animals were double inseminated (at the time of oestrus detection and 12 ± 2 h thereafter). Blood serum and milk samples were collected at the day of observed oestrus (day 0), and 14, 21 and 28 days after AI. Serum P4 was determined using a commercial radioimmunoassay (RIA) test (INEP, Zemun), and milk P4 was determined using enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) test (NIV Novi Sad). Pregnancy status was confirmed by ultrasonography between days 28 and 35 after AI. Differences of serum or milk P4 medians, pregnancy (and calving) rate were determined using Dunn's Multiple Comparison Tests and Z test, respectively. Serum P4 medians were significantly higher at days 14, 21 and 28 after AI in the hCG-treated animals, indicating increased luteal activity, with a similar tendency in whole milk P4 values. Treatment with hCG during the early luteal phase significantly contributed to the maintenance of gestation at days 28-35 after AI, and also increased the calving rate in Simmental dairy cows.

  15. Luteal phase deficiency. An underdiagnosed and overtreated reproductive endocrine disorder.

    PubMed

    Soules, M R

    1987-12-01

    Although luteal phase deficiency is rather time consuming, expensive, and sometimes painful to diagnose and treat, this disease entity is associated with a high degree of treatment success. Physicians are encouraged to become more aware of luteal phase deficiency as a potential diagnosis in the infertile woman. If the recommendations are followed in the diagnosis and treatment of luteal phase deficiency, a high degree of success can be achieved in infertile couples who otherwise would be diagnosed as having idiopathic infertility (and be ineffectively treated).

  16. Progesterone and the luteal phase: a requisite to reproduction.

    PubMed

    Mesen, Tolga B; Young, Steven L

    2015-03-01

    Progesterone production from the corpus luteum is critical for natural reproduction. Progesterone supplementation seems to be an important aspect of any assisted reproductive technology treatment. Luteal phase deficiency in natural cycles is a plausible cause of infertility and pregnancy loss, though there is no adequate diagnostic test. This article describes the normal luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, investigates the controversy surrounding luteal phase deficiency, and presents the current literature for progesterone supplementation during assisted reproductive technologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Expression Pattern of microRNAs in Granulosa Cells of Subordinate and Dominant Follicles during the Early Luteal Phase of the Bovine Estrous Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Gebremedhn, Samuel; Sahadevan, Sudeep; Hossain, MD Munir; Rings, Franca; Hoelker, Michael; Tholen, Ernst; Neuhoff, Christiane; Looft, Christian; Schellander, Karl; Tesfaye, Dawit

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the miRNA expression patterns in granulosa cells of subordinate (SF) and dominant follicle (DF) during the early luteal phase of the bovine estrous cycle. For this, miRNA enriched total RNA isolated from granulosa cells of SF and DF obtained from heifers slaughtered at day 3 and day 7 of the estrous cycle was used for miRNAs deep sequencing. The results revealed that including 17 candidate novel miRNAs, several known miRNAs (n = 291–318) were detected in SF and DF at days 3 and 7 of the estrous cycle of which 244 miRNAs were common to all follicle groups. The let-7 families, bta-miR-10b, bta-miR-26a, bta-miR-99b and bta-miR-27b were among abundantly expressed miRNAs in both SF and DF at both days of the estrous cycle. Further analysis revealed that the expression patterns of 16 miRNAs including bta-miR-449a, bta-miR-449c and bta-miR-222 were differentially expressed between the granulosa cells of SF and DF at day 3 of the estrous cycle. However, at day 7 of the estrous cycle, 108 miRNAs including bta-miR-409a, bta-miR-383 and bta-miR-184 were differentially expressed between the two groups of granulosa cell revealing the presence of distinct miRNA expression profile changes between the two follicular stages at day 7 than day 3 of the estrous cycle. In addition, unlike the SF, marked temporal miRNA expression dynamics was observed in DF groups between day 3 and 7 of the estrous cycle. Target gene prediction and pathway analysis revealed that major signaling associated with follicular development including Wnt signaling, TGF-beta signaling, oocyte meiosis and GnRH signaling were affected by differentially expressed miRNAs. Thus, this study highlights the miRNA expression patterns of granulosa cells in subordinate and dominant follicles that could be associated with follicular recruitment, selection and dominance during the early luteal phase of the bovine estrous cycle. PMID:25192015

  18. Introduction: Management of the luteal phase in assisted reproductive technology.

    PubMed

    Griesinger, Georg; Meldrum, David

    2018-05-01

    The increasing utilization of a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist ovulation trigger and the widespread use of artificial cycles for the transfer of frozen-thawed or donated embryos has renewed interest in the luteal phase in assisted reproductive technology. The "luteal phase defect" phenomenon is now understood as a continuum: there is less impairment with milder stimulation than with more intense ovarian stimulation, and less impairment after controlled ovarian stimulation and human chorionic gonadotropin ovulation triggering than after gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist ovulation triggering, the latter being associated with rapid luteolysis. The intensity of the support of luteal phase necessary to achieve optimal outcomes therefore depends on the degree of luteal phase defect encountered in different treatment protocols. Ultimately, the luteal phase of an artificial cycle in which ovulation is suppressed, a corpus luteum is therefore absent, and the establishment of endometrial receptivity completely relies on the orchestrated exogenous administration of sex steroids, is the litmus test situation for the study of the efficacy of different luteal phase support preparations, doses, regimens, and routes of administration. Copyright © 2018 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The diagnosis and therapy of luteal phase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Soules, M R; Wiebe, R H; Aksel, S; Hammond, C B

    1977-10-01

    Between 1973 and 1975, 16 patients evaluated for infertility at Duke University Medical Center were diagnosed as having luteal phase deficiency. A majority had had prior infertility surveys, and the average duration of their infertility exceeded 2 years. The diagnosis was suspected after study of basal body temperature charts and menstrual patterns in more than 80% of the patients. This diagnosis was established by timed endometrial biopsy. The primary method of therapy was supplementation of the luteal phase with progesterone vaginal suppositories. The pregnancy rate after therapy was 50% and pregnancy occurred after a mean of five treatment cycles. The minimal follow-up of patients who failed to conceive was 8 months. To date, the majority of these pregnancies have been completed without complication and the remainder are progressing satisfactorily. Two additional patients developed luteal phase deficiency while taking clomiphene citrate and became pregnant with progesterone supplementation.

  20. An integrated view on the luteal phase: diagnosis and treatment in subfertility.

    PubMed

    Sonntag, Barbara; Ludwig, Michael

    2012-10-01

    The term 'luteal phase deficiency' was first coined more than 60 years ago, and, since then, it has been suggested as a clinical entity per se and an aetiological factor for subfertility, implantation failure and recurrent miscarriage. Despite the existing recommendations for rational work-up in subfertility, luteal phase evaluation and progesterone therapy alone is still common in daily practice. This review comprises results from a Pubmed literature search with the terms 'luteal phase' and 'subfertility', focussing on clinical situations not primarily related to assisted reproduction techniques. Additional data from the experimental studies published in the past 10 years on follicular maturation, oocyte developmental competence and the ovulatory cascade are integrated into the clinical continuum of dysfunctional ovulation, menstrual cycle irregularity and impaired corpus luteum function. As reliable diagnostic tools for adequate luteal function are missing, the presence of clinical symptoms such as cycle irregularity or premenstrual spotting is indicative and should initiate early follicular phase diagnostic work-up. New evidence on the interdependence of oocyte and follicular maturation and resulting developmental competence of the embryo further support the use of ovarian stimulation as the first-line therapeutic option in different subsets of patients with subfertility including luteal phase deficiency. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. The luteal phase after GnRH-agonist triggering of ovulation: present and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Humaidan, Peter; Papanikolaou, E G; Kyrou, D; Alsbjerg, B; Polyzos, N P; Devroey, P; Fatemi, Human M

    2012-02-01

    In stimulated IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles, the luteal phase is disrupted, necessitating luteal-phase supplementation. The most plausible reason behind this is the ovarian multifollicular development obtained after ovarian stimulation, resulting in supraphysiological steroid concentrations and consecutive inhibition of LH secretion by the pituitary via negative feedback at the level of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis. With the introduction of the gonadotrophin-releasing hormone-(GnRH) antagonist, an alternative to human chorionic gonadotrophin triggering of final oocyte maturation is the use of GnRH agonist (GnRHa) which reduces or even prevents ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Interestingly, the current regimens of luteal support after HCG triggering are not sufficient to secure the early implanting embryo after GnRHa triggering. This review discusses the luteal-phase insufficiency seen after GnRHa triggering and the various trials that have been performed to assess the most optimal luteal support in relation to GnRHa triggering. Although more research is needed, GnRHa triggering is now an alternative to HCG triggering, combining a significant reduction in OHSS with high ongoing pregnancy rates. Copyright © 2011 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The function of the corpus luteum of pregnancy in ovulatory dysfunction and luteal phase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Soules, M R; Hughes, C L; Aksel, S; Tyrey, L; Hammond, C B

    1981-07-01

    Relatively little knowledge exists of corpus luteum function in early pregnancy after the successful treatment of ovulatory dysfunction or luteal phase deficiency. To assess the activity of the corpus luteum of such patients, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OH-P) levels were determined in serum samples obtained from normal women (44 patients), women with ovulatory dysfunction (10 patients), and women with luteal phase deficiency (7 patients); all determinations were made during conceptive cycles, and sampling continued into the first trimester of pregnancy. There were no statistically significant abnormalities of hCG levels when infertility patients were compared with control patients. According to the premise that 17-OH-P levels reflect corpus luteal function, there appeared to be adequate function in pregnancies after progesterone treatment of luteal phase deficiency. In pregnancies following ovulation induction with clomiphene, the corpus luteum function, on the basis of 17-OH-P levels, was significantly increased in magnitude and duration. These results have clinical implications with regard to supplemental hormone therapy in early pregnancy.

  3. Dietary factors and luteal phase deficiency in healthy eumenorrheic women

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Mary A.; Schliep, Karen C.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Stanford, Joseph B.; Zarek, Shvetha M.; Radin, Rose G.; Sjaarda, Lindsey A.; Perkins, Neil J.; Kalwerisky, Robyn A.; Hammoud, Ahmad O.; Mumford, Sunni L.

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Are prospectively assessed dietary factors, including overall diet quality, macronutrients and micronutrients, associated with luteal phase deficiency (LPD) in healthy reproductive aged women with regular menstrual cycles? SUMMARY ANSWER Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS), fiber and isoflavone intake were positively associated with LPD while selenium was negatively associated with LPD after adjusting for age, percentage body fat and total energy intake. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY LPD may increase the risk of infertility and early miscarriage. Prior research has shown positive associations between LPD and low energy availability, either through high dietary restraint alone or in conjunction with high energy expenditure via exercise, but few studies with adequate sample sizes have been conducted investigating dietary factors and LPD among healthy, eumenorrheic women. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION The BioCycle Study (2005–2007) prospectively enrolled 259 women from Western New York state, USA, and followed them for one (n = 9) or two (n = 250) menstrual cycles. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Women aged 18–44 years, with self-reported BMI between 18 and 35 kg/m2 and cycle lengths between 21 and 35 days, were included in the study. Participants completed baseline questionnaires, four 24-h dietary recalls per cycle and daily diaries capturing vigorous exercise, perceived stress and sleep; they also provided up to eight fasting serum samples during clinic visits timed to specific phases of the menstrual cycle using a fertility monitor. Cycles were included for this analysis if the peak serum luteal progesterone was >1 ng/ml and a urine or serum LH surge was detected. Associations between prospectively assessed diet quality, macronutrients and micronutrients and LPD (defined as luteal duration <10 days) were evaluated using generalized linear models adjusting for age, percentage body fat and total energy intake. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE LPD

  4. Dietary factors and luteal phase deficiency in healthy eumenorrheic women.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Mary A; Schliep, Karen C; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Stanford, Joseph B; Zarek, Shvetha M; Radin, Rose G; Sjaarda, Lindsey A; Perkins, Neil J; Kalwerisky, Robyn A; Hammoud, Ahmad O; Mumford, Sunni L

    2015-08-01

    Are prospectively assessed dietary factors, including overall diet quality, macronutrients and micronutrients, associated with luteal phase deficiency (LPD) in healthy reproductive aged women with regular menstrual cycles? Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS), fiber and isoflavone intake were positively associated with LPD while selenium was negatively associated with LPD after adjusting for age, percentage body fat and total energy intake. LPD may increase the risk of infertility and early miscarriage. Prior research has shown positive associations between LPD and low energy availability, either through high dietary restraint alone or in conjunction with high energy expenditure via exercise, but few studies with adequate sample sizes have been conducted investigating dietary factors and LPD among healthy, eumenorrheic women. The BioCycle Study (2005-2007) prospectively enrolled 259 women from Western New York state, USA, and followed them for one (n = 9) or two (n = 250) menstrual cycles. Women aged 18-44 years, with self-reported BMI between 18 and 35 kg/m(2) and cycle lengths between 21 and 35 days, were included in the study. Participants completed baseline questionnaires, four 24-h dietary recalls per cycle and daily diaries capturing vigorous exercise, perceived stress and sleep; they also provided up to eight fasting serum samples during clinic visits timed to specific phases of the menstrual cycle using a fertility monitor. Cycles were included for this analysis if the peak serum luteal progesterone was >1 ng/ml and a urine or serum LH surge was detected. Associations between prospectively assessed diet quality, macronutrients and micronutrients and LPD (defined as luteal duration <10 days) were evaluated using generalized linear models adjusting for age, percentage body fat and total energy intake. LPD occurred in 41 (8.9%) of the 463 cycles from 246 women in the final analysis. After adjusting for age, percentage body fat and total energy intake, LPD was

  5. [Semiquantitative measurement of progesterone receptors in luteal-phase-defect endometrial cells during secretory phase].

    PubMed

    Ma, Q; Han, Z; Huang, W

    1998-03-01

    To investigate the changes of endometrial progesterone receptor (PR) of luteal-phase-defect (LPD) patients during the secretory phase, thirteen patients with complaints of infertility or habitual abortion were studied. During the early-mid secretory phase, endometrial tissue was obtained by dilatation and curettage (D & C) for histological and receptor study: meanwhile serum E2, P, FSH, LH and PRL were measured. Based on histologic diagnosis, the patients were divided into two groups: the LPD group (n = 7) and the normal control group(n = 6). PR content was determined by immunohisto-chemical (IHC) assay. The results showed that during the early-mid luteal phase a significantly low PR content on endometrial glandular nucleus was observed in LPD group, compared with normal control(6.75 +/- 2.57 vs 9.50 +/- 1.64 P < 0.05), but no difference in serum progesterone was noted between the two groups. These findings suggest that during early-mid secretory phase, PR content on endometrial glandular nucleus decreases in LPD cases, which results in deficient response of endometrium to proper stimulus of progesterone. This change may cause endometrial secretory deficiency and blockade of embreyo implantation. That is why infertility or habitual abortion happened.

  6. Transient hyperprolactinemia in infertile women with luteal phase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Huang, K E; Bonfiglio, T A; Muechler, E K

    1991-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the prevalence of transient hyperprolactinemia in infertile women with luteal phase deficiency. One hundred fifty-one luteal phase deficiency patients and 11 controls had serum prolactin (PRL) measured daily for 3-4 days near ovulation. Thirty-three subjects (21.9%) had transient hyperprolactinemia, with PRL above 20 ng/mL for 1 or 2 days, and were studied further. The blood samples of these 33 subjects and of the controls were also analyzed for LH and FSH. Plasma progesterone was measured on the fourth, seventh, and tenth days after ovulation in both groups. The mean (+/- SD) of the mid-cycle integrated LH surge (125.0 +/- 23.0 mIU/mL; N = 26) and the sum of three plasma progesterone levels (23.8 +/- 4.5 ng/mL; N = 21) in the luteal phase deficiency women were significantly (P less than .001) lower than those of the controls (LH 158.7 +/- 13.8 mIU/mL; progesterone 33.8 +/- 6.5 ng/mL). All 33 luteal phase deficiency subjects with transient hyperprolactinemia were treated with bromocriptine at a dose ranging from 1.25-5 mg/day to maintain mid-cycle PRL levels between 5-15 ng/mL. Both the integrated LH surge and the sum of three progesterone levels increased significantly (P less than .05) during bromocriptine treatment, to 142.6 +/- 22.4 mIU/mL (N = 20) and 28.2 +/- 6.2 ng/mL (N = 18), respectively. Fourteen of the 33 patients conceived. The cumulative probability of conception was 31% for six cycles and 45% for 12 cycles of treatment.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Endometrial development and function in experimentally induced luteal phase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Usadi, Rebecca S; Groll, Jeremy M; Lessey, Bruce A; Lininger, Ruth A; Zaino, Richard J; Fritz, Marc A; Young, Steven L

    2008-10-01

    It is generally assumed that delayed endometrial development observed in luteal phase deficiency (LPD) is the result of abnormally low progesterone (P) levels. This hypothesis has never been tested by direct experiment. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of P concentrations on human endometrium. A randomized trial was conducted at an academic medical center. Twenty-nine healthy, ovulatory 18- to 35-yr-old women participated. Endometrial samples were obtained from women in natural cycles and two groups of experimentally modeled cycles. Women undergoing modeled cycles were treated with GnRH agonist and a fixed physiological dose of transdermal estradiol, followed by randomization to 10 or 40 mg daily im P administration to achieve either normal circulating luteal P or 4-fold lower P concentrations, the latter representing an experimental model of LPD. Tissue specimens, obtained after 10 days of P exposure, were analyzed by histological dating, immunohistochemistry, immunoblot, and real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Histological dating of endometrium, immunohistochemistry for endometrial integrins, and qRT-PCR analysis for nine putative functional markers showed no differences between the three groups. Preliminary data from Western analysis suggest that some proteins may be affected by low serum P concentrations. Histological endometrial dating does not reflect circulating P concentrations and cannot serve as a reliable bioassay of the quality of luteal function. Assessment of selected functional markers by either immunohistochemistry or qRT-PCR is similarly insensitive to decreased circulating P. Preliminary evidence suggests that abnormally low luteal phase serum P concentrations may have important functional consequences not otherwise detected.

  8. The diagnosis of luteal phase deficiency: a critical review.

    PubMed

    McNeely, M J; Soules, M R

    1988-07-01

    Luteal phase deficiency is an ovulatory dysfunction problem that is subtle but real. It may be the most common ovulatory problem in women. Luteal phase deficiency has been clearly demonstrated in the research setting (1) in spontaneous cycles, (2) when follicular maturation has been impeded, and (3) when luteotrophic influences have been suppressed. The diagnosis of LPD in the clinical setting remains problematic and controversial primarily because there is no practical diagnostic method that has been validated. This article has reviewed the methods that have been used to diagnose LPD. BBT charts are insensitive; these charts reliably diagnose LPD only when there are persistent short luteal phases. There is disagreement whether ovarian follicular size, as determined by ultrasonography, is decreased in LPD; however, ultrasonographic diagnosis of LPD would require daily scans through ovulation, which makes this approach impractical. Mild hyperprolactinemia is a probable cause of LPD in a minority of patients; a physician should obtain a PRL level in LPD women with the realization that there is considerable sampling variability. Determination of serum gonadotropin levels (LH or FSH or both) is not practical for the clinical diagnosis of LPD. Random serum P levels, whether single or multiple, are not helpful in the diagnosis of LPD in individual patients. The secretory pattern of P results in such wide confidence limits that P samples from individuals cannot be compared to normal in a useful manner. Most of the controversy about the diagnosis of LPD has centered around the use of individual serum P levels. The timed endometrial biopsy relies on the endometrium as a bioassay of P over time. The endometrial biopsy has not been carefully validated in terms of its sensitivity or accuracy for the diagnosis of LPD. However, it remains the best current method for the diagnosis of LPD when the standard guidelines for its use are followed. As opposed to the other tests for LPD

  9. LH pulses and the corpus luteum: the luteal phase deficiency LPD).

    PubMed

    Wuttke, W; Pitzel, L; Seidlová-Wuttke, D; Hinney, B

    2001-01-01

    The proper function of the GnRH pulse generator in the hypothalamus is essential for normal ovarian function, hence also for proper function of the corpus luteum. During the luteal phase LH pulses stimulate progesterone release, which is essential for normal endometrial transformation. Approximately one-half of all luteal phase deficiencies (LPD) are due to improper function of the GnRH pulse generator. Obviously, following ovulation the increased serum progesterone levels oversuppress the GnRH pulse generator, resulting in too few LH pulses and therefore improper luteal function. Also, latent hyperprolactinemia may lead to an LPD which can be effectively treated with plant extracts containing dopaminergic (prolactin-suppressing) compounds. Our increasing knowledge of auto- and paracrine mechanisms between nonsteroidogenic and steroidogenic cells now allow subclassification of LPDs of ovarian origin. The so-called small luteal cells are LH-responsive. If they develop improperly the regularly occurring LH pulses are unable to stimulate progesterone secretion from the small luteal cells, which results in what we call the small luteal cell defect. In addition, there is also evidence that the large luteal cells may function improperly. Hence, basal progesterone release is too low while LH-stimulated progesterone release from the small luteal cells appears to be intact. This subclassification of luteal phase deficiency results in the suggestion of different treatments. In cases where the corpus luteum is LH-responsive, such as the hypothalamic corpus luteum insufficiency and the large luteal cell defect, HCG treatment or pulsatile treatment with GnRH is advisable. In the case of LH/hCG-unresponsive small luteal cell defect a progesterone substitution is suggested.

  10. Timing of the endometrial biopsy may be critical for the accurate diagnosis of luteal phase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Castelbaum, A J; Wheeler, J; Coutifaris, C B; Mastroianni, L; Lessey, B A

    1994-03-01

    To determine the optimal time to perform the endometrial biopsy for the detection of "out-of-phase" endometrium. Two endometrial biopsies were performed during a single menstrual cycle in each subject. The patient's chronological day was determined by counting forward from the midcycle LH surge, as assessed by urinary LH detection. The "early" biopsy was done on day LH + 7.4 +/- 0.8, and the "late" biopsy on day LH + 11.6 +/- 0.7. Each biopsy was independently read by two pathologists and was considered out of phase if the histologic date was > or = 3 days delayed compared with the chronological date. Infertility practice of an academic teaching hospital. Thirty-three ovulatory women seeking evaluation for infertility. Number of patients with out-of-phase endometrium detected by the early versus the late biopsy. There was a significantly greater detection rate for out-of-phase endometrium using the early biopsy (12.1% to 18.2% incidence depending on the observer) compared with the later biopsy (6.1% to 9.1% incidence). A majority of the early out-of-phase biopsies corrected by the time of the later biopsy. Our findings indicate that an endometrial biopsy performed in the midluteal phase may detect a greater number of women with delayed endometrial maturation during the temporal window of embryo implantation. The observation that most of the women with out-of-phase midluteal biopsies had normal late luteal endometrium may represent a cryptic form of luteal phase deficiency.

  11. Effects of metformin treatment on luteal phase progesterone concentration in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Meenakumari, K J; Agarwal, S; Krishna, A; Pandey, L K

    2004-11-01

    The causes of luteal phase progesterone deficiency in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are not known. To determine the possible involvement of hyperinsulinemia in luteal phase progesterone deficiency in women with PCOS, we examined the relationship between progesterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and insulin during the luteal phase and studied the effect of metformin on luteal progesterone levels in PCOS. Patients with PCOS (19 women aged 18-35 years) were treated with metformin (500 mg three times daily) for 4 weeks prior to the test cycle and throughout the study period, and submitted to ovulation induction with clomiphene citrate. Blood samples were collected from control (N = 5, same age range as PCOS women) and PCOS women during the late follicular (one sample) and luteal (3 samples) phases and LH, insulin and progesterone concentrations were determined. Results were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Duncan's test and Karl Pearson's coefficient of correlation (r). The endocrine study showed low progesterone level (4.9 ng/ml) during luteal phase in the PCOS women as compared with control (21.6 ng/ml). A significant negative correlation was observed between insulin and progesterone (r = -0.60; P < 0.01) and between progesterone and LH (r = -0.56; P < 0.05) concentrations, and a positive correlation (r = 0.83; P < 0.001) was observed between LH and insulin. The study further demonstrated a significant enhancement in luteal progesterone concentration (16.97 ng/ml) in PCOS women treated with metformin. The results suggest that hyperinsulinemia/insulin resistance may be responsible for low progesterone levels during the luteal phase in PCOS. The luteal progesterone level may be enhanced in PCOS by decreasing insulin secretion with metformin.

  12. Effects of cholesterol on progesterone production by goat luteal cell subpopulations at two different stages of the luteal phase.

    PubMed

    Arikan, Ş; Kalender, H; Simsek, O

    2010-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of cholesterol on progesterone production during long-term culturing of luteal cell subpopulations at early and late luteal stages of the goat corpora lutea. Corpora lutea were collected from Angora goats on days 5 and 15 of the oestrous cycle. Luteal cells were isolated by collagenase digestion. The cells were separated into two distinct subpopulations by Percoll density-gradient centrifugation. Both subpopulations of luteal cells staining positively for 3β-HSD activities (5 × 10(4)  cell/well) were cultured with or without 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol (22R-HC) in serum-free culture medium for periods of up to 7 days. Cells were incubated with serum (10%) for the first 18 h of incubation followed by serum-free medium. Cell treatment (10 and 20 μg/ml) was performed on days 1, 3 and 5. Treatment of cells with both concentrations of 22R-HC resulted in significant (p < 0.01) and dose-dependent stimulation (p > 0.05) on progesterone production in both fractions of cells throughout 7 days of incubation. Treatment of the cells with cholesterol resulted in 2.5- and 9.0-fold increases in progesterone accumulation on day 3 of incubation. Steroid production was maintained throughout the incubations when cells are incubated in serum-free media treated with cholesterol and ITS premix. Cells collected from higher density of percoll layers produced 2.82 and 2.32 times more progesterone, in comparison to the lover density percoll layer, on days 5 and 15 of the oestrous cycle in untreated cell groups, respectively. Progesterone accumulation was decreased as incubation time advanced in all groups of untreated cells. These results demonstrated that goat luteal cell subpopulations secrete substantial amounts of progesterone in response to cholesterol treatment at least for 7 days, and cholesterol is required as progesterone precursor for maintaining a high-level steroidogenesis during long-life culturing

  13. Luteal phase clomiphene citrate for ovulation induction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ding, Nan; Chang, Jianbo; Jian, Qiliang; Liang, Xuefei; Liang, Zhongzhen; Wang, Fang

    2016-11-01

    To assess the efficacy of late luteal phase clomiphene citrate (CC) administration relative to early follicular phase CC for ovulation induction for polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Review. A complete electronic databases including PubMed, Embase, The Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and CBM were searched for relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The search was not restricted by language and publication time. Two reviewers selected trials and assessed trial quality by the Cochrane Handbook 5.1.0 independently. Four eligible RCT studies involving 708 women (934 cycles) were included. The results of the Meta-analysis: Late luteal phase group was associated with a number of higher total follicles (MD 1.82; 95% CI 0.86-2.78, p < 0.00001) and significant higher endometrial thickness on the day of HCG (MD 0.88; 95% CI 0.78-0.99, p < 0.00001) compared with early follicular group. There were no significant differences in the rate of pregnancy (RR 1.29; 95% CI 0.83-2.01, p = 0.26), ovulation rate (RR 0.99; 95% CI 0.86-1.14, p = 0.87), and abortion rate (RR 1.12; 95% CI 0.38 to 3.29, p = 0.84) between the two groups. It appeared that late luteal phase CC for ovulation induction might be an effective method for ovulation induction in women with PCOS compared to conventional CC administration. Further intensive randomized-controlled studies should be warranted to define the efficacy of CC used in late luteal phase.

  14. Should luteal phase support be introduced in ovarian stimulation/IUI programmes? An evidence-based review.

    PubMed

    Cohlen, B J

    2009-01-01

    World-wide, intrauterine insemination (IUI) is still one of the most applied techniques to enhance the probability of conception in couples with longstanding subfertility. The outcome of this treatment option depends on many confounding factors. One of the confounding factors receiving little attention is the quality of the luteal phase. From IVF studies, it is known that ovarian stimulation causes luteal phase deficiency. Based on the best available evidence, this short review summarizes the indications for mild ovarian stimulation combined with IUI and the optimal stimulation programme. While it has been established that stimulated IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles have deficient luteal phases, the question remains whether the quality of the luteal phase when only two or three corpora lutea are present (as is the case in stimulated IUI cycles) is impaired as well. There are too few large non-IVF trials studying luteal phase quality to answer this question. Recently a randomized trial has been published that investigated luteal phase support in an IUI programme. This study is discussed in detail. It is recommended to apply luteal phase support in stimulated IUI cycles only when proven costeffective. Further trials are mandatory to investigate both endometrial and hormonal profile changes in the luteal phase after mild ovarian stimulation, and the cost-effectiveness of luteal support in IUI programmes.

  15. Luteal phase deficiency and infertility: difficulties encountered in diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Annos, T; Thompson, I E; Taymor, M L

    1980-06-01

    Uncertainty concerning the importance of luteal phase defects as a cause of female infertility is closely related to problems of diagnosis. A study was undertaken of the consistency of the parameters used in daignosing luteal phase deficiency in 14 patients; results of randomized treatment regimens were also compared. Specific diagnostic criteria utilizing the basal body temperature (BBT) chart, endometrial biopsy, and progesterone levels were used. Prolactin and luteinizing hormone levels were measured at the time of progesterone determinations. Of the 29 cycles studied, only one third showed consistent abnormalities in BBT chart, endometrial biopsy, and progesterone levels. Discrepancy between the endometrial biopsy and the progesterone level occurred in at least 50% of all cycles studied. Prolactin levels were elevated in only 1 patient, suggesting a minor role for altered prolactin metabolism in luteal phase deficiency. Randomized treatment with progesterone vaginal suppositories, clomiphene citrate, and no treatment resulted in pregnancy in 5 of 14 patients (36%).

  16. Effect of luteal-phase support on endometrial microRNA expression following controlled ovarian stimulation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies suggested that microRNAs influence cellular activities in the uterus including cell differentiation and embryo implantation. In assisted reproduction cycles, luteal phase support, given to improve endometrial characteristics and to facilitate the implantation process, has been a standard practice. The effect of different types of luteal phase support using steroid hormones in relation to endometrial miRNA profiles during the peri-implantation period has not seen described. This study was designed to evaluate the expression of miRNAs during the luteal phase following controlled ovarian stimulation for IVF and the influence of different luteal phase support protocols on miRNA profiles. Methods The study was approved by the Johns Hopkins Hospital Institutional Review Board. Endometrial biopsies were obtained on the day of oocyte retrieval from 9 oocyte donors (group I). An additional endometrial biopsy was obtained 3–5 days later (Group II) after the donors were randomized into three groups. Group IIa had no luteal-phase support, group IIb had luteal support with micronized progesterone (P), and Group IIc had luteal support with progesterone plus 17-beta-estradiol (P + E). Total RNA was isolated and microarray analysis was performed using an Illumina miRNA expression panel. Results A total of 526 miRNAs were identified. Out of those, 216 miRNAs were differentially regulated (p < 0.05) between the comparison groups. As compared to the day of retrieval, 19, 11 and 6 miRNAs were differentially regulated more than 2 fold in the groups of no support, in the P support only, and in the P + E support respectively, 3–5 days after retrieval. During the peri-implantation period (3–5 days after retrieval) the expression of 33 and 6 miRNAs increased, while the expression of 3 and 0 miRNAs decreased, in the P alone and in the P + E group respectively as compared to the no steroid supplementation group. Conclusion Luteal support

  17. Defense cells profile of cervical mucous during follicular and luteal phases of estrus cycle in river buffalo

    PubMed Central

    Ayen, Esmail; Hasanzadeh, Shapour; Tabatabaei, Saleh

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the defense cells changes of cervical mucous during follicular and luteal phases of estrus cycle in river buffalo. Reproductive organs of the adult and apparently healthy female buffaloes were collected from the slaughterhouse. By visual investigation of both the ovaries for presence of corpus luteum and growing follicles, the luteal and follicular phase of each buffalo was specified. Cervical discharge samples were collected by sterile swabs and then spread over the glass slides, dried and fixed with methanol. The specimens were undergone Giemsa staining. The percentage of lymphocytes, neutrophils, monocytes (macrophages), eosinophils and basophils in each case (for both the follicular and luteal phases) were obtained at 20 microscopic fields. The percentage of lymphocytes, neutrophils and basophils in luteal phase were higher than the follicular phase. The percentage of eosinophils in follicular phase was higher than the luteal phase. The percentage of monocytes (macrophages) in luteal and follicular phases was nearly equal. The statistical analysis showed that the differences of all cells between follicular and luteal phase were not significant (P > 0.05). The most defense cells in discharges of external os of cervix (both follicular and luteal phases) were neutrophils and lymphocytes. PMID:25653745

  18. Live birth rates and safety profile using dydrogesterone for luteal phase support in assisted reproductive techniques

    PubMed Central

    Nadarajah, Ravichandran; Rajesh, Hemashree; Wong, Ker Yi; Faisal, Fazlin; Yu, Su Ling

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Assisted reproductive techniques (ARTs) result in a deficient luteal phase, requiring the administration of intramuscular, intravaginal or oral exogenous progesterone. Dydrogesterone, an oral retroprogesterone with good bioavailability, has been used in assisted reproductive cycles with outcomes that are comparable to those of vaginal or intramuscular progesterone. However, there are limited reviews on its use for luteal phase support in ARTs, in terms of pregnancy outcomes and associated fetal anomalies. This study aimed to review the live birth rates and associated fetal anomalies of women who were given dydrogesterone for luteal phase support in assisted reproductive cycles at a tertiary hospital in Singapore. METHODS This retrospective descriptive study included 1,050 women who underwent in vitro fertilisation/intracytoplasmic sperm injection at the Centre for Assisted Reproduction of Singapore General Hospital between 2000 and 2011. The women were given dydrogesterone for luteal phase support. The main outcome measures were rates of pregnancy, live birth, miscarriage and fetal anomalies. RESULTS The pregnancy and live birth rates were 34.7% and 27.7%, respectively. Among those who achieved pregnancy, 17.0% miscarried, 0.8% had ectopic pregnancies and 0.3% had molar pregnancies. Fetal anomalies were detected in 1.9% of pregnancies, all of which were terminated by choice. CONCLUSION Since the outcomes of dydrogesterone are comparable to those of intramuscular and vaginal progesterone, it is a reasonable option to provide luteal phase support for women who are uncomfortable with injections or vaginal insertions. Randomised controlled studies are needed to determine the optimal dosage of dydrogesterone for luteal phase support in ARTs. PMID:27090598

  19. Daily low-dose hCG stimulation during the luteal phase combined with GnRHa triggered IVF cycles without exogenous progesterone: a proof of concept trial.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Claus Yding; Elbaek, Helle Olesen; Alsbjerg, Birgit; Laursen, Rita Jakubcionyte; Povlsen, Betina Boel; Thomsen, Lise; Humaidan, Peter

    2015-10-01

    Can the luteal phase support be improved in terms of efficacy, hormonal profiles and convenience as compared with today's standard care? Daily low-dose rhCG supplementation in GnRHa triggered IVF cycles can replace the traditional used luteal phase support with exogenous progesterone. A bolus of hCG for final maturation of follicles in connection with COS may induce the risk of OHSS and the luteal phase progesterone levels rise very abruptly in the early luteal phase. This is a proof-of-concept study conducted as a three arm RCT with a total of 93 patients. First patient enrolled in January 2012 and the study finished in January 2014. Normal responder women undergoing IVF/ICSI treatment in a university hospital. One arm served as control, where women followed a standard antagonist protocol. Two study arms were included both having 125 IU hCG daily for luteal phase support without exogenous progesterone after using a GnRHa trigger for ovulation induction. In both study arms exogenous FSH was stopped on stimulation day 6 and replaced by exogenous hCG that was initiated on either stimulation day 2 or day 6. Blood samples were obtained on the day of ovulation induction, on the day of oocyte pickup (OPU) and day OPU + 7. The mean serum levels of hCG did not exceeded the normal physiological range of LH activity in any samples. Mid-luteal progesterone levels were significantly higher in the two study groups receiving daily low-dose hCG for luteal phase support as compared with the control group (control group: 177 ± 27 nmol/l; study group 1: 334 ± 42 nmol/l; study group 2: 277 ± 27 nmol/l; (mean ± SEM). No differences in reproductive outcome were seen between groups. The number of patients included is limited and conclusions need to be verified in a larger RCT. Endogenous production of progesterone may become more attractive as the luteal phase support with levels of LH-like activity only in the physiological range and may, from the patients' point of view, replace

  20. Progesterone production is affected by unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling during the luteal phase in mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyo-Jin; Park, Sun-Ji; Koo, Deog-Bon; Lee, Sang-Rae; Kong, Il-Keun; Ryoo, Jae-Woong; Park, Young-Il; Chang, Kyu-Tae; Lee, Dong-Seok

    2014-09-15

    We examined whether the three unfolded protein response (UPR) signaling pathways, which are activated in response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-stress, are involved in progesterone production in the luteal cells of the corpus luteum (CL) during the mouse estrous cycle. The luteal phase of C57BL/6 female mice (8 weeks old) was divided into two stages: the functional stage (16, 24, and 48 h) and the regression stage (72 and 96 h). Western blotting and reverse transcription (RT)-PCR were performed to analyze UPR protein/gene expression levels in each stage. We investigated whether ER stress affects the progesterone production by using Tm (0.5 μg/g BW) or TUDCA (0.5 μg/g BW) through intra-peritoneal injection. Our results indicate that expressions of Grp78/Bip, p-eIF2α/ATF4, p50ATF6, and p-IRE1/sXBP1 induced by UPR activation were predominantly maintained in functional and early regression stages of the CL. Furthermore, the expression of p-JNK, CHOP, and cleaved caspase3 as ER-stress mediated apoptotic factors increased during the regression stage. Cleaved caspase3 levels increased in the late-regression stage after p-JNK and CHOP expression in the early-regression stage. Additionally, although progesterone secretion and levels of steroidogenic enzymes decreased following intra-peritoneal injection of Tunicamycin, an ER stress inducer, the expression of Grp78/Bip, p50ATF6, and CHOP dramatically increased. These results suggest that the UPR signaling pathways activated in response to ER stress may play important roles in the regulation of the CL function. Furthermore, our findings enhance the understanding of the basic mechanisms affecting the CL life span. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Endocrine differences between patients with luteal phase deficiency and inadequate endometrial response].

    PubMed

    Xu, M; Zhang, Z; Jiang, S

    1997-03-01

    To study the difference of endocrine characteristics between patients with luteal phase deficiency (LPD) and inadequate endometrial response (IER). Serum estradiol (E2), progesterone (P), follicle-stimulating hormone, luteinizing hormone and prolactin levels were determined by radioimmunoassay in cycles of LPD, IER and normal controls. Contents of endometrial cytoplasmic estradiol receptors (ERc), nuclear estradiol receptors (ERn), cytoplasmic progesterone receptors (PRc) and nuclear progesterone receptors (PRn) were determined by dextran coated charcoal assay in the same cycle. Serum E2 and P levels in the luteal phase of patients with LPD were significantly lower than those of normal group (P < 0.001), no significant difference of endometrial estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor contents was found between the two groups (P > 0.1). Serum E2 levels in both follicular and luteal phase of IER patients were significantly lower than those of normal groups (P < 0.001), but serum P levels in luteal phase of the two groups showed no difference (P > 0.1). The contents of ERc and PRn in proliferative phase and PRc contents throughout the menstrual cycle were also lower than those of the normal group (P < 0.001, < 0.001 and < 0.05 respectively). These results indicate that LPD and IER are two distinct entities in terms of endocrine characteristics. To distinguish underdeveloped endometrium caused by either LPD or IER is the key to choose appropriate treatment.

  2. Midluteal immunoreactive alpha-inhibin serum concentrations as markers of luteal phase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Balasch, J; Creus, M; Fábregues, F; Casamitjana, R; Ordi, J; Vanrell, J A

    1996-12-01

    The present prospective clinical study was undertaken to determine the usefulness of midluteal phase serum immunoreactive alpha-inhibin concentrations as markers of luteal phase deficiency and whether they are better indicators of biopsy confirmed luteal phase defect than serum progesterone. Consecutive patients (n = 138) with regular menstrual cycles attending our Infertility Clinic (experimental group) and 15 fertile women who were requesting contraception and had regular menstrual patterns (control group) were included. In all women (patients and controls), basal body temperature, midluteal serum concentrations of oestradiol, prolactin, progesterone and immunoreactive alpha-inhibin, and premenstrual endometrial biopsy were used in the same cycle to assess luteal function. Out-of-phase secretory endometria were detected in 15 of the 138 patients. Thus, hormonal concentrations were compared between the following three groups of women: group 1 (n = 15), infertile patients with defective secretory endometria; group 2 (n = 123), infertile patients with normal secretory endometria; and controls (n = 15), fertile women with normal secretory endometria. Midluteal serum concentrations of progesterone, immunoreactive alpha-inhibin, oestradiol, and prolactin of the two groups studied were similar to those of the control group of fertile women. Our results indicate that midluteal serum inhibin determination does not accurately reflect histological maturation of the endometrium and it is not a better indicator of endometrial luteal phase deficiency than midluteal serum progesterone concentration.

  3. Treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder with luteal phase dosing of sertraline.

    PubMed

    Halbreich, Uriel; Kahn, Linda S

    2003-11-01

    Sertraline (Zoloft, Pfizer Inc.) is a selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor (SSRI) which has been approved by the US FDA for the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). PMDD is a severe form of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) which affects at least 5 - 8% of women of reproductive age. It is characterised by cyclic appearance at the late luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, and disappearance following the beginning of menses, with no symptoms during at least 1 week of the cycle - usually during the mid-follicular phase. Due to the cyclic luteal occurrence of PMDD, luteal phase dosing of SSRIs has been suggested and proven effective for sertraline as well as several other SSRIs. The clinical response of sertraline is reported to be within several days following initiation of treatment. Despite repeated cyclic discontinuation, no significant discontinuation adverse effects have been reported. In addition to its proven clinical efficacy, luteal-phase dosing may offer the advantages of minimising adverse effects of SSRIs while reducing the personal and economic burden of taking a prescription medication continuously for long periods and thus increasing compliance.

  4. Luteal phase administration of agents for the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Ellen W

    2004-01-01

    This review focuses on current information about luteal phase administration (i.e. typically for the last 2 weeks of the menstrual cycle) of pharmacological agents for the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD). Compared with continuous administration, a luteal phase administration regimen reduces the exposure to medication and lowers the costs of treatment. Based on evidence from randomised clinical trials, SSRIs are the first-line treatment for PMDD at this time. Of these agents, sertraline, fluoxetine and paroxetine (as an extended-release formulation) are approved by the US FDA for luteal phase, as well as continuous, administration. Clinical trials of these agents and citalopram have demonstrated that symptom reduction is similar with both administration regimens. When used to treat PMDD, SSRI doses are consistent with those used for major depressive disorder. The medications are well tolerated; discontinuation symptoms with this intermittent administration regimen have not been reported. Other medications that have been examined in clinical trials for PMDD or severe premenstrual syndrome (PMS) using luteal phase administration include buspirone, alprazolam, tryptophan and progesterone. Buspirone and alprazolam show only modest efficacy in PMS (in some but not all studies), but there may be a lower incidence of sexual adverse effects with these medications than with SSRIs. Symptom reduction with tryptophan was significantly greater than with placebo, but the availability of this medication is strictly limited because of safety concerns. Progesterone has consistently failed to show efficacy for severe PMS/PMDD in large, randomised, placebo-controlled trials.

  5. Luteal Phase Support in the Intrauterine Insemination (IUI) Cycles: A Randomized Double Blind, Placebo Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Hossein Rashidi, Batool; Davari Tanha, Fatemeh; Rahmanpour, Haleh; Ghazizadeh, Mahya

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the impact of luteal phase support with vaginal progesterone on pregnancy rates in the intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles, stimulated with clomiphene citrate and human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG), in sub fertile couples. Materials and methods: This prospective, randomized, double blind study was performed in a tertiary infertility center from March 2011 to January 2012. It consisted of 253 sub fertile couples undergoing ovarian stimulation for IUI cycles. They underwent ovarian stimulation with clomiphene citrate (100 mg) and hMG (75 IU) in preparation for the IUI cycle. Study group (n = 127) received luteal phase support in the form of vaginal progesterone (400 mg twice a day), and control group (n = 126) received placebo. Clinical pregnancy and abortion rates were assessed and compared between the two groups. Results: The clinical pregnancy rate was not significantly higher for supported cycles than that for the unsupported ones (15.75% vs. 12.69%, p = 0.3). The abortion rate in the patients with progesterone luteal support compared to placebo group was not statistically different (10% vs. 18.75%, p = 0.45). Conclusion: It seems that luteal phase support with vaginal progesterone was not enhanced the success of IUI cycles outcomes, when clomiphene citrate and hMG were used for ovulation stimulation. PMID:25530766

  6. Functional expression of transient receptor potential channels in human endometrial stromal cells during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    De Clercq, Katrien; Held, Katharina; Van Bree, Rieta; Meuleman, Christel; Peeraer, Karen; Tomassetti, Carla; Voets, Thomas; D'Hooghe, Thomas; Vriens, Joris

    2015-06-01

    Are members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel superfamily functionally expressed in the human endometrial stroma? The Ca(2+)-permeable ion channels TRPV2, TRPV4, TRPC6 and TRPM7 are functionally expressed in primary endometrial stromal cells. Intercellular communication between epithelial and stromal endometrial cells is required to initiate decidualization, a prerequisite for successful implantation. TRP channels are possible candidates as signal transducers involved in cell-cell communication, but no fingerprint is available of the functional distribution of TRP channels in the human endometrium during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Endometrial biopsy samples (previously frozen) from patients of reproductive age with regular menstrual cycles, who were undergoing diagnostic laparoscopic surgery for pain and/or infertility, were analysed. Samples were obtained from the menstrual (Days 1-5, n = 3), follicular (Days 6-14, n = 6), early luteal (Days 15-20, n = 5) and late luteal (Days 21-28, n = 5) phases. In addition, a total of 13 patient samples taken during the luteal phase were used to set up primary cell cultures for further experiments. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), immunocytochemistry, Fura2-based Ca(2+)-microfluorimetry and whole-cell patch clamp experiments were performed to study the functional expression pattern of TRP channels. Specific pharmacological agents, such as Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol, GSK1016790A and 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-glycerol, were used to functionally assess the expression of TRPV2, TRPV4 and TRPC6, respectively. Expression of TRPV2, TRPV4, TRPC1, TRPC4, TRPC6, TRPM4 and TRPM7 was detected at the mRNA level in endometrial biopsies (n = 19) and in primary endometrial stromal cell cultures obtained from patients during the luteal phase (n = 5) of the menstrual cycle. Messenger RNA levels of TRPV2, TRPC4 and TRPC6 were significantly increased (P < 0.01) in the late luteal phase compared with the early luteal

  7. The steroidogenic response and corpus luteum expression of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein after human chorionic gonadotropin administration at different times in the human luteal phase.

    PubMed

    Kohen, Paulina; Castro, Olga; Palomino, Alberto; Muñoz, Alex; Christenson, Lane K; Sierralta, Walter; Carvallo, Pilar; Strauss, Jerome F; Devoto, Luigi

    2003-07-01

    This study was designed 1) to assess corpus luteum (CL) steroidogenesis in response to exogenous human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) at different times during the luteal phase, 2) to examine the effect of hCG on steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) expression within the CL, 3) to correlate StAR expression and luteal steroidogenic responses to hCG, and 4) to determine whether endogenous LH regulates ovarian steroidogenesis in the early luteal phase. Blood was collected before and after hCG treatment for steroid and hCGbeta determinations. CL were obtained at the time of surgery to assess StAR gene and protein expression. During the early luteal phase various women received the GnRH antagonist for 24-48 h; some of them also received hCG 24 h after the GnRH antagonist. A slight steroidogenic response to hCG was observed in early luteal phase; 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, but not progesterone (P4), levels were significantly increased 8 h post-hCG, indicating a differential response by the granulosa and theca-lutein cells. The 1.6- and 4.4-kb StAR transcripts and the 37-kDa preprotein and 30-kDa mature StAR protein did not change post-hCG administration in early luteal phase CL. In contrast, the StAR 4.4- and 1.6-kb transcripts diminished significantly (P < 0.05) after the antagonist treatment. Immunohistochemical staining for StAR protein was weak, particularly in granulosa-lutein cells. Treatment with hCG restored StAR mRNA and protein and plasma P4 levels within 24 h in antagonist-treated women. hCG stimulated the highest plasma concentrations of P4 and estradiol in the midluteal phase, indicating its greatest steroidogenic capacity. Midluteal tissue StAR gene and protein expression increased by 1.6- and 1.4-fold after 24 h of hCG treatment, respectively. Administration of hCG resulted in the greatest increment in plasma P4 (4-fold) and 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (3-fold) levels over baseline in the late luteal phase. This was associated with an increase in

  8. [The effect of various methods of luteal phase supplementation on serum progesterone level].

    PubMed

    Jakiel, G; Bokiniec, M; Bakalczuk, S; Jakubczak, A; Mroczkowski, A

    1998-12-01

    Examined was the effect of luteal phase supplementation on serum progesterone level with the use of two methods: oral administration of 10 mg dydrogesterone twice daily since the detection of corpus luteum till the menstruation and intramuscular HCG administration in the dose 1500 IU every 4 days and 10 mg dydrogesterone twice daily in the same period. A randomized study, controlled by placebo. 56 infertile women, with luteal phase deficiency assessed on the basis of basal body temperature (decrease shortly after the peak the luteal phase shorter than 11 days) and ovulation determined sonographically. Progesterone was evaluated by an EIA method, on the 3rd, 7th and 11th day since the corpus luteum occurred. The peak of progesterone concentration was assessed in the midluteal phase (7th day) in both supplemented groups, significantly higher than in the placebo group, also in group with dydrogesterone and HCG it was higher than in group with dydrogesterone alone. Progesterone concentration decrease on the 11th day after the ovulation to the values comparable with the placebo group. It has been found that both methods increase serum progesterone level in the time of an assumed implantation but they do not affect the premenstrual period if conception is not achieved.

  9. Luteal phase support for in vitro fertilization-embryo transfer--present and future methods to improve successful implantation.

    PubMed

    Check, J H

    2012-01-01

    To present reasons for luteal phase deficiency when taking controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH) for purposes of inducing multiple oocytes for in vitro fertilization (IVF), and to suggest strategies to overcome the defect. Treatment options presented include luteal phase support with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) injection, progesterone, estradiol, gonadotropin releasing hormone agonists, cytokines, e.g., granulocyte colony stimulating factor, and lymphocyte immunotherapy. hCG and progesterone produce the best results and are comparable or at best a slight edge to hCG but the latter is associated with too high a risk for ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Vaginal progesterone is the most efficacious with the least side-effects. Better methods are needed to adequately assess full correction of the luteal phase defect. In some cases the luteal phase defect associated with COH is not correctable and FSH stimulation should be reduced or all embryos frozen and defer transfer to an artificial estrogen progesterone or natural cycle.

  10. Comparison between two forms of vaginally administered progesterone for luteal phase support in assisted reproduction cycles.

    PubMed

    Geber, Selmo; Moreira, Ana Carolina Ferreira; de Paula, Sálua Oliveira Calil; Sampaio, Marcos

    2007-02-01

    The use of progesterone for luteal phase support has been demonstrated to be beneficial in assisted reproduction cycles using gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogues (GnRHa). Two micronized progesterone preparations are available for vaginal administration: capsules and gel. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of these two forms for luteal phase support in assisted reproduction cycles. A total of 244 couples undergoing IVF/intracytoplasmic sperm injection cycles were included in the study and were randomly allocated (sealed envelopes) into two groups: group 1 (122) received vaginal capsules of 200 mg of micronized progesterone (Utrogestan), 3 times daily, and group 2 (122) received micronized progesterone in gel (Crinone 8%), once daily. Both groups received progesterone for 13 days beginning day 1 after oocyte retrieval, continuing until the pregnancy test was performed and until 12 weeks of pregnancy. Groups were compared by clinical data and assisted reproduction results and had similar ages and causes of infertility. Although the pregnancy rate was higher for those receiving progesterone gel than capsules (44.26 and 36.06% respectively), this difference was not statistically significant. The study showed that vaginal progesterone gel and capsules used for luteal phase support in assisted reproduction cycles with long protocol GnRHa result in similar pregnancy rates.

  11. A specific profile of luteal phase progesterone is associated with the development of premenstrual symptoms.

    PubMed

    Lovick, Thelma A; Guapo, Vinicius G; Anselmo-Franci, Janete A; Loureiro, Camila M; Faleiros, Maria Clara M; Del Ben, Cristina M; Brandão, Marcus L

    2017-01-01

    There is a consensus that the development of premenstrual dysphoric states is related to cyclical change in gonadal hormone secretion during the menstrual cycle. However, results from studies seeking to link symptom severity to luteal phase progesterone concentration have been equivocal. In the present study we evaluated not only the absolute concentrations of progesterone but also the kinetics of the change in progesterone concentration in relation to development of premenstrual symptoms during the last 10days of the luteal phase in a population of 46 healthy young adult Brazilian women aged 18-39 years, mean 26.5±6.7years. In participants who developed symptoms of premenstrual distress, daily saliva progesterone concentration remained stable during most of the mid-late luteal phase, before declining sharply during the last 3days prior to onset of menstruation. In contrast, progesterone concentration in asymptomatic women underwent a gradual decline over the last 8days prior to menstruation. Neither maximum nor minimum concentrations of progesterone in the two groups were related to the appearance or severity of premenstrual symptoms. We propose that individual differences in the kinetics of progesterone secretion and/or metabolism may confer differential susceptibility to the development of premenstrual syndrome. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Can we alter pregnancy outcome by adjusting progesterone treatment at mid-luteal phase: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Aslih, Nardin; Ellenbogen, Adrian; Shavit, Tal; Michaeli, Medeia; Yakobi, Devora; Shalom-Paz, Einat

    2017-08-01

    Our study aimed to determine whether mid-luteal serum P concentrations can serve as a predictive factor for in vitro fertilization (IVF) outcomes and whether increasing P dosage for patients with low levels at mid-luteal phase may improve pregnancy rates. It was a prospective, randomized controlled study. A total of 146 patients undergoing IVF treatment were prospectively enrolled and received routine luteal phase support (LPS) regimen of Endometrin® (progesterone) 200 mg/day. Serum P levels were measured 7 days after embryo transfer (ET). Considering a cutoff level of 15 ng/ml on this day, patients with higher levels continued the same dosage until pregnancy test (control group). Patients with lower levels were randomly allocated to continue Endometrin® 200 mg/day (Group A) or to increase Endometrin® dosage to 300 mg/day (Group B). The Main Outcome Measures were pregnancy rates. Both biochemical and clinical pregnancy and live birth rates were comparable between all groups regardless of P level on day 7 of luteal phase and regardless of dose adjustment. ROC analysis determined that mid-luteal P levels of 17 ng/ml can be a better predictor of cycle outcome. In conclusion raising the P dose at mid-luteal phase to 300 mg daily did not improve cycle outcomes.

  13. Luteal phase HCG support for unexplained recurrent pregnancy loss - a low hanging fruit?

    PubMed

    Fox, Chelsea; Azores-Gococo, Denise; Swart, Linda; Holoch, Kristin; Savaris, Ricardo F; Likes, Creighton E; Miller, Paul B; Forstein, David A; Lessey, Bruce A

    2017-03-01

    Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) is defined by two or more failed pregnancies and accounts for only 1-5% of pregnancy failures. Treatment options for unexplained RPL (uRPL) are limited. Previous studies suggest a link between delayed implantation and pregnancy loss. Based on this, a timely signal for rescue of the corpus luteum (CL) using human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) could improve outcomes in women with uRPL. This retrospective cohort study included 98 subjects with uRPL: 45 underwent 135 monitored cycles without HCG support; and 53 underwent 142 cycles with a single mid-luteal HCG injection. Based on Log-rank Mantel-Cox survival curves, miscarriage rate and time to pregnancy decreased in the HCG group (P = 0.0005). Women receiving luteal HCG support had an increased chance of an ongoing pregnancy compared with those not receiving it (RR = 2.4; 95% CI 1.4-3.6; number need to treat (NNT) = 7; 95% CI 4-18). Subjects receiving HCG support had a significant absolute risk reduction (ARR) of miscarriage (P < 0.001; ARR = 11.5%; 95% CI 3.6-19.5; NNT = 9(5-27). These data suggest restoration of synchrony and CL support improves outcomes in women with RPL. Further randomized controlled trials of luteal-phase HCG in women with RPL appears warranted. Copyright © 2016 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Lipoprotein-cholesterol levels in infertile women with luteal phase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Hansen, K K; Knopp, R H; Soules, M R

    1991-05-01

    To determine if reductions in plasma progesterone (P) secretion seen in luteal phase deficiency (LPD) might be because of reduced availability of circulating low-density lipoprotein (LDL) or high-density lipoprotein (HDL), known substrates for corpus luteum P synthesis. We measured plasma lipoproteins in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle in 39 infertile women. These women were divided into two groups on the basis of endometrial biopsies; the LPD group had biopsies that were greater than or equal to 3 days out-of-phase. All participants were recruited from the Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility Clinic at the University of Washington, an institutional tertiary care center. Eighteen women had in-phase and 21 had out-of-phase LPD biopsies. Lipoprotein levels were obtained in a fasted state on the day of the luteal phase on which the biopsy was performed. No difference in covariates that affect lipoprotein levels such as obesity, age, and alcohol use were observed between the two groups. No significant differences between groups were found for triglycerides, total cholesterol, very low density lipoprotein, LDL, HDL, HDL2, and HDL3 concentrations. However, LPD was associated with a reduction in the extent to which: age and obesity are associated with higher triglycerides; obesity is associated with a lower HDL2; and alcohol is associated with a higher HDL3-cholesterol. Lipoproteins on average are not different in LPD, suggesting reasons other than a deficient plasma lipoprotein cholesterol source as the explanation for decreased P secretion. A lesser interaction between LDL or HDL and obesity, age, and alcohol in LPD could signify an influence of the altered hormonal milieu of LPD on the way lipoproteins interact with covariates and could lead to differences in lipoproteins between normal and LPD subjects at the extremes of the lipoprotein distribution.

  15. High frequency of luteal phase deficiency and anovulation in recreational women runners: blunted elevation in follicle-stimulating hormone observed during luteal-follicular transition.

    PubMed

    De Souza, M J; Miller, B E; Loucks, A B; Luciano, A A; Pescatello, L S; Campbell, C G; Lasley, B L

    1998-12-01

    The purposes of this investigation were to evaluate the characteristics of three consecutive menstrual cycles and to determine the frequency ofluteal phase deficiency (LPD) and anovulation in a sample of sedentary and moderately exercising, regularly menstruating women. For three consecutive menstrual cycles, subjects collected daily urine samples for analysis of FSH, estrone conjugates (E1C), pregnanediol-3-glucuronide (PdG), and creatinine (Cr). Sedentary (n=11) and exercising (n=24) groups were similar in age (27.0+/-1.3 yr), weight (60.3+/-3.1 kg), gynecological age (13.8+/-1.2 yr), and menstrual cycle length (28.3+/-0.8 days). Menstrual cycles were classified by endocrine data as ovulatory, LPD, or anovulatory. No sedentary women (0%) had inconsistent menstrual cycle classifications from cycle to cycle, but 46% of the exercising women were inconsistent. The sample prevalence of LPD in the exercising women was 48%, and the 3-month sample incidence was 79%. In the sedentary women, 90% of all menstrual cycles were ovulatory (SedOvul; n=28), whereas in the exercising women only 45% were ovulatory (ExOvul; n=30); 43% were LPD (ExLPD; n=28), and 12% were anovulatory (ExAnov; n=8). In ExLPD cycles, the follicular phase was significantly longer (17.9+/-0.7 days), and the luteal phase was significantly shorter (8.2+/-0.5 days) compared to ExOvul (14.8+/-0.9 and 12.9+/-0.3 days) and SedOvul (15.9+/-0.6 and 12.9+/-0.4 days) cycles. Luteal phase PdG excretion was lower (P < 0.001) in ExLPD (2.9+/-0.3 microg/mg Cr) and ExAnov (0.8+/-0.1 microg/mg Cr) cycles compared to SedOvul cycles (5.0+/-0.4 microg/mg Cr). ExOvul cycles also had less (P < 0.01) PdG excretion during the luteal phase (3.7+/-0.3 microg/mg Cr) than the SedOvul cycles. E1C excretion during follicular phase days 2-5 was lower (P=0.05) in ExOvul, ExLPD, and ExAnov cycles compared to SedOvul cycles and remained lower (P < 0.02) in the ExLPD and ExAnov cycles during days 6-12. The elevation in FSH during the

  16. Luteal phase deficiency in regularly menstruating women: prevalence and overlap in identification based on clinical and biochemical diagnostic criteria.

    PubMed

    Schliep, Karen C; Mumford, Sunni L; Hammoud, Ahmad O; Stanford, Joseph B; Kissell, Kerri A; Sjaarda, Lindsey A; Perkins, Neil J; Ahrens, Katherine A; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Mendola, Pauline; Schisterman, Enrique F

    2014-06-01

    Although adequate luteal hormone production is essential for establishing pregnancy, luteal phase deficiency (LPD) is poorly characterized among eumenorrheic women. We assessed the prevalence and overlap of two established LPD diagnostic criteria: short luteal phase duration less than10 days (clinical LPD) and suboptimal luteal progesterone of 5 ng/mL or less (biochemical LPD) and their relationship with reproductive hormone concentrations. We conducted a prospective study in western New York (2005-2007) following 259 women, aged 18-44 years, for up to two menstrual cycles. Among ovulatory cycles with recorded cycle lengths (n = 463), there were 41 cycles (8.9%) with clinical LPD, 39 cycles (8.4%) with biochemical LPD, and 20 cycles (4.3%) meeting both criteria. Recurrent clinical and biochemical LPD was observed in eight (3.4%) and five (2.1%) women, respectively. Clinical and biochemical LPD were each associated with lower follicular estradiol (both P ≤ .001) and luteal estradiol (P = .03 and P = .02, respectively) after adjusting for age, race, and percentage body fat. Clinical, but not biochemical, LPD was associated with lower LH and FSH across all phases of the cycle (P ≤ .001). Clinical and biochemical LPD were evident among regularly menstruating women. Estradiol was lower in LPD cycles under either criterion, but LH and FSH were lower only in association with shortened luteal phase (ie, clinical LPD), indicating that clinical and biochemical LPD may reflect different underlying mechanisms. Identifying ovulation in combination with a well-timed luteal progesterone measurement may serve as a cost-effective and specific tool for LPD assessment by clinicians and researchers.

  17. Luteal Phase Deficiency in Regularly Menstruating Women: Prevalence and Overlap in Identification Based on Clinical and Biochemical Diagnostic Criteria

    PubMed Central

    Schliep, Karen C.; Mumford, Sunni L.; Hammoud, Ahmad O.; Stanford, Joseph B.; Kissell, Kerri A.; Sjaarda, Lindsey A.; Perkins, Neil J.; Ahrens, Katherine A.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Mendola, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    Context: Although adequate luteal hormone production is essential for establishing pregnancy, luteal phase deficiency (LPD) is poorly characterized among eumenorrheic women. Objective: We assessed the prevalence and overlap of two established LPD diagnostic criteria: short luteal phase duration less than10 days (clinical LPD) and suboptimal luteal progesterone of 5 ng/mL or less (biochemical LPD) and their relationship with reproductive hormone concentrations. Design, Setting, and Participants: We conducted a prospective study in western New York (2005–2007) following 259 women, aged 18–44 years, for up to two menstrual cycles. Results: Among ovulatory cycles with recorded cycle lengths (n = 463), there were 41 cycles (8.9%) with clinical LPD, 39 cycles (8.4%) with biochemical LPD, and 20 cycles (4.3%) meeting both criteria. Recurrent clinical and biochemical LPD was observed in eight (3.4%) and five (2.1%) women, respectively. Clinical and biochemical LPD were each associated with lower follicular estradiol (both P ≤ .001) and luteal estradiol (P = .03 and P = .02, respectively) after adjusting for age, race, and percentage body fat. Clinical, but not biochemical, LPD was associated with lower LH and FSH across all phases of the cycle (P ≤ .001). Conclusions: Clinical and biochemical LPD were evident among regularly menstruating women. Estradiol was lower in LPD cycles under either criterion, but LH and FSH were lower only in association with shortened luteal phase (ie, clinical LPD), indicating that clinical and biochemical LPD may reflect different underlying mechanisms. Identifying ovulation in combination with a well-timed luteal progesterone measurement may serve as a cost-effective and specific tool for LPD assessment by clinicians and researchers. PMID:24606080

  18. Combination therapeutic options in the treatment of the luteal phase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Orazov, M R; Radzinskiy, V E; Nosenko, E N; Khamoshina, M B; Lebedeva, M G; Tokaeva, E S; Barsegyan, L K; Novginov, D S; Zakirova, Y R; Minayeva, A V

    2017-01-01

    Luteal phase deficiency (LPD) is described as a condition of insufficient progesterone exposure to maintain a regular secretory endometrium and allow for normal embryo implantation and growth. There is evidence that both follicular and luteal phase abnormalities can result in LPD cycles. The aim of this randomized prospective noncomparative study is to evaluate the effectiveness of combination therapy in patients with LPD. This prospective study included 35 women of the reproductive age. They were diagnosed with the LPD with sonographically and laboratory-verified methods. The age of patients was 36 ± 0.46 years. The results of the study sonographically demonstrated an increase in the diameter of the corpus luteum from 1.36 ± 0.32 (initially) to 2.16 ± 0.21 mm after combination therapy. In addition, there was a statistically significant increase in the level of estrogens and progesterone in the corresponding phases of the menstrual cycle. Thus, the combination therapy for patients with LPD contributes to the recovery of cyclic events in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal system, which determines the restoration of the endocrine function of the ovaries and promotes adequate secretory rearrangement of the endometrium in women of reproductive age.

  19. Growth Hormone Supplementation in the Luteal Phase Before Microdose GnRH Agonist Flare Protocol for In Vitro Fertilization.

    PubMed

    Dunne, Caitlin; Seethram, Ken; Roberts, Jeffrey

    2015-09-01

    Growth hormone (GH) acts in both early and late follicular development to stimulate the proliferation and differentiation of granulosa cells and to increase the production of estradiol in animal and human ovaries. Investigators have therefore explored GH supplementation to improve outcomes in women undergoing in vitro fertilization, with the greatest interest in women with diminished ovarian reserve. Recent meta-analyses indicate that GH supplementation can be beneficial for poor responders undergoing IVF. In most studies, GH has been given concomitantly with gonadotropins during the follicular phase; this may not be optimal, since follicular recruitment begins during the preceding luteal phase. We therefore wished to examine the effect of GH supplementation in the luteal phase before controlled ovarian stimulation (COH) with a microdose GnRH agonist flare (MDF) protocol in women undergoing in vitro fertilization. We performed a retrospective matched case-control study of patients undergoing treatment at a private IVF facility between June 2012 and July 2013. Patients identified as poor responders to COH were offered adjuvant GH treatment as part of their ovarian stimulation regimen. The patients in the experimental group chose to take GH, 3.33 mg daily by subcutaneous injection for 14 days, before starting COH. All patients had an MDF stimulation protocol using 450 IU of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) daily. A total of 42 women were included in the study. There were 14 women in the experimental group (GH) and 28 controls (C) matched for age, BMI, and day 3 FSH level. There was no difference between the groups in clinical pregnancy rate (GH = 29%, C = 32%, P = 0.99), number of mature oocytes retrieved (GH = 2.5, C = 5.0, P = 0.13), cycle cancellation rate (GH = 21%, C = 14%, P = 0.88), duration of COH (GH = 10.1, C = 10.1, P = 0.93), or mean peak estradiol level (GH = 4174 pmol/L, C = 5105 pmol/L, P = 0.44). The administration of growth hormone during the

  20. Progesterone administration for luteal phase deficiency in human reproduction: an old or new issue?

    PubMed

    Palomba, Stefano; Santagni, Susanna; La Sala, Giovanni Battista

    2015-11-19

    Luteal phase deficiency (LPD) is described as a condition of insufficient progesterone exposure to maintain a regular secretory endometrium and allow for normal embryo implantation and growth. Recently, scientific focus is turning to understand the physiology of implantation, in particular the several molecular markers of endometrial competence, through the recent transcriptomic approaches and microarray technology. In spite of the wide availability of clinical and instrumental methods for assessing endometrial competence, reproducible and reliable diagnostic tests for LPD are currently lacking, so no type-IA evidence has been proposed by the main scientific societies for assessing endometrial competence in infertile couples. Nevertheless, LPD is a very common condition that may occur during a series of clinical conditions, and during controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) and hyperstimulation (COH) programs. In many cases, the correct approach to treat LPD is the identification and correction of any underlying condition while, in case of no underlying dysfunction, the treatment becomes empiric. To date, no direct data is available regarding the efficacy of luteal phase support for improving fertility in spontaneous cycles or in non-gonadotropin induced ovulatory cycles. On the contrary, in gonadotropin in vitro fertilization (IVF) and non-IVF cycles, LPD is always present and progesterone exerts a significant positive effect on reproductive outcomes. The scientific debate still remains open regarding progesterone administration protocols, specially on routes of administration, dose and timing and the potential association with other drugs, and further research is still needed.

  1. Effect of duration of the GnRH agonists in the luteal phase in the outcome of assisted reproduction cycles.

    PubMed

    Geber, Selmo; Sampaio, Marcos

    2013-06-01

    The effect of long-acting GnRHa, in the luteal phase, during ART cycles varies from one patient to another. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the effect of long-acting GnRHa in the luteal phase, in ART cycles, affects pregnancy rates according to the duration of its action in such phase. This is a retrospective study of 367 patients submitted to ovulation induction for in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection procedures that used long-acting depot GnRHa for pituitary suppression. Patients were stratified according to the period of action of the agonist in the luteal phase: group 1, ≤ 6 days; group 2, 7 to 12 days; and group 3, >12 days. The following variables were analyzed: ovarian response, age, infertility causes and pregnancy rates. Group 1 (n = 53) had a mean age of 33.8 ± 4.55 years (23-44 years) and a pregnancy rate of 45.2%. In group 2 (n = 118), mean age was 33.7 ± 4.5 years (24-44 years) and the pregnancy rate was 38.9%. In group 3 (n = 196), mean age was 33.7 ± 4.4 years (23-43 years) and the pregnancy rate was 47.4%. Regardless of the duration of depot GnRHa action in the luteal phase, no significant association with pregnancy rates was found.

  2. Leukocyte changes across menstruation, ovulation, and mid-luteal phase and association with sex hormone variation.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Judyta; Borkowska, Barbara; Pawlowski, Boguslaw

    2016-09-10

    Total leukocyte count (white blood cells-WBC) and the count of each subpopulation vary across the menstrual cycle, but results of studies examining the time and direction of these changes are inconsistent and methodologically flawed. Besides, no previous study focused on leukocyte count on the day of ovulation. Blood samples were obtained from 37 healthy and regularly cycling women aged 19.8-36.1 years. Samples were taken three times: during menstruation (M), ovulation (O), and in the mid-luteal phase (ML). WBC, neutrophils, lymphocytes, mixed cells, progesterone (P,) and estradiol (E) were measured in each of the three target phases of the cycle. Compared to menstruation, WBC (P = 0.002) and neutrophils (P < 0.001) increased around ovulation and remained stable in the mid-luteal phase, whereas lymphocyte and mixed cell counts did not change throughout the menstrual cycle. There were some correlations of sex hormone variation with leukocyte changes between M and O (positive for E and WBC, negative for P and WBC and for P and neutrophil count; P < 0.05), but not between O and ML. Peripheral leukocyte changes taking place in the second half of the cycle are already observable on the day of ovulation and they are associated with sex hormone variation. We speculate that these changes may lead to increased immune protection against pathogens at a time when fertilization and implantation typically occur. Am. J. Hum. Biol. 28:721-728, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Observations on the use of purified follicle-stimulating hormone in the treatment of luteal phase defects.

    PubMed

    Di Carlo, C; Affinito, P; Farace, M J; Gargiulo, A R; Zullo, F; Nappi, C

    1995-06-01

    We treated 18 infertile patients affected by histologically confirmed luteal phase deficiency with 75 IU of purified follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) daily during the first 5 days of the cycle. Patients who were not pregnant after the first cycle of treatment underwent a second cycle. In the second cycle the daily doses of purified FSH were doubled if luteal phase deficiency had persisted during the first cycle. During the two cycles before treatment and during treatment, patients underwent an endometrial biopsy 1-3 days before the expected onset of menses. An assessment of progesterone serum concentrations was also performed on days 8, 6 and 4 before the expected onset of menses. Treatment was administered in a total of 33 cycles resulting in 30 ovulatory cycles. Six pregnancies were achieved. Among non-conception ovulatory cycles, 13 presented delayed endometrial dating and 11 normal endometrium. The mean +/- SD of the sum of the three progesterone determinations was 14.7 +/- 1.4 ng/ml in pretreatment cycles, 14.6 +/- 1.6 ng/ml in cycles with normalization of endometrial dating, 14.8 +/- 1.7 ng/ml in cycles with persistence of luteal phase deficiency and 30.4 +/- 3.0 ng/ml in conception cycles (P < 0.05 versus other groups). We conclude that purified FSH, if effective in the treatment of luteal phase deficiency, does not act through an increase in progesterone concentrations.

  4. Luteal phase bleeding after IVF cycles: comparison between progesterone vaginal gel and intramuscular progesterone and correlation with pregnancy outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Jabara, Sami; Barnhart, Kurt; Schertz, Joan C; Patrizio, Pasquale

    2009-01-01

    Background: To compare luteal phase bleeding and pregnancy outcomes in normogonadotropic patients receiving progesterone vaginal gel (PVG) or intramuscular progesterone (IMP) injections. Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, data from 270 patients (292 cycles) undergoing day-3 fresh embryo transfer were analyzed. PVG, 90 mg daily (170 cycles) or IMP, 50 mg daily (122 cycles) began at egg retrieval. Results: Luteal phase bleeding was significantly more common in the PVG than the IMP group. No significant differences were observed in biochemical pregnancy or spontaneous abortion rates between the two groups. Patients who bled before the pregnancy test had significantly lower total and clinical pregnancy rates than non-bleeders. Total and ongoing pregnancy/delivery rates were higher in the PVG than IMP group, but did not achieve statistical significance. Conclusion: Luteal phase bleeding was more common in the PVG group than the IMP group, but pregnancy was successful in more patients in the PVG group. Luteal phase bleeding is prevented or delayed during IMP treatment, but patients who bled before the pregnancy test, whether using the gel or injected progesterone, had significantly reduced pregnancy rates compared with non-bleeders. PMID:20485581

  5. Common pathophysiological mechanisms involved in luteal phase deficiency and polycystic ovary syndrome. Impact on fertility.

    PubMed

    Boutzios, Georgios; Karalaki, Maria; Zapanti, Evangelia

    2013-04-01

    Luteal phase deficiency (LPD) is a consequence of the corpus luteum (CL) inability to produce and preserve adequate levels of progesterone. This is clinically manifested by short menstrual cycles and infertility. Abnormal follicular development, defects in neo-angiogenesis or inadequate steroidogenesis in the lutein cells of the CL have been implicated in CL dysfunction and LPD. LPD and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) are independent disorders sharing common pathophysiological profiles. Factors such as hyperinsulinemia, AMH excess, and defects in angiogenesis of CL are at the origin of both LPD and PCOS. In PCOS ovulatory cycles, infertility could result from dysfunctional CL. The aim of this review was to investigate common mechanisms of infertility in CL dysfunction and PCOS.

  6. Luteal phase clomiphene citrate for ovulation induction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kosar, Ozlem; Ozaksit, Gulnur; Taskin, Mine Islimye

    2014-10-01

    The aim was to test a new protocol of luteal phase administration of clomiphene citrate (CC) for ovulation induction in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This was a prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Two hundred and fifty-two women (cycles) with PCOS were utilized to create two groups. Patients in Group 1 (126 patients) received 100 mg of CC daily for 5 days starting on day 5 of menses, and patients in Group 2 (126 patients) received 100 mg of CC daily for 5 days starting the next day after finishing medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) (before withdrawal bleeding). The main outcome measures were the number of growing and mature follicles, serum E2 (in pg/mL), serum progesterone (in ng/mL) levels, endometrial thickness (in mm), pregnancy, and miscarriage rates. The total number of follicles and the number of follicles ≥14 mm during stimulation were significantly greater in Group 2. The endometrial thickness at the time of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) administration was significantly greater in Group 2 as compared to Group 1 (7.84 ± 1.22 and 8.81 ± 0.9, respectively). Serum E2 levels were also significantly higher (p < 0.05) in Group 2 as compared to Group 1 (449.61 ± 243.45 vs. 666.09 ± 153.41 pg/mL). Pregnancy occurred in 13 patients (10.3 %) in Group 2 and in 11 patients (8.7 %) in Group 1. The difference was not statistically significant. Luteal phase administration of CC in patients with PCOS leads to increased follicular growth and endometrial thickness, which might result in a higher pregnancy rate.

  7. The impact of luteal phase support on endometrial estrogen and progesterone receptor expression: a randomized control trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To assess the impact of luteal phase support on the expression of estrogen receptor (ER) alpha and progesterone receptors B (PR-B) on the endometrium of oocyte donors undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation (COH). Methods A prospective, randomized study was conducted in women undergoing controlled ovarian hyperstimulation for oocyte donation. Participants were randomized to receive no luteal support, vaginal progesterone alone, or vaginal progesterone plus orally administered 17 Beta estradiol. Endometrial biopsies were obtained at 4 time points in the luteal phase and evaluated by tissue microarray for expression of ER alpha and PR-B. Results One-hundred and eight endometrial tissue samples were obtained from 12 patients. No differences were found in expression of ER alpha and PR-B among all the specimens with the exception of one sample value. Conclusions The administration of progesterone during the luteal phase of COH for oocyte donor cycles, either with or without estrogen, does not significantly affect the endometrial expression of ER alpha and PR. PMID:22360924

  8. Effects of oestradiol for luteal phase support in fresh embryo transfer cycles: A retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Liu, Yifeng; Xu, Peng; Wu, Yiqing; Chen, Kai; Guo, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Fan; Huang, Yun; Zhu, Linlin; Zhang, Runjv; Zhang, Dan

    2018-05-12

    Any benefit of oestradiol supplementation with progesterone for luteal support after fresh embryo transfer in in vitro fertilisation/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI) cycles remains controversial. In this study, we further addressed this question in cycles using gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist for ovarian stimulation. A retrospective cohort study in a tertiary teaching and research hospital. A total of 1602 patients were given oestradiol valerate (E) in addition to progesterone (P) as luteal support. One thousand six hundred and two patients receiving progesterone alone were selected as the control group. Live birth rate. Secondary measures included clinical pregnancy rate, miscarriage rate and premature birth rate. Clinical pregnancy and live birth rates were similar for the P alone vs the P+E group. In cycles with oestradiol (E2) levels less than 5000 pmol/L on the day of hCG trigger, E supplementation resulted in a significantly higher live birth rate (23.44% vs 32.92%, OR = 1.60 [95% CI 1.05 to 2.46]). In cycles with oestradiol levels 5000 to 10 000 pmol/L on the day of hCG trigger, E supplementation did not increase the live birth rate (34.43% vs 35.42%, OR = 0.90 [95% CI 0.80 to 1.01]). In cycles with oestradiol levels over 10 000 pmol/L on the day of hCG trigger, the live birth rate was significantly lower (36.83% vs 31.37%, OR = 0.78 [95% CI 0.62 to 0.99]) and the premature birth rate was significantly higher (19.66% vs 28.73%,OR = 1.65 [95% CI 1.05 to 2.59]) in the E supplementation group. Any benefit of oestradiol supplementation for luteal phase support appears to correlate with the serum oestradiol level on the day of hCG trigger. Oestradiol supplementation is beneficial for improving live birth rate in cycles with oestradiol levels less than 5000 pmol/L, but is not recommended in cycles with oestradiol levels over 10 000 pmol/L. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. [Vitex agnus castus extract in the treatment of luteal phase defects due to latent hyperprolactinemia. Results of a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind study].

    PubMed

    Milewicz, A; Gejdel, E; Sworen, H; Sienkiewicz, K; Jedrzejak, J; Teucher, T; Schmitz, H

    1993-07-01

    The efficacy of a Vitex agnus castus preparation (Strotan capsules) was investigated in a randomized double blind study vs. placebo. This clinical study involved 52 women with luteal phase defects due to latent hyperprolactinaemia. The daily dose was one capsule (20 mg) Vitex agnus castus preparation and placebo, respectively. Aim of the study was to prove whether the elevated pituitary prolactin reserve can be reduced and deficits in luteal phase length and luteal phase progesterone synthesis be normalized. Blood for hormonal analysis was taken at days 5-8 and day 20 of the menstrual cycle before and after three month of therapy. Latent hyperprolactinaemia was analysed by monitoring the prolactin release 15 and 30 min after i.v. injection of 200 micrograms TRH. 37 complete case reports (placebo: n = 20, verum: n = 17) after 3 month of therapy were statistically evaluated. The prolactin release was reduced after 3 months, shortened luteal phases were normalised and deficits in the luteal progesterone synthesis were eliminated. These changes were significant and occurred only in the verum group. All other hormonal parameters did not change with the exception of 17 beta-estradiol which rouse up in the luteal phase in patients receiving verum. Side effects were not seen, two women treated with the Vitex agnus castus preparation got pregnant. The tested preparation is thought to be an efficient medication in the treatment of luteal phase defects due to latent hyperprolactinaemia.

  10. Sweet taste threshold for sucrose inversely correlates with depression symptoms in female college students in the luteal phase.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Masanori; Matsumoto, Sayaka; Endo, Junko; Sakamoto, Reiko; Wada, Maki

    2015-03-15

    Influences of depression symptoms on the sweet taste threshold were investigated in healthy college students (30 males and 40 females). Depression symptoms were scored by SDS (Self-Rating Depression Scale), and anxiety levels by STAI (State- and Trait-Anxiety Inventory). Recognition thresholds for sucrose were determined. In female students, the menstrual phase on the day of the experiment was self-reported. Depression symptoms, anxiety levels, and the recognition threshold for sucrose were not different among the 3 groups, i.e. males, females in the follicular phase, and females in the luteal phase. Depression symptoms were positively correlated with state and trait anxiety in all groups. The sweet taste threshold was inversely correlated with depression symptoms (r=-0.472, p=0.031) and trait anxiety (r=-0.506, p=0.019) in females in the luteal phase. In males as well as females in the follicular phase, however, no correlation between sweet taste threshold and depression was found. The results show that the recognition threshold for sucrose reduces with increased depression in females with a higher anxiety trait, but only in the luteal phase. It is hypothesized that brain regions, which spatially overlap and are responsible for both aversive emotions and gustatory processing, are susceptible to periodic changes in gonadal hormones due to the menstrual cycle. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of sodium valproate on medium-late luteal phase pulsatile LH secretion in normal women.

    PubMed

    Lado Abeal, J; Rey Losada, C; Cabezas Agricola, J M; Cabezas-Cerrato, J

    1994-01-01

    It is not known whether gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is involved in control of pulsatile LH secretion in human beings. Previous work by our group has shown that manipulation of the GABAergic system with sodium valproate does not affect pulsatile LH secretion in normal women in the late follicular phase. However, it has been suggested that steroid levels are critical for the influence of GABA upon hormone secretion; in particular, progesterone has been said to enhance inhibition by GABA. In this work we studied the effect of sodium valproate on pulsatile LH secretion in medium-late luteal phase of normal women. Six normal young women were studied over an 8-hour period in two successive menstrual cycles. On each occasion blood samples were taken every 10 minutes between 1000 and 1800 h. We administered 400 mg of sodium valproate every 8 hours on the 7 days preceding their second cycle and additional 400 mg at 0900 and 1400 h on the day of the study. Ovulation day was estimated by means of serial ovarian ultrasound examinations and confirmed by serum progesterone concentrations. In each cycle, LH, oestradiol and progesterone were determined by radioimmunoassay and sodium valproate by repolarization fluorescence spectrophotometry. The series of LH levels was smoothed for 1-minute sampling periods by means of a spline function and analysed by means of a program developed in our laboratory and written in Fortran 77. The program deconvolved the signal and calculated the pulse area, pulse duration, interpulse interval and number of pulses. LH pulse identification on the deconvolved signals was performed using our own method based on Friedman's non-parametric statistic. The statistical significance of differences between parameters was estimated using the Mann-Whitney test and Wilcoxon signed rank test. There were no significant differences in LH pulse area, pulse duration, interpulse interval or number of pulses with the administration of sodium valproate. Activation of

  12. Physiological Differences in the Follicular, Luteal, and Menstrual Phases in Healthy Women Determined by Electrovestibulography: Depression, Anxiety, or Other Associations?

    PubMed

    Lithgow, Brian J; Moussavi, Zahra

    2018-06-05

    Electrovestibulography (EVestG) recordings have been previously applied toward classifying and/or measuring the severity of several neurological disorders including depression with and without anxiety. This study's objectives were to: (1) extract EVestG features representing physiological differences of healthy women during their menses, and follicular and luteal phases of their menstrual cycle, and (2) compare these features to those observed in previous studies for depression with and without anxiety. Three EVestG recordings were made on 15 young healthy menstruating females during menses, and follicular and luteal phases. Three features were extracted, using the shape and timing of the detected spontaneously evoked vestibulo-acoustic field potentials. Using these features, a 3-way separation of the 3 phases was achieved, with a leave-one-out cross-validation, resulting in accuracy of > 72%. Using an EVestG shape feature, separation of the follicular and luteal phases was achieved with a leave-one-out cross-validation accuracy of > 93%. The mechanism of separation was not like that in previous depression analyses, and is postulated to be more akin to a form of anxiety and/or progesterone sensitivity. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Comparison of Follicular and Luteal Phase Mucosal Markers of HIV Susceptibility in Healthy Women

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Neelima; Yousefieh, Nazita; Zalenskaya, Irina; Kimble, Thomas; Asin, Susana; Rollenhagen, Christiane; Anderson, Sharon M.; Herold, Betsy; Mesquita, Pedro M.M.; Richardson-Harman, Nicola; Cunningham, Tina; Schwartz, Jill L.; Doncel, Gustavo F.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in vaginal immune cell populations, vaginal tissue gene expression, antimicrobial activity of the cervicovaginal (CV) lavage (CVL), vaginal flora, and p24 antigen production from CV tissues after ex vivo human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection between follicular (FOL) and luteal (LUT) phases of the menstrual cycle. CV tissue biopsies, CV secretions, and blood samples were obtained as part of two longitudinal clinical trials of healthy women (CONRAD D11-119 and A12-124 studies). Participants (n = 39) were HIV-seronegative women not using exogenous hormone supplementation, with normal menstrual cycles, who were screened to exclude sexually transmitted and reproductive tract infections. Serum levels of estradiol and progesterone were significantly higher in the LUT versus the FOL phase of the menstrual cycle. Controlling for race, reported contraceptive use/sexual practices, and clinical trial, we found no differences in vaginal tissue immune cell populations and activation status, transcriptomes, inhibition of HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2 and Escherichia coli by the CVL, vaginal pH or Nugent score, or production of p24 antigen after ex vivo infection by HIV-1BaL between CV samples obtained in the FOL phase versus the LUT phase of the menstrual cycle. There were no significant correlations between serum estradiol and progesterone levels and CV endpoints. The hypothesis that the LUT phase of the menstrual cycle represents a more vulnerable stage for mucosal infection with HIV was not supported by data from samples obtained from the lower genital tract (ectocervix and vagina) from these two clinical trials. PMID:26750085

  14. A randomized trial of microdose leuprolide acetate protocol versus luteal phase ganirelix protocol in predicted poor responders.

    PubMed

    DiLuigi, Andrea J; Engmann, Lawrence; Schmidt, David W; Benadiva, Claudio A; Nulsen, John C

    2011-06-30

    We performed a randomized trial to compare IVF outcomes in 54 poor responder patients undergoing a microdose leuprolide acetate (LA) protocol or a GnRH antagonist protocol incorporating a luteal phase E(2) patch and GnRH antagonist in the preceding menstrual cycle. Cancellation rates, number of oocytes retrieved, clinical pregnancy rates (PR), and ongoing PRs were similar between the two groups. Copyright © 2011 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Differential effects of exogenous progesterone administration at different stages of the luteal phase on endogenous oestradiol concentration in cows.

    PubMed

    Starbuck, G R; Mann, G E

    2010-04-01

    We have investigated the effects administering exogenous progesterone, via insertion of a controlled internal drug release (CIDR) for 4 days, from either day 5 or day 12 of the oestrous cycle on plasma oestradiol concentrations. In study 1, in which progesterone was administered from day 5, measurement of plasma oestradiol in daily samples revealed a significant (p < 0.001) decrease in peripheral oestradiol concentration. In contrast, in study 2, similar administration of progesterone from day 12 had no effect on plasma oestradiol concentration. In study 3, collection of hourly samples following progesterone treatment on day 5 revealed peak progesterone concentrations within 1 h of CIDR insertion and nadir oestradiol concentrations within 4 h. The results demonstrate that treatment with progesterone early in the luteal phase causes a rapid inhibition of oestradiol secretion, while later treatment does not. While improvements in pregnancy rate following progesterone treatment at this time have traditionally been attributed to increases in progesterone, the potential involvement of decreased oestradiol secretion has often been overlooked.

  16. High progesterone levels during the luteal phase related to the use of an aromatase inhibitor in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Alviggi, C; Marci, R; Vallone, R; Conforti, A; Di Rella, F; Strina, I; Picarelli, S; De Rosa, P; De Laurentiis, M; Yding Andersen, C; De Placido, G

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the hormonal profile in three breast cancer patients who underwent controlled ovarian stimulation in the presence of the aromatase inhibitor letrozole. In IVF University referral center, a case series of three breast cancer patients who underwent controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) with recombinant FSH and letrozole were investigated. Ovulation was induced with hCG (case No. 1) or with GnRH agonist (case No. 2-3). The primary outcome of our study was the detection of progesterone levels in the luteal phase. Very high progesterone values (mean 186.6 ± 43.6 ng/mL) during the luteal phase were recorded in all three cases. High progesterone levels can be related to the use of letrozole independently of the most commonly used trigger regimen. Although progesterone has long been considered a protective factor against breast cancer, several studies have demonstrated that progesterone could expand a transformation-sensitive stem cell population in the mammary glands. The estrogen negative feedback effect on the hypothalamus-pituitary axis and the disruption of steroid biosynthesis and could represent an intriguing reason behind this phenomenon. Our results highlight the need to evaluate further the increase in progesterone levels in the luteal phase in women with breast cancer undergoing COS with letrozole.

  17. Estrogenic activity of tamoxifen on normal mammary parenchyma in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Facina, G; de Lima, G R; Simões, M J; Novo, N F; Gebrim, L H

    1997-01-01

    Tamoxifen, an anti-estrogenic drug used in the adjuvant treatment of breast cancer, deserves more investigation for the determination of its efficacy as a prophylactic agent against breast cancer in high risk women. Thus, the action of tamoxifen on the human mammary gland was studied by measuring the number of lysosomes in normal mammary epithelium during the administration of tamoxifen. Tamoxifen was administered only during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle to avoid interference with corpus luteum formation. A fragment of breast tissue adjacent to a fibroadenoma was obtained during surgery from 35 premenopausal women aged 15 to 37 years who had been eumenorrheic for at least 6 months; 18 of these patients were treated with tamoxifen and 17 were used as controls. Lysosome counts were performed under the light microscope on slides submitted to the acid phosphatase cytochemical technique and the data were analyzed statistically by the Mann-Whitney test. The fragments from the group treated with tamoxifen showed a significant decrease in lysosome numbers. Tamoxifen administered after ovulation significantly decreases the number of lysosomes in the cells of normal mammary epithelium, demonstrating the antiestrogenic effect of the drug on this target tissue.

  18. Luteal Phase Support in assisted reproductive technology treatment: focus on Endometrin® (progesterone) vaginal insert

    PubMed Central

    Check, Jerome H

    2009-01-01

    Supplementation of progesterone in the luteal phase and continuance of progesterone therapy during the first trimester has been found in several studies to have benefits in promoting fertility, preventing miscarriages and even preventing pre-term labor. Though it can be administered orally, intramuscularly or even sublingually, a very effective route with fewer side effects can be achieved by an intravaginal route. The first vaginal preparations were not made commercially but were compounded by pharmacies. This had the disadvantage of lack of control by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) ensuring efficacy of the preparations. Furthermore there was a lack of precise dosing leading to batch to batch variation. The first commercially approved vaginal progesterone preparation in the United States was a vaginal gel which has proven very effective. The main side effect was accumulation of a buildup of the vaginal gel sometimes leading to irritation. Natural micronized progesterone for vaginal administration with the brand name of Utrogestan A® had been approved even before the gel in certain European countries. Endometrin® vaginal tablets are the newest natural progesterone approved by the FDA. Comparisons to the vaginal gel and to intramuscular progesterone have shown similar efficacy especially in studies following controlled ovarian hyperstimulation and oocyte egg retrieval and embryo transfer. Larger studies are needed to compare side effects. PMID:19753133

  19. Serum levels of inhibin A and inhibin B in women with normal and abnormal luteal function.

    PubMed

    Yamoto, M; Imai, M; Otani, H; Nakano, R

    1997-05-01

    To determine whether serum inhibin A and inhibin B concentrations are lower in patients with luteal dysfunction than in women with normal luteal function. Serum samples were collected from seven healthy women with regular menstrual cycles. Serum samples on days +5 to +9 after the LH surge were collected from patients with luteal dysfunction. The diagnosis of luteal dysfunction was based on a luteal phase duration less than 11 days and a single midluteal progesterone level below 10 ng/mL. Serum levels of inhibin A, inhibin B, progesterone, estradiol (E2), FSH, and LH were measured. The serum inhibin A levels were increased toward the late follicular phase. The levels reached a maximum during the midluteal phase, followed by a fall during the late luteal phase. The serum inhibin B levels were high during the follicular phases and the early luteal phase. The levels decreased during the midluteal and late luteal phases. Serum levels (mean +/- standard error of the mean) of inhibin A in patients with luteal dysfunction were significantly lower than those in women during the midluteal phase (26.2 +/- 2.9 compared to 41.9 +/- 2.8 pg/mL; P < .01) in addition to the expected decrease in serum progesterone levels (6.3 +/- 0.7 compared to 14.7 +/- 1.2 ng/mL; P < .01). Serum inhibin B levels did not differ significantly between normal women and those with luteal dysfunction. There also were no significant differences in the E2, FSH, and LH levels. Levels of inhibin A, but not of inhibin B, may reflect the human luteal function.

  20. Prevention of endometrial apoptosis: randomized prospective comparison of human chorionic gonadotropin versus progesterone treatment in the luteal phase.

    PubMed

    Lovely, Laurie P; Fazleabas, Asgerally T; Fritz, Marc A; McAdams, Devin G; Lessey, Bruce A

    2005-04-01

    To study control of apoptosis in human endometrium, we examined late luteal-phase endometrial biopsies obtained in the late luteal phase for evidence of apoptosis and compared the effects of exogenous human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) and progesterone on this process. Using a controlled, prospective, and randomized study design, 12 healthy, fertile, reproductive-age women (ages 20-34 yr) with regular menstrual cycles (range, 26-32 d) were recruited. Each underwent an endometrial biopsy 12 d after a urinary LH surge in a control and treatment cycle. After biopsy in a natural cycle, subjects were randomized to receive luteal doses of either 200 mg intravaginal progesterone (d 18-27) or a single im injection of 10,000 IU of hCG (d 19) followed by repeat endometrial biopsy and collection of serum on d 26. Apoptosis was assessed by DNA laddering, localizing apoptotic bodies using immunofluorescent labeling of DNA fragments (the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling method), and immunohistochemical assessment of apoptosis markers bcl-2, bcl-x, and bax. Serum progesterone levels were compared between treatment groups. Evidence of apoptosis in control cycles was significantly reduced in endometrium after both luteal-phase treatments. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end-labeling results demonstrated significantly less apoptosis in the hCG treatment group compared with controls. Immunostaining for bcl-2 was higher in hCG- and progesterone-treated cycles, whereas bax expression was decreased and bcl-x immunostaining was not different between treatments. Serum progesterone levels were highest in the hCG-treated group, although statistical significance was not reached (P = 0.08). These results demonstrate that signs of apoptosis, already apparent by d 26 of the menstrual cycle can be reduced with either hCG or progesterone treatment. The clinical utility of these findings includes a rational use of luteal-phase

  1. Pregnancy Rate Following Luteal Phase Support in Iranian Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Foroozanfard, Fatemeh; Saberi, Hamidreza; Moraveji, Seyed Alireza; Bazarganipour, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Background To assess the efficacy of luteal phase support (LPS) using intravaginal progesterone (P) on pregnancy rate in Iranian women with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) who used a combination for ovulation induction consisting of letrozole or clomi- phene citrate (CC) and human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG). Materials and Methods This was a randomized clinical trial undertaken in a fertility clinic in Kashan, Isfahan Province, Iran. A total of 198 patients completed treatment and follow up. Base on chosen ovulation induction programs, they were divided into two following group: i. CC group (n=98) used a combination consisting of CC (100 mg×5 day) and HMG (150 IU×5 day) and ii. letrozole group (n=100) used a combination consisting of letrozole (5 mg×5 day) and HMG (150 IU×5 day). After human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) administration (5000 IU), the patients (n=122) who randomly re- ceived intravaginal P (Cyclogest, 400 mg daily) were included in LPS group, while the rest (n=123) were included in non-P cycles group. The outcome was the comparison of chemical pregnancy rate between the groups. Results Our findings showed that LPS was associated with a 10% higher pregnancy rate than in non-P cycles, although this difference did not reach statistical significant (p=0.08). LPS improved pregnancy rate in both CC (4%) and letrozole (6%) groups. In addition, patients who used letrozole for ovulation induction along with intravaginal P showed higher pregnancy rates than CC group. Conclusion Administration of vaginal P for LPS may improve the pregnancy rate in women with PCOS using letrozole or CC in combination with HMG for ovulation induc- tion (Registration Number: IRCT201206072967N4). PMID:25379150

  2. Estrogen supplementation to progesterone as luteal phase support in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Lv, Fang; Wang, Pin; Huang, Xia-Man; Liu, Kai-Feng; Pan, Yu; Dong, Nai-Jun; Ji, Yu-Rong; She, Hong; Hu, Rong

    2015-02-01

    Meta-analyses have found conflicting results with respect to the use of progesterone or progesterone plus estrogen as luteal phase support for in vitro fertilization (IVF) protocols involving gonadotropins and/or gonadotropin-releasing hormone analogs. The aim of the present study was to perform an updated meta-analysis on the efficacy of progesterone versus progesterone plus estrogen as luteal phase support. We searched the MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar databases (up to March 18, 2014). The search terms were (estrogen OR estradiol OR oestradiol) AND (progesterone) AND (IVF OR in vitro fertilization) AND (randomized OR prospective). We did not limit the form of estrogen and included subjects who contributed more than 1 cycle to a study. The primary outcome was clinical pregnancy rate. Secondary outcomes were ongoing pregnancy rate, fertilization rate, implantation rate, and miscarriage rate. A total of 11 articles were included in the present analysis, with variable numbers of studies assessing each outcome measure. Results of statistical analyses indicated that progesterone plus estrogen treatment was more likely to result in clinical pregnancy than progesterone alone (pooled odds ratio 1.617, 95% confidence interval 1.059-2.471; P = 0.026). No significant difference between the 2 treatment regimens was found for the other outcome measures. Progesterone plus estrogen for luteal phase support is associated with a higher clinical pregnancy rate than progesterone alone in women undergoing IVF, but other outcomes such as ongoing pregnancy rate, fertilization rate, implantation rate, and miscarriage rate are the same for both treatments.

  3. GnRH Agonist Trigger and LH Activity Luteal Phase Support versus hCG Trigger and Conventional Luteal Phase Support in Fresh Embryo Transfer IVF/ICSI Cycles-A Systematic PRISMA Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Haahr, Thor; Roque, Matheus; Esteves, Sandro C; Humaidan, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The use of GnRH agonist (GnRHa) for final oocyte maturation trigger in oocyte donation and elective frozen embryo transfer cycles is well established due to lower ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) rates as compared to hCG trigger. A recent Cochrane meta-analysis concluded that GnRHa trigger was associated with reduced live birth rates (LBRs) in fresh autologous IVF cycles compared to hCG trigger. However, the evidence is not unequivocal, and recent trials have found encouraging reproductive outcomes among couples undergoing GnRHa trigger and individualized luteal LH activity support. Thus, the aim was to compare GnRHa trigger followed by luteal LH activity support with hCG trigger in IVF patients undergoing fresh embryo transfer. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials published until December 14, 2016. The population was infertile patients submitted to IVF/ICSI cycles with GnRH antagonist cotreatment who underwent fresh embryo transfer. The intervention was GnRHa trigger followed by LH activity luteal phase support (LPS). The comparator was hCG trigger followed by a standard LPS. The critical outcome measures were LBR and OHSS rate. The secondary outcome measures were number of oocytes retrieved, clinical and ongoing pregnancy rates, and miscarriage rates. A total of five studies met the selection criteria comprising a total of 859 patients. The LBR was not significantly different between the GnRHa and hCG trigger groups (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.62, 1.14). OHSS was reported in a total of 4/413 cases in the GnRHa group compared to 7/413 in the hCG group (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.15, 1.60). We observed a slight, but non-significant increase in miscarriage rate in the GnRHa triggered group compared to the hCG group (OR 1.85; 95% CI 0.97, 3.54). GnRHa trigger with LH activity LPS resulted in comparable LBRs compared to hCG trigger. The most recent trials reported LBRs close to unity indicating that individualization of the LH activity LPS

  4. Altered expression of hormone receptor, integrin β3 and pinopode in the endometrium of luteal phase defect women.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuangge; Hua, Teng; Xin, Xiaoyan; Shi, Rui; Chi, Shuqi; Wang, Hongbo

    2017-04-01

    To invistigate estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), integrin β3, and pinopode expression in luteal phase deficiency (LPD) women. There were 52 nulligravidas consecutive infertile patients undergoing a routine assistant reproduction consultation included in this study. An endometrial biopsy sample was randomly obtained between days 4 and 10 of the luteal phase. Endometrial morphology was examined with scanning electron microscopy. Expressions of ER, PR, integrin β3 were determined in the endometrium of LPD patients with immunohistochemistry. The incidence of LPD was 15.3% (8/52) in this study. On day luteinizing hormone (LH) surge + 9∼LH + 10, noted regressing pinopodes resembling a day LH + 7∼LH + 8 in the endometrium of the control group. The expressions of ER and PR in glandular epithelium were significantly increased in endometrium of LPD than that in the control group (p < 0.05). In contrast, there was a statistically significant decrease expression of the integrin β3 in women from the group of LPD (p < 0.05). The altered expression of ER and PR may be associated with the expression variation of integrin and pinopode formation in endometrium of LPD women. This alteration may imply the association of low rates of cycle fecundity and high rates of embryonic loss in LPD women.

  5. Reduced Phase-Advance of Plasma Melatonin after Bright Morning Light in the Luteal, but not Follicular, Menstrual Cycle Phase in Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder: An Extended Study

    PubMed Central

    Parry, Barbara L.; Meliska, Charles J.; Sorenson, Diane L.; Martínez, L. Fernando; López, Ana M.; Elliott, Jeffrey A.; Hauger, Richard L.

    2011-01-01

    We previously observed blunted phase-shift responses to morning bright light in women with Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD). The aim of this study was to determine if we could replicate these findings using a higher intensity, shorter duration light pulse and to compare these results with the effects of an evening bright light pulse. In 17 PMDD patients and 14 normal control (NC) subjects, we measured plasma melatonin at 30 minute intervals from 18:00–10:00 h in dim (< 30 lux) or dark conditions the night before (night 1) and after (night 3) a bright light pulse (administered on night 2) in both follicular and luteal menstrual cycle phases. The bright light (either 3,000 lux for 6 h or 6,000 lux for 3 h) was given either in the AM, 7 h after the Dim Light Melatonin Onset (DLMO) measured the previous month, or in the PM, 3 h after the DLMO. In the luteal, but not in the follicular, phase, AM light advanced melatonin offset between night 1 and night 3 significantly less in PMDD than in NC subjects. The effects of PM light were not significant, nor were there significant effects of the light pulse on melatonin measures of onset, duration, peak or area under the curve. These findings replicated our previous finding of a blunted phase-shift response to morning bright light in the luteal, but not the follicular, menstrual cycle phase in PMDD compared with NC women, using a brighter (6,000 vs. 3,000 lux) light pulse for a shorter duration (3 vs. 6 h). As the effect of PM bright light on melatonin phase-shift responses did not differ between groups or significantly alter other melatonin measures, these results suggest that in PMDD there is a luteal phase subsensitivity or an increased resistance to morning bright light cues which are critical in synchronizing human biological rhythms. The resulting circadian rhythm malsynchonization may contribute to the occurrence of luteal phase depressive symptoms in women with PMDD. PMID:21721857

  6. Luteal phase deficiency in recreational runners: evidence for a hypometabolic state.

    PubMed

    De Souza, Mary Jane; Van Heest, Jaci; Demers, Laurence M; Lasley, Bill L

    2003-01-01

    Exercising women with amenorrhea exhibit a hypometabolic state. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship of luteal phase deficient (LPD) menstrual cycles to metabolic hormones, including thyroid, insulin, human GH (hGH), leptin, and IGF-I and its binding protein levels in recreational runners. Menstrual cycle status was determined for three consecutive cycles in sedentary and moderately active women. Menstrual status was defined as ovulatory or LPD. Subjects were either sedentary (n = 10) or moderately active (n = 20) and were matched for age (27.7 +/- 1.2 yr), body mass (60.2 +/- 3.3 kg), menstrual cycle length (28.4 +/- 0.9 d), and reproductive age (14.4 +/- 1.2 yr). Daily urine samples for the determination of estrone conjugates, pregnanediol 3-glucuronide, and urinary levels of LH were collected. Blood was collected on a single day during the follicular phase (d 2-6) of each menstrual cycle for analysis of TSH, insulin, total T3, total T4, free T4, leptin, hGH, IGF-I, and IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-1 and IGFBP-3. Among the 10 sedentary subjects, 28 of 31 menstrual cycles were categorized as ovulatory (SedOvul). Among the 20 exercising subjects, 24 menstrual cycles were included in the ovulatory category (ExOvul), and 21 menstrual cycles were included in the LPD category (ExLPD). TSH, total T4, and free T4 levels were not significantly different among the three categories of cycles. Total T3 was suppressed (P = 0.035) in the ExLPD (1.63 +/- 0.07 nmol/liter) and the ExOvul categories of cycles (1.75 +/- 0.8 nmol/liter) compared with the SedOvul category of cycles (2.15 +/- 0.1 nmol/liter). Leptin levels were lower (P < 0.001) in both the ExOvul (5.2 +/- 0.4 microg/liter) and the ExLPD categories of cycles (5.1 +/- 0.4 microg/liter) when compared with the SedOvul category of cycles (13.7 +/- 1.7 microg/liter). Insulin was lower (P = 0.009) only in the ExLPD category of cycles (31.9 +/- 2.8 pmol/liter) compared with the SedOvul (60.4 +/- 8.3 pmol

  7. Localization of estrogen receptor α and progesterone receptor B in bovine cervix and vagina during the follicular and luteal phases of the sexual cycle.

    PubMed

    Sağsöz, H; Akbalik, M E; Saruhan, B G; Ketani, M A

    2011-08-01

    The localization and distribution of estrogen receptors (ERα) and progesterone receptors (PR-B) in the cervix and vagina of sexually mature bovines during the follicular and luteal phases of the sexual cycle were studied using immunohistochemistry. The estrous cycle stage of 23 Holstein bovines was assessed by gross and histological appearance of ovaries and blood steroid hormone values. Tissue samples from cervix and vagina were fixed in 10% formaldehyde for routine histological processing. Nuclear staining for ERα and PR-B was observed in the epithelial cells of the surface epithelium, stromal cells and smooth muscle cells. Generally, in the cervix, ERα immunoreactivity was more intense in the epithelial and smooth muscle cells during the follicular phase and in the epithelial cells during the luteal phase (p < 0.05). PR-B immunoreactivity was more intense in the epithelial and smooth muscle cells than in the superficial and deep stromal cells during the follicular and luteal phases (p < 0.05). In the vagina, ERα and PR-B immunoreactivities were more intense in the epithelial cells than in the connective tissue cells and smooth muscle cells during the follicular and luteal phases (p < 0.05). These results indicated that the frequency and intensity of ERα and PR-B immunoreactivity in the cervix and vagina of bovines varied according to the cervical and vaginal cell types and the phases of the sexual cycle.

  8. Molecular Signatures of Immune Activation and Epithelial Barrier Remodeling Are Enhanced during the Luteal Phase of the Menstrual Cycle: Implications for HIV Susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Birse, Kenzie; Arnold, Kelly B; Novak, Richard M; McCorrister, Stuart; Shaw, Souradet; Westmacott, Garrett R; Ball, Terry B; Lauffenburger, Douglas A; Burgener, Adam

    2015-09-01

    The variable infectivity and transmissibility of HIV/SHIV has been recently associated with the menstrual cycle, with particular susceptibility observed during the luteal phase in nonhuman primate models and ex vivo human explant cultures, but the mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we performed an unbiased, mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis to better understand the mucosal immunological processes underpinning this observed susceptibility to HIV infection. Cervicovaginal lavage samples (n = 19) were collected, characterized as follicular or luteal phase using days since last menstrual period, and analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry. Biological insights from these data were gained using a spectrum of computational methods, including hierarchical clustering, pathway analysis, gene set enrichment analysis, and partial least-squares discriminant analysis with LASSO feature selection. Of the 384 proteins identified, 43 were differentially abundant between phases (P < 0.05, ≥2-fold change). Cell-cell adhesion proteins and antiproteases were reduced, and leukocyte recruitment (interleukin-8 pathway, P = 1.41E-5) and extravasation proteins (P = 5.62E-4) were elevated during the luteal phase. LASSO/PLSDA identified a minimal profile of 18 proteins that best distinguished the luteal phase. This profile included cytoskeletal elements and proteases known to be involved in cellular movement. Gene set enrichment analysis associated CD4(+) T cell and neutrophil gene set signatures with the luteal phase (P < 0.05). Taken together, our findings indicate a strong association between proteins involved in tissue remodeling and leukocyte infiltration with the luteal phase, which may represent potential hormone-associated mechanisms of increased susceptibility to HIV. Recent studies have discovered an enhanced susceptibility to HIV infection during the progesterone-dominant luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. However, the mechanism responsible for this enhanced

  9. [Effect of luteal-phase gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist administration on pregnancy outcome in IVF/ICSI cycles: a systematic review and Meta-analysis].

    PubMed

    Yu, L P; Liu, N; Liu, Y

    2016-11-25

    Objective: To evaluate the potential efficacy and safety of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist(GnRH-a) administration in the luteal-phase on in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) cycles in assisted reproductive technology (ART). Methods: The relevant papers published before November 2015 were electronically searched in PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, WHO ICTRP, ClinicalTrials.gov, CNKI, CBM and WanFang database to collect randomized controlled trial (RCT) involving GnRH-a administration in the luteal-phase on IVF/ICSI cycles in ART. Two reviewers independently screened literature according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, extracted data, and assessed methodological quality according to the Cochrane Handbook. Then, Meta-analysis was performed using Stata 13.0. Results: A total of 3 406 patients, 3 280 IVF/ICSI cycles from 11 RCT were subjected to Meta-analysis. All cycles presented statistically significantly higher rates of live birth/ongoing pregnancy ( RR= 1.29, 95% CI: 1.11-1.51), clinical pregnancy ( RR= 1.24, 95% CI: 1.08-1.43) and multiple pregnancy ( RR= 1.95, 95% CI: 1.21-3.14) in patients who received luteal-phase GnRH-a administration compared with those who did not. Conclusions: These findings demonstrate that the luteal-phase GnRH-a administration could increase birth/ongoing pregnancy rate, clinical pregnancy rate and multiple pregnancy rate in all cycles, so it may be an ideal choice for luteal phase support in patients undergoing IVF/ICSI therapy.

  10. Effect of parity and fetal sex on placental and luteal hormones during early first trimester.

    PubMed

    Järvelä, Ilkka Y; Záčková, Tamara; Laitinen, Päivi; Ryynänen, Markku; Tekay, Aydin

    2012-02-01

    Earlier studies have shown that maternal hormone secretion during late first or second trimester may be affected by gravidity. We examined the luteoplacental hormone secretion during 5-11 weeks of gestation in relation to gravidity. Forty-one naturally conceived pregnancies underwent weekly assessment of serum human chorionic gonadotrophin, progesterone and 17-OH progesterone, estradiol, testosterone, and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A levels. In addition, the volume and the vasculature of the dominant ovary with corpus luteum were assessed with the use of a 3-dimensional power Doppler ultrasonography. Areas under the curve for hormonal and ultrasonographic parameters were calculated. Twenty-two out of the 41 women were pregnant for the first time. All the pregnancies were uncomplicated and resulted in term deliveries of appropriately grown newborns. During pregnancy weeks 5-11, the secretion (area under the curve) of human chorionic gonadotrophin (6.54 ± 0.03 vs 6.39 ± 0.05, p = 0.010), progesterone (3.49 ± 0.02 vs 3.36 ± 0.03, p = 0.003), and 17-OH progesterone (2.73 ± 0.03 vs 2.62 ± 0.03, p = 0.013) were higher in primigravid than in multigravid women. No other differences were detected between primigravid and multigravid women. The placental function already differs between primigravid and multigravid women during the first weeks of pregnancy, which reflects the corpus luteal function. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Comparison of selected endocrine parameters during luteal phase and pregnancy in German Shepherd dogs and Beagles.

    PubMed

    Günzel-Apel, A R; Beste, N; Nottorf, S; Eschricht, F; Hoppen, H O; Dieleman, S; Einspanier, A

    2009-07-01

    Concentrations of progesterone, prolactin and relaxin in serum at predetermined intervals after ovulation (day 0) in non-pregnant and pregnant normocyclic Beagles were assayed and results compared with those observed in German Shepherd dogs (GSD) in a previous study. The goal was to determine possible reproductive hormone specificities related to the GSD breed. Furthermore, the effects of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA)-treatment in non-pregnant Beagles and of progesterone supplementation in pregnant Beagles on the hormone concentrations were examined. Mean concentrations of progesterone and prolactin were not different in the non-pregnant Beagles compared with those seen in non-pregnant GSD, except at days 50-60, when progesterone concentrations were found to be higher in Beagles (p < 0.05). Mean progesterone concentrations in pregnant Beagles at days 50-60 after ovulation (day 0) were higher (p < 0.05) than in GSD at that time, but not at earlier time periods. Prolactin concentrations were higher (p < 0.05) in Beagles throughout pregnancy compared with those in the GSD. Mean relaxin concentrations were numerically but not significantly lower in GSD than in Beagles throughout pregnancy. A 10-day oral MPA treatment did not affect progesterone or prolactin secretion in normocyclic non-pregnant Beagles. Medroxyprogesterone acetate serum concentrations were approximately 3.9 ng/ml during treatment and decreased to 0.42 and 0.021 ng/ml within 5 and 15 days after end of treatment, respectively. Intramuscular progesterone supplementation from days 30 to 40 in pregnant Beagles resulted in higher concentrations of progesterone in the 36- to 45-day time periods; prolactin and relaxin concentrations were not significantly affected during or after treatment compared with administration of placebo. The results suggest a tendency towards deficient luteal function in the short-cycle GSD bitches previously studied, which in pregnancy may reflect the observed decreased prolactin

  12. Luteal insufficiency in first trimester

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Duru; Nagarajan, Nagadeepti

    2013-01-01

    Luteal phase insufficiency is one of the reasons for implantation failure and has been responsible for miscarriages and unsuccessful assisted reproduction. Luteal phase defect is seen in women with polycystic ovaries, thyroid and prolactin disorder. Low progesterone environment is created iatrogenically due to interventions in assisted reproduction. Use of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogs to prevent the LH surge and aspiration of granulosa cells during the oocyte retrieval may impair the ability of corpus luteum to produce progesterone. Treatment of the underlying disorder and use of progestational agents like progesterone/human chorionic gonadotrophin have been found to be effective in women with a history of recurrent miscarriage. There has been no proved beneficial effect of using additional agents like ascorbic acid, estrogen, prednisolone along with progesterone. Despite their widespread use, further studies are required to establish the optimal treatment. Literature review and analysis of published studies on luteal phase support. PMID:23776852

  13. Absence of luteal phase defect and spontaneous pregnancy in IVF patients despite GnRH-agonist trigger and "freeze all policy" without luteal phase support: a report of four cases.

    PubMed

    Gurbuz, Ali Sami; Deveer, Ruya; Ozcimen, Necati; Ozcimen, Emel Ebru; Lawrenz, Barbara; Banker, Manish; Garcia-Velasco, Juan Antonio; Fatemi, Human Mousavi

    2016-01-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is commonly used for final oocyte maturation in "in vitro fertilization" (IVF)-treatment cycles, however, the main important risk is development of severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). OHSS can almost be avoided by using gonadotrophin-releasing-hormone agonist for final oocyte maturation in an antagonist protocol. However, primarily this approach lead to a very poor reproductive outcome, despite the use of a standard luteal phase support. The reason seems to be severe luteolysis. Obviously, luteolysis post-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-agonist (post-GnRH-a) trigger is individual specific, and not all patients will develop a complete luteolysis, as expected previously. Luteolysis can been reverted by the administration of hCG. Unprotected intercourse around the time of ovulation induction and oocyte retrieval can lead to a spontaneous conception in IVF treatment and, endogenous hCG, produced by the trophoblast, will rescue the corpora lutea. Therefore, one should not rely on complete luteolysis after GnRH-a triggering and, especially patients for egg donation and pre-implantation-genetic diagnosis for single gene disorder, have to be counselled to avoid unprotected intercourse.

  14. An Editor's opinion of the recent committee opinion of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine that the luteal phase deficiency as a clinical entity causing infertility has not been proven.

    PubMed

    Check, J H

    2016-01-01

    To present an opposing view to the recent conclusions reached by the Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine and a recent review of the role of progesterone in subfertility by Sonntag and Ludwig that there is no evidence to support using progesterone in the luteal phase as exclusive therapy. A large quasi randomized study not mentioned by either review is presented. In this study published in 1989 when women with luteal phase deficiencies and subfertil- ity were evaluated for follicular maturation, the majority seemed to form mature follicles. This majority group found far better with pregnancy outcome by taking exclusive progesterone in the luteal phase than follicle maturing drugs. A recent prospective series confirmed its beneficial effect. Physicians should not empirically treat with follicle maturing drugs but should use progesterone in the luteal phase, preferably in those women who seemingly create a mature follicle.

  15. Mechanisms underlying hemodynamic and neuroendocrine stress reactivity at different phases of the menstrual cycle

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Jennifer L.; Girdler, Susan S.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the association of menstrual cycle phase with stress reactivity as well as the hormonal and neuroendocrine mechanisms contributing to cycle effects. Fifty-seven women underwent a modified Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) during the early follicular, late follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Greater increases in cardiac index (CI) and greater decreases in vascular resistance index (VRI) during speech were observed in the luteal phase relative to other phases, while greater increases in epinephrine (EPI) was observed during the late follicular and luteal phases compared to the early follicular phase. Luteal phase estradiol predicted luteal EPI reactivity but not CI or VRI reactivity while luteal phase EPI reactivity predicted luteal phase CI and VRI reactivity. Thus, cycle-related changes in EPI reactivity may be a stronger determinant of cycle effects on hemodynamic reactivity than sex hormones per se. PMID:24397365

  16. The effect of luteal-phase support with vaginal progesterone on pregnancy rates in gonadotropin and clomiphene citrate/intra-uterine insemination cycles in unexplained infertility: A prospective randomised study.

    PubMed

    Karadag, Burak; Dilbaz, Berna; Karcaaltincaba, Deniz; Sahin, Elif Gulsah; Ercan, Fedi; Karasu, Yetkin; Tonyalı, Nazan Vanlı

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyse the effect of luteal-phase support on pregnancy rates in gonadotropin + intra-uterine insemination (Gn/IUI) and clomiphene citrate (CC) +IUI (CC/IUI) cycles in patients with unexplained infertility. Equal numbers of patients were recruited in two treatment arms (CC/IUI and Gn/IUI) (n = 100, n = 100, respectively). In each group, 50 patients received vaginal progesterone for 14 days (Crinone 8% vaginal gel, 90 mg per day) for luteal-phase support from the day after IUI and continued until menstruation or the 10th week of gestation if pregnant. There were 29 clinical pregnancies among 200 patients. Pregnancy rates were 12% in CC/IUI cycles, 10% in luteal-phase-supported CC/IUI cycles 16% in Gn/IUI cycles and 20% in luteal-phase-supported Gn/IUI cycles. Although pregnancy rates were higher in Gn/IUI cycles compared to CC/IUI cycles, luteal-phase support did not significantly affect the pregnancy rates in both groups. This study implies that luteal-phase support with progesterone has no pronounced beneficial effect on pregnancy rates in either CC/IUI or Gn/IUI cycles in patients with unexplained infertility.

  17. Associations of Serum Levels of Sex Hormones in Follicular and Luteal Phases of the Menstrual Cycle with Breast Tissue Characteristics in Young Women.

    PubMed

    Linton, Linda; Taylor, Monica; Dunn, Sheila; Martin, Lisa; Chavez, Sonia; Stanitz, Greg; Huszti, Ella; Minkin, Salomon; Boyd, Norman

    2016-01-01

    In previous work in young women aged 15-30 years we measured breast water and fat using MR and obtained blood for hormone assays on the same day in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Only serum growth hormone levels and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) were significantly associated with percent breast water after adjustment for covariates. The sex hormones estradiol, progesterone and testosterone were not associated with percent water in the breast in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. In the present study we have examined the association of percent breast water with serum levels of sex hormones in both follicular and luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. In 315 healthy white Caucasian young women aged 15-30 with regular menstrual cycles who had not used oral contraceptives or other hormones in the previous 6 months, we used MR to determine percent breast water, and obtained blood samples for hormone assays within 10 days of the onset of the most recent menstrual cycle (follicular phase) of the cycle on the same day as the MR scan, and a second blood sample on days 19-24 of the cycle. Serum progesterone levels of > = 5 mmol/L in days 19-24 were used to define the 225 subjects with ovulatory menstrual cycles, whose data are the subject of the analyses shown here. SHBG was positively associated with percent water in both follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Total and free estradiol and total and free testosterone were not associated with percent water in the follicular phase, but in young women with ovulatory cycles, were all negatively associated with percent water in the luteal phase. Our results from young women aged 15-30 years add to the evidence that the extent of fibroglandular tissue in the breast that is reflected in both mammographic density and breast water is associated positively with higher serum levels of SHBG, but not with higher levels of sex hormones.

  18. Sex steroids and personality traits in the middle luteal phase of healthy normally menstruating young professional women.

    PubMed

    Avgoustinaki, Pavlina D; Mitsopoulou, Effrosyni; Chlouverakis, Gregorios; Triantafillou, Theoni; Venihaki, Maria; Koukouli, Sofia; Margioris, Andrew N

    2012-01-01

    Sex steroids affect human behavior. The aim of the present study was to determine the associations, if any, between the circulating levels of gonadal and adrenal sex steroids in the mid luteal phase (21st day of a normal menstrual cycle, MC) of young professional women and psychometric parameters as assessed by the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI). Our results are as follows: (a) The metabolic product of activated adrenal and gonadal androgens, 3alpha-diolG, was modestly but significantly associated with the social introversion scale (10-SI) (r=0.36, p<0.05), independently accounting for 13% of its variation across participants (R²=0.13, F(1,45)=6.58, p=0.014). (b) Total testosterone was significantly associated with the paranoia scale (6-Pa) (r=0.27, p<0.05). Multiple regression analyses indicated that 10% of the variability in paranoia scores could be independently explained by total testosterone levels (R²=0.10, F(1,57)=6.23, p=0.016). We were unable to find any association between the circulating androgens and scores on the masculinity-femininity scale (Mf). We were also unable to document any association between the weak adrenal androgens DHEA and DHEA-S and depression in contrast to several published reports. (c) Our data suggest a marginally significant association between progesterone and scores on the 7-Pt (obsessive/compulsive/psychasthenia) scale (r=0.27, p<0.05). However, only 7% of the 7-Pt variance was explained by progesterone (R²=0.071, F(1,50)=3.81, p=0.057). We have found that total testosterone was associated with the paranoia score, the metabolic product of activated androgens, 3alpha-diolG, to social introversion and, finally, progesterone to obsessive-compulsive behavior.

  19. Sex hormone-binding globulin and corticosteroid-binding globulin mRNA levels in infertile women with luteal phase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Misao, R; Nakanishi, Y; Fujimoto, J; Tamaya, T

    1995-09-01

    This study was designed to investigate the biological significance in intracellular expression of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) and corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) mRNA in uterine endometrium with luteal phase deficiency (designated as out-of-phase endometrium or low serum progesterone level). The levels of such mRNAs were measured by the quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Under the normal serum 17 beta-estradiol and progesterone levels in the mid-luteal phase, the levels of SHBG and CBG mRNAs in the out-of-phase endometria were not significantly different from those in the normal endometria. On the other hand, SHBG and CBG mRNA levels in the endometria of low serum midluteal progesterone level were significantly (p < 0.05) reduced and raised, respectively, compared with normal levels. These findings suggest that the synthesis of endometrial steroid-binding proteins in the out-of-phase endometrium is conserved, as that in the in-phase endometrium, whereas the decreased progesterone level might up-regulate CBG expression with down-regulation of SHBG expression.

  20. Progesterone for Luteal Phase Support in In Vitro Fertilization: Comparison of Vaginal and Rectal Pessaries to Vaginal Capsules: A Randomized Controlled Study

    PubMed Central

    Khrouf, Mohamed; Slimani, Soufiene; Khrouf, Myriam Razgallah; Braham, Marouen; Bouyahia, Maha; Berjeb, Khadija Kacem; Chaabane, Hanene Elloumi; Merdassi, Ghaya; Kaffel, Aida Zahaf; Zhioua, Amel; Zhioua, Fethi

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND In IVF, Luteal phase support is usually performed using vaginal progesterone. A part of patients using this route reports being uncomfortable with this route. We tried to study whether the rectal route could be an effective alternative and associated with less discomfort. PATIENTS AND METHODS A prospective randomized controlled study. All patient were eligible for IVF treatment for infertility. After oocyte pickup, 186 patients were allocated to one the following protocols for luteal phase support: (i) rectal pessaries group: natural progesterone pessaries administered rectally 200 mg three times a day, (ii) vaginal pessaries group: natural progesterone pessaries administered vaginally 200 mg three times a day), and (iii) vaginal capsules group: natural micronized progesterone capsules administered vaginally 200 mg three times a day. On the day of pregnancy test, patients were asked to fill in a questionnaire conducted by an investigator in order to assess the tolerability and side effects of the LPS treatment taken. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of perineal irritation. RESULTS Fifty eight patients were assigned to the rectal pessaries group, 68 patients to the vaginal pessaries group, and 60 patients to the vaginal capsules group. All patients adhered to their allocated treatment. Implantation and clinical pregnancy rates per transfer did not differ between the three groups. Perineal irritation, which was our primary endpoint, was the same for all the three groups (respectively 1.7 % versus 5.9 % versus 11.7%). Regarding the other side effects, more patients experienced constipation and flatulence with the rectal route, whereas more patients reported vaginal discharge in the vaginal capsules group. CONCLUSION Rectal administration for luteal phase support is effective and well accepted alternative to vaginal route. PMID:28096703

  1. Progesterone for Luteal Phase Support in In Vitro Fertilization: Comparison of Vaginal and Rectal Pessaries to Vaginal Capsules: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Khrouf, Mohamed; Slimani, Soufiene; Khrouf, Myriam Razgallah; Braham, Marouen; Bouyahia, Maha; Berjeb, Khadija Kacem; Chaabane, Hanene Elloumi; Merdassi, Ghaya; Kaffel, Aida Zahaf; Zhioua, Amel; Zhioua, Fethi

    2016-01-01

    In IVF, Luteal phase support is usually performed using vaginal progesterone. A part of patients using this route reports being uncomfortable with this route. We tried to study whether the rectal route could be an effective alternative and associated with less discomfort. A prospective randomized controlled study. All patient were eligible for IVF treatment for infertility. After oocyte pickup, 186 patients were allocated to one the following protocols for luteal phase support: (i) rectal pessaries group: natural progesterone pessaries administered rectally 200 mg three times a day, (ii) vaginal pessaries group: natural progesterone pessaries administered vaginally 200 mg three times a day), and (iii) vaginal capsules group: natural micronized progesterone capsules administered vaginally 200 mg three times a day. On the day of pregnancy test, patients were asked to fill in a questionnaire conducted by an investigator in order to assess the tolerability and side effects of the LPS treatment taken. The primary endpoint was the occurrence of perineal irritation. Fifty eight patients were assigned to the rectal pessaries group, 68 patients to the vaginal pessaries group, and 60 patients to the vaginal capsules group. All patients adhered to their allocated treatment. Implantation and clinical pregnancy rates per transfer did not differ between the three groups. Perineal irritation, which was our primary endpoint, was the same for all the three groups (respectively 1.7 % versus 5.9 % versus 11.7%). Regarding the other side effects, more patients experienced constipation and flatulence with the rectal route, whereas more patients reported vaginal discharge in the vaginal capsules group. Rectal administration for luteal phase support is effective and well accepted alternative to vaginal route.

  2. A randomized double-blinded controlled trial of hCG as luteal phase support in natural cycle frozen embryo transfer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Vivian Chi Yan; Li, Raymond Hang Wun; Yeung, William Shu Biu; Pak Chung, H O; Ng, Ernest Hung Yu

    2017-05-01

    Does the use of hCG as luteal phase support in natural cycle frozen embryo transfer (FET) increase the ongoing pregnancy rate? The use of hCG in natural cycle FET did not improve the ongoing pregnancy rate. The use of luteal phase support in stimulated cycles has been associated with higher live-birth rates and the results are similar when using hCG or progesterone. This is a randomized double-blinded controlled trial of 450 women recruited between August 2013 and October 2015. Women with regular cycles undergoing natural cycle FET were recruited. Serial serum hormonal concentrations were used to time natural ovulation and at least Day 2 cleavage embryos were replaced. Patients were randomized into either: (i) the treatment group, receiving 1500 IU hCG on the day of FET and 6 days after FET, or (ii) the control group, receiving normal saline on these 2 days. The ongoing pregnancy rate [60/225 (26.7%) in the treatment group vs 70/225 (31.3%) in the control group, odds ratio 1.242 (95% CI 0.825-1.869)], implantation rate and miscarriage rate were comparable between the two groups. In the treatment group, there were significantly more cycles with top quality embryos transferred and a significantly higher serum oestradiol level, but a comparable serum progesterone level, 6 days after FET. However, no significant differences were observed in serum oestradiol and progesterone levels 6 days after FET between the pregnant and non-pregnant women. In the multivariate logistic regression, the number of embryos transferred was the only significant factor predictive of the ongoing pregnancy rate after natural cycle FET. This study only included FET with cleavage stage embryos and only hCG, not vaginal progesterone, was used as luteal phase support. The findings in this study do not support the use of hCG for luteal phase support in natural cycle FET. No external funding was used and there were no competing interests. clinicaltrial.gov identifier: NCT01931384. 23/8/2013. 30

  3. Luteal function during the estrous cycle in arginine-treated ewes fed different planes of nutrition.

    PubMed

    Bass, Casie S; Redmer, Dale A; Kaminski, Samantha L; Grazul-Bilska, Anna T

    2017-03-01

    Functions of corpus luteum (CL) are influenced by numerous factors including hormones, growth and angiogenic factors, nutritional plane and dietary supplements such as arginine (Arg), a semi-essential amino acid and precursor for proteins, polyamines and nitric oxide (NO). The aim of this study was to determine if Arg supplementation to ewes fed different planes of nutrition influences: (1) progesterone (P4) concentrations in serum and luteal tissue, (2) luteal vascularity, cell proliferation, endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and receptor (R) soluble guanylate cyclase β protein and mRNA expression and (3) luteal mRNA expression for selected angiogenic factors during the estrous cycle. Ewes (n = 111) were categorized by weight and randomly assigned to one of three nutritional planes: maintenance control (C), overfed (2× C) and underfed (0.6× C) beginning 60 days prior to onset of estrus. After estrus synchronization, ewes from each nutritional plane were assigned randomly to one of two treatments: Arg or saline. Serum and CL were collected at the early, mid and late luteal phases. The results demonstrated that: (1) nutritional plane affected ovulation rates, luteal vascularity, cell proliferation and NOS3, GUCY1B3, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and VEGFR2 mRNA expression, (2) Arg affected luteal vascularity, cell proliferation and NOS3, GUCY1B3, VEGF and VEGFR2 mRNA expression and (3) luteal vascularity, cell proliferation and the VEGF and NO systems depend on the stage of the estrous cycle. These data indicate that plane of nutrition and/or Arg supplementation can alter vascularization and expression of selected angiogenic factors in luteal tissue during the estrous cycle in sheep. © 2017 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  4. Micro-dose hCG as luteal phase support without exogenous progesterone administration: mathematical modelling of the hCG concentration in circulation and initial clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Andersen, C Yding; Fischer, R; Giorgione, V; Kelsey, Thomas W

    2016-10-01

    For the last two decades, exogenous progesterone administration has been used as luteal phase support (LPS) in connection with controlled ovarian stimulation combined with use of the human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) trigger for the final maturation of follicles. The introduction of the GnRHa trigger to induce ovulation showed that exogenous progesterone administration without hCG supplementation was insufficient to obtain satisfactory pregnancy rates. This has prompted development of alternative strategies for LPS. Augmenting the local endogenous production of progesterone by the multiple corpora lutea has been one focus with emphasis on one hand to avoid development of ovarian hyper-stimulation syndrome and, on the other hand, to provide adequate levels of progesterone to sustain implantation. The present study evaluates the use of micro-dose hCG for LPS support and examines the potential advances and disadvantages. Based on the pharmacokinetic characteristics of hCG, the mathematical modelling of the concentration profiles of hCG during the luteal phase has been evaluated in connection with several different approaches for hCG administration as LPS. It is suggested that the currently employed LPS provided in connection with the GnRHa trigger (i.e. 1.500 IU) is too strong, and that daily micro-dose hCG administration is likely to provide an optimised LPS with the current available drugs. Initial clinical results with the micro-dose hCG approach are presented.

  5. A randomized comparison of side effects and patient convenience between Cyclogest suppositories and Endometrin tablets used for luteal phase support in IVF treatment.

    PubMed

    Ng, Ernest Hung Yu; Chan, Carina Chi Wai; Tang, Oi Shan; Ho, Pak Chung

    2007-04-01

    This study compared side effects and patient convenience of vaginal progesterone suppositories (Cyclogest) and vaginal progesterone tablets (Endometrin) used for luteal phase support in in vitro fertilization/embryo transfer (IVF/ET) cycles using pituitary downregulation. One hundred and thirty-two infertile patients were randomized on the day of ET by a computer-generated randomization list in sealed envelopes to receive either Cyclogest 400mg or Endometrin 100mg twice daily for 14 days. On days 6 and 16 after ET, they rated side effects and patient convenience into four grades: none, mild, moderate and severe by completing a questionnaire. No significant differences in perineal irritation were found on days 6 and 16 after ET between the two groups, although there was a trend of fewer patients with perineal irritation in the Endometrin group. Significantly more patients in the Endometrin group had difficulty of administration on day 6 after ET. There were no differences in the hormonal profile on day 6 after ET and IVF outcomes between the two groups. There was no difference in perineal irritation after the use of Cyclogest suppositories or Endometrin tablets for luteal phase support although more patients found administration of Endometrin tablets difficult.

  6. Changes in insulin-like growth factor-binding protein-3 messenger ribonucleic acid in endothelial cells of the human corpus luteum: a possible role in luteal development and rescue.

    PubMed

    Fraser, H M; Lunn, S F; Kim, H; Duncan, W C; Rodger, F E; Illingworth, P J; Erickson, G F

    2000-04-01

    In the human menstrual cycle, extensive angiogenesis accompanies luteinization; and the process is physiologically important for corpus luteum (CL) function. During luteolysis, the vasculature collapses, and the endothelial cells die. In a conceptual cycle, the CL persists both functionally and structurally beyond the luteoplacental shift. Although luteal rescue is not associated with increased angiogenesis, endothelial survival is extended. Despite the central role of the luteal vasculature in fertility, the mechanisms regulating its development and demise are poorly understood. There is increasing evidence that insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and their binding proteins (IGFBPs) may be important effectors of luteal function. Here, we have found that IGFBP-3 messenger RNA is expressed in the endothelium of the human CL and that the levels of message change during luteal development and rescue by human CG. The signal was strong during the early luteal phase, but it showed significant reduction during the mid- and late luteal phases. Interestingly, administration of human CG caused a marked increase in the levels of IGFBP-3 messenger RNA in luteal endothelial cells that was comparable to that observed during the early luteal phase. We conclude that endothelial cell IGFBP-3 expression is a physiological property of the CL of menstruation and pregnancy. These observations raise the intriguing possibility that the regulated expression of endothelial IGFBP-3 may play a role in controlling angiogenesis and cell responses in the human CL by autocrine/paracrine mechanisms.

  7. Comparison of low-intensity blood flow-restricted training-induced muscular hypertrophy in eumenorrheic women in the follicular phase and luteal phase and age-matched men.

    PubMed

    Sakamaki, Mikako; Yasuda, Tomohiro; Abe, Takashi

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the muscle hypertrophic response in women during both the follicular (FP) and the luteal phase (LP) of their menstrual cycles following short-term, low-intensity resistance training combined with blood flow restriction (BFR). Eight eumenorrheic women and five men, all previously untrained, performed unilateral low-intensity (30% of 1 repetition maximum) dumbbell curl training with BFR once a day for 6 days. The opposite arm served as an untrained control. This 6-day training programme was conducted during both menstrual cycle phases: the early FP and the mid LP. MRI-measured biceps muscle volume (MV) and isometric elbow flexion strength were measured in both arms before and 2 days after the final training bout. Significantly (P<0.05) greater muscle hypertrophy was observed in the LP (5·7%) than in the FP (3·7%). The absolute and relative changes in serum hormone concentrations between the two phases did not correlate (P>0.05) with the percentage change in MV between the LP and FP. There was no change in MV in the control arm for both cycle phases. Following training, isometric strength increased (P<0.01) in the LP, but not in the FP (P = 0.17). Relative strength (strength per unit MV) was similar pre- and post-training in both phases. The percentage changes in MV and strength were similar between the women (average of LP and FP) and men. Our results indicate that muscle hypertrophy and strength gain are higher in the LP than in the FP following 6 days of BFR training, although the sex difference in the training response is non-existent. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging © 2011 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  8. Non-reproductive Effects of Anovulation: Bone Metabolism in the Luteal Phase of Premenopausal Women Differs between Ovulatory and Anovulatory Cycles.

    PubMed

    Niethammer, B; Körner, C; Schmidmayr, M; Luppa, P B; Seifert-Klauss, V R

    2015-12-01

    Introduction: Several authors have linked subclinical ovulatory disturbances in normal length menstrual cycles to premenopausal fracture risk and bone changes. This study systematically examined the influence of ovulation and anovulation on the bone metabolism of premenopausal women. Participants and Methods: In 176 cycles in healthy premenopausal women, FSH, 17β-estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) as well as bone alkalic phosphatase (BAP), pyridinoline (PYD) and C-terminal crosslinks (CTX) were measured during the follicular and during the luteal phase. The probability and timing of ovulation was self-assessed by a monitoring device. In addition, bone density of the lumbar spine was measured by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) at baseline and at the end of the study. Analysis was restricted to blood samples taken more than three days before the following menstruation. Results: 118 cycles out of the 176 collected cycles were complete with blood samples taken within the correct time interval. Of these, 56.8 % were ovulatory by two criteria (ovulation symbol shown on the monitor display and LP progesterone > 6 ng/ml), 33.1 % were possibly ovulatory by one criterion (ovulation symbol shown on the monitor display or LP progesterone > 6 ng/ml), and 10.2 % were anovulatory by both criteria). Ovulation in the previous cycle and in the same cycle did not significantly influence the mean absolute concentrations of the bone markers. However, bone formation (BAP) was higher in the luteal phase of ovulatory cycles than in anovulatory cycles (n. s.) and the relative changes within one cycle were significantly different for bone resorption (CTX) during ovulatory vs. anovulatory cycles (p < 0.01). In 68 pairs of cycles following each other directly, both ovulation in the previous cycle and ovulation in the present cycle influenced CTX, but not the differences of other bone markers. Conclusion: Ovulatory cycles reduce bone resorption in their luteal

  9. Women with steroid 5 alpha-reductase 2 deficiency have normal concentrations of plasma 5 alpha-dihydroprogesterone during the luteal phase.

    PubMed

    Milewich, L; Mendonca, B B; Arnhold, I; Wallace, A M; Donaldson, M D; Wilson, J D; Russell, D W

    1995-11-01

    Steroid 5 alpha-reductase 2 deficiency has been identified in two adult women from unrelated families, one a homozygote and the other a compound heterozygote. The homozygote carries the G183S mutation and is the sister of an affected male; the compound heterozygote (R246W/splice junction abnormality) is married to a heterozygote (splice junction abnormality) and is the mother of two compound heterozygotes and two homozygotes. The fact that these two women are the mothers of seven children and appear to be endocrinologically normal confirms the previous deduction that this disorder is not manifest in women. Concentrations of plasma 5 alpha-dihydroprogesterone were normal in these two women during the luteal phase; this finding implies that circulating 5 alpha-dihydroprogesterone in women is derived principally from the steroid 5 alpha-reductase 1 isoenzyme and leaves unresolved the question of whether 5 alpha-dihydroprogesterone plays a physiological role in women.

  10. Immunocytochemical localization of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) pathways in the sheep brain during anestrus and the mid-luteal phase of the estrous cycle.

    PubMed

    Lehman, M N; Robinson, J E; Karsch, F J; Silverman, A J

    1986-02-01

    The luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) system of the sheep brain was examined by light microscopic immunocytochemistry with thick, unembedded sections. We compared the distribution and morphology of LHRH cells and their fibers in intact and ovariectomized anestrous ewes, and in breeding season ewes during the mid-luteal phase of their estrous cycle. In all animals, a majority of LHRH neurons were found in the medial preoptic area adjacent to the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis. These cells formed a continuum rostrally with immunoreactive neurons in the diagonal band of Broca and medial septum and caudally with cells in the ventrolateral anterior hypothalamus and lateral hypothalamus. Relatively few cells (1-2%) were seen in the arcuate nucleus or its vicinity. Preoptic LHRH neurons project to the tubero-infundibular sulcus of the median eminence by at least two routes: a major ventrolateral projection above the optic tract in the anterior and lateral hypothalamus, and a less prominent periventricular pathway along the third ventricle. LHRH fibers were also observed in a number of extrahypothalamic regions, including the medial amygdala and the accessory olfactory bulb. Immunoreactive LHRH neurons in the sheep exhibited a complex light microscopic morphology unlike that seen in LHRH cells of any other species to date. LHRH cells with extensive, branching processes were frequently found in clusters with close somatic appositions between neighboring cells. Multiple thin protuberances emanated from the soma of many immunoreactive neurons. Immunoreactive fibers with beaded varicosities often were intimately associated with both cell bodies and their dendritic processes. Morphometric analyses revealed that preoptic LHRH neurons in three of four mid-luteal phase ewes had a shorter total dendritic length than those neurons in either intact or ovariectomized anestrous ewes, but this difference between breeding season and anestrous ewes was not

  11. A Phase III randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy, safety and tolerability of oral dydrogesterone versus micronized vaginal progesterone for luteal support in in vitro fertilization.

    PubMed

    Tournaye, Herman; Sukhikh, Gennady T; Kahler, Elke; Griesinger, Georg

    2017-05-01

    Is oral dydrogesterone 30 mg daily (10 mg three times daily [TID]) non-inferior to micronized vaginal progesterone (MVP) 600 mg daily (200 mg TID) for luteal support in in vitro fertilization (IVF), assessed by the presence of fetal heartbeats determined by transvaginal ultrasound at 12 weeks of gestation? Non-inferiority of oral dydrogesterone versus MVP was demonstrated at 12 weeks of gestation, with a difference in pregnancy rate and an associated confidence interval (CI) that were both within the non-inferiority margin. MVP is routinely used in most clinics for luteal support in IVF, but it is associated with side effects, such as vaginal irritation and discharge, as well as poor patient acceptance. Dydrogesterone may be an alternative treatment due to its patient-friendly oral administration. Lotus I was an international Phase III randomized controlled trial, performed across 38 sites, from August 2013 to March 2016. Subjects were premenopausal women (>18 to <42 years of age; body mass index (BMI) ≥18 to ≤30 kg/m2) with a documented history of infertility who were planning to undergo IVF. A centralized electronic system was used for randomization, and the study investigators, sponsor's study team, and subjects remained blinded throughout the study. In total, 1031 subjects were randomized to receive either oral dydrogesterone (n = 520) or MVP (n = 511). Luteal support was started on the day of oocyte retrieval and continued until 12 weeks of gestation (Week 10), if a positive pregnancy test was obtained at 2 weeks after embryo transfer. In the full analysis set (FAS), 497 and 477 subjects in the oral dydrogesterone and MVP groups, respectively, had an embryo transfer. Non-inferiority of oral dydrogesterone was demonstrated, with pregnancy rates at 12 weeks of gestation of 37.6% and 33.1% in the oral dydrogesterone and MVP treatment groups, respectively (difference 4.7%; 95% CI: -1.2-10.6%). Live birth rates of 34.6% (172 mothers with 213 newborns) and 29

  12. Luteal Coasting and Individualization of Human Chorionic Gonadotropin Dose after Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone Agonist Triggering for Final Oocyte Maturation—A Retrospective Proof-of-Concept Study

    PubMed Central

    Lawrenz, Barbara; Samir, Suzan; Garrido, Nicolas; Melado, Laura; Engelmann, Nils; Fatemi, Human M.

    2018-01-01

    Ovarian stimulation in a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) antagonist protocol with the use of GnRH agonist for final oocyte maturation is the state-of-the-art treatment in patients with an expected or known high response to avoid or at least reduce significantly the risk for development of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Due to a shortened LH surge after administration of GnRH agonist in most patients, the luteal phase will be characterized by luteolysis and luteal phase insufficiency. Maintaining a sufficient luteal phase is crucial for achievement of a pregnancy; however, the optimal approach is still under debate. Administration of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) within 72 h rescues the corpora lutea function; however, the so far often used 1,500 IU still bear the risk for development of OHSS. The recently introduced concept of “luteal coasting” individualizes the luteal phase support by monitoring the progesterone concentrations and administering a rescue dosage of hCG when progesterone concentrations drop significantly. This retrospective proof-of-concept study explored the correlation between hCG dosages ranging from 375 up to 1,500 IU and the progesterone levels in the early and mid-luteal phases as well as the likelihood of pregnancy, both early and ongoing. The chance of pregnancy is highest with progesterone level ≥13 ng/ml at 48 h postoocyte retrieval. Among the small sample size of 52 women studied, it appears that appropriate progesterone levels can be achieved with hCG dosages as low as 375 IU. This may well optimize the chance of pregnancy while reducing the risk of OHSS associated with higher doses of hCG supplementation in the luteal phase. PMID:29497400

  13. Luteal phase support in intrauterine insemination cycles: a prospective randomized study of 300 mg versus 600 mg intravaginal progesterone tablet.

    PubMed

    Biberoglu, Ebru H; Tanrıkulu, Filiz; Erdem, Mehmet; Erdem, Ahmet; Biberoglu, Kutay Omer

    2016-01-01

    Vaginal progesterone (P) has been suggested to be used for luteal phase support (LPS) in controlled ovarian stimulation (COH)-intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles, however, no concensus exists about the best P dose. Therefore, considering the fecundability rate as the primary end point, our main objective was to find the optimal dose of P in COH-IUI cycles, comparing the two groups of women, each of which comprised of 100 women either on 300 mg or 600 mg of intravaginal P tablets, in a prospective randomized study design. The mean age of the women, duration of infertility, basal and day of hCG injection hormone levels in the female and sperm parameters were similar in the two study groups. Also, duration and dose of gonadotropin given, number of follicles, endometrial thickness, the total, ongoing and multiple pregnancy rates were comparable in both groups. We, therefore, claim that 300 mg of intravaginal micronized P should be the maximum dose of LPS in IUI cycles.

  14. Effect of exogenous progesterone administration on luteal sensitivity to PGF during the early development of the corpus luteum in mares and cows.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Muñoz, A; Valldecabres-Torres, X; Newcombe, J R; Cuervo-Arango, J; Garcia-Rosello, E

    2017-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of exogenous progesterone administration at ovulation and during the early development of the CL, on its future sensitivity to a single administration of PGF2a in mares and cows. Horse Retrospective reproductive data from an equine clinic in the UK during three breeding seasons were used. Mares were divided into: control group, cycles with single ovulations; double ovulation group cycles with asynchronous double ovulations; and PRID group: cycles with single ovulations and treatment with intravaginal progesterone device (CIDR) immediately after the ovulation. All mares were treated with d-cloprostenol (PGF) at either: (i) 88 hr; (ii) 96 hr; (iii) 104 hr; or (iv) 112 hr after the last ovulation. Cattle A total of nine non-lactating Holstein cows were used. All cows were administered PGF14 d apart and allocated to one of two groups control group GnRH was administered 56 hr after the second PGF administration. CIDR group CIDR was inserted at the same time of GnRH administration. All cows were administered PGF at 120 hr post-ovulation. The complete luteolysis rate of mares with double ovulation (66.7%) and those treated with exogenous progesterone (68.4%) was significantly higher than the rate of mares with single ovulation (35.6%) at 104 hr. In the cow, however, the treatment with CIDR did not increase the luteolytic response in cows treated at 120 hr post-ovulation. In conclusion, the degree of complete luteolysis can be influenced by increasing the concentration of progesterone during the early luteal development in mares. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. A Phase III randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy, safety and tolerability of oral dydrogesterone versus micronized vaginal progesterone for luteal support in in vitro fertilization

    PubMed Central

    Tournaye, Herman; Sukhikh, Gennady T.; Griesinger, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Abstract STUDY QUESTION Is oral dydrogesterone 30 mg daily (10 mg three times daily [TID]) non-inferior to micronized vaginal progesterone (MVP) 600 mg daily (200 mg TID) for luteal support in in vitro fertilization (IVF), assessed by the presence of fetal heartbeats determined by transvaginal ultrasound at 12 weeks of gestation? SUMMARY ANSWER Non-inferiority of oral dydrogesterone versus MVP was demonstrated at 12 weeks of gestation, with a difference in pregnancy rate and an associated confidence interval (CI) that were both within the non-inferiority margin. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY MVP is routinely used in most clinics for luteal support in IVF, but it is associated with side effects, such as vaginal irritation and discharge, as well as poor patient acceptance. Dydrogesterone may be an alternative treatment due to its patient-friendly oral administration. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION Lotus I was an international Phase III randomized controlled trial, performed across 38 sites, from August 2013 to March 2016. Subjects were premenopausal women (>18 to <42 years of age; body mass index (BMI) ≥18 to ≤30 kg/m2) with a documented history of infertility who were planning to undergo IVF. A centralized electronic system was used for randomization, and the study investigators, sponsor's study team, and subjects remained blinded throughout the study. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS In total, 1031 subjects were randomized to receive either oral dydrogesterone (n = 520) or MVP (n = 511). Luteal support was started on the day of oocyte retrieval and continued until 12 weeks of gestation (Week 10), if a positive pregnancy test was obtained at 2 weeks after embryo transfer. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE In the full analysis set (FAS), 497 and 477 subjects in the oral dydrogesterone and MVP groups, respectively, had an embryo transfer. Non-inferiority of oral dydrogesterone was demonstrated, with pregnancy rates at 12 weeks of gestation of 37.6% and 33.1% in

  16. Stimulatory effect of vascular endothelial growth factor on progesterone production and survivability of cultured bubaline luteal cells.

    PubMed

    Chouhan, V S; Dangi, S S; Gupta, M; Babitha, V; Khan, F A; Panda, R P; Yadav, V P; Singh, G; Sarkar, M

    2014-08-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effects of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) on progesterone (P4) synthesis in cultured luteal cells from different stages of the estrous cycle and on expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STARD1), cytochrome P450 cholesterol side chain cleavage (CYP11A1) and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD3B), antiapoptotic gene PCNA, and proapoptotic gene BAX in luteal cells obtained from mid-luteal phase (MLP) of estrous cycle in buffalo. Corpus luteum samples from the early luteal phase (ELP; day 1st-4th; n=4), MLP (day 5th-10th; n=4), and the late luteal phase (LLP; day 11th-16th; n=4) of oestrous cycle were obtained from a slaughterhouse. Luteal cell cultures were treated with VEGF (0, 1, 10 and 100 ng/ml) for 24, 48 and 72h. Progesterone was assessed by RIA, while mRNA expression was determined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Results indicated a dose- and time-dependent stimulatory effect of VEGF on P4 synthesis and expression of steroidogenic enzymes. Moreover, VEGF treatment led to an increase in PCNA expression and decrease in BAX expression. In summary, these findings suggest that VEGF acts locally in the bubaline CL to modulate steroid hormone synthesis and cell survivability, which indicates that this factor has an important role as a regulator of CL development and function in buffalo. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A questionnaire-based audit to assess overall experience and convenience among patients using vaginal progesterone tablets (Lutigest®) for luteal phase support during IVF treatment.

    PubMed

    Heine, Polly; Sellar, Laura; Whitten, Sue; Bajaj, Priti

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this audit was to assess the overall experience and patient convenience of vaginal progesterone tablets (Lutigest ® , marketed as Endometrin ® in the USA) used for luteal phase support (LPS) during in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. This questionnaire-based audit included responses from 100 patients undergoing IVF treatment at six IVF clinics in the UK from September 2015 to November 2016. Fourteen days after starting progesterone supplementation for LPS during their IVF treatment, patients rated overall experience and perceived convenience of the prescribed progesterone by completing a questionnaire. Of the 100 patients included, 96 received vaginal progesterone tablets for LPS. Overall, 53.1% (51/96) indicated that the progesterone tablets were "very easy" to use; 42.7% (41/96) and 44.8% (43/96) found it "very convenient" or "neither convenient or inconvenient" to administer the tablet, respectively. Overall experience with using progesterone tablets was rated as "very comfortable" by 34.4% (33/96) and "neither comfortable or uncomfortable" by 56.3% (54/96) of patients. The applicator was used by 93.8% (90/96) of patients to administer the tablet, and 86.5% (83/96) indicated that the applicator was easy to clean for repeated use. A total of 33 patients had a previous IVF cycle during which they were prescribed vaginal progesterone pessaries for LPS. Compared with progesterone pessaries, the majority found treatment with progesterone tablets to be more comfortable (60.6%; 20/33) and more convenient (57.6%; 19/33) and indicated that the progesterone tablet was their preferred progesterone formulation for LPS (60.6%; 20/33). These findings offer insights into real-world patient experiences with the progesterone vaginal tablet formulation. The results suggest overall patient convenience, ease, and comfort with using progesterone vaginal tablets for LPS. The majority of patients found progesterone vaginal tablets more convenient and comfortable to

  18. [Different patterns of follicular development and luteal function].

    PubMed

    Gu, L; Zhang, L; Gu, F

    1995-09-01

    To study the relationship between luteal function and different patterns of follicular development. Different patterns of follicular development as observed under transvaginal B-ultrasound in 85 infertile patients included: (1) Ovulation from normal follicle (ONF). (2) Ovulation from two follicles at the same cycle (O2F). (3) Ovulation from small follicle (OSF). (4) Ovulation from polycystic ovaries (PCO). (5) Luteinized unruptured follicle syndrome (LUFS). (6) Anovulation with follicular atresia. The luteal function of the first 5 types was evaluated by serum and peritoneal fluid estrogen, progesterone levels, endometrial histology, estradiol receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) analyaes, and the length of luteal phase. The incidence of luteal phase deficiency (LPD): short luteal phase was 10.42%, retardation of endometrial development was 4.17% in ONF, no LPD in O2F, 21.42% in OSF, 2/3 in PCO, 3/6 in LUFS, respectively. The incidence of LPD was 14.58% in ONF, 56.52% in abnormal follicular development groups (OSF, O2F and LUFS) (P < 0.005). It was found that the retardation of endometrial development was associated either with lowered serum P level or normal serum P but lowered ER and PR concentrations. The latter condition was recognized as "pseudocorpus luteum deficiency". The different patterns of follicular development may exert a great influence over luteal function through the different production of steroid hormones and their receptors.

  19. Expression of the GnRH and GnRH receptor (GnRH-R) genes in the hypothalamus and of the GnRH-R gene in the anterior pituitary gland of anestrous and luteal phase ewes.

    PubMed

    Ciechanowska, Magdalena; Lapot, Magdalena; Malewski, Tadeusz; Mateusiak, Krystyna; Misztal, Tomasz; Przekop, Franciszek

    2008-11-01

    Data exists showing that seasonal changes in the innervations of GnRH cells in the hypothalamus and functions of some neural systems affecting GnRH neurons are associated with GnRH release in ewes. Consequently, we put the question as to how the expression of GnRH gene and GnRH-R gene in the hypothalamus and GnRH-R gene in the anterior pituitary gland is reflected with LH secretion in anestrous and luteal phase ewes. Analysis of GnRH gene expression by RT-PCR in anestrous ewes indicated comparable levels of GnRH mRNA in the preoptic area, anterior and ventromedial hypothalamus. GnRH-R mRNA at different concentrations was found throughout the preoptic area, anterior and ventromedial hypothalamus, stalk/median eminence and in the anterior pituitary gland. The highest GnRH-R mRNA levels were detected in the stalk/median eminence and in the anterior pituitary gland. During the luteal phase of the estrous cycle in ewes, the levels of GnRH mRNA and GnRH-R mRNA in all structures were significantly higher than in anestrous ewes. Also LH concentrations in blood plasma of luteal phase ewes were significantly higher than those of anestrous ewes. In conclusion, results from this study suggest that low expression of the GnRH and GnRH-R genes in the hypothalamus and of the GnRH-R gene in the anterior pituitary gland, amongst others, may be responsible for a decrease in LH secretion and the anovulatory state in ewes during the long photoperiod.

  20. Difference in expression between AQP1 and AQP5 in porcine endometrium and myometrium in response to steroid hormones, oxytocin, arachidonic acid, forskolin and cAMP during the mid-luteal phase of the estrous cycle and luteolysis.

    PubMed

    Skowronska, Agnieszka; Mlotkowska, Patrycja; Nielsen, Soren; Skowronski, Mariusz T

    2015-12-01

    Recently, we demonstrated in vitro that AQP1 and AQP5 in the porcine uterus are regulated by steroid hormones (P4, E2), arachidonic acid (AA), forskolin (FSK) and cAMP during the estrous cycle. However, the potential of the porcine separated uterine tissues, the endometrium and myometrium, to express these AQPs remains unknown. Thus, in this study, the responses of AQP1 and AQP5 to P4, E2 oxytocin (OT), AA, FSK and cAMP in the porcine endometrium and myometrium were examined during the mid-luteal phase of the estrous cycle and luteolysis. Real-time PCR and western blot analysis. Progesterone up-regulated the expression of AQP1/AQP5 mRNAs and proteins in the endometrium and myometrium, especially during luteolysis. Similarly, E2 also stimulated the expression of both AQPs, but only in the endometrium. AA led to the upregulation of AQP1/AQP5 in the endometrium during luteolysis. In turn, OT increased the expression of AQP1/AQP5 mRNAs and proteins in the myometrium during mid-luteal phase. Moreover, a stimulatory effect of forskolin and cAMP on the expression of AQP1/AQP5 mRNAs and proteins in the endometrium and myometrium dominated during luteolysis, but during the mid-luteal phase their influence on the expression of these AQPs was differentiated depending on the type of tissue and the incubation duration. These results seem to indicate that uterine tissues; endometrium and myometrium, exhibit their own AQP expression profiles in response to examined factors. Moreover, the responses of AQP1/AQP5 at mRNA and protein levels to the studied factors in the endometrium and myometrium are more pronounced during luteolysis. This suggests that the above effects of the studied factors are connected with morphological and physiological changes taking place in the pig uterus during the estrous cycle.

  1. A questionnaire-based audit to assess overall experience and convenience among patients using vaginal progesterone tablets (Lutigest®) for luteal phase support during IVF treatment

    PubMed Central

    Heine, Polly; Sellar, Laura; Whitten, Sue; Bajaj, Priti

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this audit was to assess the overall experience and patient convenience of vaginal progesterone tablets (Lutigest®, marketed as Endometrin® in the USA) used for luteal phase support (LPS) during in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. Patients and methods This questionnaire-based audit included responses from 100 patients undergoing IVF treatment at six IVF clinics in the UK from September 2015 to November 2016. Fourteen days after starting progesterone supplementation for LPS during their IVF treatment, patients rated overall experience and perceived convenience of the prescribed progesterone by completing a questionnaire. Results Of the 100 patients included, 96 received vaginal progesterone tablets for LPS. Overall, 53.1% (51/96) indicated that the progesterone tablets were “very easy” to use; 42.7% (41/96) and 44.8% (43/96) found it “very convenient” or “neither convenient or inconvenient” to administer the tablet, respectively. Overall experience with using progesterone tablets was rated as “very comfortable” by 34.4% (33/96) and “neither comfortable or uncomfortable” by 56.3% (54/96) of patients. The applicator was used by 93.8% (90/96) of patients to administer the tablet, and 86.5% (83/96) indicated that the applicator was easy to clean for repeated use. A total of 33 patients had a previous IVF cycle during which they were prescribed vaginal progesterone pessaries for LPS. Compared with progesterone pessaries, the majority found treatment with progesterone tablets to be more comfortable (60.6%; 20/33) and more convenient (57.6%; 19/33) and indicated that the progesterone tablet was their preferred progesterone formulation for LPS (60.6%; 20/33). Conclusion These findings offer insights into real-world patient experiences with the progesterone vaginal tablet formulation. The results suggest overall patient convenience, ease, and comfort with using progesterone vaginal tablets for LPS. The majority of patients found

  2. Differential gene expression profiling of endometrium during the mid-luteal phase of the estrous cycle between a repeat breeder (RB) and non-RB cows.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Ken-Go; Hosoe, Misa; Kizaki, Keiichiro; Fujii, Shiori; Kanahara, Hiroko; Takahashi, Toru; Sakumoto, Ryosuke

    2017-03-23

    Repeat breeding directly affects reproductive efficiency in cattle due to an increase in services per conception and calving interval. This study aimed to investigate whether changes in endometrial gene expression profile are involved in repeat breeding in cows. Differential gene expression profiles of the endometrium were investigated during the mid-luteal phase of the estrous cycle between repeat breeder (RB) and non-RB cows using microarray analysis. The caruncular (CAR) and intercaruncular (ICAR) endometrium of both ipsilateral and contralateral uterine horns to the corpus luteum were collected from RB (inseminated at least three times but not pregnant) and non-RB cows on Day 15 of the estrous cycle (4 cows/group). Global gene expression profiles of these endometrial samples were analyzed with a 15 K custom-made oligo-microarray for cattle. Immunohistochemistry was performed to investigate the cellular localization of proteins of three identified transcripts in the endometrium. Microarray analysis revealed that 405 and 397 genes were differentially expressed in the CAR and ICAR of the ipsilateral uterine horn of RB, respectively when compared with non-RB cows. In the contralateral uterine horn, 443 and 257 differentially expressed genes were identified in the CAR and ICAR of RB, respectively when compared with non-RB cows. Gene ontology analysis revealed that genes involved in development and morphogenesis were mainly up-regulated in the CAR of RB cows. In the ICAR of both the ipsilateral and contralateral uterine horns, genes related to the metabolic process were predominantly enriched in the RB cows when compared with non-RB cows. In the analysis of the whole uterus (combining the data above four endometrial compartments), RB cows showed up-regulation of 37 genes including PRSS2, GSTA3 and PIPOX and down-regulation of 39 genes including CHGA, KRT35 and THBS4 when compared with non-RB cows. Immunohistochemistry revealed that CHGA, GSTA3 and PRSS2 proteins

  3. Luteal function and conception in lactating cows and some factors influencing luteal function after first insemination.

    PubMed

    Hommeida, Abdelrahim; Nakao, Toshihiko; Kubota, Hirokazu

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the types and incidence of luteal sub-function in lactating cows after artificial insemination (AI) and their relationship with pregnancy, and to clarify the relationship between luteal function and parity, body condition score (BCS), milk yield, and dietary intake. In 19 cows, milk samples were collected daily from AI to confirmation of pregnancy. Milk progesterone concentrations were determined by EIA. Based on peak progesterone concentration and the day of onset of luteal phase, 15 of 30 progesterone profiles (50%) were normal, with progesterone concentration reaching 1.0 ng/ml within 5 days after insemination and > or =2.0 ng/ml thereafter. In addition, 6 (20%) were insufficient, (progesterone concentration remained < 2.0 ng/ml), 5 (17%) were delayed (progesterone reached 1.0 ng/ml after 5 days), 2 (7%) were both delayed and insufficient, one (3%) was short (progesterone >1.0 ng/ml for only 7 days), and one (3%) remained basal. Cows with a normal profile had a higher (P < 0.05) pregnancy rate than those with an abnormal profile (87% versus 33%, respectively). The amount of progesterone secreted in milk after first AI, as indicated by progesterone area under curve (AUC), was negatively correlated with milk yield (r = -0.83, P < 0.01), dry matter intake (r = -0.81, P < 0.05), total digestible nutrients (r = -0.82, P< 0.05), and digestible crude protein (r = -0.79, P <0.05). Cows that produced more milk and consumed more dry matter had less progesterone during the luteal phase. In conclusion, abnormal luteal function was associated with reduced pregnancy rates and high milk production and increased dietary intake during breeding were associated with reduced progesterone concentrations.

  4. The effect of metritis on luteal function in dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Disturbed uterine involution impairs ovarian function in the first weeks after calving. This study analyzed the long-term effect of metritis on luteal function of 47 lactating Holstein-Friesian cows during the first four postpartum estrous cycles. Cows with abnormal uterine enlargement and malodorous lochia were classified as having metritis (group M, n = 18), and all others were considered healthy (group H, n = 29). Luteal size was measured once between days 9 and 13 of the first (group H, n = 11; group M, n = 12), second (group H, n = 23; group M, n = 18) and fourth (group H, n = 11; group M, n = 7) postpartum luteal phases. Serum progesterone concentration was measured at the same time. Sixteen cows (group H, n = 9; group M, n = 7) underwent transvaginal luteal biopsy for gene expression analysis of steroidogenic regulatory proteins during the second and fourth cycles. Cows with persistence of the corpus luteum (CL) underwent determination of luteal size, luteal biopsy and serum progesterone measurement once between days 29 and 33, followed by prostaglandin treatment to induce luteolysis. The same procedures were repeated once between days 9 and 13 of the induced cycle. Results The cows in group M had smaller first-cycle CLs than the cows in group H (p = 0.04), but progesterone concentrations did not differ between groups. Luteal size, progesterone concentration and gene expression did not differ between the two groups during the second and fourth cycles. Compared with healthy cows (10%), there was a trend (p = 0.07) toward a higher prevalence of persistent CLs in cows with metritis (33%). Persistent CLs were limited to the first cycle. Persistent CLs and the induced cyclic CLs did not differ with regard to the variables investigated. Conclusions An effect of metritis on luteal activity was apparent in the first postpartum estrous cycle. However, after the first postpartum cycle, no differences occurred

  5. Establishment and characterization of a telomerase immortalized porcine luteal cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liang; Huang, Yong; Wang, Zhenyu; Luo, Xiaomao; Zhang, Hongling; Du, Qian; Chang, Lingling; Zhao, Xiaomin; Tong, Dewen

    2017-05-01

    Luteal cells play a crucial role in pregnancy through secreting progesterone to maintain pregnancy and support of fetus. However, low cellular yields and inability to passage primary porcine luteal cells (PLCs) in vitro limit the luteal cell study. Therefore, developing an immortalized porcine luteal cell line is necessary for studying luteal cells activity and function in different diseases. In this study, primary PLCs were obtained from gilts at day 30 to day 50 of gestation and immortalized by human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT). The porcine corpus luteal cell line (hTERT-PLCs) expressed hTERT gene steady, maintained high hTERT activity and normal karyotype. The phase contrast microscope and transmission electron microscope observation showed primary PLCs and hTERT-PLCs were polygonal and exhibited abundant mitochondria, smooth endoplasmic reticulum and lipid droplets. 3β hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3βHSD) and Oil-Red-O staining showed that hTERT-PLCs at passage 30 and 50 were similar to primary PLCs. The hTERT-PLCs expressed steroidogenesis-related proteins, enzymes and receptors, such as steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage, 3βHSD, 20αHSD, luteinizing hormone receptor, progesterone receptor, prolactin receptor, estrogen receptorα/β, as well as primary PLCs. Consequently, hTERT-PLCs could secret progesterone and exhibited similar responses to luteinizing hormone and prostaglandin F2α as primary PLCs. In addition, the hTERT-PLCs did not show neoplastic transformation or anchorage independent growth. In summary, we developed an immortalized porcine luteal cell line which maintained its originally morphological, biological and functional characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Luteal estrogen supplementation in pregnancies associated with low serum estradiol concentrations.

    PubMed

    Kaider, A S; Coulam, C B

    2000-07-01

    The role of luteal phase estrogen in pregnancy outcome has been a matter of considerable debate. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of estrogen supplementation in gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist (GnRHa)/human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG)-stimulated cycles associated with low luteal estrogen concentration, a study was performed comparing the ongoing pregnancy rates in cycles with serum concentrations of estradiol (E2) <100 pg/ml 11 days post embryo transfer (p-ET), treated with luteal phase progesterone (P4) vs. E2 and P4 supplementation. Among 1106 serum samples studied, 951 were from women receiving GnRHa and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) prior to oocyte retrieval and P4 (50 mg-100 mg IM daily) as luteal phase supplementation beginning day 11 after retrieval. The remaining 155 were from women receiving both E2 (2 mg-6 mg estrace orally each day) and P4 during the luteal phase. Significantly greater frequencies of preclinical losses were observed among women with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) concentrations>5 mIU/ml and concurrent E2 concentrations <100 pg/ml compared with E2 >100 pg/ml (p<0.00001). Among the 128 women who had hCG concentrations >5 mIU/ml and E2 concentrations <100 pg/ml, 102 received P4 only during the luteal phase and 26 were treated with estrace 2 mg-6 mg daily, as well as P4 during the luteal phase. The frequency of preclinical pregnancy losses among the 102 women with hCG >5 mIU/ml and E2 <100 pg/ml who did not receive luteal E2 supplementation was 72%, compared with 50% who received luteal E2 supplementation (p=0.04) The increase in preclinical pregnancy loss rates among women not receiving luteal E2 resulted in a decrease in ongoing pregnancy rate (8%), compared to those receiving luteal E2 supplementation (31%) (p=0.002). Our results indicated that a subset of women losing pregnancies preclinically after GnRHa and FSH stimulation due to low luteal phase serum E2 level may benefit from luteal estrogen supplementation

  7. Mechanisms behind intrauterine device-induced luteal persistence in mares.

    PubMed

    Rivera Del Alamo, M M; Reilas, T; Kindahl, H; Katila, T

    2008-08-01

    Intrauterine glass balls are used to prevent oestrous signs in sports mares, but the mechanism of action is unknown. It has been suggested that the glass ball can mimic an embryo or act via an induced chronic uterine inflammation and absent or continuous low-grade prostaglandin (PG) release. The purpose of this study was to induce prolonged luteal function in mares using a small intrauterine device (IUD) and to study the mechanisms behind prolonged IUD-induced luteal function. A uterine swab and a biopsy specimen were obtained in early oestrus. A water-filled plastic ball, diameter 20mm and weight 3.6g, was inserted into the uterus 2-4 days after ovulation; the control mares underwent similar cervical manipulation without ball insertion. The mares were examined three times per week until day 23 and twice weekly thereafter until they returned to oestrus (transrectal palpation, ultrasonography and progesterone determination). The location of the IUD was recorded and ultrasound scans were video-recorded to assess the frequency of uterine contractions. When the mare returned to oestrus, a uterine swab and biopsy specimen were obtained and the bacteriological, cytological and histological (inflammation and glandular dilation) results compared with the samples obtained before the IUD insertion. The PG F(2alpha) metabolite levels were measured in the plasma of four control mares and eight IUD mares on days 11-16. The IUD induced a prolonged luteal phase in 75% of the mares (9/12; IUD-P); the mean dioestrous length was 57.0 days. The three mares that did not respond to the IUD (IUD-N) showed a mean dioestrous length of 15.7 days and the 12 control mares 16.1 days. The inflammation and glandular dilation scores were not significantly different in pre- and post-manipulation biopsy specimens. Although locational changes of the IUD were observed, they occurred over very small distances and were mostly limited within the body-bifurcation area. The IUD-N and control mares showed

  8. Expression of GnRH receptor in the canine corpus luteum, and luteal function following deslorelin acetate-induced puberty delay.

    PubMed

    Kaya, D; Gram, A; Kowalewski, M P; Schäfer-Somi, S; Kuru, M; Boos, A; Aslan, S

    2017-12-01

    The goals of this study were as follows: (Experiment 1) to examine the basic capability of canine corpora lutea (CL) to respond to GnRH by assessing expression of gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRH-R) in luteal samples collected throughout the luteal lifespan from non-pregnant dogs, and (Experiment 2) to investigate the effects of pre-pubertal application of the GnRH agonist deslorelin acetate on luteal function following the first oestrus. Mature CL were collected during the mid-luteal phase (days 30-45) from treated and control bitches. Transcript levels of several factors were determined: estrogen receptors (ESR1/ERα, ESR2/ERβ), progesterone (P4)-receptor (PGR), prolactin receptor (PRLR), PGE2-synthase (PTGES) and PGE2 receptors (PTGER2/EP2, PTGER4/EP4), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGFA) and VEGF receptors (VEGFR1 and VEGFR2), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2/PTGS2), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR) and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3βHSD). Additionally, levels of Kisspeptin 1 (Kiss1) and its receptor (KISS1-R) were evaluated. Although generally low, GnRH-R expression was time dependent and was elevated during early dioestrus, with a significant decrease towards luteal regression. In deslorelin-treated and control dogs, its expression was either low or frequently below the detection limit. EP2 and VEGFR1 were higher in the treated group, which could be caused by a feedback mechanism after long-term suppression of reproductive activity. Despite large individual variations, 3βHSD was higher in the deslorelin-treated group. This, along with unchanged STAR expression, was apparently not mirrored in increased luteal functionality, because similar P4 levels were detected in both groups. Finally, the deslorelin-mediated long-term delay of puberty does not have negative carry-over effects on subsequent ovarian functionality in bitches. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  9. A randomized comparison of the efficacy, side effects and patient convenience between vaginal and rectal administration of Cyclogest(®) when used for luteal phase support in ICSI treatment.

    PubMed

    Aghsa, Malek-Mansour; Rahmanpour, Haleh; Bagheri, Maryam; Davari-Tanha, Fatemeh; Nasr, Reza

    2012-10-01

    This study compares the efficacy, side effects and patient convenience of vaginal and rectal routes of administration of progesterone suppositories (Cyclogest) when used for luteal phase support during in vitro fertilization cycles, through the use of antagonist protocols. 147 patients who underwent intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection cycle were randomized on the day of the embryo transfer (ET) by a computer-generated randomization program to receive 400 mg of Cyclogest either vaginally or rectally twice daily for up to 8 weeks. A pregnancy test was conducted 2 weeks after embryo transfer. If the pregnancy test was negative, the application was discontinued. On day 14th after embryo transfer, patient's acceptability and side effects were assessed using a questionnaire which was given to the patients on the day of ET prior to performing the pregnancy test. The clinical pregnancy rate at the 8th week of gestation and the level of luteal progesterone were evaluated. There were no substantial differences in the demographics or other characteristics between the two groups. There were no significant differences in serum P concentration 6 days after ET, the clinical pregnancy and abortion rates. The difficulty of administration route, the discomforts experienced following administration, and the proportion leaking out on the 14th day were similar between the two groups. Significantly more patients administering the medication per vagina had perineal irritation (21.3 vs. 2.2 %). The prevalence of tenesmus (35.1 vs. 21.1 %) and rectal itching (26.7 vs. 2.8 %) were significantly more in rectal route. This study demonstrates that the efficacy of Cyclogest is similar when administered via both the vaginal and rectal routes. Although their side effects differ, the ease of administration for patients and their preference are similar.

  10. Progesterone, estradiol, arachidonic acid, oxytocin, forskolin and cAMP influence on aquaporin 1 and 5 expression in porcine uterine explants during the mid-luteal phase of the estrous cycle and luteolysis: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Skowronska, Agnieszka; Młotkowska, Patrycja; Wojciechowicz, Bartosz; Okrasa, Stanisław; Nielsen, Soren; Skowronski, Mariusz T

    2015-02-18

    The cell membrane water channel protein, aquaporins (AQPs), regulate cellular water transport and cell volume and play a key role in water homeostasis. Recently, AQPs are considered as important players in the field of reproduction. In previous studies, we have established the presence of AQP1 and 5 in porcine uterus. Their expression at protein level altered in distinct tissues of the female reproductive system depending on the phase of the estrous cycle. However, the regulation of aquaporin genes and proteins expression has not been examined in porcine uterine tissue. Therefore, we have designed an in vitro experiment to explain whether steroid hormones, progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2), and other factors: oxytocine (OT), arachidonic acid (AA; substrate for prostaglandins synthesis) as well as forskolin (FSK; adenylate cyclase activator) and cAMP (second messenger, cyclic adenosine monophosphate) may impact AQPs expression. Uterine tissues were collected on Days 10-12 and 14-16 of the estrous cycle representing the mid-luteal phase and luteolysis. Real-time PCR and Western blot analysis were performed to examine the expression of porcine AQP1 and AQP5. Their expression in the uterine explants was also evaluated by immunohistochemistry. The results indicated that uterine expression of AQP1 and AQP5 potentially remains under control of steroid hormones and AA-derived compounds (e.g. prostaglandins). P4, E2, AA, FSK and cAMP cause translocation of AQP5 from apical to the basolateral plasma membrane of the epithelial cells, which might affect the transcellular water movement (through epithelial cells) between uterine lumen and blood vessels. The AC/cAMP pathway is involved in the intracellular signals transduction connected with the regulation of AQPs expression in the pig uterus. This study documented specific patterns of AQP1 and AQP5 expression in response to P4, E2, AA, FSK and cAMP, thereby providing new indirect evidence of their role in maintaining the

  11. Induced endometrial trauma (endometrial scratch) in the mid-luteal menstrual cycle phase preceding first cycle IVF/ICSI versus usual IVF/ICSI therapy: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Pye, Clare; Chatters, Robin; Cohen, Judith; Brian, Kate; Cheong, Ying C; Laird, Susan; Mohiyiddeen, Lamiya; Skull, Jonathan; Walters, Stephen; Young, Tracey; Metwally, Mostafa

    2018-05-20

    Endometrial trauma commonly known as endometrial scratch (ES) has been shown to improve pregnancy rates in women with a history of repeated implantation failure undergoing in vitro fertilisation (IVF), with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). However, the procedure has not yet been fully explored in women having IVF/ICSI for the first time. This study aims to examine the effect of performing an ES in the mid-luteal phase prior to a first-time IVF/ICSI cycle on the chances of achieving a clinical pregnancy and live birth. If ES can influence this success rate, there would be a significant cost saving to the National Health Service through decreasing the number of IVF/ICSI cycles necessary to achieve a pregnancy, increase the practice of single embryo transfer and consequently have a large impact on risks and costs associated with multiple pregnancies. This 30-month, UK, multicentre, parallel group, randomised controlled trial includes a 9-month internal pilot and health economic analysis recruiting 1044 women from 16 fertility units. It will follow up participants to identify if IVF/ICSI has been successful and live birth has occurred up to 6 weeks post partum. Primary analysis will be on an intention-to-treat basis. A substudy of endometrial samples obtained during the ES will assess the role of immune factors in embryo implantation. Main trial recruitment commenced on January 2017 and is ongoing.Participants randomised to the intervention group will receive the ES procedure in the mid-luteal phase of the preceding cycle prior to first-time IVF/ICSI treatment versus usual IVF/ICSI treatment in the control group, with 1:1 randomisation. The primary outcome is live birth rate after completed 24 weeks gestation. South Central-Berkshire Research Ethics Committee approved the protocol. Findings will be submitted to peer-reviewed journals and abstracts to relevant national and international conferences. ISRCTN23800982; Pre-results. © Article author

  12. A role for the endocannabinoid system in premature luteal regression and progesterone withdrawal in lipopolysaccharide-induced early pregnancy loss model.

    PubMed

    Schander, Julieta Aylen; Correa, Fernando; Bariani, María Victoria; Blanco, Julieta; Cymeryng, Cora; Jensen, Federico; Wolfson, Manuel Luis; Franchi, Ana María

    2016-11-01

    What is the role of the endocannabinoid system (eCS) in the alterations of the endocrine system in a murine model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced miscarriage? In 7-days pregnant wild type, but not cannabinoid receptor type 1 knockout (CB1-KO) mice, LPS increased COX-2 expression and prostaglandin F 2α (PGF 2α ) production in the uterus leading to lower expression of prolactin receptor in the ovary and a marked regression of corpora lutea (CL), suggesting that the eCS mediates the deleterious effects of LPS on reproductive events. Appropriate systemic progesterone levels are critical for a successful pregnancy outcome. Precocious loss of luteal progesterone (P4) secretion leads to miscarriage in rodents. We have previously shown that LPS administration to pregnant mice induces embryonic resorption accompanied by a dramatic decrease in systemic progesterone levels in a murine model of inflammatory miscarriage, with the eCS mediating these LPS-induced deleterious effects. CD1 wild-type (WT) and CB1-KO mice were randomly allocated to Vehicle (saline; i.p.) or LPS (0.5 μg/g body weight; i.p.) treated groups: (WT-Vehicle; WT-LPS; CB1-KO-Vehicle and CB1-KO-LPS). A single injection was given on day 7 of pregnancy and tissues (blood, ovary, uterus) were collected 6, 12, 24 and 48 h later. P4 and PGF2α plasma levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA (RT-PCR) and protein (Western blot) content in uterus was assayed. COX-2 and prolactin receptor (PrlR) mRNA levels in the ovary were assayed by RT-PCR. Tissue morphology of the CL was assessed by haematoxylin-eosin staining. Treatment of 7-day pregnant WT mice with LPS induced a P4 withdrawal (p < 0.05), increased in uterine COX-2 mRNA and protein expression (p < 0.05) as well as an increase in uterine PGF 2α production (p < 0.05). These changes were absent in LPS-treated 7-day pregnant CB1-KO mice. In ovarian tissues, LPS treatment to 7-day pregnant WT mice induced a downregulation

  13. Control of follicle-stimulating hormone by estradiol and the inhibins: critical role of estradiol at the hypothalamus during the luteal-follicular transition.

    PubMed

    Welt, Corrine K; Pagan, Yanira L; Smith, Patricia C; Rado, Kimberly B; Hall, Janet E

    2003-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that estradiol, inhibin A, and inhibin B contribute differentially to FSH negative feedback in specific phases of the menstrual cycle, daily blood samples were obtained across a control cycle and after selective estrogen blockade with tamoxifen. To examine the site of estradiol-negative feedback in control and tamoxifen treatment cycles, early follicular phase GnRH (free alpha-subunit) pulse frequency was assessed in normal women, and FSH levels were examined in GnRH-deficient women in whom hypothalamic output was fixed with GnRH administration. FSH was higher in the early follicular phase in the presence of estrogen receptor blockade (15.7 +/- 3.1 vs. 13.2 +/- 1.9 IU/liter; P < 0.05) but was not increased in the late follicular phase. In the luteal phase, FSH was elevated (10.1 +/- 0.7 vs. 7.3 +/- 0.6 IU/liter; P < 0.01). In normal women, free alpha-subunit pulse frequency increased (7.3 +/- 0.4 vs. 4.8 +/- 0.4 pulses per 8 h; P < 0.003), but in GnRH-deficient women, there was no FSH increase (11.1 +/- 1.6 vs. 12.5 +/- 3.6 IU/liter) in the early follicular phase in the presence of estrogen blockade. In conclusion, estradiol exerts a greater role over inhibin in FSH-negative feedback regulation during the luteal phase and the luteal-follicular transition. In contrast, inhibin A and/or B plays a more critical role as the follicular phase progresses. In addition, these studies support a primary if not exclusive hypothalamic site of estrogen-negative feedback in the early follicular phase.

  14. Expression and localization of insulin-like growth factor system in corpus luteum during different stages of estrous cycle in water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and the effect of insulin-like growth factor I on production of vascular endothelial growth factor and progesterone in luteal cells cultured in vitro.

    PubMed

    Uniyal, S; Panda, R P; Chouhan, V S; Yadav, V P; Hyder, I; Dangi, S S; Gupta, M; Khan, F A; Sharma, G T; Bag, S; Sarkar, M

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the expression and localization of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system at different stages of buffalo CL and the role of IGF-I in stimulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and progesterone (P4) production in cultured luteal cells. The mRNA expression of IGF system, VEGF, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein, P450scc, and hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD) was investigated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Protein expression of IGF was demonstrated by Western blot and localization by immunohistochemistry. Progesterone and VEGF production was assayed using RIA and ELISA. A relatively high mRNA expression of IGF-I and IGF-II in early, mid- and late luteal phases with immunoreactivity mostly restricted to cytoplasm of large luteal cells indicates their autocrine role, whereas very weak immunoreactivity in endothelial cells during the mid-luteal phase indicates their paracrine role. Insulin-like growth factor receptors, IGF-IR and IGF-IIR, were restricted to large luteal cells with high mRNA and protein expressions in the mid-luteal phase. The significantly higher expression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-1, -3, -5, and -6 in the early or mid-luteal phase suggested their stimulatory role, whereas that of IGFBP-2 and -4 in mid-, late, and regressive luteal stages implied their inhibitory role. The mRNA expressions of key steroidogenic factors and VEGF were significantly higher (P < 0.05) when the culture medium was supplemented with 100 ng/mL of IGF-I for 72 hours. Moreover, IGF-I at a dose of 100 ng/mL increased P4 and VEGF production (P < 0.05). It can be concluded that IGF family members via their autocrine and paracrine effect play significant roles in promoting angiogenesis through the production of VEGF in luteal cells and steroid synthesis through the production of key steroidogenic factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Ultrastructural and biochemical evidence for the presence of mature steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) in the cytoplasm of human luteal cells.

    PubMed

    Sierralta, Walter D; Kohen, Paulina; Castro, Olga; Muñoz, Alex; Strauss, Jerome F; Devoto, Luigi

    2005-10-20

    The distribution of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) inside thecal and granulosa-lutein cells of human corpus luteum (CL) was assessed by immunoelectron microscopy. We found greater levels of StAR immunolabeling in steroidogenic cells from early- and mid-than in late luteal phase CL and lower levels in cells from women treated with a GnRH antagonist in the mid-luteal phase. Immunoelectron microscopy revealed significant levels of StAR antigen in the mitochondria and in the cytoplasm of luteal cells. The 30 kDa mature StAR protein was present in both mitochondria and cytosol (post-mitochondrial) fractions from homogenates of CL at different ages, whereas cytochrome c and mitochondrial HSP70 were detected only in the mitochondrial fraction. Therefore, we hypothesized that either appreciable processing of StAR 37 kDa pre-protein occurs outside the mitochondria, or mature StAR protein is selectively released into the cytoplasm after mitochondrial processing. The presence of mature StAR in the cytoplasm is consonant with the notion that StAR acts on the outer mitochondrial membrane to effect sterol import, and that StAR may interact with other cytoplasmic proteins involved in cholesterol metabolism, including hormone sensitive lipase.

  16. Phase III Early Restoration Public Meetings | NOAA Gulf Spill Restoration

    Science.gov Websites

    Archive Home Phase III Early Restoration Public Meetings Phase III Early Restoration Public Meetings share Posted on December 6, 2013 | Assessment and Early Restoration Restoration Area Title: Phase III Early on the draft plan for the third phase of Early Restoration, which proposes more than $625 million in

  17. Thyroid hormone stimulates progesterone release from human luteal cells by generating a proteinaceous factor.

    PubMed

    Datta, M; Roy, P; Banerjee, J; Bhattacharya, S

    1998-09-01

    Blood samples collected from 29 women (aged between 19 and 35 years) during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle (between days 18 and 23 of the cycle) showed that deficiency in thyroid hormone level is related to a decrease in progesterone (P4) secretion. To observe the effect of thyroid hormone on human ovarian luteal cells, 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3; 125 ng/ml) was added to luteal cells in vitro. T3 significantly stimulated progesterone release (P < 0.01) from luteal cells and this could be blocked by cycloheximide, indicating a protein mediator for the T3 effect. The T3 stimulatory effect was inhibited by anti-T3 antibody suggesting specificity of T3 action. Addition of T3 caused a more than threefold increase in cellular protein synthesis which was inhibited by cycloheximide. Preparation of partially purified thyroid hormone-induced factor (TIF) (from peak II of Sephadex G 100 chromatography of T3-incubated cells), and its addition to luteal cell incubations caused a significant increase in P4 release (P < 0.05). Incubation with trypsin or treatment with heat destroyed the stimulatory effect of TIF on P4 release, indicating the proteinaceous nature of TIF. Purified thyroid hormone-induced protein. (TIP) from rat granulosa cells and fish ovarian follicles greatly stimulated P4 release from human luteal cells. These results suggest that T3 stimulation of P4 release from human luteal cells is not direct, but is mediated through a putative protein factor, which appears to be a protein conserved through evolution as far as its biological activity is concerned.

  18. Frequency modulation of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) during the luteal-follicular transition: evidence for FSH control of inhibin B in normal women.

    PubMed

    Welt, C K; Martin, K A; Taylor, A E; Lambert-Messerlian, G M; Crowley, W F; Smith, J A; Schoenfeld, D A; Hall, J E

    1997-08-01

    To isolate the impact of GnRH pulse frequency on FSH secretion and to examine the effect of differing levels of FSH on inhibin B secretion during the luteal-follicular transition, exogenous GnRH was administered to GnRH-deficient women using one of two regimens, and the results were compared to those in normal women. In the GnRH-deficient women, the GnRH pulse frequency was increased from every 4 h in the late luteal phase to every 90 min on the day of menses to mimic normal cycling women (physiological frequency transition; n = 8 studies) or the GnRH pulse frequency was kept constant at a late luteal phase frequency of every 4 h through the first 6 days of the subsequent early follicular phase of cycle 2 (slow frequency transition; n = 6 studies). The differential rise in FSH secretion induced in these studies allowed us to examine the subsequent contribution of varying levels of FSH to inhibin B secretion. A physiological regimen of GnRH during the luteal-follicular transition resulted in a rise in FSH and inhibin B levels that did not differ from that in normal cycling women and a normal follicular phase length. On the other hand, maintaining a luteal frequency of GnRH for 6 days into the subsequent early follicular phase produced FSH levels significantly lower than those in the physiological transition (P < 0.05), with the greatest difference seen on the day after menses (9.1 +/- 1.0 vs. 16.4 +/- 1.4 IU/L for the slow and physiological transition groups, respectively; P < 0.005), but no difference in LH. This slower rise of FSH secretion in the slow frequency group was associated with significantly lower inhibin B levels (43.3 +/- 21.5 vs. 140.0 +/- 24.4 pg/mL, mean days 1, 3, and 5; P < 0.02), a later doubling of estradiol from baseline (day 9.6 +/- 0.9 vs. day 5.6 +/- 0.1; P < 0.02), and a longer follicular phase length (16.0 +/- 1.4 vs. 11.6 +/- 0.9 days; P < 0.05) compared with those in the physiological transition group. In conclusion, during the luteal

  19. Phase V of Early Restoration | NOAA Gulf Spill Restoration

    Science.gov Websites

    Phase V Early Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment. The project will acquire land along Florida million. Phase V Early Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment (pdf, 10 MB) Draft Phase V Early Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment (Executive Summary) (2 MB) Phase V Fact Sheet (pdf, 2 MB) Gulf

  20. Pharmacogenomics in early-phase clinical development

    PubMed Central

    Burt, Tal; Dhillon, Savita

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacogenomics (PGx) offers the promise of utilizing genetic fingerprints to predict individual responses to drugs in terms of safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetics. Early-phase clinical trial PGx applications can identify human genome variations that are meaningful to study design, selection of participants, allocation of resources and clinical research ethics. Results can inform later-phase study design and pipeline developmental decisions. Nevertheless, our review of the clinicaltrials.gov database demonstrates that PGx is rarely used by drug developers. Of the total 323 trials that included PGx as an outcome, 80% have been conducted by academic institutions after initial regulatory approval. Barriers for the application of PGx are discussed. We propose a framework for the role of PGx in early-phase drug development and recommend PGx be universally considered in study design, result interpretation and hypothesis generation for later-phase studies, but PGx results from underpowered studies should not be used by themselves to terminate drug-development programs. PMID:23837482

  1. Phase III of Early Restoration | NOAA Gulf Spill Restoration

    Science.gov Websites

    information about this phase of Early Restoration, including fact sheets on each project. The final Phase III 44 projects are documented in a final Record of Decision. Information about Phase III of Early Archive Home Phase III of Early Restoration Phase III of Early Restoration Beach habitat would be restored

  2. Astressin B, a corticotropin-releasing hormone receptor antagonist, accelerates the return to normal luteal function after an inflammatory-like stress challenge in the rhesus monkey.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ennian; Xia-Zhang, Linna; Vulliemoz, Nicolas; Rivier, Jean; Ferin, Michel

    2007-02-01

    Endogenous release of CRH in stress has been associated with a dysfunctional reproductive endocrine axis. In the rhesus monkey, an inflammatory-like stress challenge in the luteal phase decreases luteal secretory function. Here, we tested the effectiveness of astressin B, a nonspecific CRH receptor antagonist, in constraining the deleterious impact of a 10-d lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge on the menstrual cycle. Two protocols were carried out in nine animals. In the first, the animals, after showing two normal consecutive control cycles, were injected daily for 10 days with LPS (75-125 mug/d) during the luteal phase of the cycle. The animals were followed through the two postchallenge cycles. The second protocol, carried out in the following year, was identical with protocol 1, except that the animals were treated with astressin B (0.45 mg/kg) 1 h before each daily LPS challenge during the luteal phase. Blood samples were obtained daily to document cyclic hormones levels. The LPS challenge significantly decreased luteal progesterone and LH release during the challenge cycle. Inhibition of luteal progesterone extended to the two successive postchallenge cycles. Astressin B treatment prevented luteal LH but not luteal progesterone decrease during the treatment cycle and restored normal progesterone secretion during the two posttreatment cycles. We conclude that the deleterious impact of a short-term inflammatory stress challenge on luteal function is far longer than the stress period itself. Systemic administration of astressin B accelerates the return to normal luteal function, presumably by restoring normal neuroendocrine regulation of gonadotropin secretion.

  3. Colour Doppler Ultrasonography as a Tool to Assess Luteal Function in Santa Inês Ewes.

    PubMed

    Figueira, L M; Fonseca, J F; Arashiro, Ekn; Souza-Fabjan, Jmg; Ribeiro, Acs; Oba, E; Viana, Jhm; Brandão, F Z

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate luteal dynamics in the Santa Inês ewes using colour Doppler (CD) ultrasonography. Oestrus was synchronized in nulliparous females (n = 18), and subsequently, they were only teased (n = 6) or teased and mated (n = 12). Blood samples were collected daily for plasma progesterone (P4 ) concentrations. Ultrasonographic images of corpora lutea (CL) in CD mode were obtained for further analysis in its largest diameter. The CD mode allowed an early sequential monitoring of CL that was visualized by the first time 0.77 ± 0.62 days after ovulation, with luteal area 29.68 ± 13.21 mm(2) . During the luteogenesis, a progressive increase was observed, followed by a plateau of luteal area, vascularization area and plasma concentrations of P4 reaching maximum values in D11 (124.0 ± 38.0 mm(2) , 52.78 ± 24.08 mm(2) and 11.23 ± 4.89 ng/ml, respectively). In the luteolysis, the plasma concentrations of P4 decreased sharply, whereas luteal and vascularization area gradually. The vascularization area was positively correlated with plasma concentrations of P4 during the luteogenesis (r = 0.22) and luteolysis (r = 0.48). The luteal dynamics of Santa Inês ewes showed patterns similar to those observed in other sheep breeds studied. The CD ultrasonography has the potential to be used as a tool to assess luteal function in sheep. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Establishment and evaluation of a stable steroidogenic caprine luteal cell line.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Xu, Xingang; Huang, Yong; Li, Zhaocai; Yu, Gaoshui; Wang, Zhisheng; Ding, Li; Tong, Dewen

    2012-07-15

    Many physiological, biological, pharmacologic, and toxicologic events and compounds affect the function of Saanen dairy goat luteal cells, resulting in implantation failure or early embryonic loss. Although primary luteal cell cultures have been used, their finite lifespan precludes assessment of long-term effects. In the present study, primary caprine luteal cells (CLCs) were immortalized through transfection of a plasmid containing the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) gene. The expression of hTERT and telomerase activity were evaluated in transduced CLCs (hTERT-CLCs). In this study, these cells steadily expressed hTERT gene and exhibited higher telomerase activity at Passages 30 and 50. The hTERT-CLCs at Passages 30 and 50 expressed genes encoding key proteins, enzymes and receptors inherent to normal luteal cells, e.g., steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), and LH-receptor (LH-R). In addition, immortalized caprine luteal cells produced detectable quantities of progesterone in response to 8-bromo-cAMP (8-Br-cAMP) or 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol (22R-HC) stimulation. Furthermore, this cell line appeared to proliferate more quickly than control cells, although no neoplastic transformation occurred either in vivo or in vitro. We concluded the immortalized CLCs by hTERT retained their original characteristics and may provide a useful model to study luteal cell functions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Phase IV of Early Restoration | NOAA Gulf Spill Restoration

    Science.gov Websites

    Trustees published the Final Phase IV Early Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessments. The plan habitats. Useful Links: Final Phase IV Early Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessments (pdf, 4.8 MB ) Final Phase IV Early Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessments Executive Summary (pdf, 729 KB

  6. Sex differences in acute hormonal and subjective response to naltrexone: the impact of menstrual cycle phase

    PubMed Central

    Roche, Daniel J.O.; King, Andrea C.

    2015-01-01

    Women often exhibit larger hormonal and subjective responses to opioid receptor antagonists than men, but the biological mechanisms mediating this effect remain unclear. Among women, fluctuations in estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) across the menstrual cycle (MC) affect the endogenous opioid system. Therefore, the goal of the current study was to compare acute naltrexone response between women in the early follicular phase of the MC (low E2 and P4), women in the luteal phase of the MC (high E2 and P4), and men. Seventy healthy controls (n = 46 women) participated in two morning sessions in which they received 50 mg naltrexone or placebo in a randomized, counterbalanced order. Women were randomized to complete both sessions in either the early follicular (n = 23) or luteal phase of the MC. Serum cortisol, prolactin, and luteinizing hormone (LH), salivary cortisol, and subjective response were assessed upon arrival to the laboratory and at regular intervals after pill administration. In luteal and early follicular women but not men, naltrexone (vs. placebo) increased serum cortisol and prolactin levels from baseline; however, the naltrexone-induced increases in these hormones were significantly greater in luteal women than early follicular women. Additionally, only luteal women demonstrated an increase from baseline in salivary cortisol levels and the severity of adverse drug effects in response to naltrexone. In sum, the results indicate that luteal phase women are more sensitive to acute hormonal and subjective effects of naltrexone than early follicular women and men. These findings may have important implications for the use of naltrexone in women. PMID:25459893

  7. Comparison of oral dydrogesterone with vaginal progesteronefor luteal support in IUI cycles: a randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi, Donya; Taheripanah, Robabeh; Taheripanah, Anahita; Tarighat Monfared, Vahid; Hosseini-Zijoud, Seyed-Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study, we have compared the advantages of oral dydrogestrone with vaginal progesterone (cyclogest) for luteal support in intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles. Progesterone supplementation is the first line treatment when luteal phase deficiency (LPD) can reasonably be assumed. Objective: This study was conduct to compare the effect of oral dydrogestrone with vaginal Cyclogest on luteal phase support in the IUI cycles. Materials and Methods: This prospective, randomized, double blind study was performed in a local infertility center from May 2013 to May 2014. It consisted of 150 infertile women younger than35years old undergoing ovarian stimulation for IUI cycles. They underwent ovarian stimulation with oral dydrogesterone (20 mg) as group A and vaginal cyclogest (400 mg) as group B in preparation for the IUI cycles. Clinical pregnancy and abortion rates, mid luteal progesterone (7daysafter IUI) and patient satisfaction were compared between two groups. Results: The mean serum progesterone levels was significantly higher in group A in comparison with group B (p=0.001). Pregnancy rates in group A was not statistically different in comparison with group B (p =0.58). Abortion rate in two groups was not statistically different (p =0.056) although rate of abortion was higher in group B in comparison with A group. Satisfaction rates were significantly higher in group A compared to group B (p<0.001). Conclusion: We concluded that oral dydrogestrone is effective as vaginal progesterone for luteal-phase support in woman undergoing IUI cycles. Moreover, the mean serum progesterone levels and satisfaction rates in dydrogestrone group were higher than cyclogest group. PMID:26494991

  8. Comparison of oral dydrogesterone with vaginal progesteronefor luteal support in IUI cycles: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Khosravi, Donya; Taheripanah, Robabeh; Taheripanah, Anahita; Tarighat Monfared, Vahid; Hosseini-Zijoud, Seyed-Mostafa

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study, we have compared the advantages of oral dydrogestrone with vaginal progesterone (cyclogest) for luteal support in intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles. Progesterone supplementation is the first line treatment when luteal phase deficiency (LPD) can reasonably be assumed. This study was conduct to compare the effect of oral dydrogestrone with vaginal Cyclogest on luteal phase support in the IUI cycles. This prospective, randomized, double blind study was performed in a local infertility center from May 2013 to May 2014. It consisted of 150 infertile women younger than35years old undergoing ovarian stimulation for IUI cycles. They underwent ovarian stimulation with oral dydrogesterone (20 mg) as group A and vaginal cyclogest (400 mg) as group B in preparation for the IUI cycles. Clinical pregnancy and abortion rates, mid luteal progesterone (7daysafter IUI) and patient satisfaction were compared between two groups. The mean serum progesterone levels was significantly higher in group A in comparison with group B (p=0.001). Pregnancy rates in group A was not statistically different in comparison with group B (p =0.58). Abortion rate in two groups was not statistically different (p =0.056) although rate of abortion was higher in group B in comparison with A group. Satisfaction rates were significantly higher in group A compared to group B (p<0.001). We concluded that oral dydrogestrone is effective as vaginal progesterone for luteal-phase support in woman undergoing IUI cycles. Moreover, the mean serum progesterone levels and satisfaction rates in dydrogestrone group were higher than cyclogest group.

  9. Apoptosis is increased and cell proliferation is decreased in out-of-phase endometria from infertile and recurrent abortion patients.

    PubMed

    Meresman, Gabriela F; Olivares, Carla; Vighi, Susana; Alfie, Margarita; Irigoyen, Marcela; Etchepareborda, Juan J

    2010-10-22

    Various endometrial abnormalities have been associated with luteal phase deficiency: a significant dyssynchrony in the maturation of the glandular epithelium and the stroma and a prevalence of out-of-phase endometrial biopsy specimens. Out-of phase endometrium is a controversial disorder related to failed implantation, infertility and early pregnancy loss. Given that the regulation of the apoptotic process in endometrium of luteal phase deficiency is still unknown, the aim of this study was to evaluate cell proliferation, apoptosis and the levels of the main effector caspase, caspase-3 in the luteal in-phase and out-of-phase endometrium. Thirty-seven endometrial samples from sterile or recurrent abortion patients were included in this study: 21 in-phase samples (controls) and 16 samples with out-of-phase endometrium. Biopsy specimens of eutopic endometrium were obtained from all subjects during days 21-25 of the menstrual cycle. The endometrium with endometrial maturity of cycle day 25 or less at the time of menstruation was considered out-of phase. Endometrial tissues were fixed in 10% buffered formaldehyde. For apoptosis quantification, sections were processed for in situ immunohistochemical localization of nuclei exhibiting DNA fragmentation, by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP digoxygenin nick-end labeling (TUNEL) technique. Expressions of Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) as a marker of cell proliferation, and of cleaved caspase-3 as a marker of apoptosis, were assessed by immunohistochemistry in the luteal in-phase and out-of-phase endometrium from infertile and recurrent abortion patients. Luteal out-of-phase endometrium had increased apoptosis levels compared to in-phase endometrium (p < 0.05). Caspase-3 evaluation confirmed these results: the luteal out-of-phase endometrium showed augmented cleaved caspase-3 expression (p < 0.005). As well, our data demonstrated that the luteal out-of-phase endometrium expresses

  10. Phase III Early Restoration Meeting | NOAA Gulf Spill Restoration

    Science.gov Websites

    Louisiana Mississippi Texas Region-wide Open Ocean Data Media & News Publications Press Releases Story programmatic approach to early restoration planning for Phase III and future early restoration plans. Open

  11. Phase III Early Restoration Meeting - Pensacola, FL (rescheduled) | NOAA

    Science.gov Websites

    Restoration Areas Alabama Florida Louisiana Mississippi Texas Region-wide Open Ocean Data Media & News programmatic approach to early restoration planning for Phase III and future early restoration plans. Open

  12. Serum progesterone in pregnant bitches supplemented with progestin because of expected or suspected luteal insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Günzel-Apel, A; Urhausen, C; Wolf, K; Einspanier, A; Oei, C; Piechotta, M

    2012-12-01

    Progesterone profiles of individual bitches may vary considerably both between and within individuals during pregnancy and non-pregnancy. Suspected luteal deficiency is commonly purported but is difficult to evaluate in clinical cases when progesterone is supplemented because this masks the underlying hormone changes. Therefore, in this study, suspected cases of luteal deficiency (six pregnancies from five bitches) were supplemented with oral medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), allowing measurement of endogenous progesterone using conventional assay. MPA (0.1 mg/kg) treatment commenced between days 30 and 36 after estimated ovulation and was continued for 18-28 days. Endogenous progesterone was measured throughout treatment, and blood was additionally analysed for prolactin (PRL) and relaxin (RLN) as well as MPA. The latter revealed delayed MPA clearance in two bitches, in which Caesarean operation had to be performed because of a low foetal heart rate. In two cases with confirmed basal concentrations of both P(4) and MPA at term, spontaneous parturition occurred. Low endogenous progesterone during pregnancy was not apparent in three bitches that had previously had a short inter-oestrous interval of which two had previously had confirmed short luteal phase. However, in the remaining two cases, there had been previous pregnancy failure, but in only one of these, a premature decrease in endogenous progesterone to <2 ng/ml was detected. The latter had also low concentrations of PRL and RLN. The results of this preliminary clinical study suggest that abnormal progesterone profiles in pregnancy may be uncommon in bitches even when there has been previously documented short inter-oestrous interval. However, luteal deficiency may be suspected in bitches with a history of repeated pregnancy failure or abortion. MPA supplementation appears to be efficacious for management of suspected luteal deficiency and verification of the ovarian dysfunction, but care should be taken

  13. Luteal function declines after laparoscopic sterilization by Hulka or Filshie clips.

    PubMed

    Sumiala, S; Tuominen, J; Irjala, K; Klemi, P; Mäenpää, J

    2000-10-01

    We evaluated the influence of laparoscopic sterilization by Hulka or Fishie clips on corpus luteum function. Changes in corpus luteum function were evaluated in 46 women, before and after sterilization by Hulka (n = 22) or Filshie clips (n = 24). The mean age of the participants was 37 years (range 31-43 years). All women were healthy with regular menstrual cycles. Serum progesterone (P) was measured in one cycle before, and 3 and 12 months after the sterilization on cycle day 20-24. Endometrial biopsies were performed in the luteal phase before and one year after the procedure. The women measured the basal body temperature daily and kept a menstrual diary. The luteal phase P concentrations declined after the sterilization and the values were at the lowest level 3 months after the procedure (27.9 +/- 14.3 nmol/L vs. 18.7 +/- 13.4 nmol/L, = 0.0016). The values seemed to have recovered by 12 months (23.0 +/- 14.0 nmol/L, = 0.114 vs. baseline). Endometrium tended to be out-of-phase more frequently 1 year after the sterilization than before the surgery (= 0.065). Laparoscopic tubal sterilization is associated with an increased risk of luteal phase deficiency. However, the change may be only temporary in nature.

  14. Follicular synchronization using transdermal estradiol patch and GnRH antagonists in the luteal phase; does it increase oocyte yield in poor responders to gonadotropin stimulation for in vitro fertilization (IVF)? A comparative study with microdose flare-up protocol.

    PubMed

    Ata, Baris; Zeng, Xing; Son, Weon Y; Holzer, Hananel; Tan, Seang L

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to compare the oocyte yield with the luteal estradiol patch (LPA) - GnRH antagonist and microdose (MD) flare-up protocols in anticipated poor responders. Fifty-seven women who underwent IVF treatment following stimulation with LPA or MD protocols at McGill Reproductive Centre were matched for age and markers of ovarian reserve. Numbers of oocytes collected (6 vs 7), mature oocytes collected (5 vs 5), and oocyte maturation rates (72% vs 74%) were similar. The numbers of good quality embryos available (2 vs 1) and embryos transferred (3 vs 3) were likewise similar. Embryo implantation rate of 16.7% and clinical pregnancy rate of 38.9% achieved in the LPA group were almost 50% higher than the corresponding figures at 10.3% and 22.2% in the MD group; however, the differences were not statistically significant (p > 0.05 for all comparisons). Although the results do not suggest an increased oocyte yield or follicular synchronization with the LPA protocol, the observed trend toward higher embryo implantation and clinical pregnancy rates requires further research.

  15. Protective role of melatonin in progesterone production by human luteal cells.

    PubMed

    Taketani, Toshiaki; Tamura, Hiroshi; Takasaki, Akihisa; Lee, Lifa; Kizuka, Fumie; Tamura, Isao; Taniguchi, Ken; Maekawa, Ryo; Asada, Hiromi; Shimamura, Katsunori; Reiter, Russel J; Sugino, Norihiro

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated whether melatonin protects luteinized granulosa cells from reactive oxygen species (ROS) as an antioxidant to enhance progesterone production in the follicle during ovulation. Follicular fluid was sampled at the time of oocyte retrieval in women undergoing in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET). Melatonin concentrations in the follicular fluid were positively correlated with progesterone concentrations (r = 0.342, P < 0.05) and negatively correlated with the concentration of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), an oxidative stress marker (r = -0.342, P < 0.05). The progesterone and 8-OHdG concentrations were negatively correlated (r = -0.246, P < 0.05). Luteinized granulosa cells were obtained at the time of oocyte retrieval in women undergoing IVF-ET. Cells were incubated with H(2)O(2) (30, 50, 100 μm) in the presence or absence of melatonin (1, 10, 100 μg/mL). Progesterone production by luteinized granulosa cells was significantly inhibited by H(2)O(2). Melatonin treatment overcame the inhibitory effect of H(2) O(2) . Twenty-five patients who had luteal phase defect (serum progesterone concentrations <10 ng/mL during the mid-luteal phase) were divided into two groups during the next treatment cycle: 14 women were given melatonin (3 mg/day at 22:00 hr) throughout the luteal phase and 11 women were given no medication as a control. Melatonin treatment improved serum progesterone concentrations (>10 ng/mL during the mid-luteal phase) in nine of 14 women (64.3%), whereas only two of 11 women (18.1%) showed normal serum progesterone levels in the control group. In conclusion, melatonin protects granulosa cells undergoing luteinization from ROS in the follicle and contributes to luteinization for progesterone production during ovulation. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  16. Two episodes of hemoperitoneum from luteal cysts rupture in a patient with congenital factor X deficiency.

    PubMed

    Dafopoulos, Konstantinos; Galazios, Georgios; Georgadakis, Georgios; Boulbou, Maria; Koutsoyiannis, Dimitrios; Plakopoulos, Apostolos; Anastasiadis, Panagiotis

    2003-01-01

    The clinical manifestation of two episodes of hemoperitoneum from ruptured corpus luteum cysts, during the luteal phase of the cycle in a young patient with the rare congenital factor X deficiency, is reported for the first time in literature. The correct diagnosis of the underlying disorder, the gynecological management and the regular follow-up can minimize the risks of this potentially life-threatening hematological disorder. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  17. Presence of the acute phase protein, bikunin, in the endometrium of gilts during estrous cycle and early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Hettinger, A M; Allen, M R; Zhang, B R; Goad, D W; Malayer, J R; Geisert, R D

    2001-08-01

    Noninvasive, epitheliochorial placental attachment in the pig is regulated through endometrial production of protease inhibitors. The objective of the present study was to determine if the light-chain serine protease inhibitor of the inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor family, bikunin, is produced by the porcine endometrium during the estrous cycle and early pregnancy. Western blot analysis revealed the presence of bikunin in uterine flushings of gilts collected during the luteal phase of the estrous cycle and early pregnancy (Days 12-18). However, bikunin unbound to the inter-alpha-trypsin heavy chains was detected only in endometrial explant culture medium obtained from estrus and pregnant (Days 12, 15, and 18) gilts. Endometrial bikunin gene expression was lowest on Day 10 of the estrous cycle and pregnancy, followed by a 30- to 77-fold increase on Day 15 of the estrous cycle and pregnancy. Bikunin gene expression decreased on Day 18 of the estrous cycle, whereas endometrial bikunin gene expression continued to increase in pregnant gilts. Bikunin mRNA was localized to the uterine glands between Days 15 and 18 of the estrous cycle and pregnancy. In addition to its role as a protease inhibitor, bikunin functions in stabilization of the extracellular matrix, which suggests that bikunin could be involved with facilitating placental attachment to the uterine epithelial surface in the pig.

  18. Efficacy of a single injection of human chorionic gonadotropin at peak follicular maturation in natural cycles on pregnancy rate and mid-luteal hormonal and sonographic parameters.

    PubMed

    Check, J H; Liss, J R; DiAntonio, G; Summers, D

    2016-01-01

    To discover if infertile women with presumed luteal phase deficiency would improve pregnancy rates, mid-luteal sera estradiol (E2) and progesterone (P), and increase the percentage of women achieving a mid-luteal sonographic homogeneous hyperechogenic endometrial texture by the addition of a single injection of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG). Women with over one year of infertility with regular menses and with no other known infertility factor were presumed to have the need for extra P in the luteal phase based on previous studies. Women aged ≥ 30 years were selected along with women < 30 years who had pelvic pain or dysmenorrhea. Women aged 40-45 were evaluated separately. They were treated with either vaginal micronized P 8% twice daily alone or 10,000 units of hCG at the time of peak follicular maturation was also given. Women were eliminated if they did not achieve an 18-24 average diameter follicle with a serum E2 of > 200 pg/ml. Seven days after ovulation, sera E2 and P were measured along with endometrial thickness and echo patterns. The only significant difference between groups was an increased mid-luteal serum E2 in the group receiving additional hCG. However, this did not result in an increased pregnancy rate. In general, adding a single injection of hCG to P luteal support does not improve pregnancy rates in natural cycles where women were treated with supplemental P.

  19. Failure to establish and maintain a pregnancy in undernourished recipient ewes is associated with a poor endocrine milieu in the early luteal phase.

    PubMed

    de Brun, Victoria; Meikle, Ana; Fernández-Foren, Andrea; Forcada, Fernando; Palacín, Inmaculada; Menchaca, Alejo; Sosa, Cecilia; Abecia, José-Alfonso

    2016-10-01

    Embryos from undernourished and control donor ewes were transferred to undernourished and control recipient ewes. Progesterone and metabolic hormones were investigated in recipient ewes to determine their association with pregnancy success. Forty-five donor and 52 recipient Rasa Aragonesa ewes were fed 1.5 (control group; donor n=20; recipient n=25) or 0.5 (low group; donor n=25; recipient n=27) times the daily requirements for maintenance from the onset of estrous synchronization treatment to embryo collection and transfer. The embryos were collected 7days after the onset of estrus (day 0), and two good-quality embryos were transferred into each recipient ewe. The percentage of pregnant ewes on day 18 and 40 did not differ between the two groups, although the recipient undernourished ewes tended to have greater late embryonic mortality (from days 18-40) than the control recipient ewes (P=0.11). No effect of the nutrition of the donor was found. Recipients that became pregnant had a higher ovulation rate than non-pregnant ewes (P=0.02). Undernourished ewes had lower plasma insulin concentrations than control ewes (P=0.03), and those that suffered late embryo mortality (from days 18-40) tended to have lower insulin and progesterone concentrations than their counterparts that remained pregnant (P=0.06 and P=0.07, respectively). In this study, pregnancy in control and undernourished recipient ewes was not associated with the origin of the embryo (undernourished and control donors). In conclusion, failure to establish and maintain a pregnancy was associated with lower progesterone and insulin levels one week after estrus in recipient ewes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Onset and duration of luteal activity postpartum and their effect on first insemination conception rate in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hommeida, Abdelrahim; Nakao, Toshihiko; Kubota, Hirokazu

    2005-10-01

    The incidence of different types of luteal activity postpartum and their effect on reproductive performance were studied in 21 postpartum dairy cows. Progesterone concentrations in defatted milk collected 3 times a week were determined by EIA. Reproductive tract examination was undertaken every other week postpartum. Body weight and body condition score (BCS) were measured before and after calving and the average 100-day milk yield was calculated. Nine (42.9%) cows had normal ovarian activity (first luteal activity < or = 50 days postpartum followed by regular cycles), 5 (23.8%) had prolonged luteal phase (PLP; ovarian cycle with luteal activity > or = 20 days pre-service) and in 7 (33.3%) cows the first luteal activity was shown later than 50 days postpartum (DOV). When compared with normal cows, both PLP and DOV had longer interval to first insemination (63.1 +/- 22.0 days versus 77.6 +/- 21.6 and 93.0 +/- 22.3 days, P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively), lower first insemination conception rate (88.9% versus 0.0% and 57.1%, P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively) and greater BCS loss (0.81 +/- 0.2 versus 1.05 +/- 0.21 and 1.04 +/- 0.10, respectively, P<0.01). Cows with PLP showed longer interval to uterine involution than normal and DOV groups (54.0 +/- 8.3 days versus 42.4 +/- 5.5 and 43.3 +/- 8.3 days, respectively, P<0.01) and higher 100-day milk yield (38.8 +/- 2.7 kg versus 33.6 +/- 4.7 and 29.9 +/- 6.1 kg, respectively, P<0.01). In conclusion, more than half of the cows had abnormal luteal activity postpartum, which adversely affected reproductive performance.

  1. Impact of GnRH agonist triggering and intensive luteal steroid support on live-birth rates and ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Conventional luteal support packages are inadequate to facilitate a fresh transfer after GnRH agonist (GnRHa) trigger in patients at high risk of developing ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). By providing intensive luteal-phase support with oestradiol and progesterone satisfactory implantation rates can be sustained. The objective of this study was to assess the live-birth rate and incidence of OHSS after GnRHa trigger and intensive luteal steroid support compared to traditional hCG trigger and conventional luteal support in OHSS high risk Asian patients. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 363 women exposed to GnRHa triggering with intensive luteal support compared with 257 women exposed to conventional hCG triggering. Women at risk of OHSS were defined by ovarian response ≥15 follicles ≥12 mm on the day of the trigger. Results Live-birth rates were similar in both groups GnRHa vs hCG; 29.8% vs 29.2% (p = 0.69). One late onset severe OHSS case was observed in the GnRHa trigger group (0.3%) compared to 18 cases (7%) after hCG trigger. Conclusions GnRHa trigger combined with intensive luteal steroid support in this group of OHSS high risk Asian patients can facilitate fresh embryo transfer, however, in contrast to previous reports the occurrence of late onset OHSS was not completely eliminated. PMID:24369069

  2. Timing luteal support in ART: a systematic review F & S 19112 revision non-highlighted

    PubMed Central

    Connell, Matthew T.; Szatkowski, Jennifer M.; Terry, Nancy; DeCherney, Alan H.; Propst, Anthony M.; Hill, Micah J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To summarize the available published randomized controlled trial data regarding timing of progesterone supplementation during the luteal phase of patients undergoing ART. Design A systematic review. Setting Not applicable. Patient(s) Undergoing in vitro fertilization. Intervention(s) Different starting times of progesterone for luteal support. Main Outcome Measure(s) Clinical pregnancy and live birth. Results Five randomized controlled trials were identified that met inclusion criteria with a total of 872 patients. A planned meta-analysis was not performed due to a high degree of clinical heterogeneity in regards to the timing, dose, and route of progesterone. Two studies compared progesterone initiated before oocyte retrieval versus the day of oocyte retrieval and pregnancy rates were 5–12% higher when starting progesterone on the day of oocyte retrieval. One study compared starting progesterone on post retrieval day 6 versus day 3, reporting a 16% decrease in pregnancy in the day 6 group. Trials comparing progesterone start times on the day of oocyte retrieval versus two or three days post retrieval showed no significant differences in pregnancy. Conclusions There appears to be a window for progesterone start time between the evening of oocyte retrieval and day 3 after oocyte retrieval. While some studies have suggested a potential benefit in delaying vaginal progesterone start time to 2 days after oocyte retrieval, this review could not find randomized controlled trials to adequately assess this. Further randomized clinical trials are needed to better define progesterone start time for luteal support after ART. PMID:25638420

  3. ATF3 Expression in the Corpus Luteum: Possible Role in Luteal Regression†

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Dagan; Hou, Xiaoying; Talbott, Heather; Cushman, Robert; Cupp, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the induction and possible role of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) in the corpus luteum. Postpubertal cattle were treated at midcycle with prostaglandin F2α(PGF) for 0–4 hours. Luteal tissue was processed for immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, and isolation of protein and RNA. Ovaries were also collected from midluteal phase and first-trimester pregnant cows. Luteal cells were prepared and sorted by centrifugal elutriation to obtain purified small (SLCs) and large luteal cells (LLCs). Real-time PCR and in situ hybridization showed that ATF3 mRNA increased within 1 hour of PGF treatment in vivo. Western blot and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that ATF3 protein was expressed in the nuclei of LLC within 1 hour and was maintained for at least 4 hours. PGF treatment in vitro increased ATF3 expression only in LLC, whereas TNF induced ATF3 in both SLCs and LLCs. PGF stimulated concentration- and time-dependent increases in ATF3 and phosphorylation of MAPKs in LLCs. Combinations of MAPK inhibitors suppressed ATF3 expression in LLCs. Adenoviral-mediated expression of ATF3 inhibited LH-stimulated cAMP response element reporter luciferase activity and progesterone production in LLCs and SLCs but did not alter cell viability or change the expression or activity of key regulators of progesterone synthesis. In conclusion, the action of PGF in LLCs is associated with the rapid activation of stress-activated protein kinases and the induction of ATF3, which may contribute to the reduction in steroid synthesis during luteal regression. ATF3 appears to affect gonadotropin-stimulated progesterone secretion at a step or steps downstream of PKA signaling and before cholesterol conversion to progesterone. PMID:24196350

  4. Luteal activity and effect of dietary energy restriction on follicular development in lactating cows.

    PubMed

    Comin, A; Peric, T; Montillo, M; Cappa, A; Marchi, V; Veronesi, M C; Prandi, A

    2017-08-01

    The aim of this research has been to evaluate the presence of anomalies in the ovarian cycle activity during postpartum and to verify whether 72-hr dietary fasting during the dominance phase, the phase before ovulation, might modify the ovarian follicle population. The presence of anomalies in ovarian cycle activity has been evaluated in 30 Italian Friesian cows starting from 20 days postpartum until 211 days of lactation. Long oestrus and brief dioestrus or scarce luteal activity have been the main anomalies found through measuring progesterone concentrations in the whey. Until 100 days of lactation, the BCS values of the problematic animals have been significantly lower than those in animals with normal ovarian activity. After 100 days of lactation, the ovarian anomalies continued to appear despite the fact that all the animals have reached comparable BCS values. Starting from the results of this trial, the effect of 72-hr dietary fasting on dominant follicles has been studied in six cows. Ultrasonography revealed that the diameter of the follicles at 71 days postpartum has been significantly lower than at 181 days. A 72-hr dietary restriction at 101 and 211 days postpartum did not affect the size of the dominant follicle. However, at 101 days postpartum, half of the animals presented follicular cysts. The effect of fasting differed if the animal has been in early postpartum or 211 days of lactation. Further researches are necessary to understand how different metabolic conditions can modify the follicular population but on the other hand the study shows the utility for farmers and field veterinarians of monitoring the resumption of the ovarian cycle postpartum through the whey progesterone concentrations. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. Chandra Catches Early Phase of Cosmic Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-08-01

    A NASA Chandra X-ray Observatory image has revealed a complex of several intergalactic hot gas clouds in the process of merging. The superb Chandra spatial resolution made it possible to distinguish individual galaxies from the massive clouds of hot gas. One of the clouds, which that envelops hundreds of galaxies, has an extraordinarily low concentration of iron atoms, indicating that it is in the very early stages of cluster evolution. "We may be seeing hot intergalactic gas in a relatively pristine state before it has been polluted by gas from galaxies," said Q. Daniel Wang of the University of Massachusetts in Amherst, and lead author on an upcoming Astrophysical Journal article describing the study. "This discovery should provide valuable insight into how the most massive structures in the universe are assembled." 3-Panel Image of Abell 2125, Its Core & Galaxy C153 3-Panel Image of Abell 2125, Its Core & Galaxy C153 The complex, known as Abell 2125,is about 3 billion light years from Earth, and is seen at a time about 11 billion years after the Big Bang, when many galaxy clusters are believed to have formed. The Chandra Abell 2125 image shows several huge elongated clouds of multimillion degree gas coming together from different directions. These hot gas clouds, each of which contains hundreds of galaxies, appear to be in the process of merging to form a single massive galaxy cluster. Chandra, Hubble Space Telescope, and Very Large Array radio telescope data show that several galaxies in the Abell 2125 core cluster are being stripped of their gas as they fall through surrounding high-pressure hot gas. This stripping process has enriched the core cluster's gas in heavy elements such as iron. Abell 2125's Core & Galaxy C153 Abell 2125's Core & Galaxy C153 The gas in the pristine cloud, which is still several million light years away from the core cluster, is conspicuous for its lack of iron atoms. This anemic cloud must be in a very early evolutionary stage. The

  6. Brain responses to food images during the early and late follicular phase of the menstrual cycle in healthy young women: relation to fasting and feeding1234

    PubMed Central

    Ziemke, Florencia; Magkos, Faidon; Barrios, Fernando A; Brinkoetter, Mary; Boyd, Ingrid; Rifkin-Graboi, Anne; Yannakoulia, Mary; Rojas, Rafael; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2011-01-01

    Background: Food intake fluctuates throughout the menstrual cycle; it is greater during the early follicular and luteal phases than in the late follicular (periovulatory) phase. Ovarian steroids can influence brain areas that process food-related information, but the specific contribution of individual hormones and the importance of the prandial state remain unknown. Objective: The objective was to examine whether brain activation during food visualization is affected by changes in estradiol concentration in the fasted and fed conditions. Design: Nine eumenorrheic, lean young women [mean (±SD) age: 26.2 ± 3.2 y; body mass index (in kg/m2): 22.4 ± 1.2] completed 2 visits, one in the early (low estradiol) and one in the late (high estradiol) follicular phase of their menstrual cycle. At each visit, subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while they viewed food and nonfood images, before and after a standardized meal. Region-of-interest analysis was used to examine the effect of follicular phase and prandial state on brain activation (food > nonfood contrast) and its association with estradiol concentration. Results: Differences were identified in the inferior frontal and fusiform gyri. In these areas, visualization of food elicited greater activation in the fed state than during fasting but only in the late follicular phase, when estradiol concentration was high. The change in estradiol concentration across the follicular phase (late minus early) was inversely correlated with the change in fusiform gyrus activation in the fasted state but not in the fed state. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that estradiol may reduce food intake by decreasing sensitivity to food cues in the ventral visual pathway under conditions of energy deprivation. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00130117. PMID:21593494

  7. Fluctuation-driven electroweak phase transition. [in early universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleiser, Marcelo; Kolb, Edward W.

    1992-01-01

    We examine the dynamics of the electroweak phase transition in the early Universe. For Higgs masses in the range 46 less than or = M sub H less than or = 150 GeV and top quark masses less than 200 GeV, regions of symmetric and asymmetric vacuum coexist to below the critical temperature, with thermal equilibrium between the two phases maintained by fluctuations of both phases. We propose that the transition to the asymmetric vacuum is completed by percolation of these subcritical fluctuations. Our results are relevant to scenarios of baryogenesis that invoke a weakly first-order phase transition at the electroweak scale.

  8. Astaxanthin increases progesterone production in cultured bovine luteal cells

    PubMed Central

    KAMADA, Hachiro; AKAGI, Satoshi; WATANABE, Shinya

    2017-01-01

    Although astaxanthin (AST) is known to be a strong antioxidant, its effects on reproductive function in domestic animals have not yet been elucidated in detail. Therefore, we investigated the effects of AST on luteal cells, which produce progesterone (P4), an important hormone for maintaining pregnancy. Luteal cells were prepared by collagenase dispersion of the corpus luteum (CL). The addition of racemic AST at a low concentration (<10 nM) to cultured bovine luteal cells increased P4 in the culture medium (P<0.05). This effect was attributed to an increase in the ability of luteal cells to produce P4 (P4/cell·DNA); however, the level of lipid peroxide (TBARS: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) per cell did not decrease with the addition of AST, whose values were similar to that with the addition of luteinizing hormone. When optical isomers of AST (SS and RR types) were added to the culture medium, respectively, SS-AST was more effective in increasing P4 production than RR-AST. When 1 mg/kg·body weight of SS-AST derived from green algae was fed to cows for 2 weeks, its concentration in blood plasma was 10.9 nM on average, which was sufficient to expect an in vitro effect on the production of P4 in cows. These results suggested the potential of SS-AST supplements for cows to elevate luteal function. PMID:28442639

  9. Astaxanthin increases progesterone production in cultured bovine luteal cells.

    PubMed

    Kamada, Hachiro; Akagi, Satoshi; Watanabe, Shinya

    2017-06-29

    Although astaxanthin (AST) is known to be a strong antioxidant, its effects on reproductive function in domestic animals have not yet been elucidated in detail. Therefore, we investigated the effects of AST on luteal cells, which produce progesterone (P4), an important hormone for maintaining pregnancy. Luteal cells were prepared by collagenase dispersion of the corpus luteum (CL). The addition of racemic AST at a low concentration (<10 nM) to cultured bovine luteal cells increased P4 in the culture medium (P<0.05). This effect was attributed to an increase in the ability of luteal cells to produce P4 (P4/cell·DNA); however, the level of lipid peroxide (TBARS: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) per cell did not decrease with the addition of AST, whose values were similar to that with the addition of luteinizing hormone. When optical isomers of AST (SS and RR types) were added to the culture medium, respectively, SS-AST was more effective in increasing P4 production than RR-AST. When 1 mg/kg·body weight of SS-AST derived from green algae was fed to cows for 2 weeks, its concentration in blood plasma was 10.9 nM on average, which was sufficient to expect an in vitro effect on the production of P4 in cows. These results suggested the potential of SS-AST supplements for cows to elevate luteal function.

  10. Metacognition in Early Phase Psychosis: Toward Understanding Neural Substrates

    PubMed Central

    Vohs, Jenifer L.; Hummer, Tom A.; Yung, Matthew G.; Francis, Michael M.; Lysaker, Paul H.; Breier, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Individuals in the early phases of psychotic illness have disturbed metacognitive capacity, which has been linked to a number of poor outcomes. Little is known, however, about the neural systems associated with metacognition in this population. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the neuroanatomical correlates of metacognition. We anticipated that higher levels of metacognition may be dependent upon gray matter density (GMD) of regions within the prefrontal cortex. Examining whole-brain structure in 25 individuals with early phase psychosis, we found positive correlations between increased medial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum GMD and higher metacognition. These findings represent an important step in understanding the path through which the biological correlates of psychotic illness may culminate into poor metacognition and, ultimately, disrupted functioning. Such a path will serve to validate and promote metacognition as a viable treatment target in early phase psychosis. PMID:26132568

  11. Contribution to More Patient-Friendly ART Treatment: Efficacy of Continuous Low-Dose GnRH Agonist as the Only Luteal Support—Results of a Prospective, Randomized, Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Pirard, Céline; Loumaye, Ernest; Wyns, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Background. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate intranasal buserelin for luteal phase support and compare its efficacy with standard vaginal progesterone in IVF/ICSI antagonist cycles. Methods. This is a prospective, randomized, open, parallel group study. Forty patients underwent ovarian hyperstimulation with human menopausal gonadotropin under pituitary inhibition with gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist, while ovulation trigger and luteal support were achieved using intranasal GnRH agonist (group A). Twenty patients had their cycle downregulated with buserelin and stimulated with hMG, while ovulation trigger was achieved using 10,000 IU human chorionic gonadotropin with luteal support by intravaginal progesterone (group B). Results. No difference was observed in estradiol levels. Progesterone levels on day 5 were significantly lower in group A. However, significantly higher levels of luteinizing hormone were observed in group A during the entire luteal phase. Pregnancy rates (31.4% versus 22.2%), implantation rates (22% versus 15.4%), and clinical pregnancy rates (25.7% versus 16.7%) were not statistically different between groups, although a trend towards higher rates was observed in group A. No luteal phase lasting less than 10 days was recorded in either group. Conclusion. Intranasal administration of buserelin is effective for providing luteal phase support in IVF/ICSI antagonist protocols. PMID:25945092

  12. Relationships between luteal activity, fertility, blood metabolites and body condition score in multiparous Estonian Holstein dairy cows under different management.

    PubMed

    Samarütel, Jaak; Waldmann, Andres; Ling, Katri; Jaakson, Hanno; Kaart, Tanel; Leesmäe, Andres; Kärt, Olav

    2008-11-01

    The objective was to compare the relationships between luteal activity and fertility, and relate these parameters to metabolic indices and body condition changes in multiparous Estonian Holstein cows on two commercial dairy farms under different management and levels of production and nutrition (higher, H, n=54 (71 lactations) and lower, L, n=39 (39 lactations)). For statistical analysis cows were categorized according to their milk progesterone (P4) profiles as follows: normal ovarian function; delayed start of cyclicity (DC) (interval from calving to first luteal response (P45 ng/ml up to and more than 50 d respectively, followed by regular cyclicity); cessation of luteal activity (prolonged interluteal interval, P4<5 ng/ml, with a duration of 14 d between two adjacent luteal phases); prolonged luteal activity (P4 levels 5 ng/ml for 20 d without preceding insemination). The Mixed procedure of the SAS system was used to compare milk production traits, blood metabolites (ketone bodies, non-esterified fatty acids, total cholesterol) and aspartate aminotransferase, body condition scores (BCS) and fertility parameters between the two farms, and also fertility parameters between the farms within P4 categories. Differences in milk fat/protein ratio, ketone body levels and BCS indicated a deeper negative energy balance (NEB) during the first month after calving on farm L. On both farms nearly 50% of the recently calved dairy cows suffered from ovarian dysfunction during the post-partum period. Delayed start of cyclicity was the most prevalent abnormal P4 profile, 25% and 28% on farms H and L, respectively. Prolonged luteal activity accounted for one-third of atypical ovarian patterns on farm H, and cessation of luteal activity on farm L. On farm L, DC cows had lower BCS values from day 10 to day 90 after calving compared with normal cows (P<0.01) and cows lost more BCS (1.2 units) during the 40 d after calving than normal resumption cows (0.75 units; P<0.05). On farm H

  13. Endocrine disruptors and human reproductive failure: the in vitro effect of phthalates on human luteal cells.

    PubMed

    Romani, Federica; Tropea, Anna; Scarinci, Elisa; Federico, Alex; Dello Russo, Cinzia; Lisi, Lucia; Catino, Stefania; Lanzone, Antonio; Apa, Rosanna

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the influence of phthalates on human luteal cell function. Laboratory study. University hospital. Twenty-three normally menstruating patients in the midluteal phase. Human luteal cells isolated from corpora lutea for primary cultures. Progesterone (P4) and prostaglandin release assayed by enzyme immunoassay, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and VEGF mRNA expression by real-time polymerase chain reaction. We investigated the effect of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) on basal and hCG-induced progesterone (P4) release, as well as DEHP effect on the balance between prostaglandin (PG) E2, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-luteotrophic factors, and the luteolitic PGF2α in isolated human steroidogenc cells. Phthalates influence on VEGF expression has been also evaluated. DEHP, DBP, and BBP were able to reduce both basal and hCG-stimulated P4 as well as PGE2 release. PGF2α release was reduced after DEHP incubation. VEGF protein release was decreased by the incubation with the tested phthalates. VEGF mRNA expression was not affected by DEHP, DBP, and BBP. As expected, both hCG and cobalt chloride were able to induce P4 release and VEGF release and mRNA expression in human luteal cells respectively. The results show the ability of phthalates to affect luteal steroidogenesis as well as the balance between luteotrophic and luteolytic factors suggesting an interference of phthalates in human luteal function. These data may contribute to clarify the classically known impaired reproductive health observed after phthalates exposure. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Phase III Early Restoration Meeting - Galveston, TX | NOAA Gulf Spill

    Science.gov Websites

    Areas Alabama Florida Louisiana Mississippi Texas Region-wide Open Ocean Data Media & News planning for Phase III and future early restoration plans. Open House: 6:00pm Public Meeting: 6:30pm

  15. Volunteering for early phase gene transfer research in Parkinson disease.

    PubMed

    Kim, S Y H; Holloway, R G; Frank, S; Beck, C A; Zimmerman, C; Wilson, R; Kieburtz, K

    2006-04-11

    For early phase trials of novel interventions-such as gene transfer for Parkinson disease (PD)--whose focus is primarily on safety and tolerability, it is important that participants have a realistic understanding of the goals of such research. Recently, some have expressed concern that patients with PD may have unrealistic expectations. The authors examined why patients with PD might volunteer for invasive early phase research by interviewing 92 patients with PD and comparing those who would (n = 46) and those who would not (n = 46) participate in a hypothetical phase I gene-transfer study. The two groups' demographic, clinical, functional, and quality of life measures, as well as their understanding of the research protocol, were similar. The groups did not differ on their perception of potential for personal benefit nor on the level of likelihood of benefit they saw as a precondition for volunteering. However, those willing to participate tended to perceive lower probability of risk, were tolerant of greater probability of risk, and were more optimistic about the phase I study's potential benefits to society. They also appeared more decisive and action-oriented than the unwilling group. It is likely that the decision whether to participate in early phase PD gene transfer studies will depend mostly on patients' attitudes regarding risk, optimism about science, and an action orientation, rather than on their clinical, functional, or demographic characteristics.

  16. Consistent high clinical pregnancy rates and low ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome rates in high-risk patients after GnRH agonist triggering and modified luteal support: a retrospective multicentre study.

    PubMed

    Iliodromiti, Stamatina; Blockeel, Christophe; Tremellen, Kelton P; Fleming, Richard; Tournaye, Herman; Humaidan, Peter; Nelson, Scott M

    2013-09-01

    Are clinical pregnancy rates satisfactory and the incidence of OHSS low after GnRH agonist trigger and modified intensive luteal support in patients with a high risk of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS)? GnRH agonist trigger combined with 1500 IU hCG at the time of oocyte retrieval and subsequent estradiol and progesterone replacement in OHSS high-risk patients can facilitate fresh embryo transfer with high clinical pregnancy rates and a low risk of severe OHSS. Conventional luteal support packages are inadequate to facilitate a fresh transfer after a GnRH agonist trigger. A low dose of hCG (1500 IU) after oocyte aspiration can be used to replace the actions of early luteal LH to sustain implantation and the function of the early corpus luteum, although the level of risk of severe OHSS with this strategy is unclear. This international multicentre retrospective case study, including 275 women at high risk of OHSS, was undertaken during the period January 2011-December 2012. Women were identified as at high risk of OHSS, based on IVF response, ovarian reserve characteristics and previous history of having had treatment, in three clinical IVF centres in UK, Belgium and Australia. All three centres used a GnRH agonist trigger followed by one bolus of 1500 IU hCG 1h after oocyte retrieval. Moreover, the luteal phase was supported with daily vaginal progesterone and twice daily estradiol valerate. A total of 275 autologous cycles with fresh transfer were undertaken in a cohort of high-risk women as defined by baseline characteristics [median (interquartile range)]: age 31.6 (29-35) years, antral follicle count median 25 (18-34) and anti-Müllerian hormone median 49.1 pmol/l (35.2-69.3). At the end of stimulation, the peak estradiol median of 12 000 pmol/l (9400-15 914) and the mean oocyte yield of 17.8 ± 8.4 confirmed a high response. The overall clinical pregnancy rate was 41.8% per cycle started, with only two cases of severe OHSS reported (0.72%). No

  17. Beryllium and boron constraints on an early Galactic bright phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, Brian D.; Schramm, David N.; Truran, James W.

    1993-01-01

    The recent observations of Be and B in metal-deficient halo dwarfs are used to constrain a 'bright phase' of enhanced cosmic-ray flux in the early Galaxy. Assuming that this Be and B arises from cosmic-ray spallation in the early Galaxy, limits are placed on the intensity of the early (Population II) cosmic-ray flux relative to the present (Population I) flux. A simple estimate of bounds on the flux ratio is 1 - 40. This upper bound would restrict galaxies like our own from producing neutrino fluxes that would be detectable in any currently proposed detectors. It is found that the relative enhancement of the early flux varies inversely with the relative time of enhancement. It is noted that associated gamma-ray production via pp - pi sup 0 pp may be a significant contribution to the gamma-ray background above 100 MeV.

  18. The relationship between serum adiponectin and postpartum luteal activity in high-producing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kafi, Mojtaba; Tamadon, Amin; Saeb, Mehdi

    2015-05-01

    The aims of the present study were to initially determine the pattern of serum adiponectin concentrations during a normal estrous cycle in high-producing postpartum dairy cows and then evaluate the relationship between the serum concentrations of adiponectin and insulin with the commencement of postpartum luteal activity and ovarian activities in clinically healthy high-producing Holstein dairy cows. During a normal estrous cycle of cows (n = 6), serum adiponectin concentrations gradually decreased (P < 0.05) after ovulation by Day-17 estrous cycle and then increased before the next ovulation. Cows with higher peak of milk yield had lower serum adiponectin concentrations by week 7 postpartum (P = 0.01). Serum adiponectin and insulin concentrations in cows with different postpartum luteal activity (based on the progesterone profile) were evaluated using the following class of cows: normal (≤45 days, n = 11) and delayed (>45 days, n = 11) commencement of luteal activity (C-LA) and four different profiles of normal luteal activity (NLA, n = 5), prolonged luteal phase (n = 6), delayed first ovulation (n = 6), and anovulation (AOV, n = 5). Serum adiponectin concentrations decreased gradually by week 3 postpartum in NLA and then increased; whereas in AOV and delayed first ovulation, they were decreased after week 3 postpartum (P < 0.05). Moreover, serum adiponectin concentrations in NLA were more than AOV at weeks 5 and 7 postpartum (P = 0.05). The increase in the milk yield from weeks 1 to 7 postpartum in prolonged luteal phase (P = 0.05) and AOV (P = 0.04) cows was more than that of NLA cows. Insulin concentrations were almost maintained at a stable level in NLA cows (P > 0.05), whereas they increased in the other groups (P < 0.05). Moreover, adiponectin concentrations in cows with C-LA greater than 45 days decreased more than those with C-LA 45 days or less after week 3 postpartum (P = 0.002). Serum adiponectin concentrations at week 7 postpartum were lower in

  19. Luteal Expression of Thyroid Hormone Receptors During Gestation and Postpartum in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Navas, Paola B.; Redondo, Analía L.; Cuello-Carrión, F. Darío; Roig, Laura M. Vargas; Valdez, Susana R.; Jahn, Graciela A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Progesterone (P4) is the main steroid secreted by the corpora lutea (CL) and is required for successful implantation and maintenance of pregnancy. Although adequate circulating levels of thyroid hormone (TH) are needed to support formation and maintenance of CL during pregnancy, TH signaling had not been described in this gland. We determined luteal thyroid hormone receptor isoforms (TR) expression and regulation throughout pregnancy and under the influence of thyroid status, and in vitro effects of triiodothyronine (T3) exposure on luteal P4 synthesis. Methods: Euthyroid female Wistar rats were sacrificed by decapitation on gestational day (G) 5, G10, G15, G19, or G21 of pregnancy or on day 2 postpartum (L2). Hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism were induced in female Wistar rats by daily administration of thyroxine (T4; 0.25 mg/kg subcutaneously) or 6-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU; 0.1 g/L in drinking water), respectively. Luteal TR expression of mRNA was determined using real-time reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and of protein using Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Primary cultures of luteal cells and of luteinized granulosa cells were used to study in vitro effects of T3 on P4 synthesis. In addition, the effect of T3 on P4 synthesis under basal conditions and under stimulation with luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL), and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) was evaluated. Results: TRα1, TRα2, and TRβ1 mRNA were present in CL, increasing during the first half and decreasing during the second half of pregnancy. At the protein level, TRβ1 was abundantly expressed during gestation reaching a peak at G19 and decreasing afterwards. TRα1 was barely expressed during early gestation, peaked at G19, and diminished thereafter. Expression of TRβ1 and TRα1 at the protein and mRNA level were not influenced by thyroid status. T3 neither modified P4 secretion from CL of pregnancy nor its synthesis in luteinized granulosa cells in

  20. Dispositional Optimism and Therapeutic Expectations in Early Phase Oncology Trials

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Lynn A.; Mahadevan, Daruka; Appelbaum, Paul S.; Klein, William MP; Weinstein, Neil D.; Mori, Motomi; Daffé, Racky; Sulmasy, Daniel P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Prior research has identified unrealistic optimism as a bias that might impair informed consent among patient-subjects in early phase oncology trials. Optimism, however, is not a unitary construct – it can also be defined as a general disposition, or what is called dispositional optimism. We assessed whether dispositional optimism would be related to high expectations for personal therapeutic benefit reported by patient-subjects in these trials but not to the therapeutic misconception. We also assessed how dispositional optimism related to unrealistic optimism. Methods Patient-subjects completed questionnaires designed to measure expectations for therapeutic benefit, dispositional optimism, unrealistic optimism, and the therapeutic misconception. Results Dispositional optimism was significantly associated with higher expectations for personal therapeutic benefit (Spearman r=0.333, p<0.0001), but was not associated with the therapeutic misconception. (Spearman r=−0.075, p=0.329). Dispositional optimism was weakly associated with unrealistic optimism (Spearman r=0.215, p=0.005). In multivariate analysis, both dispositional optimism (p=0.02) and unrealistic optimism (p<0.0001) were independently associated with high expectations for personal therapeutic benefit. Unrealistic optimism (p=.0001), but not dispositional optimism, was independently associated with the therapeutic misconception. Conclusion High expectations for therapeutic benefit among patient-subjects in early phase oncology trials should not be assumed to result from misunderstanding of specific information about the trials. Our data reveal that these expectations are associated with either a dispositionally positive outlook on life or biased expectations about specific aspects of trial participation. Not all manifestations of optimism are the same, and different types of optimism likely have different consequences for informed consent in early phase oncology research. PMID:26882017

  1. The methoxychlor metabolite, HPTE, inhibits rat luteal cell progesterone production.

    PubMed

    Akgul, Yucel; Derk, Raymond C; Meighan, Terence; Rao, K Murali Krishna; Murono, Eisuke P

    2011-07-01

    The methoxychlor metabolite, HPTE, was shown to inhibit P450-cholesterol side-chain cleavage (P450scc) activity resulting in decreased progesterone production by cultured ovarian follicular cells in previous studies. It is not known whether HPTE has any effect on progesterone formation by the corpus luteum. Exposure to 100 nM HPTE reduced progesterone production by luteal cells with progressive declines to <22% of control at 500 nM HPTE. Similarly, HPTE progressively inhibited progesterone formation and P450scc catalytic activity of hCG- or 8 Br-cAMP-stimulated luteal cells. However, HPTE did not alter mRNA and protein levels of P450scc. Compounds acting as estrogen (17 β-estradiol, bisphenol-A or octylphenol), antiestrogen (ICI) or antiandrogen (monobutyl phthalate, flutamide or M-2) added alone to luteal cells did not mimic the action of HPTE on progesterone and P450scc activity. These results suggest that HPTE directly inhibits P450scc catalytic activity resulting in reduced progesterone formation, and this action was not mediated through estrogen or androgen receptors. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Hypoxia promotes luteal cell death in bovine corpus luteum.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Ryo; Komiyama, Junichi; Tasaki, Yukari; Acosta, Tomas J; Okuda, Kiyoshi

    2008-03-01

    Low oxygen caused by a decreasing blood supply is known to induce various responses of cells, including apoptosis. The present study was conducted to examine whether low-oxygen conditions (hypoxia) induce luteal cell apoptosis in cattle. Bovine midluteal cells incubated under hypoxia (3% O(2)) showed significantly more cell death than did those incubated under normoxia (20% O(2)) at 24 and 48 h of culture, and had significantly lower progesterone (P4) levels starting at 8 h. Characteristic features of apoptosis, such as shrunken nuclei and DNA fragmentation, were observed in cells cultured under hypoxia for 48 h. Hypoxia increased the mRNA expressions of BNIP3 and caspase 3 at 24 and 48 h of culture. Hypoxia had no significant effect on the expressions of BCL2 and BAX mRNA. Hypoxia also increased BNIP3 protein, and activated caspase-3. Treatment of P4 attenuated cell death, caspase-3 mRNA expression, and caspase-3 activity under hypoxia. Overall results of the present study indicate that hypoxia induces luteal cell apoptosis by enhancing the expression of proapoptotic protein, BNIP3, and by activating caspase-3, and that the induction of apoptosis by hypoxia is partially caused by a decrease in P4 production. Because hypoxia suppresses P4 synthesis in bovine luteal cells, we suggest that oxygen deficiency caused by a decreasing blood supply in bovine corpus luteum is one of the major factors contributing to both functional and structural luteolysis.

  3. Processing emotions: Effects of menstrual cycle phase and premenstrual symptoms on the startle reflex, facial EMG and heart rate.

    PubMed

    Armbruster, Diana; Grage, Tobias; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Strobel, Alexander

    2018-10-01

    Emotional reactivity varies across the menstrual cycle although physiological findings are not entirely consistent. We assessed facial EMG and heart rate (HR) changes in healthy free cycling women (N = 45) with an emotional startle paradigm both during the early follicular and the late luteal phase, verified by repeated salivary 17β-estradiol, progesterone and testosterone assessments. Cycle phase impacted startle responses with larger magnitudes during the luteal phase. Notably, this effect was only present when premenstrual symptoms and sequence of lab sessions were included as co-variates. At rest, participants showed a tendency towards higher HR and reduced high frequency (HF) power during the luteal phase indicating reduced parasympathetic tone. HF power was also negatively associated with startle magnitudes. HR changes in response to emotional images differed between the two cycle phases. Initial HR deceleration was more marked during the follicular phase particularly when viewing negative pictures. However, cycle phase did not significantly impact corrugator and zygomaticus activity in response to emotional pictures. Among the three gonadal steroids, correlation patterns were most consistent for testosterone. During the follicular phase, testosterone was associated with zygomaticus activity while viewing neutral or positive pictures and with less pronounced HR deceleration in response to negative images. During the luteal phase, testosterone was negatively associated with fear potentiated startle. The findings underscore the importance of considering menstrual cycle phase when investigating physiological indicators of emotion. However, the modulating effect of premenstrual symptoms also emphasizes potential inter-individual differences. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The role of progesterone therapy in early pregnancy: from physiological role to therapeutic utility.

    PubMed

    Czyzyk, Adam; Podfigurna, Agnieszka; Genazzani, Andrea Riccardo; Meczekalski, Blazej

    2017-06-01

    Progesterone is a steroid hormone of essential role in reproduction. In early pregnancy, it is responsible for preparation of endometrium for implantation process and maintenance of gestational sac in uterus, also by modulation of maternal immune system. Even though, several indices has been proposed as markers of endogenous progesterone synthesis (progesterone or luteinizing hormone measurements, endometrial biopsy), none has been proved to be reliable in detecting luteal phase defect. Currently, several pharmaceutical formulations are available, but in clinical setting the non-oral formulations seems to be effective in therapy. Progesterone is effective in the treatment of patients undergoing assisted reproductive technology procedure, as a luteal phase support. Some studies showed also its efficacy in the treatment of threatening or recurrent miscarriage, but newer trials neglected this beneficial effect. Due to controversies regarding utility of progesterone supplementation in these conditions, further studies are needed to address this issue.

  5. Geoeffectiveness during the early phase of Solar Cycle 24

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pande, Bimal

    Geoeffectiveness during the early phase of Solar Cycle 24 \\underline{} Abstract\\underline{} It is very important and interesting to understand the solar eruptions because it produces the geoeffectiveness in our Earth environment. In the rise phase of the solar cycle, geoeffective events are less frequent, thus this provide us better opportunity to study these events including the detection of their source regions. Keeping this in mind, we have analysed the data of rise phase of current solar cycle 24 ( 2009-2012). During above time period, we have selected 59 geoeffective events having Disturbance Storm Time (Dst) index < -50 nT. Based on the Dst index, we divided the events into two categories i.e. moderate (< -50 nT > -100 nT ) and intense ( <-100 nT). To locate the solar source regions of geoeffective and SEPs associated events, we have used available images, movies and Solar Geophysical data (SGD) list: for example movies from SOHO/EIT, images and movies from the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO). In this study, we will discuss and compare the different properties of associated CMEs, flares and their relation with geoeffectiveness.

  6. Gene expression profiles of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the early stationary phase.

    PubMed

    Meng, L; Alter, T; Aho, T; Huehn, S

    2015-09-01

    Vibrio (V.) parahaemolyticus is an aquatic bacterium capable of causing foodborne gastroenteritis. In the environment or the food chain, V. parahaemolyticus cells are usually forced into the stationary phase, the common phase for bacterial survival in the environment. So far, little is known about whole genomic expression of V. parahaemolyticus in the early stationary phase compared with the exponential growth phase. We performed whole transcriptomic profiling of V. parahaemolyticus cells in both phases (exponential and early stationary phase). Our data showed in total that 172 genes were induced in early stationary phase, while 61 genes were repressed in early stationary phase compared with the exponential phase. Three functional categories showed stable gene expression in the early stationary phase. Eleven functional categories showed that up-regulation of genes was dominant over down-regulation in the early stationary phase. Although genes related to endogenous metabolism were repressed in the early stationary phase, massive regulation of gene expression occurred in the early stationary phase, indicating the expressed gene set of V. parahaemolyticus in the early stationary phase impacts environmental survival. Vibrio (V.) parahaemolyticus is one of the main bacterial causes of foodborne intestinal infections. This bacterium usually is forced into stationary phase in the environment, which includes, e.g. seafood. When bacteria are in stationary phase, physiological changes can lead to a resistance to many stresses, including physical and chemical challenges during food processing. To the best of our knowledge, highlighting the whole genome expression changes in the early stationary phase compared with exponential phase, as well as the investigation of physiological changes of V. parahaemolyticus such as the survival mechanism in the stationary phase has been the very first study in this field. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. In vivo intra-luteal implants of prostaglandin (PG) E(1) or E(2) (PGE(1), PGE(2)) prevent luteolysis in cows. I. Luteal weight, circulating progesterone, mRNA for luteal luteinizing hormone (LH) receptor, and occupied and unoccupied luteal receptors for LH.

    PubMed

    Weems, Yoshie S; Arreguin-Arevalo, J Alejandro; Nett, Torrance M; Vann, Rhonda C; Ford, Stephen P; Bridges, Phillip J; Welsh, Thomas H; Lewis, Andrew W; Neuendorff, Don A; Randel, Ronald D; Weems, Charles W

    2011-08-01

    Previously, it was reported that chronic intra-uterine infusion of PGE(1) or PGE(2) every four hours inhibited luteolysis in ewes. However, estradiol-17β or PGE(2) given intra-uterine every 8h did not inhibit luteolysis in heifers, but infusion of estradiol+PGE(2) inhibited luteolysis in heifers. The objective of this experiment was to determine whether and how intra-luteal implants containing PGE(1) or PGE(2) prevent luteolysis in Angus or Brahman cows. On day-13 post-estrus, Angus cows received no intra-luteal implant and corpora lutea were retrieved or Angus and Brahman cows received intra-luteal silastic implants containing Vehicle, PGE(1), or PGE(2) and corpora lutea were retrieved on day-19. Coccygeal blood was collected daily for analysis for progesterone. Breed did not influence the effect of PGE(1) or PGE(2) on luteal mRNA for LH receptors or unoccupied or occupied luteal LH receptors did not differ (P>0.05) so the data were pooled. Luteal weights of Vehicle-treated Angus or Brahman cows from days-13-19 were lower (P<0.05) than those treated with intra-luteal implants containing PGE(1) or PGE(2). Day-13 Angus luteal weights were heavier (P<0.05) than Vehicle-treated Angus cows on day-19 and luteal weights of day-13 corpora lutea were similar (P>0.05) to Angus cows on day-19 treated with intra-luteal implants containing PGE(1) or PGE(2). Profiles of circulating progesterone in Angus or Brahman cows treated with intra-luteal implants containing PGE(1) or PGE(2) differed (P<0.05) from controls, but profiles of progesterone did not differ (P>0.05) between breeds or between cows treated with intra-luteal implants containing PGE(1) or PGE(2). Intra-luteal implants containing PGE(1) or PGE(2) prevented (P<0.05) loss of luteal mRNA for LH receptors and unoccupied or occupied receptors for LH compared to controls. It is concluded that PGE(1) or PGE(2) alone delays luteolysis regardless of breed. We also conclude that either PGE(1) or PGE(2) prevented luteolysis in

  8. Early Human Testing Initiative Phase 1 Regenerative Life Support Systems

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-08-08

    Early Human Testing (EHT) Initiative Phase 1 Regenerative Life Support Systems Laboratory (RLSSL). Nigel Packham activities in the Variable Pressure Growth Chamber which he lived inside for 15 days. A crowd of well-wishers outside the test chamber, at the console are John Lewis, Ed Mohr and Marybeth Edeen (15577). Packham exiting the chamber (15578-81). Packham is the focus of television cameras and reporters (15582-3). Don Henninger interviewed by reporters (15584). Packham is presented with a jacket after his stay in the chamber (15585). Packham inside the wheat growth chamber checking the condition of the plants (15586-7, 15597). Packham exercising on a recumbant bicycle (15588, 15592). Packham, through the window into the growth chamber, displays a handful of wheat plants to console monitor Dan Barta (15589-90). Group portrait of the team conducting the Early Human Testing Initiative Phase 1 Regenerative Life Support Systems test and include, front row, from left: Jeff Dominick and Don Overton and back row, from left, unidentified member, Marybeth Edeen, Nigel Packham, John Lewis, Ed Mohr, Dan Barta and Tim Monk (15591). Harry Halford prepares to send a package through the airlock to Packham (15593). Packham displays a handful of wheat plants (15594). Packham fixes himself a bowl of cereal (15595) and retrieves a carton of milk from the refrigerator (15596). Packham retrieves a package from the airlock (15598). Packham packs up trash in plastic bag (15599-600) and sends it back through the airlock (15601). Packham gets a cup of water (15602) and heats it in the microwave (15603).

  9. Effect of antiprogestin ZK 98. 734 on the ovarian cycle, early pregnancy, and on its binding to progesterone receptors in the myometrium of marmoset Callithrix jacchus

    SciTech Connect

    Puri, C.P.; Kholkute, S.D.; Pongubala, J.M.

    1988-04-01

    The antiprogestin ZK 98.734 (11 beta-(4-dimethylaminophenyl-17 beta-hydroxy-17 alpha-(3-hydroxy-prop-1(Z)-enyl-4,9(10)-estradien-3-one) was administered i.m. (5 mg/day) for three consecutive days to two groups of common marmosets. In one group (nonpregnant, n = 6), it was injected during the luteal phase, and to the second group (pregnant, n = 7), it was injected during early pregnancy, on Days 24-26 of the mid-cycle estradiol peak. Administration of ZK 98.734 during the luteal phase caused a sharp drop in plasma progesterone levels. The luteal phase was shortened whether the drug was administered during the early or the late luteal phase. Similarly, administration of ZK 98.734 duringmore » early pregnancy caused a significant drop in progesterone levels, and pregnancy was terminated in all of the animals. The post-treatment cycles in both groups of animals were ovulatory and of normal duration. /sup 3/H-ZK 98.734 showed specific binding to myometrial cytosol fraction. ZK 98.734 also displaced the binding of /sup 3/H-progesterone to progesterone receptors. However, progesterone had higher binding affinity than did ZK 98.734. The antifertility action of ZK 98.734 could be a result either of its luteolytic action or of its blocking the progesterone receptors in the target tissue. This study, therefore, indicates that in the common marmoset ZK 98.734 is a progesterone antagonist with a potential to terminate early pregnancy.« less

  10. The absence of p27Kip1, an inhibitor of G1 cyclin-dependent kinases, uncouples differentiation and growth arrest during the granulosa->luteal transition.

    PubMed

    Tong, W; Kiyokawa, H; Soos, T J; Park, M S; Soares, V C; Manova, K; Pollard, J W; Koff, A

    1998-09-01

    The involvement of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors in differentiation remains unclear: are the roles of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors restricted to cell cycle arrest; or also required for completion of the differentiation program; or both? Here, we report that differentiation of luteal cells can be uncoupled from growth arrest in p27-deficient mice. In these mice, female-specific infertility correlates with a failure of embryos to implant at embryonic day 4.5. We show by ovarian transplant and hormone reconstitution experiments that failure to regulate luteal cell estradiol is one physiological mechanism for infertility in these mice. This failure is not due to a failure of p27-deficient granulosa cells to differentiate after hormonal stimulation; P450scc, a marker for luteal progesterone biosynthesis, is expressed and granulosa cell-specific cyclin D2 expression is reduced. However, unlike their wild-type counterparts, p27-deficient luteal cells continue to proliferate for up to 3.5 days after hormonal stimulation. By day 5.5, however, these cells withdraw from the cell cycle, suggesting that p27 plays a role in the early events regulating withdrawal of cells from the cell cycle. We have further shown that in the absence of this timely withdrawal, estradiol regulation is perturbed, explaining in part how fertility is compromised at the level of implantation. These data support the interpretation of our previous observations on oligodendrocyte differentiation about a role for p27 in establishing the nonproliferative state, which in some cases (oligodendrocytes) is required for differentiation, whereas in other cases it is required for the proper functioning of a differentiated cell (luteal cell).

  11. Relationship of oestrus synchronization method, circulating hormones, luteinizing hormone and prostaglandin F-2 alpha receptors and luteal progesterone concentration to premature luteal regression in superovulated sheep.

    PubMed

    Schiewe, M C; Fitz, T A; Brown, J L; Stuart, L D; Wildt, D E

    1991-09-01

    Ewes were treated with exogenous follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and oestrus was synchronized using either a dual prostaglandin F-2 alpha (PGF-2 alpha) injection regimen or pessaries impregnated with medroxy progesterone acetate (MAP). Natural cycling ewes served as controls. After oestrus or AI (Day 0), corpora lutea (CL) were enucleated surgically from the left and right ovaries on Days 3 and 6, respectively. The incidence of premature luteolysis was related (P less than 0.05) to PGF-2 alpha treatment and occurred in 7 of 8 ewes compared with 0 of 4 controls and 1 of 8 MAP-exposed females. Sheep with regressing CL had lower circulating and intraluteal progesterone concentrations and fewer total and small dissociated luteal cells on Day 3 than gonadotrophin-treated counterparts with normal CL. Progesterone concentration in the serum and luteal tissue was higher (P less than 0.05) in gonadotrophin-treated ewes with normal CL than in the controls; but luteinizing hormone (LH) receptors/cell were not different on Days 3 and 6. There were no apparent differences in the temporal patterns of circulating oestradiol-17 beta, FSH and LH. High progesterone in gonadotrophin-treated ewes with normal CL coincided with an increase in total luteal mass and numbers of cells, which were primarily reflected in more small luteal cells than in control ewes. Gonadotrophin-treated ewes with regressing CL on Day 3 tended (P less than 0.10) to have fewer small luteal cells and fewer (P less than 0.05) low-affinity PGF-2 alpha binding sites than sheep with normal CL. By Day 6, luteal integrity and cell viability was absent in ewes with prematurely regressed CL. These data demonstrate that (i) the incidence of premature luteal regression is highly correlated with the use of PGF-2 alpha; (ii) this abnormal luteal tissue is functionally competent for 2-3 days after ovulation, but deteriorates rapidly thereafter and (iii) luteal-dysfunctioning ewes experience a reduction in numbers of

  12. Infertility in transgenic mice overexpressing the bovine growth hormone gene: luteal failure secondary to prolactin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Cecim, M; Kerr, J; Bartke, A

    1995-05-01

    Overexpression of growth hormone (GH) in transgenic mice is associated with various degrees of impairment of female reproductive functions. Transgenic PEPCK.bGH mice express high GH levels, and only around 20% of the females will carry gestation to Day 7. The objective of the present study was to investigate luteal function in PEPCK.bGH mice during early pregnancy, when CL are fully dependent on the pituitary. Plasma progesterone levels measured on Days 2 or 7 postcoitum (p.c.) were lower in transgenic than in normal females. In transgenic females with a previous history of infertility, daily injections of 1 mg progesterone starting on Day 2 p.c. significantly increased the proportion of animals pregnant on Day 7. When ovaries from transgenic mice were transplanted into ovariectomized normal littermates, the recipients exhibited normal vaginal cycles and responded to mating by vaginal cytology changes consistent with pseudopregnancy. In contrast, ovariectomized transgenic females bearing transplants of ovaries from normal mice had slightly prolonged estrous cycles and failed to become pseudopregnant after mating. Plasma progesterone levels on Days 2 and 7 p.c. in normal females with transgenic ovaries were not different from plasma progesterone levels measured in normal females into which normal ovaries had been transplanted. Twice-daily injections of 100 micrograms of prolactin (PRL) in saline or in polyvinylpyrrolidone starting on the evening of Day 2 p.c. were able to rescue luteal function. The proportion of PRL-injected transgenic animals that were pregnant on Day 7 was significantly higher than that of saline-injected transgenic controls and resembled the pregnancy rate of normal animals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Scavenger receptor-B1 and luteal function in mice.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, Leonor Miranda; Binelli, Mario; Bertolin, Kalyne; Pelletier, R Marc; Murphy, Bruce D

    2010-08-01

    During luteinization, circulating high-density lipoproteins supply cholesterol to ovarian cells via the scavenger receptor-B1 (SCARB1). In the mouse, SCARB1 is expressed in cytoplasm and periphery of theca, granulosa, and cumulus cells of developing follicles and increases dramatically during formation of corpora lutea. Blockade of ovulation in mice with meloxicam, a prostaglandin synthase-2 inhibitor, resulted in follicles with oocytes entrapped in unexpanded cumulus complexes and with granulosa cells with luteinized morphology and expressing SCARB1 characteristic of luteinization. Mice bearing null mutation of the Scarb1 gene (SCARB1(-/-)) had ovaries with small corpora lutea, large follicles with hypertrophied theca cells, and follicular cysts with blood-filled cavities. Plasma progesterone concentrations were decreased 50% in mice with Scarb1 gene disruption. When SCARB1(-/-) mice were treated with a combination of mevinolin [an inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase (HMGR)] and chloroquine (an inhibitor of lysosomal processing of low-density lipoproteins), serum progesterone was further reduced. HMGR protein expression increased in SCARB1(-/-) mice, independent of treatment. It was concluded that theca, granulosa, and cumulus cells express SCARB1 during follicle development, but maximum expression depends on luteinization. Knockout of SCARB1(-/-) leads to ovarian pathology and suboptimal luteal steroidogenesis. Therefore, SCARB1 expression is essential for maintaining normal ovarian cholesterol homeostasis and luteal steroid synthesis.

  14. Cardiovascular response to short-term fasting in menstrual phases in young women: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Ohara, Kumiko; Okita, Yoshimitsu; Kouda, Katsuyasu; Mase, Tomoki; Miyawaki, Chiemi; Nakamura, Harunobu

    2015-08-28

    Menstrual cycle-related symptoms are an important health issue for many women, and some may affect cardiac autonomic regulation. In the present study, we evaluated the cardiovascular and physiological stress response to 12-h short-term fasting in the menstrual phases of healthy young women. We performed a randomized crossover study. Subjects were seven female university students (age: 22.3 ± 1.0 years). The experiments comprised four sessions: meal intake in the follicular phase, meal intake in the luteal phase, fasting in the follicular phase, and fasting in the luteal phase. All subjects participated in a total of four experimental sessions during two successive phases (follicular and luteal phase in the same menstrual cycle, or luteal phase and follicular phase in the next menstrual cycle) according to a randomized crossover design. R-R intervals were continuously recorded before and after meals, and power spectral analysis of heart rate variability was performed. Other physiological data were obtained before and 20, 40, 60, and 80 min after meal intake or after the corresponding time point of meal intake (fasting in the follicular or luteal phase). Heart rate decreased during fasting in the follicular and luteal phases. High frequency power increased during fasting in the follicular and luteal phases. In addition, salivary cortisol concentrations decreased during fasting in the luteal phase. In the present study, short-term fasting resulted in higher parasympathetic activity and lower cortisol levels in the luteal phase in these young women. These results indicate a possibility to produce an anti-stress effect in the luteal phase, which may reduce menstrual symptoms.

  15. Phase III Early Restoration Meeting - Corpus Christi, TX | NOAA Gulf Spill

    Science.gov Websites

    Areas Alabama Florida Louisiana Mississippi Texas Region-wide Open Ocean Data Media & News programmatic approach to early restoration planning for Phase III and future early restoration plans. Open

  16. Phase III Early Restoration Meeting - Lake Charles, LA | NOAA Gulf Spill

    Science.gov Websites

    Areas Alabama Florida Louisiana Mississippi Texas Region-wide Open Ocean Data Media & News early restoration planning for Phase III and future early restoration plans. Open House: 5:30pm Public

  17. Mechanisms of the early phases of plant gravitropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiss, J. Z.

    2000-01-01

    Gravitropism is directed growth of a plant or plant organ in response to gravity and can be divided into the following temporal sequence: perception, transduction, and response. This article is a review of the research on the early events of gravitropism (i.e., phenomena associated with the perception and transduction phases). The two major hypotheses for graviperception are the protoplast-pressure and starch-statolith models. While most researchers support the concept of statoliths, there are suggestions that plants have multiple mechanisms of perception. Evidence supports the hypothesis that the actin cytoskeleton is involved in graviperception/transduction, but the details of these mechanisms remain elusive. A number of recent developments, such as increased use of the molecular genetic approach, magnetophoresis, and laser ablation, have facilitated research in graviperception and have allowed for refinement of the current models. In addition, the entire continuum of acceleration forces from hypo- to hyper-gravity have been useful in studying perception mechanisms. Future interdisciplinary molecular approaches and the availability of sophisticated laboratories on the International Space Station should help to develop new insights into mechanisms of gravitropism in plants.

  18. Early Intervention Services for Early-Phase Psychosis - Centre for integrative psychiatry in Psychiatric Hospital "Sveti Ivan", Croatia.

    PubMed

    Matić, Katarina; Gereš, Natko; Gerlach, Josefina; Prskalo-Čule, Diana; Zadravec Vrbanc, Tihana; Lovretić, Vanja; Librenjak, Dina; Vuk Pisk, Sandra; Ivezić, Ena; Šimunović Filipčić, Ivona; Jeleč, Vjekoslav; Filipčić, Igor

    2018-06-01

    There is a growing body of evidence suggesting that early and effective management in the critical early years of schizophrenia can improve long-term outcomes. The objective of this study was to evaluate time to relapse of the patients with early-phase psychosis treated in the Centre for integrative psychiatry (CIP). We performed a retrospective cohort study on the sample of 373 early-phase psychosis patients admitted to Psychiatric Hospital "Sveti Ivan", Zagreb Croatia: from January 1, 2015 to December 31, 2017. The primary outcome was time to relapse. Patients who were admitted to group psychotherapeutic program after the end of acute treatment had 70% lower hazard for relapse (HR=0.30; 95% CI 0.16-0.58). Patients who were included first in the psychotherapeutic program and then treated and controlled in the daily hospital had 74% lower hazard for relapse (HR=0.26; 95% CI 0.10-0.67). In early-phase psychosis, integrative early intervention service has relevant beneficial effects compare to treatment as usual. These results justified the implementation of multimodal early intervention services in treatment of patients with early-phase psychosis.

  19. Luteal lifespan and fertility after estrus synchronization in goats

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Lu Meng; Takayama, Koji; Nakanishi, Yoshitaka; Hamana, Katsumi; Takagi, Mitsuhiro; Kojima, Toshiyuki

    2008-01-01

    The present experiment aims to examine the efficiency of estrus synchronization using progesterone and equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG) and to look at luteal function. During the non-breeding and breeding season, 5 adult female Korean native goats were injected intramuscularly with 2.5 ml of physiological saline as the control. A progesterone impregnated intravaginal sponge was then kept in the same goats for 10 days followed, after a week, by an intramuscular injection of 500 IU eCG. Five adult female Nubian goats were mated with a fertile buck during the non-breeding season. During the non-breeding season 2 of the 5 goats showed a normal estrous cycle (ranging from 18 to 21 days) and 3 a short estrous cycle (ranging from 3 to 6 days). During the breeding season the equivalent figures were 1 and 2. The major axes of the corpus luteum (CL) were measured by means of calipers built into the ultrasonography system, and the concentrations of plasma progesterone (P4) were determined by double antibody radioimmunoassay. The mean major axes of the CL in goats showing the short cycle (6.1 ± 0.5 mm) was significantly smaller than in those showing the normal cycle (8.9 ± 0.5 mm; p < 0.01) and also the value of P4 in goats showing the short cycle (4.2 ± 2.1 ng/ml) was significantly lower than for those showing the normal cycle (10.3 ± 4.3 ng/ml; p < 0.05) at day 3 following ovulation. Three out of 5 Nubian goats became pregnant but only one goat carried to full term. The present experiment indicated that a combination of progesterone and eCG was effective in inducing estrus, although it resulted in a high incidence of short luteal lifespan. The low kidding rate and high incidence of embryonic loss may be due to the instability of the luteal lifespan. PMID:18303279

  20. The role of adrenergic activation on murine luteal cell viability and progesterone production.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Tang, Min; Jiang, Huaide; Wu, Bing; Cai, Wei; Hu, Chuan; Bao, Riqiang; Dong, Qiming; Xiao, Li; Li, Gang; Zhang, Chunping

    2016-09-15

    Sympathetic innervations exist in mammalian CL. The action of catecholaminergic system on luteal cells has been the focus of a variety of studies. Norepinephrine (NE) increased progesterone secretion of cattle luteal cells by activating β-adrenoceptors. In this study, murine luteal cells were treated with NE and isoprenaline (ISO). We found that NE increased the viability of murine luteal cells and ISO decreased the viability of luteal cells. Both NE and ISO promoted the progesterone production. Nonselective β-adrenergic antagonist, propranolol reversed the effect of ISO on cell viability but did not reverse the effect of NE on cell viability. Propranolol blocked the influence of NE and ISO on progesterone production. These results reveal that the increase of luteal cell viability induced by NE is not dependent on β-adrenergic activation. α-Adrenergic activation possibly contributes to it. Both NE and ISO increased progesterone production through activating β-adrenergic receptor. Further study showed that CyclinD2 is involved in the increase of luteal cell induced by NE. 3β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, LHR, steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), and PGF2α contribute to the progesterone production induced by NE and ISO. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Luteal activity of pregnant rats with hypo-and hyperthyroidism.

    PubMed

    Silva, Juneo Freitas; Ocarino, Natália Melo; Serakides, Rogéria

    2014-07-12

    Luteal activity is dependent on the interaction of various growth factors, cytokines and hormones, including the thyroid hormones, being that hypo- and hyperthyroidism alter the gestational period and are also a cause of miscarriage and stillbirth. Because of that, we evaluated the proliferation, apoptosis and expression of angiogenic factors and COX-2 in the corpus luteum of hypo- and hyperthyroid pregnant rats. Seventy-two adult female rats were equally distributed into three groups: hypothyroid, hyperthyroid and control. Hypo- and hyperthyroidism were induced by the daily administration of propylthiouracil and L-thyroxine, respectively. The administration began five days before becoming pregnant and the animals were sacrificed at days 10, 14, and 19 of gestation. We performed an immunohistochemical analysis to evaluate the expression of CDC-47, VEGF, Flk-1 (VEGF receptor) and COX-2. Apoptosis was evaluated by the TUNEL assay. We assessed the gene expression of VEGF, Flk-1, caspase 3, COX-2 and PGF2α receptor using real time RT-PCR. The data were analyzed by SNK test. Hypothyroidism reduced COX-2 expression on day 10 and 19 (P < 0.05), endothelial/pericyte and luteal cell proliferation on day 10 and 14 (p < 0.05), apoptotic cell numbers on day 19 (p < 0.05) and the expression of Flk-1 and VEGF on day 14 and 19, respectively (p < 0.05). Hyperthyroidism increased the expression of COX-2 on day 19 (P < 0.05) and the proliferative activity of endothelial/pericytes cells on day 14 (p <0.05), as well as the expression of VEGF and Flk-1 on day 19 (P < 0.05). Hypothyroidism reduces the proliferation, apoptosis and expression of angiogenic factors and COX-2in the corpus luteum of pregnant rats, contrary to what is observed in hyperthyroid animals, being this effect dependent of the gestational period.

  2. Luteal activity of pregnant rats with hypo-and hyperthyroidism

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Luteal activity is dependent on the interaction of various growth factors, cytokines and hormones, including the thyroid hormones, being that hypo- and hyperthyroidism alter the gestational period and are also a cause of miscarriage and stillbirth. Because of that, we evaluated the proliferation, apoptosis and expression of angiogenic factors and COX-2 in the corpus luteum of hypo- and hyperthyroid pregnant rats. Methods Seventy-two adult female rats were equally distributed into three groups: hypothyroid, hyperthyroid and control. Hypo- and hyperthyroidism were induced by the daily administration of propylthiouracil and L-thyroxine, respectively. The administration began five days before becoming pregnant and the animals were sacrificed at days 10, 14, and 19 of gestation. We performed an immunohistochemical analysis to evaluate the expression of CDC-47, VEGF, Flk-1 (VEGF receptor) and COX-2. Apoptosis was evaluated by the TUNEL assay. We assessed the gene expression of VEGF, Flk-1, caspase 3, COX-2 and PGF2α receptor using real time RT-PCR. The data were analyzed by SNK test. Results Hypothyroidism reduced COX-2 expression on day 10 and 19 (P < 0.05), endothelial/pericyte and luteal cell proliferation on day 10 and 14 (p < 0.05), apoptotic cell numbers on day 19 (p < 0.05) and the expression of Flk-1 and VEGF on day 14 and 19, respectively (p < 0.05). Hyperthyroidism increased the expression of COX-2 on day 19 (P < 0.05) and the proliferative activity of endothelial/pericytes cells on day 14 (p <0.05), as well as the expression of VEGF and Flk-1 on day 19 (P < 0.05). Conclusions Hypothyroidism reduces the proliferation, apoptosis and expression of angiogenic factors and COX-2in the corpus luteum of pregnant rats, contrary to what is observed in hyperthyroid animals, being this effect dependent of the gestational period. PMID:25298361

  3. 40 CFR 76.8 - Early election for Group 1, Phase II boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.8 Early election for Group 1... plan and: (i) If a Phase I Acid Rain permit governing the source at which the unit is located has been... chapter to include the early election plan; or (ii) If a Phase I Acid Rain permit governing the source at...

  4. 40 CFR 76.8 - Early election for Group 1, Phase II boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.8 Early election for Group 1... plan and: (i) If a Phase I Acid Rain permit governing the source at which the unit is located has been... chapter to include the early election plan; or (ii) If a Phase I Acid Rain permit governing the source at...

  5. 40 CFR 76.8 - Early election for Group 1, Phase II boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.8 Early election for Group 1... plan and: (i) If a Phase I Acid Rain permit governing the source at which the unit is located has been... chapter to include the early election plan; or (ii) If a Phase I Acid Rain permit governing the source at...

  6. 40 CFR 76.8 - Early election for Group 1, Phase II boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.8 Early election for Group 1... plan and: (i) If a Phase I Acid Rain permit governing the source at which the unit is located has been... chapter to include the early election plan; or (ii) If a Phase I Acid Rain permit governing the source at...

  7. 40 CFR 76.8 - Early election for Group 1, Phase II boilers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.8 Early election for Group 1... plan and: (i) If a Phase I Acid Rain permit governing the source at which the unit is located has been... chapter to include the early election plan; or (ii) If a Phase I Acid Rain permit governing the source at...

  8. Simple uncertainty propagation for early design phase aircraft sizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenz, Annelise

    Many designers and systems analysts are aware of the uncertainty inherent in their aircraft sizing studies; however, few incorporate methods to address and quantify this uncertainty. Many aircraft design studies use semi-empirical predictors based on a historical database and contain uncertainty -- a portion of which can be measured and quantified. In cases where historical information is not available, surrogate models built from higher-fidelity analyses often provide predictors for design studies where the computational cost of directly using the high-fidelity analyses is prohibitive. These surrogate models contain uncertainty, some of which is quantifiable. However, rather than quantifying this uncertainty, many designers merely include a safety factor or design margin in the constraints to account for the variability between the predicted and actual results. This can become problematic if a designer does not estimate the amount of variability correctly, which then can result in either an "over-designed" or "under-designed" aircraft. "Under-designed" and some "over-designed" aircraft will likely require design changes late in the process and will ultimately require more time and money to create; other "over-designed" aircraft concepts may not require design changes, but could end up being more costly than necessary. Including and propagating uncertainty early in the design phase so designers can quantify some of the errors in the predictors could help mitigate the extent of this additional cost. The method proposed here seeks to provide a systematic approach for characterizing a portion of the uncertainties that designers are aware of and propagating it throughout the design process in a procedure that is easy to understand and implement. Using Monte Carlo simulations that sample from quantified distributions will allow a systems analyst to use a carpet plot-like approach to make statements like: "The aircraft is 'P'% likely to weigh 'X' lbs or less, given the

  9. Metabolomics study on primary dysmenorrhea patients during the luteal regression stage based on ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Ling; Gu, Caiyun; Liu, Xinyu; Xie, Jiabin; Hou, Zhiguo; Tian, Meng; Yin, Jia; Li, Aizhu; Li, Yubo

    2017-01-01

    Primary dysmenorrhea (PD) is a common gynecological disorder which, while not life-threatening, severely affects the quality of life of women. Most patients with PD suffer ovarian hormone imbalances caused by uterine contraction, which results in dysmenorrhea. PD patients may also suffer from increases in estrogen levels caused by increased levels of prostaglandin synthesis and release during luteal regression and early menstruation. Although PD pathogenesis has been previously reported on, these studies only examined the menstrual period and neglected the importance of the luteal regression stage. Therefore, the present study used urine metabolomics to examine changes in endogenous substances and detect urine biomarkers for PD during luteal regression. Ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry was used to create metabolomic profiles for 36 patients with PD and 27 healthy controls. Principal component analysis and partial least squares discriminate analysis were used to investigate the metabolic alterations associated with PD. Ten biomarkers for PD were identified, including ornithine, dihydrocortisol, histidine, citrulline, sphinganine, phytosphingosine, progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione, and 15-keto-prostaglandin F2α. The specificity and sensitivity of these biomarkers was assessed based on the area under the curve of receiver operator characteristic curves, which can be used to distinguish patients with PD from healthy controls. These results provide novel targets for the treatment of PD. PMID:28098892

  10. Menstrual phase-related differences in the pulsatility index on the central retinal artery suggest an oestrogen vasodilatation effect that antagonizes with progesterone.

    PubMed

    Viana, Luiz Carlos; Faria, Marcos; Pettersen, Heverton; Sampaio, Marcos; Geber, Selmo

    2011-03-01

    The actual effect of steroid hormones on cerebral microcirculation is still controversial. Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate vascular flow variations in the central retinal artery that may exist during the ovulatory menstrual cycle. A total of 34 healthy women were included in this observational, longitudinal, and prospective study. All participants were submitted to dopplerfluxometric evaluation of the eyes in order to study the pulsatility index (PI) of the central retinal arteries, during four phases of the menstrual cycle: early follicular, mid follicular, periovulatory, and mid luteal phases. Subjects' ages ranged from 14 to 47 years old (mean: 29.7 ± 10.1) and PI did not differ among age groups. The PI of the central retinal artery was different among the four phases of the menstrual cycle. PI showed a significant decrease from early follicular phase (1.72) to mid follicular phase (1.57) (p = 0.037), and was similar during periovulatory phase (1.56) and significantly increased in mid luteal phase (1.70). After that it returned to the values observed in the early follicular phase. Our results suggest the existence of an oestrogen vasodilatation effect on the central retinal artery that is menstrual phase-related and antagonized by progesterone.

  11. Assessment of luteal function in the vervet monkey as a means to develop a model for obesity-related reproductive phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Kundu, Mila C.; May, Margaret C.; Chosich, Justin; Bradford, Andrew P.; Lasley, Bill; Gee, Nancy; Santoro, Nanette; Appt, Susan E.; Polotsky, Alex J.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to characterize luteal function in vervet monkeys. Urine from 12 adult female vervets housed at an academic research center was collected for 10 weeks from single-caged monkeys in order to assess evidence of luteal activity (ELA) as determined by urinary excretion of pregnanediol glucuronide (Pdg) and estrone conjugates (E1c). Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was performed on the monkeys to assess body composition, bone density, and fat mass. Menstrual cyclicity was determined using records of vaginal bleeding. ELA was observed in 9 monkeys and was characterized by a late follicular rise in E1c followed by a progressive increase in Pdg excretion. Mean menstrual cycle length was 26.7 ± 3.8 days and the average day of luteal transition was 14 ± 1.8. Three monkeys without ELA had a clearly defined E1c rise (mean 12-fold from nadir) followed by an E1c drop that was not accompanied by Pdg rise and coincided with vaginal bleeding. Among the 9 ELA monkeys, excretion of E1c tended to negatively associate with fat mass, although this finding did not reach statistical significance (r = −0.61, p = 0.08). Similar to women, vervet monkeys experience an increase in E1c late in the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle which is followed by a subsequent luteal Pdg peak. Assessment of urinary reproductive hormones allows for identification of cardinal menstrual cycle events; thus, the similarity of vervet cycles to human menstrual cycles makes them a useful model for obesity-related human reproductive impairment. PMID:23278149

  12. Early Childhood Program: Summary of Context Analysis Phase.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southwest Educational Development Lab., Austin, TX.

    Progress made in the field of early childhood development during the past decade is examined to provide the background and rationale for tree programs funded by the National Institute of Education (NIE) in 1974: a parenting information center, a multimedia child care training package, and television spots related to child rearing principles. The…

  13. The Adequate Corpus Luteum: miR-96 Promotes Luteal Cell Survival and Progesterone Production.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Bushra T; Sontakke, Sadanand D; Ioannidis, Jason; Duncan, W Colin; Donadeu, F Xavier

    2017-07-01

    Inadequate progesterone production from the corpus luteum is associated with pregnancy loss. Data available in model species suggest important roles of microRNAs (miRNAs) in luteal development and maintenance. To comprehensively investigate the involvement of miRNAs during the ovarian follicle-luteal transition. The effects of specific miRNAs on survival and steroid production by human luteinized granulosa cells (hLGCs) were tested using specific miRNA inhibitors. Candidate miRNAs were identified through microarray analyses of follicular and luteal tissues in a bovine model. An academic institution in the United Kingdom associated with a teaching hospital. hLGCs were obtained by standard transvaginal follicular-fluid aspiration from 35 women undergoing assisted conception. Inhibition of candidate miRNAs in vitro. Levels of miRNAs, mRNAs, FOXO1 protein, apoptosis, and steroids were measured in tissues and/or cultured cells. Two specific miRNA clusters, miR-183-96-182 and miR-212-132, were dramatically increased in luteal relative to follicular tissues. miR-96 and miR-132 were the most upregulated miRNAs within each cluster. Database analyses identified FOXO1 as a putative target of both these miRNAs. In cultured hLGCs, inhibition of miR-96 increased apoptosis and FOXO1 protein levels, and decreased progesterone production. These effects were prevented by small interfering RNA-mediated downregulation of FOXO1. In bovine luteal cells, miR-96 inhibition also led to increases in apoptosis and FOXO1 protein levels. miR-96 targets FOXO1 to regulate luteal development through effects on cell survival and steroid production. The miR-183-96-182 cluster could provide a novel target for the manipulation of luteal function. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  14. Early Childhood Technology Integrated Instructional System (EC-TIIS) Phase 1: A Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutinger, Patricia; Robinson, Linda; Schneider, Carol

    2004-01-01

    The Early Childhood Technology Integrated Instructional System (EC-TIIS), a Steppingstones of Technology Innovation Phase 1--Development project, was developed by the Center for Best Practices in Early Childhood (the Center) at Western Illinois University as an online instructional system. EC-TIIS' ultimate goal was to improve technology services…

  15. 78 FR 5816 - Guidance for Industry on Clinical Pharmacogenomics: Premarket Evaluation in Early-Phase Clinical...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-28

    .... The guidance provides recommendations on when and how genomic principles should be considered and... recommendations on when and how genomic principles should be considered and applied in early-phase clinical... the larger, later adequate, and well-controlled trials (phase 3) that are needed to support marketing...

  16. Observable induced gravitational waves from an early matter phase

    SciTech Connect

    Alabidi, Laila; Sasaki, Misao; Kohri, Kazunori

    2013-05-01

    Assuming that inflation is succeeded by a phase of matter domination, which corresponds to a low temperature of reheating T{sub r} < 10{sup 9}GeV, we evaluate the spectra of gravitational waves induced in the post-inflationary universe. We work with models of hilltop-inflation with an enhanced primordial scalar spectrum on small scales, which can potentially lead to the formation of primordial black holes. We find that a lower reheat temperature leads to the production of gravitational waves with energy densities within the ranges of both space and earth based gravitational wave detectors.

  17. Early Detection of Amyloid Plaque in Alzheimer’s Disease via X-ray Phase CT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-12-1-0138 TITLE: Early Detection of Amyloid Plaque in Alzheimer’s Disease via X-ray Phase CT PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR...NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0138 Early Detection of Amyloid Plaque in Alzheimer’s Disease via X-ray Phase CT 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...method for early detection of amyloid plaque in Alzheimer’s disease , with three Specific Aims: #1 Develop and optimize an x-ray PCCT to explore the

  18. Clinostat rotation induces apoptosis in luteal cells of the pregnant rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Hyunwon; Bhat, Ganapathy K.; Sridaran, Rajagopala

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that microgravity induces changes at the cellular level, including apoptosis. However, it is unknown whether microgravity affects luteal cell function. This study was performed to assess whether microgravity conditions generated by clinostat rotation induce apoptosis and affect steroidogenesis by luteal cells. Luteal cells isolated from the corpora lutea of Day 8 pregnant rats were placed in equal numbers in slide flasks (chamber slides). One slide flask was placed in the clinostat and the other served as a stationary control. At 48 h in the clinostat, whereas the levels of progesterone and total cellular protein decreased, the number of shrunken cells increased. To determine whether apoptosis occurred in shrunken cells, Comet and TUNEL assays were performed. At 48 h, the percentage of apoptotic cells in the clinostat increased compared with that in the control. To investigate how the microgravity conditions induce apoptosis, the active mitochondria in luteal cells were detected with JC-1 dye. Cells in the control consisted of many active mitochondria, which were evenly distributed throughout the cell. In contrast, cells in the clinostat displayed fewer active mitochondria, which were distributed either to the outer edge of the cell or around the nucleus. These results suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction induced by clinostat rotation could lead to apoptosis in luteal cells and suppression of progesterone production.

  19. Early visual processing is enhanced in the midluteal phase of the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Lusk, Bethany R; Carr, Andrea R; Ranson, Valerie A; Bryant, Richard A; Felmingham, Kim L

    2015-12-01

    Event-related potential (ERP) studies have revealed an early attentional bias in processing unpleasant emotional images in women. Recent neuroimaging data suggests there are significant differences in cortical emotional processing according to menstrual phase. This study examined the impact of menstrual phase on visual emotional processing in women compared to men. ERPs were recorded from 28 early follicular women, 29 midluteal women, and 27 men while they completed a passive viewing task of neutral and low- and high- arousing pleasant and unpleasant images. There was a significant effect of menstrual phase in early visual processing, as midluteal women displayed significantly greater P1 amplitude at occipital regions to all visual images compared to men. Both midluteal and early follicular women displayed larger N1 amplitudes than men (although this only reached significance for the midluteal group) to the visual images. No sex or menstrual phase differences were apparent in later N2, P3, or LPP. A condition effect demonstrated greater P3 and LPP amplitude to highly-arousing unpleasant images relative to all other stimuli conditions. These results indicate that women have greater early automatic visual processing compared to men, and suggests that this effect is particularly strong in women in the midluteal phase at the earliest stage of visual attention processing. Our findings highlight the importance of considering menstrual phase when examining sex differences in the cortical processing of visual stimuli. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Establishment of detailed reference values for luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone, estradiol, and progesterone during different phases of the menstrual cycle on the Abbott ARCHITECT analyzer.

    PubMed

    Stricker, Reto; Eberhart, Raphael; Chevailler, Marie-Christine; Quinn, Frank A; Bischof, Paul; Stricker, René

    2006-01-01

    During a normal menstrual cycle, serum levels of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), estradiol, and progesterone can vary widely between cycles for the same woman, as well as between different woman. Reliable reference values based on the local population are important for correct interpretation of laboratory results. The purpose of our study was to determine detailed reference values for these hormones throughout the menstrual cycle using the Abbott ARCHITECT system. From 20 volunteers (age 20-36 years) with normal cycles and no use of oral contraceptives, samples were taken every day during their cycle. Volunteers received three vaginal ultrasound examinations (days 10 and 13, and 1 or 2 days after ovulation) to measure follicular and corpus luteum development. Hormone levels were measured using the corresponding ARCHITECT assay and were synchronized to the LH peak. Median, and 5th and 95th percentile values were determined for each day of the cycle, as well as for early follicular (days -15 to -6), late follicular (days -5 to -1), LH peak (day 0), early luteal (+1 to +4), mid-luteal (days +5 to +9), and late luteal (days +10 to +14) phases of the cycle. Based on our data, we were able to establish detailed reference values for LH, FSH, estradiol, and progesterone, which should aid in the interpretation of results for these reproductive hormones in a variety of circumstances.

  1. Development of Environmental Load Estimation Model for Road Drainage Systems in the Early Design Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jin-Young; Lee, Dong-Eun; Kim, Byung-Soo

    2017-10-01

    Due to the increasing concern about climate change, efforts to reduce environmental load are continuously being made in construction industry, and LCA (life cycle assessment) is being presented as an effective method to assess environmental load. Since LCA requires information on construction quantity used for environmental load estimation, however, it is not being utilized in the environmental review in the early design phase where it is difficult to obtain such information. In this study, computation system for construction quantity based on standard cross section of road drainage facilities was developed to compute construction quantity required for LCA using only information available in the early design phase to develop and verify the effectiveness of a model that can perform environmental load estimation. The result showed that it is an effective model that can be used in the early design phase as it revealed a 13.39% mean absolute error rate.

  2. Three steps to writing adaptive study protocols in the early phase clinical development of new medicines

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This article attempts to define terminology and to describe a process for writing adaptive, early phase study protocols which are transparent, self-intuitive and uniform. It provides a step by step guide, giving templates from projects which received regulatory authorisation and were successfully performed in the UK. During adaptive studies evolving data is used to modify the trial design and conduct within the protocol-defined remit. Adaptations within that remit are documented using non-substantial protocol amendments which do not require regulatory or ethical review. This concept is efficient in gathering relevant data in exploratory early phase studies, ethical and time- and cost-effective. PMID:24980283

  3. Implementing Effective Mission Systems Engineering Practices During Early Project Formulation Phases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moton, Tryshanda

    2016-01-01

    Developing and implementing a plan for a NASA space mission can be a complicated process. The needs, goals, and objectives of any proposed mission or technology must be assessed early in the Project Life Cycle. The key to successful development of a space mission or flight project is the inclusion of systems engineering in early project formulation, namely during Pre-phase A, Phase A, and Phase B of the NASA Project Life Cycle. When a space mission or new technology is in pre-development, or "pre-Formulation", feasibility must be determined based on cost, schedule, and risk. Inclusion of system engineering during project formulation is key because in addition to assessing feasibility, design concepts are developed and alternatives to design concepts are evaluated. Lack of systems engineering involvement early in the project formulation can result in increased risks later in the implementation and operations phases of the project. One proven method for effective systems engineering practice during the pre-Formulation Phase is the use of a mission conceptual design or technology development laboratory, such as the Mission Design Lab (MDL) at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). This paper will review the engineering process practiced routinely in the MDL for successful mission or project development during the pre-Formulation Phase.

  4. EFFECTS OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE (BDCM) ON EX VIVO LUTEAL FUNCTION IN THE F344 RAT DURING PREGNANCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Effects of Bromodichloromethane (BDCM) on Ex Vivo Luteal Function In the Pregnant F344 Rat

    Susan R. Bielmeier1, Ashley S. Murr2, Deborah S. Best2, Jerome M. Goldman2, and Michael G. Narotsky2

    1Curriculum in Toxicology, Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599,...

  5. EFFECTS OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE (BDCM) ON EX VIVO LUTEAL FUNCTION IN THE PREGNANT F344 RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EFFECTS OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE (BDCM) ON EX VIVO LUTEAL FUNCTION IN THE PREGNANT F344 RAT.

    S. R. Bielmeier1, A. S. Murr2, D. S. Best2, J. M. Goldman2, and M. G. Narotsky2

    1 Curriculum in Toxicology, Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
    2 Reproductive T...

  6. EFFECTS OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE (BDCM) ON EX VIVO LUTEAL FUNCTION IN THE F344 RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    EFFECTS OF BROMODICHLOROMETHANE (BDCM) ON EX VIVO LUTEAL FUNCTION IN THE PREGNANT F344 RAT.

    S. R. Bielmeier1, A. S. Murr2, D. S. Best2, J. M. Goldman2, and M. G. Narotsky2

    1 Curriculum in Toxicology, Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA
    2 Reproductive T...

  7. Effects of concanavalin A on the progesterone production by bovine steroidogenic luteal cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Destro, F C; Martin, I; Landim-Alvarenga, Fdc; Ferreira, Jcp; Pate, J L

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of concanavalin A (CONA) on the progesterone (P4) production by bovine steroidogenic luteal cells (LCs) in vitro. Luteal cells were collected during the mid-luteal stage (at 10-12 days following ovulation) and processed in the laboratory. Luteal cells were grown for 7 days in a humid atmosphere with 5% CO2 , with or without 10% foetal bovine serum, and were subjected to the following treatments: control: no treatment; CONA (10 μg/ml); LH (100 μg/ml); CONA + LH; LH (100 μg/ml) + prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α) (10 ng/ml); CONA + LH + PGF2α. Samples of the culture media were collected on days 1 (D1) and 7 (D7) for P4 quantification. The cells were counted on D7 of culture. Differences between treatments were considered statistically significant at p < .05. Culture in the presence of CONA decreased the P4-secreting capacity of LCs on D7 of culture, particularly in the absence of serum. The cell numbers did not change between treatments. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Effects of IL8 and immune cells on the regulation of luteal progesterone secretion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent studies suggest that chemokines may mediate the luteolytic action of PGF2a (PGF). Our objective was to identify chemokines induced by PGF in vivo and to determine the effects of IL8 on specific luteal cell types in vitro. Midcycle cows were injected with saline or PGF, ovaries were removed ...

  9. Men Managing, Not Teaching Foundation Phase: Teachers, Masculinity and the Early Years of Primary Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moosa, Shaaista; Bhana, Deevia

    2017-01-01

    In this article we argue that eliminating the divisions of labour between men and women could work towards counteracting gender inequality within professions. Globally women are over-represented in the teaching of young children in the early years of primary school, or Foundation Phase (FP), as it is known in South Africa. We are concerned to go…

  10. Early follicular phase hormone levels in relation to patterns of alcohol, tobacco, and coffee use.

    PubMed

    Lucero, J; Harlow, B L; Barbieri, R L; Sluss, P; Cramer, D W

    2001-10-01

    To examine the effects of alcohol, caffeine, and tobacco use on early follicular phase FSH, LH, E2, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Cross-sectional study. Academic medical center. Four hundred ninety-eight women selected from the general population, ages 36-45, who were not currently pregnant, breast feeding, or using exogenous hormones. A general questionnaire assessing demography, anthropometry, and smoking habits and a standardized dietary questionnaire assessing food and beverage frequencies, including sources of alcohol and caffeine. FSH, LH, E2, and SHBG levels measured during the early follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. Significant associations observed in a univariate analysis included age > or =40 and current smoking associated with higher FSH; higher body mass index (BMI) associated with lower SHBG levels; and daily alcohol use, cholesterol consumption greater than the median, and coffee use >1 cup/d associated with higher E2 levels. In a multivariate model, total caffeine use was significantly associated with E2 levels after adjustment for age, BMI, total calories, current smoking, alcohol, cholesterol consumption, and day of sampling. Early follicular phase E2 increased from 28.2 pg/mL for women consuming < or =100 mg of caffeine to 45.2 pg/mL for women consuming > or =500 mg of caffeine per day, about a 70% increase. Coffee consumption and total caffeine use may increase early follicular phase E2 levels independent of related habits of alcohol or tobacco use.

  11. Webcam Delivery of the Lidcombe Program for Early Stuttering: A Phase I Clinical Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brian, Sue; Smith, Kylie; Onslow, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The Lidcombe Program is an operant treatment for early stuttering shown with meta-analysis to have a favorable odds ratio. However, many clients are unable to access the treatment because of distance and lifestyle factors. In this Phase I trial, we explored the potential efficacy, practicality, and viability of an Internet webcam Lidcombe…

  12. 77 FR 36958 - Proposed Requirements-Race to the Top-Early Learning Challenge; Phase 2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 34 CFR Chapter II DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES 45 CFR Subtitle... Requirements--Race to the Top--Early Learning Challenge; Phase 2 AGENCY: Department of Education and Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION: Proposed requirements. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Education and...

  13. Phase III Early Restoration Meeting - Port Arthur, TX | NOAA Gulf Spill

    Science.gov Websites

    Areas Alabama Florida Louisiana Mississippi Texas Region-wide Open Ocean Data Media & News planning for Phase III and future early restoration plans. Open House: 6:00pm Public Meeting: 6:30pm

  14. Phase III Early Restoration Meeting - Panama City, FL | NOAA Gulf Spill

    Science.gov Websites

    Areas Alabama Florida Louisiana Mississippi Texas Region-wide Open Ocean Data Media & News planning for Phase III and future early restoration plans. Open House: 6:00pm Public Meeting: 6:30pm

  15. Statistical controversies in clinical research: early-phase adaptive design for combination immunotherapies.

    PubMed

    Wages, N A; Slingluff, C L; Petroni, G R

    2017-04-01

    In recent years, investigators have asserted that the 3 + 3 design lacks flexibility, making its use in modern early-phase trial settings, such as combinations and/or biological agents, inefficient. More innovative approaches are required to address contemporary research questions, such as those posed in trials involving immunotherapies. We describe the implementation of an adaptive design for identifying an optimal treatment regimen, defined by low toxicity and high immune response, in an early-phase trial of a melanoma helper peptide vaccine plus novel adjuvant combinations. Operating characteristics demonstrate the ability of the method to effectively recommend optimal regimens in a high percentage of trials with reasonable sample sizes. The proposed design is a practical, early-phase, adaptive method for use with combined immunotherapy regimens. This design can be applied more broadly to early-phase combination studies, as it was used in an ongoing study of two small molecule inhibitors in relapsed/refractory mantle cell lymphoma. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society for Medical Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Teachers' Beliefs on Foreign Language Teaching Practices in Early Phases of Primary Education: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caner, Mustafa; Subasi, Gonca; Kara, Selma

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine whether teacher beliefs would play a role in their actual practices while teaching target language in early phases of primary education, principally, in kindergarten and first grades in a state school. As it is a very broad research area, the researchers exclusively analyzed teaching practices and teaching…

  17. Effects of electroacupuncture on luteal regression and steroidogenesis in ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome model rat.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xuan; Chen, Li; Xia, You-Bing; Xie, Min; Sun, Qin; Yao, Bing

    2018-03-15

    Electroacupuncture (EA) is an effective and safe therapeutic method widely used for treating clinical diseases. Previously, we found that EA could decrease serum hormones and reduce ovarian size in ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) rat model. Nevertheless, the mechanisms that contribute to these improvements remain unclear. HE staining was used to count the number of corpora lutea (CL) and follicles. Immunohistochemical and ELISA were applied to examine luteal functional and structural regression. Immunoprecipitation was used for analyzing the interaction between NPY (neuropeptide Y) and COX-2; western blotting and qRT-PCR were used to evaluate the expressions of steroidogenic enzymes and PKA/CREB pathway. EA treatment significantly reduced the ovarian weight and the number of CL, also decreased ovarian and serum levels of PGE2 and COX-2 expression; increased ovarian PGF2α levels and PGF2α/PGE2 ratio; decreased PCNA expression and distribution; and increased cyclin regulatory inhibitor p27 expression to have further effect on the luteal formation, and promote luteal functional and structural regression. Moreover, expression of COX-2 in ovaries was possessed interactivity increased expression of NPY. Furthermore, EA treatment lowered the serum hormone levels, inhibited PKA/CREB pathway and decreased the expressions of steroidogenic enzymes. Hence, interaction with COX-2, NPY may affect the levels of PGF2α and PGE2 as well as impact the proliferation of granulosa cells in ovaries, thus further reducing the luteal formation, and promoting luteal structural and functional regression, as well as the ovarian steroidogenesis following EA treatment. EA treatment could be an option for preventing OHSS in ART. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of IL8 and Immune Cells on the Regulation of Luteal Progesterone Secretion‡

    PubMed Central

    Talbott, Heather; Delaney, Abigail; Zhang, Pan; Yu, Yangsheng; Cushman, Robert A.; Cupp, Andrea; Hou, Xiaoying; Davis, John S.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that chemokines may mediate the luteolytic action of PGF2α (PGF). Our objective was to identify chemokines induced by PGF in vivo and to determine the effects of IL8 on specific luteal cell types in vitro. Midcycle cows were injected with saline or PGF, ovaries were removed after 0.5 – 4 h and chemokine expression was analyzed by qPCR. In vitro expression of IL8 was analyzed after PGF administration and with cell signaling inhibitors to determine the mechanism of PGF-induced chemokine expression. Purified neutrophils were analyzed for migration and activation in response to IL8 and PGF. Purified luteal cell types (steroidogenic, endothelial and fibroblast cells) were used to identify which cells respond to chemokines. Neutrophils and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were co-cultured with steroidogenic cells to determine their effect on progesterone production. IL8, CXCL2, CCL2, and CCL8 transcripts were rapidly increased following PGF treatment in vivo and. The stimulatory action of PGF on IL8 mRNA expression in vitro was prevented by inhibition of p38 and JNK signaling. IL8, but not PGF, TNF, or TGFB1, stimulated neutrophil migration. IL8 had no apparent action in purified luteal steroidogenic, endothelial, or fibroblast cells, but IL8 stimulated ERK phosphorylation in neutrophils. In co-culture experiments neither IL8 nor activated neutrophils altered basal or LH-stimulated luteal cell progesterone synthesis. In contrast, activated PBMCs inhibited LH-stimulated progesterone synthesis from cultured luteal cells. These data implicate a complex cascade of events during luteolysis involving chemokine signaling, neutrophil recruitment, and immune cell action within the corpus luteum. PMID:24686456

  19. Challenges and perspective of drug repurposing strategies in early phase clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shumei; Moulder, Stacy L; Ueno, Naoto T; Wheler, Jennifer J; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Kurzrock, Razelle; Janku, Filip

    2015-01-01

    Despite significant investments in the development of new agents only 5% of cancer drugs entering Phase I clinical trials are ultimately approved for routine clinical cancer care. Drug repurposing strategies using novel combinations of previously tested anticancer agents could reduce the cost and improve treatment outcomes. At MD Anderson Cancer Center, early phase clinical trials with drug repurposing strategies demonstrated promising outcomes in patients with both rare and common treatment refractory advanced cancers. Despite clinical efficacy advancing drug repurposing strategies in the clinical trial trajectory beyond early phase studies has been challenging mainly due to lack of funding and interest from the pharmaceutical industry. In this review, we delineate our experience and challenges with drug repurposing strategies.

  20. Cytokine expression during early and late phase of acute Puumala hantavirus infection

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hantaviruses of the family Bunyaviridae are emerging zoonotic pathogens which cause hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in the Old World and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) in the New World. An immune-mediated pathogenesis is discussed for both syndromes. The aim of our study was to investigate cytokine expression during the course of acute Puumala hantavirus infection. Results We retrospectively studied 64 patients hospitalised with acute Puumala hantavirus infection in 2010 during a hantavirus epidemic in Germany. Hantavirus infection was confirmed by positive anti-hantavirus IgG/IgM. Cytokine expression of IL-2, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IFN-γ, TNF-α and TGF-β1 was analysed by ELISA during the early and late phase of acute hantavirus infection (average 6 and 12 days after onset of symptoms, respectively). A detailed description of the demographic and clinical presentation of severe hantavirus infection requiring hospitalization during the 2010 hantavirus epidemic in Germany is given. Acute hantavirus infection was characterized by significantly elevated levels of IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, TGF-β1 and TNF-α in both early and late phase compared to healthy controls. From early to late phase of disease, IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α significantly decreased whereas TGF-β1 levels increased. Disease severity characterized by elevated creatinine and low platelet counts was correlated with high pro-inflammatory IL-6 and TNF-α but low immunosuppressive TGF-β1 levels and vice versa . Conclusion High expression of cytokines activating T-lymphocytes, monocytes and macrophages in the early phase of disease supports the hypothesis of an immune-mediated pathogenesis. In the late phase of disease, immunosuppressive TGF-β1 level increase significantly. We suggest that delayed induction of a protective immune mechanism to downregulate a massive early pro-inflammatory immune response might contribute to the pathologies characteristic of human hantavirus infection

  1. Early phase drugs and biologicals clinical trials on worldwide leading causes of death: a descriptive analysis.

    PubMed

    Dal-Ré, Rafael

    2011-06-01

    To describe the global effort targeting the major causes of mortality in terms of "open" early phase clinical trials with drugs and biologicals. Sixteen of the 20 leading causes of death were chosen; 9 of these were also amongst the top 10 causes of death in low-income countries. Studies were identified from the ClinicalTrials.gov database and included phase 1 and/or 2 "interventional" "open" trials, i.e. those recruiting or about to start recruitment. Trials were considered in terms of sponsorship [industry, universities and other organisations (UNO), and US federal agencies (NIH included)], genders and age groups included, and whether they were conducted with drugs and/or biologicals. The search was performed in March 2010. A total of 2,298 (824 phase 1; 1,474 phase 2) trials were retrieved. Of these, 67% were on trachea, bronchus, and lung cancers (25%); diabetes mellitus (15%); colon and rectum cancers (14%); and HIV/AIDS (12%). In contrast, only 4% were trials on diarrhoeal disease, nephrosis and nephritis, liver cirrhosis, and prematurity and low birth weight. UNO were the first source of funding. Fifty-two percent of phase 1 non-cancer trials were on healthy volunteers. Twenty-nine percent of all trials were co-funded. There were 4.6 times as many drug trials as those with biologicals. Only 7% were conducted with a combination of drugs and biologicals, the majority (78%) on cancers. Discrimination in terms of gender or age group was not observed. Four of the 16 diseases considered represented 2/3 of early phase trials. Cancers were a top priority for all sponsors. Increasing attention should be given to conditions with current and projected global high mortality rates that had few "open" early phase trials.

  2. Expression and localization of ghrelin and its functional receptor in corpus luteum during different stages of estrous cycle and the modulatory role of ghrelin on progesterone production in cultured luteal cells in buffalo.

    PubMed

    Gupta, M; Dangi, S S; Chouhan, V S; Hyder, I; Babitha, V; Yadav, V P; Khan, F A; Sonwane, A; Singh, G; Das, G K; Mitra, A; Bag, S; Sarkar, M

    2014-07-01

    Evidence obtained during recent years provided has insight into the regulation of corpus luteum (CL) development, function, and regression by locally produced ghrelin. The present study was carried out to evaluate the expression and localization of ghrelin and its receptor (GHS-R1a) in bubaline CL during different stages of the estrous cycle and investigate the role of ghrelin on progesterone (P4) production along with messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of P4 synthesis intermediates. The mRNA and protein expression of ghrelin and GHS-R1a was significantly greater in mid- and late luteal phases. Both factors were localized in luteal cells, exclusively in the cytoplasm. Immunoreactivity of ghrelin and GHS-R1a was greater during mid- and late luteal phases. Luteal cells were cultured in vitro and treated with ghrelin each at 1, 10, and 100 ng/mL concentrations for 48 h after obtaining 75% to 80% confluence. At a dose of 1 ng/mL, there was no significant difference in P4 secretion between control and treatment group. At 10 and 100 ng/mL, there was a decrease (P < 0.05) in P4 concentration, cytochrome P45011A1 (CYP11A1), and 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase mRNA expression and localization. There was no difference in mRNA expression of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein between control and treatment group. In summary, the present study provided evidence that ghrelin and its receptor are expressed in bubaline CL and are localized exclusively in the cell cytoplasm and ghrelin has an inhibitory effect on P4 production in buffalo. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Decreased endometrial vascularity and receptivity in unexplained recurrent miscarriage patients during midluteal and early pregnancy phases.

    PubMed

    Tan, Shu-Yin; Hang, Fu; Purvarshi, Gowreesunkur; Li, Min-Qing; Meng, Da-Hua; Huang, Ling-Ling

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the predictive value of three-dimensional (3D)-power Doppler sonography on recurrent miscarriage. The study patients were divided into a recurrent miscarriage group (30 cases) and a normal pregnancy group (21 cases). Measurement of endometrial thickness was performed using two-dimensional transvaginal ultrasound in the midluteal phase. The endometrial volume, vascularization index (VI), flow index (FI), and vascularization-flow index (VFI) in midluteal and placenta volume, as well as the VI, FI, and VFI of early pregnancy were measured using Virtual Organ Computer-aided Analysis of 3D-power Doppler ultrasound. Endometrial thickness, endometrial volume, endometrial vascular data, VI, FI, and VFI of the midluteal phase were lower in the recurrent miscarriage group compared with the normal pregnancy group (p < 0.05). Placental volume, VI, and VFI during early pregnancy were lower in the miscarriage group compared with the normal pregnancy group (p < 0.05). There was no significant change in FI between the recurrent miscarriage and control groups during early pregnancy (p > 0.05). The predictive accuracy of endometrial thickness, endometrial volume, VI, FI, and VFI in the midluteal phase, and placenta volume, VI, FI, and VFI in early pregnancy as measured by the receiver operating characteristic curve to predict miscarriage before 12 gestational weeks in participants was 0.681, 0.876, 0.770, 0.720, 0.879, 0.771, 0.907, 0.592, respectively. The 3D-power Doppler ultrasound is a more comprehensive and sensitive method for evaluating endometrial receptivity. Endometrial volume, VI, FI, and VFI in the midluteal phase, as well as VI in early pregnancy, can be considered as predictive factors for recurrent miscarriage. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. 78 FR 39736 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Considerations for the Design of Early-Phase Clinical Trials of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-02

    ..., choosing a study population, using a control group and blinding, dose selection, treatment plans...] Draft Guidance for Industry: Considerations for the Design of Early-Phase Clinical Trials of Cellular... document entitled ``Guidance for Industry: Considerations for the Design of Early-Phase Clinical Trials of...

  5. Early Risk Reduction Phase 1 FLIR/Laser Designator Window. Revision

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-12-31

    Sandwich-Type FLIR Windows," Air Force AFWAL-TR-83- 4122, Nov 1983. 4-1 Hughes Danbury Optical Systems Final Report, "ATA Window Technology Program," PRBll...Risk Reduction -- Phase I, Optical Properties Measurement Techniques of Three Wide Band Window Materials," 22 August 1991. xii I i 86PR0869 30... Optical Systems, Lexington, MA, 02173, 1 Feb 1991. 5-7 McDonnell Aircraft Company Technical Memorandum TM 256.91.0056.01, "Early Risk Reduction -- Phase

  6. Influence of Reproductive Aging of the Cow on Luteal Function and Period 1 mRNA Expression

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In rodents, disruption of the circadian clock genes results in increased incidence of anovulation, irregular estrous cycles, decreased luteal function, and accelerated reproductive ageing. In cattle, reproductive ageing is associated with decreased numbers of follicles in the ovary, decreased lutea...

  7. Perspectives and Open Problems in the Early Phases of Left-Right Patterning

    PubMed Central

    Vandenberg, Laura N.; Levin, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Summary Embryonic left-right (LR) patterning is a fascinating aspect of embryogenesis. The field currently faces important questions about the origin of LR asymmetry, the mechanisms by which consistent asymmetry is imposed on the scale of the whole embryo, and the degree of conservation of early phases of LR patterning among model systems. Recent progress on planar cell polarity and cellular asymmetry in a variety of tissues and species provides a new perspective on the early phases of LR patterning. Despite the huge diversity in body-plans over which consistent LR asymmetry is imposed, and the apparent divergence in molecular pathways that underlie laterality, the data reveal conservation of physiological modules among phyla and a basic scheme of cellular chirality amplified by a planar cell polarity-like pathway over large cell fields. PMID:19084609

  8. Inside information: Financial conflicts of interest for research subjects in early phase clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Helft, Paul R; Ratain, Mark J; Epstein, Richard A; Siegler, Mark

    2004-05-05

    In recent years, several research subjects have told us that they had bought or intended to buy stock in the companies sponsoring the clinical trials in which they were enrolled. This situation has led us to ask what, if any, are physician-investigators' scientific, ethical, and legal responsibilities concerning research subjects who choose to buy stock in the companies sponsoring the clinical trials in which they are participating. Although the scope of this problem is unknown and is likely to be small, this commentary examines the scientific, ethical, and legal concerns raised by such activities on the part of research subjects enrolled in early phase clinical trials. In addition, this commentary also outlines the basis for our opinion that research subjects involved in an early phase clinical trial should avoid the financial conflicts of interest created by trading stock in the company sponsoring the clinical trial.

  9. Ultra-Early Phase pathologies of Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Okazawa, Hitoshi

    2017-01-01

    The concept of neurodegenerative diseases and the therapeutics targeting these intractable diseases are changing rapidly. Protein aggregation as the top of pathological cascade is now challenged, and many alternative ideas are proposed. Early molecular pathologies before microscopic detection of diseases protein aggregates, which I propose to call "Ultra-Early Phase pathologies or phase 0 pathologies", are the focus of research that might explain the failures of clinical trials with anti-Aβ antibodies against Alzheimer's disease. In this review article, I summarize the critical issues that should be successfully and consistently answered by a new concept of neurodegeneration. For reevaluating old concepts and reconstructing a new concept of neurodegeneration that will replace the old ones, non-biased comprehensive approaches including proteome combined with systems biology analyses will be a powerful tool. I introduce our recent efforts in this orientation that have reached to the stage of non-clinical proof of concept applicable to clinical trials.

  10. Imaging of early acceleration phase of the 2013-2014 Boso slow slip event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, J.; Kato, A.; Obara, K.; Miura, S.; Kato, T.

    2014-12-01

    Based on GPS and seismic data, we examine the spatiotemporal evolution of a slow slip event (SSE) and associated seismic activity that occurred off the Boso peninsula, central Japan, from December 2013 to January 2014. We use GPS data from 71 stations of the GEONET and 6 stations operated by Earthquake Research Institute of the University of Tokyo and Tohoku University around the Boso peninsula. We apply a modified version of the Network Inversion Filter to the GPS time series at the 77 stations to estimate the spatiotemporal evolution of daily cumulative slip and slip rate on the subducting Philippine Sea plate. In addition, we create an improved earthquake catalog by applying a matched filter technique to continuous seismograms and examine the spatiotemporal relations between slow slip and seismicity. We find that the SSE started in early December 2013. The spatiotemporal evolution of slow slip and seismicity is divided into two distinct phases, an earlier slow phase from early to 30 December 2013 (Phase I) and a subsequent faster phase from 30 December 2013 to 9 January 2014 (Phase II). During Phase I, slip accelerated slowly up to a maximum rate of 1.6 m/yr with potentially accelerating along-strike propagation at speeds on the order of 1 km/day or less and no accompanying seismicity. On the other hand, during Phase II, slip accelerated rapidly up to a maximum rate of 4.5 m/yr and then rapidly decelerated. The slip front propagated along strike at a constant speed of ~10 km/day. During the Phase II, slow slip was accompanied by seismic swarm activity that was highly correlated in space and time with slip rate, suggesting that the swarm activity was triggered by stress loading due to slow slip. Early slow acceleration of slip has not been identified in the past Boso SSEs in 1996, 2002, 2007, and 2011. It is not clear at this point whether the past Boso SSEs started with slow acceleration similarly to the 2013-2014 SSE. The transition from the slow to the

  11. Impact of incretin on early-phase insulin secretion and glucose excursion.

    PubMed

    Shen, Jie; Chen, Zhi; Chen, Chaofeng; Zhu, Xiao; Han, Yajuan

    2013-10-01

    This study investigated the impact of incretin on early-phase insulin secretion and glucose excursion. The normal glucose tolerance (NGT), impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) groups included 16, 8, and 19 subjects, respectively. Subjects underwent continuous glucose monitoring for 3 days, followed by an oral glucose tolerance test. Plasma glucose, insulin, glucagon, total glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and glucagon-like peptide-l (GLP-1) levels were measured at 30-min increments for 2 h after glucose intake. Differences with P < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. The area under the curve (AUC) of total GIP (120-min GIP-AUC) of the T2DM group was significantly lower than those of the NGT and IGT groups. The 120-min GLP-1-AUC of the NGT group was significantly larger than those of the T2DM and IGT groups. The early-phase insulin secretion index (ΔI30/ΔG30) of the T2DM group was significantly lower than those of the NGT and IGT groups. Mean amplitudes of glycemic excursions (MAGEs) went in the order of NGT < IGT < T2DM (P < 0.01, IGT vs. NGT; P < 0.001, T2DM vs. IGT). The 120-min GIP-AUC was negatively correlated with MAGE (r = -0.464), but uncorrelated with ΔI30/ΔG30. The 120-min GLP-1-AUC was positively correlated with ΔI30/ΔG30 (r = 0.580), but negatively correlated with MAGE (r = -0.606). Incretin may ameliorate glucose excursions, and GLP-1 may exert them by promoting early-phase insulin secretion. No correlation was observed between GIP secretion and early-phase insulin secretion.

  12. Effects of temperature on early-phase transmission of Yersina pestis by the flea, Xenopsylla cheopis.

    PubMed

    Schotthoefer, Anna M; Bearden, Scott W; Vetter, Sara M; Holmes, Jennifer; Montenieri, John A; Graham, Christine B; Woods, Michael E; Eisen, Rebecca J; Gage, Kenneth L

    2011-03-01

    Sharp declines in human and animal cases of plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis (Yersin), have been observed when outbreaks coincide with hot weather. Failure of biofilm production, or blockage, to occur in the flea, as temperatures reach 30 degrees C has been suggested as an explanation for these declines. Recent work demonstrating efficient flea transmission during the first few days after fleas have taken an infectious blood meal, in the absence of blockage (e.g., early-phase transmission), however, has called this hypothesis into question. To explore the potential effects of temperature on early-phase transmission, we infected colony-reared Xenopsylla cheopis (Rothchild) fleas with a wild-type strain of plague bacteria using an artificial feeding system, and held groups of fleas at 10, 23, 27, and 30 degrees C. Naive Swiss Webster mice were exposed to fleas from each of these temperatures on days 1-4 postinfection, and monitored for signs of infection for 21 d. Temperature did not significantly influence the rates of transmission observed for fleas held at 23, 27, and 30 degrees C. Estimated per flea transmission efficiencies for these higher temperatures ranged from 2.32 to 4.96% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.96-8.74). In contrast, no transmission was observed in mice challenged by fleas held at 10 degrees C (per flea transmission efficiency estimates, 0-1.68%). These results suggest that declines in human and animal cases during hot weather are not related to changes in the abilities of X. cheopis fleas to transmit Y. pestis infections during the early-phase period. By contrast, transmission may be delayed or inhibited at low temperatures, indicating that epizootic spread of Y. pestis by X. cheopis via early-phase transmission is unlikely during colder periods of the year.

  13. The Role of Early-Phase Transmission in the Spread of Yersinia pestis

    PubMed Central

    EISEN, REBECCA J.; DENNIS, DAVID T.; GAGE, KENNETH L.

    2015-01-01

    Early-phase transmission (EPT) of Yersinia pestis by unblocked fleas is a well-documented, replicable phenomenon with poorly defined mechanisms. We review evidence demonstrating EPT and current knowledge on its biological and biomechanical processes. We discuss the importance of EPT in the epizootic spread of Y. pestis and its role in the maintenance of plague bacteria in nature. We further address the role of EPT in the epidemiology of plague. PMID:26336267

  14. Antigravity treadmill training during the early rehabilitation phase following unicompartmental knee arthroplasty: A case series.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun-Hao; Schroeder, E Todd; Powers, Christopher

    2018-02-26

    Patients who have undergone unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) have been reported to exhibit altered gait 19-25 months post-surgery. The most common gait impairment in this population is inadequate knee flexion and a corresponding decrease in the knee extensor moment during loading response (i.e., quadriceps avoidance). The purpose of this case series was to determine whether incorporation of antigravity treadmill training into a standard physical therapy program can eliminate quadriceps avoidance gait during the early rehabilitation phase following UKA. Four females who underwent UKA were recruited for this study. Participants completed antigravity treadmill training three times per week for 12 weeks in addition to their standard physical therapy program. Instrumented gait analysis was performed at baseline (pre-intervention), week 6 (mid-intervention), and week 12 (post-intervention). We found that peak knee flexion and the peak knee extensor moment during the weight acceptance phase of gait increased to normal values following the 12-week intervention period (14.1 ± 6.5° to 20.6 ± 1.5° and 0.4 ± 0.3 to 0.7 ± 0.2 Nm/kg respectively). The findings of this case series suggest that a standard physical therapy program that incorporates early gait training using an antigravity treadmill may be beneficial in eliminating "quadriceps avoidance" during the early rehabilitation phase following UKA.

  15. Proteomic analysis of early phase of conidia germination in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Oh, Young Taek; Ahn, Chun-Seob; Kim, Jeong Geun; Ro, Hyeon-Su; Lee, Chang-Won; Kim, Jae Won

    2010-03-01

    In order to investigate proteins involved in early phase of conidia germination, proteomic analysis was performed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE) in conjunction with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS). The expression levels of 241 proteins varied quantitatively with statistical significance (P<0.05) at the early phase of the germination stage. Out of these 57 were identified by MALDI-TOF MS. Through classification of physiological functions from Conserved Domain Database analysis, among the identified proteins, 21, 13, and 6 proteins were associated with energy metabolism, protein synthesis, and protein folding process, respectively. Interestingly, eight proteins, which are involved in detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) including catalase A, thioredoxin reductase, and mitochondrial peroxiredoxin, were also identified. The expression levels of the genes were further confirmed using Northern blot and reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR analyses. This study represents the first proteomic analysis of early phase of conidia germination and will contribute to a better understanding of the molecular events involved in conidia germination process. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of menstrual cycle phase on corticolimbic brain activation by visual food cues.

    PubMed

    Frank, Tamar C; Kim, Ginah L; Krzemien, Alicja; Van Vugt, Dean A

    2010-12-02

    Food intake is decreased during the late follicular phase and increased in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. While a changing ovarian steroid milieu is believed to be responsible for this behavior, the specific mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Brain activity in response to visual food stimuli was compared during the estrogen dominant peri-ovulatory phase and the progesterone dominant luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Twelve women underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during the peri-ovulatory and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle in a counterbalanced fashion. Whole brain T2* images were collected while subjects viewed pictures of high calorie (HC) foods, low calorie (LC) foods, and control (C) pictures presented in a block design. Blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signal in the late follicular phase and luteal phase was determined for the contrasts HC-C, LC-C, HC-LC, and LC-HC. Both HC and LC stimuli activated numerous corticolimbic brain regions in the follicular phase, whereas only HC stimuli were effective in the luteal phase. Activation of the nucleus accumbens (NAc), amygdala, and hippocampus in response to the HC-C contrast and the hippocampus in response to the LC-C contrast was significantly increased in the late follicular phase compared to the luteal phase. Activation of the orbitofrontal cortex and mid cingulum in response to the HC-LC contrast was greater during the luteal phase. These results demonstrate for the first time that brain responses to visual food cues are influenced by menstrual cycle phase. We postulate that ovarian steroid modulation of the corticolimbic brain contributes to changes in ingestive behavior during the menstrual cycle. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Accumulation of unsaturated lipids in monocytes during early phase pyrogen tolerance.

    PubMed

    Szewczenko-Pawlikowski, M; Kozak, W

    2000-04-12

    This paper presents data that inspired a new explanation for the mechanism of early phase endotoxin tolerance. Rabbits injected intravenously with LPS from Salmonella abortus developed a two-phase fever (6 h) and monophasic hyperlipidemia of very low density lipoproteins (two consecutive days). If during these days rabbits were injected with the same dose of LPS at 24-h intervals, the second phase of fever disappeared, i.e. early phase pyrogenic tolerance was obtained. This was correlated with a decrease of lipoprotein hyperlipidemia (measured 1.5 h after LPS injection) and an accumulation of lipids rich in double bonds in monocytes (measured 3.5 h after LPS injection). Results showed that the degree of unsaturation of acyl chains (AC) in monocytes (AC/DB, DB=double bonds) is negatively correlated (r=-0.72) with fever response (fever index). The authors maintain that a gradual increase in monocyte membrane fluidity is an adaptation to repeated exposure of monocytes to lipid A and is responsible for the progressive desensitization of monocytes to endotoxin. It is suggested that disorders of this mechanism lead to an accumulation of abnormal quantities of saturated lipids and cholesterol within macrophages, which, as foam cells, are the starting point for atherosclerosis pathology.

  18. Hemoglobin phase of oxygenation and deoxygenation in early brain development measured using fNIRS

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Hama; Shitara, Yoshihiko; Aoki, Yoshinori; Inoue, Takanobu; Tsuchida, Shinya; Takahashi, Naoto; Taga, Gentaro

    2017-01-01

    A crucial issue in neonatal medicine is the impact of preterm birth on the developmental trajectory of the brain. Although a growing number of studies have shown alterations in the structure and function of the brain in preterm-born infants, we propose a method to detect subtle differences in neurovascular and metabolic functions in neonates and infants. Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) was used to obtain time-averaged phase differences between spontaneous low-frequency (less than 0.1 Hz) oscillatory changes in oxygenated hemoglobin (oxy-Hb) and those in deoxygenated hemoglobin (deoxy-Hb). This phase difference was referred to as hemoglobin phase of oxygenation and deoxygenation (hPod) in the cerebral tissue of sleeping neonates and infants. We examined hPod in term, late preterm, and early preterm infants with no evidence of clinical issues and found that all groups of infants showed developmental changes in the values of hPod from an in-phase to an antiphase pattern. Comparison of hPod among the groups revealed that developmental changes in hPod in early preterm infants precede those in late preterm and term infants at term equivalent age but then, progress at a slower pace. This study suggests that hPod measured using fNIRS is sensitive to the developmental stage of the integration of circular, neurovascular, and metabolic functions in the brains of neonates and infants. PMID:28196885

  19. Early pregnancy factor (EPF) as a marker for the diagnosis of subclinical embryonic loss.

    PubMed

    Shahani, S K; Moniz, C; Chitlange, S; Meherji, P

    1992-01-01

    The validation of EPF as a possible correlate of early fertilization has made it possible to study and detect fertilization of the ovum in normal fertile women (during the luteal phase) and also in women with infertility, where the fertilization of the ovum may not be affected but there may be impairment in early embryonic development which results in early embryo loss or subclinical embryo loss. Our results have suggested that using EPF as a marker, we could detect subclinical embryonic loss in 57.8% of the infertile women where more than one menstrual cycle was studied and the blood was collected 4-7 days after ovulation. After the missed period, 80% of the patients who were negative for EPF but positive for hCG had spontaneous abortions. It would be interesting to study how EPF behaves as a marker, to detect subclinical embryonic loss in diverse pathological situations such as recurrent abortions, parental age and translocation carrier parents.

  20. Predictive value of repeated measurements of luteal progesterone and estradiol levels in patients with intrauterine insemination and controlled ovarian stimulation.

    PubMed

    Bakas, Panagiotis; Simopoulou, Maria; Giner, Maria; Drakakis, Petros; Panagopoulos, Perikles; Vlahos, Nikolaos

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study is to assess if the difference of repeated measurements of estradiol and progesterone during luteal phase predict the outcome of intrauterine insemination. Prospective study. Reproductive clinic. 126 patients with infertility. Patients underwent controlled ovarian stimulation with recombinant FSH (50-150 IU/d). The day of IUI patients were given p.o natural micronized progesterone in a dose of 100 mg/tds. The area under the receiver characteristic operating curve (ROC curve) in predicting clinical pregnancy for % change of estradiol level on days 6 and 10 was 0.892 with 95% CI: 0.82-0.94. A cutoff value of change > -29.5% had a sensitivity of 85.7 with a specificity of 90.2. The corresponding ROC curve for % change of progesterone level was 0.839 with 95% CI: 0.76-0.90. A cutoff value of change > -33% had a sensitivity of 85 with a specificity of 75. The % change of estradiol and progesterone between days 6 and 10 has a predictive ability of pregnancy after IUI with COS of 89.2% and 83.4%, respectively. The addition of % of progesterone to % change of estradiol does not improve the predictive ability of % estradiol and should not be used.

  1. Current status of amorphous formulation and other special dosage forms as formulations for early clinical phases.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Kohsaku

    2009-09-01

    Although most chemists in the pharmaceutical industry have a good understanding on favorable physicochemical properties for drug candidates, formulators must still deal with many challenging candidates. On the other hand, formulators are not allowed to spend much time on formulation development for early phases of the clinical studies. Thus, it is basically difficult to apply special dosage form technologies to the candidates for the first-in-human formulations. Despite the availability of numerous reviews on oral special dosage forms, information on their applicability as the early phase formulation has been limited. This article describes quick review on the oral special dosage forms that may be applied to the early clinical formulations, followed by discussion focused on the amorphous formulations, which still has relatively many issues to be proved for the general use. The major problems that inhibit the use of the amorphous formulation are difficulty in the manufacturing and the poor chemical/physical stability. Notably, the poor physical stability can be critical, because of not the poor stability itself but the difficulty in the timely evaluation in the preclinical developmental timeframes. Research directions of the amorphous formulations are suggested to utilize this promising technology without disturbing the preclinical developmental timelines.

  2. Functional neuroanatomical correlates of episodic memory impairment in early phase psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Hummer, Tom A.; Vohs, Jenifer L.; Yung, Matthew G.; Liffick, Emily; Mehdiyoun, Nicole F.; Radnovich, Alexander J.; McDonald, Brenna C.; Saykin, Andrew J.; Breier, Alan

    2015-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that episodic memory (EM) is often preferentially disrupted in schizophrenia. The neural substrates that mediate EM impairment in this illness are not fully understood. Several functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have employed EM probe tasks to elucidate the neural underpinnings of impairment, though results have been inconsistent. The majority of EM imaging studies have been conducted in chronic forms of schizophrenia with relatively few studies in early phase patients. Early phase schizophrenia studies are important because they may provide information regarding when EM deficits occur and address potential confounds more frequently observed in chronic populations. In this study, we assessed brain activation during the performance of visual scene encoding and recognition fMRI tasks in patients with earlyphase psychosis (n=35) and age, sex, and race matched healthy control subjects (n = 20). Patients demonstrated significantly lower activation than controls in the right hippocampus and left fusiform gyrus during scene encoding and lower activation in the posterior cingulate, precuneus, and left middle temporal cortex during recognition of target scenes. Symptom levels were not related to the imaging findings, though better cognitive performance in patients was associated with greater right hippocampal activation during encoding. These results provide evidence of altered function in neuroanatomical circuitry subserving EM early in the course of psychotic illness, which may have implications for pathophysiological models of this illness. PMID:25749917

  3. Muscle contributions to knee extension in the early stance phase in patients with knee osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Ogaya, Shinya; Kubota, Ryo; Chujo, Yuta; Hirooka, Eiko; Kwang-Ho, Kim; Hase, Kimitaka

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze individual muscle contributions to knee angular acceleration using a musculoskeletal simulation analysis and evaluate knee extension mechanics in the early stance phase in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). The subjects comprised 15 patients with medial knee OA and 14 healthy elderly individuals. All participants underwent gait performance test using 8 infrared cameras and two force plates to measure the kinetic and kinematic data. The simulation was driven by 92 Hill-type muscle-tendon units of the lower extremities and a trunk with 23° of freedom. We analyzed each muscle contribution to knee angular acceleration in the 5%-15% and 15%-25% periods of the stance phase (% SP) using an induced acceleration analysis. We compared accelerations by individual muscles between the two groups using an analysis of covariance for controlling gait speed. Patients with knee OA had a significantly lesser knee extension acceleration by the vasti muscles and higher knee acceleration by hip adductors than those in controls in 5-15% SP. In addition, knee OA resulted in significantly lesser knee extension acceleration by the vasti muscles in 15-25% SP. These results indicate that patients with knee OA have decreased dependency on the vasti muscles to control knee movements during early stance phase. Hip adductor muscles, which mainly control mediolateral motion, partly compensate for the weak knee extension by the vasti muscles in patients with knee OA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Restoration of energy level in the early phase of acute pediatric pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Mosztbacher, Dóra; Farkas, Nelli; Solymár, Margit; Pár, Gabriella; Bajor, Judit; Szűcs, Ákos; Czimmer, József; Márta, Katalin; Mikó, Alexandra; Rumbus, Zoltán; Varjú, Péter; Hegyi, Péter; Párniczky, Andrea

    2017-02-14

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a serious inflammatory disease with rising incidence both in the adult and pediatric populations. It has been shown that mitochondrial injury and energy depletion are the earliest intracellular events in the early phase of AP. Moreover, it has been revealed that restoration of intracellular ATP level restores cellular functions and defends the cells from death. We have recently shown in a systematic review and meta-analysis that early enteral feeding is beneficial in adults; however, no reviews are available concerning the effect of early enteral feeding in pediatric AP. In this minireview, our aim was to systematically analyse the literature on the treatment of acute pediatric pancreatitis. The preferred reporting items for systematic review (PRISMA-P) were followed, and the question was drafted based on participants, intervention, comparison and outcomes: P: patients under the age of twenty-one suffering from acute pancreatitis; I: early enteral nutrition (per os and nasogastric- or nasojejunal tube started within 48 h); C: nil per os therapy; O: length of hospitalization, need for treatment at an intensive care unit, development of severe AP, lung injury (including lung oedema and pleural effusion), white blood cell count and pain score on admission. Altogether, 632 articles (PubMed: 131; EMBASE: 501) were found. After detailed screening of eligible papers, five of them met inclusion criteria. Only retrospective clinical trials were available. Due to insufficient information from the authors, it was only possible to address length of hospitalization as an outcome of the study. Our mini-meta-analysis showed that early enteral nutrition significantly (SD = 0.806, P = 0.034) decreases length of hospitalization compared with nil per os diet in acute pediatric pancreatitis. In this minireview, we clearly show that early enteral nutrition, started within 24-48 h, is beneficial in acute pediatric pancreatitis. Prospective studies and better

  5. Restoration of energy level in the early phase of acute pediatric pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Mosztbacher, Dóra; Farkas, Nelli; Solymár, Margit; Pár, Gabriella; Bajor, Judit; Szűcs, Ákos; Czimmer, József; Márta, Katalin; Mikó, Alexandra; Rumbus, Zoltán; Varjú, Péter; Hegyi, Péter; Párniczky, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is a serious inflammatory disease with rising incidence both in the adult and pediatric populations. It has been shown that mitochondrial injury and energy depletion are the earliest intracellular events in the early phase of AP. Moreover, it has been revealed that restoration of intracellular ATP level restores cellular functions and defends the cells from death. We have recently shown in a systematic review and meta-analysis that early enteral feeding is beneficial in adults; however, no reviews are available concerning the effect of early enteral feeding in pediatric AP. In this minireview, our aim was to systematically analyse the literature on the treatment of acute pediatric pancreatitis. The preferred reporting items for systematic review (PRISMA-P) were followed, and the question was drafted based on participants, intervention, comparison and outcomes: P: patients under the age of twenty-one suffering from acute pancreatitis; I: early enteral nutrition (per os and nasogastric- or nasojejunal tube started within 48 h); C: nil per os therapy; O: length of hospitalization, need for treatment at an intensive care unit, development of severe AP, lung injury (including lung oedema and pleural effusion), white blood cell count and pain score on admission. Altogether, 632 articles (PubMed: 131; EMBASE: 501) were found. After detailed screening of eligible papers, five of them met inclusion criteria. Only retrospective clinical trials were available. Due to insufficient information from the authors, it was only possible to address length of hospitalization as an outcome of the study. Our mini-meta-analysis showed that early enteral nutrition significantly (SD = 0.806, P = 0.034) decreases length of hospitalization compared with nil per os diet in acute pediatric pancreatitis. In this minireview, we clearly show that early enteral nutrition, started within 24-48 h, is beneficial in acute pediatric pancreatitis. Prospective studies and better

  6. Ultrastructural Complexity of Nuclear Components During Early Apoptotic Phases in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Castelli, Christian; Losa, Gabriele A.

    2001-01-01

    Fractal morphometry was used to investigate the ultrastructural features of the plasma membrane, perinuclear membrane and nuclear chromatin in SK‐BR‐3 human breast cancer cells undergoing apoptosis. Cells were incubated with 1 μM calcimycin (A23187) for 24 h. Cells in the early stage of apoptosis had fractal dimension (FD) values indicating that their plasma membranes were less rough (lower FD) than those of control cells, while their perinuclear membranes were unaffected. Changes of the chromatin texture within the entire nucleus and in selected nuclear domains were more pronounced in treated cells. This confirms that the morphological reorganization imputable to a loss of structural complexity (reduced FD) occurs in the early stage of apoptosis, is accompanied by the inhibition of distinct enzymatic events and precedes the onset of conventional cellular markers, which can only be detected during the active phases of the apoptotic process. PMID:11790854

  7. Efficient runner safety assessment during early design phase and root cause analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Q. W.; Lais, S.; Gentner, C.; Braun, O.

    2012-11-01

    Fatigue related problems in Francis turbines, especially high head Francis turbines, have been published several times in the last years. During operation the runner is exposed to various steady and unsteady hydraulic loads. Therefore the analysis of forced response of the runner structure requires a combined approach of fluid dynamics and structural dynamics. Due to the high complexity of the phenomena and due to the limitation of computer power, the numerical prediction was in the past too expensive and not feasible for the use as standard design tool. However, due to continuous improvement of the knowledge and the simulation tools such complex analysis has become part of the design procedure in ANDRITZ HYDRO. This article describes the application of most advanced analysis techniques in runner safety check (RSC), including steady state CFD analysis, transient CFD analysis considering rotor stator interaction (RSI), static FE analysis and modal analysis in water considering the added mass effect, in the early design phase. This procedure allows a very efficient interaction between the hydraulic designer and the mechanical designer during the design phase, such that a risk of failure can be detected and avoided in an early design stage.The RSC procedure can also be applied to a root cause analysis (RCA) both to find out the cause of failure and to quickly define a technical solution to meet the safety criteria. An efficient application to a RCA of cracks in a Francis runner is quoted in this article as an example. The results of the RCA are presented together with an efficient and inexpensive solution whose effectiveness could be proven again by applying the described RSC technics. It is shown that, with the RSC procedure developed and applied as standard procedure in ANDRITZ HYDRO such a failure is excluded in an early design phase. Moreover, the RSC procedure is compatible with different commercial and open source codes and can be easily adapted to apply for

  8. Numerical investigation of the early flight phase in ski-jumping.

    PubMed

    Gardan, N; Schneider, A; Polidori, G; Trenchard, H; Seigneur, J M; Beaumont, F; Fourchet, F; Taiar, R

    2017-07-05

    The purpose of this study is to develop a numerical methodology based on real data from wind tunnel experiments to investigate the effect of the ski jumper's posture and speed on aerodynamic forces in a wide range of angles of attack. To improve our knowledge of the aerodynamic behavior of the ski jumper and his equipment during the early flight phase of the ski jump, we applied CFD methodology to evaluate the influence of angle of attack (α=14°, 21.5°, 29°, 36.5° and 44°) and speed (u=23, 26 and 29m/s) on aerodynamic forces in the situation of stable attitude of the ski jumper's body and skis. The standard k-ω turbulence model was used to investigate both the influence of the ski jumper's posture and speed on aerodynamic performance during the early flight phase. Numerical results show that the ski jumper's speed has very little impact on the lift and drag coefficients. Conversely, the lift and drag forces acting on the ski jumper's body during the early flight phase of the jump are strongly influenced by the variations of the angle of attack. The present results suggest that the greater the ski jumper's angle of inclination, with respect to the relative flow, the greater the pressure difference between the lower and upper parts of the skier. Further studies will focus on the dependency of the parameters with both the angle of attack α and the body-ski angle β as control variables. It will be possible to test and optimize different ski jumping styles in different ski jumping hills and investigate different environmental conditions such as temperature, altitude or crosswinds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Dispositional optimism and therapeutic expectations in early-phase oncology trials.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Lynn A; Mahadevan, Daruka; Appelbaum, Paul S; Klein, William M P; Weinstein, Neil D; Mori, Motomi; Daffé, Racky; Sulmasy, Daniel P

    2016-04-15

    Prior research has identified unrealistic optimism as a bias that might impair informed consent among patient-subjects in early-phase oncology trials. However, optimism is not a unitary construct; it also can be defined as a general disposition, or what is called dispositional optimism. The authors assessed whether dispositional optimism would be related to high expectations for personal therapeutic benefit reported by patient-subjects in these trials but not to the therapeutic misconception. The authors also assessed how dispositional optimism related to unrealistic optimism. Patient-subjects completed questionnaires designed to measure expectations for therapeutic benefit, dispositional optimism, unrealistic optimism, and the therapeutic misconception. Dispositional optimism was found to be significantly associated with higher expectations for personal therapeutic benefit (Spearman rank correlation coefficient [r], 0.333; P<.0001), but was not associated with the therapeutic misconception (Spearman r, -0.075; P = .329). Dispositional optimism was found to be weakly associated with unrealistic optimism (Spearman r, 0.215; P = .005). On multivariate analysis, both dispositional optimism (P = .02) and unrealistic optimism (P<.0001) were found to be independently associated with high expectations for personal therapeutic benefit. Unrealistic optimism (P = .0001), but not dispositional optimism, was found to be independently associated with the therapeutic misconception. High expectations for therapeutic benefit among patient-subjects in early-phase oncology trials should not be assumed to result from misunderstanding of specific information regarding the trials. The data from the current study indicate that these expectations are associated with either a dispositionally positive outlook on life or biased expectations concerning specific aspects of trial participation. Not all manifestations of optimism are the same, and different types of optimism likely have

  10. Temporal regulation of expression of immediate early and second phase transcripts by endothelin-1 in cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Cullingford, Timothy E; Markou, Thomais; Fuller, Stephen J; Giraldo, Alejandro; Pikkarainen, Sampsa; Zoumpoulidou, Georgia; Alsafi, Ali; Ekere, Collins; Kemp, Timothy J; Dennis, Jayne L; Game, Laurence; Sugden, Peter H; Clerk, Angela

    2008-01-01

    Background Endothelin-1 stimulates Gq protein-coupled receptors to promote proliferation in dividing cells or hypertrophy in terminally differentiated cardiomyocytes. In cardiomyocytes, endothelin-1 rapidly (within minutes) stimulates protein kinase signaling, including extracellular-signal regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2; though not ERK5), with phenotypic/physiological changes developing from approximately 12 h. Hypertrophy is associated with changes in mRNA/protein expression, presumably consequent to protein kinase signaling, but the connections between early, transient signaling events and developed hypertrophy are unknown. Results Using microarrays, we defined the early transcriptional responses of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes to endothelin-1 over 4 h, differentiating between immediate early gene (IEG) and second phase RNAs with cycloheximide. IEGs exhibited differential temporal and transient regulation, with expression of second phase RNAs within 1 h. Of transcripts upregulated at 30 minutes encoding established proteins, 28 were inhibited >50% by U0126 (which inhibits ERK1/2/5 signaling), with 9 inhibited 25-50%. Expression of only four transcripts was not inhibited. At 1 h, most RNAs (approximately 67%) were equally changed in total and polysomal RNA with approximately 17% of transcripts increased to a greater extent in polysomes. Thus, changes in expression of most protein-coding RNAs should be reflected in protein synthesis. However, approximately 16% of transcripts were essentially excluded from the polysomes, including some protein-coding mRNAs, presumably inefficiently translated. Conclusion The phasic, temporal regulation of early transcriptional responses induced by endothelin-1 in cardiomyocytes indicates that, even in terminally differentiated cells, signals are propagated beyond the primary signaling pathways through transcriptional networks leading to phenotypic changes (that is, hypertrophy). Furthermore, ERK1/2 signaling plays a major role in

  11. The cortical damage, early relapses, and onset of the progressive phase in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Scalfari, Antonio; Romualdi, Chiara; Nicholas, Richard S; Mattoscio, Miriam; Magliozzi, Roberta; Morra, Aldo; Monaco, Salvatore; Muraro, Paolo A; Calabrese, Massimiliano

    2018-05-16

    To investigate the relationship among cortical radiologic changes, the number of early relapses (ERs), and the long-term course of multiple sclerosis (MS). In this cohort study, we assessed the number of cortical lesions (CLs) and white matter (WM) lesions and the cortical thickness (Cth) at clinical onset and after 7.9 mean years among 219 patients with relapsing remitting (RR) MS with 1 (Low-ER), 2 (Mid-ER), and ≥3 (High-ER) ERs during the first 2 years. Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses investigated early factors influencing the risk of secondary progressive (SP) MS. Fifty-nine patients (27%) converted to SPMS in 6.1 mean years. A larger number of CLs at onset predicted a higher risk of SPMS (hazard ratio [HR] 2.16, 4.79, and 12.3 for 2, 5, and 7 CLs, respectively, p < 0.001) and shorter latency to progression. The High-ER compared to the Low-ER and Mid-ER groups had a larger volume of WM lesions and CLs at onset, accrued more CLs, experienced more severe cortical atrophy over time, and entered the SP phase more rapidly. In the multivariate model, older age at onset (HR 1.97, p < 0.001), a larger baseline CL (HR 2.21, p = 0.005) and WM lesion (HR 1.32, p = 0.03) volume, early changes of global Cth (HR 1.36, p = 0.03), and ≥3 ERs (HR 6.08, p < 0.001) independently predicted a higher probability of SP. Extensive cortical damage at onset is associated with florid inflammatory clinical activity and predisposes to a rapid occurrence of the progressive phase. Age at onset, the number of early attacks, and the extent of baseline focal cortical damage can identify groups at high risk of progression who may benefit from more active therapy. © 2018 American Academy of Neurology.

  12. The Impact of Early Design Phase Risk Identification Biases on Space System Project Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, John D., Jr.; Eveleigh, Tim; Holzer, Thomas; Sarkani, Shahryar

    2012-01-01

    Risk identification during the early design phases of complex systems is commonly implemented but often fails to result in the identification of events and circumstances that truly challenge project performance. Inefficiencies in cost and schedule estimation are usually held accountable for cost and schedule overruns, but the true root cause is often the realization of programmatic risks. A deeper understanding of frequent risk identification trends and biases pervasive during space system design and development is needed, for it would lead to improved execution of existing identification processes and methods.

  13. Extinct radioactivities - A three-phase mixing model. [for early solar system abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, D. D.

    1983-01-01

    A new class of models is advanced for interpreting the relationship of radioactive abundances in the early solar system to their average concentration in the interstellar medium. The model assumes that fresh radioactivities are ejected from supernovae into the hot interstellar medium, and that the time scales for changes of phase into molecular clouds determine how much survives for formation therein of the solar system. A more realistic and physically motivated understanding of the low observed concentrations of I-129, Pu-244, and Pd-107 may result.

  14. The Low-luminosity Type IIP Supernova 2016bkv with Early-phase Circumstellar Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakaoka, Tatsuya; Kawabata, Koji S.; Maeda, Keiichi; Tanaka, Masaomi; Yamanaka, Masayuki; Moriya, Takashi J.; Tominaga, Nozomu; Morokuma, Tomoki; Takaki, Katsutoshi; Kawabata, Miho; Kawahara, Naoki; Itoh, Ryosuke; Shiki, Kensei; Mori, Hiroki; Hirochi, Jun; Abe, Taisei; Uemura, Makoto; Yoshida, Michitoshi; Akitaya, Hiroshi; Moritani, Yuki; Ueno, Issei; Urano, Takeshi; Isogai, Mizuki; Hanayama, Hidekazu; Nagayama, Takahiro

    2018-06-01

    We present optical and near-infrared observations of a low-luminosity (LL) Type IIP supernova (SN) 2016bkv from the initial rising phase to the plateau phase. Our observations show that the end of the plateau is extended to ≳140 days since the explosion, indicating that this SN takes one of the longest times to finish the plateau phase among Type IIP SNe (SNe IIP), including LL SNe IIP. The line velocities of various ions at the middle of the plateau phase are as low as 1000–1500 km s‑1, which is the lowest even among LL SNe IIP. These measurements imply that the ejecta mass in SN 2016bkv is larger than that of the well-studied LL IIP SN 2003Z. In the early phase, SN 2016bkv shows a strong bump in the light curve. In addition, the optical spectra in this bump phase exhibit a blue continuum accompanied by a narrow Hα emission line. These features indicate an interaction between the SN ejecta and the circumstellar matter (CSM) as in SNe IIn. Assuming the ejecta–CSM interaction scenario, the mass loss rate is estimated to be ∼ 1.7× {10}-2 {M}ȯ yr‑1 within a few years before the SN explosion. This is comparable to or even larger than the largest mass loss rate observed for the Galactic red supergiants (∼ {10}-3 {M}ȯ yr‑1 for VY CMa). We suggest that the progenitor star of SN 2016bkv experienced a violent mass loss just before the SN explosion.

  15. A tale of two timescales: Mixing, mass generation, and phase transitions in the early universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dienes, Keith R.; Kost, Jeff; Thomas, Brooks

    2016-02-01

    Light scalar fields such as axions and string moduli can play an important role in early-universe cosmology. However, many factors can significantly impact their late-time cosmological abundances. For example, in cases where the potentials for these fields are generated dynamically—such as during cosmological mass-generating phase transitions—the duration of the time interval required for these potentials to fully develop can have significant repercussions. Likewise, in scenarios with multiple scalars, mixing amongst the fields can also give rise to an effective timescale that modifies the resulting late-time abundances. Previous studies have focused on the effects of either the first or the second timescale in isolation. In this paper, by contrast, we examine the new features that arise from the interplay between these two timescales when both mixing and time-dependent phase transitions are introduced together. First, we find that the effects of these timescales can conspire to alter not only the total late-time abundance of the system—often by many orders of magnitude—but also its distribution across the different fields. Second, we find that these effects can produce large parametric resonances which render the energy densities of the fields highly sensitive to the degree of mixing as well as the duration of the time interval over which the phase transition unfolds. Finally, we find that these effects can even give rise to a "reoverdamping" phenomenon which causes the total energy density of the system to behave in novel ways that differ from those exhibited by pure dark matter or vacuum energy. All of these features therefore give rise to new possibilities for early-universe phenomenology and cosmological evolution. They also highlight the importance of taking into account the time dependence associated with phase transitions in cosmological settings.

  16. Feasibility study for early removal of HEU from CPP-651-Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, C.V.; Henry, R.; Milligan, C.

    1997-09-01

    A two-phase feasibility study was initiated in late 1996 to identify a way to expedite the removal of SNM from the CPP-651 vault. The first phase of this study provided preliminary information that appeared promising, but needed additional detailed planning and evaluate to validate the concepts and conclusions. The focus of Phase 2 was to provide the validation via resource-loaded schedules and more detailed cost estimates. Section 1 describes the purpose and objectives of the Phase 2 tasks and the programmatic drivers that influence related CPP-651 high-enriched uranium (HEU) management issues. Section 2 identifies the evaluation criteria and methodology andmore » the transfer issues and barriers preventing shipment. Section 3 provides site-specific background information for the CPP-651 facility and the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) and describes the development of the basic material removal schedule, the proposed base case plan for removal of SNM, and the proposed HEU material management/shipping issues and strategies. Section 4 identifies the proposed options for accelerated removal of SNM and how they were evaluated via detailed scheduling, resource histograms, and cost analysis. Section 5 summarizes principal tasks for implementing this plan and other related HEU CPP-651 management issues that require continued planning efforts to assure successful implementation of this proposed early removal strategy.« less

  17. Early Childhood Settings in 15 Countries: What Are Their Structural Characteristics? The IEA Preprimary Project, Phase 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmsted, Patricia P., Ed.; Montie, Jeanne, Ed.

    This is the second of four monographs reporting the findings of Phase 2 of the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement (IEA) Preprimary Project, which presents data on the physical characteristics of children's early childhood settings. Early childhood settings were documented in the following 15 countries: (1)…

  18. Worldwide isotope ratios of the Fukushima release and early-phase external dose reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Chaisan, Kittisak; Smith, Jim T.; Bossew, Peter; Kirchner, Gerald; Laptev, Gennady V.

    2013-01-01

    Measurements of radionuclides (RNs) in air made worldwide following the Fukushima accident are quantitatively compared with air and soil measurements made in Japan. Isotopic ratios RN:137Cs of 131I, 132Te, 134,136Cs, are correlated with distance from release. It is shown, for the first time, that both within Japan and globally, ratios RN:137Cs in air were relatively constant for primarily particle associated radionuclides (134,136Cs; 132Te) but that 131I shows much lower local (<80 km) isotope ratios in soils relative to 137Cs. Derived isotope ratios are used to reconstruct external dose rate during the early phase post-accident. Model “blind” tests show more than 95% of predictions within a factor of two of measurements from 15 sites to the north, northwest and west of the power station. It is demonstrated that generic isotope ratios provide a sound basis for reconstruction of early-phase external dose rates in these most contaminated areas. PMID:24018776

  19. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging findings of kidneys in patients with early phase of obstruction.

    PubMed

    Bozgeyik, Zulkif; Kocakoc, Ercan; Sonmezgoz, Fitnet

    2009-04-01

    Diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is an MR technique used to show molecular diffusion. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), as a quantitative parameter calculated from the DW MR images. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ability of DW MR imaging in early phase of obstruction due to urolithiasis. Twenty-six patients with acute dilatation of the pelvicalyceal system detected by intravenous urography were included in this study. MR imaging was performed using a 1.5 T whole-body superconducting MR scanner. DW imaging can be performed using single-shot spin-echo, echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequences with the following diffusion gradient b values: 100, 600, 1000 s/mm(2). Circular region of interest (ROI) was placed in the renal parenchyma for the measurement of ADC values in the normal and obstructed kidney. For statistical analyses, Paired t test were used. In spite of obstructed kidneys had the lower ADC values compared to normal kidneys, these alterations were statistically insignificant. We did not observe significantly different ADC values of early phase of obstructed kidneys compared to normal kidneys.

  20. Unknown loads affect force production capacity in early phases of bench press throws.

    PubMed

    Hernández Davó, J L; Sabido Solana, R; Sarabia Marínm, J M; Sánchez Martos, Á; Moya Ramón, M

    2015-10-01

    Explosive strength training aims to improve force generation in early phases of movement due to its importance in sport performance. The present study examined the influence of lack of knowledge about the load lifted in explosive parameters during bench press throws. Thirteen healthy young men (22.8±2.0 years) participated in the study. Participants performed bench press throws with three different loads (30, 50 and 70% of 1 repetition maximum) in two different conditions (known and unknown loads). In unknown condition, loads were changed within sets in each repetition and participants did not know the load, whereas in known condition the load did not change within sets and participants had knowledge about the load lifted. Results of repeated-measures ANOVA revealed that unknown conditions involves higher power in the first 30, 50, 100 and 150 ms with the three loads, higher values of ratio of force development in those first instants, and differences in time to reach maximal rate of force development with 50 and 70% of 1 repetition maximum. This study showed that unknown conditions elicit higher values of explosive parameters in early phases of bench press throws, thereby this kind of methodology could be considered in explosive strength training.

  1. The early phase of /see symbol/ production development in adult Japanese learners of English.

    PubMed

    Saito, Kazuya; Munro, Murray J

    2014-12-01

    Although previous research indicates that Japanese speakers' second language (L2) perception and production of English /see symbol/ may improve with increased L2 experience, relatively little is known about the fine phonetic details of their /see symbol/ productions, especially during the early phase of L2 speech learning. This cross-sectional study examined acoustic properties of word-initial /see symbol/ from 60 Japanese learners with a length of residence of between one month and one year in Canada. Their performance was compared to that of 15 native speakers of English and 15 low-proficiency Japanese learners of English. Formant frequencies (F2 and F3) and F1 transition durations were evaluated under three task conditions--word reading, sentence reading, and timed picture description. Learners with as little as two to three months of residence demonstrated target-like F2 frequencies. In addition, increased LOR was predictive of more target-like transition durations. Although the learners showed some improvement in F3 as a function of LOR, they did so mainly at a controlled level of speech production. The findings suggest that during the early phase of L2 segmental development, production accuracy is task-dependent and is influenced by the availability of L1 phonetic cues for redeployment in L2.

  2. Internal Dose from Food and Drink Ingestion in the Early Phase after the Accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawai, Masaki; Yoshizawa, Nobuaki; Hirakawa, Sachiko; Murakami, Kana; Takizawa, Mari; Sato, Osamu; Takagi, Shunji; Miyatake, Hirokazu; Takahashi, Tomoyuki; Suzuki, Gen

    2017-09-01

    Activity concentrations in food and drink, represented by water and vegetables, have been monitored continuously since the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, with a focus on radioactive cesium. On the other hand, iodine-131 was not measured systematically in the early phase after the accident. The activity concentrations of iodine-131 in food and drink are important to estimate internal exposure due to ingestion pathway. When the internal dose from ingestion in the evacuation areas is estimated, water is considered as the main ingestion pathway. In this study, we estimated the values of activity concentrations in water in the early phase after the accident, using a compartment model as an estimation method. The model uses measurement values of activity concentration and deposition rate of iodine-131 onto the ground, which is calculated from an atmospheric dispersion simulation. The model considers how drinking water would be affected by radionuclides deposited into water. We estimated the activity concentrations of water on Kawamata town and Minamisouma city during March of 2011 and the committed effective doses were 0.08 mSv and 0.06 mSv. We calculated the transfer parameters in the model for estimating the activity concentrations in the areas with a small amount of measurement data. In addition, we estimated the committed effective doses from vegetables using atmospheric dispersion simulation and FARMLAND model in case of eating certain vegetables as option information.

  3. Characterization of Early-Phase Neutrophil Extracellular Traps in Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yanbao; Kwon, Keehwan; Tsitrin, Tamara; Sikorski, Patricia; Nelson, Karen E.; Pieper, Rembert

    2017-01-01

    Neutrophils have an important role in the antimicrobial defense and resolution of urinary tract infections (UTIs). Our research suggests that a mechanism known as neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation is a defense strategy to combat pathogens that have invaded the urinary tract. A set of human urine specimens with very high neutrophil counts had microscopic evidence of cellular aggregation and lysis. Deoxyribonuclease I (DNase) treatment resulted in disaggregation of such structures, release of DNA fragments and a proteome enriched in histones and azurophilic granule effectors whose quantitative composition was similar to that of previously described in vitro-formed NETs. The effector proteins were further enriched in DNA-protein complexes isolated in native PAGE gels. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed a flattened morphology of neutrophils associated with decondensed chromatin, remnants of granules in the cell periphery, and myeloperoxidase co-localized with extracellular DNA, features consistent with early-phase NETs. Nuclear staining revealed that a considerable fraction of bacterial cells in these structures were dead. The proteomes of two pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, were indicative of adaptive responses to early-phase NETs, specifically the release of virulence factors and arrest of ribosomal protein synthesis. Finally, we discovered patterns of proteolysis consistent with widespread cleavage of proteins by neutrophil elastase, proteinase 3 and cathepsin G and evidence of citrullination in many nuclear proteins. PMID:28129394

  4. A qualitative study evaluating causality attribution for serious adverse events during early phase oncology clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Som D; Coombes, Megan E; Levine, Mitch; Cosby, Jarold; Kowaleski, Brenda; Arnold, Andrew

    2011-10-01

    In early phase oncology trials, novel targeted therapies are increasingly being tested in combination with traditional agents creating greater potential for enhanced and new toxicities. When a patient experiences a serious adverse event (SAE), investigators must determine whether the event is attributable to the investigational drug or not. This study seeks to understand the clinical reasoning, tools used and challenges faced by the researchers who assign causality to SAE's. Thirty-two semi-structured interviews were conducted with medical oncologists and trial coordinators at six Canadian academic cancer centres. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Individual interview content analysis was followed by thematic analysis across the interview set. Our study found that causality assessment tends to be a rather complex process, often without complete clinical and investigational data at hand. Researchers described using a common processing strategy whereby they gather pertinent information, eliminate alternative explanations, and consider whether or not the study drug resulted in the SAE. Many of the interviewed participants voiced concern that causality assessments are often conducted quickly and tend to be highly subjective. Many participants were unable to identify any useful tools to help in assigning causality and welcomed more objectivity in the overall process. Attributing causality to SAE's is a complex process. Clinical trial researchers apply a logical system of reasoning, but feel that the current method of assigning causality could be improved. Based on these findings, future research involving the development of a new causality assessment tool specifically for use in early phase oncology clinical trials may be useful.

  5. Analysis of Loss-of-Coolant Accidents in the NIST Research Reactor - Early Phase

    SciTech Connect

    Baek, Joo S.; Diamond, David

    A study of the fuel temperature during the early phase of a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in the NIST research reactor (NBSR) was completed. Previous studies had been reported in the preliminary safety analysis report for the conversion of the NBSR from high-enriched uranium (HEU) fuel to low-enriched (LEU) fuel. Those studies had focused on the most vulnerable LOCA situation, namely, a double-ended guillotine break in the time period after reactor trip when water is drained from either the coolant channels inside the fuel elements or the region outside the fuel elements. The current study fills in a gap in themore » analysis which is the early phase of the event when there may still be water present but the reactor is at power or immediately after reactor trip and pumps have tripped. The calculations were done, for both the current HEU-fueled core and the proposed LEU core, with the TRACE thermal-hydraulic systems code. Several break locations and different break sizes were considered. In all cases the increase in the clad (or fuel meat) temperature was relatively small so that a large margin to the temperature threshold for blistering (the Safety Limit for the NBSR) remained.« less

  6. Acute lipophilicity-dependent effect of intravascular simvastatin in the early phase of focal cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Beretta, S; Pastori, C; Sala, G; Piazza, F; Ferrarese, C; Cattalini, A; de Curtis, M; Librizzi, L

    2011-05-01

    The acute effects of simvastatin lactone (lipophilic) and simvastatin acid (hydrophilic) on transient focal ischemia were assessed using the isolated guinea pig brain maintained in vitro by arterial perfusion. This new model of cerebral ischemia allows the assessment of the very early phase of the ischemic process, with the functional preservation of the vascular and neuronal compartments and the blood-brain barrier (bbb). The middle cerebral artery was transiently tied for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 60 min. Statins (nanomolar doses) were administered by intravascular continuous infusion starting 60 min before ischemia induction. Brain cortical activity and arterial vascular tone were continuously recorded. At the end of the experiment immunoreactivity for microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP-2), expression of survival kinases (ERK and Akt) and total anti-oxidant capacity were assayed. Brains treated with simvastatin lactone showed i) reduced amplitude and delayed onset of ischemic depressions, ii) preservation of MAP-2 immunoreactivity, iii) activation of ERK signaling in the ischemic hemisphere and iv) increase in whole-brain anti-oxidant capacity. Treatment with the bbb-impermeable simvastatin acid was ineffective on the above-mentioned parameters. Vascular resistance recordings and Akt signaling were unchanged by any statin treatment. Our findings suggest that intravascular-delivered simvastatin exerts an acute lipophilicity-dependent protective effect in the early phase of cerebral ischemia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Skin manifestations in sulfur mustard exposed victims with ophthalmologic complications: Association between early and late phase.

    PubMed

    Hejazi, Somayeh; Soroush, Mohammadreza; Moradi, Ahmad; Khalilazar, Sara; Mousavi, Batool; Firooz, Alireza; Younespour, Shima

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) was used during the Iraq-Iran war (1980-1988). Exposed veterans continue to suffer from its ocular, skin, and respiratory complications. We aimed to evaluate associations between early (at the time of acute exposure) and decades later skin manifestations in individuals with severe ophthalmologic complications secondary to sulfur mustard exposure. One hundred forty-nine veterans with severe ocular injuries were evaluated for acute and chronic skin complications. Logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between early and late skin manifestations. Late skin complaints were observed in nearly all survivors who had early skin lesions (131 out of 137; 95.62%). Seven out of 12 patients (58.33%) who did not have early skin lesions ultimately developed late skin complications. There was a significant relationship between the presence of lesions at the time of exposure and developing late skin complaints (two-sided Fisher's exact test, OR = 15.59, p < 0.001). There was an association between having at least one early skin lesion and occurrence of late skin complications. Survivors with blisters at the time of chemical exposure were more likely to complain of itching (95% CI: 3.63-25.97, p < 0.001), burning (OR = 11.16; 95% CI: 2.97-41.89, p < 0.001), pigmentation changes (OR = 10.17; 95% CI: 2.54-40.75, p = 0.001), dryness (OR = 6.71, 95% CI: 1.22-37.01, p = 0.03) or cherry angioma (OR = 2.59; 95% CI:1.21-5.55, p = 0.01) during the late phase. Using multivariate logistic models, early blisters remained significantly associated with latent skin complaints. Of note, the genitalia and great flexure areas were the most involved anatomical sites for both early and late skin lesions in SM exposed survivors. According to this study, the presence of blisters at the time of exposure to SM is the most important predictor of developing dermatologic complications decades later in patients with severe ophthalmologic

  8. Enabling Parametric Optimal Ascent Trajectory Modeling During Early Phases of Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, James B.; Dees, Patrick D.; Diaz, Manuel J.

    2015-01-01

    During the early phases of engineering design, the costs committed are high, costs incurred are low, and the design freedom is high. It is well documented that decisions made in these early design phases drive the entire design's life cycle. In a traditional paradigm, key design decisions are made when little is known about the design. As the design matures, design changes become more difficult -- in both cost and schedule -- to enact. Indeed, the current capability-based paradigm that has emerged because of the constrained economic environment calls for the infusion of knowledge acquired during later design phases into earlier design phases, i.e. bring knowledge acquired during preliminary and detailed design into pre-conceptual and conceptual design. An area of critical importance to launch vehicle design is the optimization of its ascent trajectory, as the optimal trajectory will be able to take full advantage of the launch vehicle's capability to deliver a maximum amount of payload into orbit. Hence, the optimal ascent trajectory plays an important role in the vehicle's affordability posture as the need for more economically viable access to space solutions are needed in today's constrained economic environment. The problem of ascent trajectory optimization is not a new one. There are several programs that are widely used in industry that allows trajectory analysts to, based on detailed vehicle and insertion orbit parameters, determine the optimal ascent trajectory. Yet, little information is known about the launch vehicle early in the design phase - information that is required of many different disciplines in order to successfully optimize the ascent trajectory. Thus, the current paradigm of optimizing ascent trajectories involves generating point solutions for every change in a vehicle's design parameters. This is often a very tedious, manual, and time-consuming task for the analysts. Moreover, the trajectory design space is highly non-linear and multi

  9. Welcome to the Twilight Zone: a forgotten early phase of human evolutionary studies.

    PubMed

    Delisle, Richard G

    2012-06-01

    The field of paleoanthropology arose out of a strange and unacknowledged early phase of development prior to about the 1930s. It is often assumed that a key pillar of the discipline, the unity of humankind--the notion that humans are clearly separated phylogenetically (genealogically) from other non-human primates--was widely accepted from the inception of paleoanthropology around 1860. However, a final consensus on this fundamental question only appeared later on in the 20th century. This paper will focus on two key areas of disagreement, which reveal the unsettled state of this question during this early period: the question of uncertainty with respect to the number, identity and boundary of primate species (including humans) which prevailed in the 18th, 19th and early 20th centuries; and the matter of uncertainty with respect to the nature of the phylogenetic relationships among the various human populations and the other primate species which prevailed between 1864 and 1931. Consideration of these matters reveals that the modern research structure that paleoanthropologists take for granted today is much more recent than believed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Simulated conditions of microgravity suppress progesterone production by luteal cells of the pregnant rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhat, G. K.; Yang, H.; Sridaran, R.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether simulated conditions of microgravity induce changes in the production of progesterone by luteal cells of the pregnant rat ovary using an in vitro model system. The microgravity environment was simulated using either a high aspect ratio vessel (HARV) bioreactor with free fall or a clinostat without free fall of cells. A mixed population of luteal cells isolated from the corpora lutea of day 8 pregnant rats was attached to cytodex microcarrier beads (cytodex 3). These anchorage dependent cells were placed in equal numbers in the HARV or a spinner flask control vessel in culture conditions. It was found that HARV significantly reduced the daily production of progesterone from day 1 through day 8 compared to controls. Scanning electron microscopy showed that cells attached to the microcarrier beads throughout the duration of the experiment in both types of culture vessels. Cells cultured in chamber slide flasks and placed in a clinostat yielded similar results when compared to those in the HARV. Also, when they were stained by Oil Red-O for lipid droplets, the clinostat flasks showed a larger number of stained cells compared to control flasks at 48 h. Further, the relative amount of Oil Red-O staining per milligram of protein was found to be higher in the clinostat than in the control cells at 48 h. It is speculated that the increase in the level of lipid content in cells subjected to simulated conditions of microgravity may be due to a disruption in cholesterol transport and/or lesions in the steroidogenic pathway leading to a fall in the synthesis of progesterone. Additionally, the fall in progesterone in simulated conditions of microgravity could be due to apoptosis of luteal cells.

  11. Luteal start vaginal micronized progesterone improves pregnancy success in women with recurrent pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Mary D; McQueen, Dana; Winter, Michelle; Kliman, Harvey J

    2017-03-01

    To assess the effectiveness of luteal start vaginal micronized P in a recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) cohort. Observational cohort study using prospectively collected data. Not applicable. Women seen between 2004 and 2012 with a history of two or more unexplained pregnancy losses <10 weeks in size; endometrial biopsy (EB) performed 9-11 days after LH surge; and one or more subsequent pregnancy(ies). Women were excluded if concomitant findings, such as endometritis, maturation delay, or glandular-stromal dyssynchrony, were identified on EB. Vaginal micronized P was prescribed at a dose of 100-200 mg every 12 hours starting 3 days after LH surge (luteal start) if glandular epithelial nuclear cyclin E (nCyclinE) expression was elevated (>20%) in endometrial glands or empirically despite normal nCyclinE (≤20%). Women with normal nCyclinE (≤20%) who did not receive P were used as controls. Pregnancy success was an ongoing pregnancy >10 weeks in size. One hundred sixteen women met the inclusion criteria, of whom 51% (n = 59) had elevated nCyclinE and 49% (n = 57) had normal nCyclinE. Pregnancy success in the 59 women with elevated nCyclinE significantly improved after intervention: 6% (16/255) in prior pregnancies versus 69% (57/83) in subsequent pregnancies. Pregnancy success in subsequent pregnancies was higher in women prescribed vaginal micronized P compared with controls: 68% (86/126) versus 51% (19/37); odds ratio = 2.1 (95% confidence interval, 1.0-4.4). In this study, we found that the use of luteal start vaginal micronized P was associated with improved pregnancy success in a strictly defined cohort of women with RPL. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Early cytokine modulation after the rapid induction phase of sublingual immunotherapy with mite monomeric allergoids.

    PubMed

    Di Gioacchino, M; Perrone, A; Petrarca, C; Di Claudio, F; Mistrello, G; Falagiani, P; Dadorante, V; Verna, N; Braga, M; Ballone, E; Cavallucci, E

    2008-01-01

    The influence of different treatment schedules of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) in activating IL-10-producing T-cells, crucial in inducing allergen-specific tolerance, is not completely understood. The present work was designed to evaluate allergen driven interleukin release by mononuclear cells in the early phase of SLIT, after application of different induction schemes. Twenty mite-allergic patients were enrolled, 10 (group A) treated with a traditional 98 day induction scheme and 10 (group B) with a 16 day scheme with monomeric allergoid vaccine. At the end of the induction phase, the cumulative doses taken by group A and group B patients were equivalent to 50.5 and 50.3 microg of mite group 1 allergens, respectively. The release of Th1-, Th2- and Treg-related interleukins was assessed in culture supernatants of 5 microg/ml Der-p1-stimulated mononuclear cells, isolated before and after the induction phases. No relevant treatment-related side effects were observed. Interleukin release was similar in the two groups at the enrolment. Non-stimulated and Der p 1 stimulated release of studied cytokines was similar in the two groups at enrolment. Der p 1 stimulation significantly increased IL-10 release (p<0.0002) after treatment in group B patients, and this effect was higher (p=0.05) compared to group A patients. Furthermore, at the end of SLIT induction TNF-alpha, IL-4 and IFN-gamma production were reduced in group B patients (p<0.05, p=0.062 and p=0.060, respectively). The rapid induction scheme of sublingual immunotherapy induces an early immune suppression more effectively than the slower one. The rapid induction scheme should be the preferential way to start sublingual immunotherapy, particularly when monomeric allergoids are utilized.

  13. Challenges Facing Early Phase Trials Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute: An Analysis of Corrective Action Plans to Improve Accrual

    PubMed Central

    Massett, Holly A.; Mishkin, Grace; Rubinstein, Larry; Ivy, S. Percy; Denicoff, Andrea; Godwin, Elizabeth; DiPiazza, Kate; Bolognese, Jennifer; Zwiebel, James A.; Abrams, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Accruing patients in a timely manner represents a significant challenge to early phase cancer clinical trials. The NCI Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program analyzed 19 months of corrective action plans (CAPs) received for slow-accruing Phase 1 and 2 trials to identify slow accrual reasons, evaluate whether proposed corrective actions matched these reasons, and assess the CAP impact on trial accrual, duration, and likelihood of meeting primary scientific objectives. Of the 135 CAPs analyzed, 69 were for Phase 1 trials and 66 for Phase 2 trials. Primary reasons cited for slow accrual were safety/toxicity (Phase 1: 48%), design/protocol concerns (Phase 1: 42%, Phase 2: 33%), and eligibility criteria (Phase 1: 41%, Phase 2: 35%). The most commonly proposed corrective actions were adding institutions (Phase 1: 43%, Phase 2: 85%) and amending the trial to change eligibility or design (Phase 1: 55%, Phase 2: 44%). Only 40% of CAPs provided proposed corrective actions that matched the reasons given for slow accrual. Seventy percent of trials were closed to accrual at time of analysis (Phase 1=48; Phase 2=46). Of these, 67% of Phase 1 and 70% of Phase 2 trials met their primary objectives, but they were active three times longer than projected. Among closed trials, 24% had an accrual rate increase associated with a greater likelihood of meeting their primary scientific objectives. Ultimately, trials receiving CAPs saw improved accrual rates. Future trials may benefit from implementing CAPs early in trial lifecycles, but it may be more beneficial to invest in earlier accrual planning. PMID:27401246

  14. Challenges Facing Early Phase Trials Sponsored by the National Cancer Institute: An Analysis of Corrective Action Plans to Improve Accrual.

    PubMed

    Massett, Holly A; Mishkin, Grace; Rubinstein, Larry; Ivy, S Percy; Denicoff, Andrea; Godwin, Elizabeth; DiPiazza, Kate; Bolognese, Jennifer; Zwiebel, James A; Abrams, Jeffrey S

    2016-11-15

    Accruing patients in a timely manner represents a significant challenge to early phase cancer clinical trials. The NCI Cancer Therapy Evaluation Program analyzed 19 months of corrective action plans (CAP) received for slow-accruing phase I and II trials to identify slow accrual reasons, evaluate whether proposed corrective actions matched these reasons, and assess the CAP impact on trial accrual, duration, and likelihood of meeting primary scientific objectives. Of the 135 CAPs analyzed, 69 were for phase I trials and 66 for phase II trials. Primary reasons cited for slow accrual were safety/toxicity (phase I: 48%), design/protocol concerns (phase I: 42%, phase II: 33%), and eligibility criteria (phase I: 41%, phase II: 35%). The most commonly proposed corrective actions were adding institutions (phase I: 43%, phase II: 85%) and amending the trial to change eligibility or design (phase I: 55%, phase II: 44%). Only 40% of CAPs provided proposed corrective actions that matched the reasons given for slow accrual. Seventy percent of trials were closed to accrual at time of analysis (phase I = 48; phase II = 46). Of these, 67% of phase I and 70% of phase II trials met their primary objectives, but they were active three times longer than projected. Among closed trials, 24% had an accrual rate increase associated with a greater likelihood of meeting their primary scientific objectives. Ultimately, trials receiving CAPs saw improved accrual rates. Future trials may benefit from implementing CAPs early in trial life cycles, but it may be more beneficial to invest in earlier accrual planning. Clin Cancer Res; 22(22); 5408-16. ©2016 AACRSee related commentary by Mileham and Kim, p. 5397. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Early-Phase 11C-PiB PET in Amyloid Angiopathy-Related Symptomatic Cerebral Hemorrhage: Potential Diagnostic Value?

    PubMed Central

    Aigbirhio, Franklin I.; Fryer, Tim D.; Menon, David K.; Warburton, Elizabeth A.; Baron, Jean-Claude

    2015-01-01

    Although late-phase (>35min post-administration) 11C-PiB-PET has good sensitivity in cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), its specificity is poor due to frequently high uptake in healthy aged subjects. By detecting perfusion-like abnormalities, early-phase 11C-PiB-PET might add diagnostic value. Early-frame (1–6min) 11C-PiB-PET was obtained in 11 non-demented patients with probable CAA-related symptomatic lobar intracerebral haemorrhage (70±7yrs), 9 age-matched healthy controls (HCs) and 10 HCs <55yrs. There was a significant decrease in early-phase atrophy-corrected whole-cortex SUV relative to cerebellar vermis (SUVR) in the CAA vs age-matched HC group. None of the age-matched controls fell below the lower 95% confidence limit derived from the young HCs, while 6/11 CAA patients did (sensitivity = 55%, specificity = 100%). Combining both early- and late-phase 11C-PiB data did not change the sensitivity and specificity of late-phase PiB, but combined early- and late-phase positivity entails a very high suspicion of underlying Aβ-related clinical disorder, i.e., CAA or Alzheimer disease (AD). In order to clarify this ambiguity, we then show that the occipital/posterior cingulate ratio is markedly lower in CAA than in AD (N = 7). These pilot data suggest that early-phase 11C-PiB-PET may not only add to late-phase PiB-PET with respect to the unclear situation of late-phase positivity, but also help differentiate CAA from AD. PMID:26439113

  16. Study design and early result of a phase I study of SABR for early-stage glottic cancer.

    PubMed

    Yu, Tosol; Wee, Chan Woo; Choi, Noorie; Wu, Hong-Gyun; Kang, Hyun-Cheol; Park, Jong Min; Kim, Jung-In; Kim, Jin Ho; Kwon, Tack-Kyun; Chung, Eun-Jae

    2018-05-14

    Avoidance of organs at risk has become possible with advances in image-guided volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) techniques. This study was designed to evaluate the safety and feasibility of stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) for early stage glottic cancer. This report presents the preliminary result of the first and second dose level. Fraction size was increased from 3.5 gray (Gy) (total dose 59.5 Gy) to 9 Gy (total dose 45 Gy). Dose-limiting toxicities were defined as grade 3 or higher treatment-related toxicities. Voice outcome was assessed with electroglottography, and quality of life (QoL) was measured with the Head and Neck Cancer Inventory (HNCI). Seven patients received 59.5 Gy at 3.5 Gy per fraction as the first dose level, and five patients received 55 Gy at 5 Gy per fraction as the second dose level. None of the patients developed grade 3+ toxicity throughout a median follow-up of 17.5 months (range, 1.7-30.6 months). One patient in the second dose level recurred in the primary site at 4 months after radiotherapy (RT) and received total laryngectomy. The rest of participants were disease-free at locoregional and distant sites. Jitter, shimmer, mean phonation time, and noise-to-harmony ratio did not change significantly at 6 months after RT. HNCI scores between pretreatment and posttreatment were not significantly different (P = 0.221). This study revealed acceptable toxicity, voice outcome, and QoL in patients treated with hypofractionated VMAT of 3.5 Gy and 5 Gy per fraction. This phase I study is currently ongoing with a dose of 55 Gy in 11 fractions and 45 Gy in five fractions. 2b. Laryngoscope, 2018. © 2018 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  17. Phase Transitions in the Early Universe: The Cosmology of Non-Minimal Scalar Sectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kost, Jeffrey D.

    Light scalar fields such as axions and string moduli can play an important role in early-universe cosmology. However, many factors can significantly impact their late-time cosmological abundances. For example, in cases where the potentials for these fields are generated dynamically--such as during cosmological mass-generating phase transitions--the duration of the time interval required for these potentials to fully develop can have significant repercussions. Likewise, in scenarios with multiple scalars, mixing amongst the fields can also give rise to an effective timescale that modifies the resulting late-time abundances. Previous studies have focused on the effects of either the first or the second timescale in isolation. In this thesis, by contrast, we examine the new features that arise from the interplay between these two timescales when both mixing and time-dependent phase transitions are introduced together. First, we find that the effects of these timescales can conspire to alter not only the total late-time abundance of the system--often by many orders of magnitude--but also its distribution across the different fields. Second, we find that these effects can produce large parametric resonances which render the energy densities of the fields highly sensitive to the degree of mixing as well as the duration of the time interval over which the phase transition unfolds. Finally, we find that these effects can even give rise to a "re-overdamping" phenomenon which causes the total energy density of the system to behave in novel ways that differ from those exhibited by pure dark matter or vacuum energy. All of these features therefore give rise to new possibilities for early-universe phenomenology and cosmological evolution. They also highlight the importance of taking into account the time dependence associated with phase transitions in cosmological settings. In the second part of this thesis, we proceed to study the early-universe cosmology of a Kaluza-Klein (KK

  18. Equine chorionic gonadotropin alters luteal cell morphologic features related to progesterone synthesis.

    PubMed

    Rigoglio, Nathia N; Fátima, Luciana A; Hanassaka, Jaqueline Y; Pinto, Gizélia L; Machado, Alex S D; Gimenes, Lindsay U; Baruselli, Pietro S; Rennó, Francisco P; Moura, Carlos E B; Watanabe, Il-Sei; Papa, Paula C

    2013-03-01

    Exogenous eCG for stimulation of a single dominant follicle or for superovulation are common strategies to improve reproductive efficiency by increasing pregnancy rates and embryo production, respectively. Morphofunctional changes in the CL of eCG-treated cattle include increases in CL volume and plasma progesterone concentrations. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that eCG alters the content of luteal cells and mitochondria related to hormone production. Twelve crossbred beef cows were synchronized and then allocated into three groups (four cows per group) and received no further treatment (control) or were given eCG either before or after follicular deviation (superovulation and stimulation of the dominant follicle, respectively). Six days after ovulation, cows were slaughtered and CL collected for morphohistologic and ultrastructural analysis. Mitochondrial volume per CL was highest in superovulated followed by stimulated and then control cows (18,500 ± 2630, 12,300 ± 2640, and 7670 ± 3400 μm(3); P < 0.001), and the density of spherical mitochondria and the total number of large luteal cells were increased (P < 0.05) in stimulated cows compared with the other two groups (110.32 ± 14.22, 72.26 ± 8.77, and 70.46 ± 9.58 mitochondria per μm(3) and 678 ± 147, 245 ± 199, and 346 ± 38 × 10(6) cells, respectively. However, the largest diameters of the large luteal cells were increased in superovulated and control cows versus stimulated ones (32.32 ± 0.06, 31.59 ± 0.81, and 29.44 ± 0.77 μm; P < 0.0001). In contrast, the total number of small luteal cells was increased in superovulated cows (1456 ± 268, 492 ± 181, and 822 ± 461 × 10(6), P < 0.05). In conclusion, there were indications of cellular changes related to increased hormonal production (stimulatory treatment) and increased CL volume (superovulatory treatment). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. The progamic phase of an early-divergent angiosperm, Annona cherimola (Annonaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Lora, J.; Hormaza, J. I.; Herrero, M.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Recent studies of reproductive biology in ancient angiosperm lineages are beginning to shed light on the early evolution of flowering plants, but comparative studies are restricted by fragmented and meagre species representation in these angiosperm clades. In the present study, the progamic phase, from pollination to fertilization, is characterized in Annona cherimola, which is a member of the Annonaceae, the largest extant family among early-divergent angiosperms. Beside interest due to its phylogenetic position, this species is also an ancient crop with a clear niche for expansion in subtropical climates. Methods The kinetics of the reproductive process was established following controlled pollinations and sequential fixation. Gynoecium anatomy, pollen tube pathway, embryo sac and early post-fertilization events were characterized histochemically. Key Results A plesiomorphic gynoecium with a semi-open carpel shows a continuous secretory papillar surface along the carpel margins, which run from the stigma down to the obturator in the ovary. The pollen grains germinate in the stigma and compete in the stigma-style interface to reach the narrow secretory area that lines the margins of the semi-open stylar canal and is able to host just one to three pollen tubes. The embryo sac has eight nuclei and is well provisioned with large starch grains that are used during early cellular endosperm development. Conclusions A plesiomorphic simple gynoecium hosts a simple pollen–pistil interaction, based on a support–control system of pollen tube growth. Support is provided through basipetal secretory activity in the cells that line the pollen tube pathway. Spatial constraints, favouring pollen tube competition, are mediated by a dramatic reduction in the secretory surface available for pollen tube growth at the stigma–style interface. This extramural pollen tube competition contrasts with the intrastylar competition predominant in more recently derived

  20. Flow Test to Predict Early Hypotony and Hypertensive Phase After Ahmed Glaucoma Valve (AGV) Surgical Implantation.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jason; Beltran-Agullo, Laura; Buys, Yvonne M; Moss, Edward B; Gonzalez, Johanna; Trope, Graham E

    2016-06-01

    To assess the validity of a preimplantation flow test to predict early hypotony [intraocular pressure (IOP)≤5 mm Hg on 2 consecutive visits and hypertensive phase (HP) (IOP>21 mm Hg) after Ahmed Glaucoma Valve (AGV) implantation. Prospective interventional study on patients receiving an AGV. A preimplantation flow test using a gravity-driven reservoir and an open manometer was performed on all AGVs. Opening pressure (OP) and closing pressure (CP) were defined as the pressure at which fluid was seen to flow or stop flowing through the AGV, respectively. OP and CP were measured twice per AGV. Patients were followed for 12 weeks. In total, 20 eyes from 19 patients were enrolled. At 12 weeks the mean IOP decreased from 29.2±9.1 to 16.8±5.2 mm Hg (P<0.01). The mean AGV OP was 17.5±5.4 mm Hg and the mean CP was 6.7±2.3 mm Hg. Early (within 2 wk postoperative) HP occurred in 37% and hypotony in 16% of cases. An 18 mm Hg cutoff for the OP gave a sensitivity of 0.71, specificity of 0.83, positive predictive value of 0.71, and negative predictive value of 0.83 for predicting an early HP. A 7 mm Hg cutoff for the CP yielded a sensitivity of 1.0, specificity of 0.38, positive predictive value of 0.23, and negative predictive value of 1.0 for predicting hypotony. Preoperative OP and CP may predict early hypotony or HP and may be used as a guide as to which AGV valves to discard before implantation surgery.

  1. Duration of luteal support after IVF is important, so why is there no consistency in practice? The results of a dynamic survey of practice in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Russell, Richard; Kingsland, Charles; Alfirevic, Zarko; Gazvani, Rafet

    2015-03-01

    Luteal support is considered as an essential component of IVF treatment following ovarian stimulation and embryo transfer. Several studies have consistently demonstrated a benefit of luteal support compared with no treatment and whilst a number of preparations are available, no product has been demonstrated as superior. There is an emerging body of evidence which suggests that extension of luteal support beyond biochemical pregnancy does not confer a benefit in terms of successful pregnancy outcome. We performed two surveys separated by 5 years of practice evolution, with the latter reporting on the use of luteal support in all IVF clinics in the UK. All clinics reported utilising luteal support with the majority favouring the use of Cyclogest 400 mg twice daily. In contrast, there was no consensus on the optimal duration of luteal support. Whilst 24% of clinics withdrew luteal support at biochemical confirmation of pregnancy, 40% continued treatment until 12 weeks gestation. Several clinics even extended luteal support beyond 12 weeks gestation. We observed no difference in practice based on the size of the IVF unit or treatment funding source. Although there was some change in practice between surveys in many clinics, there was no uniformity in the direction of change.

  2. Blunted Myoglobin and Quadriceps Soreness after Electrical Stimulation during the Luteal Phase or Oral Contraception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Lindsey J.; Baker, Lucinda L.; Schroeder, E. Todd

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Acute muscle damage after exercise triggers subsequent regeneration, leading to hypertrophy and increased strength after repeated exercise. It has been debated whether acute exercise-induced muscle damage is altered under various premenopausal estrogen conditions. Acute contraction-induced muscle damage was compared during exogenous (oral…

  3. Early-Time Solution of the Horizontal Unconfined Aquifer in the Buildup Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravanis, Elias; Akylas, Evangelos

    2017-10-01

    We derive the early-time solution of the Boussinesq equation for the horizontal unconfined aquifer in the buildup phase under constant recharge and zero inflow. The solution is expressed as a power series of a suitable similarity variable, which is constructed so that to satisfy the boundary conditions at both ends of the aquifer, that is, it is a polynomial approximation of the exact solution. The series turns out to be asymptotic and it is regularized by resummation techniques that are used to define divergent series. The outflow rate in this regime is linear in time, and the (dimensionless) coefficient is calculated to eight significant figures. The local error of the series is quantified by its deviation from satisfying the self-similar Boussinesq equation at every point. The local error turns out to be everywhere positive, hence, so is the integrated error, which in turn quantifies the degree of convergence of the series to the exact solution.

  4. HISPASAT launch and early operations phases: Computation and monitoring of geostationary satellite positioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brousse, Pascal; Desprairies, Arnaud

    1993-01-01

    Since 1974, CNES, the French National Space Agency, has been involved in the geostationary launch and early operations phases (LEOP) of moving satellites from a transfer orbit delivered by a launcher to a geostationary point. During the operations and their preparation, the Flight Dynamics Center (FDC), part of CNES LEOP facilities, is in charge of the space mechanics aspects. What is noteworthy about the Spanish HISPASAT satellite positioning is that all the operations were performed on the customer's premises, and consequently the FDC was duplicated in Madrid, Spain. The first part of this paper is the FDC presentation: its role, its hardware configuration, and its space dynamics ground control system called MERCATOR. The second part of this paper details the preparation used by the FDC for the HISPASAT mission: hardware and software installation in Madrid, integration with the other entities, and technical and operational qualifications. The third part gives results concerning flight dynamics aspects and operational activities.

  5. Cognitive function in early clinical phase huntington disease after rivastigmine treatment.

    PubMed

    Sešok, Sanja; Bolle, Nika; Kobal, Jan; Bucik, Valentin; Vodušek, David B

    2014-09-01

    In Huntington disease (HD) patients receiving rivastigmine treatment improvement of behavioral symptoms and of cognitive function (assessed with screening diagnostic instruments) has been reported. The aim of the present study was to verify such improvement in cognitive function by cognitive function assessment with a detailed neuropsychological battery covering all relevant cognitive systems expected to be impaired in early phase HD. Eighteen (18) HD patients entered the study and were randomly allocated to the rivastigmine and placebo group. All subjects underwent neuropsychological assessment at baseline. Follow-up neuropsychological assessment was applied after 6 months of rivastigmine or placebo treatment. Eighteen (18) healthy controls entered the study to control for practice effect and underwent neuropsychological assessment at baseline and after 6 months, without treatment. The neuropsychological battery consisted of assessment tools that are sensitive to cognitive impairment seen in early phase HD: CTMT, SDMT, Stroop (attention and information control), RFFT, TOL, Verbal fluency (executive functioning), CVLT-II, RCFT (learning and memory). Effect of rivastigmine and possible effect of practice was assessed using the mixed ANOVA model. No statistically significant effect of rivastigmine treatment on cognitive function in HD patients was detected. There was no evidence for practice or placebo effect. Detailed neuropsychological assessment did not confirm previously reported effect of rivastigmine treatment on cognitive function in HD patients. The limitations of our study are, in particular, small sample size and the lack of a single measure of relevant cognitive functioning in HD patients. Instead of focusing solely on statistical significance, a clinical relevance study is proposed to clarify the issue of rivastigmine effects in HD.

  6. Intact follicular maturation and defective luteal function in mice deficient for cyclin- dependent kinase-4.

    PubMed

    Moons, David S; Jirawatnotai, Siwanon; Tsutsui, Tateki; Franks, Roberta; Parlow, A F; Hales, Dale B; Gibori, Geula; Fazleabas, Asgerally T; Kiyokawa, Hiroaki

    2002-02-01

    Cell cycle progression of granulosa cells is critical for ovarian function, especially follicular maturation. During follicular maturation, FSH induces cyclin D2, which promotes G1 progression by activating cyclin-dependent kinase-4 (Cdk4). Because cyclin D2-deficient mice exhibit a block in follicular growth, cyclin D2/Cdk4 has been hypothesized to be required for FSH-dependent proliferation of granulosa cells. Here we investigate ovarian function in Cdk4-knockout mice we recently generated. Cdk4(-/-) females were sterile, but the morphology of their ovaries appeared normal before sexual maturation. The number of preovulatory follicles and the ovulation efficiency were modestly reduced in gonadotropin-treated Cdk4(-/-) mice. However, unlike cyclin D2-deficient mice, Cdk4(-/-) mice showed no obvious defect in FSH-induced proliferation of granulosa cells. Cdk4(-/-) ovaries displayed normal preovulatory expression of aromatase, PR, and cyclooxygenase-2. Postovulatory progesterone secretion was markedly impaired in Cdk4(-/-) mice, although granulosa cells initiated luteinization with induction of p450 side-chain cleavage cytochrome and p27(Kip1). Progesterone treatment rescued implantation and restored fertility in Cdk4(-/-) mice. Serum PRL levels after mating were significantly reduced in Cdk4(-/-) mice, suggesting the involvement of perturbed PRL regulation in luteal failure. Thus, Cdk4 is critical for luteal function, and some redundant protein(s) can compensate for the absence of Cdk4 in proliferation of granulosa cells.

  7. Plasma progesterone levels and luteal activity during gestation and prolonged oviductal egg retention in a tropical lizard, Calotes versicolor.

    PubMed

    Shanbhag, B A; Radder, R S; Saidapur, S K

    2001-07-01

    Plasma progesterone (P) levels and luteal and adrenal activities were studied during normal gestation and unusual prolonged period of oviductal egg retention in a polyautochronic, multiclutched lizard, Calotes versicolor. The normal gestation period (approximately 15 days) was categorized into four stages: stage I--a few hours following ovulation, stage II--eggs with shell and embryo at primitive streak, stage III--embryonic stages 16-20, and stage IV--prior to ovipostion (stages 26-27). The gravid lizards maintained in captivity retained eggs in their oviducts for 45 days. Plasma P levels were low in stage I, increased significantly during stage II, declined in stage III, and reached their lowest in stage IV of gestation. 3Beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSDH) activity was greater in lutein cells at stage II and was present in traces in stage IV gestation. Interestingly, plasma P titers that were high in lizards with eggs retained longer though the corpora lutea (CL) showed a trace 3beta-HSDH activity. However, 3beta-HSDH activity was greater in the adrenocortical cells in these lizards than that in lizards during a normal gestation period. The present study on C. versicolor shows that the CL remains active and secretes P only during the early part of the gestation. The drop in P level during the later part of gestation might facilitate growth of a second set of vitellogenic follicles. During unfavorable conditions when the lizards are forced to retain eggs in the oviduct, the adrenal glands seem to secrete progesterone to help in egg retention and in inhibition of oviposition.

  8. Serum Uromodulin Levels in Prediction of Acute Kidney Injury in the Early Phase of Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Kuśnierz-Cabala, Beata; Gala-Błądzińska, Agnieszka; Mazur-Laskowska, Małgorzata; Dumnicka, Paulina; Sporek, Mateusz; Matuszyk, Aleksandra; Gil, Krzysztof; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Walocha, Jerzy; Kucharz, Jakub; Pędziwiatr, Michał; Bartuś, Krzysztof; Trąbka, Rafał; Kuźniewski, Marek

    2017-06-14

    In health, uromodulin is the main protein of urine. Serum uromodulin concentrations (sUMOD) have been shown to correlate with kidney function. Acute kidney injury (AKI) is among the main complications of severe acute pancreatitis (AP). No reports exist on sUMOD in patients with AP, including the diagnostic usefulness for early prediction of AP severity. We measured sUMOD during first 72 h of AP. Sixty-six adult patients with AP were recruited at the surgical ward of the District Hospital in Sucha Beskidzka, Poland. AP was diagnosed according to the Revised Atlanta Classification. Blood samples were collected at 24, 48 and 72 h of AP, and sUMOD concentrations were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent test. sUMOD decreased non-significantly during the study. Patients with severe AP had non-significantly lower sUMOD concentrations than those with mild disease. Significant positive correlation was observed between sUMOD and estimated glomerular filtration rate on each day of the study and negative correlations were shown between sUMOD and age, serum creatinine, cystatin C and urea. Patients with AKI tended to have lower sUMOD. Although sUMOD correlated significantly with kidney function in the early phase of AP, measuring sUMOD did not allow to reliably predict AP severity or development of AKI.

  9. Use of activated protein C has no avail in the early phase of acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Akay, Sinan; Ozutemiz, Omer; Yenisey, Cigdem; Simsek, Nilufer Genc; Yuce, Gul; Batur, Yucel

    2008-01-01

    Sepsis and acute pancreatitis have similar pathogenetic mechanisms that have been implicated in the progression of multiple organ failure. Drotrecogin alfa, an analogue of endogenous protein C, reduces mortality in clinical sepsis. Our objective was to evaluate the early therapeutic effects of activated protein C (APC) in a rat model of acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Acute necrotizing pancreatitis was induced by intraductal injection of 5% Na taurocholate. Hourly bolus injections of saline or recombinant human APC (drotrecogin alfa) was commenced via femoral venous catheter four hours after the induction of acute pancreatitis. The experiment was terminated nine hours after pancreatitis induction. Animals in group one (n=20) had a sham operation while animals in group two (n=20) received saline and animals in group three (n=20) received drotrecogin alfa boluses after acute pancreatitis induction. Pancreatic tissue for histopathologic scores and myeloperoxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase activities were collected, and blood for serum amylase, urea, creatinine, and interleukin-6 measurements was withdrawn. Serum amylase activity was significantly lower in the APC treated group than the untreated group (17,435+/-432 U/L vs. 27,426+/-118 U/L, respectively). While the serum interleukin-6 concentration in the APC untreated group was significantly lower than the treated group (970+/-323 pg/mL vs. 330+/-368 pg/mL, respectively). In the early phase of acute pancreatitis, drotrecogin alfa treatment did not result in a significant improvement in oxidative and inflammatory parameters or renal functions.

  10. Carbachol improves secretion in the early phase after rabbit submandibular gland transplantation.

    PubMed

    Shi, L; Cong, X; Zhang, Y; Ding, C; Ding, Q W; Fu, F Y; Wu, L L; Yu, G Y

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the changes in the muscarinic receptor signaling pathway with submandibular gland (SMG) transplantation and whether carbachol improves secretion in transplanted SMGs. SMG autotransplantation was performed in a rabbit model. Carbachol (1 microM) was infused into the transplanted glands from postoperative day 1-7. The expression of the M1 and M3 muscarinic receptors, aquaporin-5 (AQP5), and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (p-ERK1/2) was measured by RT-PCR, immunoblotting or immunofluorescence. The content of inositol 1, 4, 5-trisphosphate (IP(3)) was measured by radioimmunoassay. Salivary flow of the transplanted SMGs was decreased after transplantation. As well, the expressions of M1 and M3 receptors and their downstream signaling molecules, IP(3), p-ERK1/2 and AQP5, were all reduced. Atrophy of acinar cells was shown in transplanted glands. However, all these alterations were reversed after carbachol treatment for 7 days. Furthermore, carbachol directly increased the mRNA expression of AQP5 and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in cultured neonatal rabbit SMG cells. A lack of acetylcholine and downregulation of the muscarinic receptor signaling pathway is involved in the early hypofunction of transplanted SMGs. Carbachol treatment could be a new therapeutic strategy to improve secretion and prevent the obstruction of Wharton's duct in the early phase after SMG transplantation.

  11. Wide-field phase imaging for the endoscopic detection of dysplasia and early-stage esophageal cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzpatrick, C. R. M.; Gordon, G. S. D.; Sawyer, T. W.; Wilkinson, T. D.; Bohndiek, S. E.

    2018-02-01

    Esophageal cancer has a 5-year survival rate below 20%, but can be curatively resected if it is detected early. At present, poor contrast for early lesions in white light imaging leads to a high miss rate in standard-of- care endoscopic surveillance. Early lesions in the esophagus, referred to as dysplasia, are characterized by an abundance of abnormal cells with enlarged nuclei. This tissue has a different refractive index profile to healthy tissue, which results in different light scattering properties and provides a source of endogenous contrast that can be exploited for advanced endoscopic imaging. For example, point measurements of such contrast can be made with scattering spectroscopy, while optical coherence tomography generates volumetric data. However, both require specialist interpretation for diagnostic decision making. We propose combining wide-field phase imaging with existing white light endoscopy in order to provide enhanced contrast for dysplasia and early-stage cancer in an image format that is familiar to endoscopists. Wide-field phase imaging in endoscopy can be achieved using coherent illumination combined with phase retrieval algorithms. Here, we present the design and simulation of a benchtop phase imaging system that is compatible with capsule endoscopy. We have undertaken preliminary optical modelling of the phase imaging setup, including aberration correction simulations and an investigation into distinguishing between different tissue phantom scattering coefficients. As our approach is based on phase retrieval rather than interferometry, it is feasible to realize a device with low-cost components for future clinical implementation.

  12. Strontium ranelate causes osteophytes overgrowth in a model of early phase osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Chu, Jian-Guo; Dai, Mu-Wei; Wang, Yu; Tian, Fa-Ming; Song, Hui-Ping; Xiao, Ya-Ping; Shao, Li-Tao; Zhang, Ying-Ze; Zhang, Liu

    2017-02-10

    Osteoarthritis (OA) involves cartilage changes as well as modifications of subchondral bone and synovial tissues. Strontium ranelate (SR), an anti-osteoporosis compound, which is currently in phase III clinical trial for treatment of OA. Evidences suggest that SR preferably deposited in osteophyte, other than in subchondral bone in early phase of OA. This phenomenon raises concern about its utility for OA treatment as a disease-modifying drug. To evaluate the effect of SR on cartilage, subchondral bone mass and subchondral trabecular bone structure in medial meniscectomized (MNX) guinea pigs. Thirty-six 3-month-old male Dunkin Hartley albino guinea pigs received either sham or medial meniscectomy operations. One week after the procedure, meniscectomized animals began 12 weeks of SR (625 mg/kg, daily) treatment by oral gavage for MNX + SR group, or normal saline for MNX + V group. All animals were euthanized 12 weeks later, cartilage degeneration and subchondral bone micro-architecture was analyzed. Both OARSI scores (P = 0.523 for marcoscopic scores, P = 0.297 for histological scores) and Cartilage thickness (P = 0.335) in MNX + SR group were comparable to MNX + V group. However, osteophyte sizes were larger in MNX + SR group (P = 0.014), and collapsed osteophytes in MNX + SR group (7 by 12) were significantly more than in MNX + V group (1 by 12) (P = 0.027), while immunohistochemistry indicates catabolic changes in osteophyte/plateau junction. Micro-CT analysis showed bone mineral density (BMD) (P = 0.001), bone volume fraction (BV/TV) (P = 0.008), trabecular spacing (Tb.Sp) (P = 0.020), trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) (P = 0.012) and structure model index (SMI) (P = 0.005) levels to be significantly higher in the MNX + SR group than in the MNX + V group. SR (625 mg/kg/day) did not protect cartilage from degeneration in MNX guinea pigs but subchondral bone was significantly enhanced. In early

  13. Free Trehalose Accumulation in Dormant Mycobacterium smegmatis Cells and Its Breakdown in Early Resuscitation Phase

    PubMed Central

    Shleeva, Margarita O.; Trutneva, Kseniya A.; Demina, Galina R.; Zinin, Alexander I.; Sorokoumova, Galina M.; Laptinskaya, Polina K.; Shumkova, Ekaterina S.; Kaprelyants, Arseny S.

    2017-01-01

    Under gradual acidification of growth medium resulting in the formation of dormant Mycobacterium smegmatis, a significant accumulation of free trehalose in dormant cells was observed. According to 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy up to 64% of total organic substances in the dormant cell extract was represented by trehalose whilst the trehalose content in an extract of active cells taken from early stationary phase was not more than 15%. Trehalose biosynthesis during transition to the dormant state is provided by activation of genes involved in the OtsA-OtsB and TreY-TreZ pathways (according to RT-PCR). Varying the concentration of free trehalose in dormant cells by expression of MSMEG_4535 coding for trehalase we found that cell viability depends on trehalose level: cells with a high amount of trehalose survive much better than cells with a low amount. Upon resuscitation of dormant M. smegmatis, a decrease of free trehalose and an increase in glucose concentration occurred in the early period of resuscitation (after 2 h). Evidently, breakdown of trehalose by trehalase takes place at this time as a transient increase in trehalase activity was observed between 1 and 3 h of resuscitation. Activation of trehalase was not due to de novo biosynthesis but because of self-activation of the enzyme from the inactive state in dormant cells. Because, even a low concentration of ATP (2 mM) prevents self-activation of trehalase in vitro and after activation the enzyme is still sensitive to ATP we suggest that the transient character of trehalase activation in cells is due to variation in intracellular ATP concentration found in the early resuscitation period. The negative influence of the trehalase inhibitor validamycin A on the resuscitation of dormant cells proves the importance of trehalase for resuscitation. These experiments demonstrate the significance of free trehalose accumulation for the maintenance of dormant mycobacterial viability and the involvement of trehalose

  14. Gene expression profiling of bovine ovarian follicular and luteal cells provides insight into cellular identities and functions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    After ovulation, somatic cells of the ovarian follicle (theca and granulosa cells) become the small and large luteal cells of the corpus luteum. Aside from known cell type-specific receptors and steroidogenic enzymes, little is known about the differences in the gene expression profiles of these fou...

  15. Targeted disruption of Pten in ovarian granulosa cells enhances ovulation and extends the life span of luteal cells.

    PubMed

    Fan, Heng-Yu; Liu, Zhilin; Cahill, Nicola; Richards, JoAnne S

    2008-09-01

    FSH activates the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/acute transforming retrovirus thymoma protein kinase pathway and thereby enhances granulosa cell differentiation in culture. To identify the physiological role of the PI3K pathway in vivo we disrupted the PI3K suppressor, Pten, in developing ovarian follicles. To selectively disrupt Pten expression in granulosa cells, Ptenfl/fl mice were mated with transgenic mice expressing cAMP response element recombinase driven by Cyp19 promoter (Cyp19-Cre). The resultant Pten mutant mice were fertile, ovulated more oocytes, and produced moderately more pups than control mice. These physiological differences in the Pten mutant mice were associated with hyperactivation of the PI3K/acute transforming retrovirus thymoma protein kinase pathway, decreased susceptibility to apoptosis, and increased proliferation of mutant granulosa cells. Strikingly, corpora lutea of the Pten mutant mice persisted longer than those of control mice. Although the follicular and luteal cell steroidogenesis in Ptenfl/fl;Cyp19-Cre mice was similar to controls, viable nonsteroidogenic luteal cells escaped structural luteolysis. These findings provide the novel evidence that Pten impacts the survival/life span of granulosa/luteal cells and that its loss not only results in the facilitated ovulation but also in the persistence of nonsteroidogenic luteal structures in the adult mouse ovary.

  16. Effects of cholesterol and cAMP on progesterone production in cultured luteal cells isolated from pseudopregnant cat ovaries.

    PubMed

    Arikan, Sevket; Yigit, Ayse Arzu

    2009-10-01

    The present study was designed to incubate luteal cells isolated from pseudopregnant cats and to investigate the effects of cholesterol and cAMP on luteal progesterone production. Corpora lutea were collected from the cats on days 10 and 15 of pseudopregnancy. Luteal cells were isolated from the ovaries by collagenase digestion. Steroidogenic luteal cells were stained for 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3beta-HSD) activity. Cells (2 x 10(4)) staining positive for 3beta-HSD were cultured for up to 7 days. The cells were treated with 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol (22R-HC) and dibutyryl cyclic AMP (dbcAMP) on days 1, 3 and 7. Treatment of cells with 22R-HC resulted in a dose-dependent increase (p<0.001) in progesterone production. When 22R-HC was used at a concentration of 10 microg/ml, it resulted in 2.7- and 5.1-fold increases in progesterone production on days 3 and 5, respectively. When the dose was doubled (20 microg/ml), treated cells produced four times more progesterone on days 3 and 7, and three times more on day 5. By day 7, progesterone production increased up to 9.1 times more than the control. Incubation of cells with both concentrations of dbcAMP (0.1 mM and 1 mM) resulted in significant stimulations of progesterone on days 5 and 7 (p<0.001). However, on day 3, only higher doses of dbcAMP (1 mM) resulted in significant stimulation (p<0.05). Progesterone production was increased up to 2- and 2.9-fold of the control when cells were treated with lower concentration of dbcAMP (0.1 mM) on days 5 and 7, respectively. Incubation of cells with 1 mM concentrations of dbcAMP induced a 3.2-fold increase on day 5 and a 5-fold increase on day 7. In conclusion, a successful incubation was performed for long-life culturing of luteal cells collected from pseudopregnant cats. The method works well and allows for optimal growth and development of cells in the culture. The present study also demonstrated that incubating cat luteal cells with 22R-HC and dbcAMP induces a

  17. Hemodynamic and psychological responses to laboratory stressors in women: Assessing the roles of menstrual cycle phase, premenstrual symptomatology, and sleep characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Lustyk, M. Kathleen B.; Douglas, Haley A.C.; Shilling, Elizabeth A.; Woods, Nancy F.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed whether premenstrual symptomatology and/or sleep characteristics explain increased luteal phase psychophysiological reactivity to laboratory stressors. We hypothesized that: (1) premenstrual symptoms and sleep characteristics would explain greater luteal versus follicular phase psychophysiological reactivity, (2) symptoms and sleep characteristics would differentially predict psychophysiological reactivity within each cycle phase, and (3) symptoms and sleep characteristics would interact to affect luteal but not follicular reactivity. Freely cycling women (N=87) completed two laboratory sessions, one follicular (cycle days 5–9) and one luteal (days 7–10 post-ovulation). We employed two stressors: one physical (cold pressor task) and the other cognitive in nature (Paced Auditory Serial Addition Task). During testing, electrocardiography monitored heart rate (HR) while a timed and auto-inflatable sphygmomanometer assessed blood pressure (BP). Participants also completed a one-time self-report measure of sleep characteristics and premenstrual symptomatology as well as a measure of state anxiety pre-post stressor. Results revealed greater luteal HR and systolic BP reactivity compared to follicular reactivity (p<0.001 for both analyses), however neither premenstrual symptoms nor sleep characteristics explained this luteal increase. Within cycle analyses revealed that symptoms and sleep characteristics interacted to affect luteal phase state anxiety reactivity (R2=.32, p=.002) with negative affect being associated with more reactivity when sleep hours were low (β=.333, p=.04). Overall, significant relationships existed during the luteal phase only. Findings are discussed in terms of clinical utility and methodological challenges related to performing laboratory stress testing in women. PMID:23092740

  18. Use of activated protein C has no avail in the early phase of acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Ozutemiz, Omer; Yenisey, Cigdem; Genc Simsek, Nilufer; Yuce, Gul; Batur, Yucel

    2008-01-01

    Objectives. Sepsis and acute pancreatitis have similar pathogenetic mechanisms that have been implicated in the progression of multiple organ failure. Drotrecogin alfa, an analogue of endogenous protein C, reduces mortality in clinical sepsis. Our objective was to evaluate the early therapeutic effects of activated protein C (APC) in a rat model of acute necrotizing pancreatitis. Subjects and method. Acute necrotizing pancreatitis was induced by intraductal injection of 5% Na taurocholate. Hourly bolus injections of saline or recombinant human APC (drotrecogin alfa) was commenced via femoral venous catheter four hours after the induction of acute pancreatitis. The experiment was terminated nine hours after pancratitis induction. Animals in group one (n=20) had a sham operation while animals in group two (n=20) received saline and animals in group three (n=20) received drotrecogin alfa boluses after acute pancreatitis induction. Pancreatic tissue for histopathologic scores and myeloperoxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase activites were collected, and blood for serum amylase, urea, creatinine, and inleukin-6 measurements was withdrawn. Results. Serum amylase activity was significantly lower in the APC treated group than the untreated group (17,435±432 U/L vs. 27,426±118 U/L, respectively). While the serum interleukin-6 concentration in the APC untreated group was significantly lower than the treated group (970±323 pg/mL vs. 330±368 pg/mL, respectively). Conclusion. In the early phase of acute pancreatitis, drotrecogin alfa treatment did not result in a significant improvement in oxidative and inflammatory parameters or renal functions. PMID:19088933

  19. Differential Contributions of Ventral and Dorsal Striatum to Early and Late Phases of Cognitive Set Reconfiguration

    PubMed Central

    Sleezer, Brianna J.; Hayden, Benjamin Y.

    2017-01-01

    Flexible decision-making, a defining feature of human cognition, is typically thought of as a canonical pFC function. Recent work suggests that the striatum may participate as well; however, its role in this process is not well understood. We recorded activity of neurons in both the ventral (VS) and dorsal (DS) striatum while rhesus macaques performed a version of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, a classic test of flexibility. Our version of the task involved a trial-and-error phase before monkeys could identify the correct rule on each block. We observed changes in firing rate in both regions when monkeys switched rules. Specifically, VS neurons demonstrated switch-related activity early in the trial-and-error period when the rule needed to be updated, and a portion of these neurons signaled information about the switch context (i.e., whether the switch was intradimensional or extradimensional). Neurons in both VS and DS demonstrated switch-related activity at the end of the trial-and-error period, immediately before the rule was fully established and maintained, but these signals did not carry any information about switch context. We also observed associative learning signals (i.e., specific responses to options associated with rewards in the presentation period before choice) that followed the same pattern as switch signals (early in VS, later in DS). Taken together, these results endorse the idea that the striatum participates directly in cognitive set reconfiguration and suggest that single neurons in the striatum may contribute to a functional handoff from the VS to the DS during reconfiguration processes. PMID:27417204

  20. Psychosocial Interventions in Reducing Cannabis Use in Early Phase Psychosis: A Canadian Survey of Treatments Offered.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Cristina; Tibbo, Philip G; Ursuliak, Zenovia

    2016-06-01

    Cannabis use in people with early phase psychosis (EPP) can have a significant impact on long-term outcomes. The purpose of this investigation was to describe current cannabis use treatment practices in English-speaking early intervention services (EISs) in Canada and determine if their services are informed by available evidence. Thirty-five Canadian English-speaking EISs for psychosis were approached to complete a survey through email, facsimile, or online in order to collect information regarding their current cannabis use treatment practices. Data were acquired from 27 of the 35 (78%) programs approached. Only 12% of EISs offered formal services that targeted cannabis use, whereas the majority (63%) of EISs offered informal services for all substance use, not specifically cannabis. In programs with informal services, individual patient psychoeducation (86%) was slightly more common than individual motivational interviewing (MI) (76%) followed by group patient psychoeducation (52%) and information handouts (52%). Thirty-seven percent of EISs offered formal services for substance use, and compared to programs with informal services, more MI, cognitive-behavioural therapy, and family services were offered, with individual treatment modalities more common than groups. No EISs used contingency management, even though it has some preliminary evidence in chronic populations. Evidence-based service implementation barriers included appropriate training and administrative support. While most English-speaking Canadian EIS programs offer individual MI and psychoeducation, which is in line with the available literature, there is room for improvement in cannabis treatment services based on current evidence for both people with EPP and their families. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Evaluation of measles-rubella vaccination for mothers in early puerperal phase.

    PubMed

    Hisano, Michi; Kato, Tatsuo; Inoue, Eisuke; Sago, Haruhiko; Yamaguchi, Koushi

    2016-02-24

    The postpartum period is an ideal opportunity to vaccinate mothers with inadequate immunity to vaccine-preventable diseases including measles and rubella. A prospective study of measles-rubella (MR) vaccination in the early puerperal phase was conducted in 171 mothers, who had insufficient antibody titers when screened for immunity to measles (≤ 1:4 on the neutralization test [NT]) or rubella (≤ 1:16 on the hemagglutination inhibition [HI] test) during pregnancy. To evaluate the efficacy of MR vaccination in the postpartum period, we determined their post-vaccination antibody titers and immune responses to vaccination, and investigated the association between these and their prolactin (PRL) levels and Th1/Th2 ratios at the time of vaccination. We also examined the passage of viral RNA and antigen into breast milk. Of the 169 participants who completed the study schedule, 117 and 101 had low antibody titers against measles and rubella, respectively. In the measles-seronegative group, the antibody-positive rate was 87% on the NT assay, and the NT geometric mean antibody titer was 11.4 (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.0-13.0). In the rubella-seronegative group, the antibody-positive rate was 88% on the HI test assay, and the HI geometric mean antibody titer was 64.0 (95% CI, 53.9-76.0). There was no association between the post-vaccination antibody titers and the PRL levels or Th1/Th2 ratios at the time of vaccination. In the rubella-seronegative group, subjects with higher Th1/Th2 ratios showed higher rates of responsiveness than those with lower ratios (P=0.045). Although measles virus RNA was isolated from the breast milk of two vaccinated mothers, breastfeeding was not associated with clinical disease in any infants. MR vaccination in the early puerperal phase is considered an effective way to prevent the diseases, regardless of the mother's immunological status and hormonal milieu. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Contribution of economic evaluation to decision making in early phases of product development: a methodological and empirical review.

    PubMed

    Hartz, Susanne; John, Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    Economic evaluation as an integral part of health technology assessment is today mostly applied to established technologies. Evaluating healthcare innovations in their early states of development has recently attracted attention. Although it offers several benefits, it also holds methodological challenges. The aim of our study was to investigate the possible contributions of economic evaluation to industry's decision making early in product development and to confront the results with the actual use of early data in economic assessments. We conducted a literature research to detect methodological contributions as well as economic evaluations that used data from early phases of product development. Economic analysis can be beneficially used in early phases of product development for various purposes including early market assessment, R&D portfolio management, and first estimations of pricing and reimbursement scenarios. Analytical tools available for these purposes have been identified. Numerous empirical works were detected, but most do not disclose any concrete decision context and could not be directly matched with the suggested applications. Industry can benefit from starting economic evaluation early in product development in several ways. Empirical evidence suggests that there is still potential left unused.

  3. An efficient early phase 2 procedure to screen medications for efficacy in smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Kenneth A; Lerman, Caryn

    2014-01-01

    Initial screening of new medications for potential efficacy (i.e., Food and Drug Administration (FDA) early phase 2), such as in aiding smoking cessation, should be efficient in identifying which drugs do, or do not, warrant more extensive (and expensive) clinical testing. This focused review outlines our research on development, evaluation, and validation of an efficient crossover procedure for sensitivity in detecting medication efficacy for smoking cessation. First-line FDA-approved medications of nicotine patch, varenicline, and bupropion were tested as model drugs, in three separate placebo-controlled studies. We also tested specificity of our procedure in identifying a drug that lacks efficacy, using modafinil. This crossover procedure showed sensitivity (increased days of abstinence) during week-long "practice" quit attempts with each of the active cessation medications (positive controls) versus placebo, but not with modafinil (negative control) versus placebo, as hypothesized. Sensitivity to medication efficacy signal was observed only in smokers high in intrinsic quit motivation (i.e., already preparing to quit soon) and not smokers low in intrinsic quit motivation, even if monetarily reinforced for abstinence (i.e., given extrinsic motivation). A crossover procedure requiring less time and fewer subjects than formal trials may provide an efficient strategy for a go/no-go decision whether to advance to subsequent phase 2 randomized clinical trials with a novel drug. Future research is needed to replicate our results and evaluate this procedure with novel compounds, identify factors that may limit its utility, and evaluate its applicability to testing efficacy of compounds for treating other forms of addiction.

  4. Unimpaired endogenous pain inhibition in the early phase of complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kumowski, N; Hegelmaier, T; Kolbenschlag, J; Maier, C; Mainka, T; Vollert, J; Enax-Krumova, E

    2017-05-01

    The complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is characterized by distal generalisation of pain beyond the initial trauma. This might be the result of impaired endogenous pain inhibition. We compared Conditioned Pain Modulation (CPM) between patients with CRPS (n = 24; pain: 4.5 ± 2.2, NRS 0-10; disease duration <1 year), neuralgia (n = 17; pain: 5.5 ± 1.1) and healthy subjects (n = 23) and its correlation with loss and gain of function as assessed by Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST). CPM was assessed with heat as test stimulus (TS) and cold water as conditioning stimulus (CS). The early CPM-effect was calculated as difference between heat pain during and before conditioning, the late CPM-effect, 5 minutes after and before conditioning, respectively. Heat pain decreased comparably after CS in all groups, resulting in a significant CPM-effect (healthy: -12.5 ± 12.4, NRS 0-100; CRPS: -14.7 ± 15.7; neuralgia: -7.9 ± 9.8; p < 0.001). When compared to healthy subjects, heat pain declined significantly steeper in CRPS patients (healthy: -2.0 ± 5.5, NRS 0-100/10 s; CRPS: -6.3 ± 8.1; p < 0.05). Only CRPS patients demonstrated a late CPM effect (-6.0 ± 9.0, p < 0.005). Neither spontaneous pain nor any QST parameter correlated with CPM, with the exception of a decreased cold pain threshold, which correlated with an enhanced CPM in CRPS patients only (r = -0.456, p < 0.05). An impairment of endogenous pain inhibition does not explain the extent of pain in the early stage of CRPS or in neuralgia. The unexpectedly high CPM in CRPS patients might result from activation of the intact descending pathways in response to central sensitization, as cold hyperalgesia correlated with the CPM-effect. Conditioned pain modulation (CPM) is not impaired in the early phase of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) and neuralgia. Only in CRPS higher CPM was associated with lower cold pain thresholds. © 2017 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  5. Characterization and Consequences of Estrogen Receptor Exon Five Deletion.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-08-01

    and ending with ovulation), and the luteal or secretory phase (beginning with ovulation and ending with the onset of menses) (7). Early in the...7), the primary site of both progesterone and estrogen biosynthesis during the luteal phase 3 (estrogen production remains elevated through most of...the luteal phase, 250ug/day, and progesterone production peaks in the mid- luteal phase, 10-40mg/day) (7). If implantation does not occur gonadotropin

  6. Media Messages and Perceptions of the Affordable Care Act during the Early Phase of Implementation.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Erika Franklin; Baum, Laura M; Barry, Colleen L; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Gollust, Sarah E

    2017-02-01

    Public opinion about the Affordable Care Act (ACA) has been polarized since the law's passage. Past research suggests these conditions would make any media influence on the public limited at best. However, during the early phase of implementation, locally broadcast ACA-related media messages-in the form of paid health insurance and political advertisements and news media stories-abounded as advocates, insurance marketers, and politicians sought to shape the public's perceptions of the law. To what extent did message exposure affect ACA perceptions during the first open enrollment period? We merge data on volumes of messaging at the media market level with nationally representative survey data to examine the relationship between estimated exposure to media messaging and the public's perceptions of how informed they were about and favorable toward the ACA in October 2013. We find that higher volumes of insurance advertising and local news coverage are associated with participants' perceptions of being informed about the law. Volumes of insurance advertising and of local news coverage are also associated with participants' favorability toward the law, but the relationship varies with partisanship, supporting the growing body of research describing partisan perceptual bias. Copyright © 2017 by Duke University Press.

  7. Beam-induced pressure gradients in the early phase of proton-heated solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tamres, David H.; Canfield, Richard C.; Mcclymont, A. N.

    1986-01-01

    The pressure gradient induced in a coronal loop by proton beam momentum deposition is calculated and compared with the thermal pressure gradient arising from nonuniform deposition of beam energy; it is assumed that the transfer of momentum and energy from beam to target occurs via the Coulomb interaciton. Results are presented for both a low mean energy and a high mean energy proton beam injected at the loop apex and characterized by a power-law energy spectrum. The present treatment takes account of the breakdown of the cold target approximation for the low-energy proton beam in the corona, where the thermal speed of target electrons exceeds the beam speed. It is found that proton beam momentum deposition plays a potentially significant role in flare dynamics only in the low mean energy case and only in the corona, where it may dominate the acceleration of target material for as long as several tens of seconds. This conclusion suggest that the presence of low-energy nonthermal protons may be inferred from velocity-sensitive coronal observations in the early impulsive phase.

  8. Macrophage function in murine allogeneic bone marrow radiation chimeras in the early phase after transplantation

    SciTech Connect

    Roesler, J.; Baccarini, M.; Vogt, B.

    1989-08-01

    We tested several of the functions of macrophages (M phi) in the early phase after allogeneic bone marrow transfer to get information about this important aspect of the nonspecific immune system in the T-cell-deficient recipient. On days 3-5 after transfer, the number of M phi was reduced in the spleen, liver, lungs, and peritoneal cavity (Pe). The phagocytosis of sheep red blood cells (SRBC) by these M phi was normal or even enhanced, as in the case of Pe-M phi. Already on days 8-12 after transfer, the number of M phi in spleen and liver exceeded that of controls, whereasmore » the number was still reduced in lungs and Pe. We examined their ability to kill P815 tumor cells, to produce tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha), to phagocytose SRBC, to produce reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) in vitro and to kill Listeria monocytogenes in vivo. Most functions were normal and often even enhanced, depending on the organ origin, but the ability of Pe-M phi to produce ROI was reduced. Proliferative response to macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and killing of YAC-1 tumor cells revealed a high frequency of macrophage precursor cells in the spleen and liver and a high natural killer (NK) activity in the liver. Altogether, enhanced nonspecific immune function, especially preactivated M phi, may enable chimeras to survive attacks by opportunistic pathogens.« less

  9. Improved healing of extraperitoneal intestinal anastomoses in the early phase when surrounded by omentum.

    PubMed

    Pierie, J P; de Graaf, P W; van Dijk, M; Renooij, W; van Vroonhoven, T J; Obertop, H

    2000-01-01

    The extra-anatomical position of a cervical oesophagogastrostomy is a reason for impaired anastomotic healing, but transposition of the omentum that is covered with mesothelial cells may be a way to improve that. This hypothesis was tested in a rat model. An end-to-end jejuno-jejunostomy was placed subcutaneously in group I (n = 29), subcutaneously surrounded by omentum in group II (n = 29) and intra-abdominally surrounded by omentum in group III (n = 20). After 3, 7 or 14 days, the rats were sacrificed and bursting pressure (BP) of the anastomosis or jejunum was measured and the hydroxyproline (HP) level was determined. In group I 5/29, in group II 2/29 and in group III 0/20 rats died following anastomotic leakage (nonsignificant) and were excluded from other measurements. BP was decreased after 3 days in group I (60+/-9 mm Hg) compared with group II (101+/-8 mm Hg) and group III (107+/-11 mm Hg) (p = 0.002). After 7 days, BP in groups I (122+/-10 mm Hg) and II (132+/-10 mm Hg) were lower as compared with group III (230+/-8 mm Hg) (p<0.001). Differences in HP levels were not statistically significant between the groups after 3, 7 and 14 days. The healing of intestinal anastomoses in an extraperitoneal position is improved in the early phase only when surrounded by omentum. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  10. Assessing gut microbiota perturbations during the early phase of infectious diarrhea in Vietnamese children

    PubMed Central

    Florez de Sessions, Paola; Jie, Song; Pham Thanh, Duy; Thompson, Corinne N.; Nguyen Ngoc Minh, Chau; Chu, Collins Wenhan; Tran, Tuan-Anh; Thomson, Nicholas R.; Thwaites, Guy E.; Rabaa, Maia A.; Hibberd, Martin; Baker, Stephen

    2018-01-01

    ABSTRACT Diarrheal diseases remain the second most common cause of mortality in young children in developing countries. Efforts have been made to explore the impact of diarrhea on bacterial communities in the human gut, but a thorough understanding has been impeded by inadequate resolution in bacterial identification and the examination of only few etiological agents. Here, by profiling an extended region of the 16S rRNA gene in the fecal microbiome, we aimed to elucidate the nature of gut microbiome perturbations during the early phase of infectious diarrhea caused by various etiological agents in Vietnamese children. Fecal samples from 145 diarrheal cases with a confirmed infectious etiology before antimicrobial therapy and 54 control subjects were analyzed. We found that the diarrheal fecal microbiota could be robustly categorized into 4 microbial configurations that either generally resembled or were highly divergent from a healthy state. Factors such as age, nutritional status, breastfeeding, and the etiology of the infection were significantly associated with these microbial community structures. We observed a consistent elevation of Fusobacterium mortiferum, Escherichia, and oral microorganisms in all diarrheal fecal microbiome configurations, proposing similar mechanistic interactions, even in the absence of global dysbiosis. We additionally found that Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum was significantly depleted during dysenteric diarrhea regardless of the etiological agent, suggesting that further investigations into the use of this species as a dysentery-orientated probiotic therapy are warranted. Our findings contribute to the understanding of the complex influence of infectious diarrhea on gut microbiome and identify new opportunities for therapeutic interventions. PMID:28767339

  11. Relationship between Duration of Untreated Psychosis and Intrinsic Corticostriatal Connectivity in Patients with Early Phase Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Sarpal, Deepak K; Robinson, Delbert G; Fales, Christina; Lencz, Todd; Argyelan, Miklos; Karlsgodt, Katherine H; Gallego, Juan A; John, Majnu; Kane, John M; Szeszko, Philip R; Malhotra, Anil K

    2017-10-01

    Patients with first-episode psychosis experience psychotic symptoms for a mean of up to 2 years prior to initiation of treatment, and long duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) is associated with poor clinical outcomes. Meanwhile, evidence compiled from numerous studies suggests that longer DUP is not associated with structural brain abnormalities. To date, few studies have examined the relationship between DUP and functional neuroimaging measures. In the present study, we used seed-based resting-state functional connectivity to examine the impact of DUP on corticostriatal circuitry. We included 83 patients with early phase schizophrenia and minimal exposure to antipsychotic drugs (<2 years), who underwent resting state scanning while entering 12 weeks of prospective treatment with second-generation antipsychotic drugs. Functional connectivity maps of the striatum were generated and examined in relation to DUP as a covariate. Mediation analyses were performed on a composite measure of corticostriatal connectivity derived from the significant results of our DUP analysis. We found that longer DUP correlated with worse response to treatment as well as overall decreased functional connectivity between striatal nodes and specific regions within frontal and parietal cortices. Moreover, the relationship between DUP and treatment response was significantly mediated by corticostriatal connectivity. Our results indicate that variation in corticostriatal circuitry may play a role in the relationship between longer DUP and worsened response to treatment. Future prospective studies are necessary to further characterize potential causal links between DUP, striatal circuitry and clinical outcomes.

  12. Temporal Genetic Dynamics of an Invasive Species, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), in an Early Phase of Establishment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xian-Ming; Lou, Heng; Sun, Jing-Tao; Zhu, Yi-Ming; Xue, Xiao-Feng; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2015-07-03

    Many species can successfully colonize new areas despite their propagules having low genetic variation. We assessed whether the decreased genetic diversity could result in temporal fluctuations of genetic parameters of the new populations of an invasive species, western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, using mitochondrial and microsatellite markers. This study was conducted in eight localities from four climate regions in China, where F. occidentalis was introduced in the year 2000 and had lower genetic diversity than its native populations. We also tested the level of genetic differentiation in these introduced populations. The genetic diversity of the samples at different years in the same locality was not significantly different from each other in most localities. FST and STRUCTURE analysis also showed that most temporal population comparisons from the same sites were not significantly differentiated. Our results showed that the invasive populations of F. occidentalis in China can maintain temporal stability in genetic composition at an early phase of establishment despite having lower genetic diversity than in their native range.

  13. Temporal Genetic Dynamics of an Invasive Species, Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande), in an Early Phase of Establishment

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xian-Ming; Lou, Heng; Sun, Jing-Tao; Zhu, Yi-Ming; Xue, Xiao-Feng; Hong, Xiao-Yue

    2015-01-01

    Many species can successfully colonize new areas despite their propagules having low genetic variation. We assessed whether the decreased genetic diversity could result in temporal fluctuations of genetic parameters of the new populations of an invasive species, western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis, using mitochondrial and microsatellite markers. This study was conducted in eight localities from four climate regions in China, where F. occidentalis was introduced in the year 2000 and had lower genetic diversity than its native populations. We also tested the level of genetic differentiation in these introduced populations. The genetic diversity of the samples at different years in the same locality was not significantly different from each other in most localities. FST and STRUCTURE analysis also showed that most temporal population comparisons from the same sites were not significantly differentiated. Our results showed that the invasive populations of F. occidentalis in China can maintain temporal stability in genetic composition at an early phase of establishment despite having lower genetic diversity than in their native range. PMID:26138760

  14. The early phase of the SMBH-galaxy coevolution in low-z "young" galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagao, Tohru

    2014-01-01

    It is now widely recognized that most galaxies have a supermassive black hole (SMBH) in their nucleus, and the evolution of SMBHs is closely related with that of their host galaxies (the SMBH-galaxy coevolution). This is suggested by the correlation in the mass of SMBHs and their host galaxies, that has been observed in low redshifts. However, the physics of the coevolution is totally unclear, that prevents us from complete understandings of the galaxy evolution. One possible strategy to tackle this issue is measuring the mass ratio between SMBHs and their host galaxies (M_BH/M_host) at high redshifs, since different scenarios predict different evolution of the ratio ofMBH/Mhost. However it is extremely challenging to measure the mass of the host of high-z quasars, given the faint surface brightness of the host at close to the glaring quasar nucleus. Here we propose a brand-new approach to assess the early phase of the SMBH-galaxy coevolution, by focusing on low-z AGN-hosting "young" galaxies. Specifically, we focus on some very metal-poor galaxies with broadline Balmer lines at z ~ 0.1 - 0.3. By examining the SMBH scaling relations in some low-z metal-poor AGNs through high-resolution IRCS imaging observations, we will discriminate various scenarios for the SMBH-galaxy coevolution.

  15. Pokemon proto-oncogene in oral cancer: potential role in the early phase of tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Sartini, D; Lo Muzio, L; Morganti, S; Pozzi, V; Di Ruscio, G; Rocchetti, R; Rubini, C; Santarelli, A; Emanuelli, M

    2015-05-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) represents about 90% of all oral neoplasms with a poor clinical prognosis. To improve survival of OSCC patients, it is fundamental to understand the basic molecular mechanisms characterizing oral carcinogenesis. Dysregulation of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes seems to play a central role in tumorigenesis, including malignant transformation of the oral cavity. We analyzed the expression levels of the pro-oncogenic transcription factor Pokemon through real-time PCR, Western blot and immunohistochemistry in tumor, and normal oral tissue samples obtained from 22 patients with OSCC. The relationship between tumor characteristics and the level of Pokemon intratumor expression was also analyzed. Pokemon was significantly downregulated in OSCC. In particular, both mRNA and protein levels (tumor vs normal tissue) inversely correlated with histological grading, suggesting its potential role as a prognostic factor for OSCC. Moreover, a significant inverse correlation was found between Pokemon protein expression levels (OSCC vs normal oral mucosa) and tumor size, supporting the hypothesis that Pokemon could play an important role in the early phase of tumor expansion. This work shows that reduced expression of Pokemon is a peculiar feature of OSCC. Additional studies may establish the effective role of Pokemon in oral tumorigenesis. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Webcam delivery of the Lidcombe program for early stuttering: a phase I clinical trial.

    PubMed

    O'Brian, Sue; Smith, Kylie; Onslow, Mark

    2014-06-01

    The Lidcombe Program is an operant treatment for early stuttering shown with meta-analysis to have a favorable odds ratio. However, many clients are unable to access the treatment because of distance and lifestyle factors. In this Phase I trial, we explored the potential efficacy, practicality, and viability of an Internet webcam Lidcombe Program service delivery model. Participants were 3 preschool children who stuttered and their parents, all of whom received assessment and treatment using webcam in their homes with no clinic attendance. At 6 months post-Stage 1 completion, all children were stuttering below 1.0% syllables stuttered. The webcam intervention was acceptable to the parents and appeared to be practical and viable, with only occasional audiovisual problems. At present, there is no reason to doubt that a webcam-delivered Lidcombe Program will be shown with clinical trials to have comparable efficacy with the clinic version. Webcam-delivered Lidcombe Program intervention is potentially efficacious, is practical and viable, and requires further exploration with comparative clinical trials and a qualitative study of parent and caregiver experiences.

  17. 2015 Guidance on cancer immunotherapy development in early-phase clinical studies.

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    The development of cancer immunotherapies is progressing rapidly with a variety of technological approaches. They consist of "cancer vaccines", which are based on the idea of vaccination, "effector cell therapy", classified as passive immunotherapy, and "inhibition of immunosuppression", which intends to break immunological tolerance to autoantigens or immunosuppressive environments characterizing antitumor immune responses. Recent reports showing clinical evidence of efficacy of immune checkpoint inhibitors and adoptive immunotherapies with tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and tumor-specific receptor gene-modified T cells indicate the beginning of a new era for cancer immunotherapy. This guidance summarizes ideas that will be helpful to those who plan to develop cancer immunotherapy. The aims of this guidance are to discuss and offer important points in early phase clinical studies of innovative cancer immunotherapy, with future progress in this field, and to contribute to the effective development of cancer immunotherapy aligned with the scope of regulatory science. This guidance covers cancer vaccines, effector cell therapy, and inhibition of immunosuppression, including immune checkpoint inhibitors. © 2015 The Authors. Cancer Science published by Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd on behalf of Japanese Cancer Association.

  18. Biomarkers for identifying the early phases of osteoarthritis secondary to medial patellar luxation in dogs.

    PubMed

    Alam, Md Rafiqul; Ji, Joong Ryong; Kim, Min Su; Kim, Nam Soo

    2011-09-01

    The levels of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), and tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) in synovial fluid (SF) and serum in cases of canine osteoarthritis (OA) were measured. OA was induced by a surgically-created medial patellar luxation in the left stifle of 24 dogs. SF and blood samples were collected at 1.5- and 3-month intervals, respectively. Every 3 months, one dog was euthanatized to collect tissue samples from both stifles. TRAP levels in SF and serum were measured using a spectrophotometer, and TRAP-positive cells in joint tissues were identified by enzyme histochemistry. MMP-2 and TIMP-2 in SF and serum were detected by Western blotting and ELISA, respectively. TRAP in SF from the stifles and serum was significantly increased (p < 0.05) after 3 months. TIMP-2 in SF and serum was significantly decreased (p < 0.05), whereas MMP-2 in SF was significantly increased (p < 0.05) during the progression of OA. Histochemistry revealed an increased number of TRAP-positive cells in tissues from OA-affected joints. Assays measuring TRAP, MMP-2, and TIMP-2 in SF and serum, and methods that detect increased numbers of TRAP-positive cells in the joint tissues can play an important role in identifying the early phases of degenerative changes in canine joint components.

  19. Assessing gut microbiota perturbations during the early phase of infectious diarrhea in Vietnamese children.

    PubMed

    The, Hao Chung; Florez de Sessions, Paola; Jie, Song; Pham Thanh, Duy; Thompson, Corinne N; Nguyen Ngoc Minh, Chau; Chu, Collins Wenhan; Tran, Tuan-Anh; Thomson, Nicholas R; Thwaites, Guy E; Rabaa, Maia A; Hibberd, Martin; Baker, Stephen

    2018-01-02

    Diarrheal diseases remain the second most common cause of mortality in young children in developing countries. Efforts have been made to explore the impact of diarrhea on bacterial communities in the human gut, but a thorough understanding has been impeded by inadequate resolution in bacterial identification and the examination of only few etiological agents. Here, by profiling an extended region of the 16S rRNA gene in the fecal microbiome, we aimed to elucidate the nature of gut microbiome perturbations during the early phase of infectious diarrhea caused by various etiological agents in Vietnamese children. Fecal samples from 145 diarrheal cases with a confirmed infectious etiology before antimicrobial therapy and 54 control subjects were analyzed. We found that the diarrheal fecal microbiota could be robustly categorized into 4 microbial configurations that either generally resembled or were highly divergent from a healthy state. Factors such as age, nutritional status, breastfeeding, and the etiology of the infection were significantly associated with these microbial community structures. We observed a consistent elevation of Fusobacterium mortiferum, Escherichia, and oral microorganisms in all diarrheal fecal microbiome configurations, proposing similar mechanistic interactions, even in the absence of global dysbiosis. We additionally found that Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum was significantly depleted during dysenteric diarrhea regardless of the etiological agent, suggesting that further investigations into the use of this species as a dysentery-orientated probiotic therapy are warranted. Our findings contribute to the understanding of the complex influence of infectious diarrhea on gut microbiome and identify new opportunities for therapeutic interventions.

  20. Optimizing the early phase development of new analgesics by human pain biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Hoeck, Hans Christian

    2011-11-01

    Human pain biomarkers are based on standardized acute activation of pain pathways/mechanisms and quantitative assessment of the evoked responses. This approach can be applied to healthy volunteers, to pain patients, and before and after pharmacological interventions to help understanding and profile the mode of action (proof-of-concept) of new and existing analgesic compounds. Standardized stimuli of different modalities can be applied to different tissues (multimodal and multi-tissue) for profiling analgesic compounds with respect to modulation of pain transduction, transmission, specific mechanisms and processing. This approach substantiates which specific compounds may work in particular clinical pain conditions. Human pain biomarkers can be translational and may bridge animal findings in clinical pain conditions, which in turn can provide new possibilities for designing more successful clinical trials. Biomarker based proof-of-concept drug studies in either volunteers or selected patient populations provide inexpensive, fast and reliable mechanism-based information about dose-efficacy relationships. This is important information in the early drug development phase and for designing large expensive clinical trials.

  1. Masks as Self-Study. Challenging and Sustaining Teachers' Personal and Professional Personae in Early-Mid Career Life Phases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leitch, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Drawing on previous research identifying how teachers' capacities to sustain their effectiveness in different phases of their professional lives are affected positively and/or negatively by their sense of identity, this paper illuminates three early-mid career teachers' self-study inquiries, centring on mask work. The creative development of…

  2. 78 FR 69690 - Draft Guidance for Industry: Considerations for the Design of Early-Phase Clinical Trials of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... and Gene Therapy Products; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS...: Considerations for the Design of Early-Phase Clinical Trials of Cellular and Gene Therapy Products'' that... sponsors of Investigational New Drug Applications for cellular therapy (CT) and gene therapy (GT) products...

  3. 77 FR 58359 - Applications for New Awards; Race to the Top-Early Learning Challenge; Phase 2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... amended by section 1832(b) of Division B of Pub. L. 112-10, the Department of Defense and Full-Year... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Applications for New Awards; Race to the Top--Early Learning Challenge; Phase 2 AGENCY: Department of Education and Department of...

  4. 77 FR 7174 - Correction Notice for Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill; Draft Phase I Early Restoration Plan and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R4-FHC-2012-N030; FVHC98130406900Y4-XXX-FF04G01000] Correction Notice for Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill; Draft Phase I Early Restoration Plan and Environmental Assessment AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability and request...

  5. Internalization and degradation of human chorionic gonadotropin in ovine luteal cells: Kinetic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, C.E.; Sawyer, H.R.; Niswender, G.D.

    1981-11-01

    Ovine luteal cells grown in suspensions and/or monolayer culture were used to study the rates of internalization and degradation of (/sup 125/I)hCG. At specified times after a 5- to 7-min exposure to (/sup 125/I)hCG, cells were treated with acidic buffer (pH 3.9) to elute membrane-bound hormone, which left the internalized radioactivity associated with the cell pellet. Radioactivity released into the medium during the incubation periods was subjected to 20% trichloroacetic acid and/or thin layer chromatography to monitor the extent of degradation of the radioactive hormone. Secretion of progesterone into the medium and exclusion of trypan blue were used to monitormore » the viability of the cells in each experiment. Radioactivity was lost from the plasma membrane with a tsub1/2 of 9.6 h, with approximately 85% of the radioactivity being lost within 24 h. Cell-associated radioactivity increased linearly with time to a plateau at 4 h, remained stable until 12 h, and then decreased between 12-24 h. The plateau between 4-12 h reflected an equilibrium between the (/sup 125/I)hCG which was internalized and degraded and the (/sup 125/I)hCG which was released into the medium. The degraded (/sup 125/I)hCG increased essentially linearly up to 24 h. These data suggest that the majority of (/sup 125/I)hCG bound to receptors in luteal cells is internalized and degraded. Less than 20% of the radioactivity bound initially to cells dissociated into the incubation medium and was trichloroacetic acid precipitable within 24 h. The internalization and degradation of (/sup 125/I)hCG was temperature dependent, with essentially no hCG internalized and/or degraded at 4C.« less

  6. Examination of a modified cell cycle synchronization method and bovine nuclear transfer using synchronized early G1 phase fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Urakawa, Manami; Ideta, Atsushi; Sawada, Tokihiko; Aoyagi, Yoshito

    2004-08-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer has a low success rate, due to a high incidence of fetal loss and increased perinatal morbidity/mortality. One factor that may affect the successful development of nuclear transfer embryos is the cell cycle stage of the donor cell. In order to establish a cell cycle synchronization method that can consistently produce cloned embryos and offspring, we examined the effects of different combinations of three cell treatments on the recovery rate of mitotic phase cells using bovine fetal fibroblasts. In the first experiment, we examined the recovery rate of mitotic phase cells by a combination of treatment with a metaphase arrestant (1 microM 2-methoxyestradiol), shaking the plate and selecting cells with a diameter of 20 microns. As a result, 99% of mitotic phase cells were recovered by repeating the combined treatment of metaphase arrestant and shaking, and collection of cells with a specific diameter. In the second experiment, nuclear transfer was carried out using early G1 phase cells by choosing pairs of bridged cells derived from mitotic phase cells recovered by the combined treatment of 1 microM 2-methoxyestradiol and shaking, and collection of cells with a diameter of 20 microns. The reconstructed embryos were transferred to recipient heifers to determine post-implantation development. Development of embryos reconstructed from early G1 phase cells from the >/=6 cells stage on Day 3 to the morula-blastocyst stage on Day 6 was 100%. Ten blastocysts constructed from two cell lines were transferred into 10 recipient heifers. Nine of the 10 recipients delivered single live calves. In conclusion, mitotic phase bovine fibroblast cells were easily recovered by the combined treatments of 1 microM 2-methoxyestradiol, shaking, and selecting cells of the appropriate diameter. Furthermore, nuclear transfer using cells in the early G1 phase as donor cells gave a high rate of offspring production.

  7. White matter changes in early phase schizophrenia and cannabis use: an update and systematic review of diffusion tensor imaging studies.

    PubMed

    Cookey, Jacob; Bernier, Denise; Tibbo, Philip G

    2014-07-01

    The impact of cannabis use on the brain tissue is still unclear, both in the healthy developing brain and in people with schizophrenia. The focus of this review is on white matter, the primary connective infrastructure of the brain. We systematically reviewed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies of early phase schizophrenia (illness effect), of cannabis use in otherwise healthy brains (drug effect), and of early phase schizophrenia with cannabis use (combined effects). Studies had to include a healthy, non-cannabis using, control group as well as report on fractional anisotropy as it is the most commonly used DTI index. We excluded cohorts with heavy alcohol or illicit drug use and studies with a sample size of less than 20 in the clinical group. We retained 17 studies of early phase schizophrenia, which together indicate deficits in white matter integrity observed in all fiber tract families, but most frequently in association, callosal and projection fibers. In otherwise healthy cannabis users (2 studies), deficits in white matter tracts were reported mainly in callosal fibers, but also in projection and limbic fibers. In cannabis users with early phase schizophrenia (1 study), deficits in white matter integrity were also observed in all fiber tract families, except for limbic fibers. The current literature points to several families of white matter tracts being differentially affected in early phase schizophrenia. Further work is required to reveal the impact of cannabis use in otherwise healthy people as well as those with schizophrenia. Paucity of available studies as well as restricting analysis to FA values represent the main limitations of this review. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Multimodal neuroimaging of frontal white matter microstructure in early phase schizophrenia: the impact of early adolescent cannabis use

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background A disturbance in connectivity between different brain regions, rather than abnormalities within the separate regions themselves, could be responsible for the clinical symptoms and cognitive dysfunctions observed in schizophrenia. White matter, which comprises axons and their myelin sheaths, provides the physical foundation for functional connectivity in the brain. Myelin sheaths are located around the axons and provide insulation through the lipid membranes of oligodendrocytes. Empirical data suggests oligodendroglial dysfunction in schizophrenia, based on findings of abnormal myelin maintenance and repair in regions of deep white matter. The aim of this in vivo neuroimaging project is to assess the impact of early adolescent onset of regular cannabis use on brain white matter tissue integrity, and to differentiate this impact from the white matter abnormalities associated with schizophrenia. The ultimate goal is to determine the liability of early adolescent use of cannabis on brain white matter, in a vulnerable brain. Methods/Design Young adults with schizophrenia at the early stage of the illness (less than 5 years since diagnosis) will be the focus of this project. Four magnetic resonance imaging measurements will be used to assess different cellular aspects of white matter: a) diffusion tensor imaging, b) localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy with a focus on the neurochemical N-acetylaspartate, c) the transverse relaxation time constants of regional tissue water, d) and of N-acetylaspartate. These four neuroimaging indices will be assessed within the same brain region of interest, that is, a large white matter fibre bundle located in the frontal region, the left superior longitudinal fasciculus. Discussion We will expand our knowledge regarding current theoretical models of schizophrenia with a more comprehensive multimodal neuroimaging approach to studying the underlying cellular abnormalities of white matter, while taking into

  9. Multimodal neuroimaging of frontal white matter microstructure in early phase schizophrenia: the impact of early adolescent cannabis use.

    PubMed

    Bernier, Denise; Cookey, Jacob; McAllindon, David; Bartha, Robert; Hanstock, Christopher C; Newman, Aaron J; Stewart, Sherry H; Tibbo, Philip G

    2013-10-17

    A disturbance in connectivity between different brain regions, rather than abnormalities within the separate regions themselves, could be responsible for the clinical symptoms and cognitive dysfunctions observed in schizophrenia. White matter, which comprises axons and their myelin sheaths, provides the physical foundation for functional connectivity in the brain. Myelin sheaths are located around the axons and provide insulation through the lipid membranes of oligodendrocytes. Empirical data suggests oligodendroglial dysfunction in schizophrenia, based on findings of abnormal myelin maintenance and repair in regions of deep white matter. The aim of this in vivo neuroimaging project is to assess the impact of early adolescent onset of regular cannabis use on brain white matter tissue integrity, and to differentiate this impact from the white matter abnormalities associated with schizophrenia. The ultimate goal is to determine the liability of early adolescent use of cannabis on brain white matter, in a vulnerable brain. Young adults with schizophrenia at the early stage of the illness (less than 5 years since diagnosis) will be the focus of this project. Four magnetic resonance imaging measurements will be used to assess different cellular aspects of white matter: a) diffusion tensor imaging, b) localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy with a focus on the neurochemical N-acetylaspartate, c) the transverse relaxation time constants of regional tissue water, d) and of N-acetylaspartate. These four neuroimaging indices will be assessed within the same brain region of interest, that is, a large white matter fibre bundle located in the frontal region, the left superior longitudinal fasciculus. We will expand our knowledge regarding current theoretical models of schizophrenia with a more comprehensive multimodal neuroimaging approach to studying the underlying cellular abnormalities of white matter, while taking into consideration the important confounding

  10. Increased impulsive choice for saccharin during PCP withdrawal in female monkeys: influence of menstrual cycle phase

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Marilyn E.; Kohl, Emily A.; Johnson, Krista M.; LaNasa, Rachel M.

    2013-01-01

    Background In previous studies with male and female rhesus monkeys withdrawal of access to oral phencyclidine (PCP) self administration reduced responding for food under a high fixed-ratio (FR) schedule more in males than females and with a delay discounting (DD) task with saccharin (SACC) as the reinforcer. Impulsive choice for SACC increased during PCP withdrawal more than females. Objectives The goal of the present study was to examine the effect of PCP (0.25 or 0.5 mg/ml) withdrawal on impulsive choice for SACC in females during the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Materials and methods In Component 1 PCP and water were available from 2 drinking spouts for 1.5 h sessions under concurrent FR 16 schedules. In Component 2 a SACC solution was available for 45 min under a DD schedule. Monkeys had a choice of one immediate SACC delivery (0.6 ml) or 6 delayed SACC deliveries, and the delay was increased by 1 sec after a response on the delayed lever and decreased by 1 sec after a response on the immediate lever. There was then a 10-day water substitution phase, or PCP-withdrawal, that occurred during the mid-folllicular phase (Days 7–11) or the late-luteal (Days 24–28) phase of the menstrual cycle. Access to PCP and concurrent water was then restored, and the PCP withdrawal procedure was repeated over several follicular and luteal menstrual phases. Results PCP deliveries were higher during the luteal vs the follicular phase. Impulsive choice was greater during the luteal (vs follicular) phase during withdrawal of the higher PCP concentration. Conclusions PCP withdrawal was associated with elevated impulsive choice for SACC, especially in the luteal (vs follicular) phase of the menstrual cycle in female monkeys. PMID:23344553

  11. Association of menstrual phase with smoking behavior, mood and menstrual phase-associated symptoms among young Japanese women smokers.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Hiroko; Ohashi, Kazutomo

    2013-03-02

    Previous studies of the relationship between the menstrual phases and smoking behavior have been problematic, so the association of menstrual phases with smoking behavior and correlations among smoking, psychological and physical conditions in each phase of the menstrual cycle are unclear. To accurately examine the association between menstrual phases and the amount of smoking (number of cigarettes smoked and breath CO concentration), craving of smoking on visual analogue scale (VAS), depression in the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale, and menstrual phase-associated symptoms in the Menstrual Distress Questionnaire (MDQ), we improved various methodological issues, specifically, 1) Ovulation was confirmed by measuring the basal body temperature and identifying a urinary luteinizing hormone (LH) surge in two cycles; 2) The menstrual, follicular, and luteal phases were clearly defined for subjects with different menstrual cycles; 3) The breath CO concentration was measured every day. A notice was posted on public bulletin boards to recruit research subjects and twenty-nine young Japanese women smokers aged 19 to 25 years old were analyzed. The number of cigarettes smoked was greater and the CO concentration was higher in the luteal phase than in the follicular phase. The levels of craving for smoking (VAS), depressiveness (CES-D), and menstrual phase-associated symptoms (MDQ) in the menstrual and luteal phases were higher than those in the follicular phase. The mean score for CES-D was 16 points (the cut-off value in screening for depression) or higher in the menstrual (16.9 ± 8.2) and luteal phases (17.2 ± 8.4).The number of cigarettes smoked and CO concentration were significantly correlated with the levels of craving for smoking, depressiveness, and menstrual phase-associated symptoms in all phases except for MDQ scores in follicular phase. The amount of smoking in the luteal phase was most strongly correlated with these symptoms

  12. Heat inactivation of Salmonella spp. in fresh poultry compost by simulating early phase of composting process.

    PubMed

    Singh, R; Kim, J; Jiang, X

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of moisture on thermal inactivation of Salmonella spp. in poultry litter under optimal composting conditions. Thermal inactivation of Salmonella was studied in fresh poultry compost by simulating early phase of composting process. A mixture of three Salmonella serotypes grown in Tryptic soy broth with rifampin (TSB-R) was inoculated in fresh compost with 40 or 50% moisture at a final concentration of c. 7 log CFU g(-1). The inoculated compost was kept in an environmental chamber which was programmed to rise from room temperature to target composting temperatures in 2 days. In poultry compost with optimal moisture content (50%), Salmonella spp. survived for 96, 72 and 24 h at 50, 55 and 60°C, respectively, as compared with 264, 144 and 72 h at 50, 55 and 60°C, respectively, in compost with suboptimal moisture (40%). Pathogen decline was faster during the come-up time owing to higher ammonia volatilization. Our results demonstrated that Salmonella spp. survived longer in fresh poultry compost with suboptimal moisture of 40% than in compost with optimal moisture of 50% during thermophilic composting. High nitrogen content of the poultry compost is an additional factor contributing to Salmonella inactivation through ammonia volatilization during thermal exposure. This research validated the effectiveness of the current composting guidelines on Salmonella inactivation in fresh poultry compost. Both initial moisture level and ammonia volatilization are important factors affecting microbiological safety and quality of compost product. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2012 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  13. Hypertensive phase and early complications after Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation with intraoperative subtenon triamcinolone acetonide.

    PubMed

    Turalba, Angela V; Pasquale, Louis R

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate intraoperative subtenon triamcinolone acetonide (TA) as an adjunct to Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation. Retrospective comparative case series. Forty-two consecutive cases of uncontrolled glaucoma undergoing AGV implantation: 19 eyes receiving intraoperative subtenon TA and 23 eyes that did not receive TA. A retrospective chart review was performed on consecutive pseudophakic adult patients with uncontrolled glaucoma undergoing AGV with and without intraoperative subtenon TA injection by a single surgeon. Clinical data were collected from 42 eyes and analyzed for the first 6 months after surgery. Primary outcomes included intraocular pressure (IOP) and number of glaucoma medications prior to and after AGV implantation. The hypertensive phase (HP) was defined as an IOP measurement of greater than 21 mmHg (with or without medications) during the 6-month postoperative period that was not a result of tube obstruction, retraction, or malfunction. Postoperative complications and visual acuity were analyzed as secondary outcome measures. Five out of 19 (26%) TA cases and 12 out of 23 (52%) non-TA cases developed the HP (P=0.027). Mean IOP (14.2±4.6 in TA cases versus [vs] 14.7±5.0 mmHg in non-TA cases; P=0.78), and number of glaucoma medications needed (1.8±1.3 in TA cases vs 1.6±1.1 in the comparison group; P=0.65) were similar between both groups at 6 months. Although rates of serious complications did not differ between the groups (13% in the TA group vs 16% in the non-TA group), early tube erosion (n=1) and bacterial endophthalmitis (n=1) were noted with TA but not in the non-TA group. Subtenon TA injection during AGV implantation may decrease the occurrence of the HP but does not alter the ultimate IOP outcome and may pose increased risk of serious complications within the first 6 months of surgery.

  14. Early-phase dental students' motivations and expectations concerning the study and profession of dentistry.

    PubMed

    Lalloo, R; Ayo-Yusuf, O A; Yengopal, V

    2008-05-01

    This study investigated the career choice and aspirations of early phase dental students in the four dental schools in South Africa, namely the University of the Western Cape (UWC), University of the Witwatersrand (Wits), University of Limpopo (Medunsa) and University of Pretoria (UP). Willing participants completed a self-administered questionnaire (n=184). Motivations for entering a dentistry programme were similar across race and university, with wanting a secure job most often stated as an important factor. For a third of respondents, dentistry was not a first choice. Amongst the White students, it was a first choice for 82% compared with 59% amongst Black Africans. Expected income five-years after graduation also differed significantly across race and university, with White and UP students expecting to earn considerably higher than the others. About 36% of students were concerned about the levels of personal debt related to studying, with the White and Asian students less concerned. Those who expected lower levels of income from the profession were more concerned about personal debts. Most students planned to enter general dental practice (GDP) after community service, almost all White and Wits students expressed this intention, compared with only 35% of Black Africans and 39% of Medunsa students. Orthodontics and Maxillofacial & Oral Surgery were the most popular specialities of choice. The professional attribute "Has a friendly manner and good relationship with patients" was ranked high most often. In conclusion, career advice may not need to be tailored differently for the different racial groups. There is however a need for further investigations on how to address the concerns of financial security which may be realised by the practice of dentistry, and in particular the racial disparities observed in expectations of the profession. This study further highlights the need for government financial assistance for students from under-represented groups.

  15. Factors associated with reduced early survival in the Oxford phase III medial unicompartment knee replacement.

    PubMed

    Kuipers, Bart M; Kollen, Boudewijn J; Bots, Peter C Kaijser; Burger, Bart J; van Raay, Jos J A M; Tulp, Niek J A; Verheyen, Cees C P M

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic value of preoperative patellofemoral osteoarthritis, BMI and age for implant survival of unicompartmental knee arthroplasty (UKA) performed in patients meeting strict admission criteria. The data and radiographs of 437 unilateral Oxford phase III procedures (Biomet, Bridgend, UK) were analysed. All procedures were carried out or supervised by 13 specialised knee surgeons in three different hospitals. The study group comprised 437 patients with a median follow of 2.6 years (0.1-7.9). The cumulative standard case survival rate at 5 years, when there were still 101 patients at risk, was 84.7% (CI-95%: 80.1-89.3%). Young age (<60 years) was associated with a 2.2-fold increased adjusted risk of revision (CI: 1.08-4.43; p=0.03). The preoperative presence of radiological features of patellofemoral osteoarthritis was associated with a 0.3-fold reduced adjusted risk of revision (CI: 0.11-0.89; p=0.03). BMI>30 kg/m(2), gender, the surgeon performing the operation (either as an individual or categorised by annual surgical UKA caseload, i.e., more or less than 10 UKAs) and the hospital in which surgery took place did not predict implant survival of UKA. We conclude that young patients (<60 years) experience an increased early risk of revision for UKA when compared to older patients (>60 years). Obesity (BMI>30 kg/m(2)) and preoperative patellofemoral osteoarthritis are not associated with a decreased implant survival and therefore should not be considered risk factors in this context.

  16. Endothelial gaps and adherent leukocytes in allergen-induced early- and late-phase plasma leakage in rat airways.

    PubMed Central

    Baluk, P.; Bolton, P.; Hirata, A.; Thurston, G.; McDonald, D. M.

    1998-01-01

    Exposure of sensitized individuals to antigen can induce allergic responses in the respiratory tract, manifested by early and late phases of vasodilatation, plasma leakage, leukocyte influx, and bronchoconstriction. Similar responses can occur in the skin, eye, and gastrointestinal tract. The early-phase response involves mast cell mediators and the late-phase response is leukocyte dependent, but the mechanism of leakage is not understood. We sought to identify the leaky blood vessels, to determine whether these vessels contained endothelial gaps, and to analyze the relationship of the gaps to adherent leukocytes, using biotinylated lectins or silver nitrate to stain the cells in situ and Monastral blue as a tracer to quantify plasma leakage. Most of the leakage occurred in postcapillary venules (< 40-microns diameter), whereas most of the leukocyte migration (predominantly neutrophils) occurred in collecting venules. Capillaries and arterioles did not leak. Endothelial gaps were found in the leaky venules, both by silver nitrate staining and by scanning electron microscopy, and 94% of the gaps were distinct from sites of leukocyte adhesion or migration. We conclude that endothelial gaps contribute to both early and late phases of plasma leakage induced by antigen, but most leakage occurs upstream to sites of leukocyte adhesion. Images Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:9626051

  17. The mediation effect of menstrual phase on negative emotion processing: evidence from N2.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haiyan; Chen, Chunping; Cheng, Dazhi; Yang, Suyong; Huang, Ruiwang; Cacioppo, Stephanie; Luo, Yue-Jia

    2014-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown a 'negativity bias' in emotion processing and effect of menstrual phase on emotion processing. Most of these results, however, did not match the arousal of different types of stimuli. The present study examined the time course of negative emotion processing across different menstrual phases (e.g., late luteal/premenstrual phase and follicular phase) when the arousal level of negative and neutral stimuli was equal. Following previous studies, an oddball paradigm was utilized in present study. Participants viewed neutral and negative (highly (HN) and moderately negative (MN)) stimuli with matched arousal and were asked to make deviant vs. standard judgments. The behavioral results showed a higher accuracy for HN stimuli than neutral stimuli, and the other comparisons were not significant. The major event-related potential (ERP) finding was that N2 amplitude was larger for MN than neutral in the late luteal phase, whereas such difference was absent during the follicular phase. Moreover, The N2 for HN stimuli was larger in late luteal phase than in follicular phase. Therefore, female may be with higher sensitivity to MN stimuli during late luteal phase than during follicular phase when the arousal of stimuli was well controlled. These results provide additional insight to premenstrual affective syndrome and affective disorder.

  18. Early-time solution of the horizontal unconfined aquifer in the build-up phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gravanis, Elias; Akylas, Evangelos

    2017-04-01

    goes away. Nonetheless, no analogue of the kinematic wave or the Boussinesq separable solution exists in this case. The late time state of the build-up phase under constant recharge rate is very simply the steady state solution. Our aim is to construct the early time asymptotic solution of this problem. The solution is expressed as a power series of a suitable similarity variable, which is constructed so that to satisfy the boundary conditions at both ends of the aquifer, that is, it is a polynomial approximation of the exact solution. The series turn out to be asymptotic and it is regularized by re-summation techniques which are used to define divergent series. The outflow rate in this regime is linear in time, and the (dimensionless) coefficient is calculated to eight significant figures. The local error of the series is quantified by its deviation from satisfying the self-similar Boussinesq equation at every point. The local error turns out to be everywhere positive, hence, so is the integrated error, which in turn quantifies the degree of convergence of the series to the exact solution.

  19. Fertility in a high-altitude environment is compromised by luteal dysfunction: the relative roles of hypoxia and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Parraguez, Víctor H; Urquieta, Bessie; Pérez, Laura; Castellaro, Giorgio; De los Reyes, Mónica; Torres-Rovira, Laura; Aguado-Martínez, Adriana; Astiz, Susana; González-Bulnes, Antonio

    2013-03-23

    At high altitudes, hypoxia, oxidative stress or both compromise sheep fertility. In the present work, we tested the relative effect of short- or long-term exposure to high altitude hypobaric hypoxia and oxidative stress on corpora luteal structure and function. The growth dynamics of the corpora lutea during the estrous cycle were studied daily by ultrasonography in cycling sheep that were either native or naïve to high-altitude conditions and that were supplemented or not supplemented with antioxidant vitamins. Arterial and venous blood samples were simultaneously drawn for determination of gases and oxidative stress biomarkers and progesterone measurement. On day five after ovulation in the next cycle, the ovaries were removed for immunodetection of luteal HIF-1alpha and VEGF and IGF-I and to detect IGF-II gene expression. The results showed that both short- and long-term exposure to high-altitude conditions decreased luteal growth and IGF-I and IGF-II gene expression but increased HIF-1 alpha and VEGF immunoexpression. The level of plasma progesterone was also increased at a high altitude, although an association with increased corpus luteum vascularization was only found in sheep native to a high-altitude location. Administration of antioxidant vitamins resulted in a limited effect, which was restricted to decreased expression of oxidative stress biomarkers and luteal HIF-1alpha and VEGF immunoexpression. Exposure of the sheep to high-altitude hypobaric hypoxia for short or long time periods affects the development and function of the corpus luteum. Moreover, the observed association of oxidative stress with hypoxia and the absence of any significant effect of antioxidant vitamins on most anatomical and functional corpus luteum traits suggests that the effects of high altitude on this ovarian structure are mainly mediated by hypoxia. Thus, these findings may help explain the decrease in sheep fertility at a high altitude.

  20. Fertility in a high-altitude environment is compromised by luteal dysfunction: the relative roles of hypoxia and oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background At high altitudes, hypoxia, oxidative stress or both compromise sheep fertility. In the present work, we tested the relative effect of short- or long-term exposure to high altitude hypobaric hypoxia and oxidative stress on corpora luteal structure and function. Methods The growth dynamics of the corpora lutea during the estrous cycle were studied daily by ultrasonography in cycling sheep that were either native or naïve to high-altitude conditions and that were supplemented or not supplemented with antioxidant vitamins. Arterial and venous blood samples were simultaneously drawn for determination of gases and oxidative stress biomarkers and progesterone measurement. On day five after ovulation in the next cycle, the ovaries were removed for immunodetection of luteal HIF-1alpha and VEGF and IGF-I and to detect IGF-II gene expression. Results The results showed that both short- and long-term exposure to high-altitude conditions decreased luteal growth and IGF-I and IGF-II gene expression but increased HIF-1 alpha and VEGF immunoexpression. The level of plasma progesterone was also increased at a high altitude, although an association with increased corpus luteum vascularization was only found in sheep native to a high-altitude location. Administration of antioxidant vitamins resulted in a limited effect, which was restricted to decreased expression of oxidative stress biomarkers and luteal HIF-1alpha and VEGF immunoexpression. Conclusions Exposure of the sheep to high-altitude hypobaric hypoxia for short or long time periods affects the development and function of the corpus luteum. Moreover, the observed association of oxidative stress with hypoxia and the absence of any significant effect of antioxidant vitamins on most anatomical and functional corpus luteum traits suggests that the effects of high altitude on this ovarian structure are mainly mediated by hypoxia. Thus, these findings may help explain the decrease in sheep fertility at a high altitude

  1. Different processing of LH/hCG receptors in cultured rat luteal cells and murine Leydig tumor cells (MLTC-1)

    SciTech Connect

    Kellokumpu, S.

    1987-02-01

    The metabolic fate of LH/hCG receptors after exposure to human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was examined in cultured rat luteal cells and murine Leydig tumor cells (MLTC-1). Kinetic studies performed after pulse-labelling of the cells with (/sup 125/I)hCG indicated that the bound hormone was lost much more rapidly from the tumor cells than from the luteal cells. The tumor cells were also found to internalize and degrade the hormone more effectively than the luteal cells. Chemical cross-linking and analyses by SDS-PAGE of this material revealed that both cell types also released, in addition to intact hCG, two previously characterized receptor fragment-(/supmore » 125/I)hCG complexes (M/sub r/ 96,000 and 74,000) into the medium, although their amount was negligible in MLTC-1 cells. Possibly due to rapid discharge of the ligand from its receptor, no similar complexes could be detected inside the MLTC-1 cells, suggesting that they were released directly from the cell surface. However, the M/sub r/ 74,000 complex was observed inside MLTC-1 cells if chloroquine, a lysosomotropic agent, was present during the incubations. This suggests that the internalized receptor also becomes degraded, at least when complexed to hCG. The results thus provide evidence that there exist two different mechanisms for proteolytic processing of LH/hCG receptors in these target cells. In tumor cells, the degradation seems to occur almost exclusively intracellularly, whereas in luteal cells a substantial portion of the receptors is also degraded at the cell surface.« less

  2. Massage therapy decreases cancer-related fatigue: Results from a randomized early phase trial.

    PubMed

    Kinkead, Becky; Schettler, Pamela J; Larson, Erika R; Carroll, Dedric; Sharenko, Margaret; Nettles, James; Edwards, Sherry A; Miller, Andrew H; Torres, Mylin A; Dunlop, Boadie W; Rakofsky, Jeffrey J; Rapaport, Mark Hyman

    2018-02-01

    Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is a prevalent and debilitating symptom experienced by cancer survivors, yet treatment options for CRF are limited. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of weekly Swedish massage therapy (SMT) versus an active control condition (light touch [LT]) and waitlist control (WLC) on persistent CRF in breast cancer survivors. This early phase, randomized, single-masked, 6-week investigation of SMT, LT, and WLC enrolled 66 female stage 0-III breast cancer survivors (age range, 32-72 years) who had received surgery plus radiation and/or chemotherapy/chemoprevention with CRF (Brief Fatigue Inventory > 25). The primary outcome was the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI), with the National Institutes of Health PROMIS Fatigue scale secondary. Mean baseline MFI scores for 57 evaluable subjects were 62.95 for SMT, 55.00 for LT, and 60.41 for WLC. SMT resulted in a mean (standard deviation) 6-week reduction in MFI total scores of -16.50 (6.37) (n = 20) versus -8.06 (6.50) for LT (n = 20) and an increase of 5.88 (6.48) points for WLC (n = 17) (treatment-by-time P < .0001). The mean baseline PROMIS Fatigue scores were SMT, 22.25; LT, 22.05; and WLC, 23.24. The mean (standard deviation) reduction in PROMIS Fatigue scores was -5.49 (2.53) points for SMT versus -3.24 (2.57) points for LT and -0.06 (1.88) points for WLC (treatment-by-time P = .0008). Higher credibility, expectancy, and preference for SMT than for LT did not account for these results. SMT produced clinically significant relief of CRF. This finding suggests that 6 weeks of a safe, widely accepted manual intervention causes a significant reduction in fatigue, a debilitating sequela for cancer survivors. Cancer 2018;124:546-54. © 2017 American Cancer Society. © 2017 American Cancer Society.

  3. Hypertensive phase and early complications after Ahmed glaucoma valve implantation with intraoperative subtenon triamcinolone acetonide

    PubMed Central

    Turalba, Angela V; Pasquale, Louis R

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate intraoperative subtenon triamcinolone acetonide (TA) as an adjunct to Ahmed glaucoma valve (AGV) implantation. Design Retrospective comparative case series. Participants Forty-two consecutive cases of uncontrolled glaucoma undergoing AGV implantation: 19 eyes receiving intraoperative subtenon TA and 23 eyes that did not receive TA. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed on consecutive pseudophakic adult patients with uncontrolled glaucoma undergoing AGV with and without intraoperative subtenon TA injection by a single surgeon. Clinical data were collected from 42 eyes and analyzed for the first 6 months after surgery. Main outcome measures Primary outcomes included intraocular pressure (IOP) and number of glaucoma medications prior to and after AGV implantation. The hypertensive phase (HP) was defined as an IOP measurement of greater than 21 mmHg (with or without medications) during the 6-month postoperative period that was not a result of tube obstruction, retraction, or malfunction. Postoperative complications and visual acuity were analyzed as secondary outcome measures. Results Five out of 19 (26%) TA cases and 12 out of 23 (52%) non-TA cases developed the HP (P=0.027). Mean IOP (14.2±4.6 in TA cases versus [vs] 14.7±5.0 mmHg in non-TA cases; P=0.78), and number of glaucoma medications needed (1.8±1.3 in TA cases vs 1.6±1.1 in the comparison group; P=0.65) were similar between both groups at 6 months. Although rates of serious complications did not differ between the groups (13% in the TA group vs 16% in the non-TA group), early tube erosion (n=1) and bacterial endophthalmitis (n=1) were noted with TA but not in the non-TA group. Conclusions Subtenon TA injection during AGV implantation may decrease the occurrence of the HP but does not alter the ultimate IOP outcome and may pose increased risk of serious complications within the first 6 months of surgery. PMID:25050061

  4. Early coordinated rehabilitation in acute phase after hip fracture - a model for increased patient participation.

    PubMed

    Asplin, Gillian; Carlsson, Gunnel; Zidén, Lena; Kjellby-Wendt, Gunilla

    2017-10-17

    Studies have shown that patients with hip fracture treated in a Comprehensive Geriatric Care (CGC) unit report better results in comparison to orthopaedic care. Furthermore, involving patients in their healthcare by encouraging patient participation can result in better quality of care and improved outcomes. To our knowledge no study has been performed comparing rehabilitation programmes within a CGC unit during the acute phase after hip fracture with focus on improving patients' perceived participation and subsequent effect on patients' function. A prospective, controlled, intervention performed in a CGC unit and compared with standard care. A total of 126 patients with hip fracture were recruited who were prior to fracture; community dwelling, mobile indoors and independent in personal care. Intervention Group (IG): 63 patients, mean age 82.0 years and Control Group (CG): 63 patients mean age 80.5 years. coordinated rehabilitation programme with early onset of patient participation and intensified occupational therapy and physiotherapy after hip fracture surgery. The primary outcome measure was self-reported patient participation at discharge. Secondary outcome measures were: TLS-BasicADL; Bergs Balance Scale (BBS); Falls Efficacy Scale FES(S); Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) and Timed Up and Go (TUG) at discharge and 1 month and ADL staircase for instrumental ADL at 1 month. At discharge a statistically significant greater number of patients in the IG reported higher levels of participation (p < 0.05) and independence in lower body hygiene (p < 0.05) and dressing (p < 0.001). There were however no statistically significant differences at discharge and 1 month between groups in functional balance and confidence, performance measures or risk for falls. This model of OT and PT coordinated inpatient rehabilitation had a positive effect on patients' perceived participation in their rehabilitation and ADL at discharge but did not appear to

  5. Adjuvant tamoxifen and exemestane in early breast cancer (TEAM): a randomised phase 3 trial.

    PubMed

    van de Velde, Cornelis J H; Rea, Daniel; Seynaeve, Caroline; Putter, Hein; Hasenburg, Annette; Vannetzel, Jean-Michel; Paridaens, Robert; Markopoulos, Christos; Hozumi, Yasuo; Hille, Elysee T M; Kieback, Dirk G; Asmar, Lina; Smeets, Jan; Nortier, Johan W R; Hadji, Peyman; Bartlett, John M S; Jones, Stephen E

    2011-01-22

    Aromatase inhibitors improved disease-free survival compared with tamoxifen when given as an initial adjuvant treatment or after 2-3 years of tamoxifen to postmenopausal women with hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer. We therefore compared the long-term effects of exemestane monotherapy with sequential treatment (tamoxifen followed by exemestane). The Tamoxifen Exemestane Adjuvant Multinational (TEAM) phase 3 trial was conducted in hospitals in nine countries. Postmenopausal women (median age 64 years, range 35-96) with hormone-receptor-positive breast cancer were randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to open-label exemestane (25 mg once a day, orally) alone or following tamoxifen (20 mg once a day, orally) for 5 years. Randomisation was by use of a computer-generated random permuted block method. The primary endpoint was disease-free survival (DFS) at 5 years. Main analyses were by intention to treat. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00279448, NCT00032136, and NCT00036270; NTR 267; Ethics Commission Trial27/2001; and UMIN, C000000057. 9779 patients were assigned to sequential treatment (n=4875) or exemestane alone (n=4904), and 4868 and 4898 were analysed by intention to treat, respectively. 4154 (85%) patients in the sequential group and 4186 (86%) in the exemestane alone group were disease free at 5 years (hazard ratio 0·97, 95% CI 0·88-1·08; p=0·60). In the safety analysis, sequential treatment was associated with a higher incidence of gynaecological symptoms (942 [20%] of 4814 vs 523 [11%] of 4852), venous thrombosis (99 [2%] vs 47 [1%]), and endometrial abnormalities (191 [4%] vs 19 [<1%]) than was exemestane alone. Musculoskeletal adverse events (2448 [50%] vs 2133 [44%]), hypertension (303 [6%] vs 219 [5%]), and hyperlipidaemia (230 [5%] vs 136 [3%]) were reported more frequently with exemestane alone. Treatment regimens of exemestane alone or after tamoxifen might be judged to be appropriate options for postmenopausal women with

  6. Early stages of styrene-isoprene copolymerization in gas phase clusters probed by resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Hatem; Germanenko, Igor N; El-Shall, M Samy

    2006-04-06

    We present direct evidence for the formation of the covalent bonded styrene (isoprene)(2) oligomer and the isoprene dimer ions following resonance ionization of the gas phase styrene-isoprene binary clusters. The application of resonance ionization to study polymerization reactions in clusters provides new information on the structure and mechanism of formation of the early stages of polymerization and holds considerable promise for the discovery of new initiation mechanisms and for the development of novel materials with unique properties.

  7. Definition of technology development missions for early space stations. Large space structures, phase 2, midterm review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    The large space structures technology development missions to be performed on an early manned space station was studied and defined and the resources needed and the design implications to an early space station to carry out these large space structures technology development missions were determined. Emphasis is being placed on more detail in mission designs and space station resource requirements.

  8. The practical application of adaptive study design in early phase clinical trials: a retrospective analysis of time savings.

    PubMed

    Lorch, U; Berelowitz, K; Ozen, C; Naseem, A; Akuffo, E; Taubel, J

    2012-05-01

    The interest in adaptive study design is evident from the growing amount of clinical research employing this model in the mid to later stages of medicines development. Little has been published on the practical application and merits of adaptive study design in early phase clinical research. This paper describes a retrospective analysis performed on a sample of 29 industry lead adaptive early phase studies commencing between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2010 in a clinical trials unit in London, England. All studies containing at least one adaptive feature in the original protocol were included in the analysis. The scope of the analysis was to assess whether the use of adaptive study designs provided tangible benefits over the use of conventional study designs using time savings as the main measure. We conclude that the use of adaptive study design saves time in early phase research programs. This is achieved by abolishing the need for substantial amendments or by mitigating their impact on timelines and by using adaptive scheduling efficiencies.

  9. Divided attention can enhance early-phase memory encoding: the attentional boost effect and study trial duration.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, Neil W; Spataro, Pietro

    2015-07-01

    Divided attention during encoding typically produces marked reductions in later memory. The attentional boost effect (ABE) is a surprising variation on this phenomenon. In this paradigm, each study stimulus (e.g., a word) is presented along with a target or a distractor (e.g., different colored circles) in a detection task. Later memory is better for stimuli co-occurring with targets. The present experiments indicate that the ABE arises during an early phase of memory encoding that involves initial stimulus perception and comprehension rather than at a later phase entailing controlled, elaborative rehearsal. Experiment 1 demonstrated that the ABE was robust at a short study duration (700 ms) and did not increase with increasing study trial durations (1,500 ms and 4,000 ms). Furthermore, the target condition is boosted to the level of memory performance in a full-attention condition for the short duration but not the long duration. Both results followed from the early-phase account. This account also predicts that for very short study times (limiting the influence of late-phase controlled encoding and thus minimizing the usual negative effect of divided attention), the target condition will produce better memory than will the full-attention condition. Experiment 2 used a study time of 400 ms and found that words presented with targets lead to greater recognition accuracy than do either words presented with distractors or words in the full-attention condition. Consistent with the early-phase account, a divided attention condition actually produced superior memory than did the full-attention condition, a very unusual but theoretically predicted result. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Auto-inhibitory regulation of angiotensin II functionality in hamster aorta during the early phases of dyslipidemia.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Priscila Cristina; Pernomian, Larissa; Côco, Hariane; Gomes, Mayara Santos; Franco, João José; Marchi, Kátia Colombo; Hipólito, Ulisses Vilela; Uyemura, Sergio Akira; Tirapelli, Carlos Renato; de Oliveira, Ana Maria

    2016-06-15

    Emerging data point the crosstalk between dyslipidemia and renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Advanced dyslipidemia is described to induce RAS activation in the vasculature. However, the interplay between early dyslipidemia and the RAS remains unexplored. Knowing that hamsters and humans have a similar lipid profile, we investigated the effects of early and advanced dyslipidemia on angiotensin II-induced contraction. Cumulative concentration-response curves for angiotensin II (1.0pmol/l to 1.0µmol/l) were obtained in the hamster thoracic aorta. We also investigated the modulatory action of NAD(P)H oxidase on angiotensin II-induced contraction using ML171 (Nox-1 inhibitor, 0.5µmol/l) and VAS2870 (Nox-4 inhibitor, 5µmol/l). Early dyslipidemia was detected in hamsters treated with a cholesterol-rich diet for 15 days. Early dyslipidemia decreased the contraction induced by angiotensin II and the concentration of Nox-4-derived hydrogen peroxide. Advanced dyslipidemia, observed in hamsters treated with cholesterol-rich diet for 30 days, restored the contractile response induced by angiotensin II by compensatory mechanism that involves Nox-4-mediated oxidative stress. The hyporresponsiveness to angiotensin II may be an auto-inhibitory regulation of the angiotensinergic function during early dyslipidemia in an attempt to reduce the effects of the upregulation of the vascular RAS during the advanced stages of atherogenesis. The recovery of vascular angiotensin II functionality during the advanced phases of dyslipidemia is the result of the upregulation of redox-pro-inflammatory pathway that might be most likely involved in atherogenesis progression rather than in the recovery of vascular function. Taken together, our findings show the early phase of dyslipidemia may be the most favorable moment for effective atheroprotective therapeutic interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of menstrual cycle phase on the ventilatory response to rising body temperature during exercise.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Keiji; Kawashima, Takayo; Suzuki, Yuichi

    2012-07-01

    To examine the effect of menstrual cycle on the ventilatory sensitivity to rising body temperature, ten healthy women exercised for ~60 min on a cycle ergometer at 50% of peak oxygen uptake during the follicular and luteal phases of their cycle. Esophageal temperature, mean skin temperature, mean body temperature, minute ventilation, and tidal volume were all significantly higher at baseline and during exercise in the luteal phase than the follicular phase. On the other hand, end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide was significantly lower during exercise in the luteal phase than the follicular phase. Plotting ventilatory parameters against esophageal temperature revealed there to be no significant menstrual cycle-related differences in the slopes or intercepts of the regression lines, although minute ventilation and tidal volume did significantly differ during exercise with mild hyperthermia. To evaluate the cutaneous vasodilatory response, relative laser-Doppler flowmetry values were plotted against mean body temperature, which revealed that the mean body temperature threshold for cutaneous vasodilation was significantly higher in the luteal phase than the follicular phase, but there were no significant differences in the sensitivity or peak values. These results suggest that the menstrual cycle phase influences the cutaneous vasodilatory response during exercise and the ventilatory response at rest and during exercise with mild hyperthermia, but it does not influence ventilatory responses during exercise with moderate hyperthermia.

  12. Differential role of afferent and efferent renal nerves in the maintenance of early- and late-phase Dahl S hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Foss, Jason D.; Fink, Gregory D.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical data suggest that renal denervation (RDNX) may be an effective treatment for human hypertension; however, it is unclear whether this therapeutic effect is due to ablation of afferent or efferent renal nerves. We have previously shown that RDNX lowers arterial pressure in hypertensive Dahl salt-sensitive (S) rats to a similar degree observed in clinical trials. In addition, we have recently developed a method for selective ablation of afferent renal nerves (renal-CAP). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the antihypertensive effect of RDNX in the Dahl S rat is due to ablation of afferent renal nerves by comparing the effect of complete RDNX to renal-CAP during two phases of hypertension in the Dahl S rat. In the early phase, rats underwent treatment after 3 wk of high-NaCl feeding when mean arterial pressure (MAP) was ∼140 mmHg. In the late phase, rats underwent treatment after 9 wk of high NaCl feeding, when MAP was ∼170 mmHg. RDNX reduced MAP ∼10 mmHg compared with sham surgery in both the early and late phase, whereas renal-CAP had no antihypertensive effect. These results suggest that, in the Dahl S rat, the antihypertensive effect of RDNX is not dependent on pretreatment arterial pressure, nor is it due to ablation of afferent renal nerves. PMID:26661098

  13. Proactive Integration of Planetary Protection Needs Into Early Design Phases of Human Exploration Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Race, Margaret; Conley, Catharine

    discussed by the study participants to date have set the agenda for additional work that will continue for at least another year, culminating in a final report that should be useful to current and new nations and partnerships in planning human missions beyond LEO. In addition, over the past two years, NASA has made progress in integrating planetary protection considerations into mission designs along with other important human, environmental and science needs. Details about planetary protection have also been incorporated into the latest Addendum of the Design Reference Architecture (DRA) for human missions to Mars. Other ongoing studies of Mars human mission architecture, technologies and operations have likewise been integrating PP requirements and guidelines into cross-cutting measures of various types. An important objective of all these studies is to proactively gather and communicate PP information to the broad community of planners, engineers and assorted partners who are facing the challenges of future human exploration missions. By analyzing ways to integrate PP provisions effectively into early mission phases in synergism with other needs, these projects and studies will help ensure that all institutions and organizations avoid releasing harmful contamination on bodies with biological potential, thereby ensuring protection of the Earth and astronauts throughout their missions and safeguarding the integrity of science exploration—all in compliance with the 1967 Outer Space Treaty.

  14. Phytochrome-mediated germination and early development in spores of Dryopteris filix-mas L.: phase-specific and non phase-specific inhibition by staurosporine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haas, C. J.; Scheuerlein, R.; Roux, S. J.

    1991-01-01

    The alkaloid staurosporine, currently known as the most potent inhibitor of protein kinase C, PKC, was tested for its ability to inhibit phytochrome-mediated spore germination in Dryopteris filix-mas L., evaluated by the induction of chlorophyll synthesis. Approximately half-maximal inhibition was obtained at a concentration of 10(-5) M. This effect of staurosporine was phase-specific and was found during the same period in which the presence of extracellular calcium is necessary for realization of the light signal. Furthermore, the ability of staurosporine to prevent progression of a germinated spore into early gametophyte development, evaluated by the accumulation of chlorophyll, was examined. Again, staurosporine (10(-5) M) significantly diminished chlorophyll accumulation, determined quantitatively in vivo by single-cell measurements, in a non-phase specific way. The fact that the phase-specific inhibitory effect of staurosporine in preventing germination was coincident with the phase-specific requirement of Ca2+ suggests that both Ca2+ and staurosporine affect the same step in the signal-transduction chain. A phosphorylation event catalysed by PKC or any Ca2+ -dependent protein kinase is proposed as the target of staurosporine and Ca2+.

  15. [The correlation between serum uric acid level and early-phase insulin secretion in subjects with normal glucose regulation].

    PubMed

    Lu, L; Zheng, F P; Li, H

    2016-05-01

    To investigate the correlation between serum uric acid (SUA) level and early-phase insulin secretion in subjects with normal glucose regulation (NGR). Totally 367 community NGR residents confirmed by a 75g oral glucose tolerance test were enrolled. The insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) and the early-phase insulin secretion index after a glucose load (ΔI30/ΔG30) were used to estimate the insulin sensitivity and the early-phase insulin secretion, respectively. The subjects were divided into 4 groups according to the SUA level quartiles. Differences in early-phase insulin levels, ΔI30/ΔG30, and HOMA-IR were compared among the 4 groups. Age, BMI, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, fasting insulin (FINS), 30 minutes postprandial insulin(30 minINS), 2 hours postprandial insulin(2hINS), HOMA-IR and TG levels increased across the rising categories of SUA levels, while the HDL-C was decreased across the SUA groups (P<0.01). The SUA level was positively correlated with age(r=0.157, P<0.01), BMI(r=0.262, P<0.01), waist circumference(r=0.372, P<0.01), systolic blood pressure(r=0.200, P<0.01), diastolic blood pressure(r=0.254, P<0.01), 30 minutes postprandial plasma glucose(r=0.118, P=0.023), FINS(r=0.249, P<0.01), 30minINS(r=0.189, P<0.01), 2hINS(r=0.206, P<0.01), glycosylated hemoglobin(HbA1c, r=0.106, P=0.042), HOMA-IR(r=0.244, P<0.01), TG(r=0.350, P<0.01), ΔI30/ΔG30(r=0.144, P<0.01), and negatively correlated with HDL-C level(r=-0.321, P<0.01). Multiple stepwise regression analysis showed that SUA(β=0.292, P<0.01) and HOMA-IR(β=29.821, P<0.01) were positively associated with ΔI30/ΔG30. SUA level is closely related with the early-phase insulin secretion in NGR subjects.

  16. Serum Metabolomics Reveals Serotonin as a Predictor of Severe Dengue in the Early Phase of Dengue Fever

    PubMed Central

    Thein, Tun Linn; Fang, Jinling; Pang, Junxiong; Ooi, Eng Eong; Leo, Yee Sin; Ong, Choon Nam; Tannenbaum, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    Effective triage of dengue patients early in the disease course for in- or out-patient management would be useful for optimal healthcare resource utilization while minimizing poor clinical outcome due to delayed intervention. Yet, early prognosis of severe dengue is hampered by the heterogeneity in clinical presentation and routine hematological and biochemical measurements in dengue patients that collectively correlates poorly with eventual clinical outcome. Herein, untargeted liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry metabolomics of serum from patients with dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) in the febrile phase (<96 h) was used to globally probe the serum metabolome to uncover early prognostic biomarkers of DHF. We identified 20 metabolites that are differentially enriched (p<0.05, fold change >1.5) in the serum, among which are two products of tryptophan metabolism–serotonin and kynurenine. Serotonin, involved in platelet aggregation and activation decreased significantly, whereas kynurenine, an immunomodulator, increased significantly in patients with DHF, consistent with thrombocytopenia and immunopathology in severe dengue. To sensitively and accurately evaluate serotonin levels as prognostic biomarkers, we implemented stable-isotope dilution mass spectrometry and used convalescence samples as their own controls. DHF serotonin was significantly 1.98 fold lower in febrile compared to convalescence phase, and significantly 1.76 fold lower compared to DF in the febrile phase of illness. Thus, serotonin alone provided good prognostic utility (Area Under Curve, AUC of serotonin = 0.8). Additionally, immune mediators associated with DHF may further increase the predictive ability than just serotonin alone. Nine cytokines, including IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-8, G-CSF, MIP-1β, FGF basic, TNFα and RANTES were significantly different between DF and DHF, among which IFN-γ ranked top by multivariate statistics. Combining serotonin and IFN-γ improved

  17. A new Bayesian Inference-based Phase Associator for Earthquake Early Warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Men-Andrin; Heaton, Thomas; Clinton, John; Wiemer, Stefan

    2013-04-01

    State of the art network-based Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) systems can provide warnings for large magnitude 7+ earthquakes. Although regions in the direct vicinity of the epicenter will not receive warnings prior to damaging shaking, real-time event characterization is available before the destructive S-wave arrival across much of the strongly affected region. In contrast, in the case of the more frequent medium size events, such as the devastating 1994 Mw6.7 Northridge, California, earthquake, providing timely warning to the smaller damage zone is more difficult. For such events the "blind zone" of current systems (e.g. the CISN ShakeAlert system in California) is similar in size to the area over which severe damage occurs. We propose a faster and more robust Bayesian inference-based event associator, that in contrast to the current standard associators (e.g. Earthworm Binder), is tailored to EEW and exploits information other than only phase arrival times. In particular, the associator potentially allows for reliable automated event association with as little as two observations, which, compared to the ShakeAlert system, would speed up the real-time characterizations by about ten seconds and thus reduce the blind zone area by up to 80%. We compile an extensive data set of regional and teleseismic earthquake and noise waveforms spanning a wide range of earthquake magnitudes and tectonic regimes. We pass these waveforms through a causal real-time filterbank with passband filters between 0.1 and 50Hz, and, updating every second from the event detection, extract the maximum amplitudes in each frequency band. Using this dataset, we define distributions of amplitude maxima in each passband as a function of epicentral distance and magnitude. For the real-time data, we pass incoming broadband and strong motion waveforms through the same filterbank and extract an evolving set of maximum amplitudes in each passband. We use the maximum amplitude distributions to check

  18. Non-invasive identification of protein biomarkers for early pregnancy diagnosis in the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus).

    PubMed

    Koester, Diana C; Wildt, David E; Maly, Morgan; Comizzoli, Pierre; Crosier, Adrienne E

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 80% of cheetahs living in typical zoological collections never reproduce. In more than 60% of breedings, the female is confirmed to ovulate, but parturition fails to occur. It is unknown if these non-pregnant intervals of elevated progesterone (deemed luteal phases) are conception failures or a pregnancy terminating in embryonic/fetal loss. There have been recent advances in metabolic profiling and proteome analyses in many species with mass spectrometry used to identify 'biomarkers' and mechanisms indicative of specific physiological states (including pregnancy). Here, we hypothesized that protein expression in voided cheetah feces varied depending on pregnancy status. We: 1) identified the expansive protein profile present in fecal material of females; and 2) isolated proteins that may be candidates playing a role in early pregnancy establishment and diagnosis. Five hundred and seventy unique proteins were discovered among samples from pregnant (n = 8), non-pregnant, luteal phase (n = 5), and non-ovulatory control (n = 5) cheetahs. Four protein candidates were isolated that were significantly up-regulated and two were down-regulated in samples from pregnant compared to non-pregnant or control counterparts. One up-regulated candidate, immunoglobulin J chain (IGJ; an important component of the secretory immune system) was detected using a commercially available antibody via immunoblotting. Findings revealed that increased IGJ abundance could be used to detect pregnancy successfully in >80% of 23 assessed females within 4 weeks after mating. The discovery of a novel fecal pregnancy marker improves the ability to determine reproductive, especially gestational, status in cheetahs managed in an ex situ insurance and source population.

  19. Non-invasive identification of protein biomarkers for early pregnancy diagnosis in the cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus)

    PubMed Central

    Wildt, David E.; Maly, Morgan; Comizzoli, Pierre; Crosier, Adrienne E.

    2017-01-01

    Approximately 80% of cheetahs living in typical zoological collections never reproduce. In more than 60% of breedings, the female is confirmed to ovulate, but parturition fails to occur. It is unknown if these non-pregnant intervals of elevated progesterone (deemed luteal phases) are conception failures or a pregnancy terminating in embryonic/fetal loss. There have been recent advances in metabolic profiling and proteome analyses in many species with mass spectrometry used to identify ‘biomarkers’ and mechanisms indicative of specific physiological states (including pregnancy). Here, we hypothesized that protein expression in voided cheetah feces varied depending on pregnancy status. We: 1) identified the expansive protein profile present in fecal material of females; and 2) isolated proteins that may be candidates playing a role in early pregnancy establishment and diagnosis. Five hundred and seventy unique proteins were discovered among samples from pregnant (n = 8), non-pregnant, luteal phase (n = 5), and non-ovulatory control (n = 5) cheetahs. Four protein candidates were isolated that were significantly up-regulated and two were down-regulated in samples from pregnant compared to non-pregnant or control counterparts. One up-regulated candidate, immunoglobulin J chain (IGJ; an important component of the secretory immune system) was detected using a commercially available antibody via immunoblotting. Findings revealed that increased IGJ abundance could be used to detect pregnancy successfully in >80% of 23 assessed females within 4 weeks after mating. The discovery of a novel fecal pregnancy marker improves the ability to determine reproductive, especially gestational, status in cheetahs managed in an ex situ insurance and source population. PMID:29236714

  20. Cosmological QCD phase transition in steady non-equilibrium dissipative Hořava–Lifshitz early universe

    SciTech Connect

    Khodadi, M., E-mail: M.Khodadi@sbu.ac.ir; Sepangi, H.R., E-mail: hr-sepangi@sbu.ac.ir

    We study the phase transition from quark–gluon plasma to hadrons in the early universe in the context of non-equilibrium thermodynamics. According to the standard model of cosmology, a phase transition associated with chiral symmetry breaking after the electro-weak transition has occurred when the universe was about 1–10 μs old. We focus attention on such a phase transition in the presence of a viscous relativistic cosmological background fluid in the framework of non-detailed balance Hořava–Lifshitz cosmology within an effective model of QCD. We consider a flat Friedmann–Robertson–Walker universe filled with a non-causal and a causal bulk viscous cosmological fluid respectively and investigatemore » the effects of the running coupling constants of Hořava–Lifshitz gravity, λ, on the evolution of the physical quantities relevant to a description of the early universe, namely, the temperature T, scale factor a, deceleration parameter q and dimensionless ratio of the bulk viscosity coefficient to entropy density (ξ)/s . We assume that the bulk viscosity cosmological background fluid obeys the evolution equation of the steady truncated (Eckart) and full version of the Israel–Stewart fluid, respectively. -- Highlights: •In this paper we have studied quark–hadron phase transition in the early universe in the context of the Hořava–Lifshitz model. •We use a flat FRW universe with the bulk viscosity cosmological background fluid obeying the evolution equation of the steady truncated (Eckart) and full version of the Israel–Stewart fluid, respectively.« less

  1. Phase II Validation of a New Panel of Biomarkers for Early Detection of Ovarian Cancer — EDRN Public Portal

    Cancer.gov

    While all cancer patients could potentially benefit from earlier detection and prevention, the development of new screening technologies and chemoprevention for epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is unique in this regard. EOC is characterized by few early symptoms, presentation at an advanced stage, and poor survival. Presently there is no commercially available test that is diagnostic for either early or advanced stage epithelial ovarian cancer. The most commonly used marker, CA125, identifies a group of cell surface glycoproteins, which have uncertain biological behavior and very limited clinical utility for the detection of early stage disease. In recent years, several approaches have been used in order to develop a test for early detection, including the analysis of serum samples by SELDI-TOF and MALDI-TOF to find proteins or protein fragments of unknown identity that detect the presence/absence of cancer. Unfortunately, at the present time, none of these techniques have been shown to be adequate. Therefore, the development of a test that can detect early stages of the disease could dramatically improve treatment success and long-term survival. We have developed a new blood test based on a different approach: 1) we used known proteins related to cancer biology, 2) we characterized these proteins with several different screening steps using samples obtained from both healthy and cancer patient populations, and 3) validated the results with different techniques. Using split point analysis with four markers, 96 out of 100 EOC patients (96%) were correctly diagnosed with ovarian cancer (including 23 of 24 patients with Stage I/II EOC). In the healthy group, 6 out of 106 individuals were diagnosed incorrectly (5.6%). Working in collaboration with the Early Detection Network (EDRN/NCI/NIH), we performed Phase I discovery study confirming the potential application of this test for early detection of ovarian cancer (Preliminary results). The main objective of this pr

  2. 7T T₂*-weighted magnetic resonance imaging reveals cortical phase differences between early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    van Rooden, Sanneke; Doan, Nhat Trung; Versluis, Maarten J; Goos, Jeroen D C; Webb, Andrew G; Oleksik, Ania M; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Scheltens, Philip; Barkhof, Frederik; Weverling-Rynsburger, Annelies W E; Blauw, Gerard Jan; Reiber, Johan H C; van Buchem, Mark A; Milles, Julien; van der Grond, Jeroen

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore regional iron-related differences in the cerebral cortex, indicative of Alzheimer's disease pathology, between early- and late-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD, LOAD, respectively) patients using 7T magnetic resonance phase images. High-resolution T2(∗)-weighted scans were acquired in 12 EOAD patients and 17 LOAD patients with mild to moderate disease and 27 healthy elderly control subjects. Lobar peak-to-peak phase shifts and regional mean phase contrasts were computed. An increased peak-to-peak phase shift was found for all lobar regions in EOAD patients compared with LOAD patients (p < 0.05). Regional mean phase contrast in EOAD patients was higher than in LOAD patients in the superior medial and middle frontal gyrus, anterior and middle cingulate gyrus, postcentral gyrus, superior and inferior parietal gyrus, and precuneus (p ≤ 0.042). These data suggest that EOAD patients have an increased iron accumulation, possibly related to an increased amyloid deposition, in specific cortical regions as compared with LOAD patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Species-driven phases and increasing structure in early-successional plant communities.

    PubMed

    Zaplata, Markus K; Winter, Susanne; Fischer, Anton; Kollmann, Johannes; Ulrich, Werner

    2013-01-01

    Successional phases describe changes in ecological communities that proceed in steps rather than continuously. Despite their importance for the understanding of ecosystem development, there still exists no reliable definition of phases and no quantitative measure of phase transitions. In order to obtain these data, we investigated primary succession in an artificial catchment (6 ha) in eastern Germany over a period of 6 years. The data set consists of records of plant species and their cover values, and initial substrate properties, both from plots in a regular grid (20 m × 20 m) suitable for spatial data analysis. Community assembly was studied by analyses of species co-occurrence and nestedness. Additionally, we correlated lognormal and log series distributions of species abundance to each community. We here introduce a new general method for detection of successional phases based on the degree of transient spatial homogeneity in the study system. Spatially coherent vegetation patterns revealed nonoverlapping partitions within this sequence of primary succession and were characterized as two distinct ecological phases. Patterns of species co-occurrence were increasingly less random, and hence the importance of demographic stochasticity and neutral community assembly decreased during the study period. Our findings highlight the spatial dimension of successional phases and quantify the degree of change between these steps. They are an element for advancing a more reliable terminology of ecological successions.

  4. F247. INTERNALIZED STIGMA HAS A STRONGER RELATIONSHIP WITH INTRINSIC MOTIVATION COMPARED TO AMOTIVATION IN EARLY PHASE AND PROLONGED SCHIZOPHRENIA

    PubMed Central

    Firmin, Ruth; Luther, Lauren; Lysaker, Paul; Vohs, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Background Motivation deficits predict decreased functioning in schizophrenia. Recent work suggests deficits reflect challenges in separate domains: intrinsic motivation (one’s internal drive to engage in a behavior out of enjoyment or interest) and amotivation (one’s broader decrease in motivated behavior linked to avolition and anhedonia). Internalized stigma is another determinant of functioning for people with schizophrenia that may impact motivation. However, little is known about these relationships, including which aspects of motivation it may impact nor when these links emerge. Identifying the link between these constructs may help to identify whether internalized stigma may be a novel treatment target to facilitate improvements in motivation. Methods Forty adults with early phase schizophrenia and 66 adults with prolonged schizophrenia completed measures of internalized stigma, intrinsic motivation, and amotivation. Pearson’s correlations were examined followed by Fischer’s r-to-z transformations to compare differences in the magnitude of associations between internalized stigma and intrinsic motivation and internalized stigma and amotivation among the first episode and prolonged samples. Next, we conducted stepwise regressions to examine whether internalized stigma was associated with intrinsic motivation above and beyond associations with amotivation in each sample. Results In the early phase sample, the association between internalized stigma was greater with intrinsic motivation (r=-0.48, p=.00) compared to amotivation (r=0.27, p=0.10). Associations with internalized stigma in the prolonged sample were also greater with intrinsic motivation (r=-0.30, p=0.02) versus amotivation (r=0.19, p=0.12). The magnitude of the associations between internalized stigma and intrinsic motivation (z=1.03, p=0.15) and between internalized stigma and amotivation (z=0.41, p = 0.34) did not significantly differ when comparing phase of illness. Regression

  5. Maintenance phase in psoralen-ultraviolet A phototherapy of early-stage mycosis fungoides. A critically appraised topic.

    PubMed

    Grandi, V; Delfino, C; Pileri, A; Pimpinelli, N

    2017-08-01

    A 65-year-old patient affected by mycosis fungoides (MF) stage IB achieved complete remission (CR) after a cycle of PUVA phototherapy. The U.S. Cutaneous Lymphoma Consortium (USCLC) guidelines suggest that the patient should be kept in the maintenance phase, defined as a 'period of gradual decrease of frequency of UVL [ultraviolet light] while in clinical remission before discontinuation of phototherapy' by slowly tapering the number of psoralen-ultraviolet A (PUVA) applications over time up to clinical relapse. The USCLC guidelines also suggest a standardized schedule for the maintenance phase. Alternatively, the patient could end PUVA therapy and go straight to follow-up. The aim of this critically appraised topic (CAT) was to determine if a maintenance phase gives a significant benefit in terms of relapse rate (RR) and RFI in patients affected by early-stage MF who had achieved CR under PUVA phototherapy. Embase, PubMed and TRIP databases were searched for 'mycosis fungoides' AND [('photochemotherapy' OR 'puva') OR 'psoralen'] in June 2016. Three articles matched our inclusion criteria and are discussed in this CAT. In this field of research the literature is poor and the reported level of evidence is low. Only one of the studies was conducted prospectively, and none were randomized. No significant difference in terms of reduction in relapse rate or increase in RFI in patients who underwent a PUVA maintenance phase emerged when compared with those who went for simple follow-up. Further randomized clinical trials (RCTs) are required in order to evaluate maintenance phase vs. no treatment before it can be favoured as the standard protocol of treatment in early-stage MF. At the time of writing this paper, we report an ongoing Austrian multicentre RCT (Clinical Trial.gov identifier: NCT01686594) that will hopefully give useful results in this topic. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  6. Decrease in early right alpha band phase synchronization and late gamma band oscillations in processing syntax in music.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, María Herrojo; Koelsch, Stefan; Bhattacharya, Joydeep

    2009-04-01

    The present study investigated the neural correlates associated with the processing of music-syntactical irregularities as compared with regular syntactic structures in music. Previous studies reported an early ( approximately 200 ms) right anterior negative component (ERAN) by traditional event-related-potential analysis during music-syntactical irregularities, yet little is known about the underlying oscillatory and synchronization properties of brain responses which are supposed to play a crucial role in general cognition including music perception. First we showed that the ERAN was primarily represented by low frequency (<8 Hz) brain oscillations. Further, we found that music-syntactical irregularities as compared with music-syntactical regularities, were associated with (i) an early decrease in the alpha band (9-10 Hz) phase synchronization between right fronto-central and left temporal brain regions, and (ii) a late ( approximately 500 ms) decrease in gamma band (38-50 Hz) oscillations over fronto-central brain regions. These results indicate a weaker degree of long-range integration when the musical expectancy is violated. In summary, our results reveal neural mechanisms of music-syntactic processing that operate at different levels of cortical integration, ranging from early decrease in long-range alpha phase synchronization to late local gamma oscillations. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Cognitive effects of bilateral high frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in early phase psychosis: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Francis, Michael M; Hummer, Tom A; Vohs, Jenifer L; Yung, Matthew G; Visco, Andrew C; Mehdiyoun, Nikki F; Kulig, Teresa C; Um, Miji; Yang, Ziyi; Motamed, Mehrdad; Liffick, Emily; Zhang, Ying; Breier, Alan

    2018-05-31

    Cognitive dysfunction is a core facet of schizophrenia that is present early in the course of the illness and contributes to diminished functioning and outcomes. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a relatively new neuropsychiatric intervention. Initially used in treatment resistant depression, investigators are now studying rTMS for other psychiatric diseases such as schizophrenia. In this study we examined the effect of high frequency rTMS on cognitive function in a group of individuals with early phase psychosis. Twenty subjects were randomized (1:1) in double-blind fashion to rTMS or sham condition. Over two weeks subjects underwent ten sessions of high frequency, bilateral, sequential rTMS targeting the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Prior to beginning and following completion of study treatment, subjects completed a cognitive assessment and magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects receiving rTMS, compared to sham treatment, displayed improvement on a standardized cognitive battery both immediately following the course of study treatment and at follow-up two weeks later. Imaging results revealed that left frontal cortical thickness at baseline was correlated with treatment response. The study treatment was found to be safe and well tolerated. These results suggest that rTMS may hold promise for the treatment of cognitive dysfunction in the early phase of psychosis, and that MRI may provide biomarkers predicting response to the treatment.

  8. Early phase drug discovery: cheminformatics and computational techniques in identifying lead series.

    PubMed

    Duffy, Bryan C; Zhu, Lei; Decornez, Hélène; Kitchen, Douglas B

    2012-09-15

    Early drug discovery processes rely on hit finding procedures followed by extensive experimental confirmation in order to select high priority hit series which then undergo further scrutiny in hit-to-lead studies. The experimental cost and the risk associated with poor selection of lead series can be greatly reduced by the use of many different computational and cheminformatic techniques to sort and prioritize compounds. We describe the steps in typical hit identification and hit-to-lead programs and then describe how cheminformatic analysis assists this process. In particular, scaffold analysis, clustering and property calculations assist in the design of high-throughput screening libraries, the early analysis of hits and then organizing compounds into series for their progression from hits to leads. Additionally, these computational tools can be used in virtual screening to design hit-finding libraries and as procedures to help with early SAR exploration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A new insight into the phase transition in the early Universe with two Higgs doublets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernon, Jérémy; Bian, Ligong; Jiang, Yun

    2018-05-01

    We study the electroweak phase transition in the alignment limit of the CP-conserving two-Higgs-doublet model (2HDM) of Type I and Type II. The effective potential is evaluated at one-loop, where the thermal potential includes Daisy corrections and is reliably approximated by means of a sum of Bessel functions. Both 1-stage and 2-stage electroweak phase transitions are shown to be possible, depending on the pattern of the vacuum development as the Universe cools down. For the 1-stage case focused on in this paper, we analyze the properties of phase transition and discover that the field value of the electroweak symmetry breaking vacuum at the critical temperature at which the first order phase transition occurs is largely correlated with the vacuum depth of the 1-loop potential at zero temperature. We demonstrate that a strong first order electroweak phase transition (SFOEWPT) in the 2HDM is achievable and establish benchmark scenarios leading to different testable signatures at colliders. In addition, we verify that an enhanced triple Higgs coupling (including loop corrections) is a typical feature of the SFOPT driven by the additional doublet. As a result, SFOEWPT might be able to be probed at the LHC and future lepton colliders through Higgs pair production.

  10. Early Origins of Child Obesity: Bridging Disciplines and Phases of Development - September 30–October 1, 2010

    PubMed Central

    Christoffel, Katherine Kaufer; Wang, Xiaobin; Binns, Helen J.

    2012-01-01

    This report summarizes a conference: “Early Origins of Child Obesity: Bridging Disciplines and Phases of Development”, held in Chicago on September 30–October 1, 2010. The conference was funded in part by the National Institutes of Health and the Williams Heart Foundation, to achieve the conference objective: forging a next-step research agenda related to the early origins of childhood obesity. This research agenda was to include working with an array of factors (from genetic determinants to societal ones) along a continuum from prenatal life to age 7, with an emphasis on how the developing child deals with the challenges presented by his/her environment (prenatal, parental, nutritional, etc.). The conference offered a unique opportunity to facilitate communication and planning of future work among a variety of researchers whose work separately addresses different periods in early life. Over the span of two days, speakers addressed existing, critical research topics within each of the most-studied age ranges. On the final day, workshops fostered the discussion needed to identify the highest priority research topics related to linking varied early factor domains. These are presented for use in planning future research and research funding. PMID:23443002

  11. The Interplay between Inflammation, Coagulation and Endothelial Injury in the Early Phase of Acute Pancreatitis: Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Dumnicka, Paulina; Maduzia, Dawid; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Olszanecki, Rafał; Drożdż, Ryszard; Kuśnierz-Cabala, Beata

    2017-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease with varied severity, ranging from mild local inflammation to severe systemic involvement resulting in substantial mortality. Early pathologic events in AP, both local and systemic, are associated with vascular derangements, including endothelial activation and injury, dysregulation of vasomotor tone, increased vascular permeability, increased leukocyte migration to tissues, and activation of coagulation. The purpose of the review was to summarize current evidence regarding the interplay between inflammation, coagulation and endothelial dysfunction in the early phase of AP. Practical aspects were emphasized: (1) we summarized available data on diagnostic usefulness of the markers of endothelial dysfunction and activated coagulation in early prediction of severe AP; (2) we reviewed in detail the results of experimental studies and clinical trials targeting coagulation-inflammation interactions in severe AP. Among laboratory tests, d-dimer and angiopoietin-2 measurements seem the most useful in early prediction of severe AP. Although most clinical trials evaluating anticoagulants in treatment of severe AP did not show benefits, they also did not show significantly increased bleeding risk. Promising results of human trials were published for low molecular weight heparin treatment. Several anticoagulants that proved beneficial in animal experiments are thus worth testing in patients. PMID:28208708

  12. Methylene blue prevents surgery-induced peritoneal adhesions but impairs the early phase of anastomotic wound healing

    PubMed Central

    Dinc, Soykan; Ozaslan, Cihangir; Kuru, Bekir; Karaca, Sefa; Ustun, Huseyin; Alagol, Haluk; Renda, Nurten; Oz, Murat

    2006-01-01

    Objectives Adhesion formation continues to be an important problem in gastrointestinal surgery. In recent years, methylene blue (MB) has been reported to be an effective agent for preventing peritoneal adhesions. However, its effects on the wound healing process are unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effects of MB on the early and late phases of anastomotic wound healing and on adhesion formation. Methods We randomly categorized 92 rats into 2 groups in bursting pressure measurements and 50 rats into 3 groups in the adhesion model. We divided the animals into saline-treated (n = 46) or MB-treated (n = 46) groups. Bursting pressures of the anastomoses were measured on postoperative days 3 and 7. In biochemical studies, tissue hydroxyproline levels, total nitrite/nitrate levels and nitric oxide synthase activity were measured on postoperative days 3 and 7. In the adhesion model, we randomly categorized rats into sham (n = 10), saline-treated (n = 20) and MB-treated (n = 20) groups, and the formation of intraperitoneal adhesions was scored on postoperative day 14. We compared the measurement of bursting pressure and biochemical measurements of tissue hydroxyproline levels, total nitrite/nitrate levels and nitric oxide synthase activity. Histopathological findings of specimens were presented. Results During the early phase of wound healing (postoperative day 3), bursting pressures, tissue hydroxyproline, total nitrite/nitrate levels and nitric oxide synthase activity in the MB-treated group were significantly lower than those of the saline-treated group. On postoperative day 7, there was no significant difference in these parameters between MB and saline-treated groups. In the adhesion model, MB caused a significant reduction in the formation of peritoneal adhesions. Conclusion MB prevents peritoneal adhesions but causes a significant impairment of anastomotic bursting pressure during the early phase of the wound healing process by its transient

  13. Which System Variables Carry Robust Early Signs of Upcoming Phase Transition? An Ecological Example.

    PubMed

    Negahbani, Ehsan; Steyn-Ross, D Alistair; Steyn-Ross, Moira L; Aguirre, Luis A

    2016-01-01

    Growth of critical fluctuations prior to catastrophic state transition is generally regarded as a universal phenomenon, providing a valuable early warning signal in dynamical systems. Using an ecological fisheries model of three populations (juvenile prey J, adult prey A and predator P), a recent study has reported silent early warning signals obtained from P and A populations prior to saddle-node (SN) bifurcation, and thus concluded that early warning signals are not universal. By performing a full eigenvalue analysis of the same system we demonstrate that while J and P populations undergo SN bifurcation, A does not jump to a new state, so it is not expected to carry early warning signs. In contrast with the previous study, we capture a significant increase in the noise-induced fluctuations in the P population, but only on close approach to the bifurcation point; it is not clear why the P variance initially shows a decaying trend. Here we resolve this puzzle using observability measures from control theory. By computing the observability coefficient for the system from the recordings of each population considered one at a time, we are able to quantify their ability to describe changing internal dynamics. We demonstrate that precursor fluctuations are best observed using only the J variable, and also P variable if close to transition. Using observability analysis we are able to describe why a poorly observable variable (P) has poor forecasting capabilities although a full eigenvalue analysis shows that this variable undergoes a bifurcation. We conclude that observability analysis provides complementary information to identify the variables carrying early-warning signs about impending state transition.

  14. Comparison of luteal estradiol patch and gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist suppression protocol before gonadotropin stimulation versus microdose gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist protocol for patients with a history of poor in vitro fertilization outcomes.

    PubMed

    Weitzman, Vanessa N; Engmann, Lawrence; DiLuigi, Andrea; Maier, Donald; Nulsen, John; Benadiva, Claudio

    2009-07-01

    To compare IVF outcomes in poor-responder patients undergoing stimulation after luteal phase E(2) patch/GnRH antagonist (LPG) protocol versus microdose GnRH agonist protocol. Retrospective analysis. University-based IVF center. Forty-five women undergoing ovarian stimulation for IVF using the LPG protocol were compared with 76 women stimulated with the microdose GnRH agonist protocol from May 2005 to April 2006. Cancellation rate, number of oocytes retrieved, and clinical pregnancy rates. The mean number of oocytes (9.1 +/- 4.1 vs. 8.9 +/- 4.3) and mature oocytes (6.7 +/- 3.5 vs. 6.8 +/- 3.1) retrieved were similar, as were the fertilization rates (70.0% +/- 24.2% vs. 69.9% +/- 21.5%) and the number of embryos transferred (2.5 +/- 1.1 vs. 2.7 +/- 1.3). The cancellation rate was not significantly different between the groups (13/45, 28.9% vs. 23/76, 30.3%). Likewise, there were no significant differences among the implantation rate (15.0% vs. 12.5%), clinical pregnancy rate (43.3% vs. 45.1%), and ongoing pregnancy rate per transfer (33.3% vs. 26.0%) between both groups. This study demonstrates that the use of an E(2) patch and a GnRH antagonist during the preceding luteal phase in patients with a history of failed cycles can provide similar IVF outcomes when compared with the microdose GnRH agonist protocol.

  15. S-phase Synchronization Facilitates the Early Progression of Induced-Cardiomyocyte Reprogramming through Enhanced Cell-Cycle Exit.

    PubMed

    Bektik, Emre; Dennis, Adrienne; Pawlowski, Gary; Zhou, Chen; Maleski, Danielle; Takahashi, Satoru; Laurita, Kenneth R; Deschênes, Isabelle; Fu, Ji-Dong

    2018-05-04

    Direct reprogramming of fibroblasts into induced cardiomyocytes (iCMs) holds a great promise for regenerative medicine and has been studied in several major directions. However, cell-cycle regulation, a fundamental biological process, has not been investigated during iCM-reprogramming. Here, our time-lapse imaging on iCMs, reprogrammed by Gata4, Mef2c, and Tbx5 (GMT) monocistronic retroviruses, revealed that iCM-reprogramming was majorly initiated at late-G1- or S-phase and nearly half of GMT-reprogrammed iCMs divided soon after reprogramming. iCMs exited cell cycle along the process of reprogramming with decreased percentage of 5-ethynyl-20-deoxyuridine (EdU)⁺/α-myosin heavy chain (αMHC)-GFP⁺ cells. S-phase synchronization post-GMT-infection could enhance cell-cycle exit of reprogrammed iCMs and yield more GFP high iCMs, which achieved an advanced reprogramming with more expression of cardiac genes than GFP low cells. However, S-phase synchronization did not enhance the reprogramming with a polycistronic-viral vector, in which cell-cycle exit had been accelerated. In conclusion, post-infection synchronization of S-phase facilitated the early progression of GMT-reprogramming through a mechanism of enhanced cell-cycle exit.

  16. Extension of quality-by-design concept to the early development phase of pharmaceutical R&D processes.

    PubMed

    Csóka, Ildikó; Pallagi, Edina; Paál, Tamás L

    2018-03-27

    Here, we propose the extension of the quality-by-design (QbD) concept to also fit the early development phases of pharmaceuticals by adding elements that are currently widely applied, but not yet included in the QbD model in a structured way. These are the introduction of a 'zero' preformulation phase (i.e., selection of drug substance, possible dosage forms and administration routes based on the evaluated therapeutic need); building in stakeholders' (industry, patient, and regulatory) requirements into the quality target product profile (QTTP); and the use of modern quality management tools during the composition and process design phase [collecting critical quality attributes (CQAs) and selection of CPPs) for (still laboratory-scale) design space (DS) development. Moreover, during industrial scale-up, CQAs (as well as critical process parameters; CPPs) can be changed; however, we recommend that the existing QbD elements are reconsidered and updated after this phase. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Entropy production during an isothermal phase transition in the early universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaempfer, B.

    The analytical model of Lodenquai and Dixit (1983) and of Bonometto and Matarrese (1983) of an isothermal era in the early universe is extended here to arbitrary temperatures. It is found that a sufficiently large supercooling gives rise to a large entropy production which may significantly dilute the primordial monopole or baryon to entropy ratio. Whether such large supercooling can be achieved depends on the characteristics of the nucleation process.

  18. Assessment of early warning system performance and improvements since it is in operational phase in Romania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ionescu, Constantin; Marmureanu, Alexandru; Marmureanu, Gheorghe; Ortansa Cioflan, Carmen

    2017-04-01

    Earthquake represents a major natural disaster for Romanian territory. The main goal following the occurrence of a strong earthquake is to minimize the total number of fatalities. A rapid early warning system (REWS) was developed in Romania in order to provide 25-35 seconds warning time to Bucharest facilities for the earthquakes with M>5.0. The system consists of four components: a network of strong motion sensors installed in the epicentral area, a redundant communication network, an automatic analyzing system located in the Romanian Data Centre and an alert distribution system. The detection algorithm is based on the magnitude computation using strong motion data and rapid evaluation and scaling relation between the maximum P-wave acceleration measured in the epicentral area and the higher ground motion amplitude recorded in Bucharest. In order to reduce the damages caused by earthquakes, the exploitation of the up to date technology is very important. The information is the key point in the disaster management, and the internet is one of the most used instrument, implying also low costs. The Rapid Early Warning System was expanded to cover all countries affected by major earthquakes originating in the Vrancea seismic area and reduce their impact on existing installations of national interest in neighbouring Romania and elsewhere. REWS provides an efficient instrument for prevention and reaction based on the integrated system for seismic detection in South-Eastern Europe. REWS has been operational since 2013 and sends alert the authorities, hazardous facilities in Romania and Bulgaria (NPP, emergency response agencies etc.) and to public via twitter and some smartphone applications developed in the house. Also, NIEP is part of the UNESCO initiative case on developing a platform on earthquake early warning systems (IP-MEP) that aims to promote and strengthen the development of earthquake early warning systems in earthquake-prone regions of the world by sharing

  19. Deletion of RhoA in Progesterone Receptor-Expressing Cells Leads to Luteal Insufficiency and Infertility in Female Mice.

    PubMed

    El Zowalaty, Ahmed E; Li, Rong; Zheng, Yi; Lydon, John P; DeMayo, Francesco J; Ye, Xiaoqin

    2017-07-01

    Ras homolog gene family, member A (RhoA) is widely expressed throughout the female reproductive system. To assess its role in progesterone receptor-expressing cells, we generated RhoA conditional knockout mice RhoAd/d (RhoAf/f-Pgr-Cre+/-). RhoAd/d female mice had comparable mating activity, serum luteinizing hormone, prolactin, and estradiol levels and ovulation with control but were infertile with progesterone insufficiency, indicating impaired steroidogenesis in RhoAd/d corpus luteum (CL). RhoA was highly expressed in wild-type luteal cells and conditionally deleted in RhoAd/d CL. Gestation day 3.5 (D3.5) RhoAd/d ovaries had reduced numbers of CL, less defined corpus luteal cord formation, and disorganized CL collagen IV staining. RhoAd/d CL had lipid droplet and free cholesterol accumulation, indicating the availability of cholesterol for steroidogenesis, but disorganized β-actin and vimentin staining, indicating disrupted cytoskeleton integrity. Cytoskeleton is important for cytoplasmic cholesterol movement to mitochondria and for regulating mitochondria. Dramatically reduced expression of mitochondrial markers heat shock protein 60 (HSP60), voltage-dependent anion channel, and StAR was detected in RhoAd/d CL. StAR carries out the rate-limiting step of steroidogenesis. StAR messenger RNA expression was reduced in RU486-treated D3.5 wild-type CL and tended to be induced in progesterone-treated D3.5 RhoAd/d CL, with parallel changes of HSP60 expression. These data demonstrated the in vivo function of RhoA in CL luteal cell cytoskeleton integrity, cholesterol transport, StAR expression, and progesterone synthesis, and a positive feedback on StAR expression in CL by progesterone signaling. These findings provide insights into mechanisms of progesterone insufficiency.

  20. Mastitis outcomes on pre-ovulatory follicle diameter, estradiol concentrations, subsequent luteal profiles and conception rate in Buffaloes.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Mohamed Mohsen; Zeitoun, Moustafa M; Hussein, Fekry M

    2017-06-01

    The objectives of this study was to investigate the outcome of mastitis, in its clinical or subclinical forms, on the mean diameter of pre-ovulatory follicle (POF), plasma estradiol concentration on the day of estrus, subsequent luteal profile and subsequent conception rate in buffaloes. Sixty dairy buffalo (Bubalus bubalus) conducted in this study were divided into three groups {healthy (H), n=20; subclinical mastitis (SCM), n=18; and clinical mastitis (CM), n=22}. Ultrasonography of ovaries revealed that mean diameter of POF was larger (P<0.05) in H buffalo (14.35mm) compared to SCM (12.40mm) and CM (10.25mm). Also, plasma estradiol concentration on the day of estrus was higher (P<0.05) in H buffalo compared to SCM and CM counterparts; 34.95 vs. 32.87 and 27.50pg/ml, respectively. Besides, positive correlation was observed between the POF diameter with plasma estradiol concentration in H, SCM and CM buffaloes (r=0.64, 0.74, 0.72 respectively, P<0.05). Moreover, positive correlations (P<0.01) were found on days 9, 12, 16, and 21 post-ovulation between POF diameter and luteal profile. Thus, the conception rate in H buffalo was higher (P<0.05) compared with SCM and CM counterparts; 55% vs. 38.89 and 18.18%, respectively. In conclusion, mastitis in its clinical or subclinical forms disrupts the functioning of the pre-ovulatory follicle on the day of estrus, associated with low follicular estradiol production, resulting in suppression to subsequent luteal profile leading to substantial decrease in pregnancy consequence of buffaloes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. There are differences in cerebral activation between females in distinct menstrual phases during viewing of erotic stimuli: A fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Gizewski, Elke R; Krause, Eva; Karama, Sherif; Baars, Anneke; Senf, Wolfgang; Forsting, Michael

    2006-09-01

    There is evidence that men experience more sexual arousal than women but also that women in mid-luteal phase experience more sexual arousal than women outside this phase. Recently, a few functional brain imaging studies have tackled the issue of gender differences as pertaining to reactions to erotica. The question of whether or not gender differences in reactions to erotica are maintained with women in different phases has not yet been answered from a functional brain imaging perspective. In order to examine this issue, functional MRI was performed in 22 male and 22 female volunteers. Subjects viewed erotic film excerpts alternating with emotionally neutral excerpts in a standard block-design paradigm. Arousal to erotic stimuli was evaluated using standard rating scales after scanning. Two-sample t-test with uncorrected P < 0.001 values for a priori determined region of interests involved in processing of erotic stimuli and with corrected P < 0.05 revealed gender differences: Comparing women in mid-luteal phase and during their menses, superior activation was revealed for women in mid-luteal phase in the anterior cingulate, left insula, and orbitofrontal cortex. A superior activation for men was found in the left thalamus, the bilateral amygdala, the anterior cingulate, the bilateral orbitofrontal, bilateral parahippocampal, and insular regions, which were maintained at a corrected P in the amygdala, the insula, and thalamus. There were no areas of significant superior activation for women neither in mid-luteal phase nor during their menses. Our results indicate that there are differences between women in the two cycle times in cerebral activity during viewing of erotic stimuli. Furthermore, gender differences with women in mid-luteal phases are similar to those in females outside the mid-luteal phase.

  2. Early Detection of Amyloid Plaque in Alzheimer’s Disease Via X-ray Phase CT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    medical imaging, and eight (8) papers published in leading international conferences. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Alzheimer disease, Amyloid plaque, X-ray phase...11 4 Introduction A. Overall: As the elderly population increases, dementia caused by Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has become a major...with an emphasis on improving the performance of G1 and G2, and the development of algorithmic solutions to deal with the issue caused by the

  3. Proteomics analysis identified peroxiredoxin 2 involved in early-phase left ventricular impairment in hamsters with cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Kuzuya, Kentaro; Ichihara, Sahoko; Suzuki, Yuka; Inoue, Chisa; Ichihara, Gaku; Kurimoto, Syota; Oikawa, Shinji

    2018-01-01

    Given the hypothesis that inflammation plays a critical role in the progression of cardiovascular diseases, the aim of the present study was to identify new diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of myocardial proteins involved in early-phase cardiac impairment, using proteomics analysis. Using the two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) combined with MALDI-TOF/TOF tandem mass spectrometry, we compared differences in the expression of proteins in the whole left ventricles between control hamsters, dilated cardiomyopathic hamsters (TO-2), and hypertrophy cardiomyopathic hamsters (Bio14.6) at 6 weeks of age (n = 6, each group). Proteomic analysis identified 10 protein spots with significant alterations, with 7 up-regulated and 3 down-regulated proteins in the left ventricles of both TO-2 and Bio 14.6 hamsters, compared with control hamsters. Of the total alterations, peroxiredoxin 2 (PRDX2) showed significant upregulation in the left ventricles of TO-2 and Bio 14.6 hamsters. Our data suggest that PRDX2, a redox regulating molecule, is involved in early-phase left ventricular impairment in hamsters with cardiomyopathy.

  4. Development and application of a biorelevant dissolution method using USP apparatus 4 in early phase formulation development.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jiang B; Robertson, Vivian K; Rawat, Archana; Flick, Tawnya; Tang, Zhe J; Cauchon, Nina S; McElvain, James S

    2010-10-04

    Dissolution testing is frequently used to determine the rate and extent at which a drug is released from a dosage form, and it plays many important roles throughout drug product development. However, the traditional dissolution approach often emphasizes its application in quality control testing and usually strives to obtain 100% drug release. As a result, dissolution methods are not necessarily biorelevant and meaningful application of traditional dissolution methods in the early phases of drug product development can be very limited. This article will describe the development of a biorelevant in vitro dissolution method using USP apparatus 4, biorelevant media, and real-time online UV analysis. Several case studies in the areas of formulation selection, lot-to-lot variability, and food effect will be presented to demonstrate the application of this method in early phase formulation development. This biorelevant dissolution method using USP apparatus 4 provides a valuable tool to predict certain aspects of the in vivo drug release. It can be used to facilitate the formulation development/selection for pharmacokinetic (PK) and clinical studies. It may also potentially be used to minimize the number of PK studies, and to aid in the design of more efficient PK and clinical studies.

  5. The Diagnostic Usefulness of Serum Total Bile Acid Concentrations in the Early Phase of Acute Pancreatitis of Varied Etiologies.

    PubMed

    Maleszka, Aleksandra; Dumnicka, Paulina; Matuszyk, Aleksandra; Pędziwiatr, Michał; Mazur-Laskowska, Małgorzata; Sporek, Mateusz; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Olszanecki, Rafał; Kuźniewski, Marek; Kuśnierz-Cabala, Beata

    2017-01-06

    The most common causes of acute pancreatitis (AP) are biliary tract diseases with cholestasis and alcohol consumption. In 10%-15% of patients, etiology determination is difficult. Identification of the etiology allows for the implementation of adequate treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of the serum concentrations of total bile acids (TBA) to diagnose AP etiology in the early phase of the disease. We included 66 patients with AP, admitted within the first 24 h from the onset of symptoms. TBA were measured in serum at 24, 48, and 72 h from the onset of AP, using an automated fifth generation assay. The bilirubin-to-TBA ratio (B/TBA) was calculated. TBA was highest on the first day of AP and decreased subsequently. In patients with biliary etiology, serum TBA was significantly higher compared to those with alcoholic and other etiologies. B/TBA was significantly higher in patients with alcoholic etiology. At admission, the cut-off values of 4.7 µmol/L for TBA and 4.22 for the B/TBA ratio allowed for a differentiation between biliary and other etiologies of AP with a diagnostic accuracy of 85 and 83%. Both TBA and B/TBA may help in the diagnosis of AP etiology in the early phase of AP.

  6. Early-phase transmission of Yersinia pestis by unblocked fleas as a mechanism explaining rapidly spreading plague epizootics.

    PubMed

    Eisen, Rebecca J; Bearden, Scott W; Wilder, Aryn P; Montenieri, John A; Antolin, Michael F; Gage, Kenneth L

    2006-10-17

    Plague is a highly virulent disease believed to have killed millions during three historic human pandemics. Worldwide, it remains a threat to humans and is a potential agent of bioterrorism. Dissemination of Yersinia pestis, the etiological agent of plague, by blocked fleas has been the accepted paradigm for flea-borne transmission. However, this mechanism, which requires a lengthy extrinsic incubation period before a short infectious window often followed by death of the flea, cannot sufficiently explain the rapid rate of spread that typifies plague epidemics and epizootics. Inconsistencies between the expected rate of spread by blocked rat fleas and that observed during the Black Death has even caused speculation that plague was not the cause of this medieval pandemic. We used the primary vector to humans in North America, Oropsylla montana, which rarely becomes blocked, as a model for studying alternative flea-borne transmission mechanisms. Our data revealed that, in contrast to the classical blocked flea model, O. montana is immediately infectious, transmits efficiently for at least 4 d postinfection (early phase) and may remain infectious for a long time because the fleas do not suffer block-induced mortality. These factors match the criteria required to drive plague epizootics as defined by recently published mathematical models. The scenario of efficient early-phase transmission by unblocked fleas described in our study calls for a paradigm shift in concepts of how Y. pestis is transmitted during rapidly spreading epizootics and epidemics, including, perhaps, the Black Death.

  7. Recombinant luteinizing hormone priming in early follicular phase for women undergoing in vitro fertilization: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Linli; Bu, Zhiqin; Wang, Keyan; Sun, Yingpu

    2014-04-01

    To investigate the effect of recombinant human luteinizing hormone supplementation (rLH priming) during the early follicular phase on in vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes. In order to evaluate available evidence regarding the efficacy of rLH priming in IVF/ICSI procedures, a systematic review and meta-analysis was preformed. Searches were conducted on MEDLINE®, EMBASE and the Cochrane Database of Clinical Trials without language limitation, but were restricted to randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Three RCTs including 346 patients were included in this meta-analysis, which demonstrated that rLH priming did not increase ongoing pregnancy rate. Although less recombinant follicle-stimulating hormone (rFSH) was required and the oestradiol level was higher on the day of human chorionic gonadotropin administration in the rLH priming group, the numbers of oocytes retrieved and embryos produced were comparable between patients treated with rLH priming and those treated with rFSH alone. This systematic review and meta-analysis has demonstrated that at present there is insufficient evidence that patients undergoing IVF/ICSI may benefit from rLH priming during the early follicular phase.

  8. 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, nucleotide phosophate, and organic and inorganic phosphate levels during the early phases of diabetic ketoacidosis.

    PubMed

    Kanter, Y; Gerson, J R; Bessman, A N

    1977-05-01

    The relation between serum and red blood cell (RBC) inorganic phosphate levels, RBC 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) levels, RBC nucleotide phosphate (Pn), and RBC total phosphate (Pt) levels were studied during the early phases of treatment and recovery from diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). A steady drop in serum inorganic phosphate was found during the first 24 hours of insulin treatment and was most profound at 24 hours. No statistically significant changes (P less than 0.05) were found in red cell inorganic phosphate or nucleotide phosphate levels during the 24-hour study period. The levels of total red cell phosphate were lower in this group of patients than in nonacidotic diabetic subjects and decreased slightly after 24 hours of treatment. The red cell 2,3-DPG levels were low at the initiation of therapy and remained low during the 24-hour study period. Glucose, bicarbonate, lactate, and ketone levels fell in linear patterns with treatment. In view of the current evidence for the effects of low 2,3-DPG on oxygen delivery and the relation of low serum phosphate levels to RBC glycolysis and 2,3-DPG formation, this study reemphasizes the need for phosphate replacement during the early phases of treatment of DKA.

  9. The Diagnostic Usefulness of Serum Total Bile Acid Concentrations in the Early Phase of Acute Pancreatitis of Varied Etiologies

    PubMed Central

    Maleszka, Aleksandra; Dumnicka, Paulina; Matuszyk, Aleksandra; Pędziwiatr, Michał; Mazur-Laskowska, Małgorzata; Sporek, Mateusz; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Olszanecki, Rafał; Kuźniewski, Marek; Kuśnierz-Cabala, Beata

    2017-01-01

    The most common causes of acute pancreatitis (AP) are biliary tract diseases with cholestasis and alcohol consumption. In 10%–15% of patients, etiology determination is difficult. Identification of the etiology allows for the implementation of adequate treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the utility of the serum concentrations of total bile acids (TBA) to diagnose AP etiology in the early phase of the disease. We included 66 patients with AP, admitted within the first 24 h from the onset of symptoms. TBA were measured in serum at 24, 48, and 72 h from the onset of AP, using an automated fifth generation assay. The bilirubin-to-TBA ratio (B/TBA) was calculated. TBA was highest on the first day of AP and decreased subsequently. In patients with biliary etiology, serum TBA was significantly higher compared to those with alcoholic and other etiologies. B/TBA was significantly higher in patients with alcoholic etiology. At admission, the cut-off values of 4.7 µmol/L for TBA and 4.22 for the B/TBA ratio allowed for a differentiation between biliary and other etiologies of AP with a diagnostic accuracy of 85 and 83%. Both TBA and B/TBA may help in the diagnosis of AP etiology in the early phase of AP. PMID:28067818

  10. Regulatory parameters of the lung immune response during the early phase of experimental trichinellosis.

    PubMed

    Falduto, Guido H; Vila, Cecilia C; Saracino, María P; Gentilini, María V; Venturiello, Stella M

    2016-11-15

    Parasitic infection caused by Trichinella spiralis provokes an early stimulation of the mucosal immune system which causes an allergic inflammatory response in the lungs. The present work was intended to characterize the kinetics of emergence of regulatory parameters in Wistar rat lungs during this early inflammatory response, between days 0 and 13p.i. The presence of regulatory cells such as regulatory T cells (Tregs) and alternatively activated macrophages (AAM) was analyzed in lung cell suspensions. Moreover, a regulatory cytokine (TGF-β) was studied in lung tissue extracts. Considering that newborn larvae (NBL) travel along the pulmonary microvasculature, the ability of this parasite stage to modulate the activation of lung macrophages was evaluated. For this purpose, lung macrophages from non-infected or infected rats (day 6p.i.) were cultured with live or dead NBL. Arginase activity (characteristic of AAM) and nitric oxide (NO produced by iNOS, characteristic of classical activated macrophages) were measured after 48h. Our results revealed a significant increase in the percentage of Tregs on days 6 and 13p.i., arginase activity on day 13p.i. and TGF-β levels on days 6 and 13p.i. Lung macrophages from non-infected rats cultured with live NBL showed a significant increase in arginase activity and NO levels. Live and dead NBL induced a significant increase in arginase activity in lung macrophages from infected rats. Only live NBL significantly increased NO levels in these macrophages. The present work demonstrates for the first time, the emergence of regulatory parameters in the early lung immune response during T. spiralis infection. The immumodulatory properties exerted by NBL during its passage through this organ could be the cause of such regulation. Moreover, we have shown the ability of NBL to activate macrophages from the lung parenchyma by the classical and alternative pathways. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Review of hardware cost estimation methods, models and tools applied to early phases of space mission planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trivailo, O.; Sippel, M.; Şekercioğlu, Y. A.

    2012-08-01

    The primary purpose of this paper is to review currently existing cost estimation methods, models, tools and resources applicable to the space sector. While key space sector methods are outlined, a specific focus is placed on hardware cost estimation on a system level, particularly for early mission phases during which specifications and requirements are not yet crystallised, and information is limited. For the space industry, cost engineering within the systems engineering framework is an integral discipline. The cost of any space program now constitutes a stringent design criterion, which must be considered and carefully controlled during the entire program life cycle. A first step to any program budget is a representative cost estimate which usually hinges on a particular estimation approach, or methodology. Therefore appropriate selection of specific cost models, methods and tools is paramount, a difficult task given the highly variable nature, scope as well as scientific and technical requirements applicable to each program. Numerous methods, models and tools exist. However new ways are needed to address very early, pre-Phase 0 cost estimation during the initial program research and establishment phase when system specifications are limited, but the available research budget needs to be established and defined. Due to their specificity, for vehicles such as reusable launchers with a manned capability, a lack of historical data implies that using either the classic heuristic approach such as parametric cost estimation based on underlying CERs, or the analogy approach, is therefore, by definition, limited. This review identifies prominent cost estimation models applied to the space sector, and their underlying cost driving parameters and factors. Strengths, weaknesses, and suitability to specific mission types and classes are also highlighted. Current approaches which strategically amalgamate various cost estimation strategies both for formulation and validation

  12. Interactive Effects of Dopamine Baseline Levels and Cycle Phase on Executive Functions: The Role of Progesterone.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo-Lopez, Esmeralda; Pletzer, Belinda

    2017-01-01

    Estradiol and progesterone levels vary along the menstrual cycle and have multiple neuroactive effects, including on the dopaminergic system. Dopamine relates to executive functions in an "inverted U-shaped" manner and its levels are increased by estradiol. Accordingly, dopamine dependent changes in executive functions along the menstrual cycle have been previously studied in the pre-ovulatory phase, when estradiol levels peak. Specifically it has been demonstrated that working memory is enhanced during the pre-ovulatory phase in women with low dopamine baseline levels, but impaired in women with high dopamine baseline levels. However, the role of progesterone, which peaks in the luteal cycle phase, has not been taken into account previously. Therefore, the main goals of the present study were to extend these findings (i) to the luteal cycle phase and (ii) to other executive functions. Furthermore, the usefulness of the eye blink rate (EBR) as an indicator of dopamine baseline levels in menstrual cycle research was explored. 36 naturally cycling women were tested during three cycle phases (menses-low sex hormones; pre-ovulatory-high estradiol; luteal-high progesterone and estradiol). During each session, women performed a verbal N-back task, as measure of working memory, and a single trial version of the Stroop task, as measure of response inhibition and cognitive flexibility. Hormone levels were assessed from saliva samples and spontaneous eye blink rate was recorded during menses. In the N-back task, women were faster during the luteal phase the higher their progesterone levels, irrespective of their dopamine baseline levels. In the Stroop task, we found a dopamine-cycle interaction, which was also driven by the luteal phase and progesterone levels. For women with higher EBR performance decreased during the luteal phase, whereas for women with lower EBR performance improved during the luteal phase. These findings suggest an important role of progesterone in

  13. Cortisol levels during prolonged exercise: the influence of menstrual phase and menstrual status.

    PubMed

    Kanaley, J A; Boileau, R A; Bahr, J M; Misner, J E; Nelson, R A

    1992-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of menstrual phase and menstrual status on the cortisol response during 90 minutes of treadmill running at 60% VO2max. Eight eumenhorrheic athletes were tested in the early follicular (EF) (day 3-5), late follicular (LF) (day 13-15) and mid-luteal (ML) (day 22-24) phases. Six amenorrheic athletes were tested on two separate occasions. The resting cortisol levels were similar in each menstrual phase and overall a decreasing pattern of cortisol response to exercise was observed in all menstrual phases (P greater than .05). The amenorrheic athletes had a significantly greater (P less than .01) pattern of cortisol response than was observed in eumenorrheic athletes. The net increment in cortisol levels during exercise were distinctly greater (P less than .01) in amenorrheic than eumenorrheic athletes (amenorrheic: 413.8 +/- 113.1, eumenorrheic: EF: -482.8 +/- 88.3, LF: -311.8 +/- 102.1, ML: -386.3 +/- 146.2 nmol.l-1). In conclusion the cortisol levels are independent of menstrual phase. Also a larger cortisol increment is observed in amenorrheic athletes in response to prolonged submaximal exercise. The elevated cortisol levels in amenorrheics at rest and throughout exercise provides further evidence that disturbances in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function are associated with exercise-induced amenorrhea, although the site(s) of physiological disturbance have not been identified.

  14. Solid Waste Processing: An Essential Technology for the Early Phases of Mars Exploration and Colonization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wignarajah, Kanapathipillai; Pisharody, Suresh; Fisher, John; Flynn, Michael; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Terraforming of Mars is the long-term goal of colonization of Mars. However, this process is likely to be a very slow process and conservative estimates involving a synergic, technocentric approach estimate that it may take around 10,000 years before the planet can be parallel to that of Earth and where humans can live in open systems. Hence, any early missions will require the presence of a closed life support system where all wastes, both solids and liquids, will need to be recycled or where all consumables will need to be supplied. The economics of both are often a matter of speculation and conjecture, but some attempt is made here to evaluate the choice. If a choice is made to completely resupply and eject the waste mass, a number of unknown issues are at hand. On the other hand, processing of the wastes, will enable predictability and reliability of the ecosystem. Solid wastes though smaller in volume and mass than the liquid wastes contains more than 90% of the essential elements required by humans and plants. Further, if left unprocessed they present a serious risk to human health. This paper presents the use of well established technology in processing solid wastes, ensuring that the biogeochemical cycles of ecosystems are maintained, reliability of the closed life support system maintained and the establishment of the early processes necessary for the permanent presence of humans on Mars.

  15. Hypokalemia during the early phase of refeeding in patients with cancer

    PubMed Central

    Grasso, Simona; Ferro, Yvelise; Migliaccio, Valeria; Mazza, Elisa; Rotundo, Stefania; Pujia, Arturo; Montalcini, Tiziana

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Refeeding syndrome occurs in patients with severe malnutrition when refeeding begins after a long period of starvation. This syndrome increases the risk of clinical complications and mortality. Hypophosphatemia is considered the primary characteristic of the syndrome. The aim of our study was to investigate the presence of other electrolyte alterations in patients with cancer during the early stage of refeeding. METHODS: In this observational study, we enrolled 34 patients with cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract receiving upfront radiotherapy who were also enrolled in a nutrition program. A caloric intake assessment, anthropometric measurements and biochemical laboratory tests were performed. RESULTS: Significant weight loss (∼20%) was found in these patients. In the patients receiving artificial nutrition, we found lower levels of potassium and total protein compared with those who were fed orally (p = 0.03 for potassium and 0.02 for protein, respectively). Patients on enteral tube feeding had a higher caloric intake compared with those who were fed orally (25±5 kcal/kg/day vs. 10±2 kcal/kg/day). CONCLUSION: Hypokalemia, like hypophosphatemia, could be a complication associated with refeeding in patients with cancer. Hypokalemia was present in the early stages of high-calorie refeeding. PMID:24270952

  16. Aural exostoses (surfer's ear) provide vital fossil evidence of an aquatic phase in Man's early evolution.

    PubMed

    Rhys Evans, P H; Cameron, M

    2017-11-01

    For over a century, otolaryngologists have recognised the condition of aural exostoses, but their significance and aetiology remains obscure, although they tend to be associated with frequent swimming and cold water immersion of the auditory canal. The fact that this condition is usually bilateral is predictable since both ears are immersed in water. However, why do exostoses only grow in swimmers and why do they grow in the deep bony meatus at two or three constant sites? Furthermore, from an evolutionary point of view, what is or was the purpose and function of these rather incongruous protrusions? In recent decades, paleoanthropological evidence has challenged ideas about early hominid evolution. In 1992 the senior author suggested that aural exostoses were evolved in early hominid Man for protection of the delicate tympanic membrane during swimming and diving by narrowing the ear canal in a similar fashion to other semiaquatic species. We now provide evidence for this theory and propose an aetiological explanation for the formation of exostoses.

  17. A study of cannabinoid-1 receptors during the early phase of excitotoxic damage to rat spinal locomotor networks in vitro.

    PubMed

    Veeraraghavan, Priyadharishini; Dekanic, Ana; Nistri, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    Endocannabinoids acting on cannabinoid-1 receptors (CB1Rs) are proposed to protect brain and spinal neurons from excitotoxic damage. The ability to recover from spinal cord injury (SCI), in which excitotoxicity is a major player, is usually investigated at late times after modulation of CB1Rs whose role in the early phases of SCI remains unclear. Using the rat spinal cord in vitro as a model for studying SCI initial pathophysiology, we investigated if agonists or antagonists of CB1Rs might affect SCI induced by the excitotoxic agent kainate (KA) within 24h from a transient (1h) application of this glutamate agonist. The CB1 agonist anandamide (AEA or pharmacological block of its degradation) did not limit excitotoxic depolarization of spinal networks: cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) assay demonstrated that CB1Rs remained functional 24h later and similarly expressed among dead or survived cells. Locomotor-like network activity recorded from ventral roots could not recover with such treatments and was associated with persistent depression of synaptic transmission. Motoneurons, that are particularly vulnerable to KA, were not protected by AEA. Application of 2-arachidonoylglycerol also did not attenuate the electrophysiological and histological damage. The intensification of damage by the CB1 antagonist AM251 suggested that endocannabinoids were operative after excitotoxic stimulation, yet insufficient to contrast it efficiently. The present data indicate that the early phases of excitotoxic SCI could not be arrested by pharmacologically exploiting the endocannabinoid system, consistent with the notion that AEA and its derivatives are more useful to treat late SCI phases. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Clinical factors of response in patients with advanced ovarian cancer participating in early phase clinical trials.

    PubMed

    George, Angela; Kristeleit, Rebecca; Rafii, Saeed; Michie, Caroline O; Bowen, Rebecca; Michalarea, Vasiliki; van Hagen, Tom; Wong, Mabel; Rallis, Grigorios; Molife, L Rhoda; Lopez, Juanita; Banerji, Udai; Banerjee, Susana N; Gore, Martin E; de Bono, Johann S; Kaye, Stan B; Yap, Timothy A

    2017-05-01

    Drug resistance to conventional anticancer therapies is almost inevitable in patients with advanced ovarian cancer (AOC), limiting their available treatment options. Novel phase I trial therapies within a dedicated drug development unit may represent a viable alternative; however, there is currently little evidence for patient outcomes in such patients. To address this, we undertook a retrospective review of patients with AOC allocated to phase I trials in the Drug Development Unit at Royal Marsden Hospital (RMH) between June 1998 and October 2010. A total of 200 AOC patients with progressive disease were allocated to ≥1 trial each, with a total of 281 allocations. Of these, 135 (68%) patients commenced ≥1 trial (mean 1.4 [1-8]), totaling 216 allocated trials; 65 (32%) patients did not start due to deterioration resulting from rapidly progressive disease (63 patients) or patient choice (2 patients). Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (RECIST) complete/partial responses (CR/PR) were observed in 43 (20%) of those starting trials, including those on poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors (18/79 [23%]), antiangiogenics (9/65 [14%]) and chemotherapy combinations (14/43 [33%]). Factors associated with CR/PR included: fewer prior treatments, platinum-sensitive disease, CR/PR with prior therapy, (the United States-based) Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status score, fewer metastatic sites, higher albumin and haemoglobin levels, lower white cell counts and baseline CA125 levels, germline BRCA1/2 mutations and better RMH Prognostic Score. Mean survival was 32° months for patients who achieved CR/PR. Treatments were generally well tolerated. Most patients with AOC (134/200 [67%]) received ≥1 subsequent line of therapy after phase I trials. Our data suggest that phase I trial referrals should be considered earlier in the AOC treatment pathway and before the onset of rapid disease progression particularly with the emergence of

  19. Early Detection of Amyloid Plaque in Alzheimer’s Disease via X-Ray Phase CT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    fibrils in the x-ray phase contrast CT imaging, as a function over the molar concentrations corresponding to normal, pathologic and Alzheimer’s...panel imagers and the artifact removal using a wavelet -analysis-based algorithm” Med. Phys., 28(3): 812-25, 2001. 4. X Wu and H Liu, “Clinical...and the artifact removal using a wavelet -analysis-based algorithm” Med. Phys., 28(3): 812-25, 2001 12. Tang X, Hsieh J, Nilsen RA, Hagiwara A

  20. Effects of intraluteal implants of prostaglandin E1 or E2 on angiogenic growth factors in luteal tissue of Angus and Brahman cows.

    PubMed

    Weems, Yoshie S; Ma, Yan; Ford, Stephen P; Nett, Terry M; Vann, Rhonda C; Lewis, Andrew W; Neuendorff, Don A; Welsh, Thomas H; Randel, Ronald D; Weems, Charles W

    2014-12-01

    Previously, it was reported that intraluteal implants containing prostaglandin E1 or E2 (PGE1 and PGE2) in Angus or Brahman cows prevented luteolysis by preventing loss of mRNA expression for luteal LH receptors and luteal unoccupied and occupied LH receptors. In addition, intraluteal implants containing PGE1 or PGE2 upregulated mRNA expression for FP prostanoid receptors and downregulated mRNA expression for EP2 and EP4 prostanoid receptors. Luteal weight during the estrous cycle of Brahman cows was reported to be lesser than that of Angus cows but not during pregnancy. The objective of this experiment was to determine whether intraluteal implants containing PGE1 or PGE2 alter vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), angiopoietin-1 (ANG-1), and angiopoietin-2 (ANG-2) protein in Brahman or Angus cows. On Day 13 of the estrous cycle, Angus cows received no intraluteal implant and corpora lutea were retrieved, or Angus and Brahman cows received intraluteal silastic implants containing vehicle, PGE1, or PGE2 on Day 13 and corpora lutea were retrieved on Day 19. Corpora lutea slices were analyzed for VEGF, FGF-2, ANG-1, and ANG-2 angiogenic proteins via Western blot. Day-13 Angus cow luteal tissue served as preluteolytic controls. Data for VEGF were not affected (P > 0.05) by day, breed, or treatment. PGE1 or PGE2 increased (P < 0.05) FGF-2 in luteal tissue of Angus cows compared with Day-13 and Day-19 Angus controls but decreased (P < 0.05) FGF-2 in luteal tissue of Brahman cows when compared w Day-13 or Day-19 Angus controls. There was no effect (P > 0.05) of PGE1 or PGE2 on ANG-1 in Angus luteal tissue when compared with Day-13 or Day-19 controls, but ANG-1 was decreased (P < 0.05) by PGE1 or PGE2 in Brahman cows when compared with Day-19 Brahman controls. ANG-2 was increased (P < 0.05) on Day 19 in Angus Vehicle controls when compared with Day-13 Angus controls, which was prevented (P < 0.05) by PGE1 but not by PGE2 in Angus

  1. Studies of high temperature ternary phases in mixed-metal-rich early transition metal sulfide and phosphide systems

    SciTech Connect

    Marking, Gregory Allen

    1994-01-04

    Investigations of ternary mixed early transition metal-rich sulfide and phosphide systems resulted in the discovery of new structures and new phases. A new series of Zr and Hf - group V transition metal - sulfur K-phases was synthesized and crystallographically characterized. When the group V transition metal was Nb or Ta, the unit cell volume was larger than any previously reported K-phase. The presence of adventitious oxygen was determined in two K-phases through a combination of neutron scattering and X-ray diffraction experiments. A compound Hf 10Ta 3S 3 was found to crystallize in a new-structure type similar to the knownmore » gamma brasses. This structure is unique in that it is the only reported "stuffed" gamma-brass type structure. The metal components, Hf and Ta, are larger in size and more electropositive than the metals found in normal gamma brasses (e.g. Cu and Zn) and because of the larger metallic radii, sulfur can be incorporated into the structure where it plays an integral role in stabilizing this phase relative to others. X-ray single-crystal, X-ray powder and neutron powder refinements were performed on this structure. A new structure was found in the ternary Nb-Zr-P system which has characteristics in common with many known early transition metal-rich sulfides, selenides, and phosphides. This structure has the simplest known interconnection of the basic building blocks known for this structural class. Anomalous scattering was a powerful tool for differentiating between Zr and Nb when using Mo Kα X-radiation. The compounds ZrNbP and HfNbP formed in the space group Prima with the simple Co 2Si structure which is among the most common structures found for crystalline solid materials. Solid solution compounds in the Ta-Nb-P, Ta-Zr-P, Nb-Zr-P, Hf-Nb-P, and Hf-Zr-S systems were crystallographically characterized. The structural information corroborated ideas about bonding in metal-rich compounds.« less

  2. Metabolic and structural changes during early maturation of Inga vera seeds are consistent with the lack of a desiccation phase.

    PubMed

    Caccere, Rodrigo; Teixeira, Simone P; Centeno, Danilo C; Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia L; Braga, Márcia R

    2013-06-15

    Inga vera, native to South America, is an important leguminous species used for ecological restoration of riparian forests and its seeds are among the most recalcitrant ones described up to date. In this work, we analysed the metabolic profile, cell ultrastructure as well as cell wall polysaccharides of I. vera seeds in order to better understand its maturation, which allows embryo germination without a quiescent phase. Increased amounts of citric, glutamic, pyroglutamic, and aspartic acids from stages I to II (120 and 129 days after flowering (DAF)) corroborate the hypothesis of high metabolism, shifting from fermentative to aerobic respiration at seed maturity. This phase was characterized by an extensive vacuolization of embryonic cells, which also indicate high metabolic activity. The proportion of arabinose in the cell walls of embryonic axis (approx. 20%) was lower than those found in some orthodox seeds (nearly 40%), suggesting that arabinose-containing polysaccharides, which are thought to provide more flexibility to the cell wall during natural drying, are less abundant in I. vera seeds. Taken together, our results provide evidence that the major changes occurred during early stages of seed maturation of I. vera, indicating that the rapid temporary metabolic shift observed between stages I and II may be related to the lack of desiccation phase, moving directly to germination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. The scaffold protein Nde1 safeguards the brain genome during S phase of early neural progenitor differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Houlihan, Shauna L; Feng, Yuanyi

    2014-01-01

    Successfully completing the S phase of each cell cycle ensures genome integrity. Impediment of DNA replication can lead to DNA damage and genomic disorders. In this study, we show a novel function for NDE1, whose mutations cause brain developmental disorders, in safeguarding the genome through S phase during early steps of neural progenitor fate restrictive differentiation. Nde1 mutant neural progenitors showed catastrophic DNA double strand breaks concurrent with the DNA replication. This evoked DNA damage responses, led to the activation of p53-dependent apoptosis, and resulted in the reduction of neurons in cortical layer II/III. We discovered a nuclear pool of Nde1, identified the interaction of Nde1 with cohesin and its associated chromatin remodeler, and showed that stalled DNA replication in Nde1 mutants specifically occurred in mid-late S phase at heterochromatin domains. These findings suggest that NDE1-mediated heterochromatin replication is indispensible for neuronal differentiation, and that the loss of NDE1 function may lead to genomic neurological disorders. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.03297.001 PMID:25245017

  4. A Very Early Rehabilitation Trial after stroke (AVERT): a Phase III, multicentre, randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Langhorne, Peter; Wu, Olivia; Rodgers, Helen; Ashburn, Ann; Bernhardt, Julie

    2017-09-01

    Mobilising patients early after stroke [early mobilisation (EM)] is thought to contribute to the beneficial effects of stroke unit care but it is poorly defined and lacks direct evidence of benefit. We assessed the effectiveness of frequent higher dose very early mobilisation (VEM) after stroke. We conducted a parallel-group, single-blind, prospective randomised controlled trial with blinded end-point assessment using a web-based computer-generated stratified randomisation. The trial took place in 56 acute stroke units in five countries. We included adult patients with a first or recurrent stroke who met physiological inclusion criteria. Patients received either usual stroke unit care (UC) or UC plus VEM commencing within 24 hours of stroke. The primary outcome was good recovery [modified Rankin scale (mRS) score of 0-2] 3 months after stroke. Secondary outcomes at 3 months were the mRS, time to achieve walking 50 m, serious adverse events, quality of life (QoL) and costs at 12 months. Tertiary outcomes included a dose-response analysis. Patients, outcome assessors and investigators involved in the trial were blinded to treatment allocation. We recruited 2104 (UK, n  = 610; Australasia, n  = 1494) patients: 1054 allocated to VEM and 1050 to UC. Intervention protocol targets were achieved. Compared with UC, VEM patients mobilised 4.8 hours [95% confidence interval (CI) 4.1 to 5.7 hours; p  < 0.0001] earlier, with an additional three (95% CI 3.0 to 3.5; p  < 0.0001) mobilisation sessions per day. Fewer patients in the VEM group ( n  = 480, 46%) had a favourable outcome than in the UC group ( n  = 525, 50%) (adjusted odds ratio 0.73, 95% CI 0.59 to 0.90; p  = 0.004). Results were consistent between Australasian and UK settings. There were no statistically significant differences in secondary outcomes at 3 months and QoL at 12 months. Dose-response analysis found a consistent pattern of an improved odds of efficacy and safety outcomes in

  5. Monitoring early phases of orthodontic treatment by means of Raman spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    d'Apuzzo, Fabrizia; Perillo, Letizia; Delfino, Ines; Portaccio, Marianna; Lepore, Maria; Camerlingo, Carlo

    2017-11-01

    Gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) is a site-specific exudate in the gingival sulcus. GCF composition changes in response to diseases or mechanical stimuli, such as those occurring during orthodontic treatments. Raman microspectroscopy (μ-RS) and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) were adopted for a GCF analysis during different initial phases of orthodontic force application. GCF samples were pooled from informed patients using paper cones. SERS spectra were obtained from GCF extracted from these cones, whereas μ-RS spectra were directly acquired on paper cones without any manipulation. The spectral characteristics of the main functional groups and the changes in cytochrome, amide III, and amide I contributions were highlighted in the different phases of orthodontic treatment with both SERS and μ-RS analysis. μ-RS directly performed on the paper cones together with proper statistical methods can offer an effective approach for the development of a tool for monitoring the processes occurring during orthodontic treatments, which may help the clinician in the choice of type of treatment individually for each patient and accelerate and improve the orthodontic therapy.

  6. A Pronounced Inflammatory Activity Characterizes the Early Fracture Healing Phase in Immunologically Restricted Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hoff, Paula; Gaber, Timo; Strehl, Cindy; Jakstadt, Manuela; Hoff, Holger; Schmidt-Bleek, Katharina; Lang, Annemarie; Röhner, Eric; Huscher, Dörte; Matziolis, Georg; Burmester, Gerd-Rüdiger; Schmidmaier, Gerhard; Perka, Carsten; Duda, Georg N.; Buttgereit, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Immunologically restricted patients such as those with autoimmune diseases or malignancies often suffer from delayed or insufficient fracture healing. In human fracture hematomas and the surrounding bone marrow obtained from immunologically restricted patients, we analyzed the initial inflammatory phase on cellular and humoral level via flow cytometry and multiplex suspension array. Compared with controls, we demonstrated higher numbers of immune cells like monocytes/macrophages, natural killer T (NKT) cells, and activated T helper cells within the fracture hematomas and/or the surrounding bone marrow. Also, several pro-inflammatory cytokines such as Interleukin (IL)-6 and Tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), chemokines (e.g., Eotaxin and RANTES), pro-angiogenic factors (e.g., IL-8 and Macrophage migration inhibitory factor: MIF), and regulatory cytokines (e.g., IL-10) were found at higher levels within the fracture hematomas and/or the surrounding bone marrow of immunologically restricted patients when compared to controls. We conclude here that the inflammatory activity on cellular and humoral levels at fracture sites of immunologically restricted patients considerably exceeds that of control patients. The initial inflammatory phase profoundly differs between these patient groups and is probably one of the reasons for prolonged or insufficient fracture healing often occurring within immunologically restricted patients. PMID:28282868

  7. Two-stage phase II oncology designs using short-term endpoints for early stopping.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Cornelia U; Wason, James Ms; Kieser, Meinhard

    2017-08-01

    Phase II oncology trials are conducted to evaluate whether the tumour activity of a new treatment is promising enough to warrant further investigation. The most commonly used approach in this context is a two-stage single-arm design with binary endpoint. As for all designs with interim analysis, its efficiency strongly depends on the relation between recruitment rate and follow-up time required to measure the patients' outcomes. Usually, recruitment is postponed after the sample size of the first stage is achieved up until the outcomes of all patients are available. This may lead to a considerable increase of the trial length and with it to a delay in the drug development process. We propose a design where an intermediate endpoint is used in the interim analysis to decide whether or not the study is continued with a second stage. Optimal and minimax versions of this design are derived. The characteristics of the proposed design in terms of type I error rate, power, maximum and expected sample size as well as trial duration are investigated. Guidance is given on how to select the most appropriate design. Application is illustrated by a phase II oncology trial in patients with advanced angiosarcoma, which motivated this research.

  8. Melatonin deprival modifies follicular and corpus luteal growth dynamics in a sheep model.

    PubMed

    Manca, Maria Elena; Manunta, Maria Lucia; Spezzigu, Antonio; Torres-Rovira, Laura; Gonzalez-Bulnes, Antonio; Pasciu, Valeria; Piu, Peter; Leoni, Giovanni G; Succu, Sara; Chesneau, Didier; Naitana, Salvatore; Berlinguer, Fiammetta

    2014-06-01

    This study assessed the effect of melatonin deprival on ovarian status and function in sheep. Experimental procedures were carried out within two consecutive breeding seasons. Animals were divided into two groups: pinealectomised (n=6) and sham-operated (n=6). The completeness of the pineal gland removal was confirmed by the plasma concentration of melatonin. Ovarian status was monitored by ovarian ultrasonography for 1 year to study reproductive seasonality. Follicular and corpus luteal growth dynamics were assessed during an induced oestrous cycle. As the effects of melatonin on the ovary may also be mediated by its antioxidant properties, plasma Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) was determined monthly for 1 year. Pinealectomy significantly extended the breeding season (310±24.7 vs 217.5±24.7 days in controls; P<0.05). Both pinealectomised and sham-operated ewes showed a well-defined wave-like pattern of follicle dynamics; however, melatonin deficiency caused fewer waves during the oestrous cycle (4.3±0.2 vs 5.2±0.2; P<0.05), because waves were 1 day longer when compared with the controls (7.2±0.3 vs 6.1±0.3; P<0.05). The mean area of the corpora lutea (105.4±5.9 vs 65.4±5.9 mm(2); P<0.05) and plasma progesterone levels (7.1±0.7 vs 4.9±0.6 ng/ml; P<0.05) were significantly higher in sham-operated ewes compared with pinealectomised ewes. In addition, TEAC values were significantly lower in pinealectomised ewes compared with control ones. These data suggest that melatonin, besides exerting its well-known role in the synchronisation of seasonal reproductive fluctuations, influences the growth pattern of the follicles and the steroidogenic capacity of the corpus luteum. © 2014 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  9. Effects of TORC1 Inhibition during the Early and Established Phases of Polycystic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ta, Michelle H. T.; Schwensen, Kristina G.; Foster, Sheryl; Korgaonkar, Mayuresh; Ozimek-Kulik, Justyna E.; Phillips, Jacqueline K.; Peduto, Anthony; Rangan, Gopala K.

    2016-01-01

    The disease-modifying effects of target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) inhibitors during different stages of polycystic kidney disease (PKD) are not well defined. In this study, male Lewis Polycystic Kidney Disease (LPK) rats (a genetic ortholog of human NPHP9, phenotypically characterised by diffuse distal nephron cystic growth) and Lewis controls received either vehicle (V) or sirolimus (S, 0.2 mg/kg by intraperitoneal injection 5 days per week) during the early (postnatal weeks 3 to 10) or late stages of disease (weeks 10 to 20). In early-stage disease, sirolimus reduced kidney enlargement (by 63%), slowed the rate of increase in total kidney volume (TKV) in serial MRI by 78.2% (LPK+V: 132.3±59.7 vs. LPK+S: 28.8±12.0% per week) but only partly reduced the percentage renal cyst area (by 19%) and did not affect the decline in endogenous creatinine clearance (CrCl) in LPK rats. In late-stage disease, sirolimus reduced kidney enlargement (by 22%) and the rate of increase in TKV by 71.8% (LPK+V: 13.1±6.6 vs. LPK+S: 3.7±3.7% per week) but the percentage renal cyst area was unaltered, and the CrCl only marginally better. Sirolimus reduced renal TORC1 activation but not TORC2, NF-κB DNA binding activity, CCL2 or TNFα expression, and abnormalities in cilia ultrastructure, hypertension and cardiac disease were also not improved. Thus, the relative treatment efficacy of TORC1 inhibition on kidney enlargement was consistent at all disease stages, but the absolute effect was determined by the timing of drug initiation. Furthermore, cystic microarchitecture, renal function and cardiac disease remain abnormal with TORC1 inhibition, indicating that additional approaches to normalise cellular dedifferentiation, inflammation and hypertension are required to completely arrest the progression of PKDs. PMID:27723777

  10. Changes in long luteal protocol affects the number of days of stimulation: evolution of an assisted reproductive technology practice.

    PubMed

    Palmer, C Benjamin; Forstein, David A; Higdon, H Lee; Boone, William R

    2011-01-01

    To determine if the types of drugs used in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation influence the number of days of stimulation. This retrospective study of couples presenting at an assisted reproductive technology (ART) facility January 1997 through December 2007 included patients who were < 40 years of age, had a body mass index (BMI) of 20-35, used fresh sperm or oocytes, had > or = 3 embryos available on day 3, never had previous ART, and did not use a gestational carrier. Data analysis was limited to patients treated with long luteal stimulation. Data were separated into two groups: patients stimulated with urinary drugs and those stimulated with recombinant drugs. The groups were not different in age and day 3 follicle-stimulating hormone values, but were different in BMI, diagnoses, and fertilization methods. There were a significantly greater number of days of stimulation, total number of follicles produced, and peak estradiol level in the recombinant group. The recombinant group had less drug given per day, less endometrial thickness, and fewer embryos transferred. A change in our long luteal stimulation protocol appears to have lengthened the days of stimulation for our patients without altering pregnancy rate.

  11. Effects of different five-day progesterone-based fixed-time AI protocols on follicular/luteal dynamics and fertility in dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    GARCIA-ISPIERTO, Irina; LÓPEZ-GATIUS, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    This study compares in two experiments the responses of lactating dairy cows to four different progesterone-based protocols for fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) in terms of their effects on follicular/luteal dynamics and fertility. The protocols consisted of a progesterone intravaginal device fitted for five days, along with the administration of different combinations of gonadotropin releasing hormone, equine chorionic gonadotropin and a single or double dose (24 h apart) of prostaglandin F2α. In Experiment I, the data were derived from 232 lactating cows. Binary logistic regression identified no effects of treatment on ovulation failure or multiple ovulation 10 days post artificial insemination (AI). Based on the odds ratio, the likelihood of ovulation failure was lower (by a factor of 0.1) in cows showing at least one corpus luteum (CL) upon treatment than in cows lacking a CL; repeat breeders (> 3 AI) and cows with multiple CLs at treatment showed lower (by a factor of 0.44) and higher (by a factor of 9.0) risks of multiple ovulation, respectively, than the remaining animals. In Experiment II, the data were derived from 5173 AIs. The independent variable treatment failed to affect the conception rate 28–34 days post AI, twin pregnancy or early fetal loss 58–64 days post AI. The results of this study demonstrate the efficacy of 5-day progesterone-based protocols for FTAI. All four protocols examined were able to induce ovulation in both cyclic and non-cyclic animals so that FTAI returned a similar pregnancy rate to spontaneous estrus. Our results suggest that the ovarian response and fertility resulting from each treatment are due more to the effect of ovarian structures at treatment than to the different combinations of hormones investigated. PMID:25196275

  12. Reconstruction of early phase deformations by integrated magnetic and mesotectonic data evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipos, András A.; Márton, Emő; Fodor, László

    2018-02-01

    Markers of brittle faulting are widely used for recovering past deformation phases. Rocks often have oriented magnetic fabrics, which can be interpreted as connected to ductile deformation before cementation of the sediment. This paper reports a novel statistical procedure for simultaneous evaluation of AMS (Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility) and fault-slip data. The new method analyzes the AMS data, without linearization techniques, so that weak AMS lineation and rotational AMS can be assessed that are beyond the scope of classical methods. This idea is extended to the evaluation of fault-slip data. While the traditional assumptions of stress inversion are not rejected, the method recovers the stress field via statistical hypothesis testing. In addition it provides statistical information needed for the combined evaluation of the AMS and the mesotectonic (0.1 to 10 m) data. In the combined evaluation a statistical test is carried out that helps to decide if the AMS lineation and the mesotectonic markers (in case of repeated deformation of the oldest set of markers) were formed in the same or different deformation phases. If this condition is met, the combined evaluation can improve the precision of the reconstruction. When the two data sets do not have a common solution for the direction of the extension, the deformational origin of the AMS is questionable. In this case the orientation of the stress field responsible for the AMS lineation might be different from that which caused the brittle deformation. Although most of the examples demonstrate the reconstruction of weak deformat