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Sample records for early martian dynamo

  1. The effect of giant impactors on the magnetic field energy of an early Martian dynamo.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drummond, McGregor; Thieulot, Cedric; Monteux, Julien

    2016-04-01

    Through the cratering record embedded on its surface, Mars is one of the key planets required for investigating the formation and impact frequency in the early history of our Solar System. This record also holds clues to the events that may have caused the observed hemispheric dichotomy and cessation of the magnetic field that was present within the first 500 Myr of the planets' formation. We investigate the influence of giant impacts on the early Martian dynamo using the numerical dynamo modelling code PARODY-JA [1]. We hypothesize that the input heat from a giant impact will decrease the total heat flux at the CMB through mantle heating which leads to a decrease in the Rayleigh number of the core. As boundary conditions for the heat flux anomaly size, we use numerical results of a 750 km diameter impactor from the Monteux and Arkani-Hamed, 2014 [2] study which investigated impact heating and core merging of giant impacts in early Mars. We also determine the decrease in Rayleigh number from the change in total heat flux at the CMB using these results, where the decrease after impact is due to shock heating at the CMB. We calculate the time-averaged total magnetic field energy for an initial homogeneous heat flux model using a range of Rayleigh numbers (5 x 103 - 1 x 10^5). The Rayleigh number is then decreased for three new models - homogeneous, north pole impact and equatorial impact - and the time-averaged energy again determined. We find that the energy decreases more in our impact models, compared with the homogeneous, along with a variation in energy between the north pole and equatorial impact models. We conclude that giant impacts in Mars' early history would have decreased the total magnetic energy of the field and the decrease in energy is also dependent on the location of the impact. The magnetic field could have been disrupted beyond recovery from a planetesimal-sized collision; such as the suggested Borealis basin forming impact, or through the

  2. Geophysics: Timing of the Martian dynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, G.; Russell, C. T.; Moore, W. B.

    2000-12-01

    On Mars, the strong magnetization in the highland crust of the southern hemisphere and the absence of magnetic anomalies at the Hellas and Argyre impact basins have been taken as signs that the core dynamo that once drove the planet's magnetic field turned off more than 4 billion years (Gyr) ago. Here, we argue instead that the Martian dynamo turned on less than 4 Gyr ago and turned off at an unknown time since then. High spatial resolution magnetometry in both Martian hemispheres is needed to reveal the true history of the Martian dynamo.

  3. Could giant basin-forming impacts have killed Martian dynamo?

    PubMed Central

    Kuang, W; Jiang, W; Roberts, J; Frey, H V

    2014-01-01

    The observed strong remanent crustal magnetization at the surface of Mars suggests an active dynamo in the past and ceased to exist around early to middle Noachian era, estimated by examining remagnetization strengths in extant and buried impact basins. We investigate whether the Martian dynamo could have been killed by these large basin-forming impacts, via numerical simulation of subcritical dynamos with impact-induced thermal heterogeneity across the core-mantle boundary. We find that subcritical dynamos are prone to the impacts centered on locations within 30° of the equator but can easily survive those at higher latitudes. Our results further suggest that magnetic timing places a strong constraint on postimpact polar reorientation, e.g., a minimum 16° polar reorientation is needed if Utopia is the dynamo killer. PMID:26074641

  4. Could Giant Basin-Forming Impacts Have Killed Martian Dynamo?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuang, W.; Jiang, W.; Roberts, J.; Frey, H. V.

    2014-01-01

    The observed strong remanent crustal magnetization at the surface of Mars suggests an active dynamo in the past and ceased to exist around early to middle Noachian era, estimated by examining remagnetization strengths in extant and buried impact basins. We investigate whether the Martian dynamo could have been killed by these large basin-forming impacts, via numerical simulation of subcritical dynamos with impact-induced thermal heterogeneity across the core-mantle boundary. We find that subcritical dynamos are prone to the impacts centered on locations within 30 deg of the equator but can easily survive those at higher latitudes. Our results further suggest that magnetic timing places a strong constraint on postimpact polar reorientation, e.g., a minimum 16 deg polar reorientation is needed if Utopia is the dynamo killer.

  5. Could giant basin-forming impacts have killed Martian dynamo?

    PubMed

    Kuang, W; Jiang, W; Roberts, J; Frey, H V

    2014-11-28

    The observed strong remanent crustal magnetization at the surface of Mars suggests an active dynamo in the past and ceased to exist around early to middle Noachian era, estimated by examining remagnetization strengths in extant and buried impact basins. We investigate whether the Martian dynamo could have been killed by these large basin-forming impacts, via numerical simulation of subcritical dynamos with impact-induced thermal heterogeneity across the core-mantle boundary. We find that subcritical dynamos are prone to the impacts centered on locations within 30° of the equator but can easily survive those at higher latitudes. Our results further suggest that magnetic timing places a strong constraint on postimpact polar reorientation, e.g., a minimum 16° polar reorientation is needed if Utopia is the dynamo killer.

  6. Evidence for a Second Martian Dynamo from Electron Reflection Magnetometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lillis, R. J.; Manga, M.; Mitchell, D. L.; Lin, R. P.; Acuna, M. H.

    2005-01-01

    Present-day Mars does not possess an active core dynamo and associated global magnetic field. However, the discovery of intensely magnetized crust in Mars Southern hemisphere implies that a Martian dynamo has existed in the past. Resolving the history of the Martian core dynamo is important for understanding the evolution of the planet's interior. Moreover, because the global magnetic field provided by an active dynamo can shield the atmosphere from erosion by the solar wind, it may have influenced past Martian climate. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract.

  7. Constraining the Date of the Martian Dynamo Shutdown by Means of Crater Magnetization Signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vervelidou, Foteini; Lesur, Vincent; Grott, Matthias; Morschhauser, Achim; Lillis, Robert J.

    2017-11-01

    Mars is believed to have possessed a dynamo that ceased operating approximately 4 Ga ago, although the exact time is still under debate. The scope of this study is to constrain the possible timing of its cessation by studying the magnetization signatures of craters. The study uses the latest available model of the lithospheric magnetic field of Mars, which is based on Mars Global Surveyor data. We tackle the problem of nonuniqueness that characterizes the inversion of magnetic field data for the magnetization by inferring only the visible part of the magnetization, that is, the part of the magnetization that gives rise to the observed magnetic field. Further on, we demonstrate that a zero visible magnetization is a valid proxy for the entire magnetization being zero under the assumption of a magnetization distribution of induced geometry. This assumption holds for craters whose thermoremanent magnetization has not been significantly altered since its acquisition. Our results show that the dynamo shut off after the impacts that created the Acidalia and SE Elysium basins and before the crust within the Utopia basin cooled below its magnetic blocking temperature. Accounting for the age uncertainties in the dating of these craters, we estimate that the dynamo shut off at an N(300) crater retention age of 2.5-3.2 or an absolute model age of 4.12-4.14 Ga. Moreover, the Martian dynamo may have been weaker in its early stage, which if true implies that the driving mechanism of the Martian dynamo was not the same throughout its history.

  8. Tidal excitation of elliptical instability in the Martian core: Possible mechanism for generating the core dynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkani-Hamed, J.; Seyed-Mahmoud, B.; Aldridge, K. D.; Baker, R. E.

    2008-06-01

    We propose a causal relationship between the creation of the giant impact basins on Mars by a large asteroid, ruptured when it entered the Roche limit, and the excitation of the Martian core dynamo. Our laboratory experiments indicate that the elliptical instability of the Martian core can be excited if the asteroid continually exerts tidal forces on Mars for ~20,000 years. Our numerical experiments suggest that the growth-time of the instability was 5,000-15,000 years when the asteroid was at a distance of 50,000-75,000 km. We demonstrate the stability of the orbital motion of an asteroid captured by Mars at a distance of 100,000 km in the presence of the Sun and Jupiter. We also present our results for the tidal interaction of the asteroid with Mars. An asteroid captured by Mars in prograde fashion can survive and excite the elliptical instability of the core for only a few million years, whereas a captured retrograde asteroid can excite the elliptical instability for hundreds of millions of years before colliding with Mars. The rate at which tidal energy dissipates in Mars during this period is over two orders of magnitude greater than the rate at which magnetic energy dissipates. If only 1% of the tidal energy dissipation is partitioned to the core, sufficient energy would be available to maintain the core dynamo. Accordingly, a retrograde asteroid is quite capable of exciting an elliptical instability in the Martian core, thus providing a candidate process to drive a core dynamo.

  9. Precession Driven Instabilities and Dynamos in the Early Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cebron, D.; Laguerre, R.; Noir, J.; Vidal, J.; Schaeffer, N.

    2017-12-01

    The Early Moon magnetic fields are probably due to a strong temporary dynamo, which may be due to lunar precession [1]. However, precession driven dynamos remain badly known, with only few studied cases [2,3,4]. Given the uncertainties of the early Moon precession, wider ranges of parameters need to be explored in order to assess if such lunar dynamos are possible. Using the efficient dynamo code XSHELLS, we have thus performed many simulations of precessing spherical shells, varying the parameters in a systematic way. This allows us to characterize the various excited instabilities, and to propose scaling laws. We also obtain that precession driven dynamos seem scarce and weak in our simulations, which makes difficult and uncertain the extrapolation of these dynamos to the Moon. However, our dynamo simulations, as every other in the literature, neglect the topographic torque effect on instabilities in order to use fast spectral codes [5]. By contrast, the topographic torque is dominant for the lunar core. Before exploring this effect numerically, which is a real challenge, we choose to study it theoretically. To do so, we have developed a novel global linear stability analysis of mechanically-driven flows in triaxial ellipsoids, with leading order viscous effects. Internal dissipation is obtained for the first time by extending the Greenspan's theory (1968) of geostrophic and inertial modes. By contrast with pioneering theories [6], we propose a new linear viscous model valid in arbitrary ellipsoid and for any precessing forcing. Then we perform the linear stability analysis by considering ellipsoidal perturbations of unprecedented spatial complexity with a self-consistent model of viscous damping. We show that forced precession-driven basic flows are bistable in triaxial ellipsoids. Then, we present the first stability analysis of precessing-flows in triaxial ellipsoids. [1] Dwyer et al. (2011), Nature, 479, 212-214.[2] Tilgner (2005), Phy. Fluids, 17, 034104

  10. A basal magma ocean dynamo to explain the early lunar magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheinberg, Aaron L.; Soderlund, Krista M.; Elkins-Tanton, Linda T.

    2018-06-01

    The source of the ancient lunar magnetic field is an unsolved problem in the Moon's evolution. Theoretical work invoking a core dynamo has been unable to explain the magnitude of the observed field, falling instead one to two orders of magnitude below it. Since surface magnetic field strength is highly sensitive to the depth and size of the dynamo region, we instead hypothesize that the early lunar dynamo was driven by convection in a basal magma ocean formed from the final stages of an early lunar magma ocean; this material is expected to be dense, radioactive, and metalliferous. Here we use numerical convection models to predict the longevity and heat flow of such a basal magma ocean and use scaling laws to estimate the resulting magnetic field strength. We show that, if sufficiently electrically conducting, a magma ocean could have produced an early dynamo with surface fields consistent with the paleomagnetic observations.

  11. Do Martian Blueberries Have Pits? -- Artifacts of an Early Wet Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerman, L.

    2005-03-01

    Early Martian weather cycles would have supported organic chemical self-organization, the assumed predecessor to an independent "origin" of Martian life. Artifacts of these processes are discussed, including the possibility that Martian blueberries nucleated around organic cores.

  12. An impact-driven dynamo for the early Moon.

    PubMed

    Le Bars, M; Wieczorek, M A; Karatekin, O; Cébron, D; Laneuville, M

    2011-11-09

    The origin of lunar magnetic anomalies remains unresolved after their discovery more than four decades ago. A commonly invoked hypothesis is that the Moon might once have possessed a thermally driven core dynamo, but this theory is problematical given the small size of the core and the required surface magnetic field strengths. An alternative hypothesis is that impact events might have amplified ambient fields near the antipodes of the largest basins, but many magnetic anomalies exist that are not associated with basin antipodes. Here we propose a new model for magnetic field generation, in which dynamo action comes from impact-induced changes in the Moon's rotation rate. Basin-forming impact events are energetic enough to have unlocked the Moon from synchronous rotation, and we demonstrate that the subsequent large-scale fluid flows in the core, excited by the tidal distortion of the core-mantle boundary, could have powered a lunar dynamo. Predicted surface magnetic field strengths are on the order of several microteslas, consistent with palaeomagnetic measurements, and the duration of these fields is sufficient to explain the central magnetic anomalies associated with several large impact basins.

  13. The Case Against an Early Lunar Dynamo Powered by Core Convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Alexander J.; Tikoo, Sonia M.; Andrews-Hanna, Jeffrey C.

    2018-01-01

    Paleomagnetic analyses of lunar samples indicate that the Moon had a dynamo-generated magnetic field with 50 μT surface field intensities between 3.85 and 3.56 Ga followed by a period of much lower (≤ 5 μT) intensities that persisted beyond 2.5 Ga. However, we determine herein that there is insufficient energy associated with core convection—the process commonly recognized to generate long-lived magnetic fields in planetary bodies—to sustain a lunar dynamo for the duration and intensities indicated. We find that a lunar surface field of ≤1.9 μT could have persisted until 200 Ma, but the 50 μT paleointensities recorded by lunar samples between 3.85 and 3.56 Ga could not have been sustained by a convective dynamo for more than 28 Myr. Thus, for a continuously operating, convective dynamo to be consistent with the early lunar paleomagnetic record, either an exotic mechanism or unknown energy source must be primarily responsible for the ancient lunar magnetic field.

  14. The Northwest Africa 8159 martian meteorite: Expanding the martian sample suite to the early Amazonian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herd, Christopher D. K.; Walton, Erin L.; Agee, Carl B.; Muttik, Nele; Ziegler, Karen; Shearer, Charles K.; Bell, Aaron S.; Santos, Alison R.; Burger, Paul V.; Simon, Justin I.; Tappa, Michael J.; McCubbin, Francis M.; Gattacceca, Jérôme; Lagroix, France; Sanborn, Matthew E.; Yin, Qing-Zhu; Cassata, William S.; Borg, Lars E.; Lindvall, Rachel E.; Kruijer, Thomas S.; Brennecka, Gregory A.; Kleine, Thorsten; Nishiizumi, Kunihiko; Caffee, Marc W.

    2017-12-01

    Northwest Africa (NWA) 8159 is an augite-rich shergottite, with a mineralogy dominated by Ca-, Fe-rich pyroxene, plagioclase, olivine, and magnetite. NWA 8159 crystallized from an evolved melt of basaltic composition under relatively rapid conditions of cooling, likely in a surface lava flow or shallow sill. Redox conditions experienced by the melt shifted from relatively oxidizing (with respect to known Martian lithologies, ∼QFM) on the liquidus to higher oxygen fugacity (∼QFM + 2) during crystallization of the groundmass, and under subsolidus conditions. This shift resulted in the production of orthopyroxene and magnetite replacing olivine phenocryst rims. NWA 8159 contains both crystalline and shock-amorphized plagioclase (An50-62), often observed within a single grain; based on known calibrations we bracket the peak shock pressure experienced by NWA 8159 to between 15 and 23 GPa. The bulk composition of NWA 8159 is depleted in LREE, as observed for Tissint and other depleted shergottites; however, NWA 8159 is distinct from all other martian lithologies in its bulk composition and oxygen fugacity. We obtain a Sm-Nd formation age of 2.37 ± 0.25 Ga for NWA 8159, which represents an interval in Mars geologic time which, until recently, was not represented in the other martian meteorite types. The bulk rock 147Sm/144Nd value of 0.37 ± 0.02 is consistent with it being derived directly from its source and the high initial ε143Nd value indicates this source was geochemically highly depleted. Cr, Nd, and W isotopic compositions further support a unique mantle source. While the rock shares similarities with the 2.4-Ga NWA 7635 meteorite, there are notable distinctions between the two meteorites that suggest differences in mantle source compositions and conditions of crystallization. Nevertheless, the two samples may be launch-paired. NWA 8159 expands the known basalt types, ages and mantle sources within the Mars sample suite to include a second igneous unit from

  15. The Northwest Africa 8159 martian meteorite: Expanding the martian sample suite to the early Amazonian

    DOE PAGES

    Herd, Christopher D. K.; Walton, Erin L.; Agee, Carl B.; ...

    2017-09-01

    Northwest Africa (NWA) 8159 is an augite-rich shergottite, with a mineralogy dominated by Ca-, Fe-rich pyroxene, plagioclase, olivine, and magnetite. NWA 8159 crystallized from an evolved melt of basaltic composition under relatively rapid conditions of cooling, likely in a surface lava flow or shallow sill. Redox conditions experienced by the melt shifted from relatively oxidizing (with respect to known Martian lithologies, ~QFM) on the liquidus to higher oxygen fugacity (~QFM + 2) during crystallization of the groundmass, and under subsolidus conditions. This shift resulted in the production of orthopyroxene and magnetite replacing olivine phenocryst rims. NWA 8159 contains both crystallinemore » and shock-amorphized plagioclase (An 50–62), often observed within a single grain; based on known calibrations we bracket the peak shock pressure experienced by NWA 8159 to between 15 and 23 GPa. The bulk composition of NWA 8159 is depleted in LREE, as observed for Tissint and other depleted shergottites; however, NWA 8159 is distinct from all other martian lithologies in its bulk composition and oxygen fugacity. Here, we obtain a Sm-Nd formation age of 2.37 ± 0.25 Ga for NWA 8159, which represents an interval in Mars geologic time which, until recently, was not represented in the other martian meteorite types. The bulk rock 147Sm/ 144Nd value of 0.37 ± 0.02 is consistent with it being derived directly from its source and the high initial ε 143Nd value indicates this source was geochemically highly depleted. Cr, Nd, and W isotopic compositions further support a unique mantle source. While the rock shares similarities with the 2.4-Ga NWA 7635 meteorite, there are notable distinctions between the two meteorites that suggest differences in mantle source compositions and conditions of crystallization. Nevertheless, the two samples may be launch-paired. Finally, NWA 8159 expands the known basalt types, ages and mantle sources within the Mars sample suite to include a

  16. The Northwest Africa 8159 martian meteorite: Expanding the martian sample suite to the early Amazonian

    SciTech Connect

    Herd, Christopher D. K.; Walton, Erin L.; Agee, Carl B.

    Northwest Africa (NWA) 8159 is an augite-rich shergottite, with a mineralogy dominated by Ca-, Fe-rich pyroxene, plagioclase, olivine, and magnetite. NWA 8159 crystallized from an evolved melt of basaltic composition under relatively rapid conditions of cooling, likely in a surface lava flow or shallow sill. Redox conditions experienced by the melt shifted from relatively oxidizing (with respect to known Martian lithologies, ~QFM) on the liquidus to higher oxygen fugacity (~QFM + 2) during crystallization of the groundmass, and under subsolidus conditions. This shift resulted in the production of orthopyroxene and magnetite replacing olivine phenocryst rims. NWA 8159 contains both crystallinemore » and shock-amorphized plagioclase (An 50–62), often observed within a single grain; based on known calibrations we bracket the peak shock pressure experienced by NWA 8159 to between 15 and 23 GPa. The bulk composition of NWA 8159 is depleted in LREE, as observed for Tissint and other depleted shergottites; however, NWA 8159 is distinct from all other martian lithologies in its bulk composition and oxygen fugacity. Here, we obtain a Sm-Nd formation age of 2.37 ± 0.25 Ga for NWA 8159, which represents an interval in Mars geologic time which, until recently, was not represented in the other martian meteorite types. The bulk rock 147Sm/ 144Nd value of 0.37 ± 0.02 is consistent with it being derived directly from its source and the high initial ε 143Nd value indicates this source was geochemically highly depleted. Cr, Nd, and W isotopic compositions further support a unique mantle source. While the rock shares similarities with the 2.4-Ga NWA 7635 meteorite, there are notable distinctions between the two meteorites that suggest differences in mantle source compositions and conditions of crystallization. Nevertheless, the two samples may be launch-paired. Finally, NWA 8159 expands the known basalt types, ages and mantle sources within the Mars sample suite to include a

  17. Influence of carbon dioxide clouds on early martian climate.

    PubMed

    Mischna, M A; Kasting, J F; Pavlov, A; Freedman, R

    2000-06-01

    Recent studies have shown that clouds made of carbon dioxide ice may have warmed the surface of early Mars by reflecting not only incoming solar radiation but upwelling IR radiation as well. However, these studies have not treated scattering self-consistently in the thermal IR. Our own calculations, which treat IR scattering properly, confirm these earlier calculations but show that CO2 clouds can also cool the surface, especially if they are low and optically thick. Estimating the actual effect of CO2 clouds on early martian climate will require three-dimensional models in which cloud location, height, and optical depth, as well as surface temperature and pressure, are determined self-consistently. Our calculations further confirm that CO2 clouds should extend the outer boundary of the habitable zone around a star but that there is still a finite limit beyond which above-freezing surface temperatures cannot be maintained by a CO2-H2O atmosphere. For our own Solar System, the absolute outer edge of the habitable zone is at approximately 2.4 AU.

  18. The Effect of Impacts on the Early Martian Climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colaprete, A.; Haberle, R. M.; Segura, T. L.; Toon, O. B.; Zahnle, K.

    2004-01-01

    The first images returned by the Mariner 7 spacecraft of the Martian surface showed a landscape heavily scared by impacts. Mariner 9 imaging revealed geomorphic features including valley networks and outflow channels that suggest liquid water once flowed at the surface of Mars. Further evidence for water erosion and surface modification has come from the Viking Spacecraft, Mars Pathfinder, Mars Global Surveyor's (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC), and Mars Odyssey's THEMIS instrument. In addition to network channels, this evidence includes apparent paleolake beds, fluvial fans and sedimentary layers. The estimated erosion rates necessary to explain the observed surface morphologies present a conundrum. The rates of erosion appear to be highest when the early sun was fainter and only 75% as luminous as it is today. All of this evidence points to a very different climate than what exists on Mars today. The most popular paradigm for the formation of the valley networks is that Mars had at one time a warm (T average > 273), wetter and stable climate. Possible warming mechanisms have included increased surface pressures, carbon dioxide clouds and trace greenhouse gasses. Yet to date climate models have not been able to produce a continuously warm and wet early Mars. The rates of erosion appear to correlate with the rate at which Mars was impacted thus an alternate possibility is transient warm and wet conditions initiated by large impacts. It is widely accepted that even relatively small impacts (approx. 10 km) have altered the past climate of Earth to such an extent as to cause mass extinctions. Mars has been impacted with a similar distribution of objects. The impact record at Mars is preserved in the abundance of observable craters on it surface. Impact induced climate change must have occurred on Mars.

  19. Methane storage capacity of the early martian cryosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lasue, Jeremie; Quesnel, Yoann; Langlais, Benoit; Chassefière, Eric

    2015-11-01

    Methane is a key molecule to understand the habitability of Mars due to its possible biological origin and short atmospheric lifetime. Recent methane detections on Mars present a large variability that is probably due to relatively localized sources and sink processes yet unknown. In this study, we determine how much methane could have been abiotically produced by early Mars serpentinization processes that could also explain the observed martian remanent magnetic field. Under the assumption of a cold early Mars environment, a cryosphere could trap such methane as clathrates in stable form at depth. The extent and spatial distribution of these methane reservoirs have been calculated with respect to the magnetization distribution and other factors. We calculate that the maximum storage capacity of such a clathrate cryosphere is about 2.1 × 1019-2.2 × 1020 moles of CH4, which can explain sporadic releases of methane that have been observed on the surface of the planet during the past decade (∼1.2 × 109 moles). This amount of trapped methane is sufficient for similar sized releases to have happened yearly during the history of the planet. While the stability of such reservoirs depends on many factors that are poorly constrained, it is possible that they have remained trapped at depth until the present day. Due to the possible implications of methane detection for life and its influence on the atmospheric and climate processes on the planet, confirming the sporadic release of methane on Mars and the global distribution of its sources is one of the major goals of the current and next space missions to Mars.

  20. Tidal Excitation of the Core Dynamo of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyed-Mahmoud, B.; Arkani-Hamed, J.; Aldridge, K.

    2007-05-01

    The lack of magnetic anomalies inside the giant impact basins Hellas, Isidis, Utopia and Argyre, inside the northern low lands, over the Tharsis bulge, and over the Tharsis and Olympus mounts suggests that the core field of Mars ceased to exist by about 4 Gyr ago, almost when the giant basins were formed. On the other hand, the giant basins are located on a great circle, implying that the basins were likely produced by fragments of a large asteroid that broke apart as it entered the Roche limit of Mars. This scenario offers a causative relationship for the apparent coincidence of the formation of the giant basins and the cessation of the core dynamo. We suggest that the core dynamo was excited by tidally driven elliptical instability in the Martian core. The breaking of the asteroid and its final impact on Mars eliminated the excitation and thus killed the dynamo. We show that a retrograde asteroid captured in a Keplerian orbit around Mars at a distance of about 50,000-100,000 km could orbit Mars for several hundreds of millions of years before impacting the planet due to the tidal coupling of the asteroid and Mars. Because of relatively very short growth time of the elliptical instability, less than 50,000 years, the asteroid was capable of retaining the elliptical instability and energizing the core dynamo for a geologically long period prior to 4 Ga. Our laboratory observations of a parametric instability of a rotating incompressible fluid, contained in a flexible-walled spherical cavity, confirm the possibility that an early Martian dynamo could have been powered by tidal straining.

  1. An early solar dynamo prediction: Cycle 23 is approximately cycle 22

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, Kenneth H.; Pesnell, W. Dean

    1993-01-01

    In this paper, we briefly review the 'dynamo' and 'geomagnetic precursor' methods of long-term solar activity forecasting. These methods depend upon the most basic aspect of dynamo theory to predict future activity, future magnetic field arises directly from the magnification of pre-existing magnetic field. We then generalize the dynamo technique, allowing the method to be used at any phase of the solar cycle, through the development of the 'Solar Dynamo Amplitude' (SODA) index. This index is sensitive to the magnetic flux trapped within the Sun's convection zone but insensitive to the phase of the solar cycle. Since magnetic fields inside the Sun can become buoyant, one may think of the acronym SODA as describing the amount of buoyant flux. Using the present value of the SODA index, we estimate that the next cycle's smoothed peak activity will be about 210 +/- 30 solar flux units for the 10.7 cm radio flux and a sunspot number of 170 +/- 25. This suggests that solar cycle #23 will be large, comparable to cycle #22. The estimated peak is expected to occur near 1999.7 +/- 1 year. Since the current approach is novel (using data prior to solar minimum), these estimates may improve when the upcoming solar minimum is reached.

  2. Early evolution of Martian volatiles: Nitrogen and noble gas components in ALH84001 and Chassigny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathew, K. J.; Marti, K.

    2001-01-01

    Studies on SNC meteorites have permitted the characterization of modern Martian atmospheric components as well as indigenous Martian nitrogen and solar-type xenon. New isotopic and elemental abundances of noble gases and nitrogen in ALH84001 and Chassigny provide important constraints on the early evolution of the planet. A primitive solar Xe component (Chass-S) and an evolved Xe component (Chass-E), augmented with fission Xe are identified in Chassigny. Both components represent interior reservoirs of Mars and are characterized by low 129Xe/132Xe (<1.07) and by distinct elemental ratios 36Ar/132Xe<5 and >130, respectively. Light nitrogen (δ15N=-30‰) is associated with the Chass-S component and is enriched in melt inclusions in olivine. An ancient (presumably incorporated ~4 Gyr ago) evolved Martian atmospheric component is identified in ALH84001 and has the following signatures: 129Xe/132Xe=2.16, 36Ar/38Ar>=5.0, 36Ar/132Xe=~50, 84Kr/132Xe=~6, and δ15N=7‰. The trapped Xe component in ALH84001 is not isotopically fractionated. We observe major shifts in nitrogen signatures due to cosmogenic N component in both Chassigny and ALH84001. A heavy nitrogen component of comparable magnitude (δ15N>150‰) has previously been interpreted as (heavy) Martian atmospheric N. In situ produced fission Xe components, due to 244Pu in ALH84001 and due to 238U in Chassigny, are identified. The ALH84001 data strongly constrain exchanges of Martian atmospheric and interior reservoirs. Mars retained abundant fission Xe components, and this may account for the low observed fission Xe component in the modern Martian atmosphere. Chronometric information regarding the evolution of the early Martian atmosphere can be secured from the relative abundances of radiogenic and fission Xe, as ~80% of the Martian 129Xer is observed in the atmospheric 129Xe/132Xe ratio ~ 4 Gyr ago.

  3. Planetary Dynamos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaur, Vinod K.

    The article begins with a reference to the first rational approaches to explaining the earth's magnetic field notably Elsasser's application of magneto-hydrodynamics, followed by brief outlines of the characteristics of planetary magnetic fields and of the potentially insightful homopolar dynamo in illuminating the basic issues: theoretical requirements of asymmetry and finite conductivity in sustaining the dynamo process. It concludes with sections on Dynamo modeling and, in particular, the Geo-dynamo, but not before some of the evocative physical processes mediated by the Lorentz force and the behaviour of a flux tube embedded in a perfectly conducting fluid, using Alfvén theorem, are explained, as well as the traditional intermediate approaches to investigating dynamo processes using the more tractable Kinematic models.

  4. Constraints on early events in Martian history as derived from the cratering record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlow, Nadine G.

    1990-01-01

    Constrains on early events in Martian history are derived using the planet's cratering record. Variations in the shapes of the crater size-frequency distribution curves are interpreted as indicative of the size-frequency distribution of the production populations, thus providing information about the age of the unit relative to the end of the heavy bombardment period. Results from the analysis of craters superposed on heavily cratered units across the Martian surface provide constraints on the hemispheric dichotomy and the early erosional conditions on Mars.

  5. The early Martian environment: Clues from the cratered highlands and the Precambrian Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craddock, R. A.; Maxwell, T. A.

    1993-01-01

    There is abundant geomorphic evidence to suggest that Mars once had a much denser and warmer atmosphere than present today. Outflow channel, ancient valley networks, and degraded impact craters in the highlands all suggest that ancient Martian atmospheric conditions supported liquid water on the surface. The pressure, composition, and duration of this atmosphere is largely unknown. However, we have attempted to place some constraints on the nature of the early Martian atmosphere by analyzing morphologic variations of highland impact crater populations, synthesizing results of other investigators, and incorporating what is know about the geologic history of the early Earth. This is important for understanding the climatic evolution of Mars, the relative abundance of martian volatiles, and the nature of highland surface materials.

  6. Chemical modeling constraints on Martian surface mineralogies formed in an early, warm, wet climate, and speculations on the occurrence of phosphate minerals in the Martian regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Ridley, W. Ian; Debraal, Jeffrey D.

    1992-01-01

    This is one in a series of reports summarizing our chemical modeling studies of water-rock-gas interactions at the martian surface through time. The purpose of these studies is to place constraints on possible mineralogies formed at the martian surface and to model the geochemical implications of martian surficial processes proposed by previous researchers. Plumlee and Ridley summarize geochemical processes that may have occurred as a result of inferred volcano- and impact-driven hydrothermal activity on Mars. DeBraal et al. model the geochemical aspects of water-rock interactions and water evaporation near 0 C, as a prelude to future calculations that will model sub-0 C brine-rock-clathrate interactions under the current martian climate. In this report, we discuss reaction path calculations that model chemical processes that may have occurred at the martian surface in a postulated early, warm, wet climate. We assume a temperature of 25 C in all our calculations. Processes we model here include (1) the reaction of rainwater under various ambient CO2 and O2 pressures with basaltic rocks at the martian surface, (2) the formation of acid rain by volcanic gases such as HCl and SO2, (3) the reactions of acid rain with basaltic surficial materials, and (4) evaporation of waters resulting from rainwater-basalt interactions.

  7. Dhofar 378 Martian shergottite: Evidence of early shock melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jisun; Bogard, Donald D.; Mikouchi, Takashi; McKay, Gordon A.

    2008-08-01

    Shock heating of the Dhofar 378 (Dho 378) Martian shergottite produced melting, vesiculation, and flow of the plagioclase, which upon cooling recrystallized into complex textures. Heating experiments on the similar Zagami shergottite indicate that Dho 378 was shock heated to 1000-1100°C and was cooled at ~2.5°C/h. An 39Ar-40Ar analysis of Dho 378 plagioclase indicates different Ar diffusion domains and K/Ca ratios. The lower-temperature phase defines an Ar-Ar isochron age of 141 +/- 32 Ma. The higher-temperature phase released more 40Ar but does not define an age. The meteorite's thermal history was examined by constructing a generic model to compare cooling rates for objects of different sizes against fractional diffusion loss of Ar for different cooling times. Using gas diffusion parameter values measured for Dho 378, this model indicates that it is improbable that the major shock heating event occurred at the time that Dho 378 was ejected from Mars ~3 Ma ago. Rather, we suggest that the time of shock heating is probably given by its Ar-Ar age. For Dho 378 to cool sufficiently fast not to lose most of its 40Ar ~3 Ma ago would require it to have been ejected into space as an impossibly small object. Larger and more reasonable Mars ejection sizes indicate that Dho 378 should have lost most of its 40Ar. On the basis of plagioclase texture and Ar data, we suggest that a major impact event ~141 Ma ago melted Dho 378 plagioclase, degassed most of its 40Ar, and deposited it in crater ejecta to cool. A smaller and later impact ejected it into space ~3 Ma ago.

  8. A MODEL FOR INTERFACE DYNAMOS IN LATE K AND EARLY M DWARFS

    SciTech Connect

    Mullan, D. J.; MacDonald, J.; Houdebine, E. R., E-mail: mullan@udel.edu

    2015-09-10

    Measurements of the equivalent width EW(CaK) of emission in the Ca ii K line have been obtained by Houdebine et al. for stars with spectral types from dK5 to dM4. In order to explain the observed variations of EW(CaK) with spectral sub-type, we propose a quantitative model of interface dynamos in low-mass stars. Our model leads to surface field strengths B{sub s} which turn out to be essentially linearly proportional to EW(CaK). This result is reminiscent of the Sun, where Skumanich et al. found that the intensity of CaK emission in solar active regions is linearly proportional to the localmore » field strength.« less

  9. Early Mars Climate Revisited With a Global Probability Map of Martian Valley Network Origin and Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grau Galofre, A.; Jellinek, M.; Osinski, G. R.

    2016-12-01

    Valley networks are among the most arresting features on the surface of Mars. Their provocative morphologic resemblance to river valleys on Earth has lead many scientists to argue for Martian river valleys in a "warm and wet" climate scenario, with conditions similar to the terrestrial mid-to-low latitudes. However, this warm scenario is difficult to reconcile with climate models for an Early Mars receiving radiation from a fainter young Sun. Moreover, recent models suggest a colder scenario, with conditions more similar to present day Greenland or Antarctica. Here we use three independent characterization schemes to show quantitative evidence for fluvial, glacial, groundwater sapping and subglacial meltwater channels to build the first global probability map of Martian valley networks. We distinguish a SW-NE corridor of fluvial drainage networks spanning latitudes from 30ºS to 30ºN. We identify additional widespread patterns related to glaciation, subglacial drainage and channels incised by groundwater springs. This global characterization of Martian valleys has profound implications for the average climate of early Mars as well as its variability in space and time.

  10. CO2 greenhouse in the early martian atmosphere: SO2 inhibits condensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yung, Y. L.; Nair, H.; Gerstell, M. F.

    1997-01-01

    Many investigators of the early martian climate have suggested that a dense carbon dioxide atmosphere was present and warmed the surface above the melting point of water (J.B. Pollack, J.F. Kasting, S.M. Richardson, and K. Poliakoff 1987. Icarus 71, 203-224). However, J.F. Kasting (1991. Icarus 94, 1-13) pointed out that previous thermal models of the primitive martian atmosphere had not considered the condensation of CO2. When this effect was incorporated, Kasting found that CO2 by itself is inadequate to warm the surface. SO2 absorbs strongly in the near UV region of the solar spectrum. While a small amount of SO2 may have a negligible effect by itself on the surface temperature, it may have significantly warmed the middle atmosphere of early Mars, much as ozone warms the terrestrial stratosphere today. If this region is kept warm enough to inhibit the condensation of CO2, then CO2 remains a viable greenhouse gas. Our preliminary radiative modeling shows that the addition of 0.1 ppmv of SO2 in a 2 bar CO2 atmosphere raises the temperature of the middle atmosphere by approximately 10 degrees, so that the upper atmosphere in a 1 D model remains above the condensation temperature of CO2. In addition, this amount of SO2 in the atmosphere provides an effective UV shield for a hypothetical biosphere on the martian surface.

  11. Some consequences of a liquid water saturated regolith in early Martian history

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuller, A. O.; Hargraves, R. B.

    1978-01-01

    Flooding of low-lying areas of the Martian regolith may have occurred early in the planet's history when a comparatively dense primitive atmosphere existed. If this model is valid, the following are some pedogenic and mineralogical consequences to be expected. Fluctuation of the water table in response to any seasonal or longer term causes would have resulted in precipitation of ferric oxyhydroxides with the development of a vesicular duricrust (or hardpan). Disruption of such a crust by scarp undercutting or frost heaving accompanied by wind deflation of fines could account for the boulders visible on Utopia Planitia in the vicinity of the second Viking lander site. Laboratory and field evidence on earth suggests that under weakly oxidizing conditions lepidocrocite (rather than goethite) would have preferentially formed in the Martian regolith from the weathering of ferrous silicates, accompanied by montmorillonite, nontronite, and cronstedtite. Maghemite may have formed as a low-temperature dehydrate of lepidocrocite or directly from ferrous precursors.

  12. The evolution of the early Martian climate and the initial emplacement of crustal H2O

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clifford, S. M.

    1993-01-01

    Given the geomorphic evidence for the widespread occurrence of water and ice in the early Martian crust, and the difficulty involved in accounting for this distribution given the present climate, it has been suggested that the planet's early climate was originally more Earth-like, permitting the global emplacement of crustal H2O by direct precipitation as snow or rain. The resemblance of the Martian valley networks to terrestrial runoff channels and their almost exclusive occurrence in the planet's ancient (approximately 4-b.y.-old) heavily cratered terrain are often cited as evidence of just such a period. An alternative school of thought suggests that the early climate did not differ substantially from that of today. Advocates of this view find no compelling reason to invoke a warmer, wetter period to explain the origin of the valley networks. Rather, they cite evidence that the primary mechanism of valley formation was groundwater sapping, a process that does not require that surface water exists in equilibrium with the atmosphere. However, while sapping may successfully explain the origin of the small valleys, it fails to address how the crust was initially charged with ice as the climate evolved towards its present state. Therefore, given the uncertainty regarding the environmental conditions that prevailed on early Mars, the initial emplacement of ground ice is considered here from two perspectives: (1) the early climate started warm and wet, but gradually cooled with time, and (2) the early climate never differed substantially from that of today.

  13. Forsterite/melt partitioning of argon and iodine: Implications for atmosphere formation by outgassing of an early Martian magma ocean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musselwhite, Donald S.; Drake, Michael J.; Swindle, Timothy D.

    1992-01-01

    Argon and Xe in the Martian atmosphere are radiogenic relative to the Martian mantle if the SNC meteorites are from Mars. Decay of the short lived isotope I-129 to Xe-129 (t sub 1/2 = 16 m.y.) is the most plausible source of the radiogenic Xe. This short half life constrains any process responsible for the elevated Xe-129/Xe-132 ratio of the Martian atmosphere to occur very early in solar system history. Musselwhite et al. proposed that the differential solubility of I and Xe in liquid water played a key role in producing the radiogenic signature in the Martian atmosphere. Here we explore an alternative hypothesis involving purely igneous processes, and motivated in part by new experimental results on the partitioning of I and Xe between minerals and melt.

  14. Meteoritic Evidence for Multiple Early Enriched Reservoirs in the Martian Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armytage, R. M. G.; Debaille, V.; Brandon, A. D.; Agee, C. B.

    2018-05-01

    From isotopic systematics, the martian crustal reservoir represented by NWA 7034 cannot be the enriched end-member for the shergottites. This suggests multiple enriched reservoirs in the martian mantle formed by several differentiation events.

  15. Northwest Africa 7034: New Unique Water-rich Martian Meteorite from the Early Amazonian Epoch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agee, C. B.; Wilson, N.; Ziegler, K. G.; McCubbin, F. M.; Polyak, V.; Nunn, M.; Sharp, Z. D.; Asmerom, Y.; Thiemens, M. H.

    2012-12-01

    Northwest Africa (NWA) 7034 is a porphyritic basaltic breccia that shares some geochemical characterstics with known martian meteorites (SNC), but also possesses some unique characteristics that would exclude it from the current SNC grouping. Instead, it has a major and minor element composition that is a remarkably good match with the geochemistry of the rocks and soil at Gusev Crater measured by the Spirit rover and the average martian crust composition from the Odyssey Orbiter gamma ray spectrometer. The mismatch of orbiter and rover data with SNC meteorites has been a perplexing enigma, however with the discovery of NWA 7034 we may now have found a "missing link" between martian meteorites and space craft data. A five-point isochon gives an Rb-Sr age for NWA 7034 of 2.089±0.081 Ga (2σ) (MSWD=6.6) and an initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.71359±54. The Sm-Nd data for the same samples show more scatter, with an isochron of 2.19±1.4 Ga (2σ). NWA 7034 is REE enriched crustal rock (La x58 CI) and strongly light REE over heavy REE enriched (La/Yb)N=2.3, with negative-Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu*=0.67). The whole rock has 143Nd/144Nd=0.511756 and 147Sm/144Nd=0.1664, giving a calculated initial (source value) 143Nd/144Nd=0.509467 (initial ɛNd=-9.1) which requires that it be derived from an enriched martian reservoir, with an inferred time-integrated 147Sm/144Nd=0.1689, assuming separation from a chondrite-like martian mantle 4.5 Ga. An age of ~2.1 Ga for NWA 7034 would make it the first meteorite sample from the early Amazonian or late Hesperian epoch in Mars geologic history. Oxygen isotope analyses of NWA 7034 were performed by laser fluorination at UNM on acid-washed bulk sample and at UCSD on vacuum pre-heated (1000°C) bulk sample and give mean values Δ17O=0.57±0.05‰ n=10 and Δ17O=0.50±0.03‰ n=2, respectively. These interlab values are in good agreement, but are significantly higher than literature values for SNC meteorites (Δ17O range 0.15-0.45‰). There may be

  16. The solar dynamo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David H.

    1994-01-01

    The solar dynamo is the process by which the Sun's magnetic field is generated through the interaction of the field with convection and rotation. In this, it is kin to planetary dynamos and other stellar dynamos. Although the precise mechanism by which the Sun generates its field remains poorly understood in spite of decades of theoretical and observational work, recent advances suggest that solutions to this solar dynamo problem may be forthcoming. The two basic processes involved in dynamo activity are demonstrated and the Sun's activity effects are presented in this document, along with a historical perspective regarding solar dynamos and the efforts to understand and measure them.

  17. Faraday's first dynamo: A retrospective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Glenn S.

    2013-12-01

    In the early 1830s, Michael Faraday performed his seminal experimental research on electromagnetic induction, in which he created the first electric dynamo—a machine for continuously converting rotational mechanical energy into electrical energy. His machine was a conducting disc, rotating between the poles of a permanent magnet, with the voltage/current obtained from brushes contacting the disc. In his first dynamo, the magnetic field was asymmetric with respect to the axis of the disc. This is to be contrasted with some of his later symmetric designs, which are the ones almost invariably discussed in textbooks on electromagnetism. In this paper, a theoretical analysis is developed for Faraday's first dynamo. From this analysis, the eddy currents in the disc and the open-circuit voltage for arbitrary positioning of the brushes are determined. The approximate analysis is verified by comparing theoretical results with measurements made on an experimental recreation of the dynamo. Quantitative results from the analysis are used to elucidate Faraday's qualitative observations, from which he learned so much about electromagnetic induction. For the asymmetric design, the eddy currents in the disc dissipate energy that makes the dynamo inefficient, prohibiting its use as a practical generator of electric power. Faraday's experiments with his first dynamo provided valuable insight into electromagnetic induction, and this insight was quickly used by others to design practical generators.

  18. Simulation of the early Martian climate using a general circulation model, DRAMATIC MGCM: Impacts of thermal inertia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamada, A.; Kuroda, T.; Kasaba, Y.; Terada, N.; Akiba, T.

    2017-09-01

    Our Mars General Circulation Model was used to reproduce the early Martian climate which was thought to be warm and wet. Our simulation with high thermal inertia assuming wet soils and ancient ocean/lakes succeeded in producing the surface temperature above 273K throughout a year in low-mid latitudes of northern hemisphere.

  19. Resonant fast dynamo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strauss, H. R.

    1986-01-01

    A resonant fast dynamo is found in chaotic shear flows. The dynamo effect is produced by resonant perturbations of the velocity field, similar to resonant diffusion in plasma physics. The dynamo is called fast because the flow produces an electric field independent of the fluid resistivity.

  20. Solar and Planetary Dynamos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proctor, M. R. E.; Matthews, P. C.; Rucklidge, A. M.

    2008-02-01

    Preface; 1. Magnetic noise and the galactic dynamo; 2. On the oscillation in model Z; 3. Nonlinear dynamos in a spherical shell; 4. The onset of dynamo action in alpha-lambda dynamos; 5. Multifractality, near-singularities and the role of stretching in turbulence; 6. Note on perfect fast dynamo action in a large-amplitude SFS map; 7. A thermally driven disc dynamo; 8. Magnetic instabilities in rapidly rotating systems; 9. Modes of a flux ring lying in the equator of a star; 10. A nonaxisymmetric dynamo in toroidal geometry; 11. Simulating the interaction of convection with magnetic fields in the sun; 12. Experimental aspects of a laboratory scale liquid sodium dynamo model; 13. Influence of the period of an ABC flow on its dynamo action; 14. Numerical calculations of dynamos for ABC and related flows; 15. Incompressible Euler equations; 16. On the quasimagnetostrophic asymptotic approximation related to solar activity; 17. Simple dynamical fast dynamos; 18. A numerical study of dynamos in spherical shells with conducting boundaries; 19. Non-axisymmetric shear layers in a rotating spherical shell; 20. Testing for dynamo action; 21. Alpha-quenching in cylindrical magnetoconvection; 22. On the stretching of line elements in fluids: an approach from different geometry; 23. Instabilities of tidally and precessionally induced flows; 24. Probability distribution of passive scalars with nonlinear mean gradient; 25. Magnetic fluctuations in fast dynamos; 26. A statistical description of MHD turbulence in laboratory plasma; 27. Compressible magnetoconvection in three dimensions; 28. The excitation of nonaxisymmetric magnetic fields in galaxies; 29. Localized magnetic fields in a perfectly conducting fluid; 30. Turbulent dynamo and the geomagnetic secular variation; 31. On-off intermittency: general description and feedback model; 32. Dynamo action in a nearly integrable chaotic flow; 33. The dynamo mechanism in the deep convection zone of the sun; 34. Shearing instabilities

  1. Sulfur in the Early Martian Atmosphere Revisited: Experiments with a 3-D Global Climate Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerber, L.; Forget, F.; Wordsworth, R.

    2013-09-01

    Data returned from the surface of Mars during the 1970s revealed intriguing geological evidence for a warmer and wetter early martian climate. Dendritic valley networks were discovered by Mariner 9 on ancient Noachian terrain [1], indicating that liquid water had flowed across the surface in the distant past. Since this time, geological investigations into early Martian history have attempted to ascertain the nature and level of activity of the early Martian hydrological cycle [e.g. 2-5] while atmospheric modeling efforts have focused on how the atmosphere could be warmed to temperatures great enough to sustain such activity [see 6-7 for reviews]. Geological and spectroscopic investigations have refined the history and chronology of Noachian Mars over time, and circulation of liquid water has been invoked to explain several spatially and temporally distinct morphological and chemical signatures found in the geological record. Detections of iron and magnesium-rich clays are widespread in the oldest Martian terrains, suggesting a period of pH-neutral aqueous alteration [e.g., 8]. Valley network incision also took place during the Noachian period [9]. Some chains of river valleys and craters lakes extend for thousands of kilometers, suggesting temperatures at least clement enough for sustained ice-covered flow [3,10]. The commencement of valley network incision is not well constrained, but the period of Mg/Fe clay formation appears to have ended before the termination of valley network formation, as the visible fluvial systems appear to have remobilized existing clays rather than forming them [5,8]. There is also evidence that the cessation of valley network formation was abrupt [11]. Towards the end of the Noachian, erosion rates appear to have been significantly higher than during subsequent periods, a process that has also been attributed to aqueous processes [12]. A period of sulfate formation followed, likely characterized by acidic, evaporitic playa environments

  2. Some Speculations Concerning The Abitibi Greenstone Belt As A Possible Analog To The Early Martian Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, M.; Allwood, A.; Anderson, R. B.; Atkinson, B.; Beaty, D.; Bristow, T. F.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Hand, K. P.; Halevy, I.; Hurowitz, J. A.; Knoll, A.; McCleese, D. J.; Milliken, R.; Stolper, D. A.; Stolper, E. M.; Tosca, N. J.; Agouron Mars Simulation Field Team

    2011-12-01

    The Noachian crust of Mars comprises basaltic and, potentially, komatiitic lavas derived from a hot mantle slightly more reducing and sulfur-rich than that of the Earth. Ultramafic volcanic sequences of the ~2.7Ga Tisdale Group of the Abitibi Greenstone Belt, Ontario, provide a potential analog to these early martian lavas. The Abitibi rocks are a possible source of quartz veins carrying, in places, pyrite, carbonate and gold. These were hydrothermally introduced into volcanic and sedimentary rocks during greenschist metamorphism. Kilometer-scale talc-magnesite zones, resulting from the carbonation of serpentinized ultramafics, may have been the source and seawater, with some magmatic addition, was probably responsible for the pervasive alteration, although the chemical nature of hydrothermal fluids circulating in such piles depends upon the temperature of wall-rock interactions and is largely independent of fluid origin. Any sulfides and gold in unaltered ultramafic putative source rocks may have been lost to the invasive convective fluids. Given high heat flow and the presence of a hydrosphere, hydrothermal convection cells were probably the main mechanism of heat transfer through the crust on both planets. Exploration of the Abitibi belt provides a template for possible martian exploration strategies. Orbital remote sensing indicates that some ultramafic rocks on Mars have also been serpentinized and isolated areas of magnesite have been recently discovered, overlying altered mafic crust, with characteristic ridges at scales of a few hundred meters. While cogent arguments have been made favoring sedimentary exhalative accumulations of hydrothermal silica of the kind that are known to harbor bacteria on our own planet, no in situ siliceous sinters or even quartz veins have been identified with certainty on Mars. Here, we report on the mineralogic and visible to infrared spectral characteristics of mafic and ultramafic lithologies at Abitibi for comparison to

  3. Onset of a planetesimal dynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Weiss, B. P.; Wang, J.; Chen-Wiegart, Y. C. K.; Downey, B. G.; Suavet, C. R.; Andrade Lima, E.; Zucolotto, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    The paleomagnetism of achondritic meteorites provides evidence for advecting metallic core dynamos and large-scale differentiation on their parent planetesimals. The small sizes of these bodies (~102 km) enable a new opportunity to understand the physics of dynamo generation in a size regime with distinct thermal evolution parameters that are more accessible to model than planets. One key unknown about planetesimal dynamos is their onset time. Theoretical studies have suggested that it might occur instantaneously after large-scale melting (Weiss et al. 2008, Elkins-Tanton et al. 2011) while others have argued that a dynamo could be delayed by ~6 My (Sterenborg and Crowley 2013) or longer. Here we present the first paleomagnetic study that has constrained the onset time of a planetesimal dynamo, which has key implications for the physics of core formation, planetary thermal evolution and dynamo generation mechanisms. Our study focused on angrites, a group of ancient basaltic achondrites from near the surface of an early differentiated planetesimal. With unshocked, unbrecciated textures and Pb/Pb ages ranging from only ~3-10 My younger than the formation of calcium aluminum inclusions (CAIs), they are among the oldest known and best preserved planetary igneous rocks. We used a new CO2 + H2 gas mixture system (Suavet et al. 2014) for controlled oxygen fugacity thermal paleointensity experiments on two of the oldest angrites (D'Orbigny and SAH 99555; 4564.4 Ma) and a younger angrite (Angra dos Reis; 4557.7 Ma). For D'Orbigny and SAH 99555, we found that the natural remanence (NRM) demagnetizes at much lower temperatures than lab-applied thermoremanence (TRM), indicating that their NRMs are dominantly overprints from the Earth's field and hand magnets. In contrast, the NRM of Angra dos Reis behaves similarly to a TRM, confirming its thermal origin. We estimate the paleointensities to be < 0.2 µT for D'Orbigny and SAH 99555 and ~10 µT for Angra dos Reis. This indicates

  4. Implications of Martian Phyllosilicate Formation Conditions to the Early Climate on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, J. L.; Baker, L.; Fairén, A. G.; Michalski, J. R.; Gago-Duport, L.; Velbel, M. A.; Gross, C.; Rampe, E. B.

    2017-12-01

    We propose that short-term warmer and wetter environments, occurring sporadically in a generally cold early Mars, enabled formation of phyllosilicate-rich outcrops on the surface of Mars without requiring long-term warm and wet conditions. We are investigating phyllosilicate formation mechanisms including CO2 and H2O budgets to provide constraints on the early martian climate. We have evaluated the nature and stratigraphy of phyllosilicate-bearing surface units on Mars based on i) phyllosilicate-forming environments on Earth, ii) phyllosilicate reactions in the lab, and iii) modeling experiments involving phyllosilicates and short-range ordered (SRO) materials. The type of phyllosilicates that form on Mars depends on temperature, water/rock ratio, acidity, salinity and available ions. Mg-rich trioctahedral smectite mixtures are more consistent with subsurface formation environments (crustal, hydrothermal or alkaline lakes) up to 400 °C and are not associated with martian surface environments. In contrast, clay profiles dominated by dioctahedral Al/Fe-smectites are typically formed in subaqueous or subaerial surface environments. We propose models describing formation of smectite-rich outcrops and laterally extensive vertical profiles of Fe/Mg-smectites, sulfates, and Al-rich clay assemblages formed in surface environments. Further, the presence of abundant SRO materials without phyllosilicates could mark the end of the last warm and wet episode on Mars supporting smectite formation. Climate Implications for Early Mars: Clay formation reactions proceed extremely slowly at cool temperatures. The thick smectite outcrops observed on Mars through remote sensing would require standing water on Mars for hundreds of millions of years if they formed in waters 10-15 °C. However, warmer temperatures could have enabled faster production of these smectite-rich beds. Sporadic warming episodes to 30-40 °C could have enabled formation of these smectites over only tens or

  5. Origin of the Martian global dichotomy by crustal thinning in the late Noachian or early Hesperian

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgill, George E.; Dimitriou, Andrew M.

    1990-01-01

    The marked dichotomy in topography, surface age, and crustal thickness between the northern lowland (NL) and southern upland of Mars has been explained as due to an initially inhomogeneous crust, a single megaimpact event, several overlapping large basin impacts, and first-order convective overtum of the Martian mantle. All of these hypotheses propose that the dichotomy was formed before the end of the primordial heavy bombardment. Geological data indicate episodes of fracturing and faulting in the late Noachian and the early Hesperian, within the NL and along the lowland/highland boundary. Igneous activity also peaked in the late Noachian and early Hesperian. These data suggest a tectonic event near the Noachian/Hesperian boundary characterized by enhanced heat loss and extensive fracturing, including formation of the faults that define much of the highland/lowland boundary. It is argued that the major result of this tectonic event was formation of the dichotomy by thinning of the crust above a large convection cell or plume.

  6. Tsunami waves extensively resurfaced the shorelines of an early Martian ocean.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, J Alexis P; Fairén, Alberto G; Tanaka, Kenneth L; Zarroca, Mario; Linares, Rogelio; Platz, Thomas; Komatsu, Goro; Miyamoto, Hideaki; Kargel, Jeffrey S; Yan, Jianguo; Gulick, Virginia; Higuchi, Kana; Baker, Victor R; Glines, Natalie

    2016-05-19

    It has been proposed that ~3.4 billion years ago an ocean fed by enormous catastrophic floods covered most of the Martian northern lowlands. However, a persistent problem with this hypothesis is the lack of definitive paleoshoreline features. Here, based on geomorphic and thermal image mapping in the circum-Chryse and northwestern Arabia Terra regions of the northern plains, in combination with numerical analyses, we show evidence for two enormous tsunami events possibly triggered by bolide impacts, resulting in craters ~30 km in diameter and occurring perhaps a few million years apart. The tsunamis produced widespread littoral landforms, including run-up water-ice-rich and bouldery lobes, which extended tens to hundreds of kilometers over gently sloping plains and boundary cratered highlands, as well as backwash channels where wave retreat occurred on highland-boundary surfaces. The ice-rich lobes formed in association with the younger tsunami, showing that their emplacement took place following a transition into a colder global climatic regime that occurred after the older tsunami event. We conclude that, on early Mars, tsunamis played a major role in generating and resurfacing coastal terrains.

  7. Tsunami waves extensively resurfaced the shorelines of an early Martian ocean

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, J. Alexis P.; Fairén, Alberto G.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Zarroca, Mario; Linares, Rogelio; Platz, Thomas; Komatsu, Goro; Miyamoto, Hideaki; Kargel, Jeffrey S.; Yan, Jianguo; Gulick, Virginia; Higuchi, Kana; Baker, Victor R.; Glines, Natalie

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that ~3.4 billion years ago an ocean fed by enormous catastrophic floods covered most of the Martian northern lowlands. However, a persistent problem with this hypothesis is the lack of definitive paleoshoreline features. Here, based on geomorphic and thermal image mapping in the circum-Chryse and northwestern Arabia Terra regions of the northern plains, in combination with numerical analyses, we show evidence for two enormous tsunami events possibly triggered by bolide impacts, resulting in craters ~30 km in diameter and occurring perhaps a few million years apart. The tsunamis produced widespread littoral landforms, including run-up water-ice-rich and bouldery lobes, which extended tens to hundreds of kilometers over gently sloping plains and boundary cratered highlands, as well as backwash channels where wave retreat occurred on highland-boundary surfaces. The ice-rich lobes formed in association with the younger tsunami, showing that their emplacement took place following a transition into a colder global climatic regime that occurred after the older tsunami event. We conclude that, on early Mars, tsunamis played a major role in generating and resurfacing coastal terrains. PMID:27196957

  8. The lunar dynamo.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Benjamin P; Tikoo, Sonia M

    2014-12-05

    The inductive generation of magnetic fields in fluid planetary interiors is known as the dynamo process. Although the Moon today has no global magnetic field, it has been known since the Apollo era that the lunar rocks and crust are magnetized. Until recently, it was unclear whether this magnetization was the product of a core dynamo or fields generated externally to the Moon. New laboratory and spacecraft measurements strongly indicate that much of this magnetization is the product of an ancient core dynamo. The dynamo field persisted from at least 4.25 to 3.56 billion years ago (Ga), with an intensity reaching that of the present Earth. The field then declined by at least an order of magnitude by ∼3.3 Ga. The mechanisms for sustaining such an intense and long-lived dynamo are uncertain but may include mechanical stirring by the mantle and core crystallization. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  9. The lunar dynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Benjamin P.; Tikoo, Sonia M.

    2014-12-01

    The inductive generation of magnetic fields in fluid planetary interiors is known as the dynamo process. Although the Moon today has no global magnetic field, it has been known since the Apollo era that the lunar rocks and crust are magnetized. Until recently, it was unclear whether this magnetization was the product of a core dynamo or fields generated externally to the Moon. New laboratory and spacecraft measurements strongly indicate that much of this magnetization is the product of an ancient core dynamo. The dynamo field persisted from at least 4.25 to 3.56 billion years ago (Ga), with an intensity reaching that of the present Earth. The field then declined by at least an order of magnitude by ∼3.3 Ga. The mechanisms for sustaining such an intense and long-lived dynamo are uncertain but may include mechanical stirring by the mantle and core crystallization.

  10. Phase equilibria of a low S and C lunar core: Implications for an early lunar dynamo and physical state of the current core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righter, K.; Go, B. M.; Pando, K. A.; Danielson, L.; Ross, D. K.; Rahman, Z.; Keller, L. P.

    2017-04-01

    Multiple lines of geochemical and geophysical evidence suggest the Moon has a small metallic core, yet the composition of the core is poorly constrained. The physical state of the core (now or in the past) depends on detailed knowledge of its composition, and unfortunately, there is little available data on relevant multicomponent systems (i.e., Fe-Ni-S-C) at lunar interior conditions. In particular, there is a dearth of phase equilibrium data to elucidate whether a specific core composition could help to explain an early lunar geodynamo and magnetic field intensities, or current solid inner core/liquid outer core states. We utilize geochemical information to estimate the Ni, S and C contents of the lunar core, and then carry out phase equilibria experiments on several possible core compositions at the pressure and temperature conditions relevant to the lunar interior. The first composition is 0.5 wt% S and 0.375 wt% C, based on S and C contents of Apollo glasses. A second composition contains 1 wt% each of S and C, and assumes that the lunar mantle experienced degassing of up to 50% of its S and C. Finally a third composition contains C as the dominant light element. Phase equilibrium experiments were completed at 1, 3 and 5 GPa, using piston cylinder and multi-anvil techniques. The first composition has a liquidus near 1550 °C and solidus near 1250 °C. The second composition has a narrower liquidus and solidus temperatures of 1400 and 1270 °C, respectively, while the third composition is molten down to 1150 °C. As the composition crystallizes, the residual liquid becomes enriched in S and C, but S enrichment is greater due to the incorporation of C (but not S) into solid metallic FeNi. Comparison of these results to thermal models for the Moon allow an evaluation of which composition is consistent with the geophysical data of an early dynamo and a currently solid inner and liquid outer core. Composition 1 has a high enough liquidus to start crystallizing

  11. The Dynamo Clinical Trial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayres, Thomas R.

    2016-04-01

    The Dynamo Clinical Trial evaluates long-term stellar magnetic health through periodic X-ray examinations (by the Chandra Observatory). So far, there are only three subjects enrolled in the DTC: Alpha Centauri A (a solar-like G dwarf), Alpha Cen B (an early K dwarf, more active than the Sun), and Alpha Canis Majoris A (Procyon, a mid-F subgiant similar in activity to the Sun). Of these, Procyon is a new candidate, so it is too early to judge how it will fare. Of the other two, Alpha Cen B has responded well, with a steady magnetic heartbeat of about 8 years duration. The sickest of the bunch, Alpha Cen A, was in magnetic cardiac arrest during 2005-2010, but has begun responding to treatment in recent years, and seems to be successfully cycling again, perhaps achieving a new peak of magnetic health in the 2016 time frame. If this is the case, it has been 20 years since A's last healthful peak, significantly longer than the middle-aged Sun's 11-year magnetic heartbeat, but perhaps in line with Alpha Cen A's more senescent state (in terms of "relative evolutionary age," apparently an important driver of activity). (By the way, don't miss the exciting movie of the Alpha Cen stars' 20-year X-ray dance.)

  12. Tsunami: ocean dynamo generator.

    PubMed

    Sugioka, Hiroko; Hamano, Yozo; Baba, Kiyoshi; Kasaya, Takafumi; Tada, Noriko; Suetsugu, Daisuke

    2014-01-08

    Secondary magnetic fields are induced by the flow of electrically conducting seawater through the Earth's primary magnetic field ('ocean dynamo effect'), and hence it has long been speculated that tsunami flows should produce measurable magnetic field perturbations, although the signal-to-noise ratio would be small because of the influence of the solar magnetic fields. Here, we report on the detection of deep-seafloor electromagnetic perturbations of 10-micron-order induced by a tsunami, which propagated through a seafloor electromagnetometer array network. The observed data extracted tsunami characteristics, including the direction and velocity of propagation as well as sea-level change, first to verify the induction theory. Presently, offshore observation systems for the early forecasting of tsunami are based on the sea-level measurement by seafloor pressure gauges. In terms of tsunami forecasting accuracy, the integration of vectored electromagnetic measurements into existing scalar observation systems would represent a substantial improvement in the performance of tsunami early-warning systems.

  13. Central magnetic anomalies of Nectarian-aged lunar impact basins: Probable evidence for an early core dynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hood, Lon L.

    2011-02-01

    A re-examination of all available low-altitude LP magnetometer data confirms that magnetic anomalies are present in at least four Nectarian-aged lunar basins: Moscoviense, Mendel-Rydberg, Humboldtianum, and Crisium. In three of the four cases, a single main anomaly is present near the basin center while, in the case of Crisium, anomalies are distributed in a semi-circular arc about the basin center. These distributions, together with a lack of other anomalies near the basins, indicate that the sources of the anomalies are genetically associated with the respective basin-forming events. These central basin anomalies are difficult to attribute to shock remanent magnetization of a shocked central uplift and most probably imply thermoremanent magnetization of impact melt rocks in a steady magnetizing field. Iterative forward modeling of the single strongest and most isolated anomaly, the northern Crisium anomaly, yields a paleomagnetic pole position at 81° ± 19°N, 143° ± 31°E, not far from the present rotational pole. Assuming no significant true polar wander since the Crisium impact, this position is consistent with that expected for a core dynamo magnetizing field. Further iterative forward modeling demonstrates that the remaining Crisium anomalies can be approximately simulated assuming a multiple source model with a single magnetization direction equal to that inferred for the northernmost anomaly. This result is most consistent with a steady, large-scale magnetizing field. The inferred mean magnetization intensity within the strongest basin sources is ˜1 A/m assuming a 1-km thickness for the source layer. Future low-altitude orbital and surface magnetometer measurements will more strongly constrain the depth and/or thicknesses of the sources.

  14. The dynamo dilemma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, E. N.

    1987-01-01

    The recent determination that the angular velocity Omega of the sun declines downward through the convective zone raises serious questions about the nature of the solar dynamo. The principal qualitative features of the sun are the azimuthal fields that migrate toward the equator in association with an oscillating poloidal field which reverses at about the time of maximum appearance of bipolar magnetic regions. If Omega decreases downward, or is negligible, the horizontal gradient in Omega produces a dynamo with some of these essential characteristics. There is reason to think that the dynamo is confined to the lower half of the convective zone, where alpha has the opposite sign from the usual (alpha of greater than 0 in the northern hemisphere) producing equatorward migration but reversing the sign of the associated poloidal field. Meridional circulation may play an essential role in shaping the dynamo. At the present time it is essential to measure Omega accurately and determine the nature of the meridional circulation.

  15. Early views of the martian surface from the Mars Orbiter Camera of Mars Global Surveyor.

    PubMed

    Malin, M C; Carr, M H; Danielson, G E; Davies, M E; Hartmann, W K; Ingersoll, A P; James, P B; Masursky, H; McEwen, A S; Soderblom, L A; Thomas, P; Veverka, J; Caplinger, M A; Ravine, M A; Soulanille, T A; Warren, J L

    1998-03-13

    High-resolution images of the martian surface at scales of a few meters show ubiquitous erosional and depositional eolian landforms. Dunes, sandsheets, and drifts are prevalent and exhibit a range of morphology, composition (inferred from albedo), and age (as seen in occurrences of different dune orientations at the same location). Steep walls of topographic depressions such as canyons, valleys, and impact craters show the martian crust to be stratified at scales of a few tens of meters. The south polar layered terrain and superposed permanent ice cap display diverse surface textures that may reflect the complex interplay of volatile and non-volatile components. Low resolution regional views of the planet provide synoptic observations of polar cap retreat, condensate clouds, and the lifecycle of local and regional dust storms.

  16. Ar-Ar Dating of Martian Meteorite, Dhofar 378: An Early Shock Event?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, J.; Bogard, D. D.

    2006-01-01

    Martian meteorite, Dhofar 378 (Dho378) is a basaltic shergottite from Oman, weighing 15 g, and possessing a black fusion crust. Chemical similarities between Dho378 and the Los Angeles 001 shergottite suggests that they might have derived from the same Mars locale. The plagioclase in other shergottites has been converted to maskelenite by shock, but Dho378 apparently experienced even more intense shock heating, estimated at 55-75 GPa. Dho378 feldspar (approximately 43 modal %) melted, partially flowed and vesiculated, and then partially recrystallized. Areas of feldspathic glass are appreciably enriched in K, whereas individual plagioclases show a range in the Or/An ratio of approximately 0.18-0.017. Radiometric dating of martian shergottites indicate variable formation times of 160-475 Myr, whereas cosmic ray exposure (CRE) ages of shergottites indicate most were ejected from Mars within the past few Myr. Most determined Ar-39-Ar-40 ages of shergottites appear older than other radiometric ages because of the presence of large amounts of martian atmosphere or interior Ar-40. Among all types of meteorites and returned lunar rocks, the impact event that initiated the CRE age very rarely reset the Ar-Ar age. This is because a minimum time and temperature is required to facilitate Ar diffusion loss. It is generally assumed that the shock-texture characteristics in martian meteorites were produced by the impact events that ejected the rocks from Mars, although the time of these shock events (as opposed to CRE ages) are not directly dated. Here we report Ar-39-Ar-40 dating of Dho378 plagioclase. We suggest that the determined age dates the intense shock heating event this meteorite experienced, but that it was not the impact that initiated the CRE age.

  17. Maximizing Science Return: A Representative Trajectory for Dynamo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, Daniel T.

    1999-01-01

    This presentation discusses a possible Dynamo Orbit for a future Mars global surveyor. The goal of the proposed orbit is to allow for the greatest amount of mapping of the Martian surface during the mission. The presentation discusses the dynamic pressure, periapsis altitude, the Apoapsis Altitude, the aerodynamic heating rate,and the change in velocity during the aerobraking phase of the orbit and the orbital insertion.

  18. Magnetic Helicity and Planetary Dynamos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    2012-01-01

    A model planetary dynamo based on the Boussinesq approximation along with homogeneous boundary conditions is considered. A statistical theory describing a large-scale MHD dynamo is found, in which magnetic helicity is the critical parameter

  19. The Solar Dynamo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David H.

    1998-01-01

    The solar dynamo is the process by which the Sun's magnetic field is generated through the interaction of the field with convection and rotation. In this, it is kin to planetary dynamos and other stellar dynamos. Although the precise mechanism by which the Sun generates its field remains poorly understood despite decades of theoretical and observational work, recent advances suggest that solutions to this solar dynamo problem may be forthcoming. Two basic processes are involved in dynamo activity. When the fluid stresses dominate the magnetic stresses (high plasma beta = 8(pi)rho/B(sup 2)), shear flows can stretch magnetic field lines in the direction of the shear (the "alpha effect") and helical flows can lift and twist field lines into orthogonal planes (the "alpha effect"). These two processes can be active anywhere in the solar convection zone but with different results depending upon their relative strengths and signs. Little is known about how and where these processes occur. Other processes, such as magnetic diffusion and the effects of the fine scale structure of the solar magnetic field, pose additional problems.

  20. Investigations of Martian history

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, W. K.

    1976-01-01

    Geologic and stratigraphic analyses of Martian channels were accomplished using Mariner frames of high resolution. Crater counts were made to determine which forms had the least relative age. Results indicate that major channel and chaotic systems were relatively young, and that Mars experienced periods of enhanced erosive activity during a period of early dense atmospheric activity with rain. The problem of absolute age determination is discussed and geomorphological studies of selected Local Martian Regions are presented.

  1. An MHD Dynamo Experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, R.; Forest, C. B.; Plard, F.; Kendrick, R.; Lovell, T.; Thomas, M.; Bonazza, R.; Jensen, T.; Politzer, P.; Gerritsen, W.; McDowell, M.

    1997-11-01

    A MHD experiment is being constructed which will have the possibility of showing dynamo action: the self--generation of currents from fluid motion. The design allows sufficient experimental flexibility and diagnostic access to study a variety of issues central to dynamo theory, including mean--field electrodynamics and saturation (backreaction physics). Initially, helical flows required for dynamo action will be driven by propellers embedded in liquid sodium. The flow fields will first be measured using laser doppler velocimetry in a water experiment with an identical fluid Reynolds number. The magnetic field evolution will then be predicted using a MHD code, replacing the water with sodium; if growing magnetic fields are found, the experiment will be repeated with sodium.

  2. Statistical theory of dynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, E.; Newton, A. P.

    2012-04-01

    One major problem in dynamo theory is the multi-scale nature of the MHD turbulence, which requires statistical theory in terms of probability distribution functions. In this contribution, we present the statistical theory of magnetic fields in a simplified mean field α-Ω dynamo model by varying the statistical property of alpha, including marginal stability and intermittency, and then utilize observational data of solar activity to fine-tune the mean field dynamo model. Specifically, we first present a comprehensive investigation into the effect of the stochastic parameters in a simplified α-Ω dynamo model. Through considering the manifold of marginal stability (the region of parameter space where the mean growth rate is zero), we show that stochastic fluctuations are conductive to dynamo. Furthermore, by considering the cases of fluctuating alpha that are periodic and Gaussian coloured random noise with identical characteristic time-scales and fluctuating amplitudes, we show that the transition to dynamo is significantly facilitated for stochastic alpha with random noise. Furthermore, we show that probability density functions (PDFs) of the growth-rate, magnetic field and magnetic energy can provide a wealth of useful information regarding the dynamo behaviour/intermittency. Finally, the precise statistical property of the dynamo such as temporal correlation and fluctuating amplitude is found to be dependent on the distribution the fluctuations of stochastic parameters. We then use observations of solar activity to constrain parameters relating to the effect in stochastic α-Ω nonlinear dynamo models. This is achieved through performing a comprehensive statistical comparison by computing PDFs of solar activity from observations and from our simulation of mean field dynamo model. The observational data that are used are the time history of solar activity inferred for C14 data in the past 11000 years on a long time scale and direct observations of the sun spot

  3. The Global Solar Dynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, R. H.; Dikpati, M.; Brandenburg, A.

    2017-09-01

    A brief summary of the various observations and constraints that underlie solar dynamo research are presented. The arguments that indicate that the solar dynamo is an alpha-omega dynamo of the Babcock-Leighton type are then shortly reviewed. The main open questions that remain are concerned with the subsurface dynamics, including why sunspots emerge at preferred latitudes as seen in the familiar butterfly wings, why the cycle is about 11 years long, and why the sunspot groups emerge tilted with respect to the equator (Joy's law). Next, we turn to magnetic helicity, whose conservation property has been identified with the decline of large-scale magnetic fields found in direct numerical simulations at large magnetic Reynolds numbers. However, magnetic helicity fluxes through the solar surface can alleviate this problem and connect theory with observations, as will be discussed.

  4. Carbon Dioxide Clouds at High Altitude in the Tropics and in an Early Dense Martian Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colaprete, Anthony; Toon, Owen B.

    2001-01-01

    We use a time dependent, microphysical cloud model to study the formation of carbon dioxide clouds in the Martian atmosphere. Laboratory studies by Glandor et al. show that high critical supersaturations are required for cloud particle nucleation and that surface kinetic growth is not limited. These conditions, which are similar to those for cirrus clouds on Earth, lead to the formation of carbon dioxide ice particles with radii greater than 500 micrometers and concentrations of less than 0.1 cm(exp -3) for typical atmospheric conditions. Within the current Martian atmosphere, CO2 cloud formation is possible at the poles during winter and at high altitudes in the tropics during periods of increased atmospheric dust loading. In both cases, temperature perturbations of several degrees below the CO2 saturation temperature are required to nucleate new cloud particles suggesting that dynamical processes are the most common initiators of carbon dioxide clouds rather than diabatic cooling. The microphysical cloud model, coupled to a two-stream radiative transfer model, is used to reexamine the impact of CO2 clouds on the surface temperature within a dense CO2 atmosphere. The formation of carbon dioxide clouds leads to a warmer surface than what would be expected for clear sky conditions. The amount of warming is sensitive to the presence of dust and water vapor in the atmosphere, both of which act to dampen cloud effects. The radiative warming associated with cloud formation, as well as latent heating, work to dissipate the clouds when present. Thus, clouds never last for periods much longer than several days, limiting their overall effectiveness for warming the surface. The time average cloud optical depth is approximately unity leading to a 5-10 K warming, depending on the surface pressure. However, the surface temperature does not rise about the freezing point of liquid water even for pressures as high as 5 bars, at a solar luminosity of 75% the current value.

  5. Defining the Iron-Rich Fe-Ni-S Melting Curve at 20GPa: Implications for Martian Core Solidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilfoy, F. G.; Li, J.

    2016-12-01

    In 1997, the Mars Global Surveyor detected strong remnant magnetization of 4 Ga impact basins in the planet's southern highlands (Acuna et al. 1999), but the dearth of strongly magnetized rocks younger than 4 Ga in age is interpreted as evidence cataloging the death of an early Martian dynamo (Stevenson, 2001; Fassett 2011). In order to investigate the thermal evolution of the Martian core and assess the possibility of iron "snow" core crystallization to restart the dynamo, a series of multi-anvil experiments have been conducted to define the iron-rich liquidus of the Fe-Ni-S system at 20 GPa, the estimated pressure of the Martian core-mantle boundary (CMB), across its entire temperature range. Due to the fineness of features at high temperatures and low S concentrations, area analysis techniques, in additional to traditional electron microprobe analysis, were used to determine the composition of the experimental data. When fitted using an asymmetrical regular solution model, our data yields a liquidus that is significantly depressed when compared to calculations made assuming ideal behavior. Pronounced melting point depression at S contents corresponding to the likely composition of the Martian core means that the onset of crystallization will take much longer than previously thought. By comparing a calculated areotherm to liquidii interpolated between our experimental data and that from the literature, we find that the two intersect at the high-pressure end. Thus, the Martian core solidification is expected to begin at the center of planet and iron "snow" core crystallization is unlikely to occur within Mars .

  6. A two-billion-year history for the lunar dynamo.

    PubMed

    Tikoo, Sonia M; Weiss, Benjamin P; Shuster, David L; Suavet, Clément; Wang, Huapei; Grove, Timothy L

    2017-08-01

    Magnetic studies of lunar rocks indicate that the Moon generated a core dynamo with surface field intensities of ~20 to 110 μT between at least 4.25 and 3.56 billion years ago (Ga). The field subsequently declined to <~4 μT by 3.19 Ga, but it has been unclear whether the dynamo had terminated by this time or just greatly weakened in intensity. We present analyses that demonstrate that the melt glass matrix of a young regolith breccia was magnetized in a ~5 ± 2 μT dynamo field at ~1 to ~2.5 Ga. These data extend the known lifetime of the lunar dynamo by at least 1 billion years. Such a protracted history requires an extraordinarily long-lived power source like core crystallization or precession. No single dynamo mechanism proposed thus far can explain the strong fields inferred for the period before 3.56 Ga while also allowing the dynamo to persist in such a weakened state beyond ~2.5 Ga. Therefore, our results suggest that the dynamo was powered by at least two distinct mechanisms operating during early and late lunar history.

  7. A two-billion-year history for the lunar dynamo

    PubMed Central

    Tikoo, Sonia M.; Weiss, Benjamin P.; Shuster, David L.; Suavet, Clément; Wang, Huapei; Grove, Timothy L.

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic studies of lunar rocks indicate that the Moon generated a core dynamo with surface field intensities of ~20 to 110 μT between at least 4.25 and 3.56 billion years ago (Ga). The field subsequently declined to <~4 μT by 3.19 Ga, but it has been unclear whether the dynamo had terminated by this time or just greatly weakened in intensity. We present analyses that demonstrate that the melt glass matrix of a young regolith breccia was magnetized in a ~5 ± 2 μT dynamo field at ~1 to ~2.5 Ga. These data extend the known lifetime of the lunar dynamo by at least 1 billion years. Such a protracted history requires an extraordinarily long-lived power source like core crystallization or precession. No single dynamo mechanism proposed thus far can explain the strong fields inferred for the period before 3.56 Ga while also allowing the dynamo to persist in such a weakened state beyond ~2.5 Ga. Therefore, our results suggest that the dynamo was powered by at least two distinct mechanisms operating during early and late lunar history. PMID:28808679

  8. Iron snow in the Martian core?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Christopher J.; Pommier, Anne

    2018-01-01

    The decline of Mars' global magnetic field some 3.8-4.1 billion years ago is thought to reflect the demise of the dynamo that operated in its liquid core. The dynamo was probably powered by planetary cooling and so its termination is intimately tied to the thermochemical evolution and present-day physical state of the Martian core. Bottom-up growth of a solid inner core, the crystallization regime for Earth's core, has been found to produce a long-lived dynamo leading to the suggestion that the Martian core remains entirely liquid to this day. Motivated by the experimentally-determined increase in the Fe-S liquidus temperature with decreasing pressure at Martian core conditions, we investigate whether Mars' core could crystallize from the top down. We focus on the "iron snow" regime, where newly-formed solid consists of pure Fe and is therefore heavier than the liquid. We derive global energy and entropy equations that describe the long-timescale thermal and magnetic history of the core from a general theory for two-phase, two-component liquid mixtures, assuming that the snow zone is in phase equilibrium and that all solid falls out of the layer and remelts at each timestep. Formation of snow zones occurs for a wide range of interior and thermal properties and depends critically on the initial sulfur concentration, ξ0. Release of gravitational energy and latent heat during growth of the snow zone do not generate sufficient entropy to restart the dynamo unless the snow zone occupies at least 400 km of the core. Snow zones can be 1.5-2 Gyrs old, though thermal stratification of the uppermost core, not included in our model, likely delays onset. Models that match the available magnetic and geodetic constraints have ξ0 ≈ 10% and snow zones that occupy approximately the top 100 km of the present-day Martian core.

  9. Microwave Palaeointensity Experiments On Terrestrial and Martian Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, J.; Hill, M.; Gratton, M.

    The microwave palaeointensity technique was developed in Liverpool University (Walton et al 1996) and has successfully been applied to archaeological ceramics and recent lavas (Shaw et al 1996, 1999.; Hill et al 1999,2000). These published results show that microwave analysis provides accurate palaeointensity determinations com- bined with a very high success rate. Most recently the technique has been successfully applied to Martian material (Shaw et al, 2001) to look for the existence of an internal Martian dynamo early in Martian history. New experiments have been carried out us- ing microwaves to demagnetise synthetic muti-component TRM's and new palaeoin- tensity experiments providing a comparison between microwave analysis of laboratory TRM's and conventional thermal Thellier analysis of microwave generated mTRM's. These experiments demonstrate the equivalence of microwave and thermally gener- ated TRM's. D. Walton, S Snape, T.C. Rolph, J. Shaw and J.A. Share, Application of ferromagnetic resonance heating to palaeointensity determinations.1996, Phys Earth Planet Int,94, 183-186. J. Shaw, D. Walton, S Yang, T.C.Rolph, and J.A. Share. Microwave Archaeointensities from Peruvian Ceramics. 1996, Geophys. J. Int,124,241-244 J. Shaw, S. Yang, T. C. Rolph, and F. Y. Sun. A comparison of archaeointensity results from Chinese ceramics using Microwave and conventional ThellierSs and ShawSs methods.,1999, G J Int.136, 714-718 M. Hill, and J. Shaw, 1999, Palaeointensity results for Historic Lavas from Mt. Etna using microwave demagnetisation/remagnetisation in a modified Thellier type exper- iment. G. J. Int, 139, 583-590 M. J. Hill, and J. Shaw, 2000. Magnetic field intensity study of the 1960 Kilauea lava flow, Hawaii, using the microwave palaeointensity technique, Geophys. J. Int., 142, 487-504. J. Shaw, M. Hill, and S. J. Openshaw, 2001, Investigating the ancient Martian magnetic field using microwaves, Earth and Planetary Science Letters 190 (2001) 103-109

  10. Fluid inclusions in Martian samples: Clues to early crustal development and the hydrosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Philip E.

    1988-01-01

    Major questions about Mars that could be illuminated by examining fluid inclusions in Martian samples include: (1) the nature, extent and timing of development (and decline) of the hydrosphere that existed on the planet; and (2) the evolution of the crust. Fluid inclusion analyses of appropriate samples could provide critical data to use in comparison with data derived from analogous terrestrial studies. For this study, sample handling and return restrictions are unlikely to be as restrictive as the needs of other investigators. The main constraint is that the samples not be subjected to excessively high temperatures. An aqueous fluid inclusion trapped at elevated pressure and temperature will commonly consist of liquid water and water vapor at room temperature. Heating (such as is done in the laboratory to fix P-V-T data for the inclusion) results in moderate pressure increases up to the liquid-vapor homogenization temperature followed by a sharp increase in pressure with continued heating because the inclusion is effectively a fixed volume system. This increased pressure can rupture the inclusion; precise limits are dependent on size, shape, and composition as well as the host material.

  11. A Quantitative Characterization and Classification of Martian Valley Networks: New Constraints on Mars' Early Climate and Its Variability in Space and Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grau Galofre, A.; Jellinek, M.

    2014-12-01

    Valley networks and outflow channels are among the most arresting features of Mars' surface. Remarkable similarities between the structure and complexity of individual Martian channels with certain fluvial systems on Earth supports a popular picture of a warm wet early Mars. A key assumption in this picture is that "typical" Martian examples adequately capture the average character of the majority of all valley networks. However, a full catalog of the distribution of geomorphologic variability of valley networks over Mars' surface geometry has never been established. Accordingly, we present the first planet-wide map in which we use statistical methods and theoretical arguments to classify Martian channels in terms of the mechanics governing their formation. Using new metrics for the size, shape and complexity of channel networks, which we ground truth against a large suite of terrestrial examples, we distinguish drainage patterns related to glacial, subglacial, fluvial and lava flows. Preliminary results separate lava flows from other flow features and show that these features can be divided into three different groups of increasing complexity. The characteristics of these groups suggest that they represent fluvial, subglacial and glacial features. We show also that the relative proportions of the different groups varies systematically, with higher density of river-like features located in low longitudes and increasing glacial-like features as we move east or west. Our results suggest that the early Martian climate and hydrologic cycle was richer and more diverse than originally thought.

  12. THE COMBINED EFFECT OF PRECESSION AND CONVECTION ON THE DYNAMO ACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, Xing, E-mail: xing.wei@sjtu.edu.cn; Princeton University Observatory, Princeton, NJ 08544

    2016-08-20

    To understand the generation of the Earth’s magnetic field and those of other planets, we numerically investigate the combined effect of precession and convection on dynamo action in a spherical shell. Convection alone, precession alone, and the combined effect of convection and precession are studied at the low Ekman number at which the precessing flow is already unstable. The key result is that although precession or convection alone are not strong enough to support the dynamo action, the combined effect of precession and convection can support the dynamo action because of the resonance of precessional and convective instabilities. This resultmore » may explain why the geodynamo has been maintained for such a long time compared to the Martian dynamo.« less

  13. Magnetic dynamos in accreting planetary bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golabek, G.; Labrosse, S.; Gerya, T.; Morishima, R.; Tackley, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    Laboratory measurements revealed ancient remanent magnetization in meteorites [1] indicating the activity of magnetic dynamos in the corresponding meteorite parent body. To study under which circumstances dynamo activity is possible, we use a new methodology to simulate the internal evolution of a planetary body during accretion and differentiation. Using the N-body code PKDGRAV [2] we simulate the accretion of planetary embryos from an initial annulus of several thousand planetesimals. The growth history of the largest resulting planetary embryo is used as an input for the thermomechanical 2D code I2ELVIS [3]. The thermomechanical model takes recent parametrizations of impact processes [4] and of the magnetic dynamo [5] into account. It was pointed out that impacts can not only deposit heat deep into the target body, which is later buried by ejecta of further impacts [6], but also that impacts expose in the crater region originally deep-seated layers, thus cooling the interior [7]. This combination of impact effects becomes even more important when we consider that planetesimals of all masses contribute to planetary accretion. This leads occasionally to collisions between bodies with large ratios between impactor and target mass. Thus, all these processes can be expected to have a profound effect on the thermal evolution during the epoch of planetary accretion and may have implications for the magnetic dynamo activity. Results show that late-formed planetesimals do not experience silicate melting and avoid thermal alteration, whereas in early-formed bodies accretion and iron core growth occur almost simultaneously and a highly variable magnetic dynamo can operate in the interior of these bodies.

  14. Radiative transfer dynamo effect

    DOE PAGES

    Munirov, Vadim R.; Fisch, Nathaniel J.

    2017-01-17

    Here, magnetic fields in rotating and radiating astrophysical plasma can be produced due to a radiative interaction between plasma layers moving relative to each other. The efficiency of current drive, and with it the associated dynamo effect, is considered in a number of limits. It is shown here, however, that predictions for these generated magnetic fields can be significantly higher when kinetic effects, previously neglected, are taken into account.

  15. Saturn Dynamo Model (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glatzmaier, G. A.

    2010-12-01

    There has been considerable interest during the past few years about the banded zonal winds and global magnetic field on Saturn (and Jupiter). Questions regarding the depth to which the intense winds extend below the surface and the role they play in maintaining the dynamo continue to be debated. The types of computer models employed to address these questions fall into two main classes: general circulation models (GCMs) based on hydrostatic shallow-water assumptions from the atmospheric and ocean modeling communities and global non-hydrostatic deep convection models from the geodynamo and solar dynamo communities. The latter class can be further divided into Boussinesq models, which do not account for density stratification, and anelastic models, which do. Recent efforts to convert GCMs to deep circulation anelastic models have succeeded in producing fluid flows similar to those obtained from the original deep convection anelastic models. We describe results from one of the original anelastic convective dynamo simulations and compare them to a recent anelastic dynamo benchmark for giant gas planets. This benchmark is based on a polytropic reference state that spans five density scale heights with a radius and rotation rate similar to those of our solar system gas giants. The resulting magnetic Reynolds number is about 3000. Better spatial resolution will be required to produce more realistic predictions that capture the effects of both the density and electrical conductivity stratifications and include enough of the turbulent kinetic energy spectrum. Important additional physics may also be needed in the models. However, the basic models used in all simulation studies of the global dynamics of giant planets will hopefully first be validated by doing these simpler benchmarks.

  16. Radiative transfer dynamo effect.

    PubMed

    Munirov, Vadim R; Fisch, Nathaniel J

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic fields in rotating and radiating astrophysical plasma can be produced due to a radiative interaction between plasma layers moving relative to each other. The efficiency of current drive, and with it the associated dynamo effect, is considered in a number of limits. It is shown here, however, that predictions for these generated magnetic fields can be significantly higher when kinetic effects, previously neglected, are taken into account.

  17. The Madison Dynamo Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastian, N.; O'Connell, R.; Kendrick, R.; Goldwin, J.; Forest, C. B.

    1998-11-01

    A liquid metal magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) experiment at the University of Wisconsin is being constructed in order to validate 3 key elements of MHD dynamo theory: magnetic instabilities driven by flow shear, the effects of turbulence on current generation (primarily the α and β effects) and the nature of saturation for these on these processes. The experiment consists of two main stages, the first of which uses water to test impeller designs that are used to generate flows capable of supporting a dynamo. Since water has nearly the same viscosity and mass density as sodium, it is the ideal substance with which to test our impeller designs. The second stage of the experiment uses a one meter diameter sphere filled with ≈ 200 gallons of liquid sodium to directly test MHD theory. Impellers will be used to impose flows on the liquid sodium that are predicted by MHD theory to lead to a growing magnetic field. In addition, large scale flows will lead to small-scale turbulence which can produce a dynamo effect and a current. This is known as the turbulent α-effect which we will attempt to observe. The MHD theory also predicts an anomalously high resistivity or magnetic diffusivity (the β-effect). Once a growing magnetic field is present it should be possible to measure the effect that the growing magnetic field has on the flow that created it.

  18. Solar Cycle #24 and the Solar Dynamo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, Kenneth; Pesnell, W. Dean

    2007-01-01

    We focus on two solar aspects related to flight dynamics. These are the solar dynamo and long-term solar activity predictions. The nature of the solar dynamo is central to solar activity predictions, and these predictions are important for orbital planning of satellites in low earth orbit (LEO). The reason is that the solar ultraviolet (UV) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral irradiances inflate the upper atmospheric layers of the Earth, forming the thermosphere and exosphere through which these satellites orbit. Concerning the dynamo, we discuss some recent novel approaches towards its understanding. For solar predictions we concentrate on a solar precursor method, in which the Sun's polar field plays a major role in forecasting the next cycle s activity based upon the Babcock-Leighton dynamo. With a current low value for the Sun s polar field, this method predicts that solar cycle #24 will be one of the lowest in recent times, with smoothed F10.7 radio flux values peaking near 130 plus or minus 30 (2 sigma), in the 2013 timeframe. One may have to consider solar activity as far back as the early 20th century to find a cycle of comparable magnitude. Concomitant effects of low solar activity upon satellites in LEO will need to be considered, such as enhancements in orbital debris. Support for our prediction of a low solar cycle #24 is borne out by the lack of new cycle sunspots at least through the first half of 2007. Usually at the present epoch in the solar cycle (approx. 7+ years after the last solar maximum), for a normal size following cycle, new cycle sunspots would be seen. The lack of their appearance at this time is only consistent with a low cycle #24. Polar field observations of a weak magnitude are consistent with unusual structures seen in the Sun s corona. Polar coronal holes are the hallmarks of the Sun's open field structures. At present, it appears that the polar coronal holes are relatively weak, and there have been many equatorial coronal holes

  19. Solar Cycle #24 and the Solar Dynamo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pesnell, W. Dean; Schatten, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    We focus on two solar aspects related to flight dynamics. These are the solar dynamo and long-term solar activity predictions. The nature of the solar dynamo is central to solar activity predictions, and these predictions are important for orbital planning of satellites in low earth orbit (LEO). The reason is that the solar ultraviolet (UV) and extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectral irradiances inflate the upper atmospheric layers of the Earth, forming the thermosphere and exosphere through which these satellites orbit. Concerning the dynamo, we discuss some recent novel approaches towards its understanding. For solar predictions we concentrate on a solar precursor method, in which the Sun s polar field plays a major role in forecasting the next cycle s activity based upon the Babcock- Leighton dynamo. With a current low value for the Sun s polar field, this method predicts that solar cycle #24 will be one of the lowest in recent times, with smoothed F10.7 radio flux values peaking near 130+ 30 (2 4, in the 2013 timeframe. One may have to consider solar activity as far back as the early 20th century to find a cycle of comparable magnitude. Concomitant effects of low solar activity upon satellites in LEO will need to be considered, such as enhancements in orbital debris. Support for our prediction of a low solar cycle #24 is borne out by the lack of new cycle sunspots at least through the first half of 2007. Usually at the present epoch in the solar cycle (-7+ years after the last solar maximum), for a normal size following cycle, new cycle sunspots would be seen. The lack of their appearance at this time is only consistent with a low cycle #24. Polar field observations of a weak magnitude are consistent with unusual structures seen in the Sun s corona. Polar coronal holes are the hallmarks of the Sun s open field structures. At present, it appears that the polar coronal holes are relatively weak, and there have been many equatorial coronal holes. This appears

  20. Martian ages

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neukum, G.; Hiller, K.

    1981-01-01

    Four discussions are conducted: (1) the methodology of relative age determination by impact crater statistics, (2) a comparison of proposed Martian impact chronologies for the determination of absolute ages from crater frequencies, (3) a report on work dating Martian volcanoes and erosional features by impact crater statistics, and (4) an attempt to understand the main features of Martian history through a synthesis of crater frequency data. Two cratering chronology models are presented and used for inference of absolute ages from crater frequency data, and it is shown that the interpretation of all data available and tractable by the methodology presented leads to a global Martian geological history that is characterized by two epochs of activity. It is concluded that Mars is an ancient planet with respect to its surface features.

  1. Mars' paleomagnetic field as the result of a single-hemisphere dynamo.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Sabine; Elkins-Tanton, Linda; Zuber, Maria T; Parmentier, E Marc

    2008-09-26

    Mars' crustal magnetic field was most likely generated by dynamo action in the planet's early history. Unexplained characteristics of the field include its strength, concentration in the southern hemisphere, and lack of correlation with any surface features except for the hemispheric crustal dichotomy. We used numerical dynamo modeling to demonstrate that the mechanisms proposed to explain crustal dichotomy formation can result in a single-hemisphere dynamo. This dynamo produces strong magnetic fields in only the southern hemisphere. This magnetic field morphology can explain why Mars' crustal magnetic field intensities are substantially stronger in the southern hemisphere without relying on any postdynamo mechanisms.

  2. Could Martian Strawberries Be? -- Prebiotic Chemical Evolution on an Early Wet Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerman, L.

    2005-03-01

    The universality of chemical physics dictates the ubiquity of bubbles, aerosols, and droplets on planets with water and simple amphiphiles. Their ability to functionally support prebiotic chemical evolution seems critical: on the early Earth and Mars, and quite likely for Titan and Europa.

  3. Magnetized Turbulent Dynamo in Protogalaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Leonid Malyshkin; Russell M. Kulsrud

    The prevailing theory for the origin of cosmic magnetic fields is that they have been amplified to their present values by the turbulent dynamo inductive action in the protogalactic and galactic medium. Up to now, in calculation of the turbulent dynamo, it has been customary to assume that there is no back reaction of the magnetic field on the turbulence, as long as the magnetic energy is less than the turbulent kinetic energy. This assumption leads to the kinematic dynamo theory. However, the applicability of this theory to protogalaxies is rather limited. The reason is that in protogalaxies the temperaturemore » is very high, and the viscosity is dominated by magnetized ions. As the magnetic field strength grows in time, the ion cyclotron time becomes shorter than the ion collision time, and the plasma becomes strongly magnetized. As a result, the ion viscosity becomes the Braginskii viscosity. Thus, in protogalaxies the back reaction sets in much earlier, at field strengths much lower than those which correspond to field-turbulence energy equipartition, and the turbulent dynamo becomes what we call the magnetized turbulent dynamo. In this paper we lay the theoretical groundwork for the magnetized turbulent dynamo. In particular, we predict that the magnetic energy growth rate in the magnetized dynamo theory is up to ten times larger than that in the kinematic dynamo theory. We also briefly discuss how the Braginskii viscosity can aid the development of the inverse cascade of magnetic energy after the energy equipartition is reached.« less

  4. Quasi-geostrophic dynamo theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calkins, Michael A.

    2018-03-01

    The asymptotic theory of rapidly rotating, convection-driven dynamos in a plane layer is discussed. A key characteristic of these quasi-geostrophic dynamos is that the Lorentz force is comparable in magnitude to the ageostrophic component of the Coriolis force, rather than the leading order component that yields geostrophy. This characteristic is consistent with both observations of planetary dynamos and numerical dynamo investigations, where the traditional Elssasser number, ΛT = O (1) . Thus, while numerical dynamo simulations currently cannot access the strongly turbulent flows that are thought to be characteristic of planetary interiors, it is argued that they are in the appropriate geostrophically balanced regime provided that inertial and viscous forces are both small relative to the leading order Coriolis force. Four distinct quasi-geostrophic dynamo regimes are discussed, with each regime characterized by a unique magnetic to kinetic energy density ratio and differing dynamics. The axial torque due to the Lorentz force is shown to be asymptotically small for such quasi-geostrophic dynamos, suggesting that 'Taylor's constraint' represents an ambiguous measure of the primary force balance in a rapidly rotating dynamo.

  5. Nonlinear dynamo in the intracluster medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beresnyak, Andrey; Miniati, Francesco

    2018-05-01

    Hot plasma in galaxy clusters, the intracluster medium is observed to be magnetized with magnetic fields of around a μG and the correlation scales of tens of kiloparsecs, the largest scales of the magnetic field so far observed in the Universe. Can this magnetic field be used as a test of the primordial magnetic field in the early Universe? In this paper, we argue that if the cluster field was created by the nonlinear dynamo, the process would be insensitive to the value of the initial field. Our model combines state of the art hydrodynamic simulations of galaxy cluster formation in a fully cosmological context with nonlinear dynamo theory. Initial field is not a parameter in this model, yet it predicts magnetic scale and strength compatible with observations.

  6. Dynamo theory prediction of solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, Kenneth H.

    1988-01-01

    The dynamo theory technique to predict decadal time scale solar activity variations is introduced. The technique was developed following puzzling correlations involved with geomagnetic precursors of solar activity. Based upon this, a dynamo theory method was developed to predict solar activity. The method was used successfully in solar cycle 21 by Schatten, Scherrer, Svalgaard, and Wilcox, after testing with 8 prior solar cycles. Schatten and Sofia used the technique to predict an exceptionally large cycle, peaking early (in 1990) with a sunspot value near 170, likely the second largest on record. Sunspot numbers are increasing, suggesting that: (1) a large cycle is developing, and (2) that the cycle may even surpass the largest cycle (19). A Sporer Butterfly method shows that the cycle can now be expected to peak in the latter half of 1989, consistent with an amplitude comparable to the value predicted near the last solar minimum.

  7. Large-scale dynamos in rapidly rotating plane layer convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bushby, P. J.; Käpylä, P. J.; Masada, Y.; Brandenburg, A.; Favier, B.; Guervilly, C.; Käpylä, M. J.

    2018-05-01

    Context. Convectively driven flows play a crucial role in the dynamo processes that are responsible for producing magnetic activity in stars and planets. It is still not fully understood why many astrophysical magnetic fields have a significant large-scale component. Aims: Our aim is to investigate the dynamo properties of compressible convection in a rapidly rotating Cartesian domain, focusing upon a parameter regime in which the underlying hydrodynamic flow is known to be unstable to a large-scale vortex instability. Methods: The governing equations of three-dimensional non-linear magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) are solved numerically. Different numerical schemes are compared and we propose a possible benchmark case for other similar codes. Results: In keeping with previous related studies, we find that convection in this parameter regime can drive a large-scale dynamo. The components of the mean horizontal magnetic field oscillate, leading to a continuous overall rotation of the mean field. Whilst the large-scale vortex instability dominates the early evolution of the system, the large-scale vortex is suppressed by the magnetic field and makes a negligible contribution to the mean electromotive force that is responsible for driving the large-scale dynamo. The cycle period of the dynamo is comparable to the ohmic decay time, with longer cycles for dynamos in convective systems that are closer to onset. In these particular simulations, large-scale dynamo action is found only when vertical magnetic field boundary conditions are adopted at the upper and lower boundaries. Strongly modulated large-scale dynamos are found at higher Rayleigh numbers, with periods of reduced activity (grand minima-like events) occurring during transient phases in which the large-scale vortex temporarily re-establishes itself, before being suppressed again by the magnetic field.

  8. Properties of Nonlinear Dynamo Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobias, S. M.

    1997-01-01

    Dynamo theory offers the most promising explanation of the generation of the sun's magnetic cycle. Mean field electrodynamics has provided the platform for linear and nonlinear models of solar dynamos. However, the nonlinearities included are (necessarily) arbitrarily imposed in these models. This paper conducts a systematic survey of the role of nonlinearities in the dynamo process, by considering the behaviour of dynamo waves in the nonlinear regime. It is demonstrated that only by considering realistic nonlinearities that are non-local in space and time can modulation of the basic dynamo wave he achieved. Moreover, this modulation is greatest when there is a large separation of timescales provided by including a low magnetic Prandtl number in the equation for the velocity perturbations.

  9. The Importance of Lake Overflow Floods for Early Martian Landscape Evolution: Insights From Licus Vallis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goudge, T. A.; Fassett, C. I.

    2017-01-01

    Open-basin lake outlet valleys are incised when water breaches the basin-confining topography and overflows. Outlet valleys record this flooding event and provide insight into how the lake and surrounding terrain evolved over time. Here we present a study of the paleolake outlet Licus Vallis, a >350 km long, >2 km wide, >100 m deep valley that heads at the outlet breach of an approx.30 km diameter impact crater. Multiple geomorphic features of this valley system suggest it records a more complex evolution than formation from a single lake overflow flood. This provides unique insight into the paleohydrology of lakes on early Mars, as we can make inferences beyond the most recent phase of activity..

  10. THE TURBULENT DYNAMO IN HIGHLY COMPRESSIBLE SUPERSONIC PLASMAS

    SciTech Connect

    Federrath, Christoph; Schober, Jennifer; Bovino, Stefano

    The turbulent dynamo may explain the origin of cosmic magnetism. While the exponential amplification of magnetic fields has been studied for incompressible gases, little is known about dynamo action in highly compressible, supersonic plasmas, such as the interstellar medium of galaxies and the early universe. Here we perform the first quantitative comparison of theoretical models of the dynamo growth rate and saturation level with three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical simulations of supersonic turbulence with grid resolutions of up to 1024{sup 3} cells. We obtain numerical convergence and find that dynamo action occurs for both low and high magnetic Prandtl numbers Pm = ν/ηmore » = 0.1-10 (the ratio of viscous to magnetic dissipation), which had so far only been seen for Pm ≥ 1 in supersonic turbulence. We measure the critical magnetic Reynolds number, Rm{sub crit}=129{sub −31}{sup +43}, showing that the compressible dynamo is almost as efficient as in incompressible gas. Considering the physical conditions of the present and early universe, we conclude that magnetic fields need to be taken into account during structure formation from the early to the present cosmic ages, because they suppress gas fragmentation and drive powerful jets and outflows, both greatly affecting the initial mass function of stars.« less

  11. Multiple scale dynamo

    PubMed Central

    Le Mouël, Jean-Louis; Allègre, Claude J.; Narteau, Clément

    1997-01-01

    A scaling law approach is used to simulate the dynamo process of the Earth’s core. The model is made of embedded turbulent domains of increasing dimensions, until the largest whose size is comparable with the site of the core, pervaded by large-scale magnetic fields. Left-handed or right-handed cyclones appear at the lowest scale, the scale of the elementary domains of the hierarchical model, and disappear. These elementary domains then behave like electromotor generators with opposite polarities depending on whether they contain a left-handed or a right-handed cyclone. To transfer the behavior of the elementary domains to larger ones, a dynamic renormalization approach is used. A simple rule is adopted to determine whether a domain of scale l is a generator—and what its polarity is—in function of the state of the (l − 1) domains it is made of. This mechanism is used as the main ingredient of a kinematic dynamo model, which displays polarity intervals, excursions, and reversals of the geomagnetic field. PMID:11038547

  12. Distinct Chlorine Isotopic Reservoirs on Mars: Implications for Character, Extent and Relative Timing of Crustal Interaction with Mantle-Derived Magmas, Evolution of the Martian Atmosphere, and the Building Blocks of an Early Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shearer, C. K.; Messenger, S.; Sharp, Z. D.; Burger, P. V.; Nguyen, N.; McCubbin, F. M.

    2017-01-01

    The style, magnitude, timing, and mixing components involved in the interaction between mantle derived Martian magmas and Martian crust have long been a point of debate. Understanding this process is fundamental to deciphering the composition of the Martian crust and its interaction with the atmosphere, the compositional diversity and oxygen fugacity variations in the Martian mantle, the bulk composition of Mars and the materials from which it accreted, and the noble gas composition of Mars and the Sun. Recent studies of the chlorine isotopic composition of Martian meteorites imply that although the variation in delta (sup 37) Cl is limited (total range of approximately14 per mille), there appears to be distinct signatures for the Martian crust and mantle. However, there are potential issues with this interpretation. New Cl isotope data from the SAM (Sample Analysis at Mars) instrument on the Mars Science Lab indicate a very wide range of Cl isotopic compositions on the Martian surface. Recent measurements by [10] duplicated the results of [7,8], but placed them within the context of SAM surface data. In addition, Martian meteorite Chassigny contains trapped noble gases with isotopic ratios similar to solar abundance, and has long been considered a pristine, mantle derived sample. However, previous studies of apatite in Chassigny indicate that crustal fluids have interacted with regions interstitial to the cumulus olivine. The initial Cl isotope measurements of apatite in Chassigny suggest an addition of crustal component to this lithology, apparently contradicting the rare gas data. Here, we examine the Cl isotopic composition of multiple generations and textures of apatite in Chassigny to extricate the crustal and mantle components in this meteorite and to reveal the style and timing of the addition of crustal components to mantle-derived magmas. These data reveal distinct Martian Cl sources whose signatures have their origins linked to both the early Solar

  13. Dynamo action with wave motion.

    PubMed

    Tilgner, A

    2008-03-28

    It is shown that time dependent velocity fields in a fluid conductor can act as dynamos even when the same velocity fields frozen in at any particular time cannot. This effect is observed in propagating waves in which the time dependence is simply a steady drift of a fixed velocity pattern. The effect contributes to magnetic field generation in numerical models of planetary dynamos and relies on the property that eigenmodes of the induction equation are not all orthogonal to each other.

  14. Kinematic Dynamo In Turbulent Circumstellar Disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepinski, T.

    1993-01-01

    Many circumstellar disks associated with objects ranging from protoplanetary nebulae, to accretion disks around compact stars allow for the generation of magnetic fields by an (alpha)omega dynamo. We have applied kinematic dynamo formalism to geometrically thin accretion disks. We calculate, in the framework of an adiabatic approximation, the normal mode solutions for dynamos operating in disks around compact stars. We then describe the criteria for a viable dynamo in protoplanetary nebulae, and discuss the particular features that make accretion disk dynamos different from planetary, stellar, and galactic dynamos.

  15. Magnetic dynamos in accreting planetary bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golabek, Gregor; Labrosse, Stéphane; Gerya, Taras; Morishima, Ryuji; Tackley, Paul

    2013-04-01

    Laboratory measurements revealed ancient remanent magnetization in meteorites [1] indicating the activity of magnetic dynamos in the corresponding meteorite parent body. To study under which circumstances dynamo activity is possible, we use a new methodology to simulate the internal evolution of a planetary body during accretion and differentiation. Using the N-body code PKDGRAV [2] we simulate the accretion of planetary embryos from an initial annulus of several thousand planetesimals. The growth history of the largest resulting planetary embryo is used as an input for the thermomechanical 2D code I2ELVIS [3]. The thermomechanical model takes recent parametrizations of impact processes [4] and of the magnetic dynamo [5] into account. It was pointed out that impacts can not only deposit heat deep into the target body, which is later buried by ejecta of further impacts [6], but also that impacts expose in the crater region originally deep-seated layers, thus cooling the interior [7]. This combination of impact effects becomes even more important when we consider that planetesimals of all masses contribute to planetary accretion. This leads occasionally to collisions between bodies with large ratios between impactor and target mass. Thus, all these processes can be expected to have a profound effect on the thermal evolution during the epoch of planetary accretion and may have implications for the magnetic dynamo activity. Results show that late-formed planetesimals do not experience silicate melting and avoid thermal alteration, whereas in early-formed bodies accretion and iron core growth occur almost simultaneously and a highly variable magnetic dynamo can operate in the interior of these bodies. [1] Weiss, B.P. et al., Science, 322, 713-716, 2008. [2] Richardson, D. C. et al., Icarus, 143, 45-59, 2000. [3] Gerya, T.V and Yuen, D.J., Phys. Earth Planet. Int., 163, 83-105, 2007. [4] Monteux, J. et al., Geophys. Res. Lett., 34, L24201, 2007. [5] Aubert, J. et al

  16. Martian seismicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Roger J.; Grimm, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    The design and ultimate success of network seismology experiments on Mars depends on the present level of Martian seismicity. Volcanic and tectonic landforms observed from imaging experiments show that Mars must have been a seismically active planet in the past and there is no reason to discount the notion that Mars is seismically active today but at a lower level of activity. Models are explored for present day Mars seismicity. Depending on the sensitivity and geometry of a seismic network and the attenuation and scattering properties of the interior, it appears that a reasonable number of Martian seismic events would be detected over the period of a decade. The thermoelastic cooling mechanism as estimated is surely a lower bound, and a more refined estimate would take into account specifically the regional cooling of Tharsis and lead to a higher frequency of seismic events.

  17. Martian Gardens

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-08-15

    NASA’s Kennedy Space Center is partnering with the Florida Tech Buzz Aldrin Space Institute in Melbourne, Florida, to collaborate on research studying the performance of crop species grown in a simulated “Martian garden” — a proving ground for a potential future farm on the Red Planet. Plants were grown in a preliminary experiment comparing (left to right) potting soil, regolith simulant with added nutrients, and simulant without nutrients.

  18. Iron snow in the Martian Core?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, C. J.; Pommier, A.

    2017-12-01

    The decline of Mars' global magnetic field some 3.8-4.1 billion years ago is thought to reflect the demise of the dynamo that operated in its liquid core. The termination of the dynamo is intimately tied to the thermochemical evolution of the core-mantle system and therefore to the present-day physical state of the Martian core. The standard model predicts that the Martian dynamo failed because thermal convection stopped and the core remained entirely liquid until the present. Here we consider an alternative hypothesis that the Martian core crystallized from the top down in the so-called iron snow regime. We derive energy-entropy equations describing the long-timescale thermal and magnetic evolution of the core that incorporate the self-consistent formation of a snow layer that freezes out pure iron and is assumed to be on the liquidus; the iron sinks and remelts in the deeper core, acting as a possible source for magnetic field generation. Compositions are in the FeS system, with a sulfur content up to 16 wt%. The values of the different parameters (core radius, density and CMB pressure) are varied within bounds set by recent internal structure models that satisfy existing geodetic constraints (planetary mass, moment of inertia and tidal Love number). The melting curve and adiabat, CMB heat flow and thermal conductivity were also varied, based on previous experimental and numerical works. We observe that the formation of snow zones occurs for a wide range of interior and thermal structure properties and depends critically on the initial sulfur concentration. Gravitational energy release and latent heat effects arising during growth of the snow zone do not generate sufficient entropy to restart the dynamo unless the snow zone occupies a significant fraction of the core. Our results suggest that snow zones can be 1.5-2 Gyrs old, though thermal stratification of the uppermost core, not included in our model, likely delays onset. Models that match the available

  19. The Martian Soil as a Geochemical Sink for Hydrothermally Altered Crustal Rocks and Mobile Elements: Implications of Early MER Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newsom, H. E.; Nelson, M. J.; Shearer, C. K.; Draper, D. S.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrothermal and aqueous alteration can explain some of the exciting results from the MER team s analyses of the martian soil, including the major elements, mobile elements, and the nickel enrichment. Published results from the five lander missions lead to the following conclusions: 1) The soil appears to be globally mixed and basaltic with only small local variations in chemistry. Relative to martian basaltic meteorites and Gusev rocks the soils are depleted in the fluid-mobile element calcium, but only slightly enriched to somewhat depleted in iron oxide. 2) The presence of olivine in the soils based on M ssbauer data argues that the soil is only partly weathered and is more akin to a lunar regolith than a terrestrial soil. 3) The presence of bromine along with sulfur and chlorine in the soils is consistent with addition of a mobile element component to the soil.

  20. The DYNAMO Orbiter Project: High Resolution Mapping of Gravity/Magnetic Fields and In Situ Investigation of Mars Atmospheric Escape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smrekar, S.; Chassefiere, E.; Forget, F.; Reme, H.; Mazelle, C.; Blelly, P. -L.; Acuna, M.; Connerney, J.; Purucker, M.; Lin, R.

    2000-01-01

    Dynamo is a small Mars orbiter planned to be launched in 2005 or 2007, in the frame of the NASA/CNES Mars exploration program. It is aimed at improving gravity and magnetic field resolution, in order to better understand the magnetic, geologic and thermal history of Mars, and at characterizing current atmospheric escape, which is still poorly constrained. These objectives are achieved by using a low periapsis orbit, similar to the one used by the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft during its aerobraking phases. The proposed periapsis altitude for Dynamo of 120-130 km, coupled with the global distribution of periapses to be obtained during one Martian year of operation, through about 5000 low passes, will produce a magnetic/gravity field data set with approximately five times the spatial resolution of MGS. Low periapsis provides a unique opportunity to investigate the chemical and dynamical properties of the deep ionosphere, thermosphere, and the interaction between the atmosphere and the solar wind, therefore atmospheric escape, which may have played a crucial role in removing atmosphere, and water, from the planet. There is much room for debate on the importance of current atmosphere escape processes in the evolution of the Martian atmosphere, as early "exotic" processes including hydrodynamic escape and impact erosion are traditionally invoked to explain the apparent sparse inventory of present-day volatiles. Yet, the combination of low surface gravity and the absence of a substantial internally generated magnetic field have undeniable effects on what we observe today. In addition to the current losses in the forms of Jeans and photochemical escape of neutrals, there are solar wind interaction-related erosion mechanisms because the upper atmosphere is directly exposed to the solar wind. The solar wind related loss rates, while now comparable to those of a modest comet, nonetheless occur continuously, with the intriguing possibility of important cumulative and

  1. Dynamo Induced by Time-periodic Force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xing

    2018-03-01

    To understand the dynamo driven by time-dependent flow, e.g., turbulence, we investigate numerically the dynamo induced by time-periodic force in rotating magnetohydrodynamic flow and focus on the effect of force frequency on the dynamo action. It is found that the dynamo action depends on the force frequency. When the force frequency is near resonance the force can drive dynamo, but when it is far away from resonance dynamo fails. In the frequency range near resonance to support dynamo, the force frequency at resonance induces a weak magnetic field and magnetic energy increases as the force frequency deviates from the resonant frequency. This is opposite to the intuition that a strong flow at resonance will induce a strong field. It is because magnetic field nonlinearly couples with fluid flow in the self-sustained dynamo and changes the resonance of driving force and inertial wave.

  2. Do steady fast magnetic dynamos exist?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finn, John M.; Ott, Edward; Hanson, James D.; Kan, Ittai

    1989-01-01

    This paper considers the question of the existense of a steady fast kinematic magnetic dynamo for a conducting fluid with a steady velocity field and vanishingly small electrical resistivity. The analysis of examples of steady dynamos, found by considering the zero-resistivity dynamics, indicated that, for sufficiently small resistivity, dynamo action can indeed occur in steady smooth three-dimensional chaotic fluid flows and that fast dynamos should consequently be a typical occurrence for such flows.

  3. Residual fields from extinct dynamos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, E. N.

    The generation of magnetic fields in convective zones of declining vigor and/or thickness is considered, the goal being to explain the magnetic fields observed in A-stars. The investigation is restricted to kinematical dynamos in order to show some of the many possibilities, which depend on the assumed conditions of decline of the convection. The examples illustrate the quantitative detail required to describe the convection in order to extract any firm conclusions concerning specific stars. The first example treats the basic problem of diffusion from a layer of declining thickness. The second has a buoyant rise added to the field in the layer. The third deals with plane dynamo waves in a region with declining eddy diffusivity, dynamo coefficient, and large-scale shear. It is noted that the dynamo number may increase or decrease with declining convection, with an increase expected if the large-scale shear does not decline as rapidly as the eddy diffusivity. It is shown that one of the components of the field may increase without bound even when the dynamo number declines to zero.

  4. Martian Fingerprints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    9 April 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows patterned ground on the martian northern plains. The circular features are buried meteor impact craters; the small dark dots associated with them are boulders. The dark feature at left center is a wind streak.

    Location near: 75.1oN, 303.0oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Summer

  5. Reconnecting flux-rope dynamo.

    PubMed

    Baggaley, Andrew W; Barenghi, Carlo F; Shukurov, Anvar; Subramanian, Kandaswamy

    2009-11-01

    We develop a model of the fluctuation dynamo in which the magnetic field is confined to thin flux ropes advected by a multiscale model of turbulence. Magnetic dissipation occurs only via reconnection of the flux ropes. This model can be viewed as an implementation of the asymptotic limit R_{m}-->infinity for a continuous magnetic field, where magnetic dissipation is strongly localized to small regions of strong-field gradients. We investigate the kinetic-energy release into heat mediated by the dynamo action, both in our model and by solving the induction equation with the same flow. We find that a flux-rope dynamo is an order of magnitude more efficient at converting mechanical energy into heat. The probability density of the magnetic energy release in reconnections has a power-law form with the slope -3 , consistent with the solar corona heating by nanoflares.

  6. Solar Cycle 24 and the Solar Dynamo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pesnell, W. D.; Schatten, K.

    2007-01-01

    We will discuss the polar field precursor method for solar activity prediction, which predicts cycle 24 will be significantly lower than recent activity cycles, and some new ideas rejuvenating Babcock's shallow surface dynamo. The polar field precursor method is based on Babcock and Leighton's dynamo models wherein the polar field at solar minimum plays a major role in generating the next cycle's toroidal field and sunspots. Thus, by examining the polar fields of the Sun near solar minimum, a forecast for the next cycle's activity is obtained. With the current low value for the Sun's polar fields, this method predicts solar cycle 24 will be one of the lowest in recent times, with smoothed F10.7 radio flux values peaking near 135 plus or minus 35 (2 sigma), in the 2012-2013 timeframe (equivalent to smoothed Rz near 80 plus or minus 35 [2 sigma]). One may have to consider solar activity as far back as the early 20th century to find a cycle of comparable magnitude. We discuss unusual behavior in the Sun's polar fields that support this prediction. Normally, the solar precursor method is consistent with the geomagnetic precursor method, wherein geomagnetic variations are thought to be a good measure of the Sun's polar field strength. Because of the unusual polar field, the Earth does not appear to be currently bathed in the Sun's extended polar field (the interplanetary field), hence negating the primal cause behind the geomagnetic precursor technique. We also discuss how percolation may support Babcock's original shallow solar dynamo. In this process ephemeral regions from the solar magnetic carpet, guided by shallow surface fields, may collect to form pores and sunspots.

  7. Magnetism of Tissint Martian meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rochette, P.; Gattacceca, J.; Hewins, R.; Lagroix, F.; Uehara, M.; Cournede, C.; Chennaoui Aoudjehane, H.; Zanda, B.; Bernstein Scorzelli, R.

    2012-12-01

    temperatures below ~300° (i.e. after the major shock event that led to partial melting), and are deformed indicating successive shock events. Such a lithology, if magnetized in a Martian dynamo magnetic field of 50 μT, would carry a remanent magnetization of ~ 3 A/m. This is way below the 10 to 15 A/m that are necessary over a crustal thickness of about 40 km to account for the observed magnetic anomalies at the Martian surface, which confirms that shergottite-like rocks cannot account for these anomalies.

  8. A Model of the Turbulent Electric Dynamo in Multi-Phase Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dementyeva, Svetlana; Mareev, Evgeny

    2016-04-01

    Many terrestrial and astrophysical phenomena witness the conversion of kinetic energy into electric energy (the energy of the quasi-stationary electric field) in conducting media, which is natural to treat as manifestations of electric dynamo by analogy with well-known theory of magnetic dynamo. Such phenomena include thunderstorms and lightning in the Earth's atmosphere and atmospheres of other planets, electric activity caused by dust storms in terrestrial and Martian atmospheres, snow storms, electrical discharges occurring in technological setups, connected with intense mixing of aerosol particles like in the milling industry. We have developed a model of the large-scale turbulent electric dynamo in a weakly conducting medium, containing two heavy-particle components. We have distinguished two main classes of charging mechanisms (inductive and non-inductive) in accordance with the dependence or independence of the electric charge, transferred during a particle collision, on the electric field intensity and considered the simplified models which demonstrate the possibility of dynamo realization and its specific peculiarities for these mechanisms. Dynamo (the large-scale electric field growth) appears due to the charge separation between the colliding and rebounding particles. This process is may be greatly intensified by the turbulent mixing of particles with different masses and, consequently, different inertia. The particle charge fluctuations themselves (small-scale dynamo), however, do not automatically mean growth of the large-scale electric field without a large-scale asymmetry. Such an asymmetry arises due to the dependence of the transferred charge magnitude on the electric field intensity in the case of the inductive mechanism of charge separation, or due to the gravity and convection for non-inductive mechanisms. We have found that in the case of the inductive mechanism the large-scale dynamo occurs if the medium conductivity is small enough while the

  9. Truncated Hexa-Octahedral Magnetite Crystals in Martian Meteorite ALH84001: Evidence of Biogenic Activity on Early Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas-Keprta, K.; Clemett, S. J.; Schwartz, C.; McIntosh, J. R.; Bazylinski, D. A.; Kirschvink, J.; McKay, D. S.; Gibson, E. K.; Vali, H.; Romanek, C. S.

    2004-01-01

    The landmark paper by McKay et al. [1] cited four lines of evidence associated with the Martian meteorite ALH84001 to support the hypothesis that life existed on Mars approximately 4 Ga ago. Now, more than five years later, attention has focused on the ALH84001 magnetite grains embedded within carbonate globules in the ALH84001 meteorite. We have suggested that up to approx.25% of the ALH84001 magnetite crystals are products of biological activity [e.g., 2]. The remaining magnetites lack sufficient characteristics to constrain their origin. The papers of Thomas Keprta et al. were criticized arguing that the three dimensional structure of ALH84001 magnetite crystals can only be unambiguously determined using electron tomographic techniques. Clemett et al. [3] confirmed that magnetites produced by magnetotactic bacteria strain MV-I display a truncated hexa-octahedral geometry using electron tomography and validated the use of the multi-tilt classical transmission microscopy technique used by [2]. Recently the geometry of the purported martian biogenic magnetites was shown be identical to that for MV-1 magnetites using electron tomography [6].

  10. An Elementary Introduction to Solar Dynamo Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhuri, Arnab Rai

    2007-07-01

    The cyclically varying magnetic field of the Sun is believed to be produced by the hydromagnetic dynamo process. We first summarize the relevant observational data pertaining to sunspots and solar cycle. Then we review the basic principles of MHD needed to develop the dynamo theory. This is followed by a discussion how bipolar sunspots form due to magnetic buoyancy of flux tubes formed at the base of the solar convection zone. Following this, we come to the heart of dynamo theory. After summarizing the basic ideas of a turbulent dynamo and the basic principles of its mean field formulation, we present the famous dynamo wave solution, which was supposed to provide a model for the solar cycle. Finally we point out how a flux transport dynamo can circumvent some of the difficulties associated with the older dynamo models.

  11. Sleuthing the Dynamo: the Final Frontier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayres, Thomas

    1996-07-01

    Innovative technologies are opening new windows into the Sun;from its hidden interior to the far reaches of its turbulentouter envelope: rare-earth detectors for solar neutrinos; theGONG project for helioseismology; SOHO for high-resolutionXUV spectroscopy, and YOHKOH for coronal X-ray imaging. Atthe same time, a fleet of space observatories--ROSAT, EUVE,ASCA, and HST itself--are providing unprecedented views ofthe vacuum-UV and X-ray emissions of stars in our Galacticneighborhood. These seemingly unrelated developments are infact deeply connected. A central issue of solar-stellarphysics is the nature and origin of magnetic activity: thelink between the interior dynamics of a late-type star and theviolent state of its outermost coronal layers. As solarphysicists are unlocking the secrets of the hydromagneticDynamo deep inside the Sun, we and others have beendocumenting the early evolution of the Dynamo and itsassociated external gas-dynamic activity. In particular, wehave obtained HST/FOS spectra of ten young solar-type starsin three nearby open clusters--the Hyades, Pleiades, andAlpha Persei--ranging in age from 50 Myr to 600 Myr. We havesupplemented the HST spectroscopy with deep ROSAT pointings, and ground-based studies. Here, we will continue the HSTside of our project by obtaining FUV spectra of two AlphaPerseids from our original program (but not yet observed),and high-S/N follow-up measurements of the hyperactive PleiadH II 314.

  12. Statistical dynamo theory: Mode excitation.

    PubMed

    Hoyng, P

    2009-04-01

    We compute statistical properties of the lowest-order multipole coefficients of the magnetic field generated by a dynamo of arbitrary shape. To this end we expand the field in a complete biorthogonal set of base functions, viz. B= summation operator_{k}a;{k}(t)b;{k}(r) . The properties of these biorthogonal function sets are treated in detail. We consider a linear problem and the statistical properties of the fluid flow are supposed to be given. The turbulent convection may have an arbitrary distribution of spatial scales. The time evolution of the expansion coefficients a;{k} is governed by a stochastic differential equation from which we infer their averages a;{k} , autocorrelation functions a;{k}(t)a;{k *}(t+tau) , and an equation for the cross correlations a;{k}a;{l *} . The eigenfunctions of the dynamo equation (with eigenvalues lambda_{k} ) turn out to be a preferred set in terms of which our results assume their simplest form. The magnetic field of the dynamo is shown to consist of transiently excited eigenmodes whose frequency and coherence time is given by Ilambda_{k} and -1/Rlambda_{k} , respectively. The relative rms excitation level of the eigenmodes, and hence the distribution of magnetic energy over spatial scales, is determined by linear theory. An expression is derived for |a;{k}|;{2}/|a;{0}|;{2} in case the fundamental mode b;{0} has a dominant amplitude, and we outline how this expression may be evaluated. It is estimated that |a;{k}|;{2}/|a;{0}|;{2} approximately 1/N , where N is the number of convective cells in the dynamo. We show that the old problem of a short correlation time (or first-order smoothing approximation) has been partially eliminated. Finally we prove that for a simple statistically steady dynamo with finite resistivity all eigenvalues obey Rlambda_{k}<0 .

  13. A long-lived lunar dynamo driven by continuous mechanical stirring.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, C A; Stevenson, D J; Nimmo, F

    2011-11-09

    Lunar rocks contain a record of an ancient magnetic field that seems to have persisted for more than 400 million years and which has been attributed to a lunar dynamo. Models of conventional dynamos driven by thermal or compositional convection have had difficulty reproducing the existence and apparently long duration of the lunar dynamo. Here we investigate an alternative mechanism of dynamo generation: continuous mechanical stirring arising from the differential motion, due to Earth-driven precession of the lunar spin axis, between the solid silicate mantle and the liquid core beneath. We show that the fluid motions and the power required to drive a dynamo operating continuously for more than one billion years and generating a magnetic field that had an intensity of more than one microtesla 4.2 billion years ago are readily obtained by mechanical stirring. The magnetic field is predicted to decrease with time and to shut off naturally when the Moon recedes far enough from Earth that the dissipated power is insufficient to drive a dynamo; in our nominal model, this occurred at about 48 Earth radii (2.7 billion years ago). Thus, lunar palaeomagnetic measurements may be able to constrain the poorly known early orbital evolution of the Moon. This mechanism may also be applicable to dynamos in other bodies, such as large asteroids.

  14. Laminar and Turbulent Dynamos in Chiral Magnetohydrodynamics. II. Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schober, Jennifer; Rogachevskii, Igor; Brandenburg, Axel; Boyarsky, Alexey; Fröhlich, Jürg; Ruchayskiy, Oleg; Kleeorin, Nathan

    2018-05-01

    Using direct numerical simulations (DNS), we study laminar and turbulent dynamos in chiral magnetohydrodynamics with an extended set of equations that accounts for an additional contribution to the electric current due to the chiral magnetic effect (CME). This quantum phenomenon originates from an asymmetry between left- and right-handed relativistic fermions in the presence of a magnetic field and gives rise to a chiral dynamo. We show that the magnetic field evolution proceeds in three stages: (1) a small-scale chiral dynamo instability, (2) production of chiral magnetically driven turbulence and excitation of a large-scale dynamo instability due to a new chiral effect (α μ effect), and (3) saturation of magnetic helicity and magnetic field growth controlled by a conservation law for the total chirality. The α μ effect becomes dominant at large fluid and magnetic Reynolds numbers and is not related to kinetic helicity. The growth rate of the large-scale magnetic field and its characteristic scale measured in the numerical simulations agree well with theoretical predictions based on mean-field theory. The previously discussed two-stage chiral magnetic scenario did not include stage (2), during which the characteristic scale of magnetic field variations can increase by many orders of magnitude. Based on the findings from numerical simulations, the relevance of the CME and the chiral effects revealed in the relativistic plasma of the early universe and of proto-neutron stars are discussed.

  15. Ensemble Kalman Filter Data Assimilation in a Solar Dynamo Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikpati, M.

    2017-12-01

    Despite great advancement in solar dynamo models since the first model by Parker in 1955, there remain many challenges in the quest to build a dynamo-based prediction scheme that can accurately predict the solar cycle features. One of these challenges is to implement modern data assimilation techniques, which have been used in the oceanic and atmospheric prediction models. Development of data assimilation in solar models are in the early stages. Recently, observing system simulation experiments (OSSE's) have been performed using Ensemble Kalman Filter data assimilation, in the framework of Data Assimilation Research Testbed of NCAR (NCAR-DART), for estimating parameters in a solar dynamo model. I will demonstrate how the selection of ensemble size, number of observations, amount of error in observations and the choice of assimilation interval play important role in parameter estimation. I will also show how the results of parameter reconstruction improve when accuracy in low-latitude observations is increased, despite large error in polar region data. I will then describe how implementation of data assimilation in a solar dynamo model can bring more accuracy in the prediction of polar fields in North and South hemispheres during the declining phase of cycle 24. Recent evidence indicates that the strength of the Sun's polar field during the cycle minima might be a reliable predictor for the next sunspot cycle's amplitude; therefore it is crucial to accurately predict the polar field strength and pattern.

  16. Broken Symmetries and Magnetic Dynamos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    2007-01-01

    Phase space symmetries inherent in the statistical theory of ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence are known to be broken dynamically to produce large-scale coherent magnetic structure. Here, results of a numerical study of decaying MHD turbulence are presented that show large-scale coherent structure also arises and persists in the presence of dissipation. Dynamically broken symmetries in MHD turbulence may thus play a fundamental role in the dynamo process.

  17. Chemical reactivity of the Martian soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zent, A. P.; Mckay, C. P.

    1992-01-01

    The Viking life sciences experimental packages detected extraordinary chemical activity in the martian soil, probably the result of soil-surface chemistry. At least one very strong oxidant may exist in the martian soil. The electrochemical nature of the martian soil has figured prominently in discussions of future life sciences research on Mars. Putative oxidants in the martian soil may be responsible for the destruction of organic material to considerable depth, precluding the recovery of reducing material that may be relic of early biological forms. Also, there have been serious expressions of concern regarding the effect that soil oxidants may have on human health and safety. The concern here has centered on the possible irritation of the respiratory system due to dust carried into the martian habitat through the air locks.

  18. A study of the required Rayleigh number to sustain dynamo with various inner core radius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, Y.; Katoh, Y.; Matsui, H.; Kumamoto, A.

    2017-12-01

    It is widely accepted that the geomagnetic field is sustained by thermal and compositional driven convections of a liquid iron alloy in the outer core. The generation process of the geomagnetic field has been studied by a number of MHD dynamo simulations. Recent studies of the ratio of the Earth's core evolution suggest that the inner solid core radius ri to the outer liquid core radius ro changed from ri/ro = 0 to 0.35 during the last one billion years. There are some studies of dynamo in the early Earth with smaller inner core than the present. Heimpel et al. (2005) revealed the Rayleigh number Ra of the onset of dynamo process as a function of ri/ro from simulation, while paleomagnetic observation shows that the geomagnetic field has been sustained for 3.5 billion years. While Heimpel and Evans (2013) studied dynamo processes taking into account the thermal history of the Earth's interior, there were few cases corresponding to the early Earth. Driscoll (2016) performed a series of dynamo based on a thermal evolution model. Despite a number of dynamo simulations, dynamo process occurring in the interior of the early Earth has not been fully understood because the magnetic Prandtl numbers in these simulations are much larger than that for the actual outer core.In the present study, we performed thermally driven dynamo simulations with different aspect ratio ri/ro = 0.15, 0.25 and 0.35 to evaluate the critical Ra for the thermal convection and required Ra to maintain the dynamo. For this purpose, we performed simulations with various Ra and fixed the other control parameters such as the Ekman, Prandtl, and magnetic Prandtl numbers. For the initial condition and boundary conditions, we followed the dynamo benchmark case 1 by Christensen et al. (2001). The results show that the critical Ra increases with the smaller aspect ratio ri/ro. It is confirmed that larger amplitude of buoyancy is required in the smaller inner core to maintain dynamo.

  19. Transition to Turbulent Dynamo Saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seshasayanan, Kannabiran; Gallet, Basile; Alexakis, Alexandros

    2017-11-01

    While the saturated magnetic energy is independent of viscosity in dynamo experiments, it remains viscosity dependent in state-of-the-art 3D direct numerical simulations (DNS). Extrapolating such viscous scaling laws to realistic parameter values leads to an underestimation of the magnetic energy by several orders of magnitude. The origin of this discrepancy is that fully 3D DNS cannot reach low enough values of the magnetic Prandtl number Pm. To bypass this limitation and investigate dynamo saturation at very low Pm, we focus on the vicinity of the dynamo threshold in a rapidly rotating flow: the velocity field then depends on two spatial coordinates only, while the magnetic field consists of a single Fourier mode in the third direction. We perform numerical simulations of the resulting set of reduced equations for Pm down to 2 ×10-5. This parameter regime is currently out of reach to fully 3D DNS. We show that the magnetic energy transitions from a high-Pm viscous scaling regime to a low-Pm turbulent scaling regime, the latter being independent of viscosity. The transition to the turbulent saturation regime occurs at a low value of the magnetic Prandtl number, Pm ≃10-3 , which explains why it has been overlooked by numerical studies so far.

  20. Transition to Turbulent Dynamo Saturation.

    PubMed

    Seshasayanan, Kannabiran; Gallet, Basile; Alexakis, Alexandros

    2017-11-17

    While the saturated magnetic energy is independent of viscosity in dynamo experiments, it remains viscosity dependent in state-of-the-art 3D direct numerical simulations (DNS). Extrapolating such viscous scaling laws to realistic parameter values leads to an underestimation of the magnetic energy by several orders of magnitude. The origin of this discrepancy is that fully 3D DNS cannot reach low enough values of the magnetic Prandtl number Pm. To bypass this limitation and investigate dynamo saturation at very low Pm, we focus on the vicinity of the dynamo threshold in a rapidly rotating flow: the velocity field then depends on two spatial coordinates only, while the magnetic field consists of a single Fourier mode in the third direction. We perform numerical simulations of the resulting set of reduced equations for Pm down to 2×10^{-5}. This parameter regime is currently out of reach to fully 3D DNS. We show that the magnetic energy transitions from a high-Pm viscous scaling regime to a low-Pm turbulent scaling regime, the latter being independent of viscosity. The transition to the turbulent saturation regime occurs at a low value of the magnetic Prandtl number, Pm≃10^{-3}, which explains why it has been overlooked by numerical studies so far.

  1. Optimization of the magnetic dynamo.

    PubMed

    Willis, Ashley P

    2012-12-21

    In stars and planets, magnetic fields are believed to originate from the motion of electrically conducting fluids in their interior, through a process known as the dynamo mechanism. In this Letter, an optimization procedure is used to simultaneously address two fundamental questions of dynamo theory: "Which velocity field leads to the most magnetic energy growth?" and "How large does the velocity need to be relative to magnetic diffusion?" In general, this requires optimization over the full space of continuous solenoidal velocity fields possible within the geometry. Here the case of a periodic box is considered. Measuring the strength of the flow with the root-mean-square amplitude, an optimal velocity field is shown to exist, but without limitation on the strain rate, optimization is prone to divergence. Measuring the flow in terms of its associated dissipation leads to the identification of a single optimal at the critical magnetic Reynolds number necessary for a dynamo. This magnetic Reynolds number is found to be only 15% higher than that necessary for transient growth of the magnetic field.

  2. Martian meteorites and Martian magnetic anomalies: a new perspective from NWA 7034 (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gattacceca, J.; Rochette, P.; Scozelli, R. B.; Munayco, P.; Agee, C. B.; Quesnel, Y.; Cournede, C.; Geissman, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    The magnetic anomalies observed above the Martian Noachian crust [1] require strong crustal remanent magnetization in the 15-60 A/m range over a thickness of 20-50 km [2,3]. The Martian rocks available for study in the form of meteorites do contain magnetic minerals (magnetite and/or pyrrhotite) but in too small amount to account for such strong remanent magnetizations [4]. Even though this contradiction was easily explained by the fact that Martian meteorites (mostly nakhlites and shergottites) are not representative of the Noachian Martian crust, we were left with no satisfactory candidate lithology to account for the Martian magnetic anomalies. The discovery in the Sahara of a new type of Martian meteorite (NWA 7034 [5] and subsequent paired stones which are hydrothermalized volcanic breccia) shed a new light on this question as it contains a much larger amount of ferromagnetic minerals than any other Martian meteorite. We present here a study of the magnetic properties of NWA 7034, together with a review of the magnetic properties of thirty other Martian meteorites. Magnetic measurements (including high and low temperature behavior and Mössbauer spectroscopy) show that NWA 7034 contains about 15 wt.% of magnetite with various degrees of substitution and maghemitization up to pure maghemite, in the pseudo-single domain size range. Pyrrhotite, a common mineral in other Martian meteorites is not detected. Although it is superparamagnetic and cannot carry remanent magnetization, nanophase goethite is present in significant amounts confirming that NWA 7034 is the most oxidized Martian meteorite studied so far, as already indicated by the presence of maghemite (this study) and pyrite [5]. These magnetic properties show that a kilometric layer of a lithology similar to NWA 7034 magnetized in a dynamo field would be enough to account for the strongest Martian magnetic anomalies. Although the petrogenesis of NWA 7034 is still debated, as the brecciation could be either

  3. Exploring for Martian Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, Jack D.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    Terrestrial life appears to have arisen very quickly during late accretion, sometime between approximately 3.5 and 4.2 Ga. During this same time, liquid water appears to have been abundant at the surface of Mars and it is quite plausable that life originated there as well. We now believe that the last common ancestor of terrestrial life was a sulfur-metabolizing microbe that lived at high temperatures. Rooting of the RNA tree in thermophily probably reflects high temperature "bottle-necking" of the biosphere by giant impacts during late accretion, sometime after life had originated. If high temperature bottle-necking is a general property of early biosphere development, Martian life may have also developed in close association with hydrothermal systems. Several independent lines of evidence suggest that hydrothermal processes have played an important role during the geological history of Mars. Because hydrothermal deposits on Earth are known to capture and retain abundant microbial fossil information, they are considered prime targets in the search for an ancient Martian biosphere. An important step in planning for future landed missions to Mars is the selection of priority targets for high resolution orbital mapping. Geotectonic terranes on Mars that provide a present focus for ongoing site selection studies include channels located along the margins of impact crater melt sheets, or on the slopes of ancient Martian volcanoes, chaotic and fretted terranes where shallow subsurface heat sources are thought to have interacted with ground ice, and the floors of calderas and rifted basins. Orbital missions in 1996, 1998 and 2001 will provide opportunities for high resolution geological mapping at key sites in such terranes, as a basis for selecting targets for future landed missions for exopaleontology.

  4. Investigations in Martian Sedimentology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Jeffrey M.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to investigate and discuss the Martian surface. This report was done in specific tasks. The tasks were: characterization of Martian fluids and chemical sediments; mass wasting and ground collapse in terrains of volatile-rich deposits; Mars Rover terrestrial field investigations; Mars Pathfinder operations support; and Martian subsurface water instrument.

  5. Salt or ice diapirism origin for the honeycomb terrain in Hellas basin, Mars?: Implications for the early martian climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, David K.; Head, James W.

    2017-03-01

    The "honeycomb" terrain is a Noachian-aged cluster of ∼7 km wide linear cell-like depressions located on the northwestern floor of Hellas basin, Mars. A variety of origins have been proposed for the honeycomb terrain, including deformation rings of subglacial sediment, frozen convection cells from a Hellas impact melt sheet, a swarm of igneous batholiths, salt diapirism, and ice diapirism. Recent work has shown that the salt or ice diapirism scenarios appear to be most consistent with the morphology and morphometry of the honeycomb terrain. The salt and ice diapirism scenarios have different implications for the ancient martian climate and hydrological cycle, and so distinguishing between the two scenarios is critical. In this study, we specifically test whether the honeycomb terrain is consistent with a salt or ice diapir origin. We use thermal modeling to assess the stability limits on the thickness of an ice or salt diapir-forming layer at depth within the Hellas basin. We also apply analytical models for diapir formation to evaluate the predicted diapir wavelengths in order to compare with observations. Ice diapirism is generally predicted to reproduce the observed honeycomb wavelengths for ∼100 m to ∼1 km thick ice deposits. Gypsum and kieserite diapirism is generally predicted to reproduce the observed honeycomb wavelengths for ≥ 600-1000 m thick salt deposits, but only with a basaltic overburden. Halite diapirism generally requires approx. ≥ 1 km thick halite deposits in order to reproduce the observed honeycomb wavelengths. Hellas basin is a distinctive environment for diapirism on Mars due to its thin crust (which reduces surface heat flux), low elevation (which allows Hellas to act as a water/ice/sediment sink and increases the surface temperature), and location within the southern highlands (which may provide proximity to inflowing saline water or glacial ice). The plausibility of an ice diapir mechanism generally requires temperatures ≤ 250

  6. Martian Crustal Magnetism: What Have We Learned After Approximately 6 Years of MGS Observations?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acuna, M. H.

    2003-01-01

    The MAG/ER investigation aboard the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) has established conclusively that an internal, dynamo-generated field does not currently exist at Mars and discovered, unexpectedly, strong magnetization in the crust. An estimate of the upper limit of the current Mars dipole moment derived from the MGS data yields M < 2 x 10(exp 17) A-m2, which corresponds to a surface equatorial field strength of < 0.5 nT. The intense magnetization of the crust is closely associated with the ancient, heavily cratered high terrain, which lies south of Mars dichotomy boundary. The correlation of magnetization with the old terrain and the role of impacts, which have modified the magnetic properties of the crust, constitute a new and powerful diagnostic tool that is providing a unique view into the early thermal history of the planet, which was almost totally unknown prior to the arrival of MGS. Data from the Lunar Prospector mission complement contemporary analyses and interpretation of crustal magnetism in planetary system bodies that do not currently possess core dynamos. The observation of magnetic lineations over Terra Sirenum (Sirenum Fossae) and Terra Cimmeria, are suggestive of tectonic processes observed at Earth in association with sea-floor spreading and geomagnetic field reversals. If this association is correct, it would indicate the possible existence of plate tectonics and magnetic field reversals in Mars' early history. Alternative models involving fault/graben formation associated with the fracturing of a thin, magnetized crustal layer by tectonic or volcanism-induced stresses, yield equally valid interpretations. To date, no reliable correlation between topography, geology and crustal magnetism has been established and the origin of these remarkable Martian magnetic anomalies remains a mystery.

  7. Dynamo transition in low-dimensional models.

    PubMed

    Verma, Mahendra K; Lessinnes, Thomas; Carati, Daniele; Sarris, Ioannis; Kumar, Krishna; Singh, Meenakshi

    2008-09-01

    Two low-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic models containing three velocity and three magnetic modes are described. One of them (nonhelical model) has zero kinetic and current helicity, while the other model (helical) has nonzero kinetic and current helicity. The velocity modes are forced in both these models. These low-dimensional models exhibit a dynamo transition at a critical forcing amplitude that depends on the Prandtl number. In the nonhelical model, dynamo exists only for magnetic Prandtl number beyond 1, while the helical model exhibits dynamo for all magnetic Prandtl number. Although the model is far from reproducing all the possible features of dynamo mechanisms, its simplicity allows a very detailed study and the observed dynamo transition is shown to bear similarities with recent numerical and experimental results.

  8. A long-lived lunar core dynamo.

    PubMed

    Shea, Erin K; Weiss, Benjamin P; Cassata, William S; Shuster, David L; Tikoo, Sonia M; Gattacceca, Jérôme; Grove, Timothy L; Fuller, Michael D

    2012-01-27

    Paleomagnetic measurements indicate that a core dynamo probably existed on the Moon 4.2 billion years ago. However, the subsequent history of the lunar core dynamo is unknown. Here we report paleomagnetic, petrologic, and (40)Ar/(39)Ar thermochronometry measurements on the 3.7-billion-year-old mare basalt sample 10020. This sample contains a high-coercivity magnetization acquired in a stable field of at least ~12 microteslas. These data extend the known lifetime of the lunar dynamo by 500 million years. Such a long-lived lunar dynamo probably required a power source other than thermochemical convection from secular cooling of the lunar interior. The inferred strong intensity of the lunar paleofield presents a challenge to current dynamo theory.

  9. Martian Colors Provide Clues About Martian Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    NASA Hubble Space Telescope images of Mars taken in visible and infrared light detail a rich geologic history and provide further evidence for water-bearing minerals on the planet's surface.

    LEFT

    This 'true-color' image of Mars shows the planet as it would look to human eyes. It is clearly more Earth-toned than usually depicted in other astronomical images, including earlier Hubble pictures. The slightly bluer shade along the edges of the disk is due to atmospheric hazes and wispy water ice clouds (like cirrus clouds) in the early morning and late evening Martian sky. The yellowish-pink color of the northern polar cap indicates the presence of small iron-bearing dust particles. These particles are covering or are suspended in the air above the blue-white water ice and carbon dioxide ice, which make up the polar cap.

    Accurate colors are needed to determine the composition and mineralogy of Mars. This can tell how water has influenced the formation of rocks and minerals found on Mars today, as well as the distribution and abundance of ice and subsurface liquid water. Confirmation of the presence of certain oxidized (rusted) minerals (processed by heat or water action) would imply the possibility of different, perhaps much more Earth-like, past Martian climate periods. Because the smallest features visible in this image are only about 14 miles (22 km) across, Hubble can track small-scale variations in the distribution of minerals that do not follow global trends. The image was generated from three separate Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 images acquired at wavelengths of 410, 502, and 673 nanometers, in March 1997.

    RIGHT

    A false-color picture taken in infrared light reveals features that cannot be seen in visible light. Hubble's unique infrared view pinpoints variations in the abundance and distribution of unknown water-bearing minerals on the planet. While it has been known for decades that small amounts of water-bearing minerals exist on the planet

  10. MARTIAN COLORS PROVIDE CLUES ABOUT MARTIAN WATER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    NASA Hubble Space Telescope images of Mars taken in visible and infrared light detail a rich geologic history and provide further evidence for water-bearing minerals on the planet's surface. LEFT This 'true-color' image of Mars shows the planet as it would look to human eyes. It is clearly more earth-toned than usually depicted in other astronomical images, including earlier Hubble pictures. The slightly bluer shade along the edges of the disk is due to atmospheric hazes and wispy water ice clouds (like cirrus clouds) in the early morning and late evening Martian sky. The yellowish-pink color of the northern polar cap indicates the presence of small iron-bearing dust particles. These particles are covering or are suspended in the air above the blue-white water ice and carbon dioxide ice, which make up the polar cap. Accurate colors are needed to determine the composition and mineralogy of Mars. This can tell how water has influenced the formation of rocks and minerals found on Mars today, as well as the distribution and abundance of ice and subsurface liquid water. Confirmation of the presence of certain oxidized (rusted) minerals (processed by heat or water action) would imply the possibility of different, perhaps much more Earth-like, past Martian climate periods. Because the smallest features visible in this image are only about 14 miles (22 km) across, Hubble can track small-scale variations in the distribution of minerals that do not follow global trends. The image was generated from three separate Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 images acquired at wavelengths of 410, 502, and 673 nanometers, in March 1997. RIGHT A false-color picture taken in infrared light reveals features that cannot be seen in visible light. Hubble's unique infrared view pinpoints variations in the abundance and distribution of unknown water-bearing minerals on the planet. While it has been known for decades that small amounts of water-bearing minerals exist on the planet's surface, the

  11. Statistical Mechanics of Turbulent Dynamos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.

    2014-01-01

    Incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence and magnetic dynamos, which occur in magnetofluids with large fluid and magnetic Reynolds numbers, will be discussed. When Reynolds numbers are large and energy decays slowly, the distribution of energy with respect to length scale becomes quasi-stationary and MHD turbulence can be described statistically. In the limit of infinite Reynolds numbers, viscosity and resistivity become zero and if these values are used in the MHD equations ab initio, a model system called ideal MHD turbulence results. This model system is typically confined in simple geometries with some form of homogeneous boundary conditions, allowing for velocity and magnetic field to be represented by orthogonal function expansions. One advantage to this is that the coefficients of the expansions form a set of nonlinearly interacting variables whose behavior can be described by equilibrium statistical mechanics, i.e., by a canonical ensemble theory based on the global invariants (energy, cross helicity and magnetic helicity) of ideal MHD turbulence. Another advantage is that truncated expansions provide a finite dynamical system whose time evolution can be numerically simulated to test the predictions of the associated statistical mechanics. If ensemble predictions are the same as time averages, then the system is said to be ergodic; if not, the system is nonergodic. Although it had been implicitly assumed in the early days of ideal MHD statistical theory development that these finite dynamical systems were ergodic, numerical simulations provided sufficient evidence that they were, in fact, nonergodic. Specifically, while canonical ensemble theory predicted that expansion coefficients would be (i) zero-mean random variables with (ii) energy that decreased with length scale, it was found that although (ii) was correct, (i) was not and the expected ergodicity was broken. The exact cause of this broken ergodicity was explained, after much

  12. MHD Turbulence and Magnetic Dynamos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V

    2014-01-01

    Incompressible magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence and magnetic dynamos, which occur in magnetofluids with large fluid and magnetic Reynolds numbers, will be discussed. When Reynolds numbers are large and energy decays slowly, the distribution of energy with respect to length scale becomes quasi-stationary and MHD turbulence can be described statistically. In the limit of infinite Reynolds numbers, viscosity and resistivity become zero and if these values are used in the MHD equations ab initio, a model system called ideal MHD turbulence results. This model system is typically confined in simple geometries with some form of homogeneous boundary conditions, allowing for velocity and magnetic field to be represented by orthogonal function expansions. One advantage to this is that the coefficients of the expansions form a set of nonlinearly interacting variables whose behavior can be described by equilibrium statistical mechanics, i.e., by a canonical ensemble theory based on the global invariants (energy, cross helicity and magnetic helicity) of ideal MHD turbulence. Another advantage is that truncated expansions provide a finite dynamical system whose time evolution can be numerically simulated to test the predictions of the associated statistical mechanics. If ensemble predictions are the same as time averages, then the system is said to be ergodic; if not, the system is nonergodic. Although it had been implicitly assumed in the early days of ideal MHD statistical theory development that these finite dynamical systems were ergodic, numerical simulations provided sufficient evidence that they were, in fact, nonergodic. Specifically, while canonical ensemble theory predicted that expansion coefficients would be (i) zero-mean random variables with (ii) energy that decreased with length scale, it was found that although (ii) was correct, (i) was not and the expected ergodicity was broken. The exact cause of this broken ergodicity was explained, after much

  13. Prospects for Chronological Studies of Martian Rocks and Soils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C-Y.; Reese, Y. D.

    2008-01-01

    Chronological information about Martian processes comes from two sources: Crater-frequency studies and laboratory studies of Martian meteorites. Each has limitations that could be overcome by studies of returned Martian rocks and soils. Chronology of Martian volcanism: The currently accepted chronology of Martian volcanic surfaces relies on crater counts for different Martian stratigraphic units [1]. However, there is a large inherent uncertainty for intermediate ages near 2 Ga ago. The effect of differing preferences for Martian cratering chronologies [1] is shown in Fig. 1. Stoeffler and Ryder [2] summarized lunar chronology, upon which Martian cratering chronology is based. Fig. 2 shows a curve fit to their data, and compares to it a corresponding lunar curve from [3]. The radiometric ages of some lunar and Martian meteorites as well as the crater-count delimiters for Martian epochs [4] also are shown for comparison to the craterfrequency curves. Scaling the Stoeffler-Ryder curve by a Mars/Moon factor of 1.55 [5] places Martian shergottite ages into the Early Amazonian to late Hesperian epochs, whereas using the lunar curve of [3] and a Mars/Moon factor 1 consigns the shergottites to the Middle-to-Late Amazonian, a less probable result. The problem is worsened if a continually decreasing cratering rate since 3 Ga ago is accepted [6]. We prefer the adjusted St ffler-Ryder curve because it gives better agreement with the meteorite ages (Fig.

  14. Thermal Evolution and Crystallisation Regimes of the Martian Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, C. J.; Pommier, A.

    2015-12-01

    Though it is accepted that Mars has a sulfur-rich metallic core, its chemical and physical state as well as its time-evolution are still unconstrained and debated. Several lines of evidence indicate that an internal magnetic field was once generated on Mars and that this field decayed around 3.7-4.0 Gyrs ago. The standard model assumes that this field was produced by a thermal (and perhaps chemical) dynamo operating in the Martian core. We use this information to construct parameterized models of the Martian dynamo in order to place constraints on the thermochemical evolution of the Martian core, with particular focus on its crystallization regime. Considered compositions are in the FeS system, with S content ranging from ~10 and 16 wt%. Core radius, density and CMB pressure are varied within the errors provided by recent internal structure models that satisfy the available geodetic constraints (planetary mass, moment of inertia and tidal Love number). We also vary the melting curve and adiabat, CMB heat flow and thermal conductivity. Successful models are those that match the dynamo cessation time and fall within the bounds on present-day CMB temperature. The resulting suite of over 500 models suggest three possible crystallization regimes: growth of a solid inner core starting at the center of the planet; freezing and precipitation of solid iron (Fe- snow) from the core-mantle boundary (CMB); and freezing that begins midway through the core. Our analysis focuses on the effects of core properties that are expected to be constrained during the forthcoming Insight mission.

  15. Mineralogy, chemistry and biological contingents of an early-middle Miocene Antarctic paleosol and its relevance as a Martian analogue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahaney, William C.; Dohm, James M.; Schwartz, Stephane; Findling, Nathaniel; Hart, Kris M.; Conway, Susan J.; Allen, Christopher C. R.; Miyamoto, Hideaki; Fairén, Alberto G.

    2014-12-01

    Fossil mesofauna and bacteria recovered from a paleosol in a moraine situated adjacent to the inland ice, Antarctica, and dating to the earliest glacial event in the Antarctic Dry Valleys opens several questions. The most important relates to understanding of the mineralogy and chemistry of the weathered substrate habitat in which Coleoptera apparently thrived at some point in the Early/Middle Miocene and perhaps earlier. Here, Coleoptera remains are only located in one of six horizons in a paleosol formed in moraine deposited during the alpine glacial event (>15 Ma). A tendency for quartz to decrease upward in the section may be a detrital effect or a product of dissolution in the early stage of profile morphogenesis when climate was presumably milder and the depositing glacier of temperate type. Discontinuous distributions of smectite, laumontite, and hexahydrite may have provided nutrients and water to mesofauna and bacteria during the early stage of biotic colonization of the profile. Because the mesofauna were members of burrowing Coleoptera species, future work should assess the degree to which the organisms occupied other sites in the Dry Valleys in the past. Whereas there is no reasonable expectations of finding Coleoptera/insect remains on Mars, the chemistry and mineralogy of the paleosol is within a life expectancy window for the presence of microorganisms, principally bacteria and fungi. Thus, parameters discussed here within this Antarctic paleosol could provide an analogue to identifying similar fossil or life-bearing weathered regolith on Mars.

  16. Laminar and Turbulent Dynamos in Chiral Magnetohydrodynamics. I. Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Rogachevskii, Igor; Kleeorin, Nathan; Ruchayskiy, Oleg

    2017-09-10

    The magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) description of plasmas with relativistic particles necessarily includes an additional new field, the chiral chemical potential associated with the axial charge (i.e., the number difference between right- and left-handed relativistic fermions). This chiral chemical potential gives rise to a contribution to the electric current density of the plasma ( chiral magnetic effect ). We present a self-consistent treatment of the chiral MHD equations , which include the back-reaction of the magnetic field on a chiral chemical potential and its interaction with the plasma velocity field. A number of novel phenomena are exhibited. First, we show that themore » chiral magnetic effect decreases the frequency of the Alfvén wave for incompressible flows, increases the frequencies of the Alfvén wave and of the fast magnetosonic wave for compressible flows, and decreases the frequency of the slow magnetosonic wave. Second, we show that, in addition to the well-known laminar chiral dynamo effect, which is not related to fluid motions, there is a dynamo caused by the joint action of velocity shear and chiral magnetic effect. In the presence of turbulence with vanishing mean kinetic helicity, the derived mean-field chiral MHD equations describe turbulent large-scale dynamos caused by the chiral alpha effect, which is dominant for large fluid and magnetic Reynolds numbers. The chiral alpha effect is due to an interaction of the chiral magnetic effect and fluctuations of the small-scale current produced by tangling magnetic fluctuations (which are generated by tangling of the large-scale magnetic field by sheared velocity fluctuations). These dynamo effects may have interesting consequences in the dynamics of the early universe, neutron stars, and the quark–gluon plasma.« less

  17. Statistical simulation of the magnetorotational dynamo.

    PubMed

    Squire, J; Bhattacharjee, A

    2015-02-27

    Turbulence and dynamo induced by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) are analyzed using quasilinear statistical simulation methods. It is found that homogenous turbulence is unstable to a large-scale dynamo instability, which saturates to an inhomogenous equilibrium with a strong dependence on the magnetic Prandtl number (Pm). Despite its enormously reduced nonlinearity, the dependence of the angular momentum transport on Pm in the quasilinear model is qualitatively similar to that of nonlinear MRI turbulence. This demonstrates the importance of the large-scale dynamo and suggests how dramatically simplified models may be used to gain insight into the astrophysically relevant regimes of very low or high Pm.

  18. Paleomagnetic Records of Ancient Core Dynamos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikoo, S. M.

    2018-05-01

    We review paleomagnetic results that constrain the field intensities and longevities of ancient core dynamos operating within the Moon as well as within the parent bodies of several meteorite classes.

  19. Magnetic field amplification via protostellar disc dynamos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyda, S.; Lovelace, R. V. E.; Ustyugova, G. V.; Koldoba, A. V.; Wasserman, I.

    2018-06-01

    We numerically investigate the generation of a magnetic field in a protostellar disc via an αΩ-dynamo and the resulting magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) driven outflows. We find that for small values of the dimensionless dynamo parameter αd, the poloidal field grows exponentially at a rate σ ∝ Ω _K √{α _d}, before saturating to a value ∝ √{α _d}. The dynamo excites dipole and octupole modes, but quadrupole modes are suppressed, because of the symmetries of the seed field. Initial seed fields too weak to launch MHD outflows are found to grow sufficiently to launch winds with observationally relevant mass fluxes of the order of 10^{-9} M_{⊙} yr^{-1} for T Tauri stars. This suggests that αΩ-dynamos may be responsible for generating magnetic fields strong enough to launch observed outflows.

  20. Saturation of the turbulent dynamo.

    PubMed

    Schober, J; Schleicher, D R G; Federrath, C; Bovino, S; Klessen, R S

    2015-08-01

    The origin of strong magnetic fields in the Universe can be explained by amplifying weak seed fields via turbulent motions on small spatial scales and subsequently transporting the magnetic energy to larger scales. This process is known as the turbulent dynamo and depends on the properties of turbulence, i.e., on the hydrodynamical Reynolds number and the compressibility of the gas, and on the magnetic diffusivity. While we know the growth rate of the magnetic energy in the linear regime, the saturation level, i.e., the ratio of magnetic energy to turbulent kinetic energy that can be reached, is not known from analytical calculations. In this paper we present a scale-dependent saturation model based on an effective turbulent resistivity which is determined by the turnover time scale of turbulent eddies and the magnetic energy density. The magnetic resistivity increases compared to the Spitzer value and the effective scale on which the magnetic energy spectrum is at its maximum moves to larger spatial scales. This process ends when the peak reaches a characteristic wave number k☆ which is determined by the critical magnetic Reynolds number. The saturation level of the dynamo also depends on the type of turbulence and differs for the limits of large and small magnetic Prandtl numbers Pm. With our model we find saturation levels between 43.8% and 1.3% for Pm≫1 and between 2.43% and 0.135% for Pm≪1, where the higher values refer to incompressible turbulence and the lower ones to highly compressible turbulence.

  1. Martian Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 28 June 2004 The atmosphere of Mars is a dynamic system. Water-ice clouds, fog, and hazes can make imaging the surface from space difficult. Dust storms can grow from local disturbances to global sizes, through which imaging is impossible. Seasonal temperature changes are the usual drivers in cloud and dust storm development and growth.

    Eons of atmospheric dust storm activity has left its mark on the surface of Mars. Dust carried aloft by the wind has settled out on every available surface; sand dunes have been created and moved by centuries of wind; and the effect of continual sand-blasting has modified many regions of Mars, creating yardangs and other unusual surface forms.

    This image was acquired during early spring near the North Pole. The linear 'ripples' are transparent water-ice clouds. This linear form is typical for polar clouds. The black regions on the margins of this image are areas of saturation caused by the build up of scattered light from the bright polar material during the long image exposure.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 68.1, Longitude 147.9 East (212.1 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS

  2. The Martian impact cratering record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strom, Robert G.; Croft, Steven K.; Barlow, Nadine G.

    1992-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the Martian impact cratering record is presented. The major differences in impact crater morphology and morphometry between Mars and the moon and Mercury are argued to be largely the result of subsurface volatiles on Mars. In general, the depth to these volatiles may decrease with increasing latitude in the southern hemisphere, but the base of this layer may be at a more or less constant depth. The Martial crustal dichotomy could have been the result of a very large impact near the end of the accretion of Mars. Monte Carlo computer simulations suggest that such an impact was not only possible, but likely. The Martian highland cratering record shows a marked paucity of craters less than about 30 km in diameter relative to the lunar highlands. This paucity of craters was probably the result of the obliteration of craters by an early period of intense erosion and deposition by aeolian, fluvial, and glacial processes.

  3. A high magnetic Reynolds number dynamo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, F. W.; Zweibel, E. G.

    1987-01-01

    A boundary-layer solution to a high magnetic Reynolds number R periodic dynamo model shows that: (1) flux expulsion forces the magnetic field into flux sheets; (2) the principal contribution to the alpha effect arises from regions of flow stagnation along a flux sheet; and (3) the alpha effect scales as R exp-1/2. Arguments for these effects persisting in turbulent dynamos are given.

  4. Chaotic flows and fast magnetic dynamos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finn, John M.; Ott, Edward

    1988-01-01

    The kinematic dynamo problem is considered in the R(m) approaching infinity limit. It is shown that the magnetic field tends to concentrate on a zero volume fractal set; moreover, it displays arbitrarily fine-scaled oscillations between parallel and antiparallel directions. Consideration is given to the relationship between the dynamo growth rate and quantitative measures of chaos, such as the Liapunov element and topological entropy.

  5. Distribution of Early, Middle, and Late Noachian cratered surfaces in the Martian highlands: Implications for resurfacing events and processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irwin, Rossman P.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Robbins, Stuart J.

    2013-02-01

    Most of the geomorphic changes on Mars occurred during the Noachian Period, when the rates of impact crater degradation and valley network incision were highest. Fluvial erosion around the Noachian/Hesperian transition is better constrained than the longer-term landscape evolution throughout the Noachian Period, when the highland intercrater geomorphic surfaces developed. We interpret highland resurfacing events and processes using a new global geologic map of Mars (at 1:20,000,000 scale), a crater data set that is complete down to 1 km in diameter, and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter topography. The Early Noachian highland (eNh) unit is nearly saturated with craters of 32-128 km diameter, the Middle Noachian highland (mNh) unit has a resurfacing age of ~4 Ga, and the Late Noachian highland unit (lNh) includes younger composite surfaces of basin fill and partially buried cratered terrain. These units have statistically distinct ages, and their distribution varies with elevation. The eNh unit is concentrated in the high-standing Hellas basin annulus and in highland terrain that was thinly mantled by basin ejecta near 180° longitude. The mNh unit includes most of Arabia Terra, the Argyre vicinity, highland plateau areas between eNh outcrops, and the Thaumasia range. The lNh unit mostly occurs within highland basins. Crater depth/diameter ratios do not vary strongly between the eNh and mNh units, although crater losses to Noachian resurfacing appear greater in lower lying areas. Noachian resurfacing was spatially non-uniform, long-lived, and gravity-driven, more consistent with arid-zone fluvial and aeolian erosion and volcanism than with air fall mantling or mass wasting.

  6. Boron Enrichment in Martian Clay

    PubMed Central

    Nagashima, Kazuhide; Freeland, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    We have detected a concentration of boron in martian clay far in excess of that in any previously reported extra-terrestrial object. This enrichment indicates that the chemistry necessary for the formation of ribose, a key component of RNA, could have existed on Mars since the formation of early clay deposits, contemporary to the emergence of life on Earth. Given the greater similarity of Earth and Mars early in their geological history, and the extensive disruption of Earth's earliest mineralogy by plate tectonics, we suggest that the conditions for prebiotic ribose synthesis may be better understood by further Mars exploration. PMID:23762242

  7. A deep dynamo generating Mercury's magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Ulrich R

    2006-12-21

    Mercury has a global magnetic field of internal origin and it is thought that a dynamo operating in the fluid part of Mercury's large iron core is the most probable cause. However, the low intensity of Mercury's magnetic field--about 1% the strength of the Earth's field--cannot be reconciled with an Earth-like dynamo. With the common assumption that Coriolis and Lorentz forces balance in planetary dynamos, a field thirty times stronger is expected. Here I present a numerical model of a dynamo driven by thermo-compositional convection associated with inner core solidification. The thermal gradient at the core-mantle boundary is subadiabatic, and hence the outer region of the liquid core is stably stratified with the dynamo operating only at depth, where a strong field is generated. Because of the planet's slow rotation the resulting magnetic field is dominated by small-scale components that fluctuate rapidly with time. The dynamo field diffuses through the stable conducting region, where rapidly varying parts are strongly attenuated by the skin effect, while the slowly varying dipole and quadrupole components pass to some degree. The model explains the observed structure and strength of Mercury's surface magnetic field and makes predictions that are testable with space missions both presently flying and planned.

  8. Terrestrial Biomarkers for Early Life on Earth as Analogs for Possible Martian Life Forms: Examples of Minerally Replaced Bacteria and Biofilms From the 3.5 - 3.3-Ga Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westall, F.; McKay, D. S.; Gibson, E. K.; deWit, M. J.; Dann, J.; Gerneke, D.; deRonde, C. E. J.

    1998-01-01

    The search for extraterrestrial life and especially martian life hinges on a variety of methods used to identify vestiges of what we could recognize as life, including chemical signatures, morphological fossils, and biogenic precipitates. Although the possibility of extant life on Mars (subsurface) is being considered, most exploration efforts may be directed toward the search for fossil life. Geomorphological evidence points to a warmer and wetter Mars early on in its history, a scenario that encourages comparison with the early Earth. For this reason, study of the early terrestrial life forms and environment in which they lived may provide clues as to how to search for extinct martian life. As a contribution to the early Archean database of terrestrial microfossils, we present new data on morphological fossils from the 3.5-3.3-Ga Barberton greenstone belt (BGB), South Africa. This study underlines the variety of fossil types already present in some of the oldest, best-preserved terrestrial sediments, ranging from minerally replaced bacteria and bacteria molds of vaRious morphologies (coccoid, coccobacillus, bacillus) to minerally replaced biofilm. Biofilm or extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) is produced by bacteria and appears to be more readily fossilisable than bacteria themselves. The BGB fossils occur in shallow water to subaerial sediments interbedded with volcanic lavas, the whole being deposited on oceanic crust. Penecontemporaneous silicification of sediments and volcanics resulted in the chertification of the rocks, which were later subjected to low-grade metamorphism (lower greenschist).

  9. Endolithic microbial model for Martian exobiology: The road to extinction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oscampo-Friedmann, R.; Friedmann, E. I.

    1991-01-01

    Martian exobiology is based on the assumption that on early Mars, liquid water was present and that conditions were suitable for the evolution of life. The cause for life to disappear from the surface and the recognizable fingerprints of past microbial activity preserved on Mars are addressed. The Antarctic cryptoendolithic microbial ecosystem as a model for extinction in the deteriorating Martian environment is discussed.

  10. Core solidification and dynamo evolution in a mantle-stripped planetesimal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheinberg, A.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.; Schubert, G.; Bercovici, D.

    2016-01-01

    The physical processes active during the crystallization of a low-pressure, low-gravity planetesimal core are poorly understood but have implications for asteroidal magnetic fields and large-scale asteroidal structure. We consider a core with only a thin silicate shell, which could be analogous to some M-type asteroids including Psyche, and use a parameterized thermal model to predict a solidification timeline and the resulting chemical profile upon complete solidification. We then explore the potential strength and longevity of a dynamo in the planetesimal's early history. We find that cumulate inner core solidification would be capable of sustaining a dynamo during solidification, but less power would be available for a dynamo in an inward dendritic solidification scenario. We also model and suggest limits on crystal settling and compaction of a possible cumulate inner core.

  11. Dynamos driven by weak thermal convection and heterogeneous outer boundary heat flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Swarandeep; Sreenivasan, Binod; Amit, Hagay

    2016-01-01

    We use numerical dynamo models with heterogeneous core-mantle boundary (CMB) heat flux to show that lower mantle lateral thermal variability may help support a dynamo under weak thermal convection. In our reference models with homogeneous CMB heat flux, convection is either marginally supercritical or absent, always below the threshold for dynamo onset. We find that lateral CMB heat flux variations organize the flow in the core into patterns that favour the growth of an early magnetic field. Heat flux patterns symmetric about the equator produce non-reversing magnetic fields, whereas anti-symmetric patterns produce polarity reversals. Our results may explain the existence of the geodynamo prior to inner core nucleation under a tight energy budget. Furthermore, in order to sustain a strong geomagnetic field, the lower mantle thermal distribution was likely dominantly symmetric about the equator.

  12. Magnetorotational dynamo chimeras. The missing link to turbulent accretion disk dynamo models?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riols, A.; Rincon, F.; Cossu, C.; Lesur, G.; Ogilvie, G. I.; Longaretti, P.-Y.

    2017-02-01

    In Keplerian accretion disks, turbulence and magnetic fields may be jointly excited through a subcritical dynamo mechanisminvolving magnetorotational instability (MRI). This dynamo may notably contribute to explaining the time-variability of various accreting systems, as high-resolution simulations of MRI dynamo turbulence exhibit statistical self-organization into large-scale cyclic dynamics. However, understanding the physics underlying these statistical states and assessing their exact astrophysical relevance is theoretically challenging. The study of simple periodic nonlinear MRI dynamo solutions has recently proven useful in this respect, and has highlighted the role of turbulent magnetic diffusion in the seeming impossibility of a dynamo at low magnetic Prandtl number (Pm), a common regime in disks. Arguably though, these simple laminar structures may not be fully representative of the complex, statistically self-organized states expected in astrophysical regimes. Here, we aim at closing this seeming discrepancy by reporting the numerical discovery of exactly periodic, yet semi-statistical "chimeral MRI dynamo states" which are the organized outcome of a succession of MRI-unstable, non-axisymmetric dynamical stages of different forms and amplitudes. Interestingly, these states, while reminiscent of the statistical complexity of turbulent simulations, involve the same physical principles as simpler laminar cycles, and their analysis further confirms the theory that subcritical turbulent magnetic diffusion impedes the sustainment of an MRI dynamo at low Pm. Overall, chimera dynamo cycles therefore offer an unprecedented dual physical and statistical perspective on dynamos in rotating shear flows, which may prove useful in devising more accurate, yet intuitive mean-field models of time-dependent turbulent disk dynamos. Movies associated to Fig. 1 are available at http://www.aanda.org

  13. Experimental realization of dynamo action: present status and prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giesecke, André; Stefani, Frank; Gundrum, Thomas; Gerbeth, Gunter; Nore, Caroline; Léorat, Jacques

    2013-07-01

    In the last decades, the experimental study of dynamo action has made great progress. However, after the dynamo experiments in Karlsruhe and Riga, the von-Kármán-Sodium (VKS) dynamo is only the third facility that has been able to demonstrate fluid flow driven self-generation of magnetic fields in a laboratory experiment. Further progress in the experimental examination of dynamo action is expected from the planned precession driven dynamo experiment that will be designed in the framework of the liquid sodium facility DRESDYN (DREsden Sodium facility for DYNamo and thermohydraulic studies). In this paper, we briefly present numerical models of the VKS dynamo that demonstrate the close relation between the axisymmetric field observed in that experiment and the soft iron material used for the flow driving impellers. We further show recent results of preparatory water experiments and design studies related to the precession dynamo and delineate the scientific prospects for the final set-up.

  14. Exact axially symmetric galactic dynamos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriksen, R. N.; Woodfinden, A.; Irwin, J. A.

    2018-05-01

    We give a selection of exact dynamos in axial symmetry on a galactic scale. These include some steady examples, at least one of which is wholly analytic in terms of simple functions and has been discussed elsewhere. Most solutions are found in terms of special functions, such as associated Lagrange or hypergeometric functions. They may be considered exact in the sense that they are known to any desired accuracy in principle. The new aspect developed here is to present scale-invariant solutions with zero resistivity that are self-similar in time. The time dependence is either a power law or an exponential factor, but since the geometry of the solution is self-similar in time we do not need to fix a time to study it. Several examples are discussed. Our results demonstrate (without the need to invoke any other mechanisms) X-shaped magnetic fields and (axially symmetric) magnetic spiral arms (both of which are well observed and documented) and predict reversing rotation measures in galaxy haloes (now observed in the CHANG-ES sample) as well as the fact that planar magnetic spirals are lifted into the galactic halo.

  15. Melting in Martian Snowbanks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zent, A. P.; Sutter, B.

    2005-01-01

    Precipitation as snow is an emerging paradigm for understanding water flow on Mars, which gracefully resolves many outstanding uncertainties in climatic and geomorphic interpretation. Snowfall does not require a powerful global greenhouse to effect global precipitation. It has long been assumed that global average temperatures greater than 273K are required to sustain liquid water at the surface via rainfall and runoff. Unfortunately, the best greenhouse models to date predict global mean surface temperatures early in Mars' history that differ little from today's, unless exceptional conditions are invoked. Snowfall however, can occur at temperatures less than 273K; all that is required is saturation of the atmosphere. At global temperatures lower than 273K, H2O would have been injected into the atmosphere by impacts and volcanic eruptions during the Noachian, and by obliquity-driven climate oscillations more recently. Snow cover can accumulate for a considerable period, and be available for melting during local spring and summer, unless sublimation rates are sufficient to remove the entire snowpack. We decided to explore the physics that controls the melting of snow in the high-latitude regions of Mars to understand the frequency and drainage of snowmelt in the high martian latitudes.

  16. The effect of collisionality and diamagnetism on the plasma dynamo

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, H.; Yagi, Y.; Hattori, K.

    1995-04-28

    Fluctuation-induced dynamo forces are measured over a wide range of electron collisionality in the edge of TPE-1RM20 Reversed-Field Pinch (RFP). In the collisionless region the Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) dynamo alone can sustain the parallel current, while in the collisional region a new dynamo mechanism resulting from the fluctuations in the electron diamagnetic drift becomes dominant. A comprehensive picture of the RFP dynamo emerges by combining with earlier results from MST and REPUTE RFPs.

  17. Turbulent dynamo in a collisionless plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rincon, François; Califano, Francesco; Schekochihin, Alexander A.; Valentini, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic fields pervade the entire universe and affect the formation and evolution of astrophysical systems from cosmological to planetary scales. The generation and dynamical amplification of extragalactic magnetic fields through cosmic times (up to microgauss levels reported in nearby galaxy clusters, near equipartition with kinetic energy of plasma motions, and on scales of at least tens of kiloparsecs) are major puzzles largely unconstrained by observations. A dynamo effect converting kinetic flow energy into magnetic energy is often invoked in that context; however, extragalactic plasmas are weakly collisional (as opposed to magnetohydrodynamic fluids), and whether magnetic field growth and sustainment through an efficient turbulent dynamo instability are possible in such plasmas is not established. Fully kinetic numerical simulations of the Vlasov equation in a 6D-phase space necessary to answer this question have, until recently, remained beyond computational capabilities. Here, we show by means of such simulations that magnetic field amplification by dynamo instability does occur in a stochastically driven, nonrelativistic subsonic flow of initially unmagnetized collisionless plasma. We also find that the dynamo self-accelerates and becomes entangled with kinetic instabilities as magnetization increases. The results suggest that such a plasma dynamo may be realizable in laboratory experiments, support the idea that intracluster medium turbulence may have significantly contributed to the amplification of cluster magnetic fields up to near-equipartition levels on a timescale shorter than the Hubble time, and emphasize the crucial role of multiscale kinetic physics in high-energy astrophysical plasmas.

  18. Magnetorotational dynamo action in the shearing box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Justin; Boldyrev, Stanislav

    2017-09-01

    Magnetic dynamo action caused by the magnetorotational instability is studied in the shearing-box approximation with no imposed net magnetic flux. Consistent with recent studies, the dynamo action is found to be sensitive to the aspect ratio of the box: it is much easier to obtain in tall boxes (stretched in the direction normal to the disc plane) than in long boxes (stretched in the radial direction). Our direct numerical simulations indicate that the dynamo is possible in both cases, given a large enough magnetic Reynolds number. To explain the relatively larger effort required to obtain the dynamo action in a long box, we propose that the turbulent eddies caused by the instability most efficiently fold and mix the magnetic field lines in the radial direction. As a result, in the long box the scale of the generated strong azimuthal (stream-wise directed) magnetic field is always comparable to the scale of the turbulent eddies. In contrast, in the tall box the azimuthal magnetic flux spreads in the vertical direction over a distance exceeding the scale of the turbulent eddies. As a result, different vertical sections of the tall box are permeated by large-scale non-zero azimuthal magnetic fluxes, facilitating the instability. In agreement with this picture, the cases when the dynamo is efficient are characterized by a strong intermittency of the local azimuthal magnetic fluxes.

  19. Numerical modeling of the Madison Dynamo Experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayliss, R. A.; Wright, J. C.; Forest, C. B.; O'Connell, R.

    2002-11-01

    Growth, saturation and turbulent evolution of the Madison dynamo experiment is investigated numerically using a 3-D pseudo-spectral simulation of the MHD equations; results of the simulations will be compared to results obtained from the experiment. The code, Dynamo (Fortran90), allows for full evolution of the magnetic and velocity fields. The induction equation governing B and the curl of the momentum equation governing V are separately or simultaneously solved. The code uses a spectral representation via spherical harmonic basis functions of the vector fields in longitude and latitude, and fourth order finite differences in the radial direction. The magnetic field evolution has been benchmarked against the laminar kinematic dynamo predicted by M.L. Dudley and R.W. James (M.L. Dudley and R.W. James, Time-dependent kinematic dynamos with stationary flows, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 425, p. 407 (1989)). Power balance in the system has been verified in both mechanically driven and perturbed hydrodynamic, kinematic, and dynamic cases. Evolution of the vacuum magnetic field has been added to facilitate comparison with the experiment. Modeling of the Madison Dynamo eXperiment will be presented.

  20. Turbulent dynamo in a collisionless plasma

    PubMed Central

    Rincon, François; Califano, Francesco; Schekochihin, Alexander A.; Valentini, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic fields pervade the entire universe and affect the formation and evolution of astrophysical systems from cosmological to planetary scales. The generation and dynamical amplification of extragalactic magnetic fields through cosmic times (up to microgauss levels reported in nearby galaxy clusters, near equipartition with kinetic energy of plasma motions, and on scales of at least tens of kiloparsecs) are major puzzles largely unconstrained by observations. A dynamo effect converting kinetic flow energy into magnetic energy is often invoked in that context; however, extragalactic plasmas are weakly collisional (as opposed to magnetohydrodynamic fluids), and whether magnetic field growth and sustainment through an efficient turbulent dynamo instability are possible in such plasmas is not established. Fully kinetic numerical simulations of the Vlasov equation in a 6D-phase space necessary to answer this question have, until recently, remained beyond computational capabilities. Here, we show by means of such simulations that magnetic field amplification by dynamo instability does occur in a stochastically driven, nonrelativistic subsonic flow of initially unmagnetized collisionless plasma. We also find that the dynamo self-accelerates and becomes entangled with kinetic instabilities as magnetization increases. The results suggest that such a plasma dynamo may be realizable in laboratory experiments, support the idea that intracluster medium turbulence may have significantly contributed to the amplification of cluster magnetic fields up to near-equipartition levels on a timescale shorter than the Hubble time, and emphasize the crucial role of multiscale kinetic physics in high-energy astrophysical plasmas. PMID:27035981

  1. Turbulent dynamo in a collisionless plasma.

    PubMed

    Rincon, François; Califano, Francesco; Schekochihin, Alexander A; Valentini, Francesco

    2016-04-12

    Magnetic fields pervade the entire universe and affect the formation and evolution of astrophysical systems from cosmological to planetary scales. The generation and dynamical amplification of extragalactic magnetic fields through cosmic times (up to microgauss levels reported in nearby galaxy clusters, near equipartition with kinetic energy of plasma motions, and on scales of at least tens of kiloparsecs) are major puzzles largely unconstrained by observations. A dynamo effect converting kinetic flow energy into magnetic energy is often invoked in that context; however, extragalactic plasmas are weakly collisional (as opposed to magnetohydrodynamic fluids), and whether magnetic field growth and sustainment through an efficient turbulent dynamo instability are possible in such plasmas is not established. Fully kinetic numerical simulations of the Vlasov equation in a 6D-phase space necessary to answer this question have, until recently, remained beyond computational capabilities. Here, we show by means of such simulations that magnetic field amplification by dynamo instability does occur in a stochastically driven, nonrelativistic subsonic flow of initially unmagnetized collisionless plasma. We also find that the dynamo self-accelerates and becomes entangled with kinetic instabilities as magnetization increases. The results suggest that such a plasma dynamo may be realizable in laboratory experiments, support the idea that intracluster medium turbulence may have significantly contributed to the amplification of cluster magnetic fields up to near-equipartition levels on a timescale shorter than the Hubble time, and emphasize the crucial role of multiscale kinetic physics in high-energy astrophysical plasmas.

  2. Martian Atmosphere Profiles

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-08-26

    The Mars Climate Sounder instrument on NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter maps the vertical distribution of temperatures, dust, water vapor and ice clouds in the Martian atmosphere as the orbiter flies a near-polar orbit.

  3. Dynamic Modeling of the Madison Dynamo Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Truitt, J. L.; Forest, C. B.; Wright, J. C.

    1999-11-01

    This work focuses on a computer simulation of the Magnetohydrodynamic equations applied in the geometry of the Madison Dynamo Experiemnt. An integration code is used to evolve both the magnetic field and the velocity field numerically in spherical coordinates using a pseudo-spectral algorithm. The focus is to realistically model an experiment to be undertaken by the Madison Dynamo Experiment Group. The first flows studied are the well documented ones of Dudley and James. The main goals of the simulation are to observe the dynamo effect with the back-reaction allowed, to observe the equipartition of magnetic and kinetic energy due to theoretically proposed turbulent effects, and to isolate and study the α and β effects.

  4. Hydrogen in Martian Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peslier, A. H.; Hervig, R.; Irving, T.

    2017-01-01

    Most volatile studies of Mars have targeted its surface via spacecraft and rover data, and have evidenced surficial water in polar caps and the atmosphere, in the presence of river channels, and in the detection of water bearing minerals. The other focus of Martian volatile studies has been on Martian meteorites which are all from its crust. Most of these studies are on hydrous phases like apatite, a late-stage phase, i.e. crystallizing near the end of the differentiation sequence of Martian basalts and cumulates. Moreover, calculating the water content of the magma a phosphate crystallized from is not always possible, and yet is an essential step to estimate how much water was present in a parent magma and its source. Water, however, is primarily dissolved in the interiors of differentiated planets as hydrogen in lattice defects of nominally anhydrous minerals (olivine, pyroxene, feldspar) of the crust and mantle. This hydrogen has tremendous influence, even in trace quantities, on a planet's formation, geodynamics, cooling history and the origin of its volcanism and atmosphere as well as its potential for life. Studies of hydrogen in nominally anhydrous phases of Martian meteorites are rare. Measuring water contents and hydrogen isotopes in well-characterized nominally anhydrous minerals of Martian meteorites is the goal of our study. Our work aims at deciphering what influences the distribution and origin of hydrogen in Martian minerals, such as source, differentiation, degassing and shock.

  5. Chiral dynamos and magnetogenesis induced by torsionful Maxwell-Chern Simons electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Andrade, L. C. Garcia

    2018-03-01

    Recently chiral anomalous currents have been investigated by Boyarsky et al. and Brandenburg et al. with respect to applications to the early universe. In this paper we show that these magnetic field anomalies, which can give rise to dynamo magnetic field amplification can also be linked to spacetime torsion through the use of a chemical potential and Maxwell electrodynamics with torsion firstly proposed by de Sabbata and Gasperini. When the axial torsion is constant this electrodynamics acquires the form of a Maxwell-Chern-Simmons (MCS) equations where the chiral current appears naturally and the zero component of torsion plays the role of a chemical potential, while the other components play the role of anisotropic conductivity. The chiral dynamo equation in torsionful spacetime is derived here from MSC electrodynamics. Here we have used a recently derived a torsion LV bound of T0˜ {10^{-26}} GeV and the constraint that this chiral magnetic field is a seed for galactic dynamo. This estimate is weaker than the one obtained from the chiral battery seed of ˜ {10^{30}} G without making use of Cartan torsion. The torsion obtained here was derived at 500 pc coherence scale. When a chiral MF is forced to seed a galactic dynamo one obtains a yet weaker MF, of the order of B˜ {10^{12}} G, which is the value of a MF at nucleosynthesis. By the use of chiral dynamo equations from parity-violating torsion one obtains a seed field of B˜ {10^{27}} G, which is a much stronger MF closer to the one obtained by making use of chiral batteries. Chiral vortical currents in non-Riemannian spacetimes derived in Riemannian spaces previously by Flaschi and Fukushima are extended to include minimal coupling with torsion. The present universe yields B˜ {10^{-24}} G, still sufficient to seed galactic dynamos.

  6. Dynamo action in stratified convection with overshoot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordlund, Ake; Brandenburg, Axel; Jennings, Richard L.; Rieutord, Michel; Ruokolainen, Juha; Stein, Robert F.; Tuominen, Ilkka

    1992-01-01

    Results are presented from direct simulations of turbulent compressible hydromagnetic convection above a stable overshoot layer. Spontaneous dynamo action occurs followed by saturation, with most of the generated magnetic field appearing as coherent flux tubes in the vicinity of strong downdrafts, where both the generation and destruction of magnetic field is most vigorous. Whether or not this field is amplified depends on the sizes of the magnetic Reynolds and magnetic Prandtl numbers. Joule dissipation is balanced mainly by the work done against the magnetic curvature force. It is this curvature force which is also responsible for the saturation of the dynamo.

  7. Sulphur Spring: Busy Intersection and Possible Martian Analogue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nankivell, A.; Andre, N.; Thomas-Keprta, K.; Allen, C.; McKay, D.

    2000-01-01

    Life in extreme environments exhibiting conditions similar to early Earth and Mars, such as Sulphur Spring, may harbor microbiota serving as both relics from the past as well as present day Martian analogues.

  8. Workshop on Evolution of Martian Volatiles. Part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jakosky, B. (Editor); Treiman, A. (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    Different aspects of martian science are discussed. Topics covered include: early Mars volatile inventory, evolution through time, geological influences, present atmospheric properties, soils, exobiology, polar volatiles, and seasonal and diurnal cycles

  9. The nuclear dynamo; Can a nuclear tornado annihilate nations

    SciTech Connect

    McNally, J.R. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of the hypothesis of a nuclear dynamo for a controlled nuclear fusion reactor. This dynamo hypothesis suggests properties for a nuclear tornado that could annihilate nations if accidentally triggered by a single high yield to weight nuclear weapon detonation. The formerly classified reports on ignition of the atmosphere, the properties of a nuclear dynamo, methods to achieve a nuclear dynamo in the laboratory, and the analogy of a nuclear dynamo to a nuclear tornado are discussed. An unclassified international study of this question is urged.

  10. Limited role of spectra in dynamo theory: coherent versus random dynamos.

    PubMed

    Tobias, Steven M; Cattaneo, Fausto

    2008-09-19

    We discuss the importance of phase information and coherence times in determining the dynamo properties of turbulent flows. We compare the kinematic dynamo properties of three flows with the same energy spectrum. The first flow is dominated by coherent structures with nontrivial phase information and long eddy coherence times, the second has random phases and long-coherence time, the third has nontrivial phase information, but short coherence time. We demonstrate that the first flow is the most efficient kinematic dynamo, owing to the presence of sustained stretching and constructive folding. We argue that these results place limitations on the possible inferences of the dynamo properties of flows from the use of spectra alone, and that the role of coherent structures must always be accounted for.

  11. Kinematic dynamo action in square and hexagonal patterns.

    PubMed

    Favier, B; Proctor, M R E

    2013-11-01

    We consider kinematic dynamo action in rapidly rotating Boussinesq convection just above onset. The velocity is constrained to have either a square or a hexagonal pattern. For the square pattern, large-scale dynamo action is observed at onset, with most of the magnetic energy being contained in the horizontally averaged component. As the magnetic Reynolds number increases, small-scale dynamo action becomes possible, reducing the overall growth rate of the dynamo. For the hexagonal pattern, the breaking of symmetry between up and down flows results in an effective pumping velocity. For intermediate rotation rates, this additional effect can prevent the growth of any mean-field dynamo, so that only a small-scale dynamo is eventually possible at large enough magnetic Reynolds number. For very large rotation rates, this pumping term becomes negligible, and the dynamo properties of square and hexagonal patterns are qualitatively similar. These results hold for both perfectly conducting and infinite magnetic permeability boundary conditions.

  12. Neutron star dynamos and the origins of pulsar magnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, Christopher; Duncan, Robert C.

    1993-01-01

    Neutron star convection is a transient phenomenon and has an extremely high magnetic Reynolds number. In this sense, a neutron star dynamo is the quintessential fast dynamo. The convective motions are only mildly turbulent on scales larger than the approximately 100 cm neutrino mean free path, but the turbulence is well developed on smaller scales. Several fundamental issues in the theory of fast dynamos are raised in the study of a neutron star dynamo, in particular the possibility of dynamo action in mirror-symmetric turbulence. It is argued that in any high magnetic Reynolds number dynamo, most of the magnetic energy becomes concentrated in thin flux ropes when the field pressure exceeds the turbulent pressure at the smallest scale of turbulence. In addition, the possibilities for dynamo action during the various (pre-collapse) stages of convective motion that occur in the evolution of a massive star are examined, and the properties of white dwarf and neutron star progenitors are contrasted.

  13. Martian "Swiss Cheese"

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2000-04-24

    This image is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left. Looking like pieces of sliced and broken swiss cheese, the upper layer of the martian south polar residual cap has been eroded, leaving flat-topped mesas into which are set circular depressions such as those shown here. The circular features are depressions, not hills. The largest mesas here stand about 4 meters (13 feet) high and may be composed of frozen carbon dioxide and/or water. Nothing like this has ever been seen anywhere on Mars except within the south polar cap, leading to some speculation that these landforms may have something to do with the carbon dioxide thought to be frozen in the south polar region. On Earth, we know frozen carbon dioxide as "dry ice." On Mars, as this picture might be suggesting, there may be entire landforms larger than a small town and taller than 2 to 3 men and women that consist, in part, of dry ice. No one knows for certain whether frozen carbon dioxide has played a role in the creation of the "swiss cheese" and other bizarre landforms seen in this picture. The picture covers an area 3 x 9 kilometers (1.9 x 5.6 miles) near 85.6°S, 74.4°W at a resolution of 7.3 meters (24 feet) per pixel. This picture was taken by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) during early southern spring on August 3, 1999. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA02367

  14. Martian 'Swiss Cheese'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

    Looking like pieces of sliced and broken swiss cheese, the upper layer of the martian south polar residual cap has been eroded, leaving flat-topped mesas into which are set circular depressions such as those shown here. The circular features are depressions, not hills. The largest mesas here stand about 4 meters (13 feet) high and may be composed of frozen carbon dioxide and/or water. Nothing like this has ever been seen anywhere on Mars except within the south polar cap, leading to some speculation that these landforms may have something to do with the carbon dioxide thought to be frozen in the south polar region. On Earth, we know frozen carbon dioxide as 'dry ice'. On Mars, as this picture might be suggesting, there may be entire landforms larger than a small town and taller than 2 to 3 men and women that consist, in part, of dry ice.

    No one knows for certain whether frozen carbon dioxide has played a role in the creation of the 'swiss cheese' and other bizarre landforms seen in this picture. The picture covers an area 3 x 9 kilometers (1.9 x 5.6 miles) near 85.6oS, 74.4oW at a resolution of 7.3 meters (24 feet) per pixel. This picture was taken by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) during early southern spring on August 3, 1999.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  15. Magnetorotational Dynamo Action in the Shearing Box

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Justin; Boldyrev, Stanislav

    2017-10-01

    Magnetic dynamo action caused by the magnetorotational instability is studied in the shearing-box approximation with no imposed net magnetic flux. Consistent with recent studies, the dynamo action is found to be sensitive to the aspect ratio of the box: it is much easier to obtain in tall boxes (stretched in the direction normal to the disk plane) than in long boxes (stretched in the radial direction). Our direct numerical simulations indicate that the dynamo is possible in both cases, given a large enough magnetic Reynolds number. To explain the relatively larger effort required to obtain the dynamo action in a long box, we propose that the turbulent eddies caused by the instability most efficiently fold and mix the magnetic field lines in the radial direction. As a result, in the long box the scale of the generated strong azimuthal (stream-wise directed) magnetic field is always comparable to the scale of the turbulent eddies. In contrast, in the tall box the azimuthal magnetic flux spreads in the vertical direction over a distance exceeding the scale of the turbulent eddies. As a result, different vertical sections of the tall box are permeated by large-scale nonzero azimuthal magnetic fluxes, facilitating the instability. NSF AGS-1261659, Vilas Associates Award, NSF-Teragrid Project TG-PHY110016.

  16. Magnetic reversals from planetary dynamo waves.

    PubMed

    Sheyko, Andrey; Finlay, Christopher C; Jackson, Andrew

    2016-11-24

    A striking feature of many natural dynamos is their ability to undergo polarity reversals. The best documented example is Earth's magnetic field, which has reversed hundreds of times during its history. The origin of geomagnetic polarity reversals lies in a magnetohydrodynamic process that takes place in Earth's core, but the precise mechanism is debated. The majority of numerical geodynamo simulations that exhibit reversals operate in a regime in which the viscosity of the fluid remains important, and in which the dynamo mechanism primarily involves stretching and twisting of field lines by columnar convection. Here we present an example of another class of reversing-geodynamo model, which operates in a regime of comparatively low viscosity and high magnetic diffusivity. This class does not fit into the paradigm of reversal regimes that are dictated by the value of the local Rossby number (the ratio of advection to Coriolis force). Instead, stretching of the magnetic field by a strong shear in the east-west flow near the imaginary cylinder just touching the inner core and parallel to the axis of rotation is crucial to the reversal mechanism in our models, which involves a process akin to kinematic dynamo waves. Because our results are relevant in a regime of low viscosity and high magnetic diffusivity, and with geophysically appropriate boundary conditions, this form of dynamo wave may also be involved in geomagnetic reversals.

  17. Fluctuation dynamo based on magnetic reconnections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baggaley, A. W.; Shukurov, A.; Barenghi, C. F.; Subramanian, K.

    2010-01-01

    We develop a new model of the fluctuation dynamo in which the magnetic field is confined to thin flux ropes advected by a multi-scale flow which models turbulence. Magnetic dissipation occurs only via reconnections of flux ropes. The model is particularly suitable for rarefied plasma, such as the solar corona or galactic halos. We investigate the kinetic energy release into heat, mediated by dynamo action, both in our model and by solving the induction equation with the same flow. We find that the flux rope dynamo is more than an order of magnitude more efficient at converting mechanical energy into heat. The probability density of the magnetic energy released during reconnections has a power-law form with the slope -3, consistent with the solar corona heating by nanoflares. We also present a nonlinear extension of the model. This shows that a plausible saturation mechanism of the fluctuation dynamo is the suppression of turbulent magnetic diffusivity, due to suppression of random stretching at the location of the flux ropes. We confirm that the probability distribution function of the magnetic line curvature has a power-law form suggested by \\citet{Sheck:2002b}. We argue, however, using our results that this does not imply a persistent folded structure of magnetic field, at least in the nonlinear stage.

  18. Extrapolating Solar Dynamo Models Throughout the Heliosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, B. T.; Miesch, M. S.; Augustson, K.; Featherstone, N. A.

    2014-12-01

    There are multiple theories that aim to explain the behavior of the solar dynamo, and their associated models have been fiercely contested. The two prevailing theories investigated in this project are the Convective Dynamo model that arises from the pure solving of the magnetohydrodynamic equations, as well as the Babcock-Leighton model that relies on sunspot dissipation and reconnection. Recently, the supercomputer simulations CASH and BASH have formed models of the behavior of the Convective and Babcock-Leighton models, respectively, in the convective zone of the sun. These models show the behavior of the models within the sun, while much less is known about the effects these models may have further away from the solar surface. The goal of this work is to investigate any fundamental differences between the Convective and Babcock-Leighton models of the solar dynamo outside of the sun and extending into the solar system via the use of potential field source surface extrapolations implemented via python code that operates on data from CASH and BASH. The use of real solar data to visualize supergranular flow data in the BASH model is also used to learn more about the behavior of the Babcock-Leighton Dynamo. From the process of these extrapolations it has been determined that the Babcock-Leighton model, as represented by BASH, maintains complex magnetic fields much further into the heliosphere before reverting into a basic dipole field, providing 3D visualisations of the models distant from the sun.

  19. Numerical modelling of the Madison Dynamo Experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayliss, R. A.; Wright, J. C.; Forest, C. B.; O'Connell, R.; Truitt, J. L.

    2000-10-01

    Growth, saturation and turbulent evolution of the Madison dynamo experiment is investigated numerically using a newly developed 3-D pseudo-spectral simulation of the MHD equations; results of the simulations will be compared to the experimental results obtained from the experiment. The code, Dynamo, is in Fortran90 and allows for full evolution of the magnetic and velocity fields. The induction equation governing B and the Navier-Stokes equation governing V are solved. The code uses a spectral representation via spherical harmonic basis functions of the vector fields in longitude and latitude, and finite differences in the radial direction. The magnetic field evolution has been benchmarked against the laminar kinematic dynamo predicted by M.L. Dudley and R.W. James (M.L. Dudley and R.W. James, Time-dependant kinematic dynamos with stationary flows, Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 425, p. 407 (1989)). Initial results on magnetic field saturation, generated by the simultaneous evolution of magnetic and velocity fields be presented using a variety of mechanical forcing terms.

  20. Magnetic Helicity and the Solar Dynamo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canfield, Richard C.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this investigation is to open a new window into the solar dynamo, convection, and magnetic reconnection through measurement of the helicity density of magnetic fields in the photosphere and tracing of large-scale patterns of magnetic helicity in the corona.

  1. Relating Stellar Cycle Periods to Dynamo Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobias, S. M.

    1998-01-01

    Stellar magnetic activity in slowly rotating stars is often cyclic, with the period of the magnetic cycle depending critically on the rotation rate and the convective turnover time of the star. Here we show that the interpretation of this law from dynamo models is not a simple task. It is demonstrated that the period is (unsurprisingly) sensitive to the precise type of non-linearity employed. Moreover the calculation of the wave-speed of plane-wave solutions does not (as was previously supposed) give an indication of the magnetic period in a more realistic dynamo model, as the changes in length-scale of solutions are not easily captured by this approach. Progress can be made, however, by considering a realistic two-dimensional model, in which the radial length-scale of waves is included. We show that it is possible in this case to derive a more robust relation between cycle period and dynamo number. For all the non-linearities considered in the most realistic model, the magnetic cycle period is a decreasing function of IDI (the amplitude of the dynamo number). However, discriminating between different non-linearities is difficult in this case and care must therefore be taken before advancing explanations for the magnetic periods of stars.

  2. Stochastic flux freezing and magnetic dynamo.

    PubMed

    Eyink, Gregory L

    2011-05-01

    Magnetic flux conservation in turbulent plasmas at high magnetic Reynolds numbers is argued neither to hold in the conventional sense nor to be entirely broken, but instead to be valid in a statistical sense associated to the "spontaneous stochasticity" of Lagrangian particle trajectories. The latter phenomenon is due to the explosive separation of particles undergoing turbulent Richardson diffusion, which leads to a breakdown of Laplacian determinism for classical dynamics. Empirical evidence is presented for spontaneous stochasticity, including numerical results. A Lagrangian path-integral approach is then exploited to establish stochastic flux freezing for resistive hydromagnetic equations and to argue, based on the properties of Richardson diffusion, that flux conservation must remain stochastic at infinite magnetic Reynolds number. An important application of these results is the kinematic, fluctuation dynamo in nonhelical, incompressible turbulence at magnetic Prandtl number (Pr(m)) equal to unity. Numerical results on the Lagrangian dynamo mechanisms by a stochastic particle method demonstrate a strong similarity between the Pr(m)=1 and 0 dynamos. Stochasticity of field-line motion is an essential ingredient of both. Finally, some consequences for nonlinear magnetohydrodynamic turbulence, dynamo, and reconnection are briefly considered. © 2011 American Physical Society

  3. Chemistry of Martian Rock Esperance

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-07

    This triangle plot shows the relative concentrations of some of the major chemical elements in the Martian rock Esperance. The compositions of average Martian crust and of montmorillonite, a common clay mineral, are shown.

  4. The precession dynamo experiment at HZDR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giesecke, A.; Gundrum, T.; Herault, J.; Stefani, F.; Gerbeth, G.

    2015-12-01

    In a next generation dynamo experiment currently under development atthe Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) a fluid flow of liquidsodium, solely driven by precession, will be considered as a possiblesource for magnetic field generation. The experiment is mainlymotivated by alternative concepts for astrophysical dynamos that arebased on mechanical flow driving. For example, it has long beendiscussed whether precession may be a complementary power source forthe geodynamo (Malkus, Science 1968) or for the ancient lunar dynamodue to the Earth-driven precession of the lunar spin axis (Dwyer, Nature 2011).We will present the current state of development of the dynamoexperiment together with results from non-linear hydrodynamicsimulations with moderate precessional forcing. Our simulations reveala non-axisymmetric forced mode with an amplitude of up to one fourthof the rotation velocity of the cylindrical container confirming thatprecession provides a rather efficient flow driving mechanism even atmoderate precession rates.More relevant for dynamo action might be free Kelvin modes (thenatural flow eigenmodes in a rotating cylinder) with higher azimuthalwave number. These modes may become relevant when constituting atriadic resonance with the fundamental forced mode, i.e., when theheight of the container matches their axial wave lengths. We findtriadic resonances at aspect ratios close to those predicted by thelinear theory except around the primary resonance of the forcedmode. In that regime we still identify free Kelvin modes propagatingin retrograde direction but none of them can be assigned to a triade.Our results will enter into the development of flow models that willbe used in kinematic simulations of the electromagnetic inductionequation in order to determine whether a precession driven flow willbe capable to drive a dynamo at all and to limit the parameter spacewithin which the occurrence of dynamo action is most promising.

  5. The precession dynamo experiment at HZDR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giesecke, A.; Albrecht, T.; Gerbeth, G.; Gundrum, T.; Nore, C.; Stefani, F.; Steglich, C.

    2013-12-01

    Most planets of the solar system are accompanied by a magnetic field with a large scale structure. These fields are generated by the dynamo effect, the process that provides for the transfer of kinetic energy from a flow of a conducting fluid into magnetic energy. In case of planetary dynamos it is generally assumed that these flows are driven by thermal and/or chemical convection but other driving sources like libration, tidal forcing or precession are possible as well. Precessional forcing, in particular, has been discussed since long as an at least additional power source for the geodynamo. A fluid flow of liquid sodium, solely driven by precession, will be the source for magnetic field generation in the next generation dynamo experiment currently under development at the Helmholz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR). In contrast to previous dynamo experiments no internal blades, propellers or complex systems of guiding tubes will be used for the optimization of the flow properties. However, in order to reach sufficiently high magnetic Reynolds numbers required for the onset of dynamo action rather large dimensions of the container are necessary making the construction of the experiment a challenge. At present state a small scale water experiment is running in order to estimate the hydrodynamic flow properties in dependence of precession angle and precession rate. The measurements are utilized in combination with numerical simulations of the hydrodynamic case as input data for kinematic simulations of the induction equation. The resulting growth rates and the corresponding critical magnetic Reynolds numbers will provide a restriction of the useful parameter regime and will allow an optimization of the experimental configuration.

  6. Transitions in rapidly rotating convection dynamos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilgner, A.

    2013-12-01

    It is commonly assumed that buoyancy in the fluid core powers the geodynamo. We study here the minimal model of a convection driven dynamo, which is a horizontal plane layer in a gravity field, filled with electrically conducting fluid, heated from below and cooled from above, and rotating about a vertical axis. Such a plane layer may be viewed as a local approximation to the geophysically more relevant spherical geometry. The numerical simulations have been run on graphics processing units with at least 960 cores. If the convection is driven stronger and stronger at fixed rotation rate, the flow behaves at some point as if it was not rotating. This transition shows in the scaling of the heat transport which can be used to distinguish slow from rapid rotation. One expects dynamos to behave differently in these two flow regimes. But even within the convection flows which are rapidly rotating according to this criterion, it will be shown that different types of dynamos exist. In one state, the magnetic field strength obeys a scaling indicative of a magnetostrophic balance, in which the Lorentz force is in equilibrium with the Coriolis force. The flow in this case is helical. A different state exists at higher magnetic Reynolds numbers, in which the magnetic energy obeys a different scaling law and the helicity of the flow is much reduced. As one increases the Rayleigh number, all other parameters kept constant, one may find both types of dynamos separated by an interval of Rayleigh numbers in which there are no dynamos at all. The effect of these transitions on energy dissipation and mean field generation have also been studied.

  7. Precessionally driven dynamos in ellipsoidal geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst-Hullermann, J.; Harder, H.; Hansen, U.

    2013-12-01

    Precession was suggested as an alternative driving mechanism for Earth's and planetary magnetic fields by Bullard in 1949. Recent estimates of the thermal and electrical conductivity of Earth's core even show that the energy budget for buoyancy driven dynamos might be very tight. Therefore it seems worth to consider precession at least as an additional if not the only source of energy for the geodynamo. We are going to investigate precessionally driven dynamos by the use of a Finite Volume code. As precession drives a flow only due to the movement of the boundaries the shape of the container is essential for the character of the flow. In planets, it is much more effective to drive a precessional flow by the pressure differences induced by the topography of the precessing body rather than by viscous coupling to the walls. Numerical simulations are the only method offering the possibility to investigate the influence of the topography since laboratory experiments normally are constrained by the predetermined geometry of the vessel. We discuss how ellipticity of the planets can be included in our simulations by the use of a non-orthogonal grid. We will show that even laminar precession-driven flows are capable to generate a magnetic field. Most of the magnetic energy of this dynamos resides in the outer viscous boundary layer. While at lower Ekman number the kinematic dynamos also have magnetic fields located in the bulk, these diminish in the full magneto-hydrodynamic case. The laminar dynamos may not scale to Earth-like parameters. Nevertheless, with our new method we have the possibility to explore the parameter space much more systematically.

  8. Martian Environment Electrostatic Precipitator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDougall, Michael Owen

    2016-01-01

    As part of the planned manned mission to Mars, NASA has noticed that shipping oxygen as a part of life support to keep the astronauts alive continuously is overly expensive, and impractical. As such, noting that the Martian atmosphere is 95.37% CO2, NASA chemists noted that one could obtain oxygen from the Martian atmosphere. The plan, as part of a larger ISRU (in-situ resource utilization) initiative, would extract water from the regolith, or the Martian soil which can be electrolyzed by solar panel produced voltage into hydrogen and oxygen. The hydrogen can then be used in the Sabatier reaction with carbon dioxide to produce methane and water producing a net reaction that does not lose water and outputs methane and oxygen for use as rocket fuel and breathing.

  9. Clouds Sailing Above Martian Horizon, Enhanced

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-08-09

    Clouds drift across the sky above a Martian horizon in this accelerated sequence of enhanced images from NASA's Curiosity Mars rover. The rover's Navigation Camera (Navcam) took these eight images over a span of four minutes early in the morning of the mission's 1,758th Martian day, or sol (July 17, 2017), aiming toward the south horizon. They have been processed by first making a "flat field' adjustment for known differences in sensitivity among pixels and correcting for camera artifacts due to light reflecting within the camera, and then generating an "average" of all the frames and subtracting that average from each frame. This subtraction emphasizes changes whether due to movement -- such as the clouds' motion -- or due to lighting -- such as changing shadows on the ground as the morning sunlight angle changed. On the same Martian morning, Curiosity also observed clouds nearly straight overhead. The clouds resemble Earth's cirrus clouds, which are ice crystals at high altitudes. These Martian clouds are likely composed of crystals of water ice that condense onto dust grains in the cold Martian atmosphere. Cirrus wisps appear as ice crystals fall and evaporate in patterns known as "fall streaks" or "mare's tails." Such patterns have been seen before at high latitudes on Mars, for instance by the Phoenix Mars Lander in 2008, and seasonally nearer the equator, for instance by the Opportunity rover. However, Curiosity has not previously observed such clouds so clearly visible from the rover's study area about five degrees south of the equator. The Hubble Space Telescope and spacecraft orbiting Mars have observed a band of clouds to appear near the Martian equator around the time of the Martian year when the planet is farthest from the Sun. With a more elliptical orbit than Earth's, Mars experiences more annual variation than Earth in its distance from the Sun. The most distant point in an orbit around the Sun is called the aphelion. The near-equatorial Martian

  10. Martian sedimentary deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dehon, Rene

    1992-01-01

    The objectives are characterization of flow through outflow channels, sedimentation associated with Martian outflow systems, and documentation of Martian lakes. Over the period of the grant much, but not all, of the study centered on the Maja Valles outflow. Maja served as an example in which the effects of multiple channel routing and ponding could be studied. Maja Valles also served as the test case for calculating flow through an outflow system. Applying the lessons learned in Maja Valles and comparisons and contrast required a scrutiny of other channels.

  11. Exploring for Martian Life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, Jack D.; Chang, Sherwood (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    During the next decade, robotic field science will play an essential role in advancing our understanding of Martian history. Specifically, capable rovers are needed to survey a broad range of Martian rock types for in situ chemistry and mineralogy as a basis for interpreting globally-distributed data obtained from orbit. The relationship between orbital and landed science will be fundamental in selecting a landing site for future missions aimed at probing the ancient rock record for evidence of: (1) past life or prebiotic chemistry; (2) the climate and volatile history of Mars; and (3) candidate materials for in situ resource utilization.

  12. Martian Surface Beneath Phoenix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This is an image of the Martian surface beneath NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander. The image was taken by Phoenix's Robotic Arm Camera (RAC) on the eighth Martian day of the mission, or Sol 8 (June 2, 2008). The light feature in the middle of the image below the leg is informally called 'Holy Cow.' The dust, shown in the dark foreground, has been blown off of 'Holy Cow' by Phoenix's thruster engines.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  13. Covariant and 3 + 1 Equations for Dynamo-Chiral General Relativistic Magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Zanna, L.; Bucciantini, N.

    2018-06-01

    The exponential amplification of initial seed magnetic fields in relativistic plasmas is a very important topic in astrophysics, from the conditions in the early Universe to the interior of neutron stars. While dynamo action in a turbulent plasma is often invoked, in the last years a novel mechanism of quantum origin has gained increasingly more attention, namely the Chiral Magnetic Effect (CME). This has been recognized in semi-metals and it is most likely at work in the quark-gluon plasma formed in heavy-ion collision experiments, where the highest magnetic fields in nature, up to B ˜ 1018 G, are produced. This effect is expected to survive even at large hydrodynamical/MHD scales and it is based on the chiral anomaly due to an imbalance between left- and right-handed relativistic fermions in the constituent plasma. Such imbalance leads to an electric current parallel to an external magnetic field, which is precisely the same mechanism of an α-dynamo action in classical MHD. Here we extend the close parallelism between the chiral and the dynamo effects to relativistic plasmas and we propose a unified, fully covariant formulation of the generalized Ohm's law. Moreover, we derive for the first time the 3 + 1 general relativistic MHD equations for a chiral plasma both in flat and curved spacetimes, in view of numerical investigation of the CME in compact objects, especially magnetars, or of the interplay among the non-ideal magnetic effects of dynamo, the CME and reconnection.

  14. DOUBLE DYNAMO SIGNATURES IN A GLOBAL MHD SIMULATION AND MEAN-FIELD DYNAMOS

    SciTech Connect

    Beaudoin, Patrice; Simard, Corinne; Cossette, Jean-François

    The 11 year solar activity cycle is the most prominent periodic manifestation of the magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) large-scale dynamo operating in the solar interior, yet longer and shorter (quasi-) periodicities are also present. The so-called “quasi-biennial” signal appearing in many proxies of solar activity has been gaining increasing attention since its detection in p -mode frequency shifts, which suggests a subphotospheric origin. A number of candidate mechanisms have been proposed, including beating between co-existing global dynamo modes, dual dynamos operating in spatially separated regions of the solar interior, and Rossby waves driving short-period oscillations in the large-scale solar magnetic field producedmore » by the 11 year activity cycle. In this article, we analyze a global MHD simulation of solar convection producing regular large-scale magnetic cycles, and detect and characterize shorter periodicities developing therein. By constructing kinematic mean-field α {sup 2}Ω dynamo models incorporating the turbulent electromotive force (emf) extracted from that same simulation, we find that dual-dynamo behavior materializes in fairly wide regions of the model’s parameters space. This suggests that the origin of the similar behavior detected in the MHD simulation lies with the joint complexity of the turbulent emf and differential rotation profile, rather that with dynamical interactions such as those mediated by Rossby waves. Analysis of the simulation also reveals that the dual dynamo operating therein leaves a double-period signature in the temperature field, consistent with a dual-period helioseismic signature. Order-of-magnitude estimates for the magnitude of the expected frequency shifts are commensurate with helioseismic measurements. Taken together, our results support the hypothesis that the solar quasi-biennial oscillations are associated with a secondary dynamo process operating in the outer reaches of the solar convection zone.« less

  15. A potential thermal dynamo and its astrophysical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lingam, Manasvi, E-mail: mlingam@princeton.edu; Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544; Mahajan, Swadesh M., E-mail: mahajan@mail.utexas.edu

    2016-05-15

    It is shown that thermal turbulence, not unlike the standard kinetic and magnetic turbulence, can be an effective driver of a mean-field dynamo. In simple models, such as hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics, both vorticity and induction equations can have strong thermal drives that resemble the α and γ effects in conventional dynamo theories; the thermal drives are likely to be dominant in systems that are endowed with subsonic, low-β turbulence. A pure thermal dynamo is quite different from the conventional dynamo in which the same kinetic/magnetic mix in the ambient turbulence can yield a different ratio of macroscopic magnetic/vortical fields. Themore » possible implications of the similarities and differences between the thermal and non-thermal dynamos are discussed. The thermal dynamo is shown to be highly important in the stellar and planetary context, and yields results broadly consistent with other theoretical and experimental approaches.« less

  16. Predictability and Coupled Dynamics of MJO During DYNAMO

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Predictability and Coupled Dynamics of MJO During DYNAMO ...Model (LIM) for MJO predictions and apply it in retrospective cross-validated forecast mode to the DYNAMO time period. APPROACH We are working as...a team to study MJO dynamics and predictability using several models as team members of the ONR DRI associated with the DYNAMO experiment. This is a

  17. Predictability and Coupled Dynamics of MJO During DYNAMO

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Predictability and Coupled Dynamics of MJO During DYNAMO ... DYNAMO time period. APPROACH We are working as a team to study MJO dynamics and predictability using several models as team members of the ONR DRI...associated with the DYNAMO experiment. This is a fundamentally collaborative proposal that involves close collaboration with Dr. Hyodae Seo of the

  18. Mercury's magnetic field - A thermoelectric dynamo?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    Permanent magnetism and conventional dynamo theory are possible but problematic explanations for the magnitude of the Mercurian magnetic field. A new model is proposed in which thermoelectric currents driven by temperature differences at a bumpy core-mantle boundary are responsible for the (unobserved) toroidal field, and the helicity of convective motions in a thin outer core (thickness of about 100 km) induces the observed poloidal field from the toroidal field. The observed field of about 3 x 10 to the -7th T can be reproduced provided the electrical conductivity of Mercury's semiconducting mantle approaches 1000/ohm per m. This model may be testable by future missions to Mercury because it predicts a more complicated field geometry than conventional dynamo theories. However, it is argued that polar wander may cause the core-mantle topography to migrate so that some aspects of the rotational symmetry may be reflected in the observed field.

  19. Universal nonlinear small-scale dynamo.

    PubMed

    Beresnyak, A

    2012-01-20

    We consider astrophysically relevant nonlinear MHD dynamo at large Reynolds numbers (Re). We argue that it is universal in a sense that magnetic energy grows at a rate which is a constant fraction C(E) of the total turbulent dissipation rate. On the basis of locality bounds we claim that this "efficiency of the small-scale dynamo", C(E), is a true constant for large Re and is determined only by strongly nonlinear dynamics at the equipartition scale. We measured C(E) in numerical simulations and observed a value around 0.05 in the highest resolution simulations. We address the issue of C(E) being small, unlike the Kolmogorov constant which is of order unity. © 2012 American Physical Society

  20. An ancient core dynamo in asteroid Vesta.

    PubMed

    Fu, Roger R; Weiss, Benjamin P; Shuster, David L; Gattacceca, Jérôme; Grove, Timothy L; Suavet, Clément; Lima, Eduardo A; Li, Luyao; Kuan, Aaron T

    2012-10-12

    The asteroid Vesta is the smallest known planetary body that has experienced large-scale igneous differentiation. However, it has been previously uncertain whether Vesta and similarly sized planetesimals formed advecting metallic cores and dynamo magnetic fields. Here we show that remanent magnetization in the eucrite meteorite Allan Hills A81001 formed during cooling on Vesta 3.69 billion years ago in a surface magnetic field of at least 2 microteslas. This field most likely originated from crustal remanence produced by an earlier dynamo, suggesting that Vesta formed an advecting liquid metallic core. Furthermore, the inferred present-day crustal fields can account for the lack of solar wind ion-generated space weathering effects on Vesta.

  1. Intermittent behavior of galactic dynamo activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ko, C. M.; Parker, E. N.

    1989-01-01

    Recent observations by Beck and Golla of far-infrared and radio continuum emission from nearby spiral galaxies suggest that the galactic magnetic field strength is connected to the current star formation rate. The role of star formation on the generation of large-scale galactic magnetic field is studied in this paper. Using a simple galactic model, it is shown how the galactic dynamo depends strongly on the turbulent velocity of the interstellar medium. When the star formation efficiency is high, the ISM is churned which in turn amplifies the galactic magnetic field. Between active star formation epochs, the magnetic field is in dormant state and decays at a negligible rate. If density waves trigger star formation, then they also turn on the otherwise dormant dynamo.

  2. A High-Resolution Merged Wind Dataset for DYNAMO: Progress and Future Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Timothy J.; Mecikalski, John; Li, Xuanli; Chronis, Themis; Castillo, Tyler; Hoover, Kacie; Brewer, Alan; Churnside, James; McCarty, Brandi; Hein, Paul; hide

    2015-01-01

    In order to support research on optimal data assimilation methods for the Cyclone Global Navigation Satellite System (CYGNSS), launching in 2016, work has been ongoing to produce a high-resolution merged wind dataset for the Dynamics of the Madden Julian Oscillation (DYNAMO) field campaign, which took place during late 2011/early 2012. The winds are produced by assimilating DYNAMO observations into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) system. Data sources from the DYNAMO campaign include the upper-air sounding network, radial velocities from the radar network, vector winds from the Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) and Oceansat-2 Scatterometer (OSCAT) satellite instruments, the NOAA High Resolution Doppler Lidar (HRDL), and several others. In order the prep them for 3DVAR, significant additional quality control work is being done for the currently available TOGA and SMART-R radar datasets, including automatically dealiasing radial velocities and correcting for intermittent TOGA antenna azimuth angle errors. The assimilated winds are being made available as model output fields from WRF on two separate grids with different horizontal resolutions - a 3-km grid focusing on the main DYNAMO quadrilateral (i.e., Gan Island, the R/V Revelle, the R/V Mirai, and Diego Garcia), and a 1-km grid focusing on the Revelle. The wind dataset is focused on three separate approximately 2-week periods during the Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO) onsets that occurred in October, November, and December 2011. Work is ongoing to convert the 10-m surface winds from these model fields to simulated CYGNSS observations using the CYGNSS End-To-End Simulator (E2ES), and these simulated satellite observations are being compared to radar observations of DYNAMO precipitation systems to document the anticipated ability of CYGNSS to provide information on the relationships between surface winds and oceanic precipitation at the mesoscale level. This research will

  3. The Hottest Hot Jupiters May Host Atmospheric Dynamos

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, T. M.; McElwaine, J. N.

    2017-06-01

    Hot Jupiters have proven themselves to be a rich class of exoplanets that test our theories of planetary evolution and atmospheric dynamics under extreme conditions. Here, we present three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations and analytic results that demonstrate that a dynamo can be maintained in the thin, stably stratified atmosphere of a hot Jupiter, independent of the presumed deep-seated dynamo. This dynamo is maintained by conductivity variations arising from strong asymmetric heating from the planets’ host star. The presence of a dynamo significantly increases the surface magnetic field strength and alters the overall planetary magnetic field geometry, possibly affecting star–planet magnetic interactions.

  4. HELICITY CONSERVATION IN NONLINEAR MEAN-FIELD SOLAR DYNAMO

    SciTech Connect

    Pipin, V. V.; Sokoloff, D. D.; Zhang, H.

    It is believed that magnetic helicity conservation is an important constraint on large-scale astrophysical dynamos. In this paper, we study a mean-field solar dynamo model that employs two different formulations of the magnetic helicity conservation. In the first approach, the evolution of the averaged small-scale magnetic helicity is largely determined by the local induction effects due to the large-scale magnetic field, turbulent motions, and the turbulent diffusive loss of helicity. In this case, the dynamo model shows that the typical strength of the large-scale magnetic field generated by the dynamo is much smaller than the equipartition value for the magneticmore » Reynolds number 10{sup 6}. This is the so-called catastrophic quenching (CQ) phenomenon. In the literature, this is considered to be typical for various kinds of solar dynamo models, including the distributed-type and the Babcock-Leighton-type dynamos. The problem can be resolved by the second formulation, which is derived from the integral conservation of the total magnetic helicity. In this case, the dynamo model shows that magnetic helicity propagates with the dynamo wave from the bottom of the convection zone to the surface. This prevents CQ because of the local balance between the large-scale and small-scale magnetic helicities. Thus, the solar dynamo can operate in a wide range of magnetic Reynolds numbers up to 10{sup 6}.« less

  5. Magnetic dynamo action at low magnetic Prandtl numbers.

    PubMed

    Malyshkin, Leonid M; Boldyrev, Stanislav

    2010-11-19

    Amplification of magnetic field due to kinematic turbulent dynamo action is studied in the regime of small magnetic Prandtl numbers. Such a regime is relevant for planets and stars interiors, as well as for liquid-metal laboratory experiments. A comprehensive analysis based on the Kazantsev-Kraichnan model is reported, which establishes the dynamo threshold and the dynamo growth rates for varying kinetic helicity of turbulent fluctuations. It is proposed that in contrast with the case of large magnetic Prandtl numbers, the kinematic dynamo action at small magnetic Prandtl numbers is significantly affected by kinetic helicity, and it can be made quite efficient with an appropriate choice of the helicity spectrum.

  6. Nonlinear dynamo action in a precessing cylindrical container.

    PubMed

    Nore, C; Léorat, J; Guermond, J-L; Luddens, F

    2011-07-01

    It is numerically demonstrated by means of a magnetohydrodynamics code that precession can trigger the dynamo effect in a cylindrical container. When the Reynolds number, based on the radius of the cylinder and its angular velocity, increases, the flow, which is initially centrosymmetric, loses its stability and bifurcates to a quasiperiodic motion. This unsteady and asymmetric flow is shown to be capable of sustaining dynamo action in the linear and nonlinear regimes. The magnetic field thus generated is unsteady and quadrupolar. These numerical evidences of dynamo action in a precessing cylindrical container may be useful for an experiment now planned at the Dresden sodium facility for dynamo and thermohydraulic studies in Germany.

  7. Bistability and chaos in the Taylor-Green dynamo.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Rakesh K; Verma, Mahendra K; Wahi, Pankaj

    2012-03-01

    Using direct numerical simulations, we study dynamo action under Taylor-Green forcing for a magnetic Prandtl number of 0.5. We observe bistability with weak- and strong-magnetic-field branches. Both the dynamo branches undergo subcritical dynamo transition. We also observe a host of dynamo states including constant, periodic, quasiperiodic, and chaotic magnetic fields. One of the chaotic states originates through a quasiperiodic route with phase locking, while the other chaotic attractor appears to follow the Newhouse-Ruelle-Takens route to chaos. We also observe intermittent transitions between quasiperiodic and chaotic states for a given Taylor-Green forcing.

  8. Kinematic dynamo, supersymmetry breaking, and chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovchinnikov, Igor V.; Enßlin, Torsten A.

    2016-04-01

    The kinematic dynamo (KD) describes the growth of magnetic fields generated by the flow of a conducting medium in the limit of vanishing backaction of the fields onto the flow. The KD is therefore an important model system for understanding astrophysical magnetism. Here, the mathematical correspondence between the KD and a specific stochastic differential equation (SDE) viewed from the perspective of the supersymmetric theory of stochastics (STS) is discussed. The STS is a novel, approximation-free framework to investigate SDEs. The correspondence reported here permits insights from the STS to be applied to the theory of KD and vice versa. It was previously known that the fast KD in the idealistic limit of no magnetic diffusion requires chaotic flows. The KD-STS correspondence shows that this is also true for the diffusive KD. From the STS perspective, the KD possesses a topological supersymmetry, and the dynamo effect can be viewed as its spontaneous breakdown. This supersymmetry breaking can be regarded as the stochastic generalization of the concept of dynamical chaos. As this supersymmetry breaking happens in both the diffusive and the nondiffusive cases, the necessity of the underlying SDE being chaotic is given in either case. The observed exponentially growing and oscillating KD modes prove physically that dynamical spectra of the STS evolution operator that break the topological supersymmetry exist with both real and complex ground state eigenvalues. Finally, we comment on the nonexistence of dynamos for scalar quantities.

  9. Growth rate degeneracies in kinematic dynamos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favier, B.; Proctor, M. R. E.

    2013-09-01

    We consider the classical problem of kinematic dynamo action in simple steady flows. Due to the adjointness of the induction operator, we show that the growth rate of the dynamo will be exactly the same for two types of magnetic boundary conditions: the magnetic field can be normal (infinite magnetic permeability, also called pseudovacuum) or tangent (perfect electrical conductor) to the boundaries of the domain. These boundary conditions correspond to well-defined physical limits often used in numerical models and relevant to laboratory experiments. The only constraint is for the velocity field u to be reversible, meaning there exists a transformation changing u into -u. We illustrate this surprising property using S2T2 type of flows in spherical geometry inspired by [Dudley and James, Proc. R. Soc. London A1364-502110.1098/rspa.1989.0112 425, 407 (1989)]. Using both types of boundary conditions, it is shown that the growth rates of the dynamos are identical, although the corresponding magnetic eigenmodes are drastically different.

  10. Martian Dust Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantor, B. A.; James, P. B.

    The Mars Observer Camera (MOC), aboard Mars Global Surveyor (MGS), has completed approximately 3 consecutive Martian years of global monitoring, since entering its mapping orbit on March 9, 1999. MOC observations have shown the important role that dust devils and dust storms play in the Martian dust cycle on time scales ranging from semi-diurnally to interannually. These dust events have been observed across much of the planet from the depths of Hellas basin to the summit of Arsia Mons and range in size from10s of meters across (dust devils) to planet encircling (global dust veils). Though dust devils occur throughout most of the Martian year, each hemisphere has a "dust devil season" that generally follows the subsolar latitude and appears to be repeatable from year-to-year. An exception is NW Amazonis, which has frequent, large dust devils throughout northern spring and summer. MOC observations show no evidence that dust devils cause or lead to dust storms, however, observations do suggest that dust storms can initiate dust devil activity. Dust devils also might play a role in maintaining the low background dust opacity of the Martian atmosphere. Dust storms occur almost daily with few exceptions, with 1000s occurring each year in the present Martian environment, dispelling the notion of a "Classical Dust Storm Season". However, there does appear to be an annual dust storm cycle, with storms developing in specific locations during certain seasons and that some individual storm events are repeatable from year-to-year. The majority of storms develop near the receding seasonal polar cap edge or along the corresponding polar hood boundaries in their respective hemispheres, but they also occur in the northern plains, the windward side of the large shield volcanoes, and in low laying regions such as Hellas, Argyre, and Chryse. The rarest of dust events are the "Great Storms" or "Global Events", of which only 6 (4 "planet encircling" and 2 "global") have been observed

  11. Shear dynamo, turbulence, and the magnetorotational instability

    SciTech Connect

    Squire, Jonathan

    The formation, evolution, and detailed structure of accretion disks remain poorly understood, with wide implications across a variety of astrophysical disciplines. While the most pressing question – what causes the high angular momentum fluxes that are necessary to explain observations? – is nicely answered by the idea that the disk is turbulent, a more complete grasp of the fundamental processes is necessary to capture the wide variety of behaviors observed in the night sky. This thesis studies the turbulence in ionized accretion disks from a theoretical standpoint, in particular focusing on the generation of magnetic fields in these processes, knownmore » as dynamo. Such fields are expected to be enormously important, both by enabling the magnetorotational instability (which evolves into virulent turbulence), and through large-scale structure formation, which may transport angular momentum in different ways and be fundamental for the formation of jets. The central result of this thesis is the suggestion of a new large-scale dynamo mechanism in shear flows – the “magnetic shear-current effect” – which relies on a positive feedback from smallscale magnetic fields. As well as being a very promising candidate for driving field generation in the central regions of accretion disks, this effect is interesting because small-scale magnetic fields have historically been considered to have a negative effect on the large-scale dynamo, damping growth and leading to dire predictions for final saturation amplitudes. Given that small-scale fields are ubiquitous in plasma turbulence above moderate Reynolds numbers, the finding that they could instead have a positive effect in some situations is interesting from a theoretical and practical standpoint. The effect is studied using direct numerical simulation, analytic techniques, and novel statistical simulation methods. In addition to the dynamo, much attention is given to the linear physics of disks and its relevance

  12. When did the lunar core dynamo cease?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tikoo, S. M.; Weiss, B. P.; Shuster, D. L.; Fuller, M.

    2013-12-01

    Remanent magnetization in the lunar crust and in returned Apollo samples has long suggested that the Moon formed a metallic core and an ancient dynamo magnetic field. Recent paleomagnetic investigations of lunar samples demonstrate that the Moon had a core dynamo which produced ~30-110 μT surface fields between at least 4.2 and 3.56 billion years ago (Ga). Tikoo et al. (1) recently found that the field declined to below several μT by 3.19 Ga. However, given that even values of a few μT are at the upper end of the intensities predicted by dynamo theory for this late in lunar history, it remains uncertain when the lunar dynamo actually ceased completely. Determining this requires a young lunar rock with extraordinarily high magnetic recording fidelity. With this goal, we are conducting a new analysis of young regolith breccia 15498. Although the breccia's age is currently uncertain, the presence of Apollo 15-type mare basalt clasts provides an upper limit constraint of ~3.3 Ga, while trapped Ar data suggest a lithification age of ~1.3 Ga. In stark contrast to the multidomain character of virtually all lunar crystalline rocks, the magnetic carriers in 15498 are on average pseudo-single domain to superparamagnetic, indicating that the sample should provide high-fidelity paleointensity records. A previous alternating field (AF) and thermal demagnetization study of 15498 by Gose et al. (2) observed that the sample carries stable remanent magnetization which persists to unblocking temperatures of at least 650°C. Using a modified Thellier technique, they reported a paleointensity of 2 μT. Although this value may have been influenced by spurious remanence acquired during pretreatment with AF demagnetization, our results confirm the presence of an extremely stable (blocked to coercivities >290 mT) magnetization in the glassy matrix. We also found that this magnetization is largely unidirectional across mutually oriented subsamples. The cooling timescale of this rock (~1

  13. Martian Surface & Pathfinder Airbags

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-07-05

    This image of the Martian surface was taken in the afternoon of Mars Pathfinder's first day on Mars. Taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP camera), the image shows a diversity of rocks strewn in the foreground. A hill is visible in the distance (the notch within the hill is an image artifact). Airbags are seen at the lower right. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00612

  14. Martian polar geological studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutts, J. A. J.

    1977-01-01

    Multiple arcs of rugged mountains and adjacent plains on the surface of Mars were examined. These features, located in the southern polar region were photographed by Mariner 9. Comparisons are made with characteristics of a lunar basin and mare; Mare imbrium in particular. The martian feature is interpreted to have originated in the same way as its lunar analog- by volcanic flooding of a large impact basin. Key data and methodology leading to this conclusion are cited.

  15. Martian extratropical cyclones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, G. E.; James, P. B.

    1979-01-01

    Physical properties of summer-season baroclinic waves on Mars are discussed on the basis of vidicon images and infrared thermal mapping generated by Viking Orbiter 1. The two northern-hemisphere storm systems examined here appear to be similar to terrestrial mid-latitude cyclonic storms. The Martian storm clouds are probably composed of water ice, rather than dust or CO2 ice particles.

  16. The martian surface.

    PubMed

    Opik, E J

    1966-07-15

    With the scarcity of factual data and the difficulty of applying crucial tests, many of the properties of the Martian surface remain a mystery; the planet may become a source of great surprises in the future. In the following, the conclusions are enumerated more or less in the order of their reliability, the more certain ones first, conjectures or ambiguous interpretations coming last. Even if they prove to be wrong, they may serve as a stimulus for further investigation. Impact craters on Mars, from collisions with nearby asteroids and other stray bodies, were predicted 16 years ago (5-7) and are now verified by the Mariner IV pictures. The kink in the frequency curve of Martian crater diameters indicates that those larger than 20 kilometers could have survived aeolian erosion since the "beginning." They indicate an erosion rate 30 times slower than that in terrestrial deserts and 70 times faster than micrometeorite erosion on the moon. The observed number, per unit area, of Martian craters larger than 20 kilometers exceeds 4 times that calculated from the statistical theory of interplanetary collisions with the present population of stray bodies and for a time interval of 4500 million years, even when allowance is made for the depletion of the Martian group of asteroids, which were more numerous in the past. This, and the low eroded rims of the Martian craters suggest that many of the craters have survived almost since the formation of the crust. Therefore, Mars could not have possessed a dense atmosphere for any length of time. If there was abundant water for the first 100 million years or so, before it escaped it could have occurred only in the solid state as ice and snow, with but traces of vapor in the atmosphere, on account of the low temperature caused by the high reflectivity of clouds and snow. For Martian life there is thus the dilemma: with water, it is too cold; without, too dry. The crater density on Mars, though twice that in lunar maria, is much

  17. Martian Chronology: Goals for Investigations from a Recent Multidisciplinary Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L.; Doran, P. T.; Cerling, T. E.; Clifford, S. M.; Forman, S. L.; Papanastassiou, D. A.; Stewart, B. W.; Sturchio, N. C.; Swindle, T. D.

    2000-01-01

    The absolute chronology of Martian rocks and events is based mainly on crater statistics and remains highly uncertain. Martian chronology will be critical to building a time scale comparable to Earth's to address questions about the early evolution of the planets and their ecosystems. In order to address issues and strategies specific to Martian chronology, a workshop was held, 4-7 June 2000, with invited participants from the planetary, geochronology, geochemistry, and astrobiology communities. The workshop focused on identifying: a) key scientific questions of Martian chronology; b) chronological techniques applicable to Mars; c) unique processes on Mars that could be exploited to obtain rates, fluxes, ages; and d) sampling issues for these techniques. This is an overview of the workshop findings and recommendations.

  18. Efficiency Measurement Using a Motor-Dynamo Module

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, Pun-hon; Wong, Siu-ling; Mak, Se-yuen

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we describe a simple method which can be used to measure the efficiency of a low power dc motor, a motor-converted dynamo and a coupled motor-dynamo module as a function of the speed of rotation. The result can also be used to verify Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction. (Contains 1 table and 8 figures.)

  19. Chlorine Abundances in Martian Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogard, D.D.; Garrison, D.H.; Park, J.

    2009-01-01

    Chlorine measurements made in martian surface rocks by robotic spacecraft typically give Chlorine (Cl) abundances of approximately 0.1-0.8%. In contrast, Cl abundances in martian meteorites appear lower, although data is limited, and martian nakhlites were also subjected to Cl contamination by Mars surface brines. Chlorine abundances reported by one lab for whole rock (WR) samples of Shergotty, ALH77005, and EET79001 range 108-14 ppm, whereas Cl in nakhlites range 73-1900 ppm. Measurements of Cl in various martian weathering phases of nakhlites varied 0.04-4.7% and reveal significant concentration of Cl by martian brines Martian meteorites contain much lower Chlorine than those measured in martian surface rocks and give further confirmation that Cl in these surface rocks was introduced by brines and weathering. It has been argued that Cl is twice as effective as water in lowering the melting point and promoting melting at shallower martian depths, and that significant Cl in the shergottite source region would negate any need for significant water. However, this conclusion was based on experiments that utilized Cl concentrations more analogous to martian surface rocks than to shergottite meteorites, and may not be applicable to shergottites.

  20. Convection and Dynamo Action in Ice Giant Dynamo Models with Electrical Conductivity Stratification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soderlund, K. M.; Featherstone, N. A.; Heimpel, M. H.; Aurnou, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    Uranus and Neptune are relatively unexplored, yet critical for understanding the physical and chemical processes that control the behavior and evolution of giant planets. Because their multipolar magnetic fields, three-jet zonal winds, and extreme energy balances are distinct from other planets in our Solar System, the ice giants provide a unique opportunity to test hypotheses for internal dynamics and magnetic field generation. While it is generally agreed that dynamo action in the ionic ocean generates their magnetic fields, the mechanisms that control the morphology, strength, and evolution of the dynamos - which are likely distinct from those in the gas giants and terrestrial planets - are not well understood. We hypothesize that the dynamos and zonal winds are dynamically coupled and argue that their characteristics are a consequence of quasi-three-dimensional turbulence in their interiors. Here, we will present new dynamo simulations with an inner electrically conducting region and outer electrically insulating layer to self-consistently couple the ionic oceans and molecular envelopes of these planets. For each simulation, the magnetic field morphology and amplitude, zonal flow profile, and internal heat flux pattern will be compared against corresponding observations of Uranus and Neptune. We will also highlight how these simulations will both contribute to and benefit from a future ice giant mission.

  1. Persistence and origin of the lunar core dynamo

    PubMed Central

    Suavet, Clément; Weiss, Benjamin P.; Cassata, William S.; Shuster, David L.; Gattacceca, Jérôme; Chan, Lindsey; Garrick-Bethell, Ian; Head, James W.; Grove, Timothy L.; Fuller, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    The lifetime of the ancient lunar core dynamo has implications for its power source and the mechanism of field generation. Here, we report analyses of two 3.56-Gy-old mare basalts demonstrating that they were magnetized in a stable and surprisingly intense dynamo magnetic field of at least ∼13 μT. These data extend the known lifetime of the lunar dynamo by ∼160 My and indicate that the field was likely continuously active until well after the final large basin-forming impact. This likely excludes impact-driven changes in rotation rate as the source of the dynamo at this time in lunar history. Rather, our results require a persistent power source like precession of the lunar mantle or a compositional convection dynamo. PMID:23650386

  2. Transition from large-scale to small-scale dynamo.

    PubMed

    Ponty, Y; Plunian, F

    2011-04-15

    The dynamo equations are solved numerically with a helical forcing corresponding to the Roberts flow. In the fully turbulent regime the flow behaves as a Roberts flow on long time scales, plus turbulent fluctuations at short time scales. The dynamo onset is controlled by the long time scales of the flow, in agreement with the former Karlsruhe experimental results. The dynamo mechanism is governed by a generalized α effect, which includes both the usual α effect and turbulent diffusion, plus all higher order effects. Beyond the onset we find that this generalized α effect scales as O(Rm(-1)), suggesting the takeover of small-scale dynamo action. This is confirmed by simulations in which dynamo occurs even if the large-scale field is artificially suppressed.

  3. Generation of dynamo magnetic fields in thin Keplerian disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepinski, T. F.; Levy, E. H.

    1990-01-01

    The combined action of nonuniform rotation and helical convection in protoplanetary disks, in the Galaxy, or in accretion disks surrounding black holes and other compact objects, enables an alpha-omega dynamo to generate a large-scale magnetic field. In this paper, the properties of such magnetic fields are investigated using a two-dimensional, partially numerical method. The structures of the lowest-order steady state and oscillatory modes are calculated for two kinds of external boundary conditions. A quadruple, steady state, highly localized mode is the most easily excited for low values of the dynamo number. The results indicate that, except under special conditions, disk dynamo modes tend to consist of relatively localized rings structures. For large values of the dynamo number, the magnetic field consists of a number of quasi-independent, spatially localized modes generated in various concentric rings filling the disk inward of a dynamo generation 'front'.

  4. Axial dipolar dynamo action in the Taylor-Green vortex.

    PubMed

    Krstulovic, Giorgio; Thorner, Gentien; Vest, Julien-Piera; Fauve, Stephan; Brachet, Marc

    2011-12-01

    We present a numerical study of the magnetic field generated by the Taylor-Green vortex. We show that periodic boundary conditions can be used to mimic realistic boundary conditions by prescribing the symmetries of the velocity and magnetic fields. This gives insight into some problems of central interest for dynamos: the possible effect of velocity fluctuations on the dynamo threshold, and the role of boundary conditions on the threshold and on the geometry of the magnetic field generated by dynamo action. In particular, we show that an axial dipolar dynamo similar to the one observed in a recent experiment can be obtained with an appropriate choice of the symmetries of the magnetic field. The nonlinear saturation is studied and a simple model explaining the magnetic Prandtl number dependence of the super- and subcritical nature of the dynamo transition is given.

  5. Persistence and origin of the lunar core dynamo.

    PubMed

    Suavet, Clément; Weiss, Benjamin P; Cassata, William S; Shuster, David L; Gattacceca, Jérôme; Chan, Lindsey; Garrick-Bethell, Ian; Head, James W; Grove, Timothy L; Fuller, Michael D

    2013-05-21

    The lifetime of the ancient lunar core dynamo has implications for its power source and the mechanism of field generation. Here, we report analyses of two 3.56-Gy-old mare basalts demonstrating that they were magnetized in a stable and surprisingly intense dynamo magnetic field of at least ~13 μT. These data extend the known lifetime of the lunar dynamo by ~160 My and indicate that the field was likely continuously active until well after the final large basin-forming impact. This likely excludes impact-driven changes in rotation rate as the source of the dynamo at this time in lunar history. Rather, our results require a persistent power source like precession of the lunar mantle or a compositional convection dynamo.

  6. Waldmeier's Rules in the Solar and Stellar Dynamos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pipin, Valery; Kosovichev, Alexander

    2015-08-01

    The Waldmeier's rules [1] establish important empirical relations between the general parameters of magnetic cycles (such as the amplitude, period, growth rate and time profile) on the Sun and solar-type stars [2]. Variations of the magnetic cycle parameters depend on properties of the global dynamo processes operating in the stellar convection zones. We employ nonlinear mean-field axisymmetric dynamo models [3] and calculate of the magnetic cycle parameters, such as the dynamo cycle period, total magnetic and Poynting fluxes for the Sun and solar-type stars with rotational periods from 15 to 30 days. We consider two types of the dynamo models: 1) distributed (D-type) models employing the standard α - effect distributed in the whole convection zone, and 2) Babcock-Leighton (BL-type) models with a non-local α - effect. The dynamo models take into account the principal mechanisms of the nonlinear dynamo generation and saturation, including the magnetic helicity conservation, magnetic buoyancy effects, and the feedback on the angular momentum balance inside the convection zones. Both types of models show that the dynamo generated magnetic flux increases with the increase of the rotation rate. This corresponds to stronger brightness variations. The distributed dynamo model reproduces the observed dependence of the cycle period on the rotation rate for the Sun analogs better than the BL-type model. For the solar-type stars rotating more rapidly than the Sun we find dynamo regimes with multiple periods. Such stars with multiple cycles form a separate branch in the variability-rotation diagram.1. Waldmeier, M., Prognose für das nächste Sonnenfleckenmaximum, 1936, Astron. Nachrichten, 259,262. Soon,W.H., Baliunas,S.L., Zhang,Q.,An interpretation of cycle periods of stellar chromospheric activity, 1993, ApJ, 414,333. Pipin,V.V., Dependence of magnetic cycle parameters on period of rotation in nonlinear solar-type dynamos, 2015, astro-ph: 14125284

  7. Diurnal variation in martian dust devil activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, R. M.; Lewis, S. R.; Balme, M.; Steele, L. J.

    2017-08-01

    We show that the dust devil parameterisation in use in most Mars Global Circulation Models (MGCMs) results in an unexpectedly high level of dust devil activity during morning hours. Prior expectations of the diurnal variation of Martian dust devils are based mainly upon the observed behaviour of terrestrial dust devils: i.e. that the majority occur during the afternoon. We instead find that large areas of the Martian surface experience dust devil activity during the morning in our MGCM, and that many locations experience a peak in dust devil activity before mid-sol. We find that the diurnal variation in dust devil activity is governed by near-surface wind speeds. Within the range of daylight hours, higher wind speeds tend to produce higher levels of dust devil activity, rather than the activity simply being governed by the availability of heat at the planet's surface, which peaks in early afternoon. Evidence for whether the phenomenon we observe is real or an artefact of the parameterisation is inconclusive. We compare our results with surface-based observations of Martian dust devil timings and obtain a good match with the majority of surveys. We do not find a good match with orbital observations, which identify a diurnal distribution more closely matching that of terrestrial dust devils, but orbital observations have limited temporal coverage, biased towards the early afternoon. We propose that the generally accepted description of dust devil behaviour on Mars is incomplete, and that theories of dust devil formation may need to be modified specifically for the Martian environment. Further surveys of dust devil observations are required to support any such modifications. These surveys should include both surface and orbital observations, and the range of observations must encompass the full diurnal period and consider the wider meteorological context surrounding the observations.

  8. Polygons in Martian Frost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-428, 21 July 2003

    This June 2003 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows a polygonal pattern developed in seasonal carbon dioxide frost in the martian southern hemisphere. The frost accumulated during the recent southern winter; it is now spring, and the carbon dioxide frost is subliming away. This image is located near 80.4oS, 200.2oW; it is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left, and covers an area 3 km (1.9 mi) across.

  9. The Martian twilight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, R.; Goody, R.; Pollack, J.

    1981-01-01

    The changing sky brightness during the Martian twilight as measured by the Viking lander cameras is shown to be consistent with data obtained from sky brightness measurements. An exponential distribution of dust with a scale height of 10 km, equal to the atmospheric scale height, is consistent with the shape of the light curve. Multiple scattering resulting from the forward scattering peak of large particles makes a major contribution to the intensity of the twilight. The spectral distribution of light in the twilight sky may require slightly different optical properties for the scattering particles at high levels from those of the aerosol at lower levels.

  10. The Martian Oasis Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, P. H.; tomasko, M. G.; McEwen, A.; Rice, J.

    2000-07-01

    The next phase of unmanned Mars missions paves the way for astronauts to land on the surface of Mars. There are lessons to be learned from the unmanned precursor missions to the Moon and the Apollo lunar surface expeditions. These unmanned missions (Ranger, Lunar Orbiter, and Surveyor) provided the following valuable information, useful from both a scientific and engineering perspective, which was required to prepare the way for the manned exploration of the lunar surface: (1) high resolution imagery instrumental to Apollo landing site selection also tremendously advanced the state of Nearside and Farside regional geology; (2) demonstrated precision landing (less than two kilometers from target) and soft landing capability; (3) established that the surface had sufficient bearing strength to support a spacecraft; and (4) examination of the chemical composition and mechanical properties of the surface. The search for extinct or extant life on Mars will follow the water. However, geomorphic studies have shown that Mars has had liquid water on its surface throughout its geologic history. A cornucopia of potential landing sites with water histories (lakes, floodplains, oceans, deltas, hydrothermal regions) presently exist. How will we narrow down site selection and increase the likelihood of finding the signs of life? One way to do this is to identify 'Martian oases.' It is known that the Martian surface is often highly fractured and some areas have karst structures that support underground caves. Much of the water that formed the channels and valley networks is thought to be frozen underground. All that is needed to create the potential for liquid water is a near surface source of heat; recent lava flows and Martian meteorites attest to the potential for volcanic activity. If we can locate even one spot where fracturing, ice, and underground heat are co-located then we have the potential for an oasis. Such a discovery could truly excite the imaginations of both the

  11. Martian Moon Blocks Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This animation shows the transit of Mars' moon Phobos across the Sun. It is made up of images taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on the morning of the 45th martian day, or sol, of its mission. This observation will help refine our knowledge of the orbit and position of Phobos. Other spacecraft may be able to take better images of Phobos using this new information. This event is similar to solar eclipses seen on Earth in which our Moon passes in front of the Sun. The images were taken by the rover's panoramic camera.

  12. The New Martians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanas, Nick

    In The New Martians,the crewmembers undergo a great deal of psychological and interpersonal stress during their return home, in part prompted by the actions of a mysterious presence on board. Of course, no one knows for sure if such a presence will actually materialize during a real Mars expedition! But psychosocial issues will nevertheless affect a Mars crew due to the isolation, confinement, and long separation from family and friends that will characterize such a mission. In what follows, many of these issues will be reviewed, followed in each section by illustrations from the novel.

  13. On Magnetic Dynamos in Thin Accretion Disks around Compact and Young Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepinski, T. F.

    1993-01-01

    A variety of geometrically thin accretion disks commonly associated with such astronomical objects as X-ray binaries, cataclysmic variables, and protostars are likely to be seats of MHD dynamo actions. Thin disk geometry and the particular physical environment make accretion disk dynamos different from stellar, planetary, or even galactic dynamos. We discuss those particular features of disk dynamos with emphasis on the difference between protoplanetary disk dynamos and those associated with compact stars. We then describe normal mode solutions for thin disk dynamos and discuss implications for the dynamical behavior of dynamo-magnetized accretion disks.

  14. Multiscale Analysis of Rapidly Rotating Dynamo Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orvedahl, R.; Calkins, M. A.; Featherstone, N. A.

    2017-12-01

    The magnetic field of the planets and stars are generated by dynamo action in their electrically conducting fluid interiors. Numerical models of this process solve the fundamental equations of magnetohydrodynamics driven by convection in a rotating spherical shell. Rotation plays an important role in modifying the resulting convective flows and the self-generated magnetic field. We present results of simulating rapidly rotating systems that are unstable to dynamo action. We use the pseudo-spectral code Rayleigh to generate a suite of direct numerical simulations. Each simulation uses the Boussinesq approximation and is characterized by an Ekman number (Ek=ν /Ω L2) of 10-5. We vary the degree of convective forcing to obtain a range of convective Rossby numbers. The resulting flows and magnetic structures are analyzed using a Reynolds decomposition. We determine the relative importance of each term in the scale-separated governing equations and estimate the relevant spatial scales responsible for generating the mean magnetic field.

  15. Multiscale Analysis of Rapidly Rotating Dynamo Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orvedahl, Ryan; Calkins, Michael; Featherstone, Nicholas

    2017-11-01

    The magnetic field of the planets and stars are generated by dynamo action in their electrically conducting fluid interiors. Numerical models of this process solve the fundamental equations of magnetohydrodynamics driven by convection in a rotating spherical shell. Rotation plays an important role in modifying the resulting convective flows and the self-generated magnetic field. We present results of simulating rapidly rotating systems that are unstable to dynamo action. We use the pseudo-spectral code Rayleigh to generate a suite of direct numerical simulations. Each simulation uses the Boussinesq approximation and is characterized by an Ekman number (Ek = ν / ΩL2) of 10-5. We vary the degree of convective forcing to obtain a range of convective Rossby numbers. The resulting flows and magnetic structures are analyzed using a Reynolds decomposition. We determine the relative importance of each term in the scale-separated governing equations and estimate the relevant spatial scales responsible for generating the mean magnetic field.

  16. Optimal Length Scale for a Turbulent Dynamo.

    PubMed

    Sadek, Mira; Alexakis, Alexandros; Fauve, Stephan

    2016-02-19

    We demonstrate that there is an optimal forcing length scale for low Prandtl number dynamo flows that can significantly reduce the required energy injection rate. The investigation is based on simulations of the induction equation in a periodic box of size 2πL. The flows considered are the laminar and turbulent ABC flows forced at different forcing wave numbers k_{f}, where the turbulent case is simulated using a subgrid turbulence model. At the smallest allowed forcing wave number k_{f}=k_{min}=1/L the laminar critical magnetic Reynolds number Rm_{c}^{lam} is more than an order of magnitude smaller than the turbulent critical magnetic Reynolds number Rm_{c}^{turb} due to the hindering effect of turbulent fluctuations. We show that this hindering effect is almost suppressed when the forcing wave number k_{f} is increased above an optimum wave number k_{f}L≃4 for which Rm_{c}^{turb} is minimum. At this optimal wave number, Rm_{c}^{turb} is smaller by more than a factor of 10 than the case forced in k_{f}=1. This leads to a reduction of the energy injection rate by 3 orders of magnitude when compared to the case where the system is forced at the largest scales and thus provides a new strategy for the design of a fully turbulent experimental dynamo.

  17. Two spinning ways for precession dynamo.

    PubMed

    Cappanera, L; Guermond, J-L; Léorat, J; Nore, C

    2016-04-01

    It is numerically demonstrated by means of a magnetohydrodynamic code that precession can trigger dynamo action in a cylindrical container. Fixing the angle between the spin and the precession axis to be 1/2π, two limit configurations of the spinning axis are explored: either the symmetry axis of the cylinder is parallel to the spin axis (this configuration is henceforth referred to as the axial spin case), or it is perpendicular to the spin axis (this configuration is referred to as the equatorial spin case). In both cases, the centro-symmetry of the flow breaks when the kinetic Reynolds number increases. Equatorial spinning is found to be more efficient in breaking the centro-symmetry of the flow. In both cases, the average flow in the reference frame of the mantle converges to a counter-rotation with respect to the spin axis as the Reynolds number grows. We find a scaling law for the average kinetic energy in term of the Reynolds number in the axial spin case. In the equatorial spin case, the unsteady asymmetric flow is shown to be capable of sustaining dynamo action in the linear and nonlinear regimes. The magnetic field is mainly dipolar in the equatorial spin case, while it is is mainly quadrupolar in the axial spin case.

  18. New Lunar Paleointensity Measurements, Ancient Lunar Dynamo or Lunar Dud?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, K. P.; Johnson, C. L.; Tauxe, L.; Gee, J. S.

    2007-12-01

    We analyze published and new paleointensity data from Apollo samples to reexamine the hypothesis of an early (3.9 to 3.6 Ga) lunar dynamo. Our new paleointensity experiments on four Apollo samples use modern absolute and relative measurement techniques. Our samples (60015, 76535, 72215, 62235) have ages ranging from 3.3 to 4.2 Ga, bracketing the putative period of a lunar dynamo. Samples 60015 (anorthosite) and 76535 (troctolite) failed during absolute paleointensity experiments, using the IZZI-modified Thellier-Thellier method. Samples 72215 and 62235 recorded a complicated, multi-component magnetic history that includes a low temperature (< 500°C) component with a high intensity (~90 μT), and a high temperature (> 500°C) component with a low intensity (~2 μT). These two samples were also subjected to a relative paleointensity experiment (sIRM), from which neither provided unambiguous evidence for a thermal origin of the recorded remanent magnetization. We found similar multi-component behavior in several published experiments on lunar samples. We test and present several magnetization scenarios in an attempt to explain the complex magnetization recorded in lunar samples. Specifically, an overprint from exposure to a small magnetic field (i.e. IRM) results in multi-component behavior (similar to lunar sample results), from which we could not recover the correct magnitude of the original TRM. The non-unique interpretation of these multi-component results combined with IRM (isothermal remanent magnetization) contamination during Apollo sample return ( Strangway et al., 1973), indicates that techniques incapable of distinguishing between single- and multi-component records (e.g., sIRM), cannot be reliably used to infer magnetic conditions of the early Moon. In light of these new experiments and a thorough reevaluation of existing paleointensity measurements, we conclude that there is a paucity of lunar samples that demonstrate a primary thermal remanent

  19. Martian Surface & Pathfinder Airbags

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This image of the Martian surface was taken in the afternoon of Mars Pathfinder's first day on Mars. Taken by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP camera), the image shows a diversity of rocks strewn in the foreground. A hill is visible in the distance (the notch within the hill is an image artifact). Airbags are seen at the lower right.

    The IMP is a stereo imaging system with color capability provided by 24 selectable filters -- twelve filters per 'eye.' It stands 1.8 meters above the Martian surface, and has a resolution of two millimeters at a range of two meters.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  20. Classification of Martian deltas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dehon, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    Water-borne sediments in streams are deposited, upon eventual cessation of flow, either as deltas or as alluvial fans or plains. Deltas and alluvial fans share a common characteristic; both may be described as deposition Al plains at the mouth of a river or stream. A delta is formed where a stream or river deposits its sedimentary load into a standing body of water such as an ocean or lake. An alluvial fan is produced where a stream loses capacity by a greatly decreased gradient. A delta has subaerial and subaqueous components, but an alluvial fan is entirely subaerial. In terrestrial conditions, deltas and alluvial fans are reasonably distinct landforms. The juxtaposition of concomitant features composition and internal structure are sufficiently explicit as to avoid any confusion regarding their proper identification on Mars, the recognition of deltas and their distinction from alluvial fans is made difficult by low resolution imaging. Further, although it may be demonstrated that standing bodies of water existed on the surface of Mars, many of these bodies may have existed for extremely short periods of time (a few days to months); hence, distinctive shoreline features were not developed. Thus, in an attempt to derive a Martian classification of deltas, the inclusion of wholly subaerial deposits may be unavoidable. A simple, broad, morphological classification of Martian deltas, primarily on planimetric shape, includes digitate deltas, fan-shaped deltas, and re-entrant deltas. A fourth, somewhat problematical class includes featureless plains at the end of many valley systems.

  1. Rocky Martian Plain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The rocky Martian plain surrounding Viking 2 is seen in high resolution in this 85-degree panorama sweeping from north at the left to east at right during the Martian afternoon on September 5. Large blocks litter the surface. Some are porous, sponge-like rocks like the one at the left edge (size estimate: 1 1/2 to 2 feet); others are dense and fine-grained, such as the very bright rounded block (1 to 1 1/2 feet across) toward lower right. Pebbled surface between the rocks is covered in places by small drifts of very fine material similar to drifts seen at the Viking 1 landing site some 4600 miles to the southwest. The fine-grained material is banked up behind some rocks, but wind tails seen by Viking 1 are not well-developed here. On the right horizon, flat-topped ridges or hills are illuminated by the afternoon sun. Slope of the horizon is due to the 8-degree tilt of the spacecraft.

  2. Sampling Martian Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Scientists were using the Moessbauer spectrometer on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit when something unexpected happened. The instrument's contact ring had been placed onto the ground as a reference point for placement of another instrument, the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer, for analyzing the soil. After Spirit removed the Moessbauer from the target, the rover's microscopic imager revealed a gap in the imprint left behind in the soil. The gap, about a centimeter wide (less than half an inch), is visible on the left side of this mosaic of images. Scientists concluded that a small chunk of soil probably adhered to the contact ring on the front surface of the Moessbauer. Before anyone saw that soil may have adhered to the Moessbauer, that instrument was placed to analyze martian dust collected by a magnet on the rover. The team plans to take images to see if any soil is still attached to the Moessbauer. Spirit took these images on the rover's 240th martian day, or sol (Sept. 4, 2004).

  3. Modeling of the coupled magnetospheric and neutral wind dynamos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thayer, Jeffrey P.

    1994-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress made in the first year of NASA Grant No. NAGW-3508 entitled 'Modeling of the Coupled Magnetospheric and Neutral Wind Dynamos.' The approach taken has been to impose magnetospheric boundary conditions with either pure voltage or current characteristics and solve the neutral wind dynamo equation under these conditions. The imposed boundary conditions determine whether the neutral wind dynamo will contribute to the high-latitude current system or the electric potential. The semi-annual technical report, dated December 15, 1993, provides further detail describing the scientific and numerical approach of the project. The numerical development has progressed and the dynamo solution for the case when the magnetosphere acts as a voltage source has been evaluated completely using spectral techniques. The simulation provides the field-aligned current distribution at high latitudes due to the neutral wind dynamo. A number of geophysical conditions can be simulated to evaluate the importance of the neutral wind dynamo contribution to the field-aligned current system. On average, field-aligned currents generated by the neutral wind dynamo contributed as much as 30 percent to the large-scale field-aligned current system driven by the magnetosphere. A term analysis of the high-latitude neutral wind dynamo equation describing the field aligned current distribution has also been developed to illustrate the important contributing factors involved in the process. The case describing the neutral dynamo response for a magnetosphere acting as a pure current generator requires the existing spectral code to be extended to a pseudo-spectral method and is currently under development.

  4. Large-scale dynamo action precedes turbulence in shearing box simulations of the magnetorotational instability

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, Pallavi; Ebrahimi, Fatima; Blackman, Eric G.

    Here, we study the dynamo generation (exponential growth) of large-scale (planar averaged) fields in unstratified shearing box simulations of the magnetorotational instability (MRI). In contrast to previous studies restricted to horizontal (x–y) averaging, we also demonstrate the presence of large-scale fields when vertical (y–z) averaging is employed instead. By computing space–time planar averaged fields and power spectra, we find large-scale dynamo action in the early MRI growth phase – a previously unidentified feature. Non-axisymmetric linear MRI modes with low horizontal wavenumbers and vertical wavenumbers near that of expected maximal growth, amplify the large-scale fields exponentially before turbulence and high wavenumbermore » fluctuations arise. Thus the large-scale dynamo requires only linear fluctuations but not non-linear turbulence (as defined by mode–mode coupling). Vertical averaging also allows for monitoring the evolution of the large-scale vertical field and we find that a feedback from horizontal low wavenumber MRI modes provides a clue as to why the large-scale vertical field sustains against turbulent diffusion in the non-linear saturation regime. We compute the terms in the mean field equations to identify the individual contributions to large-scale field growth for both types of averaging. The large-scale fields obtained from vertical averaging are found to compare well with global simulations and quasi-linear analytical analysis from a previous study by Ebrahimi & Blackman. We discuss the potential implications of these new results for understanding the large-scale MRI dynamo saturation and turbulence.« less

  5. Large-scale dynamo action precedes turbulence in shearing box simulations of the magnetorotational instability

    DOE PAGES

    Bhat, Pallavi; Ebrahimi, Fatima; Blackman, Eric G.

    2016-07-06

    Here, we study the dynamo generation (exponential growth) of large-scale (planar averaged) fields in unstratified shearing box simulations of the magnetorotational instability (MRI). In contrast to previous studies restricted to horizontal (x–y) averaging, we also demonstrate the presence of large-scale fields when vertical (y–z) averaging is employed instead. By computing space–time planar averaged fields and power spectra, we find large-scale dynamo action in the early MRI growth phase – a previously unidentified feature. Non-axisymmetric linear MRI modes with low horizontal wavenumbers and vertical wavenumbers near that of expected maximal growth, amplify the large-scale fields exponentially before turbulence and high wavenumbermore » fluctuations arise. Thus the large-scale dynamo requires only linear fluctuations but not non-linear turbulence (as defined by mode–mode coupling). Vertical averaging also allows for monitoring the evolution of the large-scale vertical field and we find that a feedback from horizontal low wavenumber MRI modes provides a clue as to why the large-scale vertical field sustains against turbulent diffusion in the non-linear saturation regime. We compute the terms in the mean field equations to identify the individual contributions to large-scale field growth for both types of averaging. The large-scale fields obtained from vertical averaging are found to compare well with global simulations and quasi-linear analytical analysis from a previous study by Ebrahimi & Blackman. We discuss the potential implications of these new results for understanding the large-scale MRI dynamo saturation and turbulence.« less

  6. Experimental observation of spatially localized dynamo magnetic fields.

    PubMed

    Gallet, B; Aumaître, S; Boisson, J; Daviaud, F; Dubrulle, B; Bonnefoy, N; Bourgoin, M; Odier, Ph; Pinton, J-F; Plihon, N; Verhille, G; Fauve, S; Pétrélis, F

    2012-04-06

    We report the first experimental observation of a spatially localized dynamo magnetic field, a common feature of astrophysical dynamos and convective dynamo simulations. When the two propellers of the von Kármán sodium experiment are driven at frequencies that differ by 15%, the mean magnetic field's energy measured close to the slower disk is nearly 10 times larger than the one close to the faster one. This strong localization of the magnetic field when a symmetry of the forcing is broken is in good agreement with a prediction based on the interaction between a dipolar and a quadrupolar magnetic mode. © 2012 American Physical Society

  7. Fast dynamos, cosmic rays, and the Galactic magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, E. N.

    1992-01-01

    It is suggested here that the dynamo believed to be responsible for the magnetic field of the Galaxy is a fast dynamo due to the dynamical reconnection of the azimuthal field of the Galaxy as the field is deformed by the instability of the gaseous disk and the rapid inflation of magnetic lobes by the cosmic-ray gas to form the Galactic halo. The reconnection of adjacent lobes carries out both the alpha effect and field dissipation essential for the existence of the Galactic alpha-omega dynamo. The azimuthal field is generated primarily in the gaseous disk, while the alpha effect is carried out in the halo.

  8. Facilitating dynamo action via control of large-scale turbulence.

    PubMed

    Limone, A; Hatch, D R; Forest, C B; Jenko, F

    2012-12-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic dynamo effect is considered to be the major cause of magnetic field generation in geo- and astrophysical systems. Recent experimental and numerical results show that turbulence constitutes an obstacle to dynamos; yet its role in this context is not totally clear. Via numerical simulations, we identify large-scale turbulent vortices with a detrimental effect on the amplification of the magnetic field in a geometry of experimental interest and propose a strategy for facilitating the dynamo instability by manipulating these detrimental "hidden" dynamics.

  9. Scaling relations for large Martian valleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Som, Sanjoy M.; Montgomery, David R.; Greenberg, Harvey M.

    2009-02-01

    The dendritic morphology of Martian valley networks, particularly in the Noachian highlands, has long been argued to imply a warmer, wetter early Martian climate, but the character and extent of this period remains controversial. We analyzed scaling relations for the 10 large valley systems incised in terrain of various ages, resolvable using the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) and the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS). Four of the valleys originate in point sources with negligible contributions from tributaries, three are very poorly dissected with a few large tributaries separated by long uninterrupted trunks, and three exhibit the dendritic, branching morphology typical of terrestrial channel networks. We generated width-area and slope-area relationships for each because these relations are identified as either theoretically predicted or robust terrestrial empiricisms for graded precipitation-fed, perennial channels. We also generated distance-area relationships (Hack's law) because they similarly represent robust characteristics of terrestrial channels (whether perennial or ephemeral). We find that the studied Martian valleys, even the dendritic ones, do not satisfy those empiricisms. On Mars, the width-area scaling exponent b of -0.7-4.7 contrasts with values of 0.3-0.6 typical of terrestrial channels; the slope-area scaling exponent $\\theta$ ranges from -25.6-5.5, whereas values of 0.3-0.5 are typical on Earth; the length-area, or Hack's exponent n ranges from 0.47 to 19.2, while values of 0.5-0.6 are found on Earth. None of the valleys analyzed satisfy all three relations typical of terrestrial perennial channels. As such, our analysis supports the hypotheses that ephemeral and/or immature channel morphologies provide the closest terrestrial analogs to the dendritic networks on Mars, and point source discharges provide terrestrial analogs best suited to describe the other large Martian valleys.

  10. On the original igneous source of Martian fines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, A. K.; Clark, B. C.

    1981-01-01

    The composition of the silicate portion of Martian regolith fines indicates derivation of the fines from mafic to ultramafic rocks, probably rich in pyroxene. Rock types similar in chemical and mineralogical composition include terrestrial Archean basalts and certain achondrite meteorites. If these igneous rocks weathered nearly isochemically, the nontronitic clays proposed earlier as an analog to Martian fines could be formed. Flood basalts of pyroxenitic lavas may be widespread and characteristic of early volcanism on Mars, analogous to maria flood basalts on the moon and early Precambrian basaltic komatiites on earth. Compositional differences between lunar, terrestrial, and Martian flood basalts may be related to differences in planetary sizes and mantle compositions of the respective planetary objects.

  11. An update of Leighton's solar dynamo model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, R. H.; Schüssler, M.

    2017-03-01

    In 1969, Leighton developed a quasi-1D mathematical model of the solar dynamo, building upon the phenomenological scenario of Babcock published in 1961. Here we present a modification and extension of Leighton's model. Using the axisymmetric component (longitudinal average) of the magnetic field, we consider the radial field component at the solar surface and the radially integrated toroidal magnetic flux in the convection zone, both as functions of latitude. No assumptions are made with regard to the radial location of the toroidal flux. The model includes the effects of (I) turbulent diffusion at the surface and in the convection zone; (II) poleward meridional flow at the surface and an equatorward return flow affecting the toroidal flux; (III) latitudinal differential rotation and the near-surface layer of radial rotational shear; (iv) downward convective pumping of magnetic flux in the shear layer; and (v) flux emergence in the form of tilted bipolar magnetic regions treated as a source term for the radial surface field. While the parameters relevant for the transport of the surface field are taken from observations, the model condenses the unknown properties of magnetic field and flow in the convection zone into a few free parameters (turbulent diffusivity, effective return flow, amplitude of the source term, and a parameter describing the effective radial shear). Comparison with the results of 2D flux transport dynamo codes shows that the model captures the essential features of these simulations. We make use of the computational efficiency of the model to carry out an extended parameter study. We cover an extended domain of the 4D parameter space and identify the parameter ranges that provide solar-like solutions. Dipole parity is always preferred and solutions with periods around 22 yr and a correct phase difference between flux emergence in low latitudes and the strength of the polar fields are found for a return flow speed around 2 m s-1, turbulent

  12. Solar Dynamo Driven by Periodic Flow Oscillation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, Hans G.; Hartle, Richard E.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We have proposed that the periodicity of the solar magnetic cycle is determined by wave mean flow interactions analogous to those driving the Quasi Biennial Oscillation in the Earth's atmosphere. Upward propagating gravity waves would produce oscillating flows near the top of the radiation zone that in turn would drive a kinematic dynamo to generate the 22-year solar magnetic cycle. The dynamo we propose is built on a given time independent magnetic field B, which allows us to estimate the time dependent, oscillating components of the magnetic field, (Delta)B. The toroidal magnetic field (Delta)B(sub phi) is directly driven by zonal flow and is relatively large in the source region, (Delta)(sub phi)/B(sub Theta) much greater than 1. Consistent with observations, this field peaks at low latitudes and has opposite polarities in both hemispheres. The oscillating poloidal magnetic field component, (Delta)B(sub Theta), is driven by the meridional circulation, which is difficult to assess without a numerical model that properly accounts for the solar atmosphere dynamics. Scale-analysis suggests that (Delta)B(sub Theta) is small compared to B(sub Theta) in the dynamo region. Relative to B(sub Theta), however, the oscillating magnetic field perturbations are expected to be transported more rapidly upwards in the convection zone to the solar surface. As a result, (Delta)B(sub Theta) (and (Delta)B(sub phi)) should grow relative to B(sub Theta), so that the magnetic fields reverse at the surface as observed. Since the meridional and zonai flow oscillations are out of phase, the poloidal magnetic field peaks during times when the toroidal field reverses direction, which is observed. With the proposed wave driven flow oscillation, the magnitude of the oscillating poloidal magnetic field increases with the mean rotation rate of the fluid. This is consistent with the Bode-Blackett empirical scaling law, which reveals that in massive astrophysical bodies the magnetic moment tends

  13. Ancient oceans and Martian paleohydrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Victor R.; Strom, Robert G.; Gulick, Virginia C.; Kargel, Jeffrey S.; Komatsu, Goro; Kale, Vishwas S.

    1991-01-01

    The global model of ocean formation on Mars is discussed. The studies of impact crater densities on certain Martian landforms show that late in Martian history there could have been coincident formation of: (1) glacial features in the Southern Hemisphere; (2) ponded water and related ice features in the northern plains; (3) fluvial runoff on Martian uplands; and (4) active ice-related mass-movement. This model of transient ocean formation ties these diverse observations together in a long-term cyclic scheme of global planetary operation.

  14. Martian surface weathering studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calvin, M.

    1973-01-01

    The nature of the Martian surface was characterized by means of its reflectance properties. The Mariner 9 photography was used to establish terrain units which were crossed by the Mariner 6 and 7 paths. The IR reflectance measured by the IR spectrometers on these spacecraft was to be used to indicate the nature of the surface within these units. There is an indication of physical size and/or compositional variation between units but too many natural parameters can vary (size, shape, composition, adsorbed phases, reradiation, atmospheric absorbtion, temperature gradients, etc.) to be certain what effect is causing those variations observed. It is suggested that the characterization could be fruitfully pursued by a group which was dedicated to peeling back the layers of minutia affecting IR reflectance.

  15. Martian Meteorological Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorontsov, V.; Pichkhadze, K.; Polyakov, A.

    2002-01-01

    Martian meteorological lander (MML) is dedicated for landing onto the Mars surface with the purpose to carry on the monitoring of Mars atmosphere condition at a landing point during one Martian year. MML is supposed to become the basic element of a global net of meteorological mini stations and will permit to observe the dynamics of Martian atmosphere parameters changes during a long time duration. The main scientific tasks of MML are as follows: -study of vertical structure of Mars atmosphere during MML descending; -meteorological observations on Mars surface during one Martian year. One of the essential factor influencing to the lander design is descent trajectory design. During the preliminary phase of development five (5) options of MML were considered. In our opinion, these variants provide the accomplishment of the above-mentioned tasks with a high effectiveness. Joined into the first group, variants with parachute system and with Inflatable Air Brakes+Inflatable Airbag are similar in arranging of pre-landing braking stage and completely analogous in landing by means of airbags. The usage of additional Inflatable Braking Unit (IBU) in the second variant does not affect the procedure of braking - decreasing of velocity by the moment of touching the surface due to decreasing of ballistic parameter Px. A distinctive feature of MML development variants of other three concepts is the presence of Inflatable Braking Unit (IBU) in their configurations (IBU is rigidly joined with landing module up to the moment of its touching the surface). Besides, in variant with the tore-shaped IBU it acts as a shock- absorbing unit. In two options, Inflatable Braking Shock-Absorbing Unit (IBSAU) (or IBU) releases the surface module after its landing at the moment of IBSAU (or IBU) elastic recoil. Variants of this concept are equal in terms of mass (approximately 15 kg). For variants of concepts with IBU the landing velocity is up to50-70 m/s. Stations of last three options are

  16. Martian atmospheric radiation budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindner, Bernhard Lee

    1994-01-01

    A computer model is used to study the radiative transfer of the martian winter-polar atmosphere. Solar heating at winter-polar latitudes is provided predominately by dust. For normal, low-dust conditions, CO2 provides almost as much heating as dust. Most heating by CO2 in the winter polar atmosphere is provided by the 2.7 micron band between 10 km and 30 km altitude, and by the 2.0 micron band below 10 km. The weak 1.3 micron band provides some significant heating near the surface. The minor CO2 bands at 1.4, 1.6, 4.8 and 5.2 micron are all optically thin, and produce negligible heating. O3 provides less than 10 percent of the total heating. Atmospheric cooling is predominantly thermal emission by dust, although CO2 15 micron band emission is important above 20 km altitude.

  17. Trajectories of martian habitability.

    PubMed

    Cockell, Charles S

    2014-02-01

    Beginning from two plausible starting points-an uninhabited or inhabited Mars-this paper discusses the possible trajectories of martian habitability over time. On an uninhabited Mars, the trajectories follow paths determined by the abundance of uninhabitable environments and uninhabited habitats. On an inhabited Mars, the addition of a third environment type, inhabited habitats, results in other trajectories, including ones where the planet remains inhabited today or others where planetary-scale life extinction occurs. By identifying different trajectories of habitability, corresponding hypotheses can be described that allow for the various trajectories to be disentangled and ultimately a determination of which trajectory Mars has taken and the changing relative abundance of its constituent environments.

  18. Trajectories of Martian Habitability

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Beginning from two plausible starting points—an uninhabited or inhabited Mars—this paper discusses the possible trajectories of martian habitability over time. On an uninhabited Mars, the trajectories follow paths determined by the abundance of uninhabitable environments and uninhabited habitats. On an inhabited Mars, the addition of a third environment type, inhabited habitats, results in other trajectories, including ones where the planet remains inhabited today or others where planetary-scale life extinction occurs. By identifying different trajectories of habitability, corresponding hypotheses can be described that allow for the various trajectories to be disentangled and ultimately a determination of which trajectory Mars has taken and the changing relative abundance of its constituent environments. Key Words: Mars—Habitability—Liquid water—Planetary science. Astrobiology 14, 182–203. PMID:24506485

  19. Martian City Map

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    30 May 2004 Seasonal frost can enhance the view from orbit of polar polygonal patterns on the surface of Mars. Sometimes these patterns look something like a city map, or the view from above a city lit-up at night. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an example from the south polar region near 80.7oS, 70.6oW. Polar polygons on Mars are generally believed, though not proven, to be the result of freeze/thaw cycles of ice occurring within the upper few meters (several yards) of the martian subsurface. The image shown here covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across; sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  20. Isotopic Evidence for a Martian Regolith Component in Martian Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, M. N.; Nyquist, L. E.; Bogard, D. D.; Garrison, D. H.; Sutton, S.

    2009-01-01

    Noble gas measurements in gas-rich impact-melt (GRIM) glasses in EET79001 shergottite showed that their elemental and isotopic composition is similar to that of the Martian atmosphere [1-3]. The GRIM glasses contain large amounts of Martian atmospheric gases. Those measurements further suggested that the Kr isotopic composition of Martian atmosphere is approximately similar to that of solar Kr. The (80)Kr(sub n) - (80)Kr(sub M) mixing ratio in the Martian atmosphere reported here is approximately 3%. These neutron-capture reactions presumably occurred in the glass-precursor regolith materials containing Sm- and Br- bearing mineral phases near the EET79001/ Shergotty sites on Mars. The irradiated materials were mobilized into host rock voids either during shock-melting or possibly by earlier aeolian / fluvial activity.

  1. Martian Central Pit Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillman, E.; Barlow, N. G.

    2005-01-01

    Impact craters containing central pits are rare on the terrestrial planets but common on icy bodies. Mars is the exception among the terrestrial planets, where central pits are seen on crater floors ( floor pits ) as well as on top of central peaks ( summit pits ). Wood et al. [1] proposed that degassing of subsurface volatiles during crater formation produced central pits. Croft [2] argued instead that central pits might form during the impact of volatile-rich comets. Although central pits are seen in impact craters on icy moons such as Ganymede, they do show some significant differences from their martian counterparts: (a) only floor pits are seen on Ganymede, and (b) central pits begin to occur at crater diameters where the peak ring interior morphology begins to appear in terrestrial planet craters [3]. A study of craters containing central pits was conducted by Barlow and Bradley [4] using Viking imagery. They found that 28% of craters displaying an interior morphology on Mars contain central pits. Diameters of craters containing central pits ranged from 16 to 64 km. Barlow and Bradley noted that summit pit craters tended to be smaller than craters containing floor pits. They also noted a correlation of central pit craters with the proposed rings of large impact basins. They argued that basin ring formation fractured the martian crust and allowed subsurface volatiles to concentrate in these locations. They favored the model that degassing of the substrate during crater formation was responsible for central pit formation due to the preferential location of central pit craters along these basin rings.

  2. Overview of the Madison Dynamo Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendrick, R. D.; Spence, E. J.; Nornberg, M. D.; Jacobson, C. M.; Parada, C. A.; Forest, C. B.

    2006-10-01

    A spherical dynamo experiment has been constructed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison's liquid-sodium facility. The experiment is designed to self-generate magnetic fields from flows of conducting metal. The apparatus consists of a 1 m diameter, spherical stainless steel vessel filled with liquid sodium. Two 100 Hp motors drive impellers which generate the flow. The motors have been operated up to 1300 RPM (70% of design specification), achieving a magnetic Reynolds number of 130, based on impeller tip speed. Various polarizations of external magnetic fields have been applied to the sodium, and the induced magnetic field has been measured by both internal and external Hall probe arrays. The voltage induced across the sphere by the turbulent flow has been measured. Techniques for using ultrasound Doppler velocimetry have been explored in the water model of the experiment, including the use of high-pressure bubbles as seed particles.

  3. Dynamo efficiency controlled by hydrodynamic bistability.

    PubMed

    Miralles, Sophie; Herault, Johann; Herault, Johann; Fauve, Stephan; Gissinger, Christophe; Pétrélis, François; Daviaud, François; Dubrulle, Bérengère; Boisson, Jean; Bourgoin, Mickaël; Verhille, Gautier; Odier, Philippe; Pinton, Jean-François; Plihon, Nicolas

    2014-06-01

    Hydrodynamic and magnetic behaviors in a modified experimental setup of the von Kármán sodium flow-where one disk has been replaced by a propeller-are investigated. When the rotation frequencies of the disk and the propeller are different, we show that the fully turbulent hydrodynamic flow undergoes a global bifurcation between two configurations. The bistability of these flow configurations is associated with the dynamics of the central shear layer. The bistable flows are shown to have different dynamo efficiencies; thus for a given rotation rate of the soft-iron disk, two distinct magnetic behaviors are observed depending on the flow configuration. The hydrodynamic transition controls the magnetic field behavior, and bifurcations between high and low magnetic field branches are investigated.

  4. Solar and planetary dynamos: comparison and recent developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrovay, K.

    2009-03-01

    While obviously having a common root, solar and planetary dynamo theory have taken increasingly divergent routes in the last two or three decades, and there are probably few experts now who can claim to be equally versed in both. Characteristically, even in the fine and comprehensive book “The magnetic Universe” (Rudiger & Hollerbach 2004), the chapters on planets and on the Sun were written by different authors. Separate reviews written on the two topics include Petrovay (2000), Charbonneau (2005), Choudhuri (2008) on the solar dynamo and Glatzmaier (2002), Stevenson (2003) on the planetary dynamo. In the following I will try to make a systematic comparison between solar and planetary dynamos, presenting analogies and differences, and highlighting some interesting recent results.

  5. Sharp magnetic structures from dynamos with density stratification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabbari, Sarah; Brandenburg, Axel; Kleeorin, Nathan; Rogachevskii, Igor

    2017-05-01

    Recent direct numerical simulations (DNS) of large-scale turbulent dynamos in strongly stratified layers have resulted in surprisingly sharp bipolar structures at the surface. Here, we present new DNS of helically and non-helically forced turbulence with and without rotation and compare with corresponding mean-field simulations (MFS) to show that these structures are a generic outcome of a broader class of dynamos in density-stratified layers. The MFS agree qualitatively with the DNS, but the period of oscillations tends to be longer in the DNS. In both DNS and MFS, the sharp structures are produced by converging flows at the surface and might be driven in non-linear stage of evolution by the Lorentz force associated with the large-scale dynamo-driven magnetic field if the dynamo number is at least 2.5 times supercritical.

  6. Generation of dynamo magnetic fields in the primordial solar nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepinski, Tomasz F.

    1992-01-01

    The present treatment of dynamo-generated magnetic fields in the primordial solar nebula proceeds in view of the ability of the combined action of Keplerian rotation and helical convention to generate, via alpha-omega dynamo, large-scale magnetic fields in those parts of the nebula with sufficiently high, gas-and magnetic field coupling electrical conductivity. Nebular gas electrical conductivity and the radial distribution of the local dynamo number are calculated for both a viscous-accretion disk model and the quiescent-minimum mass nebula. It is found that magnetic fields can be easily generated and maintained by alpha-omega dynamos occupying the inner and outer parts of the nebula.

  7. CORLISS ENGINE WITH DYNAMO AND ROPE DRIVE. LOCATION UNIDENTIFIED. PHOTOCOPY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    CORLISS ENGINE WITH DYNAMO AND ROPE DRIVE. LOCATION UNIDENTIFIED. PHOTOCOPY OF c. 1900 VIEW. From the collection of the Manchester Historic Association, Manchester, N. H. - Amoskeag Millyard, Canal Street, Manchester, Hillsborough County, NH

  8. Wave-driven dynamo action in spherical magnetohydrodynamic systems.

    PubMed

    Reuter, K; Jenko, F; Tilgner, A; Forest, C B

    2009-11-01

    Hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic numerical studies of a mechanically forced two-vortex flow inside a sphere are reported. The simulations are performed in the intermediate regime between the laminar flow and developed turbulence, where a hydrodynamic instability is found to generate internal waves with a characteristic m=2 zonal wave number. It is shown that this time-periodic flow acts as a dynamo, although snapshots of the flow as well as the mean flow are not dynamos. The magnetic fields' growth rate exhibits resonance effects depending on the wave frequency. Furthermore, a cyclic self-killing and self-recovering dynamo based on the relative alignment of the velocity and magnetic fields is presented. The phenomena are explained in terms of a mixing of nonorthogonal eigenstates of the time-dependent linear operator of the magnetic induction equation. The potential relevance of this mechanism to dynamo experiments is discussed.

  9. 37. VIEW OF TWO STEEL DYNAMOS IN STARBOARD CORNER OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. VIEW OF TWO STEEL DYNAMOS IN STARBOARD CORNER OF ENGINE ROOM, SHOWING VESSEL'S ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION PANEL TO THE RIGHT - Steam Schooner WAPAMA, Kaiser Shipyard No. 3 (Shoal Point), Richmond, Contra Costa County, CA

  10. Dynamo magnetic field modes in thin astrophysical disks - An adiabatic computational approximation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepinski, T. F.; Levy, E. H.

    1991-01-01

    An adiabatic approximation is applied to the calculation of turbulent MHD dynamo magnetic fields in thin disks. The adiabatic method is employed to investigate conditions under which magnetic fields generated by disk dynamos permeate the entire disk or are localized to restricted regions of a disk. Two specific cases of Keplerian disks are considered. In the first, magnetic field diffusion is assumed to be dominated by turbulent mixing leading to a dynamo number independent of distance from the center of the disk. In the second, the dynamo number is allowed to vary with distance from the disk's center. Localization of dynamo magnetic field structures is found to be a general feature of disk dynamos, except in the special case of stationary modes in dynamos with constant dynamo number. The implications for the dynamical behavior of dynamo magnetized accretion disks are discussed and the results of these exploratory calculations are examined in the context of the protosolar nebula and accretion disks around compact objects.

  11. Searching for the fastest dynamo: laminar ABC flows.

    PubMed

    Alexakis, Alexandros

    2011-08-01

    The growth rate of the dynamo instability as a function of the magnetic Reynolds number R(M) is investigated by means of numerical simulations for the family of the Arnold-Beltrami-Childress (ABC) flows and for two different forcing scales. For the ABC flows that are driven at the largest available length scale, it is found that, as the magnetic Reynolds number is increased: (a) The flow that results first in a dynamo is the 2 1/2-dimensional flow for which A=B and C=0 (and all permutations). (b) The second type of flow that results in a dynamo is the one for which A=B≃2C/5 (and permutations). (c) The most symmetric flow, A=B=C, is the third type of flow that results in a dynamo. (d) As R(M) is increased, the A=B=C flow stops being a dynamo and transitions from a local maximum to a third-order saddle point. (e) At larger R(M), the A=B=C flow reestablishes itself as a dynamo but remains a saddle point. (f) At the largest examined R(M), the growth rate of the 2 1/2-dimensional flows starts to decay, the A=B=C flow comes close to a local maximum again, and the flow A=B≃2C/5 (and permutations) results in the fastest dynamo with growth rate γ≃0.12 at the largest examined R(M). For the ABC flows that are driven at the second largest available length scale, it is found that (a) the 2 1/2-dimensional flows A=B,C=0 (and permutations) are again the first flows that result in a dynamo with a decreased onset. (b) The most symmetric flow, A=B=C, is the second type of flow that results in a dynamo. It is, and it remains, a local maximum. (c) At larger R(M), the flow A=B≃2C/5 (and permutations) appears as the third type of flow that results in a dynamo. As R(M) is increased, it becomes the flow with the largest growth rate. The growth rates appear to have some correlation with the Lyapunov exponents, but constructive refolding of the field lines appears equally important in determining the fastest dynamo flow.

  12. Implantation of Martian Materials in the Inner Solar System by a Mega Impact on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyodo, Ryuki; Genda, Hidenori

    2018-04-01

    Observations and meteorites indicate that the Martian materials are enigmatically distributed within the inner solar system. A mega impact on Mars creating a Martian hemispheric dichotomy and the Martian moons can potentially eject Martian materials. A recent work has shown that the mega-impact-induced debris is potentially captured as the Martian Trojans and implanted in the asteroid belt. However, the amount, distribution, and composition of the debris has not been studied. Here, using hydrodynamic simulations, we report that a large amount of debris (∼1% of Mars’ mass), including Martian crust/mantle and the impactor’s materials (∼20:80), are ejected by a dichotomy-forming impact, and distributed between ∼0.5–3.0 au. Our result indicates that unmelted Martian mantle debris (∼0.02% of Mars’ mass) can be the source of Martian Trojans, olivine-rich asteroids in the Hungarian region and the main asteroid belt, and some even hit the early Earth. The evidence of a mega impact on Mars would be recorded as a spike of 40Ar–39Ar ages in meteorites. A mega impact can naturally implant Martian mantle materials within the inner solar system.

  13. Comments on the photospheric dynamo model of Henoux and Somov

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Melrose, D. B.; Khan, J. I.

    1989-01-01

    A detailed model for a photospheric dynamo has been presented by Henoux and Somov (1987), who used the three-fluid model to treat the properties of the weakly ionized plasma. Only the equations for the two ionized components were solved. The equation for the neutral component is considered, and it is argued that the model is unacceptable becaused of an implied impossibly large unbalanced stress on the neutral gas. It is argued more generally that all existing photospheric dynamo models are untenable.

  14. Ambipolar diffusion drifts and dynamos in turbulent gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweibel, Ellen G.

    1988-01-01

    Ambipolar drift in turbulent fluids are considered. Using mean-field electrodynamics, a two-scale theory originally used to study hydromagnetic dynamos, it is shown that magnetic fields can be advected by small-scale magnetosonic (compressional) turbulence or generated by Alfvenic (helical) turbulence. A simple dynamo theory is made and is compared with standard theories in which dissipation is caused by turbulent diffusion. The redistribution of magnetic flux in interstellar clouds is also discussed.

  15. Scanning Martian Atmospheric Temperatures Graphic

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-12

    This graphic depicts the Mars Climate Sounder instrument on NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter measuring the temperature of a cross section of the Martian atmosphere as the orbiter passes above the south polar region.

  16. Relative chronology of Martian volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landheim, R.; Barlow, N. G.

    1991-01-01

    Impact cratering is one of the major geological processes that has affected the Martian surface throughout the planet's history. The frequency of craters within particular size ranges provides information about the formation ages and obliterative episodes of Martian geologic units. The Barlow chronology was extended by measuring small craters on the volcanoes and a number of standard terrain units. Inclusions of smaller craters in units previously analyzed by Barlow allowed for a more direct comparison between the size-frequency distribution data for volcanoes and established chronology. During this study, 11,486 craters were mapped and identified in the 1.5 to 8 km diameter range in selected regions of Mars. The results are summarized in this three page report and give a more precise estimate of the relative chronology of the Martian volcanoes. Also, the results of this study lend further support to the increasing evidence that volcanism has been a dominant geologic force throughout Martian history.

  17. Varying the forcing scale in low Prandtl number dynamos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandenburg, A.; Haugen, N. E. L.; Li, Xiang-Yu; Subramanian, K.

    2018-06-01

    Small-scale dynamos are expected to operate in all astrophysical fluids that are turbulent and electrically conducting, for example the interstellar medium, stellar interiors, and accretion disks, where they may also be affected by or competing with large-scale dynamos. However, the possibility of small-scale dynamos being excited at small and intermediate ratios of viscosity to magnetic diffusivity (the magnetic Prandtl number) has been debated, and the possibility of them depending on the large-scale forcing wavenumber has been raised. Here we show, using four values of the forcing wavenumber, that the small-scale dynamo does not depend on the scale-separation between the size of the simulation domain and the integral scale of the turbulence, i.e., the forcing scale. Moreover, the spectral bottleneck in turbulence, which has been implied as being responsible for raising the excitation conditions of small-scale dynamos, is found to be invariant under changing the forcing wavenumber. However, when forcing at the lowest few wavenumbers, the effective forcing wavenumber that enters in the definition of the magnetic Reynolds number is found to be about twice the minimum wavenumber of the domain. Our work is relevant to future studies of small-scale dynamos, of which several applications are being discussed.

  18. Magnetic Helicities and Dynamo Action in Magneto-rotational Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Bodo, G.; Rossi, P.; Cattaneo, F.

    We examine the relationship between magnetic flux generation, taken as an indicator of large-scale dynamo action, and magnetic helicity, computed as an integral over the dynamo volume, in a simple dynamo. We consider dynamo action driven by magneto-rotational turbulence (MRT) within the shearing-box approximation. We consider magnetically open boundary conditions that allow a flux of helicity in or out of the computational domain. We circumvent the problem of the lack of gauge invariance in open domains by choosing a particular gauge—the winding gauge—that provides a natural interpretation in terms of the average winding number of pairwise field lines. We usemore » this gauge precisely to define and measure the helicity and the helicity flux for several realizations of dynamo action. We find in these cases that the system as a whole does not break reflectional symmetry and that the total helicity remains small even in cases when substantial magnetic flux is generated. We find no particular connection between the generation of magnetic flux and the helicity or the helicity flux through the boundaries. We suggest that this result may be due to the essentially nonlinear nature of the dynamo processes in MRT.« less

  19. Simulations of plasma dynamo in cylindrical and spherical geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalzov, Ivan; Forest, Cary; Schnack, Dalton; Ebrahimi, Fatima

    2010-11-01

    We have performed the numerical investigation of plasma flow and possibility of dynamo effect in Madison Plasma Couette Experiment (MPCX) and Madison Plasma Dynamo Experiment (MPDX), which are being installed at the University of Wisconsin- Madison. Using the extended MHD code, NIMROD, we have studied several types of plasma flows appropriate for dynamo excitation. Calculations are done for isothermal compressible plasma model including two-fluid effects (Hall term), which is beyond the standard incompressible MHD picture. It is found that for magnetic Reynolds numbers exceeding the critical one the counter-rotating Von Karman flow (in cylinder) and Dudley- James flow (in sphere) result in self-generation of magnetic field. Depending on geometry and plasma parameters this field can either saturate at certain amplitude corresponding to a new stable equilibrium (laminar dynamo) or lead to turbulent dynamo. It is shown that plasma compressibility results in increase of the critical magnetic Reynolds number while two- fluid effects change the level of saturated dynamo field. The work is supported by NSF.

  20. Martian cratering. II - Asteroid impact history.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, W. K.

    1971-01-01

    This paper considers the extent to which Martian craters can be explained by considering asteroidal impact. Sections I, II, and III of this paper derive the diameter distribution of hypothetical asteroidal craters on Mars from recent Palomar-Leiden asteroid statistics and show that the observed Martian craters correspond to a bombardment by roughly 100 times the present number of Mars-crossing asteroids. Section IV discusses the early bombardment history of Mars, based on the capture theory of Opik and probable orbital parameters of early planetesimals. These results show that the visible craters and surface of Mars should not be identified with the initial, accreted surface. A backward extrapolation of the impact rates based on surviving Mars-crossing asteroids can account for the majority of Mars craters over an interval of several aeons, indicating that we see back in time no further than part-way into a period of intense bombardment. An early period of erosion and deposition is thus suggested. Section V presents a comparison with results and terminology of other authors.

  1. Revisiting the use of hyperdiffusivities in numerical dynamo models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, A.; Aubert, J.

    2012-04-01

    The groundbreaking numerical dynamo models of Glatzmaier & Roberts (1995) and Kuang & Bloxham (1997) received some criticism due to their use of hyperdiffusivities, whereby small scale processes artificially experience much stronger dissipation than large scale processes. This stronger dissipation they chose was anisotropic, in that it was only effective in the horizontal direction, and parameterized in spectral space using the following generic formula for any diffusive parameter ν ν(l) = ν0 ifl ≤ l0, ν(l) = ν0[1 + a(l- l0)n] ifl > l0, in which l is the spherical harmonic degree, ν0 is a reference value, l0 is the degree above which hyperdiffusivities start operating, and a and n are real numbers. Following the same choice as the studies mentioned above (which had most notably l0 = 0), Grote & Busse (2000) showed in a fully nonlinear context that the usage of hyperdiffusivities could lead to substantially different dynamics and magnetic field generation mechanisms. Without questioning the physical relevance of this parameterization of subgrid scale processes, we wish here to revisit the use of hyperdiffusivities (as defined mathematically above), on the account of the observation that today's models are run with a truncation at much larger spherical harmonic degree than early models. Consequently, they do not require hyperdiffusivities to kick in at the largest scales (l0 can be set to several tens). An exploration of those regions of parameter space less accessible to numerical models could therefore benefit from their use, provided they do not alter noticeably the largest scales of the dynamo (which are the ones expressing themselves in the record of the geomagnetic secular variation). We compare the statistics of a direct numerical simulation with the statistics of several hyperdiffusive simulations. In the prospect of exploring the parameter space and constructing statistics for their subsequent use for geomagnetic data assimilation practice, we

  2. Martian 'Kitchen Sponge'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This picture is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left. It shows a tiny 1 kilometer by 1 kilometer (0.62 x 0.62 mile) area of the martian north polar residual ice cap as it appears in summertime.

    The surface looks somewhat like that of a kitchen sponge--it is flat on top and has many closely-spaced pits of no more than 2 meters (5.5 ft) depth. The upper, flat surface in this image has a medium-gray tone, while the pit interiors are darker gray. Each pit is generally 10 to 20 meters (33-66 feet) across. The pits probably form as water ice sublimes--going directly from solid to vapor--during the martian northern summer seasons. The pits probably develop over thousands of years. This texture is very different from what is seen in the south polar cap, where considerably larger and more circular depressions are found to resemble slices of swiss cheese rather than a kitchen sponge.

    This picture was taken by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) during northern summer on March 8, 1999. It was one of the very last 'calibration' images taken before the start of the Mapping Phase of the MGS mission, and its goal was to determine whether the MOC was properly focused. The crisp appearance of the edges of the pits confirmed that the instrument was focused and ready for its 1-Mars Year mapping mission. The scene is located near 86.9oN, 207.5oW, and has a resolution of about 1.4 meters (4 ft, 7 in) per pixel.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  3. The solar dynamo and prediction of sunspot cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dikpati, Mausumi

    2012-07-01

    Much progress has been made in understanding the solar dynamo since Parker first developed the concepts of dynamo waves and magnetic buoyancy around 1955, and the German school first formulated the solar dynamo using the mean-field formalism. The essential ingredients of these mean-field dynamos are turbulent magnetic diffusivity, a source of lifting of flux, or 'alpha-effect', and differential rotation. With the advent of helioseismic and other observations at the Sun's photosphere and interior, as well as theoretical understanding of solar interior dynamics, solar dynamo models have evolved both in the realm of mean-field and beyond mean-field models. After briefly discussing the status of these models, I will focus on a class of mean-field model, called flux-transport dynamos, which include meridional circulation as an essential additional ingredient. Flux-transport dynamos have been successful in simulating many global solar cycle features, and have reached the stage that they can be used for making solar cycle predictions. Meridional circulation works in these models like a conveyor-belt, carrying a memory of the magnetic fields from 5 to 20 years back in past. The lower is the magnetic diffusivity, the longer is the model's memory. In the terrestrial system, the great-ocean conveyor-belt in oceanic models and Hadley, polar and Ferrel circulation cells in the troposphere, carry signatures from the past climatological events and influence the determination of future events. Analogously, the memory provided by the Sun's meridional circulation creates the potential for flux-transport dynamos to predict future solar cycle properties. Various groups in the world have built flux-transport dynamo-based predictive tools, which nudge the Sun's surface magnetic data and integrated forward in time to forecast the amplitude of the currently ascending cycle 24. Due to different initial conditions and different choices of unknown model-ingredients, predictions can vary; so

  4. Electrical conductivity of SiO2 at extreme conditions and planetary dynamos

    PubMed Central

    Scipioni, Roberto; Stixrude, Lars; Desjarlais, Michael P.

    2017-01-01

    Ab intio molecular dynamics simulations show that the electrical conductivity of liquid SiO2 is semimetallic at the conditions of the deep molten mantle of early Earth and super-Earths, raising the possibility of silicate dynamos in these bodies. Whereas the electrical conductivity increases uniformly with increasing temperature, it depends nonmonotonically on compression. At very high pressure, the electrical conductivity decreases on compression, opposite to the behavior of many materials. We show that this behavior is caused by a novel compression mechanism: the development of broken charge ordering, and its influence on the electronic band gap. PMID:28784773

  5. Rover, Airbags & Martian Terrain

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-07-04

    This picture from Mars Pathfinder was taken at 9:30 AM in the martian morning (2:30 PM Pacific Daylight Time), after the spacecraft landed earlier today (July 4, 1997). The Sojourner rover is perched on one of three solar panels. The rover is 65 cm (26 inches) long by 18 cm (7 inches) tall; each of its wheels is about 13 cm (5 inches) high. The white material to the left of the front of the rover is part of the airbag system used to cushion the landing. Many rocks of different of different sizes can be seen, set in a background of reddish soil. The landing site is in the mouth of an ancient channel carved by water. The rocks may be primarily flood debris. The horizon is seen towards the top of the picture. The light brown hue of the sky results from suspended dust. Pathfinder, a low-cost Discovery mission, is the first of a new fleet of spacecraft that are planned to explore Mars over the next ten years. Mars Global Surveyor, already en route, arrives at Mars on September 11 to begin a two year orbital reconnaissance of the planet's composition, topography, and climate. Additional orbiters and landers will follow every 26 months. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00608

  6. Martian neutron leakage spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, D. M.; Feldman, W. C.; Jakosky, B. M.

    1988-06-01

    A high-energy nucleon-meson transport code is used to calculate energy spectra of Martian leakage neutrons. Four calculations are used to simulate a uniform surface layer containing various amounts of water, different burial depths of a 50 percent water layer underneath a 1 percent water layer, changing atmospheric pressure, and a thick carbon dioxide ice sheet overlying a "dirty" water ice sheet. Calculated spectra at energies less than about 1000 eV were fitted by a superposition of thermal and epithermal functions having four free parameters, two of which (thermal and epithermal amplitudes) were found to vary systematically and to specify uniquely the configuration in each of the series. Parameter variations depend on the composition of the assumed surface layers through the average atomic mass and the macroscopic scattering and absorption cross sections. It is concluded that measurements of leakage neutron spectra should allow determination of the hydrogen content of surface layers buried to depths up to about 100 g/sq. cm and determination of the thickness of a polar dry ice cap up to a thickness of about 250 g/sq. cm.

  7. Putting Martian Tribulation Behind

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-15

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity worked for 30 months on a raised segment of Endeavour Crater's rim called "Cape Tribulation" until departing that segment in mid-April 2017, southbound toward a new destination. This view looks back at the southern end of Cape Tribulation from about two football fields' distance away. The component images were taken by the rover's Panoramic Camera (Pancam) on April 21, during the 4,707th Martian day, or sol, of Opportunity's mission on Mars. Wheel tracks can be traced back to see the rover's route as it descended and departed Cape Tribulation. For scale, the distance between the two parallel tracks is about 3.3 feet (1 meter). The rover drove from the foot of Cape Tribulation to the head of "Perseverance Valley" in seven drives totaling about one-fifth of a mile (one-third of a kilometer). The elevation difference between the highest point visible in this scene and the rover's location when the images were taken is about 180 feet (55 meters). This view looks northward. It merges exposures taken through three of the Pancam's color filters, centered on wavelengths of 753 nanometers (near-infrared), 535 nanometers (green) and 432 nanometers (violet). It is presented in approximately true color. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21497

  8. Constraining Substellar Magnetic Dynamos using Brown Dwarf Radio Aurorae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Melodie Minyu

    Brown dwarfs share characteristics with both low-mass stars and gas giant planets, making them useful laboratories for studying physics occurring in objects throughout this low mass and temperature range. Of particular interest in this dissertation is the nature of the engine driving their magnetic fields. Fully convective magnetic dynamos can operate in low mass stars, brown dwarfs, gas giant planets, and even fluid metal cores in small rocky planets. Objects in this wide mass range are capable of hosting strong magnetic fields, which shape much of the evolution of planets and stars: strong fields can protect planetary atmospheres from evaporating, generate optical and infrared emission that masquerade as clouds in the atmospheres of other worlds, and affect planet formation mechanisms. Thus, implications from understanding convective dynamo mechanisms also extend to exoplanet habitability. How the convective dynamos driving these fields operate remains an important open problem. While we have extensive data to inform models of magnetic dynamo mechanisms in higher mass stars like our Sun, the coolest and lowest-mass objects that probe the substellar-planetary boundary do not possess the internal structures necessary to drive solar-type dynamos. A number of models examining fully convective dynamo mechanisms have been proposed but they remain unconstrained by magnetic field measurements in the lowest end of the substellar mass and temperature space. Detections of highly circularly polarized pulsed radio emission provide our only window into magnetic field measurements for objects in the ultracool brown dwarf regime, but these detections are very rare; until this dissertation, only one attempt out of 60 had been successful. The work presented in this dissertation seeks to address this problem and examines radio emission from late L, T, and Y spectral type brown dwarfs spanning 1-6 times the surface temperature of Earth and explores implications for fully convective

  9. Magnetic flux concentrations from dynamo-generated fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jabbari, S.; Brandenburg, A.; Losada, I. R.; Kleeorin, N.; Rogachevskii, I.

    2014-08-01

    Context. The mean-field theory of magnetized stellar convection gives rise to two distinct instabilities: the large-scale dynamo instability, operating in the bulk of the convection zone and a negative effective magnetic pressure instability (NEMPI) operating in the strongly stratified surface layers. The latter might be important in connection with magnetic spot formation. However, as follows from theoretical analysis, the growth rate of NEMPI is suppressed with increasing rotation rates. On the other hand, recent direct numerical simulations (DNS) have shown a subsequent increase in the growth rate. Aims: We examine quantitatively whether this increase in the growth rate of NEMPI can be explained by an α2 mean-field dynamo, and whether both NEMPI and the dynamo instability can operate at the same time. Methods: We use both DNS and mean-field simulations (MFS) to solve the underlying equations numerically either with or without an imposed horizontal field. We use the test-field method to compute relevant dynamo coefficients. Results: DNS show that magnetic flux concentrations are still possible up to rotation rates above which the large-scale dynamo effect produces mean magnetic fields. The resulting DNS growth rates are quantitatively reproduced with MFS. As expected for weak or vanishing rotation, the growth rate of NEMPI increases with increasing gravity, but there is a correction term for strong gravity and large turbulent magnetic diffusivity. Conclusions: Magnetic flux concentrations are still possible for rotation rates above which dynamo action takes over. For the solar rotation rate, the corresponding turbulent turnover time is about 5 h, with dynamo action commencing in the layers beneath.

  10. Martian Igneous Geochemistry: The Nature of the Martian Mantle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Elkins-Tanton, L. T.; Peng, Z. X.; Herrin, J. S.

    2012-01-01

    Mafic igneous rocks probe the interiors of their parent objects, reflecting the compositions and mineralogies of their source regions, and the magmatic processes that engendered them. Incompatible trace element contents of mafic igneous rocks are widely used to constrain the petrologic evolution of planets. We focus on incompatible element ratios of martian meteorites to constrain the petrologic evolution of Mars in the context of magma ocean/cumulate overturn models [1]. Most martian meteorites contain some cumulus grains, but regardless, their incompatible element ratios are close to those of their parent magmas. Martian meteorites form two main petrologic/ age groupings; a 1.3 Ga group composed of clinopyroxenites (nakhlites) and dunites (chassignites), and a <1 Ga group composed of basalts and lherzolites (shergottites).

  11. Martian Surface and Atmosphere Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuraytz, Benjamin C.

    The NASA-sponsored Martian Surface and Atmosphere Through Time Study Project convened its first major meeting at the University of Colorado in Boulder, September 23-25, 1991. The workshop, co-sponsored by the Lunar and Planetary Institute (LPI) and the Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics at the University of Colorado, brought together an international group of 125 scientists to discuss a variety of issues relevant to the goals of the MSATT Program. The workshop program committee included co-convenors Robert Haberle, MSATT Steering Committee Chairman NASA Ames Research Center) and Bruce Jakosky (University of Colorado), and committee members Amos Banin (NASA Ames Research Center and Hebrew University), Benjamin Schuraytz (LPI), and Kenneth Tanaka (U.S. Geological Survey, Flagstaff, Ariz.).The purpose of the workshop was to begin exploring and defining the relationships between different aspects of Mars science—the evolution of the surface, the atmosphere, upper atmosphere, volatiles, and climate. Specific topics addressed in the 88 contributed abstracts included the current nature of the surface with respect to physical properties and photometric observations and interpretations; the history of geological processes, comprising water and ice-related geomorphology, impact cratering, and volcanism; and the geochemistry and mineralogy of the surface with emphasis on compositional and spectroscopic studies and weathering processes. Also addressed were the present atmosphere, focusing on structure and dynamics, volatile and dust distribution, and the upper atmosphere; long-term volatile evolution based on volatiles in SNC meteorites (certain meteorites thought to have come from Mars) and atmospheric evolution processes; climate history and volatile cycles in relation to early climate and the polar caps, ground ice, and regolith; and future mission concepts.

  12. Nature of the Martian Uplands and Martian Meteorite Age Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, W. K.; Barlow, N. G.

    2005-12-01

    Martian meteorites have been launched from some 4 to 8 sites on Mars within the last 20 My. Some 75% to 88% of the sites ejected igneous rocks < 1.3 Gy old. Thus 75% to 88% of the rock-launching sites represent only 29% of Martian time. We hypothesize this imbalance arises not merely from poor statistics, but because much of the older Martian surface is inefficient in launching rocks during impacts. There are three lines of evidence. First, intense Noachian cratering must have produced surface layers with > 100 m of regolith, which reduces launch efficiency due to dominance of fines and possible effects of ice in the regolith. Second, both Mars Exploration Rovers in 2004, found that some older coherent strata are weak sediments, 1-2 orders of magnitude weaker than Martian igneous rocks. Low strength favors low launch efficiency, and even if launched, such rocks may produce recognizable meteorites on Earth. Third, the smaller fresh impact craters in Martian upland sites are rarely surrounded by secondary impact crater fields (cf. Barlow and Block, 2004). In a survey of 200 craters, the smallest Noachian, Hesperian, and Amazonian craters with fields of secondaries are ˜ 45 km, ˜ 24 km, and ˜ 10 km, respectively. With 40% of Mars being Noachian, and 74% being either Noachian or Hesperian, these effects could play an important role in the statistics of recognized Martian meteorites and production rates of secondary crater populations. Reference: Barlow N.G., Block, K.M. (2004), DPS abstract 47.04.

  13. Fluvial valleys on Martian volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, Victor R.; Gulick, Virginia C.

    1987-01-01

    Channels and valleys were known on the Martian volcanoes since their discovery by the Mariner 9 mission. Their analysis has generally centered on interpretation of possible origins by fluvial, lava, or viscous flows. The possible fluvial dissection of Martian volcanoes has received scant attention in comparison to that afforded outflow, runoff, and fretted channels. Photointerpretative, mapping, and morphometric studies of three Martian volcanoes were initiated: Ceraunius Tholus, Hecate Tholus, and Alba Patera. Preliminary morphometric results indicate that, for these three volcanoes, valley junction angles increase with decreasing slope. Drainage densities are quite variable, apparently reflecting complex interactions in the landscape-forming factors described. Ages of the Martian volcanoes were recently reinterpreted. This refined dating provides a time sequence in which to evaluate the degradational forms. An anomaly has appeared from the initial study: fluvial valleys seem to be present on some Martian volcanoes, but not on others of the same age. Volcanic surfaces characterized only by high permeability lava flows may have persisted without fluvial dissection.

  14. Design of the Madison Dynamo Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendrick, R. D.; Forest, C. B.; O'Connell, R.; Nornberg, M. D.; Spence, E. J.

    2004-11-01

    A spherical dynamo experiment has been constructed at the University of Wisconsin's liquid-sodium facility. The goals of the experiment are to observe and understand magnetic instabilities driven by flow shear in MHD systems, investigate MHD turbulence for magnetic Reynolds numbers of 100, and understand the role of fluid turbulence in current generation. Magnetic field generation is possible for only specific flow geometries. The experiment consists of a 1 m diameter, spherical stainless steel vessel filled with liquid sodium at 110 Celsius. The temperature of the vessel is maintained through an actively-heated-and-cooled oil heat-exchange system. Two 100 Hp motors with impellers drive flows in the liquid sodium with flow velocities near 15 m/s. Each shaft is sealed with an oil-buffered dual mechanical cartridge seal. The experiment is automated for remote operation and data logging. The melting and transfer of one metric ton of sodium to a storage vessel is discussed. Operating parameters and performance of the experiment are presented.

  15. Torsional Oscillations in a Global Solar Dynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaudoin, P.; Charbonneau, P.; Racine, E.; Smolarkiewicz, P. K.

    2013-02-01

    We characterize and analyze rotational torsional oscillations developing in a large-eddy magnetohydrodynamical simulation of solar convection (Ghizaru, Charbonneau, and Smolarkiewicz, Astrophys. J. Lett. 715, L133, 2010; Racine et al., Astrophys. J. 735, 46, 2011) producing an axisymmetric, large-scale, magnetic field undergoing periodic polarity reversals. Motivated by the many solar-like features exhibited by these oscillations, we carry out an analysis of the large-scale zonal dynamics. We demonstrate that simulated torsional oscillations are not driven primarily by the periodically varying large-scale magnetic torque, as one might have expected, but rather via the magnetic modulation of angular-momentum transport by the large-scale meridional flow. This result is confirmed by a straightforward energy analysis. We also detect a fairly sharp transition in rotational dynamics taking place as one moves from the base of the convecting layers to the base of the thin tachocline-like shear layer formed in the stably stratified fluid layers immediately below. We conclude by discussing the implications of our analyses with regard to the mechanism of amplitude saturation in the global dynamo operating in the simulation, and speculate on the possible precursor value of torsional oscillations for the forecast of solar-cycle characteristics.

  16. Magnetic Eigenmodes in the Madison Dynamo Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nornberg, M. D.; Bayliss, R. A.; Forest, C. B.; Kendrick, R. D.; O'Connell, R.; Spence, E. J.

    2002-11-01

    A spherical dynamo experiment has been constructed at the University of Wisconsin's liquid sodium facility. The goals of the experiment are to observe and understand magnetic instabilities driven by flow shear in MHD systems, investigate MHD turbulence for magnetic Reynolds numbers of 100, and understand the role of fluid turbulence in current generation. Magnetic field generation is only possible for specific flow geometries. We have studied and achieved simple roll flow geometries in a full scale water experiment. Results from the water experiment have guided the design of the sodium experiment. The experiment consists of a 1 m diameter, spherical stainless steel vessel filled with liquid sodium at 110 Celsius. Two 100 Hp motors with impellers drive flows in the liquid sodium with flow velocities of 15 m/s. A gaussian grid of 66 Hall probes on the surface of the sodium vessel measure the generated external magnetic field. Hall probe feed-thru arrays measure the internal field. A pair of magnetic field coils produce a roughly uniform field inside the sphere with a centerline field strength of 100 gauss. Preliminary investigations include measurements of the turbulent electromotive force and excitation of magnetic eigenmodes.

  17. Summary of the Madison Dynamo Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendrick, R. D.; Spence, E. J.; Nornberg, M. D.; Forest, C. B.

    2001-10-01

    A spherical dynamo experiment has been constructed at the University of Wisconsin's liquid sodium facility. The goals of the experiment are to observe and understand magnetic instabilities driven by flow shear in MHD systems, investigate MHD turbulence for magnetic Reynolds numbers of ~100, and understand the role of fluid turbulence in current generation. Magnetic field generation is possible for only specific flow geometries. We have studied and achieved simple roll flow geometries in a full scale water experiment. Results from this experiment have guided the design of the sodium experiment. The experiment consists of a 1 m diameter, spherical stainless steel vessel filled with liquid sodium at 110 Celsius. Two 100 Hp motors with impellers drive flows in the liquid sodium with flow velocities ~ 15 m/s. A gaussian grid of Hall probes on the surface of the sodium vessel measure the generated external magnetic field. Hall probe feed-thru arrays measure the internal field. Preliminary investigations include measurements of the turbulent electromotive force and excitation of magnetic eigenmodes.

  18. Design of the Madison Dynamo Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendrick, R. D.; Bayliss, R. A.; Forest, C. B.; Nornberg, M. D.; O'Connell, R.; Spence, E. J.

    2003-10-01

    A spherical dynamo experiment has been constructed at the University of Wisconsin's liquid sodium facility. The goals of the experiment are to observe and understand magnetic instabilities driven by flow shear in MHD systems, investigate MHD turbulence for magnetic Reynolds numbers of ˜100, and understand the role of fluid turbulence in current generation. Magnetic field generation is possible for only specific flow geometries. We have studied and achieved simple roll flow geometries in a full scale water experiment. Results from this experiment have guided the design of the sodium experiment. The experiment consists of a 1 m diameter, spherical stainless steel vessel filled with liquid sodium at 110 Celsius. Two 100 Hp motors with impellers drive flows in the liquid sodium with flow velocities ˜ 15 m/s. A grid of Hall probes on the surface of the sodium vessel measure the generated external magnetic field. Hall probe feed-thru arrays measure the internal field. Preliminary investigations include measurements of the turbulent electromotive force and excitation of magnetic eigenmodes.

  19. CONVECTIVE BABCOCK-LEIGHTON DYNAMO MODELS

    SciTech Connect

    Miesch, Mark S.; Brown, Benjamin P., E-mail: miesch@ucar.edu

    We present the first global, three-dimensional simulations of solar/stellar convection that take into account the influence of magnetic flux emergence by means of the Babcock-Leighton (BL) mechanism. We have shown that the inclusion of a BL poloidal source term in a convection simulation can promote cyclic activity in an otherwise steady dynamo. Some cycle properties are reminiscent of solar observations, such as the equatorward propagation of toroidal flux near the base of the convection zone. However, the cycle period in this young sun (rotating three times faster than the solar rate) is very short ({approx}6 months) and it is unclearmore » whether much longer cycles may be achieved within this modeling framework, given the high efficiency of field generation and transport by the convection. Even so, the incorporation of mean-field parameterizations in three-dimensional convection simulations to account for elusive processes such as flux emergence may well prove useful in the future modeling of solar and stellar activity cycles.« less

  20. Systematic parameter study of dynamo bifurcations in geodynamo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petitdemange, Ludovic

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the nature of the dynamo bifurcation in a configuration applicable to the Earth's liquid outer core, i.e. in a rotating spherical shell with thermally driven motions with no-slip boundaries. Unlike in previous studies on dynamo bifurcations, the control parameters have been varied significantly in order to deduce general tendencies. Numerical studies on the stability domain of dipolar magnetic fields found a dichotomy between non-reversing dipole-dominated dynamos and the reversing non-dipole-dominated multipolar solutions. We show that, by considering weak initial fields, the above transition disappears and is replaced by a region of bistability for which dipolar and multipolar dynamos coexist. Such a result was also observed in models with free-slip boundaries in which the geostrophic zonal flow can develop and participate to the dynamo mechanism for non-dipolar fields. We show that a similar process develops in no-slip models when viscous effects are reduced sufficiently. The following three regimes are distinguished: (i) Close to the onset of convection (Rac) with only the most critical convective mode (wave number) being present, dynamos set in supercritically in the Ekman number regime explored here and are dipole-dominated. Larger critical magnetic Reynolds numbers indicate that they are particularly inefficient. (ii) in the range 3 < Ra /Rac dynamos exist. (iii) in the turbulent regime (Ra /Rac > 10) , the relative importance of zonal flows increases with Ra in non-magnetic models. The field topology depends on the magnitude of the initial magnetic field. The dipolar branch has a subcritical behavior whereas the multipolar branch has a supercritical behavior. By approaching more realistic parameters, the extension of this bistable regime increases. A hysteretic behavior questions the common interpretation for geomagnetic reversals. Far above the dynamo threshold (by increasing

  1. A THREE-DIMENSIONAL BABCOCK-LEIGHTON SOLAR DYNAMO MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Miesch, Mark S.; Dikpati, Mausumi, E-mail: miesch@ucar.edu

    We present a three-dimensional (3D) kinematic solar dynamo model in which poloidal field is generated by the emergence and dispersal of tilted sunspot pairs (more generally bipolar magnetic regions, or BMRs). The axisymmetric component of this model functions similarly to previous 2.5 dimensional (2.5D, axisymmetric) Babcock-Leighton (BL) dynamo models that employ a double-ring prescription for poloidal field generation but we generalize this prescription into a 3D flux emergence algorithm that places BMRs on the surface in response to the dynamo-generated toroidal field. In this way, the model can be regarded as a unification of BL dynamo models (2.5D in radius/latitude)more » and surface flux transport models (2.5D in latitude/longitude) into a more self-consistent framework that builds on the successes of each while capturing the full 3D structure of the evolving magnetic field. The model reproduces some basic features of the solar cycle including an 11 yr periodicity, equatorward migration of toroidal flux in the deep convection zone, and poleward propagation of poloidal flux at the surface. The poleward-propagating surface flux originates as trailing flux in BMRs, migrates poleward in multiple non-axisymmetric streams (made axisymmetric by differential rotation and turbulent diffusion), and eventually reverses the polar field, thus sustaining the dynamo. In this Letter we briefly describe the model, initial results, and future plans.« less

  2. Measurement of the dynamo effect in a plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Ji, H.; Prager, S.C.; Almagri, A.F.

    1995-11-01

    A series of the detailed experiments has been conducted in three laboratory plasma devices to measure the dynamo electric field along the equilibrium field line (the {alpha} effect) arising from the correlation between the fluctuating flow velocity and magnetic field. The fluctuating flow velocity is obtained from probe measurement of the fluctuating E x B drift and electron diamagnetic drift. The three major findings are (1) the {alpha} effect accounts for the dynamo current generation, even in the time dependence through a ``sawtooth`` cycle; (2) at low collisionality the dynamo is explained primarily by the widely studied pressureless Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD)more » model, i.e., the fluctuating velocity is dominated by the E x B drift; (3) at high collisionality, a new ``electron diamagnetic dynamo`` is observed, in which the fluctuating velocity is dominated by the diamagnetic drift. In addition, direct measurements of the helicity flux indicate that the dynamo activity transports magnetic helicity from one part of the plasma to another, but the total helicity is roughly conserved, verifying J.B. Taylor`s conjecture.« less

  3. Modelling the dynamo in fully convective M-stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Rakesh Kumar; Christensen, Ulrich; Morin, Julien; Wolk, Scott; Poppenhaeger, Katja; Reiners, Ansgar; gastine, Thomas

    2017-05-01

    M-stars are among the most active and numerous stars in our galaxy. Their activity plays a fundamentally important role in shaping the exoplanetary biosphere since the habitable zones are very close to these stars. Therefore, modeling M-star activity has become a focal point in habitability studies. The fully convective members of the M-star population demand more immediate attention due to the discovery of Earth-like exoplanets around our stellar neighbors Proxima Centauri and TRAPPIST-1 which are both fully convective. The activity of these stars is driven by their convective dynamo, which may be fundamentally different from the solar dynamo due the absence of radiative cores. We model this dynamo mechanism using high-resolution 3D anelastic MHD simulations. To understand the evolution of the dynamo mechanism we simulate two cases, one with a fast enough rotation period to model a star in the `saturated' regime of the rotation-activity realtionship and the other with a slower period to represent cases in the `unsaturated' regime. We find the rotation period fundamentally controls the behavior of the dynamo solution: faster rotation promotes strong magnetic fields (of order kG) on both small and large length scales and the dipolar component of the magnetic field is dominant and stable, however, slower rotation leads to weaker magnetic fields which exhibit cyclic behavior. In this talk, I will present the simulation results and discuss how we can use them to interpret several observed features of the M-star activity.

  4. Shear-driven dynamo waves at high magnetic Reynolds number.

    PubMed

    Tobias, S M; Cattaneo, F

    2013-05-23

    Astrophysical magnetic fields often display remarkable organization, despite being generated by dynamo action driven by turbulent flows at high conductivity. An example is the eleven-year solar cycle, which shows spatial coherence over the entire solar surface. The difficulty in understanding the emergence of this large-scale organization is that whereas at low conductivity (measured by the magnetic Reynolds number, Rm) dynamo fields are well organized, at high Rm their structure is dominated by rapidly varying small-scale fluctuations. This arises because the smallest scales have the highest rate of strain, and can amplify magnetic field most efficiently. Therefore most of the effort to find flows whose large-scale dynamo properties persist at high Rm has been frustrated. Here we report high-resolution simulations of a dynamo that can generate organized fields at high Rm; indeed, the generation mechanism, which involves the interaction between helical flows and shear, only becomes effective at large Rm. The shear does not enhance generation at large scales, as is commonly thought; instead it reduces generation at small scales. The solution consists of propagating dynamo waves, whose existence was postulated more than 60 years ago and which have since been used to model the solar cycle.

  5. Hydrological and Climatic Significance of Martian Deltas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Achille, G.; Vaz, D. A.

    2017-10-01

    We a) review the geomorphology, sedimentology, and mineralogy of the martian deltas record and b) present the results of a quantitative study of the hydrology and sedimentology of martian deltas using modified version of terrestrial model Sedflux.

  6. Cleaning a Martian Meteoritean Meteorite

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-02-13

    A slice of a meteorite scientists have determined came from Mars placed inside an oxygen plasma cleaner, which removes organics from the outside of surfaces. This slice will likely be used here on Earth for testing a laser instrument for NASA's Mars 2020 rover; a separate slice will go to Mars on the rover. Martian meteorites are believed to be the result of impacts to the Red Planet's surface, resulting in rock being blasted into the atmosphere. After traveling through space for eons, some of these rocks entered Earth's atmosphere. Scientists determine whether they are true Martian meteorites based on their rock and noble gas chemistry and mineralogy. The gases trapped in these meteorites bear the unique fingerprint of the Martian atmosphere, as recorded by NASA's Viking mission in 1976. The rock types also show clear signs of igneous processing not possible on smaller bodies, such as asteroids. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA22247

  7. Martian paleolakes and waterways - Exobiological implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, David H.; Rice, James W., Jr.; Dohm, James M.

    1991-01-01

    Mars may have had an early environment similar to earth's that was conductive to the emergence of life. In addition, increasing geologic evidence indicates that water, upon which terrestrial life depends, has been present on Mars throughout its history. This evidence suggests that life could have developed not only on early Mars but also over longer periods of time in longer lasting, more element local environments. It is suggested that paleolakes may have provided such environments. Unlike the case on earth, this record of the origin and evolution of life has probably not been erased by extensive deformation of the Martian surface. The work reported in this paper has identified eleven prospective areas where large lacustrine basins may once have existed.

  8. Scaling and intermittency in incoherent α-shear dynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Dhrubaditya; Brandenburg, Axel

    2012-03-01

    We consider mean-field dynamo models with fluctuating α effect, both with and without large-scale shear. The α effect is chosen to be Gaussian white noise with zero mean and a given covariance. In the presence of shear, we show analytically that (in infinitely large domains) the mean-squared magnetic field shows exponential growth. The growth rate of the fastest growing mode is proportional to the shear rate. This result agrees with earlier numerical results of Yousef et al. and the recent analytical treatment by Heinemann, McWilliams & Schekochihin who use a method different from ours. In the absence of shear, an incoherent α2 dynamo may also be possible. We further show by explicit calculation of the growth rate of third- and fourth-order moments of the magnetic field that the probability density function of the mean magnetic field generated by this dynamo is non-Gaussian.

  9. Numerical study of dynamo action at low magnetic Prandtl numbers.

    PubMed

    Ponty, Y; Mininni, P D; Montgomery, D C; Pinton, J-F; Politano, H; Pouquet, A

    2005-04-29

    We present a three-pronged numerical approach to the dynamo problem at low magnetic Prandtl numbers P(M). The difficulty of resolving a large range of scales is circumvented by combining direct numerical simulations, a Lagrangian-averaged model and large-eddy simulations. The flow is generated by the Taylor-Green forcing; it combines a well defined structure at large scales and turbulent fluctuations at small scales. Our main findings are (i) dynamos are observed from P(M)=1 down to P(M)=10(-2), (ii) the critical magnetic Reynolds number increases sharply with P(M)(-1) as turbulence sets in and then it saturates, and (iii) in the linear growth phase, unstable magnetic modes move to smaller scales as P(M) is decreased. Then the dynamo grows at large scales and modifies the turbulent velocity fluctuations.

  10. Earth's dynamo limit of predictability controlled by magnetic dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhuillier, Florian; Aubert, Julien; Hulot, Gauthier

    2011-08-01

    To constrain the forecast horizon of geomagnetic data assimilation, it is of interest to quantify the range of predictability of the geodynamo. Following earlier work in the field of dynamic meteorology, we investigate the sensitivity of numerical dynamos to various perturbations applied to the magnetic, velocity and temperature fields. These perturbations result in some errors, which affect all fields in the same relative way, and grow at the same exponential rate λ=τ-1e, independent of the type and the amplitude of perturbation. Errors produced by the limited resolution of numerical dynamos are also shown to produce a similar amplification, with the same exponential rate. Exploring various possible scaling laws, we demonstrate that the growth rate is mainly proportional to an advection timescale. To better understand the mechanism responsible for the error amplification, we next compare these growth rates with two other dynamo outputs which display a similar dependence on advection: the inverse τ-1SV of the secular-variation timescale, characterizing the secular variation of the observable field produced by these dynamos; and the inverse (τmagdiss)-1 of the magnetic dissipation time, characterizing the rate at which magnetic energy is produced to compensate for Ohmic dissipation in these dynamos. The possible role of viscous dissipation is also discussed via the inverse (τkindiss)-1 of the analogous viscous dissipation time, characterizing the rate at which kinetic energy is produced to compensate for viscous dissipation. We conclude that τe tends to equate τmagdiss for dynamos operating in a turbulent regime with low enough Ekman number, and such that τmagdiss < τkindiss. As these conditions are met in the Earth's outer core, we suggest that τe is controlled by magnetic dissipation, leading to a value τe=τmagdiss≈ 30 yr. We finally discuss the consequences of our results for the practical limit of predictability of the geodynamo.

  11. Exploring a deep meridional flow hypothesis for a circulation dominated solar dynamo model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, G. A.; Muñoz, J. D.; de Gouveia dal Pino, E. M.

    2005-09-01

    Circulation-dominated solar dynamo models, which employ a helioseismic rotation profile and a fixed meridional flow, give a good approximation to the large scale solar magnetic phenomena, such as the 11-year cycle or the so called Hale's law of polarities. Nevertheless, the larger amplitude of the radial shear ∂Ω/∂r at the high latitudes makes the dynamo to produce a strong toroidal magnetic field at high latitudes, in contradiction with the observations of the sunspots (Sporer's Law). A possible solution was proposed by Nandy and Choudhuri in which a deep meridional flow can conduct the magnetic field inside of a stable layer (the radiative core) and then allow that it erupts just at lower latitudes. Although they obtain good results, this hypothesis generates new problems like the mixture of elements in the radiative core (that alters the abundance of the elements) and the transfer of angular momentum. We have recently explored this hypothesis in a different approximation, using the magnetic buoyancy mechanism proposed by Dikpati and Charbonneau (1999) and found that a deep meridional flow pushes the maximum of the toroidal magnetic field towards the solar equator, but, in contrast to Nandy and Choudhuri (2002 ), a second zone of maximum fields remains at the poles. In that work, we have also introduced a bipolytropic density profile in order to better reproduce the stratification in the radiative zone. We here review these results and also discuss a new possible scenario where the tachocline has an ellipsoidal shape, following early helioseismologic observations, and find that the modification of the geometry of the tachocline can lead to results which are in good agreement with observations and opens the possibility to explore in more detail, through the dynamo model, the place where the magnetic field could be really stored.

  12. The Martian, Part 2: Mawrth Valles

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-10-13

    All this week, the THEMIS Image of the Day is following on the real Mars the path taken by fictional astronaut Mark Watney, stranded on the Red Planet in the book and movie, The Martian. Today's image shows part of Mawrth Valles, a channel carved by giant floods billions of years ago. The highlands lying to the south and west of the channel are under consideration as a potential landing site for NASA's Mars 2020 rover. Remote-sensing observations from orbit show widespread exposures of clay minerals, indicating alteration by water early in Martian history. These might preserve traces of ancient life, if there was any. For astronaut Mark Watney, driving in a pressurized and solar-powered rover vehicle, Mawrth Valles offers a gentle slope and an easy-to-follow route up from Acidalia's low-lying plains into the Arabia Terra highlands. At this point in his journey, he has driven about 750 kilometers (470 miles). Orbit Number: 38563 Latitude: 24.4297 Longitude: 341.726 Instrument: VIS Captured: 2010-08-24 14:56 http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19797

  13. The fast kinematic magnetic dynamo and the dissipationless limit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finn, John M.; Ott, Edward

    1990-01-01

    The evolution of the magnetic field in models that incorporate chaotic field line stretching, field cancellation, and finite magnetic Reynolds number is examined analytically and numerically. Although the models used here are highly idealized, it is claimed that they display and illustrate typical behavior relevant to fast magnetic dynamic behavior. It is shown, in particular, that consideration of magnetic flux through a finite fixed surface provides a simple and effective way of deducing fast dynamo behavior from the zero resistivity equation. Certain aspects of the fast dynamo problem can thus be reduced to a study of nonlinear dynamic properties of the underlying flow.

  14. The mineralogic evolution of the Martian surface through time: Implications from chemical reaction path modeling studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plumlee, G. S.; Ridley, W. I.; Debraal, J. D.; Reed, M. H.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical reaction path calculations were used to model the minerals that might have formed at or near the Martian surface as a result of volcano or meteorite impact driven hydrothermal systems; weathering at the Martian surface during an early warm, wet climate; and near-zero or sub-zero C brine-regolith reactions in the current cold climate. Although the chemical reaction path calculations carried out do not define the exact mineralogical evolution of the Martian surface over time, they do place valuable geochemical constraints on the types of minerals that formed from an aqueous phase under various surficial and geochemically complex conditions.

  15. Spirit Begins Third Martian Year

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    As it finished its second Martian year on Mars, NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit was beginning to examine a group of angular rocks given informal names corresponding to peaks in the Colorado Rockies. A Martian year the amount of time it takes Mars to complete one orbit around the sun lasts for 687 Earth days. Spirit completed its second Martian year on the rover's 1,338th Martian day, or sol, corresponding to Oct. 8, 2007.

    Two days later, on sol 1,340 (Oct. 10, 2007), Spirit used its front hazard-identification camera to capture this wide-angle view of its robotic arm extended to a rock informally named 'Humboldt Peak.' For the rocks at this site on the southern edge of the 'Home Plate' platform in the inner basin of the Columbia Hills inside Gusev Crater, the rover team decided to use names of Colorado peaks higher than 14,000 feet. The Colorado Rockies team of the National League is the connection to the baseball-theme nomenclature being used for features around Home Plate.

    The tool facing Spirit on the turret at the end of the robotic arm is the Moessbauer spectrometer.

  16. Curiosity analyzes Martian soil samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy; Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-12-01

    NASA's Mars Curiosity rover has conducted its first analysis of Martian soil samples using multiple instruments, the agency announced at a 3 December news briefing at the AGU Fall Meeting in San Francisco. "These results are an unprecedented look at the chemical diversity in the area," said NASA's Michael Meyer, program scientist for Curiosity.

  17. Magnetite Authigenesis and the Ancient Martian Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosca, N. J.; Ahmed, I. A.; Ashpitel, A.; Hurowitz, J.

    2017-12-01

    Although the Curiosity rover has documented lacustrine sediments at Gale Crater, how liquid water became physically stable is unknown. The early Martian atmosphere is thought to have been dominated by CO2 [1], but the Curiosity rover has provided only ambiguous detections of carbonate minerals at abundances significantly less than 1 wt. % [2, 3], and climate models indicate that in the absence of additional components, multi-bar CO2 atmospheres could not have maintained surface temperatures above freezing. To constrain the composition of the ancient Martian atmosphere, we experimentally investigated the nucleation and growth kinetics of authigenic Fe(II)-minerals in Gale Crater mudstones. Experiments show that as basaltic waters experience pH increases above 8.0, a series of anoxic mineral transformations generates magnetite in days. Electrochemical and dissolved gas analyses show that one stage of this process, the conversion of Fe(OH)2 to green rust, generates H2(g). Experiments including dissolved CO2 show that, despite magnetite formation, Fe(II)-carbonate does not nucleate until significant supersaturation is reached, at PCO2 levels far above previous estimates. Our experimental observations imply that Gale Crater lakes could have been in contact with a CO2-rich atmosphere. In addition, geochemical calculations show that groundwater infiltration into lacustrine sediments triggered magnetite and H2(g) generation at Gale Crater (instead of Fe(II)-carbonate cementation). Groundwater infiltration is consistent with data from the Sheepbed member mudstones, and deep-water mudstones of the Murray formation, both of which contain abundant authigenic magnetite [2, 4]. Low temperature H2 production may have provided a globally significant but transient feedback for stabilizing liquid water on early Mars. Data collected to date by the Curiosity rover are consistent with both estimated timescales and climatic shifts associated with H2-induced warming. Low temperature H2

  18. A Coupled 2 × 2D Babcock-Leighton Solar Dynamo Model. II. Reference Dynamo Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemerle, Alexandre; Charbonneau, Paul

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we complete the presentation of a new hybrid 2 × 2D flux transport dynamo (FTD) model of the solar cycle based on the Babcock-Leighton mechanism of poloidal magnetic field regeneration via the surface decay of bipolar magnetic regions (BMRs). This hybrid model is constructed by allowing the surface flux transport (SFT) simulation described in Lemerle et al. to provide the poloidal source term to an axisymmetric FTD simulation defined in a meridional plane, which in turn generates the BMRs required by the SFT. A key aspect of this coupling is the definition of an emergence function describing the probability of BMR emergence as a function of the spatial distribution of the internal axisymmetric magnetic field. We use a genetic algorithm to calibrate this function, together with other model parameters, against observed cycle 21 emergence data. We present a reference dynamo solution reproducing many solar cycle characteristics, including good hemispheric coupling, phase relationship between the surface dipole and the BMR-generating internal field, and correlation between dipole strength at cycle maximum and peak amplitude of the next cycle. The saturation of the cycle amplitude takes place through the quenching of the BMR tilt as a function of the internal field. The observed statistical scatter about the mean BMR tilt, built into the model, acts as a source of stochasticity which dominates amplitude fluctuations. The model thus can produce Dalton-like epochs of strongly suppressed cycle amplitude lasting a few cycles and can even shut off entirely following an unfavorable sequence of emergence events.

  19. Measurements of dynamo effect on double-CHI pulse ST plasmas on HIST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, K.; Hanao, T.; Ishihara, M.; Matsumoto, K.; Higashi, T.; Kikuchi, Y.; Fukumoto, N.; Nagata, M.

    2011-10-01

    Coaxial Helicity injection (CHI) is an efficient current-drive method used in spheromak and spherical torus (ST) experiments. An anticipated issue for CHI is achieving good energy confinement, since it relies on the magnetic relaxation and dynamo. This is essentially because CHI cannot drive a dynamo directly inside a closed magnetic flux surface. Thus, it is an important issue to investigate dynamo effect to explore CHI current drive mechanisms in a new approach such as Multi-pulsing CHI method. To study the dynamo model with two-fluid Hall effects, we have started from the generalized Ohm law. We have measured each MHD dynamo term and Hall dynamo term separately by using Mach probe and Hall probe involving 3-axis magnetic pick-up coils. The result shows that the induced electric field due to MHD dynamo is large enough to sustain the mean toroidal current against resistive decay in the core region. In the other hand, the anti-dynamo effect in the MHD dynamo term is observed in the central open flux column (OFC) region. From the viewpoint of two-fluid theory, ion diamagnetic drift is opposite to the electron diamagnetic drift, maybe resulting in the anti-dynamo effect. Hall dynamo may arise from the fluctuating electron diamagnetic current due to high electron density gradient which is large in the OFC region.

  20. Paleomagnetic evidence for dynamo activity driven by inward crystallisation of a metallic asteroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryson, James F. J.; Weiss, Benjamin P.; Harrison, Richard J.; Herrero-Albillos, Julia; Kronast, Florian

    2017-08-01

    The direction in which a planetary core solidifies has fundamental implications for the feasibility and nature of dynamo generation. Although Earth's core is outwardly solidifying, the cores of certain smaller planetary bodies have been proposed to inwardly solidify due to their lower central pressures. However, there have been no unambiguous observations of inwardly solidified cores or the relationship between this solidification regime and planetary magnetic activity. To address this gap, we present the results of complimentary paleomagnetic techniques applied to the matrix metal and silicate inclusions within the IVA iron meteorites. This family of meteorites has been suggested to originate from a planetary core that had its overlaying silicate mantle removed by collisions during the early solar system. This process is thought to have produced a molten ball of metal that cooled rapidly and has been proposed to have inwardly solidified. Recent thermal evolution models of such a body predict that it should have generated an intense, multipolar and time-varying dynamo field. This field could have been recorded as a remanent magnetisation in the outer, cool layers of a solid crust on the IVA parent core. We find that the different components in the IVA iron meteorites display a range of paleomagnetic fidelities, depending crucially on the cooling rate of the meteorite. In particular, silicate inclusions in the quickly cooled São João Nepomuceno meteorite are poor paleomagnetic recorders. On the other hand, the matrix metal and some silicate subsamples from the relatively slowly cooled Steinbach meteorite are far better paleomagnetic recorders and provide evidence of an intense (≳100 μT) and directionally varying (exhibiting significant changes on a timescale ≲200 kyr) magnetic field. This is the first demonstration that some iron meteorites record ancient planetary magnetic fields. Furthermore, the observed field intensity, temporal variability and dynamo

  1. Evolution of the Martian atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, R. O.

    1993-01-01

    Evolution of Mars' noble gases through two stages of hydrodynamic escape early in planetary history has been proposed previously by the author. In the first evolutionary stage of this earlier model, beginning at a solar age of approximately 50 m.y., fractionating escape of a H2-rich primordial atmosphere containing CO2, N2, and the noble gases in roughly the proportions found in primitive carbonaceous (CI) chondrites is driven by intense extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) leads to a long (approximately 80 m.y.) period of quiescence, followed by an abrupt degassing of remnant H2, CO2, and N2 from the mantle and of solar-composition noble gases lighter than Xe from the planet's volatile-rich accretional core. Degassed H refuels hydrodynamic loss in a waning but still potent solar EUV flux. Atmospheric Xe, Kr, and Ar remaining at the end of this second escape stage, approximately 4.2 G.y. ago, have evolved to their present-day abundances and compositions. Residual Ne continues to be modified by accretion of solar wind gases throughout the later history of the planet. This model does not address a number of processes that now appear germane to Martian atmospheric history. One, gas loss and fractionation by sputtering, has recently been shown to be relevant. Another, atmospheric erosion, appears increasingly important. In the absence then of a plausible mechanism, the model did not consider the possibility of isotopic evolution of noble gases heavier than Ne after the termination of hydrodynamic escape. Subsequent non-thermal loss of N was assumed, in an unspecified way, to account for the elevation of N from the model value of approximately 250 percent at the end of the second escape stage to approximately 620 percent today. Only qualitative attention was paid to the eroding effects of impact on abundances of all atmophilic species prior to the end of heavy bombardment approximately 3.8 G.y. ago. No attempt was made to include precipitation and recycling of carbonates in

  2. Producing Martian Lithologies with Geophysically-Constrained Martian Mantle Compositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minitti, M. E.; Fei, Y.; Bertka, C. M.

    2008-12-01

    The Martian meteorites, rocks measured by the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) and lithologies detected by orbital assets represent a diversity of igneous rocks that collectively provide insight into the formation and evolution of Mars. Experimental studies aimed at reproducing the observed igneous lithologies have met with varying degrees of success [e.g., 1,2,3], No study has yet been able to reproduce both Martian meteorite parent magmas and the basalts measured by MER at Gusev Crater [e.g., 1,3]. We attempted a different approach to successfully reproducing Martian igneous lithologies by using geophysical constraints on Martian bulk Fe (wt.%), Fe/Si and mantle Mg# [4,5] to identify mixtures of chondrite compositions that formed plausible Martian mantle compositions. We identified two candidate chondrite mixtures for Mars, CM+L and H+L. We synthesized the CM+L and H+L compositions from oxide, carbonate and phosphate powders and fixed them at an oxygen fugacity below the magnetite-wüstite buffer (MW-1). We conducted experiments at 2 GPa (corresponding to ~150 km in the Martian mantle) between 1300-1600 °C for 4-48 hours in the end-loaded piston cylinder apparatus at the Geophysical Laboratory. Thusfar, we have also conducted experiments at 4 GPa (corresponding to ~320 km in the Martian mantle) between 1425-1475 °C for 210-240 minutes in a Walker-type multi-anvil apparatus at the Geophysical Laboratory. We utilized an 18/11 (octahedron edge length/truncated edge length, in mm) assembly. In both assembly types, the sample was contained within a graphite capsule welded into a Pt tube. We analyzed the experiment products in electron probes at either the Geophysical Laboratory or Arizona State University. Fe and Mg contents of olivine, orthopyroxene and melt were used to assess the attainment of equilibrium for each run product. No significant difference exists between the CM+L and H+L experiment products. The near-solidus phase assemblage of the 2-GPa experiments is

  3. SHEAR-DRIVEN DYNAMO WAVES IN THE FULLY NONLINEAR REGIME

    SciTech Connect

    Pongkitiwanichakul, P.; Nigro, G.; Cattaneo, F.

    2016-07-01

    Large-scale dynamo action is well understood when the magnetic Reynolds number ( Rm ) is small, but becomes problematic in the astrophysically relevant large Rm limit since the fluctuations may control the operation of the dynamo, obscuring the large-scale behavior. Recent works by Tobias and Cattaneo demonstrated numerically the existence of large-scale dynamo action in the form of dynamo waves driven by strongly helical turbulence and shear. Their calculations were carried out in the kinematic regime in which the back-reaction of the Lorentz force on the flow is neglected. Here, we have undertaken a systematic extension of their work tomore » the fully nonlinear regime. Helical turbulence and large-scale shear are produced self-consistently by prescribing body forces that, in the kinematic regime, drive flows that resemble the original velocity used by Tobias and Cattaneo. We have found four different solution types in the nonlinear regime for various ratios of the fluctuating velocity to the shear and Reynolds numbers. Some of the solutions are in the form of propagating waves. Some solutions show large-scale helical magnetic structure. Both waves and structures are permanent only when the kinetic helicity is non-zero on average.« less

  4. 4. FIRST FLOOR INTERIOR, AMMONIA COMPRESSION DYNAMOS IN MACHINERY ROOM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. FIRST FLOOR INTERIOR, AMMONIA COMPRESSION DYNAMOS IN MACHINERY ROOM ALONG SOUTH SIDE OF WESTERN PORTION OF BUILDING, FROM EASTERN ENTRANCE TO MACHINERY ROOM, LOOKING WEST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Cold Storage Warehouse, South of C Street between First & Second Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  5. Helioseismology Observations of Solar Cycles and Dynamo Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosovichev, A. G.; Guerrero, G.; Pipin, V.

    2017-12-01

    Helioseismology observations from the SOHO and SDO, obtained in 1996-2017, provide unique insight into the dynamics of the Sun's deep interior for two solar cycles. The data allow us to investigate variations of the solar interior structure and dynamics, and compare these variations with dynamo models and simulations. We use results of the local and global helioseismology data processing pipelines at the SDO Joint Science Operations Center (Stanford University) to study solar-cycle variations of the differential rotation, meridional circulation, large-scale flows and global asphericity. By comparing the helioseismology results with the evolution of surface magnetic fields we identify characteristic changes associated the initiation and development of Solar Cycles 23 and 24. For the physical interpretation of observed variations, the results are compared with the current mean-field dynamo models and 3D MHD dynamo simulations. It is shown that the helioseismology inferences provide important constraints on the solar dynamo mechanism, may explain the fundamental difference between the two solar cycles, and also give information about the next solar cycle.

  6. Toward an asymptotic behaviour of the ABC dynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouya, Ismaël; Dormy, Emmanuel

    2015-04-01

    The ABC flow was originally introduced by Arnol'd to investigate Lagrangian chaos. It soon became the prototype example to illustrate magnetic-field amplification via fast dynamo action, i.e. dynamo action exhibiting magnetic-field amplification on a typical timescale independent of the electrical resistivity of the medium. Even though this flow is the most classical example for this important class of dynamos (with application to large-scale astrophysical objects), it was recently pointed out (Bouya Ismaël and Dormy Emmanuel, Phys. Fluids, 25 (2013) 037103) that the fast dynamo nature of this flow was unclear, as the growth rate still depended on the magnetic Reynolds number at the largest values available so far (\\text{Rm} = 25000) . Using state-of-the-art high-performance computing, we present high-resolution simulations (up to 40963) and extend the value of \\text{Rm} up to 5\\cdot105 . Interestingly, even at these huge values, the growth rate of the leading eigenmode still depends on the controlling parameter and an asymptotic regime is not reached yet. We show that the maximum growth rate is a decreasing function of \\text{Rm} for the largest values of \\text{Rm} we could achieve (as anticipated in the above-mentioned paper). Slowly damped oscillations might indicate either a new mode crossing or that the system is approaching the limit of an essential spectrum.

  7. Instability-driven interfacial dynamo in protoneutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastrano, A.; Melatos, A.

    2011-10-01

    The existence of a tachocline in the Sun has been proven by helioseismology. It is unknown whether a similar shear layer, widely regarded as the seat of magnetic dynamo action, also exists in a protoneutron star. Sudden jumps in magnetic diffusivity η and turbulent vorticity α, for example at the interface between the neutron-finger and convective zones, are known to be capable of enhancing mean-field dynamo effects in a protoneutron star. Here, we apply the well-known, plane-parallel, MacGregor-Charbonneau analysis of the solar interfacial dynamo to the protoneutron star problem and analytically calculate the growth rate under a range of conditions. It is shown that, like the solar dynamo, it is impossible to achieve self-sustained growth if the discontinuities in α, η and shear are coincident and the magnetic diffusivity is isotropic. In contrast, when the jumps in η and α are situated away from the shear layer, self-sustained growth is possible for P≲ 49.8 ms (if the velocity shear is located at 0.3R) or P≲ 83.6 ms (if the velocity shear is located at 0.6R). This translates into stronger shear and/or α-effect than in the Sun. Self-sustained growth is also possible if the magnetic diffusivity is anisotropic, through the Ω×J effect, even when the α, η and shear discontinuities are coincident.

  8. STELLAR DYNAMOS AND CYCLES FROM NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS OF CONVECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Dubé, Caroline; Charbonneau, Paul, E-mail: dube@astro.umontreal.ca, E-mail: paulchar@astro.umontreal.ca

    We present a series of kinematic axisymmetric mean-field αΩ dynamo models applicable to solar-type stars, for 20 distinct combinations of rotation rates and luminosities. The internal differential rotation and kinetic helicity profiles required to calculate source terms in these dynamo models are extracted from a corresponding series of global three-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations of solar/stellar convection, so that the resulting dynamo models end up involving only one free parameter, namely, the turbulent magnetic diffusivity in the convecting layers. Even though the αΩ dynamo solutions exhibit a broad range of morphologies, and sometimes even double cycles, these models manage to reproduce relativelymore » well the observationally inferred relationship between cycle period and rotation rate. On the other hand, they fail in capturing the observed increase of magnetic activity levels with rotation rate. This failure is due to our use of a simple algebraic α-quenching formula as the sole amplitude-limiting nonlinearity. This suggests that α-quenching is not the primary mechanism setting the amplitude of stellar magnetic cycles, with magnetic reaction on large-scale flows emerging as the more likely candidate. This inference is coherent with analyses of various recent global magnetohydrodynamical simulations of solar/stellar convection.« less

  9. Gravitational dynamos and the low-frequency geomagnetic secular variation.

    PubMed

    Olson, P

    2007-12-18

    Self-sustaining numerical dynamos are used to infer the sources of low-frequency secular variation of the geomagnetic field. Gravitational dynamo models powered by compositional convection in an electrically conducting, rotating fluid shell exhibit several regimes of magnetic field behavior with an increasing Rayleigh number of the convection, including nearly steady dipoles, chaotic nonreversing dipoles, and chaotic reversing dipoles. The time average dipole strength and dipolarity of the magnetic field decrease, whereas the dipole variability, average dipole tilt angle, and frequency of polarity reversals increase with Rayleigh number. Chaotic gravitational dynamos have large-amplitude dipole secular variation with maximum power at frequencies corresponding to a few cycles per million years on Earth. Their external magnetic field structure, dipole statistics, low-frequency power spectra, and polarity reversal frequency are comparable to the geomagnetic field. The magnetic variability is driven by the Lorentz force and is characterized by an inverse correlation between dynamo magnetic and kinetic energy fluctuations. A constant energy dissipation theory accounts for this inverse energy correlation, which is shown to produce conditions favorable for dipole drift, polarity reversals, and excursions.

  10. Grand minima and equatorial symmetry breaking in axisymmetric dynamo models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooke, John M.; Pelt, Jaan; Tavakol, Reza; Tworkowski, Andrew

    1998-04-01

    We consider the manner in which time-periodic solutions of an axisymmetric dynamo model can undergo breaking of equatorial symmetry, i.e. loss of pure dipolar or quadrupolar symmetry. By considering the symmetry group underlying the solutions, we show that the fluctuations responsible for the symmetry-breaking can be constrained such that they are in resonance with the former solution. They can then be amplified until they are comparable in magnitude to the former solution. If the bifurcation is supercritical, the amplitude of the fluctuation is stabilised and a stable mixed parity limit cycle is formed. If it is subcritical it gives rise to a recently identified form of intermittency, called icicle intermittency. This produces episodes in which the original solution and the fluctuation are almost exactly synchronised and the fluctuation grows exponentially in amplitude, interrupted by brief episodes where synchronicity is lost and the amplitude of the fluctuation declines rapidly by several orders of magnitude. During these latter episodes there is a significant dip in the amplitude of the total magnetic field. This model-independent analysis can produce quantitative predictions for the behaviour of this bifurcation and we provide evidence for this behaviour by analysing timeseries from four different mean-field dynamo models, where intermittency is observed without the need for stochastic, or chaotically driven, forcing terms in the dynamo equations. We compare these results with recent work on intermittency in dynamo models and consider their relevance to the intermittency present in solar and stellar cycles.

  11. Identification of vortexes obstructing the dynamo mechanism in laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limone, A.; Hatch, D. R.; Forest, C. B.; Jenko, F.

    2013-06-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic dynamo effect explains the generation of self-sustained magnetic fields in electrically conducting flows, especially in geo- and astrophysical environments. Yet the details of this mechanism are still unknown, e.g., how and to which extent the geometry, the fluid topology, the forcing mechanism, and the turbulence can have a negative effect on this process. We report on numerical simulations carried out in spherical geometry, analyzing the predicted velocity flow with the so-called singular value decomposition, a powerful technique that allows us to precisely identify vortexes in the flow which would be difficult to characterize with conventional spectral methods. We then quantify the contribution of these vortexes to the growth rate of the magnetic energy in the system. We identify an axisymmetric vortex, whose rotational direction changes periodically in time, and whose dynamics are decoupled from those of the large scale background flow, that is detrimental for the dynamo effect. A comparison with experiments is carried out, showing that similar dynamics were observed in cylindrical geometry. These previously unexpected eddies, which impede the dynamo effect, offer an explanation for the experimental difficulties in attaining a dynamo in spherical geometry.

  12. Fluctuation dynamo and turbulent induction at small Prandtl number.

    PubMed

    Eyink, Gregory L

    2010-10-01

    We study the Lagrangian mechanism of the fluctuation dynamo at zero Prandtl number and infinite magnetic Reynolds number, in the Kazantsev-Kraichnan model of white-noise advection. With a rough velocity field corresponding to a turbulent inertial range, flux freezing holds only in a stochastic sense. We show that field lines arriving to the same point which were initially separated by many resistive lengths are important to the dynamo. Magnetic vectors of the seed field that point parallel to the initial separation vector arrive anticorrelated and produce an "antidynamo" effect. We also study the problem of "magnetic induction" of a spatially uniform seed field. We find no essential distinction between this process and fluctuation dynamo, both producing the same growth rates and small-scale magnetic correlations. In the regime of very rough velocity fields where fluctuation dynamo fails, we obtain the induced magnetic energy spectra. We use these results to evaluate theories proposed for magnetic spectra in laboratory experiments of turbulent induction.

  13. Mean-field dynamo action in renovating shearing flows.

    PubMed

    Kolekar, Sanved; Subramanian, Kandaswamy; Sridhar, S

    2012-08-01

    We study mean-field dynamo action in renovating flows with finite and nonzero correlation time (τ) in the presence of shear. Previous results obtained when shear was absent are generalized to the case with shear. The question of whether the mean magnetic field can grow in the presence of shear and nonhelical turbulence, as seen in numerical simulations, is examined. We show in a general manner that, if the motions are strictly nonhelical, then such mean-field dynamo action is not possible. This result is not limited to low (fluid or magnetic) Reynolds numbers nor does it use any closure approximation; it only assumes that the flow renovates itself after each time interval τ. Specifying to a particular form of the renovating flow with helicity, we recover the standard dispersion relation of the α(2)Ω dynamo, in the small τ or large wavelength limit. Thus mean fields grow even in the presence of rapidly growing fluctuations, surprisingly, in a manner predicted by the standard quasilinear closure, even though such a closure is not strictly justified. Our work also suggests the possibility of obtaining mean-field dynamo growth in the presence of helicity fluctuations, although having a coherent helicity will be more efficient.

  14. Gravitational dynamos and the low-frequency geomagnetic secular variation

    PubMed Central

    Olson, P.

    2007-01-01

    Self-sustaining numerical dynamos are used to infer the sources of low-frequency secular variation of the geomagnetic field. Gravitational dynamo models powered by compositional convection in an electrically conducting, rotating fluid shell exhibit several regimes of magnetic field behavior with an increasing Rayleigh number of the convection, including nearly steady dipoles, chaotic nonreversing dipoles, and chaotic reversing dipoles. The time average dipole strength and dipolarity of the magnetic field decrease, whereas the dipole variability, average dipole tilt angle, and frequency of polarity reversals increase with Rayleigh number. Chaotic gravitational dynamos have large-amplitude dipole secular variation with maximum power at frequencies corresponding to a few cycles per million years on Earth. Their external magnetic field structure, dipole statistics, low-frequency power spectra, and polarity reversal frequency are comparable to the geomagnetic field. The magnetic variability is driven by the Lorentz force and is characterized by an inverse correlation between dynamo magnetic and kinetic energy fluctuations. A constant energy dissipation theory accounts for this inverse energy correlation, which is shown to produce conditions favorable for dipole drift, polarity reversals, and excursions. PMID:18048345

  15. The chronology of the martian volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plescia, J. B.; Saunders, R. S.

    1979-01-01

    The volcanoes of Mars have been divided into three groups based on morphology: basaltic shields, domes and composite cones, and highland patera. A fourth group can be added to include the volcano-tectonic depressions. Using crater counts and the absolute chronology of Soderblom, an attempt is made to estimate the history of the volcanoes. Early in the martian history, about 2.5 b.y. ago, all three styles of volcanoes were active at various locations on the surface. At approximately 1.7-1.8 b.y. ago a transition occurred in the style and loci of volcanic construction. Volcanoes of younger age appear to be only of the basaltic shield group and are restricted to the Tharsis region. This same transition was noted by a change in the style of the basaltic shield group. Older shields were small low features, while the younger shields are significantly broader and taller.

  16. First Numerical Simulations of Turbulent Dynamos Driven by Libration, Precession and Tides in Triaxial Ellipsoids - An Alternative Route for Planetary Magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Bars, M.; Kanuganti, S. R.; Favier, B.

    2017-12-01

    Most of the time, planetary dynamos are - tacitly or not - associated with thermo-solutal convection. The convective dynamo model has indeed proven successful to explain the current Earth's magnetic field. However, its results are sometimes difficult to reconcile with observational data and its validity can be questioned for several celestial bodies. For instance, the small size of the Moon and Ganymede makes it difficult to maintain a sufficient temperature gradient to sustain convection and to explain their past and present magnetic fields, respectively. The same caveat applies to the growing number of planetesimals shown to have generated magnetic fields in their early history. Finally, the energy budget of the early Earth is difficult to reconcile with a convective dynamo before the onset of inner core growth. Significant effort has thus been put into finding new routes for planetary dynamo. In particular, the rotational dynamics of planets, moons and small bodies, where their average spinning motion is periodically perturbed by the small mechanical forcings of libration, precession and/or tides, is now widely accepted as an efficient source of core turbulence. The underlying mechanism relies on a parametric instability where the inertial waves of the rotating fluid core are resonantly excited by the small forcing, leading to exponential growth and bulk filling intense motions, pumping their energy from the orbital dynamics. Dynamos driven by mechanical forcing have been suggested for the Moon, Mars, Io, the early Earth, etc. However, the real dynamo capacity of the corresponding flows has up-to-now been studied only in very limited cases, with simplified spherical/spheroidal geometries and/or overly viscous fluids. We will present here the first numerical simulations of dynamos driven by libration, precession and tides, in the triaxial ellipsoidal geometry and in the turbulent regime relevant for planetary cores. We will describe the numerical techniques

  17. Exogenous carbonaceous matter in ancient martian sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mojzsis, S. J.; Abramov, O.; Kereszturi, A.

    2015-12-01

    We re-evaluate the early evolution of an organic-matter rich (~10 wt. %) interplanetary dust particle flux to early Mars. Our work builds upon physical models that rely on plausible sources of exogenous debris and their dynamical rates of decay, the martian cratering record, and preservation of Noachian-Hesperian sedimentary units that have the potential to host organics. Post primary-accretionary scenarios that would have delivered abundant exogenous carbon to Mars can be imagined in two ways: a simple exponential decay with an approximately 100 Myr half-life, or as a "Sawtooth" timeline characterized by both faster-than-exponential decay from primary accretion and reduced total delivered mass. Indications are that a late bombardment spike was superposed on an otherwise broadly monotonic decline from primary accretion, of which two types are explored: a classical "Late Heavy Bombardment" (LHB) peak of impactors centered at ca. 3950 Ma and lasting 100 Myr, and a protracted bombardment typified by a sudden increase in impactor flux at ca. 4240-4100 Ma with a correspondingly longer decay time (400 Myr). Numerical models for each of the four bombardment scenarios explored in this work shows that exogenous organic matter could be a significant component of Noachian (ca. 4200-3700 Ma) and pre-Noachian (4500-4200 Ma) sediments. The discovery of organic-matter in martian sediments will be obfuscated by material of extra-areological origin. We predict that an earmark for the origin of this carbon would be correlated siderophile element abundances (e.g. Ni, Cr, and the platinoids). A time-dependent compositional relationship of C:HSEs would allow us to derive a chemochronology for pre-Hesperian (pre-3700 Ma) sedimentary units.

  18. The western Qaidam Basin as a potential Martian environmental analogue: An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anglés, Angélica; Li, Yiliang

    2017-05-01

    The early Martian environment is interpreted as warmer and wetter, before a significant change in its global climatic conditions irreversibly led to the current hyperarid environments. This transition is one of the most intriguing processes of Martian history. The extreme climatic change is preserved in the salt deposits, desiccated landscapes, and geomorphological structures that were shaped by the evaporation of water. However, until a manned journey to Mars is feasible, many Martian materials, morphological structures, and much of its evolutionary history will continue to be poorly understood. In this regard, searching and investigating Martian analogues are still meaningful. To find an Earth environment with a whole set of Martian structures distributed at a scale comparable to Mars is even more important to test landing crafts and provide optimized working parameters for rovers. The western Qaidam Basin in North Tibetan Plateau is such a Martian analogue. The area harbors one of the most extreme hyperarid environments on Earth and contains a series of ancient lakes that evaporated at different evolutionary stages during the rise of the Tibetan Plateau. Large quantities of salts and geomorphological features formed during the transition of warmer-and-wet to colder-and-dry conditions provide unique references to study the modern Martian surface and interpret the orbital data. We present numerous similarities and results of investigations that suggest the Qaidam Basin as a potential analogue to study modern geomorphic processes on Mars, and suggest that this is an essential site to test future Mars sample return missions.

  19. Small-scale dynamo at low magnetic Prandtl numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schober, Jennifer; Schleicher, Dominik; Bovino, Stefano; Klessen, Ralf S.

    2012-12-01

    The present-day Universe is highly magnetized, even though the first magnetic seed fields were most probably extremely weak. To explain the growth of the magnetic field strength over many orders of magnitude, fast amplification processes need to operate. The most efficient mechanism known today is the small-scale dynamo, which converts turbulent kinetic energy into magnetic energy leading to an exponential growth of the magnetic field. The efficiency of the dynamo depends on the type of turbulence indicated by the slope of the turbulence spectrum v(ℓ)∝ℓϑ, where v(ℓ) is the eddy velocity at a scale ℓ. We explore turbulent spectra ranging from incompressible Kolmogorov turbulence with ϑ=1/3 to highly compressible Burgers turbulence with ϑ=1/2. In this work, we analyze the properties of the small-scale dynamo for low magnetic Prandtl numbers Pm, which denotes the ratio of the magnetic Reynolds number, Rm, to the hydrodynamical one, Re. We solve the Kazantsev equation, which describes the evolution of the small-scale magnetic field, using the WKB approximation. In the limit of low magnetic Prandtl numbers, the growth rate is proportional to Rm(1-ϑ)/(1+ϑ). We furthermore discuss the critical magnetic Reynolds number Rmcrit, which is required for small-scale dynamo action. The value of Rmcrit is roughly 100 for Kolmogorov turbulence and 2700 for Burgers. Furthermore, we discuss that Rmcrit provides a stronger constraint in the limit of low Pm than it does for large Pm. We conclude that the small-scale dynamo can operate in the regime of low magnetic Prandtl numbers if the magnetic Reynolds number is large enough. Thus, the magnetic field amplification on small scales can take place in a broad range of physical environments and amplify week magnetic seed fields on short time scales.

  20. Dynamical Regimes and the Dynamo Bifurcation in Geodynamo Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petitdemange, L.

    2017-12-01

    We investigate the nature of the dynamo bifurcation in a configuration applicable to the Earth's liquid outer core : in a rotating spherical shell with thermally driven motions with no-slip boundaries. Unlike previous studies on dynamo bifurcations, the control parameters have been varied significantly in order to deduce general tendencies. Numerical studies on the stability domain of dipolar magnetic fields found a dichotomy between non-reversing dipole-dominated dynamos and the reversing non-dipole-dominated multipolar solutions. We show that, by considering weak initial fields, the above transition is replaced by a region of bistability for which dipolar and multipolar dynamos coexist. Such a result was also observed in models with free-slip boundaries in which the strong shear of geostrophic zonal flows can develop and gives rise to non-dipolar fields. We show that a similar process develops in no-slip models when viscous effects are reduced sufficiently.Close to the onset of convection (Rac), the axial dipole grows exponentially in the kinematic phase and saturation occurs by marginally changing the flow structure close to the dynamo threshold Rmc. The resulting bifurcation is then supercritical.In the range 3RacIf (Ra/Ra_c>10), important zonal flows develop in non-magnetic models with low viscosity. The field topology depends on the initial magnetic field. The dipolar branch has a subcritical behaviour whereas the multipolar branch is supercritical. By approaching more realistic parameters, the extension of this bistable regime increases (lower Rossby numbers). An hysteretic behaviour questions the common interpretation for geomagnetic reversals. Far above Rm_c$, the Lorentz force becomes dominant, as it is expected in planetary cores.

  1. Simulation of Dynamo Action Generated by a Precession Driven Flow.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giesecke, A.; Vogt, T.; Gundrum, T.; Stefani, F.

    2017-12-01

    Since many years precession is regarded as an alternative flow drivingmechanism that may account, e.g., for remarkable features of theancient lunar magnetic field [Dwyer 2011; Noir 2013; Weiss 2014] or asa complementary power source for the geodynamo [Malkus 1968; Vanyo1991]. Precessional forcing is also of great interest from theexperimental point of view because it represents a natural forcingmechanism that allows an efficient driving of conducting fluid flowson the laboratory scale without making use of propellers orpumps. Within the project DRESDYN (DREsden Sodium facility for DYNamoand thermohydraulic studies) a dynamo experiment is under developmentat Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) in which a precessiondriven flow of liquid sodium with a magnetic Reynolds number of up toRm=700 will be used to drive dynamo action.Our present study addresses preparative numerical simulations and flowmeasurements at a small model experiment running with water. Theresulting flow pattern and amplitude provide the essential ingredientsfor kinematic dynamo models that are used to estimate whether theparticular flow is able to drive a dynamo. In the strongly non-linearregime the flow essentially consists of standing inertial waves (see Figure). Most remarkable feature is the occurrence of a resonant-like axisymmetricmode which emerges around a precession ratio of Ωp/Ωc = 0.1on top of the directly forced re-circulation flow. The combination ofthis axisymmetric mode and the forced m=1 Kelvin mode is indeedcapable of driving a dynamo at a critical magnetic Reynolds number ofRmc=430 which is well within the range achievable in theexperiment. However, the occurrence of the axisymmetric mode slightlydepends on the absolute rotation rate of the cylinder and futureexperiments are required to indicate whether it persists at theextremely large Re that will be obtained in the large scale sodiumexperiment.

  2. Small-scale dynamo at low magnetic Prandtl numbers.

    PubMed

    Schober, Jennifer; Schleicher, Dominik; Bovino, Stefano; Klessen, Ralf S

    2012-12-01

    The present-day Universe is highly magnetized, even though the first magnetic seed fields were most probably extremely weak. To explain the growth of the magnetic field strength over many orders of magnitude, fast amplification processes need to operate. The most efficient mechanism known today is the small-scale dynamo, which converts turbulent kinetic energy into magnetic energy leading to an exponential growth of the magnetic field. The efficiency of the dynamo depends on the type of turbulence indicated by the slope of the turbulence spectrum v(ℓ)∝ℓ^{ϑ}, where v(ℓ) is the eddy velocity at a scale ℓ. We explore turbulent spectra ranging from incompressible Kolmogorov turbulence with ϑ=1/3 to highly compressible Burgers turbulence with ϑ=1/2. In this work, we analyze the properties of the small-scale dynamo for low magnetic Prandtl numbers Pm, which denotes the ratio of the magnetic Reynolds number, Rm, to the hydrodynamical one, Re. We solve the Kazantsev equation, which describes the evolution of the small-scale magnetic field, using the WKB approximation. In the limit of low magnetic Prandtl numbers, the growth rate is proportional to Rm^{(1-ϑ)/(1+ϑ)}. We furthermore discuss the critical magnetic Reynolds number Rm_{crit}, which is required for small-scale dynamo action. The value of Rm_{crit} is roughly 100 for Kolmogorov turbulence and 2700 for Burgers. Furthermore, we discuss that Rm_{crit} provides a stronger constraint in the limit of low Pm than it does for large Pm. We conclude that the small-scale dynamo can operate in the regime of low magnetic Prandtl numbers if the magnetic Reynolds number is large enough. Thus, the magnetic field amplification on small scales can take place in a broad range of physical environments and amplify week magnetic seed fields on short time scales.

  3. Formation Timescales of the Martian Valley Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoke, M. T.; Hynek, B. M.

    2010-12-01

    The presence of valley networks across much of the ancient surface of Mars [e.g. 1] together with the locations and morphologies of the Martian deltas [e.g. 2] and ancient paleolakes [e.g. 3, 4], provides strong evidence that the Martian surface environment was once capable of sustaining long-lived flowing water. Many of the larger Martian valley networks exhibit characteristics consistent with their formation primarily from surface runoff of precipitated water [5-7]. Their formation likely followed similar processes as those that formed terrestrial river valleys, including the gradual erosion and transport of sediment downstream by bed load, suspended load, and wash load processes. When quantifying flow rates on Mars, some researchers have modified the Manning equation for depth- and width-averaged flow velocity in an attempt to better-fit Martian conditions [e.g. 3, 8-10]. These attempts, however, often result in flow velocities on Mars that are overestimated by up to a factor of two [10]. An alternative to the Manning equation that is often overlooked in the planetary science community is the Darcy-Weisbach (D-W) equation [11], which, unlike the Manning equation, maintains a dependence on the acceleration due to gravity. Although the D-W equation relies on a dimensionless friction function that has been fitted to terrestrial data, it is not a constant like the Manning coefficient. Rather, the D-W friction factor is a function of bed slope, flow depth, and median grain size [e.g. 8, 10, 12-14], and therefore it is better suited to model flow velocity on Mars. In this work, we investigate the formation timescales of the Martian valley networks through the use of four different sediment transport models [14], the D-W equation for average flow velocity, and a variety of parameters to encompass a range of possible formation conditions. This is done specific to each of eight large valley networks, all of which have crater densities that place their formation in the

  4. Chemical composition of Martian fines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B. C.; Baird, A. K.; Weldon, R. J.; Tsusaki, D. M.; Schnabel, L.; Candelaria, M. P.

    1982-01-01

    Of the 21 samples acquired for the Viking X-ray fluorescence spectrometer, 17 were analyzed to high precision. Compared to typical terrestrial continental soils and lunar mare fines, the Martian fines are lower in Al, higher in Fe, and much higher in S and Cl concentrations. Protected fines at the two lander sites are almost indistinguishable, but concentration of the element S is somewhat higher at Utopia. Duricrust fragments, successfully acquired only at the Chryse site, invariably contained about 50% higher S than fines. No elements correlate positively with S, except Cl and possibly Mg. A sympathetic variation is found among the triad Si, Al, Ca; positive correlation occurs between Ti and Fe. Sample variabilities are as great within a few meters as between lander locations (4500 km apart), implying the existence of a universal Martian regolith component of constant average composition. The nature of the source materials for the regolith fines must be mafic to ultramafic.

  5. Martian deltas: Morphology and distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, J. W., Jr.; Scott, D. H.

    1993-01-01

    Recent detailed mapping has revealed numerous examples of Martian deltas. The location and morphology of these deltas are described. Factors that contribute to delta morphology are river regime, coastal processes, structural stability, and climate. The largest delta systems on Mars are located near the mouths of Maja, Maumee, Vedra, Ma'adim, Kasei, and Brazos Valles. There are also several smaller-scale deltas emplaced near channel mouths situated in Ismenius Lacus, Memnonia, and Arabia. Delta morphology was used to reconstruct type, quantity, and sediment load size transported by the debouching channel systems. Methods initially developed for terrestrial systems were used to gain information on the relationships between Martian delta morphology, river regime, and coastal processes.

  6. Dust Mitigation for Martian Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Blakeley Shay

    2011-01-01

    One of the efforts of the In-Situ Resource Utilization project is to extract oxygen, fuel, and water from the Martian air. However, the surface of Mars is covered in a layer of dust, which is uploaded into the atmosphere by dust devils and dust storms. This atmospheric dust would be collected along with the air during the conversion process. Thus, it is essential to extract the dust from the air prior to commencing the conversion. An electrostatic precipitator is a commonly used dust removal technology on earth. Using this technology, dust particles that pass through receive an electrostatic charge by means of a corona discharge. The particles are then driven to a collector in a region of high electric field at the center of the precipitator. Experiments were conducted to develop a precipitator that will function properly in the Martian atmosphere, which has a very low pressure and is made up . of primarily carbon dioxide.

  7. Mineral Abundances in Martian Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, L. M. V.

    2011-01-01

    Using traditional geochemical calculations with in situ Martian cosmochemical data researchers Harry (Hap) McSween Jr. and Ian McGlynn (University of Tennessee) and Deanne Rogers (SUNY at Stony Brook) have developed a method for identifying the major and minor minerals in soils at the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) landing sites. The team used information from the MER Athena instrument package operating on Mars since January, 2004. They created two models using MiniTES spectra, Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) data, and Mossbauer spectrometer data to calculate the mineralogy of average dark soils on the Gusev crater plains and on Meridiani Planum, located on opposite sides of Mars. Soils at both locations are similarly composed of minerals derived from the comminution of basalts (about three quarters by weight) and other minerals derived from rocks altered by chemical weathering (about one quarter by weight). This mixture of possibly unrelated materials (primary and altered) might mean that the alteration of soil did not occur in place and that the basaltic and alteration suites of minerals came from different sources. The nearly identical modal mineralogy at two widely-separated locations on the planet supports a previous hypothesis based on comparable chemical compositions that soils have been homogenized, if not globally then at least over large areas of the Martian surface. Yet, global maps of orbital remote sensing data have not shown surface abundances of alteration minerals as high as those in the Martian soils.

  8. Laser-powered Martian rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harries, W. L.; Meador, W. E.; Miner, G. A.; Schuster, Gregory L.; Walker, G. H.; Williams, M. D.

    1989-01-01

    Two rover concepts were considered: an unpressurized skeleton vehicle having available 4.5 kW of electrical power and limited to a range of about 10 km from a temporary Martian base and a much larger surface exploration vehicle (SEV) operating on a maximum 75-kW power level and essentially unrestricted in range or mission. The only baseline reference system was a battery-operated skeleton vehicle with very limited mission capability and range and which would repeatedly return to its temporary base for battery recharging. It was quickly concluded that laser powering would be an uneconomical overkill for this concept. The SEV, on the other hand, is a new rover concept that is especially suited for powering by orbiting solar or electrically pumped lasers. Such vehicles are visualized as mobile habitats with full life-support systems onboard, having unlimited range over the Martian surface, and having extensive mission capability (e.g., core drilling and sampling, construction of shelters for protection from solar flares and dust storms, etc.). Laser power beaming to SEV's was shown to have the following advantages: (1) continuous energy supply by three orbiting lasers at 2000 km (no storage requirements as during Martian night with direct solar powering); (2) long-term supply without replacement; (3) very high power available (MW level possible); and (4) greatly enhanced mission enabling capability beyond anything currently conceived.

  9. Electrodynamics of the Martian Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledvina, S. A.; Brecht, S. H.

    2017-12-01

    The presence of the Martian crustal magnetic fields makes a significant modification to the interaction between the solar wind/IMF and the ionosphere of the planet. This paper presents the results of 3-D hybrid simulations of Martian solar wind interaction containing the Martian crustal fields., self-consistent ionospheric chemistry and planetary rotation. It has already been reported that the addition of the crustal fields and planetary rotation makes a significant modification of the ionospheric loss from Mars, Brecht et al., 2016. This paper focuses on two other aspects of the interaction, the electric fields and the current systems created by the solar wind interaction. The results of several simulations will be analyzed and compared. The electric fields around Mars due to its interaction with the solar wind will be examined. Special attention will be paid to the electric field constituents (∇ X B, ∇Pe, ηJ). Regions where the electric field is parallel to the magnetic field will be found and the implications of these regions will be discussed. Current systems for each ion species will be shown. Finally the effects on the electric fields and the current systems due to the rotation of Mars will be examined.

  10. Laser-powered Martian rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harries, W. L.; Meador, W. E.; Miner, G. A.; Schuster, Gregory L.; Walker, G. H.; Williams, M. D.

    1989-07-01

    Two rover concepts were considered: an unpressurized skeleton vehicle having available 4.5 kW of electrical power and limited to a range of about 10 km from a temporary Martian base and a much larger surface exploration vehicle (SEV) operating on a maximum 75-kW power level and essentially unrestricted in range or mission. The only baseline reference system was a battery-operated skeleton vehicle with very limited mission capability and range and which would repeatedly return to its temporary base for battery recharging. It was quickly concluded that laser powering would be an uneconomical overkill for this concept. The SEV, on the other hand, is a new rover concept that is especially suited for powering by orbiting solar or electrically pumped lasers. Such vehicles are visualized as mobile habitats with full life-support systems onboard, having unlimited range over the Martian surface, and having extensive mission capability (e.g., core drilling and sampling, construction of shelters for protection from solar flares and dust storms, etc.). Laser power beaming to SEV's was shown to have the following advantages: (1) continuous energy supply by three orbiting lasers at 2000 km (no storage requirements as during Martian night with direct solar powering); (2) long-term supply without replacement; (3) very high power available (MW level possible); and (4) greatly enhanced mission enabling capability beyond anything currently conceived.

  11. Integral equation approach to time-dependent kinematic dynamos in finite domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Mingtian; Stefani, Frank; Gerbeth, Gunter

    2004-11-01

    The homogeneous dynamo effect is at the root of cosmic magnetic field generation. With only a very few exceptions, the numerical treatment of homogeneous dynamos is carried out in the framework of the differential equation approach. The present paper tries to facilitate the use of integral equations in dynamo research. Apart from the pedagogical value to illustrate dynamo action within the well-known picture of the Biot-Savart law, the integral equation approach has a number of practical advantages. The first advantage is its proven numerical robustness and stability. The second and perhaps most important advantage is its applicability to dynamos in arbitrary geometries. The third advantage is its intimate connection to inverse problems relevant not only for dynamos but also for technical applications of magnetohydrodynamics. The paper provides the first general formulation and application of the integral equation approach to time-dependent kinematic dynamos, with stationary dynamo sources, in finite domains. The time dependence is restricted to the magnetic field, whereas the velocity or corresponding mean-field sources of dynamo action are supposed to be stationary. For the spherically symmetric α2 dynamo model it is shown how the general formulation is reduced to a coupled system of two radial integral equations for the defining scalars of the poloidal and toroidal field components. The integral equation formulation for spherical dynamos with general stationary velocity fields is also derived. Two numerical examples—the α2 dynamo model with radially varying α and the Bullard-Gellman model—illustrate the equivalence of the approach with the usual differential equation method. The main advantage of the method is exemplified by the treatment of an α2 dynamo in rectangular domains.

  12. Yamato 980459: Crystallization of Martian Magnesian Magma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koizumi, E.; Mikouchi, T.; McKay, G.; Monkawa, A.; Chokai, J.; Miyamoto, M.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, several basaltic shergottites have been found that include magnesian olivines as a major minerals. These have been called olivinephyric shergottites. Yamato 980459, which is a new martian meteorite recovered from the Antarctica by the Japanese Antarctic expedition, is one of them. This meteorite is different from other olivine-phyric shergottites in several key features and will give us important clues to understand crystallization of martian meteorites and the evolution of Martian magma.

  13. A Genetic Cluster of Martian Trojan Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christou, Apostolos

    2013-10-01

    Trojan asteroids lead 60 degrees ahead (L4) or trail 60 degrees behind (L5) a planet's position along its orbit. The Trojans of Jupiter and Neptune are thought to be primordial remnants from the solar system's early evolution (Shoemaker et al., 1989; Sheppard et al., 2006). Mars is the only terrestrial planet known to host stable Trojans (Scholl et al., 2005) with ~50 km-sized objects expected to exist (Tabachnik and Evans, 1999). I identified 6 additional candidate Martian Trojans within the Minor Planet Center database, including three with multi-opposition orbits. 100 dynamical clones for each of the three asteroids were integrated for 100 Myr under a force model that included the Yarkovsky effect. All clones persisted as L5 Trojans of Mars, implying that their residence time is longer still. This is further supported by recent Gyr numerical integrations (de la Fuente Marcos and de la Fuente Marcos, 2013). The number of stable Martian Trojans is thus raised to 7, 6 of which are at L5. To investigate this asymmetry, I apply a clustering test to their orbits and compare them with the Trojan population of Jupiter. I find that, while Jupiter Trojans are spread throughout the domain where long-term stability is expected, L5 martian Trojans are far more concentrated. The implication is that these objects may be genetically related to each other and to the largest member of the group, 5261 Eureka. If so, it represents the closest such group to the Earth's orbit, still recognizable due to the absence of planetary close encounters which quickly scatter NEO families (Schunova et al., 2012). I explore the origin and nature of this `Eureka cluster', including the thesis that its members are products of the collisional fragmentation and/or rotational fission of Trojan progenitors. I constrain the cluster's age under these scenarios and argue that collisions may be responsible for the observed paucity of km-sized objects. Finally, I discuss how the hypothesis of a genetic

  14. Martian Ionospheric Observation and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Galindo, Francisco

    2018-02-01

    The Martian ionosphere is a plasma embedded within the neutral upper atmosphere of the planet. Its main source is the ionization of the CO2-dominated Martian mesosphere and thermosphere by the energetic EUV solar radiation. The ionosphere of Mars is subject to an important variability induced by changes in its forcing mechanisms (e.g., the UV solar flux) and by variations in the neutral atmosphere (e.g., the presence of global dust storms, atmospheric waves and tides, changes in atmospheric composition, etc.). Its vertical structure is dominated by a maximum in the electron concentration placed at about 120–140 km of altitude, coincident with the peak of the ionization rate. Below, a secondary peak produced by solar X-rays and photoelectron-impact ionization is observed. A sporadic third layer, possibly of meteoric origin, has been also detected below. The most abundant ion in the Martian ionosphere is O2+, although O+ can become more abundant in the upper ionospheric layers. While below about 180–200 km the Martian ionosphere is dominated by photochemical processes, above those altitudes the dynamics of the plasma become more important. The ionosphere is also an important source of escaping particles via processes such as dissociative recombination of ions or ion pickup. So, characterization of the ionosphere provides or can provide information about such disparate systems and processes as the solar radiation getting to the planet, the neutral atmosphere, the meteoric influx, the atmospheric escape to space, or the interaction of the planet with the solar wind. It is thus not surprising that the interest about this region dates from the beginning of the space era. From the first measurements provided by the Mariner 4 mission in the 1960s to the contemporaneous observations, still ongoing, by the Mars Express and MAVEN orbiters, our current knowledge of this atmospheric region is the consequence of the accumulation of more than 50 years of discontinuous

  15. Evolution of the martian mantle as recorded by igneous rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balta, J. B.; McSween, H. Y.

    2013-12-01

    Martian igneous rocks provide our best window into the current state of the martian mantle and its evolution after accretion and differentiation. Currently, those rocks have been examined in situ by rovers, characterized in general from orbiting spacecraft, and analyzed in terrestrial laboratories when found as meteorites. However, these data have the potential to bias our understanding of martian magmatism, as most of the available meteorites and rover-analyzed rocks come from the Amazonian (<2 Ga) and Hesperian (~3.65 Ga) periods respectively, while igneous rocks from the Noachian (>3.8 Ga) have only been examined by orbiters and as the unique meteorite ALH 84001. After initial differentiation, the main planetary-scale changes in the structure of Mars which impact igneous compositions are cooling of the planet and thickening of the crust with time. As the shergottite meteorites give ages <500 Ma1, they might be expected to represent thick-crust, recent volcanism. Using spacecraft measurements of volcanic compositions and whole rock compositions of meteorites, we demonstrate that the shergottite meteorites do not match the composition of the igneous rocks composing the young volcanoes on Mars, particularly in their silica content, and no crystallization or crustal contamination trend reproduces the volcanoes from a shergottite-like parent magma. However, we show that the shergottite magmas do resemble older martian rocks in composition and mineralogy. The Noachian-aged meteorite ALH 84001 has similar radiogenic-element signatures to the shergottites and may derive from a similar mantle source despite the age difference2. Thus, shergottite-like magmas may represent melting of mantle sources that were much more abundant early in martian history. We propose that the shergottites represent the melting products of an originally-hydrous martian mantle, containing at least several hundred ppm H2O. Dissolved water can increase the silica content of magmas and thus

  16. Recent Progress in Understanding the Sun's Magnetic Dynamo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David. H.

    2004-01-01

    100 years ago we thought that the Sun and stars shone as a result of slow gravitational contraction over a few tens of millions of years - putting astronomers at odds with geologists who claimed that the Earth was much, much older. That mystery was solved in the 1920s and 30s with the discovery of nuclear energy (proving that the geologists had it right all along). Other scientific mysteries concerning the Sun have come and gone but three major mysteries remain: 1) How does the Sun produce sunspots with an 11-year cycle? 2) What produces the huge explosions that result in solar flares, prominence eruptions, and coronal mass ejections? and 3) Why is the Sun's outer atmosphere, the corona, so darned hot? Recent progress in solar astronomy reveals a single key to understanding all three of these mysteries.The 11-year time scale for the sunspot cycle indicates the presence of a magnetic dynamo within the Sun. For decades this dynamo was though to operate within the Sun's convection zone - the outmost 30% of the Sun where convective currents transport heat and advect magnetic lines of force. The two leading theories for the dynamo had very different models for the dynamics of the convection zone. Actual measurements of the dynamics using the techniques of helioseismology showed that both of these models had to be wrong some 20 years ago. A thin layer of strongly sheared flow at the base of the convection zone (now called the tachocline) was then taken to be the seat of the dynamo. Over the last 10 years it has become apparent that a weak meridional circulation within the convection zone also plays a key role in the dynamo. This meridional circulation has plasma rising up from the tachocline in the equatorial regions, spreading out toward the poles at a top speed of about 10-20 m/s at the surface, sinking back down to the tachocline in the polar regions, and then flowing back toward the equator at a top speed of about 1-2 m/s in the tachocline itself. Recent dynamo

  17. Solubility of C-O-H volatiles in graphite-saturated martian basalts and application to martian atmospheric evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, B. D.; Hirschmann, M. M.; Withers, A. C.

    2012-12-01

    The modern martian atmosphere is thin, leading to surface conditions too cold to support liquid water. Yet, there is evidence of liquid surface water early in martian history that is commonly thought to require a thick CO2 atmosphere. Our previous work follows the analysis developed by Holloway and co-workers (Holloway et al. 1992; Holloway 1998), which predicts a linear relationship between CO2 and oxygen fugacity (fO2) in graphite-saturated silicate melts. At low oxygen fugacity, the solubility of CO2 in silicate melts is therefore very low. Such low calculated solubilities under reducing conditions lead to small fluxes of CO2 associated with martian magmatism, and therefore production of a thick volcanogenic CO2 atmosphere could require a prohibitively large volume of mantle-derived magma. The key assumption in these previous calculations is that the carbonate ion is the chief soluble C-O-H species. The results of the calculations would not be affected appreciably if molecular CO2, rather than carbonate ion, were an important species, but could be entirely different if there were other appreciable C-species such as CO, carbonyl (C=O) complexes, carbide (Si-C), or CH4. Clearly, graphite-saturated experiments are required to explore how much volcanogenic C may be degassed by reduced martian lavas. A series of piston-cylinder experiments were performed on synthetic martian starting materials over a range of oxygen fugacities (IW+2.3 to IW-0.9), and at pressures of 1-3 GPa and temperatures of 1340-1600 °C in Pt-graphite double capsules. CO2 contents in experimental glasses were determined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and range from 0.0026-0.50 wt%. CO2 solubilities change by one order of magnitude with an order of magnitude change in oxygen fugacity, as predicted by previous work. Secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) determinations of C contents in glasses range from 0.0131-0.2626 wt%. C contents determined by SIMS are consistently higher

  18. Evolution of protoplanetary disks with dynamo magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reyes-Ruiz, M.; Stepinski, Tomasz F.

    1994-01-01

    The notion that planetary systems are formed within dusty disks is certainly not a new one; the modern planet formation paradigm is based on suggestions made by Laplace more than 200 years ago. More recently, the foundations of accretion disk theory where initially developed with this problem in mind, and in the last decade astronomical observations have indicated that many young stars have disks around them. Such observations support the generally accepted model of a viscous Keplerian accretion disk for the early stages of planetary system formation. However, one of the major uncertainties remaining in understanding the dynamical evolution of protoplanetary disks is the mechanism responsible for the transport of angular momentum and subsequent mass accretion through the disk. This is a fundamental piece of the planetary system genesis problem since such mechanisms will determine the environment in which planets are formed. Among the mechanisms suggested for this effect is the Maxwell stress associated with a magnetic field treading the disk. Due to the low internal temperatures through most of the disk, even the question of the existence of a magnetic field must be seriously studied before including magnetic effects in the disk dynamics. On the other hand, from meteoritic evidence it is believed that magnetic fields of significant magnitude existed in the earliest, PP-disk-like, stage of our own solar system's evolution. Hence, the hypothesis that PP disks are magnetized is not made solely on the basis of theory. Previous studies have addressed the problem of the existence of a magnetic field in a steady-state disk and have found that the low conductivity results in a fast diffusion of the magnetic field on timescales much shorter than the evolutionary timescale. Hence the only way for a magnetic field to exist in PP disks for a considerable portion of their lifetimes is for it to be continuously regenerated. In the present work, we present results on the self

  19. Dynamo onset as a first-order transition: lessons from a shell model for magnetohydrodynamics.

    PubMed

    Sahoo, Ganapati; Mitra, Dhrubaditya; Pandit, Rahul

    2010-03-01

    We carry out systematic and high-resolution studies of dynamo action in a shell model for magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence over wide ranges of the magnetic Prandtl number PrM and the magnetic Reynolds number ReM. Our study suggests that it is natural to think of dynamo onset as a nonequilibrium first-order phase transition between two different turbulent, but statistically steady, states. The ratio of the magnetic and kinetic energies is a convenient order parameter for this transition. By using this order parameter, we obtain the stability diagram (or nonequilibrium phase diagram) for dynamo formation in our MHD shell model in the (PrM-1,ReM) plane. The dynamo boundary, which separates dynamo and no-dynamo regions, appears to have a fractal character. We obtain a hysteretic behavior of the order parameter across this boundary and suggestions of nucleation-type phenomena.

  20. Martian plate tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleep, N. H.

    1994-03-01

    The northern lowlands of Mars have been produced by plate tectonics. Preexisting old thick highland crust was subducted, while seafloor spreading produced thin lowland crust during late Noachian and Early Hesperian time. In the preferred reconstruction, a breakup margin extended north of Cimmeria Terra between Daedalia Planum and Isidis Planitia where the highland-lowland transition is relatively simple. South dipping subduction occured beneath Arabia Terra and east dipping subduction beneath Tharsis Montes and Tempe Terra. Lineations associated with Gordii Dorsum are attributed to ridge-parallel structures, while Phelegra Montes and Scandia Colles are interpreted as transfer-parallel structures or ridge-fault-fault triple junction tracks. Other than for these few features, there is little topographic roughness in the lowlands. Seafloor spreading, if it occurred, must have been relatively rapid. Quantitative estimates of spreading rate are obtained by considering the physics of seafloor spreading in the lower (approx. 0.4 g) gravity of Mars, the absence of vertical scarps from age differences across fracture zones, and the smooth axial topography. Crustal thickness at a given potential temperature in the mantle source region scales inversely with gravity. Thus, the velocity of the rough-smooth transition for axial topography also scales inversely with gravity. Plate reorganizations where young crust becomes difficult to subduct are another constraint on spreading age. Plate tectonics, if it occurred, dominated the thermal and stress history of the planet. A geochemical implication is that the lower gravity of Mars allows deeper hydrothermal circulation through cracks and hence more hydration of oceanic crust so that more water is easily subducted than on the Earth. Age and structural relationships from photogeology as well as median wavelength gravity anomalies across the now dead breakup and subduction margins are the data most likely to test and modify hypotheses

  1. Modeling Cooling Rates of Martian Flood Basalt Columns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, D. K.; Jackson, B.; Milazzo, M. P.; Barnes, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    Columnar jointing in large basalt flows have been extensively studied and can provide important clues about the emplacement conditions and cooling history of a basalt flow. The recent discovery of basalt columns on Mars in crater walls near Marte Vallis provides an opportunity to infer conditions on early Mars when the Martian basalt flows were laid down. Comparison of the Martian columns to Earth analogs allows us to gain further insight into the early Martian climate, and among the best terrestrial analogs are the basalt columns in the Columbia River Basalt Group (CRBG) in eastern Washington. The CRBG is one of the youngest (< 17 Myrs old) and most extensively studied basalt provinces in the world, extending over 163,700 square km with total thickness exceeding 1 km in some places. The morphologies and textures of CRBG basalt columns suggest that in many places flows ~100 m thick cooled at uniform rates, even deep in the flow interior. Such cooling seems to require the presence of water in the column joints since the flow interiors should have cooled much more slowly than the flow margins if conductive cooling dominated. Secondary features, such pillow basalts, likewise suggest the basalt flows were in direct contact with standing water in many places. At the resolution provided by the orbiting HiRISE camera (0.9 m), the Martian basalt columns resemble the CRBG columns in many respects, and so, subject to important caveats, inferences linking the morphologies of the CRBG columns to their thermal histories can be extended in some respects to the Martian columns. In this presentation, we will describe our analysis of the HiRISE images of the Martian columns and what can be reasonably inferred about their thermal histories and the conditions under which they were emplaced. We will also report on a field expedition to the CRBG in eastern Washington State. During that expedition, we surveyed basalt column outcrops on the ground and from the air using Unmanned Aerial

  2. Workshop on Early Mars: How Warm and How Wet?, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squyres, S. (Editor); Kasting, J. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This volume contains papers that have been accepted for presentation at the Workshop on Early Mars: How Warm and How Wet?, 26-28 Jul. 1993, in Breckenridge, CO. The following topics are covered: the Martian water cycle; Martian paleoclimatology; CO2/CH4 atmosphere on early Mars; Noachian hydrology; early Martian environment; Martian weathering; nitrogen isotope ratios; CO2 evolution on Mars; and climate change.

  3. Procyon: A New Candidate for the Dynamo Clinical Trial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayres, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Procyon (Alp CMi; F5IV-V) is a bright, nearby subgiant; similar in X-ray emission to the Sun, but very different in mass, luminosity, and evolutionary status. Historical Mt Wilson CaII monitoring was inconclusive whether Procyon has a solar-like 11-yr magnetic cycle, or instead is a "flat-activity" star, as might be guessed from its late-MS-age. However, CaII is a poor magnetic proxy for F-types owing to low spectral contrast. X-rays are better. In fact, Procyon - with some X-ray/UV attention over the past two decades - is an excellent candidate for the ongoing "Dynamo Clinical Trial" sponsored by Chandra, XMM, and HST; ultimately to provide a "calibration" of novel theoretical models that seek to couple the inside Dynamo with the outside corona.

  4. Numerical modeling of the thin shallow solar dynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Bryan, J. B.; Jarboe, T. R.

    2017-10-01

    Nonlinear, numerical computation with the NIMROD code is used to explore and validate the thin shallow solar dynamo model [T.R. Jarboe et al. 2017], which explains the observed global temporal evolution (e.g. magnetic field reversal) and local surface structures (e.g. sunspots) of the sun. The key feature of this model is the presence and magnetic self-organization of global magnetic structures (GMS) lying just below the surface of the sun, which resemble 1D radial Taylor states of size comparable to the supergranule convection cells. First, we seek to validate the thin shallow solar dynamo model by reproducing the 11 year timescale for reversal of the solar magnetic field. Then, we seek to model formation of GMS from convection zone turbulence. Our computations simulate a slab covering a radial depth 3Mm and include differential rotation and gravity. Density, temperature, and resistivity profiles are taken from the Christensen-Dalsgaard model.

  5. Dynamo magnetic-field generation in turbulent accretion disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepinski, T. F.

    1991-01-01

    Magnetic fields can play important roles in the dynamics and evolution of accretion disks. The presence of strong differential rotation and vertical density gradients in turbulent disks allows the alpha-omega dynamo mechanism to offset the turbulent dissipation and maintain strong magnetic fields. It is found that MHD dynamo magnetic-field normal modes in an accretion disk are highly localized to restricted regions of a disk. Implications for the character of real, dynamically constrained magnetic fields in accretion disks are discussed. The magnetic stress due to the mean magnetic field is found to be of the order of a viscous stress. The dominant stress, however, is likely to come from small-scale fluctuating magnetic fields. These fields may also give rise to energetic flares above the disk surface, providing a possible explanation for the highly variable hard X-ray emission from objects like Cyg X-l.

  6. Dynamo Enhancement and Mode Selection Triggered by High Magnetic Permeability.

    PubMed

    Kreuzahler, S; Ponty, Y; Plihon, N; Homann, H; Grauer, R

    2017-12-08

    We present results from consistent dynamo simulations, where the electrically conducting and incompressible flow inside a cylinder vessel is forced by moving impellers numerically implemented by a penalization method. The numerical scheme models jumps of magnetic permeability for the solid impellers, resembling various configurations tested experimentally in the von Kármán sodium experiment. The most striking experimental observations are reproduced in our set of simulations. In particular, we report on the existence of a time-averaged axisymmetric dynamo mode, self-consistently generated when the magnetic permeability of the impellers exceeds a threshold. We describe a possible scenario involving both the turbulent flow in the vicinity of the impellers and the high magnetic permeability of the impellers.

  7. STELLAR DYNAMO MODELS WITH PROMINENT SURFACE TOROIDAL FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Bonanno, Alfio

    2016-12-20

    Recent spectro-polarimetric observations of solar-type stars have shown the presence of photospheric magnetic fields with a predominant toroidal component. If the external field is assumed to be current-free it is impossible to explain these observations within the framework of standard mean-field dynamo theory. In this work, it will be shown that if the coronal field of these stars is assumed to be harmonic, the underlying stellar dynamo mechanism can support photospheric magnetic fields with a prominent toroidal component even in the presence of axisymmetric magnetic topologies. In particular, it is argued that the observed increase in the toroidal energy inmore » low-mass fast-rotating stars can be naturally explained with an underlying α Ω mechanism.« less

  8. Aurora on Uranus - A Faraday disc dynamo mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, T. W.; Rassbach, M. E.; Dessler, A. J.

    1983-01-01

    A mechanism is proposed whereby the solar wind flowing past the magnetosphere of Uranus causes a Faraday disk dynamo topology to be established and power to be extracted from the kinetic energy of rotation of Uranus. An immediate consequence of this dynamo is the generation of Birkeland currents that flow in and out of the sunlit polar cap with the accompanying production of polar aurora. The power extracted from planetary rotation is calculated as a function of planetary dipole magnetic moment and the ionospheric conductivity of Uranus. For plausible values of ionospheric conductivity, the observed auroral power requires a magnetic moment corresponding to a surface equatorial field of the order of 4 Gauss, slightly larger than the value 1.8 Gauss given by the empirical 'magnetic Bodes law'.

  9. A unified large/small-scale dynamo in helical turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhat, Pallavi; Subramanian, Kandaswamy; Brandenburg, Axel

    2016-09-01

    We use high resolution direct numerical simulations (DNS) to show that helical turbulence can generate significant large-scale fields even in the presence of strong small-scale dynamo action. During the kinematic stage, the unified large/small-scale dynamo grows fields with a shape-invariant eigenfunction, with most power peaked at small scales or large k, as in Subramanian & Brandenburg. Nevertheless, the large-scale field can be clearly detected as an excess power at small k in the negatively polarized component of the energy spectrum for a forcing with positively polarized waves. Its strength overline{B}, relative to the total rms field Brms, decreases with increasing magnetic Reynolds number, ReM. However, as the Lorentz force becomes important, the field generated by the unified dynamo orders itself by saturating on successively larger scales. The magnetic integral scale for the positively polarized waves, characterizing the small-scale field, increases significantly from the kinematic stage to saturation. This implies that the small-scale field becomes as coherent as possible for a given forcing scale, which averts the ReM-dependent quenching of overline{B}/B_rms. These results are obtained for 10243 DNS with magnetic Prandtl numbers of PrM = 0.1 and 10. For PrM = 0.1, overline{B}/B_rms grows from about 0.04 to about 0.4 at saturation, aided in the final stages by helicity dissipation. For PrM = 10, overline{B}/B_rms grows from much less than 0.01 to values of the order the 0.2. Our results confirm that there is a unified large/small-scale dynamo in helical turbulence.

  10. A new constraint on mean-field galactic dynamo theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamandy, Luke; Singh, Nishant K.

    2017-07-01

    Appealing to an analytical result from mean-field theory, we show, using a generic galaxy model, that galactic dynamo action can be suppressed by small-scale magnetic fluctuations. This is caused by the magnetic analogue of the Rädler or Ω × J effect, where rotation-induced corrections to the mean-field turbulent transport result in what we interpret to be an effective reduction of the standard α effect in the presence of small-scale magnetic fields.

  11. Dynamos of the Sun, Stars, and Planets - Preface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stix, M.

    2005-04-01

    The conference ``Dynamos of the Sun, Stars, and Planets'' was organized by the Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik Freiburg, and was held at the University of Freiburg from 4th to 6th October 2004. About 50 participants attended the conference, with 8 review lectures, 20 contributed talks, and 6 posters. With only few exceptions, these contributions appear in the present issue of Astronomische Nachrichten. This preface summarizes the discussion of the closing session.

  12. Dynamo room (compartment A21) with view of port side electrical ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Dynamo room (compartment A-21) with view of port side electrical generator and ventilation ducting. (013) - USS Olympia, Penn's Landing, 211 South Columbus Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. Martian Neutron Energy Spectrometer (MANES)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maurer, R. H.; Roth, D. R.; Kinnison, J. D.; Goldsten, J. O.; Fainchtein, R.; Badhwar, G.

    2000-01-01

    High energy charged particles of extragalactic, galactic, and solar origin collide with spacecraft structures and planetary atmospheres. These primaries create a number of secondary particles inside the structures or on the surfaces of planets to produce a significant radiation environment. This radiation is a threat to long term inhabitants and travelers for interplanetary missions and produces an increased risk of carcinogenesis, central nervous system (CNS) and DNA damage. Charged particles are readily detected; but, neutrons, being electrically neutral, are much more difficult to monitor. These secondary neutrons are reported to contribute 30-60% of the dose equivalent in the Shuttle and MIR station. The Martian atmosphere has an areal density of 37 g/sq cm primarily of carbon dioxide molecules. This shallow atmosphere presents fewer mean free paths to the bombarding cosmic rays and solar particles. The secondary neutrons present at the surface of Mars will have undergone fewer generations of collisions and have higher energies than at sea level on Earth. Albedo neutrons produced by collisions with the Martian surface material will also contribute to the radiation environment. The increased threat of radiation damage to humans on Mars occurs when neutrons of higher mean energy traverse the thin, dry Martian atmosphere and encounter water in the astronaut's body. Water, being hydrogeneous, efficiently moderates the high energy neutrons thereby slowing them as they penetrate deeply into the body. Consequently, greater radiation doses can be deposited in or near critical organs such as the liver or spleen than is the case on Earth. A second significant threat is the possibility of a high energy heavy ion or neutron causing a DNA double strand break in a single strike.

  14. Martian Resource Locations - Identification and Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamitoff, G.; James, G.; Barker, D.; Dershowitz, A.

    2002-01-01

    Many physical constituents of the Martian environment can be considered as possible material resources. The identification and utilization of these in-situ Martian natural resources is the key to enabling cost- effective long-duration missions and permanent human settlements on Mars. Also, access to local resources provides an essential safety net for the initial missions. The incident solar radiation, atmosphere, regolith, subsurface materials, polar deposits, and frozen volatiles represent planetary resources that can provide breathable air, water, energy, organic growth media, and building materials. Hence, the characterization and localization of these resources can be viewed as a component of the process of landing/outpost site selection. The locations of early permanent settlements will likely be near the imported and in-situ resources of the initial outposts. Therefore, the initial site selections can have significant long- term ramifications. Although the current information on the location, extent, purity, and ease of extraction of the in-situ resources is limited; this knowledge improves with each electronic bit of information returned from the planet. This paper presents a powerful software tool for the combined organization and analysis of Martian data from all sources. This program, called PROMT (Planetary Resource Optimization and Mapping Tool), is designed to provide a wide range of analysis and display functions that can be applied to raw data or photo- imagery. Thresholds, contours, custom algorithms, and graphical editing are some of the various methods that the user can use to process data. Individual maps can then be created to identify surface regions on Mars that meet specific criteria. For example, regions with possible subsurface ice can be identified and shown graphically by combining and analyzing various gamma ray and neutron emission data sets. Other examples might include regions with high atmospheric pressure, steep slopes, evidence of

  15. CONSISTENT SCALING LAWS IN ANELASTIC SPHERICAL SHELL DYNAMOS

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, Rakesh K.; Gastine, Thomas; Christensen, Ulrich R.

    2013-09-01

    Numerical dynamo models always employ parameter values that differ by orders of magnitude from the values expected in natural objects. However, such models have been successful in qualitatively reproducing properties of planetary and stellar dynamos. This qualitative agreement fuels the idea that both numerical models and astrophysical objects may operate in the same asymptotic regime of dynamics. This can be tested by exploring the scaling behavior of the models. For convection-driven incompressible spherical shell dynamos with constant material properties, scaling laws had been established previously that relate flow velocity and magnetic field strength to the available power. Here we analyzemore » 273 direct numerical simulations using the anelastic approximation, involving also cases with radius-dependent magnetic, thermal, and viscous diffusivities. These better represent conditions in gas giant planets and low-mass stars compared to Boussinesq models. Our study provides strong support for the hypothesis that both mean velocity and mean magnetic field strength scale as a function of the power generated by buoyancy forces in the same way for a wide range of conditions.« less

  16. Understanding lunar magnetic field through magnetization and dynamo mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, K. H.; Kuang, W.

    2016-12-01

    It has been known that the Moon does not have an active global magnetic field. But past missions to the Moon (e.g. Apollo missions, Lunar Prospector) have detected magnetic anomalies in many areas on the lunar surface. They carry rich information about geophysical processes on and within the Moon, thus central for understanding the structure and dynamics in the interior, e.g. the core and the suggested magma ocean. One unsettling problem for understanding the lunar magnetic anomaly is its origin. There have been several mechanisms suggested in the past, either on the anomalies in specific regions, or only at the conceptual stage. The latter include the paleo dynamo. The lunar dynamo mechanism is conceptually very simple: lunar crustal magnetization was acquired in an internal magnetic field that was generated and maintained by dynamo action in the lunar core. Could this simple mechanism suffice to explain most of the observed lunar magnetic anomalies? We present our theoretical calculations of possible paleo-lunar magnetic field strengths based on paleomagnetic measurements of Apollo samples.

  17. Modeling the Solar Convective Dynamo and Emerging Flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Significant advances have been made in recent years in global-scale fully dynamic three-dimensional convective dynamo simulations of the solar/stellar convective envelopes to reproduce some of the basic features of the Sun's large-scale cyclic magnetic field. It is found that the presence of the dynamo-generated magnetic fields plays an important role for the maintenance of the solar differential rotation, without which the differential rotation tends to become anti-solar (with a faster rotating pole instead of the observed faster rotation at the equator). Convective dynamo simulations are also found to produce emergence of coherent super-equipartition toroidal flux bundles with a statistically significant mean tilt angle that is consistent with the mean tilt of solar active regions. The emerging flux bundles are sheared by the giant cell convection into a forward leaning loop shape with its leading side (in the direction of rotation) pushed closer to the strong downflow lanes. Such asymmetric emerging flux pattern may lead to the observed asymmetric properties of solar active regions.

  18. Some consequences of shear on galactic dynamos with helicity fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hongzhe; Blackman, Eric G.

    2017-08-01

    Galactic dynamo models sustained by supernova (SN) driven turbulence and differential rotation have revealed that the sustenance of large-scale fields requires a flux of small-scale magnetic helicity to be viable. Here we generalize a minimalist analytic version of such galactic dynamos to explore some heretofore unincluded contributions from shear on the total turbulent energy and turbulent correlation time, with the helicity fluxes maintained by either winds, diffusion or magnetic buoyancy. We construct an analytic framework for modelling the turbulent energy and correlation time as a function of SN rate and shear. We compare our prescription with previous approaches that include only rotation. The solutions depend separately on the rotation period and the eddy turnover time and not just on their ratio (the Rossby number). We consider models in which these two time-scales are allowed to be independent and also a case in which they are mutually dependent on radius when a radial-dependent SN rate model is invoked. For the case of a fixed rotation period (or a fixed radius), we show that the influence of shear is dramatic for low Rossby numbers, reducing the correlation time of the turbulence, which, in turn, strongly reduces the saturation value of the dynamo compared to the case when the shear is ignored. We also show that even in the absence of winds or diffusive fluxes, magnetic buoyancy may be able to sustain sufficient helicity fluxes to avoid quenching.

  19. Faraday rotation signatures of fluctuation dynamos in young galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sur, Sharanya; Bhat, Pallavi; Subramanian, Kandaswamy

    2018-03-01

    Observations of Faraday rotation through high-redshift galaxies have revealed that they host coherent magnetic fields that are of comparable strengths to those observed in nearby galaxies. These fields could be generated by fluctuation dynamos. We use idealized numerical simulations of such dynamos in forced compressible turbulence up to rms Mach number of 2.4 to probe the resulting rotation measure (RM) and the degree of coherence of the magnetic field. We obtain rms values of RM at dynamo saturation of the order of 45-55 per cent of the value expected in a model where fields are assumed to be coherent on the forcing scale of turbulence. We show that the dominant contribution to the RM in subsonic and transonic cases comes from the general sea of volume filling fields, rather than from the rarer structures. However, in the supersonic case, strong field regions as well as moderately overdense regions contribute significantly. Our results can account for the observed RMs in young galaxies.

  20. Pathfinder Rover, Airbags, & Martian Terrain

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-07-05

    This is one of the first pictures taken by the camera on the Mars Pathfinder lander shortly after its touchdown at 10:07 AM Pacific Daylight Time on July 4, 1997. The small rover, named Sojourner, is seen in the foreground in its position on a solar panel of the lander. The white material on either side of the rover is part of the deflated airbag system used to absorb the shock of the landing. Between the rover and the horizon is the rock-strewn martian surface. Two hills are seen in the right distance, profiled against the light brown sky. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00611

  1. Martian Plain in Late Summer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    The Surface Stereo Imager on NASA's Mars Phoenix Lander acquired this view of the textured plain near the lander at about 11 a.m. local Mars solar time during the mission's 124th Martian day, or sol (Sept. 29, 2008).

    The image was taken through an infrared filter. The brighter patches are dustier than darker areas of the surface.

    The last signal from the lander came on Nov. 2, 2008.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  2. Antarctica as a Martian model.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vishniac, W. V.; Mainzer, S. E.

    1973-01-01

    Results of a survey of a variety of environments in the dry valleys of Antarctica, ranging from mountain crests to valley floors. The main purpose of the investigation was the determination of active microbial multiplication in the soil. A series of techniques was employed which permitted the detection of bacterial growth in situ. All evidence points to an active growth of micro-organisms in the Antarctic soil in all locations examined. The measurements were supported by electron micrographs of soil films which showed colonial growth covering soil particles. These findings suggest that Antarctica does not serve as a useful model for the Martian environment in evaluating quarantine standards.

  3. Martian paleolakes and waterways: Exobiological implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, D.H.; Rice, J. W.; Dohm, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    The problems of how warm and wet Mars once was and when climate transitions may have occurred are not well understood. Mars may have had an early environment similar to Earth's that was conductive to the ermergence of life. In addition, increasing geologic evidence indicates that water, upon which terrestrial life depends, has been present on Mars throughout its history. This evidence suggests that life could have developed not only on early Mars but also over longer periods of time in longer lasting, more clement local environments. Indications of past or present life most likely would be found in areas where liquid water existed in sufficient quantities to provide for the needs of biological systems. We suggest that paleolakes may have provided such environments. Unlike the case on Earth, this record of the origin and evolution of life has probably not been erased by extensive deformation of the Martian surface. Our work has identified eleven prospective areas where large lacustrine basins may once have existed. These areas are important for future biological, geological, and climatological investigations. ?? 1991 Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  4. JMSS-1: a new Martian soil simulant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xiaojia; Li, Xiongyao; Wang, Shijie; Li, Shijie; Spring, Nicole; Tang, Hong; Li, Yang; Feng, Junming

    2015-05-01

    It is important to develop Martian soil simulants that can be used in Mars exploration programs and Mars research. A new Martian soil simulant, called Jining Martian Soil Simulant (JMSS-1), was developed at the Lunar and Planetary Science Research Center at the Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The raw materials of JMSS-1 are Jining basalt and Fe oxides (magnetite and hematite). JMSS-1 was produced by mechanically crushing Jining basalt with the addition of small amounts of magnetite and hematite. The properties of this simulant, including chemical composition, mineralogy, particle size, mechanical properties, reflectance spectra, dielectric properties, volatile content, and hygroscopicity, have been analyzed. On the basis of these test results, it was demonstrated that JMSS-1 is an ideal Martian soil simulant in terms of chemical composition, mineralogy, and physical properties. JMSS-1 would be an appropriate choice as a Martian soil simulant in scientific and engineering experiments in China's Mars exploration in the future.

  5. The dynamics of magnetic Rossby waves in spherical dynamo simulations: A signature of strong-field dynamos?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, K.; Teed, R. J.; Jones, C. A.

    2018-03-01

    We investigate slow magnetic Rossby waves in convection-driven dynamos in rotating spherical shells. Quasi-geostrophic waves riding on a mean zonal flow may account for some of the geomagnetic westward drifts and have the potential to allow the toroidal field strength within the planetary fluid core to be estimated. We extend the work of Hori et al. (2015) to include a wider range of models, and perform a detailed analysis of the results. We find that a predicted dispersion relation matches well with the longitudinal drifts observed in our strong-field dynamos. We discuss the validity of our linear theory, since we also find that the nonlinear Lorentz terms influence the observed waveforms. These wave motions are excited by convective instability, which determines the preferred azimuthal wavenumbers. Studies of linear rotating magnetoconvection have suggested that slow magnetic Rossby modes emerge in the magnetostrophic regime, in which the Lorentz and Coriolis forces are in balance in the vorticity equation. We confirm this to be predominant balance for the slow waves we have detected in nonlinear dynamo systems. We also show that a completely different wave regime emerges if the magnetic field is not present. Finally we report the corresponding radial magnetic field variations observed at the surface of the shell in our simulations and discuss the detectability of these waves in the geomagnetic secular variation.

  6. Martian oceans, valleys and climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, M.H.

    2000-01-01

    The new Mars Global Surveyor altimetry shows that the heavily cratered southern hemisphere of Mars is 5 km higher that the sparely cratered plains of the northern hemisphere. Previous suggestions that oceans formerly occupied that northern plains as evidenced by shorelines are partly supported by the new data. A previously identified outer boundary has a wide range of elevations and is unlikely to be a shoreline but an inner contact with a narrow range of elevations is a more likely candidate. No shorelines are visible in the newly acquired, 2.5 metre/pixel imaging. Newly imaged valleys provide strong support for sustained or episodic flow of water across the Martian surface. A major surprise, however, is the near absence of valleys less than 100 m across. Martian valleys seemingly do not divide into ever smaller valleys as terrestrial valleys commonly do. This could be due to lack of precipitation or lack of surface runoff because of high infiltration rates. High erosion rates and supports warm climates and presence of large bodies of water during heavy bombardment. The climate history and fate of the water after heavy bombardment remain cotroversial.

  7. Wind effects on Martian soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This false-color combination image highlights details of wind effects on the Martian soil at the Pathfinder landing site. Red and blue filter images have been combined to enhance brightness contrasts among several soil units. Martian winds have distributed these lighter and darker fine materials in complex patterns around the rocks in the scene (blue). For scale, the rock at right center is 16 centimeters (6.3 inches) long. This scene is one of several that will be monitored weekly for changes caused by wind activity.

    Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages and Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech). The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator.

  8. Origin of giant Martian polygons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgill, George E.; Hills, L. S.

    1992-01-01

    Extensive areas of the Martian northern plains in Utopia and Acidalia planitiae are characterized by 'polygonal terrane'. Polygonal terrane consists of material cut by complex troughs defining a pattern resembling mudcracks, columnar joints, or frost-wedge polygons on earth. However, the Martian polygons are orders of magnitude larger than these potential earth analogues, leading to severe mechanical difficulties for genetic models based on simple analogy arguments. Plate-bending and finite element models indicate that shrinkage of desiccating sediment or cooling volcanics accompanied by differential compaction over buried topography can account for the stresses responsible for polygon troughs as well as the large size of the polygons. Although trough widths and depths relate primarily to shrinkage, the large scale of the polygonl pattern relates to the spacing between topographic elevations on the surface buried beneath polygonal terrane material. Geological relationships favor a sedimentary origin for polygonal terrane material, but our model is not dependent on the specific genesis. Our analysis also suggests that the polygons must have formed at a geologically rapid rate.

  9. Sampling Martian Soil (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2

    Scientists were using the Moessbauer spectrometer on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit when something unexpected happened. The instrument's contact ring had been placed onto the ground as a reference point for placement of another instrument, the alpha particle X-ray spectrometer, for analyzing the soil. After Spirit removed the Moessbauer from the target, the rover's microscopic imager revealed a gap in the imprint left behind in the soil. The gap, about a centimeter wide (less than half an inch), is visible on the left side of this stereo view. Scientists concluded that a small chunk of soil probably adhered to the contact ring on the front surface of the Moessbauer. Before anyone saw that soil may have adhered to the Moessbauer, that instrument was placed to analyze martian dust collected by a magnet on the rover. The team plans to take images to see if any soil is still attached to the Moessbauer. Spirit took these images on the rover's 240th martian day, or sol (Sept. 4, 2004).

    Figure 1 is the left-eye view of a stereo pair and Figure 2 is the right-eye view of a stereo pair.

  10. Clouds in the Martian Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Määttänen, Anni; Montmessin, Franck

    2018-01-01

    Although resembling an extremely dry desert, planet Mars hosts clouds in its atmosphere. Every day somewhere on the planet a part of the tiny amount of water vapor held by the atmosphere can condense as ice crystals to form cirrus-type clouds. The existence of water ice clouds has been known for a long time, and they have been studied for decades, leading to the establishment of a well-known climatology and understanding of their formation and properties. Despite their thinness, they have a clear impact on the atmospheric temperatures, thus affecting the Martian climate. Another, more exotic type of clouds forms as well on Mars. The atmospheric temperatures can plunge to such frigid values that the major gaseous component of the atmosphere, CO2, condenses as ice crystals. These clouds form in the cold polar night where they also contribute to the formation of the CO2 ice polar cap, and also in the mesosphere at very high altitudes, near the edge of space, analogously to the noctilucent clouds on Earth. The mesospheric clouds are a fairly recent discovery and have put our understanding of the Martian atmosphere to a test. On Mars, cloud crystals form on ice nuclei, mostly provided by the omnipresent dust. Thus, the clouds link the three major climatic cycles: those of the two major volatiles, H2O and CO2; and that of dust, which is a major climatic agent itself.

  11. Rover Touchdown on Martian Surface

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1997-07-06

    This picture taken by the IMP (Imager for Mars Pathfinder) aboard the Mars Pathfinder spacecraft depicts the rover Sojourner's position after driving onto the Martian surface. Sojourner has become the first autonomous robot ever to traverse the surface of Mars. This image reflects the success of Pathfinder's principle objective -- to place a payload on Mars in a safe, operational configuration. The primary mission of Sojourner, scheduled to last seven days, will be to use its Alpha Proton X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) instrument to determine the elements that make up the rocks and soil on Mars. A full study using the APXS takes approximately ten hours, and can measure all elements except hydrogen at any time of the Martian day or night. The APXS will conduct its studies by bombarding rocks and soil samples with alpha particle radiation -- charged particles equivalent to the nucleus of a helium atom, consisting of two protons and two neutrons. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00623

  12. The Martian Dust Cycle: Observations and Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahre, Melinda A.

    2013-01-01

    The dust cycle is critically important for Mars' current climate system. Suspended atmospheric dust affects the radiative balance of the atmosphere, and thus greatly influences the thermal and dynamical state of the atmosphere. Evidence for the presence of dust in the Martian atmosphere can be traced back to yellow clouds telescopically observed as early as the early 19th century. The Mariner 9 orbiter arrived at Mars in November of 1971 to find a planet completely enshrouded in airborne dust. Since that time, the exchange of dust between the planet's surface and atmosphere and the role of airborne dust on Mars' weather and climate has been studied using observations and numerical models. The goal of this talk is to give an overview of the observations and to discuss the successes and challenges associated with modeling the dust cycle. Dust raising events on Mars range in size from meters to hundreds of kilometers. During some years, regional storms merge to produce hemispheric or planet encircling dust clouds that obscure the surface and raise atmospheric temperatures by tens of kelvin. The interannual variability of planet encircling dust storms is poorly understood. Although the occurrence and season of large regional and global dust storms are highly variable from one year to the next, there are many features of the dust cycle that occur year after year. A low-level dust haze is maintained during northern spring and summer, while elevated levels of atmospheric dust occur during northern autumn and winter. During years without global-scale dust storms, two peaks in total dust loading are generally observed: one peak occurs before northern winter solstice and one peak occurs after northern winter solstice. Numerical modeling studies attempting to interactively simulate the Martian dust cycle with general circulation models (GCMs) include the lifting, transport, and sedimentation of radiatively active dust. Two dust lifting processes are commonly represented in

  13. Comparison of Martian Meteorites and Martian Regolith as Shield Materials for Galactic Cosmic Rays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Thibeault, Sheila A.; Simonsen, Lisa C.; Wilson, John W.

    1998-01-01

    Theoretical calculations of radiation attenuation due to energetic galactic cosmic rays behind Martian rock and Martian regolith material have been made to compare their utilization as shields for advanced manned missions to Mars because the detailed chemical signature of Mars is distinctly different from Earth. The modified radiation fields behind the Martian rocks and the soil model were generated by solving the Boltzmann equation using a HZETRN system with the 1977 Solar Minimum environmental model. For the comparison of the attenuation characteristics, dose and dose equivalent are calculated for the five different subgroups of Martian rocks and the Martian regolith. The results indicate that changes in composition of subgroups of Martian rocks have negligible effects on the overall shielding properties because of the similarity of their constituents. The differences for dose and dose equivalent of these materials relative to those of Martian regolith are within 0.5 and 1 percent, respectively. Therefore, the analysis of Martian habitat construction options using in situ materials according to the Martian regolith model composition is reasonably accurate. Adding an epoxy to Martian regolith, which changes the major constituents of the material, enhances shielding properties because of the added hydrogenous constituents.

  14. Geochemistry of Martian Meteorites and the Petrologic Evolution of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, D. W.

    2002-01-01

    Mafic igneous rocks serve as probes of the interiors of their parent bodies - the compositions of the magmas contain an imprint of the source region composition and mineralogy, the melting and crystallization processes, and mixing and assimilation. Although complicated by their multifarious history, it is possible to constrain the petrologic evolution of an igneous province through compositional study of the rocks. Incompatible trace elements provide one means of doing this. I will use incompatible element ratios of martian meteorites to constrain the early petrologic evolution of Mars. Incompatible elements are strongly partitioned into the melt phase during igneous processes. The degree of incompatibility will differ depending on the mineral phases in equilibrium with the melt. Most martian meteorites contain some cumulus grains, but nevertheless, incompatible element ratios of bulk meteorites will be close to those of their parent magmas. ALH 84001 is an exception, and it will not be discussed. The martian meteorites will be considered in two groups; a 1.3 Ga group composed of the clinopyroxenites and dunite, and a younger group composed of all others.

  15. Meteorite constraints on Martian atmospheric loss and paleoclimate

    SciTech Connect

    Cassata, William S.

    The evolution of Mars' atmosphere to its currently thin state incapable of supporting liquid water remains poorly understood and has important implications for Martian climate history. Martian meteorites contain trapped atmospheric gases that can be used to constrain both the timing and effectiveness of atmospheric escape processes. Here in this article, measurements of xenon isotopes in two ancient Martian meteorites, ALH 84001 and NWA 7034, are reported. The data indicate an early episode of atmospheric escape that mass fractionated xenon isotopes culminated within a few hundred million years of planetary formation, and little change to the atmospheric xenon isotopic compositionmore » has occurred since this time. In contrast, on Earth atmospheric xenon fractionation continued for at least two billion years (Pujol et al., 2011). Such differences in atmospheric Xe fractionation between the two planets suggest that climate conditions on Mars may have differed significantly from those on Archean Earth. For example, the hydrogen escape flux may not have exceeded the threshold required for xenon escape on Mars after 4.2–4.3 Ga, which indicates that Mars may have been significantly drier than Earth after this time.« less

  16. Meteorite constraints on Martian atmospheric loss and paleoclimate

    DOE PAGES

    Cassata, William S.

    2017-10-06

    The evolution of Mars' atmosphere to its currently thin state incapable of supporting liquid water remains poorly understood and has important implications for Martian climate history. Martian meteorites contain trapped atmospheric gases that can be used to constrain both the timing and effectiveness of atmospheric escape processes. Here in this article, measurements of xenon isotopes in two ancient Martian meteorites, ALH 84001 and NWA 7034, are reported. The data indicate an early episode of atmospheric escape that mass fractionated xenon isotopes culminated within a few hundred million years of planetary formation, and little change to the atmospheric xenon isotopic compositionmore » has occurred since this time. In contrast, on Earth atmospheric xenon fractionation continued for at least two billion years (Pujol et al., 2011). Such differences in atmospheric Xe fractionation between the two planets suggest that climate conditions on Mars may have differed significantly from those on Archean Earth. For example, the hydrogen escape flux may not have exceeded the threshold required for xenon escape on Mars after 4.2–4.3 Ga, which indicates that Mars may have been significantly drier than Earth after this time.« less

  17. NWA 7034 Martian Breccia: Disturbed Rb-Sr Systematics, Preliminary Is Approximately 4.4 Ga Sm-Nd Age

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyquist, L. E.; Shih, C.-Y.; Peng, Zhan Xiong; Agee, C

    2013-01-01

    Agee et al. [1] reported a Rb-Sr age of 2.089 [plus or minus] 0.081 Ga for the unique Martian meteoritic breccia NWA 7034 making it the oldest Martian basalt, dating to the early Am-azonian epoch [2] of Martian geologic history. We have attempt-ed to confirm this exciting result. Our new Rb-Sr analyses show the Rb-Sr isotopic system to be disturbed, but preliminary Sm-Nd data suggest an even older age of approximately 4.4 Ga for at least some brec-cia components.

  18. How Do Martian Dust Devils Vary Throughout the Sol?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, R.; Lewis, S.; Balme, M. R.; Steele, L.

    2016-12-01

    Dust devils are vortices of air made visible by entrained dust particles. Dust devils have been observed on Earth and captured in many Mars lander and orbiter images. Martian dust devils may be important to the global climate and are parameterised within Mars Global Circulation Models (MGCMs). We show that the dust devil parameterisation in use within most MGCMs results in an unexpectedly high level of dust devil activity during morning hours. In contrast to expectations, based on the observed behaviour of terrestrial dust devils and the diurnal maximum thermal contrast at the surface, we find that large areas of the modelled Martian surface experience dust devil activity during the morning as well as in the afternoon, and that many locations experience a peak in dust devil activity before mid-sol. Using the UK MGCM, we study the amount of surface dust lifted by dust devils throughout the diurnal cycle as a proxy for the level of dust devil activity occurring. We compare the diurnal variation in dust devil activity with the diurnal variation of the variables included in the dust devil parameterisation. We find that the diurnal variation in dust devil activity is strongly modulated by near-surface wind speeds. Within the range of daylight hours, higher wind speeds tend to produce more dust devil activity, rather than the activity simply being governed by the availability of heat at the planet's surface, which peaks in early afternoon. We compare our results with observations of Martian dust devil timings and obtain a good match with the majority of surface-based surveys. We do not find such a good match with orbital observations, but these data tend to be biased in their temporal coverage. We propose that the generally accepted description of dust devil behaviour on Mars is incomplete, and that theories of dust devil formation may need to be modified specifically for the Martian environment. Further dust devil observations are required to support any such

  19. Coherent nonhelical shear dynamos driven by magnetic fluctuations at low Reynolds numbers

    DOE PAGES

    Squire, J.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2015-10-28

    Nonhelical shear dynamos are studied with a particular focus on the possibility of coherent dynamo action. The primary results—serving as a follow up to the results of Squire & Bhattacharjee—pertain to the "magnetic shear-current effect" as a viable mechanism to drive large-scale magnetic field generation. This effect raises the interesting possibility that the saturated state of the small-scale dynamo could drive large-scale dynamo action, and is likely to be important in the unstratified regions of accretion disk turbulence. In this paper, the effect is studied at low Reynolds numbers, removing the complications of small-scale dynamo excitation and aiding analysis bymore » enabling the use of quasi-linear statistical simulation methods. In addition to the magnetically driven dynamo, new results on the kinematic nonhelical shear dynamo are presented. Furthermore, these illustrate the relationship between coherent and incoherent driving in such dynamos, demonstrating the importance of rotation in determining the relative dominance of each mechanism.« less

  20. COHERENT NONHELICAL SHEAR DYNAMOS DRIVEN BY MAGNETIC FLUCTUATIONS AT LOW REYNOLDS NUMBERS

    SciTech Connect

    Squire, J.; Bhattacharjee, A., E-mail: jsquire@caltech.edu

    2015-11-01

    Nonhelical shear dynamos are studied with a particular focus on the possibility of coherent dynamo action. The primary results—serving as a follow up to the results of Squire and Bhattacharjee—pertain to the “magnetic shear-current effect” as a viable mechanism to drive large-scale magnetic field generation. This effect raises the interesting possibility that the saturated state of the small-scale dynamo could drive large-scale dynamo action, and is likely to be important in the unstratified regions of accretion disk turbulence. In this paper, the effect is studied at low Reynolds numbers, removing the complications of small-scale dynamo excitation and aiding analysis bymore » enabling the use of quasi-linear statistical simulation methods. In addition to the magnetically driven dynamo, new results on the kinematic nonhelical shear dynamo are presented. These illustrate the relationship between coherent and incoherent driving in such dynamos, demonstrating the importance of rotation in determining the relative dominance of each mechanism.« less

  1. On large-scale dynamo action at high magnetic Reynolds number

    SciTech Connect

    Cattaneo, F.; Tobias, S. M., E-mail: smt@maths.leeds.ac.uk

    2014-07-01

    We consider the generation of magnetic activity—dynamo waves—in the astrophysical limit of very large magnetic Reynolds number. We consider kinematic dynamo action for a system consisting of helical flow and large-scale shear. We demonstrate that large-scale dynamo waves persist at high Rm if the helical flow is characterized by a narrow band of spatial scales and the shear is large enough. However, for a wide band of scales the dynamo becomes small scale with a further increase of Rm, with dynamo waves re-emerging only if the shear is then increased. We show that at high Rm, the key effect ofmore » the shear is to suppress small-scale dynamo action, allowing large-scale dynamo action to be observed. We conjecture that this supports a general 'suppression principle'—large-scale dynamo action can only be observed if there is a mechanism that suppresses the small-scale fluctuations.« less

  2. Sign-singular measures - Fast magnetic dynamos, and high-Reynolds-number fluid turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Edward; Du, Yunson; Sreenivasan, K. R.; Juneja, A.; Suri, A. K.

    1992-11-01

    It is shown that sign-singular measures with nontrivial cancellation exponents occur in dynamos and fluid turbulence. A cancellation exponent is introduced to characterize such measures quantitatively. Examples from kinematic magnetic dynamos and fluid turbulence are used to illlustrate this kind of singular behavior.

  3. Impact of Convection on Surface Fluxes Observed During LASP/DYNAMO 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    20  Figure 8.  FFM maneuver used in the LASP/DYNAMO experiment (from Wang et al. 2013...Atmosphere Response Experiment DYNAMO Dynamics of Madden-Julian Oscillation EM electro-magnetic EO electro-optical FFM flight-level flux mapping FVS...level flux mapping ( FFM ) modules. Convection modules consisted of dropsonde cloud survey or radar convective element maneuver. Dropsonde modules

  4. Antarctic Martian Meteorites at Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funk, R. C.; Satterwhite, C. E.; Righter, K.; Harrington, R.

    2018-01-01

    This past year marked the 40th anniversary of the first Martian meteorite found in Antarctica by the ANSMET Antarctic Search for Meteorites) program, ALH 77005. Since then, an additional 14 Martian meteorites have been found by the ANSMET program making for a total of 15 Martian meteorites in the U. S. Antarctic meteorite collection at Johnson Space Center (JSC). Of the 15 meteorites, some have been paired so the 15 meteorites actually represent a total of approximately 9 separate samples. The first Martian meteorite found by ANSMET was ALH 77005 (482.500 g), a lherzolitic shergottite. When collected, this meteorite was split as a part of the joint expedition with the National Institute of Polar Research (NIPR) Japan. Originally classified as an "achondrite-unique", it was re-classified as a Martian lherzolitic shergottite in 1982. This meteorite has been allocated to 137 scientists for research and there are 180.934 g remaining at JSC. Two years later, one of the most significant Martian meteorites of the collection at JSC was found at Elephant Moraine, EET 79001 (7942.000 g), a shergottite. This meteorite is the largest in the Martian collection at JSC and was the largest stony meteorite sample collected during the 1979 season. In addition to its size, this meteorite is of particular interest because it contains a linear contact separating two different igneous lithologies, basaltic and olivine-phyric. EET 79001 has glass inclusions that contain noble gas and nitrogen compositions that are proportionally identical to the Martian atmosphere, as measured by the Viking spacecraft. This discovery helped scientists to identify where the "SNC" meteorite suite had originated, and that we actually possessed Martian samples. This meteorite has been allocated to 205 scientists for research and 5,298.435 g of sample is available.

  5. A model of Martian surface chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oyama, V. I.; Berdahl, B. J.

    1979-01-01

    Alkaline earth and alkali metal superoxides and peroxides, gamma-Fe2O3 and carbon suboxide polymer, are proposed to be constituents of the Martian surface material. These reactive substances explain the water modified reactions and thermal behaviors of the Martian samples demonstrated by all of the Viking Biology Experiments. It is also proposed that the syntheses of these substances result mainly from electrical discharges between wind-mobilized particles at Martian pressures; plasmas are initiated and maintained by these discharges. Active species in the plasma either combine to form or react with inorganic surfaces to create the reactive constituents.

  6. Magnetic and electrical properties of Martian particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olhoeft, G. R.

    1991-01-01

    The only determinations of the magnetic properties of Martian materials come from experiments on the two Viking Landers. The results suggest Martian soil containing 1 to 10 percent of a highly magnetic phase. Though the magnetic phase mineral was not conclusively identified, the predominate interpretation is that the magnetic phase is probably maghemite. The electrical properties of the surface of Mars were only measured remotely by observations with Earth based radar, microwave radiometry, and inference from radio-occultation of Mars orbiting spacecraft. No direct measurements of electrical properties on Martian materials have been performed.

  7. Degradation studies of Martian impact craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barlow, N. G.

    1991-01-01

    The amount of obliteration suffered by Martian impact craters is quantified by comparing measurable attributes of the current crater shape to those values expected for a fresh crater of identical size. Crater diameters are measured from profiles obtained using photoclinometry across the structure. The relationship between the diameter of a fresh crater and a crater depth, floor width, rim height, central peak height, etc. was determined by empirical studies performed on fresh Martian impact craters. We utilized the changes in crater depth and rim height to judge the degree of obliteration suffered by Martian impact craters.

  8. Morning Clouds Atop Martian Mountain

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-06-19

    Seen shortly after local Martian sunrise, clouds gather in the summit pit, or caldera, of Pavonis Mons, a giant volcano on Mars, in this image from the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) on NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter. The clouds are mostly made of ice crystals. They appear blue in the image because the cloud particles scatter blue light more strongly than other colors. Pavonis Mons stands about nine miles (14 kilometers) high, and the caldera spans about 29 miles (47 kilometers) wide. This image was made by THEMIS through three of its visual-light filters plus a near-infrared filter, and it is approximately true in color. THEMIS and other instruments on Mars Odyssey have been studying Mars from orbit since 2001. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19675

  9. Construction of Martian Interior Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zharkov, V. N.; Gudkova, T. V.

    2005-09-01

    We present the results of extensive numerical modeling of the Martian interior. Yoder et al. in 2003 reported a mean moment of inertia of Mars that was somewhat smaller than the previously used value and the Love number k 2 obtained from observations of solar tides on Mars. These values of k 2 and the mean moment of inertia impose a strong new constraint on the model of the planet. The models of the Martian interior are elastic, while k 2 contains both elastic and inelastic components. We thoroughly examined the problem of partitioning the Love number k 2 into elastic and inelastic components. The information necessary to construct models of the planet (observation data, choice of a chemical model, and the cosmogonic aspect of the problem) are discussed in the introduction. The model of the planet comprises four submodels—a model of the outer porous layer, a model of the consolidated crust, a model of the silicate mantle, and a core model. We estimated the possible content of hydrogen in the core of Mars. The following parameters were varied while constructing the models: the ferric number of the mantle (Fe#) and the sulfur and hydrogen content in the core. We used experimental data concerning the pressure and temperature dependence of elastic properties of minerals and the information about the behavior of Fe(γ-Fe ), FeS, FeH, and their mixtures at high P and T. The model density, pressure, temperature, and compressional and shear velocities are given as functions of the planetary radius. The trial model M13 has the following parameters: Fe#=0.20; 14 wt % of sulfur in the core; 50 mol % of hydrogen in the core; the core mass is 20.9 wt %; the core radius is 1699 km; the pressure at the mantle-core boundary is 20.4 GPa; the crust thickness is 50 km; Fe is 25.6 wt %; the Fe/Si weight ratio is 1.58, and there is no perovskite layer. The model gives a radius of the Martian core within 1600 1820 km while ≥30 mol % of hydrogen is incorporated into the core. When

  10. Geophysics of Martian Periglacial Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mellon, Michael T.

    2004-01-01

    Through the examination of small-scale geologic features potentially related to water and ice in the martian subsurface (specifically small-scale polygonal ground and young gully-like features), determine the state, distribution and recent history of subsurface water and ice on Mars. To refine existing models and develop new models of near-surface water and ice, and develop new insights about the nature of water on Mars as manifested by these geologic features. Through an improved understanding of potentially water-related geologic features, utilize these features in addressing questions about where to best search for present day water and what space craft may encounter that might facilitate or inhibit the search for water.

  11. Galerkin analysis of kinematic dynamos in the von Kármán geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marié, L.; Normand, C.; Daviaud, F.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate dynamo action by solving the kinematic dynamo problem for velocity fields of the von Kármán type between two coaxial counter-rotating propellers in a cylinder. A Galerkin method is implemented that takes advantage of the symmetries of the flow and their subsequent influence on the nature of the magnetic field at the dynamo threshold. Distinct modes of instability have been identified that differ by their spatial and temporal behaviors. Our calculations give the result that a stationary and antisymmetric mode prevails at the dynamo threshold. We then present a quantitative analysis of the results based on the parametric study of four interaction coefficients obtained by reduction of our initially large eigenvalue problem. We propose these coefficients to measure the relative importance of the different mechanisms at play in the von Kármán kinematic dynamo.

  12. Feasibility Study for a Plasma Dynamo Facility to Investigate Fundamental Processes in Plasma Astrophysics. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Forest, Cary B.

    The scientific equipment purchased on this grant was used on the Plasma Dynamo Prototype Experiment as part of Professor Forest's feasibility study for determining if it would be worthwhile to propose building a larger plasma physics experiment to investigate various fundamental processes in plasma astrophysics. The initial research on the Plasma Dynamo Prototype Experiment was successful so Professor Forest and Professor Ellen Zweibel at UW-Madison submitted an NSF Major Research Instrumentation proposal titled "ARRA MRI: Development of a Plasma Dynamo Facility for Experimental Investigations of Fundamental Processes in Plasma Astrophysics." They received funding for this project and the Plasma Dynamomore » Facility also known as the "Madison Plasma Dynamo Experiment" was constructed. This experiment achieved its first plasma in the fall of 2012 and U.S. Dept. of Energy Grant No. DE-SC0008709 "Experimental Studies of Plasma Dynamos," now supports the research.« less

  13. The stability of nonlinear dynamos and the limited role of kinematic growth rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandenburg, A.; Krause, F.; Meinel, R.; Moss, D.; Tuominen, I.

    1989-04-01

    The growth rate behavior of several kinematic dynamo models was investigated in the context of the observation that, as a rule, a magnetic field of a single symmetry dominates in the sun and other cosmic objects. For all dynamo models considered, it is shown that, as the dynamo numbers increase, the kinematic growth rates of fields of different parities are asymptotically equal, indicating that growth rates do not dominate the final state of the field. The possibility that the stability of different solutions of nonlinear dynamos determines the final state was then investigated. Dynamo models in spherical geometry were found in which both symmetric and antisymmetric solutions are stable. The kind of symmetry finally established depends in these cases on the initial conditions, i.e., on the history of the object. It is noted that the basic mechanism stabilizing or destabilizing different solutions is not well understood.

  14. Role of large-scale velocity fluctuations in a two-vortex kinematic dynamo.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, E J; Brown, B P; Rahbarnia, K; Forest, C B

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the Dudley-James two-vortex flow, which inspired several laboratory-scale liquid-metal experiments, in order to better demonstrate its relation to astrophysical dynamos. A coordinate transformation splits the flow into components that are axisymmetric and nonaxisymmetric relative to the induced magnetic dipole moment. The reformulation gives the flow the same dynamo ingredients as are present in more complicated convection-driven dynamo simulations. These ingredients are currents driven by the mean flow and currents driven by correlations between fluctuations in the flow and fluctuations in the magnetic field. The simple model allows us to isolate the dynamics of the growing eigenvector and trace them back to individual three-wave couplings between the magnetic field and the flow. This simple model demonstrates the necessity of poloidal advection in sustaining the dynamo and points to the effect of large-scale flow fluctuations in exciting a dynamo magnetic field.

  15. Effect of the Lorentz force on on-off dynamo intermittency.

    PubMed

    Alexakis, Alexandros; Ponty, Yannick

    2008-05-01

    An investigation of the dynamo instability close to the threshold produced by an ABC forced flow is presented. We focus on the on-off intermittency behavior of the dynamo and the countereffect of the Lorentz force in the nonlinear stage of the dynamo. The Lorentz force drastically alters the statistics of the turbulent fluctuations of the flow and reduces their amplitude. As a result, much longer bursts (on phases) are observed than is expected based on the amplitude of the fluctuations in the kinematic regime of the dynamo. For large Reynolds numbers, the duration time of the on phase follows a power law distribution, while for smaller Reynolds numbers the Lorentz force completely kills the noise and the system transits from a chaotic state into a laminar time periodic flow. The behavior of the on-off intermittency as the Reynolds number is increased is also examined. The connections with dynamo experiments and theoretical modeling are discussed.

  16. Aerosol in the Martian atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dlugach, Zh. M.; Morozhenko, O. V.

    2000-09-01

    Our examination of the methods and results of available estimates of the optical characteristics of atmospheric aerosols allows us to draw the following conclusions. 1. When the morning and evening hazes are ignored in the analyses of the solar brightness weakening data obtained from the Martian surface, the solar intensity at the upper boundary of the atmosphere as well as its optical thickness may be significantly overestimated. For example, at the Viking-1 lander site the intensity may be overestimated by a factor of 1.7 and τ0 by a factor of 0.35. When these data are used in the analysies of the azimuthal dependence of the Martian sky brightness and when the presence of hazes is ignored, aerosol size and imaginary part of the refractive index are also overestimated. At wavelenghts shorter than 500 nm the spectral values of the imaginary part of the refractive index ni, show the best agreement with those obtained in laboratory for basalts, but for longer wavelengths they are much lower. 3. At the 1971 dust storm maximum the mean geometrical radius r0 of the particles proved to be in the range 3.5-5.7 μm with the dispersion σ2 = 0.2. 4. In October-November τ0 >15, whereas for the "clear" atmosphere τ0 < 0.02 at λ = 500 nm. 5. The turbulent diffusion coefficient at the mean level of the surface layer proved to be not lower than 3\\cdot107 cm2/s in October-November 1971.

  17. Manganese, Metallogenium, and Martian Microfossils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, L. Y.; Nealson, K. H.

    1999-01-01

    Manganese could easily be considered an abundant element in the Martian regolith, assuming that the composition of martian meteorites reflects the composition of the planet. Mineralogical analyses of 5 SNC meteorites have revealed an average manganese oxide concentration of 0.48%, relative to the 0.1% concentration of manganese found in the Earth's crust. On the Earth, the accumulation of manganese oxides in oceans, soils, rocks, sedimentary ores, fresh water systems, and hydrothermal vents can be largely attributed to microbial activity. Manganese is also a required trace nutrient for most life forms and participates in many critical enzymatic reactions such as photosynthesis. The wide-spread process of bacterial manganese cycling on Earth suggests that manganese is an important element to both geology and biology. Furthermore, there is evidence that bacteria can be fossilized within manganese ores, implying that manganese beds may be good repositories for preserved biomarkers. A particular genus of bacteria, known historically as Metallogenium, can form star-shaped manganese oxide minerals (called metallogenium) through the action of manganese oxide precipitation along its surface. Fossilized structures that resemble metallogenium have been found in Precambrian sedimentary formations and in Cretaceous-Paleogene cherts. The Cretaceous-Paleogene formations are highly enriched in manganese and have concentrations of trace elements (Fe, Zn, Cu, and Co) similar to modern-day manganese oxide deposits in marine environments. The appearance of metallogenium-like fossils associated with manganese deposits suggests that bacteria may be preserved within the minerals that they form. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  18. Temperature Gradient on Martian Moon Phobos

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-10-04

    This image combines two products from the first pointing at the Martian moon Phobos by the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) camera on NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter, on Sept. 29, 2017. Surface-temperature information from observation in thermal-infrared wavelengths is overlaid on a more detailed image from a visible-light observation. The left edge of the small moon was in darkness, and the right edge in morning sunlight. Phobos has an oblong shape with average diameter of about 14 miles (22 kilometers). The distance to Phobos from Odyssey during the observation was about 3,424 miles (5,511 kilometers). Researchers will analyze the surface-temperature information from this observation and possible future THEMIS observations to learn how quickly the surface warms after sunup or cools after sundown. That could provide information about surface materials, because larger rocks heat or cool more slowly than smaller particles do. The thermal information in this image is from merging observations made in four thermal-infrared wavelength bands, centered from 11.04 microns to 14.88 microns. Researchers have been using THEMIS to examine Mars since early 2002, but the maneuver turning the orbiter around to point the camera at Phobos was developed only recently. Odyssey orbits Mars at an altitude of about 250 miles (400 kilometers), much closer to the planet than to Phobos, which orbits about 3,700 miles (6,000 kilometers) above the surface of Mars. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA22057

  19. Effects of enhanced stratification on equatorward dynamo wave propagation

    SciTech Connect

    Käpylä, Petri J.; Mantere, Maarit J.; Cole, Elizabeth

    We present results from simulations of rotating magnetized turbulent convection in spherical wedge geometry representing parts of the latitudinal and longitudinal extents of a star. Here we consider a set of runs for which the density stratification is varied, keeping the Reynolds and Coriolis numbers at similar values. In the case of weak stratification, we find quasi-steady dynamo solutions for moderate rotation and oscillatory ones with poleward migration of activity belts for more rapid rotation. For stronger stratification, the growth rate tends to become smaller. Furthermore, a transition from quasi-steady to oscillatory dynamos is found as the Coriolis number ismore » increased, but now there is an equatorward migrating branch near the equator. The breakpoint where this happens corresponds to a rotation rate that is about three to seven times the solar value. The phase relation of the magnetic field is such that the toroidal field lags behind the radial field by about π/2, which can be explained by an oscillatory α{sup 2} dynamo caused by the sign change of the α-effect about the equator. We test the domain size dependence of our results for a rapidly rotating run with equatorward migration by varying the longitudinal extent of our wedge. The energy of the axisymmetric mean magnetic field decreases as the domain size increases and we find that an m = 1 mode is excited for a full 2π azimuthal extent, reminiscent of the field configurations deduced from observations of rapidly rotating late-type stars.« less

  20. Emergence of magnetic flux generated in a solar convective dynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feng; Rempel, Feng, Matthias; Fan, Yuhong

    2016-10-01

    We present a realistic numerical model of sunspot and active region formation through the emergence of flux tubes generated in a solar convective dynamo. The magnetic and velocity fields in a horizontal layer near the top boundary of the solar convective dynamo simulation are used as a time-dependent bottom boundary to drive the radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the emergence of the flux tubes through the upper most layer of the convection zone to the photosphere. The emerging flux tubes interact with the convection and break into small scale magnetic elements that further rise to the photosphere. At the photosphere, several bipolar pairs of sunspots are formed through the coalescence of the small scale magnetic elements. The sunspot pairs in the simulation successfully reproduce the fundamental observed properties of solar active regions, including the more coherent leading spots with a stronger field strength, and the correct tilts of the bipolar pairs. These asymmetries originate from the intrinsic asymmetries in the emerging fields imposed at the bottom boundary, where the horizontal fields are already tilted. The leading sides of the emerging flux tubes are up against the downdraft lanes of the giant cells and strongly sheared downward. This leads to the stronger field strength of the leading polarity fields. We find a prograde flow in the emerging flux tube, which is naturally inherited from the solar convective dynamo simulation. The prograde flow gradually becomes a diverging flow as the flux tube rises. The emerging speed is similar to upflow speed of convective motions. The azimuthal average of the flows around a (leading) sunspot reveals a predominant down flow inside the sunspots and a large-scale horizontal inflow at the depth of about 10 Mm. The inflow pattern becomes an outflow in upper most convection zone in the vicinity of the sunspot, which could be considered as moat flows.

  1. A NEW SIMPLE DYNAMO MODEL FOR STELLAR ACTIVITY CYCLE

    SciTech Connect

    Yokoi, N.; Hamba, F.; Schmitt, D.

    2016-06-20

    A new simple dynamo model for stellar activity cycle is proposed. By considering an inhomogeneous flow effect on turbulence, it is shown that turbulent cross helicity (velocity–magnetic-field correlation) enters the expression of turbulent electromotive force as the coupling coefficient for the mean absolute vorticity. This makes the present model different from the current α –Ω-type models in two main ways. First, in addition to the usual helicity ( α ) and turbulent magnetic diffusivity ( β ) effects, we consider the cross-helicity effect as a key ingredient of the dynamo process. Second, the spatiotemporal evolution of cross helicity is solvedmore » simultaneously with the mean magnetic fields. The basic scenario is as follows. In the presence of turbulent cross helicity, the toroidal field is induced by the toroidal rotation. Then, as in usual models, the α effect generates the poloidal field from the toroidal one. This induced poloidal field produces a turbulent cross helicity whose sign is opposite to the original one (negative production). With this cross helicity of the reversed sign, a reversal in field configuration starts. Eigenvalue analyses of the simplest possible model give a butterfly diagram, which confirms the above scenario and the equatorward migrations, the phase relationship between the cross helicity and magnetic fields. These results suggest that the oscillation of the turbulent cross helicity is a key for the activity cycle. The reversal of the cross helicity is not the result of the magnetic-field reversal, but the cause of the latter. This new model is expected to open up the possibility of the mean-field or turbulence closure dynamo approaches.« less

  2. Variational data assimilation for the initial-value dynamo problem.

    PubMed

    Li, Kuan; Jackson, Andrew; Livermore, Philip W

    2011-11-01

    The secular variation of the geomagnetic field as observed at the Earth's surface results from the complex magnetohydrodynamics taking place in the fluid core of the Earth. One way to analyze this system is to use the data in concert with an underlying dynamical model of the system through the technique of variational data assimilation, in much the same way as is employed in meteorology and oceanography. The aim is to discover an optimal initial condition that leads to a trajectory of the system in agreement with observations. Taking the Earth's core to be an electrically conducting fluid sphere in which convection takes place, we develop the continuous adjoint forms of the magnetohydrodynamic equations that govern the dynamical system together with the corresponding numerical algorithms appropriate for a fully spectral method. These adjoint equations enable a computationally fast iterative improvement of the initial condition that determines the system evolution. The initial condition depends on the three dimensional form of quantities such as the magnetic field in the entire sphere. For the magnetic field, conservation of the divergence-free condition for the adjoint magnetic field requires the introduction of an adjoint pressure term satisfying a zero boundary condition. We thus find that solving the forward and adjoint dynamo system requires different numerical algorithms. In this paper, an efficient algorithm for numerically solving this problem is developed and tested for two illustrative problems in a whole sphere: one is a kinematic problem with prescribed velocity field, and the second is associated with the Hall-effect dynamo, exhibiting considerable nonlinearity. The algorithm exhibits reliable numerical accuracy and stability. Using both the analytical and the numerical techniques of this paper, the adjoint dynamo system can be solved directly with the same order of computational complexity as that required to solve the forward problem. These numerical

  3. Anelastic spherical dynamos with radially variable electrical conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, W.; Jones, C. A.

    2018-05-01

    A series of numerical simulations of the dynamo process operating inside gas giant planets has been performed. We use an anelastic, fully nonlinear, three-dimensional, benchmarked MHD code to evolve the flow, entropy and magnetic field. Our models take into account the varying electrical conductivity, high in the ionised metallic hydrogen region, low in the molecular outer region. Our suite of electrical conductivity profiles ranges from Jupiter-like, where the outer hydrodynamic region is quite thin, to Saturn-like, where there is a thick non-conducting shell. The rapid rotation leads to the formation of two distinct dynamical regimes which are separated by a magnetic tangent cylinder - mTC. Outside the mTC there are strong zonal flows, where Reynolds stress balances turbulent viscosity, but inside the mTC Lorentz force reduces the zonal flow. The dynamic interaction between both regions induces meridional circulation. We find a rich diversity of magnetic field morphologies. There are Jupiter-like steady dipolar fields, and a belt of quadrupolar dominated dynamos spanning the range of models between Jupiter-like and Saturn-like conductivity profiles. This diversity may be linked to the appearance of reversed sign helicity in the metallic regions of our dynamos. With Saturn-like conductivity profiles we find models with dipolar magnetic fields, whose axisymmetric components resemble those of Saturn, and which oscillate on a very long time-scale. However, the non-axisymmetric field components of our models are at least ten times larger than those of Saturn, possibly due to the absence of any stably stratified layer.

  4. Evidence for fast dynamo action in a chaotic web

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, A. D.; Childress, S.

    1990-01-01

    The evolution of a magnetic field in a chaotic web is studied. The model flow possessing the web is closely related to the nearly integrable ABC flow with A = B and C much less than 1. The magnetic diffusivity is taken to be zero and the field is followed using the Cauchy solution. It is found that the flow folds the magnetic field constructively, in the sense that the average magnetic field in a chaotic region grows exponentially in time. This is suggestive of fast dynamo action, although the effect of diffusion of the strong streamwise magnetic field remains to be assessed.

  5. Using Jupiter's gravitational field to probe the Jovian convective dynamo.

    PubMed

    Kong, Dali; Zhang, Keke; Schubert, Gerald

    2016-03-23

    Convective motion in the deep metallic hydrogen region of Jupiter is believed to generate its magnetic field, the strongest in the solar system. The amplitude, structure and depth of the convective motion are unknown. A promising way of probing the Jovian convective dynamo is to measure its effect on the external gravitational field, a task to be soon undertaken by the Juno spacecraft. We calculate the gravitational signature of non-axisymmetric convective motion in the Jovian metallic hydrogen region and show that with sufficiently accurate measurements it can reveal the nature of the deep convection.

  6. Modeling of the coupled magnetospheric and neutral wind dynamos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thayer, Jeff P.

    1993-01-01

    The solar wind interaction with the earth's magnetosphere generates electric fields and currents that flow from the magnetosphere to the ionosphere at high latitudes. Consequently, the neutral atmosphere is subject to the dissipation and conversion of this electrical energy to thermal and mechanical energy through Joule heating and Lorentz forcing. As a result of the mechanical energy stored within the neutral wind (caused in part by Lorentz--and pressure gradient--forces set up by the magnetospheric flux of electrical energy), electric currents and fields can be generated in the ionosphere through the neutral wind dynamo mechanism. At high latitudes this source of electrical energy has been largely ignored in past studies, owing to the assumed dominance of the solar wind/magnetospheric dynamo as an electrical energy source to the ionosphere. However, other researchers have demonstrated that the available electrical energy provided by the neutral wind is significant at high latitudes, particularly in the midnight sector of the polar cap and in the region of the magnetospheric convection reversal. As a result, the conclusions of a number of broad ranging high-latitude investigations may be modified if the neutral-wind contribution to high-latitude electrodynamics is properly accounted for. These include the following: studies assessing solar wind-magnetospheric coupling by comparing the cross polar cap potential with solar wind parameters; research based on the alignment of particle precipitation with convection or field aligned current boundaries; and synoptic investigations attributing seasonal variations in the observed electric field and current patterns to external sources. These research topics have been initiated by satellite and ground-based observations and have been attributed to magnetospheric causes. However, the contribution of the neutral wind to the high-latitude electric field and current systems and their seasonal and local time dependence has yet

  7. Martian Features Formed When Material Moves Downslope

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-06-11

    As on the Earth, many processes can move material down a Martian slope. This graphic compares seven different types of features observed on Mars that appear to result from material flowing or sliding or rolling down slopes.

  8. Searching for Biosignatures in Martian Sedimentary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, A. H.; McDonald, A.; Cockell, C. S.

    2018-04-01

    We present experiments designed to simulate an inhabited martian lacustrine system analogous to Gale Crater. We describe the microbes found to thrive in this simulated environment and identify issues detecting biomarkers in this context.

  9. Martian Rock Harrison in Color, Showing Crystals

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-29

    This view of a Martian rock target called /Harrison merges images from two cameras onboard NASA Curiosity Mars rover to provide both color and microscopic detail. The elongated crystals are likely feldspars, and the matrix is pyroxene-dominated.

  10. Magnetic Fluctuations in the Martian Ionosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Espley, Jared

    2010-01-01

    The Martian ionosphere is influenced by both the solar wind and the regional magnetic fields present in the Martian crust. Both influences ought to cause time variable changes in the magnetic fields present in the ionosphere. I report observations of these magnetic field fluctuations in the Martian ionosphere. I use data from the Mars Global Surveyor magnetometer instrument. By using data from the aerobraking low altitude passes (approx. 200 km) I find that there are numerous fluctuations both near and far from the strong crustal sources. Using data from the 400 km altitude mapping phase (which is near the topside of the primary ionosphere), I look at the comparative strength of the fluctuations relative to the solar wind and temporal variations. I discuss which wave modes and instabilities could be contributing to these fluctuations. I also discuss the implications of these fluctuations for understanding energy transfer in the Martian system and the effects on atmospheric escape.

  11. Telltale Instrument Waving in the Martian Wind

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-10-16

    This frame from a series of images shows NASA Phoenix Mars Lander telltale instrument waving in the Martian wind. Documenting the telltale movement helps mission scientists and engineers determine what the wind is like on Mars.

  12. Ephemeral Dark Spots Associated with Martian Gullies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, N. T.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Titus, T. N.; Kieffer, H. H.

    2001-01-01

    Seasonal spots confined to the channels of the recently-discovered martian gullies are described and explanations offered for their origin. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  13. Evidence for a Heterogeneous Distribution of Water in the Martian Interior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCubbin, Francis; Boyce, Jeremy W.; Srinvasan, Poorna; Santos, Alison R.; Elardo, Stephen M.; Filiberto, Justin; Steele, Andrew; Shearer, Charles K.

    2016-01-01

    The abundance and distribution of H2O within the terrestrial planets, as well as its timing of delivery, is a topic of vital importance for understanding the chemical and physical evolution of planets and their potential for hosting habitable environments. Analysis of planetary materials from Mars, the Moon, and the eucrite parent body (i.e., asteroid 4Vesta) have confirmed the presence of H2O within their interiors. Moreover, H and N isotopic data from these planetary materials suggests H2O was delivered to the inner solar system very early from a common source, similar in composition to the carbonaceous chondrites. Despite the ubiquity of H2O in the inner Solar System, the only destination with any prospects for past or present habitable environments at this time, outside of the Earth, is Mars. Although the presence of H2O within the martian interior has been confirmed, very little is known regarding its abundance and distribution within the martian interior and how the martian water inventory has changed over time. By combining new analyses of martian apatites within a large number of martian meteorite types with previously published volatile data and recently determined mineral-melt partition coefficients for apatite, we report new insights into the abundance and distribution of volatiles in the martian crust and mantle. Using the subset of samples that did not exhibit crustal contamination, we determined that the enriched shergottite mantle source has 36-73 ppm H2O and the depleted shergottite mantle source has 14-23 ppm H2O. This result is consistent with other observed geochemical differences between enriched and depleted shergottites and supports the idea that there are at least two geochemically distinct reservoirs in the martian mantle. We also estimated the H2O content of the martian crust using the revised mantle H2O abundances and known crust-mantle distributions of incompatible lithophile elements. We determined that the bulk martian crust has

  14. Identifying Fossil Bacteria in Martian Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westall, F.; McKay, D. S.; Gibson, E. K., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Within the next decade, robotic missions are going to Mars with the search for evidence for extant and extinct life as at least one of the mission objectives. Moreover, the first Martian samples will be returned to Earth in 2008. It is therefore imperative that we can be certain that we can identify life in Martian rocks. In this paper we will not be discussing extant life but will concentrate on fossil life.

  15. Wind tunnel simulation of Martian sand storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greeley, R.

    1980-01-01

    The physics and geological relationships of particles driven by the wind under near Martian conditions were examined in the Martian Surface Wind Tunnel. Emphasis was placed on aeolian activity as a planetary process. Threshold speeds, rates of erosion, trajectories of windblown particles, and flow fields over various landforms were among the factors considered. Results of experiments on particles thresholds, rates of erosion, and the effects of electrostatics on particles in the aeolian environment are presented.

  16. Groundbased monitoring of Martian atmospheric opacity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herkenhoff, K. E.; Martin, L. J.

    1993-01-01

    The amount of dust in the Martian atmosphere is variable in both space and time. The presence of aerosols in the Mars atmosphere complicates quantitative analysis of Martian surface properties. We have developed a model for Mars surface and atmospheric scattering based on equations in Hillier et al (1991). This formulation was chosen for its speed of computation and because it accounts for the spherical geometry of atmospheric scattering at high mission angles, i.e., near the planetary limb.

  17. Moessbauer Spectroscopy of Martian and Sverrefjell Carbonates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agresti, David G.; Morris, Richard V.

    2011-01-01

    Mars, in its putative "warmer, wetter: early history, could have had a CO2 atmosphere much denser than its current value of <10 mbar. The question of where all this early CO2 has gone has long been debated. Now, several instruments on Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Spirit, including its Moessbauer spectrometer MIMOS II, have identified Mg-Fe carbonate in rock outcrops at Comanche Spur in the Columbia Hills of Gusev Crater. With this finding, carbonate cements in volcanic breccia collected on Sverrefjell Volcano on Spitzbergen Island in the Svalbard Archipelago (Norway) during the AMASE project are mineralogical and possible process analogues of the newly discovered martian carbonate. We report further analyses of Mossbauer spectra from Comanche Spur and discuss their relationship to Mossbauer data acquired on Sverrefjell carbonates. The spectra were velocity calibrated with MERView and fit using MERFit. Instead of the "average temperature" Comanche spectrum (data from all temperature windows summed), we refit the Comanche data for QS within each temperature window, modeling as doublets for Fe2+(carbonate), Fe2+(olivine), and Fe3+(npOx). The temperature dependences of QS for the Comanche carbonate and for a low-Ca carbonate from Chocolate Pots in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) are shown; they are the same within error. For Comanche carbonate summed over 210-270 K, (CS, QS) = (1.23, 1.95) mm/s. The value of QS for Sverrefjell carbonate at 295 K, (CS, QS) = (1.25, 1.87) mm/s, is also plotted, and the plot shows that the QS for the Sverrefjell carbonate agrees within error with the Comanche data extrapolated to 295 K. This agreement is additional evidence that the Sverrefjell carbonates are Mossbauer analogues for the Comanche carbonates, and that both carbonates might have precipitated from solutions that became carbonate rich by passing through buried carbonate deposits.

  18. On the weathering of Martian igneous rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreibus, G.; Waenke, H.

    1992-01-01

    Besides the young crystallization age, one of the first arguments for the martian origin of shergottite, nakhlite, and chassignite (SNC) meteorites came from the chemical similarity of the meteorite Shergotty and the martian soil as measured by Viking XRF analyses. In the meantime, the discovery of trapped rare gas and nitrogen components with element and isotope ratios closely matching the highly characteristic ratios of the Mars atmosphere in the shock glasses of shergottite EETA79001 was further striking evidence that the SNC's are martian surface rocks. The martian soil composition as derived from the Viking mission, with its extremely high S and Cl concentrations, was interpreted as weathering products of mafic igneous rocks. The low SiO2 content and the low abundance of K and other trace elements in the martian soils point to a mafic crust with a considerably smaller degree of fractionation compared to the terrestrial crust. However, the chemical evolution of the martian regolith and soil in respect to surface reaction with the planetary atmosphere or hydrosphere is poorly understood. A critical point in this respect is that the geochemical evidence as derived from the SNC meteorites suggests that Mars is a very dry planet that should have lost almost all its initially large water inventory during its accretion.

  19. The small-scale turbulent dynamo in smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tricco, T. S.; Price, D. J.; Federrath, C.

    2016-05-01

    Supersonic turbulence is believed to be at the heart of star formation. We have performed smoothed particle magnetohydrodynamics (SPMHD) simulations of the small- scale dynamo amplification of magnetic fields in supersonic turbulence. The calculations use isothermal gas driven at rms velocity of Mach 10 so that conditions are representative of starforming molecular clouds in the Milky Way. The growth of magnetic energy is followed for 10 orders in magnitude until it reaches saturation, a few percent of the kinetic energy. The results of our dynamo calculations are compared with results from grid-based methods, finding excellent agreement on their statistics and their qualitative behaviour. The simulations utilise the latest algorithmic developments we have developed, in particular, a new divergence cleaning approach to maintain the solenoidal constraint on the magnetic field and a method to reduce the numerical dissipation of the magnetic shock capturing scheme. We demonstrate that our divergence cleaning method may be used to achieve ∇ • B = 0 to machine precision, albeit at significant computational expense.

  20. Bound of dissipation on a plane Couette dynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alboussière, Thierry

    2009-06-01

    Variational turbulence is among the few approaches providing rigorous results in turbulence. In addition, it addresses a question of direct practical interest, namely, the rate of energy dissipation. Unfortunately, only an upper bound is obtained as a larger functional space than the space of solutions to the Navier-Stokes equations is searched. Yet, in some cases, this upper bound is in good agreement with experimental results in terms of order of magnitude and power law of the imposed Reynolds number. In this paper, the variational approach to turbulence is extended to the case of dynamo action and an upper bound is obtained for the global dissipation rate (viscous and Ohmic). A simple plane Couette flow is investigated. For low magnetic Prandtl number Pm fluids, the upper bound of energy dissipation is that of classical turbulence (i.e., proportional to the cubic power of the shear velocity) for magnetic Reynolds numbers below Pm-1 and follows a steeper evolution for magnetic Reynolds numbers above Pm-1 (i.e., proportional to the shear velocity to the power of 4) in the case of electrically insulating walls. However, the effect of wall conductance is crucial: for a given value of wall conductance, there is a value for the magnetic Reynolds number above which energy dissipation cannot be bounded. This limiting magnetic Reynolds number is inversely proportional to the square root of the conductance of the wall. Implications in terms of energy dissipation in experimental and natural dynamos are discussed.

  1. Relativistic Dynamos in Magnetospheres of Rotating Compact Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomimatsu, Akira

    2000-01-01

    The kinematic evolution of axisymmetric magnetic fields in rotating magnetospheres of relativistic compact objects is analytically studied, based on relativistic Ohm's law in stationary axisymmetric geometry. By neglecting the poloidal flows of plasma in simplified magnetospheric models, we discuss a self-excited dynamo due to the frame-dragging effect (originally pointed out by Khanna & Camenzind) and propose alternative processes to generate axisymmetric magnetic fields against ohmic dissipation. The first process (which may be called ``induced excitation'') is caused by the help of a background uniform magnetic field in addition to the dragging of inertial frames. It is shown that excited multipolar components of poloidal and azimuthal fields are sustained as stationary modes, and outgoing Poynting flux converges toward the rotation axis. The second process is a self-excited dynamo through azimuthal convection current, which is found to be effective if plasma rotation becomes highly relativistic with a sharp gradient in the angular velocity. In this case, no frame-dragging effect is needed, and the coupling between charge separation and plasma rotation becomes important. We discuss briefly the results in relation to active phenomena in the relativistic magnetospheres.

  2. Dynamo Tests for Stratification Below the Core-Mantle Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olson, P.; Landeau, M.

    2017-12-01

    Evidence from seismology, mineral physics, and core dynamics points to a layer with an overall stable stratification in the Earth's outer core, possibly thermal in origin, extending below the core-mantle boundary (CMB) for several hundred kilometers. In contrast, energetic deep mantle convection with elevated heat flux implies locally unstable thermal stratification below the CMB in places, consistent with interpretations of non-dipole geomagnetic field behavior that favor upwelling flows below the CMB. Here, we model the structure of convection and magnetic fields in the core using numerical dynamos with laterally heterogeneous boundary heat flux in order to rationalize this conflicting evidence. Strongly heterogeneous boundary heat flux generates localized convection beneath the CMB that coexists with an overall stable stratification there. Partially stratified dynamos have distinctive time average magnetic field structures. Without stratification or with stratification confined to a thin layer, the octupole component is small and the CMB magnetic field structure includes polar intensity minima. With more extensive stratification, the octupole component is large and the magnetic field structure includes intense patches or high intensity lobes in the polar regions. Comparisons with the time-averaged geomagnetic field are generally favorable for partial stratification in a thin layer but unfavorable for stratification in a thick layer beneath the CMB.

  3. 3D-MHD Simulations of the Madison Dynamo Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayliss, R. A.; Forest, C. B.; Wright, J. C.; O'Connell, R.

    2003-10-01

    Growth, saturation and turbulent evolution of the Madison dynamo experiment is investigated numerically using a 3-D pseudo-spectral simulation of the MHD equations; results of the simulations are used to predict behavior of the experiment. The code solves the self-consistent full evolution of the magnetic and velocity fields. The code uses a spectral representation via spherical harmonic basis functions of the vector fields in longitude and latitude, and fourth order finite differences in the radial direction. The magnetic field evolution has been benchmarked against the laminar kinematic dynamo predicted by M.L. Dudley and R.W. James [Proc. R. Soc. Lond. A 425. 407-429 (1989)]. Initial results indicate that saturation of the magnetic field occurs so that the resulting perturbed backreaction of the induced magnetic field changes the velocity field such that it would no longer be linearly unstable, suggesting non-linear terms are necessary for explaining the resulting state. Saturation and self-excitation depend in detail upon the magnetic Prandtl number.

  4. Fluctuation driven EMFs in the Madison Dynamo Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Elliot; Brown, Ben; Clark, Mike; Nornberg, Mark; Rahbarnia, Kian; Rasmus, Alex; Taylor, Zane; Forest, Cary

    2013-04-01

    The Madison Dynamo Experiment is a 1 m diameter sphere filled with liquid Sodium designed to study MHD in a simply connected geometry. Two impellers drive a two-vortex flow, based on the calculations of Dudley and James, intended to excite system-scale dynamo instability. We present a collection of results from experiments measuring hydrodynamic fluctuations and their MHD effects. An equatorial baffle was added to the experiment in order to diminish the large-eddy hydrodynamic fluctuations by stabilizing the shear layer between the two counter-rotating flow cells. The change in the fluctuation levels was inferred from the change in the spatial spectrum of the induced magnetic field. This reduction correlated with a 2.4 times increase in the induced toroidal magnetic field (a proxy measure of the effective resistivity). Furthermore, the local velocity fluctuations were directly measured by the addition of a 3-d emf probe (a strong permanent magnet inserted into the flow with electrical leads to measure the induced voltage, and magnetic probes to determine the magnetic fluctuations). The measured emfs are consistent with the enhanced magnetic diffusivity interpretation of mean-field MHD.

  5. Dramatically Enhanced Spin Dynamo with Plasmonic Diabolo Cavity.

    PubMed

    Gou, Peng; Qian, Jie; Xi, Fuchun; Zou, Yuexin; Cao, Jun; Yu, Haochi; Zhao, Ziyi; Yang, Le; Xu, Jie; Wang, Hengliang; Zhang, Lijian; An, Zhenghua

    2017-07-13

    The applications of spin dynamos, which could potentially power complex nanoscopic devices, have so far been limited owing to their extremely low energy conversion efficiencies. Here, we present a unique plasmonic diabolo cavity (PDC) that dramatically improves the spin rectification signal (enhancement of more than three orders of magnitude) under microwave excitation; further, it enables an energy conversion efficiency of up to ~0.69 mV/mW, compared with ~0.27 μV/mW without a PDC. This remarkable improvement arises from the simultaneous enhancement of the microwave electric field (~13-fold) and the magnetic field (~195-fold), which cooperate in the spin precession process generates photovoltage (PV) efficiently under ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) conditions. The interplay of the microwave electromagnetic resonance and the ferromagnetic resonance originates from a hybridized mode based on the plasmonic resonance of the diabolo structure and Fabry-Perot-like modes in the PDC. Our work sheds light on how more efficient spin dynamo devices for practical applications could be realized and paves the way for future studies utilizing both artificial and natural magnetism for applications in many disciplines, such as for the design of future efficient wireless energy conversion devices, high frequent resonant spintronic devices, and magnonic metamaterials.

  6. Dynamo action in dissipative, forced, rotating MHD turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Shebalin, John V.

    2016-06-15

    Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence is an inherent feature of large-scale, energetic astrophysical and geophysical magnetofluids. In general, these are rotating and are energized through buoyancy and shear, while viscosity and resistivity provide a means of dissipation of kinetic and magnetic energy. Studies of unforced, rotating, ideal (i.e., non-dissipative) MHD turbulence have produced interesting results, but it is important to determine how these results are affected by dissipation and forcing. Here, we extend our previous work and examine dissipative, forced, and rotating MHD turbulence. Incompressibility is assumed, and finite Fourier series represent turbulent velocity and magnetic field on a 64{sup 3} grid.more » Forcing occurs at an intermediate wave number by a method that keeps total energy relatively constant and allows for injection of kinetic and magnetic helicity. We find that 3-D energy spectra are asymmetric when forcing is present. We also find that dynamo action occurs when forcing has either kinetic or magnetic helicity, with magnetic helicity injection being more important. In forced, dissipative MHD turbulence, the dynamo manifests itself as a large-scale coherent structure that is similar to that seen in the ideal case. These results imply that MHD turbulence, per se, may play a fundamental role in the creation and maintenance of large-scale (i.e., dipolar) stellar and planetary magnetic fields.« less

  7. Dynamo generation of magnetic field in the white dwarf GD 358

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Markiel, J. Andrew; Thomas, John H.; Van Horn, H. M.

    1994-01-01

    On the basis of Whole Earth Telescope observations of the g-mode oscillation spectrum of the white dwarf GD 358, Winget et al. find evidence for significant differential rotation and for a time-varying magnetic field concentrated in the surface layers of this star. Here we argue on theoretical grounds that this magnetic field is produced by an alpha omega dynamo operating in the lower part of a surface convection zone in GD 358. Our argument is based on numerical solutions of the nonlinear, local dynamo equations of Robinson & Durney, with specific parameters based on our detailed models of white-dwarf convective envelopes, and universal constants determined by a calibration with the the Sun's dynamo. The calculations suggest a dynamo cycle period of about 6 years for the fundamental mode, and periods as short as 1 year for the higher-order modes that are expected to dominate in view of the large dynamo number we estimate for GD 358. These dynamo periods are consistent with the changes in the magnetic field of GD 358 over the span of 1 month inferred by Winget et. al. from their observations. Our calculations also suggest a peak dynamo magnetic field strength at the base of the surface convection zone of about 1800 G, which is consistent with the field strength inferred from the observations.

  8. Can Superflares Occur on the Sun? A View from Dynamo Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsova, M. M.; Kitchatinov, L. L.; Livshits, M. A.; Moss, D. L.; Sokoloff, D. D.; Usoskin, I. G.

    2018-01-01

    Recent data from the Kepler mission has revealed the occurrence of superflares in Sun-like stars which exceed by far any observed solar flares in released energy. Radionuclide data do not provide evidence for occurrence of superflares on the Sun over the past eleven millennia. Stellar data for a subgroup of superflaring Kepler stars are analysed in an attempt to find possible progenitors of their abnormal magnetic activity. A natural idea is that the dynamo mechanism in superflaring stars differs in some respect from that in the Sun. We search for a difference in the dynamo-related parameters between superflaring stars and the Sun to suggest a dynamo mechanism as close as possible to the conventional solar/stellar dynamo but capable of providing much higher magnetic energy. Dynamo based on joint action of differential rotation and mirror asymmetric motions can in principle result in excitation of two types of magnetic fields. First of all, it is well-known in solar physics dynamo waves. The point is that another magnetic configuration with initial growth and further stabilisation can also be excited. For comparable conditions, magnetic field of second configuration is much stronger than that of the first one just because dynamo does not spend its energy for periodic magnetic field inversions but uses it for magnetic field growth. We analysed available data from the Kepler mission concerning the superflaring stars in order to find tracers of anomalous magnetic activity. As suggested in a recent paper [1], we find that anti-solar differential rotation or anti-solar sign of the mirror-asymmetry of stellar convection can provide the desired strong magnetic field in dynamo models. We confirm this concept by numerical models of stellar dynamos with corresponding governing parameters. We conclude that the proposed mechanism can plausibly explain the superflaring events at least for some cool stars, including binaries, subgiants and, possibly, low-mass stars and young

  9. Babcock-Leighton solar dynamo: the role of downward pumping and the equatorward propagation of activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karak, Bidya Binay; Cameron, Robert

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the role of downward magnetic pumping near the surface using a kinematic Babcock-Leighton model. We find that the pumping causes the poloidal field to become predominately radial in the near-surface shear layer. This allows the negative radial shear in the near-surface layer to effectively act on the radial field to produce a toroidal field. Consequently, we observe a clear equatorward migration of the toroidal field at low latitudes even when there is no meridional flow in the deep CZ. We show a case where the period of a dynamo wave solution is approximately 11 years. Flux transport models are also shown with periods close to 11 years. Both the dynamo wave and flux transport dynamo are thus able to reproduce some of the observed features of solar cycle. The main difference between the two types of dynamo is the value of $\\alpha$ required to produce dynamo action. In both types of dynamo, the surface meridional flow helps to advect and build the polar field in high latitudes, while in flux transport dynamo the equatorward flow near the bottom of CZ advects toroidal field to cause the equatorward migration in butterfly wings and this advection makes the dynamo easier by transporting strong toroidal field to low latitudes where $\\alpha$ effect works. Another conclusion of our study is that the magnetic pumping suppresses the diffusion of fields through the photospheric surface which helps to achieve the 11-year dynamo cycle at a moderately larger value of magnetic diffusivity than has previously been used.

  10. IS THE SMALL-SCALE MAGNETIC FIELD CORRELATED WITH THE DYNAMO CYCLE?

    SciTech Connect

    Karak, Bidya Binay; Brandenburg, Axel, E-mail: bbkarak@nordita.org

    2016-01-01

    The small-scale magnetic field is ubiquitous at the solar surface—even at high latitudes. From observations we know that this field is uncorrelated (or perhaps even weakly anticorrelated) with the global sunspot cycle. Our aim is to explore the origin, and particularly the cycle dependence, of such a phenomenon using three-dimensional dynamo simulations. We adopt a simple model of a turbulent dynamo in a shearing box driven by helically forced turbulence. Depending on the dynamo parameters, large-scale (global) and small-scale (local) dynamos can be excited independently in this model. Based on simulations in different parameter regimes, we find that, when onlymore » the large-scale dynamo is operating in the system, the small-scale magnetic field generated through shredding and tangling of the large-scale magnetic field is positively correlated with the global magnetic cycle. However, when both dynamos are operating, the small-scale field is produced from both the small-scale dynamo and the tangling of the large-scale field. In this situation, when the large-scale field is weaker than the equipartition value of the turbulence, the small-scale field is almost uncorrelated with the large-scale magnetic cycle. On the other hand, when the large-scale field is stronger than the equipartition value, we observe an anticorrelation between the small-scale field and the large-scale magnetic cycle. This anticorrelation can be interpreted as a suppression of the small-scale dynamo. Based on our studies we conclude that the observed small-scale magnetic field in the Sun is generated by the combined mechanisms of a small-scale dynamo and tangling of the large-scale field.« less

  11. Morning Frost on Martian Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    A thin layer of water frost is visible on the ground around NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander in this image taken by the Surface Stereo Imager at 6 a.m. on Sol 79 (August 14, 2008), the 79th Martian day after landing. The frost begins to disappear shortly after 6 a.m. as the sun rises on the Phoenix landing site.

    The sun was about 22 degrees above the horizon when the image was taken, enhancing the detail of the polygons, troughs and rocks around the landing site.

    This view is looking east southeast with the lander's eastern solar panel visible in the bottom lefthand corner of the image. The rock in the foreground is informally named 'Quadlings' and the rock near center is informally called 'Winkies.'

    This false color image has been enhanced to show color variations.

    The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  12. Martian Magnets Under the Microscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit acquired this microscopic imager view of its capture magnet on sol 92 (April 6, 2004). Both Spirit and the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity are equipped with a number of magnets. The capture magnet, as seen here, has a stronger charge than its sidekick, the filter magnet. The lower-powered filter magnet captures only the most magnetic airborne dust with the strongest charges, while the capture magnet picks up all magnetic airborne dust.

    The magnets' primary purpose is to collect the martian magnetic dust so that scientists can analyze it with the rovers' Moessbauer spectrometers. While there is plenty of dust on the surface of Mars, it is difficult to confirm where it came from, and when it was last airborne. Because scientists are interested in learning about the properties of the dust in the atmosphere, they devised this dust-collection experiment.

    The capture magnet is about 4.5 centimeters (1.8 inches) in diameter and is constructed with a central cylinder and three rings, each with alternating orientations of magnetization. Scientists have been monitoring the continual accumulation of dust since the beginning of the mission with panoramic camera and microscopic imager images. They had to wait until enough dust accumulated before they could get a Moessbauer spectrometer analysis. The results of that analysis, performed on sol 92, have not been sent back to Earth yet.

  13. Ne-20/Ne-22 in the Martian Atmosphere: New Evidence from Martian Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, J.; Nyquist, L. E.; Herzog, G. F.; Nagao, K.; Mikouchi, T.; Kusakabe, M.

    2017-01-01

    Analyses of Ne trapped in "pods" of impact melt in the Elephant Moraine 79001 (EET 79001) Martian meteorite led to suggest (Ne-20/Ne-22) approx.10 in the Martian atmosphere (MA). In contrast, obtained trapped (Ne-20/Ne-22)Tr approx.7 from an impact melt vein in Yamato 793605 (Y-793605) and concluded that the isotopic composition of Martian Ne remained poorly defined. A "pyroxene-rich" separate from Dhofar 378 (Dho 378) analyzed gave a comparatively high trapped Ne concentration and (Ne-20/Ne-22) = 7.3+/-0.2 in agreement with the Y-793605 value. We explore the hypothesis that Martian Ne was trapped in the Dho 378 meteorite in a manner similar to entrapment of terrestrial Ne in tektites strengthening the "Martian atmosphere" interpretation. We also report new data for Northwest Africa 7034 (NWA 7034) that are consistent with the Ne data for Dho 378.

  14. Self-excitation in a helical liquid metal flow: the Riga dynamo experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gailitis, A.; Gerbeth, G.; Gundrum, Th.; Lielausis, O.; Lipsbergs, G.; Platacis, E.

    2018-06-01

    The homogeneous dynamo effect is at the root of magnetic field generation in cosmic bodies, including planets, stars and galaxies. While the underlying theory had increasingly flourished since the middle of the 20th century, hydromagnetic dynamos were not realized in the laboratory until 1999. On 11 November 1999, this situation changed with the first observation of a kinematic dynamo in the Riga experiment. Since that time, a series of experimental campaigns has provided a wealth of data on the kinematic and the saturated regime. This paper is intended to give a comprehensive survey about these experiments, to summarize their main results and to compare them with numerical simulations.

  15. Recent and future liquid metal experiments on homogeneous dynamo action and magnetic instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stefani, Frank; Gerbeth, Gunter; Giesecke, Andre; Gundrum, Thomas; Kirillov, Oleg; Seilmayer, Martin; Gellert, Marcus; Rüdiger, Günther; Gailitis, Agris

    2011-10-01

    The present status of the Riga dynamo experiment is summarized and the prospects for its future exploitation are evaluated. We further discuss the plans for a large-scale precession driven dynamo experiment to be set-up in the framework of the new installation DRESDYN (DREsden Sodium facility for dynamo and thermohydraulic studies) at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. We report recent investigations of the magnetorotational instability and the Tayler instability and sketch the plans for another large-scale liquid sodium facility devoted to the combined study of both effects.

  16. Generation of dynamo magnetic fields in protoplanetary and other astrophysical accretion disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepinski, T. F.; Levy, E. H.

    1988-01-01

    A computational method for treating the generation of dynamo magnetic fields in astrophysical disks is presented. The numerical difficulty of handling the boundary condition at infinity in the cylindrical disk geometry is overcome by embedding the disk in a spherical computational space and matching the solutions to analytically tractable spherical functions in the surrounding space. The lowest lying dynamo normal modes for a 'thick' astrophysical disk are calculated. The generated modes found are all oscillatory and spatially localized. Tha potential implications of the results for the properties of dynamo magnetic fields in real astrophysical disks are discussed.

  17. Kinematic α tensors and dynamo mechanisms in a von Kármán swirling flow.

    PubMed

    Ravelet, F; Dubrulle, B; Daviaud, F; Ratié, P-A

    2012-07-13

    We provide experimental and numerical evidence of in-blades vortices in the von Kármán swirling flow. We estimate the associated kinematic α-effect tensor and show that it is compatible with recent models of the von Kármán sodium (VKS) dynamo. We further show that depending on the relative frequency of the two impellers, the dominant dynamo mechanism may switch from α2 to α - Ω dynamo. We discuss some implications of these results for VKS experiments.

  18. Generation of a dynamo magnetic field in a protoplanetary accretion disk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stepinski, T.; Levy, E. H.

    1987-01-01

    A new computational technique is developed that allows realistic calculations of dynamo magnetic field generation in disk geometries corresponding to protoplanetary and protostellar accretion disks. The approach is of sufficient generality to allow, in the future, a wide class of accretion disk problems to be solved. Here, basic modes of a disk dynamo are calculated. Spatially localized oscillatory states are found to occur in Keplerain disks. A physical interpretation is given that argues that spatially localized fields of the type found in these calculations constitute the basic modes of a Keplerian disk dynamo.

  19. Martian Atmospheric and Ionospheric plasma Escape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundin, Rickard

    2016-04-01

    Solar forcing is responsible for the heating, ionization, photochemistry, and erosion processes in the upper atmosphere throughout the lifetime of the terrestrial planets. Of the four terrestrial planets, the Earth is the only one with a fully developed biosphere, while our kin Venus and Mars have evolved into arid inhabitable planets. As for Mars, there are ample evidences for an early Noachian, water rich period on Mars. The question is, what made Mars evolve so differently compared to the Earth? Various hydrosphere and atmospheric evolution scenarios for Mars have been forwarded based on surface morphology, chemical composition, simulations, semi-empiric (in-situ data) models, and the long-term evolution of the Sun. Progress has been made, but the case is still open regarding the changes that led to the present arid surface and tenuous atmosphere at Mars. This presentation addresses the long-term variability of the Sun, the solar forcing impact on the Martian atmosphere, and its interaction with the space environment - an electromagnetic wave and particle interaction with the upper atmosphere that has implications for its photochemistry, composition, and energization that governs thermal and non-thermal escape. Non-thermal escape implies an electromagnetic upward energization of planetary ions and molecules to velocities above escape velocity, a process governed by a combination of solar EUV radiation (ionization), and energy and momentum transfer by the solar wind. The ion escape issue dates back to the early Soviet and US-missions to Mars, but the first more accurate estimates of escape rates came with the Phobos-2 mission in 1989. Better-quality ion composition measurement results of atmospheric/ionospheric ion escape from Mars, obtained from ESA Mars Express (MEX) instruments, have improved our understanding of the ion escape mechanism. With the NASA MAVEN spacecraft orbiting Mars since Sept. 2014, dual in-situ measurement with plasma instruments are now

  20. Statistical palaeomagnetic field modelling and dynamo numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouligand, C.; Hulot, G.; Khokhlov, A.; Glatzmaier, G. A.

    2005-06-01

    By relying on two numerical dynamo simulations for which such investigations are possible, we test the validity and sensitivity of a statistical palaeomagnetic field modelling approach known as the giant gaussian process (GGP) modelling approach. This approach is currently used to analyse palaeomagnetic data at times of stable polarity and infer some information about the way the main magnetic field (MF) of the Earth has been behaving in the past and has possibly been influenced by core-mantle boundary (CMB) conditions. One simulation has been run with homogeneous CMB conditions, the other with more realistic non-homogeneous symmetry breaking CMB conditions. In both simulations, it is found that, as required by the GGP approach, the field behaves as a short-term memory process. Some severe non-stationarity is however found in the non-homogeneous case, leading to very significant departures of the Gauss coefficients from a Gaussian distribution, in contradiction with the assumptions underlying the GGP approach. A similar but less severe non-stationarity is found in the case of the homogeneous simulation, which happens to display a more Earth-like temporal behaviour than the non-homogeneous case. This suggests that a GGP modelling approach could nevertheless be applied to try and estimate the mean μ and covariance matrix γ(τ) (first- and second-order statistical moments) of the field produced by the geodynamo. A detailed study of both simulations is carried out to assess the possibility of detecting statistical symmetry breaking properties of the underlying dynamo process by inspection of estimates of μ and γ(τ). As expected (because of the role of the rotation of the Earth in the dynamo process), those estimates reveal spherical symmetry breaking properties. Equatorial symmetry breaking properties are also detected in both simulations, showing that such symmetry breaking properties can occur spontaneously under homogeneous CMB conditions. By contrast axial

  1. SpF: Enabling Petascale Performance for Pseudospectral Dynamo Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, W.; Clune, T.; Vriesema, J.; Gutmann, G.

    2013-12-01

    Pseudospectral (PS) methods possess a number of characteristics (e.g., efficiency, accuracy, natural boundary conditions) that are extremely desirable for dynamo models. Unfortunately, dynamo models based upon PS methods face a number of daunting challenges, which include exposing additional parallelism, leveraging hardware accelerators, exploiting hybrid parallelism, and improving the scalability of global memory transposes. Although these issues are a concern for most models, solutions for PS methods tend to require far more pervasive changes to underlying data and control structures. Further, improvements in performance in one model are difficult to transfer to other models, resulting in significant duplication of effort across the research community. We have developed an extensible software framework for pseudospectral methods called SpF that is intended to enable extreme scalability and optimal performance. High-level abstractions provided by SpF unburden applications of the responsibility of managing domain decomposition and load balance while reducing the changes in code required to adapt to new computing architectures. The key design concept in SpF is that each phase of the numerical calculation is partitioned into disjoint numerical 'kernels' that can be performed entirely in-processor. The granularity of domain-decomposition provided by SpF is only constrained by the data-locality requirements of these kernels. SpF builds on top of optimized vendor libraries for common numerical operations such as transforms, matrix solvers, etc., but can also be configured to use open source alternatives for portability. SpF includes several alternative schemes for global data redistribution and is expected to serve as an ideal testbed for further research into optimal approaches for different network architectures. In this presentation, we will describe the basic architecture of SpF as well as preliminary performance data and experience with adapting legacy dynamo codes

  2. Martian Moon Phobos in Thermal Infrared Image

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-10-04

    Colors in this image of the Martian moon Phobos indicate a range of surface temperatures detected by observing the moon on Sept. 29, 2017, with the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) camera on NASA's Mars Odyssey orbiter. The left edge of the small moon was in darkness, and the right edge in morning sunlight. Phobos has an oblong shape with average diameter of about 14 miles (22 kilometers). Temperature information was derived from thermal-infrared imaging such as the grayscale image shown smaller at lower left with the moon in the same orientation. The color-coding merges information from THEMIS observations made in four thermal-infrared wavelength bands, centered from 11.04 microns to 14.88 microns. The scale bar correlates color-coding to the temperature range on the Kelvin scale, from 130 K (minus 226 degrees Fahrenheit) for dark purple to 270 K (26 degrees F) for red. Researchers will analyze the surface-temperature information from this observation and possible future THEMIS observations to learn how quickly the surface warms after sunup or cools after sundown. That could provide information about surface materials, because larger rocks heat or cool more slowly than smaller particles do. Researchers have been using THEMIS to examine Mars since early 2002, but the maneuver turning the orbiter around to point the camera at Phobos was developed only recently. Odyssey orbits Mars at an altitude of about 250 miles (400 kilometers), much closer to the planet than to Phobos, which orbits about 3,700 miles (6,000 kilometers) above the surface of Mars. The distance to Phobos from Odyssey during the observation was about 3,424 miles (5,511 kilometers). https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21858

  3. Characteristics of the Martian atmosphere surface layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clow, G. D.; Haberle, R. M.

    1991-01-01

    Researchers extend elements of various terrestrial boundary layer models to Mars in order to estimate sensible heat, latent heat, and momentum fluxes within the Martian atmospheric surface layer. To estimate the molecular viscosity and thermal conductivity of a CO2-H2O gas mixture under Martian conditions, parameterizations were developed. Parameterizations for specific heat and and binary diffusivity were also determined. The Prandtl and Schmidt numbers derived from these thermophysical properties were found to range from 0.78 - 1.0 and 0.47 - 0.70, respectively, for Mars. Brutsaert's model for sensible and latent heat transport within the interfacial sublayer for both aerodynamically smooth and rough airflow was experimentally tested under similar conditions, validating its application to Martian conditions. For the surface sublayer, the researchers modified the definition of the Monin-Obukhov length to properly account for the buoyancy forces arising from water vapor gradients in the Martian atmospheric boundary layer. This length scale was then utilized with similarity theory turbulent flux profiles with the same form as those used by Businger et al. and others. It was found that under most Martian conditions, the interfacial and surface sublayers offer roughly comparable resistance to sensible heat and water vapor transport and are thus both important in determining the associated fluxes.

  4. Seasonal Temperature Pattern Indicating Martian Dust Storms

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2016-06-09

    This graphic shows Martian atmospheric temperature data related to seasonal patterns in occurrence of large regional dust storms. The data shown here were collected by the Mars Climate Sounder instrument on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter over the course of one-half of a Martian year, during 2012 and 2013. The color coding indicates daytime temperatures of a layer of the atmosphere centered about 16 miles (25 kilometers) above ground level, corresponding to the color-key bar at the bottom of the graphic. Three regional dust storms indicated by increased temperatures are labeled A, B and C. A similar sequence of three large regional dust storms has been seen in atmosphere-temperature data from five other Martian years. The vertical axis is latitude on Mars, from the north pole at the top to south pole at the bottom. Each graphed data point is an average for all Martian longitudes around the planet. The horizontal axis is the time of year, spanning from the beginning of Mars' southern-hemisphere spring (on the left) to the end of southern-hemisphere summer. This is the half of the year when large Martian dust storms are most active. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20746

  5. Photovoltaic array for Martian surface power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Appelbaum, J.; Landis, G. A.

    1992-01-01

    Missions to Mars will require electric power. A leading candidate for providing power is solar power produced by photovoltaic arrays. To design such a power system, detailed information on solar-radiation availability on the Martian surface is necessary. The variation of the solar radiation on the Martian surface is governed by three factors: (1) variation in Mars-Sun distance; (2) variation in solar zenith angle due to Martian season and time of day; and (3) dust in the Martian atmosphere. A major concern is the dust storms, which occur on both local and global scales. However, there is still appreciable diffuse sunlight available even at high opacity, so that solar array operation is still possible. Typical results for tracking solar collectors are also shown and compared to the fixed collectors. During the Northern Hemisphere spring and summer the isolation is relatively high, 2-5 kW-hr/sq m-day, due to the low optical depth of the Martian atmosphere. These seasons, totalling a full terrestrial year, are the likely ones during which manned mission will be carried out.

  6. Martian polar expeditions: problems and solutions.

    PubMed

    Cockell, C S

    2001-12-01

    The Martian polar ice caps are regions of substantial scientific interest, being the most dynamic regions of Mars. They are volatile sinks and thus closely linked to Martian climatic conditions. Because of their scale and the precedent set by the past history of polar exploration on Earth, it is likely that an age of polar exploration will emerge on the surface of Mars after the establishment of a capable support structure at lower latitudes. Expeditions might be launched either from a lower latitude base camp or from a human-tended polar base. Based on previously presented expeditionary routes to the Martian poles, in this paper a "spiral in-spiral out" unsupported transpolar assault on the Martian north geographical pole is used as a Reference expedition to propose new types of equipment for the human polar exploration of Mars. Martian polar "ball" tents and "hover" modifications to the Nansen sledge for sledging on CO2-containing water ice substrates under low atmospheric pressures are suggested as elements for the success of these endeavours. Other challenges faced by these expeditions are quantitatively and qualitatively addressed. c 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ares 3 and The Martian

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-03-11

    This image from NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter shows a region of Acidalia Planitia which is covered by dense fields of boulders up to several meters high. In "The Martian" by Andy Weir (watch for the movie in late 2015), stranded astronaut Mark Watney spends most of his time at the "Ares 3" site in southern Acidalia Planitia. The book describes Acidalia as flat and easy to drive over; he even drives to the Pathfinder landing site and back. This region of Mars is actually far more diverse, interesting, and hazardous to drive over than depicted in the novel. These two images (this observation and ESP_019783_2115) are close to the Ares 3 landing site as shown in a map at the front of the novel, and shows many mounds, perhaps ancient volcanoes resulting from lava-water interaction or eruption of muddy sediments. Much of Acidalia Planitia is covered by dense fields of boulders up to several meters high that would be difficult to drive around. There are also fissures associated with giant polygons, with steep rocky slopes that would be impassable. There are elongated fields of dense secondary craters where the surface is extremely rough at scales near the size of the rover. When our hero travels into Arabia Terra it is described as much rockier than Acidalia, but the the opposite is generally true: much of Arabia is dust mantled and smooth at the scale of a rover. People commonly assume that smooth at large scales (kilometers) means smooth at small scales ( meters to tens of meters). Often on Mars, the exact opposite is seen: large flat low areas are more wind-scoured, removing fine materials and leaving rocks and eroded bedrock. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA19306

  8. Solar Physics at Evergreen: Solar Dynamo and Chromospheric MHD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zita, E. J.; Maxwell, J.; Song, N.; Dikpati, M.

    2006-12-01

    We describe our five year old solar physics research program at The Evergreen State College. Famed for its cloudy skies, the Pacific Northwest is an ideal location for theoretical and remote solar physics research activities. Why does the Sun's magnetic field flip polarity every 11 years or so? How does this contribute to the magnetic storms Earth experiences when the Sun's field reverses? Why is the temperature in the Sun's upper atmosphere millions of degrees higher than the Sun's surface temperature? How do magnetic waves transport energy in the Sun’s chromosphere and the Earth’s atmosphere? How does solar variability affect climate change? Faculty and undergraduates investigate questions such as these in collaboration with the High Altitude Observatory (HAO) at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) in Boulder. We will describe successful student research projects, logistics of remote computing, and our current physics investigations into (1) the solar dynamo and (2) chromospheric magnetohydrodynamics.

  9. Modeling of the Coupled Magnetospheric and Neutral Wind Dynamos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thayer, Jeffrey P.

    1997-01-01

    Over the past four years of funding, SRI, in collaboration with the University of Texas at Dallas, has been involved in assessing the influence of thermospheric neutral winds on the electric field and current systems at high latitudes. The initial direction of the project was to perform a set of numerical experiments concerning the contribution of the magnetospheric and neutral wind dynamo processes, under specific boundary conditions, to the polarization electric field and/or the field-aligned current distribution at high latitudes. To facilitate these numerical experiments we developed a numerical scheme that relied on using output from the NCAR Thermosphere-Ionosphere General Circulation Model (NCAR-TIGCM), expanding them in the form of spherical harmonics and solving the dynamo equations spectrally. Once initial calculations were completed, it was recognized that the neutral wind contribution could be significant but its actual contribution to the electric field or currents depended strongly on the generator properties of the magnetosphere. Solutions to this problem are not unique because of the unknown characteristics of the magnetospheric generator, therefore the focus was on two limiting cases. One limiting case was to consider the magnetosphere as a voltage generator delivering a fixed voltage to the high-latitude ionosphere and allowing for the neutral wind dynamo to contribute only to the current system. The second limiting case was to consider the magnetosphere as a current generator and allowing for the neutral wind dynamo to contribute only to the generation of polarization electric fields. This work was completed and presented at the l994 Fall AGU meeting. The direction of the project then shifted to applying the Poynting flux concept to the high-latitude ionosphere. This concept was more attractive as it evaluated the influence of neutral winds on the high-latitude electrodynamics without actually having to determine the generator characteristics of

  10. Kinematic solar dynamo models with a deep meridional flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerrero, G. A.; Muñoz, J. D.

    2004-05-01

    We develop two different solar dynamo models to verify the hypothesis that a deep meridional flow can restrict the appearance of sunspots below 45°, proposed recently by Nandy & Choudhuri. In the first one, a single polytropic approximation for the density profile was taken, for both radiative and convective zones. In the second one, that of Pinzon & Calvo-Mozo, two polytropes were used to distinguish between both zones. The magnetic buoyancy mechanism proposed by Dikpati & Charbonneau was chosen in both models. We have in fact obtained that a deep meridional flow pushes the maxima of toroidal magnetic field towards the solar equator, but, in contrast to Nandy & Choudhuri, a second zone of maximal fields remains at the poles. The second model, although closely resembling the solar standard model of Bahcall et al., gives solar cycles three times longer than observed.

  11. A joined model for solar dynamo and differential rotation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitchatinov, L. L.; Nepomnyashchikh, A. A.

    2017-05-01

    A model for the solar dynamo, consistent in global flow and numerical method employed with the differential rotation model, is developed. The magnetic turbulent diffusivity is expressed in terms of the entropy gradient, which is controlled by the model equations. The magnetic Prandtl number and latitudinal profile of the alpha-effect are specified by fitting the computed period of the activity cycle and the equatorial symmetry of magnetic fields to observations. Then, the instants of polar field reversals and time-latitude diagrams of the fields also come into agreement with observations. The poloidal field has a maximum amplitude of about 10 Gs in the polar regions. The toroidal field of several thousand Gauss concentrates near the base of the convection zone and is transported towards the equator by the meridional flow. The model predicts a value of about 1037 erg for the total magnetic energy of large-scale fields in the solar convection zone.

  12. Magnetic Eigenmode Analysis of the Madison Dynamo Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nornberg, M. D.; Forest, C. B.; Kendrick, Roch; O'Connell, R.; Spence, E. J.

    2004-11-01

    The magnetic field generated by a spherical homogeneous liquid-sodium dynamo is explored in terms of the magnetic eigenmodes predicted by Dudley and James. The flow geometry chosen corresponds to the T2S2 flow and is created by two counter-rotating propellers driven by 100HP motors with flow velocities up to 15 m/s. A perturbative magnetic field is generated by pulsing a set axial field coils. The largest growing eigenmode is predicted by linear analysis to be a strong equatorial-dipole field. The field is measured using an array of Hall probes both on the surface of the sphere and within the sphere. From the measured field the growth or decay rates of the magnetic eigenmodes are determined. Turbulence in the flow is expected to give rise to modifications of the growth rates and the structure of the eigenmodes.

  13. Magnetic dynamo activity in mechanically driven compressible magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shebalin, John V.; Montgomery, David

    1989-01-01

    Magnetic dynamo activity in a homogeneous, dissipative, polytropic, two-dimensional, turbulent magneto-fluid is simulated numerically. The magneto-fluid is simulated numerically. The magneto-fluid is, in a number of cases, mechanically forced so that energy input balances dissipation, thereby maintaining constant energy. In the presence of a mean magnetic field, a magneto-fluid whose initial turbulent magnetic energy is zero quickly arrives at a state of non-zero turbulent magnetic energy. If the mean magnetic field energy density is small, the turbulent magnetic field can achieve a local energy density more than four hundred times larger; if the mean magnetic field energy density is large, then equipartition between the turbulent magnetic and kinetic energy is achieved. Compared to the presence of a mean magnetic field, compressibility appears to have only a marginal effect in mediating the transfer of turbulent kinetic energy into magnetic energy.

  14. Reconciling solar and stellar magnetic cycles with nonlinear dynamo simulations.

    PubMed

    Strugarek, A; Beaudoin, P; Charbonneau, P; Brun, A S; do Nascimento, J-D

    2017-07-14

    The magnetic fields of solar-type stars are observed to cycle over decadal periods-11 years in the case of the Sun. The fields originate in the turbulent convective layers of stars and have a complex dependency upon stellar rotation rate. We have performed a set of turbulent global simulations that exhibit magnetic cycles varying systematically with stellar rotation and luminosity. We find that the magnetic cycle period is inversely proportional to the Rossby number, which quantifies the influence of rotation on turbulent convection. The trend relies on a fundamentally nonlinear dynamo process and is compatible with the Sun's cycle and those of other solar-type stars. Copyright © 2017, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  15. Dynamics of one model of the fast kinematic dynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, Timur; Medvedev, Vladislav; Zhuzhoma, Evgeny

    2018-03-01

    We suggest a new model of the fast nondissipative kinematic dynamo which describes the phenomenon of exponential growth of the magnetic field caused by the motion of the conducting medium. This phenomenon is known to occur in the evolution of magnetic fields of astrophysical bodies. In the 1970s A.D. Sakharov and Ya.B. Zeldovich proposed a “rope” scheme of this process which in terms of the modern theory of dynamical systems can be described as Smale solenoid. The main disadvantage of this scheme is that it is non-conservative. Our model is a modification of the Sakharov-Zeldovich’s model. We apply methods of the theory of dynamical systems to prove that it is free of this fault in the neighborhood of the nonwandering set.

  16. Magnetostrophic balance in planetary dynamos - Predictions for Neptune's magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, S. A.; Ness, N. F.

    1986-01-01

    With the purpose of estimating Neptune's magnetic field and its implications for nonthermal Neptune radio emissions, a new scaling law for planetary magnetic fields was developed in terms of externally observable parameters (the planet's mean density, radius, mass, rotation rate, and internal heat source luminosity). From a comparison of theory and observations by Voyager it was concluded that planetary dynamos are two-state systems with either zero intrinsic magnetic field (for planets with low internal heat source) or (for planets with the internal heat source sufficiently strong to drive convection) a magnetic field near the upper bound determined from magnetostrophic balance. It is noted that mass loading of the Neptune magnetosphere by Triton may play an important role in the generation of nonthermal radio emissions.

  17. Bright Particle in Hole Dug by Scooping of Martian Soil

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-10-18

    The mission science team assessed the bright particles in this scooped pit to be native Martian material rather than spacecraft debris as seen in this image from NASA Mars rover Curiosity as it collected its second scoop of Martian soil.

  18. Generation of large-scale magnetic fields by small-scale dynamo in shear flows

    DOE PAGES

    Squire, J.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2015-10-20

    We propose a new mechanism for a turbulent mean-field dynamo in which the magnetic fluctuations resulting from a small-scale dynamo drive the generation of large-scale magnetic fields. This is in stark contrast to the common idea that small-scale magnetic fields should be harmful to large-scale dynamo action. These dynamos occur in the presence of a large-scale velocity shear and do not require net helicity, resulting from off-diagonal components of the turbulent resistivity tensor as the magnetic analogue of the "shear-current" effect. Furthermore, given the inevitable existence of nonhelical small-scale magnetic fields in turbulent plasmas, as well as the generic naturemore » of velocity shear, the suggested mechanism may help explain the generation of large-scale magnetic fields across a wide range of astrophysical objects.« less

  19. On MHD rotational transport, instabilities and dynamo action in stellar radiation zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathis, Stéphane; Brun, A.-S.; Zahn, J.-P.

    2009-04-01

    Magnetic field and their related dynamical effects are thought to be important in stellar radiation zones. For instance, it has been suggested that a dynamo, sustained by a m = 1 MHD instability of toroidal magnetic fields (discovered by Tayler in 1973), could lead to a strong transport of angular momentum and of chemicals in such stable regions. We wish here to recall the different magnetic transport processes present in radiative zone and show how the dynamo can operate by recalling the conditions required to close the dynamo loop (BPol → BTor → BPol). Helped by high-resolution 3D MHD simulations using the ASH code in the solar case, we confirm the existence of the m = 1 instability, study its non-linear saturation, but we do not detect, up to a magnetic Reylnods number of 105, any dynamo action.

  20. DEPENDENCE OF STELLAR MAGNETIC ACTIVITY CYCLES ON ROTATIONAL PERIOD IN A NONLINEAR SOLAR-TYPE DYNAMO

    SciTech Connect

    Pipin, V. V.; Kosovichev, A. G.

    2016-06-01

    We study the turbulent generation of large-scale magnetic fields using nonlinear dynamo models for solar-type stars in the range of rotational periods from 14 to 30 days. Our models take into account nonlinear effects of dynamical quenching of magnetic helicity, and escape of magnetic field from the dynamo region due to magnetic buoyancy. The results show that the observed correlation between the period of rotation and the duration of activity cycles can be explained in the framework of a distributed dynamo model with a dynamical magnetic feedback acting on the turbulent generation from either magnetic buoyancy or magnetic helicity. Wemore » discuss implications of our findings for the understanding of dynamo processes operating in solar-like stars.« less

  1. Numerical study of laminar plasma dynamo in cylindrical and spherical geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalzov, Ivan; Bayliss, Adam; Ebrahimi, Fatima; Forest, Cary; Schnack, Dalton

    2009-05-01

    We have performed the numerical investigation of possibility of laminar dynamo in two new experiments, Plasma Couette and Plasma Dynamo, which have been designed at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. The plasma is confined by a strong multipole magnetic field localized at the boundary of cylindrical (Plasma Couette) or spherical (Plasma Dynamo) chamber. Electrodes positioned between the magnet rings can be biased with arbitrary potentials so that Lorenz force ExB drives any given toroidal velocity profile at the surface. Using the extended MHD code, NIMROD, we have modeled several types of plasma flows appropriate for dynamo excitation. It is found that for high magnetic Reynolds numbers the counter-rotating von Karman flow (in cylinder) and Dudley-James flow (in sphere) can lead to self-generation of non-axisymmetric magnetic field. This field saturates at certain amplitude corresponding to a new stable equilibrium. The structure of this equilibrium is considered.

  2. The DYNAMO Simulation Language--An Alternate Approach to Computer Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bronson, Richard

    1986-01-01

    Suggests the use of computer simulation of continuous systems as a problem solving approach to computer languages. Outlines the procedures that the system dynamics approach employs in computer simulations. Explains the advantages of the special purpose language, DYNAMO. (ML)

  3. Generation of Large-Scale Magnetic Fields by Small-Scale Dynamo in Shear Flows.

    PubMed

    Squire, J; Bhattacharjee, A

    2015-10-23

    We propose a new mechanism for a turbulent mean-field dynamo in which the magnetic fluctuations resulting from a small-scale dynamo drive the generation of large-scale magnetic fields. This is in stark contrast to the common idea that small-scale magnetic fields should be harmful to large-scale dynamo action. These dynamos occur in the presence of a large-scale velocity shear and do not require net helicity, resulting from off-diagonal components of the turbulent resistivity tensor as the magnetic analogue of the "shear-current" effect. Given the inevitable existence of nonhelical small-scale magnetic fields in turbulent plasmas, as well as the generic nature of velocity shear, the suggested mechanism may help explain the generation of large-scale magnetic fields across a wide range of astrophysical objects.

  4. The dynamo of the diurnal tide and its effect on the thermospheric circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayr, H. G.; Harris, I.; Herrero, F. A.

    1990-01-01

    A theoretical multiconstituent model (including O, N2, and O2) which describes the interactions between neutral winds, dynamo electric fields, and ion drifts is used to interpret observations that revealed a dominance of the fundamental diurnal tide in the upper thermosphere and at equatorial latitudes, and its effect on the thermospheric circulation. The model is shown to reproduce reasonably well the magnitudes of the neutral winds, ion drift velocities, and the ratio between the two. A solution for the neutral winds in which the dynamo electric field is forced to zero shows that the dynamo-induced ion drift is very important in accelerating the neutral atmosphere at higher altitudes. The dynamo interaction primarily affects the curl component of the field; its effect on the temperature and density perturbations is small.

  5. A solar dynamo surface wave at the interface between convection and nonuniform rotation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, E. N.

    1993-01-01

    A simple dynamo surface wave is presented to illustrate the basic principles of a dynamo operating in the thin layer of shear and suppressed eddy diffusion beneath the cyclonic convection in the convection zone of the sun. It is shown that the restriction of the shear delta(Omega)/delta(r) to a region below the convective zone provides the basic mode with a greatly reduced turbulent diffusion coefficient in the region of strong azimuthal field. The dynamo takes on the character of a surface wave tied to the lower surface z = 0 of the convective zone. There is a substantial body of evidence suggesting a fibril state for the principal flux bundles beneath the surface of the sun, with fundamental implications for the solar dynamo.

  6. Nonlinear restrictions on dynamo action. [in magnetic fields of astrophysical objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vainshtein, Samuel I.; Cattaneo, Fausto

    1992-01-01

    Astrophysical dynamos operate in the limit of small magnetic diffusivity. In order for magnetic reconnection to occur, very small magnetic structures must form so that diffusion becomes effective. The formation of small-scale fields is accompanied by the stretching of the field lines and therefore by an amplification of the magnetic field strength. The back reaction of the magnetic field on the motions leads to the eventual saturation of the dynamo process, thus posing a constraint on the amount of magnetic flux that can be generated by dynamo action, It is argued that in the limit of small diffusivity only a small amount of flux, many orders of magnitude less than the observed fluxes, can be created by dynamo processes.

  7. Martian Cratering 7: The Role of Impact Gardening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, William K.; Anguita, Jorge; de la Casa, Miguel A.; Berman, Daniel C.; Ryan, Eileen V.

    2001-01-01

    Viking-era researchers concluded that impact craters of diameter D<50 m were absent on Mars, and thus impact gardening was considered negligible in establishing decameter-scale surface properties. This paper documents martian crater populations down to diameter D˜11 m and probably less on Mars, requiring a certain degree of impact gardening. Applying lunar data, we calculate cumulative gardening depth as a function of total cratering. Stratigraphic units exposed since Noachian times would have experienced tens to hundreds of meters of gardening. Early Amazonian/late Hesperian sites, such as the first three landing sites, experienced cumulative gardening on the order of 3-14 m, a conclusion that may conflict with some landing site interpretations. Martian surfaces with less than a percent or so of lunar mare crater densities have negligible impact gardening because of a probable cutoff of hypervelocity impact cratering below D˜1 m, due to Mars' atmosphere. Unlike lunar regolith, martian regolith has been affected, and fines removed, by many processes. Deflation may have been a factor in leaving widespread boulder fields and associated dune fields, observed by the first three landers. Ancient regolith provided a porous medium for water storage, subsurface transport, and massive permafrost formation. Older regolith was probably cemented by evaporites and permafrost, may contain interbedded sediments and lavas, and may have been brecciated by later impacts. Growing evidence suggests recent water mobility, and the existence of duricrust at Viking and Pathfinder sites demonstrates the cementing process. These results affect lander/rover searches for intact ancient deposits. The upper tens of meters of exposed Noachian units cannot survive today in a pristine state. Intact Noachian deposits might best be found in cliffside strata, or in recently exhumed regions. The hematite-rich areas found in Terra Meridiani by the Mars Global Surveyor are probably examples of the

  8. Simulation of an Ice Giant-style Dynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soderlund, K. M.; Aurnou, J. M.

    2010-12-01

    The Ice Giants, Uranus and Neptune, are unique in the solar system. These planets are the only known bodies to have multipolar magnetic fields where the quadrupole and octopole components have strengths comparable to or greater than that of the dipole. Cloud layer observations show that the planets also have zonal (east-west) flows that are fundamentally different from the banded winds of Jupiter and Saturn. The surface winds are characterized by strong retrograde equatorial jets that are flanked on either side by prograde jets at high latitudes. Thermal emission measurements of Neptune show that the surface energy flux pattern peaks in the equatorial and polar regions with minima at mid-latitudes. (The measurements for Uranus cannot adequately resolve the emission pattern.) The winds and magnetic fields are thought to be the result of convection in the planetary interior, which will also affect the heat flux pattern. Typically, it is implicitly assumed that the zonal winds are generated in a shallow layer, separate from the dynamo generation region. However, if the magnetic fields are driven near the surface, a single region can simultaneously generate both the zonal flows and the magnetic fields. Here, we present a novel numerical model of an Ice Giant-style dynamo to investigate this possibility. An order unity convective Rossby number (ratio of buoyancy to Coriolis forces) has been chosen because retrograde equatorial jets tend to occur in spherical shells when the effects of rotation are relatively weak. Our modeling results qualitatively reproduce all of the structural features of the global dynamical observations. Thus, a self-consistent model can generate magnetic field, zonal flow, and thermal emission patterns that agree with those of Uranus and Neptune. This model, then, leads us to hypothesize that the Ice Giants' zonal flows and magnetic fields are generated via dynamically coupled deep convection processes.

  9. Modeling of the coupled magnetospheric and neutral wind dynamos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thayer, J. P.; Vickrey, J. F.; Heelis, R. A.; Gary, J. B.

    1995-01-01

    Work at SRI involved modeling the exchange of electromagnetic energy between the ionosphere and magnetosphere to help interpret the DE-B Poynting flux observations. To describe the electrical properties of the high-latitude ionosphere, we constructed a numerical model, from the framework provided by the Vector Spherical Harmonic (VSH) model, that determines the ionospheric currents, conductivities, and electric fields including both magnetospheric inputs and neutral wind dynamo effects. This model development grew from the earlier question of whether an electrical energy source in the ionosphere was capable of providing an upward Poynting flux. The model solves the steady-state neutral wind dynamo equations and the Poynting flux equation to provide insight into the electrodynamic role of the neutral winds. The modeling effort to determine the high-latitude energy flux has been able to reproduce many of the large-scale features observed in the Poynting flux measurements made by DE-2. Because the Poynting flux measurement is an integrated result of energy flux into or out of the ionosphere, we investigated the ionospheric properties that may contribute to the observed flux of energy measured by the spacecraft. During steady state the electromagnetic energy flux, or DC Poynting flux, is equal to the Joule heating rate and the mechanical energy transfer rate in the high-latitude ionosphere. Although the Joule heating rate acts as an energy sink, transforming electromagnetic energy into thermal or internal energy of the gas, the mechanical energy transfer rate may be either a sink or source of electromagnetic energy. In the steady state, it is only the mechanical energy transfer rate that can generate electromagnetic energy and result in a DC Poynating flux that is directed out of the ionosphere.

  10. Did Martian Meteorites Come From These Sources?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martel, L. M. V.

    2007-01-01

    Large rayed craters on Mars, not immediately obvious in visible light, have been identified in thermal infrared data obtained from the Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) onboard Mars Odyssey. Livio Tornabene (previously at the University of Tennessee, Knoxville and now at the University of Arizona, Tucson) and colleagues have mapped rayed craters primarily within young (Amazonian) volcanic plains in or near Elysium Planitia. They found that rays consist of numerous chains of secondary craters, their overlapping ejecta, and possibly primary ejecta from the source crater. Their work also suggests rayed craters may have formed preferentially in volatile-rich targets by oblique impacts. The physical details of the rayed craters and the target surfaces combined with current models of Martian meteorite delivery and cosmochemical analyses of Martian meteorites lead Tornabene and coauthors to conclude that these large rayed craters are plausible source regions for Martian meteorites.

  11. Dust Devil Passes Near Martian Sand Dune

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-02-27

    This image from an animation shows effects of one Martian day of wind blowing sand underneath NASA's Curiosity Mars rover on a non-driving day for the rover. Each image was taken just after sundown by the rover's downward-looking Mars Descent Imager (MARDI). The area of ground shown in the images spans about 3 feet (about 1 meter) left-to-right. The first image was taken on Jan. 23, 2017, during the 1,587th Martian day, or sol, of Curiosity's work on Mars. Figure 1 above is the image with a scale bar in centimeters. The second was taken on Jan. 24, 2017 (Sol 1588). The day-apart images by MARDI were taken as a part of investigation of wind's effects during Martian summer, the windiest time of year in Gale Crater. An animation is available at http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21143

  12. Evidence for methane in Martian meteorites

    PubMed Central

    Blamey, Nigel J. F.; Parnell, John; McMahon, Sean; Mark, Darren F.; Tomkinson, Tim; Lee, Martin; Shivak, Jared; Izawa, Matthew R. M.; Banerjee, Neil R.; Flemming, Roberta L.

    2015-01-01

    The putative occurrence of methane in the Martian atmosphere has had a major influence on the exploration of Mars, especially by the implication of active biology. The occurrence has not been borne out by measurements of atmosphere by the MSL rover Curiosity but, as on Earth, methane on Mars is most likely in the subsurface of the crust. Serpentinization of olivine-bearing rocks, to yield hydrogen that may further react with carbon-bearing species, has been widely invoked as a source of methane on Mars, but this possibility has not hitherto been tested. Here we show that some Martian meteorites, representing basic igneous rocks, liberate a methane-rich volatile component on crushing. The occurrence of methane in Martian rock samples adds strong weight to models whereby any life on Mars is/was likely to be resident in a subsurface habitat, where methane could be a source of energy and carbon for microbial activity. PMID:26079798

  13. A Martian Meteorite for Mars 2020

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-02-13

    Rohit Bhartia of NASA's Mars 2020 mission holds a slice of a meteorite scientists have determined came from Mars. This slice will likely be used here on Earth for testing a laser instrument for NASA's Mars 2020 rover; a separate slice will go to Mars on the rover. Martian meteorites are believed to be the result of impacts to the Red Planet's surface, resulting in rock being blasted into the atmosphere. After traveling through space for eons, some of these rocks entered Earth's atmosphere. Scientists determine whether they are true Martian meteorites based on their rock and noble gas chemistry and mineralogy. The gases trapped in these meteorites bear the unique fingerprint of the Martian atmosphere, as recorded by NASA's Viking mission in 1976. The rock types also show clear signs of igneous processing not possible on smaller bodies, such as asteroids. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA22245

  14. Life on Mars: Evidence from Martian Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, David S.; Thomas-Keptra, Katie L.; Clemett, Simon J.; Gibson, Everett K., Jr.; Spencer, Lauren; Wentworth, Susan J.

    2009-01-01

    New data on martian meteorite 84001 as well as new experimental studies show that thermal or shock decomposition of carbonate, the leading alternative non-biologic explanation for the unusual nanophase magnetite found in this meteorite, cannot explain the chemistry of the actual martian magnetites. This leaves the biogenic explanation as the only remaining viable hypothesis for the origin of these unique magnetites. Additional data from two other martian meteorites show a suite of biomorphs which are nearly identical between meteorites recovered from two widely different terrestrial environments (Egyptian Nile bottomlands and Antarctic ice sheets). This similarity argues against terrestrial processes as the cause of these biomorphs and supports an origin on Mars for these features.

  15. Evidence for methane in Martian meteorites.

    PubMed

    Blamey, Nigel J F; Parnell, John; McMahon, Sean; Mark, Darren F; Tomkinson, Tim; Lee, Martin; Shivak, Jared; Izawa, Matthew R M; Banerjee, Neil R; Flemming, Roberta L

    2015-06-16

    The putative occurrence of methane in the Martian atmosphere has had a major influence on the exploration of Mars, especially by the implication of active biology. The occurrence has not been borne out by measurements of atmosphere by the MSL rover Curiosity but, as on Earth, methane on Mars is most likely in the subsurface of the crust. Serpentinization of olivine-bearing rocks, to yield hydrogen that may further react with carbon-bearing species, has been widely invoked as a source of methane on Mars, but this possibility has not hitherto been tested. Here we show that some Martian meteorites, representing basic igneous rocks, liberate a methane-rich volatile component on crushing. The occurrence of methane in Martian rock samples adds strong weight to models whereby any life on Mars is/was likely to be resident in a subsurface habitat, where methane could be a source of energy and carbon for microbial activity.

  16. Oscillating dynamo in the presence of a fossil magnetic field - The solar cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, E. H.; Boyer, D.

    1982-01-01

    Hydromagnetic dynamo generation of oscillating magnetic fields in the presence of an external, ambient magnetic field introduces a marked polarity asymmetry between the two halves of the magnetic cycle. The principle of oscillating dynamo interaction with external fields is developed, and a tentative application to the sun is described. In the sun a dipole moment associated with the stable fluid beneath the convection zone would produce an asymmetrical solar cycle.

  17. Bipolar Jets Launched by a Mean-field Accretion Disk Dynamo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fendt, Christian; Gaßmann, Dennis

    2018-03-01

    By applying magnetohydrodynamic simulations, we investigate the launching of jets driven by a disk magnetic field generated by a mean-field disk dynamo. Extending our earlier studies, we explore the bipolar evolution of the disk α 2Ω-dynamo and the outflow. We confirm that a negative dynamo-α leads to a dipolar field geometry, whereas positive values generate quadrupolar fields. The latter remain mainly confined to the disk and cannot launch outflows. We investigate a parameter range for the dynamo-α ranging from a critical value below which field generation is negligible, {α }0,{crit}=-0.0005, to α 0 = ‑1.0. For weak | {α }0| ≤slant 0.07, two magnetic loop structures with opposite polarity may arise, which leads to reconnection and disturbs the field evolution and accretion-ejection process. For a strong dynamo-α, a higher poloidal magnetic energy is reached, roughly scaling with {E}mag}∼ | {α }0| , which also leads to higher accretion and ejection rates. The terminal jet speed is governed by the available magnetic energy and increases with the dynamo-α. We find jet velocities on the order of the inner disk Keplerian velocity. For a strong dynamo-α, oscillating dynamo modes may occur that can lead to a pulsed ejection. This is triggered by an oscillating mode in the toroidal field component. The oscillation period is comparable to the Keplerian timescale in the launching region, thus too short to be associated with the knots in observed jets. We find a hemispherically asymmetric evolution for the jet and counter-jet in the mass flux and field structure.

  18. Generation of magnetic fields by chaotic fluid convection - The fast dynamo problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finn, John M.

    1992-01-01

    In the kinematic fast dynamo problem, the underlying nonlinear dynamics of the flow play a critical role in the behavior of a dynamo field. It is presently noted that the two important facets of the problem are the approximately lognormal distribution of vector lengths, and the presence of partial cancellation. It is suggested that these features may be reflected in the magnetic fields observed on the sun.

  19. Fast-dynamo action in unsteady flows and maps in three dimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayly, B. J.; Childress, S.

    1987-01-01

    Unsteady fast-dynamo action is obtained in a family of stretch-fold-shear maps applied to a spatially periodic magnetic field in three dimensions. Exponential growth of a mean field in the limit of vanishing diffusivity is demonstrated by a numerical method which alternates instantaneous deformations with molecular diffusion over a finite time interval. Analysis indicates that the dynamo is a coherent feature of the large scales, essentially independent of the cascade of structure to small scales.

  20. Asteroids from a Martian Mega Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2018-04-01

    capable of producing enough ejecta and with the appropriate compositions and orbits to explain the Mars trojans and the A-type asteroids we observe. Tackling this problem, researchers Ryuki Hyodo and Hidenori Genda have performed numerical simulations to explore the ejecta from such a collision.Distributing DebrisHyodo and Genda examine the outcomes of a Mars mega impact using smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations. They test different impactor masses, impactor speeds, angles of impact, and more to determine how these properties affect the properties of the Martian ejecta that result.Debris ejected in a Mars mega impact, at 20 hours post-impact. Blue particles are from the impactor, red particles are from Mars, yellow particles are clumps of 10 particles. [Hyodo Genda 2018]The authors find that a large amount of debris can be ejected from Mars during such an impact and distributed between 0.53 AU in the solar system. Roughly 2% of this debris could originate from Marss olivine-rich, unmelted upper mantle which could indeed be the source of the olivine-rich Mars Trojan asteroids and rare A-type asteroids.How can we further explorethis picture? Debris from a Mars mega impact would not justhave been the source of new asteroids; the debris likely also collided with pre-existing asteroids or even transferred to early Earth. Signatures of a Mars mega impact may therefore be recorded in main-belt asteroids or in meteorites found on Earth, providing tantalizing targets for future studies in the effort to map out Marss past.CitationRyuki Hyodo and Hidenori Genda 2018 ApJL 856 L36. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/aab7f0